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Sample records for abnormal grain growth

  1. Abnormal Grain Growth Suppression in Aluminum Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hales, Stephen J. (Inventor); Claytor, Harold Dale (Inventor); Alexa, Joel A. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention provides a process for suppressing abnormal grain growth in friction stir welded aluminum alloys by inserting an intermediate annealing treatment ("IAT") after the welding step on the article. The IAT may be followed by a solution heat treatment (SHT) on the article under effectively high solution heat treatment conditions. In at least some embodiments, a deformation step is conducted on the article under effective spin-forming deformation conditions or under effective superplastic deformation conditions. The invention further provides a welded article having suppressed abnormal grain growth, prepared by the process above. Preferably the article is characterized with greater than about 90% reduction in area fraction abnormal grain growth in any friction-stir-welded nugget.

  2. Abnormal grain growth in AISI 304L stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirdel, M., E-mail: mshirdel1989@ut.ac.ir [School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, P.O. Box 11155-4563, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mirzadeh, H., E-mail: hmirzadeh@ut.ac.ir [School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, P.O. Box 11155-4563, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Advanced Metalforming and Thermomechanical Processing Laboratory, School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Parsa, M.H., E-mail: mhparsa@ut.ac.ir [School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, P.O. Box 11155-4563, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Center of Excellence for High Performance Materials, School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Advanced Metalforming and Thermomechanical Processing Laboratory, School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-11-15

    The microstructural evolution during abnormal grain growth (secondary recrystallization) in 304L stainless steel was studied in a wide range of annealing temperatures and times. At relatively low temperatures, the grain growth mode was identified as normal. However, at homologous temperatures between 0.65 (850 °C) and 0.7 (900 °C), the observed transition in grain growth mode from normal to abnormal, which was also evident from the bimodality in grain size distribution histograms, was detected to be caused by the dissolution/coarsening of carbides. The microstructural features such as dispersed carbides were characterized by optical metallography, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray analysis, and microhardness. Continued annealing to a long time led to the completion of secondary recrystallization and the subsequent reappearance of normal growth mode. Another instance of abnormal grain growth was observed at homologous temperatures higher than 0.8, which may be attributed to the grain boundary faceting/defaceting phenomenon. It was also found that when the size of abnormal grains reached a critical value, their size will not change too much and the grain growth behavior becomes practically stagnant. - Highlights: • Abnormal grain growth (secondary recrystallization) in AISI 304L stainless steel • Exaggerated grain growth due to dissolution/coarsening of carbides • The enrichment of carbide particles by titanium • Abnormal grain growth due to grain boundary faceting at very high temperatures • The stagnancy of abnormal grain growth by annealing beyond a critical time.

  3. Interaction Between Second-Phase Particle Dissolution and Abnormal Grain Growth in an Austenitic Stainless Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.C. Dutra

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The continuing development of stainless steels has resulted in complex steel compositions with substantial amounts of alloying elements. The benefits of such additions invariably come attached to unavoidable disadvantages. One of the most critical item is the potential microstructural instability of the material. Alloying elements may be in a supersaturated solid solution, in which the precipitation of carbides, nitrides, borides and intermetallic phases occurs in a wide range of temperatures. In order to dissolve the mentioned precipitates, solution annealing is commonly performed. However, at the temperature range in which this treatment is carried out, the onset of abnormal grain growth can occur. The interaction between the dissolution of these second-phase particles and the occurrence of abnormal grain growth is investigated in this work. This study also shows that the thermodynamics and the kinetics of dissolution of precipitates may be used to predict whether abnormal grain growth takes place.

  4. Monte Carlo study on abnormal growth of Goss grains in Fe-3%Si steel induced by second-phase particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Dong-qun; He, Cheng-xu; Gong, Xue-hai; Wang, Hao; Meng, Li; Ma, Guang; Hou, Peng-fei; Zhang, Wen-kang

    2016-12-01

    The selective abnormal growth of Goss grains in magnetic sheets of Fe-3%Si (grade Hi-B) induced by second-phase particles (AlN and MnS) was studied using a modified Monte Carlo Potts model. The starting microstructures for the simulations were generated from electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) orientation imaging maps of recrystallized samples. In the simulation, second-phase particles were assumed to be randomly distributed in the initial microstructures and the Zener drag effect of particles on Goss grain boundaries was assumed to be selectively invalid because of the unique properties of Goss grain boundaries. The simulation results suggest that normal growth of the matrix grains stagnates because of the pinning effect of particles on their boundaries. During the onset of abnormal grain growth, some Goss grains with concave boundaries in the initial microstructure grow fast abnormally and other Goss grains with convex boundaries shrink and eventually disappear.

  5. Effect of Deforming Temperature and Strain on Abnormal Grain Growth of Extruded FGH96 Superalloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Chaoyuan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Based on the experiments of isothermal forging wedge-shaped samples, Deform-3D numerical simulation software was used to confirm the strain distribution in the wedge-shaped samples. The effect of deforming temperature and strain on abnormal grain growth(AGG in extruded FGH96 superalloy was examined. It is found that when the forging speed is 0.04 mm/s,the critical AGG occurring temperature is 1100℃,and the critical strain is 2%.AGG does not occur within 1000-1070℃,but still shows the feature of ‘critical strain’,and the region with strain of 5%-10% has the largest average grain size.AGG can be avoided and the uniform fine grains can be gained when the strain is not less than 15%.

  6. INFLUENCE OF ABNORMAL AUSTENITE GRAIN GRAIN GROWTH IN QUENCHED ABNT 5135 STEEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila de Brito Ferreira

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Grain size in the steels is a relevant aspect in quenching and tempering heat treatments. It is known that high austenitizing temperature and long time provide an increase in austenitic grain sizes. Likewise, after hardening of low alloy steel, the microstructure consists of martensite and a volume fraction of retained austenite. This paper evaluates the influence of austenite grain size on the volume fraction of retained austenite measured by metallographic analyses and X-ray diffraction. The Mi and Mf temperatures were calculated using an empirical equation and experimentally determined by differential thermal analysis. The mechanical behavior of the steel was evaluated by Vickers microhardness testing. Differently from other results published in the literature that steel hardenability increases with the austenite grain size, it was observed that the increase in austenite grain promotes greater volume fraction of retained austenite after water quenching.

  7. Influence of intermediate annealing on abnormal Goss grain growth in the rolled columnar-grained Fe-Ga-Al alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yangyang; Li, Jiheng; Gao, Xuexu, E-mail: gaox@skl.ustb.edu.cn

    2017-08-01

    Highlights: • Texture of primary IA sample was dominated by γ-fiber with a peak at {1 1 1}<1 1 0>. • Texture of primary CR sample was dominated by {1 1 3}<1 1 4> texture. • Inhomogeneous microstructure was significantly improved in primary IA sample. • Strong Goss texture was obtained in final IA sample without surface energy control. - Abstract: Magnetostrictive Fe{sub 82}Ga{sub 4.5}Al{sub 13.5} sheets with 0.1 at% NbC were prepared from directional solidified alloys with <0 0 1> preferred orientation. The slabs were hot rolled at 650 °C and warm rolled at 500 °C. Then some warm-rolled sheets were annealed intermediately at 850 °C for 5 min but the others not. After that, all the sheets were cold rolled to a final thickness of ∼0.3 mm. The microstructures, the textures and the distributions of second phase particles in the primary recrystallized samples were investigated. With intermediate annealing, the inhomogeneous microstructure was improved remarkably and strong Goss ({1 1 0}<0 0 1>) and γ-fiber (<1 1 1>//normal direction [ND]) textures were produced in the primary recrystallized samples. But, an evident disadvantage in size and quantity was observed for Goss grains in the primary recrystallized sample without intermediate annealing. After a final annealing, the final textures and magnetostrictions of samples with and without intermediate annealing were characterized. For samples without intermediate annealing, abnormal growth of {1 1 3} grains occurred and deteriorated the magnetostriction. In contrast, abnormal Goss grain growth occurred completely in samples with intermediate annealing and led to saturation magnetostriction as high as 156 ppm.

  8. Large-scale grain growth in the solid-state process: From "Abnormal" to "Normal"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Minhong; Han, Shengnan; Zhang, Jingwei; Song, Jiageng; Hao, Chongyan; Deng, Manjiao; Ge, Lingjing; Gu, Zhengfei; Liu, Xinyu

    2018-02-01

    Abnormal grain growth (AGG) has been a common phenomenon during the ceramic or metallurgy processing since prehistoric times. However, usually it had been very difficult to grow big single crystal (centimeter scale over) by using the AGG method due to its so-called occasionality. Based on the AGG, a solid-state crystal growth (SSCG) method was developed. The greatest advantages of the SSCG technology are the simplicity and cost-effectiveness of the technique. But the traditional SSCG technology is still uncontrollable. This article first summarizes the history and current status of AGG, and then reports recent technical developments from AGG to SSCG, and further introduces a new seed-free, solid-state crystal growth (SFSSCG) technology. This SFSSCG method allows us to repeatedly and controllably fabricate large-scale single crystals with appreciable high quality and relatively stable chemical composition at a relatively low temperature, at least in (K0.5Na0.5)NbO3(KNN) and Cu-Al-Mn systems. In this sense, the exaggerated grain growth is no longer 'Abnormal' but 'Normal' since it is able to be artificially controllable and repeated now. This article also provides a crystal growth model to qualitatively explain the mechanism of SFSSCG for KNN system. Compared with the traditional melt and high temperature solution growth methods, the SFSSCG method has the advantages of low energy consumption, low investment, simple technique, composition homogeneity overcoming the issues with incongruent melting and high volatility. This SFSSCG could be helpful for improving the mechanical and physical properties of single crystals, which should be promising for industrial applications.

  9. Effect of second phase particles topology on the onset temperature of abnormal grain growth in Fe - 3%Si steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stoyka, V.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The relations between regimes of dynamic annealing, state of secondary particles system and the onset temperature of abnormal grain growth are investigated. Two distinguish types of Fe-3%Si grain-oriented steels, after one and two stage cold rolling, were studied. The second phase particles remain unaffected in first type of steel during the heat treatment. Vice versa, the increased density of second phases was observed after annealing in the second type of the investigated materials. It is shown that start/onset of abnormal grain growth strongly depends on both volume fraction of second phase particles and annealing temperature. Texture and magnetic properties of the investigated samples are investigated within the current study.

  10. The effect of secondary abnormal grain growth on the dielectric properties of La/Mn co-doped BaTiO3 ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živković Lj.M.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available La/Mn-codoped BaTiO3 systems, obtained by solid state reactions, were investigated regarding their microstructure characteristics and ferroelectric properties. Different concentrations of La2O3 were used for doping, ranging from 0.1 to 5.0 at% La, while a content of Mn was constant at 0.05 at%. For all samples sintered below the eutectic temperature (1332°C, a uniform microstructure was formed with average grain size from 1-3 μm. The appearance of secondary abnormal grains with (111 double twins grains with curved or faceted grain boundaries were observed in La/Mn BaTiO3 ceramics after sintering at temperatures above the eutectic temperature. All sintered samples exhibited a high electrical resistivity. Better dielectric performances were obtained for low doped samples (0.1 at% La sintered at 1350°C. For samples with La content above 1.0 at% a lower value in dielectric permittivity at higher sintering temperature is due to secondary abnormal grain growth, and to the presence of a non-ferroelectric phase rich in La. The Curie constant together with other dielectric parameters were also calculated.

  11. Austenite grain growth calculation of 0.028% Nb steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priadi D.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Modeling of microstructural evolution has become a powerful tool for materials and process design by providing quantitative relationships for microstructure, composition and processing. Insufficient attention has been paid to predicting the austenite grain growth of microalloyed steel and the effect of undissolved microalloys. In this research, we attempted to calculate a mathematical model for austenite grain growth of 0.028% Nb steel, which can account for abnormal grain growth. The quantitative calculation of austenite grain growth generated from this model fit well with the experimental grain growth data obtained during reheating of niobium steels. The results of this study showed that increasing the temperature increases the austenite grain size, with a sharp gradient observed at higher temperatures.

  12. Concepts on Low Temperature Mechanical Grain Growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharon, John Anthony [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Metallurgy and Materials Joining Dept.; Boyce, Brad Lee [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Metallurgy and Materials Joining Dept.

    2013-11-01

    In metals, as grain size is reduced below 100nm, conventional dislocation plasticity is suppressed resulting in improvements in strength, hardness, and wears resistance. Existing and emerging components use fine grained metals for these beneficial attributes. However, these benefits can be lost in service if the grains undergo growth during the component’s lifespan. While grain growth is traditionally viewed as a purely thermal process that requires elevated temperature exposure, recent evidence shows that some metals, especially those with nanocrystalline grain structure, can undergo grain growth even at room temperature or below due to mechanical loading. This report has been assembled to survey the key concepts regarding how mechanical loads can drive grain coarsening at room temperature and below. Topics outlined include the atomic level mechanisms that facilitate grain growth, grain boundary mobility, and the impact of boundary structure, loading scheme, and temperature.

  13. Oxygen-induced giant grain growth in Ag films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birnbaum, A. J.; Thompson, C. V.; Steuben, J. C.; Iliopoulos, A. P.; Michopoulos, J. G.

    2017-10-01

    Thin film crystallites typically exhibit normal or abnormal growth with maximum grain size limited by energetic and geometric constraints. Although epitaxial methods have been used to produce large single crystal regions, they impose limitations that preclude some compelling applications. The generation of giant grain thin film materials has broad implications for fundamental property analysis and applications. This work details the production of giant grains in Ag films (2.5 μm-thick), ranging in size from ≈50 μm to 1 mm, on silicon nitride films upon silicon substrates. The presence of oxygen during film deposition plays a critical role in controlling grain size and orientation.

  14. Altered fetal growth, placental abnormalities, and stillbirth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukowski, Radek; Hansen, Nellie I; Pinar, Halit; Willinger, Marian; Reddy, Uma M; Parker, Corette B; Silver, Robert M; Dudley, Donald J; Stoll, Barbara J; Saade, George R; Koch, Matthew A; Hogue, Carol; Varner, Michael W; Conway, Deborah L; Coustan, Donald; Goldenberg, Robert L

    2017-01-01

    Worldwide, stillbirth is one of the leading causes of death. Altered fetal growth and placental abnormalities are the strongest and most prevalent known risk factors for stillbirth. The aim of this study was to identify patterns of association between placental abnormalities, fetal growth, and stillbirth. Population-based case-control study of all stillbirths and a representative sample of live births in 59 hospitals in 5 geographic areas in the U.S. Fetal growth abnormalities were categorized as small (90th percentile) for gestational age at death (stillbirth) or delivery (live birth) using a published algorithm. Placental examination by perinatal pathologists was performed using a standardized protocol. Data were weighted to account for the sampling design. Among 319 singleton stillbirths and 1119 singleton live births at ≥24 weeks at death or delivery respectively, 25 placental findings were investigated. Fifteen findings were significantly associated with stillbirth. Ten of the 15 were also associated with fetal growth abnormalities (single umbilical artery; velamentous insertion; terminal villous immaturity; retroplacental hematoma; parenchymal infarction; intraparenchymal thrombus; avascular villi; placental edema; placental weight; ratio birth weight/placental weight) while 5 of the 15 associated with stillbirth were not associated with fetal growth abnormalities (acute chorioamnionitis of placental membranes; acute chorioamionitis of chorionic plate; chorionic plate vascular degenerative changes; perivillous, intervillous fibrin, fibrinoid deposition; fetal vascular thrombi in the chorionic plate). Five patterns were observed: placental findings associated with (1) stillbirth but not fetal growth abnormalities; (2) fetal growth abnormalities in stillbirths only; (3) fetal growth abnormalities in live births only; (4) fetal growth abnormalities in stillbirths and live births in a similar manner; (5) a different pattern of fetal growth abnormalities in

  15. Altered fetal growth, placental abnormalities, and stillbirth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radek Bukowski

    Full Text Available Worldwide, stillbirth is one of the leading causes of death. Altered fetal growth and placental abnormalities are the strongest and most prevalent known risk factors for stillbirth. The aim of this study was to identify patterns of association between placental abnormalities, fetal growth, and stillbirth.Population-based case-control study of all stillbirths and a representative sample of live births in 59 hospitals in 5 geographic areas in the U.S. Fetal growth abnormalities were categorized as small (90th percentile for gestational age at death (stillbirth or delivery (live birth using a published algorithm. Placental examination by perinatal pathologists was performed using a standardized protocol. Data were weighted to account for the sampling design. Among 319 singleton stillbirths and 1119 singleton live births at ≥24 weeks at death or delivery respectively, 25 placental findings were investigated. Fifteen findings were significantly associated with stillbirth. Ten of the 15 were also associated with fetal growth abnormalities (single umbilical artery; velamentous insertion; terminal villous immaturity; retroplacental hematoma; parenchymal infarction; intraparenchymal thrombus; avascular villi; placental edema; placental weight; ratio birth weight/placental weight while 5 of the 15 associated with stillbirth were not associated with fetal growth abnormalities (acute chorioamnionitis of placental membranes; acute chorioamionitis of chorionic plate; chorionic plate vascular degenerative changes; perivillous, intervillous fibrin, fibrinoid deposition; fetal vascular thrombi in the chorionic plate. Five patterns were observed: placental findings associated with (1 stillbirth but not fetal growth abnormalities; (2 fetal growth abnormalities in stillbirths only; (3 fetal growth abnormalities in live births only; (4 fetal growth abnormalities in stillbirths and live births in a similar manner; (5 a different pattern of fetal growth

  16. Methods of assessing grain-size distribution during grain growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tweed, Cherry J.; Hansen, Niels; Ralph, Brian

    1985-01-01

    This paper considers methods of obtaining grain-size distributions and ways of describing them. In order to collect statistically useful amounts of data, an automatic image analyzer is used, and the resulting data are subjected to a series of tests that evaluate the differences between two related...... distributions (before and after grain growth). The distributions are measured from two-dimensional sections, and both the data and the corresponding true three-dimensional grain-size distributions (obtained by stereological analysis) are collected. The techniques described here are illustrated by reference...

  17. On the orientations of abnormally grown grains in nanocrystalline Ni and Ni–Fe

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    KLEMENT, U; Da SILVA, M; SKROTZKI, W

    2008-01-01

    The scanning electron microscopy–based electron backscatter diffraction technique has been used to determine grain orientations of abnormally grown grains upon annealing in nanocrystalline Ni and Ni–20 at.% Fe electrodeposits...

  18. Nanoscale grain growth behaviour of CoAl intermetallic synthesized ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The results of isothermal annealing showed that the grain growth behaviour can be explained by the parabolic grain growth law. The grains were at nanometric scale after isothermal annealing up to 0.7 m. The grain growth exponent remained constant above 873 K indicating that grain growth mechanism does not change ...

  19. Dynamic grain growth during superplastic deformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabinovich, M.Kh. [Ufa State Aviation-Technical Univ. (Russian Federation); Trifonov, V.G. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ufa (Russian Federation). Inst. for Metals Superplasticity Problems

    1996-05-01

    Superplastic deformation (SPD) causes the accelerated anisotropic grain growth. This process results in the formation of structure which is quasistable during superplastic deformation and unstable after deformation. The degree of instability is determined by the size of grains, their shape coefficient which depends on the nature of an alloy and is equal to 1.1--1.5 after SPD, and by the unbalance of triple junctions at boundaries. Alloying of metals can affect the thermodynamic force and mechanism of dynamic anisotropic grain growth and correspondingly influence the parameters of superplasticity in alloys.

  20. Abnormal mandibular growth and the condylar cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirttiniemi, Pertti; Peltomäki, Timo; Müller, Lukas; Luder, Hans U

    2009-02-01

    Deviations in the growth of the mandibular condyle can affect both the functional occlusion and the aesthetic appearance of the face. The reasons for these growth deviations are numerous and often entail complex sequences of malfunction at the cellular level. The aim of this review is to summarize recent progress in the understanding of pathological alterations occurring during childhood and adolescence that affect the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) and, hence, result in disorders of mandibular growth. Pathological conditions taken into account are subdivided into (1) congenital malformations with associated growth disorders, (2) primary growth disorders, and (3) acquired diseases or trauma with associated growth disorders. Among the congenital malformations, hemifacial microsomia (HFM) appears to be the principal syndrome entailing severe growth disturbances, whereas growth abnormalities occurring in conjunction with other craniofacial dysplasias seem far less prominent than could be anticipated based on their often disfiguring nature. Hemimandibular hyperplasia and elongation undoubtedly constitute the most obscure conditions that are associated with prominent, often unilateral, abnormalities of condylar, and mandibular growth. Finally, disturbances of mandibular growth as a result of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) and condylar fractures seem to be direct consequences of inflammatory and/or mechanical damage to the condylar cartilage.

  1. Assessment of MARMOT Grain Growth Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fromm, B. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Fuel Modeling and Simulation Dept.; Zhang, Y. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Fuel Modeling and Simulation Dept.; Schwen, D. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Fuel Modeling and Simulation Dept.; Brown, D. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Pokharel, R. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-12-01

    This report assesses the MARMOT grain growth model by comparing modeling predictions with experimental results from thermal annealing. The purpose here is threefold: (1) to demonstrate the validation approach of using thermal annealing experiments with non-destructive characterization, (2) to test the reconstruction capability and computation efficiency in MOOSE, and (3) to validate the grain growth model and the associated parameters that are implemented in MARMOT for UO2. To assure a rigorous comparison, the 2D and 3D initial experimental microstructures of UO2 samples were characterized using non-destructive Synchrotron x-ray. The same samples were then annealed at 2273K for grain growth, and their initial microstructures were used as initial conditions for simulated annealing at the same temperature using MARMOT. After annealing, the final experimental microstructures were characterized again to compare with the results from simulations. So far, comparison between modeling and experiments has been done for 2D microstructures, and 3D comparison is underway. The preliminary results demonstrated the usefulness of the non-destructive characterization method for MARMOT grain growth model validation. A detailed analysis of the 3D microstructures is in progress to fully validate the current model in MARMOT.

  2. O(minus 2) grain boundary diffusion and grain growth in pure dense MgO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapadia, C. M.; Leipold, M. H.

    1973-01-01

    Grain growth behavior in fully dense compacts of MgO of very high purity was studied, and the results compared with other similar behaving materials. The activation energy for the intrinsic self-diffusion of Mg(2minus) is discussed along with the grain boundary diffusion of O(2minus). Grain boundary diffusion of O(2minus) is proposed as the controlling mechanism for grain growth.

  3. Anisotropic grain growth and modification of 'frozen texture' in the lithospheric mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boneh, Yuval; Wallis, David; Hansen, Lars; Krawczynski, Mike; Skemer, Philip

    2017-04-01

    Seismic anisotropy is widely observed in both the lithospheric and asthenospheric upper mantle, and is mainly caused by flow-induced alignment of anisotropic olivine crystals. Crystallographic preferred orientation (CPO) in the asthenosphere is thought to reflect the dynamics of current mantle flow. In contrast, the lithosphere is relatively viscous, and, it is assumed that texture in the lithosphere retains a memory of past flow (e.g., lithospheric mantle in an oceanic basin preserves texture that originated from corner flow at the mid-oceanic-ridge). Although the viscosity of the lithosphere is high in comparison to the asthenosphere, temperatures are high enough that non-deformational, microstructural processes may still be significant for texture evolution. Here we use an experimental approach to simulate a textured mantle annealed under high temperature, high pressure, and hydrostatic conditions, in order to investigate whether microstructural evolution due to static annealing could modify texture in the lithospheric mantle. Starting material for the experiments was a synthetic Fo50 olivine aggregate that was previously deformed in torsion (Hansen et al., 2016) to shear strains up to 10. The sample has a mean grain-size of 15 microns and a narrow, unimodal grain-size distribution, high dislocation-densities, and exhibits a strong A-type CPO. Sub-samples of the deformed specimen were annealed under hydrostatic conditions using a piston cylinder apparatus at T = 1250° C, P = 1 GPa for up to one week. After annealing, the samples were cut into thin sections and the crystal orientations were measured by electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). The samples show clear evidence for abnormal grain growth due to annealing (with maximum grain sizes of 1 mm). The abnormally large grains grew at the expense of the smaller matrix grains, and grain-size distributions became distinctly bimodal. The small grains not consumed by abnormal grain growth have similar CPO strength

  4. Steady-state grain growth in UO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galinari, C.M.; Lameiras, F.S. [CDTN/CNEN, Belo Horizonte (Brazil)

    1998-06-05

    The authors have observed steady-state grain growth in sintered UO{sub 2} pellets of nuclear purity at 2,003 K under H{sub 2}. The behavior of the grain size distribution at different instants is consistent with the grain growth model proposed by one of the authors. The total number of grains was estimated using the Saltykov`s method, and the evolution is in accordance with the model proposed by Rhines and Craig. The parabolic growth law was observed for the mean intercept length with n = 0.4.

  5. Computer-aided analysis of grain growth in metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klimanek, P.; May, C.; Richter, H.

    1993-01-01

    Isothermal grain growth in aluminium, copper and alpha-iron was investigated experimentally at elevated temperatures and quantitatively interpreted by computer simulation on the base of a statistical model described in [4,5,6]. As it is demonstrated for the grain growth kinetics, the experimental...... data can be fitted satisfactorly....

  6. Nanoscale grain growth behaviour of CoAl intermetallic synthesized ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    ing up to 0⋅7 Tm. The grain growth exponent remained constant above 873 K indicating that grain growth mechanism does not change at ... nanocrystalline CoAl under isothermal annealing at temperatures above 873 K (T/Tm ≥ 0⋅5). Keywords. ..... Wu S P, Zhao Q Y, Zheng L Q and Ding X H 2011 Solid State. Sci. 13 548.

  7. Grain Growth in Samples of Aluminum Containing Alumina Particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tweed, C. J.; Hansen, Niels; Ralph, B.

    1983-01-01

    A study of the two-dimensional and three-dimensional grain size distributions before and after grain growth treatments has been made in samples having a range of oxide contents. In order to collect statistically useful amounts of data, an automatic image analyzer was used and the resulting data w...

  8. Effect of stress-induced grain growth during room temperature ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    -induced grain ... The TEM observations reveal that stress-induced grain growth during tensile deformation is significantly suppressed for the nc Ni–Co alloys rich in Co in sharp contrast to those poor in Co. We believe that sufficient solutes ...

  9. Abnormal mandibular growth and the condylar cartilage

    OpenAIRE

    Pirttiniemi, Pertti; Peltomäki, Timo; Müller, Lukas; Luder, Hans U.

    2017-01-01

    Deviations in the growth of the mandibular condyle can affect both the functional occlusion and the aesthetic appearance of the face. The reasons for these growth deviations are numerous and often entail complex sequences of malfunction at the cellular level. The aim of this review is to summarize recent progress in the understanding of pathological alterations occurring during childhood and adolescence that affect the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) and, hence, result in disorders of mandibula...

  10. Abnormal sex chromosome constitution and longitudinal growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aksglaede, Lise; Skakkebaek, Niels E; Juul, Anders

    2008-01-01

    Growth is a highly complex process regulated by the interaction between sex steroids and the GH IGF-axis. However, other factors such as sex chromosome-related genes play independent roles.......Growth is a highly complex process regulated by the interaction between sex steroids and the GH IGF-axis. However, other factors such as sex chromosome-related genes play independent roles....

  11. Grain Growth in Nanocrystalline Mg-Al Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruska, Karen; Rohatgi, Aashish; Vemuri, Rama S.; Kovarik, Libor; Moser, Trevor H.; Evans, James E.; Browning, Nigel D.

    2017-10-01

    An improved understanding of grain growth kinetics in nanocrystalline materials, and in metals and alloys in general, is of continuing interest to the scientific community. In this study, Mg-Al thin films containing 10 wt pct Al and with 14.5 nm average grain size were produced by magnetron sputtering and subjected to heat treatments. The grain growth evolution in the early stages of heat treatment at 423 K, 473 K, and 573 K (150 °C, 200 °C, and 300 °C) was observed with transmission electron microscopy and analyzed based upon the classical equation developed by Burke and Turnbull. The grain growth exponent was found to be 7 ± 2 and the activation energy for grain growth was 31.1 ± 13.4 kJ/mol, the latter being significantly lower than in bulk Mg-Al alloys. The observed grain growth kinetics are explained by the Al supersaturation in the matrix and the pinning effects of the rapidly forming beta precipitates and possibly shallow grain boundary grooves. The low activation energy is attributed to the rapid surface diffusion which is dominant in thin film systems.

  12. Grain Growth in Nanocrystalline Mg-Al Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruska, Karen; Rohatgi, Aashish; Vemuri, Rama S.; Kovarik, Libor; Moser, Trevor H.; Evans, James E.; Browning, Nigel D.

    2017-12-01

    An improved understanding of grain growth kinetics in nanocrystalline materials, and in metals and alloys in general, is of continuing interest to the scientific community. In this study, Mg-Al thin films containing 10 wt pct Al and with 14.5 nm average grain size were produced by magnetron sputtering and subjected to heat treatments. The grain growth evolution in the early stages of heat treatment at 423 K, 473 K, and 573 K (150 °C, 200 °C, and 300 °C) was observed with transmission electron microscopy and analyzed based upon the classical equation developed by Burke and Turnbull. The grain growth exponent was found to be 7 ± 2 and the activation energy for grain growth was 31.1 ± 13.4 kJ/mol, the latter being significantly lower than in bulk Mg-Al alloys. The observed grain growth kinetics are explained by the Al supersaturation in the matrix and the pinning effects of the rapidly forming beta precipitates and possibly shallow grain boundary grooves. The low activation energy is attributed to the rapid surface diffusion which is dominant in thin film systems.

  13. Grain Growth in Nanocrystalline Mg-Al Thin Films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruska, Karen; Rohatgi, Aashish; Vemuri, Rama S.; Kovarik, Libor; Moser, Trevor H.; Evans, James E.; Browning, Nigel D.

    2017-10-05

    An improved understanding of grain growth kinetics in nanocrystalline materials, and in metals and alloys in general, is of continuing interest to the scientific community. In this study, Mg - Al thin films containing ~10 wt.% Al and with 14.5 nm average grain size were produced by magnetron-sputtering and subjected to heat-treatments. The grain growth evolution in the early stages of heat treatment at 423 K (150 °C), 473 K (200 °C) and 573K (300 °C) was observed with transmission electron microscopy and analyzed based upon the classical equation developed by Burke and Turnbull. The grain growth exponent was found to be 7±2 and the activation energy for grain growth was 31.1±13.4 kJ/mol, the latter being significantly lower than in bulk Mg-Al alloys. The observed grain growth kinetics are explained by the Al supersaturation in the matrix and the pinning effects of the rapidly forming beta precipitates and possibly shallow grain boundary grooves. The low activation energy is attributed to the rapid surface diffusion which is dominant in thin film systems.

  14. Prediction on Austenite Grain Growth in High Carbon Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MA Han

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The austenite grain growth behavior of Ti-bearing and Ti-free steel was investigated using confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM and transmission electron microscope (TEM.Samples were held for 60min at 1123-1473K and then austenite grain sizes for different holding time at a series of temperatures were measured.The results show that austenite grain size of both steels increases with the increase of temperature.Besides,the austenite grain size of both steels grows with the holding time,which meets parabolic equation.The second phase particle was observed.The equation of Ostwald ripening was introduced to calculate the size of particle,and the volume fraction equation of second phase particle was applied to calculate the volume fraction of particle.Meanwhile,the modified Gladman model was adopted to predict austenite grain growth.The predicted results agree well with the measured results.

  15. Growth indices and grain yield attributes in six maize cultivars ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Growth indices and grain yield attributes in six maize cultivars representing two era of maize breeding in Nigeria. ... Overall, varieties developed in era 2 were superior to those developed in era 1 for E% and also had six percent (6%) higher values for LAR at vegetative growth phase than those developed in era 1 but ...

  16. A grain boundary sliding model for cavitation, crack growth and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A model is presented for cavity growth, crack propagation and fracture resulting from grain boundary sliding (GBS) during high temperature creep deformation. The theory of cavity growth by GBS was based on energy balance criteria on the assumption that the matrix is sufficiently plastic to accommodate misfit strains ...

  17. Supplying materials needed for grain growth characterizations of nano-grained UO2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mo, Kun [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Miao, Yinbin [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Yun, Di [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Jamison, Laura M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Lian, Jie [Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States); Yao, Tiankei [Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States)

    2015-09-30

    This activity is supported by the US Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) Fuels Product Line (FPL) and aims at providing experimental data for the validation of the mesoscale simulation code MARMOT. MARMOT is a mesoscale multiphysics code that predicts the coevolution of microstructure and properties within reactor fuel during its lifetime in the reactor. It is an important component of the Moose-Bison-Marmot (MBM) code suite that has been developed by Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to enable next generation fuel performance modeling capability as part of the NEAMS Program FPL. In order to ensure the accuracy of the microstructure based materials models being developed within the MARMOT code, extensive validation efforts must be carried out. In this report, we summarize our preliminary synchrotron radiation experiments at APS to determine the grain size of nanograin UO2. The methodology and experimental setup developed in this experiment can directly apply to the proposed in-situ grain growth measurements. The investigation of the grain growth kinetics was conducted based on isothermal annealing and grain growth characterization as functions of duration and temperature. The kinetic parameters such as activation energy for grain growth for UO2 with different stoichiometry are obtained and compared with molecular dynamics (MD) simulations.

  18. Kinetics of Grain Growth in 718 Ni-Base Superalloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huda Z.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The Haynes® 718 Ni-base superalloy has been investigated by use of modern material characterization, metallographic and heat treatment equipment. Grain growth annealing experiments at temperatures in the range of 1050 – 1200 oC (1323–1473K for time durations in the range of 20 min-22h have been conducted. The kinetic equations and an Arrhenius-type equation have been applied to compute the grain-growth exponent n and the activation energy for grain growth, Qg, for the investigated alloy. The grain growth exponent, n, was computed to be in the range of 0.066-0.206; and the n values have been critically discussed in relation to the literature. The activation energy for grain growth, Qg, for the investigated alloy has been computed to be around 440 kJ/mol; and the Qg data for the investigated alloy has been compared with other metals and alloys and ceramics; and critically analyzed in relation to our results.

  19. Giant secondary grain growth in Cu films on sapphire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David L. Miller

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Single crystal metal films on insulating substrates are attractive for microelectronics and other applications, but they are difficult to achieve on macroscopic length scales. The conventional approach to obtaining such films is epitaxial growth at high temperature using slow deposition in ultrahigh vacuum conditions. Here we describe a different approach that is both simpler to implement and produces superior results: sputter deposition at modest temperatures followed by annealing to induce secondary grain growth. We show that polycrystalline as-deposited Cu on α-Al2O3(0001 can be transformed into Cu(111 with centimeter-sized grains. Employing optical microscopy, x-ray diffraction, and electron backscatter diffraction to characterize the films before and after annealing, we find a particular as-deposited grain structure that promotes the growth of giant grains upon annealing. To demonstrate one potential application of such films, we grow graphene by chemical vapor deposition on wafers of annealed Cu and obtain epitaxial graphene grains of 0.2 mm diameter.

  20. Brain growth rate abnormalities visualized in adolescents with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Xue; Thompson, Paul M; Leow, Alex D; Madsen, Sarah K; Caplan, Rochelle; Alger, Jeffry R; O'Neill, Joseph; Joshi, Kishori; Smalley, Susan L; Toga, Arthur W; Levitt, Jennifer G

    2013-02-01

    Autism spectrum disorder is a heterogeneous disorder of brain development with wide ranging cognitive deficits. Typically diagnosed before age 3, autism spectrum disorder is behaviorally defined but patients are thought to have protracted alterations in brain maturation. With longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), we mapped an anomalous developmental trajectory of the brains of autistic compared with those of typically developing children and adolescents. Using tensor-based morphometry, we created 3D maps visualizing regional tissue growth rates based on longitudinal brain MRI scans of 13 autistic and seven typically developing boys (mean age/interscan interval: autism 12.0 ± 2.3 years/2.9 ± 0.9 years; control 12.3 ± 2.4/2.8 ± 0.8). The typically developing boys demonstrated strong whole brain white matter growth during this period, but the autistic boys showed abnormally slowed white matter development (P = 0.03, corrected), especially in the parietal (P = 0.008), temporal (P = 0.03), and occipital lobes (P = 0.02). We also visualized abnormal overgrowth in autism in gray matter structures such as the putamen and anterior cingulate cortex. Our findings reveal aberrant growth rates in brain regions implicated in social impairment, communication deficits and repetitive behaviors in autism, suggesting that growth rate abnormalities persist into adolescence. Tensor-based morphometry revealed persisting growth rate anomalies long after diagnosis, which has implications for evaluation of therapeutic effects. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. The Nucleation and Growth of Dust Grains in Nova Shells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joiner, D. A.; Leung, C. M.

    1999-12-01

    Novae vary in their visible luminosity by orders of magnitude over a period of months to a few years, and often show the occurrence of a large dip in their visible light, associated with the growth of carbon dust grains. The purpose of this thesis is to study the effects of hydrogenation and density inhomogeneities on the efficiency of nucleation of dust grains in novae, using a time dependent kinetic model. The hydrogenation study shows that a model of grain growth limited by photodissociation of small hydrogenated carbon molecules is effective at reproducing the grain sizes, optical depths, and grain formation temperatures observed to occur in novae. Grain sizes on the order of or less than 1 micron are predicted for weakly hydrogenated models. Optical depth is found to vary widely depending on the initial density, the luminosity of the central source, and the degree of hydrogenation of the building block molecules C2 - C8. The study of the effect of clumps in the nova outflow show that a hydrogenation limited nucleation model of grain growth in novae can with the inclusion of clumps explain the occurrence of excess infrared reradiation for models with no observable visible obscuration, provided a density enhancement of 10, in accord with spectral analysis of Nova Cyg 1992. Such a model does have limitations in reproducing the observed relation between visible obscuration (τ V) and infrared reradiation (τ IR = LIR}/L{UV), particularly for optically thick novae. This work has been supported primarily by NASA grants NAG-3144 and NAG5-3339, and in part by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research and the Shodor Education Foundation (National Computational Science Alliance, ACI-9619019 Subaward 769).

  2. The Pinning by Particles of Low and High Angle Grain Boundaries during Grain Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tweed, C.J.; Ralph, B.; Hansen, Niels

    1984-01-01

    and coworkers. These estimates of local driving pressures have shown that they are similar for both the low and the high angle boundaries encountered in the samples. The pinning effects by particles at high angle boundaries are in general accord with the model due to Zener whilst those at low angle boundaries......A study has been made using transmission electron microscopy of the pinning of grain boundaries in aluminium during grain growth by fine dispersions of alumina particles. The boundary parameters have been determined with precision and the pinning effects measured using an approach due to Ashby...

  3. Multi-phase-field study of the effects of anisotropic grain-boundary properties on polycrystalline grain growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyoshi, Eisuke; Takaki, Tomohiro

    2017-09-01

    Numerical studies of the effects of anisotropic (misorientation-dependent) grain-boundary energy and mobility on polycrystalline grain growth have been carried out for decades. However, conclusive knowledge has yet to be obtained even for the simplest two-dimensional case, which is mainly due to limitations in the computational accuracy of the grain-growth models and computer resources that have been employed to date. Our study attempts to address these problems by utilizing a higher-order multi-phase-field (MPF) model, which was developed to accurately simulate grain growth with anisotropic grain-boundary properties. In addition, we also employ general-purpose computing on graphics processing units to accelerate MPF grain-growth simulations. Through a series of simulations of anisotropic grain growth, we succeeded in confirming that both the anisotropies in grain-boundary energy and mobility affect the morphology formed during grain growth. On the other hand, we found the grain growth kinetics in anisotropic systems to follow parabolic law similar to isotropic growth, but only after an initial transient period.

  4. Growth, assimilate partitioning and grain yield response of soybean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This investigation tested variation in the growth components, assimilate partitioning and grain yield of soybean (Glycine max L. Merrrill) varieties established in CO2 enriched atmosphere when inoculated with mixtures of Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) species in the humid rainforest of Nigeria. A pot and a field ...

  5. Modeling nano-scale grain growth of intermetallics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Abstract. The Monte Carlo simulation is utilized to model the nano-scale grain growth of two nano- crystalline materials, Pd81Zr19 and RuAl. In this regard, the relationship between the real time and the time unit of simulation, i.e. Monte Carlo step (MCS), is determined. The results of modeling show that with increasing time ...

  6. Effect of stress-induced grain growth during room temperature ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Effect of stress-induced grain growth during room temperature tensile deformation on ductility in nanocrystalline metals. WEICHANG XU, PINQIANG DAI* and XIAOLEI WU. †. College of Materials Science and Engineering, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350108, China. †. State Key Laboratory of Nonlinear Mechanics, Institute ...

  7. Biomass and grain yield of oats by growth regulator

    OpenAIRE

    Marolli, Anderson; Silva, José A. G. da; Romitti, Marcos V.; Mantai, Rubia D.; Hawerroth, Maraisa C.; Scremin, Osmar B.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The use of growth regulator in oats can reduce plant lodging with reflections in biomass and grain yield. The objective of the study was to determine the feasibility and efficiency of using Trinexapac-Ethyl regulator in the growth of white oat under different conditions of N-fertilizer and years favorable and unfavorable for cultivation. In this study, two experiments were conducted in the years 2011, 2012 and 2013, one for quantifying biomass production rate and the other for the de...

  8. Microstructure Evolution and Grain Growth Kinetics in Annealed Nanocrystalline Chromium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chojnowski, Grzegorz [Warsaw University; Przenioslo, Radoslaw [Warsaw University; Sosnowska, Izabela [Warsaw University; Bukowski, Mirko [University of Saarbrucken, Saarbrucken, Germany; Natter, Harald [University of Saarbrucken, Saarbrucken, Germany; Hempelmann, Rolf [University of Saarbrucken, Saarbrucken, Germany; Fitch, Andrew [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF); Urban, Volker S [ORNL

    2007-01-01

    The kinetics of thermal evolution of the microstructure of nanocrystalline chromium (nano-Cr) has been studied by time-resolved synchrotron radiation techniques: high-resolution powder diffraction and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). The as-prepared electrodeposited nano-Cr with average grain size of 27 nm shows the same bcc structure as {alpha}-Cr. The nano-Cr cubic lattice parameter thermal expansion is the same as that of reference polycrystalline {alpha}-Cr. Annealing of nano-Cr at temperatures above 400 C leads to a grain growth process with the final grain size not exceeding 125 nm even at a temperature of 700 C. The single power-law behavior is observed by SAXS in as-prepared nano-Cr changes during annealing above 400 C. In nano-Cr samples annealed at temperatures between 400 and 700 C, the low-q part of the SAXS signal shows a Porod-type behavior while the high-q part shows a power-law Q-{alpha} with the exponent {alpha} < 4. This effect is probably due to changes of the grain surface roughness during grain growth.

  9. Ultrafast analysis of individual grain behavior during grain growth by parallel computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühbach, M.; Barrales-Mora, L. A.; Mießen, C.; Gottstein, G.

    2015-08-01

    The possibility to characterize in an automatized way the spatial-temporal evolution of individual grains and their properties is essential to the understanding of annealing phenomena. The development of advanced experimental techniques, computational models and tools helps the acquisition of real time and real space-resolved datasets. Whereas the reconstruction of 3D grain representatives from serial-sectioning or tomography datasets becomes more common and microstructure simulations on parallel computers become ever larger and longer lasting, few efforts have materialized in the development of tools that allow the continuous tracking of properties at the grain scale. In fact, such analyses are often left neglected in practice due to the large size of the datasets that exceed the available physical memory of a computer or the shared-memory cluster. We identified the key tasks that have to be solved in order to define suitable and lean data structures and computational methods to evaluate spatio-temporal grain property datasets by working with parallel computer architectures. This is exemplified with data from grain growth simulations.

  10. Biomass and grain yield of oats by growth regulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Marolli

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The use of growth regulator in oats can reduce plant lodging with reflections in biomass and grain yield. The objective of the study was to determine the feasibility and efficiency of using Trinexapac-Ethyl regulator in the growth of white oat under different conditions of N-fertilizer and years favorable and unfavorable for cultivation. In this study, two experiments were conducted in the years 2011, 2012 and 2013, one for quantifying biomass production rate and the other for the determination of grain yield and lodging. The experimental design was randomized blocks with four replicates, in a 4 x 3 factorial scheme, for growth regulator doses (0, 200, 400 and 600 mL ha-1 and nitrogen doses (30, 90 and 150 kg ha-1, respectively. There is a linear reduction of biomass rate with the increase in the growth regulator dose in oat, regardless of the condition of year and use of N-fertilizer. The growth regulator dose of 495 mL ha-1 efficiently reduces lodging with reduced, high and very high use of N-fertilizer, without reducing the yield of oat grains, in favorable, intermediate or unfavorable year for cultivation.

  11. Constitutive modeling of stress-driven grain growth in nanocrystalline metals

    KAUST Repository

    Gürses, Ercan

    2013-02-08

    In this work, we present a variational multiscale model for grain growth in face-centered cubic nanocrystalline (nc) metals. In particular, grain-growth-induced stress softening and the resulting relaxation phenomena are addressed. The behavior of the polycrystal is described by a conventional Taylor-type averaging scheme in which the grains are treated as two-phase composites consisting of a grain interior phase and a grain boundary-affected zone. Furthermore, a grain-growth law that captures the experimentally observed characteristics of the grain coarsening phenomena is proposed. To this end, the grain size is not taken as constant and varies according to the proposed stress-driven growth law. Several parametric studies are conducted to emphasize the influence of the grain-growth rule on the overall macroscopic response. Finally, the model is shown to provide a good description of the experimentally observed grain-growth-induced relaxation in nc-copper. © 2013 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  12. Search for grain growth toward the center of L1544

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacón-Tanarro, A.; Caselli, P.; Bizzocchi, L.; Pineda, J. E.; Harju, J.; Spaans, M.; Désert, F.-X.

    2017-10-01

    In dense and cold molecular clouds dust grains are surrounded by thick icy mantles. It is not clear, however, if dust growth and coagulation take place before the protostar switches on. This is an important issue as the presence of large grains may affect the chemical structure of dense cloud cores, including the dynamically important ionization fraction and the future evolution of solids in protoplanetary disks. To study this further, we focus on L1544 - one of the most centrally concentrated pre-stellar cores on the verge of star formation - which has a well-known physical structure. We observed L1544 at 1.2 and 2 mm using NIKA, a new receiver at the IRAM 30 m telescope, and we used data from the Herschel Space Observatory archive. We find no evidence of grain growth toward the center of L1544 at the available angular resolution. Therefore, we conclude that single-dish observations do not allow us to investigate grain growth toward the pre-stellar core L1544 and high-sensitivity interferometer observations are needed. We predict that dust grains can grow to 200 μm in size toward the central 300 au of L1544. This implies a dust opacity change of a factor of 2.5 at 1.2 mm, which can be detected using the Atacama Large Millimeter and submillimeter Array (ALMA) at different wavelengths and with an angular resolution of 2''. Based on observations carried out with the IRAM 30 m telescope. IRAM is supported by INSU/CNRS (France), MPG (Germany), and IGN (Spain).The FITS files of the maps presented here are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/606/A142

  13. KINETICS OF GRAIN-GROWTH OF YTTRIUM ALUMINUM GARNET FIBERS PREPARED BY SOL-GEL METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan H.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG long fibers were prepared by the sol-gel method using aluminum chloride, aluminum powder, yttrium oxide and acetic acid as raw materials. The grain growth law is given by Dn – D0n = Kt (D0 = initial grain size, D = average grain size at time t, n = grain growth exponent and K = reaction constant. The grain growth exponent and activation energy of YAG fibers are ≈ 3 and 200 kJ/mol, respectively. The grain-growth behaviors of YAG were influenced by experimental conditions such as raw materials, initial particle size, initial particle distribution, etc.

  14. Effect of Selenium, Molybdenum and Zinc on Seedling Growth and Frequency of Grain Weevil (Sitophilus granarius in Triticale Grain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudolf Kastori

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of different doses (0, 90, 270, 810 kg/ha of selenium, molybdenum and zinc microelements on their translocation and accumulation in grains, seedling growth and grain infestation were examined under field conditions on a calcareous chernozem soil.Thirteen years after the application of selenium, molybdenum and zinc, significant translocation and accumulation of these elements in the grain were established, indicating a long-term effect of these microelements on triticale plants. The highest degree of accumulation in grains and seedling shoots was found for selenium, then molybdenum, while the detected amounts of zinc were significantly lower. The degree of accumulation of all threemicroelements in the grain and seedling shoot increased as doses increased. Translocation index from shoot to grain at the grain-filling phase was the highest when zinc was used, then selenium, and the lowest when molybdenum was applied. The highest translocationindex from the grain during germination into seedling shoots was obtained with zinc, then molybdenum and selenium. Translocation indexes of the investigated elements significantly decreased as the doses of elements increased. Dry weight of seedling shoots decreasedas molybdenum and zinc in grain increased. High selenium concentration moderately stimulated seedling development, pointing out a high tolerance of triticale to higher concentration of this microelement at initial development stages. Infestatation with grain weevil was provoked by high concentrations of these microelements in the grain. High concentrations of zinc and selenium, in particular, significantly decreased the percentage of damaged grains, while molybdenum moderately increased their numbers. The effect of zincand molybdenum may be attributed to their chemical effect, while selenium effect may also be referred to a negative effect of the volatile selenium compound. The effect of selenium, molybdenum and zinc contamination of grains

  15. Grain growth of ε-iron: Implications to grain size and its evolution in the Earth's inner core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Daisuke; Tsujino, Noriyoshi; Yoneda, Akira; Ito, Eiji; Yoshino, Takashi; Tange, Yoshinori; Higo, Yuji

    2017-02-01

    Knowledge of grain growth rate of ε-iron can put constraint on estimation of the grain size in the inner core. We determined grain growth rate of ε-iron at ∼55 GPa and 1200-1500 K by means of in-situ X-ray diffraction observation to be Gn - G0n = kt, where G (m) is the grain size at time t (s), G0 (m) is the initial grain size, n is growth exponent (fixed to 2) and k is the growth constant expressed as k =k0 exp ⁡ (-H* / RT) with log k0 (mn /s) = - 5.8 (± 2.4) and activation enthalpy H* = 221 (± 61) kJ /mol, and R is the gas constant and T is the absolute temperature. Extrapolation of the grain growth law of ε-iron to the inner core conditions suggests that the grain size in the inner core is in a range from several hundred meters to several kilometers, which is intermediate among the previous estimations, and hence the dominant deformation mechanism is considered to be Harper-Dorn creep rather than diffusion creep as pointed out by the previous work. This indicates the relatively uniform viscosity in the entire inner core.

  16. Grain growth in thoria and thoria-base fuel pellets (LWBR development program)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smid, R.J.

    1976-01-01

    The kinetics of grain growth in ThO/sub 2/-base sintered compacts were investigated to determine the cause of a nonuniform microstructural cross section. It was concluded that trace impurities which inhibit continuous grain growth at the pellet interior were removed by vaporization at the pellet exterior. This resulted in relatively normal grain growth at the pellet surface and discontinuous grain growth at the pellet interior. Calcining the starting ThO/sub 2/ powder to a slightly higher temperature removed inhibiting impurities but also decreased the driving force for grain growth by reducing the surface area of the powder. Mixing high and low temperature calcined ThO/sub 2/ resulted in improved grain growth. Increased oxygen partial pressure and temperature during sintering increased grain boundary mobility in spite of the inhibiting impurity. The specific inhibiting impurity was not isolated during this investigation.

  17. Reaction induced nucleation and growth v. grain coarsening in contact metamorphic, impure carbonates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berger, Alfons; Brodhag, Sabine; Herwegh, Marco

    2010-01-01

    evolution of these samples are combined with the quantification of the microstructures, i.e. mean grain sizes and crystal size distributions. Growth of the matrix phase and second phases strongly depends on each other owing to coupled grain coarsening. The matrix phase is controlled by the interparticle...... distances between the second phases, while the second phases need the matrix grain boundary network for mass transfer processes during both grain coarsening and mineral reactions. Interestingly, similar final mean grain sizes of primary second phase and second phases newly formed by nucleation are observed...... of grain growth during reactions are orders of magnitudes larger compared to surface energy, allowing new reaction products subjected to fast growth rates to attain similar grain sizes as phases which underwent long-term grain coarsening. In contrast, observed variations in grain size of the same mineral...

  18. The acrophysis: a unifying concept for understanding enchondral bone growth and its disorders. II. Abnormal growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oestreich, Alan E. [Department of Radiology, Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, 3333 Burnet Avenue, OH 45229-3039, Cincinnati (United States)

    2004-03-01

    In order to discuss and illustrate the effects common to normal and abnormal enchondral bone at the physes and at all other growth plates of the developing child, the term ''acrophysis'' was proposed. Acrophyses include the growth plates of secondary growth centers including carpals and tarsals and apophyses, and the growth plates at the nonphyseal ends of small tubular bones. Abnormalities at acrophyseal sites are analogous to those at the physeal growth plates and their metaphyses. For example, changes relating to the zone of provisional calcification (ZPC) are often important to the demonstration of such similarities. Lead lines were an early example of the concept of analogy from abnormality due to physeal and to acrophyseal disturbance. The ZPC is a key factor in understanding patterns of rickets and its healing. Examples (including hypothyroidism, scurvy and other osteoporosis, Ollier disease, achondroplasia, and osteopetrosis, as well as the family of frostbite, Kashin-Beck disease, and rat bite fever) illustrate the acrophysis principle and in turn their manifestations are explained by that principle. (orig.)

  19. Grain growth mechanism and magnetic properties in L10-FePt thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, W.; Chen, L.

    2017-08-01

    This paper focuses on the grain growth mechanisms and magnetic properties of FePt thin films during an annealing process. The grain size and grain orientation distribution have been quantitatively investigated by electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), and the grain growth kinetics of thin films were described by the phenomenological kinetic grain growth model. The results show that the grain growth exponent and activation energy of the FePt thin films were 4.26 and 136 kJ/mol respectively, indicating that the grain growth mechanism is mainly controlled by the stochastic jumping of atoms crossing the grain boundaries. X-ray diffraction (XRD) results show that disorder-order transformation was concurrent with grain growth during the annealing process, slowing down the velocity of grain growth. The hysteresis loops reveal that the out-of-plane coercivity and squareness is enhanced with increasing annealing temperature and this can be attributed to the improvement of L10-ordered phase volume fraction and texture intensity.

  20. Austenite Grain Growth in Peritectic Solidified Carbon Steels Analyzed by Phase-Field Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, Munekazu; Tsuchiya, Shingo; Matsuura, Kiyotaka

    2012-06-01

    The formation of coarse columnar grains (CCGs) in the as-cast austenite structure of peritectic carbon steels is a serious problem in continuous casting processes. Recently, it was elucidated that the formation of CCGs is ascribed to a discontinuous grain growth. Furthermore, the critical condition for the discontinuous growth to occur was elicited on the basis of phase-field simulations and a theory of grain growth. In this study, by means of the phase-field simulations, the detailed investigation is carried out for the grain coarsening of the as-cast austenite structure. It is demonstrated in the two-dimensional simulations that the coarsest grain structure emerges by the discontinuous growth in the vicinity of the critical condition. In addition, a model for predicting the upper limit of grain size during the discontinuous growth is proposed. The model successfully describes the experimental result with reasonable accuracy.

  1. Austenite grain growth simulation considering the solute-drag effect and pinning effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiyama, Naoto; Nishibata, Toshinobu; Seki, Akira; Hirata, Hiroyuki; Kojima, Kazuhiro; Ogawa, Kazuhiro

    2017-01-01

    The pinning effect is useful for restraining austenite grain growth in low alloy steel and improving heat affected zone toughness in welded joints. We propose a new calculation model for predicting austenite grain growth behavior. The model is mainly comprised of two theories: the solute-drag effect and the pinning effect of TiN precipitates. The calculation of the solute-drag effect is based on the hypothesis that the width of each austenite grain boundary is constant and that the element content maintains equilibrium segregation at the austenite grain boundaries. We used Hillert's law under the assumption that the austenite grain boundary phase is a liquid so that we could estimate the equilibrium solute concentration at the austenite grain boundaries. The equilibrium solute concentration was calculated using the Thermo-Calc software. Pinning effect was estimated by Nishizawa's equation. The calculated austenite grain growth at 1473-1673 K showed excellent correspondence with the experimental results.

  2. Effect of initial variance of microstructures on grain growth under mean curvature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskaran, Arun; Crist, David; Lewis, Daniel

    2017-09-01

    Surface Evolver was used to simulate grain growth under motion by mean curvature starting with non-uniform microstructures. The study was conducted for different microstructures that begin evolving with an identical mean grain area and a differing value of statistical variance of the grain areas. Correlation between a microstructure’s initial variance, a geometric property of the polycrystalline network, and its growth rate in the normal regime was studied. It was observed that the microstructures evolved at different growth rates. The microstructures with the largest and smallest variances evolved with highest and lowest growth rates. The analysis was performed in the normal grain growth regime. It is observed that a direct correlation can be made between the initial variance of the microstructure and its growth rate in the normal regime. These results highlight the importance of including the grain size variance when controlling microstructure using non-uniform thermal fields.

  3. In situ measurements of growth rates and grain-averaged activation energies of individual grains during recrystallization of 50% cold-rolled aluminium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Stefan Othmar; Lauridsen, Erik Mejdal; Lyckegaard, Allan

    2011-01-01

    Three-dimensional X-ray diffraction has been used to study the growth kinetics of 1406 individual grains recrystallizing in 50% cold-rolled aluminium. It is found that each grain follows its own kinetics. The radial growth of individual grains is found to often be piecewise linear, and an explana...

  4. Grain growth kinetics in liquid-phase-sintered zinc oxide-barium oxide ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sung-Chul; German, Randall M.

    1991-01-01

    Grain growth of ZnO in the presence of a liquid phase of the ZnO-BaO system has been studied for temperatures from 1300 to 1400 C. The specimens were treated in boiling water and the grains were separated by dissolving the matrix phase in an ultrasonic bath. As a consequence 3D grain size measurements were possible. Microstructural examination shows some grain coalescence with a wide range of neck size ratios and corresponding dihedral angles, however, most grains are isolated. Lognormal grain size distributions show similar shapes, indicating that the growth mechanism is invariant over this time and temperature. All regressions between G exp n and time for n = 2 and 3 proved statistically significant. The rate constants calculated with the growth exponent set to n = 3 are on the same order of magnitude as in metallic systems. The apparent activation energy for growth is estimated between 355 and 458 kJ/mol.

  5. The Effect of Grain Size on Fatigue Growth of Short Cracks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurek, A. K.; James, M. R.; Morris, W. L.

    1983-08-01

    The influence of alloy grain size on growth rates of surface cracks 20 to 500 μm in length was studied in Al 7075-T6 specimens prepared in 12 and 130 μn grain sizes. Grain boundaries temporarily interrupt the propagation of cracks shorter than several grain diameters in length. Linear elastic fracture mechanics is inadequate to describe resulting average growth rates which must instead be characterized as a function of cyclic stress amplitude, σa, and alloy grain size as well as stress intensity range, σ K. These observations are rationalized using two models, one that relates crack closure stress to alloy grain size, and a second that relates the development of microplasticity in a new grain in the crack path to grain size. In addition, growth rates were found to be faster in fully reversed loading than in tension-tension loading, especially in the large grained material. Evidence is presented to demonstrate that this is a consequence of the fatigue induced development of a compressive residual surface stress during tension-tension loading. These complex effects, and the role of grain size in determining short crack growth, are discussed.

  6. Dynamic recrystallization and grain growth in olivine rocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kellermann Slotemaker, A.

    2006-01-01

    A mechanism based description of the rheology of olivine is essential for modeling of upper mantle geodynamics. Previously, mantle flow has been investigated using flow laws for grain size insensitive (GSI) dislocation creep and/or grain size sensitive (GSS) diffusion creep of olivine. Generally,

  7. A Three-Dimensional Cellular Automata Model Coupling Energy and Curvature-Driven Mechanisms for Austenitic Grain Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Min; Zhou, Jianxin; Yin, Yajun; Nan, Hai; Zhang, Dongqiao; Tu, Zhixin

    2017-10-01

    A 3D cellular automata model is used to simulate normal austenitic grain growth in this study. The proposed model considers both the curvature- and thermodynamics-driven mechanisms of growth. The 3D grain growth kinetics shows good agreement with the Beck equation. Moreover, the growth exponent and grain size distribution calculated by the proposed model coincides well with experimental and simulation results from other researchers. A linear relationship is found between the average relative grain size and the grain face number. More specifically, for average relative grain sizes exceeding 0.5, the number of faces increases linearly with relative grain size. For average relative grain sizes growth. The calibrated results are found to be in agreement with the simulation results from other research as well as the experimental results. By means of calibration of the proposed model, we can reliably predict the grain size in actual grain growth.

  8. Modeling of Austenite Grain Growth During Austenitization in a Low Alloy Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Dingqian; Chen, Fei; Cui, Zhenshan

    2016-01-01

    The main purpose of this work is to develop a pragmatic model to predict austenite grain growth in a nuclear reactor pressure vessel steel. Austenite grain growth kinetics has been investigated under different heating conditions, involving heating temperature, holding time, as well as heating rate. Based on the experimental results, the mathematical model was established by regression analysis. The model predictions present a good agreement with the experimental data. Meanwhile, grain boundary precipitates and pinning effects on grain growth were studied by transmission electron microscopy. It is found that with the increasing of the temperature, the second-phase particles tend to be dissolved and the pinning effects become smaller, which results in a rapid growth of certain large grains with favorable orientation. The results from this study provide the basis for the establishment of large-sized ingot heating specification for SA508-III steel.

  9. Identification of Accretion as Grain Growth Mechanism in Astrophysically Relevant Water–Ice Dusty Plasma Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshall, Ryan S.; Chai, Kil-Byoung; Bellan, Paul M. [Applied Physics and Materials Science, Caltech, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2017-03-01

    The grain growth process in the Caltech water–ice dusty plasma experiment has been studied using a high-speed camera and a long-distance microscope lens. It is observed that (i) the ice grain number density decreases fourfold as the average grain major axis increases from 20 to 80 μ m, (ii) the major axis length has a log-normal distribution rather than a power-law dependence, and (iii) no collisions between ice grains are apparent. The grains have a large negative charge resulting in strong mutual repulsion and this, combined with the fractal character of the ice grains, prevents them from agglomerating. In order for the grain kinetic energy to be sufficiently small to prevent collisions between ice grains, the volumetric packing factor (i.e., ratio of the actual volume to the volume of a circumscribing ellipsoid) of the ice grains must be less than ∼0.1 depending on the exact relative velocity of the grains in question. Thus, it is concluded that direct accretion of water molecules is very likely to dominate the observed ice grain growth.

  10. Mechanisms in Grain Growth Studied with the Phase Field Crystal Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    McReynolds, Kevin Sullivan

    Grain growth is generally driven to minimize the overall interfacial energy in a system. However, the additional restraint that lattice planes be continuous across the grain boundary gives rise to a coupling between the normal motion of the grain boundary and the tangential motion of the lattice. The effects of coupling are studied in 2D using the phase field crystal model. Previous studies have shown that for an isolated circular grain with a low-angle boundary this coupling leads to rotation of the lattice as the grain shrinks. For high-angle grain boundaries the dislocations are limited in how close they can be without passing through one another. At higher temperatures, they are able to do so and the grain rotates and shrinks. At intermediate temperatures, this limitation causes the grain to shrink until it reaches a certain angle (and corresponding dislocation spacing) at which growth is arrested. In a system with a circular grain embedded at a planar symmetric tilt boundary, the coupling manifests as a rigid body translation of the grain's lattice as it shrinks. This translation is allowed by climb of dislocations in the boundary where lattice sites are removed at the leading edge of the grain and removed at the trailing edge. The dislocation reactions at the trijunctions provide the driving force for both translation and grain growth. Dislocations near the trijunction are attracted to the trijunction because the strain fields of the dislocations cancel each other. However, by pulling the boundary dislocation into the trijunction, the local dislocation spacing near the trijunction becomes larger than the equilibrium spacing. Since the grain is constrained and cannot rotate, this mismatch must be accommodated by strain. The relaxation of this strain drives translation and grain growth. At intermediate temperatures the larger elastic energy in the lattice will not allow this large dislocation spacing and corresponding misorientation mismatch and prevents the

  11. What is the value of ultrasound soft tissue measurements in the prediction of abnormal fetal growth?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Farah, N

    2012-02-01

    Abnormal fetal growth increases the complications of pregnancy not only for the baby but also for the mother. Growth abnormalities also have lifelong consequences. These babies are at increased risk of insulin resistance, diabetes and hypertension later in life. It is important to identify these babies antenatally to optimise their clinical care. Although used extensively antenatally to monitor fetal growth, ultrasound has its limitations. Despite the use of more than 50 different formulae to estimate fetal weight, their performance has been poor at the extremes of fetal weight. Over the past 20 years there has been emerging interest in studying fetal soft tissue measurements to improve detection of growth abnormalities. This review paper outlines the value of soft tissue measurements in identifying fetal growth abnormalities, in estimating fetal weight and in managing diabetes mellitus in pregnancy.

  12. Growth Inhibition of Grain Spoilage Fungi by Selected Herbs and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ) and Thymus schimperi (thymus) were found to be the most effective. However piper nigrum (black pepper) had no effect on the test organisms. In MIC, spore germination inhibition and grain protection assay, cinnamon essential oil was found ...

  13. Simulation of competitive grain growth upon the directional solidification of a Ni-base superalloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozdniakov, A. N.; Monastyrskiy, V. P.; Ershov, M. Yu.; Monastyrskiy, A. V.

    2015-01-01

    Using the numerical simulation in the CA-FE module of the ProCAST simulation program, a systematic investigation of competitive growth of grains in a thin plate has been performed over a wide range of values of the temperature gradient and solidification rate. It has been established that the result of the simulation in the case of converging grains depends on the only parameter, i.e., the ratio of the value of the overgrowth of the grain with the preferred orientation to the size of the cell of the computational grid. Thus, the size of the cell is an important adjusting parameter of the model and must be coordinated with the parameters of the dendritic structure under given growth conditions. The grain with the preferred orientation always displaces neighboring diverging grains. The converging grains are eliminated if their deviation from the vector of the temperature gradient exceeds 20°. At the smaller angles of deviation, the result of the competitive growth depends on the size of the computational cell and varies from their joint growth (at the cell size of 5 μm) to the displacement of grains with the preferred orientation (at the cell size of 20 μm). However, all of the results of the simulation agree with the experimental data available in the literature. For the efficient selection of grains with the preferred orientation, regimes with a low temperature gradient and high growth rate are favorable.

  14. Grain growth kinetics for B2O3-doped ZnO ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuksel Berat

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Grain growth kinetics in 0.1 to 2 mol % B2O3-added ZnO ceramics was studied by using a simplified phenomenological grain growth kinetics equation Gn = K0 · t · exp(-Q/RT together with the physical properties of sintered samples. The samples, prepared by conventional ceramics processing techniques, were sintered at temperatures between 1050 to 1250 °C for 1, 2, 3, 5 and 10 hours in air. The kinetic grain growth exponent value (n and the activation energy for the grain growth of the 0.1 mol % B2O3-doped ZnO ceramics were found to be 2.8 and 332 kJ/mol, respectively. By increasing B2O3 content to 1 mol %, the grain growth exponent value (n and the activation energy decreased to 2 and 238 kJ/mol, respectively. The XRD study revealed the presence of a second phase, Zn3B2O6 formed when the B2O3 content was > 1 mol %. The formation of Zn3B2O6 phase gave rise to an increase of the grain growth kinetic exponent and the grain growth activation energy. The kinetic grain growth exponent value (n and the activation energy for the grain growth of the 2 mol % B2O3-doped ZnO ceramics were found to be 3 and 307 kJ/mol, respectively. This can be attributed to the second particle drag (pinning mechanism in the liquid phase sintering.

  15. CH3NH3PbI3 grain growth and interfacial properties in meso-structured perovskite solar cells fabricated by two-step deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Zhibo; Wang, Wenli; Shen, Heping; Zhang, Ye; Luo, Qiang; Yin, Xuewen; Dai, Xuezeng; Li, Jianbao; Lin, Hong

    2017-01-01

    Although the two-step deposition (TSD) method is widely adopted for the high performance perovskite solar cells (PSCs), the CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite crystal growth mechanism during the TSD process and the photo-generated charge recombination dynamics in the mesoporous-TiO2 (mp-TiO2)/CH3NH3PbI3/hole transporting material (HTM) system remains unexploited. Herein, we modified the concentration of PbI2 (C(PbI2)) solution to control the perovskite crystal properties, and observed an abnormal CH3NH3PbI3 grain growth phenomenon atop mesoporous TiO2 film. To illustrate this abnormal grain growth mechanism, we propose that a grain ripening process is taking place during the transformation from PbI2 to CH3NH3PbI3, and discuss the PbI2 nuclei morphology, perovskite grain growing stage, as well as Pb:I atomic ratio difference among CH3NH3PbI3 grains with different morphology. These C(PbI2)-dependent perovskite morphologies resulted in varied charge carrier transfer properties throughout the mp-TiO2/CH3NH3PbI3/HTM hybrid, as illustrated by photoluminescence measurement. Furthermore, the effect of CH3NH3PbI3 morphology on light absorption and interfacial properties is investigated and correlated with the photovoltaic performance of PSCs.

  16. Effect of planting date on growth and grain yield of fonio millet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seven planting times (from early July to mid August with 7-day interval) were laid out in a randomized complete block design. In general, plant growth and grain yield were significantly better for the early July sowing dates compared to other sowing dates. However, tillering capacity and grain size were not influenced by the ...

  17. Growth behavior of fatigue cracks in ultrafine grained Cu smooth specimens with a small hole

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Masahiro Goto; Kakeru Morita; Junichi Kitamura; Takaei Yamamoto; Masataka Baba; Seung-zeon Han; Sangshik Kim

    2015-01-01

      In order to study the growth mechanism of fatigue cracks in ultrafine grained copper, stresscontrolled fatigue tests of round-bar specimens with a small blind hole as a crack starter were conducted...

  18. UO2 Grain Growth: Developing Phase Field Models for Pore Dragging, Solute Dragging and Anisotropic Grain Boundary Energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, K. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Tonks, M. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Zhang, Y. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Biner, B. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-09-28

    A detailed phase field model for the effect of pore drag on grain growth kinetics was implemented in MARMOT. The model takes into consideration both the curvature-driven grain boundary motion and pore migration by surface diffusion. As such, the model accounts for the interaction between pore and grain boundary kinetics, which tends to retard the grain growth process. Our 2D and 3D simulations demonstrate that the model capture all possible pore-grain boundary interactions proposed in theoretical models. For high enough surface mobility, the pores move along with the migrating boundary as a quasi-rigid-body, albeit hindering its migration rate compared to the pore-free case. For less mobile pores, the migrating boundary can separate from the pores. For the pore-controlled grain growth kinetics, the model predicts a strong dependence of the growth rate on the number of pores, pore size, and surface diffusivity in agreement with theroretical models. An evolution equation for the grain size that includes these parameters was derived and showed to agree well with numerical solution. It shows a smooth transition from boundary-controlled kinetics to pore-controlled kinetics as the surface diffusivity decreases or the number of pores or their size increases. This equation can be utilized in BISON to give accurate estimate for the grain size evolution. This will be accomplished in the near future. The effect of solute drag and anisotropy of grain boundary on grain growth will be investigated in future studies.

  19. Bounding box framework for efficient phase field simulation of grain growth in anisotropic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Vanherpe, L; Blanpain, B; Vandewalle, S

    2011-01-01

    A sparse bounding box algorithm is extended to perform efficient phase field simulations of grain growth in anisotropic systems. The extended bounding box framework allows to attribute different properties to different grain boundary types of a polycrystalline microstructure and can be combined with explicit, implicit or semi-implicit time stepping strategies. To illustrate the applicability of the software, the simulation results of a case study are analysed. They indicate the impact of a misorientation dependent boundary energy formulation on the evolution of the misorientation distribution of the grain boundary types and on the individual growth rates of the grains as a function of the number of grain faces. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Study of Abnormal Vertical Emittance Growth in ATF Extraction Line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alabau, M.; Faus-Golfe, A.; /Valencia U., IFIC; Alabau, M.; Bambade, P.; Brossard, J.; Le Meur, G.; Rimbault, C.; Touze, F.; /Orsay, LAL; Angal-Kalinin, D.; Jones, J.K.; /Daresbury; Appleby, R.; Scarfe, A.; /Manchester U.; Kuroda, S.; /KEK, Tsukuba; White, G.R.; Woodley, M.; /SLAC; Zimmermann, F.; /CERN

    2011-11-04

    Since several years, the vertical beam emittance measured in the Extraction Line (EXT) of the Accelerator Test Facility (ATF) at KEK, that will transport the electron beam from the ATF Damping Ring (DR) to the future ATF2 Final Focus beam line, is significantly larger than the emittance measured in the DR itself, and there are indications that it grows rapidly with increasing beam intensity. This longstanding problem has motivated studies of possible sources of this anomalous emittance growth. One possible contribution is non-linear magnetic fields in the extraction region experimented by the beam while passing off-axis through magnets of the DR during the extraction process. In this paper, simulations of the emittance growth are presented and compared to observations. These simulations include the effects of predicted non-linear field errors in the shared DR magnets and orbit displacements from the reference orbit in the extraction region. Results of recent measurements using closed orbit bumps to probe the relation between the extraction trajectory and the anomalous emittance growth are also presented.

  1. ON THE EFFECT OF PRIOR AUSTENITE GRAIN SIZE ON NEAR-THRESHOLD FATIGUE CRACK GROWTH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, M.F.; Ritchie, R.O.

    1977-01-01

    It is generally accepted that the fatigue or endurance strength of planar slip materials, such as steel and brass, is increased by refining the grain size, whereas in wavy slip materials, such as pure copper and pure aluminum, the fatigue strength is unaffected. However, there is little similar evidence of an effect of grain size on fatigue crack propagation. In both wavy and planar slip metals, growth rates appear independent of grain size. For example, variations in grain size from 10 to 200{micro}m in 70/30 brass (6), and from 45 to 480{micro}m in austenitic stainless steel produce no measurable change in fatigue crack propagation rates over a range of growth rates from 10{sup -5} to 10{sup -2} mm/cycle. Recently, however, there have been indications in the literature that grain size may indeed influence crack propagation behavior at growth rates less than 10{sup -5} to 10{sup -6} mm/cycle approaching the threshold for crack propagation, {Delta}K{sub 0}. Robinson and Beevers report an order of magnitude decrease in near-threshold growth rates in {alpha}-titanium after coarsening the grain size from 20 to 200{micro}m. Similar effects have been seen in Ti-6Al-4V. Furthermore, Masounave and BaIlon have observed a marked increase in threshold {Delta}K{sub 0} values in a range of low strength steels by increasing ferrite grain size. In all the above studies however, no attempt was made to control strength; and the effect of coarsening the grain size may well have been caused by a concurrent decrease in material strength, particularly since it is known that, in steels at least, near-threshold fatigue crack growth is markedly decreased by reducing the yield strength. A comparison at constant yield strength between coarse and fine-grained materials has been made in ultra-high strength steel (300-M) where it was found that, on enlarging the (prior austenite) grain size from 20 to l60{micro}m, a small reduction in near-threshold propagation rates below 10{sup -4} to 10

  2. Study of Secondary Phase Particle Dissolution and Austenite Grain Growth on Heating Fine-Grained High-Strength IF-Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Hong-bin; Zhang, Hong-mei; Sun, Cheng-qian

    2016-09-01

    Dissolution of particles of second phase and growth of austenite grains in high-strength fine-grained IF-steel (0.0057% C, 0.0023% N) on heating is studied. Metallographic analysis of flat steel specimens cut from plates prepared by hot and cold rolling is performed. Steel structure is studied after holding for 10 - 60 min at different temperatures and water quenching. The quenching parameters at which the microalloying elements (Ti, Nb) dissolve completely with retention of fine-grained austenite are determined. Amathematical model of austenite grain growth is developed by nonlinear regression analysis of experimental data.

  3. EFFECT OF SOME PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS WITH RETARDING ACTIVITY ON SPRING PEA FOR GRAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsenka ZHELYAZKOVA

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted at Trakia University - Stara Zagora to establish the effect of some growth retardants on morphological and productive parameters in spring pea for grain variety Bogatir. Three combined preparations: Trisalvit (phenylphthalamic acid + chlorocholine chloride + chlorophenoxyacetic acid +salicylic acid at doses of 300 and 400 сmз*ha-1; SM-21 (phenylphthalamic acid + chlorocholine chloride at doses of 300 and 400 сmз*ha-1 and PNSA-44 (phenylphthalamic acid + naphthaleneacetic acid + chlorophenoxyacetic acid at doses of 200 and 300 сmз*ha-1 were applied in the early growth phase of the plant up to a height of 15-20 cm. The study showed that the greatest reduction in the stem height (by 12.8% compared to untreated plants was achieved by applying SM-21 (400 сmз*ha-1. The application of growth regulators Trisalvit and SM-21 had no appreciable effect on the production of spring pea grain. Maximum values of yield structure components (number of pods and grain per plant, grain mass per plant and mass of 1000 grain and the yield were obtained after application of PNSA-44 (300 сmз*ha-1 - up to 5.6% (117.2 kg*ha-1 more grain than the control. The investigation of the influence of tested factors (retardant, dose and year demonstrated that the conditions of the year as a factor had the strongest effect on plant height and grain yield.

  4. Understanding and Tailoring Grain Growth of Lead-Halide Perovskite for Solar Cell Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yongchao; Liu, Yanliang; Shin, Insoo; Hwang, In-Wook; Jung, Yun Kyung; Jeong, Jung Hyun; Park, Sung Heum; Kim, Kwang Ho

    2017-10-04

    The fundamental mechanism of grain growth evolution in the fabrication process from the precursor phase to the perovskite phase is not fully understood despite its importance in achieving high-quality grains in organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites, which are strongly affected by processing parameters. In this work, we investigate the fundamental conversion mechanism from the precursor phase of perovskite to the complete perovskite phase and how the intermediate phase promotes growth of the perovskite grains during the fabrication process. By monitoring the morphological evolution of the perovskite during the film fabrication process, we observed a clear rod-shaped intermediate phase in the highly crystalline perovskite and investigated the role of the nanorod intermediate phase on the growth of the grains of the perovskite film. Furthermore, on the basis of these findings, we developed a simple and effective method to tailor grain properties including the crystallinity, size, and number of grain boundaries, and then utilized the film with the tailored grains to develop perovskite solar cells.

  5. Growth Abnormalities in Children with Chronic Hepatitis B or C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Gerner

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. It has been suggested that chronic hepatitis B infection leads to growth impairment, but data are inconsistent and underlying factors are not defined. Methods. Children and adolescents with chronic hepatitis B (HBV or C (HCV were retrospectively evaluated for growth, weight, antiviral treatment, biochemical signs of liver inflammation, route of infection, and HBV DNA, respectively. Results. In all, 135 children (mean age 6.1 years, 81 male, 54 female with HBV (n=78 or HCV (n=57 were studied. Route of infection was vertical in 50%, parenteral in 11%, and unknown in 39%. ALT levels were above 1.5 times above normal in 30% while 70% had normal/near normal transaminases. 80% were Caucasian, 14% Asian, 1% black, and 4% unknown. Mean baseline height measured in SDS was significantly lower in the study population than in noninfected children (boys −1.2, girls −0.4, P<0.01. 28 children were below 2 standard deviations of the norm while 5 were above 2 standard deviations. SDS measures in relation to individual factors were as follows: elevated ALT: boys −1.4, females −0.5 (P<0.01, ALT normal/near normal: boys +0.4, females +0.6; parenteral transmission: boys −3.3, girls −0.9 (P<0.01, vertical transmission: boys −0.2, females −0.2. Antiviral treatment itself or HBV-DNA load did not reach statistically significant differences. Conclusions. Chronic HBV or HCV may lead to compromised growth which is mostly influenced by liver inflammation. Our data may argue for early antiviral treatment in children with significant ALT elevation.

  6. Comparative growth and grain yield responses of soybean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-03-20

    Mar 20, 2009 ... replications. The main plots were twelve soybean genotypes, while two P fertilizer levels constituted the sub-plots. Plant height, leaf area and number of branches per plant, crop growth rate, relative growth rate, net assimilation rate and leaf area ratio were measured at full flowering, while number of pods ...

  7. Analysis of the growth of individual grains during recrystallization in pure nickel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Y.B.; Godfrey, A.; Liu, Q.

    2009-01-01

    The growth of individual grains during recrystallization in 96% cold-rolled pure nickel has been followed using electron backscatter pattern maps of the same surface area taken after each of several annealing steps. It was found that the growth is quite complex, with boundaries moving, stopping a...

  8. Growth, Structure and Firm Dynamics in Grain Markets: The Case of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Optiplex 7010 Pro

    A wide range of structural and institutional factors has hindered private sector investment and growth in grain ... growth is, therefore, a way to introduce innovations, increase competitiveness and ensure survival in the .... environment to expand business opportunities and enhancing firm capabilities to harness opportunities ...

  9. Studies of methods to restrict the grain growth of nanocrystalline metal oxides

    CERN Document Server

    Al-Angari, Y

    2002-01-01

    There is considerable interest in nanocrystalline materials. This thesis is concerned with nanocrystalline oxides and the development of methods to prevent their grain growth on heating. This growth, which is evident at temperatures as low as 400 deg C, presents a serious problem in the study and applications of nanocrystalline oxides. The systems that were studied were nanocrystalline magnesium oxide, zirconium oxide, cerium oxide and tin oxide. The methods of preventing grain growth included the encapsulation of the oxide in the pores of porous silica, mixing with nanocrystals of alumina and treating the surface with a silanising agent, hexamethyldisilazane. All the methods employed showed some effect on reducing the grain growth. Encapsulation in the pores of silica was effective, however it proved difficult to get large amounts of the oxides into the pores. A more efficient method of preparing large samples was the incorporation of alumina, which was achieved by a sol-gel process. An alkoxide of the targe...

  10. Dynamic grain growth: A restoration mechanism in 99. 999 Al

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McQueen, H.J. (Concordia Univ., Montreal, Quebec (Canada)); Blum, W.; Straub, S. (Univ. Erlangen-Nuernberg (Germany)); Kassner, M.E. (Oregon State Univ., Corvallis (United States))

    1993-05-15

    Aluminum and its alloys are noted for the high level of dynamic recovery (DRV) in ambient and high temperature deformation (T[sub D]). The preponderance of evidence is that they do not undergo dynamic recrystallization (DRX) except under special circumstances. However, the same alloys undergo static recrystallization (SRX) upon annealing (T[sub A]), which includes holding after hot deformation, even though static recovery (SRV) considerably reduces the dislocation density under circumstances where DRV has been so high as to inhibit DRX. Discontinuous recrystallization is inferred unless otherwise stated. The factors that influence these mechanisms are examined to see why DRX does not occur although SRX does and if DRX could be induced by augmented grain boundary (GB) mobility through an increase in purity which does not significantly increase DRV. Comments will then be made on the reports of DRX in 99.999 Al by Yamagata.

  11. Synchrotron characterization of nanograined UO2 grain growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mo, Kun [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Miao, Yinbin [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Yun, Di [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Jamison, Laura M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Lian, Jie [Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States); Yao, Tiankei [Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States)

    2015-09-30

    This activity is supported by the US Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) Fuels Product Line (FPL) and aims at providing experimental data for the validation of the mesoscale simulation code MARMOT. MARMOT is a mesoscale multiphysics code that predicts the coevolution of microstructure and properties within reactor fuel during its lifetime in the reactor. It is an important component of the Moose-Bison-Marmot (MBM) code suite that has been developed by Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to enable next generation fuel performance modeling capability as part of the NEAMS Program FPL. In order to ensure the accuracy of the microstructure based materials models being developed within the MARMOT code, extensive validation efforts must be carried out. In this report, we summarize our preliminary synchrotron radiation experiments at APS to determine the grain size of nanograin UO2. The methodology and experimental setup developed in this experiment can directly apply to the proposed in-situ grain growth measurements. The investigation of the grain growth kinetics was conducted based on isothermal annealing and grain growth characterization as functions of duration and temperature. The kinetic parameters such as activation energy for grain growth for UO2 with different stoichiometry are obtained and compared with molecular dynamics (MD) simulations.

  12. Influence of Different Growth Conditions on the Kefir Grains Production, used in the Kefiran Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Rodica Pop

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to optimize the kefir grains biomass production, using milk as culture media. The kefir grains were cultured at different changed conditions (temperature, time, shaker rotating speed, culture media supplemented to evaluate their effects. Results showed that optimal culture conditions were using the organic skim milk, incubated at 25°C for 24 hours with a rotation rate of 125 rpm. According to results, the growth rate was 38.9 g/L for 24 h, at 25°C using the organic milk - OSM, 36.87 g/L during 24 hours, optimal time for propagation process gave 37.93 g/L kefir grains biomass when the effect of temperature level was tested. The homogenization of medium with shaker rotating induced a greater growth rate, it was obtained 38.9 g/L for 24 h, at 25°C using rotation rate at 125 rpm. The growing medium (conventional milk supplemented with different minerals and vitamins may lead to improve the growth conditions of kefir grains biomass. The optimization of the growth environment is very important for achieving the maximum production of kefir grains biomass, substrate necessary to obtain the polysaccharide kefiran

  13. In vitro Pollen Grain Germination and Tube Growth of Ten Iranian Jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein ROUHAKHSH

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Jujube (Ziziphus jujuba is a species particularly prone to erratic fruit set. Several causes such as pollen germination and tube growth involve in this behaviour. Thus, the present research aimed to evaluate and compare of pollen grains germination and tube growth of ten Iranian jujube cultivars on in vitro condition. A factorial trial based on completely randomized design with five replications was carried out. The pollen grains were collected from un-opened-flowers of Al-Ghour’, ‘Bardaskan’, ‘Doroh’, ‘Gazik’, ‘Ghom’, ‘Giouk’, ‘Kangan’, ‘Kalkestan’, ‘Magham Sari’ and ‘Noghab’ cultivars at balloon stage. This study showed that there were significant differences among the cultivars in all measured factors. The highest percentage of pollen grains germination was observed for ‘Gazik’, followed by ‘Bardaskan’, while the lowest was in ‘Al-Ghour’. The percentage of pollen grains germination increased with the increasing time of incubation period up to 36 h. Also, flowering times are found to be effective in germination of pollen grains, which 1 flash had highest percentage of germination of pollen grains than in comparison to other flowering times. The results also showed that the mean time germination varied from 24.52-25.92 h, mean hourly germination from 0.67-1.55, hourly germination speed from 0.64-1.48 and coefficient of velocity of germination of pollen grains from 0.058-0.061. The length of pollen tube was found between 44.4 and 624.8 µm. These data demonstrated that cultivar is the main factor determining pollen grains germination and tube growth in jujube, which this important information can be useful for selection of superior desirable jujube genotypes for bringing to commercial cultivation.

  14. Influence of alcohol on grain growth of tin oxide in chemical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsui, Yuji [New Products Development Center, Technology Development Division, Japan/Asia Pacific General Division Automotive Glass Company, Asahi Glass Co. Ltd., 426-1 Sumida, Aikawa-machi, Aiko-gun, Kanagawa 243-0301 (Japan)]. E-mail: yuuji-matsui@agc.co.jp; Mitsuhashi, Michio [New Products Development Center, Technology Development Division, Japan/Asia Pacific General Division Automotive Glass Company, Asahi Glass Co. Ltd., 426-1 Sumida, Aikawa-machi, Aiko-gun, Kanagawa 243-0301 (Japan); Yamamoto, Yuichi [Research Center, Asahi Glass Co. Ltd., 1150 Hazawa-machi, Kanagawa-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 221-8755 (Japan); Higashi, Seiji [Research Center, Asahi Glass Co. Ltd., 1150 Hazawa-machi, Kanagawa-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 221-8755 (Japan)

    2007-01-22

    Morphologies of tin oxide micro-grains in the early stage of film growth were analyzed for films deposited by chemical vapor deposition using tin chloride as a source material. Atomic force microscopy observations revealed increased micro-grain density and decreased size by adding methanol into the reaction system, but X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses suggested that the total deposited volume was unchanged. The relative amount of chlorine contamination at the bottom of alcohol-added films increased in the order of isopropyl alcohol < ethanol < methanol. A model of chlorine desorption through reaction with alcohol, which occurred in the early stage of film growth, can explain the results.

  15. A parallelized three-dimensional cellular automaton model for grain growth during additive manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Yanping; Lin, Stephen; Yan, Wentao; Liu, Wing Kam; Wagner, Gregory J.

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, a parallelized 3D cellular automaton computational model is developed to predict grain morphology for solidification of metal during the additive manufacturing process. Solidification phenomena are characterized by highly localized events, such as the nucleation and growth of multiple grains. As a result, parallelization requires careful treatment of load balancing between processors as well as interprocess communication in order to maintain a high parallel efficiency. We give a detailed summary of the formulation of the model, as well as a description of the communication strategies implemented to ensure parallel efficiency. Scaling tests on a representative problem with about half a billion cells demonstrate parallel efficiency of more than 80% on 8 processors and around 50% on 64; loss of efficiency is attributable to load imbalance due to near-surface grain nucleation in this test problem. The model is further demonstrated through an additive manufacturing simulation with resulting grain structures showing reasonable agreement with those observed in experiments.

  16. {1 1 1} facet growth laws and grain competition during silicon crystallization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamelou, V.; Tsoutsouva, M. G.; Riberi-Béridot, T.; Reinhart, G.; Regula, G.; Baruchel, J.; Mangelinck-Noël, N.

    2017-12-01

    Directional solidification from mono-crystalline Si seeds having different orientations along the growth direction is studied. Due to the frequent twinning phenomenon, new grains soon nucleate during growth. The grain competition is then characterized in situ by imaging the dynamic evolution of the grain boundaries and of the corresponding grain boundary grooves that are formed at the solid-liquid interface. To perform this study, an experimental investigation based on Bridgman solidification technique coupled with in situ X-ray imaging is conducted in an original device: GaTSBI (Growth at high Temperature observed by X-ray Synchrotron Beam Imaging). Imaging characterisation techniques using X-ray synchrotron radiation at ESRF (European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Grenoble, France) are applied during the solidification to study the growth dynamics. Facetted/facetted grain boundary grooves only are studied due to their importance in the grain competition because of their implication in the twinning mechanism. The maximum undercooling inside the groove is calculated from the groove depth knowing the local temperature gradient. Additionally, thanks to dynamic X-ray images, the global solid-liquid interface growth rate and the normal growth rate of the {1 1 1} facets existing at the grooves and at the edges are measured. From these measurements, experimental growth laws that correlate the normal velocity of the {1 1 1} facets with the maximum undercooling of the groove are extracted and compared to existing theoretical models. Finally, the experimental laws found for the contribution to the undercooling of the {1 1 1} facets are in good agreement with the theoretical model implying nucleation and growth eased by the presence of dislocations. Moreover, it is shown that, for the same growth parameters, the undercooling at the level of the facets (always lower than 1 K) is higher at the edges so that there is a higher probability of twin nucleation at the edges which

  17. Recrystallization and grain growth induced by ELMs-like transient heat loads in deformed tungsten samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suslova, A.; El-Atwani, O.; Sagapuram, D.; Harilal, S. S.; Hassanein, A.

    2014-11-01

    Tungsten has been chosen as the main candidate for plasma facing components (PFCs) due to its superior properties under extreme operating conditions in future nuclear fusion reactors such as ITER. One of the serious issues for PFCs is the high heat load during transient events such as ELMs and disruption in the reactor. Recrystallization and grain size growth in PFC materials caused by transients are undesirable changes in the material, since the isotropic microstructure developed after recrystallization exhibits a higher ductile-to-brittle transition temperature which increases with the grain size, a lower thermal shock fatigue resistance, a lower mechanical strength, and an increased surface roughening. The current work was focused on careful determination of the threshold parameters for surface recrystallization, grain growth rate, and thermal shock fatigue resistance under ELM-like transient heat events. Transient heat loads were simulated using long pulse laser beams for two different grades of ultrafine-grained tungsten. It was observed that cold rolled tungsten demonstrated better power handling capabilities and higher thermal stress fatigue resistance compared to severely deformed tungsten. Higher recrystallization threshold, slower grain growth, and lower degree of surface roughening were observed in the cold rolled tungsten.

  18. 4D Study of Grain Growth in Armco Iron Using Laboratory X-ray Diffraction Contrast Tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Jun; Lyckegaard, Allan; Zhang, Yubin

    2017-01-01

    Using a novel laboratory diffraction contrast tomography (LabDCT) technique, a non-destructive 4D study was conducted to investigate the evolution in 3D of the grain structure during grain growth in an Armco iron sample. The 3D grain morphology and the crystallographic orientations of more than 3...

  19. Grain Growth and Precipitation Behavior of Iridium Alloy DOP-26 During Long Term Aging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierce, Dean T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Muralidharan, Govindarajan [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Fox, Ethan E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Cox, Victoria A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Geer, Tom [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-05-01

    The influence of long term aging on grain growth and precipitate sizes and spatial distribution in iridium alloy DOP-26 was studied. Samples of DOP-26 were fabricated using the new process, recrystallized for 1 hour (h) at 1375 C, then aged at either 1300, 1400, or 1500 C for times ranging from 50 to 10,000 h. Grain size measurements (vertical and horizontal mean linear intercept and horizontal and vertical projection) and analyses of iridium-thorium precipitates (size and spacing) were made on the longitudinal, transverse, and rolling surfaces of the as-recrystallized and aged specimens from which the two-dimensional spatial distribution and mean sizes of the precipitates were obtained. The results obtained from this study are intended to provide input to grain growth models.

  20. Three-dimensional investigation of grain orientation effects on void growth in commercially pure titanium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pushkareva, Marina [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Ottawa, 150 Louis Pasteur, Ottawa, ON, Canada K1N 6N5 (Canada); Adrien, Jérôme; Maire, Eric [Université de Lyon, INSA-Lyon, MATEIS CNRS UMR5510, 7 Avenue Jean Capelle, F-69621 Villeurbanne (France); Segurado, Javier; Llorca, Javier [IMDEA Materials Institute, C/Eric Kandel 2, 28906 Getafe, Madrid (Spain); Department of Materials Science, Polytechnic University of Madrid, E. T. S. de Ingenieros de Caminos, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Weck, Arnaud, E-mail: aweck@uottawa.ca [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Ottawa, 150 Louis Pasteur, Ottawa, ON, Canada K1N 6N5 (Canada); IMDEA Materials Institute, C/Eric Kandel 2, 28906 Getafe, Madrid (Spain); Department of Physics, University of Ottawa, 150 Louis Pasteur, Ottawa, ON, Canada K1N 6N5 (Canada); Centre for Research in Photonics at the University of Ottawa, 800 King Edward Ave., Ottawa, ON, Canada K1N 6N5 (Canada)

    2016-08-01

    The fracture process of commercially pure titanium was visualized in model materials containing artificial holes. These model materials were fabricated using a femtosecond laser coupled with a diffusion bonding technique to obtain voids in the interior of titanium samples. Changes in void dimensions during in-situ straining were recorded in three dimensions using x-ray computed tomography. Void growth obtained experimentally was compared with the Rice and Tracey model which predicted well the average void growth. A large scatter in void growth data was explained by differences in grain orientation which was confirmed by crystal plasticity simulations. It was also shown that grain orientation has a stronger effect on void growth than intervoid spacing and material strength. Intervoid spacing, however, appears to control whether the intervoid ligament failure is ductile or brittle.

  1. Watching the growth of bulk grains during recrystallization of deformed metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Søren; Fæster Nielsen, Søren; Gundlach, C.

    2004-01-01

    , contradicting the classical assumption of smooth and spherical growth of new grains during recrystallization. This type of in situ bulk measurement opens up the possibility of obtaining experimental data on scientific topics that before could only be analyzed theoretically on the basis of the statistical...

  2. Effect of pre- and post-heading waterlogging on growth and grain yield of four millets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asana Matsuura

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Seeds of Panicum miliaceum, Panicum sumatrense, Setaria glauca, and Setaria italica were raised in polyvinylchloride tubes filled with soil to determine interspecific differences in waterlogging tolerance and the effect of pre- and post-heading waterlogging on growth and grain yield. Four treatments were conducted including control (no-waterlogging stress during growth. Pre-heading waterlogging treatment was initiated 17 days after sowing to heading (TC. Post-heading waterlogging treatment was initiated heading till harvest (CT. Waterlogging treatment was initiated 17 days after sowing to harvesting (TT. The grain yield of P. miliaceum, S. glauca, and S. italica decreased 16, 18, and 4%, while that of P. sumatrense increased 210% under TT treatment and this showed P. sumatrense had most waterlogging tolerance. The grain yield was more affected under TC treatment in S. italica and P. miliaceum. However, there was not significant differences the grain yield between TC and CT treatment in P. sumatrense and S. glauca. Total dry weight, total root dry weight, number of crown root, and the proportion of lysigenous aerenchyma of P. sumatrense were significantly higher than those of other millets at harvesting. Plant growth rate, total root dry weight, number of crown root, and the proportion of lysigenous aerenchyma of P. sumatrense were significantly higher than those of other millets at heading. These results suggest that P. sumatrense exhibits waterlogging tolerance by enhancing root growth characterized by a high proportion of lysigenous aerenchyma in the crown root.

  3. Effect of surface roughness on grain growth and sintering of alumina

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Indian Academy of Sciences. 799. Effect of surface roughness on grain growth and sintering of ... Advanced Sintering Technology Group, Advanced Manufacturing Research Institute, National Institute of. Advanced Industrial Science .... defined as the summation of negative and positive devia- tions from a 'mean plane' fit ...

  4. Growth of grains effect on boron diffusion in heavily doped LPCVD ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The dopant trapping and segregation effects were combined with those of complex phenomena related to the strong concentrations such as clustering and exceeds of the solubility solid limit. This will permit to understand more exactly the significant role of the grains growth effect for the precise determination of the diffusion ...

  5. Grain growth kinetics of textured-BaTiO3 ceramics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Both consumption of matrix by templates and grain growth of templates determined the orientation degree of ceramics. ... Luoyang Institute of Science and Technology, Luoyang 471023, China; Functional Materials Research Laboratory, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092, China; Department of Physics and Materials ...

  6. CULTIVAR RELEASE - BRS Esplendor – Common bean cultivar with black grain, upright growth and disease resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquim Geraldo Cáprio da Costa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available BRS Esplendor is a common bean cultivar with black grain, suitable for 12 Brazilian states. The mean productivity is 2,156 kg ha-1, by 7.5 % higher than of controls, has a high yield potential (4,120 kg ha-1, upright growth, high tolerance to lodging and high resistance to anthracnose, fusarium wilt and common bacterial blight.

  7. Evolution of the Annealing Twin Density during δ-Supersolvus Grain Growth in the Nickel-Based Superalloy Inconel™ 718

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Jin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Grain growth experiments were performed on Inconel™ 718 to investigate the possible correlation of the annealing twin density with grain size and with annealing temperature. Those experiments were conducted at different temperatures in the δ supersolvus domain and under such conditions that only capillarity forces were involved in the grain boundary migration process. In the investigated range, there is a strong inverse correlation of the twin density with the average grain size. On the other hand, the twin density at a given average grain size is not sensitive to annealing temperature. Consistent with previous results for pure nickel, the twin density evolution in Inconel™ 718 is likely to be mainly controlled by the propagation of the pre-existing twins of the growing grains; i.e., the largest ones of the initial microstructure. Almost no new twin boundaries are created during the grain growth process itself. Therefore, the twin density at a given average grain size is mainly dependent on the twin density in the largest grains of the initial microstructure and independent of the temperature at which grains grow. Based on the observations, a mean field model is proposed to predict annealing twin density as a function of grain size during grain growth.

  8. Study on the kinetics and mechanism of grain growth during the thermal decomposition of magnesite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Daxue; Feng, Naixiang; Wang, Yaowu [Northeastern Univ., Shenyang (China)

    2012-04-15

    The X-ray line broadening technique was used to calculate the grain size of MgO at 1023, 1123, 1223 K respectively either in CO{sub 2} or during the thermal decomposition of magnesites in air as well as in vacuum. By referring to the conventional grain growth equation, D{sup n} = kt, the activation energy and pre-exponential factor for the process in air are gained as 125.8 kJ/mol and 1.56 X 10{sup 8} nm{sup 4}/s, respectively. Raman spectroscopy was employed to study the surface structure of MgO obtained during calcination of magnesite, by which the mechanism of grain growth was analyzed and discussed. It is suggested that a kind of highly reactive MgO is produced during the thermal decomposition of magnesites, which is exactly the reason why the activation energy of the grain growth during the thermal decomposition of magnesite is lower than that of bulk diffusion or surface diffusion.

  9. Study on the kinetics and mechanism of grain growth during the thermal decomposition of magnesite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Daxue; Feng, Naixiang; Wang, Yaowu [Northeastern Univ., Shenyang (China)

    2012-04-15

    The X-ray line broadening technique was used to calculate the grain size of MgO at 1023, 1123, 1223 K respectively either in CO{sub 2} or during the thermal decomposition of magnesites in air as well as in vacuum. By referring to the conventional grain growth equation, D{sup n} = kt, the activation energy and pre-exponential factor for the process in air are gained as 125.8 kJ/mol and 1.56 X 10{sup 8} nm{sup 4}/s, respectively. Ran man spectroscopy was employed to study the surface structure of MgO obtained during calcination of magnesite, by which the mechanism of grain growth was analyzed and discussed. It is suggested that a kind of highly reactive MgO is produced during the thermal decomposition of magnesites, which is exactly the reason why the activation energy of the grain growth during the thermal decomposition of magnesite is lower than that of bulk diffusion or surface diffusion.

  10. Na-assisted grain growth in CZTS nanoparticle thin films for solar cell applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, Sara Lena Josefin; Crovetto, Andrea; Hansen, Ole

    2017-01-01

    -friendly NaCl salt can be directly dissolved in controllable amounts. This further circumvents the need for later incorporation of dopants, or a ligand-exchange step to functionalize the surface of the nanoparticles. In addition, the homogeneous distribution of Na in the ink allows uniform grain growth within...... the deposited absorber layer. By including Na in the nanoparticle ink, micron-sized grains throughout the whole absorber are achieved after annealing in a sulfur atmosphere at 600°C. The absorber layer appeared to be of full density, and no closed porosity could be detected. In addition, the photoluminescence...... signal increased by a factor of 200 after Na-inclusion. Without Na, the grains were very difficult to sinter, the film was porous, and the photoluminescence was low. A concentration of Na/(Cu+Zn+Sn)=30% was necessary for the densification of the absorber, which is significantly higher than that used...

  11. Effect of Transplanting on Yield and Growth of Grain Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agbaje, GO.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was carried out to study the effects of transplanting on growth and grain yield of three varieties of Sorghum bicolor, 'Ilorin local', SK 5912, and SSV10. Seedlings from each variety transplanted at 2, 4 and 6 weeks after planting (WAP were compared with directly seeded plants used as control. Results show that at 8 WAP with seedlings transplanted at 2 WAP were taller than the other transplants, but shorter than directly seeded plants. Transplanting caused delay in flowering, but at this stage, height of transplants was comparable to directly seeded plants in SK 5912 and SSV10, while in 'Ilorin local' the transplants were significantly shorter at P< 0.05. Dry matter accumulation and grain yield was comparable among transplants but lower than those of directly seeded plants. However, grain yield of seedlings that were transplanted at 2 WAP was statistically comparable with directly seeded plants at P< 0.05.

  12. Nucleation and growth of WSe2: enabling large grain transition metal dichalcogenides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Ruoyu; Nie, Yifan; Walsh, Lee A.; Addou, Rafik; Liang, Chaoping; Lu, Ning; Barton, Adam T.; Zhu, Hui; Che, Zifan; Barrera, Diego; Cheng, Lanxia; Cha, Pil-Ryung; Chabal, Yves J.; Hsu, Julia W. P.; Kim, Jiyoung; Kim, Moon J.; Colombo, Luigi; Wallace, Robert M.; Cho, Kyeongjae; Hinkle, Christopher L.

    2017-12-01

    The limited grain size (growth behavior of WSe2 is investigated through a detailed experimental design combined with on-lattice, diffusion-based first principles kinetic modeling to enable large area TMD growth. A three-stage adsorption-diffusion-attachment mechanism is identified and the adatom stage is revealed to play a significant role in the nucleation behavior. To limit the nucleation density and promote 2D layered growth, it is necessary to have a low metal flux in conjunction with an elevated substrate temperature. At the same time, providing a Se-rich environment further limits the formation of W-rich nuclei which suppresses vertical growth and promotes 2D growth. The fundamental understanding gained through this investigation has enabled an increase of over one order of magnitude in grain size for WSe2 thus far, and provides valuable insight into improving the growth of other TMD compounds by MBE and other growth techniques such as chemical vapor deposition (CVD).

  13. Effect of Fungicide Applications on Grain Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Growth and Yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan D. Fromme

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Field studies were conducted in the upper Texas Gulf Coast and in central Louisiana during the 2013 through 2015 growing seasons to evaluate the effects of fungicides on grain sorghum growth and development when disease pressure was low or nonexistent. Azoxystrobin and flutriafol at 1.0 L/ha and pyraclostrobin at 0.78 L/ha were applied to the plants of two grain sorghum hybrids (DKS 54-00, DKS 53-67 at 25% bloom and compared with the nontreated check for leaf chlorophyll content, leaf temperature, and plant lodging during the growing season as well as grain mold, test weight, yield, and nitrogen and protein content of the harvested grain. The application of a fungicide had no effect on any of the variables tested with grain sorghum hybrid responses noted. DKS 53-67 produced higher yield, greater test weight, higher percent protein, and N than DKS 54-00. Results of this study indicate that the application of a fungicide when little or no disease is present does not promote overall plant health or increase yield.

  14. Predicting the Probability of Abnormal Stimulated Growth Hormone Response in Children After Radiotherapy for Brain Tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hua Chiaho, E-mail: Chia-Ho.Hua@stjude.org [Department of Radiological Sciences, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Wu Shengjie [Department of Biostatistics, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Chemaitilly, Wassim [Division of Endocrinology, Department of Pediatric Medicine, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Lukose, Renin C.; Merchant, Thomas E. [Department of Radiological Sciences, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States)

    2012-11-15

    Purpose: To develop a mathematical model utilizing more readily available measures than stimulation tests that identifies brain tumor survivors with high likelihood of abnormal growth hormone secretion after radiotherapy (RT), to avoid late recognition and a consequent delay in growth hormone replacement therapy. Methods and Materials: We analyzed 191 prospectively collected post-RT evaluations of peak growth hormone level (arginine tolerance/levodopa stimulation test), serum insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), IGF-binding protein 3, height, weight, growth velocity, and body mass index in 106 children and adolescents treated for ependymoma (n = 72), low-grade glioma (n = 28) or craniopharyngioma (n = 6), who had normal growth hormone levels before RT. Normal level in this study was defined as the peak growth hormone response to the stimulation test {>=}7 ng/mL. Results: Independent predictor variables identified by multivariate logistic regression with high statistical significance (p < 0.0001) included IGF-1 z score, weight z score, and hypothalamic dose. The developed predictive model demonstrated a strong discriminatory power with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.883. At a potential cutoff point of probability of 0.3 the sensitivity was 80% and specificity 78%. Conclusions: Without unpleasant and expensive frequent stimulation tests, our model provides a quantitative approach to closely follow the growth hormone secretory capacity of brain tumor survivors. It allows identification of high-risk children for subsequent confirmatory tests and in-depth workup for diagnosis of growth hormone deficiency.

  15. Abnormal gut integrity is associated with reduced linear growth in rural Malawian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisz, Ariana J; Manary, Micah J; Stephenson, Kevin; Agapova, Sophia; Manary, Faith G; Thakwalakwa, Chrissie; Shulman, Robert J; Manary, Mark J

    2012-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the relation of environmental enteropathy, as measured by the dual sugar absorption test, to linear growth faltering in 2- to 5-year-old Malawian children. Dietary quality, food insecurity, anthropometry, and site-specific sugar testing were measured in 418 children, and anthropometry was reassessed 3 months later. A linear regression model predicting linear growth was created. Better growth was associated with less urinary lactulose excretion, more clean water usage, not sleeping with animals, and no previous history of malnutrition. Eighty-seven percent of children studied demonstrated evidence of environmental enteropathy. In conclusion, abnormal gut integrity is associated with reduced linear growth in a population of rural African preschool-age children.

  16. Autism at the beginning: microstructural and growth abnormalities underlying the cognitive and behavioral phenotype of autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courchesne, Eric; Redcay, Elizabeth; Morgan, John T; Kennedy, Daniel P

    2005-01-01

    Autistic symptoms begin in the first years of life, and recent magnetic resonance imaging studies have discovered brain growth abnormalities that precede and overlap with the onset of these symptoms. Recent postmortem studies of the autistic brain provide evidence of cellular abnormalities and processes that may underlie the recently discovered early brain overgrowth and arrest of growth that marks the first years of life in autism. Alternative origins and time tables for these cellular defects and processes are discussed. These cellular and growth abnormalities are most pronounced in frontal, cerebellar, and temporal structures that normally mediate the development of those same higher order social, emotional, speech, language, speech, attention, and cognitive functions that characterize autism. Cellular and growth pathologies are milder and perhaps nonexistent in other structures (e.g., occipital cortex), which are known to mediate functions that are often either mildly affected or entirely unaffected in autistic patients. It is argued that in autism, higher order functions largely fail to develop normally in the first place because frontal, cerebellar, and temporal cellular and growth pathologies occur prior to and during the critical period when these higher order neural systems first begin to form their circuitry. It is hypothesized that microstructural maldevelopment results in local and short distance overconnectivity in frontal cortex that is largely ineffective and in a failure of long-distance cortical-cortical coupling, and thus a reduction in frontal-posterior reciprocal connectivity. This altered circuitry impairs the essential role of frontal cortex in integrating information from diverse functional systems (emotional, sensory, autonomic, memory, etc.) and providing context-based and goal-directed feedback to lower level systems.

  17. Abnormal Doppler flow velocimetry in the growth restricted foetus as a predictor for necrotising enterocolitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhatt A

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obstetric decision- making for the growth restricted foetus has to take into consideration the benefits and risks of waiting for pulmonary maturity and continued exposure to hostile intra-uterine environment. Necrotising Enterocolitis (NEC results from continued exposure to hostile environment and is an important cause of poor neonatal outcome. AIMS: To evaluate the predictive value of abnormal Doppler flow velocimetry of the foetal umbilical artery for NEC and neonatal mortality. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: A retrospective study carried out at a tertiary care centre for obstetric and neonatal care. MATERIALS AND METHOD: Seventy-seven neonates with birth weight less than 2000 gm, born over a period of 18 months were studied. These pregnancies were identified as having growth abnormalities of the foetus. Besides other tests of foetal well-being, they were also subjected to Doppler flow velocimetry of the foeto-placental vasculature. Obstetric outcome was evaluated with reference to period of gestation and route of delivery. The neonatal outcome was reviewed with reference to birth weight, Apgar scores and evidence of NEC. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED: Chi square test. RESULTS: In the group of patients with Absent or Reverse End Diastolic Frequencies (A/R EDF in the umbilical arteries, positive predictive value for NEC was 52.6%, (RR 30.2; OR 264. The mortality from NEC was 50%. When umbilical artery velocimetry did not show A/REDF, there were no cases of NEC or mortality. Abnormal umbilical or uterine artery flow increased the rate of caesarean section to 62.5% as compared to 17.6% in cases where umbilical artery flow was normal. CONCLUSION: In antenatally identified pregnancies at risk for foetal growth restriction, abnormal Doppler velocimetry in the form of A/REDF in the umbilical arteries is a useful guide to predict NEC and mortality in the early neonatal period.

  18. Oriented grain growth and modification of 'frozen anisotropy' in the lithospheric mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boneh, Yuval; Wallis, David; Hansen, Lars N.; Krawczynski, Mike J.; Skemer, Philip

    2017-09-01

    Seismic anisotropy throughout the oceanic lithosphere is often assumed to be generated by fossilized texture formed during deformation at asthenospheric temperatures close to the ridge. Here we investigate the effect of high-temperature and high-pressure static annealing on the texture of previously deformed olivine aggregates to simulate residence of deformed peridotite in the lithosphere. Our experiments indicate that the orientation and magnitude of crystallographic preferred orientation (CPO) will evolve due to the preferential growth of grains with low dislocation densities. These observations suggest that texture and stored elastic strain energy promote a style of grain growth that modifies the CPO of a deformed aggregate. We demonstrate that these microstructural changes alter the orientation distributions and magnitudes of seismic wave velocities and anisotropy. Therefore, static annealing may complicate the inference of past deformation kinematics from seismic anisotropy in the lithosphere.

  19. Predicting the probability of abnormal stimulated growth hormone response in children after radiotherapy for brain tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Chiaho; Wu, Shengjie; Chemaitilly, Wassim; Lukose, Renin C; Merchant, Thomas E

    2012-11-15

    To develop a mathematical model utilizing more readily available measures than stimulation tests that identifies brain tumor survivors with high likelihood of abnormal growth hormone secretion after radiotherapy (RT), to avoid late recognition and a consequent delay in growth hormone replacement therapy. We analyzed 191 prospectively collected post-RT evaluations of peak growth hormone level (arginine tolerance/levodopa stimulation test), serum insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), IGF-binding protein 3, height, weight, growth velocity, and body mass index in 106 children and adolescents treated for ependymoma (n=72), low-grade glioma (n=28) or craniopharyngioma (n=6), who had normal growth hormone levels before RT. Normal level in this study was defined as the peak growth hormone response to the stimulation test≥7 ng/mL. Independent predictor variables identified by multivariate logistic regression with high statistical significance (pcapacity of brain tumor survivors. It allows identification of high-risk children for subsequent confirmatory tests and in-depth workup for diagnosis of growth hormone deficiency. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The role of grain boundary structure and crystal orientation on crack growth asymmetry in aluminum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adlakha, I. [School for Engineering of Matter, Transport, and Energy, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 (United States); Tschopp, M.A. [U.S. Army Research Laboratory, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21005 (United States); Solanki, K.N., E-mail: kiran.solanki@asu.edu [School for Engineering of Matter, Transport, and Energy, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 (United States)

    2014-11-17

    Atomistic simulations have shown that the grain boundary (GB) structure affects a number of physical, mechanical, thermal, and chemical properties, which can have a profound effect on macroscopic properties of polycrystalline materials. The research objective herein is to use atomistic simulations to explore the role that GB structure and the adjacent crystallographic orientations have on the directional asymmetry of an intergranular crack (i.e. cleavage behavior is favored along one direction, while ductile behavior along the other direction of the interface) for aluminum grain boundaries. Simulation results from seven 〈110〉 symmetric tilt grain boundaries (STGBs) show that the GB structure and the associated free volume directly influence the stress–strain response, crack growth rate, and crack tip plasticity mechanisms for middle-tension (M(T)) crack propagation specimens. In particular, the structural units present within the GB promote whether a dislocation or twinning-based mechanism operates at the crack tip during intergranular fracture along certain GBs (e.g., the ‘E’ structural unit promotes twinning at the crack tip in Al). Furthermore, the crystallography of the adjacent grains, and therefore the available slip planes, can significantly affect the crack growth rates in both directions of the crack – this creates a strong directional asymmetry in the crack growth rate in the Σ11 (113) and the Σ27 (552) STGBs. Upon comparing these results with the theoretical Rice criterion, it was found that certain GBs in this study (Σ9 (221), Σ11 (332) and Σ33 (441)) show an absence of directional asymmetry in the observed crack growth behavior, in conflict with the Rice criterion. The significance of the present research is that it provides a physical basis for the role of GB character and crystallographic orientation on intergranular crack tip deformation behavior.

  1. Computational study on ice growth inhibition of Antarctic bacterium antifreeze protein using coarse grained simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Hung; Le, Ly; Ho, Tu Bao

    2014-01-01

    Antarctic bacterium antifreeze proteins (AFPs) protect and support the survival of cold-adapted organisms by binding and inhibiting the growth of ice crystals. The mechanism of the anti-freezing process in a water environment at low temperature of Antarctic bacterium AFPs remains unclear. In this research, we study the effects of Antarctic bacterium AFPs by coarse grained simulations solution at a temperature range from 262 to 273K. The results indicated that Antarctic bacterium AFPs were ful...

  2. Experimental studies of Micro- and Nano-grained UO2: Grain Growth Behavior, Sufrace Morphology, and Fracture Toughness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miao, Yinbin [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Mo, Kun [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Jamison, Laura M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Lian, Jie [Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States); Yao, Tiankai [Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States); Bhattacharya, Sumit [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States)

    2016-01-01

    This activity is supported by the US Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) Fuels Product Line (FPL) and aims at providing experimental data for the validation of the mesoscale simulation code MARMOT. MARMOT is a mesoscale multiphysics code that predicts the coevolution of microstructure and properties within reactor fuel during its lifetime in the reactor. It is an important component of the Moose-Bison-Marmot (MBM) code suite that has been developed by Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to enable next generation fuel performance modeling capability as part of the NEAMS Program FPL. In order to ensure the accuracy of the microstructure-based materials models being developed within the MARMOT code, extensive validation efforts must be carried out. In this report, we summarize the experimental efforts in FY16 including the following important experiments: (1) in-situ grain growth measurement of nano-grained UO2; (2) investigation of surface morphology in micrograined UO2; (3) Nano-indentation experiments on nano- and micro-grained UO2. The highlight of this year is: we have successfully demonstrated our capability to in-situ measure grain size development while maintaining the stoichiometry of nano-grained UO2 materials; the experiment is, for the first time, using synchrotron X-ray diffraction to in-situ measure grain growth behavior of UO2.

  3. Intrauterine Growth Restriction Associated with Hematologic Abnormalities: Probable Manifestations of Placental Mesenchymal Dysplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Martinez-Payo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction - Placental mesenchymal dysplasia is a rare vascular disease associated with intrauterine growth restriction, fetal demise as well as Beckwith–Wiedemann syndrome. Some neonates present hematologic abnormalities possibly related to consumptive coagulopathy and hemolytic anemia in the placental circulation. Case report - We present a case of placental mesenchymal dysplasia in a fetus with intrauterine growth restriction and cerebellar hemorrhagic injury diagnosed in the 20th week of pregnancy. During 26th week, our patient had an intrauterine fetal demise in the context of gestational hypertension. We have detailed the ultrasound findings that made us suspect the presence of hematologic disorders during 20th week. Discussion - We believe that the cerebellar hematoma could be the consequence of thrombocytopenia accompanied by anemia. If hemorrhagic damage during fetal life is found, above all associates with an anomalous placental appearance and with intrauterine growth restriction, PMD should be suspected along other etiologies.

  4. Molecular dynamics simulations investigating consecutive nucleation, solidification and grain growth in a twelve-million-atom Fe-system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okita, Shin; Verestek, Wolfgang; Sakane, Shinji; Takaki, Tomohiro; Ohno, Munekazu; Shibuta, Yasushi

    2017-09-01

    Continuous processes of homogeneous nucleation, solidification and grain growth are spontaneously achieved from an undercooled iron melt without any phenomenological parameter in the molecular dynamics (MD) simulation with 12 million atoms. The nucleation rate at the critical temperature is directly estimated from the atomistic configuration by cluster analysis to be of the order of 1034 m-3 s-1. Moreover, time evolution of grain size distribution during grain growth is obtained by the combination of Voronoi and cluster analyses. The grain growth exponent is estimated to be around 0.3 from the geometric average of the grain size distribution. Comprehensive understanding of kinetic properties during continuous processes is achieved in the large-scale MD simulation by utilizing the high parallel efficiency of a graphics processing unit (GPU), which is shedding light on the fundamental aspects of production processes of materials from the atomistic viewpoint.

  5. Modeling Nucleation and Grain Growth in the Solar Nebula: Initial Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuth, Joseph A.; Paquette, J. A.; Ferguson, F. T.

    2010-01-01

    The primitive solar nebula was a violent and chaotic environment where high energy collisions, lightning, shocks and magnetic re-connection events rapidly vaporized some fraction of nebular dust, melted larger particles while leaving the largest grains virtually undisturbed. At the same time, some tiny grains containing very easily disturbed noble gas signatures (e.g., small, pre-solar graphite or SiC particles) never experienced this violence, yet can be found directly adjacent to much larger meteoritic components (chondrules or CAIs) that did. Additional components in the matrix of the most primitive carbonaceous chondrites and in some chondritic porous interplanetary dust particles include tiny nebular condensates, aggregates of condensates and partially annealed aggregates. Grains formed in violent transient events in the solar nebula did not come to equilibrium with their surroundings. To understand the formation and textures of these materials as well as their nebular abundances we must rely on Nucleation Theory and kinetic models of grain growth, coagulation and annealing. Such models have been very uncertain in the past: we will discuss the steps we are taking to increase their reliability.

  6. Effects of seed orientation on the growth behavior of single grain REBCO bulk superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hee Gyoun [Korea Polytechnic University, Siheung (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    This study presents a simple method to control the seed orientation which leads to the various growth characteristics of a single grain REBCO (RE: rare-earth elements) bulk superconductors. Seed orientation was varied systematically from c-axis to a-axis with every 30 degree rotation around b-axis. Orientations of a REBCO single grain was successfully controlled by placing the seed with various angles on the prismatic indent prepared on the surface of REBCO powder compacts. Growth pattern was changed from cubic to rectangular when the seed orientation normal to compact surface was varied from c-axis to a-axis. Macroscopic shape change has been explained by the variation of the wetting angle of un-reacted melt depending on the interface energy between YBa2Cu3O7-y (Y123) grain and melt. Higher magnetic levitation force was obtained for the specimen prepared using tilted seed with an angle of 30 degree rotation around b-axis.

  7. Evaluation of brewers' spent grain as a novel media for yeast growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooray, Sachindra T; Lee, Jaslyn J L; Chen, Wei Ning

    2017-12-01

    Brewers' spent grain (BSG) is a by-product generated from the beer manufacturing industry, which is extremely rich in protein and fiber. Here we use low cost BSG as the raw material for the production of a novel growth media, through a bioconversion process utilizing a food grade fungi to hydrolyze BSG. The novel fermentation media was tested on the yeast Rhodosporidium toruloides, a natural yeast producing carotenoid. The yeast growth was analysed using the growth curve and the production of intracellular fatty acids and carotenoids. Untargeted GCMS based metabolomics was used to analyse the constituents of the different growth media, followed by multivariate data analysis. Growth media prepared using fermented BSG was found to be able to support the growth in R. toruloides (21.4 mg/ml) in comparable levels to YPD media (24.7 mg/ml). Therefore, the fermented BSG media was able to fulfill the requirement as a nitrogen source for R. toruloides growth. This media was able to sustain normal metabolomics activity in yeast, as indicated by the level of fatty acid and carotenoid production. This can be explained by the fact that, in the fermented BSG media metabolites and amino acids were found to be higher than in the unfermented media, and close to the levels in YPD media. Taken together, our study provided evidence of a growth media for yeast using BSG. This should have potential in replacing components in the current yeast culture media in a sustainable and cost effective manner.

  8. Pulmonary interstitial glycogenosis in the setting of lung growth abnormality: radiographic and pathologic correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castillo, Monette; Vade, Aruna; Lim-Dunham, Jennifer Eden [Loyola University Health System, Department of Radiology, Maywood, IL (United States); Masuda, Emi [Henry Ford Hospital, Department of Radiology, Detroit, MI (United States); Massarani-Wafai, Rasan [Loyola University Health System, Department of Pathology, Maywood, IL (United States)

    2010-09-15

    Pulmonary interstitial glycogenosis (PIG) is a rare pediatric interstitial lung disease. We report a case of a term boy presenting with tachypnea at birth requiring supplemental oxygen. Chest radiographs followed by high-resolution CT (HRCT) demonstrated hyperinflation and diffuse interstitial markings interspersed with multiple cystic spaces. An open lung biopsy demonstrated a minor component of PIG superimposed upon poor alveolarization. PIG in the setting of lung growth abnormality might be more common than previously described. Additionally, radiographic findings associated with most pediatric interstitial lung diseases are nonspecific, and histopathologic correlation is essential for diagnosis. (orig.)

  9. Increased Temperatures Have Dramatic Effects on Growth and Grain Yield of Three Maize Hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerry L. Hatfield

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Rising temperatures under climate change are projected to have negative impacts on crop growth and production. These conclusions are not based on direct observations but on projected model results. A study conducted comparing normal seasonal temperatures (1980–2010 for Ames, IA, to a normal + 4°C environment with the same water vapor deficit evaluated the impacts of temperature on maize ( L. development and production. The rate of phenological development increased at higher temperatures; however, the relationship of leaf collar and leaf tip appearance to growing degree days was the same between temperature regimes. There was no effect on total leaf area or vegetative dry matter production, but grain yields decreased from 84 to 100% because of exposure to high nighttime temperatures and disruption of the pollination process as evidenced by the large reduction in kernels per ear. Projected increases in temperature will negatively affect grain production and threaten food security.

  10. Over-expression of thymosin beta 4 promotes abnormal tooth development and stimulation of hair growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Hee-Jae; Philp, Deborah; Lee, Soo-Hyun; Moon, Hye-Sung; Kleinman, Hynda K; Nakamura, Takashi

    2010-01-01

    Thymosin beta 4 has multi-functional roles in cell physiology. It accelerates wound healing, hair growth and angiogenesis, and increases laminin-5 expression in corneal epithelium. Furthermore, thymosin beta 4 stimulates tumor growth and metastasis by induction of cell migration and vascular endothelial growth factor-mediated angiogenesis. Using a construct on the skin-specific keratin-5 promoter, we have developed thymosin beta 4 over-expressing transgenic mice to further study its functional roles. Thymosin beta 4 in adult skin and in embryonic stages of the transgenic mouse was analyzed by both Western blot and immunohistochemistry. The over-expression of thymosin beta 4 was observed especially around hair follicles and in the teeth in the transgenic mice. We examined the phenotype of the thymosin beta 4 over-expressing mice. Hair growth was accelerated. In addition, the transgenic mice had abnormally-shaped white teeth and dull incisors. We found that the expression of laminin-5 was up-regulated in the skin of the transgenic mice. We conclude that thymosin beta 4 has an important physiological role in hair growth and in tooth development.

  11. Electric-Loading Enhanced Kinetics in Oxide Ceramics: Pore Migration, Sintering and Grain Growth: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, I-Wei

    2018-02-02

    Solid oxide fuel cells and solid oxide electrolysis cells rely on solid electrolytes in which a large ionic current dominates. This project was initiated to investigate microstructural changes in such devices under electrochemical forces, because nominally insignificant processes may couple to the large ionic current to yield non-equilibrium phenomena that alter the microstructure. Our studies had focused on yttria-stabilized cubic zirconia (YSZ) widely used in these devices. The experiments have revealed enhanced grain growth at higher temperatures, pore and gas bubble migration at all temperatures, and the latter also lead to enhanced sintering of highly porous ceramics into fully dense ceramics at unprecedentedly low temperatures. These results have shed light on kinetic processes that fall completely outside the realm of classical ceramic processing. Other fast-oxygen oxide ceramics closely related to, and often used in conjunction with zirconia ceramics, have also be investigated, as are closely related scientific problems in zirconia ceramics. These include crystal structures, defects, diffusion kinetics, oxygen potentials, low temperature sintering, flash sintering, and coarsening theory, and all have resulted in greater clarity in scientific understanding. The knowledge is leveraged to provide new insight to electrode kinetics and near-electrode mixed conductivity and to new materials. In the following areas, our research has resulted in completely new knowledge that defines the state-of-the-art of the field. (a) Electrical current driven non-equilibrium phenomena, (b) Enhanced grain growth under electrochemically reducing conditions, (c) Development of oxygen potential polarization in electrically loaded electrolyte, (d) Low temperature sintering and grain growth, and (e) Structure, defects and cation kinetics of fluorite-structured oxides. Our research has also contributed to synthesis of new energy-relevant electrochemical materials and new understanding

  12. The Effect of Precipitate Evolution on Austenite Grain Growth in RAFM Steel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Biyu; Liu, Yongchang; Wang, Zejun; Liu, Chenxi; Si, Yonghong; Li, Huijun; Yu, Jianxing

    2017-09-01

    To study the effects of various types of precipitates and precipitate evolution behavior on austenite (size and phase fraction) in reduced activation ferritic/martensitic (RAFM) steel, RAFM steel was heated to various austenitizing temperatures. The microstructures of specimens were observed using optical microscopy (OM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results indicate that the M23C₆ and MX precipitates gradually coarsen and dissolve into the matrix as the austenitizing temperatures increase. The M23C₆ precipitates dissolve completely at 1100 °C, while the MX precipitates dissolve completely at 1200 °C. The evolution of two types of precipitate has a significant effect on the size of austenite. Based on the Zener pinning model, the effect of precipitate evolution on austenite grain size is quantified. It was found that the coarsening and dissolution of M23C₆ and MX precipitates leads to a decrease in pinning pressure on grain boundaries, facilitating the rapid growth of austenite grains. The austenite phase fraction is also affected by the coarsening and dissolution of precipitates.

  13. In vitro evaluation of leaf extracts on the growth of Aspergillus niger infecting maize grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Okereke

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Mycotoxin producing fungi are important pathogens affecting stored maize grains. Conventional management strategies using synthetic chemicals are expensive, hazardous and environmentally unfriendly. This has necessitated the search for alternatives in botanicals. Market sampling of maize grains were carried out in five markets in Port Hartcourt, Nigeria, namely; Choba-main and Choba junction, Rumuosi, Aluu and Ozuoba, to evaluate the occurrence of mycotoxin-producing fungi. Studies were then carried out in the laboratory to evaluate the efficacy of water leaf extracts of Azadirachta indica, Garcina kola, Moringa oliefera, Ocimium gratissimum, Gongronema latifolium and Vernonia amygdalina at three different concentrations (2.5, 5.0 and 7.5% w/v on the prevalent fungus. Result from the market sampling showed that Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus and Pennicillin sp were commonly isolated from the maize grains with Aspergillus niger having the highest occurrence. Choba markets were observed to have the highest percentage occurrence of Aspergillus niger (66-100%. Laboratory studies showed that Gongronema latifolium, effectively reduced the growth of A. niger on PDA media and leaf extract concentration at 7.5% was the most effective.

  14. A multiscale coupled finite-element and phase-field framework to modeling stressed grain growth in polycrystalline thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamshidian, M., E-mail: jamshidian@cc.iut.ac.ir [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Institute of Structural Mechanics, Bauhaus-University Weimar, Marienstrasse 15, 99423 Weimar (Germany); Thamburaja, P., E-mail: prakash.thamburaja@gmail.com [Department of Mechanical & Materials Engineering, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), Bangi 43600 (Malaysia); Rabczuk, T., E-mail: timon.rabczuk@tdt.edu.vn [Division of Computational Mechanics, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam); Faculty of Civil Engineering, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam)

    2016-12-15

    A previously-developed finite-deformation- and crystal-elasticity-based constitutive theory for stressed grain growth in cubic polycrystalline bodies has been augmented to include a description of excess surface energy and grain-growth stagnation mechanisms through the use of surface effect state variables in a thermodynamically-consistent manner. The constitutive theory was also implemented into a multiscale coupled finite-element and phase-field computational framework. With the material parameters in the constitutive theory suitably calibrated, our three-dimensional numerical simulations show that the constitutive model is able to accurately predict the experimentally-determined evolution of crystallographic texture and grain size statistics in polycrystalline copper thin films deposited on polyimide substrate and annealed at high-homologous temperatures. In particular, our numerical analyses show that the broad texture transition observed in the annealing experiments of polycrystalline thin films is caused by grain growth stagnation mechanisms. - Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Developing a theory for stressed grain growth in polycrystalline thin films. • Implementation into a multiscale coupled finite-element and phase-field framework. • Quantitative reproduction of the experimental grain growth data by simulations. • Revealing the cause of texture transition to be due to the stagnation mechanisms.

  15. Polyhydramnios or Excessive Fetal Growth Are Markers for Abnormal Perinatal Outcome in Euglycemic Pregnancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crimmins, Sarah; Mo, Cecilia; Nassar, Yomna; Kopelman, Jerome N; Turan, Ozhan M

    2018-01-01

     This study aims to investigate the perinatal outcome of fetuses with polyhydramnios and/or accelerated growth among women with a normal oral glucose challenge test (oGCT).  Singleton, nonanomalous pregnancies with an oGCT(polyhydramnios (amniotic fluid index > 24 cm or maximum vertical pocket > 8 cm) and/or accelerated growth (abdominal circumference > 95th percentile) on two-third trimester examinations were studied. Maternal demographics, delivery, and neonatal information were recorded. Cases were compared with a reference group (normal oGCT with neither abnormal third-trimester growth nor polyhydramnios).  A total of 282 pregnancies were in the study group, and 663 were in the reference group. Deliveries in the study group were at a higher risk for birth weight (BW)% > 90%, standard deviation, and postpartum hemorrhage when compared with the reference group (adjusted odds ratio: 2.3-5.6). Pregnancies complicated by both polyhydramnios and accelerated fetal growth were significantly more likely to result in a BW% > 90% (odds ratio [OR]: 18.5; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 8.9-38.6) and PPH (OR: 4.2; 95% CI: 2.4-7.6).  Pregnancies with normal oGCT that develop polyhydramnios and accelerated growth are at higher risk for maternal and neonatal complications. Isolated polyhydramnios without accelerated growth increases the risk for delivery complications but not neonatal morbidity. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  16. Residual-stress-induced grain growth of twinned grains and its effect on formability of magnesium alloy sheet at room temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Se-Jong [Korea Institute of Material Science, 66 Sangnam-dong, C-si, Gyeongnam 641-831 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Daeyong, E-mail: daeyong@kims.re.kr [Korea Institute of Material Science, 66 Sangnam-dong, C-si, Gyeongnam 641-831 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Keunho; Cho, Hoon-Hwe; Han, Heung Nam [Department of Materials Science and Engineering and RIAM, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-11-15

    A magnesium alloy sheet was subjected to in-plane compression along with a vertical load to avoid buckling during compression. Pre-compressed specimens machined from the sheet were annealed at different temperatures and the changes in microstructure and texture were observed using electron back scattered diffraction (EBSD). Twinned grains preferentially grew during annealing at 300 °C, so that a strong texture with the < 0001 > direction parallel to the transverse direction developed. EBSD analysis confirmed that the friction caused by the vertical load induced inhomogeneous distribution of residual stress, which acted as an additional driving force for preferential grain growth of twinned grain during annealing. The annealed specimen showed excellent formability. - Highlights: • A magnesium alloy sheet subjected to in-plane compression under a vertical load • The vertical load induced inhomogeneous distribution of the residual stress. • The residual stress acted as an additional driving force for grain growth. • The annealed specimen with strong non-basal texture showed excellent formability.

  17. Densification and Grain Growth during Early-stage Sintering of Ce0.9Gd0.1O1.95-δ in Reducing Atmosphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Zeming; Yuan, Hao; Glasscock, Julie

    2010-01-01

    results, the grain size-relative density trajectory, the densification rate, and the grain-growth rate were determined. The activation energies for densification and grain growth were evaluated, and the dominant densification mechanism was clarified. For comparison, the densification behavior of CGO10...

  18. The association between abnormal birth history and growth in children with CKD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenbaum, Larry A; Muñoz, Alvaro; Schneider, Michael F; Kaskel, Frederick J; Askenazi, David J; Jenkins, Randall; Hotchkiss, Hilary; Moxey-Mims, Marva; Furth, Susan L; Warady, Bradley A

    2011-01-01

    Poor linear growth is a well described complication of chronic kidney disease (CKD). This study evaluated whether abnormal birth history defined by low birth weight (LBW; factors for poor growth outcomes in children with CKD. Growth outcomes were quantified by age-sex-specific height and weight z-scores during 1393 visits from 426 participants of the Chronic Kidney Disease in Children Study, an observational cohort of children with CKD. Median baseline GFR was 42.9 ml/min per 1.73 m(2), 21% had a glomerular diagnosis, and 52% had CKD for ≥ 90% of their lifetime. A high prevalence of LBW (17%), SGA (14%), prematurity (12%), and ICU after delivery (40%) was observed. Multivariate analyses demonstrated a negative effect of LBW (-0.43 ± 0.14; P height and -0.37 ± 0.16; P = 0.02 for weight) and of SGA (-0.29 ± 0.16; P = 0.07 for height and -0.41 ± 0.19; P = 0.03 for weight) on current height and weight. In children with glomerular versus nonglomerular diagnoses, the effect of SGA (-1.08 versus -0.18; P = 0.029) on attained weight was more pronounced in children with a glomerular diagnosis. LBW and SGA are novel risk factors for short stature and lower weight percentiles in children with mild to moderate CKD independent of kidney function.

  19. Shear-Coupled Grain Growth and Texture Development in a Nanocrystalline Ni-Fe Alloy during Cold Rolling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Li; Ungár, Tamás; Toth, Laszlo S.; Skrotzki, Werner; Wang, Yan Dong; Ren, Yang; Choo, Hahn; Fogarassy, Zsolt; Zhou, X. T.; Liaw, Peter K.

    2016-09-19

    The evolution of texture, grain size, grain shape, dislocation and twin density has been determined by synchrotron X-ray diffraction and line profile analysis in a nanocrystalline Ni- Fe alloy after cold rolling along different directions related to the initial fiber and the long axis of grains. The texture evolution has been simulated by the Taylor-type relaxed constraints viscoplastic polycrystal model. The simulations were based on the activity of partial dislocations in correlation with the experimental results of dislocation density determination. The concept of stress-induced shear-coupling is supported and strengthened by both the texture simulations and the experimentally determined evolution of the microstructure parameters. Grain-growth and texture evolution are shown to proceed by the shear-coupling mechanism supported by dislocation activity as long as the grain size is not smaller than about 20 nm.

  20. Investigation of mechanical properties based on grain growth and microstructure evolution of alumina ceramics during two step sintering process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, U. A.; Hussain, A.; Shah, M.; Shuaib, M.; Qayyum, F.

    2016-08-01

    Alumina ceramics having small grain size and high density yield good mechanical properties, which are required in most mechanical applications. Two Step Sintering (TSS) is used to develop dense alumina ceramics. In this research work the effect of sintering temperatures on microstructure and density of the alumina specimens developed by using TSS has been investigated. It has been observed that TSS is more efficient in controlling grain growth and increasing the density as compared to One Step Sintering (OSS) of alumina. Scanning electron micrographs of sintered alumina specimens have been compared. It has been observed that TSS proves to be a better technique for increasing density and controlling grain growth of alumina ceramics than OSS. More relative density, hardness, fracture toughness and small grain size was achieved by using TSS over OSS technique.

  1. Unidirectionally Textured CaBi4Ti4O15 Ceramics by the Reactive Templated Grain Growth with an Extrusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Tsuguto; Tani, Toshihiko; Saito, Yasuyoshi

    2000-09-01

    Dense CaBi4Ti4O15 (CBT) ceramics with a unique texture were prepared by the reactive templated grain growth (RTGG) method using an extrusion technique. Plate-like Bi4Ti3O12 (BIT) particles, a reactive template for CBT, were mixed with other oxide and carbonate powders and unidirectionally aligned by extrusion. During sintering, oriented CBT grains were formed in situ topotaxially on the oriented BIT particles, and the templated grain growth and their densification eventually fabricated textured CBT ceramics. X-ray diffraction measurements and scanning electron microscopic observations revealed that the plate-like CBT grains were unidirectionally oriented parallel to the extruding direction without uniaxial alignment. Textured CBT ceramics poled in the extruding direction exhibited electromechanical coupling coefficients (k33) and piezoelectric coefficients (d33 and g33) more than two times as large as one of nontextured ceramics with the same composition.

  2. Abnormalities of the axial and proximal appendicular skeleton in adults with Laron syndrome (growth hormone insensitivity)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kornreich, L.; Konen, O.; Schwarz, M.; Horev, G. [Schneider Children' s Medical Center of Israel, Imaging Department, Petah Tiqwa (Israel); Tel Aviv University, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv (Israel); Siegel, Y. [Rabin Medical Center, Imaging Department, Petah Tiqwa (Israel); Jackson Memorial Hospital, Department of Radiology, Thoracic Section, Miami, FL (United States); Hershkovitz, I. [Tel Aviv University, Department of Anatomy and Anthropology, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv (Israel); Laron, Z. [Schneider Children' s Medical Center of Israel, Endocrinology and Diabetes Research Unit, Petah Tiqwa (Israel); Tel Aviv University, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv (Israel)

    2008-02-15

    To investigate abnormalities in the skeleton (with the exclusion of the skull, cervical spine, hands and feet) in patients with Laron syndrome, who have an inborn growth hormone resistance and congenital insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) deficiency. The study group was composed of 15 untreated patients with Laron syndrome (seven male and eight female) aged 21-68 years. Plain films of the axial and appendicular skeleton were evaluated retrospectively for abnormalities in structure and shape. The cortical width of the long bones was evaluated qualitatively and quantitatively (in the upper humerus and mid-femur), and the cortical index was calculated and compared with published references. Measurements were taken of the mid-anteroposterior and cranio-caudal diameters of the vertebral body and spinous process at L3, the interpedicular distance at L1 and L5, and the sacral slope. Thoracic and lumbar osteophytes were graded on a 5-point scale. Values were compared with a control group of 20 healthy persons matched for age. The skeleton appeared small in all patients. No signs of osteopenia were visible. The cortex of the long bones appeared thick in the upper limbs in 11 patients and in the lower limbs in four. Compared with the reference values, the cortical width was thicker than average in the humerus and thinner in the femur. The vertebral diameters at L3 and the interpedicular distances at L1 and L5 were significantly smaller in the patients than in the control subjects (P < 0.001); however, at L5 the canal was wider, relative to the vertebral body. The study group had a higher rate of anterior osteophytes in the lumbar spine than the controls had, and their osteophytes were also significantly larger. In the six patients for whom radiographs of the upper extremity in its entirety were available on one film, the ulna appeared to be rotated. In one 22-year-old man, multiple epiphyses were still open. Congenital IGF-1 deficiency leads to skeletal abnormalities

  3. Grain growth prediction based on data assimilation by implementing 4DVar on multi-phase-field model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Shin-Ichi; Nagao, Hiromichi; Kasuya, Tadashi; Inoue, Junya

    2017-01-01

    We propose a method to predict grain growth based on data assimilation by using a four-dimensional variational method (4DVar). When implemented on a multi-phase-field model, the proposed method allows us to calculate the predicted grain structures and uncertainties in them that depend on the quality and quantity of the observational data. We confirm through numerical tests involving synthetic data that the proposed method correctly reproduces the true phase-field assumed in advance. Furthermore, it successfully quantifies uncertainties in the predicted grain structures, where such uncertainty quantifications provide valuable information to optimize the experimental design.

  4. [Abnormal growth of spine in patients with adolescent idiopathic thoracic scoliosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Hongda; Liu, Zhen; Qiu, Yong; Zhu, Feng; Zhu, Zezhang; Zhang, Wen

    2014-05-01

    To investigate if the growth patterns of the spine and pelvis are consistent in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) patients with single thoracic curves. Forty-eight thoracic adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (T-AIS) female patients and 48 healthy age-matched adolescents were recruited consecutively between December 2011 and October 2012. Radiographic parameters including height of spine (HOS), length of spine (LOS), height of thoracic spine (HOT), length of thoracic spine (LOT), height of pelvis (HOP), width of pelvis (WOP) and width of thorax (WOT) were measured on the long-cassette posteroanterior standing radiographs. In addition, ratios including HOS/HOP, LOS/HOP, HOT/HOP, LOT/HOP, LOS/LOT, WOT/WOP were also calculated. Independent t-test was performed to compare the radiographic parameters and ratios between the two groups. Compared to the age-matched healthy adolescents, T-AIS patients had a significantly higher LOS and LOT (t = -2.364 and -1.495, P = 0.020 and 0.043) and smaller HOS and HOT (t = 2.060 and 3.359, P = 0.042 and 0.001). Yet, all of HOP, WOP and WOT showed no significant difference between T-AIS patients and healthy adolescents. Similarly, LOS/HOP and LOT/HOP were significantly higher in T-AIS patients as may be expected with an average LOS/HOP of 2.26 ± 0.14 in normal controls.In addition, LOS/LOT in normal controls had a trend of increase with age which was different from the stable LOS/LOT in T-AIS patients, indicating an increased growth of thoracic vertebra compared to lumbar vertebra. Compared to the age-matched healthy adolescents, T-AIS patients have an abnormal growth characteristics with longer spine. The growth of pelvis and thorax show no significant differences between T-AIS patients and healthy adolescents.

  5. Faceting of twin grain boundaries in polysilicon films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakhodkin, Nikolay; Rodionova, Tatyana [Department of Radiophysics, Kiev National Taras Shevchenko University (Ukraine); Kulish, Nikolay [Department of Physics, Kiev National Taras Shevchenko University (Ukraine)

    2010-02-15

    The faceting of grain boundaries (GB) under annealing in phosphorus-doped polysilicon films, produced by low-pressure chemical vapor deposition, has been investigated by transmission electron microscopy. It has been shown that the facet types and facet density depend on annealing temperature. It has been found that GB facets are generally parallel with close-packed planes in coincidence site lattice. A correlation between GB faceting and grain-growth mechanisms has been considered. It has been shown that faceting takes place both under normal and abnormal grain growth. It is revealed that twinning plays the key role for GB faceting under normal grain growth. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  6. Investigation of the instability and low water kefir grain growth during an industrial water kefir fermentation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laureys, David; Van Jean, Amandine; Dumont, Jean; De Vuyst, Luc

    2017-04-01

    A poorly performing industrial water kefir production process consisting of a first fermentation process, a rest period at low temperature, and a second fermentation process was characterized to elucidate the causes of its low water kefir grain growth and instability. The frozen-stored water kefir grain inoculum was thawed and reactivated during three consecutive prefermentations before the water kefir production process was started. Freezing and thawing damaged the water kefir grains irreversibly, as their structure did not restore during the prefermentations nor the production process. The viable counts of the lactic acid bacteria and yeasts on the water kefir grains and in the liquors were as expected, whereas those of the acetic acid bacteria were high, due to the aerobic fermentation conditions. Nevertheless, the fermentations progressed slowly, which was caused by excessive substrate concentrations resulting in a high osmotic stress. Lactobacillus nagelii, Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactobacillus hilgardii, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Bifidobacterium aquikefiri, Gluconobacter roseus/oxydans, Gluconobacter cerinus, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Zygotorulaspora florentina were the most prevalent microorganisms. Lb. hilgardii, the microorganism thought to be responsible for water kefir grain growth, was not found culture-dependently, which could explain the low water kefir grain growth of this industrial process.

  7. Growth and cell cycle abnormalities of fibroblasts from Tangier disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drobnik, W; Liebisch, G; Biederer, C; Tr mbach, B; Rogler, G; Müller, P; Schmitz, G

    1999-01-01

    We have investigated the abnormal proliferation and morphology of fibroblasts from patients with Tangier disease (TD), a high density lipoprotein (HDL) deficiency syndrome that is characterized by impairment of HDL3-mediated lipid efflux and Gi-protein-mediated signaling via phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC) and phospholipase D (PLD). TD fibroblasts displayed a 30% to 50% reduced in vitro growth rate and a 1.6-fold increased cell surface area. The response to different mitogens was diminished, and asynchronously growing TD fibroblasts showed 4.4+/-0.3% S-phase and 19.1+/-0.5% G2/M-phase cells compared with 9.7+/-0.6% and 7.8+/-0.5%, respectively, in controls. Monensin, but not brefeldin A, induced an S- and G2/M-phase distribution in control cells similar to that found in TD fibroblasts. This effect of monensin was accompanied by an increase of ceramide levels in controls, whereas TD fibroblasts already had a 2.5-fold increased basal ceramide concentration. Incubation of control cells with C2 ceramide and threo-1-phenyl-2-decanoylamino-3-morpholino-1-propanol (PDMP) mimicked the effect of monensin on the cell cycle. The inhibition of neither Gi protein function by pertussis toxin nor PLD by butanol resulted in a G2/M-phase arrest. Propranolol, known to increase phosphatidic acid levels, was ineffective in reversing the G2/M-phase arrest in TD fibroblasts. In addition, cDNA sequences and mRNA expression of the participants of PI-PLC or PLD signaling, ie, G-protein subunits alphai1, alphai2, and alphai3; phosphatidylinositol transfer proteins-alpha and -beta; and ADP ribosylation factors 1 and 3 were found to be normal. Thus, growth and cell cycle abnormalities in TD fibroblasts are likely to be related to impaired Golgi function and sphingolipid signaling rather than inoperative G-protein signal transduction. Because PDMP was also found to decrease HDL3-mediated lipid efflux in control but not TD fibroblasts, similar pathways seem to be involved

  8. Grain Diversity Effects on Banker Plant Growth and Parasitism by Aphidius colemani

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Travis McClure

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Green peach aphid (Myzus persicae Sulzer (Hemiptera: Aphididae is a serious greenhouse pest with a short generation time, parthenogenetic reproduction and a broad host range. Banker plant systems are becoming a more common form of biological control for this pest. This system consists of grain “banker plants” infested with R. padi, an alternative hosts for the parasitoid Aphidius colemani. Thus A. colemani can reproduce on the banker plant when M. persicae populations are low. This system can increase pest suppression; however, like other biological control tools, efficacy is inconsistent. One reason is because several different grain species have been used. Our studies determined if there were benefits to planting interspecific mixture banker plants, similar to when open agricultural systems use mixed cropping. Our study found that although banker plants grow larger when planted as mixtures this added plant growth does not increase in the number of aphids, or mummies an individual banker plant can sustain. Rye banker plants grew larger, and sustained more mummies than the other species we tested, but barley banker plants resulted in a similar number of aphids in a more condensed area. Ultimately, we did not see any differences in pest suppression between monoculture banker plants, mixture banker plants, or our augmentative release treatment. However, using banker plants resulted in more female parasitoids than the augmentative release, a benefit to using banker plant systems.

  9. Effects of seed geometry on the crystal growth and the magnetic properties of single grain REBCO bulk superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hwi Joo; Lee, Hee Gyoun [Korea Polytechnic University, Siheung (Korea, Republic of); Park, Soon Dong; Jun, Bung Hyack; Kim, Chan Joong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-09-15

    This study presents that the orientation and the geometry of seed affect on the growth behavior of melt processed single grain REBCO bulk superconductor and its magnetic properties. The effects of seed geometry have been investigated for thin 30mm x 30mm rectangular powder compacts. Single grain REBCO bulk superconductors have been grown successfully by a top seed melt growth method for 8-mm thick vertical thin REBCO slab. Asymmetric structures have been developed at the front surface and at the rear surface of the specimen. Higher magnetic properties have been obtained for the specimen that c-axis is normal to the specimen surface. The relationships between microstructure, grain growth and magnetic properties have been discussed.

  10. Self-similar mesostructure evolution of the growing mollusc shell reminiscent of thermodynamically driven grain growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayerlein, Bernd; Zaslansky, Paul; Dauphin, Yannicke; Rack, Alexander; Fratzl, Peter; Zlotnikov, Igor

    2014-12-01

    Significant progress has been made in understanding the interaction between mineral precursors and organic components leading to material formation and structuring in biomineralizing systems. The mesostructure of biological materials, such as the outer calcitic shell of molluscs, is characterized by many parameters and the question arises as to what extent they all are, or need to be, controlled biologically. Here, we analyse the three-dimensional structure of the calcite-based prismatic layer of Pinna nobilis, the giant Mediterranean fan mussel, using high-resolution synchrotron-based microtomography. We show that the evolution of the layer is statistically self-similar and, remarkably, its morphology and mesostructure can be fully predicted using classical materials science theories for normal grain growth. These findings are a fundamental step in understanding the constraints that dictate the shape of these biogenic minerals and shed light on how biological organisms make use of thermodynamics to generate complex morphologies.

  11. Growth behavior of fatigue cracks in ultrafine grained Cu smooth specimens with a small hole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Goto

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the growth mechanism of fatigue cracks in ultrafine grained copper, stresscontrolled fatigue tests of round-bar specimens with a small blind hole as a crack starter were conducted. The hole was drilled on the surface where an intersection between the shear plane of the final ECAP processing and the specimen surface makes an angle of 45° or 90° with respect to the loading axis. At a low stress (  a = 90 MPa, the direction of crack paths was nearly perpendicular to the loading direction regardless of the location of the hole. Profile of crack face was examined, showing the aspect ratio (b/a of b/a = 0.82. At a high stress (  a = 240 MPa, although the growth directions inclined 45° and 90° to the loading-axis were observed depending on the location of the drilling hole, crack faces in these cracks were extended along one set of maximum shear stress planes, corresponding to the final ECAP shear plane. The value of aspect ratios was b/a = 0.38 and 1.10 for the cracks with 45° and 90° inclined path directions, respectively. The role of deformation mode at the crack tip areas on crack growth behavior were discussed in terms of the mixed-mode stress intensity factor. The crack path formation at high stress amplitudes was affected by the in-plane shear-mode deformation at the crack tip.

  12. Congenital posteromedial bowing of the tibia: a retrospective analysis of growth abnormalities in the leg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Hitesh H; Doddabasappa, Siddesh N; Joseph, Benjamin

    2009-05-01

    We studied case records and radiographs of 20 children with congenital posteromedial bowing of the tibia (CPMBT) retrospectively to determine the pattern of correction of the bowing, the associated growth abnormalities of the tibia and fibula, and the role of surgical intervention in CPMBT. The magnitude of diaphyseal bowing in two planes and the physeal inclination were measured. Abnormalities of ossification of the distal tibial epiphysis and inclination of the distal articular surface if present were noted and shortening of the tibia was recorded. The rate of resolution of deformity was noted from sequential radiographs and expressed as percentage reduction per month of follow-up. At initial presentation the magnitude of deformity varied; the most severe posterior diaphyseal bow was 70 degrees whereas the most severe medial diaphyseal bow was 64 degrees. Two distinct mechanisms seem to be responsible for resolution of the deformity in CPMBT; one involves physeal realignment and the other involves diaphyseal remodeling. In the first year of life, rapid resolution of angulation was noted; the rate of resolution reduced significantly thereafter. In a proportion of children with CPMBT residual deformity may persist till over 4 years of age. Physeal realignment occurred at a faster rate than diaphyseal remodeling. The degree of shortening was related to the severity of bowing and shortening as great as 40% was noted in a patient. Wedging of the distal tibial epiphysis and fibular hypoplasia with valgus inclination of the distal tibial articular surface occur in some children with CPMBT. Eccentric ossification of the distal tibial epiphysis in early childhood may be a predictor of wedging of the distal tibial epiphysis later on. We recommend all the children with CPMBT to be followed up periodically till skeletal maturity, to identify cases with residual bowing, ankle deformity, muscle weakness, and limb length inequality as active surgical intervention may be needed

  13. The role of gallium sulfide in SrS:Ce grain growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, N.D. [Oak Ridge Inst. for Science and Education, TN (United States); Naman, A.; Jones, K.S.; Holloway, P.H. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Rice, P.M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Metals and Ceramics Div.

    1997-04-01

    Whereas efficient red (ZnS:Mn) and green (ZnS:Tb) phosphors are available for full-color flat-panel display technology, efficient blue phosphors are still under development. SrS:Ce is being investigated as a suitable material. As part of a larger study, annealed SrS:Ce films produced from sputter targets incorporating Ga{sub 2}S{sub 3} were found to be five times brighter than films produced from targets containing no Ga{sub 2}S{sub 3}. Consequently, the significance of added gallium sulfide to the morphology of SrS:Ce films during annealing is being investigated. Following deposition, plan view specimens of films were prepared for transmission electron microscopy by mechanical grinding, dimpling, and Ar{sup +} milling. Films were examined in a Philips CM12, and a JEOL 200CX. Additionally, EDS line scans were obtained in the scanning-transmission mode of a Philips CM200FEG, integrated with an EMiSPEC Vision acquisition system. The EDS line scans were defined as a series of 40 points along a line, spaced approximately 3.6 nm apart. The dwell time for EDS acquisition at each point was 10 sec. It was found that the addition of Ga{sub 2}S{sub 3} increases the brightness of SrS:Ce films by enhancing grain growth during annealing. Also being investigated is the possibility that Ga{sub 2}S{sub 3}, either as a sub-sulfide or as a source of Ga, is involved in a liquid-phase sintering mechanism, which would account for the increased grain growth observed after annealing.

  14. The Influence of Grain Structure on Intermetallic Compound Layer Growth Rates in Fe-Al Dissimilar Welds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lei; Robson, Joseph D.; Wang, Li; Prangnell, Philip B.

    2017-10-01

    The thickness of the intermetallic compound (IMC) layer that forms when aluminum is welded to steel is critical in determining the properties of the dissimilar joints. The IMC reaction layer typically consists of two phases (η and θ) and many attempts have been made to determine the apparent activation energy for its growth, an essential parameter in developing any predictive model for layer thickness. However, even with alloys of similar composition, there is no agreement of the correct value of this activation energy. In the present work, the IMC layer growth has been characterized in detail for AA6111 aluminum to DC04 steel couples under isothermal annealing conditions. The samples were initially lightly ultrasonically welded to produce a metallic bond, and the structure and thickness of the layer were then characterized in detail, including tracking the evolution of composition and grain size in the IMC phases. A model developed previously for Al-Mg dissimilar welds was adapted to predict the coupled growth of the two phases in the layer, whilst accounting explicitly for grain boundary and lattice diffusion, and considering the influence of grain growth. It has been shown that the intermetallic layer has a submicron grain size, and grain boundary diffusion as well as grain growth plays a critical role in determining the thickening rate for both phases. The model was used to demonstrate how this explains the wide scatter in the apparent activation energies previously reported. From this, process maps were developed that show the relative importance of each diffusion path to layer growth as a function of temperature and time.

  15. Growth, structure and firm dynamics in grain markets: the case of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper we consider the microeconomic evidence on the determinants of firm performance in Ethiopia, with a focus on grain traders. We analyse both internal and external factors, and the relative impacts of these factors on the performance of grain traders. Different economic indicators seem to suggest that grain ...

  16. A highly efficient 3D level-set grain growth algorithm tailored for ccNUMA architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mießen, C.; Velinov, N.; Gottstein, G.; Barrales-Mora, L. A.

    2017-12-01

    A highly efficient simulation model for 2D and 3D grain growth was developed based on the level-set method. The model introduces modern computational concepts to achieve excellent performance on parallel computer architectures. Strong scalability was measured on cache-coherent non-uniform memory access (ccNUMA) architectures. To achieve this, the proposed approach considers the application of local level-set functions at the grain level. Ideal and non-ideal grain growth was simulated in 3D with the objective to study the evolution of statistical representative volume elements in polycrystals. In addition, microstructure evolution in an anisotropic magnetic material affected by an external magnetic field was simulated.

  17. Screening effect during the growth of spheroidal grains vs deviations from Kolmogorov- Johnson-Mehl-Avrami equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Burbelko

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available To forccast rhc kinc~icso f phasc transformations which consist in nucleation and growth of rhc grains of a ncw phnsc, rhc wcll-knownKolmogorov-lohson-Mchl-Avrami (KJM A equation has becn used. It is gencr;llly known that in lhc case of pnrsllcl gr;cin prowlh indiffcrcnt phascs proceeding at difrcrcnl vclocirics. tbc rcsulis OF thc ralcularions arc burdcncd with an crror. 111 this study. applying rhcassumpfions of n stnist ical thcory or thc scrccncd grain growlh. an attcrnpt has bccn madc to cstimatc this crror ror thc casc or prowl11 ofthc sphcroidnl grains of two rypcs. Thc ohiaincd rcsulls indicate that thc vatuc of an crror in typical equations incrcsscs with iacrcasingdilrfercncc in the growth vclocity of thc particlcs of bath typcs.

  18. Abnormal Response of the Proliferation and Differentiation of Growth Plate Chondrocytes to Melatonin in Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, William Wei-Jun; Man, Gene Chi-Wai; Wong, Jack Ho; Ng, Tzi-Bun; Lee, Kwong-Man; Ng, Bobby Kin-Wah; Yeung, Hiu-Yan; Qiu, Yong; Cheng, Jack Chun-Yiu

    2014-01-01

    Abnormalities in the melatonin signaling pathway and the involvement of melatonin receptor MT2 have been reported in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). Whether these abnormalities were involved in the systemic abnormal skeletal growth in AIS during the peripubertal period remain unknown. In this cross-sectional case-control study, growth plate chondrocytes (GPCs) were cultured from twenty AIS and ten normal control subjects. Although the MT2 receptor was identified in GPCs from both AIS and controls, its mRNA expression was significantly lower in AIS patients than the controls. GPCs were cultured in the presence of either the vehicle or various concentrations of melatonin, with or without the selective MT2 melatonin receptor antagonist 4-P-PDOT (10 µM). Then the cell viability and the mRNA expression of collagen type X (COLX) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were assessed by MTT and qPCR, respectively. In the control GPCs, melatonin at the concentrations of 1, 100 nM and 10 µM significantly reduced the population of viable cells, and the mRNA level of COLX and ALP compared to the vehicle. Similar changes were not observed in the presence of 4-P-PDOT. Further, neither proliferation nor differentiation of GPCs from AIS patients was affected by the melatonin treatment. These findings support the presence of a functional abnormality of the melatonin signaling pathway in AIS GPCs, which might be associated with the abnormal endochondral ossification in AIS patients. PMID:25257530

  19. Grain Nucleation and Growth in Deformed NiTi Shape Memory Alloys: An In Situ TEM Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burow, J.; Frenzel, J.; Somsen, C.; Prokofiev, E.; Valiev, R.; Eggeler, G.

    2017-09-01

    The present study investigates the evolution of nanocrystalline (NC) and ultrafine-grained (UFG) microstructures in plastically deformed NiTi. Two deformed NiTi alloys were subjected to in situ annealing in a transmission electron microscope (TEM) at 400 and 550 °C: an amorphous material state produced by high-pressure torsion (HPT) and a mostly martensitic partly amorphous alloy produced by wire drawing. In situ annealing experiments were performed to characterize the microstructural evolution from the initial nonequilibrium states toward energetically more favorable microstructures. In general, the formation and evolution of nanocrystalline microstructures are governed by the nucleation of new grains and their subsequent growth. Austenite nuclei which form in HPT and wire-drawn microstructures have sizes close to 10 nm. Grain coarsening occurs in a sporadic, nonuniform manner and depends on the physical and chemical features of the local environment. The mobility of grain boundaries in NiTi is governed by the local interaction of each grain with its microstructural environment. Nanograin growth in thin TEM foils seems to follow similar kinetic laws to those in bulk microstructures. The present study demonstrates the strength of in situ TEM analysis and also highlights aspects which need to be considered when interpreting the results.

  20. Effect of different growth conditions on biomass increase in kefir grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzel-Seydim, Z; Kok-Tas, T; Ertekin-Filiz, B; Seydim, A C

    2011-03-01

    Kefir is a functional dairy product and the effects of kefir consumption on health have been well documented. Kefir grains have naturally high numbers of lactic acid bacteria and yeasts and are used in manufacturing kefir. The biomass of kefir grains slowly increases after successive fermentations. The effects of adding whey protein isolate, modified whey protein (MWP, fat replacer; Carbery Inc., Cork, Ireland), or inulin to milk and different atmospheric conditions (ambient or 6% CO(2)) during fermentation on the increase in biomass of kefir grains were investigated. Reconstituted milks (10% milk powder) enriched with whey protein isolate (2%), MWP (2%), and inulin (2%) were inoculated with kefir grains and fermented in ambient and 6% CO(2) incubators at 25°C until a final pH of 4.6 was reached. Biomass increments of kefir grains were determined weekly over 30 d. Lactic acid bacteria and yeast contents of kefir grains were also determined. The highest biomass increase (392%) was found in kefir grains grown in milk supplemented with whey protein isolate under ambient atmospheric conditions. Application of CO(2) did not provide a significant supporting effect on the biomass of kefir grains. Addition of MWP significantly accelerated the formation of kefir grain biomass (223%). The use of whey protein isolate, MWP, or inulin in milk did not cause any adverse effects on the microbial flora of kefir grains. Copyright © 2011 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. High temperature grain growth and oxidation of Fe-29Ni-17Co (Kovar{trademark}) alloy leads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephens, J.J.; Greulich, F.A.; Beavis, L.C.

    1993-12-31

    One important application for the Fe-29Ni-17Co (Kovar{trademark}) alloy in wire form is in brazed feed through assemblies which are integral parts of vacuum electronic devices. Since Cu metal brazes are performed at process temperatures of about 1100{degrees}C, there is opportunity for significant grain growth to occur during the brazing operation. Additional high temperature exposure includes decarburization of the Fe-29Ni-17Co alloy wire in wet hydrogen for 30 min. at 1000{degrees}C prior to the Cu brazing operation. Two approaches have been used to characterize grain growth in two lots of Fe-29Ni-17Co alloy: (1) a once-through processing study to study the effect of one-time-only device thermal processing on the resulting grain size, and (2) an isothermal grain growth study involving various times at 800--1100{degrees}C. The results of the once-through processing study indicate that acceptable grain sizes are obtained from both cold worked and mill-annealed wire lots following Cu brazing. The isothermal grain growth study indicates that the linear intercept distance for Fe-29Ni-17Co can be described with a power law function of time, and that thermal exposure must be controlled at temperatures in excess of 900{degrees}C in order to avoid excessive grain growth. A second study has characterized the oxidation kinetics of Fe-29Ni-17Co alloy wire in air at temperatures ranging from 550--700{degrees}C. This study indicates the parabolic growth law applies for this material, and between 550 and 700{degrees}C, oxidation in this alloy occurs at an activation energy of 27.9 kcal/mole. Other oxidation studies at higher temperatures ({ge}750{degrees}C) indicate an activation energy of 52.2 kcal/mole for oxidation of Fe-29Ni-17Co alloy at temperatures greater than 790{degrees}C. Quantitative point analyses of the oxide scale formed at 600{degrees}C suggest that a significant fraction of the scale is close to the stoichiometry of the Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-type oxide.

  2. Deformation-induced grain growth and twinning in nanocrystalline palladium thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron Kobler

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The microstructure and mechanical properties of nanocrystalline Pd films prepared by magnetron sputtering have been investigated as a function of strain. The films were deposited onto polyimide substrates and tested in tensile mode. In order to follow the deformation processes in the material, several samples were strained to defined straining states, up to a maximum engineering strain of 10%, and prepared for post-mortem analysis. The nanocrystalline structure was investigated by quantitative automated crystal orientation mapping (ACOM in a transmission electron microscope (TEM, identifying grain growth and twinning/detwinning resulting from dislocation activity as two of the mechanisms contributing to the macroscopic deformation. Depending on the initial twin density, the samples behaved differently. For low initial twin densities, an increasing twin density was found during straining. On the other hand, starting from a higher twin density, the twins were depleted with increasing strain. The findings from ACOM-TEM were confirmed by results from molecular dynamics (MD simulations and from conventional and in-situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction (CXRD, SXRD experiments.

  3. The effect of dopants on grain growth and PL in CZTS nanoparticle thin films for solar cell applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, Sara Lena Josefin; Crovetto, Andrea; Hansen, Ole

    uniform grain growth within the deposited absorber layer. By including Na in the nanoparticle ink, micron-sized grains throughout the whole absorber are achieved after annealing in a sulfur atmosphere at 600°C. The absorber layer appeared to be of full density, and no closed porosity could be detected......- and environmentally-friendly chloride salts can be directly dissolved in controllable amounts. This further circumvents the need for later incorporation of dopants, or a ligand-exchange step to functionalize the surface of the nanoparticles. In addition, the homogeneous distribution of additives in the ink allows....... In addition, the photoluminescence signal increased by a factor of 200 after Na-inclusion. Without Na, the grains were very difficult to sinter, the film was porous, and the photoluminescence was low. This suggests that including Na reduces interface recombination in CZTS nanoparticle absorber layers...

  4. On the growth mechanism of multicrystalline silicon ingots with small grains fabricated using single-layer silicon beads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muramatsu, Tetsurou; Takahashi, Isao; Anandha Babu, G.; Usami, Noritaka

    2017-07-01

    The growth mechanism of multicrystalline silicon ingots in directional solidification using single-layer silicon beads (SLSB) coated with Si3N4 was investigated. The grains in the SLSB-seeded ingot were smaller than those in a nonseeded ingot, but still larger than those in a polycrystalline Si (poly-Si)-seeded ingot. The dislocation density in the SLSB-seeded ingot was lower than that in the nonseeded ingot, but higher than that in the poly-Si-seeded ingot. The minority carrier lifetime mapping showed that a higher production yield was obtained in the SLSB-seeded ingot than in the poly-Si-seeded ingot. Grain refinement by the SLSB-seeding method was associated with the increase in nucleation rate. The increase in the surface area of the bottom of the crucible cannot quantitatively explain the grain refinement. Therefore, it is considered that SLSB may supply many nucleation sites because of their uneven structure.

  5. Towards the Truly Predictive 3D Modeling of Recrystallization and Grain Growth in Advanced Technical Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-11

    e1591–e1596. 14. A. E. Lobkovsky, A. Karma , M. I. Mendelev, M. Haataja, D. J. Srolovitz, Grain shape, grain boundary mobility and the Herring...2009 32. M. Asta, C. Beckermann, A. Karma , W. Kurz, R. Napolitano, M. Plapp, G. Purdy, M. Rappaz, R. Trivedi Solidification microstructures and

  6. Replacement of mineral fertilizers with anaerobically digested pig slurry in paddy fields: assessment of plant growth and grain quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jin; Wang, Minyan; Cao, Yucheng; Liang, Peng; Wu, Shengchun; Leung, Anna Oi Wah; Christie, Peter

    2017-04-01

    Rice cultivation requires large quantities of irrigation water and mineral fertilizers. This provides an opportunity for the recycling of the plant nutrients in anaerobically digested pig slurry, large amounts of which are generated in Chinese pig farms. Hence, to promote the sustainable development of livestock and poultry breeding and rice production, a micro-plot field experiment was carried out to assess whether or not slurry can replace mineral fertilizers in rice paddy production in terms of plant tillering, grain quality, and yields. The results indicate that the total N content of the slurry can serve as an alternative source of N when compared to the control (450 kg ha-1 commercial compound fertilizer (N/P2O5/K2O = 15:15:15) as basal fertilizer, 300 kg ha-1 urea (N% = 46), and 150 kg ha-1 commercial compound fertilizer as top-dressed fertilizer). No negative effects on plant growth or grain yield were observed, although there may be a potential risk due to an increase in grain Cu concentration. The amylose content and gel consistency of the rice grains were enhanced significantly by the use of slurry as a basal fertilizer, but the grain protein and total amino acid contents decreased. The results suggest that anaerobically digested pig slurry can replace mineral fertilizers in rice production when applied as a basal dressing together with urea and commercial compound fertilizer as top-dressed fertilizers.

  7. Growth of large-size-two-dimensional crystalline pentacene grains for high performance organic thin film transistors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuan Du

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available New approach is presented for growth of pentacene crystalline thin film with large grain size. Modification of dielectric surfaces using a monolayer of small molecule results in the formation of pentacene thin films with well ordered large crystalline domain structures. This suggests that pentacene molecules may have significantly large diffusion constant on the modified surface. An average hole mobility about 1.52 cm2/Vs of pentacene based organic thin film transistors (OTFTs is achieved with good reproducibility.

  8. Analysis Of The Austenite Grain Growth In Low-Alloy Boron Steel With High Resistance To Abrasive Wear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Białobrzeska B.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Today low-alloy steels with boron achieve high resistance to abrasive wear and high strength. These features are obtained by using advanced technology of manufacturing. This makes boron steels increasingly popular and their application more diverse. Application of these steels can extend the lifetime of very expensive machine construction in many industries such as mining, the automotive, and agriculture industries. An interesting subgroup of these materials is steel with boron intended for heat treatment. These steels are supplied by the manufacturer after cold or hot rolling so that it is possible for them to be heat treated in a suitable manner by the purchaser for its specific application. Very important factor that determines the mechanical properties of final product is austenite grain growth occurring during hot working process such us quenching or hot rolling. Investigation of the effect of heating temperature and holding time on the austenite grain size is necessary to understand the growth behavior under different conditions. This article presents the result of investigation of austenite grain growth in selected low-allow boron steel with high resistance to abrasive wear and attempts to describe the influence of chemical composition on this process.

  9. Effect of foliar application of plant growth regulators on nitrous oxide (N2O) emission and grain yield in wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordoloi, Nirmali; Baruah, Kushal Kumar

    2017-04-01

    Agricultural soils are the major source of global nitrous oxide (N2O) emission, and more than two thirds of N2O emission originate from soil. Recent studies have identified that green plants contribute to transport of N2O to the atmosphere. We investigated the effects of foliar application of plant growth regulators (PGRs) and growth stimulating chemicals on N2O emission and wheat grain yield for 2 years. The PGRs' abscisic acid (ABA) and cytozyme (20 mg L(-1)), kinetin (10 and 20 mg L(-1)) and wet tea extract (1:20 w/w) along with distilled water as control were sprayed on wheat canopy at the tillering and panicle initiation stages. Our results showed that cytozyme and tea extract enhanced the plant dry biomass over control. Kinetin (10 and 20 mg L(-1)) and cytozyme increased the plant photosynthetic rate and photosynthate partitioning towards the developing grain. ABA (20 mg L(-1)) and kinetin (10 and 20 mg L(-1)) reduced the N2O emission over control primarily through regulation of leaf growth, stomatal density and xylem vessel size. Leaf area, stomatal density and xylem vessel size were found to be associated with N2O transport and emission. We concluded that use of ABA and kinetin can reduce N2O emissions without any impact on wheat grain yield.

  10. Influence of water activity and temperature on growth and fumonisin production by Fusarium proliferatum strains on irradiated wheat grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cendoya, Eugenia; Monge, María Del Pilar; Chiacchiera, Stella Maris; Farnochi, María Cecilia; Ramirez, María Laura

    2018-02-02

    Wheat is the most important cereal consumed by the Argentine population. In previous studies performed in durum and common wheat grains in this country it has been observed fumonisin contamination as well as high incidence of Fusarium proliferatum. Fumonisins are toxic fungal metabolites, and consumption of fumonisin-contaminated maize has been epidemiologically associated with oesophageal cancer and neural tube defects in some human populations. Using irradiated wheat-grains, the effects of abiotic factors, temperature (15, 25, and 30°C) and water activity (a W ; 0.995, 0.98, 0.96, 0.94, 0.92, and 0.88), on mycelial growth and fumonisin biosynthesis were compared for three F. proliferatum strains isolated from wheat grains in Argentina. Although all isolates showed similar profiles of growth, the fumonisin production profiles were slightly different. Maximum growth rates were obtained at the highest a W (0.995) and 25°C, with growth decreasing as the a W of the medium was reduced. Maximum amounts of total fumonisins (FB 1 , FB 2 and FB 3 ) were produced at 0.995 a W and 15°C for 2 strains, and at 25°C and 0.995 a W for the third one. Fumonisins concentrations varied considerably depending on the a W and temperature interactions assayed. Studied strains showed different fumonisin production profiles. Two-dimensional profiles of a W by temperature interactions were developed from these data to identify areas where conditions indicate a significant risk of fumonisins accumulation on wheat. As a result, temperature and a W conditions that resulted in fumonisins production are those found during wheat grain development (especially milk and dough stages) in the field. This is the first study made using irradiated wheat grains and provides useful baseline data on conditions representing a low or a high risk for fumonisins contamination of wheat grains which is of concern because this cereal is destined mainly for human consumption. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All

  11. Global gene expression profiling related to temperature-sensitive growth abnormalities in interspecific crosses between tetraploid wheat and Aegilops tauschii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Ryusuke; Iehisa, Julio Cesar Masaru; Sakaguchi, Kouhei; Ohno, Ryoko; Yoshida, Kentaro; Takumi, Shigeo

    2017-01-01

    Triploid wheat hybrids between tetraploid wheat and Aegilops tauschii sometimes show abnormal growth phenotypes, and the growth abnormalities inhibit generation of wheat synthetic hexaploids. In type II necrosis, one of the growth abnormalities, necrotic cell death accompanied by marked growth repression occurs only under low temperature conditions. At normal temperature, the type II necrosis lines show grass-clump dwarfism with no necrotic symptoms, excess tillers, severe dwarfism and delayed flowering. Here, we report comparative expression analyses to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of the temperature-dependent phenotypic plasticity in the triploid wheat hybrids. We compared gene and small RNA expression profiles in crown tissues to characterize the temperature-dependent phenotypic plasticity. No up-regulation of defense-related genes was observed under the normal temperature, and down-regulation of wheat APETALA1-like MADS-box genes, considered to act as flowering promoters, was found in the grass-clump dwarf lines. Some microRNAs, including miR156, were up-regulated, whereas the levels of transcripts of the miR156 target genes SPLs, known to inhibit tiller and branch number, were reduced in crown tissues of the grass-clump dwarf lines at the normal temperature. Unusual expression of the miR156/SPLs module could explain the grass-clump dwarf phenotype. Dramatic alteration of gene expression profiles, including miRNA levels, in crown tissues is associated with the temperature-dependent phenotypic plasticity in type II necrosis/grass-clump dwarf wheat hybrids.

  12. Effects of forage feeding versus grain feeding on the growth performance and meat quality of Yangzhou geese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Y; Li, Y; Zheng, S; Dai, W; Shen, X; Zhang, Y; Zhao, W; Chang, G; Xu, Q; Chen, G

    2017-08-01

    1. Highly palatable and nutritious meat products can be produced through dietary interventions. Previous studies have shown that forage feeding has a significant impact on the growth performance and nutrition of cattle in various regions, but whether the same effects can be induced in geese remains unclear. 2. Three hundred and sixty Yangzhou goslings were divided according to body weight at 29 d old, assigned to one of 4 treatments and raised in separate pens. The treatments applied were (A) grazing, (B) grazing, grain supplemental diet (64 to 70 d), (C) grazing, grain supplemental diet and (D) confined. 3. Eviscerated carcass yield was lower in the grazing treatment. Protein content and muscle collagen in both the breast and thigh muscles were significantly higher in the grazing treatment than the confined, while fat content exhibited the opposite tendency. Those fed on grass and supplementary grain had a higher Mg and Cu content in breast muscle. 4. Geese will grow to their full potential when they are allowed to consume grass from pasture supplemented with grain, protein, collagen, Mg and Cu content was greater to a degree, which suggests this feeding regime is an ideal model for goose production.

  13. Experimental investigation of grain size effect on fatigue crack growth rate in turbine disc superalloy GH4169 under different temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Dianyin [School of Energy and Power Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Aero-Engine, Beijing 100191 (China); Beijing Key Laboratory of Aero-Engine Structure and Strength, Beijing 100191 (China); Mao, Jianxing [School of Energy and Power Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Song, Jun, E-mail: jun.song2@mcgill.ca [Mining and Materials Engineering, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada H3A 0C5 (Canada); Meng, Fanchao [Mining and Materials Engineering, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada H3A 0C5 (Canada); Shan, Xiaoming [China Aviation Powerplant Research Institute, Zhuzhou 412002 (China); Wang, Rongqiao, E-mail: wangrq@buaa.edu.cn [School of Energy and Power Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Aero-Engine, Beijing 100191 (China); Beijing Key Laboratory of Aero-Engine Structure and Strength, Beijing 100191 (China)

    2016-07-04

    Systematic experiments for fatigue crack growth (FCG) rate on compact tension (CT) specimens have been conducted in nickel-based superalloy GH4169 at a broad range of temperatures with a frequency of 10 Hz and a stress ratio of 0.1. In order to investigate the crack closure behavior, FCG experiments at stress ratio of 0.5 were also performed by comparing with the results at stress ration of 0.1. CT specimens were cut from three typical locations of an actual forged turbine disc to investigate the effect of grain size on the FCG behaviors. The grain size distribution, precipitates and fracture surface characteristics at different locations of the turbine disc were examined through optical microscope, transmission electron microscope (TEM) and scanning electronic microscope (SEM) analyses. Digital image correlation (DIC), optical interferometry and oxide film measurements were carried out to investigate the presence and inducement of the crack closure. Then a modified FCG model, with a distribution factor that evaluates the scattering in the FCG rate, was formulated to describe the dependence of FCG rate on grain size. Finally, the possible microscopic mechanisms to explain the grain size effect on the FCG behaviors based on crack deflection and blockage, and the crack closure inducements involving plasticity and oxide were discussed in this study.

  14. Using pollen grains as novel hydrophilic solid-phase extraction sorbents for the simultaneous determination of 16 plant growth regulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Qian; Wu, Jian-Hong; Yu, Qiong-Wei; Feng, Yu-Qi

    2014-11-07

    In this article, pollen grains were for the first time used as a hydrophilic solid-phase extraction (HILIC-SPE) sorbent for the determination of 16 plant growth regulators (PGRs) in fruits and vegetables. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) and nitrogen sorption porosimetry (NSP) were used to investigate the chemical structure and the surface properties of the pollen grains. Pollen grains exhibited an excellent adsorption capacity for some polar compounds due to their particular functional groups. Several parameters influencing extraction performance were investigated. A green and simple HILIC-SPE-method using pollen grain cartridge for purification of fruit and vegetable extractions, followed by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) was established. Good linear relationships were obtained for 16 PGRs with correlation coefficients (R) above 0.9980. The limits of detection (LODs) of 16 PGRs in cucumber were in the range of 0.01-1.10 μg · kg(-1). Reproducibility of the method was evaluated by intra-day and inter-day precisions with relative standard deviations (RSDs), which were less than 14.4%. We successfully applied this methodology to analyze 16 PGRs in 8 different kinds of fruits and vegetables. The recoveries from samples spiked with 16 PGRs were from 80.5% to 119.2%, with relative standard deviations less than 15.0%. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. [Influence of drought on leaf photosynthetic capacity and root growth of soybeans at grain filling stage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Shu-jin; Yang, Kai-min; Huo, Jin; Zhou, Yong-hang; Wang, Yan-ping; Li, Gui-quan

    2015-05-01

    A drought-resistant soybean cultivar Jinda 70 and a drought-sensitive soybean cultivar Jindou 26 were taken as test materials. At the grain filling stage, the cultivars were subject to three water treatments including sufficient water supply, light drought stress, and severe drought stress by using pot experiments for research on influence of drought on leaf photosynthetic capacity and root growth of soybeans. The results showed that as the degree of drought stress was aggravated, all of the indices including leaf area, chlorophyll content, net photosynthetic rates (Pn), stomatal conductance (g(s)), transpiration rate (Tr), intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci), plant mass, plant height, seed yield, and harvest index in the two cultivars declined. The root length and root mass increased under light drought stress, and decreased under severe drought stress. Root-shoot ratio ascended as the degree of drought stress was aggravated. Under severe drought stress, the increase of root-shoot ratio of the drought-resistant soybean cultivar Jinda 70 was up to 135.7%, which was higher than the that (116.7%) of the drought-sensitive soybean cultivar Jindou 26. Simultaneously, leaf area and chlorophyll content in Jinda 70 were respectively 69.3% and 85.5% of those in the control, which were better than those of Jindou 26. g(s) and Pn of Jinda 70 respectively declined 67.9% and 77.9%, but still lower than those of Jindou 26. Therefore, the decline range of harvest index of Jinda 70 was 43.8%, which was lower than the range of 78.8% of Jindou 26. The Biplot revealed that under different dry treatments, there were significant positive correlations among the six indexes including leaf area, chlorophyll content, Pn, g(s), Tr, and Ci of the two cultivars. There were also significant positive correlations among the six indices including plant mass, plant height, root length, root mass, seed yield, and harvest index. Root-shoot ratio only had significant positive correlation with root

  16. Growth, nutrient accumulation in leaves and grain yield of super early genotypes of common bean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Stephan Nascente

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available There is a lack of researches that evaluate the development and nutrient accumulation in super early genotypes of common bean for the elaboration of fertilization programs. This study aimed at characterizing the development; N, P, K, Ca and Mg accumulation by leaves; grain yield; and yield components of super early genotypes of common bean. Field experiments were conducted in a randomized blocks design, with four replications. The treatments consisted of the IPR Colibri (control, CNFC 15873, CNFC 15874 and CNFC 15875 genotypes. Plants were sampled throughout the common bean development, being divided into leaves, stems and pods. After determining the dry matter, the contents of N, P, K, Ca and Mg accumulated in leaves were estimated. At harvesting, the grain yield and yield components were evaluated. The biomass accumulation in stems and leaves occurred until the flowering stage, and then it started in the pods until harvesting. The genotypes that absorbed more nitrogen and phosphorus had a higher grain yield. The average growing season of super early genotypes was 70 days (winter and 63 days (summer. CNFC 15874 was the most productive genotype in the winter, with grain yield similar to the IPR Colibri cultivar (control. In the summer, CNFC 15873 and CNFC 15875 achieved grain yield similar to the IPR Colibri cultivar.

  17. Establishment of growth medium and quantification of pollen grains of olive cultivars in Brazil's subtropical areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Fernando de Oliveira da Silva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Pollen grain germination in vitro indicates viability and consequently provides information related to fruit set. It also assists in the development of hybrids. Along with a suitable species, a standard culture medium is essential for evaluating pollen viability. It should contain a gelling agent consisting of carbohydrates and enhancer elements as well as have the correct pH, temperature, and incubation time. The objective of this study was to optimise the culture medium, determine the pollen germination capacity, and quantify the number of pollen grains per flower of certain olive tree cultivars. A basic sequential culture medium for pollen grain germination was determined, always utilizing the best result from the previous experiment to continue the sequence.The factorial treatment arrangement was: 1 agar versus boric acid; 2 pH versus sucrose; 3 calcium nitrate versus magnesium sulfate. After determining the culture medium components, two experiments were conducted evaluating temperature and incubation time. Another experiment evaluated both the germination percentage and the number of flower pollen grains of 28 cultivars. The culture medium should be composed of 4 g∙L-1 of agar, 90 g∙L-1 of sucrose, and 400 mg∙L-1 of boric acid with a pH adjusted to 5.79 and an incubation time of 60 h at 28 °C. The Manzanilla 215 cultivar had the highest germination rate while Ascolano 315 presented the highest number of pollen grains per flower.

  18. Grain growth behavior of Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4} pebbles fabricated by agar method for tritium breeder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiang, Maoqiao [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, 30 Xueyuan Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100083 (China); Zhang, Yingchun, E-mail: zycustb@126.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, 30 Xueyuan Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100083 (China); Zhang, Yun; Wang, Chaofu; Liu, Wei [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, 30 Xueyuan Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100083 (China); Yu, Yonghong [Department of Physics, Renmin University of China, Beijing, 100872 (China)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • Grain sizes of Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4} were adjusted by different silicon sources. • Grain growth exponent of Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4} was about 3. • Grain growth activation energy of Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4} was about 125.54 kJ/mol. • Grain growth of Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4} pebble was controlled by vapor transport. - Abstract: The Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4} tritium breeding pebbles will be filled in the blanket and used for 2 years or more at high temperatures, which would increase the grain size and affect tritium release. Hence, grain sizes of the Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4} pebbles fabricated by agar method were investigated, and two kinds of different silicon sources (crystal and amorphous SiO{sub 2}) with different particle sizes were used. The particle size of SiO{sub 2} could affect grain size and density of the Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4} pebble. And the isothermal sintering was carried out to study the grain growth kinetics of Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4}. The grain growth exponent (n) and the activation energy (Q) were calculated by the phenomenological kinetic equation. The calculated n values were 4.10, 3.98, 3.34 and 2.96, and corresponding Q values were 152.15, 147.99, 125.54 and 110.58 kJ/mol, respectively. At the higher sintering temperatures (950 and 1000 °C), the grain growth of Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4} was controlled by vapor transport.

  19. Voice abnormality in adults with congenital and adult-acquired growth hormone deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Christopher; Shalet, Stephen; Manickam, Kathiresan; Willard, Terry; Maheshwari, Hiralal; Baumann, Gerhard

    2005-07-01

    Adult males with congenital, untreated, severe GH deficiency (GHD) due to genetic GHRH receptor deficiency exhibit distinctive, high-pitched, and raspy voice characteristics. To determine the physical underpinning of this phenomenon, we performed voice recordings, translarynx impedance measurements, spectral analysis, and estimates of spectral complexity [approximate entropy (ApEn)] in four affected men. Results were compared with those obtained in four men with untreated adult-onset GHD and a normal male population. Congenital GHD subjects had a high-pitched voice with a fundamental frequency typical of normal females (174-266 Hz). Their frequency spectra were characterized by abnormal harmonics, with reversal/interruption of the normal amplitude decay among higher-order harmonics, findings consistent with a creaky quality of the voice. Patients with adult-onset GHD, acquired at ages 31, 38, and 40 yr, had a normal male pitch (fundamental frequency, 117-154 Hz) but pathologically low ApEn values, corresponding to a breathy quality of the voice and suggesting abnormal vocal fold function. A fourth patient who acquired GHD at age 22 yr had a pitch intermediate between male and female, high ApEn, and a spectral pattern similar to the congenital GHD patients. This study demonstrates an effect of GH on laryngeal size and vocal fold compliance that results in a high pitch and disordered spectral quality. The time of onset of GHD determines which type of abnormality predominates.

  20. Effects of Genotype and Growth Temperature on the Contents of Tannin, Phytate and In Vitro Iron Availability of Sorghum Grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Gangcheng; Johnson, Stuart K.; Bornman, Janet F.; Bennett, Sarita J.; Singh, Vijaya; Simic, Azra; Fang, Zhongxiang

    2016-01-01

    Background It has been predicted that the global temperature will rise in the future, which means crops including sorghum will likely be grown under higher temperatures, and consequently may affect the nutritional properties. Methods The effects of two growth temperatures (OT, day/night 32/21°C; HT 38/21°C) on tannin, phytate, mineral, and in vitro iron availability of raw and cooked grains (as porridge) of six sorghum genotypes were investigated. Results Tannin content significantly decreased across all sorghum genotypes under high growth temperature (P ≤0.05), while the phytate and mineral contents maintained the same level, increased or decreased significantly, depending on the genotype. The in vitro iron availability in most sorghum genotypes was also significantly reduced under high temperature, except for Ai4, which showed a pronounced increase (P ≤0.05). The cooking process significantly reduced tannin content in all sorghum genotypes (P ≤0.05), while the phytate content and in vitro iron availability were not significantly affected. Conclusions This research provides some new information on sorghum grain nutritional properties when grown under predicted future higher temperatures, which could be important for humans where sorghum grains are consumed as staple food. PMID:26859483

  1. Room-Temperature Curing and Grain Growth at High Humidity in Conductive Adhesives with Ultra-Low Silver Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettersen, Sigurd R.; Redford, Keith; Njagi, John; Kristiansen, Helge; Helland, Susanne; Kalland, Erik; Goia, Dan V.; Zhang, Zhiliang; He, Jianying

    2017-07-01

    Isotropic conductive adhesives (ICAs) are alternatives to metallic solders as interconnects in solar modules and electronic devices, but normally require silver contents >25 vol.% and elevated curing temperatures to achieve reasonable conductivity. In this work, ICAs are prepared with a silver content of 1.0 vol.% by using polymer spheres coated with nanograined silver thin films as filler particles. In contrast to conventional ICAs, there are no organic lubricants on the silver surfaces to obstruct the formation of metallic contacts, and conductivity is achieved even when the adhesive is cured at room temperature. When exposed to long-term storage at 85°C and 85% relative humidity, the silver films undergo significant grain growth, evidenced by field-emission scanning electron microscopy observation of ion-milled cross-sections and x-ray diffraction. This has a positive effect on the electrical conductivity of the ICA through the widening of metallic contacts and decreased scattering of electrons at grain boundaries, and is explained by an electrochemical Ostwald ripening process. The effects of decoupling heat and humidity is investigated by storage at either 85°C or immersion in water. It is shown that the level of grain growth during the various post-curing treatments is dependent on the initial curing temperature.

  2. High day- and night-time temperatures affect grain growth dynamics in contrasting rice genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Wanju; Yin, Xinyou; Struik, Paul C; Solis, Celymar; Xie, Fangming; Schmidt, Ralf C; Huang, Min; Zou, Yingbin; Ye, Changrong; Jagadish, S V Krishna

    2017-11-02

    Rice grain yield and quality are predicted to be highly vulnerable to global warming. Five genotypes including heat-tolerant and susceptible checks, a heat-tolerant near-isogenic line and two hybrids were exposed to control (31 °C/23 °C, day/night), high night-time temperature (HNT; 31 °C/30 °C), high day-time temperature (HDT; 38 °C/23 °C) and high day- and night-time temperature (HNDT; 38 °C/30 °C) treatments for 20 consecutive days during the grain-filling stage. Grain-filling dynamics, starch metabolism enzymes, temporal starch accumulation patterns and the process of chalk formation were quantified. Compensation between the rate and duration of grain filling minimized the impact of HNT, but irreversible impacts on seed-set, grain filling and ultimately grain weight were recorded with HDT and HNDT. Scanning electron microscopy demonstrated irregular and smaller starch granule formation affecting amyloplast build-up with HDT and HNDT, while a quicker but normal amylopast build-up was recorded with HNT. Our findings revealed temporal variation in the starch metabolism enzymes in all three stress treatments. Changes in the enzymatic activity did not derail starch accumulation under HNT when assimilates were sufficiently available, while both sucrose supply and the conversion of sucrose into starch were affected by HDT and HNDT. The findings indicate differential mechanisms leading to high day and high night temperature stress-induced loss in yield and quality. Additional genetic improvement is needed to sustain rice productivity and quality under future climates. © Society for Experimental Biology 2017.

  3. Roles of plant growth regulators on yield, grain qualities and antioxidant enzyme activities in super hybrid rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Shenggang; Rasul, Fahd; Li, Wu; Tian, Hua; Mo, Zhaowen; Duan, Meiyang; Tang, Xiangru

    2013-04-16

    Plant growth regulators play important roles in plant growth and development, but little is known about roles of plant growth regulators in yield, grain qualities and antioxidant enzyme activities in super hybrid rice. In this study, gibberellic acid(GA3), paclobutrazol (PBZ), 6-Benzylaminopurine(6-BA) treatments and distilled water (control) were sprayed to two hybrid rice cultivars (Peizataifeng and Huayou 86) at the heading stage in the field experiments in both early and late season in 2007. Treatments were arranged in a split-plot design with four replications. Cultivars treatments with two newly developed super hybrid rice Peizataifeng and Huayou86 were the main plots and plant growth regulators treatments were the subplots. Subplot treatments included (1) plots sprayed with distilled water(CK), (2) plots sprayed with 20 mg L-1 GA3 prepared using 95% ethanol as surfactant(GA3), (3) plots sprayed with 50 mg L-1 PBZ(PBZ), (4) plots sprayed with 30 mg L-1 6-BA(6-BA). Spraying PBZ with 50 mg L-1 or 6-BA with 30 mg L-1 at the heading stage could increase the number of spikelets per panicle, seed setting rate and grain yields in Peizataifeng and Huayou86 in both seasons. PBZ treatment also significantly improved head rice rate and amylose content in Peizataifeng and Huayou86 in early season. Furthermore, it was observed that spraying PBZ or 6-BA could increase super oxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) activities, decrease accumulation of malendialdehyde (MDA) in flag leaves at the late growth stage. Application of PBZ or 6-BA partially alleviated the detrimental effects of rice senescence by modulating the activity of enzymatic antioxidants, and improving antioxidant system, which helped in sustaining plant growth. Therefore, spraying PBZ with 50 mg L-1 or 6-BA with 30 mg L-1 at the heading stage could increase grain yields and improve grain qualities in the two super hybrid rice.

  4. Drought priming at vegetative growth stages improves tolerance to drought and heat stresses occurring during grain filling in spring wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Xiao; Vignjevic, Marija; Liu, Fulai

    2015-01-01

    Plants of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Vinjett) were exposed to moderate water deficit at the vegetative growth stages six-leaf and/or stem elongation to investigate drought priming effects on tolerance to drought and heat stress events occurring during the grain filling stage....... Comparedwith the non-primed plants, drought priming could alleviate photo-inhibition in flag leaves caused by drought and heat stress episodes during grain filling. In the primed plants, drought stress inhibited photosynthesis mainly through decrease of maximum photosynthetic electron transport rate, while...... decrease of the carboxylation efficiency limited photosynthesis under heat stress. The higher saturated net photosynthetic rate of flag leaves coincidedwith the lowered nonphotochemical quenching rates in the twice-primed plants under drought stress and in the primed plants during stem elongation under...

  5. DOES GROWTH-HORMONE TREATMENT OF PATIENTS WITH TURNERS SYNDROME CAUSE AN ABNORMAL BODY SHAPE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    GERVER, WJM; DRAYER, NM; VANES, A

    The effect of human growth hormone on the body shape of 51 patients with Turner's syndrome (aged 6-19 years) was evaluated. Biosynthetic growth hormone was given in a dose of 24 IU/m2 body surface/week for two years. Karyotype analysis on peripheral blood was performed. Patients older than 12 years

  6. Grain growth kinetics of textured-BaTiO3 ceramics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    based ceramics (Kimura and. Yoshida 2006; Shoji et al 2009), which properly attributed to the round matrix grain morphology of BT particles. Figure 5(a–f) shows XRD patterns of BT-textured ce- ramics sintered at 1250 °C for different soaking times.

  7. High day- and night-time temperatures affect grain growth dynamics in contrasting rice genotypes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shi, Wanju; Yin, Xinyou; Struik, Paul C.; Solis, Celymar; Xie, Fangming; Schmidt, Ralf C.; Huang, Min; Zou, Yingbin; Ye, Changrong; Jagadish, S.V.K.

    2017-01-01

    Rice grain yield and quality are predicted to be highly vulnerable to global warming. Five genotypes including heat-tolerant and susceptible checks, a heat-tolerant near-isogenic line and two hybrids were exposed to control (31 °C/23 °C, day/night), high night-time temperature (HNT; 31 °C/30 °C),

  8. Topological defects in two-dimensional orientation-field models for grain growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korbuly, Bálint; Plapp, Mathis; Henry, Hervé; Warren, James A.; Gránásy, László; Pusztai, Tamás

    2017-11-01

    Standard two-dimensional orientation-field-based phase-field models rely on a continuous scalar field to represent crystallographic orientation. The corresponding order parameter space is the unit circle, which is not simply connected. This topological property has important consequences for the resulting multigrain structures: (i) trijunctions may be singular; (ii) for each pair of grains there exist two different grain boundary solutions that cannot continuously transform to one another; (iii) if both solutions appear along a grain boundary, a topologically stable, singular point defect must exist between them. While (i) can be interpreted in the classical picture of grain boundaries, (ii) and therefore (iii) cannot. In addition, singularities cause difficulties, such as lattice pinning in numerical simulations. To overcome these problems, we propose two formulations of the model. The first is based on a three-component unit vector field, while in the second we utilize a two-component vector field with an additional potential. In both cases, the additional degree of freedom introduced makes the order parameter space simply connected, which removes the topological stability of these defects.

  9. Modeling the effect of neighboring grains on twin growth in HCP polycrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, M. Arul; Beyerlein, I. J.; Lebensohn, R. A.; Tomé, C. N.

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, we study the dependence of neighboring grain orientation on the local stress state around a deformation twin in a hexagonal close packed (HCP) crystal and its effects on the resistance against twin thickening. We use a recently developed, full-field elasto-visco-plastic formulation based on fast Fourier transforms that account for the twinning shear transformation imposed by the twin lamella. The study is applied to Mg, Zr and Ti, since these HCP metals tend to deform by activation of different types of slip modes. The analysis shows that the local stress along the twin boundary are strongly controlled by the relative orientation of the easiest deformation modes in the neighboring grain with respect to the twin lamella in the parent grain. A geometric expression that captures this parent-neighbor relationship is proposed and incorporated into a larger scale, mean-field visco-plastic self-consistent model to simulate the role of neighboring grain orientation on twin thickening. We demonstrate that the approach improves the prediction of twin area fraction distribution when compared with experimental observations.

  10. Heat stress in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) : Effects on grain growth and quality traits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spiertz, J.H.J.; Hamer, R.J.; Xu, H.; Primo Martin, C.; Don, C.; Putten, van der P.E.L.

    2006-01-01

    Heat stress effects on grain dry mass and quality were studied in spring wheat genotypes (Triticum aestivum L.). Three cultivars were chosen with respect to heat tolerance: Lavett (genotype 1), selected for temperate growing conditions and two CIMMYT cultivars, Ciano-79 (genotype 2) and Attila

  11. Heat stress in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.): Effects on grain growth and quality traits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spiertz, J.H.J.; Hamer, R.J.; Xu, H.; Primo-Martin, C.; Don, C.; Putten, P.E.L. van der

    2006-01-01

    Heat stress effects on grain dry mass and quality were studied in spring wheat genotypes (Triticum aestivum L.). Three cultivars were chosen with respect to heat tolerance: Lavett (genotype 1), selected for temperate growing conditions and two CIMMYT cultivars, Ciano-79 (genotype 2) and Attila

  12. Pathophysiology and management of abnormal growth in children with chronic inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, S F; Farquharson, C; McGrogan, P; Russell, R K

    2013-01-01

    Many children with a variety of chronic diseases suffer from a variable component of chronic inflammation and often have co-existing growth retardation. The aetiology of this growth retardation may be multifactorial and in a condition such as inflammatory bowel disease it includes the effects of the disease on nutrition as well as the effect of drugs such as glucocorticoids. Growth is primarily regulated through the endocrine and paracrine component of the GH/IGF-1 axis which may be modulated by other factors such as sex steroids. There is increasing evidence that this axis may be affected in children with chronic inflammation. An improved understanding of the GH/IGF-1 axis and how it is affected in chronic inflammation will lead to an improved rationale for developing therapeutic regimens that can improve growth in those children whose growth does not improve despite optimal management of the disease. This review will illustrate these aspects by concentrating primarily on the pathophysiology of growth retardation in inflammatory bowel disease and possible interventions for improving growth. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Abnormal endothelium-dependent microvascular dilator reactivity in pregnancies complicated by normotensive intrauterine growth restriction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, C.M.; Blaauw, Judith; van Pampus, Maria; Rakhorst, G.; Aarnoudse, J.G.

    OBJECTIVE: Normotensive intrauterine growth restriction and preeclampsia share a similar placenta pathophysiology, whereas maternal clinical manifestations differ. Clinical symptoms of preeclampsia are partly attributed to vascular endothelial dysfunction, but it is unclear whether this phenomenon

  14. v-Src-driven transformation is due to chromosome abnormalities but not Src-mediated growth signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Takuya; Morii, Mariko; Nakayama, Yuji; Suzuki, Ko; Yamaguchi, Noritaka; Yamaguchi, Naoto

    2018-01-18

    v-Src is the first identified oncogene product and has a strong tyrosine kinase activity. Much of the literature indicates that v-Src expression induces anchorage-independent and infinite cell proliferation through continuous stimulation of growth signaling by v-Src activity. Although all of v-Src-expressing cells are supposed to form transformed colonies, low frequencies of v-Src-induced colony formation have been observed so far. Using cells that exhibit high expression efficiencies of inducible v-Src, we show that v-Src expression causes cell-cycle arrest through p21 up-regulation despite ERK activation. v-Src expression also induces chromosome abnormalities and unexpected suppression of v-Src expression, leading to p21 down-regulation and ERK inactivation. Importantly, among v-Src-suppressed cells, only a limited number of cells gain the ability to re-proliferate and form transformed colonies. Our findings provide the first evidence that v-Src-driven transformation is attributed to chromosome abnormalities, but not continuous stimulation of growth signaling, possibly through stochastic genetic alterations.

  15. Plant growth-promoting actinobacteria: a new strategy for enhancing sustainable production and protection of grain legumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathya, Arumugam; Vijayabharathi, Rajendran; Gopalakrishnan, Subramaniam

    2017-06-01

    Grain legumes are a cost-effective alternative for the animal protein in improving the diets of the poor in South-East Asia and Africa. Legumes, through symbiotic nitrogen fixation, meet a major part of their own N demand and partially benefit the following crops of the system by enriching soil. In realization of this sustainability advantage and to promote pulse production, United Nations had declared 2016 as the "International Year of pulses". Grain legumes are frequently subjected to both abiotic and biotic stresses resulting in severe yield losses. Global yields of legumes have been stagnant for the past five decades in spite of adopting various conventional and molecular breeding approaches. Furthermore, the increasing costs and negative effects of pesticides and fertilizers for crop production necessitate the use of biological options of crop production and protection. The use of plant growth-promoting (PGP) bacteria for improving soil and plant health has become one of the attractive strategies for developing sustainable agricultural systems due to their eco-friendliness, low production cost and minimizing consumption of non-renewable resources. This review emphasizes on how the PGP actinobacteria and their metabolites can be used effectively in enhancing the yield and controlling the pests and pathogens of grain legumes.

  16. Moderate Drought Stress Affected Root Growth and Grain Yield in Old, Modern and Newly Released Cultivars of Winter Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yan; Du, Yanlei; Wang, Jun; Wu, Aijiao; Qiao, Sheng; Xu, Bingcheng; Zhang, Suiqi; Siddique, Kadambot H. M.; Chen, Yinglong

    2017-01-01

    To determine root growth and grain yield of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L) under moderate drought stress, a nursery experiment and a field trial were conducted with or without water stress using three representative cultivars released in different years: CW134 (old landrace), CH58 (modern cultivar) and CH1 (new release). In the nursery experiment, plants were grown in soil-filled rhizoboxes under moderate drought (MD, 55% of field capacity) or well-watered (WW, 85% of field capacity) conditions. In the field trial, plots were either rainfed (moderate drought stress) or irrigated with 30 mm of water at each of stem elongation, booting and anthesis stages (irrigated). Compared to drought stress, grain yields increased under sufficient water supply in all cultivars, particular the newly released cultivar CH1 with 70% increase in the nursery and 23% in the field. When well-watered (nursery) or irrigated (field), CH1 had the highest grain yields compared to the other two cultivars, but produced similar yield to the modern cultivar (CH58) under water-stressed (nursery) or rainfed (field) conditions. When exposed to drought stress, CW134 had the highest topsoil root dry mass in topsoil but lowest in subsoil among the cultivars at stem elongation, anthesis, and maturity, respectively; while CH1 had the lowest topsoil and highest subsoil root dry mass at respective sampling times. Topsoil root mass and root length density were negatively correlated with grain yield for the two water treatments in nursery experiment. When water was limited, subsoil root mass was positively correlated with thousand kernel weight (TKW). In the field trial, CH1 and CH58 used less water during vegetative growth than CW134, but after anthesis stage, CH1 used more water than the other two cultivars, especially in the soil profile below 100 cm, which was associated with the increased TKW. This study demonstrated that greater root mass and root length density in subsoil layers, with enhanced

  17. Abnormal sinoatrial node development resulting from disturbed vascular endothelial growth factor signaling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calkoen, Emmeline E.; Vicente-Steijn, Rebecca; Hahurij, Nathan D.; van Munsteren, Conny J.; Roest, Arno A. W.; Deruiter, Marco C.; Steendijk, Paul; Schalij, Martin J.; Gittenberger-de Groot, Adriana C.; Blom, Nico A.; Jongbloed, Monique R. M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Sinus node dysfunction is frequently observed in patients with congenital heart disease (CHD). Variants in the Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor-A (VEGF) pathway are associated with CHD. In Vegf(120/120) mice, over-expressing VEGF(120), a reduced sinoatrial node (SAN) volume was

  18. Method for acquiring grain-shaped growth of a microorganism in a reactor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijnen, J.J.; Van Loosdrecht, M.C.M.

    1998-01-01

    The invention relates to a method of acquiring granular growth of a microorganism in a reactor containing a liquid medium. Surprisingly, according to the invention, aerobic microorganisms also can be induced to granular growth by maintaining specific culture conditions. During a first step an

  19. Austenite Grain Growth in a 2.25Cr-1Mo Vanadium-Free Steel Accounting for Zener Pinning and Solute Drag: Experimental Study and Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dépinoy, S.; Marini, B.; Toffolon-Masclet, C.; Roch, F.; Gourgues-Lorenzon, A.-F.

    2017-05-01

    Austenite grain size has been experimentally determined for various austenitization temperatures and times in a 2.25Cr-1Mo vanadium-free steel. Three grain growth regimes were highlighted: limited growth occurs at lower temperatures [1193 K (920 °C) and 1243 K (970 °C)]; parabolic growth prevails at higher temperatures [1343 K (1070 °C) and 1393 K (1120 °C)]. At the intermediate temperature of 1293 K (1020 °C), slowed down growth was observed. Classical grain growth equations were applied to the experimental results, accounting for Zener pinning and solute drag as possible causes for temperature-dependent limited growth. It was shown that Zener pinning due to AlN particles could not be responsible for limited growth, although it has some effect at lower temperatures. Instead, limited and slow growths are very likely to be the result of segregation of molybdenum atoms at austenite grain boundaries. The temperature-dependence of this phenomenon may be linked to the co-segregation of molybdenum and carbon atoms.

  20. Effect of chitinase and thaumatin on mycelial growth of five sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] grain molding fungi under in vitro conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of various concentrations of chitinase, thaumatin, and their mixtures on radial mycelial growth of five grain molding fungi were studied. When compared with the control, chitinase and mixtures of chitinase and thaumatin markedly reduced mycelial growth of all the fungal species, except ...

  1. Midazolam dose correlates with abnormal hippocampal growth and neurodevelopmental outcome in preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duerden, Emma G; Guo, Ting; Dodbiba, Lorin; Chakravarty, M Mallar; Chau, Vann; Poskitt, Kenneth J; Synnes, Anne; Grunau, Ruth E; Miller, Steven P

    2016-04-01

    Very preterm-born neonates (24-32 weeks of gestation) are exposed to stressful and painful procedures during neonatal intensive care. Analgesic and sedation therapies are essential, and opiates and benzodiazepines are commonly used. These medications may negatively impact brain development. The hippocampus may be especially vulnerable to the effects of pain and analgesic and/or sedative therapies and contribute to adverse outcomes. The effect of invasive procedures and analgesic-sedative exposure on hippocampal growth was assessed, as was that of hippocampal growth on neurodevelopmental outcome. A total of 138 neonates (51% male, median gestational age = 27.7 weeks) underwent magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) scans, early in life (postmenstrual age [PMA] = 32.3 weeks) and at term-equivalent age (PMA = 40.2 weeks). Volumes and DTI measures of axial diffusivity, radial diffusivity, and mean diffusivity (MD) were obtained from the hippocampus. Cognitive, language, and motor abilities were assessed using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development-III at 18.7 months median corrected age. Models testing the association of invasive procedures with hippocampal volumes and DTI measures accounted for birth gestational age, sex, PMA, dose of analgesics/sedatives (fentanyl, morphine, midazolam), mechanical ventilation, hypotension, and surgeries. Total midazolam dose predicted decreased hippocampal volumes (β = -1.8, p 0.5 each). Lower cognitive scores were associated with hippocampal growth (β = -0.31, p = 0.003), midazolam dose (β = -0.27, p = 0.03), and surgery (β = -8.32, p = 0.04). Midazolam exposure was associated with macro- and microstructural alterations in hippocampal development and poorer outcomes consistent with hippocampal dysmaturation. Use of midazolam in preterm neonates, particularly those not undergoing surgery, is cautioned. © 2016 American Neurological Association.

  2. Coarse-graining and hybrid methods for efficient simulation of stochastic multi-scale models of tumour growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Cruz, Roberto; Guerrero, Pilar; Calvo, Juan; Alarcón, Tomás

    2017-12-01

    The development of hybrid methodologies is of current interest in both multi-scale modelling and stochastic reaction-diffusion systems regarding their applications to biology. We formulate a hybrid method for stochastic multi-scale models of cells populations that extends the remit of existing hybrid methods for reaction-diffusion systems. Such method is developed for a stochastic multi-scale model of tumour growth, i.e. population-dynamical models which account for the effects of intrinsic noise affecting both the number of cells and the intracellular dynamics. In order to formulate this method, we develop a coarse-grained approximation for both the full stochastic model and its mean-field limit. Such approximation involves averaging out the age-structure (which accounts for the multi-scale nature of the model) by assuming that the age distribution of the population settles onto equilibrium very fast. We then couple the coarse-grained mean-field model to the full stochastic multi-scale model. By doing so, within the mean-field region, we are neglecting noise in both cell numbers (population) and their birth rates (structure). This implies that, in addition to the issues that arise in stochastic-reaction diffusion systems, we need to account for the age-structure of the population when attempting to couple both descriptions. We exploit our coarse-graining model so that, within the mean-field region, the age-distribution is in equilibrium and we know its explicit form. This allows us to couple both domains consistently, as upon transference of cells from the mean-field to the stochastic region, we sample the equilibrium age distribution. Furthermore, our method allows us to investigate the effects of intracellular noise, i.e. fluctuations of the birth rate, on collective properties such as travelling wave velocity. We show that the combination of population and birth-rate noise gives rise to large fluctuations of the birth rate in the region at the leading edge of

  3. INFRARED SPECTROSCOPIC SURVEY OF THE QUIESCENT MEDIUM OF NEARBY CLOUDS. I. ICE FORMATION AND GRAIN GROWTH IN LUPUS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boogert, A. C. A. [IPAC, NASA Herschel Science Center, Mail Code 100-22, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Chiar, J. E. [SETI Institute, Carl Sagan Center, 189 Bernardo Avenue, Mountain View, CA 94043 (United States); Knez, C.; Mundy, L. G. [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Öberg, K. I. [Departments of Chemistry and Astronomy, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Pendleton, Y. J. [Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute, NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Van Dishoeck, E. F., E-mail: aboogert@ipac.caltech.edu [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands)

    2013-11-01

    Infrared photometry and spectroscopy (1-25 μm) of background stars reddened by the Lupus molecular cloud complex are used to determine the properties of grains and the composition of ices before they are incorporated into circumstellar envelopes and disks. H{sub 2}O ices form at extinctions of A{sub K} = 0.25 ± 0.07 mag (A{sub V} = 2.1 ± 0.6). Such a low ice formation threshold is consistent with the absence of nearby hot stars. Overall, the Lupus clouds are in an early chemical phase. The abundance of H{sub 2}O ice (2.3 ± 0.1 × 10{sup –5} relative to N{sub H}) is typical for quiescent regions, but lower by a factor of three to four compared to dense envelopes of young stellar objects. The low solid CH{sub 3}OH abundance (<3%-8% relative to H{sub 2}O) indicates a low gas phase H/CO ratio, which is consistent with the observed incomplete CO freeze out. Furthermore it is found that the grains in Lupus experienced growth by coagulation. The mid-infrared (>5 μm) continuum extinction relative to A{sub K} increases as a function of A{sub K}. Most Lupus lines of sight are well fitted with empirically derived extinction curves corresponding to R{sub V} ∼ 3.5 (A{sub K} = 0.71) and R{sub V} ∼ 5.0 (A{sub K} = 1.47). For lines of sight with A{sub K} > 1.0 mag, the τ{sub 9.7}/A{sub K} ratio is a factor of two lower compared to the diffuse medium. Below 1.0 mag, values scatter between the dense and diffuse medium ratios. The absence of a gradual transition between diffuse and dense medium-type dust indicates that local conditions matter in the process that sets the τ{sub 9.7}/A{sub K} ratio. This process is likely related to grain growth by coagulation, as traced by the A{sub 7.4}/A{sub K} continuum extinction ratio, but not to ice mantle formation. Conversely, grains acquire ice mantles before the process of coagulation starts.

  4. Further investigations on dc-SQUID gradiometers based on growth modified bi-crystal grain boundaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michalowski, Peter; Katzer, Christian; Kuhwald, Daniel; Koch, Stefanie; Schmidl, Frank; Seidel, Paul [Friedrich-Schiller-Universitaet Jena, Institut fuer Festkoerperphysik, Helmholtzweg 5, Jena (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    The properties of grain boundaries of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-{delta}} (YBCO) films grown on bi-crystal substrates can be modified by gold nano crystallites self-assembling from an intermediate gold layer during pulsed laser deposition. These gold particles act as additional pinning centers in the YBCO layer. Using a new layout, which enables us to restrict the gold nano crystallites only to the Superconducting QUantum Interference Device (SQUID) or the antenna structures, we fabricated dc-SQUID gradiometers. We present results of the temperature dependence of the London penetration depth as well as of noise measurements carried out with ac- and dc-bias. In addition we investigated the dependence of the superconducting properties on the thickness of the initial gold layer.

  5. Investigation of fatigue crack growth rate of Al 5484 ultrafine grained alloy after ECAP process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brynk, Tomasz; Rasinski, Marcin; Pakiela, Zbigniew; Kurzydlowski, Krzysztof J. [Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology (Poland); Olejnik, Lech [Faculty of Production Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology (Poland)

    2010-05-15

    During the last decade equal-channel angular pressing (ECAP) has emerged as a widely used fabrication route of ultrafine-grained (UFG) metals and alloys. Enhanced mechanical properties of UFG materials produced by severe plastic deformation, with a grain size smaller than 1 {mu}m, have been reported in a large number of publications. However, the higher strength does not imply higher resistance to fatigue both high- and low-cyclic. In fact, due to reduced plasticity, higher fatigue crack propagation rates are reported for UFG materials, particularly in low-amplitude range. The aim of this work was to investigate fatigue crack propagation in samples of Al 5483 alloy subjected to ECAP treatment. Because of small dimensions of the coupons processed by ECAP, non-standard, mini-samples were used in a crack propagation tests. Two test procedures were used to estimate stress intensity factor (K). The first was based on optical measurements of crack length from images recorded during the test. The second method was based on digital image correlation (DIC), which was used to determine K value directly from displacement field near the crack tip. Comparison of these two methods is made and the relationship between the intensity of ECAP process (measured in terms of the number of ECAP passes) and fatigue crack propagation rates proposed. In addition to fatigue resistance, the results of tensile tests carried out with mini-samples are presented. Applicability of such samples in the investigations of the mechanical properties of UFG materials is discussed. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  6. A poor long-term neurological prognosis is associated with abnormal cord insertion in severe growth-restricted fetuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Masamitsu; Umehara, Nagayoshi; Ishii, Keisuke; Sasahara, Jun; Kiyoshi, Kenji; Ozawa, Katsusuke; Tanaka, Kei; Tanemoto, Tomohiro; Ichizuka, Kiyotake; Hasegawa, Junichi; Ishikawa, Hiroshi; Murakoshi, Takeshi; Sago, Haruhiko

    2017-12-21

    To clarify and compare if the neurological outcomes of fetal growth restriction (FGR) cases with abnormal cord insertion (CI) are associated with a higher risk of a poor neurological outcome in subjects aged 3 years or less versus those with normal CI. A multicenter retrospective cohort study was conducted among patients with a birth weight lower than the 3rd percentile, based on the standard reference values for Japanese subjects after 22 weeks' gestation, who were treated at a consortium of nine perinatal centers in Japan between June 2005 and March 2011. Patients whose birth weights were less than the 3rd percentile and whose neurological outcomes from birth to 3 years of age could be checked from their medical records were analyzed. The relationship between abnormal CI and neurological outcomes was analyzed. Univariate and multivariate models of multivariate logistic regression were employed to estimate the raw and odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence intervals comparing marginal (MCI) and velamentous cord insertion (VCI) to normal CI. Among 365 neonates, 63 cases of MCI and 14 cases of VCI were observed. After excluding 24 cases with neonatal or infant death from the total FGR population, the assessment of the outcomes of the infants aged 3 years or younger showed the following rates of neurological complications: 7.3% (n=25) for cerebral palsy, 8.8% (n=30) for developmental disorders, 16.7% (n=57) for small-for-gestational-age short stature (SGA), 0.6% (n=2) for impaired hearing, 0.9% (n=3) for epilepsy, 1.2% (n=4). The ORs (95% confidence intervals) based on multivariate analysis were as follows: cerebral palsy=10.1 (2.4-41.5) in the VCI group and 4.3 (1.6-11.9) in the MCI group, developmental disorders=6.7 (1.7-26) in the VCI group and 3.9 (1.1-14.2) in the single umbilical artery (SUA) group, 5.1 (1.4-18.7) for birth weight <1000 g and 2.8 (1.2-6.7) for placental weight <200 g. The present results indicate that growth-restricted fetuses diagnosed with a

  7. Abnormal bone collagen morphology and decreased bone strength in growth hormone-deficient rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, Martin; Qvortrup, Klaus; Svendsen, Ole Lander

    2004-01-01

    Patients with growth hormone deficiency (GHD) have an increased risk of bone fractures. In these patients, the well-described decrease in bone mineral density (BMD) and content (BMC) may, however, not alone explain the increase in fracture rate. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to evaluate...... collagen morphology and bone mineralisation in cortical bone as well as bone strength in GHD rats to try to clarify the explanation for the increased fracture rate. The Dw-4 rat was used as a model for GHD. This strain of rats has an autosomal recessive disorder, reducing GH synthesis to approximately 10...... and biomechanical properties in GHD rats compared to controls (P bone volume. Electron microscopy showed a significant decrease in the number and a significant increase in the diameter of collagen microfibrils in GHD...

  8. Responses of Rapid Viscoanalyzer Profile and Other Rice Grain Qualities to Exogenously Applied Plant Growth Regulators under High Day and High Night Temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahad, Shah; Hussain, Saddam; Saud, Shah; Hassan, Shah; Chauhan, Bhagirath Singh; Khan, Fahad; Ihsan, Muhammad Zahid; Ullah, Abid; Wu, Chao; Bajwa, Ali Ahsan; Alharby, Hesham; Amanullah; Nasim, Wajid; Shahzad, Babar; Tanveer, Mohsin; Huang, Jianliang

    2016-01-01

    High-temperature stress degrades the grain quality of rice; nevertheless, the exogenous application of plant growth regulators (PGRs) might alleviate the negative effects of high temperatures. In the present study, we investigated the responses of rice grain quality to exogenously applied PGRs under high day temperatures (HDT) and high night temperatures (HNT) under controlled conditions. Four different combinations of ascorbic acid (Vc), alpha-tocopherol (Ve), brassinosteroids (Br), methyl jasmonates (MeJA) and triazoles (Tr) were exogenously applied to two rice cultivars (IR-64 and Huanghuazhan) prior to the high-temperature treatment. A Nothing applied Control (NAC) was included for comparison. The results demonstrated that high-temperature stress was detrimental for grain appearance and milling qualities and that both HDT and HNT reduced the grain length, grain width, grain area, head rice percentage and milled rice percentage but increased the chalkiness percentage and percent area of endosperm chalkiness in both cultivars compared with ambient temperature (AT). Significantly higher grain breakdown, set back, consistence viscosity and gelatinization temperature, and significantly lower peak, trough and final viscosities were observed under high-temperature stress compared with AT. Thus, HNT was more devastating for grain quality than HDT. The exogenous application of PGRs ameliorated the adverse effects of high temperature in both rice cultivars, and Vc+Ve+MejA+Br was the best combination for both cultivars under high temperature stress.

  9. Abnormal body composition and reduced bone mass in growth hormone deficient hypopituitary adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beshyah, S A; Freemantle, C; Thomas, E; Rutherford, O; Page, B; Murphy, M; Johnston, D G

    1995-02-01

    The role of growth hormone in maintaining normal body composition and bone strength in adults has attracted much interest recently. We have assessed body composition and bone mass in GH deficient hypopituitary adults on conventional replacement therapy and compared them with matched controls. A cross-sectional study of 64 growth hormone deficient hypopituitary adults (29 males and 35 females) on conventional replacement therapy and a large number of healthy control subjects matched for age, sex and body mass index (BMI). Skinfold thicknesses at two sites (triceps and subscapular), waist and hip girth circumferences were assessed by standard methods. Body composition was assessed using total body potassium (TBK), bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). Bone mineral mass was assessed at the lumbar spine and the total body by DEXA. Not every patient and control participated in every measurement. Obesity was common in the hypopituitary patients; BMI (mean +/- SD) was 27.5 +/- 4.6 kg/m2 and body weight was 111.8 +/- 18.5% of the maximal ideal for height (P body weight was significantly lower in hypopituitary patients (n = 44) than in controls (n = 31) (men 43.5 +/- 5.6 vs 50.1 +/- 5.9 mmol/kg, P body water content (corrected for body weight) was significantly lower in hypopituitary patients (n = 56) than in controls (n = 57) (0.492 +/- 0.064 vs 0.545 +/- 0.067 l/kg, P body fat derived from all the three methods was significantly higher in hypopituitary patients than in normal controls in both sexes (from TBK: men 34.7 +/- 9.4 vs 28.8 +/- 7.0%, P fat in both sexes and in TBK-derived percentage fat in females only. Bone mineral density (BMD) of the lumbar spine in the L2-L4 region was lower in hypopituitary patients than in controls (men 1.116 +/- 0.129 vs 1.311 +/- 0.131 g/cm2, P body BMD was significantly lower in patients than in controls (men 1.186 +/- 0.102 vs 1.250 +/- 0.080 g/cm2, P body composition with increased fat

  10. Corn and Soybeans in a Strip Intercropping System: Crop Growth Rates, Radiation Interception, and Grain Yield Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Verdelli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Crop growth rates (CGR, radiation interception (IPAR, yields, and their components were determined in two crops monocultures (using one corn and two soybean genotypes and in intercropped “strips,” during three growing seasons. Corn yield in the strips significantly increased in the three seasons (13–16% as compared to that in the monocultures. This response was due to increased yield in corn plants of the border rows of the strips, which was highly correlated to an increased IPAR, allowing high CGR at critical crop stages. As a result, more dry matter was partitioned to grain and also an increased number of ears per plant were generated. Conversely, yields of soybeans in the strips were 2 to 11% lower than that in the monocultures, with variable significance depending on soybean cultivar and/or year. Grain number per unit area was the yield component most closely associated to yield variation in both crops. We believe that if yield components of this system are more closely identified, more appropriate genotypes will fit into strip intercropping, thus contributing to the spread of this technique and thus to the sustainability of actual massive monocultured agricultural systems.

  11. Growth, yield and grain protein content of wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Journal of Plant and Soil ... Soil tillage affects both the profitability and sustainability of cropping systems. ... compared to a monoculture system can be ascribed to improved soil organic carbon and nitrogen (N) contents, which result in more plant-available mineral N and hence more vigorous crop growth.

  12. In vitro Pollen Grain Germination and Tube Growth of Ten Iranian Jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein ROUHAKHSH

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Jujube (Ziziphus jujuba is a species particularly prone to erratic fruit set. Several causes such as pollen germination and tube growth involve in this behaviour. Thus, the present research aimed to evaluate and compare of pollen grains germination and tube growth of ten Iranian jujube cultivars on in vitro condition. A factorial trial based on completely randomized design with five replications was carried out. The pollen grains were collected from un-opened-flowers of Al-Ghour’, ‘Bardaskan’, ‘Doroh’, ‘Gazik’, ‘Ghom’, ‘Giouk’, ‘Kangan’, ‘Kalkestan’, ‘Magham Sari’ and ‘Noghab’ cultivars at balloon stage. This study showed that there were significant differences among the cultivars in all measured factors. The highest percentage of pollen grains germination was observed for ‘Gazik’, followed by ‘Bardaskan’, while the lowest was in ‘Al-Ghour’. The percentage of pollen grains germination increased with the increasing time of incubation period up to 36 h. Also, flowering times are found to be effective in germination of pollen grains, which 1 flash had highest percentage of germination of pollen grains than in comparison to other flowering times. The results also showed that the mean time germination varied from 24.52-25.92 h, mean hourly germination from 0.67-1.55, hourly germination speed from 0.64-1.48 and coefficient of velocity of germination of pollen grains from 0.058-0.061. The length of pollen tube was found between 44.4 and 624.8 µm. These data demonstrated that cultivar is the main factor determining pollen grains germination and tube growth in jujube, which this important information can be useful for selection of superior desirable jujube genotypes for bringing to commercial cultivation.

  13. Prediction of grain yield using optical remote sensing and a growth model: application on Merguellil catchment (Tunisia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chahbi, A.; Zribi, M.; Lili-Chabaane, Z.; Duchemin, B.; Shabou, M.; Mougenot, B.; Boulet, G.

    2012-04-01

    In semi-arid region and especially in irrigated areas, agriculture represents a major contribution to food security. These areas significantly contribute to the increase of global production. A challenging objective is thus to ensure food security. Therefore an operational forecasting system for the grain yields is required and could help decision-makers to make early decisions and plan annual imports. In this context, remote sensing is a very interesting tool for giving information on the development of vegetation. The main objective is to analyze and predict the average grain yield, based on different indices measured or modelled during the growing season. Thus, we used three lines of research: the first is based on analysing a relationship between normalized vegetation index (NDVI) which is determined from optical satellite imagery and the leaf area index (LAI) measured in situ. The second axis is based on the estimation of the relation between wheat yields and normalized vegetation index NDVI. The third axis is based on the application of a growth model SAFY « Simple Algorithm For Yield Estimate » developed to simulate LAI, dry aboveground phytomass (DAM) and the grain yield (GY). For the first axis, we used optical data at high resolution. A series of 7 SPOT / HRV during the 2010-2011 agricultural seasons was acquired in the Merguellil catchment (Tunisia). At the same time we realised experimental measurements made on 27 test plots of dry or irrigated cereals carried out in study area. These measurements are mainly: the water content of the vegetation, the vegetation height, wheat density and leaf area index LAI (estimated using a hemispherical camera). From satellite data, a profile of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) was generated for each pixel. For both types of cereal, a relationship is established between NDVI and leaf area index LAI. This relationship is exponential and it allows connecting the satellite observations with a variable

  14. Effect of feeding fermented liquid feed and fermented grain on gastrointestinal ecology and growth performance in piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canibe, N; Højberg, O; Badsberg, J H; Jensen, B B

    2007-11-01

    To investigate the microbial and nutritional characteristics of dry feed, liquid feed containing fermented liquid cereal grains, and fermented liquid feed, and their effect on gastrointestinal ecology and growth performance, 120 piglets from 40 litters were used and housed in pens with 5 animals in each. The 3 dietary treatments (all nonheated and nonpelleted diets) were: a dry meal diet (DRY); a fermented, liquid cereal grain feed (FLG); and a fermented liquid feed (FLF). The FLG diet was prepared by storing the dietary cereals (barley and wheat) and water (1:2.5, wt/wt) in a closed tank at 20 degrees C and adding the remaining dietary ingredients immediately before feeding. The FLF diet was prepared by storing compound feed and water (1:2.5, wt/wt) in a closed tank at 20 degrees C. Three times daily, 50% of the fermented cereals or compound feed and water stored in the tanks was removed and replaced with an equal amount of fresh cereals or feed and water. On d 14, 1 piglet from each pen was killed and samples from the gastrointestinal tract were obtained. The pH of the fermented cereals was 3.85 (SD = 0.10), that of the FLG diet was 5.00 (SD = 0.18), and the pH of the FLF diet was 4.45 (SD = 0.11). The dietary concentration of lysine (g/16 g of N) pointed to a decreased concentration in the FLF (5.46, SD = 0.08) compared with the DRY (6.01) and FLG (6.21, SD = 0.27) diets, and the concentration of cadaverine was greater in the FLF diet (890 mg/kg, SD = 151.3) than in the DRY (32 mg/kg) or FLG (153 mg/kg, SD = 18.7) diets. Fermenting only the cereal component of the diet (FLG) promoted the growth of yeasts to a greater extent than fermenting the whole diet (FLF). Terminal RFLP profiles of diets and digesta from the stomach and midcolon showed differences among dietary groups. The number of yeasts able to grow at 37 degrees C in the stomach and caudal small intestine was greatest in the FLG group compared with the other 2 dietary groups (P liquid feed containing

  15. Polymer-Coated Urea Delays Growth and Accumulation of Key Nutrients in Aerobic Rice but Does Not Affect Grain Mineral Concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry J. Rose

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Enhanced efficiency nitrogen (N fertilizers (EEFs may improve crop recovery of fertilizer-N, but there is evidence that some EEFs cause a lag in crop growth compared to growth with standard urea. Biomass and mineral nutrient accumulation was investigated in rice fertilized with urea, urea-3,4-dimethylpyrazole phosphate (DMPP and polymer-coated urea (PCU to determine whether any delays in biomass production alter the accumulation patterns, and subsequent grain concentrations, of key mineral nutrients. Plant growth and mineral accumulation and partitioning to grains did not differ significantly between plants fertilized with urea or urea-DMPP. In contrast, biomass accumulation and the accumulation of phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, copper, zinc and manganese were delayed during the early growth phase of plants fertilized with PCU. However, plants in the PCU treatment ultimately compensated for this by increasing growth and nutrient uptake during the latter vegetative stages so that no differences in biomass or nutrient accumulation generally existed among N fertilizer treatments at anthesis. Delayed biomass accumulation in rice fertilized with PCU does not appear to reduce the total accumulation of mineral nutrients, nor to have any impact on grain mineral nutrition when biomass and grain yields are equal to those of rice grown with urea or urea-DMPP.

  16. Sodium induced grain growth, defect passivation and enhancement in the photovoltaic properties of Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} thin film solar cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Om Pal; Gour, Kuldeep Singh [Physics of Energy Harvesting Division, CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K.S. Krishnan Marg, New Delhi 110012 (India); Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research, CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K.S. Krishnan Marg, New Delhi 110012 (India); Parmar, Rahul [Physics of Energy Harvesting Division, CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K.S. Krishnan Marg, New Delhi 110012 (India); Singh, Vidya Nand, E-mail: singhvn@nplindia.org [Physics of Energy Harvesting Division, CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K.S. Krishnan Marg, New Delhi 110012 (India); Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research, CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K.S. Krishnan Marg, New Delhi 110012 (India)

    2016-07-01

    Sodium diffusion from soda lime glass (SLG) during high temperature annealing is known to play a crucial role in affecting the grain growth and defect passivation in chalocogenide/kesterite solar cells. Additional sodium is required when low temperature or short term annealing is used. Although this fact is known, a systematic comparative study for kesterite films is seldom reported. In the present study, Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} thin films were deposited on SLG and Mo coated SLG using stacked layer reactive sputtering. Na was deposited over the CZTS thin film and the film was annealed in N{sub 2} atmosphere in order to enhance the grain growth. This resulted in the shift in the XRD peak towards lower diffraction angle. The optical bandgap shifted from 1.45 eV to 1.38 eV with Na addition. Significant grain growth from hundreds of nanometer to micrometer was observed in samples with Na. Device fabricated in SLG/Mo/CZTS/CdS/ZnO/ITO configuration with Al front contact shows increase in efficiencies values from 1.50% to 2.84%. - Highlights: • Reactive sputtering with reduced annealing time have been used for the growth of CZTS thin film. • NaF has been deposited over precursor film before annealing. • Na addition resulted in grain growth, improved compactness and reduction in band gap. • An enhancement in the photovoltaic characteristics have been observed with addition of Na.

  17. Effect of Irrigation Timing on Root Zone Soil Temperature, Root Growth and Grain Yield and Chemical Composition in Corn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuejun Dong

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available High air temperatures during the crop growing season can reduce harvestable yields in major agronomic crops worldwide. Repeated and prolonged high night air temperature stress may compromise plant growth and yield. Crop varieties with improved heat tolerance traits as well as crop management strategies at the farm scale are thus needed for climate change mitigation. Crop yield is especially sensitive to night-time warming trends. Current studies are mostly directed to the elevated night-time air temperature and its impact on crop growth and yield, but less attention is given to the understanding of night-time soil temperature management. Delivering irrigation water through drip early evening may reduce soil temperature and thus improve plant growth. In addition, corn growers typically use high-stature varieties that inevitably incur excessive respiratory carbon loss from roots and transpiration water loss under high night temperature conditions. The main objective of this study was to see if root-zone soil temperature can be reduced through drip irrigation applied at night-time, vs. daytime, using three corn hybrids of different above-ground architecture in Uvalde, TX where day and night temperatures during corn growing season are above U.S. averages. The experiment was conducted in 2014. Our results suggested that delivering well-water at night-time through drip irrigation reduced root-zone soil temperature by 0.6 °C, increase root length five folds, plant height 2%, and marginally increased grain yield by 10%. However, irrigation timing did not significantly affect leaf chlorophyll level and kernel crude protein, phosphorous, fat and starch concentrations. Different from our hypothesis, the shorter, more compact corn hybrid did not exhibit a higher yield and growth as compared with taller hybrids. As adjusting irrigation timing would not incur an extra cost for farmers, the finding reported here had immediate practical implications for farm

  18. Burkholderia ambifaria and B. caribensis promote growth and increase yield in grain amaranth (Amaranthus cruentus and A. hypochondriacus by improving plant nitrogen uptake.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fannie I Parra-Cota

    Full Text Available Grain amaranth is an emerging crop that produces seeds having high quality protein with balanced amino-acid content. However, production is restricted by agronomic limitations that result in yields that are lower than those normally produced by cereals. In this work, the use of five different rhizobacteria were explored as a strategy to promote growth and yields in Amaranthus hypochondriacus cv. Nutrisol and A. cruentus cv. Candil, two commercially important grain amaranth cultivars. The plants were grown in a rich substrate, high in organic matter, nitrogen (N, and phosphorus (P and under greenhouse conditions. Burkholderia ambifaria Mex-5 and B. caribensis XV proved to be the most efficient strains and significantly promoted growth in both grain amaranth species tested. Increased grain yield and harvest index occurred in combination with chemical fertilization when tested in A. cruentus. Growth-promotion and improved yields correlated with increased N content in all tissues examined. Positive effects on growth also occurred in A. cruentus plants grown in a poor soil, even after N and P fertilization. No correlation between non-structural carbohydrate levels in roots of inoculated plants and growth promotion was observed. Conversely, gene expression assays performed at 3-, 5- and 7-weeks after seed inoculation in plants inoculated with B. caribensis XV identified a tissue-specific induction of several genes involved in photosynthesis, sugar- and N- metabolism and transport. It is concluded that strains of Burkholderia effectively promote growth and increase seed yields in grain amaranth. Growth promotion was particularly noticeable in plants grown in an infertile soil but also occurred in a well fertilized rich substrate. The positive effects observed may be attributed to a bio-fertilization effect that led to increased N levels in roots and shoots. The latter effect correlated with the differential induction of several genes involved in carbon

  19. Overexpression of the fratricide immunity protein ComM leads to growth inhibition and morphological abnormalities in Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straume, Daniel; Stamsås, Gro Anita; Salehian, Zhian; Håvarstein, Leiv Sigve

    2017-01-01

    The important human pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae is a naturally transformable species. When developing the competent state, it expresses proteins involved in DNA uptake, DNA processing and homologous recombination. In addition to the proteins required for the transformation process, competent pneumococci express proteins involved in a predatory DNA acquisition mechanism termed fratricide. This is a mechanism by which the competent pneumococci secrete a muralytic fratricin termed CbpD, which lyses susceptible sister cells or closely related streptococcal species. The released DNA can then be taken up by the competent pneumococci and integrated into their genomes. To avoid committing suicide, competent pneumococci produce an integral membrane protein, ComM, which protects them against CbpD by an unknown mechanism. In the present study, we show that overexpression of ComM results in growth inhibition and development of severe morphological abnormalities, such as cell elongation, misplacement of the septum and inhibition of septal cross-wall synthesis. The toxic effect of ComM is tolerated during competence because it is not allowed to accumulate in the competent cells. We provide evidence that an intra-membrane protease called RseP is involved in the process of controlling the ComM levels, since △rseP mutants produce higher amounts of ComM compared to wild-type cells. The data presented here indicate that ComM mediates immunity against CbpD by a mechanism that is detrimental to the pneumococcus if exaggerated.

  20. Dietary Tributyrin Supplementation Attenuates Insulin Resistance and Abnormal Lipid Metabolism in Suckling Piglets with Intrauterine Growth Retardation

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jintian; Dong, Li; Xu, Wen; Bai, Kaiwen; Lu, Changhui; Wu, Yanan; Huang, Qiang; Zhang, Lili; Wang, Tian

    2015-01-01

    Intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) is associated with insulin resistance and lipid disorder. Tributyrin (TB), a pro-drug of butyrate, can attenuate dysfunctions in body metabolism. In this study, we investigated the effects of TB supplementation on insulin resistance and lipid metabolism in neonatal piglets with IUGR. Eight neonatal piglets with normal birth weight (NBW) and 16 neonatal piglets with IUGR were selected, weaned on the 7th day, and fed basic milk diets (NBW and IUGR groups) or basic milk diets supplemented with 0.1% tributyrin (IT group, IUGR piglets) until day 21 (n = 8). Relative parameters for lipid metabolism and mRNA expression were measured. Piglets with IUGR showed higher (P insulin in the serum, higher (P insulin, HOMA-IR, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in the serum, and the concentrations of TG and NEFA in the liver, and increased (P insulin signal transduction pathway and hepatic lipogenic pathway (including transcription factors and nuclear factors) was significantly (P insulin resistance and abnormal lipid metabolism in IUGR piglets by increasing enzyme activities and upregulating mRNA expression, leading to an early improvement in the metabolic efficiency of IUGR piglets. PMID:26317832

  1. Antagonistic activity of Ocimum sanctum L. essential oil on growth and zearalenone production by Fusarium graminearum in maize grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveen Kumar eKalagatur

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study was aimed to establish the antagonistic effects of Ocimum sanctum L. essential oil (OSEO on growth and zearalenone (ZEA production of Fusarium graminearum. GC-MS chemical profiling of OSEO revealed the existence of 43 compounds and the major compound was found to be eugenol (34.7%. DPPH free radical scavenging activity (IC50 of OSEO was determined to be 8.5µg/mL. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC of OSEO on F. graminearum were recorded as 1250 µg/mL and 1800 µg/mL, respectively. Scanning electron microscope observations showed significant micro morphological damage in OSEO exposed mycelia and spores compared to untreated control culture. Quantitative UHPLC studies revealed that OSEO negatively effected the production of ZEA; the concentration of toxin production was observed to be insignificant at 1500 µg/mL concentration of OSEO. On other hand ZEA concentration was quantified as 3.23 µg/mL in OSEO untreated control culture. Reverse transcriptase qPCR analysis of ZEA metabolic pathway genes (PKS4 and PKS13 revealed that increase in OSEO concentration (250 µg/mL to 1500 µg/mL significantly downregulated the expression of PKS4 and PKS13. These results were in agreement with the artificially contaminated maize grains as well. In conlusion, the antifungal and antimycotoxic effects of OSEO on F. graminearum in the present study reiterated that, the essential oil of O. sanctum could be a promising herbal fungicide in food processing industries as well as grain storage centers.

  2. Constitutive expression of CaPLA1 conferred enhanced growth and grain yield in transgenic rice plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ki Youl; Kim, Eun Yu; Seo, Young Sam; Kim, Woo Taek

    2016-03-01

    Phospholipids are not only important components of cell membranes, but participate in diverse processes in higher plants. In this study, we generated Capsicum annuum phospholipiase A1 (CaPLA1) overexpressing transgenic rice (Oryza sativa L.) plants under the control of the maize ubiquitin promoter. The T4 CaPLA1-overexpressing rice plants (Ubi:CaPLA1) had a higher root:shoot mass ratio than the wild-type plants in the vegetative stage. Leaf epidermal cells from transgenic plants had more cells than wild-type plants. Genes that code for cyclin and lipid metabolic enzymes were up-regulated in the transgenic lines. When grown under typical paddy field conditions, the transgenic plants produced more tillers, longer panicles and more branches per panicle than the wild-type plants, all of which resulted in greater grain yield. Microarray analysis suggests that gene expressions that are related with cell proliferation, lipid metabolism, and redox state were widely altered in CaPLA1-overexpressing transgenic rice plants. Ubi:CaPLA1 plants had a reduced membrane peroxidation state, as determined by malondialdehyde and conjugated diene levels and higher peroxidase activity than wild-type rice plants. Furthermore, three isoprenoid synthetic genes encoding terpenoid synthase, hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase were up-regulated in CaPLA1-overexpressing plants. We suggest that constitutive expression of CaPLA1 conferred increased grain yield with enhanced growth in transgenic rice plants by alteration of gene activities related with cell proliferation, lipid metabolism, membrane peroxidation state and isoprenoid biosynthesis.

  3. Science at the interface : grain boundaries in nanocrystalline metals.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, Mark Andrew; Follstaedt, David Martin; Knapp, James Arthur; Brewer, Luke N.; Holm, Elizabeth Ann; Foiles, Stephen Martin; Hattar, Khalid M.; Clark, Blythe B.; Olmsted, David L.; Medlin, Douglas L.

    2009-09-01

    Interfaces are a critical determinant of the full range of materials properties, especially at the nanoscale. Computational and experimental methods developed a comprehensive understanding of nanograin evolution based on a fundamental understanding of internal interfaces in nanocrystalline nickel. It has recently been shown that nanocrystals with a bi-modal grain-size distribution possess a unique combination of high-strength, ductility and wear-resistance. We performed a combined experimental and theoretical investigation of the structure and motion of internal interfaces in nanograined metal and the resulting grain evolution. The properties of grain boundaries are computed for an unprecedented range of boundaries. The presence of roughening transitions in grain boundaries is explored and related to dramatic changes in boundary mobility. Experimental observations show that abnormal grain growth in nanograined materials is unlike conventional scale material in both the level of defects and the formation of unfavored phases. Molecular dynamics simulations address the origins of some of these phenomena.

  4. Effect of TiO2 Addition on Grain Growth, Anodic Bubble Evolution and Anodic Overvoltage of NiFe2O4-Based Composite Inert Anodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bin; Du, Jinjing; Liu, Yihan; Fang, Zhao; Hu, Ping

    2017-11-01

    A two-step powder compaction and sintering process was employed to fabricate TiO2-doped NiFe2O4 ceramic-based inert anodes. Grain growth during isothermal sintering was analyzed using Brook grain growth model. The bubble behavior of NiFe2O4 ceramic-based inert anodes was investigated in a two-compartment see-through quartz cell for aluminum electrolysis process. Anodic overvoltage and potential decay curves of the inert anodes were measured by using the steady state and current interruption technique. The results showed that the kinetic index of grain growth decreased with an increase in temperature. The average activation energy of grain growth for 1.0 wt.% TiO2-doped NiFe2O4 ceramic samples with a sintering temperature range from 1373 to 1673 K dropped from 675.30 to 183.47 kJ/mol. The diameter size of bubbles before releasing from the bottom surface of the anodes was reduced with increasing the current density, and the larger average releasing bubble size for carbon anode at the same current density could be obtained, which was compared to the NiFe2O4 inert anodes. Besides, the cell voltage of carbon anodes fluctuated much more violently under the same experimental conditions. After adding small amount of TiO2, a minor reduction in anodic overvoltage of NiFe2O4-based anodes can be observed.

  5. The proportion of nitrate in leaf nitrogen, but not changes in root growth, are associated with decreased grain protein in wheat under elevated [CO2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bahrami, Helale; De Kok, Luit J.; Amstrong, Roger; Fitzgerald, Glenn J.; Bourgault, Maryse; Henty, Samuel; Tausz, Michael; Tausz-Posch, Sabine

    The atmospheric CO2 concentration ([CO2]) is increasing and predicted to reach similar to 550 ppm by 2050. Increasing [CO2] typically stimulates crop growth and yield, but decreases concentrations of nutrients, such as nitrogen ([N]), and therefore protein, in plant tissues and grains. Such changes

  6. Growth performance and total tract nutrient digestion for Holstein heifers limit-fed diets high in distillers grains with different forage particle sizes

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study evaluated dairy heifer growth performance and total tract nutrient digestion when fed diets high in dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) with different forage particle size. An 8-wk randomized complete block design study was conducted utilizing twenty-two Holstein heifers (123 ±...

  7. Densification and grain growth kinetics of Ce0.9Gd0.1O1.95 in tape cast layers: The influence of porosity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ni, De Wei; Esposito, Vincenzo; Foghmoes, Søren Preben Vagn

    2014-01-01

    that increasing the initial porosity from 0.38 to 0.60, the densification at the late stage is thermally activated with typical activation energy values increasing from 367 to 578 kJ mol−1. Similar effect of the porosity is observed for the thermally activated phenomena leading to grain growth in the CGO tapes...

  8. Enhancement effects of dietary wheat distiller's dried grains with solubles on growth, immunology, and resistance to Edwardsiella ictaluri challenge of channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study evaluated the effects of the inclusion of wheat distiller’s dried grains with solubles (WDDGS) at levels of 0 (control), 10, 20, 30 and 40% without (diets 2-5) and with (diets 6-9) lysine supplementation, as substitutes of soybean meal and corn meal mixture on growth, body composition, he...

  9. Coarse-grained molecular simulation of epidermal growth factor receptor protein tyrosine kinase multi-site self-phosphorylation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John G Koland

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Upon the ligand-dependent dimerization of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR, the intrinsic protein tyrosine kinase (PTK activity of one receptor monomer is activated, and the dimeric receptor undergoes self-phosphorylation at any of eight candidate phosphorylation sites (P-sites in either of the two C-terminal (CT domains. While the structures of the extracellular ligand binding and intracellular PTK domains are known, that of the ∼225-amino acid CT domain is not, presumably because it is disordered. Receptor phosphorylation on CT domain P-sites is critical in signaling because of the binding of specific signaling effector molecules to individual phosphorylated P-sites. To investigate how the combination of conventional substrate recognition and the unique topological factors involved in the CT domain self-phosphorylation reaction lead to selectivity in P-site phosphorylation, we performed coarse-grained molecular simulations of the P-site/catalytic site binding reactions that precede EGFR self-phosphorylation events. Our results indicate that self-phosphorylation of the dimeric EGFR, although generally believed to occur in trans, may well occur with a similar efficiency in cis, with the P-sites of both receptor monomers being phosphorylated to a similar extent. An exception was the case of the most kinase-proximal P-site-992, the catalytic site binding of which occurred exclusively in cis via an intramolecular reaction. We discovered that the in cis interaction of P-site-992 with the catalytic site was facilitated by a cleft between the N-terminal and C-terminal lobes of the PTK domain that allows the short CT domain sequence tethering P-site-992 to the PTK core to reach the catalytic site. Our work provides several new mechanistic insights into the EGFR self-phosphorylation reaction, and demonstrates the potential of coarse-grained molecular simulation approaches for investigating the complexities of self-phosphorylation in

  10. Whole-Plant Dynamic System of Nitrogen Use for Vegetative Growth and Grain Filling in Rice Plants (Oryza sativa L.) as Revealed through the Production of 350 Grains from a Germinated Seed Over 150 Days: A Review and Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoneyama, Tadakatsu; Tanno, Fumio; Tatsumi, Jiro; Mae, Tadahiko

    2016-01-01

    A single germinated rice (Oryza sativa L) seed can produce 350 grains with the sequential development of 15 leaves on the main stem and 7-10 leaves on four productive tillers (forming five panicles in total), using nitrogen (N) taken up from the environment over a 150-day growing season. Nitrogen travels from uptake sites to the grain through growing organ-directed cycling among sequentially developed organs. Over the past 40 years, the dynamic system for N allocation during vegetative growth and grain filling has been elucidated through studies on N and (15)N transport as well as enzymes and transporters involved. In this review, we synthesize the information obtained in these studies along the following main points: (1) During vegetative growth before grain-filling, about half of the total N in the growing organs, including young leaves, tillers, root tips and differentiating panicles is supplied via phloem from mature source organs such as leaves and roots, after turnover and remobilization of proteins, whereas the other half is newly taken up and supplied via xylem, with an efficient xylem-to-phloem transfer at stem nodes. Thus, the growth of new organs depends equally on both N sources. (2) A large fraction (as much as 80%) of the grain N is derived largely from mature organs such as leaves and stems by degradation, including the autophagy pathway of chloroplast proteins (e.g., Rubisco). (3) Mobilized proteinogenic amino acids (AA), including arginine, lysine, proline and valine, are derived mainly from protein degradation, with AA transporters playing a role in transferring these AAs across cell membranes of source and sink organs, and enabling their efficient reutilization in the latter. On the other hand, AAs such as glutamine, glutamic acid, γ-amino butyric acid, aspartic acid, and alanine are produced by assimilation of newly taken up N by roots and and transported via xylem and phloem. The formation of 350 filled grains over 50 days during the

  11. Whole-plant dynamic system of nitrogen use for vegetative growth and grain filling in rice plants (Oryza sativa L. as revealed through the production of 350 grains from a germinated seed over 150 days: a review and synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadakatsu Yoneyama

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A single germinated rice (Oryza sativa L seed can produce 350 grains with the sequential development of 15 leaves on the main stem and 7 ‒ 10 leaves on 4 productive tillers (forming 5 panicles in total, using nitrogen (N taken up from the environment over a 150-day growing season. Nitrogen travels from uptake sites to the grain through growing organ-directed cycling among sequentially developed organs. Over the past 40 years, the dynamic system for N allocation during vegetative growth and grain filling has been elucidated through studies on N and 15N transport as well as enzymes and transporters involved. In this review, we synthesize the information obtained in these studies along the following main points: (1 During vegetative growth before grain-filling, about half of the total N in the growing organs, including young leaves, tillers, root tips and differentiating panicles is supplied via phloem from mature source organs such as leaves and roots, after turnover and remobilization of proteins, whereas the other half is newly taken up and supplied via xylem, with an efficient xylem-to-phloem transfer at stem nodes. Thus, the growth of new organs depends equally on both N sources. (2 A large fraction (as much as 80% of the grain N is derived largely from mature organs such as leaves and stems by degradation, including the autophagy pathway of chloroplast proteins (e.g., Rubisco. (3 Mobilized proteinogenic amino acids, including arginine, lysine, proline and valine, are derived mainly from protein degradation, with amino acid transporters playing a role in transferring these amino acids across cell membranes of source and sink organs, and enabling their efficient reutilization in the latter. On the other hand, amino acids such as glutamine, glutamic acid, γ-amino butyric acid, aspartic acid, and alanine are produced by assimilation of newly taken up N by roots and transported via xylem and phloem. The formation of 350 filled grains over 50

  12. Grain boundary selective oxidation and intergranular stress corrosion crack growth of high-purity nickel binary alloys in high-temperature hydrogenated water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruemmer, S. M.; Olszta, M. J.; Toloczko, M. B.; Schreiber, D. K.

    2018-02-01

    The effects of alloying elements in Ni-5at%X binary alloys on intergranular (IG) corrosion and stress corrosion cracking (SCC) have been assessed in 300-360°C hydrogenated water at the Ni/NiO stability line. Alloys with Cr or Al additions exhibited grain boundary oxidation and IGSCC, while localized degradation was not observed for pure Ni, Ni-Cu or Ni-Fe alloys. Environment-enhanced crack growth was determined by comparing the response in water and N2 gas. Results demonstrate that selective grain boundary oxidation of Cr and Al promoted IGSCC of these Ni alloys in hydrogenated water.

  13. A Study on the Thermodynamics of Grain Growth in R.F. Magnetron Sputtered NiO Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Dhanya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Postdeposition annealing of thin nickel films synthesized using R.F. magnetron sputtering technique is carried in this study. The XRD analysis indicates that annealing of the nickel films leads to the formation of nickel oxide with a preferential growth along (200 plane. The oxidation mechanism is observed with a phase transformation and results in polycrystalline NiO films. The surface morphology of the thin films was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM and atomic force microscopy (AFM as a function of annealing temperature. The studies indicate the formation of well-defined grain boundaries due to agglomeration of nanocrystallites. The films annealed in the range 573–773 K are found to be porous. The optical transmission spectra of the films annealed at 773 K exhibit interference effects for photon energies below the fundamental absorption edge. The optical studies indicate the existence of direct interband transition across a bandgap of 3.7 eV in confirmation with earlier band structure calculations.

  14. Assessment of the abnormal growth of floating macrophytes in Winam Gulf (Kenya) by using MODIS imagery time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusilli, L.; Collins, M. O.; Laneve, G.; Palombo, A.; Pignatti, S.; Santini, F.

    2013-02-01

    The objective of this research study is to assess the capability of time-series of MODIS imagery to provide information suitable for enhancing the understanding of the temporal cycles shown by the abnormal growth of the floating macrophytes in order to support monitoring and management action of Lake Victoria water resources. The proliferation of invasive plants and aquatic weeds is of growing concern. Starting from 1989, Lake Victoria has been interested by the high infestation of water hyacinth with significant socio-economic impact on riparian populations. In this paper, we describe an approach based on the time-series of MODIS to derive the temporal behaviour, the abundance and distribution of the floating macrophytes in the Winam Gulf (Kenyan portion of the Lake Victoria) and its possible links to the concentrations of the main water constituencies. To this end, we consider the NDVI values computed from the MODIS imagery time-series from 2000 to 2009 to identify the floating macrophytes cover and an appropriate bio-optical model to retrieve, by means of an inverse procedure, the concentrations of chlorophyll a, coloured dissolved organic matter and total suspended solid. The maps of the floating vegetation based on the NDVI values allow us to assess the spatial and temporal dynamics of the weeds with high time resolution. A floating vegetation index (FVI) has been introduced for describing the weeds pollution level. The results of the analysis show a consistent temporal relation between the water constituent concentrations within the Winam Gulf and the FVI, especially in the proximity of the greatest proliferation of floating vegetation in the last 10 years that occurred between the second half of 2006 and the first half of 2007.The adopted approach will be useful to implement an automatic system for monitoring and predicting the floating macrophytes proliferation in Lake Victoria.

  15. Sugarcane Aphid Population Growth, Plant Injury, and Natural Enemies on Selected Grain Sorghum Hybrids in Texas and Louisiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Michael J; Gordy, John W; Kerns, David L; Woolley, James B; Rooney, William L; Bowling, Robert D

    2017-10-01

    In response to the 2013 outbreak of sugarcane aphid, Melanaphis sacchari (Zehntner) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), on sorghum, Sorghum bicolor (L.), in North America, experiments were conducted at three southern U.S. grain sorghum production locations (Corpus Christi, TX; Winnsboro, LA; Rosenberg, TX). The objectives were to authenticate yield decline on susceptible hybrids (2014 and 2015) and to measure aphid population growth and natural enemy prevalence on susceptible and resistant hybrids with similar genetic background (2014). Yield decline on susceptible hybrids (Tx 2752/Tx430 and DKS53-67) was more substantial when aphid population growth accelerated quickly and peaked above 300 aphids per leaf (50 to nearly 100% yield decline). Location and year variation in maximum aphid density and cumulative aphid-days was high, with doubling time values on the susceptible hybrids ranging between 3.9 and 7.9 d. On resistant Tx2752/Tx2783, leaf injury and yield decline were not seen or less severe than on its paired susceptible Tx2752/Tx430. Aphids declined on Tx2752/Tx2783 after initial colony establishment (Corpus Christi) or took about 60% longer to double in population size when compared with Tx2572/Tx430 (Winnsboro). The predominant natural enemy taxa were aphelinid mummies (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae), ladybird beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), and sryphid flies (Diptera: Syrphidae), and they were more prevalent during flowering than prior to flowering. They were generally responsive to changes in aphid density of both susceptible and resistant hybrids, but variability points to need for further study. In future research, full season observations should continue as well as more detailed study of potential compatibility of sorghum resistance and biological control. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. [Effects of nitrogen fertilization and root separation on the plant growth and grain yield of maize and its rhizosphere microorganisms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiang-Qian; Huang, Guo-Qin; Bian, Xin-Min; Zhao, Qi-Guo

    2012-12-01

    A field experiment with root separation was conducted to study the effects of root interaction in maize-soybean intercropping system on the plant growth and grain yield of maize and its rhizosphere microorganisms under different nitrogen fertilization levels (0.1, 0.3, 0.5, and 0.7 g x kg(-1)). Root interaction and nitrogen fertilization had positive effects on the plant height, leaf length and width, and leaf chlorophyll content of maize. Less difference was observed in the root dry mass of maize at maturing stage between the treatments root separation and no root separation. However, as compared with root separation, no root separation under the nitrogen fertilization levels 0.1, 0.3, 0.5, and 0.7 g x kg(-1) increased the biomass per maize plant by 8.8%, 6.3%, 3.6%, and 0.7%, and the economic yield per maize plant by 17.7%, 10.0%, 8.2%, and 0.9%, respectively. No root separation increased the quantity of rhizosphere fungi and azotobacteria significantly, as compared with root separation. With increasing nitrogen fertilization level, the quantity of rhizosphere bacteria, fungi, and actinomycetes presented an increasing trend, while that of rhizosphere azotobacteria decreased after an initial increase. The root-shoot ratio of maize at maturing stage was significantly negatively correlated with the quantity of rhizosphere bacteria, fungi, and actinomycetes, but less correlated with the quantity of rhizosphere azotobacteria. It was suggested that the root interaction in maize-soybean intercropping system could improve the plant growth of maize and increase the maize yield and rhizosphere microbial quantity, but the effect would be decreased with increasing nitrogen fertilization level.

  17. A new seeding technique for the reliable fabrication of large, SmBCO single grains containing silver using top seeded melt growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Y.-H.; Dennis, A. R.; Cardwell, D. A.

    2015-03-01

    Silver (Ag) is an established additive for improving the mechanical properties of single grain, (RE)Ba2Cu3O7-δ [(RE)BCO, RE = Sm, Gd and Y] bulk superconductors. The presence of Ag in the (RE)BCO bulk composition, however, typically reduces the melting temperature of the single crystal seed in the top seeded melt growth (TSMG) process, which complicates significantly the controlled nucleation and subsequent epitaxial growth of a single grain, which is essential for high field engineering applications. The reduced reliability of the seeding process in the presence of Ag is particularly acute for the SmBCO system, since the melting temperature of SmBCO is very close to that of the generic NdBCO(MgO) seed. SmBCO has a high superconducting transition temperature, Tc, and exhibits the most pronounced ‘peak’ effect at higher magnetic field of all materials in the family of (RE)BCO bulk superconductors and, therefore, has the greatest potential for use in practical applications (compared to GdBCO and YBCO, in particular). Development of an effective seeding process, therefore, is one of the major challenges of the TSMG process for the growth of large, high quantity single grain superconductors. In this paper, we report a novel technique that involves introducing a buffer layer between the seed crystal and the precursor pellet, primarily to inhibit the diffusion of Ag from the green body to the seed during melt processing in order to prevent the melting of the seed. The success rate of the seeding process using this technique is 100% for relatively small batches of samples. The superconducting properties, critical temperature, Tc, critical current density, Jc and trapped fields, of the single grains fabricated using the buffers are reported and the microstructures in the vicinity of the buffer of single grains fabricated by the modified technique are analysed to understand further the effects of buffers on the growth process of these technologically important

  18. Implications of solute super-saturation in growth of vaporisation-induced recrystallised grains during heat treatment in Ni-base superalloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Souza, Neil; Welton, Dean [Rolls-Royce plc, Derby (United Kingdom); Wang, Hang [Birmingham Univ. (United Kingdom). School of Metallurgy and Materials

    2015-03-15

    The role of vaporisation in the evolution of surface micro-structural instability has been investigated in Ni-base superalloys during heat treatment below the solvus temperature. Initial nucleation of beta (β) grains at the surface with random orientations arose from vaporisation of Ni, Co and Cr with subsequent de-stabilisation of gamma (γ) phase. Further vaporisation and inter-diffusion resulted in a discontinuous reaction (secondary reaction zone - gamma prime (γ') matrix + topologically close packed phases with needle-like morphology). On the other hand, advancement of the secondary reaction zone grain boundary was shown to be dependent only on the solute supersaturation ahead of the boundary. The driving force for growth of the secondary reaction zone was calculated from the Gibbs energy change and nearly all of this force was available to pull the grain boundary.

  19. The proportion of nitrate in leaf nitrogen, but not changes in root growth, are associated with decreased grain protein in wheat under elevated [CO2].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrami, Helale; De Kok, Luit J; Armstrong, Roger; Fitzgerald, Glenn J; Bourgault, Maryse; Henty, Samuel; Tausz, Michael; Tausz-Posch, Sabine

    2017-09-01

    The atmospheric CO2 concentration ([CO2]) is increasing and predicted to reach ∼550ppm by 2050. Increasing [CO2] typically stimulates crop growth and yield, but decreases concentrations of nutrients, such as nitrogen ([N]), and therefore protein, in plant tissues and grains. Such changes in grain composition are expected to have negative implications for the nutritional and economic value of grains. This study addresses two mechanisms potentially accountable for the phenomenon of elevated [CO2]-induced decreases in [N]: N uptake per unit length of roots as well as inhibition of the assimilation of nitrate (NO3-) into protein are investigated and related to grain protein. We analysed two wheat cultivars from a similar genetic background but contrasting in agronomic features (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Scout and Yitpi). Plants were field-grown within the Australian Grains Free Air CO2 Enrichment (AGFACE) facility under two atmospheric [CO2] (ambient, ∼400ppm, and elevated, ∼550ppm) and two water treatments (rain-fed and well-watered). Aboveground dry weight (ADW) and root length (RL, captured by a mini-rhizotron root growth monitoring system), as well as [N] and NO3- concentrations ([NO3-]) were monitored throughout the growing season and related to grain protein at harvest. RL generally increased under e[CO2] and varied between water supply and cultivars. The ratio of total aboveground N (TN) taken up per RL was affected by CO2 treatment only later in the season and there was no significant correlation between TN/RL and grain protein concentration across cultivars and [CO2] treatments. In contrast, a greater percentage of N remained as unassimilated [NO3-] in the tissue of e[CO2] grown crops (expressed as the ratio of NO3- to total N) and this was significantly correlated with decreased grain protein. These findings suggest that e[CO2] directly affects the nitrate assimilation capacity of wheat with direct negative implications for grain quality. Crown Copyright

  20. Associations between pituitary imaging abnormalities and clinical and biochemical phenotypes in children with congenital growth hormone deficiency: data from an international observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deal, Cheri; Hasselmann, Caroline; Pfäffle, Roland W; Zimmermann, Alan G; Quigley, Charmian A; Child, Christopher J; Shavrikova, Elena P; Cutler, Gordon B; Blum, Werner F

    2013-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is used to investigate the etiology of growth hormone deficiency (GHD). This study examined relationships between MRI findings and clinical/hormonal phenotypes in children with GHD in the observational Genetics and Neuroendocrinology of Short Stature International Study, GeNeSIS. Clinical presentation, hormonal status and first-year GH response were compared between patients with pituitary imaging abnormalities (n = 1,071), patients with mutations in genes involved in pituitary development/GH secretion (n = 120) and patients with idiopathic GHD (n = 7,039). Patients with hypothalamic-pituitary abnormalities had more severe phenotypes than patients with idiopathic GHD. Additional hormonal deficiencies were found in 35% of patients with structural abnormalities (thyroid-stimulating hormone > adrenocorticotropic hormone > luteinizing hormone/follicle-stimulating hormone > antidiuretic hormone), most frequently in patients with septo-optic dysplasia (SOD). Patients with the triad [ectopic posterior pituitary (EPP), pituitary aplasia/hypoplasia and stalk defects] had a more severe phenotype and better response to GH treatment than patients with isolated abnormalities. The sex ratio was approximately equal for patients with SOD, but there was a significantly higher proportion of males (approximately 70%) in the EPP, pituitary hypoplasia, stalk defects, and triad categories. This large, international database demonstrates the value of classification of GH-deficient patients by the presence and type of hypothalamic-pituitary imaging abnormalities. This information may assist family counseling and patient management. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Expanding the spectrum of phenotypes associated with germline PIGA mutations: a child with developmental delay, accelerated linear growth, facial dysmorphisms, elevated alkaline phosphatase, and progressive CNS abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Crabben, Saskia N; Harakalova, Magdalena; Brilstra, Eva H; van Berkestijn, Frédérique M C; Hofstede, Floris C; van Vught, Adrianus J; Cuppen, Edwin; Kloosterman, Wigard; Ploos van Amstel, Hans Kristian; van Haaften, Gijs; van Haelst, Mieke M

    2014-01-01

    Phosphatidyl inositol glycan (PIG) enzyme subclasses are involved in distinct steps of glycosyl phosphatidyl inositol anchor protein biosynthesis. Glycolsyl phosphatidyl inositol-anchored proteins have heterogeneous functions; they can function as enzymes, adhesion molecules, complement regulators and co-receptors in signal transduction pathways. Germline mutations in genes encoding different members of the PIG family result in diverse conditions with (severe) developmental delay, (neonatal) seizures, hypotonia, CNS abnormalities, growth abnormalities, and congenital abnormalities as hallmark features. The variability of clinical features resembles the typical diversity of other glycosylation pathway deficiencies such as the congenital disorders of glycosylation. Here, we report the first germline missense mutation in the PIGA gene associated with accelerated linear growth, obesity, central hypotonia, severe refractory epilepsy, cardiac anomalies, mild facial dysmorphic features, mildly elevated alkaline phosphatase levels, and CNS anomalies consisting of progressive cerebral atrophy, insufficient myelinization, and cortical MRI signal abnormalities. X-exome sequencing in the proband identified a c.278C>T (p.Pro93Leu) mutation in the PIGA gene. The mother and maternal grandmother were unaffected carriers and the mother showed 100% skewing of the X-chromosome harboring the mutation. These results together with the clinical similarity of the patient reported here and the previously reported patients with a germline nonsense mutation in PIGA support the determination that this mutation caused the phenotype in this family. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Phase stability, grain growth and photoluminescence property of nanocrystalline yttria-stabilized zirconia film under 500 keV Xe{sup 6+} ion irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Lin; Chang, Yongqin, E-mail: chang@ustb.edu.cn; Guo, Qiang; Zhang, Jing; Wan, Farong; Long, Yi

    2014-06-01

    Nanocrystalline yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) film (with 8 mol% Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}) was synthesized via a sol–gel method. Phase stability, grain-growth and defects of the YSZ film were investigated under 500 keV Xe{sup 6+} ions irradiation to doses up to an average value of 22.2 displacements per atom (dpa). Atomic force microscope results show that the surface of the as-grown YSZ film is quite smooth and free of cracks. Transmission electron microscope results reveal that the average grain-size of the as-grown samples is around 12.6 nm. With increasing irradiation does up to 22.2 dpa, the average grain size increases, no phase transformation or amorphization is observed, which indicates that the phase structure of the nanocrystalline cubic YSZ film is quite stable. Two strong and broad emission peaks were detected in the YSZ film, and the emission intensity decreases obviously after irradiation. The possible mechanism of the grain growth was also discussed.

  3. Anophthalmia, hearing loss, abnormal pituitary development and response to growth hormone therapy in three children with microdeletions of 14q22q23.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brisset, Sophie; Slamova, Zuzana; Dusatkova, Petra; Briand-Suleau, Audrey; Milcent, Karen; Metay, Corinne; Simandlova, Martina; Sumnik, Zdenek; Tosca, Lucie; Goossens, Michel; Labrune, Philippe; Zemankova, Elsa; Lebl, Jan; Tachdjian, Gerard; Sedlacek, Zdenek

    2014-02-28

    Microdeletions of 14q22q23 have been associated with eye abnormalities and pituitary defects. Other phenotypic features in deletion carriers including hearing loss and response to growth hormone therapy are less well recognized. We studied genotype and phenotype of three newly identified children with 14q22q23 deletions, two girls and one boy with bilateral anophthalmia, and compared them with previously published deletion patients and individuals with intragenic defects in genes residing in the region. The three deletions were de novo and ranged in size between 5.8 and 8.9 Mb. All three children lacked one copy of the OTX2 gene and in one of them the deletion involved also the BMP4 gene. All three patients presented partial conductive hearing loss which tended to improve with age. Analysis of endocrine and growth phenotypes showed undetectable anterior pituitary, growth hormone deficiency and progressive growth retardation in all three patients. Growth hormone therapy led to partial catch-up growth in two of the three patients but just prevented further height loss in the third. The pituitary hypoplasia, growth hormone deficiency and growth retardation associated with 14q22q23 microdeletions are very remarkable, and the latter appears to have an atypical response to growth hormone therapy in some of the cases.

  4. Decreased sorbitol synthesis leads to abnormal stamen development and reduced pollen tube growth via an MYB transcription factor, MdMYB39L, in apple (Malus domestica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Dong; He, Mingyang; Bai, Yang; Xu, Hongxia; Dandekar, Abhaya M; Fei, Zhangjun; Cheng, Lailiang

    2017-10-13

    Sugars produced by photosynthesis not only fuel plant growth and development, but may also act as signals to regulate plant growth and development. This work focuses on the role of sorbitol, a sugar alcohol, in flower development and pollen tube growth of apple (Malus domestica). Transgenic 'Greensleeves' apple trees with decreased sorbitol synthesis had abnormal stamen development, a decreased pollen germination rate and reduced pollen tube growth, which were all closely related to lower sorbitol concentrations in stamens. RNA sequencing and quantitative RT-PCR analyses identified reduced transcript levels during stamen development and pollen tube growth in the transgenic trees of a stamen-specific MYB39-like transcription factor, MdMYB39L, and of its putative target genes involved in hexose uptake, cell wall formation and microsporogenesis. Suppressing MdMYB39L expression in pollen via antisense oligonucleotide transfection significantly reduced the expression of its putative target genes and pollen tube growth. Exogenous sorbitol application during flower development partially restored MdMYB39L expression, stamen development, and pollen germination and tube growth of the transgenic trees. Addition of sorbitol to the germination medium also partially restored pollen germination and tube growth of the transgenic trees. We conclude that sorbitol plays an essential role in stamen development and pollen tube growth via MdMYB39L in apple. © 2017 The Authors New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  5. Effect of feeding fermented liquid feed and fermented grain on gastrointestinal ecology and growth performance in piglets

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Canibe, N; Hojberg, O; Badsberg, J. H; Jensen, B. B

    2007-01-01

    ...: nuria.canibe{at}agrsci.dk To investigate the microbial and nutritional characteristics of dry feed, liquid feed containing fermented liquid cereal grains, and fermented liquid feed, and their effect on gastrointestinal...

  6. A novel pre-sintering technique for the growth of Y-Ba-Cu-O superconducting single grains from raw metal oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiawei; Shi, Yun-Hua; Dennis, Anthony R.; Namburi, Devendra Kumar; Durrell, John H.; Yang, Wanmin; Cardwell, David A.

    2017-09-01

    Most established top seeded melt growth (TSMG) processes of bulk, single grain Y-Ba-Cu-O (YBCO) superconductors are performed using a mixture of pre-reacted precursor powders. Here we report the successful growth of large, single grain YBCO samples by TSMG with good superconducting properties from a simple precursor composition consisting of a sintered mixture of the raw oxides. The elimination of the requirement to synthesize precursor powders in a separate process prior to melt processing has the potential to reduce significantly the cost of bulk superconductors, which is essential for their commercial exploitation. The growth morphology, microstructure, trapped magnetic field and critical current density, J c, at different positions within the sample and maximum levitation force of the YBCO single grains fabricated by this process are reported. Measurements of the superconducting properties show that the trapped filed can reach 0.45 T and that a zero field J c of 2.5 × 104 A cm-2 can be achieved in these samples. These values are comparable to those observed in samples fabricated using pre-reacted, high purity commercial oxide precursor powders. The experimental results are discussed and the possibility of further improving the melt process using raw oxides is outlined.

  7. Why do interstellar grains exist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seab, C. G.; Hollenbach, D. J.; Mckee, C. F.; Tielens, Alexander G. G. M.

    1986-01-01

    There exists a discrepancy between calculated destruction rates of grains in the interstellar medium and postulated sources of new grains. This problem was examined by modelling the global life cycle of grains in the galaxy. The model includes: grain destruction due to supernovae shock waves; grain injection from cool stars, planetary nebulae, star formation, novae, and supernovae; grain growth by accretion in dark clouds; and a mixing scheme between phases of the interstellar medium. Grain growth in molecular clouds is considered as a mechanism or increasing the formation rate. To decrease the shock destruction rate, several new physical processes, such as partial vaporization effects in grain-grain collisions, breakdown of the small Larmor radius approximation for betatron acceleration, and relaxation of the steady-state shock assumption are included.

  8. Improving 6061-Al Grain Growth and Penetration across HIP-Bonded Clad Interfaces in Monolithic Fuel Plates: Initial Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hackenberg, Robert E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); McCabe, Rodney J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Montalvo, Joel D. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Clarke, Kester D. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dvornak, Matthew J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Edwards, Randall L. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Crapps, Justin M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Trujillo, R. Ralph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Aikin, Beverly [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Vargas, Victor D. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hollis, Kendall J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Lienert, Thomas J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Forsyth, Robert T. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Harada, Kiichi L. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2013-05-06

    Grain penetration across aluminum-aluminum cladding interfaces in research reactor fuel plates is desirable and was obtained by a legacy roll-bonding process, which attained 20-80% grain penetration. Significant grain penetration in monolithic fuel plates produced by Hot Isostatic Press (HIP) fabrication processing is equally desirable but has yet to be attained. The goal of this study was to modify the 6061-Al in such a way as to promote a much greater extent of crossinterface grain penetration in monolithic fuel plates fabricated by the HIP process. This study documents the outcomes of several strategies attempted to attain this goal. The grain response was characterized using light optical microscopy (LOM) electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) as a function of these prospective process modifications done to the aluminum prior to the HIP cycle. The strategies included (1) adding macroscopic gaps in the sandwiches to enhance Al flow, (2) adding engineering asperities to enhance Al flow, (3) adding stored energy (cold work), and (4) alternative cleaning and coating. Additionally, two aqueous cleaning methods were compared as baseline control conditions. The results of the preliminary scoping studies in all the categories are presented. In general, none of these approaches were able to obtain >10% grain penetration. Recommended future work includes further development of macroscopic grooving, transferred-arc cleaning, and combinations of these with one another and with other processes.

  9. Densification and grain growth during sintering of porous Ce0.9Gd0.1O1.95tape cast layers: A comprehensive study on heuristic methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ni, De Wei; Schmidt, Cristine Grings; Teocoli, Francesca

    2013-01-01

    the dominant sintering mechanisms and kinetics, both in isothermal and at constant heating rate (iso-rate) conditions. Densification of porous CGO10 tape is thermally activated with typical activation energy which was estimated around 440–470 kJ mol−1. Grain growth showed similar thermal activation energy......The sintering behavior of porous Ce0.9Gd0.1O1.95(CGO10) tape cast layers was systematically investigated to establish fundamental kinetic parameters associated to densification and grain growth. Densification and grain growth were characterized by a set of different methods to determine...

  10. Thermal stability, thermal expansion and grain-growth in exchange-coupled Fe-Pt-Ag-B bulk nanocomposite magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicula, R., E-mail: radu.nicula@empa.ch [Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Advanced Materials Processing, Feuerwerkerstr. 39, CH-3602 Thun (Switzerland); Crisan, O.; Crisan, A.D.; Mercioniu, I. [National Institute for Materials Physics, P.O. Box MG-7, 077125 Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Stir, M. [University of Berne, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Freiestrasse 3, CH-3012 Berne (Switzerland); Vasiliu, F. [National Institute for Materials Physics, P.O. Box MG-7, 077125 Bucharest-Magurele (Romania)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • Formation of the L10 FePt hard-magnetic phase (>90%) directly in the as-cast state. • Specific alternating hard/soft nanostructure is stable to 600 °C without grain growth. • Anisotropic and non-linear thermal expansion effects. • The FePtAgB alloy behaves like a single magnetic phase (full exchange coupling). - Abstract: Rare-earth free (RE-free) exchange coupling nanocomposite magnets are intensively studied nowadays due to their potential use in applications demanding stable high-temperature operation and corrosion resistance. In this respect, the FePt alloy system is one of the most actively addressed potential permanent magnet solutions. In FePt alloys, promising magnetic features arise from the co-existence of hard magnetic L1{sub 0} FePt and soft magnetic L1{sub 2} Fe{sub 3}Pt phases emerged from the same metastable precursor. The present work deals with an in-situ temperature-resolved synchrotron radiation study of the thermal stability, thermal expansion and microstructure evolution in exchange-coupled FePtAgB alloys. The as-cast microstructural state as well as the optimized magnetic behavior are given as reference and correlated to the observed microstructural evolution with temperature. The melt-spun Fe{sub 48}Pt{sub 28}Ag{sub 6}B{sub 18} alloy ribbons were examined in situ by synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction from ambient temperature up to 600 °C. The FePt-Fe{sub 3}Pt exchange-coupled microstructure achieved by rapid solidification is not significantly altered during the high temperature exposure. The thermal expansion of the FePt L1{sub 0} unit cell has been found to be strongly anisotropic, being essentially an in-plane expansion which may be seen as an anisotropic invar effect. For the FePt L1{sub 0} phase, a significant deviation from linear thermal expansion is observed at the Curie temperature T{sub C} = 477 °C. This non-linear behavior above T{sub C} is tentatively linked to a diffusion/segregation mechanism of Ag

  11. The effect of low-dose aspirin on fetal weight of idiopathic asymmetrically intrauterine growth restricted fetuses with abnormal umbilical artery Doppler indices: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Mohammed K; Abbas, Ahmed M; Yosef, Ali H; Bahloul, Mustafa

    2017-07-11

    To investigate the effect of aspirin on fetal weight in fetuses with idiopathic asymmetrical intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) complicated by abnormal umbilical artery Doppler indices. The study was a randomized controlled trial conducted at Woman's Health Hospital, Assiut, Egypt, between June 2016 and the January 2017 included 60 pregnant women (28-30 weeks) with idiopathic asymmetrical IUGR associated with abnormal umbilical artery Doppler indices. Women were randomly assigned to group I (aspirin 75 mg) daily for four weeks or group II (no intervention). The primary outcome was the fetal weight after four weeks. Secondary outcomes included Doppler blood flow changes in the umbilical artery plus delivery and neonatal outcomes. The estimated fetal weight and umbilical artery blood flow increased significantly in aspirin group (p = .00) when compared with no intervention group. As regard neonatal outcomes; aspirin group showed better results and encouraging outcomes (p Doppler blood flow.

  12. Effects of ocean acidification driven by elevated CO2 on larval shell growth and abnormal rates of the venerid clam, Mactra veneriformis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jee-Hoon; Yu, Ok Hwan; Yang, Eun Jin; Kang, Sung-Ho; Kim, Won; Choy, Eun Jung

    2016-11-01

    The venerid clam ( Mactra veneriformis Reeve 1854) is one of the main cultured bivalve species in intertidal and shallow subtidal ecosystems along the west coast of Korea. To understand the effects of ocean acidification on the early life stages of Korean clams, we investigated shell growth and abnormality rates and types in the D-shaped, umbonate veliger, and pediveliger stages of the venerid clam M. veneriformis during exposure to elevated seawater pCO2. In particular, we examined abnormal types of larval shell morphology categorized as shell deformations, shell distortions, and shell fissures. Specimens were incubated in seawater equilibrated with bubbled CO2-enriched air at (400±25)×10-6 (ambient control), (800±25)×10-6 (high pCO2), or (1 200±28)×10-6 (extremely high pCO2), the atmospheric CO2 concentrations predicted for the years 2014, 2084, and 2154 (70-year intervals; two human generations), respectively, in the Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 8.5 scenario. The mean shell lengths of larvae were significantly decreased in the high and extremely high pCO2 groups compared with the ambient control groups. Furthermore, under high and extremely high pCO2 conditions, the cultures exhibited significantly increased abundances of abnormal larvae and increased severity of abnormalities compared with the ambient control. In the umbonate veliger stage of the experimental larvae, the most common abnormalities were shell deformations, distortions, and fissures; on the other hand, convex hinges and mantle protuberances were absent. These results suggest that elevated CO2 exerts an additional burden on the health of M. veneriformis larvae by impairing early development.

  13. Ion induced crystallization and grain growth of hafnium oxide nano-particles in thin-films deposited by radio frequency magnetron sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanunjaya, M.; Khan, S. A.; Pathak, A. P.; Avasthi, D. K.; Nageswara Rao, S. V. S.

    2017-12-01

    We report on the swift heavy ion (SHI) irradiation induced crystallization and grain growth of HfO2 nanoparticles (NPs) within the HfO2 thin-films deposited by radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering technique. As grown films consisted of amorphous clusters of non-spherical HfO2 NPs. These amorphous clusters are transformed to crystalline grains under 100 MeV Ag ion irradiation. These crystallites are found to be spherical in shape and are well dispersed within the films. The average size of these crystallites is found to increase with fluence. Pristine and irradiated films have been characterized by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED), grazing incident x-ray diffraction (GIXRD) and photo luminescence (PL) measurements. The PL measurements suggested the existence of different types of oxygen related defects in pristine and irradiated samples. The observed results on crystallization and grain growth under the influence of SHI are explained within the framework of thermal spike model. The results are expected to provide useful information for understanding the electronic excitation induced crystallization of nanoparticles and can lead to useful applications in electronic and photonic devices.

  14. The influence of slow cooling on Y211 size and content in single-grain YBCO bulk superconductor through the infiltration-growth process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ouerghi, A [Systems and Applied Mechanics Laboratory LASMAP, Polytechnic School of Tunisia, Rue El Kawarezmi La Marsa 743, Université de Carthage Tunis (Tunisia); Moutalbi, N., E-mail: nahed.moutalbi@yahoo.fr [Systems and Applied Mechanics Laboratory LASMAP, Polytechnic School of Tunisia, Rue El Kawarezmi La Marsa 743, Université de Carthage Tunis (Tunisia); Noudem, J.G. [CRISMAT-ENSICAEN (UMR-CNRS 6508), Université de Caen-Basse-Normandie, F-14050 Caen (France); LUSAC, Université de Caen-Basse-Normandie F-50130 Cherbourg-Octeville (France); M' chirgui, A. [Systems and Applied Mechanics Laboratory LASMAP, Polytechnic School of Tunisia, Rue El Kawarezmi La Marsa 743, Université de Carthage Tunis (Tunisia)

    2017-03-15

    Highlights: • YBCO bulk superconductors are produced by optimized Seeded Infiltration and Growth process. • The slow cooling time, in a fixed slow cooling temperature window, affects considerably the surface morphology and the bulk’s microstructure. • The Y211 particle’s size and content depend on the slow cooling time and its distribution behavior changes from one position to another. • There is an optimum slow cooling time, estimated to 88h, over which the shrinkage for both the liquid phase and the Y211 pellet is maximal, without any improvement of the crystal grain growth. • The magnetic trapped flux distribution for a given sample brings out the single grain characteristic. - Abstract: Highly textured YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-δ} (Y123) superconductors were produced using modified Textured Top Seeded Infiltration Growth (TSIG) process. The liquid source is made of only Y123 powder whereas the solid source is composed of Y{sub 2}BaCuO{sub 5} (Y211) powder. We aim to control the amount of liquid that infiltrates the solid pellet, which in turn controls the final amount of Y{sub 2}BaCuO{sub 5} particles in Y123 matrix. The effect of the slow cooling kinetics on sample morphology, on grain growth and on final microstructure was too investigated. It is shown that appropriate slow cooling time may also contribute to the control of the amount of Y211 inclusions in the final structure of Y123 bulk. We report herein the Y211 particle size and density distribution in the whole Y123 matrix. The present work proves that finest Y211 particles locate under the seed and that their size and density increase with distance from the seed.

  15. Mechanism of competitive grain growth in a curvilinear channel of crystal-sorter during the orientational solidification of nickel-based heat-resistant alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monastyrskiy, V. P.; Pozdnyakov, A. N.; Ershov, M. Yu.; Monastyrskiy, A. V.

    2017-07-01

    Using numerical simulation in the ProCAST program complex, the conditions of the solidification of heat-resistant nickel alloy in curvilinear channels of a ceramic mold have been investigated. It has been shown that, in practically important cases, the vector of the temperature gradient is oriented along the axis of the curvilinear channel. In a spiral crystal selector, a cyclic change in the preferred direction of growth occurs because of the cyclic change in the direction of the vector of the temperature gradient. The fact that the vector of the temperature gradient is almost always directed along the axis of the curvilinear channel makes it possible to govern the orientation of the vector of the temperature gradient in space and, therefore, to obtain a grain with the preferred crystallographic orientation. Based on the results of this investigation, a method of the grain selection with a desired azimuthal orientation is proposed.

  16. Oxide Dissolution and Oxygen Diffusion in Solid-State Recycled Ti-6Al-4V: Numerical Modeling, Verification by Nanoindentation, and Effects on Grain Growth and Recrystallization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lui, E. W.; Palanisamy, S.; Dargusch, M. S.; Xia, K.

    2017-12-01

    The oxide dissolution and oxygen diffusion during annealing of Ti-6Al-4V solid-state recycled from machining chips by equal-channel angular pressing (ECAP) have been investigated using nanoindentation and numerical modeling. The hardness profile from nanoindentation was converted into the oxygen concentration distribution using the Fleisher and Friedel model. An iterative fitting method was then employed to revise the ideal model proposed previously, leading to correct predictions of the oxide dissolution times and oxygen concentration profiles and verifying nanoindentation as an effective method to measure local oxygen concentrations. Recrystallization started at the prior oxide boundaries where local strains were high from the severe plastic deformation incurred in the ECAP recycling process, forming a band of ultrafine grains whose growth was retarded by solute dragging thanks to high oxygen concentrations. The recrystallized fine-grained region would advance with time to eventually replace the lamellar structure formed during ECAP.

  17. Spark Plasma Sintering of high-strength ultrafine-grained tungsten carbide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nokhrin, A. V.; Chuvil'deev, V. N.; Blagoveshchenskiy, Yu V.; Boldin, M. S.; Sakharov, N. V.; Isaeva, N. V.; Popov, A. A.; Lantcev, E. A.; Belkin, O. A.; Smirnova, E. S.

    2017-07-01

    The paper dwells on the research conducted into high-rate consolidation of pure tungsten carbide nanopowders using the Spark Plasma Sintering. Studies included the effect that the original size of WC nanoparticles and their preparation modes have on density, structure parameters, and mechanical properties of tungsten carbide. It has been found that materials that show abnormal grain growth during sintering have lower values of sintering activation energy as compared to materials the structure of which is more stable during high-rate heating. A qualitative model is proposed that explains this effect through the dependence of the grain boundary diffusion coefficient on the grain boundary migration rate.

  18. Facile solvothermal synthesis of abnormal growth of one-dimensional ZnO nanostructures by ring-opening reaction of polyvinylpyrrolidone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, G., E-mail: gxu@alum.imr.ac.cn; Wang, X.L.; Liu, G.Z.

    2015-02-28

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Facile solvothermal synthesis of ZnO nanostructures in super high alkaline alcoholic condition. • The exact role and chemical transformations of PVP in solvothermal synthesis of ZnO nanostructures was revealed. • Mechanism of abnormal growth of ZnO nanopyramids was proposed based on ring-opening reaction of PVP. - Abstract: Abnormal growth of one-dimensional (1-D) ZnO nanostructures (NSs) have been accomplished with the assistance of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) under a super high alkaline alcoholic solvothermal condition. The products were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and proton nuclear magnetic resonance ({sup 1}H NMR) spectroscopy. The effect of synthetic conditions, such as reaction temperature and the addition of PVP, on the morphologies of ZnO products were investigated. The results show that PVP molecules had the significant role in the transformation of morphologies of ZnO NSs ranging from nanorods, nanoparticles to pyramids, as well as flower-like assembly features. The possible growth mechanism of ZnO pyramids was proposed based on ring-opening reaction of PVP.

  19. Growth performance, feeding behavior, and selected blood metabolites of Holstein dairy calves fed restricted amounts of milk: No interactions between sources of finely ground grain and forage provision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzaei, M; Khorvash, M; Ghorbani, G R; Kazemi-Bonchenari, M; Ghaffari, M H

    2017-02-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of grain sources and forage provision on growth performance, blood metabolites, and feeding behaviors of dairy calves. Sixty 3-d-old Holstein dairy calves (42.2 ± 2.5 kg of body weight) were used in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement with the factors being grain sources (barley and corn) and forage provision (no forage, alfalfa hay, and corn silage). Individually housed calves were randomly assigned (n = 10 calves per treatment: 5 males and 5 females) to 6 treatments: (1) barley grain (BG) without forage supplement, (2) BG with alfalfa hay (AH) supplementation, (3) BG with corn silage (CS) supplementation, (4) corn grain (CG) without forage supplement, (5) CG with AH supplementation, and (6) CG with CS supplementation. All calves had ad libitum access to water and starter feed throughout the experiment. All calves were weaned on d 49 and remained in the study until d 63. Starter feed intake and average daily gain (ADG) was greater for calves fed barley than those fed corn during the preweaning and overall periods. Calves supplemented with CS had greater final body weight and postweaning as well as overall starter feed intake than AH and non-forage-supplemented calves. During the preweaning and overall periods, feeding of CS was found to increase ADG compared with feeding AH and nonforage diets. However, feed efficiency was not affected by dietary treatments. Calves supplemented with CS spent more time ruminating compared with AH and control groups; nonnutritive oral behaviors were the greatest in non-forage-supplemented calves. Regardless of the grain sources, the rumen pH value was greater for AH calves compared with CS and non-forage-supplemented calves. Blood concentration of BHB was greater for CS-supplemented calves compared with AH and non-forage-supplemented calves. Furthermore, body length and heart girth were greater for calves fed barley compared with those fed corn, and also in forage

  20. Effects of Grain Boundaries and Dislocation Cell Walls on Void Nucleation and Growth in Aluminium during Fast Neutron Irradiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horsewell, Andy; Rahman, F. A.; Singh, Bachu Narain

    1983-01-01

    High purity aluminium irradiated to fluences between 2 multiplied by 10**2**1 and 1 multiplied by 10**2**4 n. m** minus **2 (E greater than 1 Mev) at 120 degree C has been investigated by TEM. A void denuded zone is seen both at grain boundaries and dislocation cell walls. Enhanced void formation...

  1. Combining x-ray diffraction contrast tomography and mesoscale grain growth simulations in strontium titanate: An integrated approach for the investigation of microstructure evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Syha, Melanie; Baürer, Michael; Rheinheimer, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Motivated by the recently reported a growth anomaly in strontium titatate bulk samples1, the microstructure of bulk strontium titanate has been investigated by an integrated approach comprising conventional metallography, three dimensional X-ray diffraction contrast tomography (DCT)2, and the obs......Motivated by the recently reported a growth anomaly in strontium titatate bulk samples1, the microstructure of bulk strontium titanate has been investigated by an integrated approach comprising conventional metallography, three dimensional X-ray diffraction contrast tomography (DCT)2......, and the observation of pore shapes in combination with mesoscale grain growth simulations. The microstructural evolution in strontium titanate has been characterized alternating ex-situ annealing and high energy X-ray DCT measurements, resulting in three dimensional microstructure reconstructions which...

  2. Association of maternal and umbilical cord blood leptin concentrations and abnormal color Doppler indices of umbilical artery with fetal growth restriction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elahe Zareaan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fetal growth restriction (FGR is a condition with heterogeneous pathophysiology which characterized by fetal weight less than the tenth percentile for gestational age. Several factors have impact on maternal, placental and fetal due to growth restriction. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between levels of leptin in the cord, and serum leptin of mothers also abnormal color Doppler indices of umbilical artery with fetal growth restriction. Materials and Methods: This is a cross sectional study conducted in Isfahan, Iran, 2015-2016. We recruited 40 women with singleton pregnancies complicated by fetal growth restriction (Group I and 40 pregnant women with normal fetal growth (Group II with matched age. Maternal serum and umbilical artery leptin levels were determined with Enzyme-Linked immunosorben method. Also, color Doppler ultrasound of umbilical artery was performed. Results: Mean maternal and fetal leptin levels were lower in the FGR group compared to the normal group (36.58±(20.99 and 7.42 ±(4.08vs. 47.32±(22.50 and 30.49±(14.50 respectively. Also, mean fetal leptin level was lower in the group with abnormal color Doppler sonographic indices compared to the normal group (7. 40 ±(4.10vs 27.06±(15.80, respectively. Conclusion: This study indicated that maternal and fetal leptin levels are correlated with FGR originating from damaged placental function; also fetal leptin level can indicate changes in color Doppler sonographic indices.

  3. Meiotic abnormalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 19, describes meiotic abnormalities. These include nondisjunction of autosomes and sex chromosomes, genetic and environmental causes of nondisjunction, misdivision of the centromere, chromosomally abnormal human sperm, male infertility, parental age, and origin of diploid gametes. 57 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Effects of Nano-Zinc oxide and Seed Inoculation by Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR on Yield, Yield Components and Grain Filling Period of Soybean (Glycine max L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Seyed Sharifi

    2016-02-01

    promoting rhizobacteria application on yield, yield components and grain filling period of soybean. Materials and Methods In order to study the effects of Nano-Zinc oxide and seed inoculation with Brady rhizobium and plant growth promoting rhizobacteria on yield and some agronomic characteristics of soybean, a factorial experiment based on randomized complete block design with three replications was conducted in 2013 at the research farm of the Islamic Azad University, Ardabil Branch. Factors were included foliar application of Nano-Zinc oxide at four levels (Zero as control, 0.3, 0.6 and 0.9 g l-1 and seed inoculation with Brady rhizobium and plant growth promoting rhizobacteria at five levels (without inoculation as control, seed inoculation with Brady rhizobium japanicum, seed inoculation with Brady rhizobium japanicum+Azosprillum lipoferum strain OF, seed inoculation with Brady rhizobium japanicum+Psedomonas putida, seed inoculation with Brady rhizobium japanicum+ Azosprillum lipoferum strain OF+ Psedomonas putida. Results and Discussion The results of growth indices showed that the maximum total dry matter (530 g m-2, crop growth rate (9.48 g.m-2.day-1 and relative growth rate (0.1 g.g-1.day-1 were obtained at foliar application of 0.9 g l-1 Nano-Zinc oxide×seed inoculation with rhizobium+Azosprillum+ Psedomonas and the least of these indices were obtained without of foliar application Nano-Zinc oxide × seed inoculation. The results showed that plant height, the number of nodules per plant, the number of pod per plant, grain yield and grain 100 weight were significantly affected by Nano-Zinc oxide, seed inoculation and interaction of Nano-Zinc oxide×seed inoculation. Maximum of plant height, grain 100 weight, the number of nodules per plant and grain yield were obtained at foliar application of 0.9 g l-1 of Nano-Zinc oxide×seed inoculation with rhizobium and PGPR. Dry weight of nodules per plant, the number of pod per plant and the number of grains per plant

  5. Study of grain growth in pellets of U O{sub 2}; Estudo do crescimento de graos de UO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galinari, Clenice M.; Lameiras, Fernando S. [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    1997-12-01

    The microstructure of a polycrystalline material has a strong influence on their properties, such as mechanical strength, electrical conductivity, optical transmission and magnetic susceptibility. The Uranium dioxide (U O{sub 2}) have been studied and used in water cooled nuclear reactors since the beginning of the nuclear technology, because it has the required characteristics for a nuclear fuel. The U O{sub 2} is widely used in the form of pellets manufactured through powder compaction and sintering. The manufacturing parameters directly affect the fuel microstructure. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the grain growth in pellets of U O{sub 2} after resintering and the applicability of Lameiras model on microparticle restructuring. The fuel pellets were obtained through direct pelletizing with compaction pressure at 400 MPa, sintering temperature at 1700{sup 0} C, resintering temperature at 1730{sup 0} C, and variation of the resintering times from 1 to 5 hours. The grain size distribution and the grain average diameter were measured with the Quantikov image analyzer that employs the Saltykov`s method. (author). 12 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Section 1: Interfacial reactions and grain growth in ferroelectric SrBi{sub 2}Ta{sub 2}O (SBT) thin films on Si substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dickerson, B.D.; Zhang, X.; Desu, S.B. [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    Much of the cost of traditional infrared cameras based on narrow-bandgap photoelectric semiconductors comes from the cryogenic cooling systems required to achieve high detectivity. Detectivity is inversely proportional to noise. Generation-recombination noise in photoelectric detectors increases roughly exponentially with temperature, but thermal noise in photoelectric detectors increases only linearly with temperature. Therefore `thermal detectors perform far better at room temperature than 8-14 {mu}m photon detectors.` Although potentially more affordable, uncooled pyroelectric cameras are less sensitive than cryogenic photoelectric cameras. One way to improve the sensitivity to cost ratio is to deposit ferroelectric pixels with good electrical properties directly on mass-produced, image-processing chips. `Good` properties include a strong temperature dependence of the remanent polarization, P{sub r}, or the relative dielectric constant, {epsilon}{sub r}, for sensitive operation in pyroelectric or dielectric mode, respectively, below or above the Curie temperature, which is 320 C for SBT. When incident infrared radiation is chopped, small oscillations in pixel temperature produce pyroelectric or dielectric alternating currents. The sensitivity of ferroelectric thermal detectors depends strongly on pixel microstructure, since P{sub r} and {epsilon}{sub r} increase with grain size during annealing. To manufacture SBT pixels on Si chips, acceptable SBT grain growth must be achieved at the lowest possible oxygen annealing temperature, to avoid damaging the Si chip below. Therefore current technical progress describes how grain size, reaction layer thickness, and electrical properties develop during the annealing of SBT pixels deposited on Si.

  7. Influence of composition, grain size, and oxide particles on the strength of consolidated ball-milled iron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benito, J. A.; Gregoire, V.; Casas, C.; Cabrera, J. M.

    2014-08-01

    In this paper iron powders with two oxygen content (0.2 and 0.6% wt.) have been mechanically milled and consolidated by hot static pressing at different temperatures to obtain different grain sizes. At lower temperatures the grain size was in the nanostructured and ultrafine range and with increasing temperature abnormal grain growth was observed for both compositions. This led to the development of bimodal grain size distributions. In the samples with lower oxygen content the grain size and the percentage of coarse grain areas were larger than in the case of high oxygen content. The strength and ductility have been determined by tensile tests. For low oxygen content, the presence of large coarse grains allowed plastic strain in some cases, and for the samples consolidated at higher temperatures, yield strength of 865 MPa with a 8% total strain were obtained. For the samples with high oxygen content plastic deformation was no possible in any case. The observed stress for both compositions was analysed by two approaches, one based exclusively in grain boundary strengthening and the other one based in two effects acting at the same time: grain boundary and particle strengthening. Whereas grain boundary strengthening seems to fit with the strength of the samples in the nanostructured range, when coarse ferrite grains appear the addition of particle strengthening help to get better results. This indicates that the presence of oxides dissolved inside the large grains reinforce the structure of ball-milled iron.

  8. Changes in carbon and nitrogen allocation, growth and grain yield induced by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) subjected to a period of water deficit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Qin; Ravnskov, Sabine; Jiang, Dong

    2015-01-01

    Drought is a major abiotic factor limiting agricultural crop production. One of the effective ways to increase drought resistance in plants could be to optimize the exploitation of symbiosis with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). Hypothesizing that alleviation of water deficits by AMF in wheat...... increased plant height in both cultivars. AMF also increased biomass and grain yield in ‘1110’ but not in ‘Vinjett’. The results showed that the improvements in growth and yield were the results of AMF-mediated increases in photosynthesis during drought stress and that the alleviating effect of AMF depended...... will help maintain photosynthetic carbon-use, we studied the role of AMF on gas-exchange, light-use efficiencies, carbon/nitrogen ratios and growth and yield parameters in the contrasting wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars ‘Vinjett’ and ‘1110’ grown with/without AMF symbiosis. Water deficits applied...

  9. Nutritional value of sugarcane silage enriched with corn grain, urea, and minerals as feed supplement on growth performance of beef steers grazing stargrass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Vázquez, Armando; Pinos-Rodríguez, Juan Manuel; García-López, Juan Carlos; de la Cruz-Lázaro, Efrain; Luna-Palomera, Carlos; Sánchez-Hernández, Rufo

    2011-01-01

    The objectives were to evaluate the silage quality of sugarcane silage enriched (as fed) with corn grain ground (10%), urea (1.5%), and mineral premix (0.5%) and its effects as a feed supplement on growth performance of beef steers grazing stargrass. Firstly, in micro-silages, whole sugarcane enriched with corn grain, urea, and minerals (WSCE) were ensilaged by 0, 20, 40, and 60 days. Crude protein (CP) and lactic acid (LA) increased linearly (P chemical composition trait in the silage. The SCCE silages had higher CP and LA and lower pH than WSCE silages. Finally, for 120 days, 20 beef steers (378 ± 33 kg initial BW) grazing stargrass were supplemented (daily by 1-h free access) with WSCE silage. Supplemental silage increased total dry matter intake, total gain, and the average daily gain, without any affectation on feed conversion and total tract digestion of dry matter. It is concluded that whole sugarcane silage is an alternative feed supplement to improve growth performance in beef steers grazing stargrass.

  10. Evaluation of Water Stress on Yield, Its Components and Some Physiological Traits at Different Growth Stages in Grain Sorghum Genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali AZARINASRABAD

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Investigation on yield improvement and development under drought condition using breeding techniques is difficult, due to the association with low heritability of specific traits. Even more, investigation of physiological indicators (stomatal conductance, chlorophyll index, relative water content, chlorophyll fluorescence, canopy temperature, radiation use efficiency, stay-green etc. is of interest as they are more accessible, with a low cost, therefore these indicators of physiological traits can be used as good criteria in selecting valuable species. In order to evaluate the effects of water stress on grain yield, its components and some physiological traits of grain sorghum genotypes (Sorghum bicolor L., a field experiment using split plot design with three replications was carried. The main plots included three water stress treatments: normal irrigation as control, halting irrigation at the stage of terminal leaf emergence and halting irrigation at the stage of 50% flowering. The sub-plots included 10 genotypes of sorghum (‘KGS29’, ‘MGS2’, ‘Sepideh’, ‘KGFS27’, ‘MGS5’, ‘KGFS5’, ‘KGFS17’, ‘KGFS13’ and ‘KGFS30’. Results showed that water stress significantly decreased grain yield and its components (1,000 seed weight, number of seed per panicle and had various effects on physiological traits. The water stress increased canopy temperature and radiation use efficiency, while stomatal conductance, chlorophyll index (SPAD and stay-green of genotypes were decreased; the maximum efficiency of photosystem II of photosynthesis remained unchanged between the treatments. Genotypes turned out to have significantly different responses to the drought treatments for all the studied traits, indicating the existence of a high variability among them. In general, physiological traits could be used as good indicators in water stress investigations and might provide comprehensive information as compared with morphological traits.

  11. Congenital Abnormalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ribbon Commands Skip to main content Turn off Animations Turn on Animations Our Sponsors Log in | Register Menu Log in | ... course of action. Additional Information Your Family Health History & Genetics Detecting Genetic Abnormalities Prenatal Genetic Counseling Children ...

  12. Walking abnormalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with short-term or long-term gait disorders. Therapy will reduce the risk of falls and other injuries. For an abnormal gait that occurs with conversion disorder, counseling and support from family members are ...

  13. Spinodal decomposition in fine grained materials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    A-rich grain boundary layer followed by a B-rich layer; the grain interior exhibits a spinodally decomposed microstructure, evolving slowly. Further, grain growth is suppressed completely during the decomposition process. Keywords. Spinodal decomposition; grain boundary effects; phase field models. 1. Introduction.

  14. Survival Rate without Brain Abnormalities on Postnatal Ultrasonography among Monochorionic Twins after Fetoscopic Laser Photocoagulation for Selective Intrauterine Growth Restriction with Concomitant Oligohydramnios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Keisuke; Wada, Seiji; Takano, Mayumi; Nakata, Masahiko; Murakoshi, Takeshi; Sago, Haruhiko

    2018-02-20

    We aimed to clarify the survival rate without brain abnormalities (BA) after fetoscopic laser photoco-agulation (FLP) for monochorionic diamniotic twin gestations (MCDA) with selective intrauterine growth restriction (sIUGR) accompanied by abnormal umbilical artery (UA) Doppler waveforms and isolated oligohydramnios in the sIUGR twin. This retrospective study included 52 cases that underwent FLP. The main outcome was survival rate without BA of the twins at age 28 days. BA was defined as severe intraventricular hemorrhage and periventricular leukomalacia on postnatal ultrasonography. Median gestational age at FLP was 20 (16-24) weeks. Ten cases were classified as type III based on Doppler for the UA. For all cases, including 20 cases of anterior placenta, FLP was completed without major intraoperative complications. Amnioinfusion was required in 49 cases for better fetoscopic visualization. Fetal loss occurred in 29 sIUGR twins and two larger twins, whereas one larger twin experienced neonatal death. Survival rates without BA were 44% (n = 23) for sIUGR twins and 94% (n = 49) for the larger twins. FLP for MCDA with sIUGR presenting with oligohydramnios in the sIUGR twin might be considered a prenatal treatment option. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. The incidence of placental abnormalities, maternal and cord plasma malondialdehyde and vascular endothelial growth factor levels in women with gestational diabetes mellitus and nondiabetic controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madazli, Riza; Tuten, Abdullah; Calay, Zerrin; Uzun, Hafize; Uludag, Seyfettin; Ocak, Vildan

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the incidence of placental abnormalities, cord plasma erythropoietin (EPO) levels and nucleated red blood cell (NRBC) counts, maternal and cord plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels in women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and nondiabetic controls. Twenty-two women with GDM, diagnosed according to the current criteria of the American Diabetes Association, were compared with 22 controls. Maternal and cord blood and placental samples were obtained from all pregnant women. Cord plasma EPO levels and NRBC counts, maternal and cord plasma MDA and VEGF levels were determined. Placental tissues were examined histologically. Maternal and cord plasma levels of MDA and cord plasma EPO levels and NRBC counts were significantly higher in GDM pregnancies (p cord plasma levels of MDA increased (p = 0.007 and p = 0.001, respectively), whereas VEGF decreased (p = 0.046 and p = 0.001, respectively) with the presence of villous immaturity. The complex process of villous development and maturity might be influenced by the maternal and fetal oxidative and angiogenetic milieu. The placenta that shows abnormalities in angiogenesis and maturation may lead to fetal hypoxia and compromise. (c) 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel

  16. A combined powder melt and infiltration growth technique for fabricating nano-composited Y-Ba-Cu-O single-grain superconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guo-Zheng; Li, Jia-Wei; Yang, Wan-Min

    2015-10-01

    The top-seeded melt growth (MG) and infiltration growth (IG) techniques are the two most popular methods of fabricating single-grain Y-Ba-Cu-O (YBCO) bulk superconductors, which are also considered as two distinctly different processes. In this study, we report a combined powder melt and infiltration growth (PM-IG) technique for fabricating nano-composited YBCO single-grain superconductors using raw metallic oxides. In this new technique, a solid source pellet (SSP) of composition nano-Y2O3 + BaO + CuO + 1 wt.%CeO2 and a liquid source pellet (LSP) of composition nano-Y2O3 + 10BaO + 16CuO are employed, thus during heat treatment process the powder melt in SSP (corresponding to the final YBCO bulk) and liquid infiltration from LSP to SSP coexist. Because the process of precursor powder synthesis is avoided, the fabrication flow is much simplified and the experimental efficiency is increased significantly. Microstructural observation indicates that a large number of Y2BaCuO5 nano-inclusions (around 100 nm) are trapped in the YBa2Cu3O7-δ superconducting matrix. Measurements of levitation force and trapped field prove the superior performance of the nano-composited YBCO sample. The calculated zero-field J c at 77 K reaches 6.98 × 104 A cm-2, nearly 23% higher than the sample fabricated by the conventional IG technique. Thus, this study supplies a practical method for fabricating nano-composited YBCO bulk superconductors with high performance.

  17. Abnormal chondrocyte apoptosis in the cartilage growth plate is influenced by genetic background and deletion of CHOP in a targeted mouse model of pseudoachondroplasia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna A Piróg

    Full Text Available Pseudoachondroplasia (PSACH is an autosomal dominant skeletal dysplasia caused by mutations in cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP and characterised by short limbed dwarfism and early onset osteoarthritis. Mouse models of PSACH show variable retention of mutant COMP in the ER of chondrocytes, however, in each case a different stress pathway is activated and the underlying disease mechanisms remain largely unknown. T585M COMP mutant mice are a model of moderate PSACH and demonstrate a mild ER stress response. Although mutant COMP is not retained in significant quantities within the ER of chondrocytes, both BiP and the pro-apoptotic ER stress-related transcription factor CHOP are mildly elevated, whilst bcl-2 levels are decreased, resulting in increased and spatially dysregulated chondrocyte apoptosis. To determine whether the abnormal chondrocyte apoptosis observed in the growth plate of mutant mice is CHOP-mediated, we bred T585M COMP mutant mice with CHOP-null mice to homozygosity, and analysed the resulting phenotype. Although abnormal apoptosis was alleviated in the resting zone following CHOP deletion, the mutant growth plates were generally more disorganised. Furthermore, the bone lengths of COMP mutant CHOP null mice were significantly shorter at 9 weeks of age when compared to the COMP mutant mice, including a significant difference in the skull length. Overall, these data demonstrate that CHOP-mediated apoptosis is an early event in the pathobiology of PSACH and suggest that the lack of CHOP, in conjunction with a COMP mutation, may lead to aggravation of the skeletal phenotype via a potentially synergistic effect on endochondral ossification.

  18. Dietary Tributyrin Supplementation Attenuates Insulin Resistance and Abnormal Lipid Metabolism in Suckling Piglets with Intrauterine Growth Retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jintian; Dong, Li; Xu, Wen; Bai, Kaiwen; Lu, Changhui; Wu, Yanan; Huang, Qiang; Zhang, Lili; Wang, Tian

    2015-01-01

    Intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) is associated with insulin resistance and lipid disorder. Tributyrin (TB), a pro-drug of butyrate, can attenuate dysfunctions in body metabolism. In this study, we investigated the effects of TB supplementation on insulin resistance and lipid metabolism in neonatal piglets with IUGR. Eight neonatal piglets with normal birth weight (NBW) and 16 neonatal piglets with IUGR were selected, weaned on the 7th day, and fed basic milk diets (NBW and IUGR groups) or basic milk diets supplemented with 0.1% tributyrin (IT group, IUGR piglets) until day 21 (n = 8). Relative parameters for lipid metabolism and mRNA expression were measured. Piglets with IUGR showed higher (P IUGR, which was efficiently (P IUGR piglets by increasing enzyme activities and upregulating mRNA expression, leading to an early improvement in the metabolic efficiency of IUGR piglets.

  19. Fall growth, nutritive value, and estimation of total digestible nutrients for cereal-grain forages in the north-central United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coblentz, W K; Walgenbach, R P

    2010-01-01

    Throughout the Southern Great Plains, wheat is managed frequently as a dual-purpose crop, but this production paradigm is not necessarily applicable throughout other regions of the United States, and a wider array of management options can be considered for forage-only uses of cereal grains. Our objectives were to assess the fall-growth potential of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), triticale (X Triticosecale Wittmack), and oat (Avena sativa L.) cultivars in Wisconsin, and then to further evaluate and compare the fiber composition and TDN of these fall-grown forages. For 2006, yields of DM for all cultivars increased quadratically (P or = 0.072), including forage-type oat. Although TDN estimates generally were relatively static across harvest dates, the concentrations of truly digestible components constituting the total TDN pool were quite fluid. Generally, reductions of truly digestible CP were offset by increases in truly digestible nonfiber carbohydrate, truly digestible fiber, or both. The relatively stable energy densities for cereal-grain cultivars observed across harvest dates suggest that a broad window of opportunity exists for usage, including a single harvest as silage.

  20. Grain boundaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balluffi, R.W.; Bristowe, P.D.

    1991-01-01

    The present document is a progress report describing the work accomplished to date during the second year of our four-year grant (February 15, 1990--February 14, 1994) to study grain boundaries. The research was focused on the following three major efforts: Study of the atomic structure of grain boundaries by means of x-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and computer modeling; study of short-circuit diffusion along grain boundaries; and development of a Thin-film Deposition/Bonding Apparatus for the manufacture of high purity bicrystals.

  1. Grain boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balluffi, R. W.; Bristowe, P. D.

    The present document is a progress report describing the work accomplished to date during the second year of our four-year grant (February 15, 1990 to February 14, 1994) to study grain boundaries. The research was focused on the following three major efforts: study of the atomic structure of grain boundaries by means of x-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and computer modeling; study of short-circuit diffusion along grain boundaries; and development of a Thin-film Deposition/Bonding Apparatus for the manufacture of high purity bicrystals.

  2. A splice site mutation in laminin-α2 results in a severe muscular dystrophy and growth abnormalities in zebrafish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandana A Gupta

    Full Text Available Congenital muscular dystrophy (CMD is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of inherited muscle disorders. In patients, muscle weakness is usually present at or shortly after birth and is progressive in nature. Merosin deficient congenital muscular dystrophy (MDC1A is a form of CMD caused by a defect in the laminin-α2 gene (LAMA2. Laminin-α2 is an extracellular matrix protein that interacts with the dystrophin-dystroglycan (DGC complex in membranes providing stability to muscle fibers. In an N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea mutagenesis screen to develop zebrafish models of neuromuscular diseases, we identified a mutant fish that exhibits severe muscular dystrophy early in development. Genetic mapping identified a splice site mutation in the lama2 gene. This splice site is highly conserved in humans and this mutation results in mis-splicing of RNA and a loss of protein function. Homozygous lama2 mutant zebrafish, designated lama2(cl501/cl501, exhibited reduced motor function and progressive degeneration of skeletal muscles and died at 8-15 days post fertilization. The skeletal muscles exhibited damaged myosepta and detachment of myofibers in the affected fish. Laminin-α2 deficiency also resulted in growth defects in the brain and eye of the mutant fish. This laminin-α2 deficient mutant fish represents a novel disease model to develop therapies for modulating splicing defects in congenital muscular dystrophies and to restore the muscle function in human patients with CMD.

  3. Discarded oranges and brewer's spent grains as promoting ingredients for microbial growth by submerged and solid state fermentation of agro-industrial waste mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggelopoulos, Theodoros; Bekatorou, Argyro; Pandey, Ashok; Kanellaki, Maria; Koutinas, Athanasios A

    2013-08-01

    The exploitation of various agro-industrial wastes for microbial cell mass production of Kluyveromyces marxianus, kefir, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae is reported in the present investigation. Specifically, the promotional effect of whole orange pulp on cell growth in mixtures consisting of cheese whey, molasses, and potato pulp in submerged fermentation processes was examined. A 2- to 3-fold increase of cell mass was observed in the presence of orange pulp. Likewise, the promotional effect of brewer's spent grains on cell growth in solid state fermentation of mixtures of whey, molasses, potato pulp, malt spent rootlets, and orange pulp was examined. The cell mass was increased by 3-fold for K. marxianus and 2-fold for S. cerevisiae in the presence of these substrates, proving their suitability for single-cell protein production without the need for extra nutrients. Cell growth kinetics were also studied by measurements of cell counts at various time intervals at different concentrations of added orange pulp. The protein content of the fermented substrates was increased substantially, indicating potential use of mixed agro-industrial wastes of negligible cost, as protein-enriched livestock feed, achieving at the same time creation of added value and waste minimization.

  4. Improvement in the Grain Growth of Plasma-Treated Nano-Sized ZnO Films and Their Characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mi; Chou, Ching-Chuan; Lin, Ching-Cheng; Koo, Horng-Show

    2015-11-01

    The well-aligned ZnO nanorods were rapidly grown on an indium tin oxide (ITO)-coated glass substrate using Al-doped ZnO (AZO) thin film as seed layer by the microwave-assisted hydrothermal chemical route. The optimal growth conditions for the well-aligned ZnO nanorods were obtained by modulating H2 plasma pretreatment time for the seed layer and synthesis time for ZnO nanorods. The H2 plasma effect of the seed layer on the alignment, growth rate and crysallinity of ZnO nanods is also demonstrated. The synthesized ZnO nanorods were annealed in atmosphere of N2, O2 and H2 + N2 mixed gas to improve the related physical characteristics, the ZnO nanorods on grapheme/ITO substrate were also investigated. The results show that the alignment and growth rate of ZnO nanorods depends on the physical characteristics and roughness of the seed layer, which can be improved by H2 plasma pretreatment. The average growth rate of ZnO nanorods synthesized by microwave hydrothermal technique is about 2.2 μm/hr which significantly superior to other conventional techniques. After the appropriate N2 annealing treatment, good quality and well-aligned ZnO nanorods, which are single crystal with stacking defects and pyramid or candle shape, were obtained. A fundamental model of the effect of H2 plasma pretreatment on the surface of seed layer and the growth of ZnO nanorods using a microwave-assisted hydrothermal chemical route is also described.

  5. Extracellular matrix remodeling and transforming growth factor-β signaling abnormalities induced by lamin A/C variants that cause lipodystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Dour, Caroline; Wu, Wei; Béréziat, Véronique; Capeau, Jacqueline; Vigouroux, Corinne; Worman, Howard J

    2017-01-01

    Mutations in the lamin A/C gene encoding nuclear lamins A and C (lamin A/C) cause familial partial lipodystrophy type 2 (FPLD2) and related lipodystrophy syndromes. These are mainly characterized by redistribution of adipose tissue associated with insulin resistance. Several reports suggest that alterations in the extracellular matrix of adipose tissue leading to fibrosis play a role in the pathophysiology of lipodystrophy syndromes. However, the extent of extracellular matrix alterations in FPLD2 remains unknown. We show significantly increased fibrosis and altered expression of genes encoding extracellular matrix proteins in cervical subcutaneous adipose tissue from a human subject with FLPD2. Similar extracellular matrix alterations occur in adipose tissue of transgenic mice expressing an FPLD2-causing human lamin A variant and in cultured fibroblasts from human subjects with FPLD2 and related lipodystrophies. These abnormalities are associated with increased transforming growth factor-β signaling and defects in matrix metalloproteinase 9 activity. Our data demonstrate that lamin A/C gene mutations responsible for FPLD2 and related lipodystrophies are associated with transforming growth factor-β activation and an extracellular matrix imbalance in adipose tissue, suggesting that targeting these alterations could be the basis of novel therapies. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  6. Effects of feeding corn modified wet distillers grain plus solubles co-ensiled with chopped whole plant corn on heifer growth performance and diet digestibility in beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, R P; Unruh-Snyder, L J; Scholljegerdes, E J; Baird, A N; Johnson, K D; Buckmaster, D; Lemenager, R P; Lake, S L

    2013-09-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of feeding corn modified wet distillers grain plus solubles (MWDGS; 48% DM) co-ensiled with chopped whole plant corn (WC) on growth performance, dietary intake, and nutrient digestibility of beef cattle. In Exp. 1, 96 Angus-crossed heifers (2 yr old; 522 ± 49.1 kg BW; 5.3 ± 0.1 BCS) were stratified and blocked according to BW and stratified by BCS in each block in a randomized complete block design (24 pens; 4 heifers/pen; 6 treatment replications). Groups were assigned to 1 of 4 dietary treatments for a 62 d trial. Treatments were 1) corn silage (CS) and soybean meal (CON), 2) MWDGS co-ensiled with chopped whole plant corn (WC; CO-EN), 3) CS mixed with MWDGS at feeding (CS+WDG), and 4) CS mixed with dry distillers grain plus solubles (DDGS) at feeding (CS+DDG). In Exp. 2, 4 crossbred beef steers (initial BW = 278 ± 18 kg) fitted with permanent ruminal cannulas were used in a balanced 4 × 4 Latin square to test the effects of feeding MWDGS co-ensiled with WC on DM intake, ruminal fermentation characteristics, and total tract digestibility. There were four 14-d periods, with 10 d for diet adaptation and 4 d for samples collection. Orthogonal contrasts were used and compared CON vs. diets containing distillers grains (DGD), CO-EN vs. diets where distillers grains were mixed at feeding (MIX), and CS+WDG vs. CS+DDG. In Exp. 1, the CON fed heifers resulted in greater G:F (P = 0.04) compared with those fed DGD. However, ADG (P = 0.03), final BW (P = 0.04), and BW gain (P = 0.03) were greatest for DGD diets compared with CON and greatest (P = 0.04) for CO-EN when compared with MIX. Apart from a slightly greater acetate concentration (P = 0.05), which resulted in a greater acetate to propionate ratio (P = 0.03) for the CON diet compared with DGD, no important differences were observed on intake, diet digestibility, or fermentation characteristics when comparing the CON treatment with DGD or when comparing CS

  7. Growth performance, rumen fermentation, nutrient utilization, and metabolic profile of dairy heifers limit-fed distillers dried grains with ad libitum forage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manthey, A K; Anderson, J L

    2017-10-18

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of feeding a corn- and soybean-product-based concentrate mix or distillers dried grains with solubles concentrate mix with ad libitum grass hay to dairy heifers. A 16-wk randomized complete block design study was conducted using 24 heifers [18 Holstein and 6 Brown Swiss; 219 ± 2 d of age (±standard deviation); 230 ± 4 kg of body weight] to evaluate the effect of diet on dry matter intake (DMI), growth performance, rumen fermentation, metabolic profile, and nutrient digestibility. Treatments were (1) corn and soybean product concentrate mix, and (2) distillers-dried-grains-with-solubles-based concentrate mix (DDG). Both concentrate mixes were limit-fed at 0.8% of body weight and grass hay was offered ad libitum. Heifers were individually fed using Calan gates and orts were recorded daily at feeding. Heifers were weighed every 2 wk and ration concentrate mix offered was adjusted accordingly. Frame measurements and body condition score were recorded every 2 wk. Rumen fluid was collected via esophageal tubing during wk 12 and 16 for pH, ammonia N, and volatile fatty acid analysis. Jugular blood samples were collected every 4 wk for metabolite and metabolic hormone analysis. Total-tract digestibility of nutrients was evaluated during wk 16 by fecal grab sampling. No treatment by week interactions were observed for any of the growth measurements and growth measurements and DMI did not differ between treatments. A treatment by time interaction was observed for rumen butyrate percentage with heifers fed DDG having a greater percentage. Total volatile fatty acid concentration, acetate molar percentage, and acetate:propionate decreased with the DDG treatment, whereas propionate molar percentage increased. No treatment by week interactions were observed for any of the metabolites or metabolic hormones measured. A tendency was observed for glucose and plasma urea nitrogen concentration to decrease with DDG. Plasma

  8. Impact of growth temperature on exopolysaccharide production and probiotic properties of Lactobacillus paracasei strains isolated from kefir grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengoa, Ana A; Llamas, M Goretti; Iraporda, Carolina; Dueñas, M Teresa; Abraham, Analía G; Garrote, Graciela L

    2018-02-01

    EPS-producing LAB are widely used in the dairy industry since these polymers improve the viscosity and texture of the products. Besides, EPS might be responsible for several health benefits attributed to probiotic strains. However, growth conditions (culture media, temperature, pH) could modify EPS production affecting both technological and probiotic properties. In this work, the influence of growth temperature on EPS production was evaluated, as well as the consequences of these changes in the probiotic properties of the strains. All Lactobacillus paracasei strains used in the study showed changes in EPS production caused by growth temperature, evidenced by the appearance of a high molecular weight fraction and an increment in the total amount of produced EPS at lower temperature. Nevertheless, these changes do not affect the probiotic properties of the strains; L. paracasei strains grown at 20 °C, 30 °C and 37 °C were able to survive in simulated gastrointestinal conditions, to adhere to Caco-2 cells after that treatment and to modulate the epithelial innate immune response. The results suggest that selected L. paracasei strains are new probiotic candidates that can be used in a wide range of functional foods in which temperature could be used as a tool to improve the technological properties of the product. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of annealing atmospheres on secondary recrystallization in thin-gauge grain-oriented silicon steel: Microstructures and textures

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Cheng-xu; Yang, Fu-yao; Meng, Li; Ma, Guang; Chen, Xin; Hou, Peng-fei; Zhang, Wen-kang

    2017-10-01

    By controlling the onset temperature of secondary recrystallization and the temperature interval for grain growth, the annealing atmosphere is the key factor affecting the grain size and texture of grain-oriented silicon steel. The thin-gauge cold-rolled grain-oriented silicon steel (TG-CRGO) is not only more sensitive to annealing atmosphere than the thick-gauge grain-oriented silicon steel, but also requires a different annealing atmosphere. In this paper, the evolution of microstructures and textures in 0.18 mm TG-CRGO steel during high-temperature annealing in five different annealing atmospheres are detected through EBSD technique. The results show that excellent magnetic properties (B8=1.93 T) can be obtained when annealing atmosphere as 75%N2+25%H2 (volume ratio). Secondary recrystallization occurs in all the specimens that were prepared in five different annealing atmospheres, which causes significant differences in secondary recrystallized microstructures and textures. As N2 content rises, the average secondary recrystallized grain sizes increased and reaches a maximum average grain size in 75%N2 atmosphere and then decreases along with N2 content over 75%. When N2 content is 75%, Goss grains show preferential abnormal growth at 1050-1055 °C, which is a very narrow temperature range for secondary recrystallization. In conclusion, proper annealing atmosphere is one of the important measures to control and enable the grain-oriented silicon steel to get the sharp Goss texture.

  10. GRAIN GROWTH IN THE CIRCUMSTELLAR DISKS OF THE YOUNG STARS CY Tau AND DoAr 25

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pérez, Laura M.; Chandler, Claire J. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box O, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Isella, Andrea [Rice University, 6100 Main Street, Houston, TX 77005 (United States); Carpenter, John M.; Sargent, Anneila I. [California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Blvd, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Andrews, Sean M.; Ricci, Luca [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Calvet, Nuria [University of Michigan, 830 Dennison Building, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Corder, Stuartt A. [Joint ALMA Observatory, Av. Alonso de Córdova 3107, Vitacura, Santiago (Chile); Deller, Adam T. [The Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy (ASTRON), 7990-AA Dwingeloo (Netherlands); Dullemond, Cornelis P. [Heidelberg University, Center for Astronomy, Albert Ueberle Str 2, Heidelberg (Germany); Greaves, Jane S. [University of St. Andrews, Physics and Astronomy, North Haugh, St. Andrews KY16 9SS (United Kingdom); Harris, Robert J. [University of Illinois, 1002 West Green St., Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Henning, Thomas; Linz, Hendrik [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Kwon, Woojin [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, 776 Daedeok-daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34055 (Korea, Republic of); Lazio, Joseph [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Dr, Pasadena, CA 91106 (United States); Mundy, Lee G.; Storm, Shaye [University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Tazzari, Marco [European Southern Observatory, Karl Schwarzschild str. 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); and others

    2015-11-01

    We present new results from the Disks@EVLA program for two young stars: CY Tau and DoAr 25. We trace continuum emission arising from their circusmtellar disks from spatially resolved observations, down to tens of AU scales, at λ = 0.9, 2.8, 8.0, 9.8 mm for DoAr 25 and at λ = 1.3, 2.8, 7.1 mm for CY Tau. Additionally, we constrain the amount of emission whose origin is different from thermal dust emission from 5 cm observations. Directly from interferometric data, we find that observations at 7 mm and 1 cm trace emission from a compact disk while millimeter-wave observations trace an extended disk structure. From a physical disk model, where we characterize the disk structure of CY Tau and DoAr 25 at wavelengths shorter than 5 cm, we find that (1) dust continuum emission is optically thin at the observed wavelengths and over the spatial scales studied, (2) a constant value of the dust opacity is not warranted by our observations, and (3) a high-significance radial gradient of the dust opacity spectral index, β, is consistent with the observed dust emission in both disks, with low-β in the inner disk and high-β in the outer disk. Assuming that changes in dust properties arise solely due to changes in the maximum particle size (a{sub max}), we constrain radial variations of a{sub max} in both disks, from cm-sized particles in the inner disk (R < 40 AU) to millimeter sizes in the outer disk (R > 80 AU). These observational constraints agree with theoretical predictions of the radial-drift barrier, however, fragmentation of dust grains could explain our a{sub max}(R) constraints if these disks have lower turbulence and/or if dust can survive high-velocity collisions.

  11. Effects of using ground redberry juniper and dried distillers grains with solubles in lamb feedlot diets: growth, blood serum, fecal, and wool characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, T R; Lupton, C J; Muir, J P; Adams, R P; Stewart, W C

    2014-03-01

    Effects of using ground redberry juniper and dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) in Rambouillet lamb (n = 45) feedlot diets on growth, blood serum, fecal, and wool characteristics were evaluated. In a randomized design study with 2 feeding periods (Period 1 = 64% concentrate diet, 35 d; Period 2 = 85% concentrate diet, 56 d), lambs were individually fed 5 isonitrogenous diets: a control diet (CNTL) that contained oat hay but not DDGS or juniper or DDGS-based diets in which 0 (0JUN), 33 (33JUN), 66 (66JUN), or 100% (100JUN) of the oat hay was replaced by juniper. During Period 1, lambs fed CNTL had greater (P diets. Lamb DMI, ADG, and G:F quadratically increased (P diets. During Period 2, lambs fed CNTL had greater (P diets, but ADG was similar (P > 0.41). Compared to 0JUN, lambs fed CNTL had similar (P = 0.12) G:F and tended to have less G:F (P = 0.07) than lambs fed DDGS-based diets. Among lambs fed DDGS-based diets, DMI was similar (P > 0.19), ADG increased linearly (P = 0.03), and G:F tended to decrease quadratically (P = 0.06) as juniper increased in the diet. Serum IGF-1, serum urea N (SUN), and fecal N were greater (P 0.13) for lambs fed CNTL vs. lambs fed DDGS-based diets (CNTL). Within lambs fed DDGS-based diets, SUN increased quadratically (P = 0.01) and fecal N increased linearly (P = 0.004), which can partially be attributed to increased dietary urea and condensed tannin intake. Most wool characteristics were not affected, but wool growth per kilogram of BW decreased quadratically (P = 0.04) as percentage of juniper increased in the DDGS-based diets. When evaluating the entire 91-d feeding trial, results indicated that replacing all of the ground oat hay with ground juniper leaves and stems in lamb growing and finishing diets is not detrimental to animal performance and that DDGS-based diets can reduce total feedlot costs, as compared to sorghum grain and cottonseed meal-based diets. However, compared to using juniper or oat hay as the sole

  12. Influence of porosity on densification and grain growth kinetics of Ce0.9Gd0.1O1.95 tape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ni, De Wei; Esposito, Vincenzo; Foghmoes, Søren Preben Vagn

    Gadolinium doped-ceria (CGO) is an important material that offers high stability, tolerance against harsh environments and high ionic and electronic conductivity at high temperatures. For most of its applications, CGO is applied as a thin dense layer on a porous support structure. However, highly...... porous layer allowing gas flow is necessary in catalytic and in gas purification devices. During the sintering with shrinkage, the total solid volume is maintained to be a constant value but the shape and size of each particle change with the formation of grain boundaries. This change in solid particles....... The emphasis was put on the effect of porosity on densification and grain growth kinetics. Derived from the sintering constitutive laws, the densification and grain growth kinetics were experimentally characterized and analyzed. Furthermore, the activation energies for viscous flow were determined from master...

  13. Effect of wheat dried distillers grains with solubles and fibrolytic enzymes on ruminal fermentation, digestibility, growth performance, and feeding behavior of beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Z X; Walker, N D; McAllister, T A; Yang, W Z

    2015-03-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of wheat dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) and fibrolytic enzymes (FE) on ruminal fermentation, in situ ruminal and in vivo total tract digestibility, growth performance, and feeding behavior of growing beef cattle. In Exp. 1, 6 ruminally cannulated Angus heifers (average BW of 794 ± 44.2 kg) were used in a 6 × 6 Latin square design with 2 × 3 factorial arrangement of treatments. Treatments were a control diet consisting of 50% barley silage, 10% grass hay, and 40% barley grain-based concentrate (CON) and the CON with 15% DDGS substituted for barley grain (WDG) combined with either 0, 1, or 2 mL FE/kg diet DM, respectively. Inclusion of DDGS increased total tract digestibility of CP ( effects of DDGS inclusion or FE on ruminal pH or VFA concentration except that propionate was greater ( = 0.04) with the WDG. In situ ruminal DM and NDF disappearance of barley silage was greater ( < 0.04) in heifers fed the WDG than in heifers fed the CON after 24 h of incubation. Increasing FE linearly ( = 0.03) increased in situ NDF disappearance of barley silage after 24 h of incubation. In Exp. 2, 120 weaned steers (initial BW of 289 ± 11.0 kg) were fed diets similar to those in Exp. 1. The steers fed the WDG had greater ( < 0.01) final BW, ADG, DMI, and G:F compared with steers fed the CON. Increasing FE did not alter ADG or G:F but tended ( < 0.07) to linearly decrease DMI. There were interactions ( < 0.02) between DDGS and FE on eating rate and the time spent at the feed bunk. Supplementing FE decreased ( < 0.01) time at the bunk and increased ( < 0.01) eating rate for steers fed the WDG but not for steers fed the CON. Eating rate ( < 0.01) and meal frequency ( = 0.02) were greater but eating duration was shorter ( < 0.01) for steers fed the WDG than for those fed the CON. These results indicate that inclusion of wheat DDGS in a growing diet increased total tract digestibility of NDF and CP and improved the

  14. Evaluation of commercially available enzymes, probiotics, or yeast on apparent total-tract nutrient digestion and growth in nursery and finishing pigs fed diets containing corn dried distillers grains with solubles

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ability of enzymes, direct fed microbials, or yeast to enhance nutrient utilization or growth performance in nursery or finishing pigs fed diets containing increased levels of corn fiber from dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) is largely unknown. Ten commercially available feed additiv...

  15. Frequency of wet brewers grains supplementation during late gestation of beef cows and its effects on offspring postnatal growth and immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriel, P; Artioli, L F A; Piccolo, M B; Marques, R S; Poore, M H; Cooke, R F

    2016-06-01

    Our objectives were to evaluate postnatal growth and measurements of innate and humoral immunity of beef calves born to dams fed wet brewers grains (WBG) daily or 3 times weekly during late gestation. On d 0 (approximately 60 d before calving), 28 multiparous, spring-calving Angus cows (BW = 578 ± 19 kg; age = 4.7 ± 0.65 yr; BCS = 7.0 ± 0.18) were stratified by sire, age, BW, and BCS and then randomly allocated into 1 of 14 drylot pens (2 cows/pen; 18 by 3 m; 27 m/cow). Cows were offered ground tall fescue hay ad libitum and received similar weekly WBG supplementation (DMI = 0.5% of BW multiplied by 7 d). Treatments were randomly assigned to pens (7 pens/treatment) and consisted of cows receiving WBG supplementation daily (S7; weekly DMI of WBG divided by 7 d) or 3 times weekly (S3; weekly DMI of WBG divided by 3 d; Mondays, Wednesdays, and Fridays) from d 0 until calving. Cow-calf pairs were managed as a single group on tall fescue pastures from calving to weaning (d 226). Calves were immediately submitted to a preconditioning period from d 226 to 266 and vaccinated against infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, bovine viral diarrhea virus, , and on d 231 and 245. Decreasing the frequency of WBG supplementation did not impact ( ≥ 0.21) precalving intake of total DM, CP, and TDN; BW and BCS change; overall plasma cortisol concentrations; and postcalving growth and pregnancy rate of cows. Overall plasma concentrations of glucose and insulin did not differ ( ≥ 0.28) between S3 and S7 cows, whereas S3 cows had greater ( = 0.002) plasma glucose concentrations and tended ( = 0.06) to have greater plasma insulin concentrations on days they were not fed WBG vs. days of WBG supplementation. Calf plasma concentrations of haptoglobin and cortisol at birth but not serum IgG ( = 0.63) tended ( = 0.10) to be greater for S3 vs. S7 calves. However, additional calf growth and immunity variables obtained during pre- and postweaning phases did not differ between S3 and S7 calves

  16. Feeding distillers dried grains in replacement of forage in limit-fed dairy heifer rations: Effects on growth performance, rumen fermentation, and total-tract digestibility of nutrients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manthey, A K; Anderson, J L; Perry, G A

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of increasing dietary concentration of distillers dried grains (DDGS) in dairy heifer rations. A 16-wk randomized complete block design study was conducted using 48 Holstein heifers [199±2 d of age; body weight (BW) 206±2kg] to evaluate effects of dietary treatment on dry matter (DM) intake, average daily gain, growth performance, rumen fermentation, and nutrient digestibility. Treatments were (1) 30% DDGS with the diet fed at 2.65% of BW, (2) 40% DDGS with the diet fed at 2.50% of BW, and (3) 50% DDGS with the diet fed at 2.35% of BW. The remainder of the diet consisted of grass hay and 1.5% mineral mix. Heifers were individually limit-fed using Calan gates. Heifers were weighed every 2 wk and the ration amount offered was adjusted accordingly. Frame measurements and body condition score were recorded every 2wk. Rumen fluid was collected via esophageal tubing during wk 12 and 16 for pH, ammonia N, and volatile fatty acid analysis. Total-tract digestibility of nutrients was evaluated during wk 16 using fecal grab sampling. No treatment by week interactions were found for any of the growth parameters measured, and growth parameters did not differ among treatments. Heifer DM intake linearly decreased with increasing concentrations of DDGS. Body weight and average daily gain were similar among treatments, whereas gain:feed linearly increased across treatments, with a tendency for a treatment by time interaction. As the dietary concentrations of DDGS increased, rumen ammonia N linearly increased. Acetate proportion and acetate:propionate linearly decreased as DDGS increased, whereas propionate linearly increased. There were treatment by time interactions for propionate proportion and acetate:propionate. Increasing dietary concentrations of DDGS linearly increased total-tract digestibility of DM, organic matter, and crude protein. Limit-feeding diets with greater concentrations of DDGS improved gain:feed and

  17. Effect of yeast-derived products and distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) on growth performance and local innate immune response of broiler chickens challenged with Clostridium perfringens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadeh, M; Rogiewicz, A; McMillan, E; Rodriguez-Lecompte, J C; Patterson, R; Slominski, B A

    2016-06-01

    This study evaluated the effect of yeast-derived products on growth performance, gut lesion score, intestinal population of Clostridium perfringens, and local innate immunity of broiler chickens challenged with C. perfringens. One-day-old broiler chickens were randomly assigned to eight dietary treatments providing six replicate pens of 55 birds each per treatment. Dietary treatments consisted of Control diets without and with C. perfringens challenge, and diets containing bacitracin methylene disalicylate (BMD, 55 g/tonne), nucleotides (150 g/tonne), yeast cell wall (YCW, 300 g/tonne), and a commercial product Maxi-Gen Plus (1 kg/tonne) fed to chickens challenged with C. perfringens. Diets containing 10% distillers dried grains with solubles without and with C. perfringens challenge were also used. Birds were orally challenged with C. perfringens (10(8) colony-forming units (cfu)/bird) on day 14. On day 21, intestinal samples were collected for gene expression analysis. Pathogen challenge significantly (P perfringens counts and intestinal lesion scores were observed for challenged birds except the BMD-containing diet. Over the entire trial (1-35 days), no difference in growth performance was observed except the BMD diet which improved FCR over the Control, challenged group. Birds receiving nucleotides showed increased expression of toll-like receptors and cytokines interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-18 compared to the Control, challenged group. Expression of macrophage mannose receptor and IL-18 was upregulated in birds receiving YCW. Increased expression of cytokines and receptors involved in innate immunity in broilers receiving nucleotides and YCW suggests the immunomodulatory properties of these products under pathogen challenge conditions.

  18. Visualization of Grain Structure and Boundaries of Polycrystalline Graphene and Two-Dimensional Materials by Epitaxial Growth of Transition Metal Dichalcogenides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ago, Hiroki; Fukamachi, Satoru; Endo, Hiroko; Solís-Fernández, Pablo; Yunus, Rozan Mohamad; Uchida, Yuki; Panchal, Vishal; Kazakova, Olga; Tsuji, Masaharu

    2016-03-22

    The presence of grain boundaries in two-dimensional (2D) materials is known to greatly affect their physical, electrical, and chemical properties. Given the difficulty in growing perfect large single-crystals of 2D materials, revealing the presence and characteristics of grain boundaries becomes an important issue for practical applications. Here, we present a method to visualize the grain structure and boundaries of 2D materials by epitaxially growing transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) over them. Triangular single-crystals of molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) epitaxially grown on the surface of graphene allowed us to determine the orientation and size of the graphene grains. Grain boundaries in the polycrystalline graphene were also visualized reflecting their higher chemical reactivity than the basal plane. The method was successfully applied to graphene field-effect transistors, revealing the actual grain structures of the graphene channels. Moreover, we demonstrate that this method can be extended to determine the grain structure of other 2D materials, such as tungsten disulfide (WS2). Our visualization method based on van der Waals epitaxy can offer a facile and large-scale labeling technique to investigate the grain structures of various 2D materials, and it will also contribute to understand the relationship between their grain structure and physical properties.

  19. Partial replacement of triticale for corn grain in starter diet and its effects on performance, structural growth and blood metabolites of Holstein calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeinoddini, H R; Alikhani, M; Ahmadi, F; Ghorbani, G R; Rezamand, P

    2017-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to examine the effects of different inclusion rates of dietary triticale replacing corn grain in starter rations of dairy calves on feed intake, average daily gain (ADG), feed efficiency, skeletal growth, fecal score, and selected blood and ruminal parameters. In all, 30 4-day-old Holstein calves (15 female and 15 male) were blocked by gender and birth weight, and then randomly allotted to three treatment groups (n=10 calves/treatment) and received either a corn-based diet without triticale (T0), or a diet containing 16% (T16) or 32% (T32) triticale (25% and 50% corn replaced by triticale, respectively) for 10 weeks. Calves were weaned on day 43 of study and remained on the study until day 70. During post-weaning period, calves fed T32 had the lowest starter intake (1.78 kg/day; P=0.02). In contrast, ADG was not affected in pre-weaning and overall periods, but calves fed T32 had a lower ADG (P=0.04) as compared with calves fed T0 in post-weaning period. No dietary effect was detected for feed efficiency. Dietary treatment did not affect heart girth and body length; however, height at wither and hip at weaning increased in calves fed triticale compared with T0. No detectable effects were observed in serum glucose and β-hydroxybutyrate. No difference was detected in blood urea nitrogen on day 35 either but on day 50 and day 70 the greatest concentration was recorded for calves fed T16. Compared with the control, ruminal ammonia concentration was increased for calves fed T32 (4.34 v. 7.50 mmol/l) and T16 (4.01 v. 8.12 mmol/l) on day 35 and day 50. No difference was detected in ruminal pH on day 35 or day 50; however, calves fed T32 had the lowest pH (6.11) at 70 days. No significant effect was detected in days scoured, respiratory score and general appearance. Under our experimental conditions, it appears that triticale at 16% dry matter (i.e. replacing corn grain up to 25%) in the starter diet does not have adverse effects on

  20. Supercube grains leading to a strong cube texture and a broad grain size distribution after recrystallization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, F.X.; Zhang, Y. B.; Pantleon, W.

    2015-01-01

    growth rates. However, most other cube grains do not grow preferentially. Because of the few supercube grains, the grain size distribution after recrystallization is broad. Reasons for the higher growth rates of supercube grains are discussed, and are related to the local deformed microstructure.......This work revisits the classical subject of recrystallization of cold-rolled copper. Two characterization techniques are combined: three-dimensional X-ray diffraction using synchrotron X-rays, which is used to measure the growth kinetics of individual grains in situ, and electron backscatter...... diffraction, which is used for statistical analysis of the microstructural evolution. As the most striking result, the strong cube texture after recrystallization is found to be related to a few super large cube grains, which were named supercube grains. These few supercube grains become large due to higher...

  1. Stress-driven grain growth

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nabarro, FRN

    1998-11-13

    Full Text Available to s and two lateral edges parallel to s. Let the equilibrium volume concentration of vacancies in the absence of stress be co. The stress will not affect the equilibrium concentration near the lateral interfaces. However, if a vacancy is formed at a transverse... interface, the external stress does work sb3. The enthalpy of formation of a vacancy at a transverse interface is reduced by this amount, and so the equilibrium concentration of vacancies near a transverse interface is co exp(sb3/kT). There is thus a...

  2. Feeding dried distillers grains with solubles to lactating beef cows: impact of excess protein and fat on cow performance, milk production and pre-weaning progeny growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shee, C N; Lemenager, R P; Schoonmaker, J P

    2016-01-01

    Multiparous Angus×Simmental cows (n=54, 5.22±2.51 years) with male progeny were fed one of two diets supplemented with either dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) or soybean meal (CON), from calving until day 129 postpartum (PP) to determine effects of excess protein and fat on cow performance, milk composition and calf growth. Diets were formulated to be isocaloric and consisted of rye hay and DDGS (19.4% CP; 8.76% fat), or corn silage, rye hay and soybean meal (11.7% CP; 2.06% fat). Cow-calf pairs were allotted by cow and calf age, BW and breed. Cow BW and body condition score (BCS; P⩾0.13) were similar throughout the experiment. A weigh-suckle-weigh was performed on day 64 and day 110±10 PP to determine milk production. Milk was collected on day 68 and day 116±10 PP for analysis of milk components. Milk production was unaffected (P⩾0.75) by dietary treatments. Milk urea nitrogen was increased at both time points in DDGS compared with CON cows (Pmilk from DDGS compared with CON cows on day 68 PP. Compared to CON, DDGS decreased medium chain FA (Pmilk was decreased (Pcows, which resulted in an increase (Pcows fed DDGS compared with cows fed CON (Pcows did not change cow BW or BCS, but did improve TAI rates and altered milk composition compared with CON. As a result, male progeny from cows fed DDGS during lactation had greater average daily gain and were heavier at day 129 and at weaning compared with male progeny from cows fed a control diet.

  3. Feeding dried distillers grains with solubles to lactating beef cows: impact of excess protein and fat on post-weaning progeny growth, glucose tolerance and carcass traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shee, C N; Lemenager, R P; Schoonmaker, J P

    2017-08-24

    Feeding dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS), a feed high in fat and protein, to lactating beef cows can alter milk production and composition, resulting in improved pre-weaning growth of progeny. This alteration in milk profile may consequently alter the growth and carcass composition of the offspring after weaning. Therefore, Angus×Simmental steers (n=48) whose dams were fed one of two diets supplemented with either DDGS or soybean meal (CON) from calving to mid-lactation were placed in a feedlot to determine the effects of maternal nutrition during lactation on progeny development and carcass composition. Cow-calf pairs were allotted to two treatments at birth based on cow and calf BW, breed and age. Maternal diets were isocaloric (3.97 MJ/kg NEg) and consisted of rye hay supplemented with DDGS at 1% of BW (19.4% CP; 8.76% fat) or rye hay and corn silage supplemented with CON (11.7% CP; 2.06% fat). After conclusion of the treatments at 129 days postpartum, cow-calf pairs were comingled and managed as one group until weaning at 219 days postpartum. Steers were then transitioned to a common diet composed of 60% DDGS, 34% corn silage and 6% vitamin/mineral supplement and were placed indoors in individual pens with slatted floors. An intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) was performed 134 days after feedlot entry on 16 steers (CON, n=7; DDGS, n=9) to determine the effect of maternal diet on glucose and insulin sensitivity. Steers were slaughtered at a target BW of 645 kg. Categorical and continuous data were analyzed using the GLIMMIX and MIXED procedures of SAS, respectively. Steers from DDGS dams tended to be heavier on day 85 of feedlot finishing (P=0.09) compared with steers from CON dams. However, there were no differences in final weight, average daily gain, dry matter intake or efficiency (gain:feed, P⩾0.18). Maternal treatments did not affect progeny days on feed (P=0.15), despite a mean difference of 9 days in favor of DDGS. Glucose and

  4. The Co-application of Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria and Inoculation with Rhizobium Bacteria on Grain Yield and Its Components of Mungbean (Vigna radiate L.) in Ilam Province, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Abdollah Hosseini; Abbas Maleki; Khalil Fasihi; Rahim Naseri

    2014-01-01

    In order to investigate the effect of Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) and rhizobium bacteria on grain yield and some agronomic traits of mungbean (Vigna radiate L.), an experiment was carried out based on randomized complete block design with three replications in Malekshahi, Ilam province, Iran during 2012-2013 cropping season. Experimental treatments consisted of control treatment, inoculation with rhizobium bacteria, rhizobium bacteria and Azotobacter, rhiz...

  5. Aspects on sintering and grain growth in pure and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-SiO{sub 2} doped UO{sub 2} pellets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assis, Gino de; Ferraz, Wilmar Barbosa [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Nucleo de Tecnologia do Combustivel], e-mail: assisg@cdtn.br, e-mail: ferrazw@cdtn.br; Tambourgi, Elias Basile [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Quimica], e-mail: eliastam@feq.unicamp.br

    2009-07-01

    The sintering behavior of UO{sub 2} pellets was investigated at 1700 deg C/2h/H{sub 2} and 1750 deg C/4h/H{sub 2}, using fresh and storage UO{sub 2} powders. Moreover, the sintering behavior of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-SiO{sub 2} doped UO{sub 2} pellets obtained from storage powder, in the same sintering conditions was also investigated. Pellets obtained from fresh UO{sub 2} powder have presented heterogeneous grain microstructures as they were sintered at 1700 deg C/2h/H{sub 2} and homogeneous grain microstructures when they were sintered at 1750 deg C/4h/H{sub 2}. On the contrary, pellets obtained from storage powder have presented homogeneous grain microstructures when they were sintered at 1700 deg C/2h/H{sub 2} and heterogeneous grain microstructures when they were sintered at 1750 deg C/4h/H{sub 2}.On the other hand, the pellets with additions of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-SiO{sub 2} presented homogeneous grain microstructures, regardless the sintering conditions were. The mechanisms by which the homogeneous and the heterogeneous grain microstructures were developed will be discussed in this paper concerning the fresh powder, the storage powder, the sintering conditions and the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-SiO{sub 2} additions. (author)

  6. Effects of different forms of white lupin (Lupinus albus) grain supplementation on feed intake, digestibility, growth performance and carcass characteristics of Washera sheep fed Rhodes grass (Chloris gayana) hay-based diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tefera, Gebru; Tegegne, Firew; Mekuriaw, Yeshambel; Melaku, Solomon; Tsunekawa, Atsushi

    2015-12-01

    Protein is the major limiting nutrient in feeding ruminants especially in dryland areas. Thus, looking for locally available protein sources such as white lupin (Lupinus albus) grain is commendable. The objective of this experiment was to determine effects of supplementation of different forms of white lupin grain (WLG) on feed and nutrient intake, digestibility, growth and carcass characteristics. Twenty-five yearling male Washera sheep with initial body weight (BW) of 16.26 ± 1.41 kg (mean ± SD) were used. Animals were blocked into five based on their initial BW and were randomly assigned to one of the following five dietary treatments: Rhodes grass (Chloris gayana) hay (RGH) alone (T1) or supplemented with 300 g (on dry matter (DM) basis) raw WLG (T2) or raw soaked and dehulled WLG (T3) or roasted WLG (T4) or raw soaked WLG (T5). Supplementation with WLG significantly improved total DM and nutrient intake (P  0.05). It is concluded that roasting white lupin grain can lead to a better feed and nutrient intake and consequently better carcass quality. White lupin grain can be recommended not only for maintenance but also for optimum performance of ruminants.

  7. Effect of feeding peroxidized dried distillers grains with solubles to sows and progeny on growth performance and metabolic oxidative status of nursery pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, A R; Wang, L; Johnston, L J; Baidoo, S K; Torrison, J L; Chen, C; Shurson, G C

    2015-01-01

    This experiment evaluated the effects of including peroxidized corn dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) in diets for sows and nursery pigs on growth performance, vitamin E (VE), and Se status, and the incidence of mulberry heart disease (MHD) of nursery pigs. Sows (n = 12) were fed corn-soybean meal diets (C-SBM) or C-SBM diets with DDGS (40% and 20% in gestation and lactation, respectively) for 3 parities. In the third parity, 108 weaned pigs (BW = 6.6 ± 0.36 kg) were blocked by BW within litter, assigned to pens (2 pigs/pen; 5 and 4 pens per litter for groups 1 and 2, respectively), and pens were assigned 1 of 3 nursery diets: 1) corn-soybean meal (CON), 2) 30% peroxidized DDGS (Ox-D), and 3) 30% Ox-D with 5 × NRC (1998) level of VE (Ox-D+5VE) for 7 wk, in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement of sow and nursery diets (n = 9 pens/treatment). The peroxidized DDGS source in nursery diets contained concentrations of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and peroxide values that were 25 and 27 times greater than a reference corn sample. Sow colostrum, milk, and serum, as well as pig serum and liver samples, were analyzed for α-tocopherol and Se concentrations. Pig serum was analyzed for glutathione peroxidase activity (GPx), TBARS, and sulfur-containing AA (SAA). Pig hearts were evaluated for gross and histopathological lesions indicative of MHD, but none were detected. Pigs from sows fed DDGS tended to have reduced (P = 0.07) VE in serum during lactation and reduced VE at weaning (P pigs from sows fed C-SBM. Inclusion of DDGS in sow diets reduced the VE status of pigs during lactation, but not in the nursery when MHD can be a concern. Pigs fed Ox-D+5VE (P = 0.08) tended to have, and those fed Ox-D (P = 0.04) had greater ADFI than pigs fed CON, but ADG was not affected (P > 0.1) by nursery diet. Feeding Ox-D or Ox-D+5VE increased (P pigs fed Ox-D or Ox-D+5VE compared with those fed C-SBM, which was likely due to greater (P pigs fed Ox-D. The

  8. Effects of pelleting diets without or with distillers' dried grains with solubles on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and gastrointestinal weights of growing-finishing barrows and gilts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overholt, M F; Lowell, J E; Arkfeld, E K; Grossman, I M; Stein, H H; Dilger, A C; Boler, D D

    2016-05-01

    Pigs (192 total) were blocked by age and stratified by initial BW (25.75 ± 2.29 kg) into pens (2 barrows and 2 gilts per pen). Within blocks, pens were randomly allotted to treatments in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement, with 2 diet forms (meal vs. pellet) and 2 distillers' dried grains with solubles (DDGS) inclusion levels (0 vs. 30%). Pigs were weighed at the beginning of the experiment and at the end of each feeding phase (d 35, 70, and 91) and daily feed allotments were recorded. Pigs were slaughtered at the end of the 91-d experiment, and full gastrointestinal (GI) tract and GI tract component weights were recorded immediately following evisceration. Carcass characteristics and meat quality were determined after a 24-h chill. Overall ADG was increased ( diets rather than meal diets, but there was no effect ( = 0.46) of DDGS inclusion on overall ADG. Overall ADFI of meal-fed pigs fed 30% DDGS was 4.7% greater ( diet form × DDGS inclusion, diets, pigs fed 0% DDGS had 2.7% greater ( = 0.02) overall G:F than pigs fed 30% DDGS; however, there was no difference ( = 0.42) in overall G:F between DDGS inclusion levels in pigs fed pelleted diets (diet form × DDGS inclusion, diets had 2.9% heavier HCW ( = 0.01), 10.4% greater 10th-rib back fat ( = 0.01), and 1.8 percentage units less estimated lean percentage ( = 0.04) than meal-fed pigs. Full GI tracts of pigs fed pelleted diets were 0.33 percentage units less ( = 0.03) of the ending live weight than that of meal-fed pigs due to decreased ( diets improved growth performance and increased carcass weight and fatness without causing the development of gastric lesions that would reduce the value of the stomach to packers. Furthermore, inclusion of DDGS in diets reduced HCW and dressing percent and increased GI tract and GI tract contents weight but had no effect on gastric lesion development or LM quality.

  9. Effects of distillers dried grains with solubles and added fat fed immediately before slaughter on growth performance and carcass characteristics of finishing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coble, K F; DeRouchey, J M; Tokach, M D; Dritz, S S; Goodband, R D; Woodworth, J C

    2017-01-01

    The addition of dietary fat has been shown to increase HCW and carcass yield in pigs fed low-fiber corn-soy diets; however, data on added fat in high-fiber, low-energy diets is less available. Therefore, the potential for dietary fat to ameliorate the negative effect high-fiber diets have on carcass yield during the last 3 wk before slaughter is of high importance. This experiment was conducted to determine the interactive effects of 30% distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) and 5% added fat fed before slaughter on growth performance and carcass characteristics. A total of 1,258 pigs in 2 groups (initially 105.8 ± 0.1 kg BW; group 1 PIC 337 × 1,050; group 2 PIC 327 × 1,050) were used in a 20-d experiment. All pigs were fed a common diet with 30% DDGS until 20 d before slaughter. Then, all pens were weighed and allotted to treatments with 20 replicate pens per treatment. Dietary treatments were arranged in a 2 × 2 factorial with 2 diet types (corn-soybean meal-based with or without 30% DDGS) and added fat (0 or 5%; group 1 = tallow; group 2 = choice white grease). Diets were formulated to a constant standardized ileal digestible Lys:NE ratio. There were no treatment × group interactions for any response criteria. Thus, data for the 2 groups were combined for analysis. Overall, there was a tendency for a diet type × added fat interaction for ADG ( = 0.054), whereas this was significant for G:F ( = 0.008). This was a result of 5% added fat increasing ADG and G:F to a greater magnitude for pigs fed the diet containing 30% DDGS (8.6 and 10.4%, respectively) than for pigs fed the corn-soy diet (2.0 and 2.9%, respectively). Although diet type did not affect final live BW, pigs fed the diet containing DDGS had decreased HCW and carcass yield ( slaughter improved ADG and G:F but did not overcome the reduction in carcass yield from feeding DDGS.

  10. Controlled Crystal Grain Growth in Mixed Cation-Halide Perovskite by Evaporated Solvent Vapor Recycling Method for High Efficiency Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numata, Youhei; Kogo, Atsushi; Udagawa, Yosuke; Kunugita, Hideyuki; Ema, Kazuhiro; Sanehira, Yoshitaka; Miyasaka, Tsutomu

    2017-06-07

    We developed a new and simple solvent vapor-assisted thermal annealing (VA) procedure which can reduce grain boundaries in a perovskite film for fabricating highly efficient perovskite solar cells (PSCs). By recycling of solvent molecules evaporated from an as-prepared perovskite film as a VA vapor source, named the pot-roast VA (PR-VA) method, finely controlled and reproducible device fabrication was achieved for formamidinium (FA) and methylammonium (MA) mixed cation-halide perovskite (FAPbI3)0.85(MAPbBr3)0.15. The mixed perovskite was crystallized on a low-temperature prepared brookite TiO2 mesoporous scaffold. When exposed to very dilute solvent vapor, small grains in the perovskite film gradually unified into large grains, resulting in grain boundaries which were highly reduced and improvement of photovoltaic performance in PSC. PR-VA-treated large grain perovskite absorbers exhibited stable photocurrent-voltage performance with high fill factor and suppressed hysteresis, achieving the best conversion efficiency of 18.5% for a 5 × 5 mm2 device and 15.2% for a 1.0 × 1.0 cm2 device.

  11. Vegetative growth of grain sorghum in response to phosphorus nutrition Crescimento vegetativo de sorgo granífero em resposta à nutrição fosfatada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Camacho

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Morphological variables such as phytomass, plant height, leaf area, number of leaves, have been used to express the influence of mineral nutrients on plant growth patterns, since the vegetative development responds, in general, favorably to fertilizer applications. This work evaluates the effect of P on both, some morphological characteristics and total [P] in the shoot of eight grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench genotypes. Genetic materials were grown in nutrient solution under three concentrations of P (0; 0.5 and 1.0 mmol L-1. Plants were harvested 41 days after sowing, and leaf area per plant (LA, number of leaves (NL per plant, root volume (RV, plant height (PH, root dry matter (RDM, shoot dry matter (SDM, total dry matter (TDM, RDM/SDM ratio, and total P concentration in shoot were determined. RDM/SDM was high for treatment P(0 and diminished about twice when P was added. Lack of applied P decreased the final NL and LA. Shoot [P] was positively correlated with solution [P], but the increase in P concentration in the nutrient solution from 0.5 to 1.0 mmol L-1 had a negative effect on growth. Both under deficiency and sufficiency conditions of P, Himeca-101 showed the best behavior in terms of RDM, SDM, TDM, RV, LA and NL. LA and PH were identified as the best indicators to predict dry matter yield of sorghum plants under P supply conditions.Peso da matéria (fresca e/ou seca, altura de planta, área foliar e número de folhas por planta são variáveis usadas para estudar o efeito dos nutrientes minerais sobre o crescimento das plantas ou de alguns de seus órgãos. Assim, é indicado que o crescimento vegetativo responde favoravelmente a aplicações de P. Avaliou-se o efeito do P em oito genótipos de sorgo granífero (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench. Os materiais genéticos foram crescidos em solução nutritiva sob condições de casa de vegetação, com três concentrações de P (0, 0,5 e 1,0 mmol L-1. Plantas foram colhidas 41 dias

  12. Interface Orientation Distribution during Grain Growth in Bulk SrTiO3 Measured by Means of 3D X-Ray Diffraction Contrast Tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Syha, Melanie; Rheinheimer, Wolfgang; Bäurer, Michael

    2012-01-01

    3D x-ray diffraction contrast tomography (DCT) is a non-destructive technique for the determination of grain shape and crystallography in polycrystalline bulk materials. Using this technique, a strontium titanate specimen was repeatedly measured between annealing steps.. A systematic analysis...

  13. The impact of niobium on the microstructure, texture and magnetic properties of strip-cast grain oriented silicon steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, F.; Lan, M. F.; Lu, X.; Zhang, Y. X.; Wang, Y.; Yuan, G.; Cao, G. M.; Xu, Y. B.; Misra, R. D. K.; Wang, G. D.

    2017-11-01

    We elucidate here the impact of niobium in ultra-low carbon grain oriented electrical steel (GOES) in terms of microstructure, texture, precipitation and magnetic properties that was processed by twin roll strip casting. Coarse and complex MnS + NbN precipitates, and fine NbN were nucleated at the grain boundaries and in the interior of the grain in the as-cast strip, which contributed to a small degree of grain refinement together with relatively random texture, and AlN precipitation was suppressed during the strip casting process. NbN continuously precipitated during the entire process and exhibited high stability during the reheating cycle, which provided stronger inhibiting force in comparison to AlN precipitates. As a consequence, fine and homogeneous inhibitors were obtained in the primary annealed sheet in the presence of Nb under cold rolling and annealing parameters used in the present study. On considering the effect of NbN particles or Nb in solution on the deformation and recrystallization behavior, the primary annealed Nb-containing sheet exhibited significantly more homogeneous microstructure in relation to Nb-free GOES, with grain size in the range of ∼8-12 μm, and was characterized by relatively more pronounced γ-fiber and weak Goss texture, beneficial for the abnormal growth of Goss grains. Furthermore, Nb-containing GOES experienced complete abnormal growth during secondary recrystallization annealing, such that the enhanced magnetic induction (B8 as high as 1.88 T) was obtained. In summary, the present study underscores that NbN can be used as an effective inhibitor in ultra-low carbon grain oriented electrical steel using strip casting technology.

  14. Hexamethylenetetramine-mediated growth of grain-boundary-passivation CH3NH3PbI3 for highly reproducible and stable perovskite solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yan-Zhen; Li, Xi-Tao; Zhao, Er-Fei; Lv, Xin-Ding; Meng, Fan-Li; Peng, Chao; Lai, Xue-Sen; Huang, Meilan; Cao, Guozhong; Tao, Xia; Chen, Jian-Feng

    2018-02-01

    Simultaneously achieving the long-term device stability and reproducibility has proven challenging in perovskite solar cells because solution-processing produced perovskite film with grain boundary is sensitive to moisture. Herein, we develop a hexamethylenetetramine (HMTA)-mediated one-step solution-processing deposition strategy that leads to the formation of high-purity and grain-boundary-passivation CH3NH3PbI3 film and thereby advances cell optoelectronic performance. Through morphological and structural characterizations and theoretical calculations, we demonstrate that HMTA fully occupies the moisture-exposed surface to build a bridge across grain boundary and coordinates with Pb ions to inhibit the formation of detrimental PbI2. Such HMTA-mediated grown CH3NH3PbI3 films achieves a decent augmentation of power conversion efficiency (PCE) from 12.70% to 17.87%. A full coverage of PbI2-free CH3NH3PbI3 surface on ZnO also boosts the device's stability and reproducibility.

  15. Effect of wheat dried distillers grains and enzyme supplementation on growth rates, feed conversion ratio and beef fatty acid profile in feedlot steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Z X; He, M L; Zhao, Y L; Xu, L; Walker, N D; Beauchemin, K A; McAllister, T A; Yang, W Z

    2015-10-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine: (1) the effect of wheat dried distillers grain with solubles (DDGS) inclusion, and (2) dietary feed enzyme (FE; Econase XT) supplementation in a finishing diet containing wheat DDGS on fatty acid profile of the pars costalis diaphragmatis muscle of beef cattle. A total of 160 crossbred yearling steers with initial BW of 495 ± 38 kg were blocked by BW and randomized into 16 pens (10 head/pen). The pens were randomly assigned to one of the four treatments: (1) control (CON; 10% barley silage and 90% barley grain-based concentrate, dry matter (DM) basis); (2) diet containing 30% wheat DDGS in place of barley grain without FE (WDG); (3) WDG diet supplemented with low FE (WDGL; 1 ml FE/kg DM); and (4) WDG diet supplemented with high FE (2 ml FE/kg DM). The pars costalis diaphragmatis muscle samples were collected from cattle at slaughter at the end of the finishing period (120 days) with a targeted live weight of 650 kg. No differences in organic matter intake, final BW and average daily gain were observed among treatments. However, steers fed WDG had greater (Pwheat DDGS-based diets tended (Pwheat DDGS into the diet increased (Pwheat DDGS-based diets did not modify the concentrations of individual or total fatty acids. These results suggest that inclusion of wheat DDGS in finishing diets may improve fatty acid profile of beef muscle which could benefit human health.

  16. Articular cartilage and growth plate defects are associated with chondrocyte cytoskeletal abnormalities in Tg737orpk mice lacking the primary cilia protein polaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGlashan, S R; Haycraft, C J; Jensen, C G; Yoder, B K; Poole, C A

    2007-05-01

    Primary cilia are highly conserved organelles found on almost all eukaryotic cells. Tg737(orpk) (orpk) mice carry a hypomorphic mutation in the Tg737 gene resulting in the loss of polaris, a protein essential for ciliogenesis. Orpk mice have an array of skeletal patterning defects and show stunted growth after birth, suggesting defects in appositional and endochondral development. This study investigated the association between orpk tibial long bone growth and chondrocyte primary cilia expression using histomorphometric and immunohistochemical analysis. Wild-type chondrocytes throughout the developing epiphysis and growth plate expressed primary cilia, which showed a specific orientation away from the articular surface in the first 7-10 cell layers. In orpk mice, primary cilia were identified on very few cells and were significantly shorter. Orpk chondrocytes also showed significant increases in cytoplasmic tubulin, a likely result of failed ciliary assembly. The growth plates of orpk mice were significantly smaller in length and width, with marked changes in cellular organization in the presumptive articular cartilage, proliferative and hypertrophic zones. Cell density at the articular surface and in the hypertrophic zone was significantly altered, suggesting defects in both appositional and endochondral growth. In addition, orpk hypertrophic chondrocytes showed re-organization of the F-actin network into stress fibres and failed to fully undergo hypertrophy, while there was a marked reduction in type X collagen sequestration. These data suggest that failure to form a functional primary cilium affects chondrocyte differentiation and results in delayed chondrocyte hypertrophy within the orpk growth plate.

  17. Grain Amaranths Are Defoliation Tolerant Crop Species Capable of Utilizing Stem and Root Carbohydrate Reserves to Sustain Vegetative and Reproductive Growth after Leaf Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Ortiz, Erandi; Espitia-Rangel, Eduardo; Tiessen, Axel; Délano-Frier, John Paul

    2013-01-01

    Tolerance to defoliation can be defined as the degree to which productivity is affected by photosynthetic area reduction. This trait was studied in grain amaranth (Amaranthus cruentus and A. hypochondriacus), which are considered to be a highly defoliation-tolerant species. The physiological and biochemical responses to increasing levels of mechanical leaf removal up to total defoliation were quantified. Tolerance appeared to be dependent on various factors: ( i) amount of lost tissue; (ii) mechanics of leaf tissue removal; (iii) environment, and (iv) species tested. Thus, grain amaranth was found to be a highly tolerant species under green-house conditions when leaf tissue loss was performed by gradual perforation. However, tolerance was compromised under similar conditions when defoliation was done by gradual cutting of the leaf. Also tolerance in completely defoliated plants tended to decrease under field conditions, where differences between A. cruentus and A. hypochondriacus were observed. All non-structural carbohydrate (NSC) levels were reduced in stems and roots of totally defoliated amaranths one day after treatment. Such depletion probably provided the carbon (C) resources needed to sustain the early recovery process in the absence of photosynthetic capacity. This was corroborated by shading of intact plants, which produced the same rapid and drastic reduction of NSC levels in these tissues. These results emphasize the role of stored NSCs, particularly starch, in buffering the impact of severe defoliation in amaranth. The fall in sucrose synthase and cell wall invertase activity observed in stems and roots soon after defoliation was consistent with their predicted shift from sink to source tissues. It is concluded that mobilization of C stores in stems and roots, is a physiologically important trait underlying tolerance to defoliation in grain amaranth. PMID:23861825

  18. Grain amaranths are defoliation tolerant crop species capable of utilizing stem and root carbohydrate reserves to sustain vegetative and reproductive growth after leaf loss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erandi Vargas-Ortiz

    Full Text Available Tolerance to defoliation can be defined as the degree to which productivity is affected by photosynthetic area reduction. This trait was studied in grain amaranth (Amaranthus cruentus and A. hypochondriacus, which are considered to be a highly defoliation-tolerant species. The physiological and biochemical responses to increasing levels of mechanical leaf removal up to total defoliation were quantified. Tolerance appeared to be dependent on various factors: ( i amount of lost tissue; (ii mechanics of leaf tissue removal; (iii environment, and (iv species tested. Thus, grain amaranth was found to be a highly tolerant species under green-house conditions when leaf tissue loss was performed by gradual perforation. However, tolerance was compromised under similar conditions when defoliation was done by gradual cutting of the leaf. Also tolerance in completely defoliated plants tended to decrease under field conditions, where differences between A. cruentus and A. hypochondriacus were observed. All non-structural carbohydrate (NSC levels were reduced in stems and roots of totally defoliated amaranths one day after treatment. Such depletion probably provided the carbon (C resources needed to sustain the early recovery process in the absence of photosynthetic capacity. This was corroborated by shading of intact plants, which produced the same rapid and drastic reduction of NSC levels in these tissues. These results emphasize the role of stored NSCs, particularly starch, in buffering the impact of severe defoliation in amaranth. The fall in sucrose synthase and cell wall invertase activity observed in stems and roots soon after defoliation was consistent with their predicted shift from sink to source tissues. It is concluded that mobilization of C stores in stems and roots, is a physiologically important trait underlying tolerance to defoliation in grain amaranth.

  19. Growth performance, behaviour, forestomach development and meat quality of veal calves provided with barley grain or ground wheat straw for welfare purpose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igino Andrighetto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Two different feeding plans for veal calves were compared in the study: a traditional liquid diet supplemented with 250  g/calf/d of barley grain or with 250 g/calf/d of ground wheat straw. The two solid feeds had different chemical composi-  tion but a similar particle size obtained by grinding the straw in a mill with an 8-mm mesh screen. Twenty-four Polish  Friesian male calves were used in the study and they were housed in individual wooden stalls (0.83 x 1.80 m. The health  status of all the calves was satisfactory for the entire fattening period and no specific medical treatment was required  during the trial. Calves fed wheat straw showed a greater intake of solid feed (196 vs. 139 g/d; P  average daily gain (1288 vs. 1203 g/d; P  not affected by the type of solid feed and no milk refusal episodes were detected. The haemoglobin concentration was  similar in calves receiving the two feeding treatments despite the higher iron intake provided by the wheat straw through-  out the fattening period (2.12 vs. 1.15 g; P  calves’ metabolism. Feeding behaviour was affected by the provision of solid feeds. Eating and chewing were prolonged  in calves receiving ground wheat straw and the same solid feed reduced the frequency of oral stereotypies at the end of  the fattening period. At the slaughterhouse, no differences were observed between the feeding treatments as regards  carcass weight and dressing percentage. The calves fed ground wheat straw had a heavier weight of the empty omasum  (518 vs. 341 g; P  fed barley grain. The incidence of abomasal erosions, ulcers and scars was similar in both treatments; however the index  of abomasal damage, which considers the number and the seriousness of different type of lesions, was higher in calves  receiving barley grain. Therefore, the grinding of straw particles, as opposed to barley grain, can reduce the abrasive-  ness of roughage at the abomasum level. Visual evaluation of the

  20. Dynamic mosaicism manifesting as loss, gain and rearrangement of an isodicentric Y chromosome in a male child with growth retardation and abnormal external genitalia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iourov, I Y; Vorsanova, S G; Liehr, T; Monakhov, V V; Soloviev, I V; Yurov, Y B

    2008-01-01

    Isodicentric chromosomes are considered the most common structural abnormality of the human Y chromosome. Because of their instability during cell division, loss of an isodicentric Y seems mainly to lie at the origin of mosaicism in previously reported patients with a 45,X cell line. Here, we report on a similar case, which, however, turned out to be an example of dynamic mosaicism involving isodicentric chromosome Y and isochromosome Y after FISH with a set of chromosome Y-specific probes and multicolor banding. Cytogenetic analyses (GTG-, C-, and Q-banding) have shown three different cell lines: 45,X/46, X,idic(Y)(q12)/46,X,+mar. The application of molecular cytogenetic techniques established the presence of four cell lines: 45,X (48%), 46,X,idic(Y)(q11.23) (42%), 46,X,i(Y)(p10) (6%) and 47,X,idic(Y)(q11.23),+idic(Y)(q11.23) (4%). According to the available literature, this is the first case of dynamic mosaicism with up to four different cell lines involving loss, gain, and rearrangement of an idic(Y)(q11.23). The present report indicates that cases of mosaicism involving isodicentric and isochromosome Ys can be more dynamic in terms of somatic intercellular variability that probably has an underappreciated effect on the phenotype. Copyright 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. The maternal plasma soluble vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1 concentration is elevated in SGA and the magnitude of the increase relates to Doppler abnormalities in the maternal and fetal circulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaiworapongsa, Tinnakorn; Espinoza, Jimmy; Gotsch, Francesca; Kim, Yeon Mee; Kim, Gi Jin; Goncalves, Luis F; Edwin, Samuel; Kusanovic, Juan Pedro; Erez, Offer; Than, Nandor Gabor; Hassan, Sonia S; Romero, Roberto

    2008-01-01

    The soluble form of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1 (sVEGFR-1), an antagonist to vascular endothelial growth factor and placental growth factor, has been implicated in the pathophysiology of preeclampsia. Preeclampsia and pregnancy complicated with small for gestational age (SGA) fetuses share some pathophysiologic derangements, such as failure of physiologic transformation of the spiral arteries, endothelial cell dysfunction, and leukocyte activation. The objectives of this study were to: (1) determine whether plasma concentrations of sVEGFR-1 in mothers with SGA fetuses without preeclampsia at the time of diagnosis are different from those in patients with preeclampsia or normal pregnant women, and (2) examine the relationship between plasma concentrations of sVEGFR-1 and Doppler velocimetry in uterine and umbilical arteries in patients with preeclampsia and those with SGA. A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the concentrations of the soluble form of VEGFR-1 in plasma obtained from normal pregnant women (n = 135), women with SGA fetuses (n = 53), and patients with preeclampsia (n = 112). Patients with SGA fetuses and those with preeclampsia were sub-classified according to the results of uterine and umbilical artery Doppler velocimetry examinations. Plasma concentrations of sVEGFR-1 were determined by an ELISA. Since these concentrations change with gestational age, differences among various subgroups were statistically estimated with the delta value, defined as the difference between the observed and expected plasma sVEGFR-1 concentration. The expected values were derived from regression analysis of plasma sVEGFR-1 concentrations in normal pregnancy. Regression analysis and univariate and multivariate analysis were employed. (1) Mothers with SGA fetuses had a mean plasma concentration of sVEGFR-1 higher than normal pregnant women (p SGA fetuses, only those with abnormal uterine artery Doppler velocimetry had a mean plasma sVEGFR-1

  2. DEVELOPMENT OF GRAIN MARKET IN UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr Maslak

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The subject of the research is a set of theoretical, methodological and practical fundamentals of organizational and economic functioning are integrated agricultural formations in the grain market of Ukraine. The methodological basis of research is the complex analysis of economic processes in the grain market in Ukraine and the world. During research we used such methods as method of systematization and comparison, statistic, economic, balance, constructive, target-oriented, and the methods of induction and deduction, analogy and comparison. Main aim of this article is the analysis of the situation on the grain market in Ukraine, defining the role of integrated agricultural formations in this market, improving the organizational-economic mechanism of its functioning, identifies ways of improving the competitiveness of Ukraine among world exporters of grain. Using results of the studies we examined trends grain market in Ukraine; influence of businesses in grain production; analysis of constraints to improve production efficiency of grain; defined domestic (internal needs of grain in Ukraine; assessed the status and expediency transformation infrastructure of the grain market of Ukraine; defined priority directions of development of the grain market in Ukraine. As a result of the preparation of articles, it is obtained the following conclusions: Ukraine is the world's largest producers and exporters of grain, the production of integrated agricultural units to a third of the total grain; technical condition of farm does not meet the needs of production; the domestic market is unable to provide the existing demand for grain production, contributing to export growth; Ukraine has a number of problems due to increased grain production, namely the shortage of storage capacity for the storage of grain, limited performance transshipment of grain in port elevators and imperfection and depreciation of transport systems; solving the existing problems is

  3. Growth performance and carcass characteristics of Tanzania Shorthorn Zebu cattle finished on molasses or maize grain with rice or maize by-products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asimwe, I.; Kimambo, A. E.; Laswai, G. H.

    2015-01-01

    , salt and urea. Both hay and concentrate were fed ad libitum and with free access to drinking water for 90 days. Feed intake, body weights and carcass characteristics were recorded. The daily total dry matter intake (DMI, kg/day) was greater (P...Forty five steers (2.5–3.0 years of age and 200±5 (SEM) kg body weight) were allotted randomly into five diets to assess the effects of finishing Tanzania Shorthorn Zebu (TSZ) cattle in feedlot using diets based on either molasses or maize grain combined with maize or rice by-products. The diets...... DMI/kg gain) was lower (Pbody weight (268 kg) and hot...

  4. Microbiota of kefir grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav Pogačić

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Kefir grains represent the unique microbial community consisting of bacteria, yeasts, and sometimes filamentous moulds creating complex symbiotic community. The complexity of their physical and microbial structures is the reason that the kefir grains are still not unequivocally elucidated. Microbiota of kefir grains has been studied by many microbiological and molecular approaches. The development of metagenomics, based on the identification without cultivation, is opening new possibilities for identification of previously nonisolated and non-identified microbial species from the kefir grains. Considering recent studies, there are over 50 microbial species associated with kefir grains. The aim of this review is to summarise the microbiota composition of kefir grains. Moreover, because of technological and microbiological significance of the kefir grains, the paper provides an insight into the microbiological and molecular methods applied to study microbial biodiversity of kefir grains.

  5. Roundness of grains in cellular microstructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, F. H.; Mason, J. K.; Lazar, E. A.; MacPherson, R. D.

    2017-08-01

    Many physical systems are composed of polyhedral cells of varying sizes and shapes. These structures are simple in the sense that no more than three faces meet at an edge and no more than four edges meet at a vertex. This means that individual cells can usually be considered as simple, three-dimensional polyhedra. This paper is concerned with determining the distribution of combinatorial types of such polyhedral cells. We introduce the terms fundamental and vertex-truncated types and apply these concepts to the grain growth microstructure as a testing ground. For these microstructures, we demonstrate that most grains are of particular fundamental types, whereas the frequency of vertex-truncated types decreases exponentially with the number of truncations. This can be explained by the evolutionary process through which grain growth structures are formed and in which energetically unfavorable surfaces are quickly eliminated. Furthermore, we observe that these grain types are "round" in a combinatorial sense: there are no "short" separating cycles that partition the polyhedra into two parts of similar sizes. A particular microstructure derived from the Poisson-Voronoi initial condition is identified as containing an unusually large proportion of round grains. This microstructure has an average of 14.036 faces per grain and is conjectured to be more resistant to topological change than the steady-state grain growth microstructure.

  6. Short Communication. Effect of phosphorus nutrition and grain position within maize cob on grain phosphorus accumulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhamamad Nadeem

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Nutritional status of grains may vary due to external nutrient supply and their position within parent maize cob. Phosphorus (P is the least mobile nutrient in the soil and therefore newly growing seedlings are largely dependent on the stored grain P contents which are accumulated during the crop maturity period. Objective of this study was to access the effects of different P applications and grain positions on P and dry matter contents in grains. Phosphorus application and grain position has significant (p<0.05 effects on P contents in grains whereas dry weight and P content are highly correlated. Grain weight and P contents decreased linearly from base to apical position possibly due to flow of nutrients from base towards apical position within cob. Significantly higher grain dry weight (0.35±0.01 g and P contents (962±57 µg P are recorded in high P application (92.50 kg ha-1 rate on base position whereas minimum grain dry weight (0.14±0.01 g and P contents (219±11 µg P were recorded on apical grain position in low P application (5.60 kg ha-1 rate. The results suggest that for better seedling P nutrition especially in soils of low inherent P, maize grains should be selected from base or middle position where maximum dry weight and P contents are concentrated to support the seedlings to reach at growth at which roots are capable of external P uptake.

  7. Short communication: grain-induced subacute ruminal acidosis is associated with the differential expression of insulin-like growth factor-binding proteins in rumen papillae of lactating dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, M A; Alzahal, O; Walpole, M E; McBride, B W

    2012-10-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize the mRNA expression of genes involved in the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) axis in the rumen epithelium during grain-induced ruminal acidosis. Eight lactating dairy cattle were randomly assigned to a control (38% concentrate) or a high-grain (HG; 57% concentrate) diet in a randomized study. Dry matter intake, milk production, ruminal pH, and rumen papillae gene expression were measured before treatment allocation (d 0) and on the fourth day of treatment. On d 4, no differences were observed in total feed intake and milk production; however, the cattle fed the HG diet displayed lower ruminal pH (587 ± 130 min/d below 5.6; mean ± SE) compared with cattle receiving the control diet (169 ± 145 min/d below 5.6). No change in the relative mRNA expression of IGF-1, IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R), and IGF-binding protein 6 (IGFBP6) was detected between treatments. However, the relative expression value of IGF-binding protein 3 (IGFBP3) decreased (0.73 ± 0.07 fold, mean ± SE), whereas IGF-binding protein 5 (IGFBP5) expression increased (1.53 ± 0.20 fold). These results indicate that the IGF axis may play a role in rumen epithelial adaptation to HG diets. Copyright © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Comparative effect of salinity on growth, grain yield, water use efficiency, δ(13)C and δ(15)N of landraces and improved durum wheat varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamekh, Zoubeir; Ayadi, Sawsen; Karmous, Chahine; Trifa, Youssef; Amara, Hajer; Boudabbous, Khaoula; Yousfi, Salima; Serret, Maria Dolors; Araus, José Luis

    2016-10-01

    Supplemental irrigation with low-quality water will be paramount in Mediterranean agriculture in the future, where durum wheat is a major crop. Breeding for salinity tolerance may contribute towards improving resilience to irrigation with brackish water. However, identification of appropriate phenotyping traits remains a bottleneck in breeding. A set of 25 genotypes, including 19 landraces and 6 improved varieties most cultivated in Tunisia, were grown in the field and irrigated with brackish water (6, 13 and 18dSm(-1)). Improved genotypes exhibited higher grain yield (GY) and water use efficiency at the crop level (WUEyield or 'water productivity'), shorter days to flowering (DTF), lower N concentration (N) and carbon isotope composition (δ(13)C) in mature kernels and lower nitrogen isotope composition (δ(15)N) in the flag leaf compared with landraces. GY was negatively correlated with DTF and the δ(13)C and N of mature kernels and was positively correlated with the δ(15)N of the flag leaf. Moreover, δ(13)C of mature kernels was negatively correlated with WUEyield. The results highlight the importance of shorter phenology together with photosynthetic resilience to salt-induced water stress (lower δ(13)C) and nitrogen metabolism (higher N and δ(15)N) for assessing genotypic performance to salinity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Early versus Late Enteral Feeding in Preterm Intrauterine Growth Restricted Neonates with Antenatal Doppler Abnormalities: An Open-Label Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewari, Vishal Vishnu; Dubey, Sachin Kumar; Kumar, Reema; Vardhan, Shakti; Sreedhar, C M; Gupta, Girish

    2018-02-01

    Enteral feeding in preterm neonates with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and absent or reversed end diastolic flow (AREDF) on umbilical artery (UA) Doppler is delayed owing to an increased risk of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). Delaying enteral feeding with longer duration of parenteral nutrition (PN) carries an increased risk of sepsis. To study early versus late feeding in preterm IUGR neonates for time required to attain sufficient feed volume to discontinue PN and increased risk of NEC or feed intolerance (FI). Open-label randomized controlled trial. Tertiary care neonatal unit and fetal-maternal medicine unit in India. Preterm intrauterine growth restricted neonates' ≤32 weeks with AREDF on UA Doppler enrolled from 1 January 2014 to 31 July 2015. Randomized to receive early or late feeding using mothers own or donor breast milk as per a feed initiation and advancement protocol. Time in days required to attain sufficient feed volume allowing discontinuation of PN and incidence of NEC in neonates fed early versus late. There were 77 eligible neonates. Sixty-two neonates were included and stratified as extreme preterm (27-29 weeks) (n = 20) and very preterm (30-32 weeks) (n = 42). Ten extreme preterm and 21 very preterm neonates were randomized to each early feeding and late feeding arm. There was a significantly faster attainment of sufficient feeds in the early feeding arm of both the stratified groups [extreme preterm: median 14 days (Interquartile range IQR: 12-15) compared with 18 days (IQR: 18-20), hazard ratio (HR): 1.59, 95% CI: 0.626-4.078; very preterm: 12 days (IQR: 10-14) as compared with 16 days (IQR 15-17), HR: 1.89, 95% CI: 1.011-3.555]. There was no difference in the incidence of NEC, FI and combined outcome of NEC and FI. Early feeding in preterm IUGR neonates with AREDF on antenatal UA Doppler allowed earlier discontinuation of PN, allowing birth weight to be regained earlier and did not increase the incidence of NEC and FI.

  10. Mechanism of secondary recrystallization of Goss grains in grain-oriented electrical steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayakawa, Yasuyuki

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Since its invention by Goss in 1934, grain-oriented (GO) electrical steel has been widely used as a core material in transformers. GO exhibits a grain size of over several millimeters attained by secondary recrystallization during high-temperature final batch annealing. In addition to the unusually large grain size, the crystal direction in the rolling direction is aligned with , which is the easy magnetization axis of α-iron. Secondary recrystallization is the phenomenon in which a certain very small number of {110} (Goss) grains grow selectively (about one in 106 primary grains) at the expense of many other primary recrystallized grains. The question of why the Goss orientation is exclusively selected during secondary recrystallization has long been a main research subject in this field. The general criterion for secondary recrystallization is a small and uniform primary grain size, which is achieved through the inhibition of normal grain growth by fine precipitates called inhibitors. This paper describes several conceivable mechanisms of secondary recrystallization of Goss grains mainly based on the selective growth model. PMID:28804524

  11. Total polysaccharide of Yupingfeng protects against bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis via inhibiting transforming growth factor-β1-mediated type I collagen abnormal deposition in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Liang; Li, Liu-cheng; Zhao, Ping; Qi, Lian-wen; Li, Ping; Gao, Jian; Fei, Guang-he

    2014-12-01

    This study was to explore the antifibrotic effect and the possible mechanism of total polysaccharides of Yupingfeng (YPF-P) on bleomycin (BLM)-induced pulmonary fibrosis in rats. Pulmonary fibrosis was induced in Sprague-Dawley rats by BLM (5 mg/kg), killed 14 and 28 days after BLM administration by abdominal aorta exsanguination and removed the lungs. Lung coefficient was counted at the same time. Besides, H&E and Masson's trichrome staining for histopathological changes of lung tissues were observed. Additionally, western blotting and immunohistochemical staining techniques were used to detect expression of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), type I collagen (Col-I) and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA). Finally, the levels of Col-I and hydroxyproline (HYP) in lung tissues were also utilized. YPF-P alleviated the increase of lung coefficient induced by BLM instillation in pulmonary fibrosis rat, pathologic changes and collagen distribution were obviously ameliorated, while the increase of α-SMA-positive cells and TGF-β1 expression was prevented after YPF-P treatment. Moreover, the contents of HYP and Col-I were decreased in YPF-P group. YPF-P had antifibrotic effect in experiment, which may reduce the synthesis and promote the deposition of Col-I via suppressing the increase of TGF-β1-mediated activation of myofibroblasts. © 2014 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  12. Abnormal histone methylation is responsible for increased vascular endothelial growth factor 165a secretion from airway smooth muscle cells in asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifford, Rachel L; John, Alison E; Brightling, Christopher E; Knox, Alan J

    2012-07-15

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), a key angiogenic molecule, is aberrantly expressed in several diseases including asthma where it contributes to bronchial vascular remodeling and chronic inflammation. Asthmatic human airway smooth muscle cells hypersecrete VEGF, but the mechanism is unclear. In this study, we defined the mechanism in human airway smooth muscle cells from nonasthmatic and asthmatic patients. We found that asthmatic cells lacked a repression complex at the VEGF promoter, which was present in nonasthmatic cells. Recruitment of G9A, trimethylation of histone H3 at lysine 9 (H3K9me3), and a resultant decrease in RNA polymerase II at the VEGF promoter was critical to repression of VEGF secretion in nonasthmatic cells. At the asthmatic promoter, H3K9me3 was absent because of failed recruitment of G9a; RNA polymerase II binding, in association with TATA-binding protein-associated factor 1, was increased; H3K4me3 was present; and Sp1 binding was exaggerated and sustained. In contrast, DNA methylation and histone acetylation were similar in asthmatic and nonasthmatic cells. This is the first study, to our knowledge, to show that airway cells in asthma have altered epigenetic regulation of remodeling gene(s). Histone methylation at genes such as VEGF may be an important new therapeutic target.

  13. Economic Perspectives on Organic Grains: Past, Present, and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    The organic food industry has seen tremendous growth over the past decade. This growth has led to an increase in demand for organic grains, and has been accompanied by an increase in the number of organic farms and an expansion in organic grain acreage in the U.S. Through this period, price premium...

  14. Structurally abnormal human autosomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 25, discusses structurally abnormal human autosomes. This discussion includes: structurally abnormal chromosomes, chromosomal polymorphisms, pericentric inversions, paracentric inversions, deletions or partial monosomies, cri du chat (cat cry) syndrome, ring chromosomes, insertions, duplication or pure partial trisomy and mosaicism. 71 refs., 8 figs.

  15. Grain centre mapping - 3DXRD measurements of average grain characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oddershede, Jette; Schmidt, Søren; Lyckegaard, Allan

    2014-01-01

    Three-Dimensional X-ray Diraction (3DXRD) Microscopy is a generic term covering a variety of dierent techniques for characterising the mi- crostructure within the bulk of polycrystalline materials. One strategy | namely grain centre mapping | enables fast measurements of the av- erage characteris......Three-Dimensional X-ray Diraction (3DXRD) Microscopy is a generic term covering a variety of dierent techniques for characterising the mi- crostructure within the bulk of polycrystalline materials. One strategy | namely grain centre mapping | enables fast measurements of the av- erage...... and the closely related boxscan method is given. Both validation experiments and applications for in situ studies of microstructural changes during plastic deformation and crack growth are given. Finally an outlook with special emphasis on coupling the measured results with modelling is given....

  16. Deletion of fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 from the peri-wolffian duct stroma leads to ureteric induction abnormalities and vesicoureteral reflux.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth A Walker

    Full Text Available Pax3cre-mediated deletion of fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (Fgfr2 broadly in renal and urinary tract mesenchyme led to ureteric bud (UB induction defects and vesicoureteral reflux (VUR, although the mechanisms were unclear. Here, we investigated whether Fgfr2 acts specifically in peri-Wolffian duct stroma (ST to regulate UB induction and development of VUR and the mechanisms of Fgfr2 activity.We conditionally deleted Fgfr2 in ST (Fgfr2(ST-/- using Tbx18cre mice. To look for ureteric bud induction defects in young embryos, we assessed length and apoptosis of common nephric ducts (CNDs. We performed 3D reconstructions and histological analyses of urinary tracts of embryos and postnatal mice and cystograms in postnatal mice to test for VUR. We performed in situ hybridization and real-time PCR in young embryos to determine mechanisms underlying UB induction defects.We confirmed that Fgfr2 is expressed in ST and that Fgfr2 was efficiently deleted in this tissue in Fgfr2(ST-/- mice at embryonic day (E 10.5. E11.5 Fgfr2(ST-/- mice had randomized UB induction sites with approximately 1/3 arising too high and 1/3 too low from the Wolffian duct; however, apoptosis was unaltered in E12.5 mutant CNDs. While ureters were histologically normal, E15.5 Fgfr2(ST-/- mice exhibit improper ureteral insertion sites into the bladder, consistent with the ureteric induction defects. While ureter and bladder histology appeared normal, postnatal day (P 1 mutants had high rates of VUR versus controls (75% versus 3%, p = 0.001 and occasionally other defects including renal hypoplasia and duplex systems. P1 mutant mice also had improper ureteral bladder insertion sites and shortened intravesicular tunnel lengths that correlated with VUR. E10.5 Fgfr2(ST-/- mice had decreases in Bmp4 mRNA in stromal tissues, suggesting a mechanism underlying the ureteric induction and VUR phenotypes.Mutations in FGFR2 could possibly cause VUR in humans.

  17. Phenotype abnormality: 71 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 71 http://metadb.riken.jp/db/SciNetS_ria224i/cria224u1ria224u577i abnormal for trait of morphology... in organ named trichome during process named growth ... trichome ... abnormal ... growth ... morphology

  18. Phenotype abnormality: 43 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 43 http://metadb.riken.jp/db/SciNetS_ria224i/cria224u1ria224u549i abnormal for trait of behavior...al quality in organ named root during process named growth ... root ... abnormal ... growth ... behavioral quality

  19. Phenotype abnormality: 49 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 49 http://metadb.riken.jp/db/SciNetS_ria224i/cria224u1ria224u555i abnormal for trait of behavior...al quality in organ named whole plant during process named cell growth ... whole plant ... abnormal ... cell growth ... behavioral quality

  20. Unveiling the Concentration-Dependent Grain Growth of Perovskite Films from One- and Two-Step Deposition Methods: Implications for Photovoltaic Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Alison E; Zhang, Yi; Gao, Peng; Nazeeruddin, Mohammad Khaja

    2017-08-02

    In order to achieve high-efficiency perovskite solar cells, understanding both the crystal structure and the optoelectronic properties of perovskite layers is of importance. This paper uses crystallization analysis and the modeling study of two different perovskite deposition methods (two- and one-step methods) and thereby shows that the one-step method embodies a film formation process that is dominated by crystal growth, while the dominant mechanism of the two-step procedure is nucleation. Our data based on experimental and theory shows that the one-step recipe is superior in terms of morphology control, and, hence, reproducibility, compared to the two-step recipe.

  1. Microbiota of kefir grains

    OpenAIRE

    Tomislav Pogačić; Sanja Šinko; Šimun Zamberlin; Dubravka Samaržija

    2013-01-01

    Kefir grains represent the unique microbial community consisting of bacteria, yeasts, and sometimes filamentous moulds creating complex symbiotic community. The complexity of their physical and microbial structures is the reason that the kefir grains are still not unequivocally elucidated. Microbiota of kefir grains has been studied by many microbiological and molecular approaches. The development of metagenomics, based on the identification without cultivation, is opening new possibilities f...

  2. Grain Boundary Complexions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    deter- mine bulk materials behavior and properties such as superplasticity, creep, fatigue, corrosion , strength and conductivity [2]. Grain boundary...interface (i.e. lattice mismatch accommodated by interface dislocations ), wetting transitions will not occur. A wetting transition is possible in the case...melting only starts around dislocations at low- angle grain boundaries; the grain boundary structure con- sists of isolated liquid pools separated by

  3. Compaction of cereal grain

    OpenAIRE

    Wychowaniec, J.; Griffiths, I.; Gay, A; Mughal, A.

    2013-01-01

    We report on simple shaking experiments to measure the compaction of a column of Firth oat grain. Such grains are elongated anisotropic particles with a bimodal polydispersity. In these experiments, the particle configurations start from an initially disordered, low-packing-fraction state and under vertical shaking evolve to a dense state with evidence of nematic-like structure at the surface of the confining tube. This is accompanied by an increase in the packing fraction of the grain.

  4. Compaction of cereal grain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wychowaniec, J.; Griffiths, I.; Gay, A.; Mughal, A.

    2013-11-01

    We report on simple shaking experiments to measure the compaction of a column of Firth oat grain. Such grains are elongated anisotropic particles with a bimodal polydispersity. In these experiments, the particle configurations start from an initially disordered, low-packing-fraction state and under vertical shaking evolve to a dense state with evidence of nematic-like structure at the surface of the confining tube. This is accompanied by an increase in the packing fraction of the grain.

  5. The effect of S-(ferrocenylmethyl-thiosalicylic acid sodium salt on the germination and growth of cereal grains and seedlings and on the development of pathogenic fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Michalczyk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The sodium salt of S-(ferrocenylmethyl-thiosalicylic acid was studied in the context of its possible use as a systemic fungicide and, concurrently, as a source of physiologically active iron fur crop plants. It was found that this metallocene was taken up by maize seedlings growing in liquid mediums, and used for chlorophyll synthesis, in a concentration range as low as 0.05-0.08 mM dm-3. In the concentration range of 0.05-1.5 mM dm-3, it inhibited germination, seedling growth and Y-amylase activity while it stimulated the activities of proteinases, catalase and peroxidase. When sprayed on cereal leaves at a concentration of 1.0-2.0 mM dm-3, it exhibited fungicidal properties: inhibition of fungus development without harming cereal plant leaves and stimulated chlorophyll synthesis.

  6. Chromosomal Abnormalities in ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of fragile X syndrome, velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS, and other cytogenetic abnormalities among 100 children (64 boys with combined type ADHD and normal intelligence was assessed at the NIMH and Georgetown University Medical Center.

  7. Chromosomal abnormalities and autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farida El-Baz

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Chromosomal abnormalities were not detected in the studied autistic children, and so the relation between the genetics and autism still needs further work up with different study methods and techniques.

  8. Austenite and ferrite grain size evolution in plain carbon steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Militzer, M.; Giumelli, A.; Hawbolt, E.B.; Meadowcroft, T.R. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    1995-01-01

    Grain size evolution in a 0.17%C, 0.74%Mn plain carbon steel is investigated using a Gleeble 1500 thermomechanical simulator. Austenite grain growth measurements in the temperature range from 900 to 1150{degrees}C have been used to validate the Abbruzzese and Luecke model, which is recommended for simulating grain growth during reheating. For run-out table conditions, the ferrite grain size decreases from 1l{mu}m to 4{mu}m when the cooling rate from the austenite is increased from 1 to 80{degrees}C/s.

  9. Normal sex differences in prenatal growth and abnormal prenatal growth retardation associated with 46,XY disorders of sex development are absent in newborns with congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chalmers Laura J

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency is the most common presentation of a disorder of sex development (DSD in genetic females. A report of prenatal growth retardation in cases of 46,XY DSD, coupled with observations of below-optimal final height in both males and females with congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency, prompted us to investigate prenatal growth in the latter group. Additionally, because girls with congenital adrenal hyperplasia are exposed to increased levels of androgens in the absence of a male sex-chromosome complement, the presence or absence of typical sex differences in growth of newborns would support or refute a hormonal explanation for these differences. Methods In total, 105 newborns with congenital adrenal hyperplasia were identified in our database. Gestational age (weeks, birth weight (kg, birth length (cm and parental heights (cm were obtained. Mid-parental height was considered in the analyses. Results Mean birth weight percentile for congenital adrenal hyperplasia was 49.26%, indicating no evidence of a difference in birth weight from the expected standard population median of 50th percentile (P > 0.05. The expected sex difference in favor of heavier males was not seen (P > 0.05. Of the 105 subjects, 44 (27%; 34 females, 10 males had birth length and gestational age recorded in their medical chart. Mean birth length for this subgroup was 50.90 cm (63rd percentile, which differed from the expected standard population median of 50th percentile (P = 0.0082. The expected sex difference in favor of longer males was also not seen (P > 0.05. Conclusion The prenatal growth retardation patterns reported in cases of 46,XY disorders of sex development do not generalize to people with congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency. Sex differences in body weight and length typically seen in young infants were not seen in the subjects who

  10. Grain damage, phase mixing and plate-boundary formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bercovici, David; Skemer, Philip

    2017-07-01

    The generation of plate tectonics on Earth relies on complex mechanisms for shear localization, as well as for the retention and reactivation of weak zones in the cold ductile lithosphere. Pervasive mylonitization, wherein zones of high deformation coincide with extensive mineral grain size reduction, is an important clue to this process. In that regard, the grain-damage model of lithospheric weakening provides a physical framework for both mylonitization and plate generation, and accounts for the competition between grain size reduction by deformation and damage, and healing by grain growth. Zener pinning at the evolving interface between mineral components, such as olivine and pyroxene, plays a key role in helping drive grains to small mylonitic sizes during deformation, and then retards their growth once deformation ceases. The combined effects of damage and pinning, however, rely on the efficiency of inter-grain mixing between phases (e.g., olivine and pyroxene) and grain dispersal, which likely depends on grain size itself. Here we present a new model for inter-grain mixing and damage and the onset of rapid mixing. The model considers the competition between the formation of new grains behind a receding interphase triple junction (e.g., olivine growing into a boundary between two pyroxene grains) and their severance or spalling during progressive deformation and damage. The newly formed grains of one phase are then transported along the opposing phase's grain-boundaries and the two phases become dispersed at the grain-scale in a growing mixed layer. The small intermixed grains also affect the grain evolution of the surrounding host grains by Zener pinning, and hence influence the rheology and growth of the mixed layer. As the grains in the mixed layer shrink, subsequently spalled new grains are also smaller, causing a feedback that leads to more rapid mixing and shear localization in the mixed layer. The early stages of mixing can be compared to laboratory

  11. Understanding the grain-growth mechanism of high-performance organic semiconducting diphenyl-dibenzothiopheno[6,5-b:6',5'-f]thieno[3,2-b]thiophene molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung-Hwa; Kwon, Young-Nam; Lee, Eunkyung; Jung, Ji Young; Kim, Joo-Young; Shin, Jaikwang; Park, Jeong-Il; Choi, Ajeong

    2017-12-01

    We report here our investigation on the grain-growth mechanism of diphenyl-dibenzothiopheno[6,5-b:6',5'-f]thieno[3,2-b]thiophene (DPh-DBTTT), which was recently published as a high-performance organic semiconductor. Atomic force microscopy revealed that unconventional needle-like structures grew on the surface of DPh-DBTTT thin films, and these structures became more dominant as the film thickness increased and the deposited film's surface temperature decreased. In combination with the crystal structure simulations, the grazing-incidence wide-angle x-ray scattering data indicated that the DPh-DBTTT molecules preferred an edge-on orientation near the interface between the substrate and DPh-DBTTT thin film, while the needle-like structures consisted of a face-on arrangement of the molecules. We suggest that this structural change originates from the large step-edge energy barrier of the DPh-DBTTT molecules. Our findings would be highly valuable to the design of new high-performance organic semiconducting materials and optimization of the conditions of thin-film deposition.

  12. Comparative feeding value of distillers dried grains plus solubles as a partial replacement for steam-flaked corn in diets for calf-fed Holstein steers: characteristics of digestion, growth performance, and dietary energetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, R; Arrizon, A A; Plascencia, A; Torrentera, N G; Zinn, R A

    2013-04-01

    Two experiments were conducted to examine the effect of level of dried distillers grains plus solubles (DDGS) supplementation (0, 10, 20, and 30%; DM basis), replacing steam-flaked (SF) corn in finishing diets, on characteristics of digestion (Exp. 1) and growth performance (Exp. 2) in calf-fed Holstein steers. In Exp.1, 4 cannulated Holstein steers (349 ± 12 kg) were used to evaluate treatment effects on characteristics of digestion. Ruminal NDF digestion tended to increase (quadratic effect, P = 0.09) and ruminal OM digestion decreased (linear effect, P = 0.01) with DDGS substitution. There were no treatment effects on duodenal flow of microbial N (MN). Substitution with DDGS increased (linear effect, P growth performance and carcass characteristics. During the initial 126 d, DDGS substitution increased ADG (linear effect, P = 0.03), G:F (quadratic effect, P = 0.03), and dietary NE (quadratic effect, P = 0.02), maximal for both at 20% DDGS inclusion rate. Based on estimated indispensable AA supply to the small intestine as a percentage of requirements during the initial 126-d period, histidine was first limiting followed by methionine. During the final 179-d period and overall (305-d feeding period), treatment effects on ADG and G:F were small (P ≥ 0.22). Compared with the other treatments, HCW was greater (3.4; P = 0.03) at the 20% level of DDGS substitution. The NE value for DDGS in SF corn-based diets for the calf-fed Holstein are consistent with current tabular standards. Extra-caloric value of DDGS as a metabolizable AA source is apparent during the initial growing phase. The UIP value of DDGS used in this study (35%) was considerably less than current tabular estimates (52%; NRC, 2000).

  13. Effect of Grain Size on Ultrasonic Fatigue Properties of Ni-Base Super Alloy Inconel 718

    OpenAIRE

    皮籠石, 紀雄; 前村, 英史; 陳, 強; 後藤, 真宏; 森野, 数博

    2008-01-01

    Ultrasonic fatigue tests of plain specimens with different grain sizes were carried out for Ni-base super alloy, Inconel 718, in ambient air in order to investigate the effect of grain size on fatigue properties. Fatigue strength was increased with decrease in grain size. The increase in fatigue strength by refining grain size was mainly caused by the suppression of crack initiation. That is, the effect of grain size on crack growth rate was hardly recognized, though crack morphology was roug...

  14. Grain boundaries: Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balluffi, R.W.; Bristowe, P.D.

    1988-02-01

    Quantitative measurements of grain boundary structure factors using x-ray diffraction have been performed on low angle (001) twist boundaries in gold. Also, a computer atomistic simulation program is being implemented to examine the equilibrium properties of a series of boundaries in gold. Simulation of boundaries at room temperature have been performed. Electron microscopy of grain boundary melting in aluminum was also performed. Results indicated an absence of melting. (CBS)

  15. Increased Night Temperature Negatively Affects Grain Yield, Biomass and Grain Number in Chilean Quinoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesjak, Jurka; Calderini, Daniel F

    2017-01-01

    Quinoa high nutritive value increases interest worldwide, especially as a crop that could potentially feature in different cropping systems, however, climate change, particularly rising temperatures, challenges this and other crop species. Currently, only limited knowledge exists regarding the grain yield and other key traits response to higher temperatures of this crop, especially to increased night temperatures. In this context, the main objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of increased night temperature on quinoa yield, grain number, individual grain weight and processes involved in crop growth under the environmental conditions (control treatment) and night thermal increase at two phases: flowering (T1) and grain filling (T2) in southern Chile. A commercial genotype, Regalona, and a quinoa accession (Cod. BO5, N°191, grain bank from Semillas Baer, hereby referred to as Accession) were used, due to their adaptability to Southern Chilean conditions and contrasting grain yield potential, grain weight and size of plants. Temperature was increased ≈4°C above the ambient from 8 pm until 9 am the next morning. Control treatments reached a high grain yield (600 and 397 g m-2, i.e., Regalona and Accession). Temperature increase reduced grain yield by 31% under T1 treatment and 12% when under T2 in Regalona and 23 and 26% in Accession, respectively. Aboveground biomass was negatively affected by the thermal treatments and a positive linear association was found between grain yield and aboveground biomass across treatments. By contrast, the harvest index was unaffected either by genotype, or by thermal treatments. Grain number was significantly affected between treatments and this key trait was linearly associated with grain yield. On the other hand, grain weight showed a narrow range of variation across treatments. Additionally, leaf area index was not affected, but significant differences were found in SPAD values at the end of T1 treatment, compared

  16. Abnormal Head Position

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... non-ocular causes of an abnormal head position? Congenital shortening of the neck muscles (sternocleidomastoid) can cause a head tilt. This is ... amblyopia) are other treatment alternatives. Physical therapy helps congenital torticollis from tight neck muscles. Updated ... Terms & Conditions Most Common ...

  17. Effects of feeding diets containing highly peroxidized distillers dried grains with solubles and increasing vitamin E levels to wean-finish pigs on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and pork fat composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, R; Chen, C; Johnston, L J; Kerr, B J; Weber, T E; Shurson, G C

    2014-01-01

    Lipid peroxidation in animal feed can negatively affect growth performance and meat quality. Weanling pigs (n = 432; BW = 6.6 ± 0.4 kg) were used to evaluate the effects of feeding peroxidized distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) with 3 levels of vitamin E (α-tocopheryl acetate) on growth performance, carcass composition, fatty acid composition of pork fat, and lipid peroxidation in LM. The DDGS source used in this study contained the highest thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) value, peroxide value, and total S content (5.2 ng malondialdehyde/mg oil, 84.1 mEq/kg oil, and 0.95%, respectively) among 30 DDGS sources sampled. Pens within blocks were assigned randomly to 1 of 6 diets in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement of treatments with 8 pens per treatment and 9 pigs per pen. Pigs were fed a corn-soybean meal (CON) or 30% peroxidized DDGS (Ox-DDGS) diets with 3 levels of vitamin E: none supplemented (No-E), NRC (1X-E), or 10X NRC (10X-E). Compared to CON, inclusion of 30% Ox-DDGS in diets reduced (P vitamin E concentrations improved G:F (P = 0.03) of pigs fed 10X-E and 1X-E vs. No-E diets (0.39 and 0.39 vs. 0.38, respectively). Hot carcass weight, dressing percentage, backfat depth, and LM area were reduced (P vitamin E levels did not affect fatty acid profiles in belly or back fat. Loin muscle TBARS were measured to determine the lipid peroxidation level in pork loins. Although pigs were fed a Ox-DDGS source in this study, TBARS in LM were similar between Ox-DDGS and CON treatments. There was no interaction between Ox-DDGS and dietary vitamin E concentration in LM TBARS. Alpha-tocopherol concentration in LM was greater (P E than No-E or 1X-E dietary treatments. Compared to CON, feeding Ox-DDGS increased α-tocopherol concentration in LM of pigs fed No-E (1.0 vs. 3.1 mg/kg; P = 0.005) but not in those fed 1X-E or 10X-E. These results indicate that feeding diets containing 30% Ox-DDGS to wean-finish pigs may negatively affect growth performance

  18. evaluation of grain nutritional quality and resistant starch content in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    in each of the study sites, using a Hege Machine model 125C; and the grains were later threshed. TABLE 2. Kenyan bread wheat varieties and their characteristics. Variety. Year of. Description. Yield release. (t ha-1). Robin. 2011. Red, hard grain, resistant to stem rust especially Ug99 strain and spring. 8.1 growth habits.

  19. Fungicide and insecticide residues in rice grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Mack Teló

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to analyse residues of fungicides and insecticides in rice grains that were subjected to different forms of processing. Field work was conducted during three crop seasons, and fungicides and insecticides were applied at different crop growth stages on the aerial portion of the rice plants. Azoxystrobin, difenoconazole, propiconazole, tebuconazole, and trifloxystrobin fungicides were sprayed only once at the R2 growth stage or twice at the R2 and R4 growth stages; cypermethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin, permethrin, and thiamethoxam insecticides were sprayed at the R2 growth stage; and permethrin was sprayed at 5-day intervals from the R4 growth stage up to one day prior to harvest. Pesticide residues were analysed in uncooked, cooked, parboiled, polished and brown rice grains as well as rice hulls during the three crop seasons, for a total of 1458 samples. The samples were analysed by gas chromatography with electron capture detection (GC-ECD using modified QuEChERS as the extraction method. No fungicide or insecticide residues were detected in rice grain samples; however, azoxystrobin and cypermethrin residues were detected in rice hull samples.

  20. Neurological abnormalities predict disability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poggesi, Anna; Gouw, Alida; van der Flier, Wiesje

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the role of neurological abnormalities and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) lesions in predicting global functional decline in a cohort of initially independent-living elderly subjects. The Leukoaraiosis And DISability (LADIS) Study, involving 11 European centres, was primarily aimed...... at evaluating age-related white matter changes (ARWMC) as an independent predictor of the transition to disability (according to Instrumental Activities of Daily Living scale) or death in independent elderly subjects that were followed up for 3 years. At baseline, a standardized neurological examination.......0 years, 45 % males), 327 (51.7 %) presented at the initial visit with ≥1 neurological abnormality and 242 (38 %) reached the main study outcome. Cox regression analyses, adjusting for MRI features and other determinants of functional decline, showed that the baseline presence of any neurological...

  1. Background: Madelung's deformity is a congenital abnormality of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Madelung's deformity is a congenital abnormality of the wrist caused by a disturbance of growth that retards the development of the ulnar and volar aspect of the distal radial physis, usually idiopathic, but can be associated with bone dysplas.

  2. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding

    OpenAIRE

    Benetti-Pinto, Cristina Laguna; Rosa-e-Silva, Ana Carolina Japur de Sá; Yela, Daniela Angerame; Soares Júnior,José Maria

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Abnormal uterine bleeding is a frequent condition in Gynecology. It may impact physical, emotional sexual and professional aspects of the lives of women, impairing their quality of life. In cases of acute and severe bleeding, women may need urgent treatment with volumetric replacement and prescription of hemostatic substances. In some specific cases with more intense and prolonged bleeding, surgical treatment may be necessary. The objective of this chapter is to describe the main evi...

  3. Effects of feeding diets containing distillers' dried grains with solubles and wheat middlings with equal predicted dietary net energy on growth performance and carcass composition of growing-finishing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, F; Johnston, L J; Urriola, P E; Hilbrands, A M; Shurson, G C

    2016-01-01

    This experiment evaluated the effects of feeding distillers' dried grains with solubles (DDGS) and wheat middlings (WM) in diets with similar estimated NE content on growth performance and carcass characteristics of growing-finishing pigs. Pigs ( = 384; 29.1 ± 3.6 kg initial BW) were blocked by initial BW, and within blocks, pens were randomly allotted to 1 of 4 dietary treatments (8 pigs/pen and 12 replicates/treatment) in a 4-phase feeding program (29 to 50, 50 to 75, 75 to 100, and 100 to 120 kg BW). Dietary treatments were arranged in a 2 × 2 factorial design and formulated to consist of: 1) corn and soybean meal (CON), 2) CON with 30% DDGS, 3) CON with 15% WM, and 4) CON with 30% DDGS and 15% WM. Diets met or exceeded nutrient requirements published by the and were formulated to contain the same concentrations of standardized ileal digestible (SID) Lys and meet or exceed minimum SID AA to Lys ratios within phases. No significant interactions for DDGS × WM × phase or DDGS × WM were observed for all growth performance criteria. Pigs fed diets containing 30% DDGS had reduced ( diets with no DDGS in phase 1 but not in other phases. The G:F of pigs fed diets containing DDGS was not different during phase 1 to 3 but was greater ( diets with no DDGS. Pigs fed diets containing 15% WM had similar ADFI and G:F but reduced ( diets without WM in phase 1, but no difference in ADG was observed in phases 2 to 4. No DDGS × WM interaction was observed for carcass traits. Pigs fed diets containing 30% DDGS had reduced ( diets with no DDGS. Pigs fed diets containing 15% WM had lower carcass yield (72.7 vs. 73.1%; diets with no addition of WM, but other carcass traits were not affected. In conclusion, overall ADG and G:F were not affected by feeding 30% DDGS or 15% WM when diets were formulated on the NE basis, but more accurate and dynamic estimation of NE content for DDGS sources is needed to optimize caloric efficiency at different physiological ages of pigs.

  4. Resposta do sorgo granífero a déficits hídricos aplicados durante o ciclo de desenvolvimento da cultura Grain sorghum responses under water deficits on different growth stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reimar Carlesso

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos deste experimento foram analisar os efeitos de déficits hídricos aplicados durante o ciclo de desenvolvimento da cultura do sorgo granífero sobre o dossel vegetativo, senescência das folhas, número e comprimento final de entre-nós. O experimento foi conduzido em um conjunto de lisímetros de drenagem protegidos das precipitações por uma cobertura móvel de plástico transparente. A cultivar Agroceres 3001 foi submetida a quatro tratamentos: bem irrigado, déficit hídrico terminal, déficit hídrico durante o crescimento vegetativo e déficit hídrico após a antese, em três repetições. Os resultados indicaram que o dossel vegetativo das plantas de sorgo foi reduzida quando a fração de água disponível às plantas for inferior a 0,60. O comprimento final dos entre-nós das plantas foi reduzido para déficits hídricos aplicados a partir e durante a fase de crescimento vegetativo. A senescência das plantas de sorgo foi ativada quando a fração de água disponível às plantas foi inferior a 0,50 na profundidade do solo explorado pelo sistema radicular das plantas.The objective of this experiment was to analyze the water deficit effects on grain sorghum growth, crop canopy, leaf senescence and inter-node length. The experiment was conduced in a set of drainage lysimeters protected by a rain shelter. The Agroceres 3001 variety was submitted to four treatments: well irrigated, terminal water deficit, pre-anthesis soil water deficit and, post-anthesis water deficit, with three replications. Results indicated that crop canopy was reduced when the fraction of plant available water was reduced to values lower than 0.60. The internode length was reduced for soil water deficit applied during vegetative crop growth. Leaf senescence was activated when the fraction of plant available water was lower than 0.50 in the root system explored depth.

  5. Analysis and Forecast of Grain Supply and Demand in China’s thirteen-five Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi Wei-Ya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the demand and supply of grain has dramatically changed. The paper uses theintelligent information processing method to analyse grain supply and demand of China. The gray model andBack Propagation neural network are used to forecast the trend of grain supply and demand in the thirteen-fiveperiod. The result shows that both grain supply and demand will increase in long trend, but grain demand hasmore than grain supply. The forecasting grain supply growth ratio will be separately 0.88% and 0.79%, the grain demand will be increased 32.2% and 19.5% in 2020 using the grey model and BP, compared with the supply and demand in 2014. At last, the suggestions are given. In order to guarantee the grain safety, scientific method should be used to monitor and analysis the grain market.

  6. Growth and yield of corn grain and green ear in competition with weeds Crescimento e rendimento de espigas verdes e de grãos de milho em competição com plantas daninhas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.S.L Silva

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies on plant growth are interesting because they provide explanations for the factors that influence yield in various crops. The objective of this work was to evaluate growth and yield in corn cultivar AG1051, when in competition with weeds. Cultivar AG 1051 was submitted to two groups of treatments: weed control, and sampling periods for dry biomass evaluation. The weed control treatments consisted of hoeing (two hoeings performed at 20 and 40 days after sowing and no hoeing. Sampling periods consisted of collecting the above-ground part and roots of corn every fifteen days, until 105 days after sowing (DAS; the first sampling was performed 30 DAS. A completely randomized block design with ten replicates was used. For the characteristics evaluated in a single season, statistical analyses were carried out as a random block experiment. For the characteristics evaluated in several periods, statistical analyses were carried out as random blocks with split-plots (weed control assigned to plots. Fourteen weed species, unevenly distributed throughout the experimental area, were the most important. The growth observed for the above-ground part and root system of corn was 30% smaller in the non-hoed plots, compared to the hoed plots. Lack of weed control increased dry matter of the above-ground part of the weeds and reduced the number of unhusked and husked marketable green ears by 23% and 49%, respectively. Grain yield reduction caused by lack of weed control reached 38%.Apesar de trabalhosos, os estudos sobre o crescimento são de interesse porque fornecem explicações sobre os fatores que influenciam o rendimento das culturas. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar o crescimento e o rendimento de espigas verdes e de grãos do cultivar de milho AG 1051, em competição com plantas daninhas. Esse cultivar foi submetido a dois grupos de tratamento: controle de plantas daninhas e épocas de amostragem para avaliação da biomassa seca. Os

  7. Grain Boundary Segregation in Metals

    CERN Document Server

    Lejcek, Pavel

    2010-01-01

    Grain boundaries are important structural components of polycrystalline materials used in the vast majority of technical applications. Because grain boundaries form a continuous network throughout such materials, their properties may limit their practical use. One of the serious phenomena which evoke these limitations is the grain boundary segregation of impurities. It results in the loss of grain boundary cohesion and consequently, in brittle fracture of the materials. The current book deals with fundamentals of grain boundary segregation in metallic materials and its relationship to the grain boundary structure, classification and other materials properties.

  8. Influence of grain size and grain boundary recombination velocity on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The plot of the diffusion capacitance allowed us to study the influence of the following parameters: grain size, grain boundary recombination velocity, junction recombination velocity and illumination wavelength on this capacitance. This study pointed out that junction and grain boundary recombination velocities play an ...

  9. FINE GRAIN NUCLEAR EMULSION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, A.J.

    1962-04-24

    A method of preparing nuclear track emulsions having mean grain sizes less than 0.1 microns is described. The method comprises adding silver nitrate to potassium bromide at a rate at which there is always a constant, critical excess of silver ions. For minimum size grains, the silver ion concentration is maintained at the critical level of about pAg 2.0 to 5.0 during prectpitation, pAg being defined as the negative logarithm of the silver ion concentration. It is preferred to eliminate the excess silver at the conclusion of the precipitation steps. The emulsion is processed by methods in all other respects generally similar to the methods of the prior art. (AEC)

  10. Grain alcohol study: summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    The study has concentrated upon a detailed examination of all considerations involved in the production, use, and marketing of ethyl alcohol (ethanol) as produced from the fermentation of agricultural grains. Each parameter was examined in the light of current energy markets and trends; new sources and technological, and processes for fermentation, the capability of the agricultural industry to support fermentation demand; the optimizaton of value of agricultural crops; and the efficiencies of combining related industries. Ahydrous (200 proof) ethanol makes an excellent blending component for all present automotive fuels and an excellent octane additive for unleaded fuels in proportions up to 35% without requiring modifications to current engines. There is no difference between ethanol produced by fermentation and ethanol produced synthetically from petroleum. The decision to produce ethanol one way or the other is purely economic. The agricultural industry can support a major expansion in the fermentation industry. The residue (distillers grains) from the fermentation of corn for ethanol is an excellent and economical feed for livestock and poultry. A reliable supply of distillers grain can assist in making the large beef feedlot operations more economically viable. The source materials, fuels, products and by-products of an ethanol plant, beef feedlot, gas biodigester plant, municipal waste recovery plant and a steam generated electrical plant are interrelated and mutually beneficial for energy efficiencies and economic gains when co-located. The study concludes that the establishment of such agricultural- environment industrial energy complexes, would provide a broad range of significant benefits to Indiana.

  11. Grain alcohol study: summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    The study has concentrated upon a detailed examination of all considerations involved in the production, use, and marketing of ethyl alcohol (Ethanol) as produced from the fermentation of agricultural grains. Each parameter was examined in the light of current energy markets and trends; new sources and technological, and processes for fermentation, the capability of the agricultural industry to support fermentaton demand; the optimization of value of agricultureal crops; and the efficiencies of combining related industries. Anhydrous (200 proof) ethanol makes an excellent blending component for all present automotive fuels and an excellent octane additive for unleaded fuels in proportions up to 35% without requiring modifications to current engines. There is no difference between ethanol produced by fermentation and ethanol produced synthetically from petroleum. The decision to produce ethanol one way or the other is purely economic. The agricultural industry can support a major expansion in the fermentation industry. The residue (distillers grains) from the fermentation of corn for ethanol is an excellent and economical feed for livestock and poultry. A reliable supply of distillers grains can assist in making the large beef feedlot operations more economically viable. The source materials, fuels, products and by-products of an ethanol plant, beef feedlot, gas biodigester plant, municipal waste recovery plant and a steam generated electrical plant are interrelated and mutually beneficial for energy efficiencies and economic gains when co-located. The study concludes that the establishment of such agricultural-environment industrial energy complexes, would provide a broad range of significant benefits to Indiana.

  12. Progress report on grain boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balluffi, R. W.; Bristowe, P. D.

    1989-06-01

    The research was focused on the following three major areas: (1) study of the atomic structure of grain boundaries by means of X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and computer modeling; (2) study of grain boundary phase transitions by electron microscopy and computer modeling; (3) investigation of the mechanism of high angle grain boundary migration. Results are briefly discussed.

  13. Progress report on grain boundaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balluffi, R.W.; Bristowe, P.D.

    1989-06-01

    The research was focused on the following three major areas: (1) study of the atomic structure of grain boundaries by means of x-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and computer modeling; (2) study of grain boundary phase transitions by electron microscopy and computer modeling; (3) investigation of the mechanism of high angle grain boundary migration. Results are briefly discussed. 20 refs.

  14. The Relevance of Grain Dissection for Grain Size Reduction in Polar Ice: Insights from Numerical Models and Ice Core Microstructure Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Steinbach

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The flow of ice depends on the properties of the aggregate of individual ice crystals, such as grain size or lattice orientation distributions. Therefore, an understanding of the processes controlling ice micro-dynamics is needed to ultimately develop a physically based macroscopic ice flow law. We investigated the relevance of the process of grain dissection as a grain-size-modifying process in natural ice. For that purpose, we performed numerical multi-process microstructure modeling and analyzed microstructure and crystallographic orientation maps from natural deep ice-core samples from the North Greenland Eemian Ice Drilling (NEEM project. Full crystallographic orientations measured by electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD have been used together with c-axis orientations using an optical technique (Fabric Analyser. Grain dissection is a feature of strain-induced grain boundary migration. During grain dissection, grain boundaries bulge into a neighboring grain in an area of high dislocation energy and merge with the opposite grain boundary. This splits the high dislocation-energy grain into two parts, effectively decreasing the local grain size. Currently, grain size reduction in ice is thought to be achieved by either the progressive transformation from dislocation walls into new high-angle grain boundaries, called subgrain rotation or polygonisation, or bulging nucleation that is assisted by subgrain rotation. Both our time-resolved numerical modeling and NEEM ice core samples show that grain dissection is a common mechanism during ice deformation and can provide an efficient process to reduce grain sizes and counter-act dynamic grain-growth in addition to polygonisation or bulging nucleation. Thus, our results show that solely strain-induced boundary migration, in absence of subgrain rotation, can reduce grain sizes in polar ice, in particular if strain energy gradients are high. We describe the microstructural characteristics that can be

  15. The relevance of grain dissection for grain size reduction in polar ice: insights from numerical models and ice core microstructure analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbach, Florian; Kuiper, Ernst-Jan N.; Eichler, Jan; Bons, Paul D.; Drury, Martyn R.; Griera, Albert; Pennock, Gill M.; Weikusat, Ilka

    2017-09-01

    The flow of ice depends on the properties of the aggregate of individual ice crystals, such as grain size or lattice orientation distributions. Therefore, an understanding of the processes controlling ice micro-dynamics is needed to ultimately develop a physically based macroscopic ice flow law. We investigated the relevance of the process of grain dissection as a grain-size-modifying process in natural ice. For that purpose, we performed numerical multi-process microstructure modelling and analysed microstructure and crystallographic orientation maps from natural deep ice-core samples from the North Greenland Eemian Ice Drilling (NEEM) project. Full crystallographic orientations measured by electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) have been used together with c-axis orientations using an optical technique (Fabric Analyser). Grain dissection is a feature of strain-induced grain boundary migration. During grain dissection, grain boundaries bulge into a neighbouring grain in an area of high dislocation energy and merge with the opposite grain boundary. This splits the high dislocation-energy grain into two parts, effectively decreasing the local grain size. Currently, grain size reduction in ice is thought to be achieved by either the progressive transformation from dislocation walls into new high-angle grain boundaries, called subgrain rotation or polygonisation, or bulging nucleation that is assisted by subgrain rotation. Both our time-resolved numerical modelling and NEEM ice core samples show that grain dissection is a common mechanism during ice deformation and can provide an efficient process to reduce grain sizes and counter-act dynamic grain-growth in addition to polygonisation or bulging nucleation. Thus, our results show that solely strain-induced boundary migration, in absence of subgrain rotation, can reduce grain sizes in polar ice, in particular if strain energy gradients are high. We describe the microstructural characteristics that can be used to

  16. Special Grain Boundaries in Ultrafine-Grained Tungsten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudka, O. V.; Ksenofontov, V. A.; Sadanov, E. V.; Starchenko, I. V.; Mazilova, T. I.; Mikhailovskij, I. M.

    2016-07-01

    Field ion microscopy and computer simulation were used for the study of an atomic structure high-angle grain boundary in hard-drawn ultrafine-grained tungsten wire. These boundaries with special misorientations are beyond the scope of the coincident site lattice model. It was demonstrated that the special non-coincident grain boundaries are the plane-matching boundaries, and rigid-body displacements of adjacent nanograins are normal to the misorientation axis. The vectors of rigid-body translations of grains are described by broad asymmetric statistical distribution. Mathematical modeling showed that special incommensurate boundaries with one grain oriented along the {211} plane have comparatively high cohesive energies. The grain-boundary dislocations ½ were revealed and studied at the line of local mismatch of {110} atomic planes of adjacent grains.

  17. Semen abnormalities with SSRI antidepressants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Despite decades of widespread use, the adverse effect profile of "selective" serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressants has still not been fully elucidated. Studies in male animals have shown delayed sexual development and reduced fertility. Three prospective cohort studies conducted in over one hundred patients exposed to an SSRI for periods ranging from 5 weeks to 24 months found altered semen param-eters after as little as 3 months of exposure: reduced sperm concentration, reduced sperm motility, a higher percentage of abnormal spermatozoa, and increased levels of sperm DNA fragmentation. One clinical trial showed growth retardation in children considered depressed who were exposed to SSRls. SSRls may have endocrine disrupting properties. Dapoxetine is a short-acting serotonin reuptake inhibitor that is chemically related to fluoxetine and marketed in the European Union for men complaining of premature ejaculation. But the corresponding European summary of product characteristics does not mention any effects on fertility. In practice, based on the data available as of mid-2014, the effects of SSRI exposure on male fertility are unclear. However, it is a risk that should be taken into account and pointed out to male patients who would like to father a child or who are experiencing fertility problems.

  18. Short-term high temperature growth conditions during vegetative-to-reproductive phase transition irreversibly compromise cell wall invertase-mediated sucrose catalysis and microspore meiosis in grain sorghum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) crop yield is significantly compromised by high temperature stress-induced male sterility, and is attributed to reduced cell wall invertase (CWI)-mediated sucrose hydrolysis in microspores and anthers leading to altered carbohydrate metabolism and starch def...

  19. Abnormal uterine bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, Lucy; Critchley, Hilary O D

    2016-07-01

    Abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) is a common and debilitating condition with high direct and indirect costs. AUB frequently co-exists with fibroids, but the relationship between the two remains incompletely understood and in many women the identification of fibroids may be incidental to a menstrual bleeding complaint. A structured approach for establishing the cause using the Fédération International de Gynécologie et d'Obstétrique (FIGO) PALM-COEIN (Polyp, Adenomyosis, Leiomyoma, Malignancy (and hyperplasia), Coagulopathy, Ovulatory disorders, Endometrial, Iatrogenic and Not otherwise classified) classification system will facilitate accurate diagnosis and inform treatment options. Office hysteroscopy and increasing sophisticated imaging will assist provision of robust evidence for the underlying cause. Increased availability of medical options has expanded the choice for women and many will no longer need to recourse to potentially complicated surgery. Treatment must remain individualised and encompass the impact of pressure symptoms, desire for retention of fertility and contraceptive needs, as well as address the management of AUB in order to achieve improved quality of life. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Evaluation of nail abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tully, Amber S; Trayes, Kathryn P; Studdiford, James S

    2012-04-15

    Knowledge of the anatomy and function of the nail apparatus is essential when performing the physical examination. Inspection may reveal localized nail abnormalities that should be treated, or may provide clues to an underlying systemic disease that requires further workup. Excessive keratinaceous material under the nail bed in a distal and lateral distribution should prompt an evaluation for onychomycosis. Onychomycosis may be diagnosed through potassium hydroxide examination of scrapings. If potassium hydroxide testing is negative for the condition, a nail culture or nail plate biopsy should be performed. A proliferating, erythematous, disruptive mass in the nail bed should be carefully evaluated for underlying squamous cell carcinoma. Longitudinal melanonychia (vertical nail bands) must be differentiated from subungual melanomas, which account for 50 percent of melanomas in persons with dark skin. Dystrophic longitudinal ridges and subungual hematomas are local conditions caused by trauma. Edema and erythema of the proximal and lateral nail folds are hallmark features of acute and chronic paronychia. Clubbing may suggest an underlying disease such as cirrhosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, or celiac sprue. Koilonychia (spoon nail) is commonly associated with iron deficiency anemia. Splinter hemorrhages may herald endocarditis, although other causes should be considered. Beau lines can mark the onset of a severe underlying illness, whereas Muehrcke lines are associated with hypoalbuminemia. A pincer nail deformity is inherited or acquired and can be associated with beta-blocker use, psoriasis, onychomycosis, tumors of the nail apparatus, systemic lupus erythematosus, Kawasaki disease, and malignancy.

  1. Communication and abnormal behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crown, S

    1979-01-01

    In this paper the similarities between normal and abnormal behaviour are emphasized and selected aspects of communication, normal and aberrant, between persons are explored. Communication in a social system may be verbal or non-verbal: one person's actions cause a response in another person. This response may be cognitive, behavioural or physiological. Communication may be approached through the individual, the social situation or social interaction. Psychoanalysis approaches the individual in terms of the coded communications of psychoneurotic symptoms or psychotic behaviour; the humanist-existential approach is concerned more with emotional expression. Both approaches emphasize the development of individual identity. The interaction between persons and their social background is stressed. Relevant are sociological concepts such as illness behaviour, stigma, labelling, institutionalization and compliance. Two approaches to social interactions are considered: the gamesplaying metaphor, e.g. back pain as a psychosocial manipulation--the 'pain game'; and the 'spiral of reciprocal perspectives' which emphasizes the interactional complexities of social perceptions. Communicatory aspects of psychological treatments are noted: learning a particular metaphor such as 'resolution' of the problem (psychotherapy), learning more 'rewarding' behaviour (learning theory) or learning authenticity or self-actualization (humanist-existential).

  2. Alternative grains in nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jevcsák Sz.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Many people suffer from gluten sensitivity or gluten intolerance. They have to avoid or limit their gluten intake. Sorghum and millet are gluten-free cereals, wherefore persons with gluten sensitivity or gluten intolerance could consume them. Moreover, they have a lot of positive effects due to their phenolic compounds as phenol acid or flavonoid. Antioxidant activity in sorghum is especially high in comparison with other cereals. Our aim was to compare literature data about the chemical compositions of sorghum and millet with other grains.

  3. Evolution of Interstellar Grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allamandola, Lou J.; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    During the past two decades observations combined with laboratory simulations, have revolutionized our understanding of interstellar ice and dust, the raw materials from which planets, comets and stars form. Most interstellar material is concentrated in large molecular clouds where simple molecules are formed by dust-grain and gas-phase reactions. Gaseous species striking the cold (10K) dust stick, forming an icy grain mantle. This accretion, coupled with UV photolysis, produces a complex chemical mixture containing volatile, non-volatile, and isotopically fractionated species. Ices in molecular clouds contain the very simple molecules H2O, CH3OH, CO, CO2, H2, and perhaps some NH3 and H2CO, as well as more complex species. The evidence for these compounds, as well as carbon-rich materials, will be reviewed and the possible connections with comets and meteorites will be presented in the first part of the talk . The second part of the presentation will focus on interstellar/precometary ice photochemical evolution and the species likely to be found in comets. The chemical composition and photochemical evolution of realistic interstellar/pre-cometary ice analogs will be discussed. Ultraviolet photolysis of these ices produces H2, H2CO, CO2, CO, CH4, HCO, and more complex molecules. When ices representative of interstellar grains and comets are exposed to UV radiation at low temperature a series of moderately complex organic molecules are formed in the ice including: CH3CH2OH (ethanol), HC(=O)NH2 (formamide), CH3C(=O)NH2 (acetamide), and R-C=N (nitriles). Several of these are already known to be in the interstellar medium, and their presence indicates the importance of grain processing. After warming to room temperature an organic residue remains. This is composed primarily of hexamethylenetetramine (HMT, C6H12N4), with lesser amounts of polyoxymethylene-related species (POMs), amides, and ketones. This is in sharp contrast to the organic residues produced by

  4. Consequences of diverse use of nitrogen sources on grain yield ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It was concluded that hybrid maize H1 (Pioneer - 30Y87) produced better grain yield (6.14 t ha-1) during 2008 when nitrogen sources S1: Urea (50%) + Poultry manure (50%) was applied in combination as compared to grain yield (6.0 t ha-1) in hybrid H2 (Pioneer -31R88) during 2009. Growth and quality attributes also ...

  5. 3D studies of coarserning kinetics of individual grains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Stefan Othmar

    Techniques for fast, non-destructive characterization of the microstructure of materials using synchrotron X-ray radiation have in recent years become an important tool in materials science. The non-destructive nature of the techniques allows for time-resolved characterization of three-dimensiona...... to make general predictions of the coarsening kinetics of polycrystalline, dual-phase materials, specifically the coarsening mechanism, steady state distributions of grain size and topology, and interface morphology....... grains during recrystallization, where the recrystallization kinetics of individual grains and the temperature dependence of the recrystallization rate is examined, and for a study of grain structure and grain growth, where growth predictions are put forth in terms of the grain size and topology......-dimensional microstructures, i.e. direct probing of the evolution of specific microstructural features. Synchrotron X-ray radiation techniques have in the present work been employed for experimental characterization of microstructural evolution in individual grains during isothermal annealing: For a study of individual...

  6. Euhedral metallic-Fe-Ni grains in extraterrestrial samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Alan E.

    1993-01-01

    Metallic Fe-Ni is rare in terrestrial rocks, being largely restricted to serpentinized peridotites and volcanic rocks that assimilated carbonaceous material. In contrast, metallic Fe-Ni is nearly ubiquitous among extraterrestrial samples (i.e., meteorites, lunar rocks, and interplanetary dust particles). Anhedral grains are common. For example, in eucrites and lunar basalts, most of the metallic Fe-Ni occurs interstitially between silicate grains and thus tends to have irregular morphologies. In many porphyritic chondrules, metallic Fe-Ni and troilite form rounded blebs in the mesostasis because their precursors were immiscible droplets. In metamorphosed ordinary chondrites, metallic Fe-Ni and troilite form coarse anhedral grains. Some of the metallic Fe-Ni and troilite grains has also been mobilized and injected into fractures in adjacent silicate grains where local shock-reheating temperatures reached the Fe-FeS eutectic (988 C). In interplanetary dust particles metallic Fe-Ni most commonly occurs along with sulfide as spheroids and fragments. Euhedral metallic Fe-Ni grains are extremely rare. Several conditions must be met before such grains can form: (1) grain growth must occur at free surfaces, restricting euhedral metallic Fe-Ni grains to systems that are igneous or undergoing vapor-deposition; (2) the metal (+/-) sulfide assemblage must have an appropriate bulk composition so that taenite is the liquidus phase in igneous systems or the stable condensate phase in vapor-deposition systems; and (3) metallic Fe-Ni grains must remain underformed during subsequent compaction, thermal metamorphism, and shock. Because of these restrictions, the occurrence of euhedral metallic Fe-Ni grains in an object can potentially provide important petrogenetic information. Despite its rarity, euhedral metallic Fe-Ni occurs in a wide variety of extraterrestrial materials. Some of these materials formed in the solar nebula; others formed on parent body surfaces by meteoroid

  7. Grain Structure Control of Additively Manufactured Metallic Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuyao Yan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Grain structure control is challenging for metal additive manufacturing (AM. Grain structure optimization requires the control of grain morphology with grain size refinement, which can improve the mechanical properties of additive manufactured components. This work summarizes methods to promote fine equiaxed grains in both the additive manufacturing process and subsequent heat treatment. Influences of temperature gradient, solidification velocity and alloy composition on grain morphology are discussed. Equiaxed solidification is greatly promoted by introducing a high density of heterogeneous nucleation sites via powder rate control in the direct energy deposition (DED technique or powder surface treatment for powder-bed techniques. Grain growth/coarsening during post-processing heat treatment can be restricted by presence of nano-scale oxide particles formed in-situ during AM. Grain refinement of martensitic steels can also be achieved by cyclic austenitizing in post-processing heat treatment. Evidently, new alloy powder design is another sustainable method enhancing the capability of AM for high-performance components with desirable microstructures.

  8. Towards realistic molecular dynamics simulations of grain boundary mobility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, J., E-mail: zhou@imm.rwth-aachen.de [Institut fuer Metallkunde und Metallphysik, Rheinisch-Westfaelische Technische Hochschule (RWTH), Aachen (Germany); Mohles, V. [Institut fuer Metallkunde und Metallphysik, Rheinisch-Westfaelische Technische Hochschule (RWTH), Aachen (Germany)

    2011-09-15

    In order to investigate grain boundary migration by molecular dynamics (MD) simulations a new approach involving a crystal orientation-dependent driving force has been developed by imposing an appropriate driving force on grain boundary atoms and enlarging the effective range of driving force. The new approach has been validated by the work of the driving force associated with the motion of grain boundaries. With the new approach the relation between boundary migration velocity and driving force is found to be nonlinear, as was expected from rate theory for large driving forces applied in MD simulations. By evaluating grain boundary mobility nonlinearly for a set of symmetrical <1 1 1> tilt boundaries in aluminum at high temperature, high-angle grain boundaries were shown to move much faster than low-angle grain boundaries. This agrees well with experimental findings for recrystallization and grain growth. In comparison with the available data the simulated mobility of a 38.21{sup o{Sigma}}7 boundary was found to be significantly lower than other MD simulation results and comparable with the experimental values. Furthermore, the average volume involved during atomic jumps for boundary migration is determined in MD simulations for the first time. The large magnitude of the volume indicates that grain boundary migration is accomplished by the correlated motion of atom groups.

  9. Effect of time and temperature on grain size of V and V-Cr-Ti alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natesan, K.; Rink, D.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1996-10-01

    Grain growth studies were conducted to evaluate the effect of time and temperature on the grain size of pure V, V-4 wt.%Cr-4 wt.%Ti, and V-5 wt.%Cr-5 wt.%Ti alloys. The temperatures used in the study were 500, 650, 800, and 1000{degrees}C, and exposure times ranged between 100 and {approx}5000 h. All three materials exhibited negligible grain growth at 500, 650, and 800{degrees}C, even after {approx}5000 h. At 1000{degrees}C, pure V showed substantial grain growth after only 100 h, and V-4Cr-4Ti showed growth after 2000 h, while V-5Cr-5Ti showed no grain growth after exposure for up to 2000 h.

  10. Grain boundary melting in ice

    OpenAIRE

    Thomson, E. S.; Hansen-Goos, Hendrik; Wilen, L. A.; Wettlaufer, J. S.

    2012-01-01

    We describe an optical scattering study of grain boundary premelting in water ice. Ubiquitous long ranged attractive polarization forces act to suppress grain boundary melting whereas repulsive forces originating in screened Coulomb interactions and classical colligative effects enhance it. The liquid enhancing effects can be manipulated by adding dopant ions to the system. For all measured grain boundaries this leads to increasing premelted film thickness with increasing electrolyte concentr...

  11. Inhibition of Bacillus cereus in milk fermented with kefir grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakisu, Emiliano J; Abraham, Analía G; Pérez, Pablo F; De Antoni, Graciela L

    2007-11-01

    The effects of kefir-fermented milk were tested against a toxigenic strain of Bacillus cereus. The incubation of milk with B. cereus spores plus 5% kefir grains prevented spore germination and growth of vegetative forms. In contrast, when 1% kefir grains was used, no effects were observed. The presence of metabolically active kefir grains diminished titers of nonhemolytic enterotoxin A, as assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. During fermentation, kefir microorganisms produce extracellular metabolites such as organic acids, which could play a role in the inhibition of spore germination and growth of B. cereus, although the effect of other factors cannot be ruled out. Results of the present study show that kefir-fermented milk is able to antagonize key mechanisms involved in the growth of B. cereus as well as interfere with the biological activity of this microorganism.

  12. Transitional grain-size-sensitive flow of milky quartz aggregates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, J. I.; Holyoke, C. W., III; Kronenberg, A. K.

    2014-12-01

    Fine-grained (~15 μm) milky quartz aggregates exhibit reversible flow strengths in triaxial compression experiments conducted at T = 800-900oC, Pc = 1.5 GPa when strain rates are sequentially decreased (typically from 10-3.5 to 10-4.5 and 10-5.5 s-1), and then returned to the original rate (10-3.5 s-1), while samples that experience grain growth at 1000oC (to 35 μm) over the same sequence of strain rates exhibit an irreversible increase in strength. Polycrystalline quartz aggregates have been synthesized from natural milky quartz powders (ground to 5 μm) by HIP methods at T = 1000oC, Pc = 1.5 GPa and t = 24 hours, resulting in dense, fine-grained aggregates of uniform water content of ~4000 ppm (H/106Si), as indicated by a broad OH absorption band at 3400 cm-1. In experiments performed at 800o and 900oC, grain sizes of the samples are essentially constant over the duration of each experiment, though grain shapes change significantly, and undulatory extinction and deformation lamellae indicate that much of the sample shortening (to 50%) is accomplished, over the four strain-rate steps, by dislocation creep. Differential stresses measured at T = 800oC decrease from 160 to 30 MPa as strain rate is reduced from 10-4.6 to 10-5.5 s-1, and a stress of 140 MPa is measured when strain rate is returned to 10-4.5 s-1. Samples deformed at 1000o and 1100oC experience normal grain growth, with grain boundary energy-driven grain-coarsening textures superposed by undulatory extinction and deformation lamellae. Differential stresses measured at 1000oC and strain rates of 10-3.6, 10-4.6, and 10-5.5 s-1 are 185, 80, and 80 MPa, respectively, while an increased flow stress of 260 MPa is measured (following ~28 hours of prior high temperature deformation and grain growth) when strain rate is returned to 10-3.6 s-1. While all samples exhibit lattice preferred orientations, the stress exponent n inferred for the fine-grained 800oC sample is 1.5 and the stress exponent of the coarse-grained

  13. PESTICIDES USE AMONG GRAIN MERCHANTS IN MUBI GRAIN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AGROSEARCH UIL

    ABSTRACT. Food security in sub-Saharan Africa largely depends upon improved food productivity through the use of sustainable agricultural practices and the reduction of post-harvest losses caused by pests and diseases. This study was conducted in two major grain markets in Mubi to study pest control practices by grain ...

  14. Grain-filling, chlorophyll content in relation with grain yield ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The beginning of active phase of grain filling corresponded to the beginning of the degradation of chlorophyll content. The velocity of grain filling was negatively correlated to the number of days to heading (DH). Changes in photosynthesis most closely paralleled changes in chlorophyll content. All these changes occurred ...

  15. Substituting maize grain with barley grain in concentrates fed to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the study was to determine the effect of substituting maize grain with barley grain in the diet of lactating Jersey cows grazing kikuyu-ryegrass pasture. Sixty Jersey cows were blocked in terms of number of days in milk, lactation number, milk yield and live weight and randomly assigned to one of five treatments (n ...

  16. Modelling of grain refinement driven by negative grain boundary energy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fischer, F. D.; Zickler, G. A.; Svoboda, Jiří

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 97, č. 23 (2017), s. 1963-1977 ISSN 1478-6435 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-06390S Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : grain refinement * grain nucleation * distribution concept * jump on distribution function Subject RIV: BJ - Thermodynamics Impact factor: 1.505, year: 2016

  17. Investigation of microorganisms involved in biosynthesis of the kefir grain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sheng-Yao; Chen, Kun-Nan; Lo, Yung-Ming; Chiang, Ming-Lun; Chen, Hsi-Chia; Liu, Je-Ruei; Chen, Ming-Ju

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand the significance of each microorganism in grain formation by evaluating their microbial aggregation and cell surface properties during co-aggregation of LAB and yeasts together with an investigation of biofilm formation. Non-grain forming strains from viili were also evaluated as a comparison. Results indicated that the kefir grain strains, Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens and Saccharomyces turicensis possess strong auto-aggregation ability and that Lactobacillus kefiri shows significant biofilm formation properties. Significant co-aggregation was noted when S. turicensis and kefir LAB strains (Lb. kefiranofaciens and Lb. kefiri) were co-cultured. Most of the tested LAB strains are hydrophilic and had a negative charge on their cell surface. Only the kefir LAB strains, Lb. kefiranofaciens HL1 and Lb. kefiri HL2, possessed very high hydrophobicity and had a positive cell surface charge at pH 4.2. In contrast, the LAB and yeasts in viili did not show any significant self-aggregation or biofilm formation. Based on the above results, we propose that grain formation begins with the self-aggregation of Lb. kefiranofaciens and S. turicensis to form small granules. At this point, the biofilm producer, Lb. kefiri, then begins to attach to the surface of granules and co-aggregates with other organisms and components in the milk to form the grains. On sub-culturing, more organisms attach to the grains resulting in grain growth. When investigated by scanning electron microscopy, it was found that short-chain lactobacilli such as Lb. kefiri occupy the surface, while long-chain lactobacilli such as Lb. kefiranofaciens have aggregated towards the center of the kefir grains. These findings agree with the above hypothesis on the formation of grains. Taken together, this study demonstrates the importance of cell surface properties together with fermentation conditions to the formation of grains in kefir. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All

  18. [Nutritional abnormalities in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gea, Joaquim; Martínez-Llorens, Juana; Barreiro, Esther

    2014-07-22

    Nutritional abnormalities are associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with a frequency ranging from 2 to 50%, depending on the geographical area and the study design. Diagnostic tools include anthropometry, bioelectrical impedance, dual energy radioabsortiometry and deuterium dilution, being the body mass and the lean mass indices the most frequently used parameters. While the most important consequences of nutritional abnormalities are muscle dysfunction and exercise limitation, factors implicated include an imbalance between caloric intake and consumption, and between anabolic and catabolic hormones, inflammation, tobacco smoking, poor physical activity, hypoxemia, some drugs and aging/comorbidities. The most important molecular mechanism for malnutrition associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease appears to be the mismatching between protein synthesis and breakdown. Among the therapeutic measures proposed for these nutritional abnormalities are improvements in lifestyle and nutritional support, although the use of anabolic drugs (such as secretagogues of the growth hormone) offers a new therapeutic strategy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  19. The Antinutritional Components of Grains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Claus Krogh; Brinch-Pedersen, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Grains provide humans and farmed animals with a very large proportion of the energy and macro- and micronutrients they need. Unfortunately, grains also contain compounds that interfere with the utilization of the nutrients by animals. These so-called antinutritionals may result in poor resource u...

  20. 6 Grain Yield

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    plant height between seasons. This may be due to a possible escape of the plants to the seasonal cold stress (Dingkuhn & Miezan,. 1995) that appears during the DS. The authors found that plants can grow taller if the vegetative growth period coincides with the hot dry season. If there is no constraint due to cold, plants can ...

  1. MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF GRAIN MICRONIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Afanas’ev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. During micronisation grain moisture evaporates mainly in decreasing drying rate period. Grain layer located on the surface of the conveyor micronisers will be regarded as horizontal plate. Due to the fact that the micronisation process the surface of the grain evaporates little moisture (within 2-7 % is assumed constant plate thickness. Because in the process of micronization grain structure is changing, in order to achieve an exact solution of the equations necessary to take into account changes thermophysical, optical and others. Equation of heat transfer is necessary to add a term that is responsible for the infrared heating. Because of the small thickness of the grain, neglecting the processes occurring at the edge of the grain, that is actually consider the problem of an infinite plate. To check the adequacy of the mathematical model of the process of micronisation of wheat grain moisture content must be comparable to the function of time, obtained by solving the system of equations with the measured experimental data of experience. Numerical solution of a system of equations for the period of decreasing drying rate is feasible with the help of the Maple 14, substituting the values of the constants in the system. Calculation of the average relative error does not exceed 7- 10 %, and shows a good agreement between the calculated data and the experimental values.

  2. Sedimentary controls on modern sand grain coat formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowey, Patrick J.; Worden, Richard H.; Utley, James; Hodgson, David M.

    2017-05-01

    Coated sand grains can influence reservoir quality evolution during sandstone diagenesis. Porosity can be reduced and fluid flow restricted where grain coats encroach into pore space. Conversely pore-lining grain coats can restrict the growth of pore-filling quartz cement in deeply buried sandstones, and thus can result in unusually high porosity in deeply buried sandstones. Being able to predict the distribution of coated sand grains within petroleum reservoirs is thus important to help find good reservoir quality. Here we report a modern analogue study of 12 sediment cores from the Anllóns Estuary, Galicia, NW Spain, collected from a range of sub-environments, to help develop an understanding of the occurrence and distribution of coated grains. The cores were described for grain size, bioturbation and sedimentary structures, and then sub-sampled for electron and light microscopy, laser granulometry, and X-ray diffraction analysis. The Anllóns Estuary is sand-dominated with intertidal sand flats and saltmarsh environments at the margins; there is a shallowing/fining-upwards trend in the estuary-fill succession. Grain coats are present in nearly every sample analysed; they are between 1 μm and 100 μm thick and typically lack internal organisation. The extent of grain coat coverage can exceed 25% in some samples with coverage highest in the top 20 cm of cores. Samples from muddy intertidal flat and the muddy saltmarsh environments, close to the margins of the estuary, have the highest coat coverage (mean coat coverage of 20.2% and 21.3%, respectively). The lowest mean coat coverage occurs in the sandy saltmarsh (10.4%), beyond the upper tidal limit and sandy intertidal flat environments (8.4%), close to the main estuary channel. Mean coat coverage correlates with the concentration of clay fraction. The primary controls on the distribution of fine-grained sediment, and therefore grain coat distribution, are primary sediment transport and deposition processes that

  3. Grain mantles: The impact on grain evolution and selective extinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Charles L.

    1989-01-01

    Depletion studies are used to infer the presence of mantles and to constrain grain evolutionary models in the diffuse interstellar medium. The presence of these mantles appears to be important in the evolution of the grains inside diffuse as well as dense clouds. In dense clouds where the element-to-element abundances sometimes differ from those found in diffuse clouds, empirical relationships are starting to emerge between gas abundances and various types of peculiar selective extinction. These peculiar extinction curves may be the results of nonvolatile mantle formation on grain cores or may reflect chemical differences due to variations in the intrinsic metalicity from one cloud to another. A simple model of the time evolution of a parcel of gas and dust as observed by the depletion of two elements is presented. Different studies of grain evolution and selective extinction are discussed and compared.

  4. Fotossíntese, remobilização de reservas e crescimento de grãos em dois híbridos de milho sob deficiência hídrica na fase de enchimento dos grãos Photosynthesis, reserves remobilization and grain growth of two maize hybrids submitted to water stress during the grain filling stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Caruso Machado

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliados, em dois híbridos simples de milho (Zea mays L., Pioneer 3072 e IAC 701 x B, submetidos à deficiência hídrica, o comportamento da fotossíntese, da remobilização de N e de açúcares durante o período de crescimento dos grãos. As plantas foram cultivadas sob condições naturais, em doze tanques de alvenaria (4 m de comprimento x 0,5 m de largura x 0,6 m de profundidade contendo terra. A deficiência hídrica foi induzida entre o 5.º e o 15.º dia após a floração, suspendendo-se a irrigação. Sem deficiência hídrica, ambos os híbridos apresentaram comportamento semelhante quanto aos parâmetros avaliados. Sob deficiência hídrica, a remobilização de açúcares e de N, a partir dos órgãos vegetativos para os grãos, foi mais intensa que nas plantas-controle, sem deficiência hídrica, e mais acentuada, tanto em açúcares como em N, no híbrido IAC 701 x B. Sob deficiência hídrica, a taxa de fotossíntese diminuiu em ambos os híbridos, sobretudo no IAC 701 x B.Photosynthesis, nitrogen and sugar remobilization during the grain filling period were examined in two maize (Zea mays L. hybrids (Pioneer 3072 and IAC 701 x B submitted to water stress. The plants were grown under natural conditions in 12 boxes (4 m x 0,5 m x 0.6 m each containing soil. Water stress was imposed by with holding irrigation during the 5.th and 15.th days after anthesis. Both hybrids in control treatment (without water stress showed no differences in relation to the avaliated parameters. Under water stress the sugar and N remobilization from vegetative organs to the grains, were more intense than of the control plants. The sugar and N remobilization were larger in IAC 701 x B. The photosynthesis rates were reduced in both hybrids under water stress, but the reduction was larger in IAC 701 x B.

  5. Properties of ultrasmall superconducting grains

    CERN Document Server

    Lorenzo, A D; Fazio, R; Giaquinta, G; Mastellone, A; Hekking, F W J

    1999-01-01

    We briefly review some properties of ultrasmall superconducting grains. The ground state and the first excited states of the grains are analyzed by studying the parity gap and the spectroscopic gap. Both quantities turn out to be parity dependent and universal functions of the ratio between the level spacing and the BCS gap, delta/DELTA. pairing correlations show up also in the thermodynamic quantities. The presence of a BCS interaction is responsible for an anomaly in the spin susceptibility as a function of temperature. This anomaly persists also in very small grains.

  6. Study of grain boundary tunneling in barium-titanate ceramic films

    CERN Document Server

    Wong, H; Poon, M C

    1999-01-01

    The temperature and the electric-field dependences of the current-voltage characteristics and the low-frequency noise of barium-titanate ceramic films are studied. An abnormal field dependence is observed in the resistivity of BaTiO sub 3 materials with a small average grain size. In addition, experiments show that the low-frequency noise behaviors are governed by grain-boundary tunneling at room temperature and by trapping-detrapping of grain-boundary states at temperatures above the Curie point. Physical models for the new observations are developed. Results suggest that grain-boundary tunneling of carriers is as important as the double Schottky barrier in the current conduction in BaTiO sub 3 materials with small grain sizes.

  7. Normal and Abnormal Embryonic Development in Virtual Reality

    OpenAIRE

    Baken, Leonie

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Research of the past years indicates that the periconception period, the period including gametogenesis and embryogenesis, determines growth and development of the embryo and subsequent pregnancy outcome. Prenatal care starts to focus more on the first-trimester of pregnancy, where growth and development rates are the highest. The main aim of this thesis is to describe normal and abnormal development of embryonic and early fetal life using the innovative I-Space V...

  8. Red grain mycetoma foot in Western Rajasthan

    OpenAIRE

    Mathur D; Prakash Prabhu; Gupta P; Purohit Asha; Vyas MCR

    1994-01-01

    Usually the colour of the grains seen in cases of mycetoma are either black or yellow. Recently there were reports that unusual red grains had been noticed in cases of mycetoma. A case of red grain mycetoma is reported.

  9. Efeitos de regulador de crescimento, controle de doenças e densidade de semeadura na qualidade industrial de grãos de arroz Effects of the growth regulator, disease control and sowing density on the industrial quality of rice grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdinei Sofiatti

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo foi avaliar o efeito da aplicação do regulador de crescimento ethephon visando à uniformidade de floração e maturação e o controle de doenças de final de ciclo da cultura do arroz. Foi utilizado o fungicida tebuconazole e a avaliou-se a qualidade industrial de grãos das cultivares IRGA 417 e El Paso L 144, em duas densidades de semeadura. O experimento consistiu de uma combinação fatorial (2x2x4 de duas cultivares (IRGA 417 e El Paso L 144, duas densidades de semeadura (50 e 150kg ha-1, e quatro tratamentos foliares (1-testemunha, 2-ethephon, 3-fungicida, 4-ethephon + fungicida, em um delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso com três repetições. Foi avaliado o percentual de grãos inteiros, e de grãos com gessamento parcial. O percentual de grãos inteiros foi similar em todos os tratamentos, exceto para o tratamento químico com ethephon + fungicida na cultivar IRGA 417, que apresentou menor percentagem de grãos inteiros. Para a percentagem de grãos com gessamento parcial, houve interação entre cultivares, densidades de semeadura e tratamentos foliares. A incidência de gessamento foi maior na cultivar El Paso L 144, porém, nesta cultivar, a pulverização de ethephon na densidade de semeadura de 150kg ha-1, proporcionou redução considerável do percentual de grãos com gessamento.This study was carried out to evaluate the application effects of the growth regulator ethephon on the flowering and maturation uniformity and disease control at the end of the crop cycle. The effect of the fungicide tebuconazole, on the grain quality of the cultivars IRGA 417 and El Paso L 144 was evaluated in two sowing densities. The experiment consisted of a factorial combination (2x2x4 of two cultivars (IRGA 417 and El Paso L 144, two sowing densities (50 and 150kg ha-1 and four leaf treatments (1-no chemical treatment, 2-ethephon, 3-fungicide, 4-ethephon + fungicide. The experimental design was a randomized complete block

  10. Gastrointestinal and renal abnormalities in cardio-facio-cutaneous syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herman, Thomas E.; McAlister, William H. [Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis Children' s Hospital, Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, St. Louis, MO (United States)

    2005-02-01

    Cardio-facio-cutaneous syndrome (CFC) is an uncommon autosomal recessive condition recently distinguished from Noonan syndrome but with more marked growth failure and ectodermal dysplasia. Abdominal symptoms are frequently described but anatomic lesions in CFC have rarely been described. We have found significant anatomic abnormalities in CFC patients including antral foveolar hyperplasia, severe constipation with fecal impaction, nephrocalcinosis and renal cysts. (orig.)

  11. Secondary Abnormalities of Neurotransmitters in Infants with Neurological Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Cazorla, A.; Serrano, M.; Perez-Duenas, B.; Gonzalez, V.; Ormazabal, A.; Pineda, M.; Fernandez-Alvarez, E.; Campistol, J. M. D.; Artuch, R. M. D.

    2007-01-01

    Neurotransmitters are essential in young children for differentiation and neuronal growth of the developing nervous system. We aimed to identify possible factors related to secondary neurotransmitter abnormalities in pediatric patients with neurological disorders. We analyzed cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and biogenic amine metabolites in 56 infants…

  12. Identification of regulated proteins in naked barley grains (Hordeum vulgare nudum) after Fusarium graminearum infection at different grain ripening stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trümper, Christina; Paffenholz, Katrin; Smit, Inga; Kössler, Philip; Karlovsky, Petr; Braun, Hans-Peter; Pawelzik, Elke

    2016-02-05

    We analyzed the effect of Fusarium graminearum infection on field-grown naked barley (Hordeum vulgare nudum). The ears were inoculated with F. graminearum spores during anthesis. In the course of ripening, grains in five phenological growth stages of naked barley from milk ripe to plant death were sampled. The albumin and globulin proteins of inoculated grains and untreated (control) grains were separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Forty-five spots composing of proteins that were changed in abundance due to F. graminearum infection were subsequently identified by mass spectrometry. Various proteins showing altered expression pattern after Fusarium infection were linked to stress response such as plant signal transduction pathways, fungal defense and oxidative burst. More proteins changed during early grain ripening stages than during later ripening stages. Protease inhibitors occurred at increased abundancy during milk ripe stage. A thaumatin-like protein accumulated at plant death stage. Proteins linked to nitrogen metabolism and protein biosynthesis were mainly reduced, whereas those linked to carbon metabolism were predominantly increased in infected grains. Fusarium graminearum infection can lead to significant contamination of grains with mycotoxins. With this 2D-based proteomics study we give an insight into plant–pathogen interactions between the non-model plant naked barley and the fungus F. graminearum during five stages of grain development. Over the multiple developmental stages we observed specific patterns of changes induced by the fungus: the primary plant metabolism and inhibition of fungal protease were predominantly affected during early grain development stages. During the entire grain development we found an induced accumulation of thaumatin-like proteins due to the fungal infection indicating their fundamental role for naked barley defense.

  13. Formation of intra-island grain boundaries in pentacene monolayers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Jian; Wu, Yu; Duhm, Steffen; Rabe, Juergen P.; Rudolf, Petra; Koch, Norbert; Rabe, Jürgen P.

    2011-01-01

    To assess the formation of intra-island grain boundaries during the early stages of pentacene film growth, we studied sub-monolayers of pentacene on pristine silicon oxide and silicon oxide with high pinning centre density (induced by UV/O(3) treatment). We investigated the influence of the kinetic

  14. Grain boundary melting in ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, E. S.; Hansen-Goos, Hendrik; Wettlaufer, J. S.; Wilen, L. A.

    2013-03-01

    We describe an optical scattering study of grain boundary premelting in water ice. Ubiquitous long ranged attractive polarization forces act to suppress grain boundary melting whereas repulsive forces originating in screened Coulomb interactions and classical colligative effects enhance it. The liquid enhancing effects can be manipulated by adding dopant ions to the system. For all measured grain boundaries this leads to increasing premelted film thickness with increasing electrolyte concentration. Although we understand that the interfacial surface charge densities qs and solute concentrations can potentially dominate the film thickness, we cannot directly measure them within a given grain boundary. Therefore, as a framework for interpreting the data we consider two appropriate qs dependent limits; one is dominated by the colligative effect and other is dominated by electrostatic interactions.

  15. Implications of Grain Size Evolution for the Effective Stress Exponent in Ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behn, M. D.; Goldsby, D. L.; Hirth, G.

    2016-12-01

    Viscous flow in ice has typically been described by the Glen law—a non-Newtonian, power-law relationship between stress and strain-rate with a stress exponent n 3. The Glen law is attributed to grain-size-insensitive dislocation creep; however, laboratory and field studies demonstrate that deformation in ice is strongly dependent on grain size. This has led to the hypothesis that at sufficiently low stresses, ice flow is controlled by grain boundary sliding [1], which explicitly incorporates the grain-size dependence of ice rheology. Yet, neither dislocation creep (n 4), nor grain boundary sliding (n 1.8), have stress exponents that match the value of n 3 for the Glen law. Thus, although the Glen law provides an approximate description of ice flow in glaciers and ice sheets, its functional form cannot be explained by a single deformation mechanism. Here we seek to understand the origin of the n 3 dependence of the Glen law through a new model for grain-size evolution in ice. In our model, grain size evolves in response to the balance between dynamic recrystallization and grain growth. To simulate these processes we adapt the "wattmeter" [2], originally developed within the solid-Earth community to quantify grain size in crustal and mantle rocks. The wattmeter posits that grain size is controlled by a balance between the mechanical work required for grain growth and dynamic grain size reduction. The evolution of grain size in turn controls the relative contributions of dislocation creep and grain boundary sliding, and thus the effective stress exponent for ice flow. Using this approach, we first benchmark our grain size evolution model on experimental data and then calculate grain size in two end-member scenarios: (1) as a function of depth within an ice-sheet, and (2) across an ice-stream margin. We show that the calculated grain sizes match ice core observations for the interior of ice sheets. Furthermore, owing to the influence of grain size on strain rate, the

  16. Abnormal glucose tolerance and lipid abnormalities in Indian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    quency of abnormal glucose tolerance (impaired glucose tole- rance and diabetes mellitus) in Indian patients with CAD is similar to that in White patients.9 However, with respect to the lipid profile there have been conflicting reports; hypercholeste- rolaemia was present in 37% ofthe series described by McKech- nie' and ...

  17. Dense, finely, grained composite materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunmead, Stephen D.; Holt, Joseph B.; Kingman, Donald D.; Munir, Zuhair A.

    1990-01-01

    Dense, finely grained composite materials comprising one or more ceramic phase or phase and one or more metallic and/or intermetallic phase or phases are produced by combustion synthesis. Spherical ceramic grains are homogeneously dispersed within the matrix. Methods are provided, which include the step of applying mechanical pressure during or immediately after ignition, by which the microstructures in the resulting composites can be controllably selected.

  18. The importance of grain size to mantle dynamics and seismological observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dannberg, J.; Eilon, Z.; Faul, Ulrich; Gassmöller, Rene; Moulik, Pritwiraj; Myhill, Robert

    2017-08-01

    Grain size plays a key role in controlling the mechanical properties of the Earth's mantle, affecting both long-time-scale flow patterns and anelasticity on the time scales of seismic wave propagation. However, dynamic models of Earth's convecting mantle usually implement flow laws with constant grain size, stress-independent viscosity, and a limited treatment of changes in mineral assemblage. We study grain size evolution, its interplay with stress and strain rate in the convecting mantle, and its influence on seismic velocities and attenuation. Our geodynamic models include the simultaneous and competing effects of dynamic recrystallization resulting from dislocation creep, grain growth in multiphase assemblages, and recrystallization at phase transitions. They show that grain size evolution drastically affects the dynamics of mantle convection and the rheology of the mantle, leading to lateral viscosity variations of 6 orders of magnitude due to grain size alone, and controlling the shape of upwellings and downwellings. Using laboratory-derived scaling relationships, we convert model output to seismologically observable parameters (velocity and attenuation) facilitating comparison to Earth structure. Reproducing the fundamental features of the Earth's attenuation profile requires reduced activation volume and relaxed shear moduli in the lower mantle compared to the upper mantle, in agreement with geodynamic constraints. Faster lower mantle grain growth yields best fit to seismic observations, consistent with our reexamination of high-pressure grain growth parameters. We also show that ignoring grain size in interpretations of seismic anomalies may underestimate the Earth's true temperature variations.

  19. NOGA-guided analysis of regional myocardial perfusion abnormalities treated with intramyocardial injections of plasmid encoding vascular endothelial growth factor A-165 in patients with chronic myocardial ischemia: subanalysis of the EUROINJECT-ONE multicenter double-blind randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyöngyösi, Mariann; Khorsand, Aliasghar; Zamini, Sholeh; Sperker, Wolfgang; Strehblow, Christoph; Kastrup, Jens; Jorgensen, Eric; Hesse, Birger; Tägil, Kristina; Bøtker, Hans Erik; Ruzyllo, Witold; Teresiñska, Anna; Dudek, Dariusz; Hubalewska, Alicja; Rück, Andreas; Nielsen, Søren Steen; Graf, Senta; Mundigler, Gerald; Novak, Jacek; Sochor, Heinz; Maurer, Gerald; Glogar, Dietmar; Sylven, Christer

    2005-08-30

    -induced perfusion abnormalities.

  20. Grain-size effects on thermal properties of BaTiO3 ceramics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    fine non-agglomerated powder with a narrow particle size distribution and an appropriate densification method to minimize the grain growth are required. In our experi- ment, the raw BaTiO3 powder with the grain sizes of 10 and 100 nm were synthesized by chemical processing. (Li et al 2002). Dense BaTiO3 ceramics with ...

  1. Kinetics of individual grains during recrystallization of cold-rolled copper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, Fengxiang; Zhang, Yubin; Poulsen, S.O.

    2015-01-01

    cold-rolling and annealing. In this work, recrystallization of pure copper cold-rolled to a von Mises strain of 2.7 was investigated in situ using three-dimensional X-ray diffraction. Growth curves of 835 grains were determined, and the curves of cube and non-cube grains were compared. It was found...

  2. Manufacture of GdBa2Cu3O7−x Superconducting Thin Films Using High-Thermal-Stability Precursors Playing the Role of Intermediate-Phase Grain-Growth Inhibitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Xiao; He, Dong; Yue, Zhao

    2014-01-01

    We have developed a fluorine-free metal–organic decomposition method using acrylic acid as the solvent for the synthesis of GdBCO superconducting thin films. Commonly used propionic acid was also used to make a comparison with acrylic acid. Acrylic acid was found to be polymerized during drying......, resulting in high thermal stability of the precursor solution. Due to the elevated decomposition temperature of the organic compounds in the acrylic-acid-based precursor, the formation of intermediate phases such as CuO was found delayed; therefore, the grain growth and phase segregation were suppressed....... The superior quality of pyrolyzed films induced by the use of polymerizable acrylic acid is reflected in the Jcof the GdBCO films, which achieved 1.2MA/cm2....

  3. Effect of Local Strain Distribution of Cold-Rolled Alloy 690 on Primary Water Stress Corrosion Crack Growth Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim S.-W.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to study the stress corrosion crack growth behavior of cold-rolled Alloy 690 in the primary water of a pressurized water reactor. Compared with Alloy 600, which shows typical intergranular cracking along high angle grain boundaries, the cold-rolled Alloy 690, with its heterogeneous microstructure, revealed an abnormal crack growth behavior in mixed mode, that is, in transgranular cracking near a banded region, and in intergranular cracking in a matrix region. From local strain distribution analysis based on local mis-orientation, measured along the crack path using the electron back scattered diffraction method, it was suggested that the abnormal behavior was attributable to a heterogeneity of local strain distribution. In the cold-rolled Alloy 690, the stress corrosion crack grew through a highly strained area formed by a prior cold-rolling process in a direction perpendicular to the maximum principal stress applied during a subsequent stress corrosion cracking test.

  4. Cereal grains, legumes and diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venn, B J; Mann, J I

    2004-11-01

    This review examines the evidence for the role of whole grain foods and legumes in the aetiology and management of diabetes. MedLine and SilverPlatter ('Nutrition' and 'Food Science FSTA') databases were searched to identify epidemiological and experimental studies relating to the effects of whole grain foods and legumes on indicators of carbohydrate metabolism. Epidemiological studies strongly support the suggestion that high intakes of whole grain foods protect against the development of type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM). People who consume approximately 3 servings per day of whole grain foods are less likely to develop T2DM than low consumers (grains of potential benefit to glycaemic control including slow release carbohydrate and a high fibre content. A substantial increase in dietary intake of legumes as replacement food for more rapidly digested carbohydrate might therefore be expected to improve glycaemic control and thus reduce incident diabetes. This is consistent with the results of dietary intervention studies that have found improvements in glycaemic control after increasing the dietary intake of whole grain foods, legumes, vegetables and fruit. The benefit has been attributed to an increase in soluble fibre intake. However, prospective studies have found that soluble fibre intake is not associated with a lower incidence of T2DM. On the contrary, it is cereal fibre that is largely insoluble that is associated with a reduced risk of developing T2DM. Despite this, the addition of wheat bran to the diets of diabetic people has not improved indicators of glycaemic control. These apparently contradictory findings might be explained by metabolic studies that have indicated improvement in glucose handling is associated with the intact structure of food. For both grains and legumes, fine grinding disrupts cell structures and renders starch more readily accessible for digestion. The extent to which the intact structure of grains and legumes or the composition of

  5. Lentiginosis, Deafness and Cardiac Abnormalities*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1973-01-06

    Jan 6, 1973 ... The familia:l form is milder. The cardiac lesion commonly consists of hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy of either ventricle or abnor- malities of the ECG.' The obstructive lesion may be pro- gressive and cause cardiac failure. The ECG features include conduction abnormalities, such as left hemiblock,.

  6. Chromosomal Abnormalities Associated With Omphalocele

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Ping Chen

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Fetuses with omphalocele have an increased risk for chromosomal abnormalities. The risk varies with maternal age, gestational age at diagnosis, association with umbilical cord cysts, complexity of associated anomalies, and the contents of omphalocele. There is considerable evidence that genetics contributes to the etiology of omphalocele. This article provides an overview of chromosomal abnormalities associated with omphalocele and a comprehensive review of associated full aneuploidy such as trisomy 18, trisomy 13, triploidy, trisomy 21, 45,X, 47,XXY, and 47,XXX, partial aneuploidy such as dup(3q, dup(11p, inv(11, dup(1q, del(1q, dup(4q, dup(5p, dup(6q, del(9p, dup(15q, dup(17q, Pallister-Killian syndrome with mosaic tetrasomy 12p and Miller-Dieker lissencephaly syndrome with deletion of 17p13.3, and uniparental disomy (UPD such as UPD 11 and UPD 14. Omphalocele is a prominent marker for chromosomal abnormalities. Perinatal identification of omphalocele should alert chromosomal abnormalities and familial unbalanced translocations, and prompt thorough cytogenetic investigations and genetic counseling.

  7. Interpreting chromosomal abnormalities using Prolog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, G; Friedman, J M

    1990-04-01

    This paper describes an expert system for interpreting the standard notation used to represent human chromosomal abnormalities, namely, the International System for Human Cytogenetic Nomenclature. Written in Prolog, this program is very powerful, easy to maintain, and portable. The system can be used as a front end to any database that employs cytogenetic notation, such as a patient registry.

  8. Admission haematological abnormalities and postoperative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admission haematological abnormalities and postoperative outcomes in neonates with acute surgical conditions in Alexandria, Egypt. HL Wella, SMM Farahat. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals ...

  9. Room Temperature Dynamic Strain Aging in Ultrafine-Grained Titanium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Felipe Perissé D.; Lu, Chia Hui; Zhao, Shiteng; Monteiro, Sergio N.; Meyers, Marc A.

    2015-10-01

    Dynamic strain aging (DSA) in coarse-grained (CG) titanium is usually observed at intermediate to high temperatures 473 K to 973 K (200 °C to 700 °C) and is characterized by serrations in the stress vs strain curves. In the present work, despite the absence of apparent serrations, ultrafine-grained titanium (UFG Ti) undergoes DSA at room temperature, exhibited through an abnormal increase in the elastic limit and negative strain rate sensitivity. This effect is observed at 293 K (20 °C) in the strain rate interval of 10-4 to 10-2 s-1, and at 203 K (-70 °C) and 373 K (100 °C) in a distinct strain rate range. Based on a calculated activation energy of 17.3 kJ/mol and microstructural observations by transmission electron microscopy, it is proposed that the dominant mechanism for DSA in UFG Ti involves interstitial solutes interacting with dislocations emitted from grain boundaries. The interstitials migrate from the grain boundaries along dislocation lines bowing out as they are emitted from the boundaries, a mechanism with a low calculated activation energy which is comparable with the experimental measurements. The dislocation velocities and interstitial diffusion along the dislocation cores are consistent.

  10. Effect of irradiation of wheat grains with fast neutrons on the grain yield and other characteristics of the plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanafy, Magda S; Mohamed, Hanan A

    2014-04-01

    The effects of fast neutrons from a (252)Cf source in the fluence range 10(5)-10(8)n/cm(2) on the Egyptian wheat cultivar (Sakha 92) were studied. The experiment was conducted for three successive seasons (2008/2009, 2009/2010, and 2010/2011) to study the effect of the irradiation on the plant growth, grain yield, and physiological changes of three generations of plants produced by irradiated moisturized grains. A low fast-neutron fluence 2 × 10(6)n/cm(2) increased the yield throughout the three mutagenic generations considerably. It also increased concentrations of the total chlorophyll, sugars, and crude protein. These changes improve the quantity and quality of the grain. Also, a study of the effect of salinity of the irrigation water on the characteristics of the third-generation grains produced by neutron-irradiated grains was performed. With increasing concentration of sodium chloride in the irrigation water in the range 0.5-1.5%, concentrations of osmoprotectants, namely, reducing sugars and proline amino acids, increased. The concentration of Na(+) in the grains increased in parallel with the salinity of the irrigation water regardless of irradiation, while the concentrations of Ca(2+) and K(+) decreased. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. DNA methylation abnormalities in congenital heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra-Juhé, Clara; Cuscó, Ivon; Homs, Aïda; Flores, Raquel; Torán, Núria; Pérez-Jurado, Luis A

    2015-01-01

    Congenital heart defects represent the most common malformation at birth, occurring also in ∼50% of individuals with Down syndrome. Congenital heart defects are thought to have multifactorial etiology, but the main causes are largely unknown. We have explored the global methylation profile of fetal heart DNA in comparison to blood DNA from control subjects: an absolute correlation with the type of tissue was detected. Pathway analysis revealed a significant enrichment of differential methylation at genes related to muscle contraction and cardiomyopathies in the developing heart DNA. We have also searched for abnormal methylation profiles on developing heart-tissue DNA of syndromic and non-syndromic congenital heart defects. On average, 3 regions with aberrant methylation were detected per sample and 18 regions were found differentially methylated between groups. Several epimutations were detected in candidate genes involved in growth regulation, apoptosis and folate pathway. A likely pathogenic hypermethylation of several intragenic sites at the MSX1 gene, involved in outflow tract morphogenesis, was found in a fetus with isolated heart malformation. In addition, hypermethylation of the GATA4 gene was present in fetuses with Down syndrome with or without congenital heart defects, as well as in fetuses with isolated heart malformations. Expression deregulation of the abnormally methylated genes was detected. Our data indicate that epigenetic alterations of relevant genes are present in developing heart DNA in fetuses with both isolated and syndromic heart malformations. These epimutations likely contribute to the pathogenesis of the malformation by cis-acting effects on gene expression.

  12. The incidence, embryology, and oculofacial abnormalities associated with eyelid colobomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, H B; Verity, D H; Collin, J R O

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To describe a cohort of patients with congenital eyelid coloboma, to identify associated ocular and craniofacial abnormalities, and to establish any correlation between the size and location of eyelid colobomas and the presence of such abnormalities. Methods An observational case series of 55 patients with eyelid coloboma treated by a single surgeon (JROC) between 1985 and 2005. Results Eyelid colobomas predominantly affected the upper lids (93%), and were typically unilateral (76%). About a third (29%) were an isolated finding, with the remainder associated with other ocular (62%) and/or craniofacial (53%) abnormalities. Of those with ocular abnormalities; 19 (56%) had conjunctival traction bands, 16 (47%) choristomas, and 8 (24%) an abnormal globe. Of those with craniofacial abnormalities; 13 (45%) had Goldenhar Syndrome, 10 (35%) clefting disorders, and 4 (14%) Fraser Syndrome. Clefting disorders were typically associated with more severe colobomas and a higher incidence of conjunctival traction bands, first arch syndromes with smaller colobomas and more choristomas. Overall large colobomas were significantly associated with the presence of other craniofacial defects compared with small colobomas (P<0.01, χ2), but coloboma size did not correspond with the presence of other ocular abnormalities. Conclusions Coloboma size, location, and associations in this series are consistent with our current understanding of eyelid embryogenesis. It is likely that those colobomas associated with other craniofacial and ocular abnormalities are those which result from errors earlier in embryogenesis during eyelid specification, growth, and closure, whereas isolated colobomas arise later during eyelid separation, and after codependent structures have developed. PMID:25613848

  13. Kabuki Syndrome: a case report with severe ocular abnormalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavio Mac Cord Medina

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Kabuki syndrome is a rare congenital anomaly, characterized by five fundamental features, the "Pentad of Niikawa": dysmorphic facies, skeletal anomalies, dermatoglyphic abnormalities, mild to moderate mental retardation and postnatal growth deficiency. Patients present characteristic external ocular features, nonetheless they may also present significant ocular abnormalities. We report a case of a brazilian child diagnosed with Kabuki syndrome, addressing the clinical features observed, with emphasis on the ocular manifestations. This case highlights the existence of this syndrome and all of its complexity. The identification of preventable causes of loss of vision underlines the value of detailed ophthalmologic examination of Kabuki syndrome patients.

  14. Grain Refinement of Low Carbon Martensitic Steel by Heat Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Kolebina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The low-carbon steels have good corrosion and technological properties. Hot deformation is the main operation in manufacturing the parts from these steels. So one of the important properties of the material is a property of plasticity. The grain size significantly influences on the ductility properties of steel. The grain size of steel depends on the chemical composition of the crystallization process, heat treatment, and steel machining. There are plenty methods to have grain refinement. However, taking into account the large size of the blanks for the hydro turbine parts, the thermal cycling is an advanced method of the grain refinement adaptable to streamlined production. This work experimentally studies the heat treatment influence on the microstructure of the low-carbon 01X13N04 alloy steel and proposes the optimal regime of the heat treatment to provide a significantly reduced grain size. L.M. Kleiner, N.P. Melnikov and I.N. Bogachyova’s works focused both on the microstructure of these steels and on the influence of its parameters on the mechanical properties. The paper focuses mainly on defining an optimal regime of the heat treatment for grain refinement. The phase composition of steel and temperature of phase transformation were defined by the theoretical analysis. The dilatometric experiment was done to determine the precise temperature of the phase transformations. The analysis and comparison of the experimental data with theoretical data and earlier studies have shown that the initial sample has residual stress and chemical heterogeneity. The influence of the heat treatment on the grain size was studied in detail. It is found that at temperatures above 950 ° C there is a high grain growth. It is determined that the optimal number of cycles is two. The postincreasing number of cycles does not cause further reducing grain size because of the accumulative recrystallization process. Based on the results obtained, the thermal cycling

  15. Experimental investigation of grain trapping capabilities in cyanobacterial vs. algal mats: Implications for grain size in stromatolites through time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petryshyn, V.; Frantz, C. M.; Corsetti, F. A.; Shapiro, R. S.; Cox, C.; Mills, D. B.; Boidi, F.; Duran, V.; Archberger, A.

    2012-12-01

    were poor at trapping fine grains, which slipped through the mesh of filaments in our experiment. SEM imaging of the cyanobacterial mats showed that after one day of growth, fine grains were thoroughly covered by cyanobacterial filaments and bound. The rare medium and coarse grains that were trapped were also bound. SEM imaging of the eukaryotic mats revealed that the grains, while trapped by the filaments, were not bound into the structure in the way that the grains were intertwined in the cyanobacterial mats. Although we cannot conclude that all fine-grained stromatolites were formed by cyanobacteria, our results suggest that coarse-grained stromatolites (e.g., most modern marine stromatolites) may require a eukaryotic component in order to trap coarse grains beyond the angle of repose. Similar sedimentation experiments using other microbial mats, such as those dominated by diatoms or that produce copious amounts of EPS, may yield additional information on the origins of coarse and fine-grained stromatolites.

  16. Sticking properties of ice grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongmanns, M.; Kumm, M.; Wurm, G.; Wolf, D. E.; Teiser, J.

    2017-06-01

    We study the size dependence of pull-off forces of water ice in laboratory experiments and numerical simulations. To determine the pull-off force in our laboratory experiments, we use a liquid nitrogen cooled centrifuge. Depending on its rotation frequency, spherical ice grains detach due to the centrifugal force which is related to the adhesive properties. Numerical simulations are conducted by means of molecular dynamics simulations of hexagonal ice using a standard coarse-grained water potential. The pull-off force of a single contact between two spherical ice grains is measured due to strain controlled simulations. Both, the experimental study and the simulations reveal a dependence between the pull-off force and the (reduced) particle radii, which differ significantly from the linear dependence of common contact theories.

  17. Sticking properties of ice grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jongmanns M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the size dependence of pull-off forces of water ice in laboratory experiments and numerical simulations. To determine the pull-off force in our laboratory experiments, we use a liquid nitrogen cooled centrifuge. Depending on its rotation frequency, spherical ice grains detach due to the centrifugal force which is related to the adhesive properties. Numerical simulations are conducted by means of molecular dynamics simulations of hexagonal ice using a standard coarse-grained water potential. The pull-off force of a single contact between two spherical ice grains is measured due to strain controlled simulations. Both, the experimental study and the simulations reveal a dependence between the pull-off force and the (reduced particle radii, which differ significantly from the linear dependence of common contact theories.

  18. Polycomb Protein OsFIE2 Affects Plant Height and Grain Yield in Rice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianbo Liu

    Full Text Available Polycomb group (PcG proteins have been shown to affect growth and development in plants. To further elucidate their role in these processes in rice, we isolated and characterized a rice mutant which exhibits dwarfism, reduced seed setting rate, defective floral organ, and small grains. Map-based cloning revealed that abnormal phenotypes were attributed to a mutation of the Fertilization Independent Endosperm 2 (OsFIE2 protein, which belongs to the PcG protein family. So we named the mutant as osfie2-1. Histological analysis revealed that the number of longitudinal cells in the internodes decreased in osfie2-1, and that lateral cell layer of the internodes was markedly thinner than wild-type. In addition, compared to wild-type, the number of large and small vascular bundles decreased in osfie2-1, as well as cell number and cell size in spikelet hulls. OsFIE2 is expressed in most tissues and the coded protein localizes in both nucleus and cytoplasm. Yeast two-hybrid and bimolecular fluorescence complementation assays demonstrated that OsFIE2 interacts with OsiEZ1 which encodes an enhancer of zeste protein previously identified as a histone methylation enzyme. RNA sequencing-based transcriptome profiling and qRT-PCR analysis revealed that some homeotic genes and genes involved in endosperm starch synthesis, cell division/expansion and hormone synthesis and signaling are differentially expressed between osfie2-1 and wild-type. In addition, the contents of IAA, GA3, ABA, JA and SA in osfie2-1 are significantly different from those in wild-type. Taken together, these results indicate that OsFIE2 plays an important role in the regulation of plant height and grain yield in rice.

  19. The water kefir grain inoculum determines the characteristics of the resulting water kefir fermentation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laureys, D; De Vuyst, L

    2017-03-01

    To investigate the influence of the water kefir grain inoculum on the characteristics of the water kefir fermentation process. Three water kefir fermentation processes were started with different water kefir grain inocula and followed as a function of time regarding microbial species diversity, community dynamics, substrate consumption profile and metabolite production course. The inoculum determined the water kefir grain growth, the viable counts on the grains, the time until total carbohydrate exhaustion, the final metabolite concentrations and the microbial species diversity. There were always 2-10 lactic acid bacterial cells for every yeast cell and the majority of these micro-organisms was always present on the grains. Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactobacillus hilgardii, Lactobacillus nagelii and Saccharomyces cerevisiae were always present and may be the key micro-organisms during water kefir fermentation. Low water kefir grain growth was associated with small grains with high viable counts of micro-organisms, fast fermentation and low pH values, and was not caused by the absence of exopolysaccharide-producing lactic acid bacteria. The water kefir grain inoculum influences the microbial species diversity and characteristics of the fermentation process. A select group of key micro-organisms was always present during fermentation. This study allows a rational selection of a water kefir grain inoculum. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  20. Pesticides Use among Grain Merchants in Mubi Grain Markets of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is, therefore, recommended that farmers, retailers, distributors and all the pesticide workers should undergo regular training/workshop on the use and safety measures of pesticides. Also multimedia awareness activities in local language should be massively conducted. Key words: Pesticides, food security, grain merchants ...

  1. Why Is It Important to Eat Grains, Especially Whole Grains?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and folate), and minerals ( iron , magnesium , and selenium). Dietary fiber from whole grains or other foods, may help reduce blood cholesterol levels and may lower risk of heart disease, obesity, and type 2 diabetes. Fiber is important for proper bowel function. It ...

  2. Mastoid abnormalities in Down syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glass, R.B.J.; Yousefzadeh, D.K.; Roizen, N.J.

    1989-06-01

    Hearing loss and otitis media are commonly associated with Down syndrome. Hypoplasia of the mastoids is seen in many affected children and sclerosis of mastoid bones is not uncommon in Down syndrome. Awareness and early recognition of mastoid abnormality may lead to appropriate and timely therapy, thereby preserving the child's hearing or compensating for hearing loss; factors which are important for learning and maximum development.

  3. Normal and abnormal skin color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortonne, J P

    2012-12-01

    The varieties of normal skin color in humans range from people of "no color" (pale white) to "people of color" (light brown, dark brown, and black). Skin color is a blend resulting from the skin chromophores red (oxyhaemoglobin), blue (deoxygenated haemoglobin), yellow-orange (carotene, an exogenous pigment), and brown (melanin). Melanin, however, is the major component of skin color ; it is the presence or absence of melanin in the melanosomes in melanocytes and melanin in keratinocytes that is responsible for epidermal pigmentation, and the presence of melanin in macrophages or melanocytes in the dermis that is responsible for dermal pigmentation. Two groups of pigmentary disorders are commonly distinguished: the disorders of the quantitative and qualitative distribution of normal pigment and the abnormal presence of exogenous or endogenous pigments in the skin. The first group includes hyperpigmentations, which clinically manifest by darkening of the skin color, and leukodermia, which is characterized by lightening of the skin. Hypermelanosis corresponds to an overload of melanin or an abnormal distribution of melanin in the skin. Depending on the color, melanodermia (brown/black) and ceruloderma (blue/grey) are distinguished. Melanodermia correspond to epidermal hypermelanocytosis (an increased number of melanocytes) or epidermal hypermelanosis (an increase in the quantity of melanin in the epidermis with no modification of the number of melanocytes). Ceruloderma corresponds to dermal hypermelanocytosis (abnormal presence in the dermis of cells synthesizing melanins) ; leakage in the dermis of epidermal melanin also exists, a form of dermal hypermelanosis called pigmentary incontinence. Finally, dyschromia can be related to the abnormal presence in the skin of a pigment of exogenous or endogenous origin. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. [Normal and abnormal skin color].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortonne, J-P

    2012-11-01

    The varieties of normal skin color in humans range from people of "no color" (pale white) to "people of color" (light brown, dark brown, and black). Skin color is a blend resulting from the skin chromophores red (oxyhaemoglobin), blue (deoxygenated haemoglobin), yellow-orange (carotene, an exogenous pigment), and brown (melanin). Melanin, however, is the major component of skin color ; it is the presence or absence of melanin in the melanosomes in melanocytes and melanin in keratinocytes that is responsible for epidermal pigmentation, and the presence of melanin in macrophages or melanocytes in the dermis that is responsible for dermal pigmentation. Two groups of pigmentary disorders are commonly distinguished: the disorders of the quantitative and qualitative distribution of normal pigment and the abnormal presence of exogenous or endogenous pigments in the skin. The first group includes hyperpigmentations, which clinically manifest by darkening of the skin color, and leukodermia, which is characterized by lightening of the skin. Hypermelanosis corresponds to an overload of melanin or an abnormal distribution of melanin in the skin. Depending on the color, melanodermia (brown/black) and ceruloderma (blue/grey) are distinguished. Melanodermia correspond to epidermal hypermelanocytosis (an increased number of melanocytes) or epidermal hypermelanosis (an increase in the quantity of melanin in the epidermis with no modification of the number of melanocytes). Ceruloderma correspond to dermal hypermelanocytosis (abnormal presence in the dermis of cells synthesizing melanins) ; leakage in the dermis of epidermal melanin also exists, a form of dermal hypermelanosis called pigmentary incontinence. Finally, dyschromia can be related to the abnormal presence in the skin of a pigment of exogenous or endogenous origin. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Goldenhar syndrome and urogenital abnormalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohan Marulaiah

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The Goldenhar syndrome (oculo-auriculo-vertebral syn-drome or 1st and 2nd branchial arch syndrome is a com-plex of craniofacial anomalies. It has been associated with anomalies in other systems and with abnormalities of the urogenital system. We present a case of Goldenhar syn-drome with multiple renal anomalies and a urogenital si-nus, which has not been reported before.

  6. Crystal Growth Behaviors of Silicon during Melt Growth Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozo Fujiwara

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available It is imperative to improve the crystal quality of Si multicrystal ingots grown by casting because they are widely used for solar cells in the present and will probably expand their use in the future. Fine control of macro- and microstructures, grain size, grain orientation, grain boundaries, dislocation/subgrain boundaries, and impurities, in a Si multicrystal ingot, is therefore necessary. Understanding crystal growth mechanisms in melt growth processes is thus crucial for developing a good technology for producing high-quality Si multicrystal ingots for solar cells. In this review, crystal growth mechanisms involving the morphological transformation of the crystal-melt interface, grain boundary formation, parallel-twin formation, and faceted dendrite growth are discussed on the basis of the experimental results of in situ observations.

  7. Grain Refinement of Freeform Fabricated Ti-6Al-4V Alloy Using Beam/Arc Modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitzner, Scott; Liu, Stephen; Domack, Marcia S.; Hafley, Robert A.

    2012-01-01

    Grain refinement can significantly improve the mechanical properties of freeform-fabricated Ti-6Al-4V alloy, promoting increased strength and enhanced isotropy compared with coarser grained material. Large beta-grains can lead to a segregated microstructure, in regard to both alpha-phase morphology and alpha-lath orientation. Beam modulation, which has been used in conventional fusion welding to promote grain refinement, is explored in this study for use in additive manufacturing processes including electron beam freeform fabrication (EBF(sup 3)) and gas-tungsten arc (GTA) deposition to alter solidification behavior and produce a refined microstructure. The dynamic molten pool size induced by beam modulation causes rapid heat flow variance and results in a more competitive grain growth environment, reducing grain size. Consequently, improved isotropy and strength can be achieved with relatively small adjustments to deposition parameters.

  8. Grain structure evolution in Inconel 718 during selective electron beam melting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helmer, H.; Bauereiß, A., E-mail: Andreas.Bauereiss@fau.de; Singer, R.F.; Körner, C.

    2016-06-21

    Selective electron beam melting (SEBM) is an additive manufacturing method where complex parts are built from metal powders in layers of typically 50 µm. An electron beam is used for heating (about 900 °C building temperature) and selective melting of the material. The grain structure evolution is a result of the complex thermal and hydrodynamic conditions in the melt pool. We show how different scanning strategies can be used to produce either a columnar grain structure with a high texture in building direction or an equiaxed fine grained structure. Numerical simulations of the selective melting process are applied to study the fundamental mechanisms responsible for differing grain structures. It is shown, that the direction of the thermal gradient during solidification can be altered by scanning strategies to acquire either epitaxial growth or stray grains. We show that it is possible to locally alter the grain structure of a part, thus allowing tailoring of the mechanical properties.

  9. Barley grain enrichement with essential elements by agronomic biofortification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragičević Vesna D.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Barley grain is rich in mineral nutrients, but their bioavailability to humans depends on antinutrients that restrain bioavailability and promoters that promote bioavailability. The aim of this study was to examine composition of barley grain, including phytate and phenolics as antinutrients, carotenoids and glutathione as promoters and mineral elements, such as Ca, Mg, Fe, Si, Zn and Mn influenced by various non-standard foliar fertilizers (Zircon, Chitosan, Siliplant, Propikonazole, including some hormonal growth-stimulators (Epin Extra, Benzyladenine, as potential biofortification measure. Chitosan increased glutathione concentration in grain. Unfavorable meteorological conditions were partly mitigated by application of Benzyladenine and Siliplant, reflected through increased potential bioavailability of P, Mg, Ca and Fe. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR-31037

  10. In-situ measurement of annealing kinetics of individual bulk grains in nanostructured aluminium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, G.L.; Juul Jensen, Dorte

    2012-01-01

    recrystallisation starts and, by fast growth of recrystallisation nuclei, some very big grains evolve. This occurs simultaneously with recovery coarsening of other parts of the microstructure. Consequently, very broad grain size distributions are observed. The 3DXRD results show that the nuclei (those crystallites...... that end up being very large by fast recrystallisation growth) do not have an initial size advantage compared to those coarsening much slower by recovery. Kinetics curves for these two categories of grains are determined. Data of this type are considered very important for understanding the thermal...

  11. 75 FR 81965 - Grain Inspection Advisory Committee Reestablishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-29

    ... Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards Administration Grain Inspection Advisory Committee Reestablishment AGENCY: Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards Administration, USDA. ACTION: Notice to... Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards Administration (GIPSA) Grain Inspection Advisory Committee...

  12. Determination of grain boundary mobility during recrystallization by statistical evaluation of electron backscatter diffraction measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basu, I., E-mail: basu@imm.rwth-aachen.de; Chen, M.; Loeck, M.; Al-Samman, T.; Molodov, D.A.

    2016-07-15

    One of the key aspects influencing microstructural design pathways in metallic systems is grain boundary motion. The present work introduces a method by means of which direct measurement of grain boundary mobility vs. misorientation dependence is made possible. The technique utilizes datasets acquired by means of serial electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) measurements. The experimental EBSD measurements are collectively analyzed, whereby datasets were used to obtain grain boundary mobility and grain aspect ratio with respect to grain boundary misorientation. The proposed method is further validated using cellular automata (CA) simulations. Single crystal aluminium was cold rolled and scratched in order to nucleate random orientations. Subsequent annealing at 300 °C resulted in grains growing, in the direction normal to the scratch, into a single deformed orientation. Growth selection was observed, wherein the boundaries with misorientations close to Σ7 CSL orientation relationship (38° 〈111〉) migrated considerably faster. The obtained boundary mobility distribution exhibited a non-monotonic behavior with a maximum corresponding to misorientation of 38° ± 2° about 〈111〉 axes ± 4°, which was 10–100 times higher than the mobility values of random high angle boundaries. Correlation with the grain aspect ratio values indicated a strong growth anisotropy displayed by the fast growing grains. The observations have been discussed in terms of the influence of grain boundary character on grain boundary motion during recrystallization. - Highlights: • Statistical microstructure method to measure grain boundary mobility during recrystallization • Method implementation independent of material or crystal structure • Mobility of the Σ7 boundaries in 5N Al was calculated as 4.7 × 10{sup –8} m{sup 4}/J ⋅ s. • Pronounced growth selection in the recrystallizing nuclei in Al • Boundary mobility values during recrystallization 2–3 orders of

  13. The relationship between polyamines and hormones in the regulation of wheat grain filling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Liu

    Full Text Available The grain weight of wheat is strongly influenced by filling. Polyamines (PA are involved in regulating plant growth. However, the effects of PA on wheat grain filling and its mechanism of action are unclear. The objective of the present study was to investigate the relationship between PAs and hormones in the regulation of wheat grain filling. Three PAs, spermidine (Spd, spermine (Spm, and putrescine (Put, were exogenously applied, and the grain filling characteristics and changes in endogenous PA and hormones, i.e., indole-3-acetic acid (IAA, zeatin (Z + zeatin riboside (ZR, abscisic acid (ABA, ethylene (ETH and gibberellin 1+4 (GAs, were quantified during wheat grain filling. Exogenous applications of Spd and Spm significantly increased the grain filling rate and weight, but exogenous Put had no significant effects on these measures. Exogenous Spd and Spm significantly increased the endogenous Spd, Spm, Z+ZR, ABA, and IAA contents and significantly decreased ETH evolution in grains. The endogenous Spd, Spm and Z+ZR contents were positively and significantly correlated with the grain filling rate and weight of wheat, and the endogenous ETH evolution was negatively and significantly correlated with the wheat grain filling rate and weight. Based upon these results, we concluded that PAs were involved in the balance of hormones that regulated the grain filling of wheat.

  14. High night temperatures during grain number determination reduce wheat and barley grain yield: a field study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Guillermo A; Dreccer, M Fernanda; Miralles, Daniel J; Serrago, Román A

    2015-11-01

    Warm nights are a widespread predicted feature of climate change. This study investigated the impact of high night temperatures during the critical period for grain yield determination in wheat and barley crops under field conditions, assessing the effects on development, growth and partitioning crop-level processes driving grain number per unit area (GN). Experiments combined: (i) two contrasting radiation and temperature environments: late sowing in 2011 and early sowing in 2013, (ii) two well-adapted crops with similar phenology: bread wheat and two-row malting barley and (iii) two temperature regimes: ambient and high night temperatures. The night temperature increase (ca. 3.9 °C in both crops and growing seasons) was achieved using purpose-built heating chambers placed on the crop at 19:000 hours and removed at 7:00 hours every day from the third detectable stem node to 10 days post-flowering. Across growing seasons and crops, the average minimum temperature during the critical period ranged from 11.2 to 17.2 °C. Wheat and barley grain yield were similarly reduced under warm nights (ca. 7% °C(-1) ), due to GN reductions (ca. 6% °C(-1) ) linked to a lower number of spikes per m(2) . An accelerated development under high night temperatures led to a shorter critical period duration, reducing solar radiation capture with negative consequences for biomass production, GN and therefore, grain yield. The information generated could be used as a starting point to design management and/or breeding strategies to improve crop adaptation facing climate change. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. NUTRITIONAL CHARACTERIZATION OF GRAIN AMARANTH ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    IBUKUN

    season. With a toasted flavor similar to popcorn when cooked, amaranth seeds are small in size but a good source of carbohydrate and protein (15-17 percent by weight). It is rich in the amino acids methionine, cycteine and has the highest content of lysine compared with all grains. It also has three times the fiber of wheat.

  16. Stochastic charging of dust grains in protoplanetary disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharmin Ashrafi, Khandaker; Esparza, Samuel; Xiang, Chuchu; Matthews, Lorin; Carballido, Augusto; Hyde, Truell

    2017-06-01

    Micron-sized dust grains are abundant in the early stages of protoplanetary disks. Not only do such solid particles provide the seeds for planetesimal formation through collisional growth and collective effects, they also modify the overall ionization levels of the surrounding plasma through the accumulation of charge. If the local dust density is large enough that charge is removed from the nebular gas through deposition on grain surfaces, magnetic fields can detach from the gas making the MRI process inoperative. For highly porous dust aggregates, MRI quenching can become even more efficient since porous aggregates accumulate charge more efficiently than do compact spherical grains having the same mass. The primary goal of this work is to develop a numerical model of dust coagulation and charging in a magnetized protoplanetary disk to answer the question: What role does the porosity and/or electrical charge state of dust aggregates play in the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) structure of protoplanetary disks? The collisional charging of a grain is affected by its surface area and morphology. Here we compare the electron and ion currents incident on micron and submicron aggregate grains made of spherical monomers to the currents incident on spherical grains of equivalent mass. The electrons and ions are absorbed on the dust grain surface at random times; as a result charge fluctuates stochastically. We calculate the average charge and charge probability distribution for (i) aggregates composed of monomers of 10 nm, 20 nm and 50 nm monomers with an effective aggregate radius of 0.1 m, and (ii) aggregates consisting of up to 100 monomers with monomer radius of 0.1 micron. The implications of our results for non-ideal magnetohydrodynamics in protoplanetary disks are briefly discussed in terms of the effect of disk ionization fraction and chemical networks.

  17. CRITICAL INDICATORS IN MECHANIZED HARVEST GRAINS AND FIBER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Boeing

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Due to the growth in grain production and intensification of production systems losses are inevitable. The harvest as the last operation performed in the field requires better attention. Although the origins are varied and losses occur both before and during harvesting, approximately 80% of them occur by mechanisms of action of the harvester cutting platform. It is necessary to know the causes of losses, whether physical or physiological operational. Thus, the objective was to conduct a survey of potential losses and / or environmental factors that affect machinery and effectively and should be prioritized in a management program in order to raise the efficiency of harvesting. From the collected data determined if the potential of critical failures through the method of analysis and failure mode effects, using a questionnaire listed with the selected quality indicators. It was concluded that in the mechanical harvesting of cotton harvested product loss and impurity had insusceptible rates be prioritized goals in the management of the production process. While the grain crop (soybean / corn moisture grain and grain breaks are still the main causes in the loss of quality of the product, stressing the importance of harvesters in improving the characteristics at harvest in order to minimize qualitative grain losses.

  18. Tracking the Evolution of Annealing Textures from Individual Deformed Grains in a Cross-Rolled Non-oriented Electrical Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanjari, Mehdi; Mehdi, Mehdi; He, Youliang; Hilinski, Erik J.; Yue, Steve; Kestens, Leo A. I.; Edrisy, Afsaneh

    2017-12-01

    The evolution of microtexture and microstructure of a cross-rolled 0.88 wt pct Si non-oriented electrical steel was investigated using a quasi- in situ electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) technique, where individual deformed grains with various initial orientations were tracked during annealing at the same temperature for different times. The textures recrystallized from different deformed grains were compared, and the observations were examined against the preferential nucleation and selective growth theories. Although the cold deformed 〈111〉//ND (normal direction) grains recrystallized first during annealing, they started with significantly different nucleation textures, i.e., γ-fiber (〈111〉//ND) in {111}〈112〉 deformed grains, and cube ({001}〈100〉) in {111}〈110〉 deformed grains. Both recrystallization textures were quite stable until the steel was completely recrystallized. Significant grain growth in these grains was only observed after the recrystallization was complete, which resulted in considerably different final textures as compared to the initial nucleation textures. Deformed grains with a rotated cube ({001}〈111〉) orientation were the last to recrystallize, and the recrystallization was accomplished mainly through the "invading" of neighboring grains into the deformed matrix. Analysis of the misorientations between the rotated cube grain (the matrix) and their neighboring recrystallized grains showed that the preferred growth of some of the grains can be attributed to the high grain boundary mobility associated with the coincident site lattices (CSL). During the course of recrystallization, some 11{h} and rotated cube grains also formed, but they disappeared quickly when the annealing time was increased.

  19. Abnormal thermography in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonio-Rubio, I; Madrid-Navarro, C J; Salazar-López, E; Pérez-Navarro, M J; Sáez-Zea, C; Gómez-Milán, E; Mínguez-Castellanos, A; Escamilla-Sevilla, F

    2015-08-01

    An autonomic denervation and abnormal vasomotor reflex in the skin have been described in Parkinson's disease (PD) and might be evaluable using thermography with cold stress test. A cross-sectional pilot study was undertaken in 35 adults: 15 patients with PD and abnormal [(123)I]-metaiodobenzylguanidine cardiac scintigraphy and 20 healthy controls. Baseline thermography of both hands was obtained before immersing one in cold water (3 ± 1 °C) for 2 min. Continuous thermography was performed in: non-immersed hand (right or with lesser motor involvement) during immersion of the contralateral hand and for 6 min afterward; and contralateral immersed hand for 6 min post-immersion. The region of interest was the dorsal skin of the third finger, distal phalanx. PD patients showed a lower mean baseline hand temperature (p = 0.037) and greater thermal difference between dorsum of wrist and third finger (p = 0.036) and between hands (p = 0.0001) versus controls, regardless of the motor laterality. Both tests evidenced an adequate capacity to differentiate between groups: in the non-immersed hand, the PD patients did not show the normal cooling pattern or final thermal overshoot observed in controls (F = 5.29; p = 0.001), and there was an AUC of 0.897 (95%CI 0.796-0.998) for this cooling; in the immersed hand, thermal recovery at 6 min post-immersion was lesser in patients (29 ± 17% vs. 55 ± 28%, p = 0.002), with an AUC of 0.810 (95%CI 0.662-0.958). PD patients reveal abnormal skin thermal responses in thermography with cold stress test, suggesting cutaneous autonomic dysfunction. This simple technique may be useful to evaluate autonomic dysfunction in PD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Emission of dislocations from grain boundaries by grain boundary dissociation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoagland, Richard G.; Valone, Steven M.

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we examine the conditions that favour the emission of Shockley partial dislocations (SPDs) that standoff from a grain boundary (GB) plane by a few lattice parameters as part of the atomic structure of some GBs. To do so, we consider GBs to be formed by the operation of arrays of intrinsic grain boundary dislocations (GBDs) that create the tilt and twist misorientation, and the lattice mismatch between the two crystal grains adjoining the GB. The conditions to be considered that favour SPDs are the following: (1) Frank's rule, (2) the proper sequential arrangement of partial dislocations to bound an intrinsic stacking fault and (3) the equilibrium stand-off distance (ESD). We apply an isotropic elasticity analysis to compute the ESD, in the absence of an applied stress, for SPDs emerging from asymmetric tilt GBs in two FCC metals, Cu and Al. The ESD is shown to be dependent on the glide plane orientation relative to the GB plane and on the position of the glide planes, relative to the position of the GBDs. An applied stress increases the ESD up to a critical stress that removes the SPDs without limit from the GB. We examine the effect of the stacking fault energy on the ESD and critical stress. The critical stress is effectively linearly dependent on the stacking fault energy. Finally, we present results of atomistic simulations of asymmetric tilt Σ11[1 0 1]{4 1 4}||{2 5 2} GBs in Cu bicrystal models subject to shock loading that behave in a manner similar to the elasticity predictions. The atomistic simulations reveal additional behaviour associated with elastic incompatibility between the two grains in the bicrystal models.

  1. THE SCHEME WITH THE MULTIPURPOSE RELAY FOR ECONOMY OF ELECTRIC ENERGY IN TO GRAIN THROWER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Mazukha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The scheme for economy of electric energy during the work for an example of a grain thrower of the ZME 60 type (Voronezh Region, Semiluki on grain flows in rural economy is offered. Grain thrower can carry out the following technological operations: loading of grain in vehicles; loading and unloading of grain stores; mechanical shoveling of grain on the open areas; separation of grain with office of light impurity. In the scheme the relay 3UG3521/22t (SIEMENS firm is used. The relay can carry out multipurpose protection of engines and comprises the relay of the maximum current, the relay of the minimum current, a timer and the index relay. Temporary charts of the relay 3UG3521/22t are provided in the mode "without preservation" and in the mode with "preservation" for the OVER functions (reaction to growth of current and the UNDER function (reaction to recession of current. Use of the relay 3UG3521/22t allowed to receive protection at long start-up of electric motors, at an overload of electric motors, when idling (for economy of electric energy due to automatic shutdown of the conveyor and at break or jamming of the conveyor. Besides, in the scheme it is offered the multipurpose relay of tension (the relay of control of phases for protection of three engines of a grain thrower at not full-phase modes of a power line. The economy of electric energy can be received in case of, for example, the late actions of the operator for timely shutdown of the engine of a self-feed upon transition of a grain thrower to idling. In practice transition of a grain thrower to the mode of idling is quite often possible in process of reduction of amount of the thrown grain on a platform before a grain thrower. In practice transition of a grain thrower to the mode of idling is quite often possible in process of reduction of amount of the thrown grain on a platform before a grain thrower. The offered electric circuit can be used in the grain thrower and grain loaders

  2. ADEPT - Abnormal Doppler Enteral Prescription Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCormick Kenny

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pregnancies complicated by abnormal umbilical artery Doppler blood flow patterns often result in the baby being born both preterm and growth-restricted. These babies are at high risk of milk intolerance and necrotising enterocolitis, as well as post-natal growth failure, and there is no clinical consensus about how best to feed them. Policies of both early milk feeding and late milk feeding are widely used. This randomised controlled trial aims to determine whether a policy of early initiation of milk feeds is beneficial compared with late initiation. Optimising neonatal feeding for this group of babies may have long-term health implications and if either of these policies is shown to be beneficial it can be immediately adopted into clinical practice. Methods and Design Babies with gestational age below 35 weeks, and with birth weight below 10th centile for gestational age, will be randomly allocated to an "early" or "late" enteral feeding regimen, commencing milk feeds on day 2 and day 6 after birth, respectively. Feeds will be gradually increased over 9-13 days (depending on gestational age using a schedule derived from those used in hospitals in the Eastern and South Western Regions of England, based on surveys of feeding practice. Primary outcome measures are time to establish full enteral feeding and necrotising enterocolitis; secondary outcomes include sepsis and growth. The target sample size is 400 babies. This sample size is large enough to detect a clinically meaningful difference of 3 days in time to establish full enteral feeds between the two feeding policies, with 90% power and a 5% 2-sided significance level. Initial recruitment period was 24 months, subsequently extended to 38 months. Discussion There is limited evidence from randomised controlled trials on which to base decisions regarding feeding policy in high risk preterm infants. This multicentre trial will help to guide clinical practice and may also

  3. Abnormal visuomotor processing in schizophrenia

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    Siân E. Robson

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Subtle disturbances of visual and motor function are known features of schizophrenia and can greatly impact quality of life; however, few studies investigate these abnormalities using simple visuomotor stimuli. In healthy people, electrophysiological data show that beta band oscillations in sensorimotor cortex decrease during movement execution (event-related beta desynchronisation (ERBD, then increase above baseline for a short time after the movement (post-movement beta rebound (PMBR; whilst in visual cortex, gamma oscillations are increased throughout stimulus presentation. In this study, we used a self-paced visuomotor paradigm and magnetoencephalography (MEG to contrast these responses in patients with schizophrenia and control volunteers. We found significant reductions in the peak-to-peak change in amplitude from ERBD to PMBR in schizophrenia compared with controls. This effect was strongest in patients who made fewer movements, whereas beta was not modulated by movement in controls. There was no significant difference in the amplitude of visual gamma between patients and controls. These data demonstrate that clear abnormalities in basic sensorimotor processing in schizophrenia can be observed using a very simple MEG paradigm.

  4. Lower Extremity Abnormalities in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rerucha, Caitlyn M; Dickison, Caleb; Baird, Drew C

    2017-08-15

    Leg and foot problems in childhood are common causes of parental concern. Rotational problems include intoeing and out-toeing. Intoeing is most common in infants and young children. Intoeing is caused by metatarsus adductus, internal tibial torsion, and femoral anteversion. Out-toeing is less common than intoeing and occurs more often in older children. Out-toeing is caused by external tibial torsion and femoral retroversion. Angular problems include genu varum (bowleg) and genu valgum (knock knee). With pes planus (flatfoot), the arch of the foot is usually flexible rather than rigid. A history and physical examination that include torsional profile tests and angular measurements are usually sufficient to evaluate patients with lower extremity abnormalities. Most children who present with lower extremity problems have normal rotational and angular findings (i.e., within two standard deviations of the mean). Lower extremity abnormalities that are within normal measurements resolve spontaneously as the child grows. Radiologic studies are not routinely required, except to exclude pathologic conditions. Orthotics are not beneficial. Orthopedic referral is often not necessary. Rarely, surgery is required in patients older than eight years who have severe deformities that cause dysfunction.

  5. Formation of lithospheric shear zones: Effect of temperature on two-phase grain damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulyukova, Elvira; Bercovici, David

    2017-09-01

    Shear localization in the lithosphere is a characteristic feature of plate tectonic boundaries, and is evident in the presence of small grain mylonites. Localization and mylonitization in the ductile portion of the lithosphere can arise when its polymineralic material deforms by a grain-size sensitive rheology in combination with Zener pinning, which can impede, or possibly even reverse, grain growth and thus promotes a self-softening feedback mechanism. However, the efficacy of this mechanism is not ubiquitous and depends on lithospheric conditions such as temperature and stress. Therefore, we explore the conditions under which self-weakening takes place, and, in particular, the effect of temperature and deformation state (stress or strain-rate) on these conditions. In our model, the lithosphere-like polymineralic material is deformed in a two-dimensional simple shear driven by constant stress or strain rate. The mineral grains evolve to a stable size, which is obtained when the rate of coarsening by normal grain growth and the rate of grain size reduction by damage are in balance. Damage involves processes by which some of the deformational energy gets transferred into surface energy. This can happen by (i) dynamic recrystallization (grain damage) and (ii) stretching, deforming and stirring the material interface (interface damage). The influence of temperature enters through rheological laws (which govern the rate of work and damage), grain growth kinetics, and the damage partitioning fraction, which is the fraction of deformational work that goes into creating new surface energy. We demonstrate that a two-phase damage model, in which the partitioning fraction depends on both temperature and roughness of the interface between the phases, can successfully match the field data, including the reported correlation of grain size and temperature, the increasing dominance of dislocation creep at higher temperatures and a large range of grain sizes observed across the

  6. Molecule Formation on Interstellar Grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidali, G.

    2011-05-01

    The first experiments that were expressively designed to be applicable to hydrogen formation reactions in the ISM measured the efficiency of formation of molecular hydrogen on a polycrystalline olivine (Pirronello et al. (1997a)). It soon turned out that more was needed, and research began on the mechanism of reaction, on the in uence of the surface morphology, and on the excitation of the just- ormed molecule. In this review, I summarize what we learned from these and other experiments, and where more work is needed: in the elementary steps of reaction, in the bridging of the laboratory-ISM gap (large ux/large surface - small ux/small grain) using simulations, and in using realistic samples of dust grains. Understanding what experiments can and cannot deliver will help in designing and targeting observations, and vice-versa.

  7. Kefir grains as a starter for whey fermentation at different temperatures: chemical and microbiological characterisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Londero, Alejandra; Hamet, María F; De Antoni, Graciela L; Garrote, Graciela L; Abraham, Analía G

    2012-08-01

    We report here a comparative analysis of the growth, acidification capacity, and chemical and microbiologic composition between kefir grains after 20 subcultures in whey at 20, 30, and 37°C and the original kefir grains coming from milk along with a determination of the microbiological composition of the fermented whey as compared with that of traditional fermented milk. When fermentation was carried out repeatedly at 30 or 37°C, kefir grains changed their kefir-like appearance, exhibited reduced growth rates, had a lower diversity of yeasts and water content, and a higher protein-to-polysaccharide ratio compared with the original kefir grains. In contrast, at 20°C kefir grains could remain in whey for prolonged periods without altering their acidification capacity, growth rate, macroscopic appearance or chemical and microbiologic composition-with the only difference being a reduction in certain yeast populations after 20 subcultures in whey. At this incubation temperature, the presence of Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens, Lb. kefir, Lb. parakefir, Lactococcus lactis, Kluyveromyces marxianus, Saccharomyces unisporus, and Sac. cerevisiae was detected in kefir grains and in fermented whey by denaturing-gradient-gel electrophoresis (DGGE). In whey fermented at 20°C the number of lactic-acid bacteria (LAB) was significantly lower (Pkefir grains as whey-fermentation starters.

  8. The relationship between fungi growth and aflatoxin production with ergosterol content of corn grains Relação entre o desenvolvimento fúngico e a produção de aflatoxinas com o teor de ergosterol em milho em grãos

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    Maria Fernanda Penteado Moretzsohn de Castro

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationships between fungal growth and ergosterol content and between aflatoxins B1 and B2 production and ergosterol content were verified in corn grains. In the first experiment, fungal growth and ergosterol content were monitored during incubation of corn grains presenting water activities of 0.85a w and 0.92a w at 25ºC over a period of 18 days. For the Taiúba variety, the fungi growth and ergosterol content increased more rapidly for 0.92a w than 0.85a w. Maximum ergosterol levels were 2.8 and 4.6 µg/g, respectively, for 0.85a w and 0.92a w. For the Cargill hybrid 606, a more pronounced increase in fungal growth was verified just at the end of the incubation period, mainly for 0.92a w when an acentuated increase in ergosterol content was also observed. Maximum ergosterol levels detected were 1.6 µg/g and 5.8 µg/g, respectively, for 0.85a w and 0.92a w. There was a significant correlation between ergosterol content and log of CFU g-1 for 0.92a w but not for 0.85 a w. In the second experiment, samples of corn grains of the Taiúba variety at 0.87a w and 0.95a w were inoculated with a toxigenic Aspergillus flavus strain and incubated at 25ºC. Ergosterol levels reached maximum values of 12.1 and 73.4 µg/g, respectively, for 0.87a w and 0.95a w. In both water activities, content aflatoxin B1 followed the same trend as ergosterol. For the aflatoxin B2 this trend was not observed. Ergosterol assay appears to be a useful test to measure fungal growth and to indicate the possibility of aflatoxin production in corn grains.A relação entre o crescimento fúngico e o teor de ergosterol e entre a produção de aflatoxinas B1 e B2 e o teor de ergosterol foi verificada em milho em grãos. No primeiro experimento, o crescimento fúngico e o conteúdo de ergosterol foram monitorados durante incubação das amostras de milho com 0,85 e 0,92 de atividade de água (Aa a 25ºC por um período de 18 dias. Para a variedade Taiúba o crescimento f

  9. Crop rotations for grain production

    OpenAIRE

    Olesen, Jørgen E.; Rasmussen, Ilse Ankær; Askegaard, Margrethe

    2000-01-01

    There is an increasing demand for organically grown cereal grains in Denmark, which is expected to cause a change in the typical organic farm structure away from dairy farming and towards arable farming. Such a change may reduce the stability of the farming systems, because of decreasing soil fertility and problems with weed control. There have only been a limited number of studies under temperate conditions in Europe and North America, where different crop rotations have been compared under ...

  10. Structure and properties of grain boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balluffi, R. W.; Bristowe, P. D.

    1984-03-01

    Results were obtained in the following areas: determination of relative grain boundary energies by the rotating crystallite method; simple structural unit model for core dependent properties of tilt boundaries; twist boundary energies for metals with long ranged pairwise interatomic potentials; structural unit/grain boundary dislocation model for grain boundary structure; detection of expansion of boundaries using diffraction; effect of secondary relaxations on diffraction from high-(SIGMA) 001 twist boundaries; and mechanism of grain boundary migration.

  11. Effect of Transplanting Times on Rate and Duration of Grain Filling, Final Grain Weight and Grain Yield of Rice Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Vahdati-Rad

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the effects of temperature and radiation on rate and duration of grain filling and final grain weight in rice cultivars, a split plot experiment based on randomized complete block design with three replications was conducted at different transplanting times at the research field of University of Guilan, Rasht, Iran in 2013. Factors were: transplanting dates in main plots (5 May, 20 May and 5 June and rice cultivars (Hashemi, Ali Kazemi, Sangejo, Khazar, Dorfak and Gouhar in sub plots. The greatest grain weight (31.9 mg was obtained in Gouhar at 20 May and the smallest grain weight (20.4 mg was observed in Sangejo at 5 June transplanting dates. The longest effective filling period (32.9 days was achieved in Gouhar at 5 May transplanting date and the shortest grain filling duration (13.9 days was obtained in Hashemi. The greatest grain filling rate (1.62 mg day-1 was obtained in the Hashemi and the smallest rate (0.92 mg day-1 was observed in Gouhar. Significant correlations were observed between cumulative temperature and radiation with final grain weight (R = 0.689. There were significant and positive correlations between the cumulative temperature and irradiance with grain filling duration, in contrary to negative correlations with grain filling rate and grain filling period. The results of this experiment showed that the grain filling duration plays a greater role, than grain filling rate, in determination of the grain weight. It could be concluded that an early transplanting (5 May brings about favorable temperature and radiation conditions for an appropriate grain filling period and a greater final grain weight.

  12. Small grains and IRAS colors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulanger, F.; Beichman, C.; Helou, G.; Desert, F. X.; Perault, M.

    1988-01-01

    The paper studies how infrared colors of dust emission from the interstellar medium vary with the energy density of the radiation field on the basis of IRAS observation of the California Nebula. The data suggest that color variations result from a combinatin of equilibrium emission from large grains, and nonequilibrium emission from small grains, with destruction of the small grains emitting at 12 microns at high energy density; it is estimated that 80 percent of these small particles are destroyed for an energy density in ultraviolet photons larger than 50 times that of the average interstellar radiation field in the solar neighborhood. In a color-color diagram, I(v)(60 microns)/I(v)(100 microns) versus I(v)(12 microns)/I(v)(25 microns), the California Nebula measurements at various distances to the ionizing star Zeta Per follow a sequence similar to that of galaxies. This result shows that the position of a galaxy along this sequence is a measure of the intensity of the radiation field in the regions responsible for the infrared emission.

  13. Grain Boundary Energies in Copper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Ramli

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. Requires signed TDF. The dependence of grain boundary energy on boundary orientation was studied in copper annealed at 1000 ^circC. Grain boundary orientations and the disorientations across the boundaries were measured. A rotation matrix notation is used to interpret selected area electron channelling patterns observed in a scanning electron microscope. The Herring and Shewmon torque terms were investigated using wire specimens having a "bamboo" structure. The Herring torque terms were determined using the Hess relation. The (110) section of the Sigma 11 gamma-plot (i.e. the variation of grain boundary energy with boundary orientation) was evaluated. In this plot, minima in energies were found at the (311) and (332) mirror planes. Sigma 3 and Sigma9 boundaries were investigated in sheet specimens. The (110) and (111) sections of the Sigma3 gamma -plot were evaluated. In addition to the sharp cusps occurring at the Sigma3 {111} planes, the further shallower cusps occur at the incoherent Sigma 3 boundaries with the interfacial planes approximately parallel to {322} in one crystal and {11.44} in the other crystal. Flat and curved Sigma9 boundaries were investigated. The break up of Sigma9 boundaries into two Sigma3 boundaries and the relation between the Sigma3 and Sigma 9 gamma-plots was also examined. The (110) section of the Sigma9 gamma-plot was constructed.

  14. CHROMOSOMAL ABNORMALITIES IN PATIENTS WITH RECURRENT MISCARRIAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Mierla

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Chromosomal abnormalities are involved in the etiology of recurrent spontaneous pregnancy loss and sub-fertility. The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency and contribution of chromosomal abnormalities in recurrent miscarriages. The results obtained and literature review are helpful in understanding the importance of cytogenetics analysis of female infertility. To investigate the distribution of chromosomal abnormalities in the Romanian population with recurrent miscarriage, karyotype analysis by G-banding was performed from peripheral blood in 967 women infertility. Results: Chromosomal abnormalities were found to 79 women (8,17%. The percentage of chromosomal abnormalities in the studied population correlates with the data in the literature. Chromosomal abnormalities could play the important role in etiology of infertility and are more frequently detected in this group of patients compared to general population. In the infertile couples balanced chromosomal abnormalities are the main cause of spontaneous abortions.

  15. Red grain mycetoma foot in Western Rajasthan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathur D

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Usually the colour of the grains seen in cases of mycetoma are either black or yellow. Recently there were reports that unusual red grains had been noticed in cases of mycetoma. A case of red grain mycetoma is reported.

  16. Structure and chemistry of the sorghum grain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorghum is grown around the world and often under harsh and variable environmental conditions. Combined with the high degree of genetic diversity present in sorghum, this can result in substantial variability in grain composition and grain quality. While similar to other cereal grains such as maize ...

  17. Bioactive compounds in whole grain wheat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mateo Anson, N.

    2010-01-01

    Bread can be healthier! Consuming whole-grain foods can prevent cardiovascular diseases, type-2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome. This is due to bioactive compounds in whole grain, such as antioxidants and anti-inflammatory compounds. We found that the different fractions of a wheat grain vary much

  18. Determination of grain boundary geometry using TEM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jang, H.; Farkas, D.; Hosson, J.T.M. De

    An experimental method to obtain the grain boundary geometry using the transmission electron microscope is presented. The method allows Σ determination including grain boundary plane orientation. In order to determine the specialness of the grain boundary, three different criteria for maximum

  19. SEM Characterization of Extinguished Grains from Plasma-Ignited M30 Charges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinkennon, A.; Birk, A.; DelGuercio, M.; Kaste, P.; Lieb, R.; Newberry, J.; Pesce-Rodriguez, R.; Schroeder, M.

    2000-01-01

    M30 propellant grains that had been ignited in interrupted closed bomb experiments were characterize by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Previous chemical analysis of extinguished grains had given no indications of plasma-propellant chemical interactions that could explain the increased burning rates that had been previously observed in full-pressure closed bomb experiments. (This does not mean that there is no unique chemistry occurring with plasma ignition. It may occur very early in the ignition event and then become obscured by the burning chemistry.) In this work, SEM was used to look at grain morphologies to determine if there were increases in the surface areas of the plasma-ignited grains which would contribute to the apparent increase in the burning rate. Charges were made using 30 propellant grains (approximately 32 grams) stacked in two tiers and in two concentric circles around a plastic straw. Each grain was notched so that, when the grains were expelled from the bomb during extinguishment, it could be determined in which tier and which circle each grain was originally packed. Charges were ignited in a closed bomb by either a nickel wire/Mylar-capillary plasma or black powder. The bomb contained a blowout disk that ruptured when the pressure reached 35 MPa, and the propellant was vented into a collection chamber packed with polyurethane foam. SEM analysis of the grains fired with a conventional black powder igniter showed no signs of unusual burning characteristics. The surfaces seemed to be evenly burned on the exteriors of the grains and in the perforations. Grains that had been subjected to plasma ignition, however, had pits, gouges, chasms, and cracks in the surfaces. The sides of the grains closest to the plasma had the greatest amount of damage, but even surfaces facing the outer wall of the bomb had small pits. The perforations contained gouges and abnormally burned regions (wormholes) that extended into the web. The SEM photos indicated that

  20. Effects of cow's and goat's milk as fermentation media on the microbial ecology of sugary kefir grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Hsin-Hui; Wang, Sheng-Yao; Chen, Tzu-Li; Huang, Yen-Lin; Chen, Ming-Ju

    2012-06-15

    In the present study, we have investigated the importance of fermentation media on grain formation and the microbial characteristics of sugary kefir. The sugary kefir grains were fermented in brown sugar, cow's milk or goat's milk. Using culture-dependent and culture-independent methods, we identified the microorganisms present in both the grains and filtrate and then evaluated their distribution. The structure of the grains was also observed by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM). The identification results indicated that there were remarkable changes in microbial ecological profiles of the sugary kefir grains and their filtrates when brown sugar and milk were compared as fermentation media. Three lactic acid bacteria (LAB) species (Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Lactobacillus mali and Lactobacillus hordei) were found in the grains fermented using brown sugar. However, four species, named Leu. mesenteroides, Lactococcus lactis, Bifidobacterium psychraerophilum and Enterococcus faecalis, were identified in the grains fermented using either cow's or goat's milk. The size and structure of the kefir grains were also significantly influenced by the culture medium. We hypothesize that the grains originally may contain many different microorganisms and the identified changes are an adaption to each specific medium during grain formation and growth. The distribution of strains thus may vary depending on the carbon and energy sources available for grain fermentation and these microbial changes will further affect the granulation and growth of the grains. This study is important to our understanding of the mechanism of kefir grain formation and growth because it explores the relationship between fermentation media and kefir microorganisms. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Grain-size sorting and slope failure in experimental subaqueous grain flows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleinhans, M.G.; Asch, Th.W.J. van

    2005-01-01

    Grain-size sorting in subaqueous grain flows of a continuous range of grain sizes is studied experimentally with three mixtures. The observed pattern is a combination of stratification and gradual segregation. The stratification is caused by kinematic sieving in the grain flow. The segregation is

  2. New approaches in luminescence dating using single grains of small and large sizes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, N.; Shinde, D. P.; Anand, S.; Mayya, Y. S.; Singhvi, A. K.

    2009-04-01

    Luminescence dating of sediments relies on the estimation of the dose absorbed by a constituent mineral grain (quartz and/or feldspar) from the natural radiation field arising from the decay of natural radioactivity viz. U, Th and K. A minor contribution is provided by the cosmic rays. Improvements in measurement technology have enabled the measurements of single grains. Using Monte Carlo simulations we explore here the implications of two realms of single grains, one where the size of grains is larger or comparable to the beta ranges (centimeter to sub centimeter scale) and the other when the size is much smaller (micrometer to sub millimeter scale), In the case of large grain sizes, we suggest that the beta dose to the grains get attenuated with depth such that the interior of the grains receives only a fraction of total dose, mostly due to the gamma rays. This fraction is typically ~30% of the total dose. Under the same irradiation condition, such a truncated dose rate implies a delayed onset of saturation in the growth of luminescence signal with radiation does. This implies an increased dating range. Based on a detailed calculation of the dose-depth profiles, we present a conceptual frame work for a three to four fold increase in the age range achievable by conventional dating protocols using 100-200 m grains. This is based on removal of the beta skin of a large grain akin to the removal of the alpha skin in the case of small grains. Experiments on the optical transparency of large grains suggested a finite light transmission through 7 mm thick slices of quartz. This ensures that despite the size the geological luminescence of the grains will get photobleached, providing a way for their application in dating. Given that the beta dose attenuation is dependent on the grain size, it is reasonable to expect that the total absorbed dose is also grain size dependent. This implies the prospects of development of an isochronal methods, where the absorbed doses are

  3. Ferroelectric domain continuity over grain boundaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mantri, Sukriti; Oddershede, Jette; Damjanovic, Dragan

    2017-01-01

    Formation and mobility of domain walls in ferroelectric materials is responsible for many of their electrical and mechanical properties. Domain wall continuity across grain boundaries has been observed since the 1950's and is speculated to affect the grain boundary-domain interactions, thereby...... orientation. We have also incorporated the effect of grain boundary ferroelectric polarization charge created when any two domains meet at the grain boundary plane. The probability of domain wall continuity for three specific grain misorientations is studied. Use of this knowledge to optimize processing...

  4. Grain storage at farm and warehouses level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neacşu, A. N.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Grain storage is very important because the quality of flour obtained from grain will be found in the finished products’ quality. Grains must be stored in well established conditions regarding temperature, humidity, airflow, trying to avoid the risk of being attacked by rodents and insects. If these conditions are not complied with, some qualitative deficits of the grains - such as mould at pH, infestation, fermentation etc. - may appear. The storage methods are those responsible for maintaining a good quality of the grains.

  5. Evolution of grain structure and recombination active dislocations in extraordinary tall conventional and high performance multi-crystalline silicon ingots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trempa, M.; Kupka, I.; Kranert, C.; Lehmann, T.; Reimann, C.; Friedrich, J.

    2017-02-01

    In this work one high performance multi-crystalline silicon ingot and one conventional multi-crystalline silicon ingot, each with an extraordinary ingot height of 710 mm, were replicated by the successive growth of eight G1 ingots to evaluate the potential advantage of extraordinary tall HPM ingots in industrial production. By analyzing different grain structure parameters like mean grain size, grain orientation and grain boundary type distribution as well as the recombination active dislocation area over the complete ingot height, it was observed that the material properties strongly differ in the initial state of growth for the two material types. However, at ingot heights above 350 mm, the difference has vanished and the grain structure properties for both materials appear similar. It is shown that the evolution of the grain structure in both material types can be explained by the same grain selection and grain boundary generation/annihilation mechanisms whereas the current grain structure determines which mechanisms are the most dominant at a specific ingot height. Since the grain structure directly influences the dislocation content in the silicon material, also the recombination active dislocation area becomes equal in high performance and conventional multi-crystalline silicon material at ingot heights above 350 mm. From these results it is concluded that the advantage of high performance silicon material is limited to the first grown 350 mm of the ingot.

  6. Cropping pattern adjustment in China's grain production and its impact on land and water use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Tian-xiang; Zhu, Jing; Balezentis, Tomas

    2016-01-01

    played an important role in promoting China's grain production, with a contribution of over 15 per cent during 2003-2012. Moreover, such changes enabled to save about 6.8 million hectares of sown areas and 31.06 billion m3 of water in grain production (if compared to the case without cropping pattern......This paper aims at decomposing China's grain output changes into three terms, namely area sown effect, pure yield effect, and cropping pattern adjustment effect. Furthermore, the paper analyses the impact of shifts in cropping pattern on water and land use in China's grain production. An index...... adjustments). However, these effects vary across regions: Southeast China experienced land-saving and water-using changes, while other regions underwent land- and water-saving changes. In general, China's grain output growth has increased the total amount of land and water needed, implying more severe...

  7. Bovine rumen epithelium undergoes rapid structural adaptations during grain-induced subacute ruminal acidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Michael A; Croom, Jim; Kahler, Melissa; AlZahal, Ousama; Hook, Sarah E; Plaizier, Kees; McBride, Brian W

    2011-06-01

    Alterations in rumen epithelial structure and function during grain-induced subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) are largely undescribed. In this study, four mature nonlactating dairy cattle were transitioned from a high-forage diet (HF; 0% grain) to a high-grain diet (HG; 65% grain). After feeding the HG diet for 3 wk, the cattle were transitioned back to the original HF diet, which was fed for an additional 3 wk. Continuous ruminal pH was measured on a weekly basis, and rumen papillae were biopsied during the baseline and at the first and final week of each diet. The mean, minimum, and maximum daily ruminal pH were depressed (P rumen epithelium is compromised during grain feeding and is associated with the differential expression of genes involved in epithelial growth and structure.

  8. High Temperature During Rice Grain Filling Enhances Aspartate Metabolism in Grains and Results in Accumulation of Aspartate-Family Amino Acids and Protein Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-gang LIANG

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Global warming causes the exacerbation of rice growing environment, which seriously affects rice growth and reproduction, and finally results in the decrease of rice yield and quality. We investigated the activities of aspartate metabolism enzymes in grains, and the contents of Aspartate-family amino acids and protein components to further understand the effects of high temperature (HT on rice nutritional quality during rice grain filling. Under HT, the average activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AAT and aspartokinase (AK in grains significantly increased, the amino acid contents of aspartate (Asp, lysine (Lys, threonine (Thr, methionine (Met and isoleucine (Ile and the protein contents of albumin, globulin, prolamin and glutelin also significantly increased. The results indicated that HT enhanced Asp metabolism during rice grain filling and the enhancement of Asp metabolism might play an important role in the increase of Asp-family amino acids and protein components in grains. In case of the partial appraisal of the change of Asp-family amino acids and protein components under HT, we introduced eight indicators (amino acid or protein content, ratio of amino acid or protein, amino acid or protein content per grain and amino acid or protein content per panicle to estimate the effects of HT. It is suggested that HT during rice grain filling was benefit for the accumulation of Asp-family amino acids and protein components. Combined with the improvement of Asp-family amino acid ratio in grains under HT, it is suggested that HT during grain filling may improve the rice nutritional quality. However, the yields of parts of Asp-family amino acids and protein components were decreased under HT during rice grain filling.

  9. Barnett relaxation in non-symmetric grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolasi, Erald; Weingartner, Joseph C.

    2017-10-01

    Barnett relaxation, first described by Purcell in 1979, appears to play a major role in the alignment of grains with the interstellar magnetic field. In 1999, Lazarian and Draine proposed that Barnett relaxation and its relative, nuclear relaxation, can induce grains to flip. If this thermal flipping is rapid then the dynamical effect of torques that are fixed relative to the grain body can be greatly reduced. To date, detailed studies of Barnett relaxation have been confined to grains exhibiting dynamic symmetry. In 2009, Weingartner argued that internal relaxation cannot induce flips in any grains, whether they exhibit dynamic symmetry or not. In this work, we develop approximate expressions for the dissipation rate and diffusion coefficient for Barnett relaxation. We revisit the issue of internally induced thermal flipping, finding that it cannot occur for grains with dynamic symmetry, but does occur for grains lacking dynamic symmetry.

  10. Whole grains and health: from theory to practice--highlights of The Grains for Health Foundation's Whole Grains Summit 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeown, Nicola M; Jacques, Paul F; Seal, Chris J; de Vries, Jan; Jonnalagadda, Satya S; Clemens, Roger; Webb, Densie; Murphy, Lee Anne; van Klinken, Jan-Willem; Topping, David; Murray, Robyn; Degeneffe, Dennis; Marquart, Leonard F

    2013-05-01

    The Grains for Health Foundation's Whole Grains Summit, held May 19-22, 2012 in Minneapolis, was the first meeting of its kind to convene >300 scientists, educators, food technologists, grain breeders, food manufacturers, marketers, health professionals, and regulators from around the world. Its goals were to identify potential avenues for collaborative efforts and formulate new approaches to whole-grains research and health communications that support global public health and business. This paper summarizes some of the challenges and opportunities that researchers and nutrition educators face in expanding the knowledge base on whole grains and health and in translating and disseminating that knowledge to consumers. The consensus of the summit was that effective, long-term, public-private partnerships are needed to reach across the globe and galvanize the whole-grains community to collaborate effectively in translating whole-grains science into strategies that increase the availability and affordability of more healthful, grain-based food products. A prerequisite of that is the need to build trust among diverse multidisciplinary professionals involved in the growing, producing, marketing, and regulating of whole-grain products and between the grain and public health communities.

  11. Imaging the grain boundaries in polycrystalline MoS2 monolayer by non-invasive second harmonic generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jinxin; Jiang, Tao; Ji, Qingqing; Zhang, Yanfeng; Gong, Xingao; Liu, Wei-Tao; Wu, Shiwei

    2015-03-01

    Atomically thin transition metal dichalcogenide monolayers have showed intriguing physical properties for high performance quantum electronics. In order to utilize them in technological applications at industrial scale, mass production of this two dimensional materials via chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is demanded and urged. Despite the success of growing large-scale monolayer, limited grain size and emergence of grain boundary remain as the major hurdle being single crystalline sheets. To resolve this issue, it is necessary to image the grain and grain boundary, and further understand their formation with statistical significance. Here we used second harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy, a noninvasive coherent imaging technique, to image the grain and grain boundary in CVD grown monolayer molybdenum disulfide. The destructive interference between neighboring grains enabled us to pinpoint the location of grain boundary; the anisotropic polarization pattern permitted us to determine the type of grain boundary. Furthermore, this high-throughput characterization technique allows statistical analysis of hundreds of grain and grain boundary, unambiguously revealing that the CVD growth mechanism of monolayer MoS2.

  12. 77 FR 76452 - Grain Inspection Advisory Committee Reestablishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-28

    ... Doc No: 2012-31281] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards Administration Grain Inspection Advisory Committee Reestablishment AGENCY: Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards... of Agriculture has reestablished the Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards Administration (GIPSA...

  13. Chromosomal abnormalities in child psychiatric patients.

    OpenAIRE

    Hong, K. E.; Kim, J. H.; Moon, S. Y.; Oh, S. K.

    1999-01-01

    To determine the frequency of chromosomal abnormalities in a child psychiatric population, and to evaluate possible associations between types of abnormalities and patient's clinical characteristics, cytogenetic examination was performed on 604 patients. Demographic data, reasons for karyotyping, clinical signs, and other patient characteristics were assessed and correlated with the results from karyotyping. Chromosomal abnormalities were found in 69 patients (11.3%); these were structural in...

  14. sorghum grain as substiti.j'ie for maize in fattening diets for beef steers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    grain as energy sources and sunflou'er oil cake or urea as protein supplement. ln the growth study diets in which muze was replaced by ..... MORGAN, P.J.K. ,1915. Better utilization of grain supplements by sheep.Ph. D. thesis, Univ. N.S.W., Sydney,. Australia. NEWLAND, H.W., REED, D.L., CAHILL, V.R. & PRESTON, R.L., ...

  15. [Cognitive abnormalities and cannabis use].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solowij, Nadia; Pesa, Nicole

    2010-05-01

    Evidence that cannabis use impairs cognitive function in humans has been accumulating in recent decades. The purpose of this overview is to update knowledge in this area with new findings from the most recent literature. Literature searches were conducted using the Web of Science database up to February 2010. The terms searched were: "cannabi*" or "marijuana", and "cogniti*" or "memory" or "attention" or "executive function", and human studies were reviewed preferentially over the animal literature. Cannabis use impairs memory, attention, inhibitory control, executive functions and decision making, both during the period of acute intoxication and beyond, persisting for hours, days, weeks or more after the last use of cannabis. Pharmacological challenge studies in humans are elucidating the nature and neural substrates of cognitive changes associated with various cannabinoids. Long-term or heavy cannabis use appears to result in longer-lasting cognitive abnormalities and possibly structural brain alterations. Greater adverse cognitive effects are associated with cannabis use commencing in early adolescence. The endogenous cannabinoid system is involved in regulatory neural mechanisms that modulate processes underlying a range of cognitive functions that are impaired by cannabis. Deficits in human users most likely therefore reflect neuroadaptations and altered functioning of the endogenous cannabinoid system.

  16. Red cell membrane transport abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Lesley J

    2008-05-01

    The present review describes the red cell transport abnormalities of proteins of the band 3 macrocomplex. The macrocomplex is involved in red cell gas exchange and recent findings have furthered our understanding of this process. Study of a novel band 3 hereditary spherocytosis variant suggests that expression of mutant band 3 protein can be rescued by wild-type band 3. Other studies show that some mutant band 3 protein can mediate a cation conductance. Recent work suggests both Rh-associated glycoprotein and aquaporin act as gas channels confirming the integrated function of the macrocomplex and the importance of its role in red cell gas transport. The most recent studies on band 3-induced hereditary spherocytosis are reviewed and an explanation for the mild phenotype of heterozygous hereditary spherocytosis is discussed. A number of red cell conditions (hereditary stomatocytosis