Sample records for abnormal functional specialization

  1. Abnormal Functional Specialization within Medial Prefrontal Cortex in High-Functioning Autism: A Multi-Voxel Similarity Analysis

    Gilbert, Sam J.; Meuwese, Julia D. I.; Towgood, Karren J.; Frith, Christopher D.; Burgess, Paul W.


    Multi-voxel pattern analyses have proved successful in "decoding" mental states from fMRI data, but have not been used to examine brain differences associated with atypical populations. We investigated a group of 16 (14 males) high-functioning participants with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and 16 non-autistic control participants (12 males)…

  2. Effects of special brain area regional cerebral blood flow abnormal perfusion on learning and memory function and its molecular mechanism in rats


    s To study the effect of special brain area regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) abnormal perfusion on learning and memory function and its molecular mechanism,64 adult male healthy Spragne-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into two groups,the false operation group (control group) and the operation group (model group).After surgical operation,the operation group undertook bilateral common carotid artery permanent ligation,while the other group did not.Learning and memory function were measured by Y-maze at 4 h,8 h,24 h and 3 d after surgical operation,respectively.The rCBF of the right frontal lobe and hippocampus was also detected by the PerifluxPF model laser Doppler flowmetry,and the expressions of c-fos or c-jun or Bcl-2 and Bax were also measured by immune histochemistry S-P method accordingly.Results showed that the rCBF of the right frontal lobe and hippocampus in the operation group was significantly lower than that in the false operation group (P < 0.05).The learning indexes,error number (EN),day of reach standard and total reaction time (TRT) in the operation group,were significantly higher than that in the false operation group (P< 0.05).However,the initiative evasion rate in the operation group was significantly lower than that in the false operation group.The study also found that the rCBF was relatively more,the indexes (EN,the day of reach standard and TRT) relatively fewer,but the initiative evasion rate and the memory keeping rate were relatively more.The positive expression and the average absorbency of Fos and Jun in the operation group were significantly higher than that in the false operation group (P< 0.05).Furthermore,Bax and Bcl-2 positive cells were all increased over time in the operation group,and the expression ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 in the operation group was significantly higher than that in the false operation group (P<0.01).In conclusion,rCBF decrease can impair the learning and memory function in rats,which may be related to

  3. Functional neuroimaging abnormalities in idiopathic generalized epilepsy

    Megan L. McGill


    Full Text Available Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI techniques have been used to quantitatively assess focal and network abnormalities. Idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE is characterized by bilateral synchronous spike–wave discharges on electroencephalography (EEG but normal clinical MRI. Dysfunctions involving the neocortex, particularly the prefrontal cortex, and thalamus likely contribute to seizure activity. To identify possible morphometric and functional differences in the brains of IGE patients and normal controls, we employed measures of thalamic volumes, cortical thickness, gray–white blurring, fractional anisotropy (FA measures from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI and fractional amplitude of low frequency fluctuations (fALFF in thalamic subregions from resting state functional MRI. Data from 27 patients with IGE and 27 age- and sex-matched controls showed similar thalamic volumes, cortical thickness and gray–white contrast. There were no differences in FA values on DTI in tracts connecting the thalamus and prefrontal cortex. Functional analysis revealed decreased fALFF in the prefrontal cortex (PFC subregion of the thalamus in patients with IGE. We provide minimum detectable effect sizes for each measure used in the study. Our analysis indicates that fMRI-based methods are more sensitive than quantitative structural techniques for characterizing brain abnormalities in IGE.

  4. Sluggish cognitive tempo in abnormal child psychology: an historical overview and introduction to the special section.

    Becker, Stephen P; Marshall, Stephen A; McBurnett, Keith


    There has recently been a resurgence of interest in Sluggish Cognitive Tempo (SCT) as an important construct in the field of abnormal child psychology. Characterized by drowsiness, daydreaming, lethargy, mental confusion, and slowed thinking/behavior, SCT has primarily been studied as a feature of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), and namely the predominately inattentive subtype/presentation. Although SCT is strongly associated with ADHD inattention, research increasingly supports the possibility that SCT is distinct from ADHD or perhaps a different mental health condition altogether, with unique relations to child and adolescent psychosocial adjustment. This introductory article to the Special Section on SCT provides an historical overview of the SCT construct and briefly describes the contributions of the eight empirical papers included in the Special Section. Given the emerging importance of SCT for abnormal psychology and clinical science, there is a clear need for additional studies that examine (1) the measurement, structure, and multidimensional nature of SCT, (2) SCT as statistically distinct from not only ADHD-inattention but also other psychopathologies (particularly depression and anxiety), (3) genetic and environmental contributions to the development of SCT symptoms, and (4) functional impairments associated with SCT. This Special Section brings together papers to advance the current knowledge related to these issues as well as to spur research in this exciting and expanding area of abnormal psychology.

  5. Executive function abnormalities in pathological gamblers

    Mungai Francesco


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pathological gambling (PG is an impulse control disorder characterized by persistent and maladaptive gambling behaviors with disruptive consequences for familial, occupational and social functions. The pathophysiology of PG is still unclear, but it is hypothesized that it might include environmental factors coupled with a genetic vulnerability and dysfunctions of different neurotransmitters and selected brain areas. Our study aimed to evaluate a group of patients suffering from PG by means of some neuropsychological tests in order to explore the brain areas related to the disorder. Methods Twenty outpatients (15 men, 5 women, with a diagnosis of PG according to DSM-IV criteria, were included in the study and evaluated with a battery of neuropsychological tests: the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST, the Wechsler Memory Scale revised (WMS-R and the Verbal Associative Fluency Test (FAS. The results obtained in the patients were compared with normative values of matched healthy control subjects. Results The PG patients showed alterations at the WCST only, in particular they had a great difficulty in finding alternative methods of problem-solving and showed a decrease, rather than an increase, in efficiency, as they progressed through the consecutive phases of the test. The mean scores of the other tests were within the normal range. Conclusion Our findings showed that patients affected by PG, in spite of normal intellectual, linguistic and visual-spatial abilities, had abnormalities emerging from the WCST, in particular they could not learn from their mistakes and look for alternative solutions. Our results would seem to confirm an altered functioning of the prefrontal areas which might provoke a sort of cognitive "rigidity" that might predispose to the development of impulsive and/or compulsive behaviors, such as those typical of PG.

  6. An introduction to special functions

    Viola, Carlo


    The subjects treated in this book have been especially chosen to represent a bridge connecting the content of a first course on the elementary theory of analytic functions with a rigorous treatment of some of the most important special functions: the Euler gamma function, the Gauss hypergeometric function, and the Kummer confluent hypergeometric function. Such special functions are indispensable tools in "higher calculus" and are frequently encountered in almost all branches of pure and applied mathematics. The only knowledge assumed on the part of the reader is an understanding of basic concepts to the level of an elementary course covering the residue theorem, Cauchy's integral formula, the Taylor and Laurent series expansions, poles and essential singularities, branch points, etc. The book addresses the needs of advanced undergraduate and graduate students in mathematics or physics.

  7. Special Functions for Applied Scientists

    Mathai, A M


    Special Functions for Applied Scientists provides the required mathematical tools for researchers active in the physical sciences. The book presents a full suit of elementary functions for scholars at the PhD level and covers a wide-array of topics and begins by introducing elementary classical special functions. From there, differential equations and some applications into statistical distribution theory are examined. The fractional calculus chapter covers fractional integrals and fractional derivatives as well as their applications to reaction-diffusion problems in physics, input-output analysis, Mittag-Leffler stochastic processes and related topics. The authors then cover q-hypergeometric functions, Ramanujan's work and Lie groups. The latter half of this volume presents applications into stochastic processes, random variables, Mittag-Leffler processes, density estimation, order statistics, and problems in astrophysics. Professor Dr. A.M. Mathai is Emeritus Professor of Mathematics and Statistics, McGill ...

  8. Abnormal parietal function in conversion paresis.

    Marije van Beilen

    Full Text Available The etiology of medically unexplained symptoms such as conversion disorder is poorly understood. This is partly because the interpretation of neuroimaging results in conversion paresis has been complicated by the use of different control groups, tasks and statistical comparisons. The present study includes these different aspects in a single data set. In our study we included both normal controls and feigners to control for conversion paresis. We studied both movement execution and imagery, and we contrasted both within-group and between-group activation. Moreover, to reveal hemisphere-specific effects that have not been reported before, we performed these analyses using both flipped and unflipped data. This approach resulted in the identification of abnormal parietal activation which was specific for conversion paresis patients. Patients also showed reduced activity in the prefrontal cortex, supramarginal gyrus and precuneus, including hemisphere-specific activation that is lateralized in the same hemisphere, regardless of right- or left-sided paresis. We propose that these regions are candidates for an interface between psychological mechanisms and disturbed higher-order motor control. Our study presents an integrative neurophysiological view of the mechanisms that contribute to the etiology of this puzzling psychological disorder, which can be further investigated with other types of conversion symptoms.

  9. Lung function abnormalities in children with type I diabetes

    van Gent, R; Brackel, HJL; de Vroede, M; van der Ent, CK


    Recent developments in intrabronchial administration of insulin raise lung function in patients with type I diabetes as important issue. Several studies in adults report abnormalities of lung function of these patients, The aim of this study was to investigate lung function in children with type I d

  10. [The general practitioner and abnormal liver function tests].

    Hallez, R


    In case of abnormal liver function tests, it's necessary to distinguish different situations, starting from this first data. We will successively consider: the high and moderate acute increases of aminotransferase, the chronic increases of aminotransferase, the isolated cholestase picture and the isolated increases of gamma GT or of bilirubine. We will finish with a partial survey about drug-induced liver diseases.

  11. Special functions for scientists and engineers

    Bell, W W


    Clear and comprehensive, this text provides undergraduates with a straightforward guide to special functions. It is equally suitable as a reference volume for professionals, and readers need no higher level of mathematical knowledge beyond elementary calculus. Topics include the solution of second-order differential equations in terms of power series; gamma and beta functions; Legendre polynomials and functions; Bessel functions; Hermite, Laguerre, and Chebyshev polynomials; Gegenbauer and Jacobi polynomials; and hypergeometric and other special functions. Three appendices offer convenient t

  12. Abnormal brain functional connectivity of the hypothalamus in cluster headaches.

    Enchao Qiu

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to detect the abnormality of the brain functional connectivity of the hypothalamus during acute spontaneous cluster headache (CH attacks ('in attack' and headache-free intervals ('out of attack' using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (RS-fMRI technique. The RS-fMRI data from twelve male CH patients during 'in attack' and 'out of attack' periods and twelve age- and sex-matched normal controls were analyzed by the region-of-interest -based functional connectivity method using SPM5 software. Abnormal brain functional connectivity of the hypothalamus is present in CH, which is located mainly in the pain system during the spontaneous CH attacks. It extends beyond the pain system during CH attack intervals.

  13. Connectivity and functional profiling of abnormal brain structures in pedophilia.

    Poeppl, Timm B; Eickhoff, Simon B; Fox, Peter T; Laird, Angela R; Rupprecht, Rainer; Langguth, Berthold; Bzdok, Danilo


    Despite its 0.5-1% lifetime prevalence in men and its general societal relevance, neuroimaging investigations in pedophilia are scarce. Preliminary findings indicate abnormal brain structure and function. However, no study has yet linked structural alterations in pedophiles to both connectional and functional properties of the aberrant hotspots. The relationship between morphological alterations and brain function in pedophilia as well as their contribution to its psychopathology thus remain unclear. First, we assessed bimodal connectivity of structurally altered candidate regions using meta-analytic connectivity modeling (MACM) and resting-state correlations employing openly accessible data. We compared the ensuing connectivity maps to the activation likelihood estimation (ALE) maps of a recent quantitative meta-analysis of brain activity during processing of sexual stimuli. Second, we functionally characterized the structurally altered regions employing meta-data of a large-scale neuroimaging database. Candidate regions were functionally connected to key areas for processing of sexual stimuli. Moreover, we found that the functional role of structurally altered brain regions in pedophilia relates to nonsexual emotional as well as neurocognitive and executive functions, previously reported to be impaired in pedophiles. Our results suggest that structural brain alterations affect neural networks for sexual processing by way of disrupted functional connectivity, which may entail abnormal sexual arousal patterns. The findings moreover indicate that structural alterations account for common affective and neurocognitive impairments in pedophilia. The present multimodal integration of brain structure and function analyses links sexual and nonsexual psychopathology in pedophilia.

  14. Connectivity and functional profiling of abnormal brain structures in pedophilia

    Poeppl, Timm B.; Eickhoff, Simon B.; Fox, Peter T.; Laird, Angela R.; Rupprecht, Rainer; Langguth, Berthold; Bzdok, Danilo


    Despite its 0.5–1% lifetime prevalence in men and its general societal relevance, neuroimaging investigations in pedophilia are scarce. Preliminary findings indicate abnormal brain structure and function. However, no study has yet linked structural alterations in pedophiles to both connectional and functional properties of the aberrant hotspots. The relationship between morphological alterations and brain function in pedophilia as well as their contribution to its psychopathology thus remain unclear. First, we assessed bimodal connectivity of structurally altered candidate regions using meta-analytic connectivity modeling (MACM) and resting-state correlations employing openly accessible data. We compared the ensuing connectivity maps to the activation likelihood estimation (ALE) maps of a recent quantitative meta-analysis of brain activity during processing of sexual stimuli. Second, we functionally characterized the structurally altered regions employing meta-data of a large-scale neuroimaging database. Candidate regions were functionally connected to key areas for processing of sexual stimuli. Moreover, we found that the functional role of structurally altered brain regions in pedophilia relates to nonsexual emotional as well as neurocognitive and executive functions, previously reported to be impaired in pedophiles. Our results suggest that structural brain alterations affect neural networks for sexual processing by way of disrupted functional connectivity, which may entail abnormal sexual arousal patterns. The findings moreover indicate that structural alterations account for common affective and neurocognitive impairments in pedophilia. The present multi-modal integration of brain structure and function analyses links sexual and nonsexual psychopathology in pedophilia. PMID:25733379

  15. Basic Methods for Computing Special Functions

    Gil, Amparo; Segura, Javier; Temme, Nico; Simos, T. E.


    This paper gives an overview of methods for the numerical evaluation of special functions, that is, the functions that arise in many problems from mathematical physics, engineering, probability theory, and other applied sciences. We consider in detail a selection of basic methods which are frequently used in the numerical evaluation of special functions: converging and asymptotic series, including Chebyshev expansions, linear recurrence relations, and numerical quadrature. Several other metho...

  16. Special functions in Fuzzy Analysis

    Angel Garrido


    Full Text Available In the treatment of Fuzzy Logic an useful tool appears: the membership function, with the information about the degree of completion of a condition which defines the respective Fuzzy Set or Fuzzy Relation. With their introduction, it is possible to prove some results on the foundations of Fuzzy Logic and open new ways in Fuzzy Analysis.

  17. Latent and Abnormal Functional Connectivity Circuits in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Chen, Shuo; Xing, Yishi; Kang, Jian


    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is associated with disrupted brain networks. Neuroimaging techniques provide noninvasive methods of investigating abnormal connectivity patterns in ASD. In the present study, we compare functional connectivity networks in people with ASD with those in typical controls, using neuroimaging data from the Autism Brain Imaging Data Exchange (ABIDE) project. Specifically, we focus on the characteristics of intrinsic functional connectivity based on data collected by resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI). Our aim was to identify disrupted brain connectivity patterns across all networks, instead of in individual edges, by using advanced statistical methods. Unlike many brain connectome studies, in which networks are prespecified before the edge connectivity in each network is compared between clinical groups, we detected the latent differentially expressed networks automatically. Our network-level analysis identified abnormal connectome networks that (i) included a high proportion of edges that were differentially expressed between people with ASD and typical controls; and (ii) showed highly-organized graph topology. These findings provide new insight into the study of the underlying neuropsychiatric mechanism of ASD.

  18. Basic Methods for Computing Special Functions

    Gil, A.; Segura, J.; Temme, N.M.; Simos, T.E.


    This paper gives an overview of methods for the numerical evaluation of special functions, that is, the functions that arise in many problems from mathematical physics, engineering, probability theory, and other applied sciences. We consider in detail a selection of basic methods which are frequent

  19. Unitary symmetry, combinatorics, and special functions

    Louck, J.D.


    From 1967 to 1994, Larry Biedenham and I collaborated on 35 papers on various aspects of the general unitary group, especially its unitary irreducible representations and Wigner-Clebsch-Gordan coefficients. In our studies to unveil comprehensible structures in this subject, we discovered several nice results in special functions and combinatorics. The more important of these will be presented and their present status reviewed.

  20. 28 CFR 0.41 - Special functions.


    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special functions. 0.41 Section 0.41 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ORGANIZATION OF THE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Antitrust Division... Treasury or his delegates under the Federal Alcohol Administration Act, in courts of appeals...

  1. A Survey on the Special Function "Shin"

    Ossicini, Andrea


    The purpose of the work is to furnish a complete study of a discrete and special function, discovered by the author and named with the Arabian letter "SHIN" {The letter SHIN is the thirteenth letter of the Arabian alphabet}. It includes three other papers, published in the International journal "Kragujevac Journal of Mathematics". The methods, the techniques and the style of the demonstration inside such a work, are all related to Leonhard Euler, the very great Swiss mathematician.

  2. Biochemical and functional abnormalities in hypercholesterolemic rabbit platelets

    Dalal, K.B.; Ebbe, S.; Mazoyer, E.; Carpenter, D.; Yee, T. (Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, CA (USA))


    This study was designed to elucidate changes in rabbit platelet lipids induced by a cholesterol rich diet and to explore the possible correlation of these lipid changes with platelet abnormalities. Pronounced biochemical alterations were observed when serum cholesterol levels of 700-1000 mg% were reached. Hypercholesterolemic (HC) platelets contained 37% more neutral lipids and 16% less phospholipids than the controls. Lysolecithin, cholesterol esters and phosphatidylinositol (PI) levels were increased in HC platelets, and the levels of phosphatidylcholine (PC) were decreased. The cholesterol/phospholipid molar ratio of lipidemic platelets increased from 0.55 +/- 0.011 to 0.89 +/- 0.016 (P less than 0.01) in eight weeks. HC platelets had 90% more arachidonic acid (AA) in the PI than normal platelets. No significant changes in AA of PC were observed. Platelet function was monitored by the uptake and release of (14C)serotonin in platelet rich plasma (PRP), using varying concentrations of collagen as an aggregating agent. The uptake of (14C)serotonin in HC and normal platelets ranged from 78-94%. The percent of (14C)serotonin released from normal and HC platelets was proportional to the concentration of collagen. However, lipidemic platelets were hyperreactive to low concentrations of collagen. Incorporation of 50 microM acetylsalicylic acid into the aggregating medium suppressed the release of (14C)serotonin in normal PRP by more than 90%, but had only a partial effect on lipidemic PRP.

  3. Abnormal regional brain function in Parkinson's disease: truth or fiction?

    Ma, Yilong; Tang, Chengke; Moeller, James R; Eidelberg, David


    Normalization of regional measurements by the global mean is commonly employed to minimize inter-subject variability in functional imaging studies. This practice is based on the assumption that global values do not substantially differ between patient and control groups. In this issue of NeuroImage, Borghammer and colleagues challenge the validity of this assumption. They focus on Parkinson's disease (PD) and use computer simulations to show that lower global values can produce spurious increases in subcortical brain regions. The authors speculate that the increased signal observed in these areas in PD is artefactual and unrelated to localized changes in brain function. In this commentary, we summarize what is currently known of the relationship between regional and global metabolic activity in PD and experimental parkinsonism. We found that early stage PD patients exhibit global values that are virtually identical to those of age-matched healthy subjects. SPM analysis revealed increased normalized metabolic activity in a discrete set of biologically relevant subcortical brain regions. Because of their higher variability, the corresponding absolute regional measures did not differ across the two groups. Longitudinal imaging studies in this population showed that the subcortical elevations in normalized metabolism appeared earlier and progressed faster than did focal cortical or global metabolic reductions. The observed increases in subcortical activity, but not the global changes, correlated with independent clinical measures of disease progression. Multivariate analysis with SSM/PCA further confirmed that the abnormal spatial covariance structure of early PD is dominated by these subcortical increases as opposed to network-related reductions in cortical metabolic activity or global changes. Thus, increased subcortical activity in PD cannot be regarded as a simple artefact of global normalization. Moreover, stability of the normalized measurements, particularly at

  4. Morphological and functional platelet abnormalities in Berkeley sickle cell mice.

    Shet, Arun S; Hoffmann, Thomas J; Jirouskova, Marketa; Janczak, Christin A; Stevens, Jacqueline R M; Adamson, Adewole; Mohandas, Narla; Manci, Elizabeth A; Cynober, Therese; Coller, Barry S


    Berkeley sickle cell mice are used as animal models of human sickle cell disease but there are no reports of platelet studies in this model. Since humans with sickle cell disease have platelet abnormalities, we studied platelet morphology and function in Berkeley mice (SS). We observed elevated mean platelet forward angle light scatter (FSC) values (an indirect measure of platelet volume) in SS compared to wild type (WT) (37+/-3.2 vs. 27+/-1.4, mean+/-SD; p<0.001), in association with moderate thrombocytopenia (505+/-49 x 10(3)/microl vs. 1151+/-162 x 10(3)/microl; p<0.001). Despite having marked splenomegaly, SS mice had elevated levels of Howell-Jolly bodies and "pocked" erythrocytes (p<0.001 for both) suggesting splenic dysfunction. SS mice also had elevated numbers of thiazole orange positive platelets (5+/-1% vs. 1+/-1%; p<0.001), normal to low plasma thrombopoietin levels, normal plasma glycocalicin levels, normal levels of platelet recovery, and near normal platelet life spans. Platelets from SS mice bound more fibrinogen and antibody to P-selectin following activation with a threshold concentration of a protease activated receptor (PAR)-4 peptide compared to WT mice. Enlarged platelets are associated with a predisposition to arterial thrombosis in humans and some humans with SCD have been reported to have large platelets. Thus, additional studies are needed to assess whether large platelets contribute either to pulmonary hypertension or the large vessel arterial occlusion that produces stroke in some children with sickle cell disease.

  5. The Therapeutic Function of the Instructor in Abnormal Psychology.

    Halgin, Richard P.


    Describes three main types of therapeutic problems which college instructors of abnormal psychology courses may encounter with their students. Students may seek the instructor's assistance in helping a relative or acquaintance or for self-help. Often a student may not seek help but may display pathological behavior. (AM)

  6. Abnormal spontaneous regional brain activity in primary insomnia: a resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging study

    Li, Chao; Ma, Xiaofen; Dong, Mengshi; Yin, Yi; Hua, Kelei; Li, Meng; Li, Changhong; Zhan, Wenfeng; Li, Cheng; Jiang, Guihua


    Objective Investigating functional specialization is crucial for a complete understanding of the neural mechanisms of primary insomnia (PI). Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a useful tool to explore the functional specialization of PI. However, only a few studies have focused on the functional specialization of PI using resting-state fMRI and results of these studies were far from consistent. Thus, the current study aimed to investigate functional specialization of PI using resting-state fMRI with amplitude of low frequency fluctuations (ALFFs) algorithm. Methods In this study, 55 PI patients and 44 healthy controls were included. ALFF values were compared between the two groups using two-sample t-test. The relationship of abnormal ALFF values with clinical characteristics and duration of insomnia was investigated using Pearson’s correlation analysis. Results PI patients showed lower ALFF values in the left orbitofrontal cortex/inferior frontal gyrus, right middle frontal gyrus, left inferior parietal lobule, and bilateral cerebellum posterior lobes, while higher ALFF values in the right middle/inferior temporal that extended to the right occipital lobe. In addition, we found that the duration of PI negatively correlated with ALFF values in the left orbitofrontal cortex/inferior frontal gyrus, and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index score negatively correlated with ALFF values in the left inferior parietal lobule. Conclusion The present study added information to limited studies on functional specialization and provided evidence for hyperarousal hypothesis in PI. PMID:27366068

  7. Filaggrin genotype in ichthyosis vulgaris predicts abnormalities in epidermal structure and function.

    Gruber, Robert; Elias, Peter M; Crumrine, Debra; Lin, Tzu-Kai; Brandner, Johanna M; Hachem, Jean-Pierre; Presland, Richard B; Fleckman, Philip; Janecke, Andreas R; Sandilands, Aileen; McLean, W H Irwin; Fritsch, Peter O; Mildner, Michael; Tschachler, Erwin; Schmuth, Matthias


    Although it is widely accepted that filaggrin (FLG) deficiency contributes to an abnormal barrier function in ichthyosis vulgaris and atopic dermatitis, the pathomechanism of how FLG deficiency provokes a barrier abnormality in humans is unknown. We report here that the presence of FLG mutations in Caucasians predicts dose-dependent alterations in epidermal permeability barrier function. Although FLG is an intracellular protein, the barrier abnormality occurred solely via a paracellular route in affected stratum corneum. Abnormal barrier function correlated with alterations in keratin filament organization (perinuclear retraction), impaired loading of lamellar body contents, followed by nonuniform extracellular distribution of secreted organelle contents, and abnormalities in lamellar bilayer architecture. In addition, we observed reductions in corneodesmosome density and tight junction protein expression. Thus, FLG deficiency provokes alterations in keratinocyte architecture that influence epidermal functions localizing to the extracellular matrix. These results clarify how FLG mutations impair epidermal permeability barrier function.

  8. Large-Scale Functional Brain Network Abnormalities in Alzheimer’s Disease: Insights from Functional Neuroimaging

    Bradford C. Dickerson


    Full Text Available Functional MRI (fMRI studies of mild cognitive impairment (MCI and Alzheimer’s disease (AD have begun to reveal abnormalities in large-scale memory and cognitive brain networks. Since the medial temporal lobe (MTL memory system is a site of very early pathology in AD, a number of studies have focused on this region of the brain. Yet it is clear that other regions of the large-scale episodic memory network are affected early in the disease as well, and fMRI has begun to illuminate functional abnormalities in frontal, temporal, and parietal cortices as well in MCI and AD. Besides predictable hypoactivation of brain regions as they accrue pathology and undergo atrophy, there are also areas of hyperactivation in brain memory and cognitive circuits, possibly representing attempted compensatory activity. Recent fMRI data in MCI and AD are beginning to reveal relationships between abnormalities of functional activity in the MTL memory system and in functionally connected brain regions, such as the precuneus. Additional work with “resting state” fMRI data is illuminating functional-anatomic brain circuits and their disruption by disease. As this work continues to mature, it will likely contribute to our understanding of fundamental memory processes in the human brain and how these are perturbed in memory disorders. We hope these insights will translate into the incorporation of measures of task-related brain function into diagnostic assessment or therapeutic monitoring, which will hopefully one day be useful for demonstrating beneficial effects of treatments being tested in clinical trials.

  9. Algebrability, non-linear properties, and special functions

    Bartoszewicz, Artur; Pellegrino, Daniel; Seoane-Sepúlveda, Juan B


    We construct uncountably generated algebras inside the following sets of special functions: Sierpi\\'nski-Zygmund functions, perfectly everywhere surjective functions and nowhere continuous Darboux functions. All conclusions obtained in this paper are improvements of some already known results.

  10. Abnormal Basal Ganglia Functional Connectivity in Idiopathic Generalized Epilepsy

    Cheng Luo; Yang Xia; Zhi-Wei Guo; Dong Zhou


    The basal ganglia have been implicated in a modulation role in idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE) by an invasive electrophysioigic means.This paper investigates the basal ganglia functional connectivity by using the region-wise functional connection analysis in resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRi) in IGE.The increased functional connectivity within basal ganglia,and between the basal ganglia and the thalamus,and decreased functional connectivity between basal ganglia and motor cortex are found in IGE compared with the controls. These findings not only implicate dysfunctional integration in the motor loop in IGE and the enhanced interaction in the modulated loop,but also suggest that the basal ganglia modulate the generalized epileptic discharges with the influence over thalamus in the corticothalamus network.

  11. Abnormal Liver Function Tests in an Anorexia Nervosa Patient and an Atypical Manifestation of Refeeding Syndrome.

    Vootla, Vamshidhar R; Daniel, Myrta


    Refeeding syndrome is defined as electrolyte and fluid abnormalities that occur in significantly malnourished patients when they are refed orally, enterally, or parenterally. The principal manifestations include hypophosphatemia, hypokalemia, vitamin deficiencies, volume overload and edema. This can affect multiple organ systems, such as the cardiovascular, pulmonary, or neurological systems, secondary to the above-mentioned abnormalities. Rarely, patients may develop gastrointestinal symptoms and show abnormal liver function test results. We report the case of a 52-year-old woman with anorexia nervosa who developed refeeding syndrome and simultaneous elevations of liver function test results, which normalized upon the resolution of the refeeding syndrome.

  12. Abnormal Liver Function Tests in an Anorexia Nervosa Patient and an Atypical Manifestation of Refeeding Syndrome

    Vamshidhar R. Vootla


    Full Text Available Refeeding syndrome is defined as electrolyte and fluid abnormalities that occur in significantly malnourished patients when they are refed orally, enterally, or parenterally. The principal manifestations include hypophosphatemia, hypokalemia, vitamin deficiencies, volume overload and edema. This can affect multiple organ systems, such as the cardiovascular, pulmonary, or neurological systems, secondary to the above-mentioned abnormalities. Rarely, patients may develop gastrointestinal symptoms and show abnormal liver function test results. We report the case of a 52-year-old woman with anorexia nervosa who developed refeeding syndrome and simultaneous elevations of liver function test results, which normalized upon the resolution of the refeeding syndrome.

  13. The Stomatognathic Function Analysis of Skeletal Abnormalities and TMJ Disorders


    Recently, stomatognathic function analysis has been recognized as essential to diagnosis and treatment planning, especially in patients with dento-skeletal discrepancies and TMJ disorders. Functional malocclusion should be carefully judged in diagnosis of pre-surgical orthodontic treatment and TMJ disorders. Also, the estimation of the EMG power and jaw movement pathway changes before and after surgery are very effective in estimating the occlusal stability and expectations of post-surgical r...

  14. Multiple resting state network functional connectivity abnormalities in mild traumatic brain injury.

    Stevens, Michael C; Lovejoy, David; Kim, Jinsuh; Oakes, Howard; Kureshi, Inam; Witt, Suzanne T


    Several reports show that traumatic brain injury (TBI) results in abnormalities in the coordinated activation among brain regions. Because most previous studies examined moderate/severe TBI, the extensiveness of functional connectivity abnormalities and their relationship to postconcussive complaints or white matter microstructural damage are unclear in mild TBI. This study characterized widespread injury effects on multiple integrated neural networks typically observed during a task-unconstrained "resting state" in mild TBI patients. Whole brain functional connectivity for twelve separate networks was identified using independent component analysis (ICA) of fMRI data collected from thirty mild TBI patients mostly free of macroscopic intracerebral injury and thirty demographically-matched healthy control participants. Voxelwise group comparisons found abnormal mild TBI functional connectivity in every brain network identified by ICA, including visual processing, motor, limbic, and numerous circuits believed to underlie executive cognition. Abnormalities not only included functional connectivity deficits, but also enhancements possibly reflecting compensatory neural processes. Postconcussive symptom severity was linked to abnormal regional connectivity within nearly every brain network identified, particularly anterior cingulate. A recently developed multivariate technique that identifies links between whole brain profiles of functional and anatomical connectivity identified several novel mild TBI abnormalities, and represents a potentially important new tool in the study of the complex neurobiological sequelae of TBI.

  15. Demonstration of vascular abnormalities compressing esophagus by MDCT: Special focus on dysphagia lusoria

    Alper, Fatih [Department of Radiology, Medical Faculty, Atatuerk University, Erzurum (Turkey)]. E-mail:; Akgun, Metin [Department of Chest Diseases, Medical Faculty, Atatuerk University, Erzurum (Turkey); Kantarci, Mecit [Department of Radiology, Medical Faculty, Atatuerk University, Erzurum (Turkey); Eroglu, Atilla [Department of Thoracic Surgery, Medical Faculty, Atatuerk University, Erzurum (Turkey); Ceyhan, Elvan [Department of Mathematics, College of Arts and Sciences, Koc University, Istanbul (Turkey); Onbas, Omer [Department of Radiology, Medical Faculty, Atatuerk University, Erzurum (Turkey); Duran, Cihan [Department of Radiology, Florence Nightingale Hospital, Istanbul (Turkey); Okur, Adnan [Department of Radiology, Medical Faculty, Atatuerk University, Erzurum (Turkey)


    Purpose: Dysphagia lusoria (DL) is described in the literature as difficulty in swallowing caused by vascular abnormalities. The most common cause is an aberrant right subclavian artery (SCA) which passes behind the esophagus and is also called arteria lusoria (AL). Our aim was to demonstrate the use of multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) in the diagnosis of AL, as there is no comprehensive study investigating the role of MDCT in such cases. Material and methods: A total of 38 consecutive patients, comprising of 23 females (61%) and 15 males (39%), who had extrinsic compression were included in the study. These patients are selected from the cases who were admitted due to their gastrointestinal symptoms, such as dysphagia, epigastric pain, chronic nausea, vomiting, etc. The mean age of patients was 40 {+-} 25 years (range 15-65). Following barium esophagogram and then endoscopy performed, MDCT angiography was carried out on the same or the following few days. MDCT sections were examined to determine the following: presence of vascular abnormality; the diameter and angle of that vascular structure; and the compressed area of esophagus. Radiological findings and dysphagia scores were also compared. Results: In each of 15 cases, there was a compression due to vascular abnormality which were all located between the esophagus and the spine. There was an esophageal compression in each of 12 cases, due to right aberrant SCA, in one case due to right superior aortic arch and in two cases due to both right aortic arch and left SCA with Kommerell's diverticulum. The mean diameter and the angle of AL were 16.4 mm and 48.8{sup o}, respectively, and the mean area of pressured esophagus was 194.7 mm{sup 2}. Dysphagia scores of the cases was 1 in thirteen cases and 2 in two cases. However, dysphagia scores were not correlated with these parameters. Conclusions: MDCT angiography is a useful diagnostic tool for evaluation of patients with dysphagia, especially caused by a

  16. Abnormal red cell structure and function in neuroacanthocytosis.

    Judith C A Cluitmans

    Full Text Available Panthothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration (PKAN belongs to a group of hereditary neurodegenerative disorders known as neuroacanthocytosis (NA. This genetically heterogeneous group of diseases is characterized by degeneration of neurons in the basal ganglia and by the presence of deformed red blood cells with thorny protrusions, acanthocytes, in the circulation.The goal of our study is to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying this aberrant red cell morphology and the corresponding functional consequences. This could shed light on the etiology of the neurodegeneration.We performed a qualitative and semi-quantitative morphological, immunofluorescent, biochemical and functional analysis of the red cells of several patients with PKAN and, for the first time, of the red cells of their family members.We show that the blood of patients with PKAN contains not only variable numbers of acanthocytes, but also a wide range of other misshapen red cells. Immunofluorescent and immunoblot analyses suggest an altered membrane organization, rather than quantitative changes in protein expression. Strikingly, these changes are not limited to the red blood cells of PKAN patients, but are also present in the red cells of heterozygous carriers without neurological problems. Furthermore, changes are not only present in acanthocytes, but also in other red cells, including discocytes. The patients' cells, however, are more fragile, as observed in a spleen-mimicking device.These morphological, molecular and functional characteristics of red cells in patients with PKAN and their family members offer new tools for diagnosis and present a window into the pathophysiology of neuroacanthocytosis.

  17. Alzheimer disease: functional abnormalities in the dorsal visual pathway.

    Bokde, Arun L W


    PURPOSE: To evaluate whether patients with Alzheimer disease (AD) have altered activation compared with age-matched healthy control (HC) subjects during a task that typically recruits the dorsal visual pathway. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was performed in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki, with institutional ethics committee approval, and all subjects provided written informed consent. Two tasks were performed to investigate neural function: face matching and location matching. Twelve patients with mild AD and 14 age-matched HC subjects were included. Brain activation was measured by using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Group statistical analyses were based on a mixed-effects model corrected for multiple comparisons. RESULTS: Task performance was not statistically different between the two groups, and within groups there were no differences in task performance. In the HC group, the visual perception tasks selectively activated the visual pathways. Conversely in the AD group, there was no selective activation during performance of these same tasks. Along the dorsal visual pathway, the AD group recruited additional regions, primarily in the parietal and frontal lobes, for the location-matching task. There were no differences in activation between groups during the face-matching task. CONCLUSION: The increased activation in the AD group may represent a compensatory mechanism for decreased processing effectiveness in early visual areas of patients with AD. The findings support the idea that the dorsal visual pathway is more susceptible to putative AD-related neuropathologic changes than is the ventral visual pathway.

  18. Determination of plutonium temperature using the special trans functions theory

    Perović Slavica M.


    Full Text Available The problem of estimating plutonium temperature by an iterative procedure based on the special trans functions theory has been studied in some detail. In theory, the differential linear plutonium temperature equation can be effectively reduced to a non-linear functional transcendental equation solvable by special trans functions theory. This approach is practically invariant under the starting plutonium temperature value. This is significant, because the said iterative special trans functions theory does not depend on the password data of the plutonium cargo. Obtained numerical results and graphical simulations confirm the applicability of such approach.

  19. Early-stage visual processing abnormalities in high-functioning autism spectrum disorder (ASD).

    Baruth, Joshua M; Casanova, Manuel F; Sears, Lonnie; Sokhadze, Estate


    It has been reported that individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have abnormal responses to the sensory environment. For these individuals sensory overload can impair functioning, raise physiological stress, and adversely affect social interaction. Early-stage (i.e. within 200ms of stimulus onset) auditory processing abnormalities have been widely examined in ASD using event-related potentials (ERP), while ERP studies investigating early-stage visual processing in ASD are less frequent. We wanted to test the hypothesis of early-stage visual processing abnormalities in ASD by investigating ERPs elicited in a visual oddball task using illusory figures. Our results indicate that individuals with ASD have abnormally large cortical responses to task irrelevant stimuli over both parieto-occipital and frontal regions-of-interest (ROI) during early stages of visual processing compared to the control group. Furthermore, ASD patients showed signs of an overall disruption in stimulus discrimination, and had a significantly higher rate of motor response errors.

  20. Special functions group theoretical aspects and applications

    Schempp, Walter; Askey, Richard A


    Approach your problems from It isn't that they can't see the right end and begin with the solution. the answers. Then one day, It is that they can't see the perhaps you will find the problem. final question. G.K. Chesterton. The Scandal 'The Hermit Clad in Crane of Father Brown 'The Point of Feathers' in R. van Gulik's a Pin'. The Chinese Maze Murders. Growing specialization and diversification have brought a host of monographs and textbooks on increasingly specialized topics. However, the "tree" of knowledge of mathematics and related fields does not grow only by putting forth new branches. It also happens, quite often in fact, that branches which were thought to be completely disparate are suddenly seen to be related. Further, the kind and level of sophistication of mathematics applied in various sciences has changed drastically in recent years: measure theory is used (non-trivially) in regional and theoretical economics; algebraic geometry interacts with physics; the Minkowsky lemma, coding theory and the ...

  1. Abnormal Parietal Brain Function in ADHD: Replication and Extension of Previous EEG Beta Asymmetry Findings

    T. Sigi eHale


    Full Text Available Background: Abundant work indicates ADHD abnormal posterior brain structure and function, including abnormal structural and functional asymmetries and reduced corpus callosum size. However, this literature has attracted considerably less research interest than fronto-striatal findings. Objective: To help address this imbalance, the current study replicates and extends our previous work showing abnormal parietal brain function in ADHD adults during the Conner’s continuous performance test (CPT. Method: Our previous study found that ADHD adults had increased rightward EEG beta (16-21 Hz asymmetry in inferior parietal brain regions during the CPT (p=.00001, and that this metric exhibited a lack of normal correlation (i.e., observed in controls with beta asymmetry at temporal-parietal regions. We re-tested these effects in a new ADHD sample, and with both new and old samples combined. We additionally examined: a EEG asymmetry in multiple frequency bands, b unilateral effects for all asymmetry findings, and c the association between EEG asymmetry and a battery of cognitive tests. Results: We replicated our original findings, again demonstrating abnormal rightward inferior parietal beta asymmetry in adults with ADHD during the CPT, and again this metric exhibited abnormal reduced correlation to temporal-parietal beta asymmetry. Novel analyses also demonstrated a broader pattern of rightward beta and theta asymmetry across inferior, superior, and temporal-parietal brain regions, and showed that rightward parietal asymmetry in ADHD was atypically associated with multiple cognitive tests. Conclusion: Abnormal increased rightward parietal EEG beta asymmetry is an important feature of ADHD. We speculate that this phenotype may occur with any form of impaired capacity for top-down task-directed control over sensory encoding functions, and that it may reflect associated increases of attentional shifting and compensatory sustained/selective attention.

  2. Special Relativity via Modified Bessel Functions

    Lavenda, B. H.


    The recursive formulas of modified Bessel functions give the relativistic expressions for energy and momentum. Modified Bessel functions are solutions to a continuous time, one-dimensional discrete jump process. The jump process is analyzed from two inertial frames with a relative constant velocity; the average distance of a particle along the chain corresponds to the distance between two observers in the two inertial frames. The recursion relations of modified Bessel functions are compared to the 'k calculus' which uses the radial Doppler effect to derive relativistic kinematics. The Doppler effect predicts that the frequency is a decreasing function of the velocity, and the Planck frequency, which increases with velocity, does not transform like the frequency of a clock. The Lorentz transformation can be interpreted as energy and momentum conservation relations through the addition formula for hyperbolic cosine and sine, respectively. The addition formula for the hyperbolic tangent gives the well-known relativistic formula for the addition of velocities. In the non-relativistic and ultra-relativistic limits the distributions of the particle's position are Gaussian and Poisson, respectively.

  3. Smoking is related to albuminuria and abnormal renal function in nondiabetic persons

    Pinto-Sietsma, SJ; Mulder, J; Janssen, WMT; Hillege, HL; de Zeeuw, D; de Jong, PE


    Background: smoking induces albuminuria and accelerates progression to renal failure in persons with diabetes, but little is known about the relation between smoking and renal function in nondiabetic persons. Objective: To investigate whether smoking is related to albuminuria and abnormal renal func

  4. Extra-visual functional and structural connection abnormalities in Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy.

    Maria A Rocca

    Full Text Available We assessed abnormalities within the principal brain resting state networks (RSNs in patients with Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON to define whether functional abnormalities in this disease are limited to the visual system or, conversely, tend to be more diffuse. We also defined the structural substrates of fMRI changes using a connectivity-based analysis of diffusion tensor (DT MRI data. Neuro-ophthalmologic assessment, DT MRI and RS fMRI data were acquired from 13 LHON patients and 13 healthy controls. RS fMRI data were analyzed using independent component analysis and SPM5. A DT MRI connectivity-based parcellation analysis was performed using the primary visual and auditory cortices, bilaterally, as seed regions. Compared to controls, LHON patients had a significant increase of RS fluctuations in the primary visual and auditory cortices, bilaterally. They also showed decreased RS fluctuations in the right lateral occipital cortex and right temporal occipital fusiform cortex. Abnormalities of RS fluctuations were correlated significantly with retinal damage and disease duration. The DT MRI connectivity-based parcellation identified a higher number of clusters in the right auditory cortex in LHON vs. controls. Differences of cluster-centroid profiles were found between the two groups for all the four seeds analyzed. For three of these areas, a correspondence was found between abnormalities of functional and structural connectivities. These results suggest that functional and structural abnormalities extend beyond the visual network in LHON patients. Such abnormalities also involve the auditory network, thus corroborating the notion of a cross-modal plasticity between these sensory modalities in patients with severe visual deficits.

  5. Abnormal Functional Lateralization and Activity of Language Brain Areas in Typical Specific Language Impairment (Developmental Dysphasia)

    de Guibert, Clement; Maumet, Camille; Jannin, Pierre; Ferre, Jean-Christophe; Treguier, Catherine; Barillot, Christian; Le Rumeur, Elisabeth; Allaire, Catherine; Biraben, Arnaud


    Atypical functional lateralization and specialization for language have been proposed to account for developmental language disorders, yet results from functional neuroimaging studies are sparse and inconsistent. This functional magnetic resonance imaging study compared children with a specific subtype of specific language impairment affecting…

  6. Safety and Yield of Diagnostic ERCP in Liver Transplant Patients with Abnormal Liver Function Tests

    Jayapal Ramesh


    Full Text Available Background. Abnormal liver enzymes postorthotopic liver transplant (OLT may indicate significant biliary pathology or organ rejection. There is very little known in the literature regarding the current role of diagnostic ERCP in this scenario. Aim. To review the utility of diagnostic ERCP in patients presenting with abnormal liver function tests in the setting of OLT. Methods. A retrospective review of diagnostic ERCPs in patients with OLT from 2002 to 2013 from a prospectively maintained, IRB approved database. Results. Of the 474 ERCPs performed in OLT patients, 210 (44.3%; 95% CI 39.8–48.8 were performed for abnormal liver function tests during the study period. Majority of patients were Caucasian (83.8%, male (62.4% with median age of 55 years (IQR 48–62 years. Biliary cannulation was successful in 99.6% of cases and findings included stricture in 45 (21.4 %; biliary stones/sludge in 23 (11%; biliary dilation alone in 31 (14.8%; and normal in 91 (43.3%. Three (1.4% patients developed mild, self-limiting pancreatitis; one patient (0.5% developed cholangitis and two (1% had postsphincterotomy bleeding. Multivariate analyses showed significant association between dilated ducts on imaging with a therapeutic outcome. Conclusion. Diagnostic ERCP in OLT patients presenting with liver function test abnormalities is safe and frequently therapeutic.

  7. Abnormal spontaneous regional brain activity in primary insomnia: a resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging study

    Li C


    Full Text Available Chao Li,1 Xiaofen Ma,2 Mengshi Dong,2 Yi Yin,1 Kelei Hua,1 Meng Li,2 Changhong Li,2 Wenfeng Zhan,2 Cheng Li,2,3 Guihua Jiang2 1Department of Medical Imaging, The Affiliated Guangdong No 2 Provincial People’s Hospital of Southern Medical University, The Third Clinical Medical College of Southern Medical University, 2Department of Medical Imaging, 3Department of Renal Transplantation, The Affiliated Guangdong No 2 Provincial People’s Hospital of Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, People’s Republic of China Objective: Investigating functional specialization is crucial for a complete understanding of the neural mechanisms of primary insomnia (PI. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI is a useful tool to explore the functional specialization of PI. However, only a few studies have focused on the functional specialization of PI using resting-state fMRI and results of these studies were far from consistent. Thus, the current study aimed to investigate functional specialization of PI using resting-state fMRI with amplitude of low frequency fluctuations (ALFFs algorithm. Methods: In this study, 55 PI patients and 44 healthy controls were included. ALFF values were compared between the two groups using two-sample t-test. The relationship of abnormal ALFF values with clinical characteristics and duration of insomnia was investigated using Pearson’s correlation analysis. Results: PI patients showed lower ALFF values in the left orbitofrontal cortex/inferior frontal gyrus, right middle frontal gyrus, left inferior parietal lobule, and bilateral cerebellum posterior lobes, while higher ALFF values in the right middle/inferior temporal that extended to the right occipital lobe. In addition, we found that the duration of PI negatively correlated with ALFF values in the left orbitofrontal cortex/inferior frontal gyrus, and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index score negatively correlated with ALFF values in the left

  8. The functionality of canoeists specializing in competitive distance 200 meters.

    Guo Penchen


    Full Text Available The article shows the importance of reactive properties to realize the potential of canoeist of south-east Asia specializing in the 200 meters established on a specialized focus of the training process sprinter. The parameters of functionality of athletes based on integrated aerobic and anaerobic ensure competitive distance of 200 m. They are based on assessing level of aerobic power and capacity of energy supply and properties of the cardiorespiratory system in actively increasing metabolic acidosis.

  9. Results of nocturnal penile tumescence studies are abnormal in sexually functional diabetic men.

    Nofzinger, E A; Reynolds, C F; Jennings, J R; Thase, M E; Frank, E; Yeager, A; Kupfer, D J


    Nocturnal penile tumescence (NPT) studies are commonly used in the assessment of sexual dysfunction in diabetic men. While much of the evidence in favor of its use has come from the observation of markedly abnormal NPT in impotent diabetic men, little research has focused on the quality of nocturnal erections in sexually functional diabetics. Ten diabetic men who reported normal daytime sexual function were studied with 4 nights of polysomnography, including NPT assessment. They had significantly diminished NPT profiles when compared with that of an age-matched, nondiabetic, healthy control group. Without controlling for the effect of diabetes on NPT, between 70% and 90% of sexually functional diabetics had NPT profiles in a range that would be classified as indicative of organic sexual dysfunction for a man presenting for evaluation of sexual dysfunction. The finding of NPT abnormalities in a diabetic man should not be taken as evidence for irreversible sexual dysfunction. Rather, the condition of diabetes appears to result in NPT abnormalities, regardless of the adequacy of daytime sexual function.

  10. On bounds of certain classes of special functions

    C. M. Joshi


    Full Text Available Inequalities of the ratios of Whittaker function, which include in its fold inequalities of a large class of special functions, are obtained. In the sequel inequalities of the ratios of Bessel functions of 2nd kind and inequalities of the ratios $ J_v(x / Y_v(x $ are also derived. Finally, we point out some correction which appear in the paper of Joshi and Bissu (J. Aust. Math. Soc., Ser. A. 50(1991, 333-342.

  11. Prevalence and Determinants of True Thyroid Dysfunction Among Pediatric Referrals for Abnormal Thyroid Function Tests.

    Lahoti, Amit; Klein, Jason; Schumaker, Tiffany; Vuguin, Patricia; Frank, Graeme


    Background/Aims. Abnormalities in thyroid function tests (TFTs) are a common referral reason for pediatric endocrine evaluation. However, a sizable proportion of these laboratory abnormalities do not warrant therapy or endocrine follow-up. The objectives of this study were (a) to evaluate the prevalence of true thyroid dysfunction among pediatric endocrinology referrals for abnormal TFTs; (b) to identify the historical, clinical, and laboratory characteristics that predict decision to treat. Methods. This was a retrospective chart review of patients evaluated in pediatric endocrinology office during a weekly clinic designated for new referrals for abnormal TFTs in 2010. Results. A total of 230 patients were included in the study. Median age at referral was 12 years (range = 2-18); 56% were females. Routine screening was cited as the reason for performing TFTs by 33% patients. Majority was evaluated for hypothyroidism (n = 206). Elevated thyroid-stimulating hormone was the most common referral reason (n = 140). A total of 41 out of 206 patients were treated for hypothyroidism. Conclusions. Prevalence of hypothyroidism was 20%. Thyroid follow-up was not recommended for nearly one third of the patients. Among all the factors analyzed, an elevated thyroid-stimulating hormone level and antithyroglobulin antibodies strongly correlated with the decision to treat (P < .005).

  12. Abnormal functional brain asymmetry in depression: evidence of biologic commonality between major depression and dysthymia.

    Bruder, Gerard E; Stewart, Jonathan W; Hellerstein, David; Alvarenga, Jorge E; Alschuler, Daniel; McGrath, Patrick J


    Prior studies have found abnormalities of functional brain asymmetry in patients having a major depressive disorder (MDD). This study aimed to replicate findings of reduced right hemisphere advantage for perceiving dichotic complex tones in depressed patients, and to determine whether patients having "pure" dysthymia show the same abnormality of perceptual asymmetry as MDD. It also examined gender differences in lateralization, and the extent to which abnormalities of perceptual asymmetry in depressed patients are dependent on gender. Unmedicated patients having either a MDD (n=96) or "pure" dysthymic disorder (n=42) and healthy controls (n=114) were tested on dichotic fused-words and complex-tone tests. Patient and control groups differed in right hemisphere advantage for complex tones, but not left hemisphere advantage for words. Reduced right hemisphere advantage for tones was equally present in MDD and dysthymia, but was more evident among depressed men than depressed women. Also, healthy men had greater hemispheric asymmetry than healthy women for both words and tones, whereas this gender difference was not seen for depressed patients. Dysthymia and MDD share a common abnormality of hemispheric asymmetry for dichotic listening.

  13. Abnormal mitochondrial function impairs calcium influx in diabetic mouse pancreatic beta cells

    LI Fei; D. Marshall Porterfield; ZHENG Xi-yan; WANG Wen-jun; XU Yue; ZHANG Zong-ming


    Background Abnormal insulin secretion of pancreatic beta cells is now regarded as the more primary defect than the insulin function in the etiology of type 2 diabetes.Previous studies found impaired mitochondrial function and impaired Ca2+ influx in beta cells in diabetic patients and animal models,suggesting a role for these processes in proper insulin secretion.The aim of this study was to investigate the detailed relationship of mitochondrial function,Ca2+ influx,and defective insulin secretion.Methods We investigated mitochondrial function and morphology in pancreatic beta cell of diabetic KK-Ay mice and C57BL/6J mice.Two types of Ca2+ channel activities,L-type and store-operated Ca2+ (SOC),were evaluated using whole-cell patch-clamp recording.The glucose induced Ca2+ influx was measured by a non-invasive micro-test technique (NMT).Results Mitochondria in KK-Ay mice pancreatic beta cells were swollen with disordered cristae,and mitochondrial function decreased compared with C57BL/6J mice.Ca2+ channel activity was increased and glucose induced Ca2+ influx was impaired,but could be recovered by genipin.Conclusion Defective mitochondrial function in diabetic mice pancreatic beta cells is a key cause of abnormal insulin secretion by altering Ca2+ influx,but not via Ca2+ channel activity.

  14. Abnormalities in personal space and parietal–frontal function in schizophrenia

    Daphne J. Holt


    Full Text Available Schizophrenia is associated with subtle abnormalities in day-to-day social behaviors, including a tendency in some patients to “keep their distance” from others in physical space. The neural basis of this abnormality, and related changes in social functioning, is unknown. Here we examined, in schizophrenic patients and healthy control subjects, the functioning of a parietal–frontal network involved in monitoring the space immediately surrounding the body (“personal space”. Using fMRI, we found that one region of this network, the dorsal intraparietal sulcus (DIPS, was hyper-responsive in schizophrenic patients to face stimuli appearing to move towards the subjects, intruding into personal space. This hyper-responsivity was predicted both by the size of personal space (which was abnormally elevated in the schizophrenia group and the severity of negative symptoms. In contrast, in a second study, the activity of two lower-level visual areas that send information to DIPS (the fusiform face area and middle temporal area was normal in schizophrenia. Together, these findings suggest that changes in parietal–frontal networks that support the sensory-guided initiation of behavior, including actions occurring in the space surrounding the body, contribute to social dysfunction and negative symptoms in schizophrenia.

  15. A new kind of special function and its application

    范洪义; 万志龙; 吴泽; 张鹏飞


    By virtue of the operator Hermite polynomial method and the technique of integration within the ordered product of operators we derive a new kind of special function, which is closely related to one-and two-variable Hermite polynomials. Its application in deriving the normalization for some quantum optical states is presented.

  16. Addition formulae for Abelian functions associated with specialized curves.

    Eilbeck, J C; Matsutani, S; Onishi, Y


    We discuss a family of multi-term addition formulae for Weierstrass functions on specialized curves of low genus with many automorphisms, concentrating mostly on the case of genus 1 and 2. In the genus 1 case, we give addition formulae for the equianharmonic and lemniscate cases, and in genus 2 we find some new addition formulae for a number of curves.

  17. Functional specialization of the male insula during taste perception

    Dalenberg, Jelle R.; Hoogeveen, Heleen R.; Renken, Remco J.; Langers, Dave R. M.; ter Horst, Gert J.


    The primary gustatory area is located in the insular cortex. Although the insular cortex has been the topic of multiple parcellation studies, its functional specialization regarding taste processing received relatively little attention. Studies investigating the brain response to taste suggested tha

  18. Special Uniformity of Zeta Functions I. Geometric Aspect

    Weng, Lin


    The special uniformity of zeta functions claims that pure non-abelian zeta functions coincide with group zeta functions associated to the special linear groups. Naturally associated are three aspects, namely, the analytic, arithmetic, and geometric aspects. In the first paper of this series, we expose intrinsic geometric structures of our zetas by counting semi-stable bundles on curves defined over finite fields in terms of their automorphism groups and global sections. We show that such a counting maybe read from Artin zetas which are abelian in nature. This paper also contains an appendix written by H. Yoshida, one of the driving forces for us to seek group zetas. In this appendix, Yoshida introduces a new zeta as a function field analogue of the group zeta for SL2 for number fields and establishes the Riemann Hypothesis for it.

  19. Abnormal Default-Mode Network Activation in Cirrhotic Patients: A Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study

    Long Jiang Zhang; Guifen Yang; Jianzhong Yin; Yawu Liu; Ji Qi [Dept. of Radiology, Tianjin First Central Hospital, Tianjin Medical Univ., Tianjin (China)


    Background: Recently, increasing numbers of studies have demonstrated that, in humans, a default-mode functional network exists in the resting state. Abnormal default-mode network in various diseases has been reported; however, no report concerning hepatic cirrhosis has been published to date. Purpose: To prospectively explore whether the resting-state network in patients with hepatic cirrhosis is abnormal or not, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Material and Methods: 14 patients with hepatic cirrhosis (12 male, two female; 45{+-}9 years) and 14 age- and gender-matched healthy volunteers (12 male, two female; 42{+-}10 years) participated in a blocked-design fMRI study. A modified Stroop task with Chinese characters was used as the target stimulus. Statistical Parametric Mapping 99 software was employed to process the functional data. Individual maps and group data were generated for patients with hepatic cirrhosis and for healthy controls, respectively. Intergroup analysis between patients and healthy controls was also generated using the two-sample t-test model. Cluster analyses were done based on the group data, and an identical P value 0.01 with continuously connected voxels of no less than 10 was defined as significant deactivation. After fMRI scanning was complete, behavioral Stroop interference tests were performed on all subjects; reaction time and error number were recorded. Results: Functionally, deactivation of the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and precuneus was absent when subjects performed the incongruous word-reading task; deactivation of the PCC, precuneus, and ventral medial prefrontal cortex was increased when they performed the incongruous color-naming task. Conclusion: The functional as well as behavioral data suggest that cirrhotic patients may have an abnormal deactivation mode. The absence of deactivation in the PCC and precuneus may be a sensitive rather than specific marker in patients with hepatic cirrhosis.

  20. Pulmonary function, cholinergic bronchomotor tone, and cardiac autonomic abnormalities in type 2 diabetic patients

    Melo E.


    Full Text Available This prospective study analyzed the involvement of the autonomic nervous system in pulmonary and cardiac function by evaluating cardiovascular reflex and its correlation with pulmonary function abnormalities of type 2 diabetic patients. Diabetic patients (N = 17 and healthy subjects (N = 17 were evaluated by 1 pulmonary function tests including spirometry, He-dilution method, N2 washout test, and specific airway conductance (SGaw determined by plethysmography before and after aerosol administration of atropine sulfate, and 2 autonomic cardiovascular activity by the passive tilting test and the magnitude of respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA. Basal heart rate was higher in the diabetic group (87.8 ± 11.2 bpm; mean ± SD than in the control group (72.9 ± 7.8 bpm, P<0.05. The increase of heart rate at 5 s of tilting was 11.8 ± 6.5 bpm in diabetic patients and 17.6 ± 6.2 bpm in the control group (P<0.05. Systemic arterial pressure and RSA analysis did not reveal significant differences between groups. Diabetes intragroup analysis revealed two behaviors: 10 patients with close to normal findings and 7 with significant abnormalities in terms of RSA, with the latter subgroup presenting one or more abnormalities in other tests and clear evidence of cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction. End-expiratory flows were significantly lower in diabetic patients than in the control group (P<0.05. Pulmonary function tests before and after atropine administration demonstrated comparable responses by both groups. Type 2 diabetic patients have cardiac autonomic dysfunction that is not associated with bronchomotor tone alterations, probably reflecting a less severe impairment than that of type 1 diabetes mellitus. Yet, a reduction of end-expiratory flow was detected.

  1. Abnormal functional MRI BOLD contrast in the vegetative state after severe traumatic brain injury.

    Heelmann, Volker; Lippert-Grüner, Marcela; Rommel, Thomas; Wedekind, Christoph


    For the rehabilitation process, the treatment of patients surviving brain injury in a vegetative state is still a serious challenge. The aim of this study was to investigate patients exhibiting severely disturbed consciousness using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Five cases of posttraumatic vegetative state and one with minimal consciousness close to the vegetative state were studied clinically, electrophysiologically, and by means of functional magnetic resonance imaging. Visual, sensory, and acoustic paradigms were used for stimulation. In three patients examined less than 2 months after trauma, a consistent decrease in blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signal ('negative activation') was observed for visual stimulation; one case even showed a decrease in BOLD activation for all three activation paradigms. In the remaining three cases examined more than 6 months after trauma, visual stimulation yielded positive BOLD contrast or no activation. In all cases, sensory stimulation was followed by a decrease in BOLD signal or no activation, whereas auditory stimulation failed to elicit any activation with the exception of one case. Functional magnetic resonance imaging in the vegetative state indicates retained yet abnormal brain function; this abnormality can be attributed to the impairment of cerebral vascular autoregulation or an increase in the energy consumption of activated neocortex in severe traumatic brain injury.

  2. New useful special function in quantum optics theory

    Chen, Feng; Fan, Hong-Yi


    By virtue of the operator Hermite polynomial method [Fan H Y and Zhan D H 2014 Chin. Phys. B 23 060301] we find a new special function which is useful in quantum optics theory, whose expansion involves both power-series and Hermite polynomials, i.e., By virtue of the operator Hermite polynomial method and the technique of integration within ordered product of operators (IWOP) we derive its generating function. The circumstance in which this new special function appears and is applicable is considered. Project supported by the Natural Science Fund of Education Department of Anhui Province, China (Grant No. KJ2016A590), the Talent Foundation of Hefei University, China (Grant No. 15RC11), and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11247009 and 11574295).

  3. Should we look for celiac disease among all patients with liver function test abnormalities?

    Mohammad Hassan Emami


    Full Text Available Background: Celiac disease (CD has been found in up to 10% of the patients presenting with unexplained abnormal liver function tests (LFT. As there is no precise data from our country in this regard, we investigated the prevalence of CD in patients presenting with abnormal LFT. Methods: From 2003 to 2008, we measured IgA anti-tissue transglutaminase (t-TG antibody (with ELISA technique within the first-level screening steps for all patients presenting with abnormal LFT to three outpatient gastroenterology clinics in Isfahan, IRAN. All subjects with an IgA anti-tTG antibody value of >10 μ/ml (seropositive were undergone upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and duodenal biopsy. Histopathological changes were assessed according to the Marsh classification. CD was defined as being seropositive with Marsh I or above in histopathology and having a good response to gluten free diet (GFD. Results: During the study, 224 patients were evaluated, out of which, 10 patients (4.4% were seropositive for CD. Duodenal biopsies were performed in eight patients and revealed six (2.7% cases of Marsh I or above (four Marsh IIIA, two Marsh I, all of them had good response to GFD. The overall prevalence of CD among patients with hypertransaminasemia, autoimmune hepatitis, and cryptogenic cirrhosis was determined as 10.7% (3/28, 3.4% (2/59, and 5.3% (1/19, respectively. Conclusion: Serological screening with IgA anti-tTG antibody test should be routinely performed in patients presenting with abnormal LFT and especially those with chronic liver diseases including hypertransaminasemia, autoimmune hepatitis, and cryptogenic cirrhosis.

  4. Renal function, urinalysis abnormalities and correlates among HIV-infected Cameroonians naive to antiretroviral therapy.

    FolefackKaze, Francois; Kengne, Andre-Pascal; Pefura Yone, Eric Walter; NdamFemben, Nelly Sandra; Ashuntantang, Gloria


    As per guidelines and recommendations, screening for renal diseases should be performed at the time of diagnosis of human immuno-deficiency virus (HIV) infection; however, this remains largely unimplemented in many settings across Sub-Saharan Africa. We evaluated the renal function, urinalysis abnormalities and their correlates in HIV-infected individuals who were naïve to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). This was a cross-sectional study of 2 months' duration involving 104 HIV-infected outpatients naive to HAART (71 women, 68%) attending the HIV clinic of the Yaoundé General Hospital in Cameroon. Renal and urinalysis parameters were measured and the Student t-test and Fischer exact test were used to compare the groups of participants. The mean age and CD4 count were, respectively, 35 ± 10.7 years and 305 ± 202/mL. Fifty-six (54%) patients presented with stages 3 and 4 of HIV infection. Forty-three (41%) patients had urinalysis abnormalities, including proteinuria (36%), leukocyturia (13%) and hematuria (12%). Proteinuria was associated with increased age, advanced stage of HIV infection, decreased CD4 count, hematuria and renal failure (P HIV infection, respectively (P = 0.04). The mean estimated glomerular filtration (eGFR) rate was 100.2 ± 32.7 mL/min; three (3%) patients had renal failure (eGFR patients had reduced kidney function 60 ≤eGFR ≤90 mL/min. There was a high prevalence of decreased kidney function and proteinuria among Cameroonian HIV-infected patients naïve to HAART. Indicators of the severity of HIV infection, including advanced stage and low CD4 count, were associated with urinalysis abnormalities.

  5. Centrins in unicellular organisms: functional diversity and specialization.

    Zhang, Yu; He, Cynthia Y


    Centrins (also known as caltractins) are conserved, EF hand-containing proteins ubiquitously found in eukaryotes. Similar to calmodulins, the calcium-binding EF hands in centrins fold into two structurally similar domains separated by an alpha-helical linker region, shaping like a dumbbell. The small size (15-22 kDa) and domain organization of centrins and their functional diversity/specialization make them an ideal system to study protein structure-function relationship. Here, we review the work on centrins with a focus on their structures and functions characterized in unicellular organisms.

  6. Morphological and functional abnormalities of salience network in the early-stage of paranoid schizophrenia.

    Pu, Weidan; Li, Li; Zhang, Huiran; Ouyang, Xuan; Liu, Haihong; Zhao, Jingping; Li, Lingjiang; Xue, Zhimin; Xu, Ke; Tang, Haibo; Shan, Baoci; Liu, Zhening; Wang, Fei


    A salience network (SN), mainly composed of the anterior insula (AI) and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), has been suggested to play an important role in salience attribution which has been proposed as central to the pathology of paranoid schizophrenia. The role of this SN in the pathophysiology of paranoid schizophrenia, however, still remains unclear. In the present study, voxel-based morphometry and resting-state functional connectivity analyses were combined to identify morphological and functional abnormalities in the proposed SN in the early-stage of paranoid schizophrenia (ESPS). Voxel-based morphometry and resting-state functional connectivity analyses were applied to 90 ESPS patients and 90 age- and sex-matched healthy controls (HC). Correlation analyses were performed to examine the relationships between various clinical variables and both gray matter morphology and functional connectivity within the SN in ESPS. Compared to the HC group, the ESPS group showed significantly reduced gray matter volume (GMV) in both bilateral AI and ACC. Moreover, significantly reduced functional connectivity within the SN sub-networks was identified in the ESPS group. These convergent morphological and functional deficits in SN were significantly associated with hallucinations. Additionally, illness duration correlated with reduced GMV in the left AI in ESPS. In conclusion, these findings provide convergent evidence for the morphological and functional abnormalities of the SN in ESPS. Moreover, the association of illness duration with the reduced GMV in the left AI suggests that the SN and the AI, in particular, may manifest progressive morphological changes that are especially important in the emergence of ESPS.

  7. Abnormal glucose metabolism in acute myocardial infarction: influence on left ventricular function and prognosis

    Høfsten, Dan E; Løgstrup, Brian B; Møller, Jacob E


    tolerance test before discharge. LV function was assessed using echocardiographic measurements (LV end-diastolic volume, LV end-systolic volume, LV ejection fraction, restrictive diastolic filling pattern, early transmitral flow velocity to early diastolic mitral annular velocity ratio [E/e'], and left...... atrial volume index) and by measuring plasma N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide levels. RESULTS: After adjustment for age and gender, a linear relationship between the degree of abnormal glucose metabolism was observed for each marker of LV dysfunction (p(trend)

  8. An abnormal resting-state functional brain network indicates progression towards Alzheimer’s disease*****

    Jie Xiang; Hao Guo; Rui Cao; Hong Liang; Junjie Chen


    Brain structure and cognitive function change in the temporal lobe, hippocampus, and prefrontal cortex of patients with mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer’s disease, and brain network-connection strength, network efficiency, and nodal attributes are abnormal. However, existing research has only analyzed the differences between these patients and normal controls. In this study, we constructed brain networks using resting-state functional MRI data that was extracted from four populations mal controls, patients with early mild cognitive impairment, patients with late mild cognitive impairment, and patients with Alzheimer’s disease) using the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative data set. The aim was to analyze the characteristics of resting-state functional neural networks, and to observe mild cognitive impairment at different stages before the transformation to Alzheimer’s disease. Results showed that as cognitive deficits increased across the four groups, the shortest path in the rest-ing-state functional network gradual y increased, while clustering coefficients gradual y decreased. This evidence indicates that dementia is associated with a decline of brain network efficiency. In tion, the changes in functional networks revealed the progressive deterioration of network function across brain regions from healthy elderly adults to those with mild cognitive impairment and Alzhei-mer’s disease. The alterations of node attributes in brain regions may reflect the cognitive functions in brain regions, and we speculate that early impairments in memory, hearing, and language function can eventual y lead to diffuse brain injury and other cognitive impairments.

  9. Exercise tolerance, lung function abnormalities, anemia, and cardiothoracic ratio in sickle cell patients.

    van Beers, Eduard J; van der Plas, Mart N; Nur, Erfan; Bogaard, Harm-Jan; van Steenwijk, Reindert P; Biemond, Bart J; Bresser, Paul


    Many patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) have a reduced exercise capacity and abnormal lung function. Cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) can identify causes of exercise limitation. Forty-four consecutive SCD patients (27 HbSS, 11 HbSC, and 6 HbS-beta thalassemia) with a median age (interquartile range) of 26 (21-41) years underwent pulmonary function tests, CPET, chest x-ray, and echocardiography to further characterize exercise limitation in SCD. Peak oxygen uptake (V'O2 -peak), expressing maximum exercise capacity, was decreased in 83% of the studied patients. V'O2 -peak correlated with hemoglobin levels (R = 0.440, P = 0.005), forced vital capacity (FVC) (R = 0.717, P anemia (n = 17), cardiovascular dysfunction (n = 2), musculoskeletal function (n = 10), pulmonary ventilatory abnormalities (n = 1), pulmonary vascular exercise limitation (n = 1), and poor effort (n = 3). In the present study we demonstrate that anemia is the most important determinant of reduced exercise tolerance observed in SCD patients without signs of pulmonary hypertension. We found a strong correlation between various parameters of lung volume and cardiothoracic ratio and we hypothesize that cardiomegaly and relative small chest size may be important causes of the impairment in pulmonary function, that is, reduced long volumes and diffusion capacity, in SCD. Taking into account anthropomorphic differences between SCD patients and controls could help to interpret lung function studies in SCD better.

  10. Calorie Restriction Prevents Metabolic Aging Caused by Abnormal SIRT1 Function in Adipose Tissues.

    Xu, Cheng; Cai, Yu; Fan, Pengcheng; Bai, Bo; Chen, Jie; Deng, Han-Bing; Che, Chi-Ming; Xu, Aimin; Vanhoutte, Paul M; Wang, Yu


    Adipose tissue is a pivotal organ determining longevity, due largely to its role in maintaining whole-body energy homeostasis and insulin sensitivity. SIRT1 is a NAD-dependent protein deacetylase possessing antiaging activities in a wide range of organisms. The current study demonstrates that mice with adipose tissue-selective overexpression of hSIRT1(H363Y), a dominant-negative mutant that disrupts endogenous SIRT1 activity, show accelerated development of metabolic aging. These mice, referred to as Adipo-H363Y, exhibit hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, ectopic lipid deposition, insulin resistance, and glucose intolerance at a much younger age than their wild-type littermates. The metabolic defects of Adipo-H363Y are associated with abnormal epigenetic modifications and chromatin remodeling in their adipose tissues, as a result of excess accumulation of biotin, which inhibits endogenous SIRT1 activity, leading to increased inflammation, cellularity, and collagen deposition. The enzyme acetyl-CoA carboxylase 2 plays an important role in biotin accumulation within adipose tissues of Adipo-H363Y. Calorie restriction prevents biotin accumulation, abolishes abnormal histone biotinylation, and completely restores the metabolic and adipose functions of Adipo-H363Y. The effects are mimicked by short-term restriction of biotin intake, an approach potentially translatable to humans for maintaining the epigenetic and chromatin remodeling capacity of adipose tissues and preventing aging-associated metabolic disorders.

  11. The Role of Helicobacter pylori Seropositivity in Insulin Sensitivity, Beta Cell Function, and Abnormal Glucose Tolerance

    Lou Rose Malamug


    Full Text Available Infection, for example, Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori, has been thought to play a role in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Our aim was to determine the role of H. pylori infection in glucose metabolism in an American cohort. We examined data from 4,136 non-Hispanic white (NHW, non-Hispanic black (NHB, and Mexican Americans (MA aged 18 and over from the NHANES 1999-2000 cohort. We calculated the odds ratios for states of glucose tolerance based on the H. pylori status. We calculated and compared homeostatic model assessment insulin resistance (HOMA-IR and beta cell function (HOMA-B in subjects without diabetes based on the H. pylori status. The results were adjusted for age, body mass index (BMI, poverty index, education, alcohol consumption, tobacco use, and physical activity. The H. pylori status was not a risk factor for abnormal glucose tolerance. After adjustment for age and BMI and also adjustment for all covariates, no difference was found in either HOMA-IR or HOMA-B in all ethnic and gender groups except for a marginally significant difference in HOMA-IR in NHB females. H. pylori infection was not a risk factor for abnormal glucose tolerance, nor plays a major role in insulin resistance or beta cell dysfunction.

  12. Positron Emission Tomography Reveals Abnormal Topological Organization in Functional Brain Network in Diabetic Patients

    Qiu eXiangzhe


    Full Text Available Recent studies have demonstrated alterations in the topological organization of structural brain networks in diabetes mellitus (DM. However, the DM-related changes in the topological properties in functional brain networks are almost unexplored so far. We therefore used fluoro-D-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET data to construct functional brain networks of 73 DM patients and 91 sex- and age-matched normal controls (NCs, followed by a graph theoretical analysis. We found that both DM patients and NCs had a small-world topology in functional brain network. In comparison to the NC group, the DM group was found to have significantly lower small-world index, lower normalized clustering coefficients and higher normalized shortest path length. Moreover, for diabetic patients, the nodal centrality was significantly reduced in the right rectus, the right cuneus, the left middle occipital gyrus, and the left postcentral gyrus, and it was significantly increased in the orbitofrontal region of the left middle frontal gyrus, the left olfactory region, and the right paracentral lobule. Our results demonstrated that the diabetic brain was associated with disrupted topological organization in the functional PET network, thus providing the functional evidence for the abnormalities of brain networks in DM.

  13. Resting-state functional connectivity abnormalities in ifrst-onset unmedicated depression

    Hao Guo; Chen Cheng; Xiaohua Cao; Jie Xiang; Junjie Chen; Kerang Zhang


    Depression is closely linked to the morphology and functional abnormalities of multiple brain regions;however, its topological structure throughout the whole brain remains unclear. We col-lected resting-state functional MRI data from 36 ifrst-onset unmedicated depression patients and 27 healthy controls. The resting-state functional connectivity was constructed using the Auto-mated Anatomical Labeling template with a partial correlation method. The metrics calculation and statistical analysis were performed using complex network theory. The results showed that both depressive patients and healthy controls presented typical small-world attributes. Compared with healthy controls, characteristic path length was signiifcantly shorter in depressive patients, suggesting development toward randomization. Patients with depression showed apparently abnormal node attributes at key areas in cortical-striatal-pallidal-thalamic circuits. In addition, right hippocampus and right thalamus were closely linked with the severity of depression. We se-lected 270 local attributes as the classiifcation features and their P values were regarded as criteria for statistically significant differences. An artificial neural network algorithm was applied for classiifcation research. The results showed that brain network metrics could be used as an effec-tive feature in machine learning research, which brings about a reasonable application prospect for brain network metrics. The present study also highlighted a signiifcant positive correlation between the importance of the attributes and the intergroup differences;that is, the more sig-niifcant the differences in node attributes, the stronger their contribution to the classiifcation. Experimental ifndings indicate that statistical signiifcance is an effective quantitative indicator of the selection of brain network metrics and can assist the clinical diagnosis of depression.

  14. Impaired auditory-vestibular functions and behavioral abnormalities of Slitrk6-deficient mice.

    Yoshifumi Matsumoto

    Full Text Available A recent study revealed that Slitrk6, a transmembrane protein containing a leucine-rich repeat domain, has a critical role in the development of the inner ear neural circuit. However, it is still unknown how the absence of Slitrk6 affects auditory and vestibular functions. In addition, the role of Slitrk6 in regions of the central nervous system, including the dorsal thalamus, has not been addressed. To understand the physiological role of Slitrk6, Slitrk6-knockout (KO mice were subjected to systematic behavioral analyses including auditory and vestibular function tests. Compared to wild-type mice, the auditory brainstem response (ABR of Slitrk6-KO mice indicated a mid-frequency range (8-16 kHz hearing loss and reduction of the first ABR wave. The auditory startle response was also reduced. A vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR test showed decreased vertical (head movement-induced VOR gains and normal horizontal VOR. In an open field test, locomotor activity was reduced; the tendency to be in the center region was increased, but only in the first 5 min of the test, indicating altered adaptive responses to a novel environment. Altered adaptive responses were also found in a hole-board test in which head-dip behavior was increased and advanced. Aside from these abnormalities, no clear abnormalities were noted in the mood, anxiety, learning, spatial memory, or fear memory-related behavioral tests. These results indicate that the Slitrk6-KO mouse can serve as a model of hereditary sensorineural deafness. Furthermore, the altered responses of Slitrk6-KO mice to the novel environment suggest a role of Slitrk6 in some cognitive functions.

  15. Functional Connectivity Abnormalities of Brain Regions with Structural Deficits in Young Adult Male Smokers

    Bu, Limei; Yu, Dahua; Su, Shaoping; Ma, Yao; von Deneen, Karen M.; Luo, Lin; Zhai, Jinquan; Liu, Bo; Cheng, Jiadong; Guan, Yanyan; Li, Yangding; Bi, Yanzhi; Xue, Ting; Lu, Xiaoqi; Yuan, Kai


    Smoking is one of the most prevalent dependence disorders. Previous studies have detected structural and functional deficits in smokers. However, few studies focused on the changes of resting state functional connectivity (RSFC) of the brain regions with structural deficits in young adult smokers. Twenty-six young adult smokers and 26 well-matched healthy non-smokers participated in our study. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and RSFC were employed to investigate the structural and functional changes in young adult smokers. Compared with healthy non-smokers, young smokers showed increased gray matter (GM) volume in the left putamen and decreased GM volume in the left anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Moreover, GM volume in the left ACC has a negative correlation trend with pack-years and GM volume in the left putamen was positively correlated with pack-years. The left ACC and putamen with abnormal volumes were chosen as the regions of interest (ROIs) for the RSFC analysis. We found that smokers showed increased RSFC between the left ACC and right amygdala and between the left putamen and right anterior insula. We revealed structural and functional deficits within the frontostriatal circuits in young smokers, which may shed new insights into the neural mechanisms of smoking.

  16. Functional validation of GWAS gene candidates for abnormal liver function during zebrafish liver development

    Leah Y. Liu


    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS have revealed numerous associations between many phenotypes and gene candidates. Frequently, however, further elucidation of gene function has not been achieved. A recent GWAS identified 69 candidate genes associated with elevated liver enzyme concentrations, which are clinical markers of liver disease. To investigate the role of these genes in liver homeostasis, we narrowed down this list to 12 genes based on zebrafish orthology, zebrafish liver expression and disease correlation. To assess the function of gene candidates during liver development, we assayed hepatic progenitors at 48 hours post fertilization (hpf and hepatocytes at 72 hpf using in situ hybridization following morpholino knockdown in zebrafish embryos. Knockdown of three genes (pnpla3, pklr and mapk10 decreased expression of hepatic progenitor cells, whereas knockdown of eight genes (pnpla3, cpn1, trib1, fads2, slc2a2, pklr, mapk10 and samm50 decreased cell-specific hepatocyte expression. We then induced liver injury in zebrafish embryos using acetaminophen exposure and observed changes in liver toxicity incidence in morphants. Prioritization of GWAS candidates and morpholino knockdown expedites the study of newly identified genes impacting liver development and represents a feasible method for initial assessment of candidate genes to instruct further mechanistic analyses. Our analysis can be extended to GWAS for additional disease-associated phenotypes.

  17. Neurological abnormalities and neurocognitive functions in healthy elder people: A structural equation modeling analysis

    Chan Raymond CK


    Full Text Available Abstract Background/Aims Neurological abnormalities have been reported in normal aging population. However, most of them were limited to extrapyramidal signs and soft signs such as motor coordination and sensory integration have received much less attention. Very little is known about the relationship between neurological soft signs and neurocognitive function in healthy elder people. The current study aimed to examine the underlying relationships between neurological soft signs and neurocognition in a group of healthy elderly. Methods One hundred and eighty healthy elderly participated in the current study. Neurological soft signs were evaluated with the subscales of Cambridge Neurological Inventory. A set of neurocognitive tests was also administered to all the participants. Structural equation modeling was adopted to examine the underlying relationship between neurological soft signs and neurocognition. Results No significant differences were found between the male and female elder people in neurocognitive function performances and neurological soft signs. The model fitted well in the elderly and indicated the moderate associations between neurological soft signs and neurocognition, specifically verbal memory, visual memory and working memory. Conclusions The neurological soft signs are more or less statistically equivalent to capture the similar information done by conventional neurocognitive function tests in the elderly. The implication of these findings may serve as a potential neurological marker for the early detection of pathological aging diseases or related mental status such as mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease.

  18. Abnormal dynamics of cortical resting state functional connectivity in chronic headache patients.

    Wang, Zewei; Yang, Qing; Chen, Li Min


    The goals of this study are to characterize the temporal dynamics of inter-regional connectivity of the brain in chronic headache (CH) patients versus their age/gender matched controls (CONCH, n=28 pairs), and to determine whether dynamic measures reveal additional features to static functional connectivity and correlate with psychometric scores. Cortical thickness and inter-regional resting state fMRI connectivity were quantified and compared between CH and CONCH groups. Six cortical regions of interest (ROI) pairs that exhibited correlated cortical thickness and static functional connectivity abnormalities were selected for temporal dynamic analysis. Two methods were used: temporal sliding-window (SW) and wavelet transformation coherence (WTC). SW analyses using three temporal windows of 30, 60, 120s revealed that all six ROI pairs of CH exhibited higher percentage of strong connectivity (high r values), and smaller fast Fourier transform (FFT) amplitudes at a very low frequency range (i.e., 0.002-0.01Hz), compared to those of CONCH. These features were particularly prevalent in the 120s window analysis. Less variable dynamic fluctuation (i.e., smaller standard deviation of r values) was identified in two out of six ROI pairs in CH. WTC analysis revealed that time-averaged coherence was generally greater in CH than CONCH between wavelet decomposition scales 20 to 55 (0.018-0.05Hz), and was statistically significant in three out of six ROI pairs. Together, the most robust and significant differences in temporal dynamics between CH and CONCH were detected in two ROI pairs: left medial-orbitofrontal-left posterior-cingulate and left medial-orbitofrontal-left inferior-temporal. The high degrees of sleep disturbance (high PSQI score), depression (high HRSD score) and fatigue (low SF-36 score) were associated with high degree of inter-regional temporal coherence in CH. In summary, these dynamic functional connectivity (dFC) measures uncovered a temporal "lock

  19. Functional specializations for music processing in the human newborn brain.

    Perani, Daniela; Saccuman, Maria Cristina; Scifo, Paola; Spada, Danilo; Andreolli, Guido; Rovelli, Rosanna; Baldoli, Cristina; Koelsch, Stefan


    In adults, specific neural systems with right-hemispheric weighting are necessary to process pitch, melody, and harmony as well as structure and meaning emerging from musical sequences. It is not known to what extent the specialization of these systems results from long-term exposure to music or from neurobiological constraints. One way to address this question is to examine how these systems function at birth, when auditory experience is minimal. We used functional MRI to measure brain activity in 1- to 3-day-old newborns while they heard excerpts of Western tonal music and altered versions of the same excerpts. Altered versions either included changes of the tonal key or were permanently dissonant. Music evoked predominantly right-hemispheric activations in primary and higher order auditory cortex. During presentation of the altered excerpts, hemodynamic responses were significantly reduced in the right auditory cortex, and activations emerged in the left inferior frontal cortex and limbic structures. These results demonstrate that the infant brain shows a hemispheric specialization in processing music as early as the first postnatal hours. Results also indicate that the neural architecture underlying music processing in newborns is sensitive to changes in tonal key as well as to differences in consonance and dissonance.

  20. Symbolic Computation, Number Theory, Special Functions, Physics and Combinatorics

    Ismail, Mourad


    These are the proceedings of the conference "Symbolic Computation, Number Theory, Special Functions, Physics and Combinatorics" held at the Department of Mathematics, University of Florida, Gainesville, from November 11 to 13, 1999. The main emphasis of the conference was Com­ puter Algebra (i. e. symbolic computation) and how it related to the fields of Number Theory, Special Functions, Physics and Combinatorics. A subject that is common to all of these fields is q-series. We brought together those who do symbolic computation with q-series and those who need q-series in­ cluding workers in Physics and Combinatorics. The goal of the conference was to inform mathematicians and physicists who use q-series of the latest developments in the field of q-series and especially how symbolic computa­ tion has aided these developments. Over 60 people were invited to participate in the conference. We ended up having 45 participants at the conference, including six one hour plenary speakers and 28 half hour speakers. T...

  1. Special functions of mathematical physics a unified introduction with applications

    Nikiforov, Arnold F


    With students of Physics chiefly in mind, we have collected the material on special functions that is most important in mathematical physics and quan­ tum mechanics. We have not attempted to provide the most extensive collec­ tion possible of information about special functions, but have set ourselves the task of finding an exposition which, based on a unified approach, ensures the possibility of applying the theory in other natural sciences, since it pro­ vides a simple and effective method for the independent solution of problems that arise in practice in physics, engineering and mathematics. For the American edition we have been able to improve a number of proofs; in particular, we have given a new proof of the basic theorem (§3). This is the fundamental theorem of the book; it has now been extended to cover difference equations of hypergeometric type (§§12, 13). Several sections have been simplified and contain new material. We believe that this is the first time that the theory of classical or­ th...

  2. Features of metabolic disorders in the patients with diseases associated with atherosclerosis, on the background of functional bile outflow abnormalities

    I. A. Gorbacheva


    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of evaluation of the pathogenetic relationship between atherosclerosis and functional abnormalities of the bile outflow. The main group included 54 patients with cardiovascular pathology and biliary dyskinesia. The group of comparison consisted of 20 patients with chronic coronary artery disease. The results suggest that the functional bile outflow abnormality is a risk factor of atherosclerosis progression leading to hypercholesterolemia and dyslipidemia, and should be considered in the development of integrated approaches to prevention and treatment of the diseases caused by atherosclerosis.

  3. Production and Use of Special Fertilizer for Rice Glume Abnormality%颖壳不闭合水稻专用肥的生产与应用

    张从军; 胥清君; 张蕾; 王雪; 曹广峰


    The special fertilizer for rice glume abnormality is a biological-organic-inorganic compound fertilizer, coated with humic acid(powder weathered coal), powdered with light calcium carbonate and bone meal, at the same time, sprayed with microorganism solution for adsorption, the integration process of microorganism and granulated fertilizer is completed.Field test has verified that the special fertilizer for rice glume abnormality can reduce significantly the phenomenon of rice glume abnormality, compared with normal compound fertilizer ( 15-15-15 ) , yield of rice is increased by 13.8 %,having remarkable economic and social benefits.%颖壳不闭合水稻专用肥是一种生物有机-无机复合肥料,采用腐殖酸(粉状风化煤)包膜,轻质碳酸钙、骨粉进行扑粉,同时喷淋微生物菌液进行吸附,从而完成微生物与颗粒肥料的复合一体化处理。经大田试验验证,颖壳不闭合水稻专用肥可以大幅降低水稻的颖壳不闭合现象,与普通复合肥(15-15-15)相比,水稻可增产13.8%,具有显著的经济和社会效益。

  4. Abnormalities of resting state functional connectivity are related to sustained attention deficits in MS.

    Marisa Loitfelder

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Resting state (RS functional MRI recently identified default network abnormalities related to cognitive impairment in MS. fMRI can also be used to map functional connectivity (FC while the brain is at rest and not adhered to a specific task. Given the importance of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC for higher executive functioning in MS, we here used the ACC as seed-point to test for differences and similarities in RS-FC related to sustained attention between MS patients and controls. DESIGN: Block-design rest phases of 3 Tesla fMRI data were analyzed to assess RS-FC in 31 patients (10 clinically isolated syndromes, 16 relapsing-remitting, 5 secondary progressive MS and 31 age- and gender matched healthy controls (HC. Participants underwent extensive cognitive testing. OBSERVATIONS: In both groups, signal changes in several brain areas demonstrated significant correlation with RS-activity in the ACC. These comprised the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC, insular cortices, the right caudate, right middle temporal gyrus, angular gyri, the right hippocampus, and the cerebellum. Compared to HC, patients showed increased FC between the ACC and the left angular gyrus, left PCC, and right postcentral gyrus. Better cognitive performance in the patients was associated with increased FC to the cerebellum, middle temporal gyrus, occipital pole, and the angular gyrus. CONCLUSION: We provide evidence for adaptive changes in RS-FC in MS patients compared to HC in a sustained attention network. These results extend and partly mirror findings of task-related fMRI, suggesting FC may increase our understanding of cognitive dysfunction in MS.

  5. Increased risk of abnormal proximal renal tubular function with HIV infection and antiretroviral therapy.

    Dauchy, Frédéric-Antoine; Lawson-Ayayi, Sylvie; de La Faille, Renaud; Bonnet, Fabrice; Rigothier, Claire; Mehsen, Nadia; Miremont-Salamé, Ghada; Cazanave, Charles; Greib, Carine; Dabis, Francois; Dupon, Michel


    Abnormal kidney function is common in the course of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Here, we performed a cross-sectional analysis using 399 patients within the Aquitaine cohort (a hospital-based cohort of HIV-1-infected patients receiving routine clinical management) to estimate the prevalence of proximal renal tubular dysfunction (PRTD) associated with HIV infection. These patients did not differ statistically by sociodemographics, median age, years since HIV diagnosis, AIDS stage, or median CD4 cell count from the entire 3080 patient cohort. Antiretroviral therapy was received by 352 patients, with 256 given tenofovir (TDF); 325 had undetectable HIV plasma viral load, and 26 were diagnosed with PRTD. In multivariate analysis, significant independent associations were found between PRTD and age (odds ratio (OR) 1.28 per 5-year increase), atazanavir (OR 1.28 per year of exposure), and TDF (OR 1.23 per year) treatment. Among patients having received TDF-containing regimens over a 5-year period, PRTD remained significantly associated with TDF exposure when treatment was ongoing (OR 5.22) or had been discontinued (OR 11.49). Thus, cumulative exposure to TDF and/or atazanavir was associated with an increased risk of PRTD, with concern about its reversibility in patients with HIV.

  6. Relationship of abnormal Tamm-Horsfall glycoprotein localization to renal morphology and function.

    Chambers, R; Groufsky, A; Hunt, J S; Lynn, K L; McGiven, A R


    Tamm-Horsfall glycoprotein (TH) distribution was studied using a biotin-avidin immunoperoxidase technique in renal biopsies from 166 consecutive patients and 8 normal kidneys. Tubulointerstitial damage was independently assessed and graded. In 109 patients TH antibodies were measured by ELISA and in 30 of these urinary TH and beta 2-microglobulin excretions were measured by radioimmunoassay. In 124 biopsies only distal tubular epithelium and casts were stained. Glomerular space (8) or interstitial (34) deposits were seen in 42 biopsies; 16/68 with glomerulonephritis, 4/14 with systemic vasculitis, 12/33 with chronic interstitial nephritis, 1/8 with acute interstitial nephritis, 9/43 with other nephropathies. There was no correlation between TH distribution and the degree of tubulointerstitial damage (p greater than 0.5), urinary TH excretion (p greater than 0.05), urinary beta 2-microglobulin excretion (p greater than 0.05), glomerular filtration rate, urinary concentrating ability, or the incidence of pyuria. TH antibodies did not correlate with TH distribution (p greater than 0.5) or the degree of tubulointerstitial damage. Abnormal TH distribution showed no statistical relationship to the degree of tubulointerstitial damage, changes in renal function or levels of TH antibodies.

  7. Neonatal lupus manifests as isolated neutropenia and mildly abnormal liver functions.

    Kanagasegar, Sivalingam; Cimaz, Rolando; Kurien, Biji T; Brucato, Antonio; Scofield, R Hal


    Neonatal lupus is characterized by typical clinical features and the presence of maternal autoantibodies. Mothers can have systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) or Sjögren's syndrome, but are commonly not affected with any clinical disease. The major clinical manifestations in the infants are cardiac, dermatological and hepatic with rare instances of hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia or neutropenia. We describe an infant born to a mother with anti-Ro and anti-La, who had neutropenia and mildly abnormal liver functions without other major clinical features of neonatal lupus such as cardiac or dermatological manifestations. Neutropenia improved as maternal antibody was metabolized. Antibodies from both the infant and mother bound intact neutrophils, and this binding was inhibited by 60 kDa Ro. These data imply neutropenia may be an isolated manifestation of neonatal lupus. We studied the anti-Ro antibodies of 2 other mothers who gave birth to infants with complete congenital heart block and neutropenia. Their sera also bound neutrophils. Because healthy infants do not commonly undergo complete blood counts, the incidence of neutropenia among infants of anti-Ro-positive mothers may be much higher than previously recognized. Furthermore, although other factors may contribute, these data suggest that anti-60 kDa Ro is directly involved in the pathogenesis of neutropenia.

  8. Leukocyte abnormalities.

    Gabig, T G


    Certain qualitative abnormalities in neutrophils and blood monocytes are associated with frequent, severe, and recurrent bacterial infections leading to fatal sepsis, while other qualitative defects demonstrated in vitro may have few or no clinical sequelae. These qualitative defects are discussed in terms of the specific functions of locomotion, phagocytosis, degranulation, and bacterial killing.

  9. A population study of the association between thyroid autoantibodies in serum and abnormalities in thyroid function and structure

    Pedersen, I.B.; Laurberg, P.; Knudsen, N.;


    autoantibodies in serum and abnormalities in thyroid function and structure, and to study the thyroid volume in subjects with subclinical autoimmune hypothyroidism. Design A population study including 4649 randomly selected subjects. Measurements Blood tests were used to analyse for thyroid peroxidase...

  10. Abnormal function of platelets and role of angelica sinensis in patients with ulcerative colitis

    Wei-Guo Dong; Shao-Ping Liu; Hai-Hang Zhu; He-Sheng Luo; Jie-Ping Yu


    AIM: To explore the abnormal function of platelets and the role of angelica sinensis injection (ASI) in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC).METHODS: In 39 patients with active UC, 25 patients with remissive UC and 30 healthy people, α-granule membrane protein (GMP-140) and thromboxane B2 (TXB2) were detected by means of ELISA, 6-keto-PGF1awas detected by radioimmunoassay, platelet count (PC) and 1 min platelet aggregation rate (1 min PAR) were detected by blood automatic tester and platelet aggregation tester respectively,and yon Willebrand factor related antigen (vWF:Ag) was detected by the means of monoclonal -ELISA. The 64 patients with UC were divided into two therapy groups. After routine treatment and angelica sinensis injection (ASI) + routine treatment respectively for 3 weeks, all these parameters were also detected.RESULTS: The PC, 1 min PAR and levels of GMP-140,TXB2, and vWF:Ag in active UC were significanrly higher than those in remissive UC and normal controls (P<0.05-0.01).Meanwhile, 1 min PAR and levels of GMP-140, TXB2,and vWF:Ag in remissive UC were still significantly higher than those in normal controls (P<0.05). Furthermore, 6-keto-PGF1a level in active and remissive UC was remarkably lower than that in normal control (P<0.05-0.01). These parameters except 6-keto-PGF1a were significantly improved after the treatment in ASI therapy group (P<0.05-0.01),whereas they all were little changed in routine therapy group (P>0.05).CONCLUSION: Platelets can be significantly activated in UC, which might be related with vascular endothelium injury and imbalance between TXB2 and 6-keto-PGF1a in blood.ASI can significantly inhibit platelet activation, relieve vascular endothelial cell injury, and improve microcirculation in UC.

  11. Abnormal Mitochondrial Function and Impaired Granulosa Cell Differentiation in Androgen Receptor Knockout Mice

    Ruey-Sheng Wang


    Full Text Available In the ovary, the paracrine interactions between the oocyte and surrounded granulosa cells are critical for optimal oocyte quality and embryonic development. Mice lacking the androgen receptor (AR−/− were noted to have reduced fertility with abnormal ovarian function that might involve the promotion of preantral follicle growth and prevention of follicular atresia. However, the detailed mechanism of how AR in granulosa cells exerts its effects on oocyte quality is poorly understood. Comparing in vitro maturation rate of oocytes, we found oocytes collected from AR−/− mice have a significantly poor maturating rate with 60% reached metaphase II and 30% remained in germinal vesicle breakdown stage, whereas 95% of wild-type AR (AR+/+ oocytes had reached metaphase II. Interestingly, we found these AR−/− female mice also had an increased frequency of morphological alterations in the mitochondria of granulosa cells with reduced ATP generation (0.18 ± 0.02 vs. 0.29 ± 0.02 µM/mg protein; p < 0.05 and aberrant mitochondrial biogenesis. Mechanism dissection found loss of AR led to a significant decrease in the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ co-activator 1-β (PGC1-β and its sequential downstream genes, nuclear respiratory factor 1 (NRF1 and mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM, in controlling mitochondrial biogenesis. These results indicate that AR may contribute to maintain oocyte quality and fertility via controlling the signals of PGC1-β-mediated mitochondrial biogenesis in granulosa cells.

  12. Nature and severity of lung function abnormalities in extremely pre-term children at 11 years of age.

    Lum, S; Kirkby, J; Welsh, L; Marlow, N; Hennessy, E; Stocks, J


    Advances in neonatal care have resulted in increased survival of children born extremely pre-term (EP). Nevertheless the incidence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia and long-term respiratory morbidity remains high. We investigated the nature of pathophysiological changes at 11 yrs of age to ascertain whether respiratory morbidity in EP children primarily reflects alterations in the lung periphery or more centralised airway function in this population. Spirometry, plethysmography, diffusing capacity, exhaled nitric oxide, multiple-breath washout, skin tests and methacholine challenge were used during laboratory-based assessments in a subgroup of the 1995 EPICure cohort and in controls. Results were obtained in 49 EP and 52 control children. Lung function abnormalities were found in 78% of EP children, with evidence of airway obstruction, ventilation inhomogeneity, gas trapping and airway hyperresponsiveness. Levels of atopy and exhaled nitric oxide were similar between the groups. Prior wheeze was associated with significant reductions in forced flows and volumes. By contrast, abnormalities of the lung periphery appear to be mediated primarily through EP birth per se. The prevalence of lung function abnormalities, which is largely obstructive in nature and likely to have long-term implications, remains high among 11-yr-old children born EP. Spirometry proved an effective means of detecting these persistent abnormalities.

  13. Disruption of Ah Receptor Signaling during Mouse Development Leads to Abnormal Cardiac Structure and Function in the Adult.

    Vinicius S Carreira

    Full Text Available The Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD Theory proposes that the environment encountered during fetal life and infancy permanently shapes tissue physiology and homeostasis such that damage resulting from maternal stress, poor nutrition or exposure to environmental agents may be at the heart of adult onset disease. Interference with endogenous developmental functions of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR, either by gene ablation or by exposure in utero to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD, a potent AHR ligand, causes structural, molecular and functional cardiac abnormalities and altered heart physiology in mouse embryos. To test if embryonic effects progress into an adult phenotype, we investigated whether Ahr ablation or TCDD exposure in utero resulted in cardiac abnormalities in adult mice long after removal of the agent. Ten-months old adult Ahr-/- and in utero TCDD-exposed Ahr+/+ mice showed sexually dimorphic abnormal cardiovascular phenotypes characterized by echocardiographic findings of hypertrophy, ventricular dilation and increased heart weight, resting heart rate and systolic and mean blood pressure, and decreased exercise tolerance. Underlying these effects, genes in signaling networks related to cardiac hypertrophy and mitochondrial function were differentially expressed. Cardiac dysfunction in mouse embryos resulting from AHR signaling disruption seems to progress into abnormal cardiac structure and function that predispose adults to cardiac disease, but while embryonic dysfunction is equally robust in males and females, the adult abnormalities are more prevalent in females, with the highest severity in Ahr-/- females. The findings reported here underscore the conclusion that AHR signaling in the developing heart is one potential target of environmental factors associated with cardiovascular disease.

  14. Perceptual learning modifies the functional specializations of visual cortical areas.

    Chen, Nihong; Cai, Peng; Zhou, Tiangang; Thompson, Benjamin; Fang, Fang


    Training can improve performance of perceptual tasks. This phenomenon, known as perceptual learning, is strongest for the trained task and stimulus, leading to a widely accepted assumption that the associated neuronal plasticity is restricted to brain circuits that mediate performance of the trained task. Nevertheless, learning does transfer to other tasks and stimuli, implying the presence of more widespread plasticity. Here, we trained human subjects to discriminate the direction of coherent motion stimuli. The behavioral learning effect substantially transferred to noisy motion stimuli. We used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate the neural mechanisms underlying the transfer of learning. The TMS experiment revealed dissociable, causal contributions of V3A (one of the visual areas in the extrastriate visual cortex) and MT+ (middle temporal/medial superior temporal cortex) to coherent and noisy motion processing. Surprisingly, the contribution of MT+ to noisy motion processing was replaced by V3A after perceptual training. The fMRI experiment complemented and corroborated the TMS finding. Multivariate pattern analysis showed that, before training, among visual cortical areas, coherent and noisy motion was decoded most accurately in V3A and MT+, respectively. After training, both kinds of motion were decoded most accurately in V3A. Our findings demonstrate that the effects of perceptual learning extend far beyond the retuning of specific neural populations for the trained stimuli. Learning could dramatically modify the inherent functional specializations of visual cortical areas and dynamically reweight their contributions to perceptual decisions based on their representational qualities. These neural changes might serve as the neural substrate for the transfer of perceptual learning.

  15. Toward validation of a structural approach to conceptualizing psychopathology: A special section of the Journal of Abnormal Psychology.

    Krueger, Robert F; Tackett, Jennifer L; MacDonald, Angus


    Traditionally, psychopathology has been conceptualized in terms of polythetic categories derived from committee deliberations and enshrined in authoritative psychiatric nosologies-most notably the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM; American Psychiatric Association [APA], 2013). As the limitations of this form of classification have become evident, empirical data have been increasingly relied upon to investigate the structure of psychopathology. These efforts have borne fruit in terms of an increasingly consistent set of psychopathological constructs closely connected with similar personality constructs. However, the work of validating these constructs using convergent sources of data is an ongoing enterprise. This special section collects several new efforts to use structural approaches to study the validity of this empirically based organizational scheme for psychopathology. Inasmuch as a structural approach reflects the natural organization of psychopathology, it has great potential to facilitate comprehensive organization of information on the correlates of psychopathology, providing evidence for the convergent and discriminant validity of an empirical approach to classification. Here, we highlight several themes that emerge from this burgeoning literature. (PsycINFO Database Record




    Full Text Available In the article the analysis of different concepts of "team" from the point of view of sociology, which today can be divided into two large groups. The first affects his symptoms and descriptions, and the second structure of the definition. Summarizing them all, the author highlighted that currently the "team" can only be called an effectively functioning social group. Despite the fact that "command" is a kind of small social group, described the differences between these concepts. The article examines the question about correlation of concepts "team" and "team". A comparison of their characteristics reveals that they are extremely close to each other. Identified problems in the functioning of the team as a special type of social group. The features of leadership in the team, in particular, the possibility and feasibility of a divided leadership. Divided leadership implies that at different stages of achieving the team purpose leadership position is given to those team members who are most competent in solving a particular task, but the final decisions are made by joint efforts of the group. The presence of a clearly defined leader in the team is imperative. On the other hand, many teams are able to function effectively using only one type of influence ‒ vertical, when a mutual influence on each other have a leader and his associate, boss and employee. The presence of horizontal influence that occurs in the process of interaction between team members (excluding leader among themselves, it is necessary to perform tasks that require synchronous operation of several (or all team members. In the end, formulated the following conclusion: the presence of vertical interactions is a necessary condition for the existence of the team.

  17. Role of thyroid function tests in women with abnormal uterine bleeding

    Mangala Gowri


    Conclusions: As there is high incidence of thyroid diseases in our area, women with abnormal uterine bleeding are to be screened. This would also avoid unnecessary hormonal treatment and surgery in these patients. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2014; 3(1.000: 54-57

  18. Specific characteristics of abnormal general movements are associated with functional outcome at school age

    Hamer, Elisa G; Bos, Arend F; Hadders-Algra, Mijna


    BACKGROUND: Assessing the quality of general movements (GMs) is a non-invasive tool to identify at early age infants at risk for developmental disorders. AIM: To investigate whether specific characteristics of definitely abnormal GMs are associated with developmental outcome at school age. STUDY DES

  19. Abnormalities of Thyroid Function in Children with Newly Diagnosed Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus: are Transient or Permanent?

    Tuğrul Karakuş


    Full Text Available Aim: In this study, we aimed to determine the incidence and short term outcome of abnormal thyroid functions in children with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes mellitus.Materials and Methods: Fourty-two patients with Type 1 diabetes mellitus who were diagnosed and observed in our department of pediatrics between 2001-2006 were retrospectively evaluated. The thyroid function tests of the patients were measured within four and a half days of the initial diagnosis of diabetes and at least one follow-up test median on day 180 after diagnosis.Results: Twenty-two (52.4% of the patients were female and 20 (47.6% were male. Mean age of the patients was 9.4 (±3.6 years. Twenty-three patients (54.8% were diagnosed as diabetic ketoacidosis, 15 (35.7% as ketosis and 4 (9.5% as hyperglycemia at the time of initial presentation. Thyroid functions were normal in 26 (61.9% subjects. Thyroid function tests were abnormal in 16 (38.1% subjects of whom 12 (75.0% had biochemical findings compatible with sick euthyroid syndrome and of these 10 (83.3% had diabetic ketoacidosis. All of these abnormalities were transient and thyroid function tests all returned to normal except for one patient. Antithyroid antibodies were positive in 7 (16.7% subjects 2 (10.5% with ketosis or hyperglycemia and 5 (21.7% diabetic ketoacidosis. Thyroid function tests were abnormal in 6 (14.3.1% subjects at follow-up. Thyroid disfunction rate decrased the 38.1% to 14.3% at the follow-up.Conclusion: This retrospective study revealed that abnormalities in thyroid function tests in subjects with newly diagnosed Type 1 diabetes mellitus were frequent and mostly transient. For this reason, in the absence of any clinical situation suggesting a thyroid disorder, we think it would be better to assess thyroid function tests at least one mouth after theinitial diagnosis of diabetes. (Journal of Current Pediatrics 2008; 6: 5-9

  20. Clinical manifestation and humoral immuno-function of myasthenia gravis patients with abnormal and normal thymus gland

    Fuhua Peng; Yongqiang Dai; Wei Qiu; Xueqiang Hu


    BACKGROUND: Myasthenia gravis (MG) is an autoimmune disease which mainly affects neuromuscular junctions. The ages, modified Osserman classification and clinical manifestation and humoral immunol function of MG with and without thymic abnormality are different.OBJECTIVE: To explore the clinical manifestation and humoral immuno-function of MG with abnormal and normal thymus gland.DESIGN: Contrast observation.SETTING: Department of Neurology, the Third Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University.PARTICIPANTS: A total of 49 inpatients with MG were selected from the Third Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University from March 2000 to August 2005. All the patients had typical clinical manifestation of MG and positive neostigmine test. All the patients knew and agreed the laboratory examinations. There were 22 males and 27 females of 2-69 years old. Chest MRI or CT scan were performed to reveal thymus gland abnormality. According to whether there was tumor in superior mediastinum, all patients were divided into 2 groups, abnormal and normal groups. Normal thymus gland group (n=30) contained 16 males and 14 famales of 6-43 years old. Abnormal thymus gland group (n=19) contained 6 male and 13 female of 2-69years old.METHODS: ① All patients were questioned about initial symptoms. Meanwhile, main clinical manifestations were recorded at hospital admission. ② 7180A automatic biochemical analyzer and automatic microplate reader were used in detecting seroimmunity index. The levels of C3, C4, IgG, IgA, IgM and CH50 in blood serum were analyzed by nephelometry. ③ Clinical classification is based on modified Osserman classification. The patients with MG were divided into six types: Ⅰ (Ocular myasthenia), Ⅱ a (Mild generalized myasthenia), Ⅱ b (Moderately severe generalized myasthenia), Ⅲ (Acute fulminating myasthenia), Ⅳ (Late severe myasthenia).MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: ① Differences of initial symptoms and clinical manifestation of two group patients.


    Reşat KASAP


    Full Text Available We shall consider the case where a process {Zt} for an AR(1 belongs to one of two categories gave by two hypotheses p1 and p2 in this paper. These hypotheses specify that {Zt} has spectral density function f (w and g(w under p1 and p2 respectively. We can use I(f:g as a discrimination function, if f(w and g(w are known. A numerical example will be given by using simulation for the normal and abnormal distribution cases in this study.

  2. Computer Algebra Algorithms for Special Functions in Particle Physics

    Ablinger, Jakob


    This work deals with special nested objects arising in massive higher order perturbative calculations in renormalizable quantum field theories. On the one hand we work with nested sums such as harmonic sums and their generalizations (S-sums, cyclotomic harmonic sums, cyclotomic S-sums) and on the other hand we treat iterated integrals of the Poincar\\'e and Chen-type, such as harmonic polylogarithms and their generalizations (multiple polylogarithms, cyclotomic harmonic polylogarithms). The iterated integrals are connected to the nested sums via (generalizations of) the Mellin-transformation and we show how this transformation can be computed. We derive algebraic and structural relations between the nested sums as well as relations between the values of the sums at infinity and connected to it the values of the iterated integrals evaluated at special constants. In addition we state algorithms to compute asymptotic expansions of these nested objects and we state an algorithm which rewrites certain types of nest...

  3. Abnormal Intrinsic Functional Hubs in Severe Male Obstructive Sleep Apnea: Evidence from a Voxel-Wise Degree Centrality Analysis

    Shao, Yi; Gong, Honghan; Zhang, Wei; Zeng, Xianjun; Ye, Chenglong; Nie, Si; Chen, Liting; Peng, Dechang


    Purpose Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has been associated with changes in brain structure and regional function in certain brain areas. However, the functional features of network organization in the whole brain remain largely uncertain. The purpose of this study was to identify the OSA-related spatial centrality distribution of the whole brain functional network and to investigate the potential altered intrinsic functional hubs. Methods Forty male patients with newly confirmed severe OSA on polysomnography, and well-matched good sleepers, participated in this study. All participants underwent a resting-state functional MRI scan and clinical and cognitive evaluation. Voxel-wise degree centrality (DC) was measured across the whole brain, and group difference in DC was compared. The relationship between the abnormal DC value and clinical variables was assessed using a linear correlation analysis. Results Remarkably similar spatial distributions of the functional hubs (high DC) were found in both groups. However, OSA patients exhibited a pattern of significantly reduced regional DC in the left middle occipital gyrus, posterior cingulate cortex, left superior frontal gyrus, and bilateral inferior parietal lobule, and DC was increased in the right orbital frontal cortex, bilateral cerebellum posterior lobes, and bilateral lentiform nucleus, including the putamen, extending to the hippocampus, and the inferior temporal gyrus, which overlapped with the functional hubs. Furthermore, a linear correlation analysis revealed that the DC value in the posterior cingulate cortex and left superior frontal gyrus were positively correlated with Montreal cognitive assessment scores, The DC value in the left middle occipital gyrus and bilateral inferior parietal lobule were negatively correlated with apnea-hypopnea index and arousal index in OSA patients. Conclusion Our findings suggest that OSA patients exhibited specific abnormal intrinsic functional hubs including relatively

  4. Abnormal Spontaneous Neural Activity in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A Resting-State Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study.

    Li Ping

    Full Text Available Neuroimaging studies of obsessive-compulsive disorder have found abnormalities in orbitofronto-striato-thalamic circuitry, including the orbitofrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, caudate, and thalamus, but few studies have explored abnormal intrinsic or spontaneous brain activity in the resting state. We investigated both intra- and inter-regional synchronized activity in twenty patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder and 20 healthy controls using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. Regional homogeneity (ReHo and functional connectivity methods were used to analyze the intra- and inter-regional synchronized activity, respectively. Compared with healthy controls, patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder showed significantly increased ReHo in the orbitofrontal cortex, cerebellum, and insula, and decreased ReHo in the ventral anterior cingulate cortex, caudate, and inferior occipital cortex. Based on ReHo results, we determined functional connectivity differences between the orbitofrontal cortex and other brain regions in both patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder and controls. We found abnormal functional connectivity between the orbitofrontal cortex and ventral anterior cingulate cortex in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder compared with healthy controls. Moreover, ReHo in the orbitofrontal cortex was correlated with the duration of obsessive-compulsive disorder. These findings suggest that increased intra- and inter-regional synchronized activity in the orbitofrontal cortex may have a key role in the pathology of obsessive-compulsive disorder. In addition to orbitofronto-striato-thalamic circuitry, brain regions such as the insula and cerebellum may also be involved in the pathophysiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder.

  5. Second-order complex linear differential equations with special functions or extremal functions as coefficients

    Xiubi Wu


    Full Text Available The classical problem of finding conditions on the entire coefficients A(z and B(z guaranteeing that all nontrivial solutions of $f''+A(zf'+B(zf=0$ are of infinite order is discussed. Two distinct approaches are used. In the first approach the coefficient A(z itself is a solution of a differential equation $w''+P(zw=0$, where P(z is a polynomial. This assumption yields stability on the behavior of A(z via Hille's classical method on asymptotic integration. In this case A(z is a special function of which the Airy integral is one example. The second approach involves extremal functions. It is assumed that either A(z is extremal for Yang's inequality or B(z is extremal for Denjoy's conjecture. A combination of these two approaches is also discussed.

  6. Respiratory symptoms in rheumatoid arthritis: relation to pulmonary abnormalities detected by high-resolution CT and pulmonary functional testing.

    Youssef, Amir A; Machaly, Shereen A; El-Dosoky, Mohammed E; El-Maghraby, Nermeen M


    Pulmonary disease is the most frequent and among the most severe extra-articular manifestation of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, this issue has not been sufficiently studied in Egyptian patients. The objectives of the present study are to investigate the prevalence and types of pulmonary involvement using high-resolution computed tomography scan (HRCT) and pulmonary function tests (PFT) and evaluate the association between respiratory symptoms and RA-lung disease in a group of Egyptian RA patients. Thirty-six RA patients were recruited; 34 females (94.4%) and 2 males (5.6%) with median age of 48.5 years, and none of them was smoker. Detailed medical and drug histories were obtained. PFT, plain X-ray of the chest, and HRCT were performed to all subjects involved. Nearly 64% of RA patients demonstrated abnormalities in PFT and 47% in HRCT. Mixed restrictive and obstructive pattern was the commonest. Nearly two-thirds of our patients reported one or more pulmonary symptom whether dyspnea, cough, wheezing, or phlegm. Dyspnea was the most frequent symptom. Respiratory symptoms were statistically more common in patients with lung disease. The advanced age, high radiological score, and severity of rheumatoid disease were found to be predictive of lung involvement. Among respiratory symptoms, dyspnea and cough were associated with any pulmonary abnormalities. When specific pulmonary abnormalities were considered, only dyspnea was identified as predictor for restriction. For obstructive abnormality, both cough and wheezing provided valid prediction. We conclude that pulmonary involvement is a common manifestation in Egyptian RA patients, and the pattern of involvement is generally consistent with other studies that were performed worldwide. Specific respiratory symptoms could be used as practical, easy, and cost-effective method, especially in older and with more severe RA patients, to discriminate patients in need of subsequent PFT and HRCT imaging.

  7. Liver Function Test Abnormalities in Depressed Patients Treated with Antidepressants: A Real-World Systematic Observational Study in Psychiatric Settings

    Verstuyft, Céline; Corruble, Emmanuelle; Perlemuter, Gabriel; Colle, Romain


    Background Concerning the risk of antidepressant induced liver injury, it is not clear whether psychiatrists perform a liver function test (LFT) and whether an increase in aminotransferase levels should contraindicate antidepressant treatment. Aim To evaluate LFT availability, the prevalence of LFT abnormalities and the probable cause of an altered LFT in patients with a major depressive episode (MDE) requiring an antidepressant drug. Methods We studied LFT evaluation in a real world psychiatric setting, in a sample of 321 consecutive patients with a current major depressive episode (MDE) requiring an antidepressant drug treatment, but without current alcohol or drug dependence or unstable medical disease. Results An LFT is performed in 36.1% (116/321) of depressed patients. One fifth of antidepressant-treated patients who had an LFT evaluation had abnormal results. The most frequent causes of LFT abnormalities were: NAFLD (nonalcoholic fatty liver disease) (7/321; 2.1%), acute alcohol consumption (4/321; 1.2%), antidepressant-induced liver injury (3/321; 0.9%), hepatitis C virus infection (2/321; 0.6%) and heart failure (1/321; 0.3%). The cause of LFT abnormalities was unknown in 32% of patients (8/25) due to the absence of etiological investigations. Conclusion These results demonstrate that an LFT is infrequently performed by psychiatrists in depressed patients requiring an antidepressant drug. Baseline LFT assessment and observations during the first six months of antidepressant treatment may be useful for detection of patients with pre-existing liver disease such as NAFLD, and early identification of cases of antidepressant-induced liver injury. An increase in aminotransferase levels may be related to an underlying liver disease, but does not contraindicate antidepressant treatment. PMID:27171561

  8. Multichannel somato sensory evoked potential study demonstrated abnormalities in cervical cord function in brachial monomelic amyotrophy

    Nalini A


    Full Text Available Background: Brachial monomelic amyotrophy (BMMA is known to affect the central cervical cord gray matter resulting in single upper limb atrophy and weakness. Settings and Design: Case series of BMMA patients who underwent somatosensory evoked potentials (SEP studies at a tertiary referral center. Aims: We proposed to record Multichannel Somatosensory Evoked Potentials (MCSSEP from median and ulnar nerves with neck in neutral and neck fully flexed position in 17 patients with classical BMMA seen over three years. Materials and Methods: Recordings were done from both median (MN and ulnar nerves (UN. N9, P9, N13, N20 potentials were recorded and amplitudes measured. SSEPs were performed in 22 age-matched healthy men. Amplitudes of cervical response were calculated by N13/P9 ratio and compared in both positions. Results: Among the controls N13 amplitude was always normal {MN: mean N13/P9 - 0.96 in neutral; 0.95 in flexed}{UN: mean N13/P9 - 0.82 in neutral; 0.83 in flexed}, and mean amplitudes did not reveal any difference in both conditions ( P >0.05. Among 17 patients N9, P9 and N20 responses were normal in neutral position. Flexion showed no change in latency or amplitude of N9 and N20 responses ( P -0.63 whereas the N13 response was abnormal in at least one tested nerve in the affected limb (MN: P < 0.01; UN: P < 0.01. During flexion, N13 response was abnormal in 14 (82% patients after MN stimulation and in all 17(100% after UN stimulation {MN: mean N13/P9 - 0.62 in neutral; 0.38 in flexed}{UN: mean N13/P9 - 0.55 in neutral; 0.31 in flexed}. Conclusion: MCSSEP in BMMA with neck flexion caused a significant reduction of the cervical N13 response indicating segmental cervical cord dysfunction.

  9. Preserved local but disrupted contextual figure-ground influences in an individual with abnormal function of intermediate visual areas.

    Brooks, Joseph L; Gilaie-Dotan, Sharon; Rees, Geraint; Bentin, Shlomo; Driver, Jon


    Visual perception depends not only on local stimulus features but also on their relationship to the surrounding stimulus context, as evident in both local and contextual influences on figure-ground segmentation. Intermediate visual areas may play a role in such contextual influences, as we tested here by examining LG, a rare case of developmental visual agnosia. LG has no evident abnormality of brain structure and functional neuroimaging showed relatively normal V1 function, but his intermediate visual areas (V2/V3) function abnormally. We found that contextual influences on figure-ground organization were selectively disrupted in LG, while local sources of figure-ground influences were preserved. Effects of object knowledge and familiarity on figure-ground organization were also significantly diminished. Our results suggest that the mechanisms mediating contextual and familiarity influences on figure-ground organization are dissociable from those mediating local influences on figure-ground assignment. The disruption of contextual processing in intermediate visual areas may play a role in the substantial object recognition difficulties experienced by LG.

  10. Bounds for the radii of univalence of some special functions

    Aktaş, Ibrahim; Baricz, Árpád; Yağmur, Nihat


    Tight lower and upper bounds for the radius of univalence of some normalized Bessel, Struve and Lommel functions of the first kind are obtained via Euler-Rayleigh inequalities. It is shown also that the radius of univalence of the Struve functions is greater than the corresponding radius of univalence of Bessel functions. Moreover, by using the idea of Kreyszig and Todd, and Wilf it is proved that the radii of univalence of some normalized Struve and Lommel functions are exactly the radii of ...

  11. Morphometric and functional abnormalities of kidneys in the progeny of mice fed chocolate during pregnancy and lactation.

    Ewa Skopińska-Rózewska


    Full Text Available Even most commonly consumed beverages like tea, coffee, chocolate and cocoa contain methylxanthines, biogenic amines and polyphenols, among them catechins, that exhibit significant biological activity and might profoundly affect the organism homeostasis. We have previously shown that 400 mg of bitter chocolate or 6 mg of theobromine added to the daily diet of pregnant and afterwards lactating mice affected embryonic angiogenesis and caused bone mineralization disturbances as well as limb shortening in 4-weeks old offspring. The aim of the present study was the morphometric and functional evaluation of kidneys in the 4-weeks old progeny mice fed according to the protocol mentioned above. Progeny from the mice fed chocolate presented considerable morphometric abnormalities in the kidney structure, with the lower number of glomeruli per mm2 and their increased diameter. Moreover, higher serum creatinine concentration was observed in that group of offspring. No morphometric or functional irregularities were found in the progeny of mice fed theobromine. Abnormalities demonstrated in the offspring of mice fed chocolate are not related to its theobromine content. Consequently, identification of active compound(s responsible for the observed effects is of vital importance.

  12. Morphometric and functional abnormalities of kidneys in the progeny of mice fed chocolate during pregnancy and lactation.

    Patera, Janusz; Chorostowska-Wynimko, Joanna; Słodkowska, Janina; Borowska, Adamina; Skopiński, Piotr; Sommer, Ewa; Wasiutyński, Aleksander; Skopińska-Rózewska, Ewa


    Even most commonly consumed beverages like tea, coffee, chocolate and cocoa contain methylxanthines, biogenic amines and polyphenols, among them catechins, that exhibit significant biological activity and might profoundly affect the organism homeostasis. We have previously shown that 400 mg of bitter chocolate or 6 mg of theobromine added to the daily diet of pregnant and afterwards lactating mice affected embryonic angiogenesis and caused bone mineralization disturbances as well as limb shortening in 4-weeks old offspring. The aim of the present study was the morphometric and functional evaluation of kidneys in the 4-weeks old progeny mice fed according to the protocol mentioned above. Progeny from the mice fed chocolate presented considerable morphometric abnormalities in the kidney structure, with the lower number of glomeruli per mm2 and their increased diameter. Moreover, higher serum creatinine concentration was observed in that group of offspring. No morphometric or functional irregularities were found in the progeny of mice fed theobromine. Abnormalities demonstrated in the offspring of mice fed chocolate are not related to its theobromine content. Consequently, identification of active compound(s) responsible for the observed effects is of vital importance.

  13. Construction of Canonical Polynomial Basis Functions for Solving Special Nth -Order Linear Integro-Differential Equations

    1 Taiwo O. A


    Full Text Available The problem of solving special nth-order linear integro-differential equations has special importance in engineering and sciences that constitutes a good model for many systems in various fields. In this paper, we construct canonical polynomial from the differential parts of special nth-order integro-differential equations and use it as our basis function for the numerical solutions of special nth-order integro-differential equations. The results obtained by this method are compared with those obtained by Adomian Decomposition method. It is also observed that the new method is an effective method with high accuracy. Some examples are given to illustrate the method.

  14. The structure of the ensuring of the functioning of Special Olympics’ program

    Perederiy A.V.


    Full Text Available The structure of the ensuring components of the program of Special Olympics, consisting of medical, psychological-pedagogical and material- technical ensuring. Medical ensuring includes admission procedure for athletes training to a particular sport, athletes' medical monitoring, medical care sports events and the program (Healthy Athletes. Psychological-pedagogical ensuring is an extremely important component, given nosological features athletes with intellectual disabilities, represented permitted to participate in Special Olympics programs, psychological and pedagogical support training athletes and psychiatric examination program participants of Special Olympics. In the technical ensuring regarded the structure and volumes involved and spent resources for the programs of Special Olympics and special equipment, equipment, inventory used during in training and competition. All levels of programs functioning of the Special Olympics are interrelated and interdependent, equally important to address their various problems.

  15. Functional Specialization of Olfactory Glomeruli in a Moth

    Hansson, Bill S.; Ljungberg, Hakan; Hallberg, Eric; Lofstedt, Christer


    The specific function of the glomerular structures present in the antennal lobes or olfactory bulbs of organisms ranging from insects to humans has been obscure because of limitations in neuronal marking methods. By tracing individual neurons in the moth Agrotis segetum, it was determined that physiologically distinct types of pheromone receptor neurons project axons to different regions of the macroglomerular complex (MGC). Each glomerulus making up the MGC has a specific functional identity, initially processing information about one specific pheromone component. This indicates that, at least through the first stage of synapses, olfactory information moves through labeled lines.

  16. Specialized Color Function for Display of Signed Data

    Kalb, Virginia


    This Mathematica script defines a color function to be used with Mathematica's plotting modules for differentiating data attaining both positive and negative values. Positive values are shown as shades of blue, and negative values are shown in red. The intensity of the color reflects the absolute value of the data value.

  17. Generalized Mobius-type functions and special set of k-free numbers

    Bege, Antal


    In [3] Bege introduced the generalized Apostol's Mobius functions. In this paper we are presenting new properties of this functions. By introducing the special set of k-free numbers we have obtained some asymptotic formulas for the partial sums of these functions.


    Khlestkina E.


    Full Text Available Gene duplication followed by subfunctionalization and neofunctionalization is of a great evolutionary importance. In plant genomes, duplicated genes may result from either polyploidization (homoeologous genes or segmental chromosome duplications (paralogous genes. In allohexaploid wheat Triticum aestivum L. (2n=6x=42, genome BBAADD, both homoeologous and paralogous copies were found for the regulatory gene Myc encoding MYC-like transcriptional factor in the biosynthesis of flavonoid pigments, anthocyanins, and for the structural gene F3h encoding one of the key enzymes of flavonoid biosynthesis, flavanone 3-hydroxylase. From the 5 copies (3 homoeologous and 2 paralogous of the Myc gene found in T. aestivum, only one plays a regulatory role in anthocyanin biosynthesis, interacting complementary with another transcriptional factor (MYB-like to confer purple pigmentation of grain pericarp in wheat. The role and functionality of the other 4 copies of the Myc gene remain unknown. From the 4 functional copies of the F3h gene in T. aestivum, three homoeologues have similar function. They are expressed in wheat organs colored with anthocyanins or in the endosperm, participating there in biosynthesis of uncolored flavonoid substances. The fourth copy (the B-genomic paralogue is transcribed neither in wheat organs colored with anthocyanins nor in seeds, however, it’s expression has been noticed in roots of aluminium-stressed plants, where the three homoeologous copies are not active. Functional diversification of the duplicated flavonoid biosynthesis genes in wheat may be a reason for maintenance of the duplicated copies and preventing them from pseudogenization.The study was supported by RFBR (11-04-92707. We also thank Ms. Galina Generalova for technical assistance.

  19. Morphological and functional abnormalities in mitochondria associated with synaptic degeneration in prion disease.

    Sisková, Zuzana; Mahad, Don Joseph; Pudney, Carianne; Campbell, Graham; Cadogan, Mark; Asuni, Ayodeji; O'Connor, Vincent; Perry, Victor Hugh


    Synaptic and dendritic pathology is a well-documented component of prion disease. In common with other neurodegenerative diseases that contain an element of protein misfolding, little is known about the underlying mechanisms of synaptic degeneration. In particular, in prion disease the relationship between synaptic malfunction, degeneration, and mitochondria has been neglected. We investigated a wide range of mitochondrial parameters, including changes in mitochondrial density, inner membrane ultrastructure, functional properties and nature of mitochondrial DNA from hippocampal tissue of mice with prion disease, which have ongoing synaptic pathology. Our results indicate that despite a lack of detectable changes in either mitochondrial density or expression of the mitochondrial proteins, mitochondrial function was impaired when compared with age-matched control animals. We observed changes in mitochondrial inner membrane morphology and a reduction in the cytochrome c oxidase activity relative to a sustained level of mitochondrial proteins such as porin and individual, functionally important subunits of complex II and complex IV. These data support the idea that mitochondrial dysfunction appears to occur due to inhibition or modification of respiratory complex rather than deletions of mitochondrial DNA. Indeed, these changes were seen in the stratum radiatum where synaptic pathology is readily detected, indicating that mitochondrial function is impaired and could potentially contribute to or even initiate the synaptic pathology in prion disease.

  20. Abnormal whole-brain functional networks in homogeneous acute mild traumatic brain injury.

    Shumskaya, E.; Andriessen, T.; Norris, D.G.; Vos, P.E.


    Objectives: To evaluate the whole-brain resting-state networks in a homogeneous group of patients with acute mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) and to identify alterations in functional connectivity induced by MTBI. Methods: Thirty-five patients with acute MTBI and 35 healthy control subjects, mat

  1. Abnormalities of lymphocyte function and phenotypic pattern in a case of toxic epidermal necrolysis

    Hagdrup, H; Tønnesen, E; Clemmensen, O


    We examined the blood lymphocyte function and phenotypic pattern in a patient with toxic epidermal necrolysis after taking salazopyrin. We studied cell surface markers, natural killer cell activity and mitogen-induced lymphocyte transformation. Our results point to temporary immunosuppression...... as evidenced by lymphopenia with a large "null cell" population, reduced natural killer cell activity, and impaired lymphocyte response to mitogens....

  2. Resting state functional MRI reveals abnormal network connectivity in orthostatic tremor.

    Benito-León, Julián; Louis, Elan D; Manzanedo, Eva; Hernández-Tamames, Juan Antonio; Álvarez-Linera, Juan; Molina-Arjona, José Antonio; Matarazzo, Michele; Romero, Juan Pablo; Domínguez-González, Cristina; Domingo-Santos, Ángela; Sánchez-Ferro, Álvaro


    Very little is known about the pathogenesis of orthostatic tremor (OT). We have observed that OT patients might have deficits in specific aspects of neuropsychological function, particularly those thought to rely on the integrity of the prefrontal cortex, which suggests a possible involvement of frontocerebellar circuits. We examined whether resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) might provide further insights into the pathogenesis on OT. Resting-state fMRI data in 13 OT patients (11 women and 2 men) and 13 matched healthy controls were analyzed using independent component analysis, in combination with a "dual-regression" technique, to identify group differences in several resting-state networks (RSNs). All participants also underwent neuropsychological testing during the same session. Relative to healthy controls, OT patients showed increased connectivity in RSNs involved in cognitive processes (default mode network [DMN] and frontoparietal networks), and decreased connectivity in the cerebellum and sensorimotor networks. Changes in network integrity were associated not only with duration (DMN and medial visual network), but also with cognitive function. Moreover, in at least 2 networks (DMN and medial visual network), increased connectivity was associated with worse performance on different cognitive domains (attention, executive function, visuospatial ability, visual memory, and language). In this exploratory study, we observed selective impairments of RSNs in OT patients. This and other future resting-state fMRI studies might provide a novel method to understand the pathophysiological mechanisms of motor and nonmotor features of OT.

  3. Distinct Patterns of Grey Matter Abnormality in High-Functioning Autism and Asperger's Syndrome

    McAlonan, Grainne M.; Suckling, John; Wong, Naikei; Cheung, Vinci; Lienenkaemper, Nina; Cheung, Charlton; Chua, Siew E.


    Background: Autism exists across a wide spectrum and there is considerable debate as to whether children with Asperger's syndrome, who have normal language milestones, should be considered to comprise a subgroup distinct other from high-functioning children with autism (HFA), who have a history of delayed language development. Magnetic resonance…

  4. Co-Localisation of Abnormal Brain Structure and Function in Specific Language Impairment

    Badcock, Nicholas A.; Bishop, Dorothy V. M.; Hardiman, Mervyn J.; Barry, Johanna G.; Watkins, Kate E.


    We assessed the relationship between brain structure and function in 10 individuals with specific language impairment (SLI), compared to six unaffected siblings, and 16 unrelated control participants with typical language. Voxel-based morphometry indicated that grey matter in the SLI group, relative to controls, was increased in the left inferior…

  5. Abnormal whole-brain functional networks in homogeneous acute mild traumatic brain injury.

    Shumskaya, A.N.; Andriessen, T.M.J.C.; Norris, D.G.; Vos, P.E.


    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the whole-brain resting-state networks in a homogeneous group of patients with acute mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) and to identify alterations in functional connectivity induced by MTBI. METHODS: Thirty-five patients with acute MTBI and 35 healthy control subjects, match

  6. Abnormality Segmentation and Classification of Brain MR Images using Combined Edge, Texture Region Features and Radial basics Function

    B. Balakumar


    Full Text Available Magnetic Resonance Images (MRI are widely used in the diagnosis of Brain tumor. In this study we have developed a new approach for automatic classification of the normal and abnormal non-enhanced MRI images. The proposed method consists of four stages namely Preprocessing, feature extraction, feature reduction and classification. In the first stage anisotropic filter is applied for noise reduction and to make the image suitable for extracting the features. In the second stage, Region growing base segmentation is used for partitioning the image into meaningful regions. In the third stage, combined edge and Texture based features are extracted using Histogram and Gray Level Co-occurrence Matrix (GLCM from the segmented image. In the next stage PCA is used to reduce the dimensionality of the Feature space which results in a more efficient and accurate classification. Finally, in the classification stage, a supervised Radial Basics Function (RBF classifier is used to classify the experimental images into normal and abnormal. The obtained experimental are evaluated using the metrics sensitivity, specificity and accuracy. For comparison, the performance of the proposed technique has significantly improved the tumor detection accuracy with other neural network based classifier SVM, FFNN and FSVM.

  7. Occupational coke oven emissions exposure and risk of abnormal liver function: modifications of body mass index and hepatitis virus infection

    Y. Hu; B. Chen; J. Qian; L. Jin; T. Jin; D. Lu [Fudan University, Shanghai (China). Department of Occupational and Environmental Health


    Occupational coke oven emissions (COEs) have been considered an important health issue. However, there are no conclusive data on human hepatic injury due to COE exposure. The association of COE exposure with liver function was explored and the effects of modification of potential non-occupational factors were assessed. 705 coke oven workers and 247 referents were investigated. Individual cumulative COE exposure was quantitatively estimated. Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), {gamma}-glutamyl transferase, alkaline phosphatase, hepatitis B surface antigen and anti-hepatitis C antibody were measured. Among those with high COE exposure, the adjusted ORs of abnormal ALT and AST were 5.23 (95% CI 2.66 to 10.27) and 1.95 (95% CI 1.18 to 3.52), respectively. Overweight individuals (body mass index (BMI) {>=}25 kg/m{sup 2}) with high COE exposure had elevated risks of abnormal ALT (adjusted OR 23.93, 95% CI 8.73 to 65.62) and AST (adjusted OR 5.18, 95% CI 2.32 to 11.58). Risk of liver damage in hepatitis B virus- or hepatitis C virus-positive individuals with COE exposure was also elevated. Long-term exposure to COE increases the risk of liver dysfunction, which is more prominent among those with higher BMI and hepatitis virus infection. The risk assessment of liver damage associated with COE exposure should take BMI and hepatitis virus infection into consideration.




    In the article the analysis of different concepts of "team" from the point of view of sociology, which today can be divided into two large groups. The first affects his symptoms and descriptions, and the second structure of the definition. Summarizing them all, the author highlighted that currently the "team" can only be called an effectively functioning social group. Despite the fact that "command" is a kind of small social group, described the differences between these concepts. The article...

  9. Von Willebrand Factor Abnormalities Studied in the Mouse Model: What We Learned about VWF Functions

    Casari, Caterina; Lenting, Peter J.; Christophe, Olivier D.; Denis, Cécile V.


    Up until recently, von Willebrand Factor (VWF) structure-function relationships have only been studied through in vitro approaches. A powerful technique known as hydrodynamic gene transfer, which allows transient expression of a transgene by mouse hepatocytes, has led to an important shift in VWF research. Indeed this approach has now enabled us to transiently express a number of VWF mutants in VWF-deficient mice in order to test the relative importance of specific residues in different aspec...

  10. Special secret sharing scheme with the function of assignment


    A concept of secret sharing scheme with the function of assignment is proposed. It provides great capabilities for many practical applications. In this scheme, the dealer can randomly assign one or more than one participant to get the secret at any time, but these participants can get nothing about the secret before that moment. At the same time, the other participants cannot get any-thing about the secret by stealing the secret value when it is transferred. However, if the dealer is lost, a certain number or more participants of them can reconstruct the secret by cooperating. In order to clear this concept, an illustrating scheme with geometry method and a practical scheme with algebra method is given.

  11. Loss of P2X7 nucleotide receptor function leads to abnormal fat distribution in mice.

    Beaucage, Kim L; Xiao, Andrew; Pollmann, Steven I; Grol, Matthew W; Beach, Ryan J; Holdsworth, David W; Sims, Stephen M; Darling, Mark R; Dixon, S Jeffrey


    The P2X7 receptor is an ATP-gated cation channel expressed by a number of cell types. We have shown previously that disruption of P2X7 receptor function results in downregulation of osteogenic markers and upregulation of adipogenic markers in calvarial cell cultures. In the present study, we assessed whether loss of P2X7 receptor function results in changes to adipocyte distribution and lipid accumulation in vivo. Male P2X7 loss-of-function (KO) mice exhibited significantly greater body weight and epididymal fat pad mass than wild-type (WT) mice at 9 months of age. Fat pad adipocytes did not differ in size, consistent with adipocyte hyperplasia rather than hypertrophy. Histological examination revealed ectopic lipid accumulation in the form of adipocytes and/or lipid droplets in several non-adipose tissues of older male KO mice (9-12 months of age). Ectopic lipid was observed in kidney, extraorbital lacrimal gland and pancreas, but not in liver, heart or skeletal muscle. Specifically, lacrimal gland and pancreas from 12-month-old male KO mice had greater numbers of adipocytes in perivascular, periductal and acinar regions. As well, lipid droplets accumulated in the renal tubular epithelium and lacrimal acinar cells. Blood plasma analyses revealed diminished total cholesterol levels in 9- and 12-month-old male KO mice compared with WT controls. Interestingly, no differences were observed in female mice. Moreover, there were no significant differences in food consumption between male KO and WT mice. Taken together, these data establish novel in vivo roles for the P2X7 receptor in regulating adipogenesis and lipid metabolism in an age- and sex-dependent manner.

  12. Mice deficient in the ALS2 gene exhibit lymphopenia and abnormal hematopietic function.

    Erie, Elizabeth A; Shim, Hoon; Smith, Aleah L; Lin, Xian; Keyvanfar, Keyvan; Xie, Chengsong; Chen, Jichun; Cai, Huaibin


    One form of juvenile onset autosomal recessive amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS2) has been linked to the dysfunction of the ALS2 gene. The ALS2 gene is expressed in lymphoblasts, however, whether ALS2-deficiency affects periphery blood is unclear. Here we report that ALS2 knockout (ALS2(-/-)) mice developed peripheral lymphopenia but had higher proportions of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells in which the stem cell factor-induced cell proliferation was up-regulated. Our findings reveal a novel function of the ALS2 gene in the lymphopoiesis and hematopoiesis, suggesting that the immune system is involved in the pathogenesis of ALS2.

  13. Gender, Race, and Diet Affect Platelet Function Tests in Normal Subjects Contributing to a High Rate of Abnormal Results

    Miller, Connie H.; Rice, Anne S.; Garrett, Katherine; Stein, Sidney F.


    Summary To assess sources of variability in platelet function tests in normal subjects, 64 healthy young adults were tested on 2–6 occasions at 2 week intervals using 4 methods: platelet aggregation (AGG) in platelet-rich plasma (PRP) in the Bio/Data PAP-4 Aggregometer (BD) and Chrono-Log Lumi-Aggregometer (CL); and AGG in whole blood (WB) in the CL and Multiplate Platelet Function Analyzer (MP), with ATP release (REL) in CL-PRP and CL-WB. Food and medication exposures were recorded prospectively for 2 weeks prior to each blood draw. At least one AGG abnormality was seen in 21% of 81 drug-free specimens with CL-PRP, 15% with CL-WB, 13% with BD-PRP, and 6% with MP-WB, increasing with inclusion of REL to 28% for CL-PRP and 30% for CL-WB. Epinephrine AGG and REL were significantly reduced in males (P<0.0001). Ristocetin AGG and collagen and thrombin REL were significantly reduced in Blacks (P<0.0001). One-third of specimens drawn following flavonoid-rich food exposures had aberrant results, compared to 8.5% of specimens without such exposures (P=0.0035). PRP tests had less intra-individual variation than WB tests. Gender, race, diet, and test system affected results of platelet function testing in healthy subjects, suggesting caution when interpreting the results of platelet function testing in patients. PMID:24617520

  14. Abnormalities of quantities and functions of natural killer cells in severe aplastic anemia.

    Liu, Chunyan; Li, Zhishang; Sheng, Weiwei; Fu, Rong; Li, Lijuan; Zhang, Tian; Wu, Yuhong; Xing, Limin; Song, Jia; Wang, Huaquan; Shao, Zonghong


    Severe aplastic anemia (SAA) is a rare disease characterized by severe pancytopenia and bone marrow failure. Natural killer (NK) cells are large granular lymphocytes derived from hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) or common lymphoid progenitors (CLP). They play a key role in n the innate immunity and adaptive immune. In this study, the quantitative and functional changes of natural killer (NK) cell subsets in peripheral blood of severe aplastic anemia (SAA) patients before and after immunosuppressive therapy (IST) were investigated. Results showed that the percentage of NK cells and its subsets in peripheral blood lymphocytes was decreased in SAA patients. After IST, the percentage of NK cells and their subsets increased dramatically. The median expressions of CD158a, NKG2D and NKp46 on NK cells were higher in SAA patients compared to that in normal controls, and the expressions of perforin in newly diagnosed and recovery SAA patients were higher than that in controls. Therefore, we concluded that the decrease of total NK cells, and CD56(bright), CD56(dim) NK cell subsets and the higher expressions of NKp46 and perforin on NK cells may cause the over-function of T lymphocytes and thus lead to hematopoiesis failure in SAA.

  15. Abnormal EEG Complexity and Functional Connectivity of Brain in Patients with Acute Thalamic Ischemic Stroke

    Liu, Shuang; Guo, Jie; Meng, Jiayuan; Wang, Zhijun; Yao, Yang; Yang, Jiajia; Qi, Hongzhi; Ming, Dong


    Ischemic thalamus stroke has become a serious cardiovascular and cerebral disease in recent years. To date the existing researches mostly concentrated on the power spectral density (PSD) in several frequency bands. In this paper, we investigated the nonlinear features of EEG and brain functional connectivity in patients with acute thalamic ischemic stroke and healthy subjects. Electroencephalography (EEG) in resting condition with eyes closed was recorded for 12 stroke patients and 11 healthy subjects as control group. Lempel-Ziv complexity (LZC), Sample Entropy (SampEn), and brain network using partial directed coherence (PDC) were calculated for feature extraction. Results showed that patients had increased mean LZC and SampEn than the controls, which implied the stroke group has higher EEG complexity. For the brain network, the stroke group displayed a trend of weaker cortical connectivity, which suggests a functional impairment of information transmission in cortical connections in stroke patients. These findings suggest that nonlinear analysis and brain network could provide essential information for better understanding the brain dysfunction in the stroke and assisting monitoring or prognostication of stroke evolution. PMID:27403202

  16. Abnormal development of sensory-motor, visual temporal and parahippocampal cortex in children with learning disabilities and borderline intellectual functioning

    Francesca eBaglio


    Full Text Available Borderline intellectual functioning (BIF is a condition characterized by an intelligence quotient (IQ between 70 and 85. BIF children present with cognitive, motor, social and adaptive limitations that result in learning disabilities and are more likely to develop psychiatric disorders later in life. Aim of this study was to investigate brain morphometry and its relation to IQ level in borderline intellectual functioning children.Thirteen children with BIF and 14 age- and sex-matched typically developing children were enrolled. All children underwent a full IQ assessment (WISC-III scale and a Magnetic Resonance (MR examination including conventional sequences to assess brain structural abnormalities and high resolution 3D images for voxel based morphometry (VBM analysis. To investigate to what extent the group influenced gray matter volumes, both univariate and multivariate generalized linear model analysis of variance were used, and the varimax factor analysis was used to explore variable correlations and clusters among subjects. Results showed that BIF children, compared to controls have increased regional gray matter volume in bilateral sensori-motor and right posterior temporal cortices and decreased gray matter volume in right parahippocampal gyrus. Gray matter volumes were highly correlated with IQ indices.Our is a case study of a group of BIF children showing that BIF is associated with abnormal cortical development in brain areas that have a pivotal role in motor, learning and behavioral processes. Our findings, although allowing for little generalization to general population, contributes to the very limited knowledge in this field. Future longitudinal MR studies will be useful in verifying whether cortical features can be modified over time even in association with rehabilitative intervention.

  17. Disorder-specific functional abnormalities during sustained attention in youth with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and with autism.

    Christakou, A; Murphy, C M; Chantiluke, K; Cubillo, A I; Smith, A B; Giampietro, V; Daly, E; Ecker, C; Robertson, D; Murphy, D G; Rubia, K


    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) are often comorbid and share behavioural-cognitive abnormalities in sustained attention. A key question is whether this shared cognitive phenotype is based on common or different underlying pathophysiologies. To elucidate this question, we compared 20 boys with ADHD to 20 age and IQ matched ASD and 20 healthy boys using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during a parametrically modulated vigilance task with a progressively increasing load of sustained attention. ADHD and ASD boys had significantly reduced activation relative to controls in bilateral striato-thalamic regions, left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and superior parietal cortex. Both groups also displayed significantly increased precuneus activation relative to controls. Precuneus was negatively correlated with the DLPFC activation, and progressively more deactivated with increasing attention load in controls, but not patients, suggesting problems with deactivation of a task-related default mode network in both disorders. However, left DLPFC underactivation was significantly more pronounced in ADHD relative to ASD boys, which furthermore was associated with sustained performance measures that were only impaired in ADHD patients. ASD boys, on the other hand, had disorder-specific enhanced cerebellar activation relative to both ADHD and control boys, presumably reflecting compensation. The findings show that ADHD and ASD boys have both shared and disorder-specific abnormalities in brain function during sustained attention. Shared deficits were in fronto-striato-parietal activation and default mode suppression. Differences were a more severe DLPFC dysfunction in ADHD and a disorder-specific fronto-striato-cerebellar dysregulation in ASD.

  18. Altered Striatal Synaptic Function and Abnormal Behaviour in Shank3 Exon4-9 Deletion Mouse Model of Autism.

    Jaramillo, Thomas C; Speed, Haley E; Xuan, Zhong; Reimers, Jeremy M; Liu, Shunan; Powell, Craig M


    Shank3 is a multi-domain, synaptic scaffolding protein that organizes proteins in the postsynaptic density of excitatory synapses. Clinical studies suggest that ∼ 0.5% of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) cases may involve SHANK3 mutation/deletion. Patients with SHANK3 mutations exhibit deficits in cognition along with delayed/impaired speech/language and repetitive and obsessive/compulsive-like (OCD-like) behaviors. To examine how mutation/deletion of SHANK3 might alter brain function leading to ASD, we have independently created mice with deletion of Shank3 exons 4-9, a region implicated in ASD patients. We find that homozygous deletion of exons 4-9 (Shank3(e4-9) KO) results in loss of the two highest molecular weight isoforms of Shank3 and a significant reduction in other isoforms. Behaviorally, both Shank3(e4-9) heterozygous (HET) and Shank3(e4-9) KO mice display increased repetitive grooming, deficits in novel and spatial object recognition learning and memory, and abnormal ultrasonic vocalizations. Shank3(e4-9) KO mice also display abnormal social interaction when paired with one another. Analysis of synaptosome fractions from striata of Shank3(e4-9) KO mice reveals decreased Homer1b/c, GluA2, and GluA3 expression. Both Shank3(e4-9) HET and KO demonstrated a significant reduction in NMDA/AMPA ratio at excitatory synapses onto striatal medium spiny neurons. Furthermore, Shank3(e4-9) KO mice displayed reduced hippocampal LTP despite normal baseline synaptic transmission. Collectively these behavioral, biochemical and physiological changes suggest Shank3 isoforms have region-specific roles in regulation of AMPAR subunit localization and NMDAR function in the Shank3(e4-9) mutant mouse model of autism.

  19. Some Fejer Type Inequalities for Harmonically-Convex Functions with Applications to Special Means

    M. A. Latif


    Full Text Available In this paper, the notion of harmonic symmetricity of functions is introduced. A new identity involving harmonically symmetric functions is established and some new Fejer type integral inequalities are presented for the class of harmonically convex functions. The results presented in this paper are better than those established in recent literature concerning harmonically convex functions. Applications of our results to special means of positive real numbers are given as well.

  20. Abnormal functioning of the left temporal lobe in language-impaired children.

    Helenius, Päivi; Sivonen, Päivi; Parviainen, Tiina; Isoaho, Pia; Hannus, Sinikka; Kauppila, Timo; Salmelin, Riitta; Isotalo, Leena


    Specific language impairment is associated with enduring problems in language-related functions. We followed the spatiotemporal course of cortical activation in SLI using magnetoencephalography. In the experiment, children with normal and impaired language development heard spoken real words and pseudowords presented only once or two times in a row. In typically developing children, the activation in the bilateral superior temporal cortices was attenuated to the second presentation of the same word. In SLI children, this repetition effect was nearly nonexistent in the left hemisphere. Furthermore, the activation was equally strong to words and pseudowords in SLI children whereas in the typically developing children the left hemisphere activation persisted longer for pseudowords than words. Our results indicate that the short-term maintenance of linguistic activation that underlies spoken word recognition is defective in SLI particularly in the left language-dominant hemisphere. The unusually rapid decay of speech-evoked activation can contribute to impaired vocabulary growth.

  1. Functional magnetic resonance imaging of the normal and abnormal visual system in early life

    Born, A.P.; Miranda Gimenez-Ricco, Maria Jo; Rostrup, Egill


    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in young children may provide information about the development of the visual cortex, and may have predictive value for later visual performance. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of fMRI for examining cerebral processing of vision...... in very young infants and in infants with brain damage. We examined 15 preterm infants, 12 children suspected of having a cerebral visual impairment and 10 children with a normal visual system, all of whom were either spontaneously asleep or sedated with chloral hydrate. Cortical response to stroboscopic...... showed a signal decrease. The activated cortical volumes showed a linear relation to age for healthy children younger than 90 weeks PMA, but were small in children with visual impairment. In two children with unilateral damage to the optic radiations, activation was strongly asymmetrical with greatest...

  2. Functional magnetic resonance imaging of the normal and abnormal visual system in early life

    Born, A.P.; Miranda Gimenez-Ricco, Maria Jo; Rostrup, Egill;


    in very young infants and in infants with brain damage. We examined 15 preterm infants, 12 children suspected of having a cerebral visual impairment and 10 children with a normal visual system, all of whom were either spontaneously asleep or sedated with chloral hydrate. Cortical response to stroboscopic......Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in young children may provide information about the development of the visual cortex, and may have predictive value for later visual performance. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of fMRI for examining cerebral processing of vision...... showed a signal decrease. The activated cortical volumes showed a linear relation to age for healthy children younger than 90 weeks PMA, but were small in children with visual impairment. In two children with unilateral damage to the optic radiations, activation was strongly asymmetrical with greatest...

  3. Acid sphingomyelinase (aSMase) deficiency leads to abnormal microglia behavior and disturbed retinal function

    Dannhausen, Katharina; Karlstetter, Marcus; Caramoy, Albert [Laboratory for Experimental Immunology of the Eye, Department of Ophthalmology, University of Cologne, Cologne (Germany); Volz, Cornelia; Jägle, Herbert [Department of Ophthalmology, University Hospital Regensburg, Regensburg (Germany); Liebisch, Gerhard [Institute for Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine, University Hospital Regensburg, Regensburg (Germany); Utermöhlen, Olaf [Institute for Medical Microbiology, Immunology and Hygiene and Center for Molecular Medicine Cologne, University of Cologne, Cologne (Germany); Langmann, Thomas, E-mail: [Laboratory for Experimental Immunology of the Eye, Department of Ophthalmology, University of Cologne, Cologne (Germany)


    Mutations in the acid sphingomyelinase (aSMase) coding gene sphingomyelin phosphodiesterase 1 (SMPD1) cause Niemann-Pick disease (NPD) type A and B. Sphingomyelin storage in cells of the mononuclear phagocyte system cause hepatosplenomegaly and severe neurodegeneration in the brain of NPD patients. However, the effects of aSMase deficiency on retinal structure and microglial behavior have not been addressed in detail yet. Here, we demonstrate that retinas of aSMase{sup −/−} mice did not display overt neuronal degeneration but showed significantly reduced scotopic and photopic responses in electroretinography. In vivo fundus imaging of aSMase{sup −/−} mice showed many hyperreflective spots and staining for the retinal microglia marker Iba1 revealed massive proliferation of retinal microglia that had significantly enlarged somata. Nile red staining detected prominent phospholipid inclusions in microglia and lipid analysis showed significantly increased sphingomyelin levels in retinas of aSMase{sup −/−} mice. In conclusion, the aSMase-deficient mouse is the first example in which microglial lipid inclusions are directly related to a loss of retinal function. - Highlights: • aSMase-deficient mice show impaired retinal function and reactive microgliosis. • aSMase-deficient microglia express pro-inflammatory transcripts. • aSMase-deficient microglia proliferate and have increased cell body size. • In vivo imaging shows hyperreflective spots in the fundus of aSMase-deficient mice. • aSMase-deficient microglia accumulate sphingolipid-rich intracellular deposits.

  4. Mapping functional brain development: Building a social brain through interactive specialization.

    Johnson, Mark H; Grossmann, Tobias; Cohen Kadosh, Kathrin


    The authors review a viewpoint on human functional brain development, interactive specialization (IS), and its application to the emerging network of cortical regions referred to as the social brain. They advance the IS view in 2 new ways. First, they extend IS into a domain to which it has not previously been applied--the emergence of social cognition and mentalizing computations in the brain. Second, they extend the implications of the IS view from the emergence of specialized functions within a cortical region to a focus on how different cortical regions with complementary functions become orchestrated into networks during human postnatal development.

  5. Development of a decision support tool to facilitate primary care management of patients with abnormal liver function tests without clinically apparent liver disease [HTA03/38/02]. Abnormal Liver Function Investigations Evaluation (ALFIE

    Sullivan Frank M


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Liver function tests (LFTs are routinely performed in primary care, and are often the gateway to further invasive and/or expensive investigations. Little is known of the consequences in people with an initial abnormal liver function (ALF test in primary care and with no obvious liver disease. Further investigations may be dangerous for the patient and expensive for Health Services. The aims of this study are to determine the natural history of abnormalities in LFTs before overt liver disease presents in the population and identify those who require minimal further investigations with the potential for reduction in NHS costs. Methods/Design A population-based retrospective cohort study will follow up all those who have had an incident liver function test (LFT in primary care to subsequent liver disease or mortality over a period of 15 years (approx. 2.3 million tests in 99,000 people. The study is set in Primary Care in the region of Tayside, Scotland (pop approx. 429,000 between 1989 and 2003. The target population consists of patients with no recorded clinical signs or symptoms of liver disease and registered with a GP. The health technologies being assessed are LFTs, viral and auto-antibody tests, ultrasound, CT, MRI and liver biopsy. The study will utilise the Epidemiology of Liver Disease In Tayside (ELDIT database to determine the outcomes of liver disease. These are based on hospital admission data (Scottish Morbidity Record 1, dispensed medication records, death certificates, and examination of medical records from Tayside hospitals. A sample of patients (n = 150 with recent initial ALF tests or invitation to biopsy will complete questionnaires to obtain quality of life data and anxiety measures. Cost-effectiveness and cost utility Markov model analyses will be performed from health service and patient perspectives using standard NHS costs. The findings will also be used to develop a computerised clinical decision

  6. Training Public School Special Educators to Implement Two Functional Analysis Models

    Rispoli, Mandy; Neely, Leslie; Healy, Olive; Gregori, Emily


    The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy and efficiency of a training package to teach public school special educators to conduct functional analyses of challenging behavior. Six public school educators were divided into two cohorts of three and were taught two models of functional analysis of challenging behavior: traditional and…

  7. Turkish Special Education Teachers' Implementation of Functional Analysis in Classroom Settings

    Erbas, Dilek; Yucesoy, Serife; Turan, Yasemin; Ostrosky, Michaelene M.


    Three Turkish special education teachers conducted a functional analysis to identify variables that might initiate or maintain the problem behaviors of three children with developmental disabilities. The analysis procedures were conducted in natural classroom settings. In Phase 1, following initial training in functional analysis procedures, the…

  8. Potential use of MEG to understand abnormalities in auditory function in clinical populations

    Eric eLarson


    Full Text Available Magnetoencephalography (MEG provides a direct, non-invasive view of neural activity with millisecond temporal precision. Recent developments in MEG analysis allow for improved source localization and mapping of connectivity between brain regions, expanding the possibilities for using MEG as a diagnostic tool. In this paper, we first describe inverse imaging methods (e.g., minimum-norm estimation and functional connectivity measures, and how they can provide insights into cortical processing. We then offer a perspective on how these techniques could be used to understand and evaluate auditory pathologies that often manifest during development. Here we focus specifically on how MEG inverse imaging, by providing anatomically-based interpretation of neural activity, may allow us to test which aspects of cortical processing play a role in (central auditory processing disorder ([C]APD. Appropriately combining auditory paradigms with MEG analysis could eventually prove useful for a hypothesis-driven understanding and diagnosis of (CAPD or other disorders, as well as the evaluation of the effectiveness of intervention strategies.

  9. Hyperferritinemia and hyperuricemia may be associated with liver function abnormality in obese adolescents.

    Solomon Chih Cheng Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The iron status in human body and its association with liver function in adolescents was rarely studied. The objective was to investigate the association among the levels of serum ferritin, uric acid and alanine aminotransferase (ALT in adolescents. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 2090 adolescents negative for hepatitis B surface antigen from one junior high school (786, 12-13 years, three senior high schools (973, 15-16 years and one college (331, 18-19 years participated in this survey. Anthropometric and biochemical measurements, including complete blood count, ALT, serum ferritin and uric acid were performed. An ALT>42 U/L was defined as elevated, a ferritin level >200 µg/L was defined as hyperferritinemia. A uric acid level >460 µmol/L in males and >340 µmol/L in females was defined as hyperuricemia. The chi-squared test, linear regression and multivariate logistic regression were used for the data analysis. Elevated ALT levels were detected in 76 (3.6% students and were more prevalent in males than females (6.4% vs. 2.0%, p100 µg/L. The logistic regression analysis found that body mass index, hyperferritinemia and hyperuricemia were significant factors associated with the ALT elevation, but gender, age, and white blood cell count were not. CONCLUSIONS: Hyperferritinemia and hyperuricemia are two independently significant factors associated with ALT elevation among obese adolescents. More studies are needed to corroborate any hypothesis related to these phenomena.

  10. Microstructural abnormalities of uncinate fasciculus as a function of impaired cognition in schizophrenia: A DTI study



    Neuropsychological studies have reported that attention, memory, language, motor and emotion processing areimpaired in schizophrenia. It is known that schizophrenia involves structural alterations in the white matter of brainthat contribute to the pathophysiology of the disorder. Uncinate fasciculus (UNC), a bundle of white matter fibres,plays an important role in the pathology of this disorder and involved in cognitive functions such as memory, languageand emotion processing. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate microstructural changes in UNC fibre inschizophrenia patients relative to controls and its correlation with neuropsychological scores.Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and Hindi version of Penn Computerised Neuropsychological Battery test wasperformed in 14 schizophrenia patients and 14 controls. DTI measures [fractional anisotropy (FA) and meandiffusivity (MD)] from UNC fibre were calculated and a comparison was made between patients and controls.Pearson’s correlation was performed between neuropsychological scores and DTI measures.Schizophrenia patientsshowed significantly reduced FA values in UNC fibre compared to controls. In schizophrenia patients, a positivecorrelation of attention, spatial memory, sensorimotor dexterity and emotion with FA was observed. These findingssuggest that microstructural changes in UNC fibre may contribute to underlying dysfunction in the cognitive functionsassociated with schizophrenia.

  11. Children with emotional and behavioral disorders in special education: Placement, progress, and family functioning

    Stoutjesdijk, Regina


    The studies described in this dissertation focus on children with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) in special education. It was found that poor academic performance, relational problems between children and caregivers, and the age at which youth care was involved for the first time predicted placement in a more restrictive special educational setting over placement in a regular school. No differences in progress outcomes regarding behavioral functioning and academic performance of chi...

  12. Functional and structural abnormalities associated with empathy in patients with schizophrenia: An fMRI and VBM study.

    Singh, Sadhana; Modi, Shilpi; Goyal, Satnam; Kaur, Prabhjot; Singh, Namita; Bhatia, Triptish; Deshpande, Smita N; Khushu, Subash


    Empathy deficit is a core feature of schizophrenia which may lead to social dysfunction. The present study was carried out to investigate functional and structural abnormalities associated with empathy in patients with schizophrenia using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and voxel-based morphometry (VBM). A sample of 14 schizophrenia patients and 14 healthy control subjects matched for age, sex and education were examined with structural highresolution T1-weighted MRI; fMRI images were obtained during empathy task in the same session. The analysis was carried out using SPM8 software. On behavioural assessment, schizophrenic patients (83.00+-29.04) showed less scores for sadness compared to healthy controls (128.70+-22.26) (p less than 0.001). fMRI results also showed reduced clusters of activation in the bilateral fusiform gyrus, left lingual gyrus, left middle and inferior occipital gyrus in schizophrenic subjects as compared to controls during empathy task. In the same brain areas, VBM results also showed reduced grey and white matter volumes. The present study provides an evidence for an association between structural alterations and disturbed functional brain activation during empathy task in persons affected with schizophrenia. These findings suggest a biological basis for social cognition deficits in schizophrenics.

  13. Functional and structural abnormalities associated with empathy in patients with schizophrenia: An fMRI and VBM study

    Sadhana Singh; Shilpi Modi; Satnam Goyal; Prabhjot Kaur; Namita Singh; Triptish Bhatia; Smita N Deshpande; Subash Khushu


    Empathy deficit is a core feature of schizophrenia which may lead to social dysfunction. The present study was carried out to investigate functional and structural abnormalities associated with empathy in patients with schizophrenia using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and voxel-based morphometry (VBM). A sample of 14 schizophrenia patients and 14 healthy control subjects matched for age, sex and education were examined with structural high-resolution T1-weighted MRI; fMRI images were obtained during empathy task in the same session. The analysis was carried out using SPM8 software. On behavioural assessment, schizophrenic patients (83.00±29.04) showed less scores for sadness compared to healthy controls (128.70±22.26) ( < 0.001). fMRI results also showed reduced clusters of activation in the bilateral fusiform gyrus, left lingual gyrus, left middle and inferior occipital gyrus in schizophrenic subjects as compared to controls during empathy task. In the same brain areas, VBM results also showed reduced grey and white matter volumes. The present study provides an evidence for an association between structural alterations and disturbed functional brain activation during empathy task in persons affected with schizophrenia. These findings suggest a biological basis for social cognition deficits in schizophrenics.

  14. Abnormal cortical functional connections in Alzheimer's disease: analysis of inter- and intra-hemispheric EEG coherence

    JIANG Zheng-yan


    To investigate inter- and intra-hemispheric electroencephalography (EEG) coherence at rest and during photic stimulation of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Thirty-five patients (12 males, 23 females; 52~64 y) and 33 sex- and age-matched controls (12 males, 21 females; 56~65 y) were recruited in the present study. EEG signals from C3-C4, P3-P4, T5-T6and O1-O2 electrode pairs resulted from the inter-hemispheric action, and EEG signals from C3-P3, C4-P4, P3-O1, P4-O2, C3-O1,C4-O2, T5-O 1 and T6-O2 electrode pairs resulted from the intra-hemispheric action. The influence of inter- and intra-hemispheric coherence on EEG activity with eyes closed was examined, using fast Fourier transformation from the 16 sampled channels. The frequencies of photic stimulation were fixed at 5, 10 and 15 Hz, respectively. The general decrease of AD patients in inter- and intra-hemispheric EEG coherence was more significant than that of the normal controls at the resting EEG, with most striking decrease observed in the alpha-1 (8.0-9.0 Hz) and alpha-2 (9.5-12.5 Hz) bands. During photic stimulation, inter- and intra-hemispheric EEG coherences of the AD patients having lower values in the alpha (9.5-10.5 Hz) band than those of the control group. It suggests that under stimulated and non-stimulated conditions, AD patients had impaired inter- and intra-hemispheric functional connections, indicating failure of brain activation in alpha-related frequency.

  15. Unique functional abnormalities in youth with combined marijuana use and depression: an fMRI study

    Kristen A Ford


    Full Text Available Prior research has shown a relationship between early onset marijuana (MJ use and depression, however this relationship is complex and poorly understood. Here, we utilized passive music listening and fMRI to examine functional brain activation to a rewarding stimulus in 75 participants (healthy controls (HC, patients with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD, frequent MJ users (MJ, and the combination of MDD and MJ (MDD+MJ. For each participant a preferred and neutral piece of instrumental music was determined (utilizing ratings on a standardized scale, and each completed two 6-minute fMRI scans of a passive music listening task. Data underwent preprocessing and 61 participants were carried forward for analysis (17 HC, 15 MDD, 15 MJ, 14 MDD+MJ. Two statistical analyses were performed using SPM8, an ANCOVA with two factors (group x music-type and a whole brain, multiple regression analysis incorporating two predictors of interest (MJ use in past 28 days; and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI score. We identified a significant group x music-type interaction. Post hoc comparisons showed the preferred music had significantly greater activation in the MDD+MJ group in areas including the right middle and inferior frontal gyri extending into the claustrum and putamen and the anterior cingulate. No significant differences were identified in MDD, MJ or HC groups. Multiple regression analysis showed that activation in medial frontal cortex was positively correlated with amount of MJ use, and activation in areas including the insula was negatively correlated with BDI score. Results showed modulation in brain activation during passive music listening specific to MDD, frequent MJ users. This supports the suggestion that frequent MJ use, when combined with MDD, is associated with changes in neurocircuitry involved in reward-processing in ways that are absent with either frequent marijuana use or MDD alone. This could help inform clinical recommendations for youth with

  16. Loss of Rab27 function results in abnormal lung epithelium structure in mice.

    Bolasco, Giulia; Tracey-White, Dhani C; Tolmachova, Tanya; Thorley, Andrew J; Tetley, Teresa D; Seabra, Miguel C; Hume, Alistair N


    Rab27 small GTPases regulate secretion and movement of lysosome-related organelles such as T cell cytolytic granules and platelet-dense granules. Previous studies indicated that Rab27a and Rab27b are expressed in the murine lung suggesting that they regulate secretory processes in the lung. Consistent with those studies, we found that Rab27a and Rab27b are expressed in cell types that contain secretory granules: alveolar epithelial type II (AEII) and Clara cells. We then used Rab27a/Rab27b double knockout (DKO) mice to examine the functional consequence of loss of Rab27 proteins in the murine lung. Light and electron microscopy revealed a number of morphological changes in lungs from DKO mice when compared with those in control animals. In aged DKO mice we observed atrophy of the bronchiolar and alveolar epithelium with reduction of cells numbers, thinning of the bronchiolar epithelium and alveolar walls, and enlargement of alveolar airspaces. In these samples we also observed increased numbers of activated foamy alveolar macrophages and granulocyte containing infiltrates together with reduction in the numbers of Clara cells and AEII cells compared with control. At the ultrastructural level we observed accumulation of cytoplasmic membranes and vesicles in Clara cells. Meanwhile, AEII cells in DKO accumulated large mature lamellar bodies and lacked immature/precursor lamellar bodies. We hypothesize that the morphological changes observed at the ultrastructural level in DKO samples result from secretory defects in AEII and Clara cells and that over time these defects lead to atrophy of the epithelium.

  17. Abnormal resting-state functional connectivity within the default mode network subregions in male patients with obstructive sleep apnea

    Li HJ


    Full Text Available Hai-Jun Li,1 Xiao Nie,1 Hong-Han Gong,1 Wei Zhang,2 Si Nie,1 De-Chang Peng11Department of Radiology, 2Department of Pneumology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Nanchang, Jiangxi Province, People’s Republic of ChinaBackground and objective: Abnormal resting-state functional connectivity (rs-FC between the central executive network and the default mode network (DMN in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA has been reported. However, the effect of OSA on rs-FC within the DMN subregions remains uncertain. This study was designed to investigate whether the rs-FC within the DMN subregions was disrupted and determine its relationship with clinical symptoms in patients with OSA. Methods: Forty male patients newly diagnosed with severe OSA and 40 male education- and age-matched good sleepers (GSs underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI examinations and clinical and neuropsychologic assessments. Seed-based region of interest rs-FC method was used to analyze the connectivity between each pair of subregions within the DMN, including the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC, posterior cingulate cortex (PCC, hippocampus formation (HF, inferior parietal cortices (IPC, and medial temporal lobe (MTL. The abnormal rs-FC strength within the DMN subregions was correlated with clinical and neuropsychologic assessments using Pearson correlation analysis in patients with OSA. Results: Compared with GSs, patients with OSA had significantly decreased rs-FC between the right HF and the PCC, MPFC, and left MTL. However, patients with OSA had significantly increased rs-FC between the MPFC and left and right IPC, and between the left IPC and right IPC. The rs-FC between the right HF and left MTL was positively correlated with rapid eye movement (r=0.335, P=0.035. The rs-FC between the PCC and right HF was negatively correlated with delayed memory (r=-0.338, P=0.033.Conclusion: OSA selectively impairs the rs-FC between right HF and PCC

  18. Structural and functional abnormalities of the hippocampal formation in rats with environmentally induced reductions in prepulse inhibition of acoustic startle.

    Greene, J R; Kerkhoff, J E; Guiver, L; Totterdell, S


    The effects of social isolation on prepulse inhibition of acoustic startle (PPI), electrophysiology and morphology of subicular pyramidal neurons and the densities of interneuronal sub-types in the hippocampal formation were examined. Wistar rats (male weanlings) were housed socially (socials, n=8) or individually (isolates, n=7). When tested eight weeks later, PPI was lower in isolates. Rats then received terminal anaesthesia before slices of hippocampal formation were made in which the electrophysiological properties of a total of 108 subicular neurons were characterized. There were no differences in neuronal sub-types recorded in socials compared with isolates. Intrinsically burst-firing and regular spiking pyramidal neurons were examined in detail. There were no differences in resting membrane potential or input resistance in isolates compared with socials but action potential height was reduced and action potential threshold raised in isolates. A limited morphological examination of Neurobiotin-filled intrinsically burst-firing neurons did not reveal differences in cell-body area or in number of primary dendrites. Sections from the contralateral hemispheres of the same rats were stained with antibodies to calretinin, parvalbumin and the neuronal isoform of nitric oxide synthase (nNOS). In isolates, the density of calretinin positive neurons was increased in the dentate gyrus but unchanged in areas CA3, CA1 and subiculum. Parvalbumin and nNOS positive neuronal densities were unchanged. Hence in rats with environmentally induced reductions in PPI there are structural and functional abnormalities in the hippocampal formation. If the reduction in PPI stems from these abnormalities, and reduced PPI in rats is relevant to schizophrenia, then drugs that correct the reported electrophysiological changes might have antipsychotic effects.

  19. Abnormal development of sensory-motor, visual temporal and parahippocampal cortex in children with learning disabilities and borderline intellectual functioning.

    Baglio, Francesca; Cabinio, Monia; Ricci, Cristian; Baglio, Gisella; Lipari, Susanna; Griffanti, Ludovica; Preti, Maria G; Nemni, Raffaello; Clerici, Mario; Zanette, Michela; Blasi, Valeria


    Borderline intellectual functioning (BIF) is a condition characterized by an intelligence quotient (IQ) between 70 and 85. BIF children present with cognitive, motor, social, and adaptive limitations that result in learning disabilities and are more likely to develop psychiatric disorders later in life. The aim of this study was to investigate brain morphometry and its relation to IQ level in BIF children. Thirteen children with BIF and 14 age- and sex-matched typically developing (TD) children were enrolled. All children underwent a full IQ assessment (WISC-III scale) and a magnetic resonance (MR) examination including conventional sequences to assess brain structural abnormalities and high resolution 3D images for voxel-based morphometry analysis. To investigate to what extent the group influenced gray matter (GM) volumes, both univariate and multivariate generalized linear model analysis of variance were used, and the varimax factor analysis was used to explore variable correlations and clusters among subjects. Results showed that BIF children, compared to controls have increased regional GM volume in bilateral sensorimotor and right posterior temporal cortices and decreased GM volume in the right parahippocampal gyrus. GM volumes were highly correlated with IQ indices. The present work is a case study of a group of BIF children showing that BIF is associated with abnormal cortical development in brain areas that have a pivotal role in motor, learning, and behavioral processes. Our findings, although allowing for little generalization to the general population, contribute to the very limited knowledge in this field. Future longitudinal MR studies will be useful in verifying whether cortical features can be modified over time even in association with rehabilitative intervention.

  20. Meiotic abnormalities



    Chapter 19, describes meiotic abnormalities. These include nondisjunction of autosomes and sex chromosomes, genetic and environmental causes of nondisjunction, misdivision of the centromere, chromosomally abnormal human sperm, male infertility, parental age, and origin of diploid gametes. 57 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.




    Full Text Available In this paper, the generating functions for ultraspherical polynomials Cα n (x (Gegenbaur polynomials are obtained by using the representa- tion theory of the Lie group SL(2, C (the complex special linear group giving a suitable interpretation to the index 0 n0 . Further, linearly inde- pendent differential J-operators derived, which generate a Lie algebra isomorphic to sl(2, C. The principle interest in our results lies in the fact that, how thecomplex special linear group can be applied suitably to the Gegenbaur polynomials in order to derive six bilinear/bilateral generating functions. The generating functions, in turn yield, Legendre polynomials as special cases. Many results obtained are well known but some of them are believed to be new in the theory of specialfunctions.

  2. Analysis of Abnormal Intra-QRS Potentials in Signal-Averaged Electrocardiograms Using a Radial Basis Function Neural Network

    Chun-Cheng Lin


    Full Text Available Abnormal intra-QRS potentials (AIQPs are commonly observed in patients at high risk for ventricular tachycardia. We present a method for approximating a measured QRS complex using a non-linear neural network with all radial basis functions having the same smoothness. We extracted the high frequency, but low amplitude intra-QRS potentials using the approximation error to identify possible ventricular tachycardia. With a specified number of neurons, we performed an orthogonal least squares algorithm to determine the center of each Gaussian radial basis function. We found that the AIQP estimation error arising from part of the normal QRS complex could cause clinicians to misjudge patients with ventricular tachycardia. Our results also show that it is possible to correct this misjudgment by combining multiple AIQP parameters estimated using various spread parameters and numbers of neurons. Clinical trials demonstrate that higher AIQP-to-QRS ratios in the X, Y and Z leads are visible in patients with ventricular tachycardia than in normal subjects. A linear combination of 60 AIQP-to-QRS ratios can achieve 100% specificity, 90% sensitivity, and 95.8% total prediction accuracy for diagnosing ventricular tachycardia.

  3. Mathematical methods in physics partial differential equations, Fourier series, and special functions

    Henner , Victor; Forinash , Kyle


    This book is a text on partial differential equations (PDEs) of mathematical physics and boundary value problems, trigonometric Fourier series, and special functions. This is the core content of many courses in the fields of engineering, physics, mathematics, and applied mathematics. The accompanying software provides a laboratory environment that allows the user to generate and model different physical situations and learn by experimentation. From this standpoint, the book along with the software can also be used as a reference book on PDEs, Fourier series and special functions for students a

  4. Morphology predicts species' functional roles and their degree of specialization in plant–frugivore interactions

    Dehling, D. Matthias; Schaefer, H. Martin; Böhning-Gaese, Katrin; Schleuning, Matthias


    Species' functional roles in key ecosystem processes such as predation, pollination or seed dispersal are determined by the resource use of consumer species. An interaction between resource and consumer species usually requires trait matching (e.g. a congruence in the morphologies of interaction partners). Species' morphology should therefore determine species' functional roles in ecological processes mediated by mutualistic or antagonistic interactions. We tested this assumption for Neotropical plant–bird mutualisms. We used a new analytical framework that assesses a species's functional role based on the analysis of the traits of its interaction partners in a multidimensional trait space. We employed this framework to test (i) whether there is correspondence between the morphology of bird species and their functional roles and (ii) whether morphologically specialized birds fulfil specialized functional roles. We found that morphological differences between bird species reflected their functional differences: (i) bird species with different morphologies foraged on distinct sets of plant species and (ii) morphologically distinct bird species fulfilled specialized functional roles. These findings encourage further assessments of species' functional roles through the analysis of their interaction partners, and the proposed analytical framework facilitates a wide range of novel analyses for network and community ecology. PMID:26817779

  5. Abnormal functional connectivity with mood regulating circuit in unmedicated individual with major depression: a resting-state functional magnetic resonance study

    PENG Dai-hui; SHEN Ting; ZHANG Jie; HUANG Jia; LIU Jun; LIU Shu-yong; JIANG Kai-da; XU Yi-feng; FANG Yi-ru


    Background Reports on mood regulating circuit (MRC) indicated different activities between depressed patients and healthy controls.The functional networks based on MRC have not been described in major depression disorder (MDD).Both the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and thalamus are all the key regions of MRC.This study was to investigate the two functional networks related to ACC and thalamus in MDD.Methods Sixteen patients with MDD on first episode which never got any medication and sixteen matched health controls were scanned by 3.0 T functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during resting-state.The pregenual anterior cingulate cortex (pgACC) was used as seed region to construct the functional network by cortex section.The thalamus was used as seed region to construct the functional network by limbic section.Paired-t tests between-groups were performed for the seed-target correlations based on the individual fisher z-transformed correlation maps by SPM2.Results Depressed subjects exhibited significantly great functional connectivity (FC) between pgACC and the parahippocampus gyrus in one cluster (size 923) including left parahippocampus gyrus (-21,-49,7),left parietal lobe (-3,-46,52) and left frontal lobe (-27,-46,28).The one cluster (size 962) of increased FC on thalamus network overlapped the precuneus near to right parietal lobe (9,-52,46) and right cingulate gyrus (15,-43,43) in health controls.Conclusions Abnormal functional networks exist in earlier manifestation of MDD related to MRC by both cortex and limbic sections.The increased functional connectivity of pgACC and decreased functional connectivity of thalamus is mainly involved in bias mood processing and cognition.

  6. Abnormal reward functioning across substance use disorders and major depressive disorder: Considering reward as a transdiagnostic mechanism.

    Baskin-Sommers, Arielle R; Foti, Dan


    A common criticism of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (American Psychiatric Association, 2013) is that its criteria are based more on behavioral descriptions than on underlying biological mechanisms. Increasingly, calls have intensified for a more biologically-based approach to conceptualizing, studying, and treating psychological disorders, as exemplified by the Research Domain Criteria Project (RDoC). Among the most well-studied neurobiological mechanisms is reward processing. Moreover, individual differences in reward sensitivity are related to risk for substance abuse and depression. The current review synthesizes the available preclinical, electrophysiological, and neuroimaging literature on reward processing from a transdiagnostic, multidimensional perspective. Findings are organized with respect to key reward constructs within the Positive Valence Systems domain of the RDoC matrix, including initial responsiveness to reward (physiological 'liking'), approach motivation (physiological 'wanting'), and reward learning/habit formation. In the current review, we (a) describe the neural basis of reward, (b) elucidate differences in reward activity in substance abuse and depression, and (c) suggest a framework for integrating these disparate literatures and discuss the utility of shifting focus from diagnosis to process for understanding liability and co-morbidity. Ultimately, we believe that an integrative focus on abnormal reward functioning across the full continuum of clinically heterogeneous samples, rather than within circumscribed diagnostic categories, might actually help to refine the phenotypes and improve the prediction of onset and recovery of these disorders.

  7. Absence of PTHrP nuclear localization and carboxyl terminus sequences leads to abnormal brain development and function.

    Zhen Gu

    Full Text Available We assessed whether the nuclear localization sequences (NLS and C terminus of parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP play critical roles in brain development and function. We used histology, immunohistochemistry, histomorphometry, Western blots and electrophysiological recordings to compare the proliferation and differentiation of neural stem cells, neuronal hippocampal synaptic transmission, and brain phenotypes including shape and structures, in Pthrp knock-in mice, which express PTHrP (1-84, a truncated form of the protein that is missing the NLS and the C-terminal region of the protein, and their wild-type littermates. Results showed that Pthrp knock-in mice display abnormal brain shape and structures; decreased neural cell proliferative capacity and increased apoptosis associated with up-regulation of cyclin dependent kinase inhibitors p16, p21, p27 and p53 and down-regulation of the Bmi-1 oncogene; delayed neural cell differentiation; and impaired hippocampal synaptic transmission and plasticity. These findings provide in vivo experimental evidence that the NLS and C-terminus of PTHrP are essential not only for the regulation of neural cell proliferation and differentiation, but also for the maintenance of normal neuronal synaptic transmission and plasticity.

  8. Mapping Functional Brain Development: Building a Social Brain through Interactive Specialization

    Johnson, Mark H.; Grossmann, Tobias; Kadosh, Kathrin Cohen


    The authors review a viewpoint on human functional brain development, interactive specialization (IS), and its application to the emerging network of cortical regions referred to as the "social brain." They advance the IS view in 2 new ways. First, they extend IS into a domain to which it has not previously been applied--the emergence of social…

  9. Selected Issues in Persistent Asynchronous Adaptive Specialization for Generic Functional Array Programming

    C. Grelck; H. Wiesinger


    Asynchronous adaptive specialization of rank- and shape-generic code for processing immutable (purely functional) multi-dimensional arrays has proven to be an effective technique to reconcile the desire for abstract specifications with the need to achieve reasonably high performance in sequential as

  10. Biodiversity, ecosystem functions and services in environmental risk assessment: introduction to the special issue.

    Schäfer, Ralf B


    This Special Issue focuses on the questions if and how biodiversity, ecosystem functions and resulting services could be incorporated into the Ecological Risk Assessment (ERA). Therefore, three articles provide a framework for the integration of ecosystem services into ERA of soils, sediments and pesticides. Further articles demonstrate ways how stakeholders can be integrated into an ecosystem service-based ERA for soils and describe how the current monitoring could be adapted to new assessment endpoints that are directly linked to ecosystem services. Case studies show that the current ERA may not be protective for biodiversity, ecosystem functions and resulting services and that both pesticides and salinity currently adversely affect ecosystem functions in the field. Moreover, ecological models can be used for prediction of new protection goals and could finally support their implementation into the ERA. Overall, the Special Issue stresses the urgent need to enhance current procedures of ERA if biodiversity, ecosystem functions and resulting services are to be protected.

  11. Morpho-functional peculiarities and motive qualities of students of different sports specializations.

    Sidorova T.V.


    Full Text Available In the article, the features of morpho-functional and motive qualities of students of different sporting specializations of higher educational establishments are expounded. The got results of estimation of the state of functional preparedness were instrumental in forming of experimental groups high-performance speed-power qualities, endurance and complex coordinating capabilities, that enabled to individualize an educational process on discipline «Ski sport».

  12. A Specialized Lightweight Metamorphic Function for KASUMI Metamorphic Cipher and Its FPGA Implementation

    Rabie A. Mahmoud


    Full Text Available To enhance the performance of the KASUMI Metamorphic Cipher, we apply a lightweight Metamorphic Structure. The proposed structure uses four lightweight bit-balanced operations in the function Meta-FO of the KASUMI Metamorphic Cipher. These operations are: XOR, INV, XNOR, and NOP for bitwise XOR, invert, XNOR, and no operation respectively building blocks of the Specialized Crypto Logic Unit (SCLU. In this work, we present a lightweight KASUMI Specialized-Metamorphic Cipher. In addition, we provide a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA implementation of the proposed algorithm modification.

  13. Waist circumference, body mass index, serum uric acid, blood sugar, and triglyceride levels are important risk factors for abnormal liver function tests in the Taiwanese population.

    Hsieh, Meng-Hsuan; Lin, Wen-Yi; Chien, Hsu-Han; Chien, Li-Ho; Huang, Chao-Kuan; Yang, Jeng-Fu; Chang, Ning-Chia; Huang, Chung-Feng; Wang, Chao-Ling; Chuang, Wan-Long; Yu, Ming-Lung; Dai, Chia-Yen; Ho, Chi-Kung


    Several studies have found that metabolic syndrome and uric acid level are related to abnormal liver function test results. The aim of this study was to explore the associations of risk factors [including blood pressure, blood sugar, total cholesterol, triglyceride, uric acid, waist circumference and body mass index (BMI) measurements] with abnormal liver function in the Taiwanese population.In total, 11,411 Taiwanese adults were enrolled in this study. Blood pressure was assessed according to the Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure criteria, fasting blood sugar level according to the Bureau of Health Promotion, Department of Health, R.O.C., criteria, total cholesterol and triglyceride levels according to the Third Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III criteria, BMI according to the Asia-Pacific criteria, and waist circumference according to the Revised Diagnostic Criteria of Metabolic Syndrome in Taiwan. The prevalence of a past history of hypertension and diabetes mellitus was 17.7% and 6.5%, respectively, and the rates of abnormal measurements of blood pressure, BMI, waist circumference, fasting blood sugar, triglyceride, total cholesterol, uric acid (male/female), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were 76.2%, 67.6%, 40.0%, 28.6%, 30.6%, 57.3%, 37.9%/21.9%, 14.6% and 21.3%, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that waist circumference, BMI, serum uric acid, blood sugar, and triglyceride levels were related to abnormal AST and ALT (pwaist circumference was larger than that for BMI. In conclusion, waist circumference, BMI, serum uric acid, blood sugar, and triglyceride levels are important risk factors for abnormal AST and ALT readings in Taiwanese adults. Waist circumference might be a better indicator of risk of abnormal liver function than BMI.

  14. Niche specialization and functional traits regulate the rarity of charophytes in the Nordic countries

    Båstrup-Spohr, Lars; Iversen, Lars Lønsman; Borum, Jens;


    1. Charophytes are benthic macroalgae that live in fresh and brackish waters. Given the historic deterioration of their habitats and their competitive inferiority relative to tall rooted plants under eutrophic conditions, it is hypothesized that charophytes are among the most threatened autotrophs...... countries with other autotrophs and analysing the relationship to species niche specialization and functional traits. A value on a rarity–commonness scale was assigned to each species based on their Red List status. Niche specialization was evaluated by the Outlying Mean Index using a large Danish dataset...... while traits were derived from the literature. 3. Supporting the hypotheses, 50–87% of charophyte species were Red Listed, which is much greater than for vascular aquatic (30–35%) and terrestrial plants (18–28%). Commonness of charophytes decreased significantly with niche specialization in separate...

  15. Specialized functional diversity and interactions of the Na,K-ATPase

    Igor I. Krivoi


    Full Text Available Na,K-ATPase is a protein ubiquitously expressed in the plasma membrane of all animal cells and vitally essential for their functions. A specialized functional diversity of the Na,K-ATPase isozymes is provided by molecular heterogeneity, distinct subcellular localizations and functional interactions with molecular environment. Studies over the last decades clearly demonstrated complex and isoform-specific reciprocal functional interactions between the Na,K-ATPase and neighboring proteins and lipids. These interactions are enabled by a spatially restricted ion homeostasis, direct protein-protein/lipid interactions and protein kinase signaling pathways. In addition to its ‘classical’ function in ion translocation, the Na,K-ATPase is now considered as one of the most important signaling molecules in neuronal, epithelial, skeletal, cardiac and vascular tissues. Accordingly, the Na,K-ATPase forms specialized sub-cellular multimolecular microdomains which act as receptors to circulating endogenous cardiotonic steroids triggering a number of signaling pathways. Changes in these endogenous cardiotonic steroid levels and initiated signaling responses have significant adaptive values for tissues and whole organisms under numerous physiological and pathophysiological conditions. This review discusses recent progress in the studies of functional interactions between the Na,K-ATPase and molecular microenvironment, the Na,K-ATPase-dependent signaling pathways and their significance for diversity of cell function.

  16. Abnormalities of regional brain function in Parkinson’s disease: a meta-analysis of resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging studies

    Pan, PingLei; Zhang, Yang; Liu, Yi; Zhang, He; Guan, DeNing; Xu, Yun


    There is convincing evidence that abnormalities of regional brain function exist in Parkinson’s disease (PD). However, many resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) studies using amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF) have reported inconsistent results about regional spontaneous neuronal activity in PD. Therefore, we conducted a comprehensive meta-analysis using the Seed-based d Mapping and several complementary analyses. We searched PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science databases for eligible whole-brain rs-fMRI studies that measured ALFF differences between patients with PD and healthy controls published from January 1st, 2000 until June 24, 2016. Eleven studies reporting 14 comparisons, comparing 421 patients and 381 healthy controls, were included. The most consistent and replicable findings in patients with PD compared with healthy controls were identified, including the decreased ALFFs in the bilateral supplementary motor areas, left putamen, left premotor cortex, and left inferior parietal gyrus, and increased ALFFs in the right inferior parietal gyrus. The altered ALFFs in these brain regions are related to motor deficits and compensation in PD, which contribute to understanding its neurobiological underpinnings and could serve as specific regions of interest for further studies. PMID:28079169

  17. Schizophrenia, abnormal connection, and brain evolution.

    Randall, P L


    Abnormalities of functional connection between specialized areas in the human brain may underlie the symptoms which constitute the schizophrenia syndrome. Callosal and intrahemispheric fibres may be equally involved. The clinical emergence of symptoms in the later stages of brain maturation may be dependent on myelination of these fibre groups, both of which have extended myelination cycles. Ontogenetically earlier variants of the same mechanism could theoretically result in dyslexia and the syndromes of Kanner and Gilles de la Tourette. As new and unique extensions of specialized function emerge within the evolving brain, biological trial and error of connection both within and between them may produce individuals possessing phylogenetically advanced abilities, or equally, others possessing a wide range of abnormalities including those which comprise the schizophrenia syndrome. A dormant phenotypic potential for schizophrenia may exist in individuals who never develop symptoms during the course of a lifetime though some of these may become clinically apparent under the influence of various precipitating factors. It is concluded that abnormal functional connection and its normal and "supernormal" counterparts may be natural, essential, and inevitable consequences of brain evolution, and that this may have been so throughout the history of vertebrate brain evolution.

  18. Analytic number theory, approximation theory, and special functions in honor of Hari M. Srivastava

    Rassias, Michael


    This book, in honor of Hari M. Srivastava, discusses essential developments in mathematical research in a variety of problems. It contains thirty-five articles, written by eminent scientists from the international mathematical community, including both research and survey works. Subjects covered include analytic number theory, combinatorics, special sequences of numbers and polynomials, analytic inequalities and applications, approximation of functions and quadratures, orthogonality, and special and complex functions. The mathematical results and open problems discussed in this book are presented in a simple and self-contained manner. The book contains an overview of old and new results, methods, and theories toward the solution of longstanding problems in a wide scientific field, as well as new results in rapidly progressing areas of research. The book will be useful for researchers and graduate students in the fields of mathematics, physics, and other computational and applied sciences.

  19. The method of fundamental solutions for transient heat conduction in functionally graded materials: some special cases

    Mohammad Nili Ahmadabadi


    Full Text Available In this paper, the Method of Fundamental Solutions (MFS is extended to solve some special cases of the problem of transient heat conduction in functionally graded mate- rials. First, the problem is transformed to a heat equation with constant coecients using a suitable new transformation and then the MFS together with the Tikhonov regularization method is used to solve the resulting equation

  20. Human Dendritic Cell Functional Specialization in Steady-State and Inflammation

    Arjan eBoltjes; Femke eVan Wijk


    Dendritic cells (DC) represent a heterogeneous population of antigen-presenting cells that are crucial in initiating and shaping immune responses. Although all DC are capable of antigen-uptake, processing, and presentation to T cells, DC subtypes differ in their origin, location, migration patterns, and specialized immunological roles. While in recent years, there have been rapid advances in understanding DC subset ontogeny, development, and function in mice, relatively little is known about ...

  1. Specific descriptions of functional providing of the special endurance of boxers

    Kiprich S.B.


    Full Text Available Purpose: to determine the specific characteristics of functional and metabolic support of special endurance of qualified boxers. Material: in research took part 16 boxers of high qualification at the age of 19-26 years. To estimate special endurance is used technique of detection the basic parameters of performance boxers "Spuderg-10." To estimate the response of cardiorespiratory system during the test "3x3" is used portable ergo-spirometry complex «Meta Max 3B» (Cortex, Germany. Results: It is shown that the range of individual distinctions of indexes of capacity and functional providing of the special endurance increased in every round under act of accumulation of fatigue. It is related to distinctions of kinetics of the cardiorespiratory system (by the increase of pulmonary ventilation in the first round, by the consumption of О 2 (by a capacity for the achievement of VO 2 max - in the second and by power of reaction of respiratory indemnification of metabolic acidosis - in the third. These distinctions are registered in default of reliable distinctions of quantitative descriptions of acidemic changes in an organism, increasing in the process of the test job processing. Conclusions: in different periods (rounds in boxers high grade found differences of manifestation and combinations of properties features of functional readiness.

  2. Assessment of functional preparedness of athletes specializing in the sprint, using new methodological approaches

    Nikolai Malikov


    Full Text Available Purpose: study the character of the changes the level of functional preparedness of sportsmen in the autumn-winter preparatory period training cycle of one year. Material & Methods: in the study to take part ten of athletes specializing in the sprint at the age of 19–23 years, and which have sports rank master of Sport and international master of sports. Methods: analysis scientific and methodical literature, pedagogical supervision, pedagogical experiment, methods for assessing functional training using computer technology, methods of mathematical statistics. Results: is defined integrated quantitative value of the level functional of preparedness and her individual components using new methodical approaches. Conclusions: it is shown that the conduct of the optimization functional of preparedness athletes is an important factor in enhancing the effectiveness of the training process.

  3. Regularization of Automorphic Functions of Manifolds with Special Kähler Geometry

    Vanegas, N


    In this paper we find automorphic functions of coset manifolds with special over integers which belong to a duality-invariant lattice, this product is known to produce duality-invariant functions. In turn these functions correspond to Eisenstein series which can be understood as string theory amplitudes that receive contributions from BPS states. The Ansatz is constructed using the coset manifold SU(1,n)øver SU(n) \\times U(1) as an example but it can be generalized. Automorphic functions play an important role in the calculation of threshold corrections to gauge coupling and other stringy phenomena. We also find some connections between the theory of Abelian varieties and moduli spaces of Calabi-Yau manifolds

  4. The emotional and behavioural functioning of siblings of children with special health care needs across childhood.

    Giallo, Rebecca; Roberts, Rachel; Emerson, Eric; Wood, Catherine; Gavidia-Payne, Susana


    This study examined the emotional and behavioural functioning of siblings of children with special health care needs identified in the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (LSAC). Of the 106 siblings identified, 15-52% had emotional and behavioural difficulties in the at-risk or clinical range on the parent-reported Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) subscales when aged 4-5 (wave 1), 6-7 (wave 2), 8-9 (wave 3) and 10-11 years (wave 4). After controlling for differences in socio-economic position, siblings had significantly higher difficulties on all subscales than their peers without a brother or sister with a special health care need at most time points. Latent growth modelling revealed little change in emotional and behavioural symptoms for siblings across childhood, while behavioural symptoms decreased for their peers. These findings suggest that some siblings are at heightened risk of emotional and behavioural difficulties across childhood, underscoring the importance of assessing and promoting the wellbeing of all family members when providing services to children with special health care needs.

  5. Computer algebra in quantum field theory integration, summation and special functions

    Schneider, Carsten


    The book focuses on advanced computer algebra methods and special functions that have striking applications in the context of quantum field theory. It presents the state of the art and new methods for (infinite) multiple sums, multiple integrals, in particular Feynman integrals, difference and differential equations in the format of survey articles. The presented techniques emerge from interdisciplinary fields: mathematics, computer science and theoretical physics; the articles are written by mathematicians and physicists with the goal that both groups can learn from the other field, including

  6. Energy-efficient specialization of functional units in a Coarse-Grained Reconfigurable Array

    Van Essen, B; Panda, R; Wood, A; Ebeling, C; Hauck, S


    Functional units provide the backbone of any spatial accelerator by providing the computing resources. The desire for having rich and expensive functional units is in tension with producing a regular and energy-efficient computing fabric. This paper explores the design trade-off between complex, universal functional units and simpler, limited functional units. We show that a modest amount of specialization reduces the area-delay-energy product of an optimized architecture to 0.86x a baseline architecture. Furthermore, we provide a design guideline that allows an architect to customize the contents of the computing fabric just by examining the profile of benchmarks within the application domains. Functional units are the core of compute-intensive spatial accelerators. They perform the computation of interest with support from local storage and communication structures. Ideally, the functional units will provide rich functionality, supporting operations ranging from simple addition, to fused multiply-adds, to advanced transcendental functions and domain specific operations like add-compare-select. However, the total opportunity cost to support the more complex operations is a function of the cost of the hardware, the rate of occurrence of the operation in the application domain, and the inefficiency of emulating the operation with simpler operators. Examples of operations that are typically emulated in spatial accelerators are division and trigonometric functions, which can be solved using table-lookup based algorithms and the CORDIC algorithm. One reason to avoid having direct hardware support for complex operations in a tiled architecture like a Coarse-Grained Reconfigurable Array (CGRA) is that the expensive hardware will typically need to be replicated in some or all of the architecture's tiles. Tiled architecture are designed such that their tiles are either homogeneous or heterogeneous. Homogeneous architectures are simpler to design but heterogeneous

  7. Families with special needs children: family health, functioning, and care burden.

    Caicedo, Carmen


    There are 11.2 million children with special health care needs in the United States or one in five households caring for a special needs child. A small group of children who need continuous medical, nursing, therapeutic services that enable them to survive is growing in numbers. This study examined physical health (physical functioning), mental health (emotional, social, and cognitive functioning; communication; and worry), family functioning (daily activities, family relationships), and care burden (caregiver employment, caregiving time, travel time, health-related out-of-pocket expenditures) of parent caregivers for medically complex, medical technology-dependent children. Data were collected once a month for 5 months on 84 parents recruited in South Florida using the Pediatric Quality of Life Family Impact Module. Physically, parents were tired when they woke up: too tired to do the things they liked to do and with little energy for chores or social activities. Mentally, they were frustrated, anxious, and angry; felt helpless and hopeless; had cognitive problems remembering and focusing on tasks; were worried about the child's medications, treatments, side effects; and were anxious about child's future and effect of the child's condition on other family members. Socially, they felt isolated and that people did not understand their family situation; they found it hard to talk with others including physicians and nurses. Average weekly hours of direct care was 33.0 (SD = 30.4 hours); average monthly out-of-pocket expenditures was $348.78 (SD = $623.34). It is essential to assess parents' physical and mental health and functioning and to provide interventions to improve health and functioning for both the parents and the children for whom they are caring.

  8. Neurological abnormalities predict disability

    Poggesi, Anna; Gouw, Alida; van der Flier, Wiesje


    To investigate the role of neurological abnormalities and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) lesions in predicting global functional decline in a cohort of initially independent-living elderly subjects. The Leukoaraiosis And DISability (LADIS) Study, involving 11 European centres, was primarily aimed...

  9. Architecture design of the multi-functional wavelet-based ECG microprocessor for realtime detection of abnormal cardiac events.

    Cheng, Li-Fang; Chen, Tung-Chien; Chen, Liang-Gee


    Most of the abnormal cardiac events such as myocardial ischemia, acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and fatal arrhythmia can be diagnosed through continuous electrocardiogram (ECG) analysis. According to recent clinical research, early detection and alarming of such cardiac events can reduce the time delay to the hospital, and the clinical outcomes of these individuals can be greatly improved. Therefore, it would be helpful if there is a long-term ECG monitoring system with the ability to identify abnormal cardiac events and provide realtime warning for the users. The combination of the wireless body area sensor network (BASN) and the on-sensor ECG processor is a possible solution for this application. In this paper, we aim to design and implement a digital signal processor that is suitable for continuous ECG monitoring and alarming based on the continuous wavelet transform (CWT) through the proposed architectures--using both programmable RISC processor and application specific integrated circuits (ASIC) for performance optimization. According to the implementation results, the power consumption of the proposed processor integrated with an ASIC for CWT computation is only 79.4 mW. Compared with the single-RISC processor, about 91.6% of the power reduction is achieved.

  10. Holoprosencephaly in RSH/Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome: Does abnormal cholesterol metabolism affect the function of sonic hedgehog?

    Kelley, R.I. [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States); Roessler, E.; Muenke, M. [Univ. of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA (United States)] [and others


    The RAH/Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome (RAH/SLOS) is an autosomal recessive malformation syndrome associated with increased levels of 7-dehydrocholesterol (7-DHC) and a defect of cholesterol biosynthesis at the level of 3{beta}-hydroxy-steroid-{Delta}{sup 7}-reductase (7-DHC reductase). Because rats exposed to inhibitors of 7-DHC reductase during development have a high frequency of holoprosencephaly (HPE), we have undertaken a search for biochemical evidence of RSH/SLOS and other possible defects of sterol metabolism among patients with various forms of HPE. We describe 4 patients, one with semilobar HPE and three others with less complete forms of the HPE sequence, in whom we have made a biochemical diagnosis of RAH/SLOS. The clinical and biochemical spectrum of these and other patients with RAH/SLOS suggests a role of abnormal sterol metabolism in the pathogenesis of their malformations. The association of HPE and RAH/SLOS is discussed in light of the recent discoveries that mutations in the embryonic patterning gene, Sonic Hedgehog (SHH), can cause HPE in humans and that the sonic hedgehog protein product undergoes autoproteolysis to form a cholesterol-modified active product. These clinical, biochemical, and molecular studies suggest that HPE and other malformations in SLOS may be caused by incomplete or abnormal modification of the sonic hedgehog protein and, possibly, other patterning proteins of the hedgehog class, a hypothesis testable in somatic cell systems. 37 refs., 1 fig.

  11. Distinct Functions of Specialized Dendritic Cell Subsets in Atherosclerosis and the Road Ahead

    Alma Zernecke


    Full Text Available Atherosclerotic vascular disease is modulated by immune mechanisms. Dendritic cells (DCs and T cells are present within atherosclerotic lesions and function as central players in the initiation and modulation of adaptive immune responses. In previous years, we have studied the functional contribution of distinct DC subsets in disease development, namely, that of CCL17-expressing DCs as well as that of plasmacytoid DCs that play specialized roles in disease development. This review focuses on important findings gathered in these studies and dissects the multifaceted contribution of CCL17-expressing DCs and pDCs to the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Furthermore, an outlook on future challenges faced when studying DCs in this detrimental disease are provided, and hurdles that will need to be overcome in order to enable a better understanding of the contribution of DCs to atherogenesis are discussed, a prerequisite for their therapeutic targeting in atherosclerosis.

  12. High prevalence and associated risk factors for impaired renal function and urinary abnormalities in a rural adult population from southern China.

    Qinghua Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD has increased and will continue to rise worldwide. However, data regarding the prevalence of CKD in a rural area of China are limited. We therefore investigated the prevalence and associated risk factors of impaired renal function and urinary abnormalities in an adult rural population in southern China. METHODS: Between December 2006 and January 2007, residents older than 20 years from four villages in Zhuhai city were randomly selected using a stratified, multistage sampling technique. All participants were interviewed and tested for hematuria, albuminuria and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR. The associations between age, gender, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, hyperuricemia, education level and indicators of renal damage were examined. RESULTS: Overall, 1,214 subjects were enrolled in this study. After adjustment for age and gender, the prevalence of albuminuria was 7.1% (95% CI: 4.5, 8.1, reduced eGFR was 2.6% (95% CI: 1.7%, 3.3%, and hematuria was 4.6% (95% CI: 3.3%, 6.0%. Approximately 13.6% (95% CI: 12.0%, 15.1% of the patients had at least one indicator of renal damage, but only 8.3% were previously aware. Age, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, hyperuricemia, use of nephrotoxic medications, coronary heart disease and history of CKD were independently associated with impaired renal function and urinary abnormalities. Additionally, age, diabetes, and hypertension were independently associated with albuminuria. Age, hypertension, hyperuricemia, central obesity, and coronary heart disease were independently associated with reduced renal function. CONCLUSIONS: The high prevalence and low awareness of impaired renal function and urinary abnormalities in this population illustrates the urgent need to implement a CKD prevention program in the rural areas of southern China.

  13. Children's Elementary School Social Experience and Executive Functions Development: Introduction to a Special Section.

    van Lier, Pol A C; Deater-Deckard, Kirby


    Children's executive functions, encompassing inhibitory control, working memory and attention are vital for their self-regulation. With the transition to formal schooling, children need to learn to manage their emotions and behavior in a new and complex social environment that with age increases in the intensity of social interactions with peers and teachers. Stronger executive functions skills facilitate children's social development. In addition, new experiences in the social environments of school also may influence executive function development. The focus of this special section is on this potential impact of elementary school social experiences with peers and teacher on the development of children's executive functions. The collection of papers encompass various aspects of peer and teacher social environments, and cover broad as well as specific facets and measures of executive functions including neural responses. The collection of papers sample developmental periods that span preschool through mid-adolescence. In this introduction, we summarize and highlight the main findings of each of the papers, organized around social interactions with peers and interactions with teachers. We conclude our synopsis with implications for future research, and a specific focus on prevention and intervention.

  14. Cocaine addiction related reproducible brain regions of abnormal default-mode network functional connectivity: a group ICA study with different model orders.

    Ding, Xiaoyu; Lee, Seong-Whan


    Model order selection in group independent component analysis (ICA) has a significant effect on the obtained components. This study investigated the reproducible brain regions of abnormal default-mode network (DMN) functional connectivity related with cocaine addiction through different model order settings in group ICA. Resting-state fMRI data from 24 cocaine addicts and 24 healthy controls were temporally concatenated and processed by group ICA using model orders of 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50, respectively. For each model order, the group ICA approach was repeated 100 times using the ICASSO toolbox and after clustering the obtained components, centrotype-based anterior and posterior DMN components were selected for further analysis. Individual DMN components were obtained through back-reconstruction and converted to z-score maps. A whole brain mixed effects factorial ANOVA was performed to explore the differences in resting-state DMN functional connectivity between cocaine addicts and healthy controls. The hippocampus, which showed decreased functional connectivity in cocaine addicts for all the tested model orders, might be considered as a reproducible abnormal region in DMN associated with cocaine addiction. This finding suggests that using group ICA to examine the functional connectivity of the hippocampus in the resting-state DMN may provide an additional insight potentially relevant for cocaine-related diagnoses and treatments.

  15. Quantification of functional weakness and abnormal synergy patterns in the lower limb of individuals with chronic stroke

    Nichols Diane


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The presence of abnormal muscle activation patterns is a well documented factor limiting the motor rehabilitation of patients following stroke. These abnormal muscle activation patterns, or synergies, have previously been quantified in the upper limbs. Presented here are the lower limb joint torque patterns measured in a standing position of sixteen chronic hemiparetic stroke subjects and sixteen age matched controls used to examine differences in strength and coordination between the two groups. Methods With the trunk stabilized, stroke subjects stood on their unaffected leg while their affected foot was attached to a 6-degree of freedom load cell (JR3, Woodland CA which recorded forces and torques. The subjects were asked to generate a maximum torque about a given joint (hip abduction/adduction; hip, knee, and ankle flexion/extension and provided feedback of the torque they generated for that primary joint axis. In parallel, EMG data from eight muscle groups were recorded, and secondary torques generated about the adjacent joints were calculated. Differences in mean primary torque, secondary torque, and EMG data were compared using a single factor ANOVA. Results The stroke group was significantly weaker in six of the eight directions tested. Analysis of the secondary torques showed that the control and stroke subjects used similar strategies to generate maximum torques during seven of the eight joint movements tested. The only time a different strategy was used was during maximal hip abduction exertions where stroke subjects tended to flex instead of extend their hip, which was consistent with the classically defined "flexion synergy." The EMG data of the stroke group was different than the control group in that there was a strong presence of co-contraction of antagonistic muscle groups, especially during ankle flexion and ankle and knee extension. Conclusion The results of this study indicate that in a standing position

  16. Abnormal calcium homeostasis in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction is related to both reduced contractile function and incomplete relaxation: An electromechanically detailed biophysical modelling study

    Ismail eAdeniran


    Full Text Available Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF accounts for about 50% of heart failure cases. It has features of incomplete relaxation and increased stiffness of the left ventricle. Studies from clinical electrophysiology and animal experiments have found that HFpEF is associated with impaired calcium homeostasis, ion channel remodelling and concentric left ventricle hypertrophy (LVH. However, it is still unclear how the abnormal calcium homeostasis, ion channel and structural remodelling affect the electro-mechanical dynamics of the ventricles. In this study we have developed multiscale models of the human left ventricle from single cells to the 3D organ, which take into consideration HFpEF-induced changes in calcium handling, ion channel remodelling and concentric LVH. Our simulation results suggest that at the cellular level, HFpEF reduces the systolic calcium level resulting in a reduced systolic contractile force, but elevates the diastolic calcium level resulting in an abnormal residual diastolic force. In our simulations, these abnormal electro-mechanical features of the ventricular cells became more pronounced with the increase of the heart rate. However, at the 3D organ level, the ejection fraction of the left ventricle was maintained due to the concentric LVH. The simulation results of this study mirror clinically observed features of HFpEF and provide new insights towards the understanding of the cellular bases of impaired cardiac electromechanical functions in heart failure.

  17. Relationships (II) of International Classification of High-resolution Computed Tomography for Occupational and Environmental Respiratory Diseases with ventilatory functions indices for parenchymal abnormalities.

    Tamura, Taro; Suganuma, Narufumi; Hering, Kurt G; Vehmas, Tapio; Itoh, Harumi; Akira, Masanori; Takashima, Yoshihiro; Hirano, Harukazu; Kusaka, Yukinori


    The International Classification of High-Resolution Computed Tomography (HRCT) for Occupational and Environmental Respiratory Diseases (ICOERD) is used to screen and diagnose respiratory illnesses. Using univariate and multivariate analysis, we investigated the relationship between subject characteristics and parenchymal abnormalities according to ICOERD, and the results of ventilatory function tests (VFT). Thirty-five patients with and 27 controls without mineral-dust exposure underwent VFT and HRCT. We recorded all subjects' occupational history for mineral dust exposure and smoking history. Experts independently assessed HRCT using the ICOERD parenchymal abnormalities (Items) grades for well-defined rounded opacities (RO), linear and/or irregular opacities (IR), and emphysema (EM). High-resolution computed tomography showed that 11 patients had RO; 15 patients, IR; and 19 patients, EM. According to the multiple regression model, age and height had significant associations with many indices ventilatory functions such as vital capacity, forced vital capacity, and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1). The EM summed grades on the upper, middle, and lower zones of the right and left lungs also had significant associations with FEV1 and the maximum mid-expiratory flow rate. The results suggest the ICOERD notation is adequate based on the good and significant multiple regression modeling of ventilatory function with the EM summed grades.

  18. A functional neural network computing some eigenvalues and eigenvectors of a special real matrix.

    Liu, Yiguang; You, Zhisheng; Cao, Liping


    How to quickly compute eigenvalues and eigenvectors of a matrix, especially, a general real matrix, is significant in engineering. Since neural network runs in asynchronous and concurrent manner, and can achieve high rapidity, this paper designs a concise functional neural network (FNN) to extract some eigenvalues and eigenvectors of a special real matrix. After equivalent transforming the FNN into a complex differential equation and obtaining the analytic solution, the convergence properties of the FNN are analyzed. If the eigenvalue whose imaginary part is nonzero and the largest of all eigenvalues is unique, the FNN will converge to the eigenvector corresponding to this special eigenvalue with general nonzero initial vector. If all eigenvalues are real numbers or there are more than one eigenvalue whose imaginary part equals the largest, the FNN will converge to zero point or fall into a cycle procedure. Comparing with other neural networks designed for the same domain, the restriction to matrix is very slack. At last, three examples are employed to illustrate the performance of the FNN.

  19. Specialized sperm function tests in varicocele and the future of andrology laboratory

    Ahmad Majzoub


    Full Text Available Varicocele is a common medical condition entangled with many controversies. Though it is highly prevalent in men with infertility, still it marks its presence in males who do have normal fertility. Determining which patients are negatively affected by varicocele would enable clinicians to better select those men who benefitted the most from surgery. Since conventional semen analysis has been limited in its ability to evaluate the negative effects of varicocele on fertility, a multitude of specialized laboratory tests have emerged. In this review, we examine the role and significance of specialized sperm function tests with regards to varicocele. Among the various tests, analysis of sperm DNA fragmentation and measurements of oxidative stress markers provide an independent measure of fertility in men with varicocele. These diagnostic modalities have both diagnostic and prognostic information complementary to, but distinct from conventional sperm parameters. Test results can guide management and aid in monitoring intervention outcomes. Proteomics, metabolomics, and genomics are areas; though still developing, holding promise to revolutionize our understanding of reproductive physiology, including varicocele.

  20. Implementation of Special Function Unit for Vertex Shader Processor Using Hybrid Number System

    Avni Agarwal


    Full Text Available The world of 3D graphic computing has undergone a revolution in the recent past, making devices more computationally intensive, providing high-end imaging to the user. The OpenGL ES Standard documents the requirements of graphic processing unit. A prime feature of this standard is a special function unit (SFU, which performs all the required mathematical computations on the vertex information corresponding to the image. This paper presents a low-cost, high-performance SFU architecture with improved speed and reduced area. Hybrid number system is employed here in order to reduce the complexity of operations by suitably switching between logarithmic number system (LNS and binary number system (BNS. In this work, reduction of area and a higher operating frequency are achieved with almost the same power consumption as that of the existing implementations.

  1. A gain-of-function mutation in the sodium channel gene Scn2a results in seizures and behavioral abnormalities.

    Kearney, J A; Plummer, N W; Smith, M R; Kapur, J; Cummins, T R; Waxman, S G; Goldin, A L; Meisler, M H


    The GAL879-881QQQ mutation in the cytoplasmic S4-S5 linker of domain 2 of the rat brain IIA sodium channel (Na(v)1.2) results in slowed inactivation and increased persistent current when expressed in Xenopus oocytes. The neuron-specific enolase promoter was used to direct in vivo expression of the mutated channel in transgenic mice. Three transgenic lines exhibited seizures, and line Q54 was characterized in detail. The seizures in these mice began at two months of age and were accompanied by behavioral arrest and stereotyped repetitive behaviors. Continuous electroencephalogram monitoring detected focal seizure activity in the hippocampus, which in some instances generalized to involve the cortex. Hippocampal CA1 neurons isolated from presymptomatic Q54 mice exhibited increased persistent sodium current which may underlie hyperexcitability in the hippocampus. During the progression of the disorder there was extensive cell loss and gliosis within the hippocampus in areas CA1, CA2, CA3 and the hilus. The lifespan of Q54 mice was shortened and only 25% of the mice survived beyond six months of age. Four independent transgenic lines expressing the wild-type sodium channel were examined and did not exhibit any abnormalities. The transgenic Q54 mice provide a genetic model that will be useful for testing the effect of pharmacological intervention on progression of seizures caused by sodium channel dysfunction. The human ortholog, SCN2A, is a candidate gene for seizure disorders mapped to chromosome 2q22-24.

  2. Functional hemispheric specialization in processing phonemic and prosodic auditory changes in neonates

    Takeshi eArimitsu


    Full Text Available This study focuses on the early cerebral base of speech perception by examining functional lateralization in neonates for processing segmental and suprasegmental features of speech. For this purpose, auditory evoked responses of full-term neonates to phonemic and prosodic contrasts were measured in their temporal area and part of the frontal and parietal areas using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS. Stimuli used here were phonemic contrast /itta/ and /itte/ and prosodic contrast of declarative and interrogative forms /itta/ and /itta?/. The results showed clear hemodynamic responses to both phonemic and prosodic changes in the temporal areas and part of the parietal and frontal regions. In particular, significantly higher hemoglobin (Hb changes were observed for the prosodic change in the right temporal area than for that in the left one, whereas Hb responses to the vowel change were similarly elicited in bilateral temporal areas. However, Hb responses to the vowel contrast were asymmetrical in the parietal area (around supra marginal gyrus, with stronger activation in the left. These results suggest a specialized function of the right hemisphere in prosody processing, which is already present in neonates. The parietal activities during phonemic processing were discussed in relation to verbal-auditory short-term memory. On the basis of this study and previous studies on older infants, the developmental process of functional lateralization from birth to 2 years of age for vowel and prosody was summarized.

  3. 78 FR 46295 - Special Conditions: Eclipse, EA500, Certification of Autothrottle Functions Under Part 23


    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 23 Special Conditions: Eclipse, EA500, Certification of... proposed special conditions. SUMMARY: This action proposes special conditions for the Eclipse EA500.... The Eclipse Model EA500 was certificated under part 23 by the FAA on September 30, 2006...

  4. Observations of Social Competence of Children in Need of Special Support Based on Traditional Disability Categories versus a Functional Approach

    Lillvist, Anne


    Background: Traditional disability categories may reveal little of the functional characteristics and social competence of a child. Objective: To compare the social competence of typically developing children, children with established disabilities and undiagnosed children identified by a functional approach to be in need of special support.…

  5. Abnormal Resting-State Functional Connectivity Strength in Mild Cognitive Impairment and Its Conversion to Alzheimer’s Disease

    Yuxia Li


    Full Text Available Individuals diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment (MCI are at high risk of transition to Alzheimer’s disease (AD. However, little is known about functional characteristics of the conversion from MCI to AD. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging was performed in 25 AD patients, 31 MCI patients, and 42 well-matched normal controls at baseline. Twenty-one of the 31 MCI patients converted to AD at approximately 24 months of follow-up. Functional connectivity strength (FCS and seed-based functional connectivity analyses were used to assess the functional differences among the groups. Compared to controls, subjects with MCI and AD showed decreased FCS in the default-mode network and the occipital cortex. Importantly, the FCS of the left angular gyrus and middle occipital gyrus was significantly lower in MCI-converters as compared with MCI-nonconverters. Significantly decreased functional connectivity was found in MCI-converters compared to nonconverters between the left angular gyrus and bilateral inferior parietal lobules, dorsolateral prefrontal and lateral temporal cortices, and the left middle occipital gyrus and right middle occipital gyri. We demonstrated gradual but progressive functional changes during a median 2-year interval in patients converting from MCI to AD, which might serve as early indicators for the dysfunction and progression in the early stage of AD.

  6. On representation of solutions of nonlinear partial differential equations in the form of convergent special series with functional arbitrariness

    Filimonov, M. Yu.


    An analytical method for representation of solutions of nonlinear partial differential equations in the form of special series with recurrently computed coefficients is presented. The coefficients recurrent obtaining from linear differential equations is achieved by specificity of the considered equations. It turns out that due to the functional arbitrariness which possibly is contained in special series, one can prove global convergence of the constructed series to solution of considered nonlinear partial differential equations.

  7. Lack of functional specialization of neurons in the mouse primary visual cortex that have expressed calretinin

    Daniela eCamillo


    Full Text Available Calretinin is a calcium-binding protein often used as a marker for a subset of inhibitory interneurons in the mammalian neocortex. We studied the labeled cells in offspring from a cross of a Cre-dependent reporter line with the CR-ires-Cre mice, which express Cre-recombinase in the same pattern as calretinin. We found that in the mature visual cortex, only a minority of the cells that have expressed calretinin and Cre-recombinase during their lifetime is GABAergic and only about 20% are immunoreactive for calretinin. The reason behind this is that calretinin is transiently expressed in many cortical pyramidal neurons during development. To determine whether neurons that express or have expressed calretinin share any distinct functional characteristics, we recorded their visual response properties using GCaMP6s calcium imaging. The average orientation selectivity, size tuning, and temporal and spatial frequency tuning of this group of cells, however, match the response profile of the general neuronal population, revealing the lack of functional specialization for the features studied.

  8. Gender, Race, and Diet Affect Platelet Function Tests in Normal Subjects Contributing to a High Rate of Abnormal Results

    Miller, Connie H.; Rice, Anne S.; Garrett, Katherine; Stein, Sidney F.


    To assess sources of variability in platelet function tests in normal subjects, 64 healthy young adults were tested on 2–6 occasions at 2 week intervals using 4 methods: platelet aggregation (AGG) in platelet-rich plasma (PRP) in the Bio/Data PAP-4 Aggregometer (BD) and Chrono-Log Lumi-Aggregometer (CL); and AGG in whole blood (WB) in the CL and Multiplate Platelet Function Analyzer (MP), with ATP release (REL) in CL-PRP and CL-WB. Food and medication exposures were recorded prospectively for...

  9. [Enzymatic modification of the functional, nutritional and sensorial properties of soybeans for special feeding].

    Calderón de la Barca, A M; Wall Medrano, A; Jara Marini, M; González Córdova, A F; Ruíz Salazar, A


    Production of new protein-based products for special nutrition such as hypoallergenic infant formulas, fortified beverages and nutraceutics, require ideal ingredients. Protein ingredients were developed by enzymatic hydrolysis and methionine synthesis of soy protein. Hydrolysis was done at 4% (w/v) using porcine pancreatic enzymes (4% w/w), 50 degrees C, 6 h and pH 8. After drying powder was resuspended (20% w/v) and incubated with 7.6% (w/w) methionine methyl-ester, 1% (w/w) chymotrypsin and 3 M glycerol, 37 degrees C, 3 h and pH 7. Hydrolysates were fractionated by ultrafiltration (UF) before and after enrichment (E): FI > 10, 10 > FII > 3 and 3 > FIII > 1 kDa. Functional properties, amino acid content, anti-physiological factor activities and antigenicity were assayed for all the UF fractions and the soybean meal. Protein quality bioassay and sensorial test of an non-enriched fraction and an enriched fraction were performed. Functional properties were positively modified by hydrolysis and synthesis by using a minimum time and methionine added for the last reaction. After UF all the fractions under 10 kDa showed 100% solubility (pH 4 and 7), good clarity, acceptable foam capacity and negligible antigenicity and antiphysiological activities. Additionally, methionine enrichment enhanced their nutritional value, upgrading sulfur amino acid requirements for infants and adults. Because functionality and nutritional value FIII-E could be used for hypoallergenic infant formulas, FII-E for fortified soluble formulas and nutraceutics and FI-E for a semi-solid baby food.

  10. Computational principles of syntax in the regions specialized for language: integrating theoretical linguistics and functional neuroimaging.

    Ohta, Shinri; Fukui, Naoki; Sakai, Kuniyoshi L


    The nature of computational principles of syntax remains to be elucidated. One promising approach to this problem would be to construct formal and abstract linguistic models that parametrically predict the activation modulations in the regions specialized for linguistic processes. In this article, we review recent advances in theoretical linguistics and functional neuroimaging in the following respects. First, we introduce the two fundamental linguistic operations: Merge (which combines two words or phrases to form a larger structure) and Search (which searches and establishes a syntactic relation of two words or phrases). We also illustrate certain universal properties of human language, and present hypotheses regarding how sentence structures are processed in the brain. Hypothesis I is that the Degree of Merger (DoM), i.e., the maximum depth of merged subtrees within a given domain, is a key computational concept to properly measure the complexity of tree structures. Hypothesis II is that the basic frame of the syntactic structure of a given linguistic expression is determined essentially by functional elements, which trigger Merge and Search. We then present our recent functional magnetic resonance imaging experiment, demonstrating that the DoM is indeed a key syntactic factor that accounts for syntax-selective activations in the left inferior frontal gyrus and supramarginal gyrus. Hypothesis III is that the DoM domain changes dynamically in accordance with iterative Merge applications, the Search distances, and/or task requirements. We confirm that the DoM accounts for activations in various sentence types. Hypothesis III successfully explains activation differences between object- and subject-relative clauses, as well as activations during explicit syntactic judgment tasks. A future research on the computational principles of syntax will further deepen our understanding of uniquely human mental faculties.

  11. Should patients with abnormal liver function tests in primary care be tested for chronic viral hepatitis: cost minimisation analysis based on a comprehensively tested cohort

    Lilford Richard J


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Liver function tests (LFTs are ordered in large numbers in primary care, and the Birmingham and Lambeth Liver Evaluation Testing Strategies (BALLETS study was set up to assess their usefulness in patients with no pre-existing or self-evident liver disease. All patients were tested for chronic viral hepatitis thereby providing an opportunity to compare various strategies for detection of this serious treatable disease. Methods This study uses data from the BALLETS cohort to compare various testing strategies for viral hepatitis in patients who had received an abnormal LFT result. The aim was to inform a strategy for identification of patients with chronic viral hepatitis. We used a cost-minimisation analysis to define a base case and then calculated the incremental cost per case detected to inform a strategy that could guide testing for chronic viral hepatitis. Results Of the 1,236 study patients with an abnormal LFT, 13 had chronic viral hepatitis (nine hepatitis B and four hepatitis C. The strategy advocated by the current guidelines (repeating the LFT with a view to testing for specific disease if it remained abnormal was less efficient (more expensive per case detected than a simple policy of testing all patients for viral hepatitis without repeating LFTs. A more selective strategy of viral testing all patients for viral hepatitis if they were born in countries where viral hepatitis was prevalent provided high efficiency with little loss of sensitivity. A notably high alanine aminotransferase (ALT level (greater than twice the upper limit of normal on the initial ALT test had high predictive value, but was insensitive, missing half the cases of viral infection. Conclusions Based on this analysis and on widely accepted clinical principles, a "fast and frugal" heuristic was produced to guide general practitioners with respect to diagnosing cases of viral hepatitis in asymptomatic patients with abnormal LFTs. It recommends

  12. Longxuetongluo Capsule Improves Erythrocyte Function against Lipid Peroxidation and Abnormal Hemorheological Parameters in High Fat Diet-Induced ApoE−/− Mice

    Zheng, Jiao; Liu, Binglin; Lun, Qixing; Yao, Weijuan; Zhao, Yunfang; Xiao, Wei; Huang, Wenzhe; Wang, Yonghua; Li, Jun; Tu, Pengfei


    Chinese dragon's blood, the red resin of Dracaena cochinchinensis, one of the renowned traditional medicines, has been used to facilitate blood circulation and disperse blood stasis for thousands of years. Phenolic compounds are considered to be responsible for its main biological activities. In this study, total phenolic compounds of Chinese dragon's blood were made into capsule (Longxuetongluo Capsule, LTC) and their effects on the abnormal hemorheological properties were examined by high fat diet (HFD) induced ApoE−/− mice. Compared to the model group, LTC recovered the abnormal hemorheological parameters in HFD-induced ApoE−/− mice by reducing whole blood viscosity (WBV) at high rate and improving erythrocyte function. In conclusion, LTC could ameliorate erythrocyte deformability and osmotic fragility through the reduction of lipid peroxidation on plasma and erythrocyte membranes in HFD-induced ApoE−/− mice, which supported the traditional uses of Chinese dragon's blood as an effective agent for improving blood microcirculation in hypercholesterolemia. PMID:26649134

  13. Longxuetongluo Capsule Improves Erythrocyte Function against Lipid Peroxidation and Abnormal Hemorheological Parameters in High Fat Diet-Induced ApoE−/− Mice

    Jiao Zheng


    Full Text Available Chinese dragon’s blood, the red resin of Dracaena cochinchinensis, one of the renowned traditional medicines, has been used to facilitate blood circulation and disperse blood stasis for thousands of years. Phenolic compounds are considered to be responsible for its main biological activities. In this study, total phenolic compounds of Chinese dragon’s blood were made into capsule (Longxuetongluo Capsule, LTC and their effects on the abnormal hemorheological properties were examined by high fat diet (HFD induced ApoE−/− mice. Compared to the model group, LTC recovered the abnormal hemorheological parameters in HFD-induced ApoE−/− mice by reducing whole blood viscosity (WBV at high rate and improving erythrocyte function. In conclusion, LTC could ameliorate erythrocyte deformability and osmotic fragility through the reduction of lipid peroxidation on plasma and erythrocyte membranes in HFD-induced ApoE−/− mice, which supported the traditional uses of Chinese dragon’s blood as an effective agent for improving blood microcirculation in hypercholesterolemia.

  14. Disorder-specific functional abnormalities during temporal discounting in youth with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), Autism and comorbid ADHD and Autism.

    Chantiluke, Kaylita; Christakou, Anastasia; Murphy, Clodagh M; Giampietro, Vincent; Daly, Eileen M; Ecker, Christina; Brammer, Michael; Murphy, Declan G; Rubia, Katya


    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) are often comorbid and share cognitive abnormalities in temporal foresight. A key question is whether shared cognitive phenotypes are based on common or different underlying pathophysiologies and whether comorbid patients have additive neurofunctional deficits, resemble one of the disorders or have a different pathophysiology. We compared age- and IQ-matched boys with non-comorbid ADHD (18), non-comorbid ASD (15), comorbid ADHD and ASD (13) and healthy controls (18) using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during a temporal discounting task. Only the ASD and the comorbid groups discounted delayed rewards more steeply. The fMRI data showed both shared and disorder-specific abnormalities in the three groups relative to controls in their brain-behaviour associations. The comorbid group showed both unique and more severe brain-discounting associations than controls and the non-comorbid patient groups in temporal discounting areas of ventromedial and lateral prefrontal cortex, ventral striatum and anterior cingulate, suggesting that comorbidity is neither an endophenocopy of the two pure disorders nor an additive pathology.

  15. Neuroimaging evidence of major morpho-anatomical and functional abnormalities in the BTBR T+TF/J mouse model of autism.

    Luca Dodero

    Full Text Available BTBR T+tf/J (BTBR mice display prominent behavioural deficits analogous to the defining symptoms of autism, a feature that has prompted a widespread use of the model in preclinical autism research. Because neuro-behavioural traits are described with respect to reference populations, multiple investigators have examined and described the behaviour of BTBR mice against that exhibited by C57BL/6J (B6, a mouse line characterised by high sociability and low self-grooming. In an attempt to probe the translational relevance of this comparison for autism research, we used Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI to map in both strain multiple morpho-anatomical and functional neuroimaging readouts that have been extensively used in patient populations. Diffusion tensor tractography confirmed previous reports of callosal agenesis and lack of hippocampal commissure in BTBR mice, and revealed a concomitant rostro-caudal reorganisation of major cortical white matter bundles. Intact inter-hemispheric tracts were found in the anterior commissure, ventro-medial thalamus, and in a strain-specific white matter formation located above the third ventricle. BTBR also exhibited decreased fronto-cortical, occipital and thalamic gray matter volume and widespread reductions in cortical thickness with respect to control B6 mice. Foci of increased gray matter volume and thickness were observed in the medial prefrontal and insular cortex. Mapping of resting-state brain activity using cerebral blood volume weighted fMRI revealed reduced cortico-thalamic function together with foci of increased activity in the hypothalamus and dorsal hippocampus of BTBR mice. Collectively, our results show pronounced functional and structural abnormalities in the brain of BTBR mice with respect to control B6 mice. The large and widespread white and gray matter abnormalities observed do not appear to be representative of the neuroanatomical alterations typically observed in autistic patients. The

  16. Whole-brain functional connectivity during emotional word classification in medication-free Major Depressive Disorder: Abnormal salience circuitry and relations to positive emotionality☆

    van Tol, Marie-José; Veer, Ilya M.; van der Wee, Nic J.A.; Aleman, André; van Buchem, Mark A.; Rombouts, Serge A.R.B.; Zitman, Frans G.; Veltman, Dick J.; Johnstone, Tom


    Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) has been associated with biased processing and abnormal regulation of negative and positive information, which may result from compromised coordinated activity of prefrontal and subcortical brain regions involved in evaluating emotional information. We tested whether patients with MDD show distributed changes in functional connectivity with a set of independently derived brain networks that have shown high correspondence with different task demands, including stimulus salience and emotional processing. We further explored if connectivity during emotional word processing related to the tendency to engage in positive or negative emotional states. In this study, 25 medication-free MDD patients without current or past comorbidity and matched controls (n = 25) performed an emotional word-evaluation task during functional MRI. Using a dual regression approach, individual spatial connectivity maps representing each subject's connectivity with each standard network were used to evaluate between-group differences and effects of positive and negative emotionality (extraversion and neuroticism, respectively, as measured with the NEO-FFI). Results showed decreased functional connectivity of the medial prefrontal cortex, ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, and ventral striatum with the fronto-opercular salience network in MDD patients compared to controls. In patients, abnormal connectivity was related to extraversion, but not neuroticism. These results confirm the hypothesis of a relative (para)limbic–cortical decoupling that may explain dysregulated affect in MDD. As connectivity of these regions with the salience network was related to extraversion, but not to general depression severity or negative emotionality, dysfunction of this network may be responsible for the failure to sustain engagement in rewarding behavior. PMID:24179829

  17. Special Functions of Hypercomplex Variable on the Lattice Based on SU(1,1

    Nelson Faustino


    Full Text Available Based on the representation of a set of canonical operators on the lattice hZn, which are Clifford-vector-valued, we will introduce new families of special functions of hypercomplex variable possessing su(1,1 symmetries. The Fourier decomposition of the space of Clifford-vector-valued polynomials with respect to the SO(n×su(1,1-module gives rise to the construction of new families of polynomial sequences as eigenfunctions of a coupled system involving forward/backward discretizations E±h of the Euler operator E=∑j=1nxj∂xj. Moreover, the interpretation of the one-parameter representation Eh(t=exp(tE−h−tE+h of the Lie group SU(1,1 as a semigroup (Eh(tt≥0 will allows us to describe the polynomial solutions of an homogeneous Cauchy problem on [0,∞×hZn involving the differencial-difference operator ∂t+E+h−E−h.

  18. A model of freezing foods with liquid nitrogen using special functions

    Rodríguez Vega, Martín.


    A food freezing model is analyzed analytically. The model is based on the heat diffusion equation in the case of cylindrical shaped food frozen by liquid nitrogen; and assuming that the thermal conductivity of the cylindrical food is radially modulated. The model is solved using the Laplace transform method, the Bromwich theorem, and the residue theorem. The temperature profile in the cylindrical food is presented as an infinite series of special functions. All the required computations are performed with computer algebra software, specifically Maple. Using the numeric values of the thermal and geometric parameters for the cylindrical food, as well as the thermal parameters of the liquid nitrogen freezing system, the temporal evolution of the temperature in different regions in the interior of the cylindrical food is presented both analytically and graphically. The duration of the liquid nitrogen freezing process to achieve the specified effect on the cylindrical food is computed. The analytical results are expected to be of importance in food engineering and cooking engineering. As a future research line, the formulation and solution of freezing models with thermal memory is proposed.

  19. Coelomocytes: Biology and Possible Immune Functions in Invertebrates with Special Remarks on Nematodes

    Qudsia Tahseen


    Full Text Available All metazoans are exposed to a wide range of microbes and have evolved complex immune defenses used to repel infectious agents. Coelomocytes play a key role in the defense reactions of most invertebrates. They are involved in important immune functions, such as phagocytosis, encapsulation, graft rejection, and inflammation, as well as the synthesis and secretion of several humoral factors especially in annelids and echinoderms. Coelomocytes in nematodes are variable in shapes from round, ovoid, cuboidal, and spindle-shaped to stellate or branched cells that are found usually at fixed positions in the pseudocoelom. Their number usually varies from 2 to 6. The model nematode, C. elegans lacks an adaptive immune system and the coelomocytes are capable of endocytosis, but their involvement in phagocytosis of bacteria seems unlikely. The aim of this review is to evaluate current knowledge on coelomocytes of invertebrates with special reference to nematodes. The morphology and structure of these coelomocytes are discussed along with their origin. Their relative positions and diversity in different nematode groups have also been discussed and illustrated.

  20. Abnormal Anterior Cingulate N-Acetylaspartate and Executive Functioning in Treatment-Resistant Depression After rTMS Therapy

    Jia, Fujun; Guo, Guangquan; Quan, Dongming; Li, Gang; Wu, Huawang; Zhang, Bin; Fan, Changhe; He, Xiajun; Huang, Huiyan


    Background: Cognitive impairment is a key feature of treatment-resistant depression (TRD) and can be related to the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) function. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) as an antidepressant intervention has increasingly been investigated in the last two decades. However, no studies to date have investigated the association between neurobiochemical changes within the anterior cingulate and executive dysfunction measured in TRD being treated with rTMS. Methods: Thirty-two young depressed patients with treatment-resistant unipolar depression were enrolled in a double-blind, randomized study [active (n=18) vs. sham (n=14)]. ACC metabolism was investigated before and after high-frequency (15Hz) rTMS using 3-tesla proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS). The results were compared with 28 age- and gender-matched healthy controls. Executive functioning was measured with the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) among 34 subjects with TRD and 28 healthy subjects. Results: Significant reductions in N-acetylaspartate (NAA) and choline-containing Compound levels in the left ACC were found in subjects with TRD pre-rTMS when compared with healthy controls. After successful treatment, NAA levels increased significantly in the left ACC of subjects and were not different from those of age-matched controls. In the WCST, more perseverative errors and fewer correct numbers were observed in TRD subjects at baseline. Improvements in both perseverative errors and correct numbers occurred after active rTMS. In addition, improvement of perseverative errors was positively correlated with enhancement of NAA levels in the left ACC in the active rTMS group. Conclusions: Our results suggest that the NAA concentration in the left ACC is associated with an improvement in cognitive functioning among subjects with TRD response to active rTMS. PMID:26025780

  1. Sensitive periods for the functional specialization of the neural system for human face processing.

    Röder, Brigitte; Ley, Pia; Shenoy, Bhamy H; Kekunnaya, Ramesh; Bottari, Davide


    The aim of the study was to identify possible sensitive phases in the development of the processing system for human faces. We tested the neural processing of faces in 11 humans who had been blind from birth and had undergone cataract surgery between 2 mo and 14 y of age. Pictures of faces and houses, scrambled versions of these pictures, and pictures of butterflies were presented while event-related potentials were recorded. Participants had to respond to the pictures of butterflies (targets) only. All participants, even those who had been blind from birth for several years, were able to categorize the pictures and to detect the targets. In healthy controls and in a group of visually impaired individuals with a history of developmental or incomplete congenital cataracts, the well-known enhancement of the N170 (negative peak around 170 ms) event-related potential to faces emerged, but a face-sensitive response was not observed in humans with a history of congenital dense cataracts. By contrast, this group showed a similar N170 response to all visual stimuli, which was indistinguishable from the N170 response to faces in the controls. The face-sensitive N170 response has been associated with the structural encoding of faces. Therefore, these data provide evidence for the hypothesis that the functional differentiation of category-specific neural representations in humans, presumably involving the elaboration of inhibitory circuits, is dependent on experience and linked to a sensitive period. Such functional specialization of neural systems seems necessary to archive high processing proficiency.

  2. Trophic apparatus in cyprinodontiform fishes: functional specializations for picking and scraping behaviors.

    Hernandez, L Patricia; Gibb, Alice C; Ferry-Graham, Lara


    Cyprinodontiforms are a diverse and speciose order that includes topminnows, pupfishes, swordtails, mosquitofishes, guppies, and mollies. Sister group to the Beloniformes and Atheriniformes, Cyprinodontiformes contains approximately twice the number of species of these other two orders combined. Recent studies suggest that this group is well suited to capturing prey by "picking" small items from the water surface, water column, and the substrate. Because picking places unusual performance demands on the feeding apparatus, this mode of prey capture may rely upon novel morphological modifications not found in more widespread ram- or suction-based feeding mechanisms. To assess this evolutionary hypothesis, we describe the trophic anatomy of 16 cyprinodontiform species, selected to broadly represent the order as well as capture intrageneric variation. The group appears to have undergone gradual morphological changes to become increasingly specialized for picking and scraping behaviors. We also identify a suite of functional characters related to the acquisition of a novel and previously undescribed mechanism of premaxillary protrusion and retraction, including: modification of the "premaxillomandibular" ligament (which connects each side of the premaxilla to the ipsilateral mandible, or lower jaw), a novel architecture of the ligaments and bony elements that unite the premaxillae, maxillae and palatine bones, and novel insertions of the adductor muscles onto the jaws. These morphological changes to both the upper and lower jaws suggest an evolutionary trend within this group toward increased reliance on picking individual prey from the water column/substrate or for scraping encrusting material from the substrate. We propose that the suite of morphological characters described here enable a functional innovation, "picking," which leads to novel trophic habits.

  3. Proposal of Functional-Specialization Multi-Objective Real-Coded Genetic Algorithm: FS-MOGA

    Hamada, Naoki; Tanaka, Masaharu; Sakuma, Jun; Kobayashi, Shigenobu; Ono, Isao

    This paper presents a Genetic Algorithm (GA) for multi-objective function optimization. To find a precise and widely-distributed set of solutions in difficult multi-objective function optimization problems which have multimodality and curved Pareto-optimal set, a GA would be required conflicting behaviors in the early stage and the last stage of search. That is, in the early stage of search, GA should perform local-Pareto-optima-overcoming search which aims to overcome local Pareto-optima and converge the population to promising areas in the decision variable space. On the other hand, in the last stage of search, GA should perform Pareto-frontier-covering search which aims to spread the population along the Pareto-optimal set. NSGA-II and SPEA2, the most widely used conventional methods, have problems in local-Pareto-optima-overcoming and Pareto-frontier-covering search. In local-Pareto-optima-overcoming search, their selection pressure is too high to maintain the diversity for overcoming local Pareto-optima. In Pareto-frontier-covering search, their abilities of extrapolation-directed sampling are not enough to spread the population and they cannot sample along the Pareto-optimal set properly. To resolve above problems, the proposed method adaptively switches two search strategies, each of which is specialized for local-Pareto-optima-overcoming and Pareto-frontier-covering search, respectively. We examine the effectiveness of the proposed method using two benchmark problems. The experimental results show that our approach outperforms the conventional methods in terms of both local-Pareto-optima-overcoming and Pareto-frontier-covering search.

  4. Small-molecule structure correctors target abnormal protein structure and function: structure corrector rescue of apolipoprotein E4-associated neuropathology.

    Mahley, Robert W; Huang, Yadong


    An attractive strategy to treat proteinopathies (diseases caused by malformed or misfolded proteins) is to restore protein function by inducing proper three-dimensional structure. We hypothesized that this approach would be effective in reversing the detrimental effects of apolipoprotein (apo) E4, the major allele that significantly increases the risk of developing Alzheimer's disease and other neurodegenerative disorders. ApoE4's detrimental effects result from its altered protein conformation ("domain interaction"), making it highly susceptible to proteolytic cleavage and the generation of neurotoxic fragments. Here, we review apoE structure and function and how apoE4 causes neurotoxicity, and describe the identification of potent small-molecule-based "structure correctors" that induce proper apoE4 folding. SAR studies identified a series of small molecules that significantly reduced apoE4's neurotoxic effects in cultured neurons and a series that reduced apoE4 fragment levels in vivo, providing proof-of-concept for our approach. Structure-corrector-based therapies could prove to be highly effective for the treatment of many protein-misfolding diseases.

  5. Prevalence of abnormal findings when adopting new national and international Global Lung Function Initiative reference values for spirometry in the Finnish general population

    Annette Kainu


    Full Text Available Background: New Finnish (Kainu2015 and international Global Lung Function Initiative (GLI2012 reference values for spirometry were recently published. The aim of this study is to compare the interpretative consequences of adopting these new reference values with older, currently used Finnish reference values (Viljanen1982 in the general population of native Finns. Methods: Two Finnish general population samples including 1,328 adults (45% males aged 21–74 years were evaluated. Airway obstruction was defined as a reduced ratio of forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1/forced vital capacity (FVC, possible restrictive pattern as reduced FVC, and decreased ventilatory capacity as reduced FEV1 below their respective 2.5th percentiles. The severity gradings of reduced lung function were also compared. Results: Using the Kainu2015 reference values, the prevalence of airway obstruction in the population was 5.6%; using GLI2012 it was 4.0% and with Viljanen1982 it was 13.0%. Possible restrictive pattern was found in 4.2% using the Kainu2015 values, in 2.0% with GLI2012, and 7.9% with the Viljanen1982 values. The prevalence of decreased ventilatory capacity was 6.8, 4.0, and 13.3% with the Kainu2015, GLI2012 and Viljanen1982 values, respectively. Conclusions: The application of the GLI2012 reference values underestimates the prevalence of abnormal spirometric findings in native Finns. The adoption of the Kainu2015 reference values reduces the prevalences of airways obstruction, decreased ventilatory capacity, and restrictive impairment by approximately 50%. Changing from the 2.5th percentile, the previously used lower limit of normal, to the 5th percentile recommended by the American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society will not increase the prevalence of abnormal findings in the implementation of spirometry reference values.

  6. Executive function deficits and social-behavioral abnormality in mice exposed to a low dose of dioxin in utero and via lactation.

    Toshihiro Endo

    Full Text Available An increasing prevalence of mental health problems has been partly ascribed to abnormal brain development that is induced upon exposure to environmental chemicals. However, it has been extremely difficult to detect and assess such causality particularly at low exposure levels. To address this question, we here investigated higher brain function in mice exposed to dioxin in utero and via lactation by using our recently developed automated behavioral flexibility test and immunohistochemistry of neuronal activation markers Arc, at the 14 brain areas. Pregnant C57BL/6 mice were given orally a low dose of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD at a dose of either 0, 0.6 or 3.0 µg/kg on gestation day 12.5. When the pups reached adulthood, they were group-housed in IntelliCage to assess their behavior. As a result, the offspring born to dams exposed to 0.6 µg TCDD/kg were shown to have behavioral inflexibility, compulsive repetitive behavior, and dramatically lowered competitive dominance. In these mice, immunohistochemistry of Arc exhibited the signs of hypoactivation of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC and hyperactivation of the amygdala. Intriguingly, mice exposed to 3.0 µg/kg were hardly affected in both the behavioral and neuronal activation indices, indicating that the robust, non-monotonic dose-response relationship. In conclusion, this study showed for the first time that perinatal exposure to a low dose of TCDD in mice develops executive function deficits and social behavioral abnormality accompanied with the signs of imbalanced mPFC-amygdala activation.

  7. Abnormal splicing in the N-terminal variable region of cardiac troponin T impairs systolic function of the heart with preserved Frank-Starling compensation.

    Feng, Han-Zhong; Chen, Guozhen; Nan, Changlong; Huang, Xupei; Jin, Jian-Ping


    Abnormal splice-out of the exon 7-encoded segment in the N-terminal variable region of cardiac troponin T (cTnT-ΔE7) was found in turkeys and, together with the inclusion of embryonic exon (eTnT), in adult dogs with a correlation with dilated cardiomyopathy. Overexpression of these cTnT variants in transgenic mouse hearts significantly decreased cardiac function. To further investigate the functional effect of cTnT-ΔE7 or ΔE7+eTnT in vivo under systemic regulation, echocardiography was carried out in single and double-transgenic mice. No atrial enlargement, ventricular hypertrophy or dilation was detected in the hearts of 2-month-old cTnT-ΔE7 and ΔE7+eTnT mice in comparison to wild-type controls, indicating a compensated state. However, left ventricular fractional shortening and ejection fraction were decreased in ΔE7 and ΔE7+eTnT mice, and the response to isoproterenol was lower in ΔE7+eTnT mice. Left ventricular outflow tract velocity and gradient were decreased in the transgenic mouse hearts, indicating decreased systolic function. Ex vivo working heart function showed that high afterload or low preload resulted in more severe decreases in the systolic function and energetic efficiency of cTnT-ΔE7 and ΔE7+eTnT hearts. On the other hand, increases in preload demonstrated preserved Frank-Starling responses and minimized the loss of cardiac function and efficiency. The data demonstrate that the N-terminal variable region of cardiac TnT regulates systolic function of the heart.

  8. 78 FR 57470 - Special Conditions: Eclipse, EA500, Certification of Autothrottle Functions


    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 23 Special Conditions: Eclipse, EA500, Certification of.... SUMMARY: These special conditions are issued for the Eclipse EA500 airplane. This airplane as modified by... systems installed and under 14 CFR part 135 with additional equipment installed. The Eclipse Model...

  9. Refractive error and visual functions in children with special needs compared with the first grade school students in Oman

    Vora Urmi


    Full Text Available Background: We evaluated the refractive status and visual function of children with special needs (other handicap in 2010 and compared them with healthy 1 st grade school students in Oman. Materials and Methods: This was a cohort study. Optometrists recorded vision using a logarithm of minimum angle of resolution (LogMAR chart. Preferential looking method was used for testing 31 children. Cycloplegic refraction was performed on all children. Contrast sensitivity was tested using 2.5%, 10%, and 100% contrast charts. Ocular movement, alignment, and anterior segment were also assessed. A pediatrician reviewed the health records of all the children at the time of their enrollment in this study to determine if the child had been diagnosed with a systemic condition or syndromes. The visual functions were assessed by study investigators. We estimated the rates and the risk of different visual function defects in children with special needs. Result: The prevalence of refractive error in 70 children (4.7 ± 0.8 years with special needs (group 1 and 175 normal healthy first grade students (group 2 were 58.5% and 2.9%, respectively. The risk of refractive error was significantly higher in children with special needs [relative risk, 48.1 (95% confidence interval, 17.54-131.8]. Hyperopia (>1.00 D, myopia (≥ 1.00D and astigmatism (≥ ±1.00 D were found in 18.6%, 24.3%, and 27.1%, respectively, in group 1. Six children in this group had defective near vision. Sixteen (80% children with Down syndrome had refractive error. Seven (50% children with developmental disorder showed decreased contrast sensitivity. Conclusion: Prevalence of uncorrected refractive error was much higher in children with special needs. Prevalence of strabismus, nystagmus, and reduced contrast sensitivity was also higher in children with special needs. Early vision screening, visual function assessment, correction of refractive error, and frequent follow-up are recommended.

  10. Two congenital coronary abnormalities affecting heart function: anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery and congenital left main coronary artery atresia

    Xiao Yanyan; Jin Mei; Han Ling; Ding Wenhong; Zheng Jianyong; Sun Chufan; Lyu Zhenyu


    Background The anomalous origin of the left coronary artery (LCA) from the pulmonary artery (ALCAPA) and congenital left main coronary artery atresia (CLMCA-A) are two kinds of very rare coronary heart diseases which affect heart function profoundly.This study aimed to retrospectively illustrate the clinical features and therapy experience of ALCAPA and CLMCA-A patients.Methods From April 1984 to July 2012,in Beijing Anzhen Hospital,23 patients were diagnosed with ALCAPA and 4 patients with CLMCA-A.We summarized the clinical data of the 27 cases and retrospectively analyzed the clinical manifestation,diagnosis,and treatments of these two kinds of congenital coronary abnormalities.Results The 23 patients (13 males and 10 females,aged ranging from 2.5 months to 65 years) identified with ALCAPA were classified into infantile type (age of onset younger than 12 months,16 cases) and adult type (age of onset older than 12 months,7 cases).Four patients were diagnosed with CLMCA-A (three males and one female,aged ranging from 3 months to 2 years).The main clinical manifestations of infantile-type ALCAPA and CLMCA-A include repeated respiratory tract infection,heart failure,dyspnea,feeding intolerance,diaphoresis,and failure to thrive.And these two congenital coronary abnormalities might be misdiagnosed as endocardial fibroelastosis,dilated cardiomyopathy,and acute myocardial infarction.As for the adult-type ALCAPA,cardiac murmurs and discomfort of the precordial area are the most common presentations and might be misdiagnosed as coronary heart disease,myocarditis,or patent ductus arteriosus.In ECG examination:Infantile-type ALCAPA and CLMCA-A showed abnormal Q waves with T wave inversion in leads I,avL,and V4-V6,especially in lead avL.However,ECG of adult-type ALCAPA lacked distinct features.In chest radiography:pulmonary congestion and cardiomegaly were the most common findings in infantile-type ALCAPA and CLMCA-A,while pulmonary artery segment dilation was more common in

  11. Special Issue “50th Anniversary of the Kohn–Sham Theory—Advances in Density Functional Theory”

    Ágnes Nagy


    Full Text Available The properties of many materials at the atomic scale depend on the electronic structure, which requires a quantum mechanical treatment. The most widely used approach to make such a treatment feasible is density functional theory (DFT, the advances in which were presented and discussed during the DFT conference in Debrecen. Some of these issues are presented in this Special Issue.

  12. Enhancing Recognition of High Quality, Functional IEP Goals: A Training Activity for Early Childhood Special Education Staff

    Lucas, Anne; Gillaspy, Kathi; Peters, Mary Louise; Hurth, Joicey


    This training activity was created to support participants' understanding of the criteria needed to develop and write high quality, participation-based Individualized Education Program (IEP) goals. The term "functional" is often used to describe what goals ought to be, yet many Early Childhood Special Education (ECSE) staff (e.g.,…

  13. Local Convergence of the Proximal Point Method for a Special Class of Nonconvex Functions on Hadamard Manifolds

    Bento, G C; Oliveira, P R


    Local convergence analysis of the proximal point method for special class of nonconvex function on Hadamard manifold is presented in this paper. The well definedness of the sequence generated by the proximal point method is guaranteed. Moreover, is proved that each cluster point of this sequence satisfies the necessary optimality conditions and, under additional assumptions, its convergence for a minimizer is obtained.

  14. Functional magnetic resonance imaging reveals abnormal brain connectivity in EGR3 gene transfected rat model of schizophrenia.

    Song, Tianbin; Nie, Binbin; Ma, Ensen; Che, Jing; Sun, Shilong; Wang, Yuli; Shan, Baoci; Liu, Yawu; Luo, Senlin; Ma, Guolin; Li, Kefeng


    Schizophrenia is characterized by the disorder of "social brain". However, the alternation of connectivity density in brain areas of schizophrenia patients remains largely unknown. In this study, we successfully created a rat model of schizophrenia by the transfection of EGR3 gene into rat brain. We then investigated the connectivity density of schizophrenia susceptible regions in rat brain using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in combination with multivariate Granger causality (GC) model. We found that the average signal strength in prefrontal lobe and hippocampus of schizophrenia model group was significantly higher than the control group. Bidirectional Granger causality connection was observed between hippocampus and thalamic in schizophrenia model group. Both connectivity density and Granger causality connection were changed in prefrontal lobe, hippocampus and thalamus after risperidone treatment. Our results indicated that fMRI in combination with GC connection analysis may be used as an important method in diagnosis of schizophrenia and evaluation the effect of antipsychotic treatment. These findings support the connectivity disorder hypothesis of schizophrenia and increase our understanding of the neural mechanisms of schizophrenia.

  15. Mild maternal iron deficiency anemia during pregnancy and lactation in guinea pigs causes abnormal auditory function in the offspring.

    Jougleux, Jean-Luc; Rioux, France M; Church, Michael W; Fiset, Sylvain; Surette, Marc E


    Iron deficiency (ID) anemia (IDA) adversely affects different aspects of the nervous system such as myelinogenesis, neurotransmitters synthesis, brain myelin composition, and brain fatty acid and eicosanoid metabolism. Infant neurophysiological outcome in response to maternal IDA is underexplored, especially mild to moderate maternal IDA. Furthermore, most human research has focused on childhood ID rather than prenatal or neonatal ID. Thus, our study evaluated the consequences of mild maternal IDA during pregnancy and lactation on the offsprings' auditory function using the auditory brainstem response (ABR). This technique provides objective measures of auditory acuity, neural transmission times along the peripheral and brainstem portions of the auditory pathway, and postnatal brain maturation. Female guinea pigs (n = 10/group) were fed an iron sufficient diet (ISD) or an iron deficient diet (IDD) (144 and 11.7 mg iron/kg) during their acclimation, gestation, and lactation periods. From postnatal d (PNd) 9 onward, the ISD was given to all weaned offspring. ABR were collected from the offspring on PNd24 using a broad range of stimulus intensities in response to 2, 4, 8, 16, and 32 kHz tone pips. IDA siblings (n = 4), [corrected] compared with the IS siblings (n = 5), had significantly elevated ABR thresholds (hearing loss) in response to all tone pips. These physiological disturbances were primarily due to a sensorineural hearing loss, as revealed by the ABR's latency-intensity curves. These results indicate that mild maternal IDA during gestation and lactation altered the hearing and nervous system development of the young offspring.

  16. Abnormal serum thyroid hormones concentration with healthy functional gland: a review on the metabolic role of thyroid hormones transporter proteins.

    Azad, Reza Mansourian


    Laboratory findings can definitely help the patients not to enter into status, where the damage might be happen due to a miss-diagnosis based on clinical assessment alone. The secondary disease accompanied with thyroid patients should also carefully check out due to the interference which some diseases can cause in the amount of serum thyroid hormone, particularly the free thyroxin. The dilemma over thyroid clinical diagnosis occur due to variation on serum thyroid hormone which initiated by other non-thyroidal disorders which can play an important roles in metabolic disorders of thyroid hormone due to the alteration which occur on the serum level of thyroid hormone transporter proteins. The majority of serum thyroid hormones of up to 95-99% are bound to the carrier proteins mainly to Thyroxin-Binding Globulins (TBG), some transthyretin already known as pre-albumin and albumin which are all synthesis in the liver and any modification which alter their production may alter the status of thyroid hormones. It seems TBG, transthyretin and albumin carries 75, 20, 5% of thyroid hormones within blood circulation, respectively. The dilemma facing the thyroid hormones following disruption of thyroid hormone transporter protein synthesis originate from this fact that any alteration of these protein contribute to the alteration of total thyroid and free serum thyroid hormones which are in fact the biologically active form of thyroid hormones. The subsequent of latter implication result in miss-understanding and miss-diagnosis of thyroid function tests, with possible wrongly thyroid clinical care, followed by undesired therapy of otherwise healthy thyroid.

  17. Functional abnormalities in iPSC-derived cardiomyocytes generated from CPVT1 and CPVT2 patients carrying ryanodine or calsequestrin mutations.

    Novak, Atara; Barad, Lili; Lorber, Avraham; Gherghiceanu, Mihaela; Reiter, Irina; Eisen, Binyamin; Eldor, Liron; Itskovitz-Eldor, Joseph; Eldar, Michael; Arad, Michael; Binah, Ofer


    Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT) is an inherited arrhythmia characterized by syncope and sudden death occurring during exercise or acute emotion. CPVT is caused by abnormal intracellular Ca(2+) handling resulting from mutations in the RyR2 or CASQ2 genes. Because CASQ2 and RyR2 are involved in different aspects of the excitation-contraction coupling process, we hypothesized that these mutations are associated with different functional and intracellular Ca(²+) abnormalities. To test the hypothesis we generated induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-derived cardiomyocytes (iPSC-CM) from CPVT1 and CPVT2 patients carrying the RyR2(R420Q) and CASQ2(D307H) mutations, respectively, and investigated in CPVT1 and CPVT2 iPSC-CM (compared to control): (i) The ultrastructural features; (ii) the effects of isoproterenol, caffeine and ryanodine on the [Ca(2+) ]i transient characteristics. Our major findings were: (i) Ultrastructurally, CASQ2 and RyR2 mutated cardiomyocytes were less developed than control cardiomyocytes. (ii) While in control iPSC-CM isoproterenol caused positive inotropic and lusitropic effects, in the mutated cardiomyocytes isoproterenol was either ineffective, caused arrhythmias, or markedly increased diastolic [Ca(2+) ]i . Importantly, positive inotropic and lusitropic effects were not induced in mutated cardiomyocytes. (iii) The effects of caffeine and ryanodine in mutated cardiomyocytes differed from control cardiomyocytes. Our results show that iPSC-CM are useful for investigating the similarities/differences in the pathophysiological consequences of RyR2 versus CASQ2 mutations underlying CPVT1 and CPVT2 syndromes.

  18. Evolution, dynamics and specialized functions of glycosomes in metabolism and development of trypanosomatids

    Szoeoer, Balks; Haanstra, Jurgen R.; Gualdron-Lopez, Melisa; Michels, Paul A. M.


    Kinetoplastea such as trypanosomatid parasites contain specialized peroxisomes that uniquely contain enzymes of the glycolytic pathway and other parts of intermediary metabolism and hence are called glycosomes. Their specific enzyme content can vary strongly, quantitatively and qualitatively, betwee

  19. Inhaled corticosteroids for abnormal pulmonary function in children with a history of Chronic Lung Disease of Infancy: study protocol [ISRCTN55153521

    Sauve Reginald


    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is considerable evidence from the literature that children with chronic lung disease of infancy (CLD have abnormal pulmonary function in childhood and this could have an impact on their life quality and overall health. There are similarities between CLD and asthma, and corticosteroids are the mainstay treatment for asthma. Many physicians use inhaled corticosteroids in children with CLD with no evidence. Therefore we wish to conduct a randomized double-blinded placebo controlled trial to test for the role of inhaled corticosteroids in children aged from3 to 9 years with a history of CLD. Our primary hypothesis will be that inhaled corticosteroids are beneficial in children with CLD. Methods Our primary hypothesis is that using inhaled steroids; Beclomethasone Dipropionate (QVAR 100 mcg 2 puffs 2 times a day for 6 weeks will improve the respiratory system resistance and the quality of life in children with CLD. Discussion We propose that Beclomethasone Dipropionate (QVAR will affect the pulmonary function after 6 weeks of treatment. In summary we think that our study will highlight knowledge on whether the use of inhaled steroids is clinically effective for CLD.

  20. Influence of excessive iodine intake on the thyroid function and spectrum of thyroid abnormalities in population of Turinsk, Sverdlovsk Region, of Russia

    Aleksey Vasil'evich Kiyaev


    Full Text Available Background.Previous surveys showed chronic iodine excess - median urinary iodine concentration (UIC over 500 mcg/l — supposedly due to water contamination in population of Turinsk, a town in Sverdlovsk Region of Russia.Aim.Conduct an assessment of the effects of chronic iodine excess on thyroid function and spectrum of thyroid abnormalities in schoolchildren and adults.Materials and methods.Assessment was conducted in 100 schoolchildren and 100 adults residing in Turinsk and 97 schoolchildren and 100 adults in the control site (city of Pervouralsk with optimal UIC. Assessment included thyroid ultrasonogrpahy, urinary iodine and dry spot TSH in schoolchildren and TSH and TPO-ab in adults. Iodine was also measured in random water samples from 10 households in Turinsk.Results.Median UIC in schoolchildren in Turinsk (719 mcg/l was significantly higher (129 mcg/l than in Pervouralsk resulting in higher prevalence of thyroid enlargement and TSH level. In adults TSH level as well as prevalence of sub-clinical hypothyroidism and autoimmune thyroiditis were higher in residents of Turinsk compared to control group from Pervouralsk.Conclusions.Iodine excess alters thyroid function in schoolchildren and adults increasing prevalence of thyroid enlargement in children and autoimmune thyroidis in adults.

  1. Functional and Developmental Identification of a Molecular Subtype of Brain Serotonergic Neuron Specialized to Regulate Breathing Dynamics

    Rachael D. Brust


    Full Text Available Serotonergic neurons modulate behavioral and physiological responses from aggression and anxiety to breathing and thermoregulation. Disorders involving serotonin (5HT dysregulation are commensurately heterogeneous and numerous. We hypothesized that this breadth in functionality derives in part from a developmentally determined substructure of distinct subtypes of 5HT neurons each specialized to modulate specific behaviors. By manipulating developmentally defined subgroups one by one chemogenetically, we find that the Egr2-Pet1 subgroup is specialized to drive increased ventilation in response to carbon dioxide elevation and acidosis. Furthermore, this subtype exhibits intrinsic chemosensitivity and modality-specific projections—increasing firing during hypercapnic acidosis and selectively projecting to respiratory chemosensory but not motor centers, respectively. These findings show that serotonergic regulation of the respiratory chemoreflex is mediated by a specialized molecular subtype of 5HT neuron harboring unique physiological, biophysical, and hodological properties specified developmentally and demonstrate that the serotonergic system contains specialized modules contributing to its collective functional breadth.

  2. Kidney abnormalities in sickle cell disease.

    López Revuelta, K; Ricard Andrés, M P


    Patients with sickle cell disease exhibits numerous kidney structural and functional abnormalities, changes that are seen along the entire length of the nephron. Changes are most marked in patients with homozygous sickle cell anemia, but are also seen in those with compound heterozygous states and the sickle cell trait. The renal features of sickle cell disease include some of the most common reasons for referral to nephrologists, such as hematuria, proteinuria, tubular disturbances and chronic kidney disease. Therapy of these conditions requires specialized knowledge of their distinct pathogenic mechanisms. Spanish Haemathology and Hemotherapy Association has recently publicated their Clinical Practice Guidelines of SCD management. Renal chapter is reproduced in this article for Nefrología difussion.


    戈峰; 李泽坚; 柯美云


    Using 3 non-invasive tests,abnormalities of cardiovascular reflex function were found in 7 of 15 patients with achalasia.Abnormalities of heart rate responses to the Valsalva maneuver,deep breathing ,and standing were moted in patients with autonomic neuropathy defect.The findings are consistent with the hypothesis that an abnormality of vagal function may contribute to the pathogenesis of achalasia.

  4. Proximal Point Method for a Special Class of Nonconvex Functions on Hadamard Manifolds

    Bento, G C; Oliveira, P R


    The proximal point method for special class of nonconvex optimization problems on Hadamard manifold is presented in this paper. The well definiteness of the sequence generated by the proximal point method is guaranteed. Moreover, is proved that each accumulation point of this sequence satisfies the necessary optimality conditions and, under additional assumptions, the convergence of it for a minimizer is obtained.

  5. Children with emotional and behavioral disorders in special education : Placement, progress, and family functioning

    Stoutjesdijk, Regina


    The studies described in this dissertation focus on children with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) in special education. It was found that poor academic performance, relational problems between children and caregivers, and the age at which youth care was involved for the first time predicted

  6. Taking Development Seriously: Critique of the 2008 "JME" Special Issue on Moral Functioning

    Gibbs, John C.; Moshman, David; Berkowitz, Marvin W.; Basinger, Karen S.; Grime, Rebecca L.


    This essay comments on articles comprising a "Journal of Moral Education" Special Issue (September, 2008, 37[3]). The issue was intended to honour the 50th anniversary of Lawrence Kohlberg's doctoral dissertation and his subsequent impact on the field of moral development and education. The articles were characterised by the Issue editor (Don…

  7. Neurological and behavioral abnormalities, ventricular dilatation, altered cellular functions, inflammation, and neuronal injury in brains of mice due to common, persistent, parasitic infection

    Hwang Jong-Hee


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Worldwide, approximately two billion people are chronically infected with Toxoplasma gondii with largely unknown consequences. Methods To better understand long-term effects and pathogenesis of this common, persistent brain infection, mice were infected at a time in human years equivalent to early to mid adulthood and studied 5–12 months later. Appearance, behavior, neurologic function and brain MRIs were studied. Additional analyses of pathogenesis included: correlation of brain weight and neurologic findings; histopathology focusing on brain regions; full genome microarrays; immunohistochemistry characterizing inflammatory cells; determination of presence of tachyzoites and bradyzoites; electron microscopy; and study of markers of inflammation in serum. Histopathology in genetically resistant mice and cytokine and NRAMP knockout mice, effects of inoculation of isolated parasites, and treatment with sulfadiazine or αPD1 ligand were studied. Results Twelve months after infection, a time equivalent to middle to early elderly ages, mice had behavioral and neurological deficits, and brain MRIs showed mild to moderate ventricular dilatation. Lower brain weight correlated with greater magnitude of neurologic abnormalities and inflammation. Full genome microarrays of brains reflected inflammation causing neuronal damage (Gfap, effects on host cell protein processing (ubiquitin ligase, synapse remodeling (Complement 1q, and also increased expression of PD-1L (a ligand that allows persistent LCMV brain infection and CD 36 (a fatty acid translocase and oxidized LDL receptor that mediates innate immune response to beta amyloid which is associated with pro-inflammation in Alzheimer's disease. Immunostaining detected no inflammation around intra-neuronal cysts, practically no free tachyzoites, and only rare bradyzoites. Nonetheless, there were perivascular, leptomeningeal inflammatory cells, particularly contiguous to the aqueduct of

  8. Progestins Upregulate FKBP51 Expression in Human Endometrial Stromal Cells to Induce Functional Progesterone and Glucocorticoid Withdrawal: Implications for Contraceptive- Associated Abnormal Uterine Bleeding.

    Ozlem Guzeloglu Kayisli

    Full Text Available Use of long-acting progestin only contraceptives (LAPCs offers a discrete and highly effective family planning method. Abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB is the major side effect of, and cause for, discontinuation of LAPCs. The endometria of LAPC-treated women display abnormally enlarged, fragile blood vessels, decreased endometrial blood flow and oxidative stress. To understanding to mechanisms underlying AUB, we propose to identify LAPC-modulated unique gene cluster(s in human endometrial stromal cells (HESCs. Protein and RNA isolated from cultured HESCs treated 7 days with estradiol (E2 or E2+ medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA or E2+ etonogestrel (ETO or E2+ progesterone (P4 were analyzed by quantitative Real-time (q-PCR and immunoblotting. HSCORES were determined for immunostained-paired endometria of pre-and 3 months post-Depot MPA (DMPA treated women and ovariectomized guinea pigs (GPs treated with placebo or E2 or MPA or E2+MPA for 21 days. In HESCs, whole genome analysis identified a 67 gene group regulated by all three progestins, whereas a 235 gene group was regulated by E2+ETO and E2+MPA, but not E2+P4. Ingenuity pathway analysis identified glucocorticoid receptor (GR activation as one of upstream regulators of the 235 MPA and ETO-specific genes. Among these, microarray results demonstrated significant enhancement of FKBP51, a repressor of PR/GR transcriptional activity, by both MPA and ETO. q-PCR and immunoblot analysis confirmed the microarray results. In endometria of post-DMPA versus pre-DMPA administered women, FKBP51 expression was significantly increased in endometrial stromal and glandular cells. In GPs, E2+MPA or MPA significantly increased FKBP51 immunoreactivity in endometrial stromal and glandular cells versus placebo- and E2-administered groups. MPA or ETO administration activates GR signaling and increases endometrial FKBP51 expression, which could be one of the mechanisms causing AUB by inhibiting PR and GR

  9. Progestins Upregulate FKBP51 Expression in Human Endometrial Stromal Cells to Induce Functional Progesterone and Glucocorticoid Withdrawal: Implications for Contraceptive- Associated Abnormal Uterine Bleeding.

    Guzeloglu Kayisli, Ozlem; Kayisli, Umit A; Basar, Murat; Semerci, Nihan; Schatz, Frederick; Lockwood, Charles J


    Use of long-acting progestin only contraceptives (LAPCs) offers a discrete and highly effective family planning method. Abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) is the major side effect of, and cause for, discontinuation of LAPCs. The endometria of LAPC-treated women display abnormally enlarged, fragile blood vessels, decreased endometrial blood flow and oxidative stress. To understanding to mechanisms underlying AUB, we propose to identify LAPC-modulated unique gene cluster(s) in human endometrial stromal cells (HESCs). Protein and RNA isolated from cultured HESCs treated 7 days with estradiol (E2) or E2+ medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) or E2+ etonogestrel (ETO) or E2+ progesterone (P4) were analyzed by quantitative Real-time (q)-PCR and immunoblotting. HSCORES were determined for immunostained-paired endometria of pre-and 3 months post-Depot MPA (DMPA) treated women and ovariectomized guinea pigs (GPs) treated with placebo or E2 or MPA or E2+MPA for 21 days. In HESCs, whole genome analysis identified a 67 gene group regulated by all three progestins, whereas a 235 gene group was regulated by E2+ETO and E2+MPA, but not E2+P4. Ingenuity pathway analysis identified glucocorticoid receptor (GR) activation as one of upstream regulators of the 235 MPA and ETO-specific genes. Among these, microarray results demonstrated significant enhancement of FKBP51, a repressor of PR/GR transcriptional activity, by both MPA and ETO. q-PCR and immunoblot analysis confirmed the microarray results. In endometria of post-DMPA versus pre-DMPA administered women, FKBP51 expression was significantly increased in endometrial stromal and glandular cells. In GPs, E2+MPA or MPA significantly increased FKBP51 immunoreactivity in endometrial stromal and glandular cells versus placebo- and E2-administered groups. MPA or ETO administration activates GR signaling and increases endometrial FKBP51 expression, which could be one of the mechanisms causing AUB by inhibiting PR and GR-mediated transcription

  10. Special Care Units and Traditional Care in Dementia: Relationship with Behavior, Cognition, Functional Status and Quality of Life - A Review

    Jeroen S. Kok


    Full Text Available Background: Special care facilities for patients with dementia gain increasing attention. However, an overview of studies examining the differences between care facilities with respect to their effects on behavior, cognition, functional status and quality of life is lacking. Results: Our literature search resulted in 32 studies published until October 2012. Overall, patients with dementia who lived at special care units (SCUs showed a significantly more challenging behavior, more agitation/aggression, more depression and anxiety, more cases of global cognitive impairment and a better psychosocial functioning. There was a tendency towards a better functional status in specialized care facilities, and a better quality of life was found in favor of the SCU group compared to the traditional nursing home (n-SCU group. Longitudinal studies showed an increased number of neuropsychiatric cases, more patients displaying deteriorating behavior and resistance to care as well as less decline in activities of daily living (ADL in the SCU group compared to the n-SCU group. Patients in small-scale, homelike SCUs showed more agitation and less ADL decline compared to SCU patients. Conclusion: This review shows that the patient characteristics in SCU and n-SCU settings and, to a minor extent, in SCU and small-scale, homelike SCU settings are different. Over time, there are differences between n-SCU, SCU and small-scale, homelike SCU facilities for some variables.

  11. Urine - abnormal color

    ... Urine - abnormal color To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The usual color of urine is straw-yellow. Abnormally colored urine ...

  12. Invertebrate diversity classification using self-organizing map neural network: with some special topological functions

    WenJun Zhang


    Full Text Available In present study we used self-organizing map (SOM neural network to conduct the non-supervisory clustering of invertebrate orders in rice field. Four topological functions, i.e., cossintopf, sincostopf, acossintopf, and expsintopf, established on the template in toolbox of Matlab, were used in SOM neural network learning. Results showed that clusters were different when using different topological functions because different topological functions will generate different spatial structure of neurons in neural network. We may chose these functions and results based on comparison with the practical situation.

  13. 甲状腺功能异常对妊娠结局的影响%The effect of abnormal thyroid function on the pregnancy outcome



    Objective:To explore the effects of abnormal thyroid function on the pregnancy outcome. Methods:Three thousand seven hundred and seventy-eight pregnant women without the history of thyroid disease were divided into the hyperthyroidism group, hypothyreosis group,subclinical hypothyreosis group,other thyroid disease group and normal control group according to the thyroid function. The processes and outcomes of pregnancy between all groups were analyzed and compared. Results:The preterm delivery rates of the hyperthyroidism group,hypothyreosis group,subclinical hypothyreosis group and low thyroid group were significantly higher than that of the normal group(P0. 05),the neonatal weights in hyperthyroidism group and hypothyreosis group were lower than that in normal control group(P 0.05),但甲亢组和甲减组新生儿体质量均低于正常对照组(P<0.01);各组甲状腺功能异常孕产妇胎儿窘迫、胎儿生长受限、妊娠期高血压疾病及产后感染的发生率与正常对照组差异均有统计学意义(P<0.01),其中甲亢组、甲减组和亚甲减组胎儿窘迫的发生率均高于正常对照组(P<0.05~P<0.01),甲亢组和甲减组妊娠期高血压疾病发生率均高于正常对照组(P<0.01)。结论:定期对孕产妇的游离三碘甲状腺原氨酸、游离甲状腺素、促甲状腺激素进行检测,了解甲状腺功能,有利于减少产科并发症的发生,对改善妊娠结局有着重要的意义。

  14. Executive Function and Behavioral Problems in Students with Visual Impairments at Mainstream and Special Schools

    Heyl, Vera; Hintermair, Manfred


    Introduction: In this study, executive function of school-aged children with visual impairments (that is, those who are blind or have low vision) is examined in the context of behavioral problems and communicative competence. Methods: Teachers assessed the executive function of a sample of 226 visually impaired students from mainstream schools and…

  15. Specialization and integration of functional thalamocortical connectivity in the human infant

    Toulmin, H.; Beckmann, C.F.; O'Muircheartaigh, J.; Ball, G.; Nongena, P.; Makropoulis, A.; Ederies, A.; Counsell, S.J.; Kennea, N.; Arichi, T.; Tusor, N.; Rutherford, M.A.; Azzopardi, D.; Gonzalez-Cinca, N.; Hajnal, J.V.; Edwards, A.D.


    Connections between the thalamus and cortex develop rapidly before birth, and aberrant cerebral maturation during this period may underlie a number of neurodevelopmental disorders. To define functional thalamocortical connectivity at the normal time of birth, we used functional MRI (fMRI) to measure

  16. General and specialized brain correlates for analogical reasoning: A meta-analysis of functional imaging studies.

    Hobeika, Lucie; Diard-Detoeuf, Capucine; Garcin, Béatrice; Levy, Richard; Volle, Emmanuelle


    Reasoning by analogy allows us to link distinct domains of knowledge and to transfer solutions from one domain to another. Analogical reasoning has been studied using various tasks that have generally required the consideration of the relationships between objects and their integration to infer an analogy schema. However, these tasks varied in terms of the level and the nature of the relationships to consider (e.g., semantic, visuospatial). The aim of this study was to identify the cerebral network involved in analogical reasoning and its specialization based on the domains of information and task specificity. We conducted a coordinate-based meta-analysis of 27 experiments that used analogical reasoning tasks. The left rostrolateral prefrontal cortex was one of the regions most consistently activated across the studies. A comparison between semantic and visuospatial analogy tasks showed both domain-oriented regions in the inferior and middle frontal gyri and a domain-general region, the left rostrolateral prefrontal cortex, which was specialized for analogy tasks. A comparison of visuospatial analogy to matrix problem tasks revealed that these two relational reasoning tasks engage, at least in part, distinct right and left cerebral networks, particularly separate areas within the left rostrolateral prefrontal cortex. These findings highlight several cognitive and cerebral differences between relational reasoning tasks that can allow us to make predictions about the respective roles of distinct brain regions or networks. These results also provide new, testable anatomical hypotheses about reasoning disorders that are induced by brain damage. Hum Brain Mapp 37:1953-1969, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. SMPDF Web: a web-based application for specialized minimal parton distribution functions

    Carrazza, Stefano


    We present SMPDF Web, a web interface for the construction of parton distribution functions (PDFs) with a minimal number of error sets needed to represent the PDF uncertainty of specific processes (SMPDF).

  18. Proteins associated with critical sperm functions and sperm head shape are differentially expressed in morphologically abnormal bovine sperm induced by scrotal insulation

    Saadi, H.A.S.; Riemsdijk, van E.L.C.; Dance, A.L.; Rajamanickam, G.D.; Kastelic, J.P.; Thundathil, J.C.


    The objective was to investigate expression patterns of proteins in pyriform sperm, a common morphological abnormality in bull sperm. Ejaculates were collected from sexually mature Holstein bulls (n = 3) twice weekly for 10 weeks (pre-thermal insult samples). Testicular temperature was elevated in a

  19. Thyroid abnormality in perimenopausal women with abnormal uterine bleeding

    Prasanna Byna


    Full Text Available Background: AUB is a common but complicated clinical presentation and occurs in 15-20% of women between menarche to menopause and significantly affects the women's health. Women with thyroid dysfunction often have menstrual irregularities, infertility and increased morbidity during pregnancy. The objective of present study is to find the correlation between thyroid disorders and AUB in perimenopausal women attending gynecology OPD. Methods: In the present study, fifty five patients with AUB were included and were evaluated for the cause including thyroid abnormality. Thyroid function tests were done in all patients. Results: Among 55 patients, 12 patients were diagnosed as hypothyroidism and 7 as hyperthyroidism, women with AUB 36 (65.4% were euthyroid. Among 19 women with thyroid abnormality, heavy menstrual bleeding was seen in 8 (42% women, 6 (31.57% had polymenorrhagia, 5 (26.31% had oligomenorrhoea. The frequent menstrual abnormality in women with hypothyroidism (12 women was heavy menstrual bleeding in 5 (41.6% women, 3 (25% had oligomennorhoea, 4 (33.3% had polymenorrhagia. Out of 7 women with hyperthyroidism, 2 (28.57% had oligomenorrhoea, 3 (42.8% had heavy menstrual bleeding, 2 (28.57% had polymenorrhagia. In a total of 55 patients with AUB, 11 (20% had structural abnormalities in uterus and ovaries. 5 (9% had adenomyosis, 3 (5.4% had ovarian cysts, 3 (5.4% had fibroids. Conclusions: It is important to screen all women for thyroid abnormality who are presenting with AUB especially with non-structural causes of AUB. Correction of thyroid abnormalities also relieves AUB. This will avoid unnecessary hormonal treatment and surgery. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(11.000: 3250-3253

  20. Special functions and pathways for problems in astrophysics: An essay in honor of A.M. Mathai

    Haubold, H J


    The paper provides a review of A.M. Mathai's applications of the theory of special functions, particularly generalized hypergeometric functions, to problems in stellar physics and formation of structure in the Universe and to questions related to reaction, diffusion, and reaction-diffusion models. The essay also highlights Mathai's recent work on entropic, distributional, and differential pathways to basic concepts in statistical mechanics, making use of his earlier research results in information and statistical distribution theory. The results presented in the essay cover a period of time in Mathai's research from 1982 to 2008 and are all related to the thematic area of the gravitationally stabilized solar fusion reactor and fractional reaction-diffusion, taking into account concepts of non-extensive statistical mechanics. The time period referred to above coincides also with Mathai's exceptional contributions to the establishment and operation of the Centre for Mathematical Sciences, India, as well as the ...

  1. Hydrophobic Core Variations Provide a Structural Framework for Tyrosine Kinase Evolution and Functional Specialization.

    Mohanty, Smita; Oruganty, Krishnadev; Kwon, Annie; Byrne, Dominic P; Ferries, Samantha; Ruan, Zheng; Hanold, Laura E; Katiyar, Samiksha; Kennedy, Eileen J; Eyers, Patrick A; Kannan, Natarajan


    Protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs) are a group of closely related enzymes that have evolutionarily diverged from serine/threonine kinases (STKs) to regulate pathways associated with multi-cellularity. Evolutionary divergence of PTKs from STKs has occurred through accumulation of mutations in the active site as well as in the commonly conserved hydrophobic core. While the functional significance of active site variations is well understood, relatively little is known about how hydrophobic core variations contribute to PTK evolutionary divergence. Here, using a combination of statistical sequence comparisons, molecular dynamics simulations, mutational analysis and in vitro thermostability and kinase assays, we investigate the structural and functional significance of key PTK-specific variations in the kinase core. We find that the nature of residues and interactions in the hydrophobic core of PTKs is strikingly different from other protein kinases, and PTK-specific variations in the core contribute to functional divergence by altering the stability and dynamics of the kinase domain. In particular, a functionally critical STK-conserved histidine that stabilizes the regulatory spine in STKs is selectively mutated to an alanine, serine or glutamate in PTKs, and this loss-of-function mutation is accommodated, in part, through compensatory PTK-specific interactions in the core. In particular, a PTK-conserved phenylalanine in the I-helix appears to structurally and functionally compensate for the loss of STK-histidine by interacting with the regulatory spine, which has far-reaching effects on enzyme activity, inhibitor sensing, and stability. We propose that hydrophobic core variations provide a selective advantage during PTK evolution by increasing the conformational flexibility, and therefore the allosteric potential of the kinase domain. Our studies also suggest that Tyrosine Kinase Like kinases such as RAF are intermediates in PTK evolutionary divergence inasmuch as they

  2. Academic and Social Achievement Goals: Their Additive, Interactive, and Specialized Effects on School Functioning

    Liem, Gregory Arief D.


    Background: Students' pursuit of academic and social goals has implications for school functioning. However, studies on academic and social achievement goals have been relatively independent and mainly conducted with students in culturally Western settings. Aims: Guided by multiple-goal perspectives, this study examined the role of academic and…

  3. Evaluating Implementation of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health in Portugal's Special Education Law

    Sanches-Ferreira, Manuela; Simeonsson, Rune J.; Silveira-Maia, Mónica; Alves, Sílvia


    This paper reports the results of a national two-year project, commissioned by the Portuguese Ministry of Education, to investigate the implementation of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) under Decree-Law 3/2008. The Decree-Law also introduced the principle that the documentation of students' functioning…

  4. Functional specialization of the left ventral parietal cortex in working memory

    Jennifer Lou Langel


    Full Text Available The function of the ventral parietal cortex (VPC is subject to much debate. Many studies suggest a lateralization of function in the VPC, with the left hemisphere facilitating verbal working memory and the right subserving stimulus-driven attention. However, many attentional tasks elicit activity in the VPC bilaterally. To elucidate the potential divides across the VPC in function, we assessed the pattern of activity in the VPC bilaterally across two tasks that require different demands, an oddball attentional task with low working memory demands and a working memory task. An anterior region of the VPC was bilaterally active during novel targets in the oddball task and during retrieval in WM, while more posterior regions of the VPC displayed dissociable functions in the left and right hemisphere, with the left being active during the encoding and retrieval of WM, but not during the oddball task and the right showing the reverse pattern. These results suggest that bilateral regions of the anterior VPC subserve non-mnemonic processes, such as stimulus-driven attention during WM retrieval and oddball detection. The left posterior VPC may be important for speech-related processing important for both working memory and perception, while the right hemisphere is more lateralized for attention.

  5. Anxiety symptoms in young people with autism spectrum disorder attending special schools: Associations with gender, adaptive functioning and autism symptomatology.

    Magiati, Iliana; Ong, Clarissa; Lim, Xin Yi; Tan, Julianne Wen-Li; Ong, Amily Yi Lin; Patrycia, Ferninda; Fung, Daniel Shuen Sheng; Sung, Min; Poon, Kenneth K; Howlin, Patricia


    Anxiety-related problems are among the most frequently reported mental health difficulties in autism spectrum disorder. As most research has focused on clinical samples or high-functioning children with autism spectrum disorder, less is known about the factors associated with anxiety in community samples across the ability range. This cross-sectional study examined the association of gender, age, adaptive functioning and autism symptom severity with different caregiver-reported anxiety symptoms. Participants were caregivers of 241 children (6-18 years old) with autism spectrum disorder attending special schools in Singapore. Measures included the Spence Children's Anxiety Scale and assessments of overall emotional, behavioural and adaptive functioning. Caregivers reported more anxiety symptoms in total, but fewer social anxiety symptoms, than Spence Children's Anxiety Scale Australian/Dutch norms. There were no gender differences. Variance in total anxiety scores was best explained by severity of repetitive speech/stereotyped behaviour symptoms, followed by adaptive functioning. Severity of repetitive speech/behaviour symptoms was a significant predictor of separation anxiety, generalized anxiety, panic/agoraphobia and obsessive-compulsive subscale symptoms, but not of social phobia and physical injury fears. Adaptive functioning and chronological age predicted social phobia and generalized anxiety symptoms only. Severity of social/communication autism symptoms did not explain any anxiety symptoms, when the other variables were controlled for. Findings are discussed in relation to the existing literature. Limitations and possible implications for prevention, assessment and intervention are also discussed.

  6. Hereditary urea cycle abnormality

    ... vitro so the specific genetic cause is known. Teamwork between parents, the affected child, and doctors can help prevent severe illness. Alternative Names Abnormality of the urea cycle - hereditary; Urea cycle - hereditary abnormality Images Male urinary system Urea cycle References Lichter-Konecki ...

  7. Synopsis of wetland functions and values: bottomland hardwoods with special emphasis on eastern Texas and Oklahoma

    Wilkinson, D.L.; Schneller-McDonald, K.; Olson, R.W.; Auble, G.T.


    Bottomland hardwood wetlands are the natural cover type of many floodplain ecosystems in the southeastern United States. They are dynamic, productive systems that depend on intermittent flooding and moving water for maintenance of structure and function. Many of the diverse functions performed by bottomland hardwoods (e.g., flood control, sediment trapping, fish and wildlife habitat) are directly or indirectly valued by humans. Balanced decisions regarding bottomland hardwoods are often hindered by a limited ability to accurately specify the functions being performed by these systems and, furthermore, by an inability to evaluate these functions in economic terms. This report addresses these informational needs. It focuses on the bottomland hardwoods of eastern Texas and Oklahoma, serving as an introduction and entry to the literature. It is not intended to serve as a substitute for reference to the original literature. The first section of the report is a review of the major functions of bottomland hardwoods, grouped under the headings of hydrology, water quality, productivity, detritus, nutrients, and habitat. Although the hydrology of these areas is diverse and complex, especially with respect to groundwater, water storage at high flows can clearly function to attenuate peak flows, with possible reductions in downstream flooding damage. Water moving through a bottomland hardwood system carries with it various organic and inorganic constituents, including sediment, organic matter, nutrients, and pollutants. When waterborne materials are introduced to bottomland hardwoods (from river flooding or upland runoff), they may be retained, transformed, or transported. As a result, water quality may be significantly altered and improved. The fluctuating and flowing water regime of bottomland hardwoods is associated with generally high net primary productivity and rapid fluxes of organic matter and nutrients. These, in turn, support secondary productivity in the bottomland

  8. A Special Class of Univalent Functions in Hele-Shaw Flow Problems

    Paula Curt


    Full Text Available We study the time evolution of the free boundary of a viscous fluid for planar flows in Hele-Shaw cells under injection. Applying methods from the theory of univalent functions, we prove the invariance in time of Φ-likeness property (a geometric property which includes starlikeness and spiral-likeness for two basic cases: the inner problem and the outer problem. We study both zero and nonzero surface tension models. Certain particular cases are also presented.

  9. Pleuro-pulmonary abnormalities in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus assessment with high resolution computed tomography, chest radiography and pulmonary function tests

    Sant, S.M.; Doran, M.; Fenelon, H.M.; Breatnach, E.S. [University of Michigan (United States)


    The objective has to assess the nature of pleuro-pulmonary abnormalities, with particular reference to interstitial lung disease (ILD), in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) In conclusion, HRCT is more sensitive than PFTs or CXR in the evaluation of pleuro-pulmonary disease in SLE. We report an unusually high prevalence of HRCT appearances suggestive of ILD in patients with SLE. subclinical lung disease is common in patients with SLE. (author)

  10. Surgical Management of Supraglottic Laryngeal Carcinoma in Patients with Special Emphasis on Functional Preservation

    LiqiangZhang; XinyongLuan; XinliangPan; GuangXie; FengleiXu; DayuLiu; DapengLei


    OBJECTIVE To explore the surgical methods and evaluate the long-term results of laryngectomy in patients with supraglottic laryngeal cancer.METHODS A total of 182 patients with supraglottic laryngeal carcinoma underwent an operation from 1979 to 1999. These cases comprised 11 in stage Ⅰ , 45 in stage Ⅱ , 49 in stage Ⅲ and 77 in stage Ⅳ. The choice of surgical procedure was decided based on the condition of the diseasedl arynx. The surgical procedures proposed by TD Wang were adhered to as follows: minor partial laryngectomy 36, major partial laryngectomy 85,subtotal partial laryngectomy with laryngoplasty 22 and total larygectomy 39.RESULTS The final rate of larynx preservation was 78.6% (143/182) and 69.8% (88/126) in patients with stage III and IV diseases. The extubation rate was 81.8% in cases with preservation of laryngeal function. The overall 3-and 5-year survival rates were 82.9% and 67.3%, with 76.88% and 57.4% in the advanced (stage III and IV) cases who survived with preserved laryngeal function, and 82.5% and 67.0% in similar advanced cases who were treated by total laryngectomy. The difference in the survival rates between these 2 groups was not statistically significant.CONCLUSION It is suggested that preservation of the laryngeal function is possible for advanced supraglottic laryngeal carcinoma without compromising the long-term survival rate. To improve the rate of larynx preservation, one should follow the surgical methods suggested.

  11. Features functional activity kinesthetic and visual sensory systems in athletes of different specializations

    Anatoliy Rovnyy


    Full Text Available Purpose: to establish specific effects of different sports on functional status and co mood kinesthetic and visual analyzers skilled athletes. Materials and Methods: the study was conducted on athletes qualified five sports: modern pentathlon, volleyball, basketball, handball and fencing. We used methods of difference sensometry and mathematical statistics. Results revealed that the sensitivity of sensor systems depend on the specifics of sports activities and sports equipment. Conclusions: the complex is set internally sensor and between sensory bonds that are formed on the basis of the specific sports activity.

  12. Functions of the MMR system and special roles of mutL in bacterial evolution



    DNA mismatch repair guards the integrity of the genome of almost all organisms by correcting DNA biosynthetic errors and by ensuring the fidelity of homologous genetic recombination. MutL is one of the important proteins involved in mismatch repair system. It has been suggested to function as a master coordinator or molecular matchmaker because it interacts physically with MutS, the endonuclease MutH, and DNA helicase UvrD. It also binds to DNA and has an ATPase activity. MutL defective bacteria strains have elevated mutation rates and it has been reported recently that MutL defect may have an important impact on bacterial evolution.

  13. The presence of several students with special educational needs in inclusive education and the functioning of students with special educational needs

    Ruijs, N.M.; Peetsma, T.; van der Veen, I.


    Current research gives some indications about how inclusive education affects students with special educational needs (SEN), but there are too many different results to draw unequivocal conclusions. It is therefore important to focus on specific factors that could influence outcomes of inclusive edu

  14. Functional morphology of the crista ampullaris: with special interests in sensory hairs and cupula: a review.

    Takumida, M


    The functional significance of the ciliary interconnections and cupula has been reviewed. The ciliary interconnecting systems are divided into 2 types, i.e. side links and tip links. The side links acts to maintain the regular distance between the cilia thereby keeping the geometrical arrangement of the entire sensory hair bundle intact as well as to prevent close contact between neighbouring cilia. The tip links, stretching upwards from the tips of the shorter stereocilia to their taller neighbouring shafts, are actually involved in mechanoelectrical transduction. The cupula is composed of the cupula and subcupular meshwork. The subcupular meshwork consists of long branching filaments cross-bridged to one another. The cupula would function as a rigid plate and equally distribute the shear force of the cupula to all the ciliary bundles. The subcupular meshwork may play a role in the transmission of the shear strain force of the cupula to the ciliary bundle and may also exert an additional damping effect in order to prevent unwanted vibrations.

  15. Metamorphosis of the excretory system of Paragonimus ohirai (Trematoda), with special reference to its functional significance.

    Orido, Y


    The fine structure of the excretory system was studied in metacercariae and juveniles of Paragonimus ohirai. The former were in vitro excysted, and the latter were collected from the abdominal cavity of a rat 24 hours postinfection. The terminal organs of the excretory system were composed of a flame cell and the first cell of a tubule. In the excysted metacercaria, there was no space between these cells to allow the passage of fluid. This suggests that the terminal organs of P. ohirai may be inactive in this stage. The excretory bladder was formed of epithelial cells which contained numerous lipid droplets and a large amount of glycogen in the cytoplasm. The bladder of the metacercaria seems to function as a storage area for nutrients and other materials. These characteristics of the metacercaria are considered to be related to the enclosed conditions created by encystment. Excretory organs had undergone cytomorphosis in the juveniles and appear to possess active excretory function. The periflagellar space in the terminal organs was formed, and lipids and concretions were excreted from a thin layer of the excretory epithelia into the lumen.

  16. Problems of the theory of the consolidation solved in the special functions

    Dasibekov, Azhibek; Abzhapbarov, Azimkhan; Duisebayeva, Peruza; Polatbek, Aigul


    The soil, which deformation modulus is continuously increased with depth is called continuously heterogeneous. In this paper, this heterogeneity is presented in the form of: E =Em(α+β z ) m (α >0 ,Em>0 ,α +βz>0 ), wher Em, α, β, m are experimental parameters. On the basis of this dependence the consolidation problems of elastic and elastically creeping inhomogeneous soils are solved in relation to the restricted area of the consolidation. These solutions make it possible to calculate the values of the pore pressure, the amount of the main stresses and vertical displacements of upper surface points of the condensed inhomogeneous soil mass. In these solutions for highly compressed water-saturated clay soils is also taken into account that at the initial time the part of loading, instantly enclosed load q to the soil which is equal in value of the structural strength of the compression pstr, is immediately perceived by a matrix. In addition, Darcy's law is broken, i.e. the initial gradient of pressure is considered. The resulting calculation formulas are presented as a combination of Bessel functions of the first and second kinds. Taking into account that currently one can define any values of the Bessel functions, it is possible to calculate the pressure in the pore fluids and predict the speed of sediments of the compacting mass.

  17. Children's belief- and desire-reasoning in the temporoparietal junction: evidence for specialization from functional near-infrared spectroscopy.

    Bowman, Lindsay C; Kovelman, Ioulia; Hu, Xiaosu; Wellman, Henry M


    Behaviorally, children's explicit theory of mind (ToM) proceeds in a progression of mental-state understandings: developmentally, children demonstrate accurate explicit desire-reasoning before accurate explicit belief-reasoning. Given its robust and cross-cultural nature, we hypothesize this progression may be paced in part by maturation/specialization of the brain. Neuroimaging research demonstrates that the right temporoparietal junction (TPJ) becomes increasingly selective for ToM reasoning as children age, and as their ToM improves. But this research has narrowly focused on beliefs or on undifferentiated mental-states. A recent ERP study in children included a critical contrast to desire-reasoning, and demonstrated that right posterior potentials differentiated belief-reasoning from desire-reasoning. Taken together, the literature suggests that children's desire-belief progression may be paced by specialization of the right TPJ for belief-reasoning specifically, beyond desire-reasoning. In the present study, we tested this hypothesis directly by examining children's belief- and desire-reasoning using functional near-infrared spectroscopy in conjunction with structural magnetic resonance imaging to pinpoint brain activation in the right TPJ. Results showed greatest activation in the right TPJ for belief-reasoning, beyond desire-reasoning, and beyond non-mental reasoning (control). Findings replicate and critically extend prior ERP results, and provide clear evidence for a specific neural mechanism underlying children's progression from understanding desires to understanding beliefs.

  18. Molecular anatomy of neuronal interactions with special reference to the dopamine control of striatal functions

    B. Bloch


    Full Text Available Modern neuroanatomy was initiated at the early beginning of the XXth century when Cajal used the so-called silver impregnation technique to study the details of the anatomy of the nervous system. This technique, for the first time, permitted description and visualization of all components of neurons (Cajal, 1909. Thanks to this major methodological advance, Cajal and followers created microscopic neuroanatomy and gave detailed description of the structure of neurons and of neuronal circuitry in brain of animals and humans. During the following decades, numerous informations were obtained on the organization of the neuronal circuitry in all parts of the central and peripheral nervous system, in normal, experimental and pathological conditions. These works considerably helped to establish the modern anatomical basis of brain functions and dysfunctions. In the early sixties, the appearance of electron microscopy gave a new impulse to the understanding of brain and neuronal structures.

  19. [Achilles tendon rupture--early functional and surgical options with special emphasis on rehabilitation issues].

    Knobloch, K; Thermann, H; Hüfner, T


    Achilles tendon ruptures are one end of a continuum starting with the healthy Achilles tendon via the thickened and painful tendinopathic Achilles tendon with neovascularisation to the complete tendon rupture. Often times chinolone antibiotics, cortisone therapy and valgus foot axis are associated risk factors. Incidence of Achilles tendon ruptures is estimated to be 10/100 000 per year with a mean age of 35-40 years. Physical activity is encountered in 75 % cases of Achilles tendon ruptures. Running is associated with Achilles tendinopathy as the predominant overuse injury in an analysis among 291 athletes with 10 million kilometers exposure. The Achilles tendinopathic rate was 0.016/1000 km differentiated in 0.008/1000 km mid-portion tendinopathy and 0.005/1000 km insertional tendinopathy. Achilles tendinopathy in running overuse injuries is followed by runner's knee (0.013/1000 km), shin splint (0.0104/1000 km) and plantar fasciitis (0.0054/1000 km). Dynamic ultrasound in 20 degrees plantar flexion is of utmost importance for therapeutic decision making. With an adaptation rate of 75 % or more of the ruptured tendon in 20 degrees plantar flexion and a high patient's compliance we perform an early functional conservative treatment regimen in Achilles tendon ruptures. In almost all other cases the percutaneous Achilles tendon repair is indicated, where nervus suralis lesions have to be appreciated. The vulnerable zone is 10-12 cm proximal to the calcaneus at the lateral border of the Achilles tendon with the sural nerve in close proximity with the tendon. Early functional rehabilitation is not associated with a higher risk of rerupture but with improved subjective assessments and should therefore be advocated.

  20. An exact explicit solution for one-dimensional, transient, nonlinear Richards' equation for modeling infiltration with special hydraulic functions

    Hayek, Mohamed


    This work develops a simple exact and explicit solution of the one-dimensional transient and nonlinear Richards' equation for soils in a special case of exponential water retention curve and power law hydraulic conductivity. The exact solution is obtained as traveling wave based on the approach proposed by Philip (1957, 1967) and adopted by Zlotnik et al. (2007). The obtained solution is novel, and it expresses explicitly the water content as function of the depth and time. It can be useful to model infiltration into semi-infinite soils with time-dependent boundary conditions and infiltration with constant boundary condition but space-dependent initial condition. A complete analytical inverse procedure based on the proposed analytical solution is presented which allows the estimation of hydraulic parameters. The proposed exact solution is also important for the verification of numerical schemes as well as for checking the implementation of time-dependent boundary conditions.

  1. Differential localization and functional specialization of centrin analogs in the parasitic ciliate Trichodina pediculus.

    Viguès, Bernard; Colombet, Jonathan; Damaj, Raghida


    Trichodinids are ciliated protozoans that reversibly attach to the tegument of marine and freshwater host-organisms via an adhesive disc. In this study, we have used permeabilized cell models of Trichodina pediculus to examine the distribution of centrins, a Ca(2+)-binding protein associated with centrioles and/or contractile filamentous structures in a large number of protists. The previous finding that filamentous material of the adhesive disc comprised a 23-kDa centrin analog suggested that this protein might be a disc-specific isoform. This possibility was explored through immunolabeling methods using two distinct antibodies, anti-ecto-endoplasmic boundary (EEB) and anti-Hscen2 previously shown to react respectively with centrin-based filament networks and with centrioles. Immunofluorescence microscopy showed that anti-EEB reacts with filamentous material of the disc but not with basal bodies. Conversely, anti-Hscen2 cross-reacted with basal bodies but failed to label any type of structure occurring in the disc area. More detailed data on localization of this protein was obtained by immunoelectron microscopy showing gold particles deposits in the lumen of basal bodies. The different patterns revealed by this immunochemical approach suggest that the two protein antigens concerned by this study are distinct centrin isoforms that presumably perform organelle-specific function in the ciliate T. pediculus.

  2. Acute effects of TCDD administration:special emphasis on testicular and sperm mitochondrial function

    Paula C Mota; Renata S Tavares; Marlia Cordeiro; Susana P Pereira; Stephen J Publicover; Paulo J Oliveira; Joo Ramalho-Santos


    Objective: The goal of this study was to verify if 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) could have any effect on male germ cells mitochondria and in this way add new insights in how male reproductive alterations observed in other studies occur. Methods:In vivo and in vitro approaches using rat testis and human sperm as models were employed to evaluate TCDD effects on testicular and sperm mitochondria after 24 h of exposure. Results:Testicular mitochondria from TCDD-treated rats presented no differences in the bioenergetic parameters monitored except for a significantly higher electric membrane potential in the presence of ADP, corroborated when TCDD was directly added to testicular mitochondria from untreated rats. Nevertheless, sperm mitochondrial membrane potential, motility, viability, capacitation and acrosomal integrity did not change after TCDD treatment. Moreover, only few sperm cells exposed to TCDD increased their intracellular Ca2+concentration. Conlusions:TCDD can interact directly with rat testicular mitochondria inducing small changes. This effect, however, does not seem to occur in human sperm or it may be insufficient to induce significant alterations as observed by the maintenance of sperm function.

  3. Clinical Study of the Intervention on Abnormal Behavior in the Children with Autism Treated with Head Electroacupuncture and Special Education%头电针结合特殊教育对孤独症患儿异常行为干预的临床研究

    赵宁侠; 孙倩; 高峰; 焦文涛; 张宁勃; 闫炳苍; 樊亚妮; 张倩; 郭凯; 刘银侠


    Objective To observe the efficacy on abnormal behavior in children with autism treated with head electroacupuncture(EA)and special education. Methods Sixty children with autism were selected as the objects,treated in Xi'an Encephalopathy Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine,from July 2013 to October 2014. According the visit sequence,they were randomized into a treatment group(30 cases,combined therapy of head EA and special education)and a control group(30 cases,intervention with special education). Before and after treatment,the autism behavior checklist(ABC scale)was used for assessment. Results In the treatment group,the improvement in abnormal behavior was apparently better than that in the control group(P﹤ 0. 05). Conclusion The combined therapy of head EA and special education relieves apparently the abnor-mal behavior in the children with autism and improves the daily life activity and social adaption ability.%目的:观察头电针结合特殊教育在改善孤独症患儿异常行为方面的疗效。方法选择2013年7月-2014年10月在西安中医脑病医院就诊的60例孤独症患儿为研究对象,按就诊顺序编号,再采用系统随机化分为头电针结合特殊教育治疗组(治疗组)30例和只接受特殊教育干预组(对照组)30例,治疗前和治疗后由康复评定师用孤独症行为量表(ABC 量表)评定。结果治疗组异常行为改善明显优于对照组(P ﹤0.05)。结论头电针结合特殊教育能明显改善孤独症患儿异常行为,提高生活自理及社会适应能力。




    Full Text Available Objective: To continue deepening in the lateralitation of tasks of physical identity (PI with alphabetical content andof categorization of verbal stimuli of concrete and abstract content.Method: we Use 48 adults, with understood ages between 18 and 24 years. All the fellows carried out Tests of SpeedManual, it Forces Motorboat Manual, Attention and Perception, Verbal Intellectual Quotient and Questionnaires ofAnxiety and of Lateral Preference; and two experiments. The dependent variable were cheats of reaction (TR andaccuracy of the answer: successes, errors for confusion of visual field and of identity of stimulus, and omissions. Theywere carried out two experiments of presentation lateralized, one with stimuli of different same physical identity, andthe other one with stimuli of identity categorial with two conditions: Abstract and I sum up.Results: Our results are in the line of the current conception of functional asymmetry of» grade phenomenon» and notof» everything or anything.» In tasks of IF he/she was an advantage of the left visual field. right hemisphere (LVF -RH on the field visual right. left hemisphere (RVF - LH in analysis visoespaciales of alphabetical stimuli, with anadvantage in the resolution of simple tasks of physical identity (IF. In tasks of categorization of verbal content theparticipation of the two hemispheres settles down in these tasks, so much in the times of reaction (TR like in theaccuracy of the answer. A proportional relationship was observed among TR and alone under some conditions of theaccuracy of the answer for concrete stimuli (CS as abstract stimuli (AE. He/she was also correlation between TR andaccuracy of the answer in verbal categorization tasks of presentation lateralitation with tasks of manual speed, of forcemotorboat, and of perception and attention, of verbal intelligence and of anxiety.

  5. "Jeopardy" in Abnormal Psychology.

    Keutzer, Carolin S.


    Describes the use of the board game, Jeopardy, in a college level abnormal psychology course. Finds increased student interaction and improved application of information. Reports generally favorable student evaluation of the technique. (CFR)

  6. Chromosomal Abnormalities in ADHD

    J Gordon Millichap


    Full Text Available The prevalence of fragile X syndrome, velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS, and other cytogenetic abnormalities among 100 children (64 boys with combined type ADHD and normal intelligence was assessed at the NIMH and Georgetown University Medical Center.

  7. Abnormal menstrual periods (image)

    ... may have a variety of causes, such as endometrial hyperplasia, endometrial polyps, uterine fibroids, and abnormal thyroid or ... the endometrium becomes unusually thick it is called endometrial ... Hyperplasia may cause profuse or extended menstrual bleeding.

  8. Chromosomal abnormalities and autism

    Farida El-Baz


    Conclusion: Chromosomal abnormalities were not detected in the studied autistic children, and so the relation between the genetics and autism still needs further work up with different study methods and techniques.

  9. Abnormal protein aggregationand neurodegenerativediseases


    Abnormal protein aggregation or amyloid is the major cause ofmany neurodegenerative disorders. The present review focuses on the correlation between sequence and structure features of proteins related to the diseases and abnormal protein aggregation. Recent progress has improved our knowledge on understand-ing the mechanism of amyloid formation. We suggest a nucleation model for ordered protein aggregation, which can also explain pathogenesis mechanisms of these neurodegenerative diseases in vivo.

  10. Methods for in vitro functional analysis of iPSC derived cardiomyocytes - Special focus on analyzing the mechanical beating behavior.

    Laurila, Eeva; Ahola, Antti; Hyttinen, Jari; Aalto-Setälä, Katriina


    A rapidly increasing number of papers describing novel iPSC models for cardiac diseases are being published. To be able to understand the disease mechanisms in more detail, we should also take the full advantage of the various methods for analyzing these cell models. The traditionally and commonly used electrophysiological analysis methods have been recently accompanied by novel approaches for analyzing the mechanical beatingbehavior of the cardiomyocytes. In this review, we provide first a concise overview on the methodology for cardiomyocyte functional analysis and then concentrate on the video microscopy, which provides a promise for a new faster yet reliable method for cardiomyocyte functional analysis. We also show how analysis conditions may affect the results. Development of the methodology not only serves the basic research on the disease models, but could also provide the much needed efficient early phase screening method for cardiac safety toxicology. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Cardiomyocyte Biology: Integration of Developmental and Environmental Cues in the Heart edited by Marcus Schaub and Hughes Abriel.

  11. Water pulse migration through semi-infinite vertical unsaturated porous column with special relative-permeability functions: Exact solutions

    Hayek, Mohamed


    The paper presents certain exact solutions describing the vertical movement of a water pulse through a semi-infinite unsaturated porous column. The saturation-based form of the Richards' equation is used with special power law relative-permeability functions. Both capillary and gravity effects are taken into account. Three exact solutions are derived corresponding to three relative-permeability functions, linear, quadratic and cubic. The Richards' equation is nonlinear for the three cases. The solutions are obtained by applying a general similarity transformation. They are explicit in space and time variables and do not contain any approximation. They describe the evolution of the water saturation in the vertical column and they can be used to predict the post-infiltration movement of a finite quantity of water. Exact expressions of the masses of water leaving a given depth are also derived for the three cases. We analyze the effect of relative-permeability and capillary pressure. The proposed solutions are also useful for checking numerical schemes. One of the exact solutions is used to validate numerical solution obtained from an arbitrary initial condition. Results show that the numerical solution converges to the exact solution for large times.

  12. [Hair shaft abnormalities].

    Itin, P H; Düggelin, M


    Hair shaft disorders may lead to brittleness and uncombable hair. In general the hair feels dry and lusterless. Hair shaft abnormalities may occur as localized or generalized disorders. Genetic predisposition or exogenous factors are able to produce and maintain hair shaft abnormalities. In addition to an extensive history and physical examination the most important diagnostic examination to analyze a hair shaft problem is light microscopy. Therapy of hair shaft disorders should focus to the cause. In addition, minimizing traumatic influences to hair shafts, such as dry hair with an electric dryer, permanent waves and dyes is important. A short hair style is more suitable for such patients with hair shaft disorders.

  13. Abnormal Asymmetry of Brain Connectivity in Schizophrenia

    Ribolsi, Michele; Zafiris J Daskalakis; Siracusano, Alberto; Koch, Giacomo


    Recently, a growing body of data has revealed that beyond a dysfunction of connectivity among different brain areas in schizophrenia patients (SCZ), there is also an abnormal asymmetry of functional connectivity compared with healthy subjects. The loss of the cerebral torque and the abnormalities of gyrification, with an increased or more complex cortical folding in the right hemisphere may provide an anatomical basis for such aberrant connectivity in SCZ. Furthermore, diffusion tensor imagin...

  14. Research of the detection rate of fetal structural abnormalities with two special historys in the ultrasound screening%复发性流产史与IVF助孕孕妇早孕末期超声筛查胎儿结构异常检出率研究

    黎少华; 周力学; 张莘; 狄娜; 潘锐柯


    Objective: To evaluate the necessity of ultrasound screening in fetus at 11 -13 +6 weeks in unselected pregnant women who have the history of Recurrent Pregnancy Loss and IVF, and to evaluate the focus of screening. Methods: From January 2007 to December 2010, the Prenatal ultrasound examination were Preformed for 2 139 pregnant women who can track the history at 11 to 13 +6 gestational weeks in the Sun Yat - sen Memorial Hospital of Sun Yat - sen University, including 1 500 cases of the control group ( excluding something special histories, following is the same) , 329 cases of a history of recurrent pregnancy loss, 301 cases of a history of FVF, and 9 cases of the two histories. On the other hand, the early ultrasound screenings for fetal structural abnormalities were 97 cases , including 57 cases of the control group, 21 cases of a history of recurrent pregnancy loss, and 19 cases of history of IVF, but there were no cases of the two histories. Results: In the control group, the early ultrasound screening for fetal structural abnormality detection rate was 3. 80% (57/1 500) , and 6. 38% (21/329) in the second group with a history of recurrent pregnancy loss, and 6. 31% ( 19/ 301) in the third group with a history of IVF. The top three structural abnormalities were neck abnormalities (increased nuchal translu-cency thickness and cystic hydroma) , urinary tract abnormalities (renal pelvis expansion, urethra] atresia and giant bladder) , anterior abdominal wall abnormalities (omphalocele, abdominal swelling and abdominal crack) in the control group, neck abnormalities (increased nuchal translucency thickness and cystic hydroma), urinary tract abnormalities (renal Pelvis expansion, urethral atresia and giant bladder) and single umbilical artery in the second group and neck abnormalities (increased nuchal translucency thickness and cystic hydroma) , central nervous system abnormalities (ventricular dilatation with hydrocephalus and spinal cysts) , and urinary tract

  15. Changes in brain function and anatomical structure following treatment of hyperbaric oxygen for visual pathway abnormalities In 16 cases Evaluation of functional magnetic resonance Imaging combined with diffusion tensor imaging

    Ziqian Chen; Ping Ni; Hui Xiao; Jinhua Chen; Gennian Qian; Youqiang Ye; Shangwen Xu; Jinliang Wang; Xizhang Yang


    BACKGROUND:There is a growing research focus on the combination of blood oxygenation level dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging(BOLD-fMRI)and diffusion tensor imaging(DTI)to evaluate visual cortical function and structural changes in the cerebrum,as well as morphological changes to the white matter fiber tracks,after visual pathway lesions.However,the combined application of BOLD-fMRI and DTI in treating of visual pathway abnormalities still requires further studies. OBJECTIVE:To observe and evaluate the effects of hyperbaric oxygen on visual pathway abnormalities,and to evaluate the characteristics of cerebral function and anatomic structural changes by using BOLD-fMRI combined with DTI technique. DESIGN:Case contrast observation. SETTING:Fuzhou General Hospital of Nanjing Military Area Command of Chinese PLA.PARTICIPANTS:Sixteen patients(9 males and 7 females,15-77 years old)with lateral or bilateral visual disorder induced by visual pathway lesions were selected from the Department of Neurology,Fuzhou General Hospital of Nanjing Military Area Command of Chinese PLA from January 2006 to May 2007.These patients comprised the lesion group.Measures of interventional therapy:hyperbaric oxygen of two normal atmospheres for three courses(10 d/course)and routine internal medicine treatment.In addition,12 healthy subjects of similar sex and age to the lesion group were regarded as the control group.The control group underwent routine ophthalmological and ocular fundus examinations; diagnostic results were normal. The experiment received confirmed consent from the local ethic committee,and all patients provided informed consent.METHODS:BOLD-fMRI and DTI manifestations in the lesion group were observed before and after hyperbaric oxygen intervention,and the results were compared with the control group.The subjects were positioned on their back,and BOLD-fMRI images were collected with the following GRE EPI sequence:TR= 2 000 ms,TE=40 ms,layer thickness=5 mm

  16. The structure and development of avian lumbosacral specializations of the vertebral canal and the spinal cord with special reference to a possible function as a sense organ of equilibrium.

    Necker, R


    The avian lumbosacral vertebral column and spinal cord show a number of specializations which have recently been interpreted as a sense organ of equilibrium. This sense organ is thought to support balanced walking on the ground. Although most of the peculiar structures have been described previously, there was a need to reevaluate the specializations with regard to the possible function as a sense organ. Specializations were studied in detail in the adult pigeon. The development of the system was studied both in the pigeon (semiprecocial at hatching) and in the chicken (precocial). Specializations in the vertebral canal consist of a considerable enlargement, which is not due to an increase in the size of the spinal nervous tissue, but to a large glycogen body embedded in a dorsal rhomboid sinus. The dorsal wall of the vertebral canal shows segmented bilateral dorsal grooves, which are covered by the meninges towards the lumen of the vertebral canal leaving openings in the midline and laterally. This results in a system of lumbosacral canals which look and may function similar to the semicircular canals in the inner ear. Laterally these canals open above ventrolateral protrusions or accessory lobes of the spinal cord which contain neurons. There are large subarachnoidal cerebrospinal fluid spaces, lateral and ventral to the accessory lobes. Movement of this fluid is thought to stimulate the lobes mechanically. As to the development of avian lumbosacral specializations, main attention was given to the organization of the lobes and the adjacent fluid spaces including the dorsal canals. In the pigeon the system is far from being adult-like at hatching but maturates rapidly after hatching. In the chicken the system looks already adult-like at hatching. The implications derived from the structural findings are discussed with regard to a possible function of the lumbosacral specializations as a sense organ of equilibrium. The adult-like organization in the newly hatched

  17. Revisiting the metabolism and physiological functions of caprylic acid (C8:0) with special focus on ghrelin octanoylation.

    Lemarié, Fanny; Beauchamp, Erwan; Legrand, Philippe; Rioux, Vincent


    Caprylic acid (octanoic acid, C8:0) belongs to the class of medium-chain saturated fatty acids (MCFAs). Dairy products and specific oils like coconut oil are natural sources of dietary C8:0 but higher intakes of this fatty acid can be provided with MCT (Medium-Chain Triglycerides) oil that consists in 75% of C8:0. MCFAs have physical and metabolic properties that are distinct from those of long-chain saturated fatty acids (LCFAs ≥ 12 carbons). Beneficial physiological effects of dietary C8:0 have been studied for a long time and MCT oil has been used as a special energy source for patients suffering from pancreatic insufficiency, impaired lymphatic chylomicron transport and fat malabsorption. More recently, caprylic acid was also shown to acylate ghrelin, the only known peptide hormone with an orexigenic effect. Through its covalent binding to the ghrelin peptide, caprylic acid exhibits an emerging and specific role in modulating physiological functions themselves regulated by octanoylated ghrelin. Dietary caprylic acid is therefore now suspected to provide the ghrelin O-acyltransferase (GOAT) enzyme with octanoyl-CoA co-substrates necessary for the acyl modification of ghrelin. This review tries to highlight the discrepancy between the formerly described beneficial effects of dietary MCFAs on body weight loss and the C8:0 newly reported effect on appetite stimulation via ghrelin octanoylation. The subsequent aim of this review is to demonstrate the relevance of carrying out further studies to better understand the physiological functions of this particular fatty acid.

  18. Putting Emotion into the Self: A Response to the 2008 "Journal of Moral Education" Special Issue on Moral Functioning

    Kristjansson, Kristjan


    This paper takes as its starting point the Journal of Moral Education Special Issue (September, 2008, 37[3]) "Towards an integrated model of moral reasoning". Although explicitly post-Kohlbergian, the authors in this Special Issue do not, I argue, depart far enough from Kohlberg's impoverished notion of the role of the affective in moral life--or…

  19. Abnormalities of gonadal differentiation.

    Berkovitz, G D; Seeherunvong, T


    Gonadal differentiation involves a complex interplay of developmental pathways. The sex determining region Y (SRY) gene plays a key role in testis determination, but its interaction with other genes is less well understood. Abnormalities of gonadal differentiation result in a range of clinical problems. 46,XY complete gonadal dysgenesis is defined by an absence of testis determination. Subjects have female external genitalia and come to clinical attention because of delayed puberty. Individuals with 46,XY partial gonadal dysgenesis usually present in the newborn period for the valuation of ambiguous genitalia. Gonadal histology always shows an abnormality of seminiferous tubule formation. A diagnosis of 46,XY true hermaphroditism is made if the gonads contain well-formed testicular and ovarian elements. Despite the pivotal role of the SRY gene in testis development, mutations of SRY are unusual in subjects with a 46,XY karyotype and abnormal gonadal development. 46,XX maleness is defined by testis determination in an individual with a 46,XX karyotype. Most affected individuals have a phenotype similar to that of Klinefelter syndrome. In contrast, subjects with 46,XX true hermaphroditism usually present with ambiguous genitalia. The majority of subjects with 46,XX maleness have Y sequences including SRY in genomic DNA. However, only rare subjects with 46,XX true hermaphroditism have translocated sequences encoding SRY. Mosaicism and chimaerism involving the Y chromosome can also be associated with abnormal gonadal development. However, the vast majority of subjects with 45,X/46,XY mosaicism have normal testes and normal male external genitalia.

  20. Cortical Abnormalities in ADHD

    J Gordon Millichap


    Full Text Available Grey-matter abnormalities at the cortical surface and regional brain size were mapped by high-resolution MRI and surface-based, computational image analytical techniques in a group of 27 children and adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD and 46 controls, matched by age and sex, at the University of California at Los Angeles.

  1. Lacrimal system abnormalities.

    Moore, B D


    This report outlines several of the more important abnormalities of the lacrimal system in infants and young children. Although rare, alacrima can be a very difficult clinical problem to treat. The most common cause of alacrima is the Riley-Day syndrome. Nasolacrimal duct obstruction is a very common anomaly in children. The clinical appearance and treatment of this disorder are discussed.

  2. [Walking abnormalities in children].

    Segawa, Masaya


    Walking is a spontaneous movement termed locomotion that is promoted by activation of antigravity muscles by serotonergic (5HT) neurons. Development of antigravity activity follows 3 developmental epochs of the sleep-wake (S-W) cycle and is modulated by particular 5HT neurons in each epoch. Activation of antigravity activities occurs in the first epoch (around the age of 3 to 4 months) as restriction of atonia in rapid eye movement (REM) stage and development of circadian S-W cycle. These activities strengthen in the second epoch, with modulation of day-time sleep and induction of crawling around the age of 8 months and induction of walking by 1 year. Around the age of 1 year 6 months, absence of guarded walking and interlimb cordination is observed along with modulation of day-time sleep to once in the afternoon. Bipedal walking in upright position occurs in the third epoch, with development of a biphasic S-W cycle by the age of 4-5 years. Patients with infantile autism (IA), Rett syndrome (RTT), or Tourette syndrome (TS) show failure in the development of the first, second, or third epoch, respectively. Patients with IA fail to develop interlimb coordination; those with RTT, crawling and walking; and those with TS, walking in upright posture. Basic pathophysiology underlying these condition is failure in restricting atonia in REM stage; this induces dysfunction of the pedunculopontine nucleus and consequently dys- or hypofunction of the dopamine (DA) neurons. DA hypofunction in the developing brain, associated with compensatory upward regulation of the DA receptors causes psychobehavioral disorders in infancy (IA), failure in synaptogenesis in the frontal cortex and functional development of the motor and associate cortexes in late infancy through the basal ganglia (RTT), and failure in functional development of the prefrontal cortex through the basal ganglia (TS). Further, locomotion failure in early childhood causes failure in development of functional

  3. 特发性一侧前庭功能异常与航空航天飞行%Lateral idiopathic abnormal of vestibular function and ae rospace flight

    徐先荣; 谭祖林; 胡树民; 刘华凤


    Objective To probe the relations between lateral idiopathicabnormal of vestibular function and flight in aviation or space. Method Case studies of lateral idiopathic abnormal of vestibula r function were made in 30 pilots. Result 28 cases were canal paresis (right=19, left=9) and 2 cases were loss of vestibular function (left=2 ), 11 cases were still in a qualified position to continue their flying job and 19 cases were permanently grounded. Conclusion Lateral idiopat hic abnormal of vestibular function may hazard the flying in aviation or space for flight illusion and /or response of motion sickness, meanwhile the flying in aviation or space may lead to and/or aggravate vestibular function.%目的 探讨特发性一侧性前庭功能异常与航空航天飞行的关系。 方法 分析30例飞行人员特发性一侧前庭功能异常的病例。 结果 右前庭功能减弱者19例,左前庭功能减弱者9例,左前庭功能丧失者2例;11例飞行合格,19例永久停飞。 结论 一侧前庭功能异常可因飞行错觉和/或运动病反应而危及飞行安全;航空航天飞行也能诱发或加重前庭功能损害。

  4. 对一例肝移植术后初始肝功能恢复异常病人的药学服务%Pharmaceutical care for one patient with initial abnormal liver function after liver transplantation

    王金平; 吴建龙; 张洪涛


    Objective; To report pharmaceutical care carried out by clinical pharmacists for a patient with initial abnormal liver function after liver transplantation. Methods; Clinical pharmacists provided suggestions for doctors on anti-rejection therapy,prevention of infection and other drug administration after liver transplatation in a patient. When the patient had abnormal recovery of liver function .clinical pharmacists assisted clinicians to analyze and correct the treatment regimen, and carried out pharmaceutical care on medication compliance. Results anil Conclusion: Pharmaceutical care carried out by clinical pharmacists is helpful for improving the level of drug treatment and promoting recovery of patients.%目的:介绍临床药师对1例肝移植术后肝功能恢复异常病人开展的药学服务.方法:病人肝移植术后.临床药师分别对病人的抗排异治疗方案、预防感染用药及其他用药提出建议,在病人肝功能恢复异常时协助临床医师分析并调整治疗方案,同时对用药依从性等提供药学服务.结果和结论:临床药师开展药学服务有助于提高药物治疗水平,促使病人恢复.

  5. Fetal calcifications are associated with chromosomal abnormalities.

    Ellika Sahlin

    special attention towards co-existence of malformations, as this would be a strong indicator for a chromosomal abnormality.

  6. Study on characteristics and relative factors of pulmonary function abnormality in 142 scoliosis patients%脊柱侧弯142例的肺功能障碍特征及相关因素分析

    吕砚; 方伟武; 徐学武; 苗玉良; 刘骥; 钟京; 任何


    Objective To analyze the characteristics of pulmonary function abnormality in patients with scoliosis and to investigate it' s clinical factors. Methods A total of 142 scoliosis patients' clinical data and preoperative pulmonary function were analyzed retrospectively, and the clinical factors of pulmonary function abnormality in patients with scoliosis were determined. Results The male patients had a higher severe scoliosis proportion and larger cobb' s degrees than females. Moreover, the airway resistance showed that there was an increasing trend with the increase of patients' ages. Pulmonary function abnormality was related to the body weight of patients, cobb' s degree and apex vertebrae position, while the scoliosis direction or kyphosis were not. Conclusion Along with the increase of age, the damage of pulmonary function was exacerbated and showed a changing form simple restrictive ventilatory disorder to mixed ventilatory disorder with obstructive ventilatory disorder. There was a positive correlation between the damage of pulmonary function and scoliosis. The patients with apex vertebrae located in thoracic vertebra may be more vulnerable to pulmonary function abnormality. The body weight in severe pulmonary function damage patients are affected, this brought enormous challenge to perioperative management.%目的 分析脊柱侧弯患者肺功能损害的特点,探讨导致脊柱侧弯患者肺功能障碍的临床因素.方法 回顾性分析接受首次矫形术的142例侧弯患者的临床资料及术前肺功能检查情况,确定导致肺功能障碍的临床因素.结果 男性患者重度侧弯较多,cobb角较大;随年龄增长,侧弯患者气道阻力呈增加趋势;肺功能异常与患者体质量、cobb角和顶椎位置有关,而与侧弯方向及是否伴有后凸无关.结论 随着年龄的增长,肺功能的损害程度不断加重,且存在由单纯限制性通气障碍向伴随阻塞性通气障碍的混合性通气障碍变化;

  7. Abnormalities of inter- and intrahemispheric functional connectivity in Autism Spectrum Disorders: A study using the Autism Brain Imaging Data Exchange database

    Jung Min eLee


    Full Text Available Recently, the Autism Brain Imaging Data Exchange (ABIDE project revealed decreased functional connectivity in individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD relative to the typically developing controls (TDCs. However, it is still questionable whether the source of functional underconnectivity in subjects with ASD is equally contributed by the ipsilateral and contralateral parts of the brain. In this study, we decomposed the inter- and intrahemispheric regions and compared the functional connectivity density (FCD between 458 subjects with ASD and 517 TDCs from the ABIDE database. We quantified the inter- and intrahemispheric FCDs in the brain by counting the number of functional connectivity with all voxels in the opposite and same hemispheric brain regions, respectively. Relative to TDCs, both inter- and intrahemispheric FCDs in the posterior cingulate cortex, lingual/parahippocampal gyrus, and postcentral gyrus were significantly decreased in subjects with ASD. Moreover, in the ASD group, the restricted and repetitive behavior subscore of the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS-RRB score showed significant negative correlations with the average interhemispheric FCD and contralateral FCD in the lingual/parahippocampal gyrus cluster. Also, the ADOS-RRB score showed significant negative correlations with the average contralateral FCD in the default mode network regions such as the posterior cingulate cortex and precuneus. Taken together, our findings imply that a deficit of non-social functioning processing in ASD such as restricted and repetitive behaviors and sensory hypersensitivity could be determined via both inter- and intrahemispheric functional disconnections.

  8. Abnormal function of the posterior cingulate cortex in heroin addicted users during resting-state and drug-cue stimulation task

    LI Qiang; YANG Wei-chuan; WANG Ya-rong; HUANG Yu-fang; LI Wei; ZHU Jia


    Background Previous animal and neuroimaging studies have demonstrated that brain function in heroin addicted users is impaired.However,the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) has not received much attention.The purpose of this study was to investigate whether chronic heroin use is associated with craving-related changes in the functional connectivity of the PCC of heroin addicted users.Methods Fourteen male adult chronic heroin users and fifteen age and gender-matched healthy subjects participated in the present study.The participants underwent a resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scan and a cue-induced craving task fMRI scan.The activated PCC was identified in the cue-induced craving task by means of a group contrast test.Functional connectivity was analyzed based on resting-state fMRI data in order to determine the correlation between brain regions.The relationship between the connectivity of specific regions and heroin dependence was investigated.Results The activation of PCC,bilateral anterior cingulate cortex,caudate,putamen,precuneus,and thalamus was significant in the heroin group compared to the healthy group in the cue-induced craving task.The detectable functional connectivity of the heroin users was stronger between the PCC and bilateral insula,bilateral dorsal striatum,right inferior parietal Iobule (IPL) and right supramarginal gyrus (P<0.001) compared to that of the healthy subjects in the resting-state data analysis.The strength of the functional connectivity,both for the PCC-insula (r=0.60,P <0.05) and for PCC-striatum (r=0.58,P<0.05),was positively correlated with the duration of heroin use.Conclusion The altered functional connectivity patterns in the PCC-insula and PCC-striatum areas may be regarded as biomarkers of brain damage severity in chronic heroin users.

  9. Nitrofurantoin and congenital abnormalities

    Czeizel, A.E.; Rockenbauer, M.; Sørensen, Henrik Toft;


    Objective: To study human teratogenic potential of oral nitrofurantoin treatment during pregnancy. Materials and Methods: Pair analysis of cases with congenital abnormalities and matched population controls in the population-based dataset of the Hungarian Case-Control Surveillance of Congenital...... or fetuses with Down’s syndrome (patient controls), 23 (2.8%) pregnant women were treated with nitrofurantoin. The above differences between population controls and cases may be connected with recall bias, because the case-control pair analysis did not indicate a teratogenic potential of nitrofurantoin use...... during the second and the third months of gestation, i.e. in the critical period for major congenital abnormalities. Conclusion: Treatment with nitrofurantoin during pregnancy does not present detectable teratogenic risk to the fetus....

  10. The relationship model of technical and tactical and morpho-functional characteristics of highly skilled swimmers specializing in 50 m butterfly

    Оlena Politko


    Full Text Available Purpose: development of model of the technical and tactical actions, morpho-functional characteristics of highly qualified athletes-swimmers specializing in the 50m butterfly way. Material & Methods: the analytical synthesis of scientific literature data, filming of competitive activity, getting of timing, anthropometry, methods of mathematical statistics. Results: developed model of technical and tactical actions, morphofunctional characteristics of highly qualified swimmers and determined the most important factors affecting athletic performance. Conclusions: the identification and assessment of the most important for the success of sports perfection indicators will allow to draw conclusions about the correctness of the training process according to chosen swimming specialization.

  11. Improving the level of physical development and functional preparedness athletes in sports dancing on the stage of specialized basic training means step aerobics

    Galyna Artemyeva


    Full Text Available Purpose: make analyze the impact of the step aerobics on the indicators of physical development and functional preparedness of athletes in Dance Sport on the stage of specialized basic training. Material & Methods: 20 athletes (10 sport duets aged 14–15 years were divided into two groups: control (CG and experimental (EG. To achieve the objectives we used methods: theoretical - analysis and synthesis data of scientific and methodological literature; pedagogical methods: pedagogical observation; pedagogical testing; medical and biological methods: anthropometry, functional methods of research; methods of mathematical statistics. Results: after the implementation of a training process means step aerobics significantly improved indicators of cardio-respiratory system of athletes in Dance Sport. Conclusions: materials research to assess allow us to estimate the extent of influence of step aerobics on indicators of physical development and functional preparedness athletes in Dance Sport on the stage of specialized basic training.

  12. [Molecular abnormalities in lymphomas].

    Delsol, G


    Numerous molecular abnormalities have been described in lymphomas. They are of diagnostic and prognostic value and are taken into account for the WHO classification of these tumors. They also shed some light on the underlying molecular mechanisms involved in lymphomas. Overall, four types of molecular abnormalities are involved: mutations, translocations, amplifications and deletions of tumor suppressor genes. Several techniques are available to detect these molecular anomalies: conventional cytogenetic analysis, multicolor FISH, CGH array or gene expression profiling using DNA microarrays. In some lymphomas, genetic abnormalities are responsible for the expression of an abnormal protein (e.g. tyrosine-kinase, transcription factor) detectable by immunohistochemistry. In the present review, molecular abnormalities observed in the most frequent B, T or NK cell lymphomas are discussed. In the broad spectrum of diffuse large B-cell lymphomas microarray analysis shows mostly two subgroups of tumors, one with gene expression signature corresponding to germinal center B-cell-like (GCB: CD10+, BCL6 [B-Cell Lymphoma 6]+, centerine+, MUM1-) and a subgroup expressing an activated B-cell-like signature (ABC: CD10-, BCL6-, centerine-, MUM1+). Among other B-cell lymphomas with well characterized molecular abnormalies are follicular lymphoma (BCL2 deregulation), MALT lymphoma (Mucosa Associated Lymphoid Tissue) [API2-MALT1 (mucosa-associated-lymphoid-tissue-lymphoma-translocation-gene1) fusion protein or deregulation BCL10, MALT1, FOXP1. MALT1 transcription factors], mantle cell lymphoma (cycline D1 [CCND1] overexpression) and Burkitt lymphoma (c-Myc expression). Except for ALK (anaplastic lymphoma kinase)-positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma, well characterized molecular anomalies are rare in lymphomas developed from T or NK cells. Peripheral T cell lymphomas not otherwise specified are a heterogeneous group of tumors with frequent but not recurrent molecular abnormalities

  13. Special Photoconverter


    A special device with photocurrent amplification function is reported. The device with long base region structure consists of dual-route photodetectors and their amplifier. Two photodetectors with a space of 50μm are precisely located in this device. The device with current sensitivity of S≥15A/lm,static state current transmission coefficient of hFE≥5000, single-route dark current of ID≥1μA, high frequency current transmission coefficient modulus of |hfe|≥1 at 400MHz is obtained. At present, the device has been tried out in some inertia systems.

  14. Feeling Abnormal: Simulation of Deviancy in Abnormal and Exceptionality Courses.

    Fernald, Charles D.


    Describes activity in which student in abnormal psychology and psychology of exceptional children classes personally experience being judged abnormal. The experience allows the students to remember relevant research, become sensitized to the feelings of individuals classified as deviant, and use caution in classifying individuals as abnormal.…

  15. Tubulin evolution in insects: gene duplication and subfunctionalization provide specialized isoforms in a functionally constrained gene family

    Gadagkar Sudhindra R


    with microtubule-associated proteins. CTT residues overwhelming comprise the co-evolving residues between Drosophila alpha 2 and beta 3 tubulin proteins, indicating CTT specializations can be mediated at the level of the tubulin dimer. Gene duplications post-dating separation of the insect orders are unevenly distributed, most often appearing in major alpha 1 and minor beta 2 clades. More than 40 introns are found in tubulins. Their distribution among tubulins reveals that insertion and deletion events are common, surprising given their potential for disrupting tubulin coding sequence. Compensatory evolution is found in Drosophila beta 2 tubulin cis-regulation, and reveals selective pressures acting to maintain testis expression without the use of previously identified testis cis-regulatory elements. Conclusion Tubulins have stringent structure/function relationships, indicated by strong purifying selection, the loss of many gene duplication products, alpha-beta co-evolution in the tubulin dimer, and compensatory evolution in beta 2 tubulin cis-regulation. They evolve through gene duplication, subfunctionalization in expression domain and divergence of duplication products, largely in CTT residues that mediate interactions with other proteins. This has resulted in the tissue-specific minor insect isoforms, and in particular the highly diverse α3, α4, and β2 reproductive tissue-specific tubulin isoforms, illustrating that even a highly conserved protein family can participate in the adaptive process and respond to sexual selection.

  16. Program specialization

    Marlet, Renaud


    This book presents the principles and techniques of program specialization - a general method to make programs faster (and possibly smaller) when some inputs can be known in advance. As an illustration, it describes the architecture of Tempo, an offline program specializer for C that can also specialize code at runtime, and provides figures for concrete applications in various domains. Technical details address issues related to program analysis precision, value reification, incomplete program specialization, strategies to exploit specialized program, incremental specialization, and data speci

  17. Functional characterization of a special thermophilic multifunctional amylase OPMA-N and its N-terminal domain

    Fan Li; Xuejun Zhu; Yanfei Li; Hao Cao; Yingjiu Zhang


    A gene encoding a special thermophilic muitifunetional amylase OPMA-N was cloned from Bacillus sp. ZW25311. OPMA-N has an additional 124-residue N-terminal domain compared with typical amylases and forms a relatively independent domain with a IS-pleated sheet and random coil structure. Here we reported an unusual substrate and product specificities of OPMA-N and the impact of the additional N-terminal domain (1-124 aa) on the function and properties of OPMA-N. Both OPMAN (12.82 U/mg) and its N-terminal domain-truncated AOPMA-N (12.55 U/mg) only degraded starch to produce oligosaccharides including maltose, maltotriose, isomaitotriose, and isomaitotetraose, but not to produce glucose. Therefore, the N-terminal domain did not determine its substrate and product specificities that were probably regulated by its C-terminal IS-pleated sheet structure. However, the N-terminal domain of OPMA-N seemed to modulate its catalytic feature, leading to the production of more isomaitotriose and less maltose, and it seemed to contribute to OPMA-N's thermostability since OPMA-N showed higher activity than AOPMA-N in a temperature range from 40 to 80~C and the halflife (tl) was 5 h for OPMA-N and 2 h for AOPMA-N at 60~C. Both OPMA-N and AOPMA-N were Ca-independent, but their activities could be influenced by Cu2+, Niz+, Zn2+, EDTA, SDS (1 mM), or Triton-X100 (1%). Kinetic analysis and starch-adsorption assay indicated that the N-terminal domain of OPMA-N could increase the OPMA-N-starch binding and subsequently increase the catalytic efficiency of OPMA-N for starch. In particular, the N-terminal domain of OPMA-N did not determine its oligomerization, because both OPMA-N and AOPMA-N could exist in the forms of monomer, homodimer, and homooligomer at the same time.

  18. Assessment of dentally related functional competency for older adults with cognitive impairment--a survey for special-care dental professionals.

    Chen, Xi; Clark, Jennifer J J


    This survey was to study whether and how dental professional assess dental-related function in older adults with cognitive impairment (OACI). An invitation was sent to 525 special-care dental professionals, followed by a reminder in 2 weeks. Thirteen percent of the targeted participants completed the survey. Among them, 88% completed a hospital dentistry, geriatric dentistry, or other postgraduate training program. Nearly 70% of the respondents considered somewhat to very difficult to assess dentally related function; 45% did not ever or did not regularly assess dental-related function for OACI. Dental-related functional assessments were often based on a subjective, unstructured approach. Only 6% of the respondents routinely used standard instruments to assess the patients' function. These results indicate that an objective functional assessment based on a standardized instrument has not been routinely incorporated into dental care for OACI, raising concerns for quality of care in this vulnerable population.

  19. Abnormal intrinsic brain activity in amnestic mild cognitive impairment revealed by amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation: a resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging study

    XI Qian; ZHAO Xiao-hu; WANG Pei-jun; GUO Qi-hao; HE Yong


    Background Previous studies have shown that brain functional activity in the resting state is impaired in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients.However,alterations in intrinsic brain activity patterns in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) patients are poorly understood.This study aimed to explore the differences in regional intrinsic activities throughout the whole brain between aMCI patients and controls.Methods In the present study,resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was performed on 18 amnestic MCI (aMCI) patients,18 mild AD patients and 20 healthy elderly subjects.And amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) method was used.Results Compared with healthy elderly subjects,aMCI patients showed decreased ALFF in the right hippocampus and parahippocampal cortex,left lateral temporal cortex,and right ventral medial prefrontal cortex (vMPFC) and increased ALFF in the left temporal-parietal junction (TPJ) and inferior parietal Iobule (IPL).Mild AD patients showed decreased ALFF in the left TPJ,posterior IPL (plPL),and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex compared with aMCI patients.Mild AD patients also had decreased ALFF in the right posterior cingulate cortex,right vMPFC and bilateral dorsal MPFC (dMPFC) compared with healthy elderly subjects.Conclusions Decreased intrinsic activities in brain regions closely related to episodic memory were found in aMCI and AD patients.Increased TPJ and IPL activity may indicate compensatory mechanisms for loss of memory function in aMCI patients.These findings suggest that the fMRI based on ALFF analysis may provide a useful tool in the study of aMCI patients.

  20. Effect of 4-Horizontal Rectus Muscle Tenotomy on Visual Function and Eye Movement Records in Patients with Infantile Nystagmus Syndrome without Abnormal Head Posture and Strabismus: A Prospective Study

    Ahmad Ameri


    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate the effect of tenotomy on visual function and eye movement records in patients with infantile nystagmus syndrome (INS without abnormal head posture (AHP and strabismusMethods: A prospective interventional case-series of patients with INS with no AHP or strabismus. Patients underwent 4-horizontal muscle tenotomy. Best corrected visual acuity (BCVA and eye movement recordings were compared pre and postoperatively.Results: Eight patients were recruited in this study with 3 to 15.5 months of follow-up. Patients showed significant improvement in their visual function. Overall nystagmus amplitude and velocity was decreased 30.7% and 19.8%, respectively. Improvements were more marked at right and left gazes. Conclusion: Tenotomy improves both visual function and eye movement records in INS with no strabismus and eccentric null point. The procedure has more effect on lateral gazes with worse waveforms, thus can broaden area with better visual function. We recommend this surgery in patients with INS but no associated AHP or strabismus.

  1. Russia: An Abnormal Country

    Steven Rosefielde


    Full Text Available Andrei Shleifer and Daniel Treisman recently rendered a summary verdict on the post Soviet Russian transition experience finding that the Federation had become a normal country with the west's assistance, and predicting that it would liberalize and develop further like other successful nations of its type. This essay demonstrates that they are mistaken on the first count, and are likely to be wrong on the second too. It shows factually, and on the norms elaborated by Pareto, Arrow and Bergson that Russia is an abnormal political economy unlikely to democratize, westernize or embrace free enterprise any time soon

  2. Abnormal ionization in sonoluminescence

    Zhang, Wen-Juan; An, Yu


    Sonoluminescence is a complex phenomenon, the mechanism of which remains unclear. The present study reveals that an abnormal ionization process is likely to be present in the sonoluminescing bubble. To fit the experimental data of previous studies, we assume that the ionization energies of the molecules and atoms in the bubble decrease as the gas density increases and that the decrease of the ionization energy reaches about 60%-70% as the bubble flashes, which is difficult to explain by using previous models. Project supported by the Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (Grant No. 20120002110031) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11334005).

  3. Abnormal visuomotor processing in schizophrenia

    Siân E. Robson


    Full Text Available Subtle disturbances of visual and motor function are known features of schizophrenia and can greatly impact quality of life; however, few studies investigate these abnormalities using simple visuomotor stimuli. In healthy people, electrophysiological data show that beta band oscillations in sensorimotor cortex decrease during movement execution (event-related beta desynchronisation (ERBD, then increase above baseline for a short time after the movement (post-movement beta rebound (PMBR; whilst in visual cortex, gamma oscillations are increased throughout stimulus presentation. In this study, we used a self-paced visuomotor paradigm and magnetoencephalography (MEG to contrast these responses in patients with schizophrenia and control volunteers. We found significant reductions in the peak-to-peak change in amplitude from ERBD to PMBR in schizophrenia compared with controls. This effect was strongest in patients who made fewer movements, whereas beta was not modulated by movement in controls. There was no significant difference in the amplitude of visual gamma between patients and controls. These data demonstrate that clear abnormalities in basic sensorimotor processing in schizophrenia can be observed using a very simple MEG paradigm.

  4. 慢性心力衰竭患者合并肾功能异常的发生情况分析%Analysis for the incidence of abnormal renal function in patients with chronic heart failure

    牟丽娜; 张俊岭


    Objective To understand the incidence of abnormal renal function in patients with chronic heart failure ( CHF) ,and to explore the correlation between cardiac function and renal function .Methods The data of 308 patients with chronic heart failure ( CHF group ) and 125 healthy subjects ( control group ) were retrospectively analyzed .According to the glomerular filtration rate,whether (eGFR) 0.05).Conclusion The patients with chronic heart failure are often complicated by abnormal renal function at different degrees .The cardiac function in patients with cardiorenal syndrome is obviously decreased ,as compared with that in patients with simple chronic heart failure .With the decline of cardiac function , the incidence of abnormal renal function is increased significantly .%目的:了解慢性心力衰竭患者肾功能异常的发生情况,探讨心肾功能的相互关系。方法选择308例慢性心衰患者(心衰组)和125例心功能正常者(对照组)进行回顾性分析,根据肾小球滤过率( GFR )是否<90 ml・ min-1・1,.73 m-2将心衰组分为单纯心衰组( n =219)和心肾综合征组( n =89)。对3组研究对象一般资料、基础疾病、化验指标、超声心动图等进行比较分析。结果心衰组患者发生肾功能异常的比率高于对照组,差异有统计学意义( P <0.05)。心肾综合征组肾功能不全分期多为肾功能代偿期和失代偿期。 NYHAⅣ级组伴发肾功能不全的比例明显高于NYHAⅡ、Ⅲ级组,差异有统计学意义( P <0.05),而Ⅱ、Ⅲ级组之间差异无统计学意义( P >0.05)。结论慢性心衰患者常合并不同程度的肾功能异常。心肾综合征患者心功能较单纯慢性心衰患者明显减低。随着心功能的减退,肾功能异常发生率明显上升。

  5. Skeletal muscle expression of the adhesion-GPCR CD97: CD97 deletion induces an abnormal structure of the sarcoplasmatic reticulum but does not impair skeletal muscle function.

    Tatiana Zyryanova

    Full Text Available CD97 is a widely expressed adhesion class G-protein-coupled receptor (aGPCR. Here, we investigated the presence of CD97 in normal and malignant human skeletal muscle as well as the ultrastructural and functional consequences of CD97 deficiency in mice. In normal human skeletal muscle, CD97 was expressed at the peripheral sarcolemma of all myofibers, as revealed by immunostaining of tissue sections and surface labeling of single myocytes using flow cytometry. In muscle cross-sections, an intracellular polygonal, honeycomb-like CD97-staining pattern, typical for molecules located in the T-tubule or sarcoplasmatic reticulum (SR, was additionally found. CD97 co-localized with SR Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA, a constituent of the longitudinal SR, but not with the receptors for dihydropyridine (DHPR or ryanodine (RYR, located in the T-tubule and terminal SR, respectively. Intracellular expression of CD97 was higher in slow-twitch compared to most fast-twitch myofibers. In rhabdomyosarcomas, CD97 was strongly upregulated and in part more N-glycosylated compared to normal skeletal muscle. All tumors were strongly CD97-positive, independent of the underlying histological subtype, suggesting high sensitivity of CD97 for this tumor. Ultrastructural analysis of murine skeletal myofibers confirmed the location of CD97 in the SR. CD97 knock-out mice had a dilated SR, resulting in a partial increase in triad diameter yet not affecting the T-tubule, sarcomeric, and mitochondrial structure. Despite these obvious ultrastructural changes, intracellular Ca2+ release from single myofibers, force generation and fatigability of isolated soleus muscles, and wheel-running capacity of mice were not affected by the lack of CD97. We conclude that CD97 is located in the SR and at the peripheral sarcolemma of human and murine skeletal muscle, where its absence affects the structure of the SR without impairing skeletal muscle function.

  6. A Rare Stapes Abnormality

    Hala Kanona


    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to increase awareness of rare presentations, diagnostic difficulties alongside management of conductive hearing loss and ossicular abnormalities. We report the case of a 13-year-old female reporting progressive left-sided hearing loss and high resolution computed tomography was initially reported as normal. Exploratory tympanotomy revealed an absent stapedius tendon and lack of connection between the stapes superstructure and footplate. The footplate was fixed. Stapedotomy and stapes prosthesis insertion resulted in closure of the air-bone gap by 50 dB. A review of world literature was performed using MedLine. Middle ear ossicular discontinuity can result in significant conductive hearing loss. This can be managed effectively with surgery to help restore hearing. However, some patients may not be suitable or decline surgical intervention and can be managed safely conservatively.

  7. Nonpathologizing trauma interventions in abnormal psychology courses.

    Hoover, Stephanie M; Luchner, Andrew F; Pickett, Rachel F


    Because abnormal psychology courses presuppose a focus on pathological human functioning, nonpathologizing interventions within these classes are particularly powerful and can reach survivors, bystanders, and perpetrators. Interventions are needed to improve the social response to trauma on college campuses. By applying psychodynamic and feminist multicultural theory, instructors can deliver nonpathologizing interventions about trauma and trauma response within these classes. We recommend class-based interventions with the following aims: (a) intentionally using nonpathologizing language, (b) normalizing trauma responses, (c) subjectively defining trauma, (d) challenging secondary victimization, and (e) questioning the delineation of abnormal and normal. The recommendations promote implications for instructor self-reflection, therapy interventions, and future research.

  8. Temporal abnormalities in children with developmental dyscalculia.

    Vicario, Carmelo Mario; Rappo, Gaetano; Pepi, Annamaria; Pavan, Andrea; Martino, Davide


    Recent imaging studies have associated Developmental dyscalculia (DD) to structural and functional alterations corresponding Parietal and the Prefrontal cortex (PFC). Since these areas were shown also to be involved in timing abilities, we hypothesized that time processing is abnormal in DD. We compared time processing abilities between 10 children with pure DD (8 years old) and 11 age-matched healthy children. Results show that the DD group underestimated duration of a sub-second scale when asked to perform a time comparison task. The timing abnormality observed in our DD participants is consistent with evidence of a shared fronto-parietal neural network for representing time and quantity.

  9. Influence of late pregnancy with abnormal liver function on pregnancy outcome%妊娠晚期合并肝功能异常对妊娠结局的影响

    陈徐; 宋倪媛


    目的:探讨妊娠晚期合并肝功能异常对妊娠结局的影响。方法选取妊娠晚期合并肝功能异常患者61例为观察组,同期无肝功能异常的妊娠晚期孕妇61例为对照组,记录孕妇的妊娠情况,评价羊水污染情况,观察孕妇妊娠结局及新生儿情况。结果观察组总胆汁酸、谷丙转氨酶、谷草转氨酶均明显高于对照组(P<0.05)。观察组出血量明显多于对照组(P<0.05)。观察组新生儿体重、新生儿身高均明显小于对照组(P<0.05)。观察组羊水污染情况较对照组严重(P<0.05)。观察组孕妇剖宫产率、产后出血率、胎膜早破发生率、胎儿宫内窘迫发生率、妊娠高血压综合征发生率均明显高于对照组(P<0.05)。观察组新生儿窒息发生率、早产率、低体重发生率均明显高于对照组(P<0.05)。结论妊娠晚期合并肝功能异常可造成不良妊娠结局,应给予及时有效的对症处理,以保障母婴健康。%Objective To investigate influence of late pregnancy with abnormal liver function on pregnancy outcome. Method 61 patients with late pregnancy and abnormal liver function were selected as observation group,61 pregnant women with late pregnancy and normal liver function were selected in hospital at same period as control group. Preg-nancy outcome was compared between two groups. Result TBA, ALT, AST in observation group were significantly higher than control group(P<0. 05). Amount of bleeding in observation group was significantly more than control group(P<0. 05). Newborn weight and height in observation group were significantly smaller than control group(P<0. 05). Compared with control group,pollution of amniotic fluid in observation group was more severe(P<0. 05). In-cidences of cesarean section,postpartum hemorrhage,premature rupture of membranes,fetal distress,pregnancy in-duced hypertension in observation group were significantly higher than control group(P<0. 05). Incidences of neo

  10. Specialization Patterns

    Schultz, Ulrik Pagh; Lawall, Julia Laetitia; Consel, Charles


    Design patterns offer many advantages for software development, but can introduce inefficiency into the final program. Program specialization can eliminate such overheads, but is most effective when targeted by the user to specific bottlenecks. Consequently, we propose that these concepts...... are complementary. Program specialization can optimize programs written using design patterns, and design patterns provide information about the program structure that can guide specialization. Concretely, we propose specialization patterns, which describe how to apply program specialization to optimize uses...... of design patterns. In this paper, we analyze the specialization opportunities provided by specific uses of design patterns. Based on the analysis of each design pattern, we define the associated specialization pattern. These specialization opportunities can be declared using the specialization classes...

  11. Persistent Pain and Sensory Abnormalities after Abdominoplasty

    Presman, Benjamin; Finnerup, Kenneth; Andresen, Sven Robert


    University Hospital, Denmark. The questionnaire included questions about pain and sensory abnormalities located to the abdominal skin, and physical and psychological function; patient satisfaction with surgery was rated on a 4-point scale. RESULTS: One hundred seventy patients answered the questionnaire......%) patients. The majority of patients reported improvement on all physical and psychological factors. Patients with pain were more often disappointed with the surgery and unwilling to recommend the surgery. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, patients were satisfied with the procedure, although abnormal abdominal skin....... Fourteen patients (8.2%) reported pain within the past 7 days related to the abdominoplasty. Abnormal abdominal skin sensation was common and reported by 138 patients (81%). Sensory hypersensitivity was associated with the presence of persistent pain. Satisfaction with the procedure was reported by 149 (88...

  12. Neurological abnormalities associated with CDMA exposure.

    Hocking, B; Westerman, R


    Dysaesthesiae of the scalp and neurological abnormality after mobile phone use have been reported previously, but the roles of the phone per se or the radiations in causing these findings have been questioned. We report finding a neurological abnormality in a patient after accidental exposure of the left side of the face to mobile phone radiation [code division multiple access (CDMA)] from a down-powered mobile phone base station antenna. He had headaches, unilateral left blurred vision and pupil constriction, unilateral altered sensation on the forehead, and abnormalities of current perception thresholds on testing the left trigeminal ophthalmic nerve. His nerve function recovered during 6 months follow-up. His exposure was 0.015-0.06 mW/cm(2) over 1-2 h. The implications regarding health effects of radiofrequency radiation are discussed.

  13. A computational functional genomics based self-limiting self-concentration mechanism of cell specialization as a biological role of jumping genes.

    Lötsch, Jörn; Ultsch, Alfred


    Specialization is ubiquitous in biological systems and its manifold mechanisms are active research topics. Although clearly adaptive, the way in which specialization of cells is realized remains incompletely understood as it requires the reshaping of a cell's genome to favor particular biological processes in the competition on a cell's functional capacity. Here, a self-specialization mechanism is identified as a possible biological role of jumping genes, in particular LINE-1 retrotransposition. The mechanism is self-limiting and consistent with its evolutionary preservation despite its likely gene-breaking effects. The scenario we studied was the need for a cell to process a longer exposition to an extraordinary situation, for example continuous exposure to the nociceptive input or the intake of addictive drugs. Both situations may evolve toward chronification. The mechanism involves competition within a gene set in which a subset of genes cooperating in particular biological processes. The subset carries a piece of information, consisting of the LINE-1 sequence, about the destruction of their functional competitor genes which are not involved in that process. During gene transcription, an active copy of LINE-1 is co-transcribed. At a certain low probability, a subsequently transcribed and thus actually exposed gene can be rendered nonfunctional by LINE-1 retrotransposition in a relevant gene part. As retrotransposition needs time it is unlikely that LINE-1 retrotranspose into its own carrier gene. This reshapes the cell genome toward self-specializing of those biological processes that are carried out with a high number of LINE-1 containing genes. Self-termination of the mechanism is achieved by allowing LINE-1 to also occasionally jump into the coding region of itself, thus destroying the information about competitor destruction by successively decreasing the number of LINE-1 until the mechanism ceases. Employing a computational functional genomics approach, we

  14. Correlation between arterial wall stiffness, N-terminal prohormone of brain natriuretic peptide, functional and structural myocardial abnormalities in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiac autonomic neuropathy

    Viktoriya Aleksandrovna Serhiyenko


    Full Text Available Aim. To assess arterial wall stiffness, plasma levels of of N-terminal prohormone of brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP, as well as functional state and structure of the myocardium in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM and cardiac autonomic neuropathy (CAN.Materials and Methods. The study involved a total of 65 patients with T2DM. 12 had no evidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD or CAN, 14 were diagnosed with subclinical stage of CAN, 18 – with functional stage, and 21 – with organic stage. We measured aortic pulse wave velocity (PWV, aortic augmentation index (AIx, brachial artery AIx, ambulatory arterial stiffness index (AASI and plasma levels of NT-proBNP. Clinical examination included ECG, Holter monitoring, ambulatory BP measurement and echocardiography.Results. Patients with isolated T2DM showed a trend for increased vascular wall stiffness. PWV was increased in patients with subclinical stage of CAN. Aortic and brachial AIx, PWV and AASI were elevated in patients with functional stage of CAN, PWV being significantly higher vs. subclinical CAN subgroup. Organic stage was characterized by pathologically increased values of all primary parameters; PWV and AASI were significantly higher compared with other groups. Development and progression of CAN was accompanied by an increase in NT-proBNP plasma levels. Concentration of NT-proBNP was in direct correlation with left ventricular mass (LVM and PWV. PWV and LVM values also directly correlated between themselves.Conclusion. Development and progression of CAN in patients with T2DM is accompanied by an increase in vascular wall stiffness. The elevation of plasma NT-proBNP in patients with T2DM correlates with the development of CAN and is significantly and independently associated with an increase in LVM and PWV. Our data suggests the pathophysiological interconnection between metabolic, functional and structural myocardial abnormalities in patients with T2DM and CAN.

  15. Special conference of the American Association for Cancer Research on molecular imaging in cancer: linking biology, function, and clinical applications in vivo.

    Luker, Gary D


    The AACR Special Conference on Molecular Imaging in Cancer: Linking Biology, Function, and Clinical Applications In Vivo, was held January 23-27, 2002, at the Contemporary Hotel, Walt Disney World, Orlando, FL. Co-Chairs David Piwnica-Worms, Patricia Price and Thomas Meade brought together researchers with diverse expertise in molecular biology, gene therapy, chemistry, engineering, pharmacology, and imaging to accelerate progress in developing and applying technologies for imaging specific cellular and molecular signals in living animals and humans. The format of the conference was the presentation of research that focused on basic and translational biology of cancer and current state-of-the-art techniques for molecular imaging in animal models and humans. This report summarizes the special conference on molecular imaging, highlighting the interfaces of molecular biology with animal models, instrumentation, chemistry, and pharmacology that are essential to convert the dreams and promise of molecular imaging into improved understanding, diagnosis, and management of cancer.

  16. Communication and abnormal behaviour.

    Crown, S


    In this paper the similarities between normal and abnormal behaviour are emphasized and selected aspects of communication, normal and aberrant, between persons are explored. Communication in a social system may be verbal or non-verbal: one person's actions cause a response in another person. This response may be cognitive, behavioural or physiological. Communication may be approached through the individual, the social situation or social interaction. Psychoanalysis approaches the individual in terms of the coded communications of psychoneurotic symptoms or psychotic behaviour; the humanist-existential approach is concerned more with emotional expression. Both approaches emphasize the development of individual identity. The interaction between persons and their social background is stressed. Relevant are sociological concepts such as illness behaviour, stigma, labelling, institutionalization and compliance. Two approaches to social interactions are considered: the gamesplaying metaphor, e.g. back pain as a psychosocial manipulation--the 'pain game'; and the 'spiral of reciprocal perspectives' which emphasizes the interactional complexities of social perceptions. Communicatory aspects of psychological treatments are noted: learning a particular metaphor such as 'resolution' of the problem (psychotherapy), learning more 'rewarding' behaviour (learning theory) or learning authenticity or self-actualization (humanist-existential).

  17. Dopaminergic system abnormalities Etiopathogenesis of dystonia

    Shuhui Wu; Huifang Shang; Xiaoyi Zou


    BACKGROUND: Much research has focused on the close relationship between etiopathogenesis of dystonia and abnormalities of the dopaminergic system. Nevertheless, details of the mechanism are still not clear.OBJECTIVE: To review studies from the past few years about pathogenesis and molecular interactions involved in the relationship between dystonia and abnormalities of the dopaminergic system.RETRIEVAL STRATEGY: Using the key words "dystonia" and "dopamine", PubMed database and SCI databases were searched from January 1990 to December 2005 for relevant English publications. A total of 73 articles were searched and, initially, all articles were selected. Inclusive criteria: studies based on pathogenesis and molecular interactions involved in the relationship between dystonia and abnormalities of the dopaminergic system. Exclusive criteria: duplicated studies. A total of 19 articles were extracted after preliminary screening.LITERATURE EVALUATION: The data sources were the PubMed and SCI databases. The types of articles chosen were reviews and original articles.DATA SYNTHESIS: Metabolism and function of dopamine in the central nervous system: the chemical constitution of dopamine is a single benzene ring. The encephalic regions of dopamine synthesis and their fiber projections comprise four nervous system pathways. One of these pathways is the substantia nigra-striatum dopamine pathway, which is a side-loop of the basal ganglia circuitry that participates in movement control and plays a main role in the adjustment of extracorticospinal tract movement. Dopamine can lead to the facilitation of movement. Dystonia and abnormalities of the dopaminergic system: different modes of dopamine abnormality exist in various forms of dystonia. Abnormalities of the dopaminergic system in several primary dystonias: at present, fifteen gene loci of primary dystonia have been reported (DYT1-DYT15). The relationship between abnormalities of the dopaminergic system and the

  18. Abnormal Spatial Asymmetry of Selective Attention in ADHD

    Chan, Edgar; Mattingley, Jason B.; Huang-Pollock, Cynthia; English, Therese; Hester, Robert; Vance, Alasdair; Bellgrove, Mark A.


    Background: Evidence for a selective attention abnormality in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been hard to identify using conventional methods from cognitive science. This study tested whether the presence of selective attention abnormalities in ADHD may vary as a function of perceptual load and target…

  19. The Problems of the Variety of Formation and Functioning of the Special Economic Zones in Azerbaijan in the Context of the World Experience

    Sh.T. Aliyev


    Full Text Available The variety of formation and functioning of the special economic zones in the context of the world experience is investigated in the article. The stages of formation of such zones in the different countries of the world, of their peculiarities and characteristic features, and the different variants of functioning are analyzed in the given article. There is shown a number of practical examples of the variants of SEZ, which function in the countries of the world, and also their effectiveness and the gained experience. There is also given a number of suggestions and the necessity on use of the new economic instruments, on transition to the innovation economics and formation of SEZ in Azerbaijan in present conditions is validated.

  20. The roles of whole-genome and small-scale duplications in the functional specialization of Saccharomyces cerevisiae genes.

    Mario A Fares

    Full Text Available Researchers have long been enthralled with the idea that gene duplication can generate novel functions, crediting this process with great evolutionary importance. Empirical data shows that whole-genome duplications (WGDs are more likely to be retained than small-scale duplications (SSDs, though their relative contribution to the functional fate of duplicates remains unexplored. Using the map of genetic interactions and the re-sequencing of 27 Saccharomyces cerevisiae genomes evolving for 2,200 generations we show that SSD-duplicates lead to neo-functionalization while WGD-duplicates partition ancestral functions. This conclusion is supported by: (a SSD-duplicates establish more genetic interactions than singletons and WGD-duplicates; (b SSD-duplicates copies share more interaction-partners than WGD-duplicates copies; (c WGD-duplicates interaction partners are more functionally related than SSD-duplicates partners; (d SSD-duplicates gene copies are more functionally divergent from one another, while keeping more overlapping functions, and diverge in their sub-cellular locations more than WGD-duplicates copies; and (e SSD-duplicates complement their functions to a greater extent than WGD-duplicates. We propose a novel model that uncovers the complexity of evolution after gene duplication.

  1. The Roles of Whole-Genome and Small-Scale Duplications in the Functional Specialization of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Genes

    Fares, Mario A.; Keane, Orla M.; Toft, Christina; Carretero-Paulet, Lorenzo; Jones, Gary W.


    Researchers have long been enthralled with the idea that gene duplication can generate novel functions, crediting this process with great evolutionary importance. Empirical data shows that whole-genome duplications (WGDs) are more likely to be retained than small-scale duplications (SSDs), though their relative contribution to the functional fate of duplicates remains unexplored. Using the map of genetic interactions and the re-sequencing of 27 Saccharomyces cerevisiae genomes evolving for 2,200 generations we show that SSD-duplicates lead to neo-functionalization while WGD-duplicates partition ancestral functions. This conclusion is supported by: (a) SSD-duplicates establish more genetic interactions than singletons and WGD-duplicates; (b) SSD-duplicates copies share more interaction-partners than WGD-duplicates copies; (c) WGD-duplicates interaction partners are more functionally related than SSD-duplicates partners; (d) SSD-duplicates gene copies are more functionally divergent from one another, while keeping more overlapping functions, and diverge in their sub-cellular locations more than WGD-duplicates copies; and (e) SSD-duplicates complement their functions to a greater extent than WGD–duplicates. We propose a novel model that uncovers the complexity of evolution after gene duplication. PMID:23300483

  2. Prevalence of cardiac dysfunction and abnormalities in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis requiring surgery.

    Liu, Limin; Xiu, Peng; Li, Qian; Song, Yueming; Chen, Rigao; Zhou, Chunguang


    The prevalence of cardiac abnormalities in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis in an Asian population has not been reported. A retrospective study was conducted to evaluate the incidence of cardiac abnormalities in these patients. From January 2007 to April 2009, echocardiography and pulmonary function tests were performed in 80 adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients who required surgical intervention. A thorough analysis of cardiopulmonary functions and cardiac structures was performed. The risk factors, types of cardiac abnormalities, and associations between severity of scoliosis or pulmonary function and cardiac abnormalities were assessed. Cardiac abnormalities were detected by echocardiogram in 25 patients, including 14 with structural abnormalities and 11 with functional abnormalities. The most common functional abnormality was tricuspid regurgitation (9 of 80; 11.3%), whereas atrial septal defect was the most common structural abnormality (7 of 80). Altered hemodynamics occurred in 5 patients, including 3 with ventricular septal defect and 2 with mitral valve dysplasia. Abnormal electrocardiographic findings presented in only 9 of the 25 patients with cardiac abnormalities. No significant associations were found between severity of scoliosis or pulmonary function and cardiac abnormalities. A high incidence of cardiac abnormality exists in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis in this region. Although most patients tolerated surgery, some patients were at risk of decompensation postoperatively. Electrocardiography is of limited value for detecting cardiac problems in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis, we recommend echocardiography as a routine modality in the preoperative evaluation of patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

  3. Systemic abnormalities in liver disease

    Masami Minemura; Kazuto Tajiri; Yukihiro Shimizu


    Systemic abnormalities often occur in patients with liver disease. In particular, cardiopulmonary or renal diseases accompanied by advanced liver disease can be serious and may determine the quality of life and prognosis of patients. Therefore, both hepatologists and non-hepatologists should pay attention to such abnormalities in the management of patients with liver diseases.

  4. Abnormal pressure in hydrocarbon environments

    Law, B.E.; Spencer, C.W.


    Abnormal pressures, pressures above or below hydrostatic pressures, occur on all continents in a wide range of geological conditions. According to a survey of published literature on abnormal pressures, compaction disequilibrium and hydrocarbon generation are the two most commonly cited causes of abnormally high pressure in petroleum provinces. In young (Tertiary) deltaic sequences, compaction disequilibrium is the dominant cause of abnormal pressure. In older (pre-Tertiary) lithified rocks, hydrocarbon generation, aquathermal expansion, and tectonics are most often cited as the causes of abnormal pressure. The association of abnormal pressures with hydrocarbon accumulations is statistically significant. Within abnormally pressured reservoirs, empirical evidence indicates that the bulk of economically recoverable oil and gas occurs in reservoirs with pressure gradients less than 0.75 psi/ft (17.4 kPa/m) and there is very little production potential from reservoirs that exceed 0.85 psi/ft (19.6 kPa/m). Abnormally pressured rocks are also commonly associated with unconventional gas accumulations where the pressuring phase is gas of either a thermal or microbial origin. In underpressured, thermally mature rocks, the affected reservoirs have most often experienced a significant cooling history and probably evolved from an originally overpressured system.

  5. Uniqueness Theorems for Some Special Entire Functions%几类整函数中函数的唯一性



    利用值分布理论中的展布关系对滋长级小于1的整函数的唯一性进行了研究,得到了一些结果。%In this paper,we study the uniqueness of non-constant entire functions whose orders are less than 1 on the basis of the value distribution theory of meromorphic function and then get some findings in this aspect.

  6. The effect of exercise intervention on frail elderly in need of care: half-day program in a senior day-care service facility specializing in functional training

    Sakamoto, Ryota; Miura, Yasushi


    [Purpose] This study investigated the long-term effect of a half-day exercise intervention program on health-related quality of life, life function, and physical function in frail elderly in need of care. The program was conducted at a senior day-care facility specializing in functional training. [Subjects and Methods] Subjects included 41 elderly in need of care who had visited the service facility for at least 1 year. Physical function and life function were evaluated at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months. Quality of life was evaluated with the Short Form-36 at baseline and 12 months. [Results] Improvements in balance, walking speed and endurance, complex performance abilities, self-efficacy during the activities, and the level and sphere of activity were observed at 6 months and maintained up to 12 months. Moreover, improvements in agility, activities of daily living, life function, and quality of life were also observed at 12 months. Improvements in muscle strength, walking ability, self-efficacy over an action, and activities of daily living were related to the improvement in quality of life. [Conclusion] The use of individualized exercise programs developed by physiotherapists led to improvements in activities of daily living and quality of life among elderly in need of care. PMID:27512243

  7. Abnormal Axon Reflex-Mediated Sweating Correlates with High State of Anxiety in Atopic Dermatitis

    Akiko Kijima


    Conclusions: Although the number of study subjects was little, abnormal AXR sweating in patients with AD was observed. Correlative analysis suggests possible involvement of continuous anxiety and the immune system in such abnormal sudomotor function.

  8. Executive functions and behavioral problems in deaf and hard-of-hearing students at general and special schools.

    Hintermair, Manfred


    In this study, behavioral problems of deaf and hard-of-hearing (D/HH) school-aged children are discussed in the context of executive functioning and communicative competence. Teachers assessed the executive functions of a sample of 214 D/HH students from general schools and schools for the deaf, using a German version of the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Functions (BRIEF-D). This was complemented by a questionnaire that measured communicative competence and behavioral problems (German version of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire; SDQ-D). The results in nearly all the scales show a significantly higher problem rate for executive functions in the group of D/HH students compared with a normative sample of hearing children. In the D/HH group, students at general schools had better scores on most scales than students at schools for the deaf. Regression analysis reveals the importance of executive functions and communicative competence for behavioral problems. The relevance of the findings for pedagogical work is discussed. A specific focus on competencies such as self-efficacy or self-control in educational concepts for D/HH students seems to be necessary in addition to extending language competencies.

  9. Morphological functional and psychological indicators of 11-12 yrs age boys’ (members of preparatory special health groups of urban and countryside schools development

    Tamozhanskaya G.V.


    Full Text Available Purpose: determination of anthropometrical and somatic indicators and factors of school anxiety of 11-12 yrs age boys - members of special health groups at urban and countryside schools. Material: in researches 50 boys of 11-12 years age participated. Results: the author determined difference between morphological-functional indicators and kinds of boys’ diseases. Besides, attendance of physical culture classes in respect to other subjects was analyzed. Comparative factors of children’s school anxiety were outlined. Schoolboys from countryside are more anxious about opinion of peers about themselves. Conclusions: boys’ morphological-functional indicators shall be considered as factor of determination and revelation of defects in harmonious development in system of physical education. Attention should be paid to different kinds of diseases and anxiety among boys of preparatory group.

  10. Androgen receptor abnormalities

    A.O. Brinkmann (Albert); G.G.J.M. Kuiper (George); C. Ris-Stalpers (Carolyn); H.C.J. van Rooij (Henri); G. Romalo (G.); G. Trifiro (Gianluca); E. Mulder (Eppo); L. Pinsky (L.); H.U. Schweikert (H.); J. Trapman (Jan)


    markdownabstract__Abstract__ The human androgen receptor is a member of the superfamily of steroid hormone receptors. Proper functioning of this protein is a prerequisite for normal male sexual differentiation and development. The cloning of the human androgen receptor cDNA and the elucidation of t

  11. [Renal abnormalities in ankylosing spondylitis].

    Samia, Barbouch; Hazgui, Faiçal; Abdelghani, Khaoula Ben; Hamida, Fethi Ben; Goucha, Rym; Hedri, Hafedh; Taarit, Chokri Ben; Maiz, Hedi Ben; Kheder, Adel


    We will study the epidemiologic, clinical, biological, therapeutic, prognostic characteristics and predictive factors of development of nephropathy in ankylosing spondylitis patients. We retrospectively reviewed the medical record of 32 cases with renal involvement among 212 cases of ankylosing spondylitis followed in our service during the period spread out between 1978 and 2006. The renal involvement occurred in all patients a mean of 12 years after the clinical onset of the rheumatic disease. Thirty-two patients presented one or more signs of renal involvement: microscopic hematuria in 22 patients, proteinuria in 23 patients, nephrotic syndrome in 11 patients and decreased renal function in 24 patients (75%). Secondary renal amyloidosis (13 patients), which corresponds to a prevalence of 6,1% and tubulointerstitial nephropathy (7 patients) were the most common cause of renal involvement in ankylosing spondylitis followed by IgA nephropathy (4 patients). Seventeen patients evolved to the end stage renal disease after an average time of 29.8 ± 46 months. The average follow-up of the patients was 4,4 years. By comparing the 32 patients presenting a SPA and renal disease to 88 with SPA and without nephropathy, we detected the predictive factors of occurred of nephropathy: tobacco, intense inflammatory syndrome, sacroileite stage 3 or 4 and presence of column bamboo. The finding of 75% of the patients presented a renal failure at the time of the diagnosis of renal involvement suggests that evidence of renal abnormality involvement should be actively sought in this disease.

  12. Abnormal calcium homeostasis in peripheral neuropathies


    Abnormal neuronal calcium (Ca2+) homeostasis has been implicated in numerous diseases of the nervous system. The pathogenesis of two increasingly common disorders of the peripheral nervous system, namely neuropathic pain and diabetic polyneuropathy, has been associated with aberrant Ca2+ channel expression and function. Here we review the current state of knowledge regarding the role of Ca2+ dyshomeostasis and associated mitochondrial dysfunction in painful and diabetic neuropathies. The cent...



    Congenital aniridia is generally associated with nystagmus, corneal pannus, cataract, ectopia lentis, glaucoma, macular hypoplasia, optic nerve hypoplasia and compromised visual function. Many theories have been proposed, including a failure in the development of the neural ectoderm and/or an aberrant development of mesoderm. We observed the ERG from 19 patients with congenital aniridia. Fourteen patients had abnormal ERG, including the reduced a wave trough under dark adapted red stimuli with dark adap...

  14. Special Weapons

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Supporting Navy special weapons, the division provides an array of engineering services, technical publication support services, logistics support services, safety...

  15. Novel Biocatalysts Combining the Special Assembly Properties of S-Layer Proteins and the Functionality of Enzymes of Extremophiles (BIOCAT)


    enzyme membranes, affinity structures, ultrafiltration membranes, microcarriers, biosensors, diagnostic devices, biocompatible surfaces, vaccines as...supports. This strategy for "nanocontrolled" funcionalization of surfaces leads to new enzyme and ultrafiltration membranes, affinity structures, ion...favor easy flow of substrates and products, and may be integrated in more complex processes, where combination of a catalytic function with a

  16. Special aspects of quality management system functioning in Saratov State Medical University n.a. V.I. Razumovsky

    Bugaeva I.0.


    Full Text Available The article considers specificity of quality management system functioning in educational institutions and presents an overview of the historical and contemporary aspects of the quality management system's development in Saratov State Medical University n.a. V. I. Razumovsky.

  17. Anxiety Symptoms in Young People with Autism Spectrum Disorder Attending Special Schools: Associations with Gender, Adaptive Functioning and Autism Symptomatology

    Magiati, Iliana; Ong, Clarissa; Lim, Xin Yi; Tan, Julianne Wen-Li; Ong, Amily Yi Lin; Patrycia, Ferninda; Fung, Daniel Shuen Sheng; Sung, Min; Poon, Kenneth K.; Howlin, Patricia


    Anxiety-related problems are among the most frequently reported mental health difficulties in autism spectrum disorder. As most research has focused on clinical samples or high-functioning children with autism spectrum disorder, less is known about the factors associated with anxiety in community samples across the ability range. This…

  18. Abnormal asymmetry of brain connectivity in schizophrenia.

    Ribolsi, Michele; Daskalakis, Zafiris J; Siracusano, Alberto; Koch, Giacomo


    Recently, a growing body of data has revealed that beyond a dysfunction of connectivity among different brain areas in schizophrenia patients (SCZ), there is also an abnormal asymmetry of functional connectivity compared with healthy subjects. The loss of the cerebral torque and the abnormalities of gyrification, with an increased or more complex cortical folding in the right hemisphere may provide an anatomical basis for such aberrant connectivity in SCZ. Furthermore, diffusion tensor imaging studies have shown a significant reduction of leftward asymmetry in some key white-matter tracts in SCZ. In this paper, we review the studies that investigated both structural brain asymmetry and asymmetry of functional connectivity in healthy subjects and SCZ. From an analysis of the existing literature on this topic, we can hypothesize an overall generally attenuated asymmetry of functional connectivity in SCZ compared to healthy controls. Such attenuated asymmetry increases with the duration of the disease and correlates with psychotic symptoms. Finally, we hypothesize that structural deficits across the corpus callosum may contribute to the abnormal asymmetry of intra-hemispheric connectivity in schizophrenia.

  19. Imaging findings of sternal abnormalities

    Franquet, T. [Dept. of Radiology, Hospital de Sant Pau, Universidad Autonoma de Barcelona (Spain); Gimenez, A. [Dept. of Radiology, Hospital de Sant Pau, Universidad Autonoma de Barcelona (Spain); Alegret, X. [Dept. of Radiology, Hospital de Sant Pau, Universidad Autonoma de Barcelona (Spain); Sanchis, E. [Dept. of Radiology, Hospital de Sant Pau, Universidad Autonoma de Barcelona (Spain); Rivas, A. [Dept. of Radiology, Hospital Vall d`Hebron, Universidad Autonoma de Barcelona (Spain)


    Radiographic findings in the sternal abnormalities are often nonspecific, showing appearances from a localized benign lesion to an aggressive lesion as seen with infections and malignant neoplasms. A specific diagnosis of sternal abnormalities can be suggested on the basis of CT and MR characteristics. Familiarity with the presentation and variable appearance of sternal abnormalities may aid the radiologist is suggesting a specific diagnosis. We present among others characteristic radiographic findings of hemangioma, chondrosarcoma, hydatid disease, and SAPHO syndrome. In those cases in which findings are not specific, cross-sectional imaging modalities may help the clinician in their management. (orig.)

  20. Response Analysis on Electrical Pulses under Severe Nuclear Accident Temperature Conditions Using an Abnormal Signal Simulation Analysis Module

    Kil-Mo Koo


    Full Text Available Unlike design basis accidents, some inherent uncertainties of the reliability of instrumentations are expected while subjected to harsh environments (e.g., high temperature and pressure, high humidity, and high radioactivity occurring in severe nuclear accident conditions. Even under such conditions, an electrical signal should be within its expected range so that some mitigating actions can be taken based on the signal in the control room. For example, an industrial process control standard requires that the normal signal level for pressure, flow, and resistance temperature detector sensors be in the range of 4~20 mA for most instruments. Whereas, in the case that an abnormal signal is expected from an instrument, such a signal should be refined through a signal validation process so that the refined signal could be available in the control room. For some abnormal signals expected under severe accident conditions, to date, diagnostics and response analysis have been evaluated with an equivalent circuit model of real instruments, which is regarded as the best method. The main objective of this paper is to introduce a program designed to implement a diagnostic and response analysis for equivalent circuit modeling. The program links signal analysis tool code to abnormal signal simulation engine code not only as a one body order system, but also as a part of functions of a PC-based ASSA (abnormal signal simulation analysis module developed to obtain a varying range of the R-C circuit elements in high temperature conditions. As a result, a special function for abnormal pulse signal patterns can be obtained through the program, which in turn makes it possible to analyze the abnormal output pulse signals through a response characteristic of a 4~20 mA circuit model and a range of the elements changing with temperature under an accident condition.

  1. [Abnormal reaction for anaesthetics in a critically ill child with acute myeloid leukemia--case report].

    Bujok, Grzegorz; Knapik, Piotr; Macioł, Zbigniew


    The authors present a case report of an abnormal reaction for anaesthetics correlated with cytostatic therapy in the course of preparation time for bone marrow transplantation due to acute myeloid leukemia. Problems of pharmacological interaction of ketamine and benzodiazepines are emphasized. Special attention was paid to the risk of abnormal drug reactions during general anaesthesia in children with leukemia.

  2. Impact of low molecular weight phthalates in inducing reproductive malfunctions in male mice: Special emphasis on Sertoli cell functions.

    Kumar, Narender; Srivastava, Swati; Roy, Partha


    Phthalates are commonly used as plasticizers in a variety of products. Since they have been identified as endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs), effect of phthalates on human health is a major concern. In this study, we evaluated individual as well as combined mixture effects of three low molecular weight phthalates on the reproductive system of male mice, specifically on the Sertoli cell structure and function. In order to analyze the blood testes barrier (BTB) dynamics, primary culture of Sertoli cells from 3-weeks old male mice was used for mimicking typical tight junction structures. Male mice were exposed to long-term (45 days) and combined mixture of three phthalates, diethyl phthalate (DEP), diphenyl phthalate (DPP), and dimethyl isophthalate (DMIP) between pre-pubertal to adult stage. Our data showed significant decrease (p phthalates may affect male fertility by altering both structural and functional integrity of Sertoli cells in testes.

  3. Specialized languages

    Mousten, Birthe; Laursen, Anne Lise


    Across different fields of research, one feature is often overlooked: the use of language for specialized purposes (LSP) as a cross-discipline. Mastering cross-disciplinarity is the precondition for communicating detailed results within any field. Researchers in specialized languages work cross-d...

  4. Skin - abnormally dark or light

    ... ency/article/003242.htm Skin - abnormally dark or light To use the sharing features on this page, ... the hands. The bronze color can range from light to dark (in fair-skinned people) with the ...

  5. Pregnancy Complications: Umbilical Cord Abnormalities

    ... defects. These tests may include a detailed ultrasound, amniocentesis (to check for chromosomal abnormalities) and in some ... the provider may recommend additional tests, such as amniocentesis and a detailed ultrasound, to diagnose or rule ...

  6. Using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF to describe children referred to special care or paediatric dental services.

    Denise Faulks

    Full Text Available Children in dentistry are traditionally described in terms of medical diagnosis and prevalence of oral disease. This approach gives little information regarding a child's capacity to maintain oral health or regarding the social determinants of oral health. The biopsychosocial approach, embodied in the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health - Child and Youth version (ICF-CY (WHO, provides a wider picture of a child's real-life experience, but practical tools for the application of this model are lacking. This article describes the preliminary empirical study necessary for development of such a tool - an ICF-CY Core Set for Oral Health. An ICF-CY questionnaire was used to identify the medical, functional, social and environmental context of 218 children and adolescents referred to special care or paediatric dental services in France, Sweden, Argentina and Ireland (mean age 8 years ± 3.6 yrs. International Classification of Disease (ICD-10 diagnoses included disorders of the nervous system (26.1%, Down syndrome (22.0%, mental retardation (17.0%, autistic disorders (16.1%, and dental anxiety alone (11.0%. The most frequently impaired items in the ICF Body functions domain were 'Intellectual functions', 'High-level cognitive functions', and 'Attention functions'. In the Activities and Participation domain, participation restriction was frequently reported for 25 items including 'Handling stress', 'Caring for body parts', 'Looking after one's health' and 'Speaking'. In the Environment domain, facilitating items included 'Support of friends', 'Attitude of friends' and 'Support of immediate family'. One item was reported as an environmental barrier - 'Societal attitudes'. The ICF-CY can be used to highlight common profiles of functioning, activities, participation and environment shared by children in relation to oral health, despite widely differing medical, social and geographical contexts. The results of this empirical

  7. The research front on molecular functional switches——A special issue on organic photoswitchable multifunctional molecules and materials

    He TIAN


    @@ The 4th International Workshop on Organic Photoswitchable Multifunctional Molecules and Materials was held between 25th and 27th October 2009 in East China University of Science & Technology (ECUST), Shanghai. It was a great event for academic circles, and at the same time provided an excellent chance for communication between international scholars from the field of organic photoswitchable functional materials. Along with a successful series of workshops on this topic, such as those held by Japan-France (Shonan, 2006), France-Russia (Saissac, 2007) and France-Japan (Arras, 2008), ECUST (China) and CNRS's GDRI (France) joined together to host this continued workshop on novel photoswitchable multifunctional molecules and materials.

  8. Large scale interaction analysis predicts that the Gerbera hybrida floral E function is provided both by general and specialized proteins

    Elomaa Paula


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ornamental plant Gerbera hybrida bears complex inflorescences with morphologically distinct floral morphs that are specific to the sunflower family Asteraceae. We have previously characterized several MADS box genes that regulate floral development in Gerbera. To study further their behavior in higher order complex formation according to the quartet model, we performed yeast two- and three-hybrid analysis with fourteen Gerbera MADS domain proteins to analyze their protein-protein interaction potential. Results The exhaustive pairwise interaction analysis showed significant differences in the interaction capacity of different Gerbera MADS domain proteins compared to other model plants. Of particular interest in these assays was the behavior of SEP-like proteins, known as GRCDs in Gerbera. The previously described GRCD1 and GRCD2 proteins, which are specific regulators involved in stamen and carpel development, respectively, showed very limited pairwise interactions, whereas the related GRCD4 and GRCD5 factors displayed hub-like positions in the interaction map. We propose GRCD4 and GRCD5 to provide a redundant and general E function in Gerbera, comparable to the SEP proteins in Arabidopsis. Based on the pairwise interaction data, combinations of MADS domain proteins were further subjected to yeast three-hybrid assays. Gerbera B function proteins showed active behavior in ternary complexes. All Gerbera SEP-like proteins with the exception of GRCD1 were excellent partners for B function proteins, further implicating the unique role of GRCD1 as a whorl- and flower-type specific C function partner. Conclusions Gerbera MADS domain proteins exhibit both conserved and derived behavior in higher order protein complex formation. This protein-protein interaction data can be used to classify and compare Gerbera MADS domain proteins to those of Arabidopsis and Petunia. Combined with our reverse genetic studies of Gerbera, these

  9. “A的是”短语的特殊功能%The Special Functions of "Adeshi" Phrases



    Some of the adjectives or phrases of adjective nature in modern Chinese have funtions of discourse conjunction and as pragmatic markers when being followed by "deshi".While as pragmatic markers,they mainly function to editorialize.These functions originated from Ming and Qing Dynasty,but have been widespread since affected by synonymity in English.%现代汉语中有些形容词或形容词性短语加上"的是"之后,具有篇章连接功能和语用标记功能。在篇章功能中,它们既有逆接功能也有顺接功能;在语用标记功能中,它们主要是发挥主观评价功能,包括正面评价功能和负面评价功能。这类成分在明清之际开始产生,但它的扩散以至替换近代汉语中的同功能成分与英语中对应成分的影响有一定的关系。

  10. INDeGenIUS, a new method for high-throughput identification of specialized functional islands in completely sequenced organisms

    Sakshi Shrivastava; Ch V Siva Kumar Reddy; Sharmila S Mande


    Genomic islands (GIs) are regions in the genome which are believed to have been acquired via horizontal gene transfer events and are thus likely to be compositionally distinct from the rest of the genome. Majority of the genes located in a GI encode a particular function. Depending on the genes they encode, GIs can be classified into various categories, such as `metabolic islands’, `symbiotic islands’, `resistance islands’, `pathogenicity islands’, etc. The computational process for GI detection is known and many algorithms for the same are available. We present a new method termed as Improved N-mer based Detection of Genomic Islands Using Sequence-clustering (INDeGenIUS) for the identification of GIs. This method was applied to 400 completely sequenced species belonging to proteobacteria. Based on the genes encoded in the identified GIs, the GIs were grouped into 6 categories: metabolic islands, symbiotic islands, resistance islands, secretion islands, pathogenicity islands and motility islands. Several new islands of interest which had previously been missed out by earlier algorithms were picked up as GIs by INDeGenIUS. The present algorithm has potential application in the identification of functionally relevant GIs in the large number of genomes that are being sequenced. Investigation of the predicted GIs in pathogens may lead to identification of potential drug/vaccine candidates.

  11. Insight into the immunobiology of human skin and functional specialization of skin dendritic cell subsets to innovate intradermal vaccination design.

    Teunissen, M B M; Haniffa, M; Collin, M P


    Dendritic cells (DC) are the key initiators and regulators of any immune response which determine the outcome of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cell responses. Multiple distinct DC subsets can be distinguished by location, phenotype, and function in the homeostatic and inflamed human skin. The function of steady-state cutaneous DCs or recruited inflammatory DCs is influenced by the surrounding cellular and extracellular skin microenvironment. The skin is an attractive site for vaccination given the extended local network of DCs and the easy access to the skin-draining lymph nodes to generate effector T cells and immunoglobulin-producing B cells for long-term protective immunity. In the context of intradermal vaccination we describe in this review the skin-associated immune system, the characteristics of the different skin DC subsets, the mechanism of antigen uptake and presentation, and how the properties of DCs can be manipulated. This knowledge is critical for the development of intradermal vaccine strategies and supports the concept of intradermal vaccination as a superior route to the conventional intramuscular or subcutaneous methods.

  12. Abnormal calcium homeostasis in peripheral neuropathies.

    Fernyhough, Paul; Calcutt, Nigel A


    Abnormal neuronal calcium (Ca2+) homeostasis has been implicated in numerous diseases of the nervous system. The pathogenesis of two increasingly common disorders of the peripheral nervous system, namely neuropathic pain and diabetic polyneuropathy, has been associated with aberrant Ca2+ channel expression and function. Here we review the current state of knowledge regarding the role of Ca2+ dyshomeostasis and associated mitochondrial dysfunction in painful and diabetic neuropathies. The central impact of both alterations of Ca2+ signalling at the plasma membrane and also intracellular Ca2+ handling on sensory neurone function is discussed and related to abnormal endoplasmic reticulum performance. We also present new data highlighting sub-optimal axonal Ca2+ signalling in diabetic neuropathy and discuss the putative role for this abnormality in the induction of axonal degeneration in peripheral neuropathies. The accumulating evidence implicating Ca2+ dysregulation in both painful and degenerative neuropathies, along with recent advances in understanding of regional variations in Ca2+ channel and pump structures, makes modulation of neuronal Ca2+ handling an increasingly viable approach for therapeutic interventions against the painful and degenerative aspects of many peripheral neuropathies.

  13. Children’s Belief- and Desire-reasoning in the Temporopartietal Junction: Evidence for Specialization from Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy

    Lindsay Caroline Bowman


    Full Text Available Behaviorally, children’s explicit theory-of-mind (ToM proceeds in a progression of mental-state understandings: developmentally, children demonstrate accurate explicit desire-reasoning before accurate explicit belief-reasoning. Given its robust and cross-cultural nature, we hypothesize this progression may be paced in part by maturation/specialization of the brain. Neuroimaging research demonstrates that the right temporoparietal junction (TPJ becomes increasingly selective for ToM reasoning as children age, and as their ToM improves. But this research has narrowly focused on beliefs or on undifferentiated mental-states. A recent ERP study in children included a critical contrast to desire-reasoning, and demonstrated that right posterior potentials differentiated belief-reasoning from desire-reasoning. Taken together, the literature suggests that children’s desire-belief progression may be paced by specialization of the right TPJ for belief-reasoning specifically, beyond desire-reasoning. In the present study, we tested this hypothesis directly by examining children’s belief- and desire-reasoning using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS in conjunction with structural MRI to pinpoint brain activation in the right TPJ. Results showed greatest activation in the right TPJ for belief-reasoning, beyond desire-reasoning, and beyond non-mental reasoning (control. Findings replicate and critically extend prior ERP results, and provide clear evidence for a specific neural mechanism underlying children’s progression from understanding desires to understanding beliefs.

  14. Functional specialization and convergence in the occipito-temporal cortex supporting haptic and visual identification of human faces and body parts: an fMRI study.

    Kitada, Ryo; Johnsrude, Ingrid S; Kochiyama, Takanori; Lederman, Susan J


    Humans can recognize common objects by touch extremely well whenever vision is unavailable. Despite its importance to a thorough understanding of human object recognition, the neuroscientific study of this topic has been relatively neglected. To date, the few published studies have addressed the haptic recognition of nonbiological objects. We now focus on haptic recognition of the human body, a particularly salient object category for touch. Neuroimaging studies demonstrate that regions of the occipito-temporal cortex are specialized for visual perception of faces (fusiform face area, FFA) and other body parts (extrastriate body area, EBA). Are the same category-sensitive regions activated when these components of the body are recognized haptically? Here, we use fMRI to compare brain organization for haptic and visual recognition of human body parts. Sixteen subjects identified exemplars of faces, hands, feet, and nonbiological control objects using vision and haptics separately. We identified two discrete regions within the fusiform gyrus (FFA and the haptic face region) that were each sensitive to both haptically and visually presented faces; however, these two regions differed significantly in their response patterns. Similarly, two regions within the lateral occipito-temporal area (EBA and the haptic body region) were each sensitive to body parts in both modalities, although the response patterns differed. Thus, although the fusiform gyrus and the lateral occipito-temporal cortex appear to exhibit modality-independent, category-sensitive activity, our results also indicate a degree of functional specialization related to sensory modality within these structures.

  15. Cognition and brain abnormalities on MRI in pituitary patients

    Brummelman, Pauline [Department of Endocrinology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen (Netherlands); Sattler, Margriet G.A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen (Netherlands); Department of Radiation Oncology, Netherlands Cancer Institute – Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Meiners, Linda C. [Department of Radiology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen (Netherlands); Berg, Gerrit van den; Klauw, Melanie M. van der [Department of Endocrinology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen (Netherlands); Elderson, Martin F. [Department of Endocrinology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen (Netherlands); LifeLines Cohort Study and Biobank, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen (Netherlands); Dullaart, Robin P.F. [Department of Endocrinology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen (Netherlands); Koerts, Janneke [Department of Clinical and Developmental Neuropsychology, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Werumeus Buning, Jorien, E-mail: [Department of Endocrinology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen (Netherlands); Tucha, Oliver [Department of Clinical and Developmental Neuropsychology, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H.R. [Department of Endocrinology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen (Netherlands); LifeLines Cohort Study and Biobank, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen (Netherlands); Bergh, Alfons C.M. van den [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen (Netherlands); Beek, André P. van, E-mail: [Department of Endocrinology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen (Netherlands)


    Highlights: • Cognitive impairments are frequently observed in treated NFA patients. • NFA patients with cognitive impairments do not show brain abnormalities on MRI more frequently than patients without cognitive impairments. • The absence of brain abnormalities on brain MRI does not exclude impairments of cognition. - Abstract: Purpose: The extent to which cognitive dysfunction is related to specific brain abnormalities in patients treated for pituitary macroadenoma is unclear. Therefore, we compared brain abnormalities seen on Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) in patients treated for nonfunctioning pituitary macroadenoma (NFA) with or without impairments in cognitive functioning. Methods: In this cross-sectional design, a cohort of 43 NFA patients was studied at the University Medical Center Groningen. White matter lesions (WMLs), cerebral atrophy, (silent) brain infarcts and abnormalities of the temporal lobes and hippocampi were assessed on pre-treatment and post-treatment MRI scans. Post-treatment cognitive examinations were performed using a verbal memory and executive functioning test. We compared our patient cohort with large reference populations representative of the Dutch population. Results: One or more impairments on both cognitive tests were frequently observed in treated NFA patients. No treatment effects were found with regard to the comparison between patients with and without impairments in executive functioning. Interestingly, in patients with one or more impairments on verbal memory function, treatment with radiotherapy had been given more frequently (74% in the impaired group versus 40% in the unimpaired group, P = 0.025). Patients with or without any brain abnormality on MRI did not differ in verbal memory or executive functioning. Conclusions: Brain abnormalities on MRI are not observed more frequently in treated NFA patients with impairments compared to NFA patients without impairments in verbal memory or executive functioning

  16. Membrane transporters for the special amino acid glutamine: Structure/function relationships and relevance to human health.

    Pochini, Lorena; Scalise, Mariafrancesca; Galluccio, Michele; Indiveri, Cesare


    Glutamine together with glucose is essential for body’s homeostasis. It is the most abundant amino acid and is involved in many biosynthetic, regulatory and energy production processes. Several membrane transporters which differ in transport modes, ensure glutamine homeostasis by coordinating its absorption, reabsorption and delivery to tissues. These transporters belong to different protein families, are redundant and ubiquitous. Their classification, originally based on functional properties, has recently been associated with the SLC nomenclature. Function of glutamine transporters is studied in cells over-expressing the transporters or, more recently in proteoliposomes harboring the proteins extracted from animal tissues or over-expressed in microorganisms. The role of the glutamine transporters is linked to their transport modes and coupling with Na+ and H+. Most transporters share specificity for other neutral or cationic amino acids. Na+-dependent co-transporters efficiently accumulate glutamine while antiporters regulate the pools of glutamine and other amino acids. The most acknowledged glutamine transporters belong to the SLC1, 6, 7 and 38 families. The members involved in the homeostasis are the co-transporters B0AT1 and the SNAT members 1, 2, 3, 5 and 7; the antiporters ASCT2, LAT1 and 2. The last two are associated to the ancillary CD98 protein. Some information on regulation of the glutamine transporters exist, which, however, need to be deepened. No information at all is available on structures, besides some homology models obtained using similar bacterial transporters as templates. Some models of rat and human glutamine transporters highlight very similar structures between the orthologues. Moreover the presence of glycosylation and/or phosphorylation sites located at the extracellular or intracellular faces has been predicted. ASCT2 and LAT1 are over-expressed in several cancers, thus representing potential targets for pharmacological intervention.

  17. Mitochondrial abnormalities in the myofibrillar myopathies.

    Jackson, S; Schaefer, J; Meinhardt, M; Reichmann, H


    Myofibrillar myopathies are a genetically diverse group of skeletal muscle disorders, with distinctive muscle histopathology. Causative mutations have been identified in the genes MYOT, LDB3, DES, CRYAB, FLNC, BAG3, DNAJB6, FHL1, PLEC and TTN, which encode proteins which either reside in the Z-disc or associate with the Z-disc. Mitochondrial abnormalities have been described in muscle from patients with a myofibrillar myopathy. We reviewed the literature to determine the extent of mitochondrial dysfunction in each of the myofibrillar myopathy subtypes. Abnormal mitochondrial distribution is a frequent finding in each of the subtypes, but a high frequency of COX-negative or ragged red fibres, a characteristic finding in some of the conventional mitochondrial myopathies, is a rare finding. Few in vitro studies of mitochondrial function have been performed in affected patients.

  18. 不同糖代谢状态血管内皮功能变化及相关影响因素分析%Changes and influencing factors of vascular endothelial function in different abnormal glucose metabolism

    王蕾蕾; 张丽娜; 郭立新


    Objective To evaluate the vascular endothelial function and explore the related influencing factors in patients with abnormal glucose metabolism by use of ultrasound technology. Methods A total of 109 participants selected from endocrinology outpatients of Beijing Hospital from October 2011 to June 2013 were enrolled in this study. Oral glucose tolerance test(OGTT) was carried out, including fasting plasma glucose(FPG) and postprandial glucose(PPG), fasting and 2 hours after glucose load testing insulin, C-peptide, glycated hemoglobin A1c(HbA1c), glycated albumin(GA), lipids, liver and kidney function, blood uric acid,flow-mediated endothelium-dependent vasodilation (FMEDD), serum nitric oxide (NO), endothelin-1(ET-1), serum malondialdehyde(MDA) and superoxide dismutase(SOD).With the receiver operating characteristic (ROC)curve, the best critical points of fasting and glucose loading vascular endothelial function were obtained. Results (1)The critical points of FMEDD in the state of abnormal glucose metabolism: fasting FMEDD was 13.37%, Youden index was 0.467, and the area under the curve was 0.786 (95%CI:0.697⁃0.876);FMEDD of OGTT 2 h was 10.67%,Youden index was 0.458, and the area under the curve was 0.774(95% CI:0.687⁃0.861). (2)Body mass index(BMI), FPG, HbA1c, GA, triglyceride (TG), MDA in the patients withabnormal fasting FMEDD were significantly higher than those in the normalgroup(t=-3.013,-4.567,-3.487,-4.611,-2.309,-2.909, all P<0.05); and the homeostasis model assessment⁃β(HOMA⁃β), NO, SOD were significantly lower than those in the normal group(t=2.765,2.472, 5.937, all P<0.05). PPG, HbA1c, GA in the patients with abnormal FMEDD after glucose load were significantly higher than those in the normal group(t=-4.907,-4.236,-3.896, all P<0.05);and the HOMA⁃β, NO, SOD were all significantly lower than those in the normal group(t=2.704,4.675,4.633, all P<0.05).(3) FPG,HbA1c,GA were negatively correlated with fasting FMEDD(r=-0

  19. Platelet enzyme abnormalities in leukemias

    S Sharma


    Full Text Available Aim of the Study: The aim of this study was to evaluate platelet enzyme activity in cases of leukemia. Materials and Methods: Platelet enzymes glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD, pyruvate kinase (PK and hexokinase (HK were studied in 47 patients of acute and chronic leukemia patients, 16 patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML(13 relapse, three in remission, 12 patients with acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL (five in relapse, seven in remission, 19 patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML. Results: The platelet G6PD activity was significantly low in cases of AML, ALL and also in CML. G6PD activity was normalized during AML remission. G6PD activity, although persistently low during ALL remission, increased significantly to near-normal during remission (P < 0.05 as compared with relapse (P < 0.01. Platelet PK activity was high during AML relapse (P < 0.05, which was normalized during remission. Platelet HK however was found to be decreased during all remission (P < 0.05. There was a significant positive correlation between G6PD and PK in cases of AML (P < 0.001 but not in ALL and CML. G6PD activity did not correlate with HK activity in any of the leukemic groups. A significant positive correlation was however seen between PK and HK activity in cases of ALL remission (P < 0.01 and CML (P < 0.05. Conclusions: Both red cell and platelet enzymes were studied in 36 leukemic patients and there was no statistically significant correlation between red cell and platelet enzymes. Platelet enzyme defect in leukemias suggests the inherent abnormality in megakaryopoiesis and would explain the functional platelet defects in leukemias.

  20. [Diagnosticum of abnormalities of plant meiotic division].

    Shamina, N V


    Abnormalities of plant meiotic division leading to abnormal meiotic products are summarized schematically in the paper. Causes of formation of monads, abnormal diads, triads, pentads, polyads, etc. have been observed in meiosis with both successive and simultaneous cytokinesis.

  1. Memetics clarification of abnormal behavior


    AIM: Biological medicine is hard to fully and scientifically explain the etiological factor and pathogenesis of abnormal behaviors; while, researches on philosophy and psychology (including memetics) are beneficial to better understand and explain etiological factor and pathogenesis of abnormal behaviors. At present, the theory of philosophy and psychology is to investigate the entity of abnormal behavior based on the views of memetics.METHODS: Abnormal behavior was researched in this study based on three aspects, including instinctive behavior disorder, poorly social-adapted behavior disorder and mental or body disease associated behavior disorder. Most main viewpoints of memetics were derived from "The Meme Machine", which was written by Susan Blackmore. When questions about abnormal behaviors induced by mental and psychological diseases and conduct disorder of teenagers were discussed, some researching achievements which were summarized by authors previously were added in this study, such as aggressive behaviors, pathologically aggressive behaviors, etc.RESULTS: The abnormal behaviors mainly referred to a part of people's substandard behaviors which were not according with the realistic social environment, culture background and the pathologic behaviors resulted from people's various psychological diseases. According to the theory of "meme", it demonstrated that the relevant behavioral obstacles of various psychological diseases, for example, the unusual behavior of schizophrenia, were caused, because the old meme was destroyed thoroughly but the new meme was unable to establish; psychoneurosis and personality disorder were resulted in hard establishment of meme; the behavioral obstacles which were ill-adapted to society, for example, various additional and homosexual behaviors, were because of the selfish replications and imitations of "additional meme" and "homosexual meme"; various instinct behavioral and congenital intelligent obstacles were not significance

  2. hsp70 genes in the human genome: Conservation and differentiation patterns predict a wide array of overlapping and specialized functions

    Macario Alberto JL


    seven evolutionary Groups, with divergent C-terminal domains likely defining their distinctive functions. These functions may also be further defined by the observed differences in the N-terminal domain.

  3. Special function of nestin+neurons in the medial septum-diagonal band of Broca in adult rats

    Yuhong Zhao; Kaihua Guo; Dongpei Li; Qunfang Yuan; Zhibin Yao


    Nestin+neurons have been shown to express choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) in the medial septum-diagonal band of Broca in adult rats. This study explored the projection of nestin+neu-rons to the olfactory bulb and the time course of nestin+neurons in the medial septum-diagonal band of Broca in adult rats during injury recovery after olfactory nerve transection. This study observed that all nestin+neurons were double-labeled with ChAT in the medial septum-diagonal band of Broca. Approximately 53.6%of nestin+neurons were projected to the olfactory bulb and co-labeled with fast blue. A large number of nestin+neurons were not present in each region of the medial septum-diagonal band of Broca. Nestin+neurons in the medial septum and vertical limb of the diagonal band of Broca showed obvious compensatory function. The number of nestin+neurons decreased to a minimum later than nestin-/ChAT+neurons in the medial sep-tum-diagonal band of Broca. The results suggest that nestin+cholinergic neurons may have a closer connection to olfactory bulb neurons. Nestin+cholinergic neurons may have a stronger tolerance to injury than Nestin-/ChAT+neurons. The difference between nestin+and nestin-/ChAT+neurons during the recovery process requires further investigations.

  4. The Solution to Maximum Value of a Special Class of Trigonometric Functions%一类特殊三角函数的最大值解



    首先在△ABC中,给出特定系数3sinA+4sinB+18sinC的最大值问题,分别利用逐步分析法、拉格朗日乘数法和不等式三种方法获得相同的结果,然后利用拉格朗日乘数法推导出任意系数三角函数asinA+bsinB+csinC(其中a、b、c∈R+)的最大值求解方法,最后推导三角函数acosA+bcosB+ccosC(其中a、b、c∈R+)的极值。%For the maximum value of a trigonometric function 3sinA+4sinB+18sinC with special coefficients in △ ABC , three solutions of analysis segment, the Lagrange multiplier, the inequalities, are first proposed, leading to the same result. Then for a general trigonometric function asinA+bsinB+csinC with the coefficients a,b, and c belonging to ,the Lagrange multiplier is used to seek its maximum value. Finally, the solution to the extreme value of the trigonometric function acosA+bcosB+ccosC with the coefficients , b, and c belonging to is derived.

  5. Abnormal insulin levels and vertigo.

    Proctor, C A


    Fifty patients with unexplained vertigo (36) or lightheadedness (14) are evaluated, all of whom had abnormal ENGs and normal audiograms. Five hour insulin glucose tolerance tests were performance on all patients, with insulin levels being obtained fasting and at one-half, one, two, and three hours. The results of this investigation were remarkable. Borderline or abnormal insulin levels were discovered in 82% of patients; 90% were found to have either an abnormal glucose tolerance test or at least borderline insulin levels. The response to treatment in these dizzy patients was also startling, with appropriate low carbohydrate diets improving the patient's symptoms in 90% of cases. It is, therefore, apparent that the earliest identification of carbohydrate imbalance with an insulin glucose tolerance test is extremely important in the work-up of the dizzy patients.

  6. Analysis of Abnormal Modes of Hoisting DC Electric Drive System

    Kosmas Zdrozis


    Full Text Available Problem statement: Host number of publications in which special attention was given to the behavior of the hoisting drives in abnormal modes was found. The effect of the failure of the main power supply on the electrical and mechanical parts of the hoisting drive when the motor is operating in the regenerative braking mode was not enough studied. Approach: In this study, the effect of the failure of the main power supply on the electrical and mechanical parts of the hoisting drive when the motor was operating in the regenerative braking mode and give recommendations and solutions to minimize the negative consequences of that abnormal mode. A special comprehensive mathematical mode was developed. The model comprised different submodels that describe the real operation of the power supply, four-quadrant thyristor AC/DC dual converter, firing system, protective devices and mechanism including the elastic elements like ropes and long shafts. This comprehensive model was used to study the behavior of the drive and choose the optimum protective device against the corresponding abnormal mode. Results: The failure of the supplying voltage of the dc hoisting drive at power regeneration leads to a significant increase in the motor armature current due to the formed closed loop comprising the armature winding, pair of thyristors and the secondary coil of the supplying transformer, in this mode the converter counter EMF will disappear. The protective device should protect the converter and the motor against such abnormal mode. The produced inrush current in role generates a huge motor torque that result in possible ropes and crane boom deformation, thus the mechanism design should include such possible abnormal mode. Conclusion: These results were implemented in the design of a special fast-responding circuit breaker which guarantees the exclusion of the armature current increase in the mentioned mode.

  7. Some Special Cases of Khintchine's Conjectures in Statistical Mechanics: Approximate Ergodicity of the Auto-Correlation Functions of an Assembly of Linearly Coupled Oscillators

    Johnson, Joseph F


    We give Sir James Jeans's notion of 'normal state' a mathematically precise definition. We prove that normal cells of trajectories exist in the Hamiltonian heat-bath model of an assembly of linearly coupled oscillators that generates the Ornstein--Uhlenbeck process in the limit of an infinite number of degrees of freedom. This, in some special cases, verifies some far-reaching conjectures of Khintchine on the weak ergodicity of a dynamical system with a large number of degrees of freedom. In order to estimate the theoretical auto-correlation function of a time series from the sample auto-correlation function of one of its realisations, it is usually assumed without justification that the time series is ergodic. Khintchine's conjectures about dynamical systems with large numbers of degrees of freedom justifies, even in the absence of ergodicity, approximately the same conclusions. Para emplear el correlograma de los valores muestrales de un proceso estoc\\'astico para estimar su funci\\'on te\\'orica de autocorre...

  8. Cardiac abnormalities after subarachnoid hemorrhage

    Bilt, I.A.C. van der


    Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage(aSAH) is a devastating neurological disease. During the course of the aSAH several neurological and medical complications may occur. Cardiac abnormalities after aSAH are observed often and resemble stress cardiomyopathy or Tako-tsubo cardiomyopathy(Broken Heart Syn

  9. Congenital abnormalities in methylmercury poisoning

    Gilani, S.H.


    This study was undertaken to determine the teratogenic potential of methylmercury on chick embryogenesis. Methylmercuric chloride was dissolved in sodium bicarbonate (0.2%) and administered to the chick embryos at doses ranging from 0.0009 to 0.010 mg per egg. The injections were made at days 2 and 3 on incubation (Groups A and B). All the embryos including controls were examined on the 7th day of incubation. Methylmercury poisoning was observed to be both embryolethal and teratogenic. Within the two groups, embryolethality was higher in Group A. The following congenital abnormalities were observed: exencephaly, shortened and twisted limbs, microphthalmia, shortened and twisted neck, beak abnormalities, everted viscera, reduced body size and hemorrhage all over the body. Exencephaly and limb abnormalities were very common. No differences in the incidence and types of gross abnormalities within both the groups (A and B) were noted. The incidence of malformations among the controls was low. The results of present investigation show that methylmercury poisoning is both embryolethal and teratogenic to early chick embryogenesis. (auth)

  10. Histopathological pattern of abnormal uterine bleeding in endometrial biopsies.

    Vaidya, S; Lakhey, M; Vaidya, S; Sharma, P K; Hirachand, S; Lama, S; KC, S


    Abnormal uterine bleeding is a common presenting complaint in gyanecology out patient department. Histopathological evaluation of the endometrial samples plays a significant role in the diagnosis of abnormal uterine bleeding. This study was carried out to determine the histopathological pattern of the endometrium in women of various age groups presenting with abnormal uterine bleeding. Endometrial biopsies and curettings of patients presenting with abnormal uterine bleeding was retrospectively studied. A total of 403 endometrial biopsies and curettings were analyzed. The age of the patients ranged from 18 to 70 years. Normal cyclical endometrium was seen in 165 (40.94%) cases, followed by 54 (13.40%) cases of disordered proliferative endometrium and 44 (10.92%) cases of hyperplasia. Malignancy was seen in 10 (2.48%) cases. Hyperplasia and malignancy were more common in the perimenopausal and postmenopausal age groups. Histopathological examination of endometrial biopsies and curettings in patients presenting with abnormal uterine bleeding showed a wide spectrum of changes ranging from normal endometrium to malignancy. Endometrial evaluation is specially recommended in women of perimenopausal and postmenopausal age groups presenting with AUB, to rule out a possibility of any preneoplastic condition or malignancy.

  11. Procurement with specialized firms

    Boone, Jan; Schottmüller, Christoph


    This paper analyzes optimal procurement mechanisms when firms are specialized. The procurement agency has incomplete information concerning the firms’ cost functions and values high quality as well as low price. Lower type firms are cheaper (more expensive) than higher type firms when providing low...

  12. Applications of zeta functions and other spectral functions in mathematics and physics: a special issue in honour of Stuart Dowker's 75th birthday Applications of zeta functions and other spectral functions in mathematics and physics: a special issue in honour of Stuart Dowker's 75th birthday

    Dowker, Fay; Elizalde, Emilio; Kirsten, Klaus


    probably the reason that his paper did not receive the same recognition as the one by Hawking [12], where zeta function regularization was mentioned in the title and where it was actually applied to examples in the article. Of course, Stuart's and Raymond's paper hit the pulse of the time in that after Stephen Hawking's announcement about Hawking radiation [13], the quantum field theory in curved space-time frenzy began. He had been interested in that subject for a while, the most important influence being de Witt's Les Houches lectures and also Chris Isham, who introduced him to Dennis Sciama's Oxford group, including Philip Candelas and Derek Raine, in 1973. The project about de Sitter space got somewhat delayed by work on path integrals and the ordering problem until Ray Critchley came by looking for a PhD topic. Several more of his best known papers are in the context of quantum field theory in curved spacetime. In the article [14], conformal transformations play a fundamental role. They are used to transform static manifolds to ultra-static ones where a high-temperature expansion of the effective action can be done. The result has since been rediscovered many times for special cases. In the process they also showed results about the conformal transformation of heat kernel coefficients claimed later on by mathematicians. The paper by Kennedy, Critchley and Dowker [15] belongs in the same context. Deutsch and Candelas had shown the occurrence of non-integrable singularities near boundaries of the Casimir energy densities, which made it impossible to obtain global energies by naively integrating local quantities. To resolve that problem, the needed surface counterterms for an arbitrarily shaped smooth boundary in curved space were computed. How does the paper [16] fit into the general scheme? The seed to considering this topic was probably planted when Yakir Aharonov was visiting Birmingham in 1958. In the Aharonov-Bohm effect we have an electromagnetic field with finite

  13. Nail abnormalities in rheumatoid arthritis.

    Michel, C; Cribier, B; Sibilia, J; Kuntz, J L; Grosshans, E


    Many nail abnormalities have traditionally been described in association with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), but their specificity has never been assessed in a controlled study. Our purpose was to evaluate the frequency and the specificity of nail changes associated with RA in a case-controlled study including 50 patients suffering from RA and 50 controls. For each patient, a general skin examination was performed and the 20 nails were examined. The nail features were noted and classified. A chi 2 test or a Fisher test was used to compare the two groups. The only nail abnormalities significantly associated with RA were longitudinal ridging on nine or 10 finger nails (29 patients in the RA group vs. three in the controls, chi 2: P nail (24 patients vs. 10, chi 2: P nail changes were noticed but were not frequent enough to be significant. The presence of longitudinal ridging on the finger nails was significantly associated with RA.

  14. Neuroendocrine abnormalities in Parkinson's disease.

    De Pablo-Fernández, Eduardo; Breen, David P; Bouloux, Pierre M; Barker, Roger A; Foltynie, Thomas; Warner, Thomas T


    Neuroendocrine abnormalities are common in Parkinson's disease (PD) and include disruption of melatonin secretion, disturbances of glucose, insulin resistance and bone metabolism, and body weight changes. They have been associated with multiple non-motor symptoms in PD and have important clinical consequences, including therapeutics. Some of the underlying mechanisms have been implicated in the pathogenesis of PD and represent promising targets for the development of disease biomarkers and neuroprotective therapies. In this systems-based review, we describe clinically relevant neuroendocrine abnormalities in Parkinson's disease to highlight their role in overall phenotype. We discuss pathophysiological mechanisms, clinical implications, and pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions based on the current evidence. We also review recent advances in the field, focusing on the potential targets for development of neuroprotective drugs in Parkinson's disease and suggest future areas for research.

  15. Radiological appearances of sinonasal abnormalities

    El-Beltagi, A.H.; Sobeih, A.A.; Valvoda, M.; Dahniya, M.H.; Badr, S.S


    The aim of this pictorial review is to present a variety of abnormalities of the sinonasal cavities to emphasize the diversity of lesions occurring in this region. These include congenital, neoplastic and granulomatous disorders and some allergic and inflammatory lesions with uncommon radiological appearances, as well as expanding lesions of the facial bones or of dental origin with secondary involvement of the related sinus(es). El-Beltagi, A.H. et al. (2002). Clinical Radiology 57, 702-718.

  16. Computed tomography of thymic abnormalities

    Schnyder, P.; Candardjis, G.


    Computed tomographic examinations of 38 patients with surgically and histologically proven diagnosis were reviewed. Twenty subjects (52%) had an invasive thymoma and 16% an hyperplastic thymus. Myasthenia gravis was present in 6 cases (16%) of thymic abnormalities, four (10,5%) with invasive thymoma and two (5%) with thymic hyperplasia. Graves' disease was also present in one case of thymic hyperplasia. We emphasize the contribution of CT to the diagnosis and the prognosis.

  17. Meiotic abnormalities in infertile males.

    Egozcue, J; Sarrate, Z; Codina-Pascual, M; Egozcue, S; Oliver-Bonet, M; Blanco, J; Navarro, J; Benet, J; Vidal, F


    Meiotic anomalies, as reviewed here, are synaptic chromosome abnormalities, limited to germ cells that cannot be detected through the study of the karyotype. Although the importance of synaptic errors has been underestimated for many years, their presence is related to many cases of human male infertility. Synaptic anomalies can be studied by immunostaining of synaptonemal complexes (SCs), but in this case their frequency is probably underestimated due to the phenomenon of synaptic adjustment. They can also be studied in classic meiotic preparations, which, from a clinical point of view, is still the best approach, especially if multiplex fluorescence in situ hybridization is at hand to solve difficult cases. Sperm chromosome FISH studies also provide indirect evidence of their presence. Synaptic anomalies can affect the rate of recombination of all bivalents, produce achiasmate small univalents, partially achiasmate medium-sized or large bivalents, or affect all bivalents in the cell. The frequency is variable, interindividually and intraindividually. The baseline incidence of synaptic anomalies is 6-8%, which may be increased to 17.6% in males with a severe oligozoospermia, and to 27% in normozoospermic males with one or more previous IVF failures. The clinical consequences are the production of abnormal spermatozoa that will produce a higher number of chromosomally abnormal embryos. The indications for a meiotic study in testicular biopsy are provided.

  18. International Specialization

    Kleindienst, Ingo; Geisler Asmussen, Christian; Hutzschenreuter, Thomas;


    Whether and how international diversification and cross-border arbitrage affects firm performance remains one of the major unresolved research questions in the strategy and international business literatures. We propose that knowing how much a firm has internationally diversified tells us very...... little about performance implications, if we do not know, and do not ask, how the firm has diversified. Therefore, building on the two broad arguments of operating flexibility and location-specific commitment, we develop a theoretical framework that focuses on the extent to which a firm's international...... arbitrage strategy is characterized by specialization versus replication and argue that these different strategies may have differential impact on profitability and risk reduction. Developing a sophisticated measure of international specialization and using a unique panel data set of 92 German MNEs to test...

  19. Special offer

    Staff Association


    Special offer for members of the Staff Association and their families 10% reduction on all products in the SEPHORA shop (sells perfume, beauty products etc.) in Val Thoiry ALL YEAR ROUND. Plus 20% reduction during their “vente privée”* three or four times a year. Simply present your Staff Association membership card when you make your purchase. * next “vente privée” from 24th to 29th May 2010  

  20. Special offer

    Staff Association


    SPECIAL OFFER FOR OUR MEMBERS Tarif unique Adulte/Enfant Entrée Zone terrestre 19 euros instead of 23 euros Entrée “Zone terrestre + aquatique” 24 euros instead of 31 euros Free for children under 3, with limited access to the attractions. Walibi Rhône-Alpes is open daily from 22 June to 31 August, and every week end from 3 September until 31 October. Closing of the “zone aquatique” 11 September.

  1. Robust PCA-Based Abnormal Traffic Flow Pattern Isolation and Loop Detector Fault Detection

    JIN Xuexiang; ZHANG Yi; LI Li; HU Jianming


    One key function of intelligent transportation systems is to automatically detect abnormal traffic phenomena and to help further investigations of the cause of the abnormality. This paper describes a robust principal components analysis (RPCA)-based abnormal traffic flow pattern isolation and loop detector fault detection method. The results show that RPCA is a useful tool to distinguish regular traffic flow from abnor-mal traffic flow patterns caused by accidents and loop detector faults. This approach gives an effective traffic flow data pre-processing method to reduce the human effort in finding potential loop detector faults. The method can also be used to further investigate the causes of the abnormality.

  2. Correlation between special brain area and blood perfusion in patients with cerebral infarction at convalescent period Feasibility for quantitative determination and estimation of learning and memory function


    BACKGROUND: Presently, clinic memory scale is used to evaluate learning memory ability in most studies,and the influence of difference in measurement condition of individuals exists.OBJECTIVE: To study the correlation between regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) perfusion and learning memory function in special brain regions of patients with cerebral infarction at convalescent period,and to try to find out a method which can quantitatively evaluate learning ability.DESIGN: Case observation, and correlation analysis.SETTINGS: Shandong Institute for Behavioral Medicine; the Affiliated Hospital of Jining Medical College.PARTICIPANTS: Totally 70 patients with cerebral infarction admitted to Departtment of Neurology, Jining Medical College between January 2004 and December 2005 were involved. The involved patients, 58 male and 12 female, were averaged (52±3) years, and they were all right handed. They all met the diagnosis criteria instituted by the Fourth National Conference on Cerebrovascular Disease, and were confirmed as cerebral infarction by skull CT or MRI. Informed consents of detected items were obtained from all the patients and relatives.METHODS: When the patients were at convalescent period, their learning and memory ability were measured with" clinic memory scale (set A)". The 18 patients whose total mark over 100 were regarded as good learning memory function group; The 23 cases whose total mark less than 70 were regarded as poor learning memory function group. RCBF of hippocampus, nucleus amygdalae, temporal cortex and prefrontal lobe of patients between two groups were measured and compared by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). The total scores of the 18 good learning memory patients and 23 poor learning memory patients were taken as dependent variable Y, and their rCBFs of hippocampus, nucleus amygdale,temporal cortex and prefrontal lobe respectively as independent variable X for linear correlation analysis.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES

  3. [ECG abnormalities in the MONICA Gent-Charleroi study population].

    De Backer, G


    In a survey of a random sample of the adult population (aged 25-64 yr) from Ghent and Charleroi (n = 1693), 103 (6.1%) showed ECG-abnormalities suggestive of coronary heart disease (Minnesota code I, IV, or V); prevalence was equal in men (6.2%) as in women (6.0%). In men, 30% of ECG-abnormalities suggested an old myocardial infarction as compared to 23.4% in women. Men with abnormal ECG had a positive history of acute myocardial infarction in 23%, as compared to 23.4% in women. Multivariate discriminant function analysis shows that men with abnormal ECG are older, have a higher systolic blood pressure and were more often married. Women with ECG abnormalities were significantly older, had a lower HDL-level and were less educated. So, although the prevalence of ECG abnormalities is almost similar between sexes, they correlate differently with antecedents of infarction and are poorly related to different sets of risk factors in men as compared to women.

  4. Special offers

    Staff Association


    Are you a member of the Staff Association? Did you know that as a member you can benefit from the following special offers: BCGE (Banque Cantonale de Genève): personalized banking solutions with preferential conditions. TPG: reduced rates on annual transport passes for active and retired staff. Aquaparc: reduced ticket prices for children and adults at this Swiss waterpark in Le Bouveret. FNAC: 5% reduction on FNAC vouchers. For more information about all these offers, please consult our web site:

  5. Special Offers

    Association du personnel


    Are you a member of the Staff Association? Did you know that as a member you can benefit from the following special offers: BCGE (Banque Cantonale de Genève): personalized banking solutions with preferential conditions. TPG: reduced rates on annual transport passes for active and retired staff. Aquaparc: reduced ticket prices for children and adults at this Swiss waterpark in Le Bouveret. Walibi: reduced prices for children and adults at this French attraction park in Les Avenières. FNAC: 5% reduction on FNAC vouchers. For more information about all these offers, please consult our web site:

  6. Special offer

    Staff Association


    OFFRE SPECIALE POUR NOS MEMBRES Les vendredis 29 juillet, 5 et 12 août, Aquaparc fermera ses portes exceptionnellement à 22h00. Pour ces évènements, des tarifs défiant toute concurrence vous sont proposés. Au programme : Clown spécialiste de la sculpture de ballons de 16h00 à 21h00 Ambiance Salsa avec danseurs professionnel : Démonstration et Cours de Salsa. Les tarifs : Pour une entrée à partir de 15h00 : Enfant : CHF 22.- Adulte : CHF 26.-  

  7. Low-set ears and pinna abnormalities

    Low-set ears; Microtia; "Lop" ear; Pinna abnormalities; Genetic defect-pinna; Congenital defect-pinna ... conditions: Abnormal folds or location of the pinna Low-set ears No opening to the ear canal ...

  8. [Phenomenology of abnormal body perceptions].

    Schäfer, M L


    The present paper deals with the problematic nature of the phenomenological grasping of the consciousness of the body and its pathological modifications. The reasoning is oriented by the doctrine of Husserl of the so-called sentiments as the fundamentals of the experience of the own body. This basic approach does not only seem to be basically for a psychology of the consciousness of the body, but also to give the theoretical-conceptual structure for a great number of psychopathological modifications. Subsequent to a criticism of the conventional use of the term 'hallucination of the body' we attempt to chart elements of a scheme of the abnormal consciousness of the body.

  9. 89例慢性乙型肝炎妊娠妇女孕期肝功能异常的临床分析%Clinical analysis on 89 chronic hepatitis B pregnant women with abnormal liver function during pregnancy

    付冬; 马小艳; 刘敏; 易为; 蔡晧东


    Objecttive To investigate the inlfuence of pregnancy and fetal outcome from abnormal liver function of chronic hepatitis B infected gravidas and the treament during pregnancy. Methods The patients who were in delivery (ALT≥ 2 × ULN at least 1 times and HBV DNA≥ 5 log10 copies/ml, HBeAg negative≥ 4 log10 copies/ml) in the Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Beijing Ditan Hospital, Capital Medical University, during January 1st, 2012 to June 30th, 2012 were seleted. According to the different treatment during pregnancy, patients were divided into antiviral treatment group and liver protection symptomatic treatment group. The adverse events during pregnancy, liver disease and outcome of pregnancy, the development of fetal and status of the newborns in the two groups were analyzed, retrospectively. Results A total of 89 patients were collected and divided into antiviral treatment group (55 cases) and liver protection symptomatic treatment group (34 cases). There were no signiifcant difference in baseline characteristics between the two mother groups. There were 48 (87.3%) patients with ALT retuned to normal before antepartum, and 38 (69.1%) patients with HBV DNA declined to less than 500 copies/ml in the antiviral treatment group. There were 13 (38.2%) patients with ALT retuned to normal before antepartum, and 1 (2.9%) patient with HBV DNA less than 500 copies/ml in the liver protection symptomatic treatment group. There were significant difference in ALT recovery rates and the HBV DNA sputum negative conversion rates between the two mother groups (χ2=23.4315, P<0.0001;χ2=37.3468, P<0.0001). There were no signiifcant difference in the adverse events rate between the two mother groups (P=0.176). The ifve adverse events occurred frequently were gestational diabetes, premature rupture of fetal membranes, postpartum hemorrhage, preterm labor and meconium staining amniotic fluid. These were the most common adverse events during pregnancy. They had no

  10. On Regularity of Abnormal Subriemannian Geodesics

    Tan, Kanghai


    We prove the smoothness of abnormal minimizers of subriemannian manifolds of step 3 with a nilpotent basis. We prove that rank 2 Carnot groups of step 4 admit no strictly abnormal minimizers. For any subriemannian manifolds of step less than 7, we show all abnormal minimizers have no corner type singularities, which partly generalize the main result of Leonardi-Monti.

  11. Chromosomal phenotypes and submicroscopic abnormalities

    Devriendt Koen


    Full Text Available Abstract The finding, during the last decade, that several common, clinically delineated syndromes are caused by submicroscopic deletions or, more rarely, by duplications, has provided a powerful tool in the annotation of the human genome. Since most microdeletion/microduplication syndromes are defined by a common deleted/duplicated region, abnormal dosage of genes located within these regions can explain the phenotypic similarities among individuals with a specific syndrome. As such, they provide a unique resource towards the genetic dissection of complex phenotypes such as congenital heart defects, mental and growth retardation and abnormal behaviour. In addition, the study of phenotypic differences in individuals with the same microdeletion syndrome may also become a treasury for the identification of modifying factors for complex phenotypes. The molecular analysis of these chromosomal anomalies has led to a growing understanding of their mechanisms of origin. Novel tools to uncover additional submicroscopic chromosomal anomalies at a higher resolution and higher speed, as well as the novel tools at hand for deciphering the modifying factors and epistatic interactors, are 'on the doorstep' and will, besides their obvious diagnostic role, play a pivotal role in the genetic dissection of complex phenotypes.

  12. Special Offers

    Association du personnel


    Are you a member of the Staff Association? Did you know that as a member you can benefit from the following special offers: BCGE (Banque Cantonale de Genève): personalized banking solutions with preferential conditions.     TPG: reduced rates on annual transport passes for active and retired staff.     Aquaparc: reduced ticket prices for children and adults at this Swiss waterpark in Le Bouveret.     Walibi: reduced prices for children and adults at this French attraction park in Les Avenières.       FNAC: 5% reduction on FNAC vouchers.       For more information about all these offers, please consult our web site:

  13. Special Offers

    Staff Association


    Are you a member of the Staff Association? Did you know that as a member you can benefit from the following special offers: BCGE (Banque Cantonale de Genève): personalized banking solutions with preferential conditions.     TPG: reduced rates on annual transport passes for all active and retired staff.     Aquaparc: reduced ticket prices for children and adults at this Swiss waterpark in Le Bouveret.     Walibi: reduced prices for children and adults at this French attraction park in Les Avenières.       FNAC: 5% reduction on FNAC vouchers.       For more information about all these offers, please consult our web site:

  14. Special convoy

    TS-IC Group


    A special wide-load convoy will affect traffic between Hall 180 (Meyrin site) and Point 1 (ATLAS) on Tuesday 29 May. The following measures will be in place: Partial closure of Route Arago and Route Einstein between 9.00 a.m. and 12 midday, depending on the rate at which the convoy advances. Closure of Route Einstein between 12 and 2.00 p.m. between Building 104 and Route Veksler (see diagram). Closure of Entrance B in both directions between 12 and 2.30 p.m. Please use Entrance A. For safety reasons, cyclists and pedestrians will not be allowed to ride or walk alongside the convoy. Please comply with the instructions given by the convoy officers. TS-IC Group (tel : 160319 - 163012)

  15. Special relativity

    Faraoni, Valerio


    This book offers an essential bridge between college-level introductions and advanced graduate-level books on special relativity. It begins at an elementary level, presenting and discussing the basic concepts normally covered in college-level works, including the Lorentz transformation. Subsequent chapters introduce the four-dimensional worldview implied by the Lorentz transformations, mixing time and space coordinates, before continuing on to the formalism of tensors, a topic usually avoided in lower-level courses. The book’s second half addresses a number of essential points, including the concept of causality; the equivalence between mass and energy, including applications; relativistic optics; and measurements and matter in Minkowski spacetime. The closing chapters focus on the energy-momentum tensor of a continuous distribution of mass-energy and its covariant conservation; angular momentum; a discussion of the scalar field of perfect fluids and the Maxwell field; and general coordinates. Every chapter...

  16. Skeletal muscle abnormalities in patients with fibromyalgia.

    Olsen, N J; Park, J H


    Widespread muscle pain and tender points are the most common complaints of fibromyalgia patients, and the underlying mechanisms responsible for these symptoms have been studied intensively during the past decade. It has been suggested that fatigue and pain may lead to decreased levels of physical activity in many patients. The resulting deconditioned state may itself contribute to muscle abnormalities. Associated symptoms such as disturbed sleep, anxiety, depression, or irritable bowel also may have a negative impact on muscle function and level of daily activities. The important interactions between the central nervous and musculoskeletal systems may involve another element, the neuroendocrine stress-response system. This review will consider both the current state of knowledge and also future studies which might be designed to answer more effectively the outstanding questions regarding the underlying pathogenesis of fibromyalgia.

  17. The early and mid pregnancy women subclinical thyroid function abnormalities on offspring of thyroid function and intelligence and physical development inlfuence%妊娠早中期妇女亚临床甲状腺功能异常对后代甲状腺功能和智力及身体发育的影响



    目的:对妊娠早中期妇女发生的亚临床甲状腺功能异常对其所产新生儿的甲状腺功能、智力以及身体发育所造成的影响进行探讨。方法选取2012年1月~2013年12月我院收治的40例妊娠早中期亚临床甲状腺功能异常妇女的后代以及40例健康妇女的后代作为研究对象,分为观察组和对照组,在其新生儿期、1岁、2岁、3岁的时候,分别对其甲状腺功能、血清FT3和FT4心智发展水平以及身体状况进行检测。结果观察组的婴儿的促甲状腺激素在新生儿期明显高于对照组,观察组婴儿的心智发展水平和生长发育程度在各个时期均明显滞后于对照组。结论妊娠早中期妇女发生的亚临床甲状腺功能异常可能会影响其后代的心智发育、生长发育,同时还可能影响后代的甲状腺功能,这说明积极妊娠早中期妇女积极治疗亚临床甲状腺功能异常十分必要,能够避免其后代的心智和身体健康受到不良影响。%Objective To subclinical thyroid dysfunction occurs early and mid pregnancy women abnormal on theneonatal thyroid function, intelligence and physical development were investigated by. Methods From 2012 January to 2013 year in December in our hospital 40 cases of pregnancy in early and middle subclinical thyroid dysfunction is the offspring of women and 40 healthy offspring of women as the research object, divided into the observation group and the control group, in the neonatal period, 1 years old, 2 years old, 3 years old, respectively,to detect the thyroid function, serum FT3 and FT4 level of mental development and physical condition. Results The group of infant thyroid stimulating hormone in the neonatal period was significantly higher than the control group,the observation group infant mental development level and the level of growth and development in each period areobviously lagging behind in the control group. Conclusion The growth and

  18. Eye-head coordination abnormalities in schizophrenia.

    Simon Schwab

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Eye-movement abnormalities in schizophrenia are a well-established phenomenon that has been observed in many studies. In such studies, visual targets are usually presented in the center of the visual field, and the subject's head remains fixed. However, in every-day life, targets may also appear in the periphery. This study is among the first to investigate eye and head movements in schizophrenia by presenting targets in the periphery of the visual field. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Two different visual recognition tasks, color recognition and Landolt orientation tasks, were presented at the periphery (at a visual angle of 55° from the center of the field of view. Each subject viewed 96 trials, and all eye and head movements were simultaneously recorded using video-based oculography and magnetic motion tracking of the head. Data from 14 patients with schizophrenia and 14 controls were considered. The patients had similar saccadic latencies in both tasks, whereas controls had shorter saccadic latencies in the Landolt task. Patients performed more head movements, and had increased eye-head offsets during combined eye-head shifts than controls. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Patients with schizophrenia may not be able to adapt to the two different tasks to the same extent as controls, as seen by the former's task-specific saccadic latency pattern. This can be interpreted as a specific oculomotoric attentional dysfunction and may support the hypothesis that schizophrenia patients have difficulties determining the relevance of stimuli. Patients may also show an uneconomic over-performance of head-movements, which is possibly caused by alterations in frontal executive function that impair the inhibition of head shifts. In addition, a model was created explaining 93% of the variance of the response times as a function of eye and head amplitude, which was only observed in the controls, indicating abnormal eye-head coordination in patients

  19. Abnormal Returns and Contrarian Strategies

    Ivana Dall'Agnol


    Full Text Available We test the hypothesis that strategies which are long on portfolios of looser stocks and short on portfolios of winner stocks generate abnormal returns in Brazil. This type of evidence for the US stock market was interpreted by The Bondt and Thaler (1985 as reflecting systematic evaluation mistakes caused by investors overreaction to news related to the firm performance. We found evidence of contrarian strategies profitability for horizons from 3 months to 3 years in a sample of stock returns from BOVESPA and SOMA from 1986 to 2000. The strategies are more profitable for shorter horizons. Therefore, there was no trace of the momentum effect found by Jagadeesh and Titman (1993 for the same horizons with US data. There are remaing unexplained positive returns for contrarian strategies after accounting for risk, size, and liquidity. We also found that the strategy profitability is reduced after the Real Plan, which suggests that the Brazilian stock market became more efficient after inflation stabilization.

  20. 出生后24 h凝血功能异常新生儿临床表现及影响因素分析%Clinical features and influencing factors in neonatal coagulant function abnormality in the first 24 hours after birth

    韩红卫; 丁盛; 陈红


    Objective To investigate the clinical manifestations and inlfuencing factors in the newborns with coagulant function abnormality in the ifrst 24 hours after birth. Methods The coagulation test results and clinical data of 169 newborns in our hospital were studied. Children receiving anticoagulant therapy were assigned as coagulation abnormalities group (n=76) and other healthy newborns were assigned as control group (n=93). The differences of coagulation function between the two groups were analyzed and the inlfuencing factors of coagulation abnormalities were explored. Results The proportions of fetal distress, pneumonia, acidosis and hypothermia of coagulation abnormalities group were signiifcantly higher than that of the control group (χ2=6.18–38.01, P<0.05). Logistic regression analysis showed that fetal distress (OR=12.06, 95%CI:3.71–39.25), pneumonia (OR=4.10, 95%CI: 1.43–11.74) were the high risk factors for coagulant function abnormality, and the differences were statistically signiifcant (both P<0.05). Conclusions Fetal distress, pneumonia were the high risk factors for coagulant function abnormality. Early prevention can help to reduce the incidence of neonatal hemorrhagic disease.%目的:分析出生后24 h凝血功能异常新生儿的临床表现及影响因素。方法收集169例住院新生儿的凝血功能检查结果及临床资料,其中符合接受抗凝治疗的患儿共76例,另93例新生儿作为对照,分析凝血功能异常组与对照组凝血功能的差异,并分析凝血障碍相关危险因素。结果凝血功能异常组的宫内窘迫、肺炎、酸中毒及低体温的比例均高于对照组,差异均有统计学意义(χ2=6.18~38.01,P<0.05)。多元logistic回归分析显示,宫内窘迫(OR=12.06,95%CI:3.71~39.25)、肺炎(OR=4.10,95%CI:1.43~11.74)为新生儿凝血功能异常发生的独立危险因素(P均<0.05)。结论宫内窘迫、肺炎是新生儿凝血功能异常的危

  1. Special offers

    Association du personnel


    Special discount to the members of the Staff Association Aquaparc Discounted prices on admission of whole day. Children from 5 to 15 years: 26.– CHF instead of 35.– CHF; Adults from 16 years: 32.– CHF instead of 43.– CHF.Tickets on sale to the Staff Association Secretariat. BCGE Account management on salary account and annual subscription to credit cards free of charge. Other benefits on mortgage loan and financial planning. Comédie de Genève 20% off on full price tickets (also available for partner): from 24 to 32 CHF a ticket instead of 30 to 40 CHF depending on the shows. Ezee Suisse 15% off on the range of electric bikes upon presentation of your Staff Association membership card before payment. FNAC 5% discount on gifts card available in four Swiss shops without any restriction. Gifts card on sale to the Staff Association Secretariat. FutureKids 15% off for the Staff Association members who enrol their children of 5 to 16 years old in ...

  2. High prevalence of thyroid ultrasonographic abnormalities in primary aldosteronism.

    Armanini, Decio; Nacamulli, Davide; Scaroni, Carla; Lumachi, Franco; Selice, Riccardo; Fiore, Cristina; Favia, Gennaro; Mantero, Franco


    The study was performed to evaluate the prevalence of thyroid abnormalities detected by ultrasonography and, in particular, of multinodular nontoxic goiter in primary aldosteronism. We analyzed 80 consecutive of patients with primary hyperaldosteronism (40 with unilateral adenoma and 40 with idiopathic hyperaldosteronism) and 80 normotensive healthy controls, comparable for age, sex, iodine intake, and geographical area. Blood pressure, thyroid palpation, thyroid function, and ultrasonography were evaluated. The prevalence of ultrasonographic thyroid abnormalities was 60% in primary aldosteronism and 27% in controls (p < 0.0001). There was a statistically significant difference in prevalence of these abnormalities in unilateral adenoma and idiopathic hyperaldosteronism with respect to controls (p < 0.05 and p < 0.0001, respectively). The prevalence of multinodular nontoxic goiter in idiopathic hyperaldosteronism was higher than in controls (p < 0.001) and, in particular, in female patients. From these data it seems to be worth considering the existence of primary hyperaldosteronism in patients with multinodular goiter and hypertension.

  3. Multimodal evoked potential abnormalities in patients with Wilson's disease

    Ilić Tihomir V.


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the involvement of the following functional systems: somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEP, visual evoked potentials (VEP, and event related potentials (ERP, in twenty patients with Wilson's disease (WD. VEP and SSEP abnormalities were discovered in S patients respectively (40%, whereas ERP were either absent or, in the case of 10 patients (50%, had significantly prolonged P-300 latencies. Taken together, at least one evoked potential abnormality was discovered in 17 patients (85%]. Only in 3 patients (15%, involving either the isolated hepatic type of disease or short illness duration of the neurological type, were normal evoked potential findings observed. Our findings suggest the usefulness of multimodal evoked potential abnormalities in the evaluation of subclinical manifestations in patients with WD.

  4. Is there something special about cardiovascular abnormalities and sudden unexpected death in epilepsy among patients with chronic renal insufficiency in regular hemodialysis program? Existe algo de especial a respeito das anormalidades cardíacas e morte súbita e inesperada na epilepsia nos pacientes com insuficiência renal crônica no programa regular de hemodiálise?

    Rui A. Gomes


    Full Text Available Of the many risk factors suggested for sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP, higher frequency of seizures is a very consistent issue. Following this reasoning, it has been established that hemodialysis-associated seizure is a complication of dialysis procedure. Based on these facts, this study investigated a possible association between cardiovascular abnormalities and SUDEP among patients with chronic renal insufficiency in regular hemodialysis program. For that, a retrospective medical history of 209 patients was reviewed to investigate the occurrence of convulsive seizures and EKG abnormalities during dialytic program. Three patients presented generalized tonic-clonic seizures, one had partial seizure with secondary generalization, and one presented unclassified seizure. Any EKG abnormalities and SUDEP event were found in all patients evaluated. In conclusion, the present findings demonstrated uncommon the occurrence of seizures and also SUDEP. Probably, the main justification to not allow us to demonstrated a direct relation between SUDEP and cardiovascular diseases in hemodialysis are the reduced number of cases examined.Um dos principais fatores de risco para a morte súbita e inesperada na epilepsia (SUDEP é a alta freqüência de crises epilépticas. Seguindo este raciocínio, tem sido estabelecido que as crises epilépticas associadas à hemodiálise seja uma complicação do procedimento dialítico. Baseado neste fato, este estudo investigou uma possível associação entre anormalidades cardiovasculares e SUDEP nos pacientes com insuficiência renal crônica em um programa regular de hemodiálise. Para isto, um histórico médico retrospectivo de 209 pacientes foi revisado para avaliar a ocorrência de crises epilépticas e possíveis anormalidades no ECG durante o programa de diálise. Três pacientes apresentaram crises tônico-clonica generalizadas, um apresentou crise parcial com generalização secundária e um apresentou

  5. 儿童白癜风与甲状腺功能指标异常及其他免疫性疾病的关系%Abnormality of parameters of thyroid function and incidence of autoimmune diseases in children with vitiligo

    杨芸; 骆肖群; 傅雯雯


    目的 探讨儿童白癜风与甲状腺功能指标异常及其他免疫性疾病的关系.方法 对363例白癜风儿童(男198例,女165例)和93例对照儿童(男55例,女38例)进行甲状腺功能指标的检查.结果 363例白癜风儿童中有43例(11.8%)儿童有不同程度的甲状腺功能指标的异常,93例对照组正常儿童中有4例儿童甲状腺功能指标异常,两者比较差异有统计学意义.白癜风儿童甲状腺功能指标异常发生率明显增高(P<0.05).而43例甲状腺功能异常的白癜风儿童中,寻常型白癜风儿童为39例(13.6%),节段型白癜风儿童为4例(5.3%),寻常型比节段型白癜风儿童甲状腺功能指标异常发生率有明显增高(P<0.05).结论 儿童寻常型白癜风患者的甲状腺功能指标异常的发生率明显增高.%Objective To investigate the abnormality of parameters of thyroid function and incidence of autoimmune diseases in children with vitiligo.Methods A total of 363 children with vitiligo,including 198 males and 165 females were recruited into this study together with 93 normal human controls(55 males and 38 females).The serum levels of free tetraiodothyronine,free triiodothyronine,thyroid stimulating hormone,antithyroperoxidase antibody and thyroglobulin antibody were determined by chemiluminescent immunoassay in these subiects.Results The abnormality of parameters of thyroid function was observed in 43 out of 363(11.8%)patients affected by vitiligo and in 4 out of 93(4.3%)normal human controls;a significant difference was observed between the two groups (P<0.05).Of the 43 patients wim abnormality of parameters of thyroid function,39 were diagnosed as vitiligo vulgaris,4 as segmental vitiligo.A significant increase Was observed in the incidence of abnormality of parameters of thyroid function in patients with vitiligo vulgaris compared with those with segmental vitiligo(P<0.05).Conclusion There is an increase in tbe abnormality of parameters of thyroid

  6. Semen abnormalities with SSRI antidepressants.


    Despite decades of widespread use, the adverse effect profile of "selective" serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressants has still not been fully elucidated. Studies in male animals have shown delayed sexual development and reduced fertility. Three prospective cohort studies conducted in over one hundred patients exposed to an SSRI for periods ranging from 5 weeks to 24 months found altered semen param-eters after as little as 3 months of exposure: reduced sperm concentration, reduced sperm motility, a higher percentage of abnormal spermatozoa, and increased levels of sperm DNA fragmentation. One clinical trial showed growth retardation in children considered depressed who were exposed to SSRls. SSRls may have endocrine disrupting properties. Dapoxetine is a short-acting serotonin reuptake inhibitor that is chemically related to fluoxetine and marketed in the European Union for men complaining of premature ejaculation. But the corresponding European summary of product characteristics does not mention any effects on fertility. In practice, based on the data available as of mid-2014, the effects of SSRI exposure on male fertility are unclear. However, it is a risk that should be taken into account and pointed out to male patients who would like to father a child or who are experiencing fertility problems.

  7. Biochemical abnormalities in Pearson syndrome.

    Crippa, Beatrice Letizia; Leon, Eyby; Calhoun, Amy; Lowichik, Amy; Pasquali, Marzia; Longo, Nicola


    Pearson marrow-pancreas syndrome is a multisystem mitochondrial disorder characterized by bone marrow failure and pancreatic insufficiency. Children who survive the severe bone marrow dysfunction in childhood develop Kearns-Sayre syndrome later in life. Here we report on four new cases with this condition and define their biochemical abnormalities. Three out of four patients presented with failure to thrive, with most of them having normal development and head size. All patients had evidence of bone marrow involvement that spontaneously improved in three out of four patients. Unique findings in our patients were acute pancreatitis (one out of four), renal Fanconi syndrome (present in all patients, but symptomatic only in one), and an unusual organic aciduria with 3-hydroxyisobutyric aciduria in one patient. Biochemical analysis indicated low levels of plasma citrulline and arginine, despite low-normal ammonia levels. Regression analysis indicated a significant correlation between each intermediate of the urea cycle and the next, except between ornithine and citrulline. This suggested that the reaction catalyzed by ornithine transcarbamylase (that converts ornithine to citrulline) might not be very efficient in patients with Pearson syndrome. In view of low-normal ammonia levels, we hypothesize that ammonia and carbamylphosphate could be diverted from the urea cycle to the synthesis of nucleotides in patients with Pearson syndrome and possibly other mitochondrial disorders.

  8. Hemostatic abnormalities in liver cirrhosis

    Kendal YALÇIN


    Full Text Available In this study, 44 patients with liver cirrhosis were investigated for hemostatic parameters. Patients with spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, hepatocellular carcinoma, hepatorenal syndrome and cholestatic liver diseases were excluded. Patients were classified by Child-Pugh criterion and according to this 4 patients were in Class A, 20 in Class B and 20 in C. Regarding to these results, it was aimed to investigate the haematological disturbances in liver cirrhotic patients.In the result there was a correlation between activated partial thromboplastin time, serum iron, ferritin, transferrin, haptoglobin and Child-Pugh classification. Besides there was no correlation between prothrombin time, factor 8 and 9, protein C and S, anti-thrombin 3, fibrinogen, fibrin degradation products, serum iron binding capacity, hemoglobin, leukocyte, mean corpuscular volume and Child-Pugh classification.There were significant difference, in terms of AST, ferritin, haptoglobulin, sex and presence of ascites between groups (p0.05. In the summary, we have found correlation between hemostatic abnormalities and disease activity and clinical prognosis in patients with liver cirrhosis which is important in the management of these patients. This is also important for identification of liver transplant candidiates earlier.

  9. Factores de riesgo para las anormalidades de enzimas hepáticas de la nutrición parenteral en un hospital de referencia de México Risk factors for abnormal liver function tests of parenteral nutrition in a referral hospital in Mexico

    E. Díaz de León González


    Full Text Available Introducción: Las anormalidades en las pruebas de funcionamiento hepático (APFH y las complicaciones Hepáticas (CH de la Nutrición Parenteral (NP son frecuentes y a menudo multifactoriales. Aún no han sido evaluados dichos factores de riesgo en población mexicana adulta. Objetivo: Determinar si la dosis de lípidos prescrita de mayor a 1 g/kg es factor de riesgo para las anormalidades en pruebas de función hepática (APFH de la NP. Material y métodos: Cohorte que incluyo pacientes mayores de 15 años de edad y excluyó aquellos que fueron manejados en la unidad de cuidados intensivos o con anormalidades en las enzimas hepáticas previo al inicio de NP. Los grupos expuesto (GE y no expuesto (GNE fueron aquellos que recibieron más de un gramo y un gramo o menos por kilo de peso de lípidos respectivamente. Las APFH fueron definidas como un incremento mayor al 50% de lo normal de AST, ALT, FA o Bilirubina Total. Resultados: La incidencia de APFH fue de 20 (47,6% y 15 (41,6%, en los GE y GNE respectivamente (RR 1,14 IC 95% 0,69-1,88; p = 0,59. El patrón de daño hepático más común fue el colestásico, seguido del mixto y finalmente el hepatocelular. La dosis de lípidos prescrita de más de 1 g/kg, no se asoció con el desarrollo de CH de la APFH. A mayor dosis de proteínas menor frecuencia de APFH Conclusión: La dosis de lípidos prescrita de más de 1 g/kg, no se asoció con el desarrollo de APFH de la NP en nuestra población. Estos hallazgos requieren ser confirmados en Ensayos clínicos.Introduction: the abnormalities in liver function tests (LFTs and liver complications (LC from parenteral nutrition (PN are common and usually multifactorial. These factors have not yet been assessed in the adult Mexican population. Objective: To determine whether the dose prescribed > 1 g/kg is a risk factor for the abnormalities in liver function tests (LFTs from PN. Material and methods: Cohort study including patients older than 15 years and

  10. 性功能检测室在特殊类型插入障碍患者诊治中的作用%Sexual function inspection room for special penile insertion disorder

    王鸿祥; 陈斌; 黄晨; 韩银发; 王益鑫; 黄翼然


    目的:为了明确性功能检测室在特殊类型插入障碍患者诊治中的作用.方法:2010年9月~2011年2月上海仁济医院男科门诊主诉为无法完成性生活的夫妇6对.均为婚后2~3个月内尝试性生活3~6次,因男方无法正常勃起而无法完成性交.女方不愿意继续尝试性生活,有离婚打算.使用上海市男科学研究所性功能检测室,对患者进行检测和性指导.该检测室有内外2间房间,分割墙上有半透镜一面,通过光线的变化,可由内间单向观察外间.检测时给予患者他达拉非20 mg口服诱导阴茎勃起后在外间进行血流多普勒超声检测.同时在内间女方可透过半透镜观察到男方的阴茎勃起,获得感官认识,此时指导医师再进行相关性指导以解除女方思想包袱.最后嘱患者尝试性生活.结果:6对夫妇均为女方性格急躁,男方内向.多普勒超声结果均提示阴茎血流正常.女方获得直观感受后,表示相信男方的勃起能力.随访1个月,所有夫妇均可正常进行性生活.结论:该类型的性功能检测室可使医师直接观察患者的勃起状况,通过给予女方直观感受,解除思想包袱,有利于进一步的性生活尝试,达到夫妻和睦的目的.%Objective: To determine the role of the sexual function inspection room in the treatment of patients with special penile insertion disorder. Methods: This study included 6 couples received at the Andrology Clinic of Shanghai Renji Hospital from September, 2010 to February, 2011, who complained of being enable to accomplish sexual intercourse, all due to the husbands "abnormal penile erection. The couples had tried to make love 3 to 6 times after getting married, but never succeeded. Consequently the wives were planning to divorce, unwilling to attempt sexual activity again. We performed examinations and sexual education for the patients in the sexual function inspection room of Shanghai Institute of Andrology. The

  11. Detection of Respiratory Abnormalities Using Artificial Neural Networks

    Mahdi J. Baemani


    Full Text Available Problem Statement: Lung disease is a major threat to the human health regarding the industrial life, air pollution, smoking, and infections. Lung function tests are often performed using spirometry. Approach: The present study aims at detecting obstructive and restrictive pulmonary abnormalities. Lung function tests are often performed using spirometry. In this study, the data were obtained from 250 volunteers with standard recording protocol in order to detect and classify pulmonary diseases into normal, obstructive and restrictive. Firstly, spirometric data was statistically analyzed concerning its significance for neural networks. Then, such parameters were presented as input to MLP and recurrent networks. Results: These two networks detected normal and abnormal disorders as well as obstructive and restrictive patterns, respectively. Moreover, the output data was confirmed by measuring accuracy and sensitivity. Conclusion: The results show that the proposed method could be useful for detecting the function of respiratory system.

  12. Rare red blood cell abnormalities

    van Zwieten, R.


    The aim of this thesis is to give insight in the process of diagnosing rare red blood cell defects, to clarify the relation of a defect with cell function and to extend, in this respect, our knowledge about normal red cell function and biochemistry. It is possible to categorize different red cell ab

  13. Control of Abnormal Synchronization in Neurological Disorders

    Oleksandr V. Popovych


    Full Text Available In the nervous system synchronization processes play an important role, e.g., in the context of information processing and motor control. However, pathological, excessive synchronization may strongly impair brain function and is a hallmark of several neurological disorders. This focused review addresses the question of how an abnormal neuronal synchronization can specifically be counteracted by invasive and non-invasive brain stimulation as, for instance, by deep brain stimulation for the treatment of Parkinson's disease, or by acoustic stimulation for the treatment of tinnitus. On the example of coordinated reset (CR neuromodulation we illustrate how insights into the dynamics of complex systems contribute to successful model-based approaches, which use methods from synergetics, nonlinear dynamics, and statistical physics, for the development of novel therapies for normalization of brain function and synaptic connectivity. Based on the intrinsic multistability of the neuronal populations induced by spike timing-dependent plasticity (STDP,CR neuromodulation utilizes the mutual interdependence between synaptic connectivity and dynamics of the neuronal networks in order to restore more physiological patterns of connectivity via desynchronization of neuronal activity. The very goal is to shift the neuronal population by stimulation from anabnormally coupled and synchronized state to a desynchronized regime with normalized synaptic connectivity, which significantly outlasts the stimulation cessation, so that long-lasting therapeutic effects can be achieved.

  14. Electrophysiologic abnormalities of children with ostium secundum atrial septal defect.

    Ruschhaupt, D G; Khoury, L; Thilenius, O G; Replogle, R L; Arcilla, R A


    Sinus node (SN) and atrioventricular node (AVN) function were evaluated in 49 patients with secundum type atrial septal defect (ASD). Automaticity and conduction system function were assessed by intracardiac recording of the AH and HV intervals at rest, corrected SN recovery time, sinoatrial conduction time, AVN refractory period and the ability of the AVN to conduct rapidly paced atrial beats to the ventricles. Electrophysiologic abnormalities were found in 41% of the 34 patients who were studied before surgery. However, no preoperative abnormalities were present in children younger than 2.5 years. If only children older than 2.5 years were analyzed, the incidence of conduction abnormalities was similar for the patients studied before operation (62%) and those studied after operation (71%). The size and ejection fractions of the right and left ventricles, the magnitude of shunt flow and the size of the ASD did not differ between the patients with and those without electrophysiologic abnormalities. AVN dysfunction was present in 40% of the patients who were studied after surgical repair. While this frequency was more than twice the preoperative incidence of AVN dysfunction, it was not statistically significant. The data suggest that patient age is the major factor that influences the presence of conduction system dysfunction in patients with ASD.

  15. Neural correlates of abnormal sensory discrimination in laryngeal dystonia

    Pichet Termsarasab


    Full Text Available Aberrant sensory processing plays a fundamental role in the pathophysiology of dystonia; however, its underpinning neural mechanisms in relation to dystonia phenotype and genotype remain unclear. We examined temporal and spatial discrimination thresholds in patients with isolated laryngeal form of dystonia (LD, who exhibited different clinical phenotypes (adductor vs. abductor forms and potentially different genotypes (sporadic vs. familial forms. We correlated our behavioral findings with the brain gray matter volume and functional activity during resting and symptomatic speech production. We found that temporal but not spatial discrimination was significantly altered across all forms of LD, with higher frequency of abnormalities seen in familial than sporadic patients. Common neural correlates of abnormal temporal discrimination across all forms were found with structural and functional changes in the middle frontal and primary somatosensory cortices. In addition, patients with familial LD had greater cerebellar involvement in processing of altered temporal discrimination, whereas sporadic LD patients had greater recruitment of the putamen and sensorimotor cortex. Based on the clinical phenotype, adductor form-specific correlations between abnormal discrimination and brain changes were found in the frontal cortex, whereas abductor form-specific correlations were observed in the cerebellum and putamen. Our behavioral and neuroimaging findings outline the relationship of abnormal sensory discrimination with the phenotype and genotype of isolated LD, suggesting the presence of potentially divergent pathophysiological pathways underlying different manifestations of this disorder.

  16. Anatomical and Functional Plasticity in Early Blind Individuals and the Mixture of Experts Architecture

    Bock, Andrew S.; Ione eFine


    As described elsewhere in this special issue, recent advances in neuroimaging over the last decade have led to a rapid expansion in our knowledge of anatomical and functional correlations within the normal and abnormal human brain. Here, we review how early blindness has been used as a model system for examining the role of visual experience in the development of anatomical connections and functional responses. We discuss how lack of power in group comparisons may provide a potential explanat...

  17. Nail abnormalities in patients with vitiligo*

    Topal, Ilteris Oguz; Gungor, Sule; Kocaturk, Ozgur Emek; Duman, Hatice; Durmuscan, Mustafa


    Background Vitiligo is an acquired pigmentary skin disorder affecting 0.1-4% of the general population. The nails may be affected in patients with an autoimmune disease such as psoriasis, and in those with alopecia areata. It has been suggested that nail abnormalities should be apparent in vitiligo patients. Objective We sought to document the frequency and clinical presentation of nail abnormalities in vitiligo patients compared to healthy volunteers. We also examined the correlations between nail abnormalities and various clinical parameters. Methods This study included 100 vitiligo patients and 100 healthy subjects. Full medical histories were collected from the subjects, who underwent thorough general and nail examinations. All nail changes were noted. In the event of clinical suspicion of a fungal infection, additional mycological investigations were performed. Results Nail abnormalities were more prevalent in the patients (78%) than in the controls (55%) (p=0.001). Longitudinal ridging was the most common finding (42%), followed by (in descending order): leukonychia, an absent lunula, onycholysis, nail bed pallor, onychomycosis, splinter hemorrhage and nail plate thinning. The frequency of longitudinal ridging was significantly higher in patients than in controls (p<0.001). Conclusions Nail abnormalities were more prevalent in vitiligo patients than in controls. Systematic examination of the nails in such patients is useful because nail abnormalities are frequent. However, the causes of such abnormalities require further study. Longitudinal ridging and leukonychia were the most common abnormalities observed in this study. PMID:27579738

  18. An Abnormal Psychology Community Based Interview Assignment

    White, Geoffry D.


    A course option in abnormal psychology involves students in interviewing and observing the activities of individuals in the off-campus community who are concerned with some aspect of abnormal psychology. The technique generates student interest in the field when they interview people about topics such as drug abuse, transsexualism, and abuse of…

  19. Abnormal Event Detection Using Local Sparse Representation

    Ren, Huamin; Moeslund, Thomas B.


    measurement based on the difference between the normal space and local space. Specifically, we provide a reasonable normal bases through repeated K spectral clustering. Then for each testing feature we first use temporal neighbors to form a local space. An abnormal event is found if any abnormal feature...

  20. An Abnormal Vibrational Mode of Torsion Pendulum

    赵亮; 涂英; 顾邦明; 胡忠坤; 罗俊


    In the experiment for the determination of the gravitational constant G, we found an abnormal vibrational mode of the torsion pendulum. The abnormal mode disappeared as a magnetic damper was introduced to the torsion pendulum system. Our experimental results also show that the magnetic damper can be used to suppress the high frequency vibrational noises to torsion pendulums effectively.

  1. Abnormal Raman spectral phenomenon of silicon nanowires


    The Raman spectra of two one-dimensional silicon nanowire samples with different excitation wavelengths were measured and an abnormal phenomenon was discovered that the Raman spectral features change with the wavelengths of excitation. Closer analysis of the crystalline structure of samples and the changes in Raman spectral features showed that the abnormal behavior is the result of resonance Raman scattering selection effect.

  2. On the Special Function of the Balance Valve and Design of Hydraulic Balancing Circuit%特殊功能平衡阀及平衡回路设计

    周海强; 周志强


    This paper analyzes the balance circuit, latch circuit and points out the deficiency balance circuit usually used. The special function of the balance valve used in special conditions of several well-known manufacturers and the design of several corresponding balance circuit are introduced in this paper.%对平衡回路、锁紧回路进行了分析,指出了通常所用的平衡回路的不足,介绍了在特殊工况下使用的几款知名厂家的特殊功能平衡阀,并介绍了几种相应的平衡回路。

  3. Individual Differences in Hemispheric Specialization


    divided according to psychopathy ratings (high, medium, low) failed to differentiate among the groups thus tested. Sandel young aggressive boys. Journal of Educational Psychology, 69, 129-135. Hare, R.D., and McPherson, M. (1984). Psychopathy and perceptual...asymetry during verbal dlchotic listening. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 93, Hare, R.C. (1979). Psychopathy and laterality of cerebral function

  4. Chromosomal abnormalities in patients with sperm disorders

    L. Y. Pylyp


    Full Text Available Chromosomal abnormalities are among the most common genetic causes of spermatogenic disruptions. Carriers of chromosomal abnormalities are at increased risk of infertility, miscarriage or birth of a child with unbalanced karyotype due to the production of unbalanced gametes. The natural selection against chromosomally abnormal sperm usually prevents fertilization with sperm barring in cases of serious chromosomal abnormalities. However, assisted reproductive technologies in general and intracytoplasmic sperm injection in particular, enable the transmission of chromosomal abnormalities to the progeny. Therefore, cytogenetic studies are important in patients with male factor infertility before assisted reproduction treatment. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the types and frequencies of chromosomal abnormalities in 724 patients with infertility and to estimate the risk of chromosomal abnormalities detection in subgroups of patients depending on the severity of spermatogenic disruption, aiming at identifying groups of patients in need of cytogenetic studies. Karyotype analysis was performed in 724 blood samples of men attending infertility clinic. Chromosomal preparation was performed by standard techniques. At least 20 GTG-banded metaphase plates with the resolution from 450 to 750 bands per haploid set were analysed in each case. When chromosomal mosaicism was suspected, this number was increased to 50. Abnormal karyotypes were observed in 48 (6.6% patients, including 67% of autosomal abnormalities and 33% of gonosomal abnormalities. Autosomal abnormalities were represented by structural rearrangements. Reciprocal translocations were the most common type of structural chromosomal abnormalities in the studied group, detected with the frequency of 2.6% (n = 19, followed by Robertsonian translocation, observed with the frequency of 1.2% (n = 9. The frequency of inversions was 0.6% (n = 4. Gonosomal abnormalities included 14 cases

  5. Algorithmically specialized parallel computers

    Snyder, Lawrence; Gannon, Dennis B


    Algorithmically Specialized Parallel Computers focuses on the concept and characteristics of an algorithmically specialized computer.This book discusses the algorithmically specialized computers, algorithmic specialization using VLSI, and innovative architectures. The architectures and algorithms for digital signal, speech, and image processing and specialized architectures for numerical computations are also elaborated. Other topics include the model for analyzing generalized inter-processor, pipelined architecture for search tree maintenance, and specialized computer organization for raster

  6. Abnormal high density lipoproteins in cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis

    Shore, V. (Lawrence Livermore Lab., CA); Salen, G.; Cheng, F.W.; Forte, T.; Shefer, S.; Tint, G.S.


    The plasma lipoprotein profiles and high density lipoproteins (HDL) were characterized in patients with the genetic disease cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis (CTX). The mean HDL-cholesterol concentration in the CTX plasmas was 14.5 +/- 3.2 mg/dl, about one-third the normal value. The low HDL-cholesterol reflects a low concentration and an abnormal lipid composition of the plasma HDL. Relative to normal HDL, the cholesteryl esters are low, free cholesterol and phospholipids essentially normal, and triglycerides increased. The ratio of apoprotein (apo) to total cholesterol in the HDL of CTX was two to three times greater than normal. In the CTX HDL, the ratio of apoAI to apoAII was high, the proportion of apoC low, and a normally minor form of apoAI increased relative to other forms. The HDL in electron micrographs appeared normal morphologically and in particle size. The adnormalities in lipoprotein distribution profiles and composition of the plasma HDL result from metabolic defects that are not understood but may be linked to the genetic defect in bile acid synthesis in CTX. As a consequence, it is probable that the normal functions of the HDL, possibly including modulation of LDL-cholesterol uptake and the removal of excess cholesterol from peripheral tissues, are perturbed significantly in this disease.

  7. Abnormal oral habits in the children of war veterans.

    Yassaei, S; Rafieian, M; Ghafari, R


    Any kind of stress has a negative effect on the mood of people and stress resulting from war is no exception. Stress from war has not only has effects on war veterans but also on the families. Children of these families have been more susceptible to abnormal oral habits. In this observational, analytical and historical research, attempts have been made to determine the prevalence of abnormal oral habits in the children of war veterans (martyrs, freed prisoners of war and war cripples) and compare them with a control group. In this study of 520 children aged between 7 and 11 years were (238 in the study group and 282 in the control group), information was gathered via a questionnaire completed by the mothers of the students. Analysis of the received information showed that the prevalence of para functional and abnormal oral habits was more in the study group (P = 0.005). The prevalence rate was highest in children, whose family members had been both crippled and freed prisoners of war, while the rate was lowest in children whose parents had been only prisoners of war without any lasting physical injury. Most of these children had acquired these habits at the age of seven and these abnormal habits were most prevalent in children aged eight and nine.

  8. Chromosomal abnormalities, meiotic behavior and fertility in domestic animals.

    Villagómez, D A F; Pinton, A


    Since the advent of the surface microspreading technique for synaptonemal complex analysis, increasing interest in describing the synapsis patterns of chromosome abnormalities associated with fertility of domestic animals has been noticed during the past three decades. In spite of the number of scientific reports describing the occurrence of structural chromosome abnormalities, their meiotic behavior and gametic products, little is known in domestic animal species about the functional effects of such chromosome aberrations in the germ cell line of carriers. However, some interesting facts gained from recent and previous studies on the meiotic behavior of chromosome abnormalities of domestic animals permit us to discuss, in the frame of recent knowledge emerging from mouse and human investigations, the possible mechanism implicated in the well known association between meiotic disruption and chromosome pairing failure. New cytogenetic techniques, based on molecular and immunofluorescent analyses, are allowing a better description of meiotic processes, including gamete production. The present communication reviews the knowledge of the meiotic consequences of chromosome abnormalities in domestic animals.

  9. Genetic disorders with both hearing loss and cardiovascular abnormalities.

    Belmont, John W; Craigen, William; Martinez, Hugo; Jefferies, John Lynn


    There has been a growing appreciation for conditions that affect hearing and which are accompanied by significant cardiovascular disorders. In this chapter we consider several broad classes of conditions including deafness due to abnormal structural development of the inner ear, those with physiological abnormalities in the inner ear sensory apparatus, and conditions with progressive loss of function of sensory cells or middle ear functions. Because of shared developmental controls, inner ear malformations are often associated with congenital heart defects and can be part of complex syndromes that affect other organs and neurodevelopmental outcome. Physiological disorders of the hair cells can lead to hearing loss and can be associated with cardiac arrhythmias, especially long QT syndrome. In addition, cellular energy defects such as mitochondrial disorders can affect maintenance of hair cells and are often associated with cardiomyopathy. Lysosomal storage diseases and other disorders affecting connective tissue can lead to chronic middle ear disease, with conductive hearing loss and also cause cardiac valve disease and/or cardiomyopathy. The genetic basis for these conditions is heterogeneous and includes chromosomal/genomic disorders, de novo dominant mutations, and familial dominant, autosomal-recessive, and mitochondrial (matrilineal) inheritance. Taken together, there are more than 100 individual genes implicated in genetic hearing impairment that are also associated with congenital and/or progressive cardiac abnormalities. These genes encode transcription factors, chromatin remodeling factors, components of signal transduction pathways, ion channels, mitochondrial proteins and assembly factors, extracellular matrix proteins, and enzymes involved in lysosomal functions.

  10. Numerically abnormal chromosome constitutions in humans



    Chapter 24, discusses numerically abnormal chromosome constitutions in humans. This involves abnormalities of human chromosome number, including polyploidy (when the number of sets of chromosomes increases) and aneuploidy (when the number of individual normal chromosomes changes). Chapter sections discuss the following chromosomal abnormalities: human triploids, imprinting and uniparental disomy, human tetraploids, hydatidiform moles, anomalies caused by chromosomal imbalance, 13 trisomy (D{sub 1} trisomy, Patau syndrome), 21 trisomy (Down syndrome), 18 trisomy syndrome (Edwards syndrome), other autosomal aneuploidy syndromes, and spontaneous abortions. The chapter concludes with remarks on the nonrandom participation of chromosomes in trisomy. 69 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  11. Analysis of the DNA-binding profile and function of TALE homeoproteins reveals their specialization and specific interactions with Hox genes/proteins.

    Penkov, Dmitry; Mateos San Martín, Daniel; Fernandez-Díaz, Luis C; Rosselló, Catalina A; Torroja, Carlos; Sánchez-Cabo, Fátima; Warnatz, H J; Sultan, Marc; Yaspo, Marie L; Gabrieli, Arianna; Tkachuk, Vsevolod; Brendolan, Andrea; Blasi, Francesco; Torres, Miguel


    The interactions of Meis, Prep, and Pbx1 TALE homeoproteins with Hox proteins are essential for development and disease. Although Meis and Prep behave similarly in vitro, their in vivo activities remain largely unexplored. We show that Prep and Meis interact with largely independent sets of genomic sites and select different DNA-binding sequences, Prep associating mostly with promoters and housekeeping genes and Meis with promoter-remote regions and developmental genes. Hox target sequences associate strongly with Meis but not with Prep binding sites, while Pbx1 cooperates with both Prep and Meis. Accordingly, Meis1 shows strong genetic interaction with Pbx1 but not with Prep1. Meis1 and Prep1 nonetheless coregulate a subset of genes, predominantly through opposing effects. Notably, the TALE homeoprotein binding profile subdivides Hox clusters into two domains differentially regulated by Meis1 and Prep1. During evolution, Meis and Prep thus specialized their interactions but maintained significant regulatory coordination.

  12. 甲型H1N1流感肺炎合并急性呼吸窘迫综合征的肺部CT及肺功能随访研究%A long-term follow-up study regarding pulmonary CT abnormal and lung function of novel influenza A (H1N1) patients with ARDS

    刘景院; 徐云良; 孙燕; 王玉光; 焦以庆; 向攀; 张伟


    Objective To evaluate the evolution of 24 patients with Influenza A (H1N1)pneumonia and acute respiratory distress (ARDS),focusing our attention on patients with abnormal radiological findings and lung function change after 1 year.Methods 24 critically ill patients with novel Influenza A (H1N1) in 2009 were returned a visit one year after hospital discharge.This study included interview,physical examination,chest HRCT scan and lung function test.The relationship between long-term change and condition of the past hospitalization was assessed.Results In 24 survival cases with novel influenza A (H1 N1) and ARDS,11 cases present with abnormal pulmonary CT after 1 year follow-up,including 11 cases with reticular pattem,3 cases with ground-glass opacification and 3 cases with local emphysema.54.2% (13/24)of cases with abnormal lung function,33.3% (8/24)with decreased DLCO,25.8% (8/24) with obstruction,12.5 % (3/24) with combined obstructive-restrictive ventilation dysfunction.Lung function abnormal rate was more higher in cases with abnormal pulmonary CT than normal (P <0.05).Conclusion Chest CT abnormality and residual obstructive restrictive defects as well as impaired pulmonary gas exchange are common after severe novel influenza A(H1N1).It is necessary to suggest that those patients with ARDS are detected by chest HRCT scanning and lung function testing to guide patients long term care.%目的 研究甲型H1N1流感合并急性呼吸窘迫综合征患者出院后1年的肺功能和肺部影像学改变,探讨长期肺部病变与住院期间病情的关系.方法 建立24例甲型H1N1流感合并急性呼吸窘迫综合征的随访队列,在出院后1年[(12±1)个月]进行肺功能检测和胸部高分辨CT检查,回顾分析患者住院期间疾病严重程度、机械通气参数及肺部影像特点,分析长期改变与患者急性期病情的关系、随访期胸部CT与肺功能异常的关系.结果 24例患者恢复期存在胸部CT异常者11

  13. Normal language in abnormal brains.

    Piattelli-Palmarini, Massimo


    There is little doubt that, in the adult, specific brain lesions cause specific language deficits. Yet, brain localizations of linguistic functions are made problematic by several reported cases of normal language in spite of major brain anomalies, mostly, but not exclusively, occurring early in life. The signal cases are hydrocephaly, spina bifida and hemispherectomy. These cases are discussed and possible solutions are suggested: namely a vast redundancy of neurons and/or the role of microtubules as neuron-internal processors and key factors in signaling and guiding the growth and reconfiguration of the brain.

  14. Tailores Design and Characterization of Peroxide-containing Linear, Blick and Highly Branched Oligoelectrolytes and Derived Functional Nanoparticles with Special Properties

    A.Zaichenko; N.Mitina; O.Shevehuk; K.Rayevska; V.Lobaz; O.Zelikova


    1 Results The development of novel surface-active block, comb-like and branched copolymers with peroxide-containing chains as well as derived functional luminescent and magnetic nanoparticles are the objectives of presented study. Main experimental approaches based on tailored synthesis of the oligoperoxide surfactants of desired structures and derived coordinating complexes of transitional and rare earth elements are developed. Functional oligoperoxide based possibilities of the synthesis of luminescen...

  15. The glycometabolism abnormality among schizophrenia patients



    Objective To explore the potential glycometabolism abnormality and the related factors of schizophrenia patients in China. Methods This cross-sectional study included 44 healthy controls(group 1) and 178 inpatient

  16. Amphibian abnormalities on National Wildlife Refuges

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This fact sheet outlines a study done to 1) find the percentage of abnormal frogs and toads on the nation’s National Wildlife Refuges and 2) determine how the...

  17. A study of cluster behavioral abnormalities in down syndrome

    Bhattacharyya Ranjan


    Full Text Available Background :The behavioral phenotype in Down syndrome follows a characteristic pattern. Aims: To find the incidence of behavioral abnormalities in Down syndrome, to compare these findings with other causes of intellectual disability and normal population and to cluster these abnormalities. Settings :One hundred forty mentally challenged people attending at tertiary care set up and from various non-governmental organizations were included in the study. Patients from both rural and urban set up participated in the study. The age-matched group from normal population was also studied for comparison. Design :The study design is a cross-sectional survey done independently by four observers. Materials and Methods :A semi-structured proforma for demographic profile has been used. The behavioral abnormalities are assessed by using DASH II (Diagnostic Assessment for the Severely Handicapped second modified version scale. Statistical Analysis :Demographic comparison has been done by analysis of variance. Correlation matrix has been run to identify correlation between individual items. Principal component analysis has been used for grouping the behavioral pattern. Results :Behavioral abnormalities as expected are more common in people having intellectual disability than the normal population. The Down syndrome group unlike other causes of intellectual disability shows higher scores in Stereotypy. Impulse control and Mania subscales. Factor analysis yields five characteristic factor structures, namely, hyperactive-impulsive, biological functions, affective, neurotic and organic-pervasive developmental disorder clusters. Conclusions :Contrary to the conventional belief of docile-fun and music loving prototype, individuals diagnosed with Down syndrome show clusters of behavioral abnormalities and management can vary depending on these target symptoms.

  18. An existential criterion of normal and abnormal personality in the works of Carl Jung and Carl Rogers

    Sergey A. Kapustin


    This article is the third in a series of four articles scheduled for publication in this journal. In the first article (Kapustin, 2015a) I proposed a description of a new so-called existential criterion of normal and abnormal personality that is implicitly present in the works of Erich Fromm. According to this criterion, normal and abnormal personalities are determined, first, by special features of the content of their position regarding existential dichotomies that are natural to human bein...

  19. Heterotaxy syndromes and abnormal bowel rotation

    Newman, Beverley [Stanford University, Lucile Packard Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Stanford, CA (United States); Koppolu, Raji; Sylvester, Karl [Lucile Packard Children' s Hospital at Stanford, Department of Surgery, Stanford, CA (United States); Murphy, Daniel [Lucile Packard Children' s Hospital at Stanford, Department of Cardiology, Stanford, CA (United States)


    Bowel rotation abnormalities in heterotaxy are common. As more children survive cardiac surgery, the management of gastrointestinal abnormalities has become controversial. To evaluate imaging of malrotation in heterotaxy with surgical correlation and provide an algorithm for management. Imaging reports of heterotaxic children with upper gastrointestinal (UGI) and/or small bowel follow-through (SBFT) were reviewed. Subsequently, fluoroscopic images were re-reviewed in conjunction with CT/MR studies. The original reports and re-reviewed images were compared and correlated with surgical findings. Nineteen of 34 children with heterotaxy underwent UGI, 13/19 also had SBFT. In 15/19 reports, bowel rotation was called abnormal: 11 malrotation, 4 non-rotation, no cases of volvulus. Re-review, including CT (10/19) and MR (2/19), designated 17/19 (90%) as abnormal, 10 malrotation (abnormal bowel arrangement, narrow or uncertain length of mesentery) and 7 non-rotation (small bowel and colon on opposite sides plus low cecum with probable broad mesentery). The most useful CT/MR findings were absence of retroperitoneal duodenum in most abnormal cases and location of bowel, especially cecum. Abnormal orientation of mesenteric vessels suggested malrotation but was not universal. Nine children had elective bowel surgery; non-rotation was found in 4/9 and malrotation was found in 5/9, with discrepancies (non-rotation at surgery, malrotation on imaging) with 4 original interpretations and 1 re-review. We recommend routine, early UGI and SBFT studies once other, urgent clinical concerns have been stabilized, with elective laparoscopic surgery in abnormal or equivocal cases. Cross-sectional imaging, usually obtained for other reasons, can contribute diagnostically. Attempting to assess mesenteric width is important in differentiating non-rotation from malrotation and more accurately identifies appropriate surgical candidates. (orig.)

  20. Abnormal Chromosome Segregation May Trigger Tumors


    @@ Cancer is a primary threat to human health as it kills millions of people each year.Scientists have shown that 75% of human cancers have an abnormal number of chromosomes in cells,and the proportion of the cells with an abnormal chromosome number is tightly and positively related to malignance progression and metastasis of cancers. But the pathological mechanism behind the anomaly still remains unknown.

  1. Nail abnormalities in patients with vitiligo

    Topal, Ilteris Oguz; Gungor, Sule; Kocaturk, Ozgur Emek; Duman, Hatice; Durmuscan, Mustafa


    Abstract: Background: Vitiligo is an acquired pigmentary skin disorder affecting 0.1-4% of the general population. The nails may be affected in patients with an autoimmune disease such as psoriasis, and in those with alopecia areata. It has been suggested that nail abnormalities should be apparent in vitiligo patients. Objective: We sought to document the frequency and clinical presentation of nail abnormalities in vitiligo patients compared to healthy volunteers. We also examined the corre...

  2. Prevalence of asymptomatic urinary abnormalities among adolescents

    Mohamed Fouad


    Full Text Available To determine the prevalence of asymptomatic urinary abnormalities in adolescents, first morning clean mid-stream urine specimens were obtained from 2500 individuals and examined by dipstick and light microscopy. Adolescents with abnormal screening results were reexamined after two weeks and those who had abnormal results twice were subjected to systemic clinical examination and further clinical and laboratory investigations. Eight hundred and three (32.1% individuals had urinary abnormalities at the first screening, which significantly decreased to 345 (13.8% at the second screening, (P <0.001. Hematuria was the most common urinary abnormalities detected in 245 (9.8% adolescents who had persistent urine abnormalities; 228 (9.1% individuals had non glomerular hematuria. The hematuria was isolated in 150 (6% individuals, combined with leukocyturia in 83 (3.3% individuals, and combined with proteinuria in 12 (0.5% individuals. Leukocyturia was detected in 150 (6% of all studied adolescents; it was isolated in 39 (1.6% individuals and combined with proteinuria in 28 (1.1% of them. Asymp- tomatic bacteriuria was detected in 23 (0.9% of all studied adolescents; all the cases were females. Proteinuria was detected in 65 (2.6% of all the studied adolescents; 45 (1.8% indivi- duals had <0.5 g/day and twenty (0.8% individuals had 0.5-3 g/day. Asymptomatic urinary abnormalities were more common in males than females and adolescents from rural than urban areas (P <0.01 and (P <0.001, respectively. The present study found a high prevalence of asymptomatic urinary abnormalities among adolescents in our population.

  3. Basilar artery migraine and reversible imaging abnormalities.

    Maytal, J; Libman, R B; Lustrin, E S


    We report a case of a basilar artery migraine in a 17-year-old boy with transient CT and MR abnormalities after each of two migraine episodes. A repeat MR study 6 months after the last event showed complete resolution of the lesion. Transient abnormalities on brain images similar to those shown in our case have been reported in patients with migraine and other neurologic conditions and are most likely related to cerebral vasogenic edema.

  4. Abnormal change of vascular endothelial function in Patients with major dePressive disorder%抑郁症患者血管内皮功能的异常改变

    陈玉珍; 张颖; 郭静; 王瑛


    Objective:To investigate the change of vascular endothelial function in patients with major depressive disorder using high frequency ultrasound. Method:Flow-mediated dilation(FMD)and nitroglyc-erin-mediated dilation(NMD)were measured in 24 patients with major depressive disorder and 20 age and gen-der matched-healthy controls by high frequency ultrasound(hitachi vision ascendus). In addition,the plasma ni-trogen dioxide( NO)levels and severity of depression,as assessed by the Hamilton depression rating scale (HAMD)and Beck depression inventory(BDI)score,were also determined. Results:The increased percent-age of FMD in patients with major depressive disorder were significantly lower than that in healthy controls(t =3. 62,P 0. 05). In addition,the levels of plasma NO were decreased in patients with major depres-sive disorder as compared with healthy controls(t = 3. 63,P 0.05)。抑郁症组的血浆 NO 水平明显低于健康对照组(t =3.63,P <0.01)。相关分析显示,抑郁症组HAMD 及 BDI 得分与 FMD 负相关(r =-0.687,r =-0.621;P 均<0.05);两组血浆 NO 水平与 FMD 正相关(r =0.726,r =0.743;P 均<0.05)。结论:抑郁症患者血管内皮功能受损可能与血浆 NO 水平减低及抑郁严重程度有关。

  5. A Problem-Solving Task Specialized for Functional Neuroimaging: Validation of the Scarborough adaptation of the Tower of London (S-TOL using Near-Infrared Spectroscopy

    Anthony Charles Ruocco


    Full Text Available Problem-solving is an executive function subserved by a network of neural structures of which the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC is central. Whereas several studies have evaluated the role of the DLPFC in problem-solving, few standardized tasks have been developed specifically for use with functional neuroimaging. The current study adapted a measure with established validity for the assessment of problem-solving abilities to design a test more suitable for functional neuroimaging protocols. The Scarborough adaptation of the Tower of London (S-TOL was administered to 38 healthy adults while hemodynamic oxygenation of the PFC was measured using 16-channel continuous-wave functional near-infrared spectroscopy. Compared to a baseline condition, problems that required two or three steps to achieve a goal configuration were associated with higher activation in the left DLPFC and deactivation in the medial PFC. Individuals scoring higher in trait deliberation showed consistently higher activation in the left DLPFC regardless of task difficulty, whereas individuals lower in this trait displayed less activation when solving simple problems. Based on these results, the S-TOL may serve as a standardized task to evaluate problem-solving abilities in functional neuroimaging studies.

  6. A problem-solving task specialized for functional neuroimaging: validation of the Scarborough adaptation of the Tower of London (S-TOL) using near-infrared spectroscopy.

    Ruocco, Anthony C; Rodrigo, Achala H; Lam, Jaeger; Di Domenico, Stefano I; Graves, Bryanna; Ayaz, Hasan


    Problem-solving is an executive function subserved by a network of neural structures of which the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) is central. Whereas several studies have evaluated the role of the DLPFC in problem-solving, few standardized tasks have been developed specifically for use with functional neuroimaging. The current study adapted a measure with established validity for the assessment of problem-solving abilities to design a test more suitable for functional neuroimaging protocols. The Scarborough adaptation of the Tower of London (S-TOL) was administered to 38 healthy adults while hemodynamic oxygenation of the PFC was measured using 16-channel continuous-wave functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). Compared to a baseline condition, problems that required two or three steps to achieve a goal configuration were associated with higher activation in the left DLPFC and deactivation in the medial PFC. Individuals scoring higher in trait deliberation showed consistently higher activation in the left DLPFC regardless of task difficulty, whereas individuals lower in this trait displayed less activation when solving simple problems. Based on these results, the S-TOL may serve as a standardized task to evaluate problem-solving abilities in functional neuroimaging studies.

  7. The abnormal genes of learning and memory in C. elegans and their functions%C.elegans的学习记忆异常基因及其功能的研究

    许锡振; 吴利标; 罗信国; 赵彦; 濮瀑; 朱旭新


    目的 探索学习记忆异常基因hab-1(cn308)的功能.方法 1. 在hab-1领域有Y63D3A.6、Y63D3A.7和Y63D3A.8等三个YAC克隆.在基因库里检索Y63D3A.6、Y63D3A.7和Y63D3A.8的cDNA序列,用DNASIS-Mac v3.6软件处理并设计引物,进行PCR.把PCR产物插入pMD~(TM)18-TVector载体,并培养提取Y63D3A.6、Y63D3A.7和Y63D3A.8的目的 DNA,纯化DNA.2.进行rescue实验:把三种YAC克隆(clone)Y63D3A.6、Y63D3A.7和Y63D3A.8的DNA分别与GFP蛋白连接配制融合蛋白.应用OLYMPUSAxiovert S100共聚焦倒置显微镜操作系统,在L4大小的C.elegans生殖腺(gonad)内分别把三种GFP融合蛋白溶液显微注射,发育传代至F1.在F1代选择带有GFP荧光的C.elegans,观察基冈的表达部位,并进行Tap测试,通过观察在哪个YAC克隆把hab-1(cn308)的表现型恢复为野生型来确定hab-1的等位基因.3. DNA测序和同源性检索:hab-1的等位基冈确定以后对cn308进行DNA测序.根据cn308的测序结果与已知的等位基因DNA序列进行Homology search,分析cn308的基因结构,并进行BLSTP homologic search,和其他物种比较目的 基因的功能来阐明hab-1的基因功能.结果 对Y63D3A.6、Y63D3A.7和Y63D3A.8等三种基因表达率进行χ~2检验结果表示差异有显著性(χ~2=26.84,P0.05, P<0.05, there was a significant difference. It showed that although Y63D3A.6, Y63D3A.7 and Y63D3A.8 have linkage with the adjacent location of the first autosomal, expressing rate on the head of C. elegans had no relatedness and had significant differences. It revealed that Y63D3A.7 was expressed strongly on the head of C. elegans, and Tap test proved that Y63D3A.7 rescued hab-1 to wild-type phenotype. The result of DNA sequencing was that hab-1 (cn308) was a missense mutation (GAG→GGG, namely, Glu→Gly ). The result of BLST homologic search showed that Y63D3A.7 was the activity which adjusts mitochondrion complex Ⅰ, it illustrated that hab-1 gene had relations with the function of mitochondrion

  8. Examining the nootropic effects of a special extract of Bacopa monniera on human cognitive functioning: 90 day double-blind placebo-controlled randomized trial.

    Stough, Con; Downey, Luke A; Lloyd, Jenny; Silber, Beata; Redman, Stephanie; Hutchison, Chris; Wesnes, Keith; Nathan, Pradeep J


    While Ayurvedic medicine has touted the cognitive enhancing effects of Bacopa monniera for centuries, there is a need for double-blind placebo-controlled investigations. One hundred and seven healthy participants were recruited for this double-blind placebo-controlled independent group design investigation. Sixty-two participants completed the study with 80% treatment compliance. Neuropsychological testing using the Cognitive Drug Research cognitive assessment system was conducted at baseline and after 90 days of treatment with a special extract of Bacopa monniera (2 x 150 mg KeenMind) or placebo. The Bacopa monniera product significantly improved performance on the 'Working Memory' factor, more specifically spatial working memory accuracy. The number of false-positives recorded in the Rapid visual information processing task was also reduced for the Bacopa monniera group following the treatment period. The current study provides support for the two other published studies reporting cognitive enhancing effects in healthy humans after a 90 day administration of the Bacopa monniera extract. Further studies are required to ascertain the effective dosage range, the time required to attain therapeutic levels and the effects over a longer term of administration.

  9. Neurodynamics of abnormalities in cerebral metabolism and structure in schizophrenia.

    Waddington, J L


    Much evidence points to the importance of intrauterine events in the etiology of schizophrenia and suggests a complex interplay between dysfunctional and intact neurons in the pathophysiology of the disorder. This article contrasts what is known of the topographies of metabolic and structural brain abnormalities in schizophrenia at differing stages of the illness. From these contrasts, a schema is elaborated by which subtle neurodevelopmental perturbation in early to middle gestation might give rise to functional and structural abnormalities that ultimately release the diagnostic symptoms of schizophrenia. An interaction between those mechanisms mediating the expression of psychosis and the initially subtle stages of normal aging is posited to act on the substrate of a brain that is already developmentally compromised. Such a process might masquerade as "progression" in the absence of any active disease directly attributable to the original etiological event.

  10. Abnormalities of the Exocrine Pancreas in Type 1 Diabetes

    Rodriguez-Calvo, Teresa; Battaglia, Manuela


    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is considered a pancreatic beta cell-specific disease that results in absolute insulin deficiency. Nevertheless, clinical studies from 1940 onwards showed that patients with T1D had an abnormal exocrine pancreas due to the presence of subclinical exocrine insufficiency and acinar atrophy. Exocrine abnormalities are an important, and mostly neglected, characteristic associated with T1D. It is however still unclear whether the exocrine dysfunction in T1D is a primary damage caused by the same pathogenic event that led to beta cell destruction or secondary to beta cell loss. In this review, we collect evidence supporting the hypothesis that T1D is a combined endocrine-exocrine disease in which the loss of functional beta cell mass is most clinically apparent. PMID:26318606

  11. The Mediating Effects of Work-Related Stress on Mentoring Functions and Job Attitude: A Comparison of General and Special Education Teachers

    Rabenhorst, Greg A.


    The current study is designed to investigate the mediating effects of work-related stress on the relationship between mentoring functions (i.e., career support, psychosocial support, and role modeling) and measures of job attitude (i.e., job satisfaction and organizational commitment). Mentoring is widely used as a means of assisting in the new…

  12. A Coordinate-Based Meta-Analysis of Overlaps in Regional Specialization and Functional Connectivity across Subjective Value and Default Mode Networks

    Acikalin, M. Yavuz; Gorgolewski, Krzysztof J.; Poldrack, Russell A.


    Previous research has provided qualitative evidence for overlap in a number of brain regions across the subjective value network (SVN) and the default mode network (DMN). In order to quantitatively assess this overlap, we conducted a series of coordinate-based meta-analyses (CBMA) of results from 466 functional magnetic resonance imaging experiments on task-negative or subjective value-related activations in the human brain. In these analyses, we first identified significant overlaps and dissociations across activation foci related to SVN and DMN. Second, we investigated whether these overlapping subregions also showed similar patterns of functional connectivity, suggesting a shared functional subnetwork. We find considerable overlap between SVN and DMN in subregions of central ventromedial prefrontal cortex (cVMPFC) and dorsal posterior cingulate cortex (dPCC). Further, our findings show that similar patterns of bidirectional functional connectivity between cVMPFC and dPCC are present in both networks. We discuss ways in which our understanding of how subjective value (SV) is computed and represented in the brain can be synthesized with what we know about the DMN, mind-wandering, and self-referential processing in light of our findings. PMID:28154520

  13. Functional specialization and cooperation between the neonatal- and classical IgG receptors, FcRn and FcɣR

    Einarsdóttir, H.K.


    The focus of this thesis is on the transport of maternal antibodies during pregnancy across the placenta but also on how subtle differences in the antibody structure can affect the downstream events following antibody-receptor ligation and thereby its function. Overall our results do not indicate th

  14. Cardiac abnormalities in acromegaly. Pathophysiology and implications for management.

    Vitale, Giovanni; Pivonello, Rosario; Lombardi, Gaetano; Colao, Annamaria


    Cardiovascular disease is claimed to be one of the most severe complications of acromegaly, contributing significantly to mortality in this disease. In fact, an excess of growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-I) causes a specific derangement of cardiomyocytes, leading to abnormalities in cardiac muscle structure and function, inducing a specific cardiomyopathy. In the early phase of acromegaly the excess of GH and IGF-I induces a hyperkinetic syndrome, characterized by increased heart rate and increased systolic output. Concentric hypertrophy is the most common feature of cardiac involvement in acromegaly, found in more than two thirds of patients at diagnosis. This abnormality is commonly associated with diastolic dysfunction and eventually with impaired systolic function ending in heart failure, if the GH/IGF-I excess is left untreated. In addition, abnormalities of cardiac rhythm and of heart valves have also been described in acromegaly. The coexistence of other complications, such as arterial hypertension and diabetes mellitus, aggravates acromegalic cardiomyopathy. Successful control of acromegaly induces a decrease in left ventricular mass and an improvement in diastolic function, while the effects of GH/IGF-I suppression on systolic function are more variable. However, since cardiovascular alterations in young patients with short disease duration are milder than in those with longer disease duration, it is likely to be easier to reverse and/or arrest acromegalic cardiomyopathy in young patients with early-onset disease. In conclusion, careful assessments of cardiac function, morphology, and activity are required in patients with acromegaly. An early diagnosis and prompt effective treatment are important in order to reverse acromegalic cardiomyopathy.

  15. 特种功能材料中的固态相变及应用%Solid-State Phase Transformations and Their Applications in Special Functional Materials

    徐惠彬; 宫声凯; 蒋成保; 赵新青; 李岩; 郭洪波


    固态相变已经从传统结构材料的增强增韧延伸到新型功能材料研究领域,引发多种奇特的物理效应。目前已经形成一批基于固态相变的新型功能材料。这些新型功能材料蕴含着丰富的固态相变理论。固态相变现已成为新型功能材料设计与功能特性实现的重要手段之一。文章结合作者在固态相变及特种功能材料方面的研究工作,重点介绍高温形状记忆合金、高阻尼形状记忆合金、磁致伸缩材料和热障涂层材料中的固态相变特征及其在这些特种功能材料设计与功能实现和调控中应用的研究进展。%Solid-state phase transformations have been extended from toughening and strengthening of traditional structural materials to advanced functional materials, inducing many interesting physical phenomena. Varieties of functional materials have been developed based on the solid-state phase transformations. Studies on these functional materials have effectively enriches the theories of solid-state materials. The solid-state transformation have become one of the important approaches of functional materials designing and functionalities output. This paper briefly introduces the advances in solidstate phase transformations and their applications in high-temperature shape memory alloys, high damping shape memory alloys, magnetostrictive materials, and thermal barrier coatings.

  16. Electrocardiographic abnormalities and serum magnesium in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage

    van den Bergh, Walter M; Algra, Ale; Rinkel, Gabriël J E


    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: ECG abnormalities and hypomagnesemia frequently occur after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Because hypomagnesemia is associated with several ECG abnormalities, we studied whether hypomagnesemia mediates ECG abnormalities after SAH. METHODS: We prospectively studied

  17. 黑素细胞移植治疗甲状腺功能异常白癜风的临床观察%Autologous melanocyte transplantation for the treatment of vitiligo in patients with abnormal thyroid function:a clinical observation

    李伟; 洪为松; 傅丽芳; 尉晓冬; 许爱娥


    Objective To evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of autologous melanocyte transplantation for the treatment of vitiligo in patients with abnormal thyroid function.Methods A total of 60 patients with vitiligo were enrolled in this study,including 30 with abnormal thyroid function and 30 without.Epidermal sheets were obtained by suction blister biopsy from the normal skin of all the patients followed by melanocyte isolation and culture.After 2-5 passages of subculture,the melanocytes were transplanted onto vitiliginous lesions,which were abraded previously by ultra-pulsed CO2 laser,in the corresponding patients.All the patients were followed for 6-12 months.Results Of the 30 patients with abnormal thyroid function,7 patients achieved more than 90% repigmentation,9 patients 50%-89% repigmentation,53.3% more than 50% repigmentation,with the average repigmentation rate being 47% within 6 months after the transplantation.Meanwhile,13 out of the 30 patients without abnormal thyroid function showed more than 90% repigmentation,11 showed 50%-89% repigmentation,with the average repigmentation rate being 75%.Both the cure rate and response rate were significantly higher in the patients without abnormal thyroid function than in those with (cure rate,43.3% vs.23.3%,P< 0.05; response rate,80% vs.53.3%,P< 0.05).Significant differences were also found in the response rate for lesions on the face or neck and for those sized more than 20 cm2 between the two groups of patients (both P < 0.05).The lesions transplanted with epidermal melanocytes from the waist exhibited the lowest cure rate and response rate.Conclusion Clinical or subclinical thyroid dysfunction may have a negative impact on the efficacy of autologous melanocyte transplantation in vitiligo.%目的 探讨自体培养黑素细胞移植治疗甲状腺功能异常白癜风的临床疗效.方法 白癜风患者分为2组,甲状腺功能异常组30例和无甲状腺功能异常组30例.负压

  18. The Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology at 25.

    Wasserstein, S B; Lopez, N; Routh, D K


    This issue, redesigned in a new format, marks the beginning of Volume 25, the beginning of the "silver anniversary" year of the Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology. Data were compiled from the first 24 volumes to study changes over time, and Pearson correlations were calculated to determine linear trends in the journal's development. The number of articles per volume has doubled, from about 25 to 50. In recent years the first authors of articles were more likely to be located outside the U.S. (up from about 5% to about 25%). Also, in recent years the first authors of articles were less likely to be affiliated with nonmedical school university departments and more likely to be affiliated with medical schools or research institutes. An introduction to this special 25th anniversary issue is provided.


    Terasaki, Masaru; Hirose, Atsushi; Narayan, Bhaskar; Baba, Yuta; Kawagoe, Chikara; Yasui, Hajime; Saga, Naotsune; Hosokawa, Masashi; Miyashita, Kazuo


    Fucoxanthin (Fx) and fucosterol (Fs) are characteristic lipid components of brown seaweeds that afford several health benefits to humans. This article describes the quantitative evaluation of lipids of 15 species of brown seaweeds with specific reference to Fx, Fs, and functional long-chain omega-6/omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). In addition, fatty-acid composition of selected species was also accomplished in the study. Major omega-3 PUFAs in the brown seaweeds analyzed were α-linolenic acid (18:3n-3), octadecatetraenoic acid (18:4n-3), arachidonic acid (20:4n-6), and eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3). Both Fx (mg · g(-1) dry weight [dwt]) and Fs (mg · g(-1) dwt) were determined to be relatively abundant in Sargassum horneri (Turner) C. Agardh (Fx, 3.7 ± 1.6; Fs, 13.4 ± 4.4) and Cystoseira hakodatensis (Yendo) Fensholt (Fx, 2.4 ± 0.9; Fs, 8.9 ± 2.0), as compared with other brown seaweed species. Studies related to seasonal variation in Fx, Fs, and total lipids of six brown algae [S. horneri, C. hakodatensis, Sargassum fusiforme (Harv.) Setch., Sargassum thunbergii (Mertens ex Roth) Kuntze, Analipus japonicus (Harv.) M. J. Wynne, and Melanosiphon intestinalis (D. A. Saunders) M. J. Wynne] indicated that these functional lipid components reached maximum during the period between January and March. The functional lipid components present in these seaweeds have the potential for application as nutraceuticals and novel functional ingredients after their recovery.

  20. 老年高血压性左室舒张功能不全对房室性心律失常的影响%Effect of abnormal left ventricular diastolic function on occurrence of atrial or ventricular arrhythmia in elderly essential hypertensive patients

    林文辉; 邵健智; 王齐增; 彭万军; 李新祥; 朱玲军; 林斌; 马湘俊


    目的 研究老年高血压患者左室舒张功能不全对房、室性心律失常发生及其严重程度的影响.方法 入选老年原发性高血压患者210例,均经24 h动态心电图检查判定心律失常情况,和多普勒超声心动图检查评价心脏结构和功能.根据不同左室舒张充盈类型分为正常舒张充盈型(即左室舒张功能正常组)、松弛受损型、假正常充盈型、限制性充盈型(后3型为左室舒张功能不全组).结果 (1)共检出房性心律失常占70%,室性心律失常占49%,两组差异有统计学意义(χ2=19.975,P<0.05);(2)左室舒张功能不全组的房、室性心律失常发生率以及复杂房、室性心律失常发生率分别为89%、63%、49%、30%,均高于左室舒张功能正常组[40%、26%、13%、7%,χ2=56.723、28.359、28.076、15.9102,P<0.05];(3)不同左室舒张充盈类型间的房室性心律失常以及复杂房室性心律失常的发生率差异亦有统计学意义(P<0.05),其中以假正常充盈型和限制性充盈型的发生率最高,分别为93.6%和96.4%.结论 老年高血压患者左室舒张功能不全促进房、室性心律失常的发生,并影响其严重程度;左室舒张功能不全的假正常充盈型和限制性充盈型易发生复杂房、室性心律失常.%Objective To study the effect of abnormal left ventricular diastolic function(LVDF)on the onset and severity of atrial or ventricular arrhythmia in elderly essential hypertensive patients.Methods The 210 elderly essential hypertensive patients were enrolled in this study. Their arrhythmias were monitored by 24-hour ambulatory electrocardiogram. The essential hypertensive patients were referred for Doppler echocardiography to evaluate left ventricular function, while patients with abnormal systolic function were excluded, and then the patients were classified as normal LVDF and abnormal LVDF including, impaired relaxation, pseudonormal, and restrictivelike filling patterns. Results In 210

  1. MRI of fetal GI tract abnormalities.

    Veyrac, C; Couture, A; Saguintaah, M; Baud, C


    We describe the magnetic resonance (MR) patterns of a variety of fetal gastrointestinal (GI) abnormalities. Thirty-two fetuses between 23 and 38 weeks' gestation with abnormal appearance of the GI tract by ultrasound underwent MR imaging with T1- and T2-weighted sequences. The MR aspect of intestinal atresia (duodenal atresia, one case; small bowel atresia, nine cases) included dilatation of the bowel loops, accurate assessment of the normal bowel distal to the atresia (except in the patient with multiple atresia and apple-peel syndrome), and micro-rectum with decreased T1 signal (except in the patient with duodenal atresia). Megacystis-microcolon-intestinal hypoperistalsis syndrome (one case) was indicated by an abnormal signal of the entire bowel and an abnormal pattern for the urinary tract. Meconium pseudocysts (two cases) were easily differentiated from enteric cysts (two cases). High anorectal malformations with (two cases) or without (one case) urinary fistula and cloacal malformation (one case) are described and MR findings are discussed. The capability of MR imaging to demonstrate the normal bowel with intraperitoneal anomalies (e.g., congenital diaphragmatic hernia, and sacrococcygeal teratoma) is emphasized. MR imaging is informative in the diagnosis of GI tract abnormalities, especially the severe malformations, with much more accuracy than sonography.

  2. Prevalence of asymptomatic urinary abnormalities among adolescents.

    Fouad, Mohamed; Boraie, Maher


    To determine the prevalence of asymptomatic urinary abnormalities in adolescents, first morning clean mid-stream urine specimens were obtained from 2500 individuals and examined by dipstick and light microscopy. Adolescents with abnormal screening results were reexamined after two weeks and those who had abnormal results twice were subjected to systemic clinical examination and further clinical and laboratory investigations. Eight hundred and three (32.1%) individuals had urinary abnormalities at the first screening, which significantly decreased to 345 (13.8%) at the second screening, (P adolescents who had persistent urine abnormalities; 228 (9.1%) individuals had non glomerular hematuria. The hematuria was isolated in 150 (6%) individuals, combined with leukocyturia in 83 (3.3%) individuals, and combined with proteinuria in 12 (0.5%) individuals. Leukocyturia was detected in 150 (6%) of all studied adolescents; it was isolated in 39 (1.6%) individuals and combined with proteinuria in 28 (1.1%) of them. Asymptomatic bacteriuria was detected in 23 (0.9%) of all studied adolescents; all the cases were females. Proteinuria was detected in 65 (2.6%) of all the studied adolescents; 45 (1.8%) individuals had adolescents from rural than urban areas (P adolescents in our population.

  3. Abnormal cervical cytology and health care use

    Frederiksen, Maria Eiholm; Baillet, Miguel Vázquez-Prada; Dugué, Pierre-Antoine


    OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess the long-term use of health care services in women with abnormal cytology results compared to women with normal cytology results. METHODS: We did a nationwide population-based study, using women aged 23 to 59years participating in the national organized cervi...... they have the abnormal cytology. This difference is further enhanced after the abnormal cytology result.......OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess the long-term use of health care services in women with abnormal cytology results compared to women with normal cytology results. METHODS: We did a nationwide population-based study, using women aged 23 to 59years participating in the national organized...... cervical cancer screening program. We included a study population of 40,153 women with abnormal cytology (exposed) and 752,627 women with normal cytology (non-exposed). We retrieved data from the Danish Civil Registration System, the Danish Pathology Data Bank, the National Health Service, the National...




    Full Text Available AIM: To determine the nature of ophthalmologic abnormalities in severe and profound grades of hearing impaired children and to treat visual impairment if any at the earliest . MATERIAL AND METHODS: Study was conducted on100 children in the age group of 5 - 14 years with severe and profound hearing loss visiting outpatient department of Ram Lal Eye and ENT hospital Govt. Medical College Amritsar and subjected to detailed ophthalmological examination. RESULTS: 100 children in the age group 5 - 14 years with hearing impairment were enrolled for t he study , 68 had profound and 32 had severe hearing loss . Visual disorders were found to be as high as 71%. Highest percentage was seen in children aged 7 years. Majority of them (50% had refractive error. Out of these 50 children , 28(56% had myopia , 10 (20% hypermetropia and 12(24% had astigmatism . The other ophthalmic abnormalities in our study were conjunctivitis 14(19.71% , fundus abnormalities and squint 11(15.49% , blepharitis 5 (7.04% , vitamin A deficiency 6 (8.04% , amblyopia 8 (11.26% , pupil disorder 3 (4.22% , cataract 3 (4.22% and heterochromia iridis 7 (9.85%. CONCLUSION : The high prevalence of ophthalmic abnormalities in deaf children mandate screening them for possible ophthalmic abnormalities. Early diagnosis and correction of visual d isturbances would go a long way in social and professional performance of these children.

  5. The diversity of abnormal hormone receptors in adrenal Cushing's syndrome allows novel pharmacological therapies

    Lacroix A.


    Full Text Available Recent studies from several groups have indicated that abnormal or ectopic expression and function of adrenal receptors for various hormones may regulate cortisol production in ACTH-independent hypercortisolism. Gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP-dependent Cushing's syndrome has been described in patients with either unilateral adenoma or bilateral macronodular adrenal hyperplasia; this syndrome results from the large adrenal overexpression of the GIP receptor without any activating mutation. We have conducted a systematic in vivo evaluation of patients with adrenal Cushing's syndrome in order to identify the presence of abnormal hormone receptors. In macronodular adrenal hyperplasia, we have identified, in addition to GIP-dependent Cushing's syndrome, other patients in whom cortisol production was regulated abnormally by vasopressin, ß-adrenergic receptor agonists, hCG/LH, or serotonin 5HT-4 receptor agonists. In patients with unilateral adrenal adenoma, the abnormal expression or function of GIP or vasopressin receptor has been found, but the presence of ectopic or abnormal hormone receptors appears to be less prevalent than in macronodular adrenal hyperplasia. The identification of the presence of an abnormal adrenal receptor offers the possibility of a new pharmacological approach to control hypercortisolism by suppressing the endogenous ligands or by using specific antagonists for the abnormal receptors.

  6. Correlation analysis of internal jugular vein abnormalities and cerebral venous sinus thrombosis

    JIA Ling-yun; HUA Yang; JI Xun-ming; LIU Jiang-tao


    Background Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) is a special form of stroke with multiple causes and risk factors.However,there are still a portion of cases with unknown reasons.The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between internal jugular vein (IJV) abnormalities and the development of CVST.Methods A total of 51 CVST patients and 30 healthy controls were enrolled.The diameter,the maximum velocity (Vmax) and the reflux time in bilateral IJVs were measured by color Doppler flow imaging (CDFI).The paired t test was used to compare the numeric values between the bilateral IJVs.The Pearson chi-square test was used to evaluate the relationship between IJV abnormality and CVST,IJV abnormality and IJV reflux,respectively.Results Among the 51 CVST patients,20 (39%) patients were with normal IJV and 31 (61%) patients were with abnormal IJV.The types of IJV abnormality included annulus stenosis 19 cases (61%),hypoplasia 9 cases (29%),thrombosis 2 cases (7%) and anomalous valve 1 case (3%).In patients with unilateral IJV abnormality,the minimum diameter of the IJV on the lesion side was significantly smaller than that of the contralateral side (P <0.0001).When compared with contralateral side,the Vmax of the lesion side with unilateral annulus stenosis was significant higher,however,it was obvious lower in patients with unilateral hypoplasia (P <0.05).Furthermore,among 27 cases with unilateral IJV abnormality,all the CVST occurred on the same side as the IJV lesions.Conclusion IJV abnormality closely correlated with the development of CVST,which is a newly identified risk factor for CVST.

  7. Abnormal red cell structure and function in neuroacanthocytosis

    Cluitmans, J.C.; Tomelleri, C.; Yapici, Z.; Dinkla, S.; Bovee, P.H.; Chokkalingam, V.; Franceschi, L. De; Brock, R.; Bosman, G.J.


    BACKGROUND: Panthothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration (PKAN) belongs to a group of hereditary neurodegenerative disorders known as neuroacanthocytosis (NA). This genetically heterogeneous group of diseases is characterized by degeneration of neurons in the basal ganglia and by the presence o

  8. Advances in understanding paternally transmitted Chromosomal Abnormalities

    Marchetti, F; Sloter, E; Wyrobek, A J


    Multicolor FISH has been adapted for detecting the major types of chromosomal abnormalities in human sperm including aneuploidies for clinically-relevant chromosomes, chromosomal aberrations including breaks and rearrangements, and other numerical abnormalities. The various sperm FISH assays have been used to evaluate healthy men, men of advanced age, and men who have received mutagenic cancer therapy. The mouse has also been used as a model to investigate the mechanism of paternally transmitted genetic damage. Sperm FISH for the mouse has been used to detect chromosomally abnormal mouse sperm, while the PAINT/DAPI analysis of mouse zygotes has been used to evaluate the types of chromosomal defects that can be paternally transmitted to the embryo and their effects on embryonic development.

  9. XYY chromosome abnormality in sexual homicide perpetrators.

    Briken, Peer; Habermann, Niels; Berner, Wolfgang; Hill, Andreas


    In a retrospective investigation of the court reports about sexual homicide perpetrators chromosome analysis had been carried out in 13 of 166 (7.8%) men. Three men (1.8%) with XYY chromosome abnormality were found. This rate is much higher than that found in unselected samples of prisoners (0.7-0.9%) or in the general population (0.01%). The three men had shown prepubescent abnormalities, school problems, and had suffered from physical abuse. The chromosome analysis in all cases had been carried out in connection with the forensic psychiatric court report due to the sexual homicide. However, two men had earlier psychiatric referrals. All were diagnosed as sexual sadistic, showed a psychopathic syndrome or psychopathy according to the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised [Hare RD, 1991, The Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised, Toronto, Ontario, Canada: Multi-Health Systems]. Two were multiple murderers. Especially forensic psychiatrists should be vigilant of the possibility of XYY chromosome abnormalities in sexual offenders.

  10. Parsing abnormal grain growth in specialty aluminas

    Lawrence, Abigail Kremer

    Grain growth in alumina is strongly affected by the impurities present in the material. Certain impurity elements are known to have characteristic effects on abnormal grain growth in alumina. Specialty alumina powders contain multiple impurity species including MgO, CaO, SiO2, and Na 2O. In this work, sintered samples made from alumina powders containing various amounts of the impurities in question were characterized by their grain size and aspect ratio distributions. Multiple quantitative methods were used to characterize and classify samples with varying microstructures. The grain size distributions were used to partition the grain size population into subpopulations depending on the observed deviation from normal behavior. Using both grain size and aspect ratio a new visual representation for a microstructure was introduced called a morphology frequency map that gives a fingerprint for the material. The number of subpopulations within a sample and the shape of the distribution on the morphology map provided the basis for a classification scheme for different types of microstructures. Also using the two parameters a series of five metrics were calculated that describe the character of the abnormal grains in the sample, these were called abnormal character values. The abnormal character values describe the fraction of grains that are considered abnormal, the average magnitude of abnormality (including both grain size and aspect ratio), the average size, and variance in size. The final metric is the correlation between grain size and aspect ratio for the entire population of grains. The abnormal character values give a sense of how different from "normal" the sample is, given the assumption that a normal sample has a lognormal distribution of grain size and a Gaussian distribution of aspect ratios. In the second part of the work the quantified measures of abnormality were correlated with processing parameters such as composition and heat treatment conditions. A

  11. Abnormal Head Position in Infantile Nystagmus Syndrome

    Noval, Susana; González-Manrique, Mar; Rodríguez-Del Valle, José María; Rodríguez-Sánchez, José María


    Infantile nystagmus is an involuntary, bilateral, conjugate, and rhythmic oscillation of the eyes which is present at birth or develops within the first 6 months of life. It may be pendular or jerk-like and, its intensity usually increases in lateral gaze, decreasing with convergence. Up to 64% of all patients with nystagmus also present strabismus, and even more patients have an abnormal head position. The abnormal head positions are more often horizontal, but they may also be vertical or take the form of a tilt, even though the nystagmus itself is horizontal. The aim of this article is to review available information about the origin and treatment of the abnormal head position associated to nystagmus, and to describe our treatment strategies. PMID:24533187

  12. Enhanced monitoring of abnormal emergency department demands

    Harrou, Fouzi


    This paper presents a statistical technique for detecting signs of abnormal situation generated by the influx of patients at emergency department (ED). The monitoring strategy developed was able to provide early alert mechanisms in the event of abnormal situations caused by abnormal patient arrivals to the ED. More specifically, This work proposed the application of autoregressive moving average (ARMA) models combined with the generalized likelihood ratio (GLR) test for anomaly-detection. ARMA was used as the modelling framework of the ARMA-based GLR anomaly-detection methodology. The GLR test was applied to the uncorrelated residuals obtained from the ARMA model to detect anomalies when the data did not fit the reference ARMA model. The ARMA-based GLR hypothesis testing scheme was successfully applied to the practical data collected from the database of the pediatric emergency department (PED) at Lille regional hospital center, France. © 2015 IEEE.

  13. The clinical value of the special functions of DSA in interventional embolization for uterine fibroids%DSA特殊功能在子宫肌瘤栓塞治疗中的价值

    何玉圣; 鲁东; 吕维富; 张劲松


    目的 评价DSA特殊功能在子宫肌瘤栓塞治疗中的价值.方法 46例子宫肌瘤栓塞中26例应用DSA特殊功能:3D-DSA、最佳工作体位、路图技术,20例采用常规DSA造影,对两种方法的对比剂用量、介入手术时间和透视时间进行比较和分析.结果 术中应用DSA特殊功能与常规DSA组比较,对比剂用量和透视时间明显减少(P0.05).结论 DSA特殊功能在子宫肌瘤栓塞中的应用能缩短手术时间,降低手术风险.可视化三维重建技术对介入手术操作具有重要指导意义.%Objective To evaluate the special functions of DSA in interventional embolization therapy for uterine fibroids. Methods The special functions of DSA, including 3D-DSA, the optimal working position and road-mapping technique, were utilized in performing interventional embolization therapy for uterine fibroids in twenty-six cases (experimental group). Routine DSA angiography was employed in twenty cases (control group). The volume of contrast media used, the time of completing the interventional procedure and the total fluoroscopic time in two groups were compared and the results were analyzed. Results The difference in the volume of contrast agent used and in the total fluoroscopic time between two groups was statistically significant (P 0.05). Conclusion In treating uterine fibroids with interventional embolization, the use of the special functions of DSA can reduce the manipulation time and lower the operation risk. Moreover, the technique of visible 3D reconstruction image is of great significance in guiding the procedure.

  14. Efficiency of organelle capture by microtubules as a function of centrosome nucleation capacity: general theory and the special case of polyspermia.

    Ivan V Maly

    Full Text Available Transport of organelles along microtubules is essential for the cell metabolism and morphogenesis. The presented analysis derives the probability that an organelle of a given size comes in contact with the microtubule aster. The question is asked how this measure of functionality of the microtubule aster is controlled by the centrosome. A quantitative model is developed to address this question. It is shown that for the given set of cellular parameters, such as size and total tubulin content, a centrosome nucleation capacity exists that maximizes the probability of the organelle capture. The developed general model is then applied to the capture of the female pronucleus by microtubules assembled on the sperm centrosome, following physiologically polyspermic fertilization. This application highlights an unintuitive reflection of nonlinearity of the nucleated polymerization of the cellular pool of tubulin. The prediction that the sperm centrosome should lower its nucleation capacity in the face of the competition from the other sperm is a stark illustration of the new optimality principle. Overall, the model calls attention to the capabilities of the centrosomal pathway of regulation of the transport-related functionality of the microtubule cytoskeleton. It establishes a quantitative and conceptual framework that can guide experiment design and interpretation.

  15. WJD 5th Anniversary Special Issues(2): Type 2 diabetes Effects of exercise training on mitochondrial function in patients with type 2 diabetes

    Steen; Larsen; Stinna; Skaaby; J?rn; W; Helge; Flemming; Dela


    Type 2 diabetes is characterized by a decreased ability of insulin to facilitate glucose uptake into insulin sensitive tissue,i.e.,skeletal muscle.The mechanism behind this is at the moment unresolved.It has been suggested that increased amount of lipids inside the skeletal muscle(intramuscular triglyceride,diacylglycerol and ceramides)will impair insulin action in skeletal muscle,but data are not consistent in the human literature.It has also been hypothesized that the impaired insulin sensitivity is due to a dysfunction in the mitochondria resulting in an impaired ability to oxidize lipids,but the majority of the literature is not supporting this hypothesis.Recently it has been suggested that the production of reactive oxygen species play an essential role in skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity.It is well accepted that physical activity(endurance,strength and high intensity training)improves insulin sensitivity in healthy humans and in patients with type 2 diabetes.Whether patients with type 2 diabetes have the same beneficial effects(same improvement)as control subjects,when it comes to regular physical activity in regard to mitochondrial function,is not established in the literature.This review will focus only on the effect of physical activity on skeletal muscle(mitochondrial function)in patients with type 2 diabetes.

  16. Special Education in Yugoslavia.

    Hrnjica, Sulejman


    This article describes Yugoslavia's education system, health and welfare services for children with disabilities, the nature and organization of special education services, the integration of disabled children in ordinary schools, models for training special educators, and problems. (DB)

  17. Thalamic shape abnormalities in antipsychotic naïve schizophrenia

    Vijay Danivas


    Full Text Available Background: Neurodevelopmental hypothesis of schizophrenia states abnormal pruning as one of the pathogenetic mechanism in schizophrenia. Though thalamic volume abnormalities have been documented, the shape differences of thalamus in antipsychotic-free schizophrenia in comparison with age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers need validation. Materials and Methods: We examined antipsychotic naïve schizophrenia patients ( n=60 and age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers ( n=44. The thalamic shape abnormalities were analyzed from their coded structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI data using three-dimensional automated image analysis software, FMRIB′s (Oxford Center for the functional MRI of the brain tools-FIRST (FMRIB′s Integrated Registration and Segmentation Tool by creating deformable mesh model. Correlation with the psychopathology scores was carried out using F-statistics. Results: Patients with schizophrenia showed significant inward deformations in the regions corresponding to anterior, ventromedial, mediodorsal, and pulvinar nuclei. There was a direct correlation between negative syndrome score and the deformation in the right mediodorsal and right pulvinar nuclei. Conclusion: The inward deformations of thalamus in antipsychotic naive schizophrenia patients correspond to those nuclei which have reciprocal connections with frontal, superior temporal, and anterior cingulate regions and support the neurodevelopmental hypothesis of schizophrenia.

  18. Neuronal migration abnormalities and its possible implications for schizophrenia

    Kenji eTanigaki


    Full Text Available Schizophrenia is a complex mental disorder that displays behavioral deficits such as decreased sensory gating, reduced social interaction and working memory deficits. The neurodevelopmental model is one of the widely accepted hypotheses of the etiology of schizophrenia. Subtle developmental abnormalities of the brain which stated long before the onset of clinical symptoms are thought to lead to the emergence of illness. Schizophrenia has strong genetic components but its underlying molecular pathogenesis is still poorly understood. Genetic linkage and association studies have identified several genes involved in neuronal migrations as candidate susceptibility genes for schizophrenia, although their effect size is small. Recent progress in copy number variation studies also has identified much higher risk loci such as 22q11. Based on these genetic findings, we are now able to utilize genetically-defined animal models. Here we summarize the results of neurodevelopmental and behavioral analysis of genetically-defined animal models. Furthermore, animal model experiments have demonstrated that embryonic and perinatal neurodevelopmental insults in neurogenesis and neuronal migrations cause neuronal functional and behavioral deficits in affected adult animals, which are similar to those of schizophrenic patients. However, these findings do not establish causative relationship. Genetically-defined animal models are a critical approach to explore the relationship between neuronal migration abnormalities and behavioral abnormalities relevant to Schizophrenia.

  19. Microvascular Abnormality in Schizophrenia as Shown by Retinal Imaging

    Meier, Madeline H.; Shalev, Idan; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Kapur, Shitij; Keefe, Richard S.E.; Wong, Tien; Belsky, Daniel W.; Harrington, HonaLee; Hogan, Sean; Houts, Renate; Caspi, Avshalom; Poulton, Richie


    Objective Retinal and cerebral microvessels are structurally and functionally homologous, but, unlike cerebral microvessels, retinal microvessels can be noninvasively measured in vivo via retinal imaging. Here we test the hypothesis that individuals with schizophrenia show microvascular abnormality and evaluate the utility of retinal imaging as a tool for future schizophrenia research. Methods Participants were members of the Dunedin Study, a population-representative cohort followed from birth with 95% retention. Study members underwent retinal imaging at age 38 years. We assessed retinal arteriolar and venular caliber for all members of the cohort, including individuals who developed schizophrenia. Results Study members who developed schizophrenia were distinguished by wider retinal venules, suggesting microvascular abnormality reflective of insufficient brain oxygen supply. Analyses that controlled for confounding health conditions suggested that wider retinal venules are not simply an artifact of co-occurring health problems in schizophrenia patients. Wider venules were also associated with a dimensional measure of adult psychosis symptoms and with psychosis symptoms reported in childhood. Conclusions Findings provide initial support for the hypothesis that individuals with schizophrenia show microvascular abnormality. Moreover, results suggest that the same vascular mechanisms underlie subthreshold symptoms and clinical disorder and that these associations may begin early in life. These findings highlight the promise of retinal imaging as a tool for understanding the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. PMID:24030514

  20. Biliary manometry in choledochal cyst with abnormal choledochopancreatico ductal junction.

    Iwai, N; Tokiwa, K; Tsuto, T; Yanagihara, J; Takahashi, T


    Intraoperative manometry of the biliary tract and measurement of amylase levels in choledochal cysts were performed in seven patients, aged 14 months to 5 years, with choledochal cysts, in an investigation of the pathophysiology of the biliary tract. An abnormal choledochopancreatico ductal junction was observed in these seven patients by preoperative endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreaticography (ERCP) or intraoperative cholangiograms. All six patients examined showed a high amylase level in the choledochal cyst (5,450 to 46,500 Somogyi Units). The intraoperative manometry of the biliary tract showed that a remarkable high pressure zone as was found in the area of sphincter of Oddi was not found in the area of abnormal choledochopancreatico ductal junction. The pressure recordings also demonstrated that the sphincter of Oddi pressure in the patient with choledochal cyst was increased by gastrin stimulation. On the contrary, no pressure reaction to gastrin or secretin was found in the area of abnormal choledochopancreatic ductal junction. From these results it seems that free reflux of pancreatic juice into the biliary system occurs, and the reflux stream depends upon the pressure gradient between pancreatic ductal pressure and common bile duct pressure because of the lack of a sphincter function at the choledochopancreatico ductal junction.