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Sample records for abnormal cervical smears

  1. Chlamydia trachomatis among women with normal and abnormal cervical smears in Lagos, Nigeria

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    Maymunah Adeshola Adegbesan-Omilabu

    2014-06-01

    Results: The overall prevalence of C. trachomatis was 27.7% with a decreasing trend noted with age (P <0.05. The majority of women with C. trachomatis were in the reproductive age group of 25-45 years. 50% of women with abnormal smears were positive for C. trachomatis, compared to only 16.7% of the controls (X2 = 10.95; P = 0.001. There was no statistically significant association between prevalence of C. trachomatis and cervical cytological types (X2 = 1.892; P = 0.595 Conclusions: The study revealed an association between Chlamydia trachomatis and precancerous lesions of the cervix. Routine screening and treatment of sexually active adolescents and women in the reproductive age group is recommended as an indirect measure to reducing the incidence of cervical cancer in Nigeria. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2014; 3(3.000: 501-506

  2. CO2 laser vaporization in the treatment of cervical human papillomavirus infection in women with abnormal Papanicolaou smears

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruge, S; Felding, C; Skouby, S O

    1992-01-01

    In a randomized study, we have evaluated the treatment of cervical human papillomavirus (HPV) lesions by CO2 laser vaporization. Fifty patients with abnormal Papanicolaou smears and histological evidence of cervical HPV infection associated or not with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) grade...... I were randomized to either a treatment or a control group. The cervical swabs were obtained every 3 months in both groups and examined for HPV type 16 DNA by the polymerase chain reaction. After a follow-up period of 12 months no significant differences were found between the laser treatment...

  3. Cytomorphological evaluation of squamous cell abnormalities observed on cervical smears in government medical college, Jabalpur, India: a five year study

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    Radhika Rajesh Nandwani

    2016-03-01

    Results: The overall frequency of normal, inadequate, inflammatory, and abnormal smears was 11.86%, 5.73%, 74.98% and 13.2% respectively. Atypical squamous cell carcinoma of undermined significance (ASCUS was seen in 3.61%, squamous intraepithelial lesion (SIL was seen in 5.36%, low grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL was seen in 2.59% while high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL was seen in 2.77%. Invasive carcinoma was seen in 3.69%. The premalignant epithelial abnormalities like ASCUS, LSIL and HSIL were found to be highest in the age group of 31-50 years in our study, which correlated well with other similar studies. Conclusions: Hence we should advocate regular cervical cytology (PAP smear study, which can help to treat cervix lesions early before the progress into cervical cancer. Early detection is the only key to saving a woman's life as the later the abnormalities are discovered; mortality, morbidity and treatment cost all increase. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(3.000: 794-799

  4. Prevalence of high-risk human papilloma virus types and cervical smear abnormalities in female sex workers in Chandigarh, India

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    M P Singh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Cervical cancer is the most common cancer among women in developing nations. Nearly 90% of the cases have been linked to the presence of high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV types 16 and 18. The risk of cervical cancer may be high in female sex workers (FSWs due to multiple sexual partners. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of cytological abnormalities and hrHPV types 16 and 18 in FSWs in Chandigarh, North India using the liquid-based cytology (LBC approach. Materials and Methods: The cervical brush samples were collected from 120 FSW and 98 age-matched healthy controls (HCs. These were subjected to pap smear using conventional method, LBC and the detection of hrHPV types 16 and 18 was carried out using polymerase chain reaction. Results: The LBC samples showed better cytological details and also reduced the number of unsatisfactory smears from 11% in Pap to 1.5% in the LBC. A significantly higher number of inflammatory smears were reported in FSWs (51.7% vs. 34.7%, P = 0.01. The hrHPV types 16/18 were detected in 33/120 (27.5% FSW versus 23/98 (23.5% HCs. The risk of acquiring hrHPV was higher in FSWs, who had age at first sex ≤25 years, higher income and the habit of smoking. Conclusion: The high prevalence of hrHPV among FSWs and HCs suggests the need for the implementation of effective National Screening Programme for early detection of hrHPV types to decrease the burden of cervical cancer, especially in high-risk population.

  5. CERVICAL ACID PHOSPHATASE: EVALUATION AS AN ADJUVANT TO PAPANICOLAOU SMEAR SCREENING IN CERVICAL CANCER DETECTION

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    Niranjan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Carcinoma of cervix accounts for 15% of all cancers diagnosed worldwide and is the second most common cancer in women. In the year 2000 there were over 4,71,000 new cases diagnosed and 2,88,000 deaths from cervical cancer. (1 Approximately 79% of these deaths occurred in developing countries. (2 Cervical cancer is preventable, but most women in poorer countries do not have access to effective screening programs. In India it is estimated that approximately 100,000 women develop cervical cancer each year. (3 Cancer cervix occupies either the top r ank or second among cancers in women in developing countries, whereas, in the developed countries cancer cervix does not find a place even in top five leading cancers in women. This is due to routine screening by cervical smear. Cervical smear cytology scr eening by Papanicolaou (Pap stained smears is the most efficacious and cost - effective method of cancer screening, decreasing the incidence and mortality from cervical cancer. (4 However, cervical smear screening has significant rates of false - positive and false - negative results, ranging from 10.3% for false positive cases to 5.6% for false negative cases. (5,6 To improve the detection and screening of cancerous and precancerous lesions of the cervix a number of sophisticated tests are available which are e xpensive and can be done only in a tertiary laboratory. To over - come this problems a cost effective cytochemical stain was introduced to measure the acid phosphatase activity in the cervical epithelium. (7 Since the description of the new Cervical Acid Phosphatase Test (CAP Test for visualization of cervical acid phosphatase activity (CAP inside abnormal cervical cells on smears, it has become possible to explore this enzyme as a biomarker for cervical dys plasia, and as a possible surrogate for PAP smear in detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To assess the utility of Cervical Acid

  6. What do women think about abnormal smear test results? A qualitative interview study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lagro-Janssen, A.L.M.; Schijf, C.P.T.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the study is a report of Dutch women's views on abnormal cervical smear test results and the consequences thereof. Twenty-seven women with recent PAP III in their history were interviewed in the context of this qualitative study. GPs often do not inform patients beforehand about the ways

  7. No increased risk for cervical cancer after a broader definition of a negative Pap smear

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rebolj, Matejka; van Ballegooijen, Marjolein; van Kemenade, Folkert;

    2008-01-01

    100,000 (95% CI: 43-54), p = 0.59. The hazard ratio for 1998-2006 compared to 1990-1995 adjusted for age, number of previous negative smears and history of abnormalities was 0.90 (95% CI: 0.78-1.03). In The Netherlands, a setting with high-quality cytological screening, treating smears with only signs......The definition of minimal relevant Pap smear abnormality is crucial for balancing the beneficial effects of screening (prevented mortality) with negative side-effects (the high positivity rate). After inflammation ceased to be defined as a borderline abnormal smear outcome in The Netherlands...... in 1996, the proportion of these smears dropped from 10% to less than 2%. Because this may have caused a loss in smear sensitivity, we analysed the changes in the incidence of cervical cancer after a negative Pap smear. All negative smears made at ages 30-64 in 1990-1995 (n = 1,546,252) and 1998-2006 (n...

  8. Actinomyces in cervical smears of women using intrauterine contraceptive devices.

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    Mali, B; Joshi, J V; Wagle, U; Hazari, K; Shah, R; Chadha, U; Gokral, J; Bhave, G

    1986-01-01

    Cervical smears from 1,784 women who attended the family planning clinics of the Institute for Research in Reproduction were examined for the presence of Actinomyces-like organisms. Among 815 intrauterine contraceptive device (IUD) users, the repeat smears from 57 women were positive for Actinomyces-like organisms, giving a prevalence rate of 6.99%. Immunofluorescent staining using specific antisera confirmed the presence of A. israelii in all 57 women. Forty IUD users whose smears were positive for Actinomyces-like organisms underwent bacteriologic culture studies; A. israelii was isolated in 23 of these cases. The clinical findings at the time of smear collection in the 57 IUD users were within normal limits. The initial cervical smears of all IUD users and both the initial and repeat smears of all nonusers were negative for Actinomyces-like organisms. The data indicate that prolonged use (greater than 2 years) of an inert or copper intrauterine device promotes the overgrowth of Actinomyces in the vagina and that this can be detected by routine cervical cytology.

  9. A STUDY ON CERVICAL PAP SMEAR EXAMINATION IN PATIENT LIVING WITH HIV

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    B M Jha

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Decline in morbidity & mortality due to cervical cancer in developed countries can be mainly attributed to early detection of precancerous & cancerous lesions due to extensive screening programmeof cervical Pap smear examination. HPV infection is a known etiological agent for cervical cancer. HIV infected women are at higher risk of contracting HPV infection due to immune compromised status. Objective: Present study has been undertaken mainly to detect precancerous & cancerous lesions as well as inflammatory lesions in female patients living with HIV & to emphasize the fact that Pap smear examination should be established as a part of routine protocol for examination in these women. Methods: The study was carried out on 407 HIV infected females attending Integrated Counseling &Testing Centre of government institute. As controls, 200 females (not falling under high risk category, attending the Obstetrics& Gynecology OPD with various gynecological complaints were taken & results were compared. Results: Squamous cell abnormalities were found about four times high as compared to control group(Pvalue <0.05. High incidences of squamous cell abnormalities were noted in patients with high parity (parity three or more. Conlcusion: Regular gynecological examination including Pap smear examinations is highly recommended for HIV infected females.Pap smear examination is a simple, cheap, safe & practical diagnostic tool for early detection of cervical cancer in high risk population. [National J of Med Res 2012; 2(1.000: 81-84

  10. Management of the abnormal Papanicolaou smear and colposcopy in pregnancy: an evidenced-based review.

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    Fleury, A C; Birsner, M L; Fader, A N

    2012-04-01

    Women diagnosed with abnormal Papanicolau smears or cervical abnormalities during pregnancy present a challenge to health care providers, as conventional management guidelines appropriate for the non-pregnant population may be contraindicated. The physiologic effects of pregnancy that may result in greater difficulty with the colposcopic examination include increased cervical mucus production that may obscure visualization, cervical hyperemia, gland prominence, and eversion of the columnar epithelium. The squamo-columnar junction may also be difficult to visualize in early pregnancy, but will often evert as the pregnancy continues. Because of these changes, cervical dysplasia may have a more prominent appearance in the gravid patient. Therefore, colposcopy should be performed by a skilled examiner with expertise in the cervical changes of pregnancy. The primary goal of colposcopy during pregnancy is to exclude the presence of invasive cancer, and thus, many cervical lesions may be followed with serial cytology and colposcopy during pregnancy or by deferring further colposcopic examination until the postpartum period. Cervical biopsy should be avoided unless a malignancy is suspected and endocervical sampling is contraindicated. Herein, we present a contemporary, evidence-based review of the colposcopic examination and guidelines for triaging and evaluating abnormal cervical cytology and lesions that are diagnosed during pregnancy.

  11. Cytological patterns of cervical pap smears with histopathological correlation

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    Bhagya Lakshmi Atla

    2015-08-01

    Conclusion: Pap smear is simple, inexpensive and can be performed in the outpatient department. Hence, it should be recommended routinely as a method of improving reproductive health, early detection of premalignant and malignant cervical lesions. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(8.000: 1911-1916

  12. TTV and HPV co-infection in cervical smears of patients with cervical lesions

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    Tachezy Ruth

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The female lower genital tract is a gateway for pathogens entering the host through the mucous membrane. One of the prevalent human viruses is Torque teno virus (TTV. The major reported routes of TTV transmission are fecal-oral and parenteral. Furthermore, other modes of transmission, e.g. sexual contact, are suggested. To investigate the sexual route of TTV transmission, cervical smears of healthy women and those with cervical lesions were screened for the presence of TTV DNA. Methods TTV DNA was studied in cervical smears of 95 patients with cervical lesions and 55 healthy women. Paired serum samples were available from 55 and 42 women, respectively. All healthy women had normal cytology while 44 patients had histologically confirmed low-grade lesion (LGL and 51 high-grade lesion (HGL. TTV DNA was detected with primers specific for the non-coding region. In 40 paired cervical smears and serum samples, the phylogenetic group of TTV isolates was determined. The presence of HPV DNA in cervical smears was detected by means of PCR with MY09/11 primers. Results The prevalence of TTV DNA in cervical smears of healthy women was 52.7% and was comparable with that in paired serum samples (50%. Symptomatic women had significantly higher prevalence of TTV DNA in cervical smears (74.7% than healthy controls. The TTV DNA prevalence in patient serum samples was 51%. The phylogenetic groups of TTV serum isolates were concordant with those of TTV from cervical smears of the same subjects. In cervical smears, a wider variety of TTV isolates was found. The viral loads in cervical smears were 10 to 1000 times as high as in sera. The HPV-positive study subjects had significantly higher TTV DNA prevalence than HPV negatives. The prevalence of TTV was not associated with disease severity. Conclusion High prevalence of TTV in cervical smears suggests that sexual transmission is another mode of expansion of TTV infection among the population. The

  13. Psychosocial burden of abnormal pap smears among HIV-infected women at Chon Buri hospital, Thailand.

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    Jayathunge, Mangala P H; Bowanwatanuwong, Chureeratana; Maek-A-nantawat, Wirach; Pitisuttithum, Benjaluck Phonratland Punnee

    2010-01-01

    This retrospective case-control study assessed the psychological burden of abnormal Pap smears, and their prevalence and characteristics among HIV-infected women attending an HIV clinic. Women with positive (n = 73) and negative Pap-smear results (n = 317) were assessed for psychosocial burden using 4 questionnaires: Psycho-Social Impact of Abnormal Pap Smears (PEAPS-Q), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), Work Productivity and Impairment (WPAI) and the EURO-Qol Thermometer. The prevalence of pre-cervical cancer lesions in HIV infected woman was 17.5% (ASCUS 2.9%, LSIL 3.8%, HSIL 7.4%, SCC 1.7%, and atypical glandular cells including adenocarcinoma 1.7%). HIV infected women with abnormal Pap smears showed higher anxiety levels on the HADS questionnaire (p = 0.015); this had a significant effect on regular daily activities (p = 0.009) per the WPAI questionnaire compared to HIV positive women with normal Pap smear. Ever married HIV infected woman with an abnormal Pap smear had a significantly lower psychosocial burden using the PEAPS-Q questionnaire (p < 0.001). After adjusting for age and duration since last Pap smear, the education level of the patient was a strong predictor for anxiety. Patients, with a college education had significantly lower anxiety (p = 0.001, 95% CI -5.74 to -1.37) than those with lower or higher education. Women with HSIL were more anxious (p = 0.014, 95% CI 0.49 -4.39) than those with low grade or normal lesions.

  14. Severe cervical glandular cell lesions and severe cervical combined lesions - Predictive value of the Papanicolaou smear

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erp, AJMV; Smedts, FMM; Vooijs, GP

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND. The purpose of the current study was to determine the accuracy of routinely screened cervical smears to predict a glandular cell lesion in histologically confirmed cases of cervical adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS), invasive adenocarcinoma (ADCA), adenosquamous carcinoma (ADSQCA), and severe

  15. Dysbacteriosis in silver-stained cervical smears of Dutch-Moroccan immigrants : HPV infection and preneoplasia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbruggen, BSM; Boon, ME; van Schie, MA; Wijsman-Grootendorst, R; Kok, LP

    2006-01-01

    The vaginal/cervical smears of a group of Moroccan immigrants were used to compare vaginal dysbacteriosis (i.e., a bacterial population change with a decrease in lactobacilli and an increase of coccoid bacteria in vaginal/cervical smears) with Dutch women. From our archives, 779 smears from Moroccan

  16. Neural network-assisted ("NNA") analysis of cervical smears: pooled effectiveness results and economic analysis.

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    Mango; Radensky

    1998-07-01

    Objective: To determine the sensitivity of cervical cancer smear screening with neural network-assisted ("NNA") rescreening.Methods: The Papnet system of NNA analysis of cervical smears has been in clinical use worldwide for over 3 years and has been the subject of over 22 published manuscripts reporting on data from over 202,000 smears. This investigation reviewed the results of these studies and classified each study according to study design using a systematic protocol based on reference validation, diagnostic threshold for abnormal, and outcome metric. This classification taxonomy allowed for weighted (based on number of cases in each study) pooling of studies for each study design class. The pooled effectiveness metrics were used to derive the sensitivity of cervical cancer screening with NNA rescreening, using a baseline unassisted screening sensitivity of 85%. Other effectiveness metrics determined by this analysis include NNA's sensitivity as a primary screener, comparisons with primary unassisted screening, and comparisons of NNA rescreening and unassisted rescreening.Results: Analyses of the weighted, pooled mean estimates for each of the principal outcome metrics indicate the sensitivity of cervical cancer screening with NNA ranges from 90% to 99%; most pooled estimates fall in the range of 97-99%. An economic analysis using the APL-based "Cervical Cancer Screen" computer model developed by Eddy (Eddy DM. Screening for cervical cancer. Ann Intern Med 1990;113:214-26) and these effectiveness estimates as inputs showed that NNA analysis involves an accepted level of resource expenditure (approximately $40,000 per life year saved) when added to unassisted screening on a triennial basis.Conclusion: The sensitivity of cervical cancer screening with NNA rescreening using the Papnet system yields sensitivities in excess of 90% and approaching 99%.

  17. Facing possible illness detected through screening--experiences of healthy women with pathological cervical smears

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hounsgaard, Lise; Petersen, Lone Kjeld; Pedersen, Birthe D

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study is to gain knowledge about women's perceptions of illness based on their abnormal PAP smears, following screening for cervical cancer. The study uses a phenomenological, hermeneutic approach inspired by Ricoeur's theory of interpretation. Twelve women, aged between 23 and 59...... of a face-value review of participant experiences (naive reading), structural analysis and, critical interpretation of what it means to be potentially ill. The women were unprepared to find that their screening results showed abnormal cells, indicative of incipient genital cancer. They were frustrated...... by the results as they had not experienced any symptoms and felt well, despite being diagnosed with a potential disease. Being diagnosed with abnormal cells caused the participants to feel anxious. Their anxiety had subsided 6 months after the cells had been removed. For those who did not require treatment...

  18. [Significance of the demonstration of Actinomyces in cervical cytological smears].

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    Dybdahl, H; Baandrup, U

    1988-10-17

    In recent years there has been well documented evidence of a connection between adnexitis and the use of IUDs. It has also been reported that Actinomyces-caused adnexitis is often a serious precursor of tubo-ovarian abscesses which require surgical attention. The investigation included a total of 17,734 routine Pap smears taken in the pathology department over a 4-month period. The smears were screened for the presence of Actinomyces and information on type of IUD and gynecological symptoms was gathered from women testing positive for Actinomyces. Comparable information was gathered from 2 age-matched control groups. 1 group consisted of women with an IUD but without Actinomyces; the other group consisted of women without an IUD and without Actinomyces. Of the 180 patients with Actinomyces, 175 were IUD users and only 5 were nonusers. The incidence of gynecological symptoms among the patients showed increased frequency for women with Actinomyces only with regard to cervical discharge. The Nova-T IUD was found to be significantly less frequently associated with Actinomyces than the other IUDs.

  19. Incidence of cervical cancer after several negative smear results by age 50: prospective observational study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rebolj, Matejka; van Ballegooijen, Marjolein; Lynge, Elsebeth;

    2009-01-01

    of histopathology and cytopathology (PALGA). SETTING: Netherlands, national data. Population 218,847 women aged 45-54 and 445,382 aged 30-44 at the time of the third negative smear test. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: 10 year cumulative incidence of interval cervical cancer. RESULTS: 105 women developed cervical cancer...... after several negative smear results by age 50 is similar to the risk at younger ages. Even after several negative smear results, age is not a good discriminative factor for early cessation of cervical cancer screening....

  20. Does oral contraceptive pill increase the risk of abnormal Pap smear?

    OpenAIRE

    Fariba Binesh; Ali Akhavan; Azar Pirdehghan; Mahnoosh Davoodi

    2013-01-01

    Background: It is noted that oral contraceptive pills increase the risk of abnormal Pap smear but results have been inconsistent across the populations. Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the association between oral contraceptive pill (OCP) consumption and abnormal Pap smear in women who referred to Shahid Sadoughi and Madar hospitals in Yazd. Materials and Methods: A cross sectional descriptive study was carried out and a database of all Pap smear reports from 2009-2011 at Cytopa...

  1. Histological Correlation of Glandular Abnormalities in Cervical Liquid-Based Cytology

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    Yosuke Kawakami

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Conventional Papanicolaou smear method is still commonly used for cervical cancer screening in Japan, despite the liquid-based cytology (LBC that has become a global tendency in the world recently. One of the obstacles in the way of popularization of this method seems to be the confusion as to diagnosis upon cervical glandular lesions. We performed comparison study between LBC and conventional Papanicolaou smear about cytological diagnosis using split-sample method in 4522 patients. In 13 cases analyses, which were reported with either AGC or adenocarcinoma by either method, LBC tends to be milder than that by conventional smear, however, the credibility of LBC is considered to be near to that of conventional smear with regard to screening for glandular abnormalities. These results indicate that cervical cancer screening should shift to LBC under the enough experience and appropriate dealing with the cytological diagnosis.

  2. Actinomyces-like organisms in cervical smears: the association with intrauterine device and pelvic inflammatory diseases

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the incidence of actinomyces-like organisms in routine cervical smears of Korean women and to evaluate its association with the development of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) in these women. Methods The results of cervical smears between 2011 and 2012 at a single university hospital were searched. If positive for actinomyces-like organisms, the medical record of the patient was searched and development of PID was followed. If the data were not available in the medic...

  3. Comparison Between Pap Smear and Via As Screening For Cervical Lesions

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    Harshini V 1, Amritha Bhandary 2, Suchithra Thunga 3

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: An important reason for higher cervical cancer incidence in developing countries is lack of effectivescreening programs like pap smear, aimed at detecting precancerous conditions before they progress to invasivecancer. The potential difficulties in implementing cervical cytology based screening in low-resource settings haveprompted the investigation of accuracy of alternative low technology tests such as Visual inspection with acetic acidapplication [VIA], Visual inspection with acetic acid application with magnification [VIAM], visual inspection onLugol’s Iodine application [VILI] in early detection of cervical neoplasia .In our study we compared pap smear withVIA to study the accurarcy of VIA as it is simpler and easier technique to be used as screening in low resourcesettings. Aim: This is a hospital based descriptive, prospective study to evaluate validity of pap smear and VIAtechniques as screening tests in identifying cervical lesions. Materials And Methods: After general and systemicexamination as a routine,visual local pelvic examination including visualisation of cervix and vagina per speculumand the findings are documented in the proforma .Then VIA and pap smear are done in that order, if any of thesetests are positive then cervical biopsy will be taken and further advise to the subject is given. Results: A total of 313women were involved in the study. The sensitivity of pap smear is 54.5% specificity is 98.9% while that of VIA95.4% and 97.9%respectively. We found that VIA accuracy was comparatively more than that of pap smear.Conclusion: In low resource settings, usefulness of VIA is more than that of pap smear. We suggest to perform VIAin all the women inspite of having pap smear facility to improve detection rate of cervical lesions and provide betterpatient councelling and treatment.

  4. A comparative study of cervical smears in an urban Hospital in India and a population-based screening program in Mauritius

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    Mulay Kaustubh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study cervical smear abnormalities in urban women in India and women in Mauritius and to compare the results in the two groups. Study Design: An analysis of 6010 cervical smears taken as part of routine check-ups in an urban hospital was done and an analysis of 10,000 cervical smears taken from women participating in a National Cancer Screening Program in Mauritius was done. Emphasis was put on cervical epithelial cell abnormalities and the results in the two populations are compared with that of similar studies in other parts of the world. Results: Non specific inflammation formed 19.6% and 25.34% of the smears in the Indian and Mauritian groups, respectively (with specific infection forming 6.05% and 15.08%. The epithelial abnormalities constituted 1.392% of the Indian group and 0.47% of the Mauritian group. The difference was statistically significant in the atypical squamous cells of uncertain significance (ASCUS and atypical glandular cells of uncertain significance (AGUS group. Conclusions: The prevalence of low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL is similar to that in the developed world.

  5. Comparison of Efficacy in Abnormal Cervical Cell Detection between Liquid-based Cytology and Conventional Cytology.

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    Tanabodee, Jitraporn; Thepsuwan, Kitisak; Karalak, Anant; Laoaree, Orawan; Krachang, Anong; Manmatt, Kittipong; Anontwatanawong, Nualpan

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to 1206 women who had cervical cancer screening at Chonburi Cancer Hospital. The spilt-sample study aimed to compare the efficacy of abnormal cervical cells detection between liquid-based cytology (LBC) and conventional cytology (CC). The collection of cervical cells was performed by broom and directly smeared on a glass slide for CC then the rest of specimen was prepared for LBC. All slides were evaluated and classified by The Bethesda System. The results of the two cytological tests were compared to the gold standard. The LBC smear significantly decreased inflammatory cell and thick smear on slides. These two techniques were not difference in detection rate of abnormal cytology and had high cytological diagnostic agreement of 95.7%. The histologic diagnosis of cervical tissue was used as the gold standard in 103 cases. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, false positive, false negative and accuracy of LBC at ASC-US cut off were 81.4, 75.0, 70.0, 84.9, 25.0, 18.6 and 77.7%, respectively. CC had higher false positive and false negative than LBC. LBC had shown higher sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV and accuracy than CC but no statistical significance. In conclusion, LBC method can improve specimen quality, more sensitive, specific and accurate at ASC-US cut off and as effective as CC in detecting cervical epithelial cell abnormalities.

  6. Actinomyces-like organisms in the cervical Papanicolaou-stained smears of intrauterine device (IUD) users

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    p. 159 - 164 The prevalence of Actinomyces-like organisms in cervicovaginal smears of 2,347 Brazilian women, including 151 (6.4%) intrauterine devices (IUD) users for at least six months and as controls 2,196 (93.6%) non-wearers of similar age using hormonal, barrier, or other contraceptive methods or none, living in Salvador, Bahia, has been investigated. Cervical smears were stained by the Papanicolaou method for the microscopic examination of Actinomyces-like organisms. The ...

  7. Interpreting microbiopsies in cervical smears - A cytohistologic approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mravunac, M; Smedts, F; Philippi, A; Remerij, D; Krul, A; Schrik, M; van't Hof, B; van Heusden, C; Vooijs, GP

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess interobserver variation in the diagnosis of thick tissue specimens (microbiopsies) in cytology smears and histologic sections taken from them, to evaluate the applicability of MIB-1 in histologic sections from microbiopsies and to evaluate whether processing microbiopsies in inc

  8. Value and Feasibility of HPV DNA Test in Cervical Scraping Smears

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Sufang; LIAO Guoning; MA Ding; CHEN Gang; WANG Wei; XU Qian; GU Hainian; LU Yunping; ZHOU Liping; DU Juan; LI Fujun

    2005-01-01

    To investigate the reliability and feasibility of human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA test in cervical scraping smears with polymerase chain reaction (PCR), 131 cases of cervical scraping specimens were collected, and the positive rates and accuracy of HPV infection were determined in normal subjects and cervical cancer patients. GP5+/GP6+ and E7 primer pairs designed for detecting HPV L1 and HPV type 16 E7 were tested in this study. Our results showed that positive rates of HPV DNA in normal population and cervical cancer patients were 32.99 % and 73.53 % respectively and there was significant difference between them (P<0. 001). In normal subjects, detection rates of HPV DNA with GP5+/GP6+ and E7 primer pairs were 27.84 % and 16.49 % respectively, with statistically significant difference between them (P>0.05). However the detection rates in cervical cancer patients were 38.24 % and 67.65 % for the two markers, with a significant difference found between them (P<0.05). It is concluded that HPV DNA test with PCR for cervical scraping smears was feasible. GP5+/GP6+ primer pairs may be a useful probe to screen HPV infection in normal population, but they are not sensitive enough in cervical cancer patients. It is suggested that high risk type HPV DNA test was very useful in population with high risk of cervical cancer.

  9. Psammoma bodies and some opportunistic infections detected in cervical smears of women fitted with an IUD.

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    Boon, M E; Kirk, R S; De Graaff Guilloud, J C

    1981-07-01

    The incidence of psammoma bodies in cervical smears and of opportunistic infections by actinomyces or ameba is reported in 15,000 patients using IUDs. During the 1972-1978 period, cervical smears from 440,550 women were examined. Of these, 14,980 wore an IUD. 88% of the patients with an IUD were fitted with Multiload Cu250, 8% had Copper T and 4% Lippes Loop. Smears from 7500 patients using oral contraceptives (OCs) and from 7500 patients using no contraception were used as control groups. The smears from the women wearing an IUD were screened and the following were recorded: psammoma bodies, hematoidin crystals, trichomonads, ameba and actinomyces. There were significant differences between IUD users and the control groups in the occurrence of psammoma bodies, ameba and actinomyces but not in trichomonads or hematoidin crystals. Psammoma bodies were found in 1.4% of the cases and actinomyces in 3.7%. Only 1 patient had a transient amebic infestation. The occurrence of psammoma bodies and actinomyces was proportional to duration of IUD use. Most cases were found after 2 years use. The actinomyces were easily identifiable with the Gram stain. The wise course is to make a Gram-stained cervical smear in all women after 2 years of IUD use in order to detect the presence of genital actinomyces.

  10. Actinomyces-like organisms in cervical smears: the association with intrauterine device and pelvic inflammatory diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeo Joo; Youm, Jina; Kim, Jee Hyun

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the incidence of actinomyces-like organisms in routine cervical smears of Korean women and to evaluate its association with the development of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) in these women. Methods The results of cervical smears between 2011 and 2012 at a single university hospital were searched. If positive for actinomyces-like organisms, the medical record of the patient was searched and development of PID was followed. If the data were not available in the medical record, the patient was contacted by telephone. Results The incidence of actinomyces-like organisms in cervical smears was 0.26% (52/20,390). Forty-two women (80.8%) were intrauterine device (IUD) users: the copper-IUD in 25 women and the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system in 13 women (type unknown in 4 women). The majority (71.4%, 30/42) of the IUD users maintained the IUD. Prophylactic antibiotics were prescribed to 12 women. Two continuous IUD users were later diagnosed with PID, but these cases were not pelvic actinomycosis. Conclusion It would be a reasonable option to choose the expectant management for asymptomatic women who incidentally showed actinomyces-like organisms in their cervical smear. PMID:25264530

  11. Combined analysis of cervical smears. Cytopathology, image cytometry and in situ hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multhaupt, H; Bruder, E; Elit, L; Rothblat, I; Warhol, M

    1993-01-01

    This study was an attempt to correlate the Bethesda System of Papanicolaou smear classification with DNA content by image analysis and the presence of human papillomavirus (HPV) as determined by in situ hybridization. DNA histograms were classified as normal diploid, diploid proliferative, polyploid and aneuploid. HPV in situ hybridization was performed with a cocktail of probes specific to HPV types 6, 11, 16 and 18. There was a good correlation between normal cytology and normal DNA histograms. Cytologically normal smears with bacterial or fungal infections showed a high proliferation index. HPV infection correlated with DNA polyploidy but was seen in 15 of 29 smears classified as cytologically normal. Morphologically abnormal Papanicolaou smears correlated with aneuploid DNA content. Smears classified as intraepithelial neoplasia correlated with aneuploid DNA content in all 12 cases. Four of five cases cytologically suspicious for HPV infection had HPV by in situ hybridization.

  12. Value and feasibility of HPV DNA test in cervical scraping smears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Sufang; Chen, Gang; Wang, Wei; Xu, Qian; Gu, Hainian; Lu, Yunping; Zhou, Liping; Du, Juan; Li, Fujun; Liao, Guoning; Ma, Ding

    2005-01-01

    To investigate the reliability and feasibility of human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA test in cervical scraping smears with polymerase chain reaction (PCR), 131 cases of cervical scraping specimens were collected, and the positive rates and accuracy of HPV infection were determined in normal subjects and cervical cancer patients. GP5+/GP6+ and E7 primer pairs designed for detecting HPV L1 and HPV type 16 E7 were tested in this study. Our results showed that positive rates of HPV DNA in normal population and cervical cancer patients were 32.99% and 73.53% respectively and there was significant difference between them (P 0.05). However the detection rates in cervical cancer patients were 38.24% and 67.65% for the two markers, with a significant difference found between them (P scraping smears was feasible. GP5+/GP6+ primer pairs may be a useful probe to screen HPV infection in normal population, but they are not sensitive enough in cervical cancer patients. It is suggested that high risk type HPV DNA test was very useful in population with high risk of cervical cancer.

  13. Awareness and practice of cervical cancer and Pap smear testing in a teaching hospital in Tehran

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    Mansoureh Ghaoomi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cervical cancer is known to be preventable because of long period of pre-invasive stage, availability of screening tools, and effective treatments for early invasive cervical lesions. Screening is main measures to prevent the disease and Pap smear is a screening strategy for cervical cancer. Current paper aimed to evaluate levels of awareness and practice regarding Pap smear screening among women aged between 20 to 65 years in Tehran (Iran. Methods: This was a descriptive-analytical study conducted in Tehran City of Iran in 2015 at Firoozgar Hospital. The research population included all married, widowed and divorced women aged 20-65 years. Data analysis was performed using the Pearson correlation and Student’s t-tests in SPSS, ver. 23 (Chicago, IL, USA. Results: Among 90 individuals who have fill questionnaire completely, 66.6% subjects had Pap smear tests. 40% of the individuals aged between 30 to 39 and the education level is distributed equally between Intermediate, Diploma and graduate and only 3 percent of them, continue their education to higher level. There was a significant relationship between the awareness of Pap smear and educational level (of both wives and husbands. The people who have graduate degree, have the best awareness. Working women revealed higher level of awareness about Pap smear. Shame and fear of taking the cancer were the most common reasons which lead to avoidance in doing the test by the women, while the most encouraging factors for performing the test were the information mostly provided by physicians and after that, the information provided by friends. Conclusion: The awareness of Pap smear test which was measured by weighting different questions in the questionnaire by experts, prove that the women aged above 39, have an average level of awareness of Pap smear test. Due to high prevalence of cervical cancer and prolonged pre invasive course, role of Pap smear for early diagnosis necessitate the use

  14. Analysis of Sensitivity, Specificity, and Positive and Negative Predictive Values of Smear and Colposcopy in Diagnosis of Premalignant and Malignant Cervical Lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barut, Mert Ulaş; Kale, Ahmet; Kuyumcuoğlu, Umur; Bozkurt, Murat; Ağaçayak, Elif; Özekinci, Server; Gül, Talip

    2015-12-10

    BACKGROUND This study aimed to examine the positive and negative predictive value in the diagnosis of premalignant and malignant lesions of cervical colposcopy, the sensitivity and specificity of smear, and to evaluate the correlation with histopathology of abnormal cytology and colposcopy. MATERIAL AND METHODS The criteria for inclusion of patients with unhealthy cervix in the study were: Erosion, Chronic cervicitis, and Healed lacerations, Hypertrophied cervix, bleeding on touch, suspicious growth/ulcer/polyp on the cervix, and abnormal discharges from the cervix. Women with frank carcinoma cervix, pregnant females, patients with bleeding per vaginum at the time of examination, and those who had used vaginal medications, vaginal contraceptives or douches in the last 48 h of examination were excluded from the study. Demographic analysis was performed for 450 patients who were admitted to the clinic. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive values of patients to identify cervical pathologies of smear and colposcopy were histopathologically calculated. The statistical software package SPSS 15.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA) and Spearman's and Chi-Square tests were used for statistical analysis. RESULTS Sensitivity, specificity, PPD and NDP of smear were 0.57%, 0.76%, 0.26%, 0.92% respectively. Sensitivity, specificity, PPD and NDP of colposcopy were 0.92%, 0.67%, 0.52%, 0.96% respectively. A statistically significant correlation was found between abnormal cytology and histopathology, and abnormal colposcopy finding and histopathology. CONCLUSIONS Women with clinical diagnosis of unhealthy cervix should be evaluated by cytology to detect any premalignant or malignant lesions. It was concluded that Pap smear, colposcopy and histopathology should be collectively evaluated to evaluate cervical findings in low socio-economic regions.

  15. Accuracy of a low priced liquid-based method for cervical cytology in 632 women referred for colposcopy after a positive Pap smear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hemel, B M; Buikema, H J; Groen, H; Suurmeijer, A J H

    2009-08-01

    The aim of this quality controlling study was to determine the accuracy of liquid-based cytology (LBC) with the Turbitec cytocentrifuge technique. Cervical smears of 632 women, who were referred to our CIN outpatient department, after at least two smears with ASCUS or higher were evaluated and compared with the histological outcome. In 592 cases the smears revealed abnormalities of squamous epithelium, and in 40 cases the abnormalities of glandular epithelium. In the group of squamous epithelium abnormalities, the sensitivity for LSIL was 39.7% and the specificity was 89.2%; for the LSIL+ group, these values were 89.4% and 91.4%, respectively. For HSIL the sensitivity was 68.3% and the specificity 92.8%, for the HSIL+ group 82.3% and 92.3%, respectively. The ASCUS rate was low (2.4%). The Turbitec cytocentrifuge method was proved to be a very good LBC method for cervical smears. Because of a comparable accuracy together with a lower price, this LBC method outweighs commercial alternatives.

  16. Liquid-based cytology versus conventional cytology for evaluation of cervical Pap smears: Experience from the first 1000 split samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikrant Bhar Singh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context and Aim: Screening programs using conventional cytology conventional Pap smear (CPS have successfully reduced cervical cancer, but newer tests like liquid-based cytology (LBC and human papillomavirus testing might enhance screening. The main aim of the present study was to assess the diagnostic accuracy of LBC versus CPS using "split samples." Materials and Methods: This was a prospective study comprising of 1000 consecutive cervical "split samples" over a period of 1 year. Split sample was obtained using cervex-brush. CPS was prepared from the brush and the brush head was suspended in the LBC vial and processed by SurePath™ LBC. Results: There were 4.3% unsatisfactory (U/S cases in CPS and 1.7% in LBC; the main cause is insufficient cells, and excess of blood in CPS. About 25/100 (2.5% split samples had epithelial abnormalities both in CPS and LBC (1.2%-atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance; 0.4%-low grade squamous intraepithelial lesion; 0.2%-high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion; 0.5%-squamous cell carcinoma; 0.1%-atypical glandular cells favouring neoplasia; 0.2%-adenocarcinoma. Inflammatory organisms were almost equally identified in both techniques but were better seen in LBC samples. Conclusions: LBC technique leads to significant reduction of U/S rate. LBC samples offered better clarity, uniform spread of smears, less time for screening and better handling of hemorrhagic and inflammatory samples. LBC had equivalent sensitivity and specificity to CPS.

  17. Abnormal cervical cytology and health care use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Maria Eiholm; Baillet, Miguel Vázquez-Prada; Dugué, Pierre-Antoine

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess the long-term use of health care services in women with abnormal cytology results compared to women with normal cytology results. METHODS: We did a nationwide population-based study, using women aged 23 to 59years participating in the national organized cervi...... they have the abnormal cytology. This difference is further enhanced after the abnormal cytology result.......OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess the long-term use of health care services in women with abnormal cytology results compared to women with normal cytology results. METHODS: We did a nationwide population-based study, using women aged 23 to 59years participating in the national organized...... cervical cancer screening program. We included a study population of 40,153 women with abnormal cytology (exposed) and 752,627 women with normal cytology (non-exposed). We retrieved data from the Danish Civil Registration System, the Danish Pathology Data Bank, the National Health Service, the National...

  18. [Satisfactory cervical cytology. Circular exocervical cytologic smears against longitudinal exocervical smears].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Ortega, Gregorio; Díaz-Hernández, Maritza Consuelo; Rodríguez-Moctezuma, José Raymundo; Domínguez-Gómez, Francisco Guillermo

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCCIÓN: en el Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, la muestra del frotis del cuello uterino se extiende en el portaobjetos mediante movimientos circulares (técnica habitual) desde el año de 1962. En 2006, la Secretaría de Salud estableció que el extendido exocervical se realizara de forma longitudinal (técnica convencional). El objetivo de la investigación que se presenta fue evaluar la eficacia y calidad de la técnica de extendido exocervical habitual, convencional y una nueva que se propone. MÉTODOS: estudio cuasiexperimental en mujeres que solicitaron prueba citológica cervical. Las variables analizadas fueron técnica de extendido, cobertura celular y calidad de la muestra exocervical. Se conformaron grupos según la técnica que se aplicó. Los estudios citológicos fueron procesados con técnica de Papanicolaou y los resultados fueron informados por tres observadores conforme al sistema Bethesda. Se utilizó prueba Z, ?2, Anova y riesgo relativo.

  19. A comparison of liquid-based cytology with conventional Papanicolaou smears in cervical dysplasia diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghighi, Fatemeh; Ghanbarzadeh, Nahid; Ataee, Marziee; Sharifzadeh, Gholamreza; Mojarrad, Javid Shahbazi; Najafi-Semnani, Fatemeh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Due to the high number of women affected by cervical cancer and the importance of an early diagnosis, combined with the frequent incidence of false-negative Papanicolaou (Pap) smear screening results for this disease, several studies have been conducted in recent years in order to find better tests. Liquid-based cytology (LBC) tests, including the liquid-based thin layer method, have demonstrated the highest potential for reducing false-negative cases and improved sample quality. This study aimed to compare the strength of the Pap smear test with fluid cytology and conventional tests in detecting cervical dysplasia. Materials and Methods: This descriptive-analytic study was conducted on 366 women who attended private laboratories for a Pap smear. The Pap smear sampling was conducted simultaneously using two methods: conventional Pap (CP) smear and LBC), from the cervix. Results: The mean age of the participants was 32 ± 8.8 years. Diagnostic results of endocervical cells, epithelial cells, vaginitis cells, and metaplastia were consistent with both conventional and liquid cytology smears, and the kappa coefficient was determined to be significant (P < 0.001). In total, 40.5% of diagnostic cases indicated bacterial inflammation 80.3% of the diagnoses in both methods were P1 and 3.9% of cases diagnosed were P2, the overall diagnostic consistency was 83.9% between the two sampling methods. The inflammation diagnosis was 40.5% and this was consistent in both methods of LBC and CP. There was one case of a false-negative diagnosis in the LBC method and 14 cases in the CP method. Conclusion: Results showed that the LBC may improve the sample's quality and reduce the number of unsatisfactory cases more than with the CP method. PMID:27995101

  20. Actinomyces-like organisms in the cervical smears of IUCD users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farida Jamal; Mohd Salleh Mohd Yasin; Zooraidah Zainal; Hamid Arshat

    1983-01-01

    Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is a well-documented complication of IUD use. The presence of tails on the IUDs appears to facilitate ascent of bacteria from the vagina into the uterus. In this study, cervical smears of 128 IUD users were stained by Gram's stain and screened for the presence of Actinomyces-like organisms. 5.5% of the smears were positive for these organisms. Pus was seen in 20.1% of the smears, and yeast cells were seen in 10.2%. The average duration of IUD insertion was 8 months. Smears of 103 controls were negative for Actinomyces-like organisms, pus cells were present in 8.7%, and yeast cells in 4.8%. Of the 7 smears positive for the organisms, only 1 was from the user of a plastic device. All cases included were asymptomatic and were visiting the clinic for routine follow-up. These data suggest that colonization by Actinomyces-like organisms does not appear to be a significant problem in IUD users in Malaysia.

  1. Bax and Bak expression in cervical smears of women with low-and high-risk HPV types: A study of 120 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eirini Klapsinou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Human papillomavirus (HPV is known to be involved in the carcinogenesis of squamous cells in uterine cervix cancer, mostly by binding and inactivating the p53 and pRb tumor suppressor genes. Lately, evidence has emerged suggesting that HPV oncoproteins may interact with proteins involved in cellular apoptosis as well. Aim: This study aimed to investigate the expression of proapoptotic proteins Bax and Bak in women with low-risk and high-risk HPV types as opposed to HPV-negative women, and in women with normal pap smear compared to women with abnormal Papanicolau test (Pap smear. Materials and Methods: A total of 120 liquid-based cervical samples were subtyped for HPV types with microarray hybridization and then stained and evaluated immunocytochemically for Bax and Bak expression. Statistical analysis was performed on the Bax and Bak scores (percentage of positive cells × staining intensity, the overall percentage of positive cells, and the most prevalent staining intensity group found in each sample. Results: A weak association between negative Bax staining and cytologically normal Pap smears was discovered, whereas cytologically abnormal samples tended to stain weakly or moderately positive. No other statistically significant difference was found in the other analyzed parameters. Conclusion: Cytologically normal pap smears seem to have a slight tendency to stain negative for Bax as opposed to cytologically abnormal pap smears. Although the association is weak, it is an indication that there might be a connection between the expression of Bax and the development of cervical intraepithelial dysplasia, which warrants further investigation in larger-scale studies.

  2. Bax and Bak expression in cervical smears of women with low-and high-risk HPV types: A study of 120 cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klapsinou, Eirini; Argyri, Elena; Panotopoulou, Efstathia; Daskalopoulou, Dimitra; Patsouris, Efstratios; Nonni, Afroditi; Lazaris, Andreas C; Thomopoulou, Georgia-Heleni

    2015-01-01

    Background: Human papillomavirus (HPV) is known to be involved in the carcinogenesis of squamous cells in uterine cervix cancer, mostly by binding and inactivating the p53 and pRb tumor suppressor genes. Lately, evidence has emerged suggesting that HPV oncoproteins may interact with proteins involved in cellular apoptosis as well. Aim: This study aimed to investigate the expression of proapoptotic proteins Bax and Bak in women with low-risk and high-risk HPV types as opposed to HPV-negative women, and in women with normal pap smear compared to women with abnormal Papanicolau test (Pap) smear. Materials and Methods: A total of 120 liquid-based cervical samples were subtyped for HPV types with microarray hybridization and then stained and evaluated immunocytochemically for Bax and Bak expression. Statistical analysis was performed on the Bax and Bak scores (percentage of positive cells × staining intensity), the overall percentage of positive cells, and the most prevalent staining intensity group found in each sample. Results: A weak association between negative Bax staining and cytologically normal Pap smears was discovered, whereas cytologically abnormal samples tended to stain weakly or moderately positive. No other statistically significant difference was found in the other analyzed parameters. Conclusion: Cytologically normal pap smears seem to have a slight tendency to stain negative for Bax as opposed to cytologically abnormal pap smears. Although the association is weak, it is an indication that there might be a connection between the expression of Bax and the development of cervical intraepithelial dysplasia, which warrants further investigation in larger-scale studies. PMID:26811568

  3. Lessons learned: providing a mindfulness-based stress reduction program for low-income multiethnic women with abnormal pap smears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abercrombie, Priscilla D; Zamora, Anita; Korn, Abner P

    2007-01-01

    Although the incidence rate of cervical cancer has decreased over the last several years, low-income ethnic minority women remain at increased risk for morbidity and mortality from cervical cancer. We conducted a pilot study to examine the feasibility and acceptability of mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) program among multiethnic low-income women with abnormal Pap smears. Spanish- and English-speaking women recruited through convenience sampling participated in MBSR classes 2 hours each week over 6 consecutive weeks. State anxiety and self-compassion were measured before and after the MBSR program. Focus groups and surveys were used to evaluate the program. Although 51 women were initially recruited, pre- and post-MBSR data were available only for 8 women. There was a significant reduction in anxiety and a trend toward increased self-compassion in this group of women. The participants evaluated the MBSR program very positively. The high attrition rate highlights the challenges of conducting MBSR research with this demographic of women. Potential strategies for improving recruitment and retention of low-income multiethnic women are discussed.

  4. CYTO - HISTO CORRELATION OF ATYPICAL GLANDULAR CELLS OF ENDOMETRIAL ORIGIN ON CERVICAL CYTOLOGY IN ABNORMAL UTERINE BLEEDING CASES

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    Lopa Mudra

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: An association has been reported with presence of endometrial cells on cervical smears and clinically significant uterine lesions. Hence for early detection of endometrial pathology , t he 2001 Bethesda system has suggested the mandatory reporting of presence of any atypical endometrial cells regardless of age and menstrual status and out of phase normal looking endometrial cells in women aged 40 years or more. OBJECTIVES: To assess the association between atypical glandular cells of endometrial origin in cervical cytology and histopathological findings in abnormal uterine bleeding cases . SETTINGS AND DESIGN : The study was conducted at JSS hospital , Mysore in the department of pathology. This was a descriptive type of study. The sample was collected fro m patients attending the gynecology OPD with the complaints of abnormal uterine bleeding in JSS hospital . MATERIALS AND METHODS : Smears for cervical cytology are collected using either pap smear or manual liquid based smear from 82 patients in the age grou p of 20 - 75 years with complaints of abnormal bleeding history. The results of cervical cytology were compared and confirmed with the endometrial pathology. RESULTS : Out of 82 abnormal uterine bleeding cases 14 showed atypical endometrial cells. On follow u p of these cases , the results indicated an association between atypical endometrial cells in cervical cytology with endometrial carcinoma in 8 cases (60% , 1 case with complex hyperplasia with atypia (10% . CONCLUSION : Presence of atypical endometrial cell s in all women with abnormal uterine bleeding has considerable clinical implications & further diagnostic evaluation by endometrial sampling is of utmost importance.

  5. Psychosocial burden differences between women of reproductive age and menopausal age due to abnormal Pap smear: A pilot study of the East Coast of Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shabbir Ahmad Sheikh

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Psychosocial burden due to abnormal Pap smear results in terms of mental stress, overwhelming beliefs, and feelings of guilt and worry of HPV infection and possibility of cervical cancer were noted more in reproductive age groups as compared to the menopausal age group. Health-care providers should be aware of these psychosocial effects whereby they can refer such patients to a gynecologic oncologist for proper counseling at the proper time so that the negative impact due to this psychosocial burden can be prevented.

  6. Processing of long-stored archival cervical smears for human papillomavirus detection by the polymerase chain reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Roda Husman, A M; Snijders, P J; Stel, H V; van den Brule, A J; Meijer, C J; Walboomers, J M

    1995-08-01

    The efficiency of a freeze-thaw method, a proteinase K/Tween 20 lysis method and a guanidinium isothiocyanate/silica beads method for DNA extraction from fixed and Papanicolaou-stained cells from the cervical cancer cell line Siha was measured by beta-globin polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The GTC/silica beads method, which appeared superior, revealed a human papillomavirus (HPV) general primer-mediated PCR sensitivity of 50-500 copies of HPV 16 per sample using dilutions of fixed and stained Siha cells. Application to archival cervical smears (n = 116) revealed that the yield and size of amplifiable DNA decreases with storage time. The longer the storage time, the more repetitions of the whole procedure, including the lysis step, were required to extract sufficient amplifiable DNA. In this way, an overall beta-globin PCR positivity for 98% of the smears was reached. Further analysis revealed that a maximum size of 200 bp could be amplified from smears stored for up to 9 years. The method was validated by demonstrating by PCR the same HPV types in archival smears and corresponding cervical biopsies of cervical cancer patients. In conclusion, the GTC/silica beads method appears suitable to process archival cervical smears for HPV detection by PCR. provided that stepwise adjustments are made until beta-globin PCR positivity is obtained and primers are chosen which amplify a maximum of about 200 bp.

  7. Evaluation of a Worksite Cervical Screening Initiative to Increase Pap Smear Uptake in Malaysia: A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial

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    Fauziah Abdullah

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Despite the significant burden of cervical cancer, Malaysia like many middle-income countries relies on opportunistic cervical screening as opposed to a more organized population-based program. The aim of this study was to ascertain the effectiveness of a worksite screening initiative upon Papanicolaou smear test (Pap test uptake among educated working women in Malaysia. Methods. 403 female teachers who never or infrequently attended for a Pap test from 40 public secondary schools in Kuala Lumpur were recruited into a cluster randomized trial conducted between January and November 2010. The intervention group participated in a worksite cervical screening initiative whilst the control group received usual care from the existing cervical screening program. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to determine the impact of the intervention program on Pap smear uptake after 24 weeks of followup. Results. The proportion of women attending for a Pap test was significantly higher in the intervention than in the control group (18.1% versus 10.1%, P value < 0.05 with the worksite screening initiative doubling the Pap smear uptake, adjusted odds ratio 2.44 (95% CI: 1.29–4.62. Conclusion. Worksite health promotion interventions can effectively increase cervical smear uptake rates among eligible workers in middle-income countries. Policy makers and health care providers in these countries should include such interventions in strategies for reducing cervical cancer burden. This trial is registered with IRCT201103186088N1.

  8. Liquid-based cytology versus conventional cytology for evaluation of cervical Pap smears: Experience from the first 1000 split samples

    OpenAIRE

    Vikrant Bhar Singh; Nalini Gupta; Raje Nijhawan; Radhika Srinivasan; Vanita Suri; Arvind Rajwanshi

    2015-01-01

    Context and Aim: Screening programs using conventional cytology conventional Pap smear (CPS) have successfully reduced cervical cancer, but newer tests like liquid-based cytology (LBC) and human papillomavirus testing might enhance screening. The main aim of the present study was to assess the diagnostic accuracy of LBC versus CPS using "split samples." Materials and Methods: This was a prospective study comprising of 1000 consecutive cervical "split samples" over a period of 1 year. Split sa...

  9. Predictors of persistent cytologic abnormalities after treatment of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia in Soweto, South Africa: a cohort study in a HIV high prevalence population

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    McIntyre James A

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the presence of both HIV infection and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN, the risk of cancer development despite treatment may be greater. We investigated clinical predictors of persistent cytological abnormalities in women who had had a large loop excision of the transformation zone (LLETZ. Methods Women with high grade squamous intraepithelial lesions or worse (HSIL, less severe abnormalities which persisted and any abnormality in women who are HIV-infected, were referred to the colposcopy clinic. HIV infection was ascertained by self-report. A LLETZ was performed on all patients with HSIL or higher on Papanicolaou (Pap smear or colposcopy, LSIL or higher in patients who are HIV-infected, where the colposcopy is inadequate, and when there was a discrepancy between colposcopy and cytology by one or more grades. Women with abnormal follow-up smears were compared to those with normal smears. We examined the association between abnormal follow-up smears and demographic and clinical predictors using logistic regression Results The median time between LLETZ and first follow-up Pap smear was rather short at 122 days. Persistent cytological abnormalities occurred in 49% of our patients after LLETZ. Predictors of persistence included the presence of disease at both margins and HIV infection. Among the latter, disease at the excision margins and CD4+ cell count were important predictors. In these women, disease at the endocervical margin, both margins, and disease only at the ectocervical margin were associated with increased odds of persistent abnormalities on follow-up cervical smear. Conclusion We showed extremely high risk of cytological abnormality at follow-up after treatment more so in patients with incomplete excision and in the presence of immunocompromise. It remains uncertain whether recurrent CIN is a surrogate marker for invasive cervical cancer.

  10. Has the ThinPrep method of cervical screening maintained its improvement over conventional smears in terms of specimen adequacy?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Treacy, A

    2009-04-01

    Liquid-based cytology (LBC) has replaced conventional smear assessment in many centers over recent years. In our laboratory this transfer took place in 1999. At that time we performed a split sample study comparing the conventional method of cervical smear evaluation with the ThinPrep system. This split sample study identified a dramatic improvement in specimen adequacy with LBC. While 11% of conventional preparations were reported as unsatisfactory and almost 9% were reported as suboptimal, evaluation of the same cases using LBC saw this combined figure reduced to 2.3%. AIM: To evaluate whether this dramatic fall in unsatisfactory smears has been maintained with the use of LBC. The database for all smears reported for 2005 (100% LBC) was interrogated. The number of unsatisfactory reports was calculated. The reason for an unsatisfactory report was recorded for each case. The overall unsatisfactory rate was compared with that reported in the 1999 split sample study. A total of 41,312 smear tests were reported in 2005. 1,342 (3.25%) were reported as unsatisfactory. Our findings support the ongoing value of LBC in a routine cervical screening laboratory in terms of continuing to maintain a low rate of unsatisfactory smears.

  11. A molecular monopoly? HPV testing, the Pap smear and the molecularisation of cervical cancer screening in the USA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogarth, Stuart; Hopkins, Michael M.; Rodriguez, Victor

    2012-01-01

    DNA-based molecular testing for human papillomavirus has emerged as a novel approach to cervical cancer screening in the context of well-entrenched existing technology, the Pap smear. This article seeks to elucidate the process of molecularisation in the context of screening programmes. We illustrat

  12. Awareness and Practice of Cervical Smear as A Screening Procedure for Cervical Cancer among Female Nurses in A Tertiary Hospital in South-South Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imoh Unang

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: Carcinoma of the cervix, the second most common cancer among women remains a public health problem. Though this preventable cancer occurs more commonly in the developing world, it is almost non-existent in developed countries where there are well established screening programs. The aim of this study is to determine the degree of awareness and practice of cervical smear as a screening procedure for cervical cancer among female nurses in a tertiary health facility in south-south Nigeria. METHOD: Semi-structured questionnaires were distributed to all the female nurses at the University of Uyo Teaching Hospital. RESULTS: The ages of the respondents were between 21 - 60 years with the modal age group being 31- 40 years (48.9%. Majority of the respondents were married (59.7% and 36.4% of them had practiced nursing for over 10 years. Majority of the respondents (94.3% had heard of the cervical smear and 79.5% of the nurses knew that cervical smears were used to detect premalignant diseases of the cervix. Only 7.4% of the nurses had undergone screening for cervical cancer. Common reasons given by the respondents who had not screened were not being a candidate for cervical cancer (31.9% and ignorance as to where screening is done (28.8%. The most common sources of information about cervical smear were the hospital (87.5% and textbooks (13.6%. CONCLUSION: The level of awareness of the cervical smear as a preventive tool for cervical cancer was high but utilization of the test was disappointingly low. Modern concepts of cancer prevention and control should be included in the curriculum of the school of nursing and nurses should be involved in the organisation of health talks to members of the community on cervical cancer and its prevention. The print and electronic media should be made to participate in the dissemination of information on the prevention of cervical cancer in our environment. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(6.000: 675-680

  13. Awareness of cervical cancer, Papanicolau′s smear and its utilization among female, final year undergraduates in Durban, South Africa

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    Muhammad Ehsanul Hoque

    2013-01-01

    Statistical Analysis Used: Chi-square test and logistic regression were used to find association and the significant predictor for doing Pap smear test. Results: Over half (53.3% of the participants had heard about cervical cancer and its detection method. More than half (60% and over a third (37.8% of the participants knew about human papilloma virus (HPV and multiple sexual partner respectively as risk factors for cervical cancer. More than half (55.3% indicated that they were not aware if cervical cancer can be prevented. Majority (76.7% knew that Papanicolau′s (Pap smear test is used for detection or prevention of cervical cancer. Among those who were sexually active and knew about Pap smear test 79.3% did not do the test mainly because of personal factors such as fear of the procedure, or were not ill. Conclusions: Level of awareness regarding cervical cancer and its detection method was low among these female students. The university management should focus on developing policies on health education and promotion to prevent transmission of the HPV.

  14. Cervical cancer screening in Turkey: a community-based experience after 60 years of pap smear usage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirhindi, Hakan; Nazlican, Ersin; Akbaba, Muhsin

    2012-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer in females in the World with around 500,000 new cases occurring annually, but the first in the developing countries with a high mortality if not diagnosed early. Papanicolau (Pap) smear is a cheap, easy-to-apply and widely accepted test which has been long used to detect cervical cancer at very early stages. However, despite being available for nearly 60 years, the test can hardly be considered to have become successfully applied in many communities. We aimed in this study to present the results of a screening survey for cervical cancer which targeted a women population aged between 35 and 40 living in a semi-rural area in the province of Hatay, located in the eastern Mediterranean region of Turkey, with specific aims of increasing early diagnosis, education and raising population awareness about cancers. This community-based descriptive study covered 512 women between 35 and 40 years of age living at Armutlu with a mean age of 37.6±1.7. Gynecologic examinations revealed cervical erosion in 8 (1.6%), vaginitis in 193 (37.7%) and normal findings in 311 (60.7%); pathological evaluation reports of the smears were negative in 290 (56.6%), inflammation in 218 (42.6%) and ASC-US in 4 (0.8%), according to the 2001 Bethesda classification. It can be concluded that Pap smear test - proven to be a very valuable test at the clinical level- should also be widely used at the community level to detect cervical cancer at very early stages to reduce both the mortality and morbidity among healthy people. The need for continuous community-based cervical cancer screening programs is strongly suggested.

  15. Prevalence of human papillomavirus infection & cervical abnormalities in HIV-positive women in eastern India

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    Jaya Chakravarty

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: India has the third highest burden of HIV and highest number of cervical cancer in the world. A cross-sectional study was performed to determine the prevalence and types of human papillomavirus (HPV infection, and the factors associated with HPV infection and abnormal cervical cytology in HIV-positive women attending the Antiretroviral Therapy (ART Centre in a tertiary care hospital in eastern India. Methods: We screened 216 HIV- positive women with Papanicolau smear cytology and HPV testing. HPV DNA was detected by using consensus primers followed by sequencing. Results: Of the 216 HIV-positive women screened, 58 (26.85% were HPV-positive; 56 (25.9% were of high-risk (HR HPV type. The most prevalent HPV type was HPV-16 (7.9%; non 16 and 18 HPV types were present in 17.6 per cent patients. Age ≤ 35 yr [(OR, 2.56 (1.26-5.19], illiteracy [OR, 2.30 (1.19-4.46], rural residence [OR, 3.99 (1.27-12.56] and CD4 ≤350/µl [OR, 2.46 (1.26-4.83] were associated with increased risk of acquisition of HPV. One hundred thirty nine (74.33% patients had normal/ negative for intraepithelial lesions (NILM cytology, three (1.60% had atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS, 32 (17.11% had low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL, 10 (5.35% had high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL and three (1.60% had carcinoma cervix. WHO clinical Stage III and IV [OR, 2.83 (1.07-7.49] and CD4 ≤350/µl [OR, 2.84 (1.30-6.20] were risk factors for abnormal cytology. Interpretation &conclusions: Our study showed 26.85 per cent HPV positivity in HIV infected women in this region, with HPV-16 as the commonest genotype. Abnormal cervical cytology was seen in about 25 per cent women. Regular Pap smear screening as recommended by the National AIDS Control Organization will help in early detection of cervical abnormalities in HIV- positive women.

  16. Prevalence of human papillomavirus infection & cervical abnormalities in HIV-positive women in eastern India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravarty, Jaya; Chourasia, Ankita; Thakur, Minaxi; Singh, Abhishek Kumar; Sundar, Shyam; Agrawal, Nisha Rani

    2016-01-01

    Background & objectives: India has the third highest burden of HIV and highest number of cervical cancer in the world. A cross-sectional study was performed to determine the prevalence and types of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, and the factors associated with HPV infection and abnormal cervical cytology in HIV-positive women attending the Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) Centre in a tertiary care hospital in eastern India. Methods: We screened 216 HIV- positive women with Papanicolau smear cytology and HPV testing. HPV DNA was detected by using consensus primers followed by sequencing. Results: Of the 216 HIV-positive women screened, 58 (26.85%) were HPV-positive; 56 (25.9%) were of high-risk (HR) HPV type. The most prevalent HPV type was HPV-16 (7.9%); non 16 and 18 HPV types were present in 17.6 per cent patients. Age ≤ 35 yr [(OR), 2.56 (1.26-5.19)], illiteracy [OR, 2.30 (1.19-4.46)], rural residence [OR, 3.99 (1.27-12.56)] and CD4 ≤350/μl [OR, 2.46 (1.26-4.83)] were associated with increased risk of acquisition of HPV. One hundred thirty nine (74.33%) patients had normal/ negative for intraepithelial lesions (NILM) cytology, three (1.60%) had atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS), 32 (17.11%) had low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL), 10 (5.35%) had high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL) and three (1.60%) had carcinoma cervix. WHO clinical Stage III and IV [OR, 2.83 (1.07-7.49)] and CD4 ≤350/μl [OR, 2.84 (1.30-6.20)] were risk factors for abnormal cytology. Interpretation &conclusions: Our study showed 26.85 per cent HPV positivity in HIV infected women in this region, with HPV-16 as the commonest genotype. Abnormal cervical cytology was seen in about 25 per cent women. Regular Pap smear screening as recommended by the National AIDS Control Organization will help in early detection of cervical abnormalities in HIV- positive women. PMID:26997018

  17. Accuracy of a Low Priced Liquid-Based Method for Cervical Cytology in 632 Women Referred for Colposcopy After a Positive Pap Smear

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hemel, B. M.; Buikema, H. J.; Groen, H.; Suurmeijer, A. J. H.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this quality controlling study was to determine the accuracy of liquid-based cytology (LBC) with the Turbitec (R) cytocentrifuge technique. Cervical smears of 632 Women, Who were referred to our CIN outpatient department, after at least two smears with ASCUS or higher were evaluated and c

  18. The management of women with abnormal cervical cytology in pregnancy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Flannelly, Grainne

    2010-02-01

    The management of women with abnormal cytology in pregnancy represents both a diagnostic and a therapeutic challenge for colposcopists. The emphasis should be on diagnosis and confirmation of cervical precancer (Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) or Adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS), thus excluding invasive cancer). Following an initial assessment, careful follow-up is essential. This must include colposcopy and take into account the physiological changes of the cervix during pregnancy and the puerperium. The management of women with invasive cancer diagnosed during pregnancy depends on the gestation at diagnosis and requires careful assessment and multidisciplinary planning.

  19. Unsatisfactory rate in liquid-based cervical samples as compared to conventional smears: A study from tertiary care hospital

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    Nalini Gupta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Developed countries adopted liquid-based cytology (LBC cervical cytology, partly because of its lower proportions of unsatisfactory (U/S/inadequate samples. This study was carried out to evaluate effect on the rate of U/S samples after introduction of LBC in our laboratory. Materials and Methods: An audit of U/S cervical samples was performed, which included split samples (n = 1000, only conventional Pap smear (CPS smears (n = 1000, and only LBC samples (n = 1000. The smears were reviewed by two observers independently, and adequacy for the samples was assessed as per The Bethesda System 2001. The reasons for U/S rate in split samples were categorized into various cytologic and/or technical reasons. Results: U/S rate was far less in only LBC samples (1.2% as compared to only CPS (10.5% cases. Cases in the satisfactory but limited category were also less in only LBC (0.4% as compared to only CPS (3.2% samples. The main reasons for U/S smears in split samples were low cell count (37.2% in CPS; 58.8% in LBC. The second main reason was low cellularity with excess blood and only excess blood in CPS samples. Conclusion: There was a significant reduction of U/S rate in LBC samples as compared to CPS samples, and the difference was statistically significant. The main cause of U/S samples in LBC was low cellularity indicating a technical fault in sample collection. The main cause of U/S rate in CPS was low cellularity followed by low cellularity with excess blood. Adequate training of sample takers and cytologists for the precise cell count to determine adequacy in smears can be of great help in reducing U/S rate.

  20. Detection of human papilloma virus in the cervical Pap smears and with polymerase chain reaction technique in the rural area of Western Maharashtra, India

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    Poorva Gurjar

    2016-08-01

    Conclusions: Pap smears and HPV DNA testing with PCR play significant role in the early detection of cervical lesions where clinical examination has limitations. High risk HPV detection with the PCR technique can be used as a tool to identify the population at risk for subsequent development of cervical cancer. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(8.000: 2648-2651

  1. 宫颈细胞学涂片联合阴道镜对宫颈病变患者的诊断效果%The Effect of Cervical Smear Combined with Colposcope in the Diagnosis of Cervical Lesions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王芳; 李卫民; 秦迎辉; 卢文华

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To analyze the effect of cervical smear combined with colposcope in the diagnosis of cervical lesions.Method:In our hospital for cervical smears 204 patients were selected,they were given cervical smears and colposcopy,the clinical results were analyzed.Result:204 patients, 93 cases were abnormal,the meaning of unknown atypical squamous cell and gland(ASCUS) 56 cases,low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions(LSIL) 22 cases,highly squamous intraepithelial lesion(HSIL) 14 cases,1 case of squamous cell carcinomas(SCC).Colposcope examination was performed,the sensitivity was 89.4%(59/66),specific degree was 77.0%(107/139),false negative rate was 10.6%(7/66),the false positive rate was 23.0%(32/139),after LEEP confirmed diagnosis and misdiagnosis and deficiencies.In cervical cytological smear combined colposcope examination,the sensitivity was 94.7%(54/57),43.5%(47/85), false negative rate was 5.2%(3/57),false positive rate was 56.5%(48/85).LEEP confirmed the accuracy was 90.5%.Conclusion:Cervical smear combined colposcope examination can not only reduce missed diagnosis and misdiagnosis rate,also can be a effective method for treatment of cervical lesion.%目的:采用宫颈细胞学涂片联合阴道镜对宫颈病变患者进行诊断分析.方法:选取在笔者所在医院进行宫颈涂片检查的204例患者,对其分别进行宫颈细胞学涂片检查、阴道镜,分析临床结果.结果:204例患者中,93例异常者,其中意义不明的不典型鳞状细胞和腺细胞(ASCUS)56例,低度鳞状上皮内病变(LSIL)22例,高度鳞状上皮内病变(HSIL)14例,鳞癌(SCC)1例.对患者进行阴道镜检查,患者灵敏度为89.4%(59/66),特异度为77.0%(107/139),假阴性率为10.6%(7/66),假阳性率为23.0%(32/139).经LEEP证实后,存在漏诊和诊断不足情况.宫颈细胞学涂片联合阴道镜检查,灵敏度为94.7%(54/57),特异度为43.5%(47/85),假阴性率5.2%(3/57),假阳性率为56.5%(48/85).经LEEP证实后准确率为90.5%.结

  2. A closer look at cervical smear uptake and results pre- and post- introduction of the national screening programme.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gallagher, F

    2012-02-01

    Prior to the introduction of a national cervical screening programme, death rates from cervical cancer in the Republic of Ireland were greater than the death rates in all other regions in Britain and Northern Ireland. The following audit compares the impact of the national cervical screening programme, established on 1 September \\'08, on uptake and results per age group screened before and after its implementation. This retrospective audit was carried out in a four-doctor practice with approximately 1554 GMS and 5000 private patients. Data over a ten month period in \\'08\\/\\'09 was collected from the practice record of cervical smears and compared to the same period in \\'07\\/\\'08. A cohort of 534 Irish urban women was included. A total number of 148 women were screened between October 2007 and July 2008 compared with 386 women screened over the same months in 2008\\/2009. Increase in uptake was most marked in the 25-44 years age group, 100 (\\'07-\\'08) vs. 303 (\\'08-\\'09). The majority of results for both time periods were negative (85% 07\\/08, 81% 08\\/09). There was a higher number of HSIL in \\'08-\\'09 (an increase from 1% to 3.37% of the total screened). This audit clearly supports the introduction of the national cervical screening programme showing both an increase in uptake and a increased pick-up of high grade lesions.

  3. Polymerase chain reaction and conventional DNA tests in detection of HPV DNA in cytologically normal and abnormal cervical scrapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalia, A.; Jalava, T.; Nieminen, P.;

    1992-01-01

    Med.mikrobiologi, polymerase chain reaction, DNA tests, human papillomavirus (HPV), cervical smear, hybridisation, cytologi, affiProbe HPV test, ViraType test......Med.mikrobiologi, polymerase chain reaction, DNA tests, human papillomavirus (HPV), cervical smear, hybridisation, cytologi, affiProbe HPV test, ViraType test...

  4. Cytohistological correlation and accuracy of the pap smear test in diagnosis of cervical lesions: a hospital based cross-sectional study from Odisha, India

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    Reena Naik

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Cervical carcinoma is one of the most common causes of mortality among women.Early detection can be done by Papanicolaou (Papsmear test - a simplest, safe, cost effective and non invasive procedure. The main objective of this study was to categorize Pap smears for cytohistologicalexamination as well as clinically correlate to analyze sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value of Pap smear. Methods In this prospective study 417 Pap smears performed, cytohistological correlation was done in 104 cases because patients had undergone both Pap smear and cervical biopsy.Detailed history was taken and clinical examination was done. Pap smear sample was collected from cervix and reporting was made according to Bethesda 2001 classification.Cytological findings were correlated with histopathology. Results Overall concordance rate was 60.7%. Concordance rate for malignancy was 100%, for inflammatory lesions 70.8% and for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN 33.3%. Common age group presented for screening was40-50 years.Commonest clinical presentationwas bleeding per vaginum. Conclusion The study provides good cyto-histopathology correlation in detecting high grade lesions and malignancy. Although Pap smear sensitivity was low but can be increased by adequate sampling and avoiding technical errors.Bethesda system is strongly recommended for adequacy of sampling to minimize inconsistency.Regular screening should be advised to the patients for the early detection of cervical carcinoma.

  5. Persistent inflammation on Pap smear: Does it warrant evaluation?

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    K Bhutia

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Due to the low sensitivity of Pap smear, premalignant lesions of the cervix can be missed in women with inflammatory Pap smears. However, it is not practically possible to subject all women with inflammatory Pap smear to colposcopy. This study was carried out with the aim to evaluate whether women with persistent inflammation on Pap smear need further evaluation with colposcopy. Materials and Methods: Four hundred and twenty women were screened at a tertiary level hospital with Pap smear. Women with inflammation on Pap smear were given treatment as per WHO guidelines and Pap smear was repeated at an interval of 6-12 weeks. Women with persistent inflammation on Pap smear were then subjected to colposcopy and directed biopsy if required. Results: Of the 420 women screened, 102 (24.3% women had a Pap smear showing inflammation. Thirty six women (8.6% had persistent inflammatory Pap smear. Thirty women were subjected to colposcopy and 16 (53.3% had abnormal findings on colposcopy. Five out of these 30 women (16.67% had Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN on biopsy. Conclusions: Nearly 16.67% women with persistent inflammation on Pap smear had cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. Hence, a large number of women with CIN would be missed if persistent inflammation on Pap smear is not evaluated further.

  6. BACTERIAL VAGINOSIS IS NOT IMPORTANT IN THE ETIOLOGY OF CERVICAL NEOPLASIA - A SURVEY ON WOMEN WITH DYSKARYOTIC SMEARS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANLEEUWEN, AM; PIETERS, WJLM; HOLLEMA, H; QUINT, WGV; BURGER, MPM

    1995-01-01

    Background and Objectives: It has been suggested that bacterial vaginosis may play a role in the etiology of cervical neoplasia. The authors analyzed the prevalence, risk factors, and impact on histologic changes of bacterial vaginosis in women with cytological abnormalities of the uterine cervix. M

  7. HPV infection, cervical abnormalities, and cancer in HIV-infected women in Mumbai, India: 12-month follow-up

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    Isaakidis P

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Petros Isaakidis,1,2 Sharmila Pimple,3 Bhanumati Varghese,1 Samsuddin Khan,1 Homa Mansoor,1 Joanna Ladomirska,1 Neelakumari Sharma,1 Esdras Da Silva,1 Carol Metcalf,4 Severine Caluwaerts,4 Petra Alders,4 Evangelia E Ntzani,2 Tony Reid41Médecins Sans Frontières, Mumbai, India; 2Clinical and Molecular Epidemiology Unit, Department of Hygiene and Epidemiology, University of Ioannina School of Medicine, Ioannina, Greece; 3Preventive Oncology Department, Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai, India; 4Médecins Sans Frontières, Brussels, BelgiumBackground: HIV-infected women are at a higher risk of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN and cancer than women in the general population, partly due to a high prevalence of persistent human papillomavirus (HPV infection. The aim of the study was to assess the burden of HPV infection, cervical abnormalities, and cervical cancer among a cohort of HIV-infected women as part of a routine screening in an urban overpopulated slum setting in Mumbai, India.Methods: From May 2010 to October 2010, Médecins Sans Frontières and Tata Memorial Hospital Mumbai offered routine annual Pap smears and HPV DNA testing of women attending an antiretroviral therapy (ART clinic and a 12-month follow-up. Women with abnormal test results were offered cervical biopsy and treatment, including treatment for sexually transmitted infections (STIs.Results: Ninety-five women were screened. Median age was 38 years (IQR: 33–41; median nadir CD4-count 143 cells/µL (IQR: 79–270; and median time on ART 23 months (IQR:10–41. HPV DNA was detected in 30/94 women (32%, and 18/94 (19% showed either low-grade or high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL/HSIL on Pap smear. Overall, >50% had cervical inflammatory reactions including STIs. Of the 43 women with a cervical biopsy, eight (8.4% had CIN-1, five (5.3% CIN-2, and two (2.1% carcinoma in situ. All but one had HPV DNA detected (risk ratio: 11, 95% confidence interval: 3.3–34. By

  8. Combined analysis of cervical smears. Cytopathology, image cytometry and in situ hybridization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Multhaupt, H; Bruder, E; Elit, L;

    1993-01-01

    This study was an attempt to correlate the Bethesda System of Papanicolaou smear classification with DNA content by image analysis and the presence of human papillomavirus (HPV) as determined by in situ hybridization. DNA histograms were classified as normal diploid, diploid proliferative......, polyploid and aneuploid. HPV in situ hybridization was performed with a cocktail of probes specific to HPV types 6, 11, 16 and 18. There was a good correlation between normal cytology and normal DNA histograms. Cytologically normal smears with bacterial or fungal infections showed a high proliferation index...

  9. Psychological impact, support and information needs for women with an abnormal Pap smear: comparative results of a questionnaire in three European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Anna

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Extensive information on cervical cancer is currently available. Its effectiveness in reducing anxiety in women receiving abnormal Pap tests is not clear. We investigated current practices of communicating abnormal Pap results to evaluate women's reactions and determine the sources of information they use subsequently. Methods A self-administered questionnaire-based study was performed in 1475 women in France, Spain and Portugal who had received an abnormal Pap smear result in the 12 months prior to completing the questionnaire. Questions covered methods of communication of the result, emotional reactions, support received (from the physician and entourage, and information sources, using pre-specified check box options and rating scales. Data were analyzed by country. Results Pap test results were mostly communicated by phone to Spanish women (76%, while physician letters were common in France (59% and Portugal (36%. Frequent reactions were anxiety, panic and stress, which were less common in Spanish women than their French and Portuguese counterparts. After discussing with their physician, half of the participants were worried, despite rating highly the psychological support received. Over 90% of women in each country discussed their results with family or friends. Partners provided a high level of support. Overall, the abnormal diagnosis and consequences had a low to medium impact on daily, professional and family life and their relationships with their partner. Impact was higher in Spanish women than the French or Portuguese. Information on the diagnosis and its treatment was rated average, and nearly 80% of participants wanted more information, notably French women. Preferred sources were the physician and the Internet. Conclusions Women expressed a strong wish for more information about cervical cancer and other HPV-related diseases, and that their physician play a major role in its provision and in support. There was a

  10. Prevalence and cumulative incidence of abnormal cervical cytology among HIV-infected Thai women: a 5.5-year retrospective cohort study

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    Thamkhantho Manopchai

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cervical cancer is one of the most common AIDS-related malignancies in Thailand. To prevent cervical cancer, The US Public Health Service and The Infectious Disease Society of America have recommended that all HIV-infected women should obtain 2 Pap smears 6 months apart after the initial HIV diagnosis and, if results of both are normal, should undergo annual cytological screening. However, there has been no evidence in supporting whether this guideline is appropriate in all settings - especially in areas where HIV-infected women are living in resource-constrained condition. Methods To determine the appropriate interval of Pap smear screenings for HIV-infected Thai women and risk factors for subsequent abnormal cervical cytology, we assessed the prevalence, cumulative incidence and associated factors of cervical cell abnormalities (atypical squamous cell of undetermined significance or higher grades, ASCUS+ among this group of patients. Results The prevalence of ASCUS+ was 15.4% at the first visit, and the cumulative incidence of ASCUS+ gradually increased to 37% in the first 3.5 years of follow-up appointments (first 7 times, and tended to plateau in the last 2 years. For multivariate correlation analysis, women with a CD4 count P = 0.043. There were no associations of subsequent ASCUS+ with age, pregnancy, contraceptive method, highly active anti-retroviral treatment, assumed duration of infection, or the CD4 count nadir level. Conclusion There are high prevalence and cumulative incidence of ASCUS+ in HIV-infected Thai women. With a high lost-to-follow-up rate, an appropriate interval of Pap smear screening cannot be concluded from the present study. Nevertheless, the HIV-infected Thai women may require more than two normal semi-annual Pap smears before shifting to routinely annual cytologic screening.

  11. Comparison of conventional Papanicolaou smear and SurePath® liquid-based cytology in the Copenhagen population screening programme for cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirschner, Benny; Simonsen, Kåre; Junge, Jette

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare diagnostic performance of conventional Papanicolaou smear with SurePath liquid-based cytology in a population screening programme. METHODS: A retrospective comparison was performed on data from two 18-month periods of the screening programme for cervical cancer...

  12. Prevalence and type distribution of human papillomavirus infection among women with different degrees of cervical cytological abnormalities in Sicily (Italy

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    Concetta Franchina

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Human papillomaviruses (HPVs are etiological agents of cervical cancer. In the absence of Pap smear alterations, high-risk HPV DNA can be detected in cervical samples. The prevalence of papillomavirus infection and their genotype distribution varies greatly across populations. The aims of this study were: i to assess the prevalences of HPV genotypes in people living in Eastern Sicily (Italy and the frequency of HPV multiple infections; ii to evaluate the association between HPV genotypes and cervical lesions in order to improve the epidemiological knowledge useful for monitoring or treating infected women. Nested PCR and reverse dot/blot hybridization were used for the detection and typing of HPV DNA in 315 women who had had an abnormal PAP-smear. HPV DNA test was positive in 70.5% cases; the prevalence was 50% in atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS, 80.8% in low grade-, and 76.2% in high grade-squamous intraepithelial lesion (H-SIL. The genotype distribution showed a predominance of HPV-16 (56.7% followed by HPV-18 (12.2%, HPV-31 (9.5% and HPV-6 (9.5%. Multiple infections were detected in 35.1% of the infected patients. High frequency of positive results for HPV was confirmed and, even in case of ASCUS, patients should be taken into account for genotyping. Our data indicate that multiple infections are consistent in women with low-grade lesions while they are less frequent in women with H-SIL. This could reinforce the theory of the multi-stage cancer model, by which one HPV type becomes predominant along with the progression of cervical lesion severity.

  13. Detection of protozoal Trichomonas vaginalis and abnormal vaginal flora in high vaginal smear

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    Wills G. Sheela

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: This study reflects on our responsibility to create awareness among women regarding abnormal vaginal discharge through proper health education routine screening targeted treatment to envisage healthy quality life.

  14. ["Where there's a woman, there's a Pap smear": the meanings assigned to cervical cancer prevention among women in Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rico, Ana María; Iriart, Jorge Alberto Bernstein

    2013-09-01

    This study focuses on the meanings assigned to practices for cervical cancer prevention among women from low-income neighborhoods in Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil. This was a qualitative study based on content analysis of semi-structured interviews with 15 women 24 to 68 years of age. The results showed high appreciation of the Pap smear test, performed as part of routine gynecological examination (but without the patient necessarily having biomedical knowledge of its role). Besides accessibility and quality of health services, other factors influence the way the women assign meaning to cervical cancer prevention. Moral values associated with sexuality and gender influence risk perception, adoption of preventive practices, and interpretation of cervical cytology results. The ongoing practice of the Pap smear test is part of the construction of femininity, which is associated with maturity and personal responsibility for self care in a context of medicalization of the female body.

  15. Prevalence of HPV Infection and Its Association with Cytological Abnormalities of Pap Smears in Tehran

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    M Jamali Zavarei Jamali Zavarei

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Human papillomavirus infection is one of the most common genital infections. More than 100 types of this virus have been identified, and most of them are capable of infecting the genital mucosa. Human papillomavirus is in association with cancerous and precancerous lesions of the cervix; some types like HPV 16 and 18 are highly carcinogenic, some types like HPV 31 and 33 are moderately and some types like HPV 6 and 11 are mildly carcinogenic. In this research, the relationship between cytological changes of the squamous epithelial cells and the presence of HPV infections in our cases has been assessed."nMethods: In this prospective study, we collected 681 samples from women admitted to different hospitals and private gynecological clinics in Tehran, during the years 2003-2005. Two specimens were collected from each patient; one for a Pap smear study and the other for PCR assay in order to detect HPV."nResults: Out of our 681 samples, 600 specimens were suitable for PCR assay, and 34 cases were HPV positive in PCR assay. This means that 5.7 percent of our patients were infected with HPV."nConclusion: HPV infection is common in Iran and is nearly identical to European countries such as Germany, and Spain. Also, we found that using PCR assay in order to detect the presence of HPV viruses in vaginal discharges can be very helpful.

  16. Papanicolau smear chances to be diagnostic for cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions (SIL) with or without detectable HPV DNA at in situ hybridization analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sopracordevole, F; Cadorin, L; Muffato, G; De Benetti, L; Parin, A

    1993-01-01

    The Authors have correlated 39 cervical diagnostic biopsies for squamous intraepithelial lesions (SILs) with correspective Papanicolau smears (PS), with relation to the presence or the absence of HPV of oncogenic type (HPV-one) detected by in situ hybridization (ISH). Agreement between cytological and histological diagnosis was present in 14 of 16 cases with detectable HPV-one and only in 12 of 23 cases without detectable HPV-one at ISH. The importance of the HPV type in the SILs with relation to the diagnostic accuracy of Papanicolaou smears has been discussed.

  17. Células glandulares atípicas em esfregaços cervicovaginais: significância e aspectos atuais Atypical glandular cells in cervical smears: significance and current aspects

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    Adriana Bittencourt Campaner

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Células glandulares atípicas (AGC em esfregaços cervicovaginais são achados citológicos raros, porém de significado representativo. Sua incidência varia, na literatura, de 0,08% a 0,81%. O sistema Bethesda de 2001 classifica estas lesões glandulares como AGCs sem outras especificações, AGCs provavelmente neoplásicas, adenocarcinoma cervical in situ (AIS e adenocarcinoma invasivo. Das mulheres portadoras de AGC, grande parte não apresentará qualquer tipo de alteração histológica em avaliação subseqüente. Entretanto, em 17,4% a 62,2% dos casos serão encontradas lesões histológicas significativas, como neoplasias intra-epiteliais cervicais, AIS, neoplasias escamosas e glandulares, cervicais e endometriais, bem como neoplasias de outras localizações. O risco de doença significativa está relacionado à subdivisão de AGC encontrada. Em virtude da elevada probabilidade de anormalidades histológicas significativas em casos de AGC, a simples repetição citológica é insuficiente para o seguimento dessa condição. Esta atualização descreve a epidemiologia, a avaliação e a conduta das pacientes portadoras dessa anormalidade citológica.Atypical glandular cells (AGC on cervical smears are unusual but important cytologic diagnosis. The incidence of AGC ranges from 0.08% to 0.81 % of all cervical smears tests. The 2001 Bethesda System nomenclature classifies these glandular lesions as AGC not otherwise specified, AGC favor neoplasia, endocervical adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS and invasive adenocarcinoma. Of women with AGC smears, a great number will have no histologic abnormalities on further evaluation. However, 17.4% to 62.2% are found to have significant histologic lesions such as cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, AIS, squamous and glandular cancers from sites farther the cervix and endometrium. The risk of significant disease is related to the AGC subclassification that was found. Because of the high likelihood that AGC

  18. Cervical neuro-muscular syndrome: discovery of a new disease group caused by abnormalities in the cervical muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Takayoshi; Ii, Kunio; Hojo, Shuntaro; Sano, Keiji

    2012-01-01

    Our previous study of whiplash injury found that abnormalities in the cervical muscles cause autonomic dystonia. Further research has found that abnormalities in the cervical muscles cause headache, chronic fatigue syndrome, vertigo, and dizziness. We named this group of diseases cervical neuro-muscular syndrome. Patients treated within a 2-year period from April 1, 2002 to March 31, 2004 reported good outcomes in 83.8% for headache, 88.4% for vertigo and dizziness, 84.5% for chronic fatigue syndrome, 88.0% for autonomic dystonia, and 83.7% for whiplash-associated disorder. A large number of outpatients present with general malaise, including many general physical complaints without identifiable cause. We propose that treatment of the cervical muscle is effective for general malaise.

  19. Cervical pap smear study and its utility in cancer screening to specify the strategy for cervical cancer control

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    Mandakini M Patel, Amrish N Pandya, Jigna Modi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to explore various lesions of Uterine cervix [inflammatory and growth], to find out target age group in which screening efforts can be concentrated for early detection as well as reduction of the incidence of cervical cancer, in our set up. Patients in the age group 15-50 and 50-78 years with various complaints were screened during June 2006 to December 2007. Total 995 patients were studied. Slides were fixed in 95% ethyl alcohol and stained with Pap stain. Slides were reported according to The 2001 Bethesda System, by cytopathologists. Out of 995 patients studied, 940 showed inflammation and other benign lesions. 55 patients showed premalignant and malignant lesions. Premalignant lesions were present in 30-50 year of age group.

  20. A molecular monopoly? HPV testing, the Pap smear and the molecularisation of cervical cancer screening in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogarth, Stuart; Hopkins, Michael M; Rodriguez, Victor

    2012-02-01

    DNA-based molecular testing for human papillomavirus has emerged as a novel approach to cervical cancer screening in the context of well-entrenched existing technology, the Pap smear. This article seeks to elucidate the process of molecularisation in the context of screening programmes. We illustrate how, although Pap has long been problematised and could be seen as a competing technological option, the existing networks and regime for Pap were important in supporting the entrenchment process for the artefacts, techniques and new diagnostics industry entrant, Digene, associated with the new test. The article provides insights into how the molecularisation of screening unfolds in a mainstream market. We reveal an incremental and accretive, rather than revolutionary, process led by new commercial interests in an era when diagnostic innovation is increasingly privatised. We show Digene's reliance on patents, an international scientific network and their position as an obligatory point of passage in the clinical research field with regard to the new technology's role, as well as on controversial new marketing practices. The article is based on a mixed method approach, drawing on a wide range of contemporary sources (including patents, statutory filings by companies, scientific literature and news sources) as well as interviews.

  1. A Study of 13315 Papanicolau Smear Diagnoses in Shohada Hospital

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    Maryam Afrakhteh

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to review Papanicolaou (Pap smears in patients of Shohada hospital in Tehran.Materials and methods:  A cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out and a database search of all Pap smear reports from 1995 to 2005 at cytopathology department was reviewed. The abnormal Pap smear reports based on the Bethesda System were assessed.Results: A total of 13315 Pap smear reports were reviewed from patients aging 20 to 79 years old. Totally 6065 (45.55% cases had diagnosis of ‘negative', 293(2.21% smears were labeled as ‘inadequate', and 6799 (51.06% reports had ‘Benign cellular changes'. There were 158(1.18% abnormal Pap smears consisting of 84 (53.18% SIL with undetermined grade (ASC-US, 28(17.73% low grade SIL (LSIL, 17(10.75% high grade SIL (HSIL, 27(17.08% carcinoma and 2(1.26% atypical glandular cells of undetermined significance (AGUS. Overall incidence of the cervical cancer among these samples was 0.2%. Benign cellular changes numbered 6799(51.06%, of which 5365 (78.9% smears demonstrated infectious processes.Conclusion: The number of abnormal pap smears in this study is less than western countries, but is comparable with Middle East and Islamic regions. More prospective studies are recommended.

  2. Prevalence and significance of psammoma bodies in cervicovaginal smears in a cervical cancer screening program with emphasis on a case of primary bilateral ovarian psammocarcinoma

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    Pusiol Teresa

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of our study was to determine the prevalence and significance of psammoma bodies (PBs in the cervicovaginal smears of the screening population of Trento district (Italy, with the description of the cytological presentation of an asymptomatic bilateral ovarian psammocarcinoma. Methods From 1993 to 2006, women with PBs detected on consecutively screened cervical smears were identified from the computerized pathology database of Rovereto Hospital. The follow-up period was set from the time of cytological diagnosis to May 31st, 2007. Clinical information was obtained from retrospective review of women's medical records. The source of PBs was identified with adequate diagnostic procedures. Results PBs were found in six of the 201,231 Papanicolaou screening smears (0.0029%. Benign conditions (intrauterine device, inclusion ovarian cysts and ovarian cystoadenofibroma with PBs were found in four patients. In two cases, PBs were associated with malignant cells; a bilateral ovarian malignancy was diagnosed in both cases, a serous adenocarcinoma and a psammocarcinoma. Conclusion PBs in the cervicovaginal smears are a rare finding, associated more often with benign conditions than with malignancies. Moreover, to our knowledge, our case of primary ovarian psammocarcinoma is the first report in which the presence of malignant cells and PBs in the cervicovaginal and endometrial smears represents the first manifestation of disease.

  3. Trichomonas, Candida , and Gardnerella in cervical smears of Iranian women for cancer screening

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    Narges Kalantari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Trichomonas vaginalis, Gardrenella vaginalis, and Candida sp are responsible for 90% of vaginitis which has been reported as important risk factors for cervical cancer. Aim: This study aimed to find the prevalence of T. vaginalis, Candida sp, and G. vaginalis in women attended the cancer clinic charity, Babol, Iran and to identify the associated risk factors. Materials and Methods: This retrospective study carried out from 1996 to July 2012 on women who attended to a cancer screening program at the cancer clinics charity, Babol, Iran. Papanicolaou test and clinical examinations were performed for each woman. In addition to Papanicolaou test results, demographic data were collected. The data were analyzed with X 2 test using SPSS software, version 18. Results: In total, 2511 out of 33600 (7.5% cases had vaginal infections. A total of 71 (0.2%, 2248 (6.7%, and 192 (0.6% of subjects were infected by T. vaginalis, Candida sp, and Gardnerella, respectively. The highest rate of infection was seen in 20-30 and 30-40 years age group. The frequency of vaginal ulcers was higher in trichomoniasis (14.1%. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that the prevalence of T. vaginalis, Candida sp, and Gardnerella was low among the studied population. Moreover, malignant cytological alternations were not seen in any infected women.

  4. Cytological profile of Pap smears in a tertiary care hospital of West Bengal, India

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    Nandini Bhaduri Bhattacharyya

    2016-12-01

    Conclusions: Majority of the cases cervical cytology were reported to be without any epithelial cell abnormality followed by LSIL. Age and religion were significantly associated with the abnormality of smears. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(12.000: 4397-4400

  5. [Papanicolau smears: reducing the false negative rate by improving the method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biran, Galya; Levy, Tally

    2004-03-01

    Screening for cervical carcinoma precursors by Papanicolau (Pap) smears diminishes the incidence of cervical cancer in screened populations. The Pap smear test has a considerable rate of false negatives and in order to improve its efficiency and sensitivity several types of technologies were developed, two of which are discussed in this review. One entails measures for collecting cells from the cervix into a liquid medium and preparing single layer smears from these cells. Using this method, a thin and clean smear is obtained, in comparison to the regular Pap smear. The liquid-based test improves sample adequacy and increases the diagnostic accuracy of low-grade and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions. The second type of technology is computerized deciphering of cervical smears, which are prepared either by the regular method or using the previously mentioned thin smear. the computerized deciphering is based on structural measurements of cells via an instrument that is programmed to differentiate between cellular components, thus categorizing the smears into those which are normal and those that require further evaluation by a cytopathologist. Alternatively the computer can display the most abnormal cells in the smear to the cytopathologist. In this manner, the workload of the cytopathologist is reduced while the test efficiency and sensitivity are increased.

  6. Detection and prevalence of IUD-associated Actinomyces colonization and related morbidity. A prospective study of 69,925 cervical smears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valicenti, J F; Pappas, A A; Graber, C D; Williamson, H O; Willis, N F

    1982-02-26

    Cervical Papanicolaou smears from 69,925 women were screened prospectively for the presence of Actinomyces israelii. The organism was not identified in non-intrauterine (contraceptive) device (IUD)-wearers. The prevalence of A israelii among IUD wearers ranged from 1.6% (general population) to 5.3% (clinic population). Protracted IUD use seemed to predispose to a higher incidence of infection. Direct immunofluorescence proved to be a more accurate and specific method of identification when compared with conventional light microscopy and anaerobic culture. Two of 112 women with direct immunofluorescence-proved A israelii had significant clinical infections. It appears that in the vast majority of cases, IUD-associated Actinomyces colonization produces only a superficial infestation. Conservative management is suggested for asymptomatic patients with cytologically detected Actinomyces to include removal of the IUD and repeated Papanicolaou smear after the next menstrual period.

  7. A methodological framework to distinguish spectrum effects from spectrum biases and to assess diagnostic and screening test accuracy for patient populations: Application to the Papanicolaou cervical cancer smear test

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    Coste Joël

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A spectrum effect was defined as differences in the sensitivity or specificity of a diagnostic test according to the patient's characteristics or disease features. A spectrum effect can lead to a spectrum bias when subgroup variations in sensitivity or specificity also affect the likelihood ratios and thus post-test probabilities. We propose and illustrate a methodological framework to distinguish spectrum effects from spectrum biases. Methods Data were collected for 1781 women having had a cervical smear test and colposcopy followed by biopsy if abnormalities were detected (the reference standard. Logistic models were constructed to evaluate both the sensitivity and specificity, and the likelihood ratios, of the test and to identify factors independently affecting the test's characteristics. Results For both tests, human papillomavirus test, study setting and age affected sensitivity or specificity of the smear test (spectrum effect, but only human papillomavirus test and study setting modified the likelihood ratios (spectrum bias for clinical reading, whereas only human papillomavirus test and age modified the likelihood ratios (spectrum bias for "optimized" interpretation. Conclusion Fitting sensitivity, specificity and likelihood ratios simultaneously allows the identification of covariates that independently affect diagnostic or screening test results and distinguishes spectrum effect from spectrum bias. We recommend this approach for the development of new tests, and for reporting test accuracy for different patient populations.

  8. Comparison of conventional Papanicolaou smear and SurePath® liquid-based cytology in the Copenhagen population screening programme for cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirschner, Benny; Simonsen, Kåre; Junge, Jette

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare diagnostic performance of conventional Papanicolaou smear with SurePath liquid-based cytology in a population screening programme. METHODS: A retrospective comparison was performed on data from two 18-month periods of the screening programme for cervical cancer...... in the municipality of Copenhagen with conventional Papanicolaou technique (n = 82,116) and liquid-based cytology (n = 84,414). RESULTS: After the conversion to liquid-based cytology the percentage of unsatisfactory samples decreased from 2.3% to 0.3% (P ...-based technique. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed the number of unsatisfactory samples to be significantly reduced with the liquid-based technique. The data suggest that there is an increased detection rate of cervical precancerous lesions with liquid-based cytology, but the number of false positive tests is still...

  9. Abnormal surface EMG during clinically normal wrist movement in cervical dystonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, P. M.; Leenders, K. L.; van der Hoeven, J. H.; de Jong, B. M.; Kuiper, A. J.; Maurits, N. M.

    2007-01-01

    We investigated whether patients with cervical dystonia (CD) have abnormal muscle activation in non-dystonic body parts. Eight healthy controls and eight CD patients performed a flexion-extension movement of the right wrist. Movement execution was recorded by surface electromyography (EMG) from fore

  10. Cervical spinal cord injury without radiological abnormality in adults.

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    Bhatoe H

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Spinal cord injury occurring without concomitant radiologically demonstrable trauma to the skeletal elements of the spinal canal rim, or compromise of the spinal canal rim without fracture, is a rare event. Though documented in children, the injury is not very well reported in adults. We present seventeen adult patients with spinal cord injury without accompanying fracture of the spinal canal rim, or vertebral dislocation, seen over seven years. None had preexisting spinal canal stenosis or cervical spondylosis. Following trauma, these patients had weakness of all four limbs. They were evaluated by MRI (CT scan in one patient, which showed hypo / isointense lesion in the cord on T1 weighted images, and hyperintensity on T2 weighted images, suggesting cord contusion or oedema. MRI was normal in two patients. With conservative management, fifteen patients showed neurological improvement, one remained quadriplegic and one died. With increasing use of MRI in the evaluation of traumatic myelopathy, such injuries will be diagnosed more often. The mechanism of injury is probably acute stretching of the cord as in flexion and torsional strain. Management is essentially conservative and prognosis is better than that seen in patients with fracture or dislocation of cervical spine.

  11. Segmentation and abnormality detection of cervical cancer cells using fast elm with particle swarm optimization

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    Sukumar P.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer arises when the anomalous cells on the cervix mature unmanageable obviously in the renovation sector. The most probably used methods to detect abnormal cervical cells are the routine and there is no difference between the abnormal and normal nuclei. So that the abnormal nuclei found are brown in color while normal nuclei are blue in color. The spread or cells are examined and the image denoising is performed based on the Iterative Decision Based Algorithm. Image Segmentation is the method of paneling a digital image into compound sections. The major utilize of segmentation is to abridge or modify the demonstration of an image. The images are segmented by applying anisotropic diffusion on the Denoised image. Image can be enhanced using dark stretching to increase the quality of the image. It separates the cells into all nuclei region and abnormal nuclei region. The abnormal nuclei regions are further classified into touching and non-touching regions and touching regions undergoes feature selection process. The existing Support Vector Machines (SVM is classified few nuclei regions but the time to taken for execution is high. The abnormality detected from the image is calculated as 45% from the total abnormal nuclei. Thus the proposed method of Fast Particle Swarm Optimization with Extreme Learning Machines (Fast PSO-ELM to classify all nuclei regions further into touching region and separated region. The iterative method for to training the ELM and make it more efficient than the SVM method. In experimental result, the proposed method of Fast PSO-ELM may shows the accuracy as above 90% and execution time is calculated based on the abnormality (ratio of abnormal nuclei regions to all nuclei regions image. Therefore, Fast PSO-ELM helps to detect the cervical cancer cells with maximum accuracy.

  12. Improved segmentation of abnormal cervical nuclei using a graph-search based approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ling; Liu, Shaoxiong; Wang, Tianfu; Chen, Siping; Sonka, Milan

    2015-03-01

    Reliable segmentation of abnormal nuclei in cervical cytology is of paramount importance in automation-assisted screening techniques. This paper presents a general method for improving the segmentation of abnormal nuclei using a graph-search based approach. More specifically, the proposed method focuses on the improvement of coarse (initial) segmentation. The improvement relies on a transform that maps round-like border in the Cartesian coordinate system into lines in the polar coordinate system. The costs consisting of nucleus-specific edge and region information are assigned to the nodes. The globally optimal path in the constructed graph is then identified by dynamic programming. We have tested the proposed method on abnormal nuclei from two cervical cell image datasets, Herlev and H and E stained liquid-based cytology (HELBC), and the comparative experiments with recent state-of-the-art approaches demonstrate the superior performance of the proposed method.

  13. Tamizaje en cáncer cervical: conocimiento de la utilidad y uso de citología cervical en México Cervical cancer screening: knowledge of Pap smear benefits and utilization in Mexico

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    José A Aguilar-Pérez

    2003-02-01

    .OBJECTIVE: To identify and evaluate the predisposing factors regarding the utilization of the Pap smears in the population seen in the Cervical Cancer Screening Program in Mexico METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted from January 1997 through December 1998 in Mexico city. A questionnaire was applied to a total of 2,107 women of reproductive age who attended a family planning program and data was collected regarding the following topics: social-demographics, reproductive risk factors associated with cervical cancer, sexual behavior and partner history, birth control, knowledge about Pap smear' benefits, and its utilization. Statistic analysis was conducted using Student´s test and non-conditional multiple logistic regression model for determining significance. RESULTS: The predisposing factors were: knowledge about Pap smear's benefits (OR=6.00, CI 95% 4.70-7.67, history of using at least two birth control methods (OR=2.38, CI 95% 1.75-3.24, previous history of vaginal infection (OR=2.18, CI 95% 1.73-2.75, sexual partner's approval of gynecological examinations (OR=1.56, CI 95% 1.07-2.29. CONCLUSIONS: Educational programs on cancer prevention in this population should include the benefits of screening tests. Pap smears for Mexican women of reproductive age are mostly offered opportunely. The previous use of health services is a determinant factor for the utilization of the Cervical Cancer Screening Program. These results show the need to strengthen health promotion programs to women at high risk of cervical cancer and their sexual partners.

  14. Patterns of epithelial cell abnormalities in Pap smears and its clinicopathological and demographic association: a descriptive study from Visakhapatnam city, Andhra Pradesh, India

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    A. Bhagya Lakshmi

    2014-02-01

    Results: Among the 194 women, in 8 subjects, the smears collected were unsatisfactory for evaluation. Analysis was done in the remaining 186 subjects. Among the latter, in 83.9%, the smears were negative for intraepithelial lesions (NIEL and 16.1% revealed epithelial cell abnormalities (ECA. Among those with ECA, Atypical cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS was identified in 66.67%, Low grade squamous intraepithelial lesions(LSIL in 16.67%, Atypical squamous cells-cannot exclude HSIL (ASC-H and Atypical glandular cells-not otherwise specified (AGC-NOS in 6.67% each and High grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL in 3.33%. Epithelial cell abnormalities were more common in women in the age group of 30-60 years (80%, they were more common in those with age at marriage between 13-18 years (63.3% and in those with age at first child birth between 15-19 years (56.7%. Conclusions: Therefore there is a need for Pap screening at regular intervals through camp based approach in these populations to motivate the women, increase their awareness, ensure follow up and referral and timely intervention in appropriate cases. [Int J Res Med Sci 2014; 2(1.000: 300-305

  15. Striatal morphology correlates with sensory abnormalities in unaffected relatives of cervical dystonia patients.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walsh, Richard A

    2012-02-01

    Structural grey matter abnormalities have been described in adult-onset primary torsion dystonia (AOPTD). Altered spatial discrimination thresholds are found in familial and sporadic AOPTD and in some unaffected relatives who may be non-manifesting gene carriers. Our hypothesis was that a subset of unaffected relatives with abnormal spatial acuity would have associated structural abnormalities. Twenty-eight unaffected relatives of patients with familial cervical dystonia, 24 relatives of patients with sporadic cervical dystonia and 27 control subjects were recruited. Spatial discrimination thresholds (SDTs) were determined using a grating orientation task. High-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) images (1.5 T) were analysed using voxel-based morphometry. Unaffected familial relatives with abnormal SDTs had reduced caudate grey matter volume (GMV) bilaterally relative to those with normal SDTs (right Z = 3.45, left Z = 3.81), where there was a negative correlation between SDTs and GMV (r = -0.76, r(2) = 0.58, p < 0.0001). Familial relatives also had bilateral sensory cortical expansion relative to unrelated controls (right Z = 4.02, left Z = 3.79). Unaffected relatives of patients with sporadic cervical dystonia who had abnormal SDTs had reduced putaminal GMV bilaterally compared with those with normal SDTs (right Z = 3.96, left Z = 3.45). Sensory abnormalities in some unaffected relatives correlate with a striatal substrate and may be a marker of genetic susceptibility in these individuals. Further investigation of grey matter changes as a candidate endophenotype may assist future genetic studies of dystonia.

  16. Normal or abnormal? Demystifying uterine and cervical contrast enhancement at multidetector CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yitta, Silaja; Hecht, Elizabeth M; Mausner, Elizabeth V; Bennett, Genevieve L

    2011-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) is not generally advocated as the first-line imaging examination for disorders of the female pelvis. However, multidetector CT is often the modality of choice for evaluating nongynecologic pelvic abnormalities, particularly in emergent settings, in which all the pelvic organs are invariably assessed. Incidental findings of uterine and cervical contrast enhancement in such settings may easily be mistaken for abnormalities, given the broad spectrum of anatomic variants and enhancement patterns that may be seen in the normal uterus and cervix. The authors' review of CT and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging enhancement patterns, augmented by case examples from their clinical radiology practice, provides a solid foundation for understanding the spectrum of normal uterine and cervical appearances and avoiding potential pitfalls in the diagnosis of benign cervical lesions, adenomyosis, infection, malignancy, and postpartum effects. This information should help radiologists more confidently differentiate between normal and abnormal CT findings and, when CT findings are not definitive, offer appropriate recommendations for follow-up ultrasonography or MR imaging.

  17. Plastic spatula with narrow long tip provides higher satisfactory smears for Pap test

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    Pervinder Kaur

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ayre spatula for cervical smear collection is being used despite the suggestion that different modified spatulas provide more satisfactory sampling. Aims: To see whether the cytological pickup improves with the use of long tipped spatula. Setting and Design: Rurally based University Hospital; crossover study. Materials and Methods: Pap smear using Ayre spatula in 500 and with plastic narrow long tip (Szalay spatula in 500 clinic attending women was taken and analyzed. Crossover smears were taken with modified spatula in 163 and using Ayre spatula in 187 women after 2 weeks of initial smears. The same pathologist made cytological reporting for all smears and was unaware of the type of spatula used. Results: Smears from Ayre spatula had significantly higher reports of inadequate smears (94 of 500 vs. 68 of 500 for Ayre and Szalay, respectively; P = 0.032 and it remained so even after crossover (94 of 187 vs. 70 of 163 for Ayre and Szalay, respectively; P = 0.2. Cellular quality appeared better with smears taken using Szalay spatula, but the overall abnormal smear detection rate remained similar with either collection tool (χ2 = 1.5; P = 0.2. Conclusions: Proportion of satisfactory smears is higher when long tip plastic spatula is used for collection of sample.

  18. Correlation of abnormal DNMT1 and MeCP2 expression with cell biological characteristics in cervical lesion tissue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Lin; Sha Ma

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To study the correlation of abnormal DNMT1 and MeCP2 expression with cell biological characteristics in cervical lesion tissue.Methods:Cervical cancer tissue and para-carcinoma tissue were collected from cervical cancer patients who received surgery in our hospital from May 2012 to October 2015, and HPV types as well as the expression levels of DNMTs, MeCP2, PBK, TOPK, Snail, Slug, SALL4 and Cat L were determined.Results:Protein levels of DNMT1, DNMT2, DNMT3a, DNMT3b, DNMT3l and MeCP2 in cervical cancer tissue were significantly higher than those in para-carcinoma tissue, and the rising trend of DNMT1 expression level was the most significant; protein levels of DNMT1, DNMT2, DNMT3a, DNMT3b, DNMT3l and MeCP2 in cervical cancer tissue with high-risk HPV infection were significantly higher than those in cervical cancer tissue with normal HPV infection; in cervical cancer tissue with high expression of DNMT1 and MeCP2, PBK, TOPK, Snail, Slug, SALL4 and Cat L levels were significantly higher than those in cervical cancer tissue with low expression of DNMT1 and MeCP2.Conclusions:Abnormally high expression of DNMT1 and MeCP2 in cervical cancer tissue may up-regulate the expression of a variety of malignant biological molecules by increasing methylation level.

  19. Multichannel somato sensory evoked potential study demonstrated abnormalities in cervical cord function in brachial monomelic amyotrophy

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    Nalini A

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Brachial monomelic amyotrophy (BMMA is known to affect the central cervical cord gray matter resulting in single upper limb atrophy and weakness. Settings and Design: Case series of BMMA patients who underwent somatosensory evoked potentials (SEP studies at a tertiary referral center. Aims: We proposed to record Multichannel Somatosensory Evoked Potentials (MCSSEP from median and ulnar nerves with neck in neutral and neck fully flexed position in 17 patients with classical BMMA seen over three years. Materials and Methods: Recordings were done from both median (MN and ulnar nerves (UN. N9, P9, N13, N20 potentials were recorded and amplitudes measured. SSEPs were performed in 22 age-matched healthy men. Amplitudes of cervical response were calculated by N13/P9 ratio and compared in both positions. Results: Among the controls N13 amplitude was always normal {MN: mean N13/P9 - 0.96 in neutral; 0.95 in flexed}{UN: mean N13/P9 - 0.82 in neutral; 0.83 in flexed}, and mean amplitudes did not reveal any difference in both conditions ( P >0.05. Among 17 patients N9, P9 and N20 responses were normal in neutral position. Flexion showed no change in latency or amplitude of N9 and N20 responses ( P -0.63 whereas the N13 response was abnormal in at least one tested nerve in the affected limb (MN: P < 0.01; UN: P < 0.01. During flexion, N13 response was abnormal in 14 (82% patients after MN stimulation and in all 17(100% after UN stimulation {MN: mean N13/P9 - 0.62 in neutral; 0.38 in flexed}{UN: mean N13/P9 - 0.55 in neutral; 0.31 in flexed}. Conclusion: MCSSEP in BMMA with neck flexion caused a significant reduction of the cervical N13 response indicating segmental cervical cord dysfunction.

  20. Reproducibilidad en la lectura de un set de placas de citología cérvico-uterinas en cuatro centros especializados de Medellín, Antioquia / Reproducibility of reading a set of cervical cytology smears in four specialized centers in Medellin, Antioquia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin Guevara

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: evaluar el grado de reproducibilidad en la lectura de placas de citología cérvico-uterina entre cuatro centros de lectura especializados de la ciudad de Medellín, Colombia. Metodología: 181 placas de citología cérvico-uterina provenientes de un estudio de prevalencia de anormalidades citológicas en Pueblorrico, Antioquia, se sometieron a lectura en cuatro centros especializados de Medellín. Se le pidió a cada centro que realizara una lectura rutinaria manteniendo el estudio en ciego por medio de recodificación de las placas, evitando que se filtrara información entre centros. Se calculó la concordancia general y el índice kappa de Fleiss. Resultados: de las 181 placas, sólo en 55 placas los 4 centros concordaron en el resultado, obteniéndose un porcentaje de concordancia global del 30% y un índice kappa global de 0,31. Según la escala de Fleiss, se observó una baja reproducibilidad en la lectura de las placas citológicas entre los cuatro centros involucrados en el estudio. La concordancia por pares de centros presentó índices de kappa entre 0,3 a 0,7. Discusión: existe una alta variabilidad en la interpretación de los resultados citológicos entre los centros estudiados. Es necesario implementar procesos de entrenamiento y unificación de criterios de lecturas de la citología cervical en nuestro medio Objective: to assess the degree of reproducibility in the reading of cervical cytology smears among four specialized reading centers at Medellin, Colombia. Methodology: 181 cervical cytology smears from a study on the prevalence of cytological abnormalities in Pueblorrico, a town located in the southwestern region of the state of Antioquia in Colombia, were re-read by four specialized centers in Medellin. Each center was asked to conduct a blind routine reading of the smears to avoid disclosure of information between centers. The reproducibility was measured by percentage agreement and kappa. Results: of 181 smears

  1. Molecular diagnosis of human papillomavirus in the development of cervical cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Lourdes Gutiérrez-Xicoténcatl; Tanya Plett-Torres; Claudia L Madrid-González; Vicente Madrid-Marina

    2009-01-01

    Cervical cancer (CC) is a major public health problem in developing countries and its most significant etiological risk factor is infection by the human papillomavirus (HPV). The main approach to date for the prevention of CC has been through screening programs, using the cervical smear (PAP test) to detect precursory lesions. The sensitivity and specificity of the PAP smear depend on the skills of the observer to recognize and classify a variety of cellular abnormalities. The development of ...

  2. Should LSIL with ASC-H (LSIL-H in cervical smears be an independent category? A study on SurePath™ specimens with review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shidham Vinod B

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cervical smears exhibiting unequivocal features of 'low grade squamous intraepithelial lesion' (LSIL are occasionally also admixed with some cells suspicious for, but not diagnostic of, 'high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion' (HSIL. Only a few studies, mostly reported as abstracts, have evaluated this concurrence. In this study, we evaluate the current evidence that favors a distinct category for "LSIL, cannot exclude HSIL" (LSIL-H, and suggest a management algorithm based on combinations of current ASCCP guidelines for related interpretations. Methods We studied SurePath™ preparations of cervical specimens from various institutions during one year period. Cytohisto correlation was performed in cases with cervical biopsies submitted to our institution. The status of HPV DNA testing was also noted in some LSIL-H cases with biopsy results. Results Out of 77,979 cases 1,970 interpreted as LSIL (1,523, LSIL-H (146, 'atypical squamous cells, cannot exclude HSIL' (ASC-H (109, and HSIL (192 were selected. Concurrent biopsy results were available in 40% (Total 792 cases: 557 LSIL, 88 LSIL-H, 38 ASCH, and 109 HSIL. Biopsy results were grouped into A. negative for dysplasia (ND, B. low grade (HPV, CIN1, CIN1 with HPV, and C. high grade (CIN 2 and above. The positive predictive values for various biopsy results in relation to initial cytopathologic interpretation were: a. LSIL: (557 cases: ND 32% (179, low grade- 58% (323, high grade- 10% (55; b. LSIL-H: (88 cases: ND 24% (21, low grade- 43% (38, high grade- 33% (29; c. ASCH: (38 cases: ND 32% (12, low grade- 37% (14, high grade- 31% (12; d. HSIL (109 cases: ND 5% (6, low grade 26% (28, high grade 69% (75. The patterns of cervical biopsy results in cases reported as LSIL-H were compared with that observed in cases with LSIL, ASC-H, and HSIL. 94% (32 of 34 of LSIL-H were positive for high risk (HR HPV, 1 was negative for HR HPV but positive for low risk (LR, and 1 LSIL-H was

  3. Should LSIL with ASC-H (LSIL-H in cervical smears be an independent category? A study on SurePath™ specimens with review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shidham Vinod

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cervical smears exhibiting unequivocal features of ′low grade squamous intraepithelial lesion′ (LSIL are occasionally also admixed with some cells suspicious for, but not diagnostic of, ′high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion′ (HSIL. Only a few studies, mostly reported as abstracts, have evaluated this concurrence. In this study, we evaluate the current evidence that favors a distinct category for "LSIL, cannot exclude HSIL" (LSIL-H, and suggest a management algorithm based on combinations of current ASCCP guidelines for related interpretations. Methods: We studied SurePath™ preparations of cervical specimens from various institutions during one year period. Cytohisto correlation was performed in cases with cervical biopsies submitted to our institution. The status of HPV DNA testing was also noted in some LSIL-H cases with biopsy results. Results: Out of 77,979 cases 1,970 interpreted as LSIL (1,523, LSIL-H (146, ′atypical squamous cells, cannot exclude HSIL′ (ASC-H (109, and HSIL (192 were selected. Concurrent biopsy results were available in 40% (Total 792 cases: 557 LSIL, 88 LSIL-H, 38 ASCH, and 109 HSIL. Biopsy results were grouped into A . negative for dysplasia (ND, B . low grade (HPV, CIN1, CIN1 with HPV, and C . high grade (CIN 2 and above. The positive predictive values for various biopsy results in relation to initial cytopathologic interpretation were: a . LSIL: (557 cases: ND 32% (179, low grade- 58% (323, high grade- 10% (55; b . LSIL-H: (88 cases: ND 24% (21, low grade- 43% (38, high grade- 33% (29; c . ASCH: (38 cases: ND 32% (12, low grade- 37% (14, high grade- 31% (12; d . HSIL (109 cases: ND 5% (6, low grade 26% (28, high grade 69% (75. The patterns of cervical biopsy results in cases reported as LSIL-H were compared with that observed in cases with LSIL, ASC-H, and HSIL. 94% (32 of 34 of LSIL-H were positive for high risk (HR HPV, 1 was negative for HR HPV but positive for low risk (LR, and 1 LSIL

  4. The use of telemedicine in primary care for women with cervical cytological abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etherington, lan J; Watts, Anne D; Hughes, Elisabeth; Lester, Helen E

    2002-01-01

    Telemedicine can be used in two different ways in the context of the National Health Service Cervical Screening Programme. The first method allows primary health-care providers to offer direct online booking of clinic appointments according to predefined algorithms based on the woman's cytological abnormality. The second method is telecolposcopy, which is designed to be used by nurses in primary care. Preliminary data confirm that such a system can be used reliably to make diagnoses. The technology is easily adaptable for realtime teleconsultation.

  5. The presence of aflatoxin B₁-FAPY adduct and human papilloma virus in cervical smears from cancer patients in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvajal, Magda; Berumen, Jaime; Guardado-Estrada, Mariano

    2012-01-01

    The carcinogenic biomarker aflatoxin B(1)-formamidopyrimidine 2,3-dihydro-2-(N-formyl)-2',5',6'-triamino-4'-4'-oxy-N-pyrimidyl-3-hydroxy-AFB(1) called AFB(1)-FAPY adduct, and Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) types 16 and 18 were quantified from DNA cervical scrapes from 40 women with cervical cancer (CC) and 14 healthy women as controls. The relationship between the AFB(1)-FAPY adduct and HPV types 16 and 18 was determined. Competitive inhibitory indirect ELISA was validated with 94% inhibition to quantify the AFB(1)-FAPY adducts in picograms per milligram of DNA (limit of detection = 0.1 pg/mg, and limit of quantification = 10 pg/mg), polymerase chain reaction and DNA sequencing to identify HPV types. The average concentration of AFB(1)-FAPY adducts/mg DNA in the CC cases was 1025 pg, 1420 pg with HPV16 and 630 pg sharing HPV18 (p = 0.03). In comparison, healthy controls had ≤ 2.6 pg/mg DNA, a statistically significant difference (p = 0.00006). The presence of AFB(1)-FAPY adduct increased six-fold the risk for CC between cases and controls, the odds ratio was 6.1 (95% CI = 1.4-25.4). There was a close relationship between the AFB(1)-FAPY adducts and HPV16 in CC samples.

  6. Self-reported history of Pap-smear in HIV-positive women in Northern Italy: a cross-sectional study

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    Ghinelli Florio

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The incidence of invasive cervical cancer in HIV-positive women is higher than in the general population. There is evidence that HIV-positive women do not participate sufficiently in cervical cancer screening in Italy, where cervical cancer is more than 10-fold higher in women with AIDS than in the general population. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the history of Pap-smear in HIV-positive women in Italy in recent years. We also examined the sociodemographic, clinical, and organizational factors associated with adherence to cervical cancer screening. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted between July 2006 and June 2007 in Emilia-Romagna region (Northern Italy. All HIV-positive women who received a follow-up visit in one of the 10 regional infectivology units were invited to participate. History of Pap-smear, including abnormal smears and subsequent treatment, was investigated through a self-administered anonymous questionnaire. The association between lack of Pap-smear in the year preceding the interview and selected characteristics was assessed by means of odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals adjusted for study centre and age. Results A total of 1,002 HIV-positive women were interviewed. Nine percent reported no history of Pap-smear, and 39% had no Pap-smear in the year prior to the date of questionnaire (last year. The lack of Pap-smear in the last year was significantly associated with age Three hundred five (34% women reported a previous abnormal Pap-smear, and of the 178 (58% referred for treatment, 97% complied. Conclusions In recent years the self-reported history of Pap-smear in HIV-positive women, in some public clinics in Italy, is higher than previously reported, but further efforts are required to make sure cervical cancer screening is accessible to all HIV-positive women.

  7. HPV genotype prevalence in cervical specimens with abnormal cytology: a report from north-east Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rassu, Mario; Bertoloni, Giulio; Mengoli, Carlo; Peron, Antonella; Benedetti, Paolo; Palu', Giorgio

    2005-01-01

    We have investigated the prevalence of HPV DNA in cervical samples collected from 1335 women with abnormal Pap test and analysed the degree of association of HPV genotype with cervical cytological abnormality and also with patient age. The study was principally aimed at providing some cross-sectional figures on the epidemiology of HPV in our area, where the ethnic background is expected to rapidly evolve due to extensive immigration from overseas. 471 (35.3%) of the 1335 patients screened were positive for HPV DNA. A clear association was observed between cytological findings and the proportion of patients with positive HPV PCR, namely 24.0% HPV positivity in the ASCUS group (atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance), 48.7% in LSIL group (low grade squamous intraepithelial lesions), and 71.9% in HSIL group (high grade squamous intraepithelial lesions) (p-value < 0.001). High-risk (HR) HPV prevalence appeared to be different from other areas of the world; we have detected a high prevalence rate of HPV-16, 31, and 58 and a low prevalence rate of HPV-18 and 11. The prevalence of both HR and low risk (LR) genotype groups was clearly related to age (p-value < 0.001), since the prevalence of LR group had a nadir between 41 and 50 y of age and 2 peaks at 15-20 y and at over 60 y, while the curve of prevalence of HR genotypes displayed an almost inverse trend.

  8. Rastreamento anterior para câncer de colo uterino em mulheres com alterações citológicas ou histológicas Previous screening for cervical cancer among women with cytological and histological abnormalities

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    C Rama

    2008-06-01

    do último exame citológico anterior.OBJECTIVE: To examine previous Pap smear history in women screened for cervical cancer with cytological or histological abnormalities. METHODS: Cross-sectional study in a sample of 5,485 women (15-65 years old who self-referred to cervical cancer screening in Sao Paulo and Campinas, Southeastern Brazil, between February 2002 and March 2003. A behavioral questionnaire was applied and cervical specimens were obtained for testing by Pap smears or liquid-based cytology. Women who had abnormal cytology were referred for colposcopic examination and, if abnormal, for cervical punch biopsy. To explore factors associated to cervical abnormalities Pearson's chi-was conduted square test at a 5% significance level. RESULTS: Cytological abnormalities were found in 354 women (6.4% and included 41 high-grade squamous intra-epithelial lesions and 3 carcinomas; 92.7% were normal results. Colposcopy was performed in 289 women, and 145 (50.2% showed abnormal results. Punch biopsies showed 14 cervical intraepithelial neoplasias grade 3 and 4 carcinomas. Previous Pap smears were reported in all women who had cytology suspected of carcinoma, 97.6% of those with high-grade squamous intra-epithelial lesions, all women with histological diagnosis of carcinoma and 92.9% of those who had cervical intraepithelial neoplasias grade 3 histologically. Previous Pap smear in the last tree years was reported by 86.5% and 92.8% of women with abnormal cytology and biopsy, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: There was no statistically significant difference regarding the number of Pap tests and time since their last test between women with histologically diagnosed carcinoma and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 compared with those with normal cytology.

  9. Prevalence and molecular epidemiology of human papillomavirus infection in Italian women with cervical cytological abnormalities

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    Angelo Meloni

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Human papillomavirus (HPV infection is the most common sexually transmitted infection and high-risk HPV types are a necessary cause for the development of cervical cancer. The present study investigated the HPV-type specific prevalence in 650 women, aged 15-76 years, with cytological abnormalities and the association between HPV infection and cervical disease in a subset of 160 women for whom cytological results for Pap-Test were available, during the period 2008-2011 in Cagliari (Southern Italy.Design and Methods. HPV-DNA extraction was performed by lysis and digestion with proteinase K and it was typed by using the INNOLiPA HPV Genotyping Assay.Results. Overall the HPV prevalence was 52.6%; high-risk genotypes were found in 68.9% of women and multiple-type infection in 36.1% of HPV-positive women. The commonest types were HPV-52 (23.4%, HPV-53 (15.7%, HPV-16 (15.4% and HPV-6 (12.4%. Among the women with cytological diagnosis, any-type of HPV DNA was found in 49.4% of the samples and out of these 93.7% were high-risk genotypes. Genotype HPV 53 was the commonest type among women affected by ASCUS lesions (21.4%, genotype 52 in positive L-SIL cases (22.5%, genotype 16 H-SIL (27.3%.Conclusions. This study confirmed the high prevalence of HPV infection and high-risk genotypes among women with cervical abnormalities while, unlike previously published data, genotype HPV-52 was the most common type in our series. These data may contribute to increase the knowledge of HPV epidemiology and designing adequate vaccination strategies.

  10. Frequency of Trichomonas vaginalis, Candida sp and Gardnerella vaginalis in cervical-vaginal smears in four different decades

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    Sheila Jorge Adad

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Vaginitis is one of the principal motives that lead women to seek out an obstetrician or gynecologist. Bacterial vaginosis, candidiasis and trichomoniasis are responsible for 90% of the cases of infectious vaginitis. OBJECTIVE: To verify the frequency of the three main causative agents of vaginitis, Trichomonas vaginalis, Candida sp and Gardnerella vaginalis, in four different decades (1960's, 1970's, 1980's and 1990's. DESIGN: Retrospective. PLACE: A tertiary referral center. PARTICIPANTS: Patients attended to as gynecology and obstetrics outpatients at the Faculdade de Medicina do Triângulo Mineiro during the years 1968, 1978, 1988, 1998, taken as samples of each decade. MAIN MEASUREMENTS: Diagnoses of infection by Trichomonas vaginalis, Candida sp and Gardnerella vaginalis were gathered from 20,356 cervical-vaginal cytology tests on patients attended to as gynecology outpatients at Faculdade de Medicina do Triângulo Mineiro during the years 1968, 1978, 1988, 1998, representing the four decades. The results were grouped according to the age group of the patients: under 20, between 20 and 29, between 30 and 39, between 40 and 49, and 50 or over. Statistical analysis was done via the chi-squared (Mantel-Haentzel test with a significance level of 5%. RESULTS: In 1968 infections by Trichomonas vaginalis and Candida sp were diagnosed in 10% and 0.5% of the cytology tests and in 1978, 5.1% and 17.3%, respectively (P < 0.0001. Infection by Gardnerella vaginalis could only be evaluated in the latter two decades. In 1988, 19.8% of the women had positive tests for Gardnerella vaginalis, which was the most frequent agent in that year, diminishing in the subsequent decade to 15.9% (P < 0.0001. Candidiasis was the most frequent infection in 1998, detected in 22.5% of the tests (P < 0.0001. In a general manner, all the infections were most frequent among younger patients, especially those aged under 20, in all decades, whereas infections were

  11. Detecting uterine glandular lesions: Role of cervical cytology

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    Baneet Bansal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The sensitivity of cervical cytology for detection of glandular lesions is reported to be low. We conducted this study to assess the diagnostic accuracy of cervical Papanicolaou (Pap smears for uterine glandular lesions and to compare the diagnostic utility of conventional and liquid-based cytology (LBC smears for glandular lesions. Materials and Methods: Archived histopathology records of all cases reported as endocervical and endometrial adenocarcinoma in the study period were identified and the available corresponding Pap smears (in preceding 1 year were retrieved. In addition, the Pap smears reported as glandular cell abnormalities (GCA during the same study period were retrieved. The overall prevalence of GCA, sensitivity, and specificity of Pap smears for the detection of GCA was calculated. The diagnostic accuracy of conventional and LBC smears for the diagnosis of GCA was also compared. Results: The prevalence of GCA in our study was 0.32%. The overall specificity of Pap smears for the diagnosis of GCA was 60.8%, this was not significantly different between conventional and LBC smears (P = 0.4. The overall sensitivity of Pap smears for the detection of GCA was 41.8%; LBC smears had significantly better sensitivity as compared to conventional smears for the detection of endometrial as compared to endocervical adenocarcinoma (P < 0.05. Conclusions: The prevalence of GCA in Pap smears is low. The specificity of Pap smears, for diagnosis of GCA, was found to be moderate. However, the overall sensitivity of Pap smears for the detection of GCA was low, though better for LBC as compared to conventional smears.

  12. What women want. Women's preferences for the management of low-grade abnormal cervical screening tests: a systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Maria Eiholm; Lynge, E; Rebolj, M

    2012-01-01

    cytology in primary cervical screening, the frequency of low-grade abnormal screening tests will double. Several available alternatives for the follow-up of low-grade abnormal screening tests have similar outcomes. In this situation, women's preferences have been proposed as a guide for management......Please cite this paper as: Frederiksen M, Lynge E, Rebolj M. What women want. Women's preferences for the management of low-grade abnormal cervical screening tests: a systematic review. BJOG 2011; DOI: 10.1111/j.1471-0528.2011.03130.x. Background If human papillomavirus (HPV) testing will replace....... Selection criteria Studies asking women to state a preference between active follow-up and observation for the management of low-grade abnormalities on screening cytology or HPV tests. Data collection and analysis Information on study design, participants and outcomes was retrieved using a prespecified form...

  13. Factors Infuencing Women in Pap Smear Uptake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijayanti, K. E.; Alam, I. G.

    2017-03-01

    Objective: Pap smear has proven can decrease death caused by cervical cancer. However, in Indonesia, only few woman who already did pap smear. The aim of this study was to investigate women’s knowledge about pap smear cervical cancer, and to investigate factors influence women to do pap smear test. Methods: Quantitative data colected through questionairre towards 31 women who did pap smear and 55 women who did not do pap smear. Questionairre was made using Health Belief model as a guideline to examine percieved susceptibility, perceived serioussnes, perceived benefits and perceived barriers. Chi square and multiple logistic regresion were used to investigate difference in knowledge and what the most factor that influence women to take pap smear test. Results: There’s significance knowledge difference betweeen women who did and did not do pap smear. But furthermore, by using Multiple Logistic Regression test, appearantly knowledge was not a strong predictor factor for women to take pap smear test (koefisiensi β = -0,164) Conclusion: Perceived barriers were factors that affected pap smear uptake in women in Indonesia. Few respondents get the wrong informations about pap smear, cevical cancer and its symptoms

  14. Colposcopic evaluation of cervix with persistent inflammatory Pap smear: A prospective analytical study

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    Dasari Papa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Inflammatory Pap smear is the most common report received by a gynecologist. The cervical screening algorithm for benign cellular changes on the Pap smear recommends treatment of infection if indicated and a repeat Pap smear in 4 to 6 months time. If the inflammatory changes still persist, subject the patient to colposcopy. However, in practice, this is not followed, especially in developing countries like ours where proper screening protocols are not available. Hence, a good number of patients in the premalignant stage are being missed. This study was undertaken to evaluate patients with persistent inflammatory Pap smears without atypia using colposcopy. Methods: A prospective analytical study of 150 gynecologial patients with persistent inflammatory Pap smear between 2006 and 2008 in an out-patient setting. All of them were subjected to colposcopy and biopsy from the abnormal areas. The incidence of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN/invasive carcinoma was calculated by proportions/percentages. Results: The incidence of invasive carcinoma was <1%. But, the incidence of pre-malignant lesions (CIN was high (20.9%. CIN 2/3 and carcinoma in situ were present in 6.9% of the cases. Conclusions: Patients with persistent inflammatory Pap smears can harbour a high proportion of CIN and hence these patients will need further evaluation.

  15. Association of cervical artery dissection with connective tissue abnormalities in skin and arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, T; Morcher, M; Hausser, I

    2005-01-01

    Spontaneous cervical artery dissections (sCAD) often occur in otherwise healthy individuals without known risk factors for stroke and frequently develop spontaneously without relevant trauma. An underlying arteriopathy leading to a so-called 'weakness of the vessel wall' and predisposing certain individuals to dissection has often been postulated. Therefore, the morphology of connective tissue, a main component of vessel wall and environment, was investigated in carotids and skin. While the overall morphology of dermal connective tissue is normal, about half of patients with sCAD show mild ultrastructural connective tissue alterations. These ultrastructural morphological aberrations can be designated either as 'Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) III-like', resembling mild findings in patients with the hypermobility type of EDS (EDS III); or coined 'EDS IV-like' with collagen fibers containing fibrils with highly variable diameters resembling mild findings in vascular EDS; or the abnormalities are restricted to the elastic fibers (with fragmentation and minicalcifications) without significant alterations in the morphology of the collagen fibrils. These findings had some similarity with the morphology found in heterozygous carriers of pseudoxanthoma elasticum. A grading scale according to the severity of the findings has been introduced. Similar connective tissue abnormalities were detected in some first-degree relatives of patients with sCAD showing hereditary at least in a subgroup. They can serve as a phenotypic marker for further genetic studies in patients with sCAD and large families to possibly identify the underlying basic molecular defect(s). Very few of patients (connective tissue abnormalities have clinical manifestations of skin, joint, or skeletal abnormalities of a defined heritable connective tissue disorder. In specimens of arterial walls of carotid, aortic, and renal arteries of patients with sCAD, pronounced systemic, histopathological, and

  16. Diagnostic value of an abnormal smear in non-pregnant women. Evaluation of positive smear from the surface of the portio obtained by the cottonswab method or by the dry wooden Ayre spatula and the relevance of positive smear from the endocervix and/or from the surface of the portio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundvall, L; Højgaard, L L; Højgaard, K;

    1990-01-01

    During a 3-4 year period, 324 women with a positive smear were registered consecutively and prospectively and divided into two groups according to the design of the investigation. In one group the smear was taken with an Ayre spatula and in the other group with a cotton swab. The purpose of this ...

  17. Clinical comparison between traditional Bethesda smears and liquid-based cytology test in the screening of cervical cancer%两种宫颈癌筛查方法对比研究及临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李新敏; 古雅丽

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨传统巴氏涂片法和液基细胞学法在宫颈癌筛查中的临床意义.方法:分别对12302例和15750例患者分别进行传统巴氏涂片法和液基细胞学检测的宫颈癌筛查.对细胞学阳性者进行阴道镜下活检并分析结果.结果:传统巴氏涂片法和液基细胞学检测的阳性检出率分别为5.45%和6.06%,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);两种方法与活检符合率分别为22.84%和55.57%,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);两种方法的假阳性率分别为77.16%和44.42%,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论:液基细胞学检测用于宫颈癌的筛查与活检的符合率高,假阳性率低,优于传统巴氏涂片,值得在临床推广应用.%Objective: To explore clinical value of traditional Bethesda smears and liquid - based cytology test in the screening of cervical cancer. Methods: Traditional Bethesda smears and liquid-based cytology test were used to screen 12302 and 15750 subjects with cervical cancer, respectively. Biopsy under the colposcope was performed for the subjects with the positive outcome of cytological examination. Results: The positive rates identified by traditional Bethesda smears and liquid-based cytology test were 5.45% and 6.06%, respectively (P>0.05). The coincidence positive rate for traditional Bethesda smear and biopsy under the colposcope was 22.84%. The coincidence positive rate for liquid-based cytology test and biopsy under the colposcope was 55.57% (P<0.05). The fake positive rates for traditional Bethesda smear and liquid-based cytology test were 77.16% and 44.42%, respectively (P<0.05). Conclusion: Liquid-based cytology test is worth to be recommended in the clinical examination of cervical cancer due to its higher coincidence rate with pathological examination and its lower fake-positive rate.

  18. Intra- and inter-observer reliability of MRI examination of intervertebral disc abnormalities in patients with cervical myelopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braga-Baiak, Andresa [Center for Excellence in Surgical Outcomes, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Post-graduation Program, Department of Radiology, University of Sao Paulo (Brazil); Shah, Anand [Center for Excellence in Surgical Outcomes, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Pietrobon, Ricardo [Center for Excellence in Surgical Outcomes, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Department of Surgery, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Braga, Larissa [Center for Excellence in Surgical Outcomes, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); University of Nebraska Medical Center, Lincoln NE (United States); Neto, Arnolfo Carvalho [Clinica DAPI, Curitiba (Brazil); Section of Diagnostic Radiology, Department of Internal Medicine, Universidade Federal do Parana (Brazil); Cook, Chad [Center for Excellence in Surgical Outcomes, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Division of Physical Therapy, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States)], E-mail: chad.cook@duke.edu

    2008-01-15

    Purpose: Intervertebral cervical disc herniation (CDH) is a relatively common disorder that can coexist with degenerative changes to worsen cervicogenic myelopathy. Despite the frequent disc abnormalities found in asymptomatic populations, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is considered excellent at detecting cervical spine myelopathy (CSM) associated with disc abnormality. The objective of this study was to investigate the intra- and inter-observer reliability of MRI detection of CSM in subjects who also had co-existing intervertebral disc abnormalities. Materials and methods: Seven experienced radiologists reviewed twice the MRI of 10 patients with clinically and/or imaging determined myelopathy. MRI assessment was performed individually, with and without operational guidelines. A Fleiss Kappa statistic was used to evaluate the intra- and inter-observer agreement. Results: The study found high intra-observer percent agreement but relatively low Kappa values on selected variables. Inter-observer reliability was also low and neither observation was improved with operational guidelines. We believe that those low values may be associated with the base rate problem of Kappa. Conclusion: In conclusion, this study demonstrated high intra-observer percent agreement in MR examination for intervertebral disc abnormalities in patients with underlying cervical myelopathy, but differing levels of intra- and inter-observer Kappa agreement among seven radiologists.

  19. Evaluation of Brain and Cervical MRI Abnormality Rates in Patients With Systemic Lupus Erythematosus With or Without Neurological Manifestations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Reza Najafizadeh

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Central nervous system (CNS involvement has been observed in 14-80% of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI is an appropriate method for evaluating CNS involvement in these patients. Clinical manifestations and MRI findings of CNS lupus should be differentiated from other mimicking diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS.Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and extent of brain and cervical cord MRI lesions of lupus patients. The relationship between neurological signs and symptoms and MRI findings were evaluated as well.Patients and Methods: Fifty SLE patients who had been referred to the rheumatology clinic of our hospital within 2009 were included in a cross sectional study. All patients fulfilled the revised 1981 American College of Rheumatology (ACR criteria for SLE. We evaluated the neurological signs and symptoms and brain and cervical MRI findings in these patients.Results: Forty-one patients (82% were female and nine (18% were male. The mean age was 30.1 ± 9.3 years. Twenty eight (56% patients had an abnormal brain MRI. No one showed any abnormality in the cervical MRI. The lesions in 20 patients were similar to demyelinative plaques. Seventeen patients with abnormal brain MRI were neurologically asymptomatic. There was only a significant relationship between neurological motor manifestations and brain MRI abnormal findings.Conclusions: Unlike the brain, cervical MRI abnormality and especially asymptomatic cord involvement in MRI is quite rare in SLE patients. This finding may be helpful to differentiate SLE from other CNS disorders such as MS.

  20. Application of Bethesda system for conventional cervical cytology: a study of 340 cases

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    Lalji G. Valiya

    2015-09-01

    Results: Overall incidence of unsatisfactory smears was 9.4%, of squamous cell abnormality was 4.1% and of glandular cell abnormality was 1.2%. Highest frequency of epithelial cell abnormalities (squamous as well as glandular was seen in 61-70 years age-group women (35.71% and in women presented with complaints of post-menopausal bleeding (22.5%. Conclusions: The study had shown a relatively low prevalence of epithelial abnormalities in cervical smears. The 2001 Bethesda system seems to reduce the number of cervical smear diagnoses of Atypical Squamous Cells (ASC, without causing any impairment in the diagnosis of High grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesion (HSIL thus decreasing the number of unnecessary interventions. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(9.000: 2252-2258

  1. 液基细胞学和巴氏涂片在宫颈癌筛查中的对比研究%Comparative study of liquid-based cytology and Pap smear in the screening of cervical cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵章树

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To explore the value of liquid-based cytology and Pap smear in cervical cancer screening of the general population. Methods: Retrospective analysis on 9562 cases of liquid-based cytology specimens were collected by our hospital from 2010-2011, cytology diagnosis using TBS (2001) classification reporting system; and 30 370 cases of Pap smears, cytology diagnosis using Palestine's five classification report; for the part of positive cytology cases, they were all under colposcopy with cervical biopsy and were sent for pathological diagnosis. Results: Among 9 562 cases of liquid-based, the positive were 403 cases, the detection rate was 4.21%, the pathological diagnosis of biopsy-positive rate is 90.3%; Among 30 370 cases of Pap smear, the positive were 187 cases, the detection rate was 0.62%, the pathological diagnosis of biopsy-positive rate is 88.2%. Conclusion: The positive detection rate of liquid-based cytology is much higher than that of Pap smear, but there is no obvious difference in pathological diagnosis of biopsy-positive rate between liquid-based cytology and Pap smear.%目的:探讨液基细胞学(TCT)和巴氏涂片检查在普通人群宫颈癌筛查中的价值.方法:回顾性分析2010-2011年本院收集的TCT标本9 562例,细胞学诊断以TBS (2001)分级系统报告;巴氏涂片标本30 370例,细胞学诊断以巴氏五级分类法报告;对细胞学阳性者,在阴道镜下行宫颈活检,送病理诊断.结果:9 562例TCT标本中阳性者403例,检出率为4.21%,和组织病理学诊断阳性符合率为90.3%;30 370例巴氏涂片标本中阳性者187例,检出率为0.62%,和组织病理学诊断阳性符合率为88.2%.结论:TCT阳性检出率明显高于巴氏涂片组,和组织病理学诊断阳性符合率两者无明显差异.

  2. CLINICAL ASSESSMENT AND CORRILATION OF PAP SMEAR AND LIQUID BASED CYTOLOGY IN BAD CERVIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khushboo

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM: Aim of our study to analyze the prevalence of premalignant lesion based on Pap smear and liquid based cytology in patients of bad cervix. OBJECTIVE: To compare sensitivity and specificity of two methods for screening of bad cervix and to know IDR (increase detection rate of cervical cancer by conventional Pap smear and liquid based cytology. MATERIAL AND METHOD: 200 women attending Gynaecology OPD were random selection on the basis of inclusion criteria. All 200 selected women were subjected for down staging through per speculum examination for identification of bad cervix. Pap smears of all 200 selected women were taken and ensured that no local douche, antiseptic cream and no local internal examination was done on the day of test. The prepared smears were then stained according to Papanicolaou's technique. Liquid based cytology smears preparing by using cervical brush 1-1.5cm were inserted into the cervical os until the large outer bristles of the brush touch ectocervix. Data collected for sociodemographic, parity, down staging clinical examination Pap smear and LBC was organised, interpreted and analysis on appropriate statistical software. P value < 0.05 is considered significant RESULT: Analysis revealed that the maximum number of women in our study are from middle age group(31-40yrs, low socioeconomic status, married before 18 yrs, multipara, do not use any contraceptive, uneducated, urban, Muslim population.in this study more abnormal smear is seen in LBC as compared to pap smear. Sensitivity and specificity for LBC is more as compare to pap smear. CONCLUSION: In low resource setting like ours were facilities for radiology, chemo- radiotherapy and supportive care are limited or unavailable. It is important to identify which resources fill healthcare need most effectively and to consider alternative approaches, LBC is strongly advocated in the best interest of public health, by improving the quality of the sample and reducing the

  3. Detection of gene amplification in MYCN, C-MYC, MYCL1, ERBB2, EGFR, AKT2, and human papilloma virus in samples from cervical smear normal cytology, intraepithelial cervical neoplasia (CIN I, II, III, and cervical cancer

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    Dabeiba Adriana García

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: El cáncer cervical es el segundo cáncer más importante en mujeres a nivel mundial y es la segunda causa de muerte por cáncer en mujeres. Se ha demostrado que el proceso de carcinogénesis cervical presenta componentes tanto genéticos como epigenéticos y medio ambientales. En la actualidad, hay gran interés en la búsqueda de marcadores moleculares asociados con la progresión de esta enfermedad, uno de los posibles mecanismos y que además está poco estudiado en cáncer cervical es la amplificación génica de algunos oncogenes como la familia MYC, EGFR y AKT entre otros. Objetivos: Detectar la amplificación génica de MYCN, C-MYC, MYCL1, ERBB2, EGFR y AKT2 además de la presencia del virus de papiloma humano en cepillados cervicales en mujeres con citología normal o con neoplasia intraepitelial cervical (NIC I, II y III o con cáncer cervical. Métodos: Se genotipificó mediante reverse line blot (RLB el virus de papiloma humano (VPH y se determinó el estado de amplificación génica de los genes mencionados mediante PCR en tiempo real utilizando sondas taqman. Resultados: El VPH se encontró presente en 4% de las pacientes con citología normal, en 48% en NIC I, 63.6% en NIC II, 64% en NIC III y 70.8% en cáncer cervical. Los genes MYCN, MYCL1 y ERBB2 mostraron mayor amplificación en lesiones de alto grado y cáncer con diferencias estadísticamente significativas  a las lesiones de bajo grado y citología normal, en 39.1%, 34.7% y 30.4% respectivamente. Además, se encontraron amplificados los genes C-MYC, EGFR y AKT2, en muestras de pacientes con cáncer cervical, en 12%, 18% y 13% respectivamente. Sin embargo, no se observaron diferencias estadísticamente significativas con respecto a las lesiones de alto y bajo grado y citología normal. Conclusión: En las lesiones de alto grado como en cáncer cervical, se encuentra mayor prevalencia del virus al igual que se detectan mayor cantidad de alteraciones gen

  4. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF CYTOLOGIC AND COLPOSCOPIC FINDINGS IN PRECLINICAL CERVICAL CANCER

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    Penagaluru

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The cytologic diagnosis of cervical smears has become a very important screening test for the detection of pre-invasive and invasive cervical epithelial abnormalities. MATERIALS AND METHODS It is a prospective study conducted for a period of 1 year in 100 women who fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Colposcopy, PAP smear and biopsy were done. RESULTS Majority 70.5% i.e., (12/17 of CIN occurred in the age group of 30-49 years. Among the 9 women who took OCP, 12% (2/17 had CIN. Incidence of CIN in the permanently sterilized group was 59% (10/17 and among IUCD user was 5.9% (1/17. Among women who were diagnosed to have CIN, 70.5% (12/17 complained of excessive vaginal discharge 11.7% (2/17 of women had post-coital bleeding. PAP smear had a sensitivity of 29% and a specificity of 88% which was attributed to the high number of false, negative smears. Colposcopy showed a sensitivity of 82% and a specificity of 81%. Sensitivity was more than pap smear but specificity was less than pap smear. Accuracy of Colposcopy was found to be 82% which was comparatively more accurate than pap smear (78%. CONCLUSIONS COLPOSCOPY offers an excellent tool in evaluating cervical lesions. It is an easy and perspective method and its importance lies in teaching, diagnosis and management of cervical lesions, both neoplastic and non-neoplastic.

  5. Comparative study of visual inspection of the cervix by 3% acetic acid (VIA versus Pap smear by Bethesda method in sexually active women aged 25-50 years as an equally or more effective cervical cancer screening method in a low resource setup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohit Rajendra Saraogi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cervical cancer is the most common cancer in Indian women and is a preventable cancer. Pap smear being an expensive screening test, increased emphasis is being laid on the development of a reliable and cost effective screening method for cervical cancer. This study aims at early detection of cervical dysplastic lesions using a simple and cost-effective screening test like visual inspection of cervix with 3% acetic acid (VIA and comparing its diagnostic efficacy with the more expensive Pap screening by Bethesda method. Methods: Ours was a prospective study carried out on a 100 sexually active women aged 25-50 years, coming to our OPD. The women were subjected to both a VIA and Pap smear. All Pap and VIA positive women were subjected to a cervical biopsy, whose histopathological report was taken as the gold standard. Results: In our study the sensitivity of VIA was more than that of cytology (100% versus 66.67% but the specificity was significantly lesser (47.83% compared to the 73.91%. The negative predictive value of VIA was comparable with Pap smear (100% and 85% respectively as was the positive predictive value (42.86% and 50%. However the diagnostic accuracy of VIA was lower than that of Pap smear (66.67% and 81.25% in our study. Conclusions: In this study VIA was found to have efficacy comparable to Pap smear in screening cervical cancer. Thus we recommend that VIA could be used as an alternative screening tool to detect early cervical dysplasia - especially in poor resource settings. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2014; 3(3.000: 688-691

  6. Paralytic strabismus compensatory head position and abnormal cervical motion%麻痹性斜视代偿头位与颈椎异常运动

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭文华

    2016-01-01

    在眼科临床诊疗过程中,眼性斜颈比较常见。麻痹斜视与颈椎异常运动相互联系,相互影响。颈椎是脊椎的带头“大哥”,颈椎的异常运动引发整个脊柱的运动异常,出现全身姿势异常。%In the clinical diagnosis and treatment process of the ophthalmology,the ocular torticollis is more common.The paralytic strabismus and abnormal cervical motion have mutual connection and mutual influence.Cervical spine is the lead "big brother" of spine,and the abnormal movement of the cervical spine causes the abnormal movement of the entire spine,appears abnormal body posture.

  7. 围绝经期宫颈病变所致阴道流血%Perimenopausal abnormal vaginal bleeding caused by cervical lesions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王登凤; 张国楠

    2012-01-01

    围绝经期妇女中,不规则阴道流血是一个最常见、也是最易被忽视的症状,宫颈病变是其主要原因之一,主要包括了宫颈炎、宫颈炎症相关疾病、宫颈上皮内瘤变、宫颈癌、宫颈肌瘤、宫颈结核、宫颈妊娠等,可以通过妇科查体、宫颈脱落细胞学检查、宫颈活检等简单手段在短时间内得到确诊.%For perimenopausal women, abnormal vaginal bleeding is the most common symptom, which is also the most neglected one. In various causes, cervical lesion is the one which can be diagnosed by some simple methods, e. g. gynecological examination , cervical cytology, and cervical biopsy. Cervical lesions in this review include: cervicitis, cervicitis related disease, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, cervical cancer, cervical myoma, tuberculosis of cervix, cervical pregnancy, etc.

  8. The effects of cervical joint manipulation, based on passive motion analysis, on cervical lordosis, forward head posture, and cervical ROM in university students with abnormal posture of the cervical spine

    OpenAIRE

    Gong, Wontae

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to determine the effect of cervical posture manipulation, based on passive motion analysis (MBPMA) and general mobilization, on cervical lordosis, forward head posture (FHP), and cervical ROM in university students with problems in cervical posture and range of motion (ROM). [Subjects] The Subjects were 40 university students in their 20s who displayed problems in cervical posture and ROM; they were divided into an MBPMA group (n=20) and a mobilization grou...

  9. 子宫颈抹片检查常规筛选宫颈组织、癌前病变或癌变 在发展中国家门诊中的运用%Screening of premalignant and malignant cervical lesions in underdeveloped countries by using Pap smear as routine investigation in outpatient department

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rubina Mukhtar; Maham Munir; Allah Rakha; Abdul Mateen; Rab Nawaz Maken; Muhammad Arif

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Papanicolou (Pap) smear screening has dramatically reduced the incidence of invasive cervical can-cer worldwide. Pap smear screening is still not widely available in developing countries and therefore cannot be used as mass screening tool. This study was designed to establish the role of Pap smear as a routine investigation for females presented to gynecological department. Methods: It was a hospital based study. Patients attending with complaints including irregular vagi-nal bleeding, vagina discharge, dyspareunia, low backache or lower abdominal pain and primary or secondary infertility were included in the study. All these patients underwent pap smear. Results: Age of females was 25 to 60 years. Ninety females had dysplasia. Mild to moderate dysplasia was positive in 84 females. Six patients had severe dysplasia suspicious for squa-mous cell carcinoma (SCC) which was confirmed as invasive SCC on biopsy. All patients with mild to moderate dysplasia were regularly followed at 4 to 6 months. Thirty patients were lost during follow up. Forty had negative smear at 6 months, while fourteen having persistent dysplasia on repeated pap smears were referred for biopsies. Histopathology confirmed invasive SCC in five patients while chronic cervicitis was reported in nine patients. Only two of screened patients with high suspicion for cancer showed false negative results. Directed biopsies done in these confirmed invasive SCC. Conclusion: Pap smear is a useful, simple, non-invasive and reliable screening tool for cervical cancer. It may be practiced as a routine investigation in outpatients in developing countries, where mass screening is not available.

  10. Carga viral do papilomavirus humano na predição da gravidade de lesões cervicais em mulheres com atipias celulares na colpocitologia oncológica Viral load of human papillomavirus as a predictor of the severity of cervical lesions in women with atypical cells at pap smear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Otávio Zanatta Sarian

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar o desempenho da carga viral do HPV por captura de híbridos II (CHII na predição da gravidade das lesões cervicais. MÉTODOS: foram incluídas 309 mulheres admitidas por resultado anormal da colpocitologia oncológica (CO entre agosto de 200 e novembro de 2002. Todas foram submetidas a avaliação histológica, sendo que a presença de neoplasia intra-epitelial cervical (NIC grau 2 ou mais (NIC 3, carcinoma invasor foi considerada doença grave. A CHII foi realizada para tipos de HPV de alto risco oncogênico e a carga viral medida em unidades relativas de luz (URL. O desempenho da CHII foi avaliado por curva receiver operating characteristics (ROC. RESULTADOS: na avaliação histológica, 140 (45,3% mulheres apresentavam cervicite ou NIC 1 e 199 (54,7%, NIC 2/3, adenocarcinoma in situ ou câncer invasor. O melhor ponto de corte da CHII para a detecção de doença grave foi 35 URL, com sensibilidade de 69% e especificidade de 70%. O valor preditivo positivo das alterações compatíveis com lesão de alto grau na CO associado a CHII de 35 URL (unidades relativas de luz foi de 88,2% para a detecção de NIC 2 ou mais. Já 95,7% das mulheres com lesões de baixo grau na CO e CHII menor que 1 URL não apresentaram lesões histológicas graves. CONCLUSÃO: o melhor desempenho da CHII no diagnóstico de NIC 2 ou lesão mais grave foi encontrado com 35 URL. A associação da CO com a CHII em diferentes cargas virais mostrou valores preditivos positivos e negativos muito altos.PURPOSE: to assess the performance of hybrid capture II (HCII HPV viral load in predicting the grade of cervical lesions. METHODS: between August 2000 to November 2002, 309 women admitted due to an abnormal Pap smear result were recruited. Histological disease confirmation was done in all women and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN grade 2 or above was considered as severe disease. HCII was done for high-risk HPV types and viral load was estimated in

  11. Comparison of the Quality of Pap smear Slides Taken from the Cervix Using Two Fixation Methods

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    Keshavarz Najmeh

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Pap smear or Pap test is a cytological method based on sampling from the cervix (or neck of the womb in women and preparation of smear and direct observation under microscope. Pap smear is now used as a common test for screening in women. Since the Pap smear method has been used as a screening test for early detection of cervical cancer, the incidence of aggressive cervical cancer and mortality caused by it has reduced by 70%. So, conducting of experiments to improve the quality of prepared slides and reduction of red blood cells by proper fixators for better diagnosis of the disease are the purposes of this research. This study is aimed to comprise the adequacy of Pap smear taken from the cervix using conventional fixative spray and Carnoy’s fixative methods. Methods: this study was performed on 202 blood Pap smear slides taken from 101 cervixes of women with abnormal uterine bleeding. These patients referred to Zeinabieh and Shahid Faghihi Hospitals related to Shiraz University of Medical Sciences in 2012 and 2013. After observation of two bleedings, two Pap smear slides were prepared from each sample; both of prepared slides from cervical cells of each sample were fixed at first by conventional fixative spray and one of them was then placed in Carnoy’s solution for 22 minutes and air-dried. The slides were then stained with Papanicolaou stain and examined by two different cytologists in a double-blind fashion. The obtained data were analyzed by SPSS. Results: the results showed that the presence of squamous cells (p=0.004, glandular cells (p=0.001, transformation zone cells (p=0.001, cellular inadequacy (p=0.002, distribution of inflammatory cells (p=0.001 and metaplastic cells (p=0.001 were more on the spray-fixed slides. The mean percentage of blood on the slides (p=0.091 and distribution of microbial agents (p=1 on the spray-fixed and Carnoy’s-fixed slides did not show statistically a significant difference. Discussion

  12. Improved identification of dystonic cervical muscles via abnormal muscle activity during isometric contractions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Bruijn, E.; Nijmeijer, S. W. R.; Forbes, P. A.; Koelman, J. H. T. M.; van der Helm, F. C. T.; Tijssen, M. A. J.; Happee, R.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The preferred treatment for cervical dystonia (CD) is injection of botulinum toxin in the dystonic muscles. Unfortunately, in the absence of reliable diagnostic methods it can be difficult to discriminate dystonic muscles from healthy muscles acting in compensation. We investigated if dy

  13. Improved identification of dystonic cervical muscles via abnormal muscle activity during isometric contractions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Bruijn, E; Nijmeijer, S W R; Forbes, P A; Koelman, J H T M; van der Helm, F C T; Tijssen, M A J; Happee, R

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The preferred treatment for cervical dystonia (CD) is injection of botulinum toxin in the dystonic muscles. Unfortunately, in the absence of reliable diagnostic methods it can be difficult to discriminate dystonic muscles from healthy muscles acting in compensation. We investigated if dy

  14. Prevalence, risk factors of human papillomavirus infection and papanicolaou smear pattern among women attending a tertiary health facility in south-west Nigeria

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    Olatunji Mathew Kolawole

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Cervical cancer amongst Nigerian women has been on the increase in the past decade, and is regarded as the second highest cause of cancer deaths among Nigerian women. This study was aimed at determining the prevalence, risk factors of HPV infection, and Papanicolaou smear pattern amongst a cohort of women attending the Gynaecology clinic of a tertiary health facility in Ido-Ekiti, South west Nigeria. Method: This was a cross-sectional study involving the screening of women between the ages of 15-64 years for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia using Papanicolaou smear staining technique and serological diagnosis using IgG enzyme linked immunosorbent assay kits. Respondents were selected through convenience sampling of subjects, while interviewer- administered questionnaire and clinical report form were also used to collect data, and data was analyzed using SPSS version 17. Results: Of the 200 blood samples examined for Human papillomavirus infection, 135 (67.5% were sero-positive while 65 (32.5% were sero-negative. For cervical cytology using Papanicolaou smear, 14 (7% were positive (had presence of cervical abnormality while 186 (93% were negative (had no cervical abnormality. Result showed a direct relationship between seropositivity, development of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and Human papillomavirus infection. The risk factors for the development of HPV infection included age, type of marriage, parity, history of genital infection and tobacco usage. Non circumcision of male partner was also found to be a risk factor. Conclusion: The presence of abnormal cervical cytology and high level of serological positivity clearly showed why there is need for a holistic approach to the screening, vaccination methodologies and early detection of HPV infection in the country. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2015; 14(6.000: 453-459

  15. Cervicitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... much growth of normal bacteria in the vagina (bacterial vaginosis) can also cause cervicitis. ... under a microscope (may show candidiasis , trichomoniasis , or bacterial vaginosis) Pap test Tests for gonorrhea or chlamydia Rarely, ...

  16. Human papillomavirus infection and anxiety: analyses in women with low-grade cervical cytological abnormalities unaware of their infection status.

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    Candice Y Johnson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Women testing positive for human papillomavirus (HPV infection experience increased levels of anxiety that have been attributed to fears of stigmatization and developing cervical cancer. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between HPV infection and anxiety in women who were unaware they had been tested specifically for HPV, to determine if any anxiety experienced by HPV-positive women could be due to causes other than learning of test results. METHODS: This study was nested within a randomised controlled trial of management of women with abnormal cervical cytology conducted in the United Kingdom with recruitment between 1999 and 2002. At baseline, prior to having a sample taken for HPV testing, the results of which were not disclosed, women were assessed for anxiety using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and asked about fears of developing cervical cancer ("cancer worries"; this assessment was repeated at 12, 18, 24, and 30 months of follow-up. Logistic regression and generalized estimating equations were used for the cross-sectional (baseline and longitudinal analyses, respectively. RESULTS: Among the 2842 participants, there was no association between HPV status and anxiety among white women. Among non-white women, however, anxiety was less common among HPV-positive than HPV-negative women (adjusted odds ratio 0.41, 95% confidence interval 0.22 to 0.77. Among non-smokers, cancer worry was more common in HPV-positive than HPV-negative women; the opposite association was observed among ex-smokers. CONCLUSIONS: Associations between HPV status and anxiety may be explained by factors other than learning of test results and may vary by ethnicity and lifestyle factors.

  17. High prevalence of oncogenic HPV-16 in cervical smears of asymptomatic women of eastern Uttar Pradesh, India: A population-based study

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Shikha Srivastava; Sadhana Gupta; Jagat Kumar Roy

    2012-03-01

    In developing countries like India, occurrence of Human papillomavirus (HPV) in cervical cancer as well as in the asymptomatic population was observed to be very high. Studies on HPV prevalence have been conducted in different parts of the country but no data were available from the eastern region of Uttar Pradesh (UP). The present study aimed to determine the status of HPV prevalence and its association with different socio-demographic factors in this population. Prevalence of HPV was investigated in a total of 2424 cervical scrape samples of asymptomatic women. Primer sets from L1 consensus region of viral genome were used to detect the presence of HPV, and the positive samples were genotyped by sequencing. Univariate binary logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate association of socio-demographic factors with HPV. 9.9% of the clinically asymptomatic women were found to be infected with HPV comprising 26 different genotypes. Among HPV-positive women, 80.8% showed single infection, while 15.4% harboured multiple infections. HPV-16 (63.7%) was the most prevalent, followed by HPV-31 (6.7%), HPV-6 (5.4%), HPV-81 (4.6%) and HPV-33 (4.2%). Significant association of HPV with non-vegetarian diet ( < 0.05) and rural residential areas ( < 0.01) were observed. High prevalence of HPV-16 in asymptomatic women of this population, a frequency comparable to invasive cervical cancers, highlights an urgent need for a therapeutic HPV vaccine covering HPV-16 and other high-risk types to provide protection against the disease.

  18. Follow-up of abnormal or inadequate test results in the Danish Cervical Cancer Screening Program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Bettina Kjær

    2014-01-01

    -up recommendation. However problems with delayed follow-up may threaten the effectiveness of the Danish Cervical Cancer Screening Program, as 20% of women are delayed and dysplasia potentially can progress into cancer. Delayed follow-up is found in situations where women either consciously or unconsciously postpone...... follow-up, or because of organizational aspects of the screening program, where communication regarding test results can fail either in content or with delay.This study will evaluate two interventions designed to increase follow-up: 1) A letter with the test result and potential recommendation for follow...

  19. Psychosocial impact of alternative management policies for low-grade cervical abnormalities: results from the TOMBOLA randomised controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Sharp

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Large numbers of women who participate in cervical screening require follow-up for minor cytological abnormalities. Little is known about the psychological consequences of alternative management policies for these women. We compared, over 30-months, psychosocial outcomes of two policies: cytological surveillance (repeat cervical cytology tests in primary care and a hospital-based colposcopy examination. METHODS: Women attending for a routine cytology test within the UK NHS Cervical Screening Programmes were eligible to participate. 3399 women, aged 20-59 years, with low-grade abnormal cytology, were randomised to cytological surveillance (six-monthly tests; n = 1703 or initial colposcopy with biopsies and/or subsequent treatment based on colposcopic and histological findings (n = 1696. At 12, 18, 24 and 30-months post-recruitment, women completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS. A subgroup (n = 2354 completed the Impact of Event Scale (IES six weeks after the colposcopy episode or first surveillance cytology test. Primary outcomes were percentages over the entire follow-up period of significant depression (≥ 8 and significant anxiety (≥ 11; "30-month percentages". Secondary outcomes were point prevalences of significant depression, significant anxiety and procedure-related distress (≥ 9. Outcomes were compared between arms by calculating fully-adjusted odds ratios (ORs for initial colposcopy versus cytological surveillance. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in 30-month percentages of significant depression (OR = 0.99, 95% CI 0.80-1.21 or anxiety (OR = 0.97, 95% CI 0.81-1.16 between arms. At the six-week assessment, anxiety and distress, but not depression, were significantly less common in the initial colposcopy arm (anxiety: 7.9% vs 13.4%; OR = 0.55, 95% CI 0.38-0.81; distress: 30.6% vs 39.3%, OR = 0.67 95% CI 0.54-0.84. Neither anxiety nor depression differed between arms at subsequent time

  20. Missed Opportunities for Health Education on Pap Smears in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer, Angela M.; Nussbaum, Lauren; Cabrera, Lilia; Paz-Soldan, Valerie A.

    2011-01-01

    Despite cervical cancer being one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths among women in Peru, cervical Pap smear coverage is low. This article uses findings from 185 direct clinician observations in four cities of Peru (representing the capital and each of the three main geographic regions of the country) to assess missed opportunities for…

  1. Home-based urinary HPV DNA testing in women who do not attend cervical cancer screening clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducancelle, Alexandra; Reiser, Justine; Pivert, Adeline; Le Guillou-Guillemette, Hélène; Le Duc-Banaszuk, Anne Sophie; Lunel-Fabiani, Françoise

    2015-09-01

    In France, cervical cancer screening is currently based on cytological examination of a Pap smear for women aged 25 to 65, but screening coverage is unsatisfactory. Previous studies have shown that self-sampling for human papillomavirus (HPV) testing increases rates of compliance. With this purpose in mind, we performed the CapU study to evaluate the acceptance of a urinary HPV test. Letters proposing a new cervical cancer screening method using at-home urine self-sampling were sent to 5000 women aged 40-65 years who had not had a Pap smear over the past three years. The participating patients had to send their urine samples to the Angers Hospital Virology Laboratory for analysis using real-time PCR. Of the 771 samples received, 687 were analyzed. High-risk HPV were detected in 29 women. In follow-up, 28 women with positive urinary HPV results had a Pap smear or colposcopy done. The cytological results showed nine abnormal Pap smears, among which histology studies confirmed three cases of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade III lesions. Our study shows that urinary HPV testing may be pertinent to women who do not have cervical Pap smears done and lead to the diagnosis of high-grade cervical lesions.

  2. A Novel Reading Scheme for Assessing the Extent of Radiographic Abnormalities and Its Association with Disease Severity in Sputum Smear-Positive Tuberculosis: An Observational Study in Hyderabad/India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Surabhi; Hussain, Abid; Klassert, Tilman E.; Driesch, Dominik; Tokaryeva, Viktoriya; Löschmann, Yvonne Yi-Na; Sumanlatha, Gadamm; Ahmed, Niyaz; Valluri, Vijayalakshmi; Schumann, Ralf R.; Lala, Birgit; Slevogt, Hortense

    2015-01-01

    Background Existing reading schemes for chest X-ray (CXR) used to grade the extent of disease severity at diagnosis in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) are often based on numerical scores that summate specific radiographic features. However, since PTB is known to exhibit a wide heterogeneity in pathology, certain features might be differentially associated with clinical parameters of disease severity. Objective We aimed to grade disease severity in PTB patients at diagnosis and after completion of DOTS treatment by developing a reading scheme based on five different radiographic manifestations and analyze their association with the clinical parameters of systemic involvement and infectivity. Methods 141 HIV-negative adults with newly diagnosed sputum smear-positive PTB were enrolled in a prospective observational study in Hyderabad, India. The presence and extent on CXRs of five radiographic manifestations, i.e., lung involvement, alveolar infiltration, cavitation, lymphadenopathy and pleural effusion, were classified using the new reading scheme by using a four-quadrant approach. We evaluated the inter-reader reliability of each manifestation, and its association with BMI and sputum smear positivity at diagnosis. The presence and extent of these radiographic manifestations were further compared with CXRs on completion of DOTS treatment. Results At diagnosis, an average lung area of 51.7% +/- 23.3% was affected by radiographic abnormalities. 94% of the patients had alveolar infiltrates, with 89.4% located in the upper quadrants, suggesting post primary PTB and in 34.8% of patients cavities were found. We further showed that the extent of affected lung area was a negative predictor of BMI (β value -0.035, p 0.019). No significant association of BMI with any of the other CXR features was found. The extent of alveolar infiltrates, along with the presence of cavitation, were strongly associated with sputum smear positivity. The microbiological cure rate in

  3. The status of cervical cytology in Swaziland, Southern Africa: A descriptive study

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    Okonda Sylvain

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cancer of the cervix is the most common cancer in women in Swaziland where most women never undergo cervical screening. The extremely high prevalence of HIV/AIDS in Swaziland complicates the management of preinvasive and invasive cervical cancer. The purpose of this study was to assess the current status of cervical cytology in Swaziland, its strengths and limitations. Methods: The study is a retrospective review of 12,188 conventional cervical smears received by the Central Public Health Laboratory in Swaziland from June 2004 to May 2006. Results: Review of results showed very high rates of cytologic abnormalities with 43.2% of smears screened reported as abnormal. The percentages of abnormalities were as follows: atypical squamous cells of undermined significance (ASC-US, 19.8%; atypical squamous cells, cannot exclude HSILs (ASC-H, 8.8%; low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL, 9.0%; high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL, 4.6%; squamous cell carcinomas, 0.5%; atypical endocervical cells, 0.6%; and atypical endometrial cells, 0.4%. Just over 5% of smears were inadequate. The highest rates of HSILs and invasive squamous carcinoma occurred in women aged 50-59 years. Conclusions: This study underscores the need to reduce the incidence of cervical cancer and its precursor lesions in Swaziland women. Based on studies of human papillomavirus (HPV types in other Southern African countries, current HPV vaccines would reduce the incidence and mortality from cervical cancer in the future, but cervical screening would still be required, both for women already infected with the HPV and for HPV subtypes not covered by current vaccines. The most cost-effective combination of screening modalities such as visual inspection, HPV DNA testing, and cytology should be investigated. Cervical cancer reduction needs to be managed within the greater framework of the HIV/AIDS epidemic.

  4. Epidemiology and costs of cervical cancer screening and cervical dysplasia in Italy

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    Valle Sabrina

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We estimated the number of women undergoing cervical cancer screening annually in Italy, the rates of cervical abnormalities detected, and the costs of screening and management of abnormalities. Methods The annual number of screened women was estimated from National Health Interview data. Data from the Italian Group for Cervical Cancer Screening were used to estimate the number of positive, negative and unsatisfactory Pap smears. The incidence of CIN (cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia was estimated from the Emilia Romagna Cancer Registry. Patterns of follow-up and treatment costs were estimated using a typical disease management approach based on national guidelines and data from the Italian Group for Cervical Cancer Screening. Treatment unit costs were obtained from Italian National Health Service and Hospital Information System of the Lazio Region. Results An estimated 6.4 million women aged 25–69 years undergo screening annually in Italy (1.2 million and 5.2 million through organized and opportunistic screening programs, respectively. Approximately 2.4% of tests have positive findings. There are approximately 21,000 cases of CIN1 and 7,000–17,000 cases of CIN2/3. Estimated costs to the healthcare service amount to €158.5 million for screening and €22.9 million for the management of cervical abnormalities. Conclusion Although some cervical abnormalities might have been underestimated, the total annual cost of cervical cancer prevention in Italy is approximately €181.5 million, of which 87% is attributable to screening.

  5. Development of an Abnormal Curvature Cervical Spine Finite Element Model%曲度异常颈椎三维有限元模型的建立#

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何帆

    2015-01-01

    目的:建立生理曲度异常的人颈椎三维有限元模型,并进行应力分析。方法:采集1位颈椎生理曲度变直患者的CT数据,利用 MIMICS软件进行数据处理,建立实体模型,然后导入有限元分析软件 Abaqus,建立颈椎有限元模型。在此模型上施加作用力,模拟颈椎在后伸工况下的状态。结果:建立了包括完整颈椎椎体、椎间盘和模拟主要韧带的颈椎模型,得到了在外力作用下的颈椎应力云图。结论:建立的有限元模型可用于生理曲度异常颈椎的生物力学研究。%Objective: To develop an abnormal curvature cervical spine finite element model, for the use of subsequent biomechanical analyses of human cervical.Methods:The computed tomography data of an abnormal cervical curvature patient were used in the study. The data were input to MIMICS software to process and output a three dimension entity model, then the model was input into the finite element software abaqus to obtain a cervical finite element model. The model accuracy was tested in vitro experimental results for the movement of rear bending.Results:The finite element model comprised all cervical vertebras, discs and the main ligaments was established. The nephogram of the cervical spine under the force was got.Conclusion:The established finite element model is competent in the use of the biomechanical analysis in clinical study of abnormal curvature cervical spine.

  6. Cervical pre-malignant lesions in HIV infected women attending Care and Treatment Centre in a tertiary hospital, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balandya, Belinda S; Pembe, Andrea B; Mwakyoma, Henry A

    2011-09-01

    The aims of this study was to determine proportion of HIV infected women with cervical pre-malignant lesions; and compare the use of Visual Inspection of the cervix after application of Acetic acid (VIA) and Papanicolau (Pap) smear in screening for cervical premalignant lesions in HIV positive women attending Care and Treatment Centre (CTC) at Muhimbili National Hospital (MNH), Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. A total of 316 women aged 18-70 years had a Pap smear taken for cytology, followed by spraying onto the cervix with 4% acetic acid and then inspecting it. Cytology was considered negative when there was no Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia (CIN) lesion reported from the Pap smear taken, and positive if CIN lesion 1, 2 or 3 was reported. Detection of a well-defined, opaque acetowhite lesion close to the squamocolumnar junction or close to the external cervical os constituted a positive VIA. Out of 316 women, 132 women had acetowhite lesions on VIA, making the proportion of abnormal cervical lesions to be 42.4%. One hundred and one out of 312 women (32.4%) had CIN lesions detected on Pap smear. The proportion of agreement between these two tests was 0.3. The proportion of agreement was moderate in women with advanced WHO HIV clinical stage of the disease and in women not on ART (Anti Retroviral Therapy). Women with CD-4 count less than 200 cells/mm3 had more abnormal cervical lesions. There is considerable proportion of HIV positive women with premalignant lesions of the cervix. Considering the proportion of HIV women with abnormal lesions and the difficulty in logistics of doing Pap smear in low resource settings, these results supports the recommendation to introduce screening of premalignant lesions of the cervix using VIA to all HIV infected women.

  7. 荧光镜检技术(TruScreen)联合宫颈巴氏涂片筛查宫颈癌的临床研究%Clinical research on fluorescence microscopy technology combined with cervix pap smear in cervical cancer screening

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李霞; 叶青丽; 李忠; 李志玲; 陈改元; 唐莉; 陈素容; 李茜; 卢硕懿

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨荧光镜检技术(TruScreen)联合宫颈巴氏涂片筛查宫颈癌的诊断价值.方法 将500例宫颈癌筛查者依次进行TruScreen联合宫颈巴氏涂片检查、宫颈巴氏涂片和阴道镜下宫颈活检,将病理结果与TruScreen联合宫颈巴氏涂片和宫颈巴氏涂片结果进行对照分析.结果 TruScreen和巴氏涂片阳性分别为63例和49例,病理检查阳性为46例,TruScre en与巴氏涂片检测CIN的敏感度分别为95.65%和80.43%,特异度分别为62.75%和76.47%,差异有显著性(P< 0.05).结论 TruScreen联合宫颈巴氏涂片筛查宫颈癌具有准确率高的特点.%Objective To explore diagnostic value of the fluorescence microscopy technology combined with cervix pap smear in cervical cancer screening.Methods 500 women with cervical cancer screening were examined by TruScreen combined with pap smear screening,contraposed by the histology biopsy,and the difference of the two cytological examinations and the pathological examination were analyzed.Results The positive of TruScreen and cervix pap smear was 63 cases and 49 cases,the pathological examination was 46 cases,the sensitivity of CIN TruScreen and cervix pap smear were 95.65% and 80.43% respectively,and the specificity were 62.75% and 76.47% respectively,with statistical significant difference(P < 0.05).Conclusion The fluorescence microscopy technology combined with cervix pap smear in cervical cancer screening has an advantage of high accuracy rate.

  8. Estimation of platelet count in unstained peripheral blood smears in comparison with stained smears and evaluation of its efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umashankar, T; Thomas, B M; Sahana, P

    2014-12-01

    Assessment of platelet count is an important diagnostic parameter in haematology. Automated blood cell counters have largely replaced the manual method. However, all abnormal platelet counts are verified in Leishman's stained peripheral blood smear. Platelets also can be identified in the unstained blood smears. The objective of this study is to compare the unstained peripheral blood smears with the stained smears and determination of the effectiveness of unstained smears in the estimation of platelet count. 250 Venous blood samples sent for blood cell counts were analyzed. Platelets were counted in the unstained smear under 100× objective in 10 fields without placing immersion oil and the average number of platelets was calculated. Same smear was stained by Leishman's stain and platelets were counted under 100× objective after placing a drop of immersion oil. Collected data were analyzed for intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC). ICC showed excellent agreement (ICC > 0.85). The unstained smears were found to be as effective as stained smears for platelet count in most of the cases. However, in case of doubt a stained preparation has to be made to confirm the count. The turnaround time was 3-5 minutes compared to 15-20 minutes by stained smear technique, thus this technique may be used as an initial screening method whenever there is large sample load.

  9. ROLE OF COLPOSCOPY USING MODIFIED REID’S INDEX IN SCREENING OF CERVICAL CANCER IN WOMEN WITH ABNORMAL CERVIX ON NAKED EYE EXAMINATION

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    Deshpande

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the validity of Colposcopy using Modified Reid's Index as a screening tool in cervical cancer in women with abnormal cervix on naked eye examination . METHODS: This observational study was carried out in Government medical college, Aurangabad from June 2011 to May 2013 . Total 392 women with abnormal cervix on naked eye examination of underwent colposcopy and diagnosis was made on the basis of Modified R eid’s Index. Colposcope directed biopsies were obtained from the abnormal areas. In women with normal colposcopic findings four quadrant biopsies from squamo - columnar junction were taken .Eight women were excluded from analysis owing to unsatisfactory colp oscopy. Results of colposcopy were validated by calculating sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value in diagnosing histopathologically confirmed lesions which served as gold standard. RESULTS: Overall sensitivity of colposcopy in all grades of lesions is around 90% or more, touching 100% in high order of histological lesions.Overall specificity is also high.It does have an excellent negative predictive value but comparatively lower positive predictive value especially in high order lesions with fair degree of accuracy in all grades of lesions in the hands of an experienced operator. CONCLUSION: Colposcopy using Modified Reid’s Index with high sensitivity and specificity is a good screening tool for cervical cancer

  10. Economic burden of cervical cancer in Malaysia

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    Sharifa E.W. Puteh

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancers form the second highest number of female cancers in Malaysia, imposing a substantial amount of cost burden on its management. However, an estimation of cost burden of abnormal smears, cervical pre-invasive and invasive diseases needs to be done to show how much spending has been allocated to the problem. An expert panel committee came up with the clinical pathway and management algorithm of  cervical pre invasive and invasive diseases from July-December 2006 Malaysia. An activity based costing for each clinical pathway was done. Results were converted to USD. The cost of managing pre-invasive cervical cancers stage is USD 420,150 (Range: USD 197,158-879,679. Management of invasive cancer (new cases costs USD 51,533,233.44 (Range: USD 32,405,399.69 - USD 129,014,768.40. The cost of managing existing cases is USD 17,005,966.87 (Range: USD 10,693,781.90 - USD  28,901,587.12. The total cost of managing cervical cancers by health care providers in a public setting is around USD 75,888,329.45 (Range: USD 48,083,804.60 - USD 48,083,804.60. The outcome of this study has shown that preventive modalities such as screening have only contributed to 10.3 % of the total management cost of cervical cancer. The major cost contribution (67% came from treatment of invasive cancer especially at more advanced stages of cancer, followed by treatment of existing cases (22% and lastly on pre-invasive disease (0.6%. This study revealed that proportion of preventive modality in this country was still low, and the major cost came from actual treatment cost of cervical cancer. Therefore, heightened public cervical cancer screening in the country is needed. (Med J Indones 2008; 17: 272-80Keywords: cervical cancers, pre invasive disease, HPV vaccination

  11. Smeared Gauge Fixing

    CERN Document Server

    Hetrick, J E; Forcrand, Ph. de

    1998-01-01

    We present a new method of gauge fixing to standard lattice Landau gauge, Max Re Tr $\\sum_{\\mu,x}U_{\\mu,x}$, in which the link configuration is recursively smeared; these smeared links are then gauge fixed by standard extremization. The resulting gauge transformation is simultaneously applied to the original links. Following this preconditioning, the links are gauge fixed again as usual. This method is free of Gribov copies, and we find that for physical parameters ($\\beta \\geq 2$ in SU(2)), it generally results in the gauge fixed configuration with the globally maximal trace. This method is a general technique for finding a unique minimum to global optimization problems.

  12. Comparison of specimen adequacy and smear quality in oral smears prepared by manual liquid-based cytology and conventional methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Surabhi; Einstein, A; Shukla, Abhilasha; Mishra, Deepika

    2015-01-01

    Background: Liquid-based cytology (LBC), recommended in the mass screening of potentially malignant cervical and oral lesions, suffers from high cost owing to the use of expensive automated devices and materials. Considering the need for cost-effective LBC techniques, we evaluated the efficacy of an inexpensive manual LBC (MLBC) technique against conventional cytological technique in terms of specimen adequacy and smear quality of oral smears. Materials and Methods: Cytological samples were collected from 21 patients using a cytobrush device. After preparation of a conventional smear, the brush containing the remaining sample was immersed in the preservative vial. The preserved material was processed by an MLBC technique and subsequently, direct smears were made from the prepared cell button. Both conventional and MLBC smears were stained by routine Papanicolaou technique and evaluated by an independent observer for the thickness of the smear, cellular distribution, resolution/clarity of cells, cellular staining characteristics and the presence of unsatisfactory background/artifacts. Each parameter was graded as satisfactory; or satisfactory, but limited; or unsatisfactory. Chi-square test was used to compare the values obtained (significance set at P ≤ 0.05). Results: MLBC technique produced a significant number of satisfactory smears with regard to cell distribution, clarity/resolution, staining characteristics and background/artifacts compared to conventional methods. Conclusions: MLBC is a cost-effective cytological technique that may produce oral smears with excellent cytomorphology and longer storage life. PMID:26980958

  13. Comparison of specimen adequacy and smear quality in oral smears prepared by manual liquid-based cytology and conventional methods

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    Surabhi Shukla

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Liquid-based cytology (LBC, recommended in the mass screening of potentially malignant cervical and oral lesions, suffers from high cost owing to the use of expensive automated devices and materials. Considering the need for cost-effective LBC techniques, we evaluated the efficacy of an inexpensive manual LBC (MLBC technique against conventional cytological technique in terms of specimen adequacy and smear quality of oral smears. Materials and Methods: Cytological samples were collected from 21 patients using a cytobrush device. After preparation of a conventional smear, the brush containing the remaining sample was immersed in the preservative vial. The preserved material was processed by an MLBC technique and subsequently, direct smears were made from the prepared cell button. Both conventional and MLBC smears were stained by routine Papanicolaou technique and evaluated by an independent observer for the thickness of the smear, cellular distribution, resolution/clarity of cells, cellular staining characteristics and the presence of unsatisfactory background/artifacts. Each parameter was graded as satisfactory; or satisfactory, but limited; or unsatisfactory. Chi-square test was used to compare the values obtained (significance set at P ≤ 0.05. Results: MLBC technique produced a significant number of satisfactory smears with regard to cell distribution, clarity/resolution, staining characteristics and background/artifacts compared to conventional methods. Conclusions: MLBC is a cost-effective cytological technique that may produce oral smears with excellent cytomorphology and longer storage life.

  14. The frequency of herpes simplex virus changes in anal Pap smear and its association with squamous intraepithelial lesions in high-risk male patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greebon, Leslie J; Avery, Diane L; Prihoda, Thomas J; Valente, Philip T; Policarpio-Nicolas, Maria Luisa C

    2014-06-01

    While there are studies postulating a model of synergism between human papillomavirus (HPV) and herpes simplex virus (HSV) in cervical carcinogenesis, the frequency of anal herpes as well as its association with anal squamous intraepithelial lesions (ASILs) has been understudied in men. This study evaluates the frequency of HSV changes in anal Pap smears and its association with ASILs in a high-risk population. A computerized search for specimens associated with anal cytology that had positive findings of HSV was performed. The electronic medical records were examined for past diagnosis of herpes, HSV serology prior to or after cytology, and if the patient received treatment after cytologic diagnosis of HSV. Of the 470 anal Pap smears (Thin-prep) examined, seven had cellular changes consistent with HSV infection. All patients were asymptomatic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive males with no prior HSV serology tests. Two patients had prior diagnoses of HSV infection. Cytologic abnormalities were identified in 86% ranging from atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance to high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion. Three patients were treated after the HSV cytologic diagnosis. The frequency of HSV changes in anal Pap smear is low (1.48%), but the presence of concomitant cytologic abnormalities is high (86%). While our findings suggest the possible role of HSV as a HPV co-factor in ASILs, larger studies are needed to support this. Identification of HSV infection on anal Pap smear is important for institution of patient treatment and subsequent reduction of transmission.

  15. Screening cervical lesions with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The screening results were reported based on the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis of the samples of exfoliated cervical cells from 354 women. Their spectra can be sorted into two types based on the emerging or not of the absorption bands near 970 cm-1 and 1 170 cm-1: T1 (83.1%) type without emerging, and T2 (16.9%) type with obviously emerging. All of the samples assigned to T1 were cytologically diagnosed as normal or within normal limits (PapⅠ). 28.9% and 71.1% of samples exhibiting T2 profile, were cytologically evaluated as Pap Ⅰand abnormal respectively. 3 women in the abnormal group were diagnosed as to have cervical cells with changes associated with high grade of inflammation, cervical scar and cervical erosion. Furthermore, based on the progressive change of the relative intensities of the absorption bands, both T1 and T2 profiles can be categorized into 6 subtypes. The observed heterogeneous spectra and the progressive changes in the absorption frequencies and the relative intensities exhibit features suggestive of the progressive process of cervical lesion. The FTIR method has the potential to complement the cytological smear for large-volume screening of cervical lesions.

  16. Diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging may show abnormalities in the normal-appearing cervical spinal cord from patients with multiple sclerosis

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    Fernanda Miraldi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective This study aims to evaluate “in vivo” the integrity of the normal-appearing spinal cord (NASC in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS compared to controls, using diffusion tensor MR imaging. Methods We studied 32 patients with MS and 17 without any neurologic disorder. Fractional anisotropy (FA, axial diffusivity (AD, radial diffusivity (RD and mean diffusivity (MD were calculated within regions of interest at C2 and C7 levels in the four columns of the spinal cord. Results At C2, FA value was decreased in MS patients. Besides, RD value was higher in MS than in controls. At C7, MD values were increased in MS. Conclusion The NASC in the right column of the cervical spinal cord showed abnormal FA, RD and MD values, which is possibly related to demyelination, since the FA abnormality was related to the RD and not to the AD.

  17. Diagnosis value of liquid-based cytology and conventional cytology smears on detecting cervical squamous cell lesions%液基细胞学技术与传统细胞学涂片技术对宫颈病变细胞学的诊断价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董彦军; 郑加荣

    2013-01-01

    Objective To compare the value of liquid-based cytology and conventional cytology smears on detection of cervical squamous cell lesions.Methods One thousand and two hundred women were detected by cervical liquid-based cytology and conventional cytology smear screening from Oct.2009 to Oct.2012,of which positive cases were detected by colposcopy and biopsy as the gold standard as a positive control.The diagnostic value of the liquid-based cytology on cervical lesions was assessed.Results The positive detection rate of ASCUS/A-GUS and above lesions was 16.00% (96 cases) by liquid-based cytology detection,and positive detection rate of pap ⅡB level and above lesions was 4.83 % (29 cases).The positive detection rate by liquid-based cytology was significantly higher than that of conventional cytology smears,the difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05).Colposcopic and histopathological findings as the gold standard,cervical liquid-based cytology screening coincidence rate was 76.80%,conventional cytology smear screening coincidence rate was 38.16%,and the difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05).Conclusions Liquid-based cytology screening for cervical squamous cell lesions is significantly superior to conventional cytology smears.%目的 比较液基细胞学技术与传统细胞学涂片在宫颈鳞状细胞病变检测中的价值.方法 对2009年10月至2012年10月1200例妇女采用宫颈液基细胞学或传统细胞学涂片进行筛查,并对筛查阳性病例以其阴道镜检查及病理活检结果为金标准作为阳性对照,评估液基细胞学技术对宫颈不同病变的诊断价值.结果 宫颈液基细胞学筛查出ASCUS/A-GUS及以上分级病例96例,阳性检出率为16.00%;传统细胞学涂片筛查出巴氏ⅡB级及以上分级病例29例,阳性检出率为4.83%;宫颈液基细胞学阳性检出率明显高于传统细胞学涂片,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).以阴道镜及病理组织学

  18. História prévia de realização de teste de Papanicolaou e câncer do colo do útero: estudo caso-controle na Baixada Fluminense, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Previous history of Pap smears and cervical cancer: a case-control study in the Baixada Fluminense, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Isabel do Nascimento

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo caso-controle hospitalar foi realizado de 2007 a 2010 para estimar a associação de história prévia de colpocitologia e câncer do colo do útero na Baixada Fluminense, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. A amostra consistiu de 152 casos histologicamente confirmados e 169 controles selecionados no mesmo hospital dos casos. A análise foi feita de acordo com um modelo em três níveis hierárquicos; considerando as variáveis sociodemográficas (nível distal, sexual/reprodutivas e de estilo de vida (nível intermediário e a história prévia de colpocitologia (nível proximal. Odds ratios (OR e respectivos intervalos de 95% de confiança (IC95% foram calculados pela regressão logística não condicional. Ter história prévia de três ou mais colpocitologias conferiu uma proteção de 84% (OR = 0,16; IC95%: 0,074; 0,384 após ajuste pelas variáveis selecionadas. Os resultados acentuam a importância do exame preventivo ginecológico no risco desse câncer e fortalecem a necessidade de aumentar a aderência às normas do programa brasileiro, bem como de identificar e capturar mulheres relutantes para o rastreamento da doença.This hospital-based case-control study (2007-2010 aimed to estimate the association between previous Pap smear and cervical cancer diagnosis in the Baixada Fluminense, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. The sample consisted of 152 histologically confirmed cases and 169 controls from the same hospital as the cases. The analysis was conducted according to a model in three hierarchical levels considering sociodemographic characteristics (distal, sexual/reproductive and lifestyle factors (intermediate, and previous Pap smear (proximal. Odds ratios (OR and respective 95% confidence intervals (95%CI were calculated using unconditional logistic regression. History of three or more Pap smears was associated with an 84% reduction in cervical cancer risk (OR = 0.16; 95%CI: 0.074; 0.384 after adjusting for selected variables. The

  19. 液基细胞学技术与传统细胞学涂片检测宫颈鳞状细胞病变的比较%Comparison of liquid - based cytological test and routine cytological smears in detection of cervical squamous cell lesions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    印永祥; 赵华; 黄望珍

    2012-01-01

    目的:评价液基细胞学技术与传统细胞学涂片检测宫颈鳞状细胞病变的差异.方法:比较同地区、同期宫颈液基细胞学筛查病例及传统细胞学涂片筛查病例,同时收集液基细胞组中289例阴道镜检查及病理活检结果及传统细胞组中62例阴道镜检查及病理活检结果进行分析,评估不同病变的假阳性率.结果:液基细胞组标本不满意率(2.71%)明显低于传统细胞组标本(3.96%)(P<0.01).液基细胞组对不明意义的非典型鳞状细胞(ASC - US)及更高级别的病变检出率(2.25%)明显高于传统细胞组(0.74%)(P<0.01).液基细胞组ASC - US占低度鳞状上皮内病变(LSIL)、非典型鳞状细胞不除外高度病变( ASC - H)、高度鳞状上皮内病变(HSIL)及鳞癌(SCC)总数的比例(0.82%)明显低于传统细胞组(2.11%)(P<0.01).传统细胞组与液基细胞组假阳性率比较,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01),传统细胞组ASC -US、ASC -H和SCC中假阳性率与液基细胞组比较差异无统计学意义.组织学活检与细胞学结果比较,年龄≥35岁液基细胞组ASC - US阳性预测值与传统细胞组比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.01);年龄<35岁液基细胞组ASC - US阳性预测值明显高于传统细胞组(P<0.01).结论:液基细胞学技术检测宫颈鳞状细胞病变明显优于传统细胞学涂片,高质量的宫颈细胞标本对提高诊断的准确性非常重要;选择不同方法筛查宫颈病变时,目标人群的年龄是一个重要的决定因素.%Objective; To evaluate the difference of liquid - based cytological technique and routine cytological smears in detection of cervical squamous cell lesions. Methods; The cases receiving cervical liquid - based cytological screening and the cases receiving routine cytological smears screening in the same region and during the same period were compared. The results of colposcopy and pathological biopsy of 289 cases from liquid - based

  20. Risk of cervical cancer after completed post-treatment follow-up of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rebolj, Matejka; Helmerhorst, Theo; Habbema, Dik;

    2012-01-01

    To compare the risk of cervical cancer in women with histologically confirmed cervical intraepithelial neoplasia who returned to routine screening after having completed post-treatment follow-up with consecutive normal smear test results with women with a normal primary smear test result....

  1. Cytologic detection of cervical abnormalities using liquid-based compared with conventional cytology: a randomized controlled trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siebers, A.G.; Klinkhamer, P.J.; Arbyn, M.; Raifu, A.O.; Massuger, L.F.A.G.; Bulten, J.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare test positivity rates of liquid-based and conventional cytology. METHODS: This study was a cluster randomized controlled trial with family practice as the unit of randomization, performed within the Dutch national cervical screening program. Women aged 30-60 years (n=89,784) re

  2. Cervical intraepithelial lesions in females attending Women′s Health Clinics in Alexandria, Egypt

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    Mona Abdel-Hadi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Data from Egyptian studies provide widely varying estimates on the prevalence of preinvasive cervical lesions. The aim of this study was to estimate the rate of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN   in Egyptian women living in Alexandria to clarify the need for implementing a national organized screening program and a vaccination program in our community. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted over a 6 years period and covered the different socioeconomic levels to have a representative sample for women living in Alexandria. All women included did not have any cervical disorder related complaints. Conventional Pap smears were obtained and diagnosed using the Bethesda system. Women with abnormal Pap smears were managed according to the 2006 consensus guidelines within the available facilities. Persistent abnormal cytological results were referred for colposcopic biopsy. Histological results were grouped into: Reactive changes, CIN 1, CIN 2/CIN 3 and adenocarcinoma in-situ (AIS. Results: Out of the 6173 smears included in the study 6072 (98.36% were normal and only 101 (1.63% were abnormal. After colposcopic biopsies, 0.08% had CIN 1, 0.03% had CIN 2, 3 and 0.01% had AIS. Conclusion: We concluded that cervical cancer screening programs, although life-saving for a number of women, are not a sufficiently high priority in our community. Money for national health screening programs should preferably be directed more towards recruiting women for breast cancer screening, since breast cancer accounts for about 33% of all female cancers in Egypt ranking number one, while cervical cancer ranks number 13.

  3. Women's experiences with cervical cancer screening in a colposcopy referral clinic in Cape Town, South Africa: a qualitative analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momberg, Mariette; Botha, Matthys H; Van der Merwe, Frederick H; Moodley, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to explore and understand women's experience with cervical cancer screening and with the referral pathways for abnormal Papanicolau (Pap) smears. Design and setting Focus group discussions were conducted with first time colposcopy clinic attendees at a tertiary hospital colposcopy clinic in Cape Town, South Africa during November 2014. A thematic analysis was conducted to identify key themes. Initial coding categories were drawn from the interview guide. Participants 27 women participated in 4 focus group discussions. Results Participants mean age was 34 years, most did not complete secondary level education and were unemployed. Negative community opinions relating to Pap smears and colposcopy referral might deter women from seeking treatment. Having a gynaecological symptom was the most commonly cited reason for having a Pap smear. Fear of having a HIV test performed at the same time as Pap smear and low encouragement from peers, were factors identified as potential access barriers. Participants commented on insufficient or lack of information from primary providers on referral to the colposcopy clinic and concerns and apprehension during waiting periods between receiving results and the colposcopy appointment were discussed. Conclusions There is a strong and urgent need to improve current knowledge about cervical cancer and Pap smears and the necessity and benefits of timely access to screening programmes, results and treatment. Strategies such as community health education programmes and mass media interventions could be employed to disseminate cervical cancer information and address negative community perceptions. Better training and support mechanisms to equip healthcare providers with the skills to convey cervical cancer information to women are needed. The use of short message service (SMS) to deliver Pap smear results and provide patients with more information should be considered to improve waiting times for results

  4. Squash smear cytology of Langerhans cell histiocytosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahm, Ji Hae; Yoon, Gun; Do, Sung-Im; Kim, Hyun-Soo

    2015-01-01

    Squash smear cytology of Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) has rarely been reported. We described squash cytological findings of cranial LCH. Additionally, based on recent data that suggests an association of LCH with either viral infection or genetic alteration, we investigated the presence of several viruses or mutation of TP53 and BRAF in LCH tissue samples. Intraoperative squash smears of a small tissue fragment excised from the lesion demonstrated a mixed population of eosinophils, neutrophils, small lymphocytes and a high content of histiocytes. The histiocytes possessed abundant dense cytoplasm with round cell shape and eccentrically located nuclei with fine chromatin, delicate nuclear membranes and prominent nuclear grooves, indentations and pseudoinclusions. The cytologic features were consistent with Langerhans cells (LCs). Subsequent histopathologic examination confirmed the diagnosis of LCH. Immunohistochemically, the LCs were positive for S-100, CD1a and langerin, but negative for adenovirus, CMV, EBV, HHV-8, HPV, HSV, SV 40 and p53. BRAF V600E mutation was absent. Our findings did not support the role of viruses and genetic abnormalities in the pathogenesis of LCH. In summary, the presence of a mixed population of inflammatory cells and a high content of histiocytes with characteristic cytomorphology, along with radiologic evidence and appropriate clinical findings, is highly suggestive of LCH on the intraoperative squash smears. Awareness of characteristic cytological features of LCH is necessary for rapid and accurate diagnosis. Squash smear cytology is a potentially useful tool in the intraoperative diagnosis of LCH. PMID:26339366

  5. The Anal Pap Smear: Cytomorphology of squamous intraepithelial lesions

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    Arain Shehla

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anal smears are increasingly being used as a screening test for anal squamous intraepithelial lesions (ASILs. This study was undertaken to assess the usefulness and limitations of anal smears in screening for ASILs. Methods The cytomorphological features of 200 consecutive anal smears collected in liquid medium from 198 patients were studied and findings were correlated with results of surgical biopsies and/or repeat smears that became available for 71 patients within six months. Results Adequate cellularity was defined as an average of 6 or more nucleated squamous cells/hpf. A glandular/transitional component was not required for adequacy. Dysplastic cells, atypical parakeratotic cells and bi/multinucleated cells were frequent findings in ASIL while koilocytes were infrequent. Smears from LSIL cases most frequently showed mildly dysplastic and bi/multinucleate squamous cells followed by parakeratotic cells (PK, atypical parakeratotic cells (APK, and koilocytes. HSIL smears contained squamous cells with features of moderate/severe dysplasia and many APKs. Features of LSIL were also found in most HSIL smears. Conclusions In this study liquid based anal smears had a high sensitivity (98% for detection of ASIL but a low specificity (50% for predicting the severity of the abnormality in subsequent biopsy. Patients with cytologic diagnoses of ASC-US and LSIL had a significant risk (46–56% of HSIL at biopsy. We suggest that all patients with a diagnosis of ASC-US and above be recommended for high resolution anoscopy with biopsy.

  6. The Anal Pap Smear: Cytomorphology of squamous intraepithelial lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arain, Shehla; Walts, Ann E; Thomas, Premi; Bose, Shikha

    2005-02-16

    BACKGROUND: Anal smears are increasingly being used as a screening test for anal squamous intraepithelial lesions (ASILs). This study was undertaken to assess the usefulness and limitations of anal smears in screening for ASILs. METHODS: The cytomorphological features of 200 consecutive anal smears collected in liquid medium from 198 patients were studied and findings were correlated with results of surgical biopsies and/or repeat smears that became available for 71 patients within six months. RESULTS: Adequate cellularity was defined as an average of 6 or more nucleated squamous cells/hpf. A glandular/transitional component was not required for adequacy. Dysplastic cells, atypical parakeratotic cells and bi/multinucleated cells were frequent findings in ASIL while koilocytes were infrequent. Smears from LSIL cases most frequently showed mildly dysplastic and bi/multinucleate squamous cells followed by parakeratotic cells (PK), atypical parakeratotic cells (APK), and koilocytes. HSIL smears contained squamous cells with features of moderate/severe dysplasia and many APKs. Features of LSIL were also found in most HSIL smears. CONCLUSIONS: In this study liquid based anal smears had a high sensitivity (98%) for detection of ASIL but a low specificity (50%) for predicting the severity of the abnormality in subsequent biopsy. Patients with cytologic diagnoses of ASC-US and LSIL had a significant risk (46-56%) of HSIL at biopsy. We suggest that all patients with a diagnosis of ASC-US and above be recommended for high resolution anoscopy with biopsy.

  7. The elasticity of cervical-vaginal secretions is abnormal in polycystic ovary syndrome: Case report of five PCOS women

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    Nabila Shamim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS is a leading cause of infertility. We studied the rheological properties of cervical-vaginal secretions in five PCOS patients during variable treatment intervals with metformin. Five ovulatory normal women for a total of thirteen cycles served as control patients. All subjects collected daily cervical-vaginal fluid(CVF samples with an aspirator, and CVF samples were characterized by a flow metric, die swell ratio (B, which measured CVF elasticity. Ovulatory cycles were indexed to the day of positive urine or serum LH (luteinizing hormone. CVF B levels from ovulatory normal women had a characteristic concave parabolic pattern of a minimum near the day of ovulation with higher values outside the periovulatory phase. In contrast, the five PCOS patients with or without metformin treatment had no periodicity of CVF B, and their CVF B levels were typically less compared to those in the early preovulatory and luteal phases of normal patients.

  8. Utility of Papanicolaou test in diagnosis of cervical lesions: a study in a tertiary care centre of western Uttar Pradesh

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    Mithila Bisht

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cervical cancer is the most common cancer among females in India. It is also one of the major causes of deaths among them. Papanicolaou (Pap cytological test helps in detecting the early epithelial abnormalities in cervical cells. The morbidity and mortality due to cervical cancer has come down in countries with well-established screening programmes at national level. This study was conducted to emphasize the value of cervical screening as a tool for early detection of non-neoplastic and neoplastic lesions of cervix. Slide positivity rate was computed and clinico-pathological correlation was done. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted from January 2012 to December 2014 (3 years, on 2202 women aged between 20-70 years coming for a Pap smear examination in a tertiary care hospital in Bareilly, India. After staining with conventional Papanicolaou technique, all cases were classified as per Bethesda nomenclature (2001. Results: Out of 2202 cases, 85.16% slides were found to be negative for intraepithelial abnormalities and 14.84% slides were labelled as positive for epithelial lesions. 97.67% of high grade lesions were found in women more than 40 years. Smears with epithelial cell abnormality were found more common in older age groups whereas smears negative for epithelial cell abnormality were found more common in young age groups. Conclusion: Pap test is a cost effective cancer screening and is a simple method to detect various lesions of cervix, non-neoplastic as well as neoplastic. High risk screening programmes should be directed to all women >40 years. Pap test is especially useful to diagnose precancerous lesions of cervix, thereby early detection of these lesions and subsequent proper treatment can be helpful in prevention of cervical cancer. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(5.000: 1070-1076

  9. [Abnormalities in behavior in the oral and cervical area: reassurance breast-feeding. Considerations on sudden infant death].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudin, R G; Khalef, M

    1993-01-01

    The oral zone reflects the relational modalities of the child: the sensorimotor physiological and psychological behaviour is established according to the development of the facial sphere and its aero-digestive crossroads. In the baby, the mandibular equilibrium and position and the dimensions of the lower part of the face essentially depend upon praxic activities, which drive the mandibular and hyoid displacements. During the period of immaturity, the lingual area is brought into movement with each "sucking-swallowing" action that characterises breast-feeding: the mandibulo-hyoid swing is subordinate to the pharyngo-lingual complex. The analysis of this psycho-motor behaviour reveals imperfect and upsetting "mimics" that modify the balance of the jaw and of the hyo-lingual area during swallowing, which is the second phase of the reassurance breast-feed. The lingual ptosis causes congestion of the airways. These lax children, with a receding chin, are deformed by their oral habits. The clinical picture evidences the constitutional hyperlaxity by examining the parental group -the same facial dystrophies, the same habits resulting in various disorders of general or cervical statics. At the level of the temporomandibular joint, the dysfunction is also accompanied by claudication by mandibulo-hyo-lingual tipping. The general and cervical statics of the baby are thus affected in the course of sleep. It is during paradoxical sleep that the baby's head tips on to the thorax, due to the resultant atonia of the neck muscles. The head, insufficiently supported on its cervical pillar accentuates the asphyxial mechanism provoked by the tipping of the lingual area on the epiglottis.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. High grade squamous intraepithelial lesion in inmates from Ohio: cervical screening and biopsy follow-up

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    Rofagha Soraya

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cervical carcinoma remains the second leading cause of cancer death in women worldwide and sexual behavior is regarded as the main contributing factor. We studied cervical cytology screening with surgical biopsy follow-up in women prisoners and compared the findings to those in the general population. Methods We reviewed 1024 conventional cervical smears, 73 cervical biopsies and 2 loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP specimens referred to us from the Correctional Center in Columbus, Ohio during a 12-month period. The results were compared to 40,993 Pap smears from the general population for the same 12-month period. Results High grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HGSIL was diagnosed in 1.3% of the cervical smears from the inmate population versus 0.6% in the general population (p < 0.01. The unsatisfactory rate was 1.6% compared to 0.3% in the general population (p < 0.01. Among the study population, follow-up tissue diagnosis was obtained in 24.3% of the abnormal cytology results (ASCUS, LGSIL, and HGSIL. Of the HGSIL Pap smears, 61.5% had a subsequent tissue diagnosis. Thirty-nine biopsies (52% of the all inmate biopsies and LEEP showed CIN II/III (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia II/III. Eight of these thirty-nine follow-up biopsies diagnosed as CIN II/III had a previous cervical cytology diagnosis of ASCUS. The average age for HGSIL was 30.5 years (S.D. = 5.7 and for low grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LGSIL was 27.2 years (S.D. = 6.1. Conclusion A significantly higher prevalence of HGSIL cervical cytology and unsatisfactory smears was encountered in female inmates, with tissue follow-up performed in less than two thirds of the patients with HGSIL. These results are in keeping with data available in the literature suggesting that the inmate population is high-risk and may be subject to less screening and tissue follow-up than the general population. Clinicians should proceed with urgency to improve

  11. Modifying and Pilot Testing the Pap Smear Belief Questionnaire

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly Ackerson; Lisa Stines Doane; Robert McNutt; Yuanyuan Shao

    2014-01-01

    This study is a report on modifications and pilot testing of a measurement tool to predict Pap testing based on the Interaction Model of Client Health Behavior. Women have been found to avoid routine cervical cancer screening (CCS) due to personal influencing factors. For this study, the Pap Smear Belief Questionnaire (PSBQ) was modified by adding items and evaluated through content validity index (CVI = .89) and cogni...

  12. Chlamydia trachomatis detection in cervical PreservCyt specimens from an Irish urban female population.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Keegan, H

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of cervical Chlamydia trachomatis infection by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in urban women undergoing routine cervical cytological screening and to investigate the relationship with age, cytology, smoking status and concurrent human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. METHODS: A total of 996 women (age range 16-69 years) attending general practitioners for routine liquid-based cervical smear screening in the Dublin area were recruited in the study of prevalence of C. trachomatis. Informed consent was obtained and liquid-based cytology (LBC) specimens were sent for cytological screening. DNA was extracted from residual LBC and tested for C. trachomatis by PCR using the highly sensitive C. trachomatis plasmid (CTP) primers and for HPV infection using the MY09\\/11 primers directed to the HPV L1 gene in a multiplex format. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of C. trachomatis was 5.4%. Prevalence was highest in the <25 years age group (10%). Coinfection with HPV and C. trachomatis occurred in 1% of the screening population. A higher rate of smoking was observed in women positive for C. trachomatis, HPV infections or those with abnormal cervical cytology. Chlamydia trachomatis infection was not associated with abnormal cytology. CONCLUSIONS: Women (5.4%) presenting for routine cervical screening are infected with C. trachomatis. Opportunistic screening for C. trachomatis from PreservCyt sample taken at the time of cervical cytological screening may be a possible strategy to screen for C. trachomatis in the Irish female population.

  13. 不孕症妇女宫颈细胞学异常的分析%Analysis of abnormal cervical cytology in women with infertility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟宪玲; 陈忠领; 李丽莎; 刘甦

    2012-01-01

    目的 应用液基细胞学比较不孕妇女和正常育龄妇女宫颈细胞学异常的发生率.方法 应用为期2年以上的回顾性病例对照研究方法,比较病例组(290例)和对照组(5 132例)的宫颈细胞学异常发生率.病例组包括所有在治疗不孕过程中应用了宫颈细胞学检查的不孕症妇女,并细分为原发性和继发性不孕.对照组为同期进行宫颈细胞学筛查的正常育龄妇女.两组患者的年龄和人口组成特点相似.应用卡方检验进行统计分析.结果 病例组(25/290,8.6%)与对照组(67/5132,1.3%)宫颈鳞状上皮病变比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).继发性病例组比原发性病例组上皮细胞异常发生率更高,病损级别更高.结论 在相似的年龄及人口组成特点下,病例组较对照组在统计学上上皮细胞损伤的发生率更高.经常进行宫颈细胞学筛查对于不孕不育的妇女有益.%Objective To compare the incidence of abnormal cervical cytology in infertile women and nor-mal women of similar age by using liquid-based cytology tests (ThinPrep pap test). Methods A retrospective case-control study over a period of two years was conducted. The study group (n=290) included infertile women under-going liquid-based cytology tests in the treatment, which were subdivided into primary infertility subgroup and second-ary infertility subgroup. The control group (n=5 132) included women without infertility problems who received rou-tine liquid-based cytology test in the same period. Age and demographic characteristics were similar in the two groups. Chi-square test was used for statistical analysis. Results The study group showed significantly (P<0.05) more cervical squamous epithelial abnormalities (25/290, 8.6%) than the control group (67/5132, 1.3%). Women with secondary infertility had more epithelial abnormalities and more high-grade lesions than women with primary infertility. Conclusion Infertile women tend to have

  14. Cobertura do teste de Papanicolaou e fatores associados à não-realização: um olhar sobre o Programa de Prevenção do Câncer do Colo do Útero em Pernambuco, Brasil Pap smear coverage and factors associated with non-participation in cervical cancer screening: an analysis of the Cervical Cancer Prevention Program in Pernambuco State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamila Matos de Albuquerque

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Buscou-se avaliar a cobertura do teste Papanicolaou no Estado de Pernambuco, Brasil, nos três anos anteriores à pesquisa, entre mulheres de 18-69 anos, e identificar fatores associados à sua não-realização. Trata-se de um estudo transversal, de base populacional, utilizando-se dados de inquérito realizado no período 2005-2006 com 640 indivíduos, selecionados por amostragem por conglomerados em três estágios de seleção. Foram analisadas informações sobre 258 mulheres. A cobertura do Papanicolaou entre mulheres de 18-69 anos foi de 58,7% e de 25-59 anos de 66,2%. Viver sem companheiro, não ter dado à luz e não ter realizado consulta médica no último ano mostraram associação com a não-realização do teste. Na análise multivariada, o baixo grau de escolaridade mostrou também efeito significativo. A cobertura do Papani-colaou em Pernambuco foi satisfatória, porém insuficiente para impactar no perfil epidemiológico do câncer do colo uterino. É preciso fortalecer e qualificar as ações de promoção da saúde, visando reduzir as desigualdades e estimular o protagonismo das mulheres nas ações de prevenção do câncer do colo uterino.This research aimed to assess coverage of Pap smear screening in the State of Pernambuco, Brazil, during the three years prior to the study, among women 18 to 69 years of age, and to identify factors associated with women's lack of participation in screening. This was a cross-sectional, population-based study, using data from a survey in 2005-2006 with 640 women, selected by three-stage cluster sampling. Information on 258 women was analyzed. Pap smear coverage was 58.7% for women 18 to 69 years of age and 66.2% for those 25 to 59. Single marital status, no history of childbirth, and not having consulted a physician in the previous year were associated with lack of Pap smear screening. In the multivariate analysis, low schooling also showed a significant effect. Pap smear coverage in

  15. Cervical screening in HIV-positive women in the East of England: recent CD4 as the predictive risk factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Olubanke; Rajamanoharan, Sasikala; Balachandran, Thambiah

    2015-11-01

    This study examines the relationship between CD4 count and cervical cytological abnormality in HIV-positive women attending two district general hospital genitourinary medicine clinics in the East of England. It aims to determine whether the rate of cervical cytological abnormalities differs in HIV-positive women with CD4 count >350 cells/µl and those with CD4 count ≤350 cells/µl; and to compare the rates of abnormalities with that of the general population. We retrospectively reviewed data from a cross-sectional audit undertaken between December 2010 and December 2011 and analysed them using multivariable statistics. There was a significant association between recent CD4 count ≤350 cells/µl and cervical cytological abnormality (p 350 cells/µl had abnormal cervical smear results, compared with 6.6% of the general population in the screening period 2010-11 and 7.2% of the general population in the screening period 2009-10. In our study population of women with recent CD4 counts >350 cells/µl, the proportions of mild, moderate and severe dysplasia were also similar to national figures. This raises important questions about the cost effectiveness of blanket annual screening for HIV-positive women.

  16. Computer aided decision support system for cervical cancer classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmadwati, Rahmadwati; Naghdy, Golshah; Ros, Montserrat; Todd, Catherine

    2012-10-01

    Conventional analysis of a cervical histology image, such a pap smear or a biopsy sample, is performed by an expert pathologist manually. This involves inspecting the sample for cellular level abnormalities and determining the spread of the abnormalities. Cancer is graded based on the spread of the abnormal cells. This is a tedious, subjective and time-consuming process with considerable variations in diagnosis between the experts. This paper presents a computer aided decision support system (CADSS) tool to help the pathologists in their examination of the cervical cancer biopsies. The main aim of the proposed CADSS system is to identify abnormalities and quantify cancer grading in a systematic and repeatable manner. The paper proposes three different methods which presents and compares the results using 475 images of cervical biopsies which include normal, three stages of pre cancer, and malignant cases. This paper will explore various components of an effective CADSS; image acquisition, pre-processing, segmentation, feature extraction, classification, grading and disease identification. Cervical histological images are captured using a digital microscope. The images are captured in sufficient resolution to retain enough information for effective classification. Histology images of cervical biopsies consist of three major sections; background, stroma and squamous epithelium. Most diagnostic information are contained within the epithelium region. This paper will present two levels of segmentations; global (macro) and local (micro). At the global level the squamous epithelium is separated from the background and stroma. At the local or cellular level, the nuclei and cytoplasm are segmented for further analysis. Image features that influence the pathologists' decision during the analysis and classification of a cervical biopsy are the nuclei's shape and spread; the ratio of the areas of nuclei and cytoplasm as well as the texture and spread of the abnormalities

  17. Knowledge and acceptability of pap smears, self-sampling and HPV vaccination among adult women in Kenya.

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    Anne F Rositch

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Our study aimed to assess adult women's knowledge of human papillomavirus (HPV and cervical cancer, and characterize their attitudes towards potential screening and prevention strategies. METHODS: Women were participants of an HIV-discordant couples cohort in Nairobi, Kenya. An interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to obtain information on sociodemographic status, and sexual and medical history at baseline and on knowledge and attitudes towards Pap smears, self-sampling, and HPV vaccination at study exit. RESULTS: Only 14% of the 409 women (67% HIV-positive; median age 29 years had ever had a Pap smear prior to study enrollment and very few women had ever heard of HPV (18%. Although most women knew that Pap smears detect cervical cancer (69%, very few knew that routine Pap screening is the main way to prevent ICC (18%. Most women reported a high level of cultural acceptability for Pap smear screening and a low level of physical discomfort during Pap smear collection. In addition, over 80% of women reported that they would feel comfortable using a self-sampling device (82% and would prefer at-home sample collection (84%. Nearly all women (94% reported willingness to be vaccinated to prevent cervical cancer if offered at no or low cost. CONCLUSIONS: These findings highlight the need to educate women on routine use of Pap smears in the prevention of cervical cancer and demonstrate that vaccination and self-sampling would be acceptable modalities for cervical cancer prevention and screening.

  18. Validation of cervical cancer screening methods in HIV positive women from Johannesburg South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Firnhaber

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: HIV-infected women are at increased risk for developing cervical cancer. Women living in resource-limited countries are especially at risk due to poor access to cervical cancer screening and treatment. We evaluated three cervical cancer screening methods to detect cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 and above (CIN 2+ in HIV-infected women in South Africa; Pap smear, visual inspection with 5% acetic acid (VIA and human papillomavirus detection (HPV. METHODS: HIV-infected women aged 18-65 were recruited in Johannesburg. A cross-sectional study evaluating three screening methods for the detection of the histologically-defined gold standard CIN-2 + was performed. Women were screened for cervical abnormalities with the Digene HC2 assay (HPV, Pap smear and VIA. VIA was performed by clinic nurses, digital photographs taken and then later reviewed by specialist physicians. The sensitivity, specificity and predictive valves for CIN-2 + were calculated using maximum likelihood estimators. RESULTS: 1,202 HIV-infected women participated, with a median age of 38 years and CD4 counts of 394 cells/mm(3. One third of women had a high grade lesion on cytology. VIA and HPV were positive in 45% and 61% of women respectively. Estimated sensitivity/specificity for HPV, Pap smear and VIA for CIN 2+ was 92%/51.4%, 75.8%/83.4% and 65.4/68.5% (nurse reading, respectively. Sensitivities were similar, and specificities appeared significantly lower for the HPV test, cytology and VIA among women with CD4 counts ≤200 cells/mm(3 as compared to CD4 counts >350 cells/mm(3. CONCLUSIONS: Although HPV was the most sensitive screening method for detecting CIN 2+, it was less specific than conventional cytology and VIA with digital imaging review. Screening programs may need to be individualized in context of the resources and capacity in each area.

  19. Genotypes of human papilloma virus in Sudanese women with cervical pathology

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    Tobi Khater

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Knowledge of the distribution of human papillomavirus (HPV genotypes among women with cervical lesion and in invasive cervical cancer is crucial to guide the introduction of prophylactic vaccines. There is no published data concerning HPV and cervical abnormalities in Sudan. This study aimed to define the prevalence of HPV and its subtypes in the cervical smears of women presenting with gynecological complains at Omdurman Military Hospital, Sudan. During the period between March 2003 and April 2004, 135 cervical smears collected from these women, were screened using cytological techniques, and analysed by PCR for (beta-globin and HPV DNA using gel electrophoresis and ELISA. Results Of these 135 smears, there were 94 (69.3% negative, 22 (16.3% positive for inflammation, 12(8.9 mild dyskaryosis, 5 (3.7 moderate dyskaryosis and 2 (1.8 severe dyskaryosis. There were 60.7% ß. globin positive samples for HPV indicating DNA integrity. HPV DNA was identified in three samples (2.2% by gel electrophoresis and. was positive in four samples (2.9% as single and multiple infections by PCR-ELISA. The high risk HPV types 16 and 58 were identified in one sample as a mixed infection. The low risk HPV types 40 and 42 were also found as a mixed infection in another patient. HPV types 58 and 42 were identified in the other two patients. Conclusion HPV type distribution in Sudan appears to differ from that in other countries. The HPV genotypes identified were not associated with cancer.

  20. Comparison of Specimen Adequacy and Smear Quality in Conventional and Liquid-Based Pap Tests

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    Moradan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Since the best method of cervical smear is a controversial subject, this study was designed to compare two methods of cervical sampling, consisting of conventional versus liquid base. Objectives Pap smear is a screening test used to detect pre malignant and malignant processes in the endocervical canal of the female reproductive system. There are two methods, consisting of conventional Pap, in which samples are smeared directly on a microscope slide after collection, and liquid based cytology, in which the smear sample is placed in a bottle of preservative for transport to the laboratory, where it is then smeared on the slide. In this study it was decided to compare these two methods of sampling. Methods This randomized trial was carried out at the Amir Hospital of Semnan, Iran on 240 females undergoing Pap smear screening from April to September 2012. Patients were divided to two groups including conventional (n = 120 and liquid base cytology smear (n = 120. The results of cytological reports of both groups were compared in regards to sufficiency of sample, presence of blood in the sample, presence of infection and premalignant or malignant condition. Results Specimen adequacy and smear quality were significantly better in liquid base sampling (P = 0.03; presence of benign cellular changes was not different between the two groups (P = 0.389. Diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis was significantly better with the conventional method (P = 0.007. Also, severe inflammation was more commonly reported in the conventional method than liquid base sampling test (P = 0.029. Conclusions Specimen adequacy and diagnosis of inflammatory reaction were better in liquid base smear and convention smear, respectively.

  1. Apparent rarity of asymptomatic herpes cervicitis in a woman with intra-uterine contraceptive device

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    Adeola Fowotade

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Infection with genital herpes simplex virus (HSV remains a common viral sexually transmitted disease, often subclinical and a major worldwide problem of women of reproductive age group. Herpes cervicitis is an unusual presentation of Herpes simplex virus infection in females. The finding of herpes cervicitis on routine pap smear of an asymptomatic woman on Intrauterine contraceptive device still further supports the need for increased awareness on the possibility of Herpes simplex virus infection among women, particularly those on Intrauterine contraceptive device. The index case is a 28 years old Nigerian female who was referred to our Special Treatment Clinic on account of an abnormal pap smear cytology which was in keeping with Herpes cervicitis. There was no history of genital ulcer in this patient; however ELISA for HSV 2 IgM was positive in her. We therefore describe a case of herpes cervicitis in an asymptomatic woman on intrauterine contraceptive device. This case highlights to clinicians the need to be aware of the possibility of this association and to carry out relevant investigations so as to identify and treat these patients appropriately. Therefore, there is a need to put in place adequate public health intervention strategy to prevent genital herpes in women of reproductive age group with a view to preventing the possibility of congenital herpes in subsequent pregnancy.

  2. Apparent Rarity of Asymptomatic Herpes Cervicitis in a Woman with Intra-Uterine Contraceptive Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okolo, Abu Clement; Manga, Mohammed Mohammed; Anaedobe, Chinenye Gloria; Salami, Ayodeji Akeem; Akang, Effiong Essien Udo

    2013-01-01

    Infection with genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) remains a common viral sexually transmitted disease, often subclinical and a major worldwide problem of women of reproductive age group. Herpes cervicitis is an unusual presentation of Herpes simplex virus infection in females. The finding of herpes cervicitis on routine pap smear of an asymptomatic woman on Intrauterine contraceptive device still further supports the need for increased awareness on the possibility of Herpes simplex virus infection among women, particularly those on Intrauterine contraceptive device. The index case is a 28 years old Nigerian female who was referred to our Special Treatment Clinic on account of an abnormal pap smear cytology which was in keeping with Herpes cervicitis. There was no history of genital ulcer in this patient; however ELISA for HSV 2 IgM was positive in her. We therefore describe a case of herpes cervicitis in an asymptomatic woman on intrauterine contraceptive device. This case highlights to clinicians the need to be aware of the possibility of this association and to carry out relevant investigations so as to identify and treat these patients appropriately. Therefore, there is a need to put in place adequate public health intervention strategy to prevent genital herpes in women of reproductive age group with a view to preventing the possibility of congenital herpes in subsequent pregnancy. PMID:28299103

  3. Human Papillomavirus Types 52 and 58 Are Prevalent in Uterine Cervical Squamous Lesions from Japanese Women

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    Kazuhiro Takehara

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To estimate the prevalence and genotypes of high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV focusing HPV 16, 18, 52, and 58 in Japan. Methods. Liquid-base cytology specimens were collected from Japanese women (n=11022, aged 14–98. After classifying cytodiagnosis, specimens were analyzed for HPV DNA by the multiplex polymerase chain reaction method, where 1195 specimens were positive for cervical smear, except adenomatous lesions. Result. HPV genotypes were detected in 9.5% of NILM and 72.2% of ASC-US or more cervical lesions. In positive cervical smears, HPV genotypes were HPV 52 at 26.6%, HPV 16 at 25.2%, HPV 58 at 21.8%, and HPV 18 at 7.1%. Most patients infected with HPV 16 were between 20–29 years old, decreasing with age thereafter. As for HPV 52 and 58, although the detection rate was high in 30- to 39-year-olds, it also was significant in the 50s and 60s age groups. Conclusion. In Japan, as a cause of abnormal cervical cytology, HPV52 and 58 are detected frequently in addition to HPV 16. In older age groups, HPV 52 and 58 detection rates were higher than that observed for HPV 16. After widespread current HPV vaccination, we still must be aware of HPV 52 and 58 infections.

  4. Coverage of cervical cancer screening in Catalonia for the period 2008-2011 among immigrants and Spanish-born women.

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    Vanesa eRodriguez-Sales

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Public Health system in Catalonia, Spain provides a free of charge opportunistic cervical cancer screening. In June 2006 a revised recommendations for cervical cancer screening was introduced to increase coverage and to promote a three-year interval between screening tests. Aim: This study examines cervical cancer screening coverage and prevalence of cytology abnormalities in Catalonia by immigration status.Methods: The study analyses the cytologies registered among women aged 25-65 that have been attended at the Primary Health Centers (PHC for any reason (n=1,242,105 during 2008-11. Coverage was estimated from Governmental data base Information System Primary Care (SISAP that includes 77% of PHC. The database is anonymous, and includes information on age, country of birth, diagnostic center and cytology results Results: During the period 2008-2011, 758,690 smears were performed in a total of 595,868 women over 14 years, of whom 18.3% were immigrants. Cytology coverage was higher among immigrant women compared to Spanish born (51.2% and 39% respectively. Immigrant women also had a higher prevalence of abnormal Paps compared to the Spanish population, 4.9% and 3.3% respectively.Conclusion: Immigrant women in Catalonia have a good access to the Public Health Services and to cervical cancer screening facilities. The higher prevalence of abnormal cytologies in immigrant women compared to native women indicates the relevance to prioritize cervical cancer screening activities on a regular base in new comers.

  5. Hypercubic smeared links for dynamical fermions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasenfratz, A.; Hoffmann, R. [Colorado Univ., Boulder, CO (United States). Dept. of Physics; Schaefer, S. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC

    2007-02-15

    We investigate a variant of hypercubic gauge link smearing where the SU(3) projection is replaced with a normalization to the corresponding unitary group. This smearing is differentiable and thus suitable for use in dynamical fermion simulations using molecular dynamics type algorithms. We show that this smearing is as efficient as projected hypercubic smearing in removing ultraviolet noise from the gauge fields. We test the normalized hypercubic smearing in dynamical improved (clover) Wilson and valence overlap simulations. (orig.)

  6. Challenges in automated detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Yeshwanth; Yang, Shuyu; Nutter, Brian; Mitra, Sunanda; Phillips, Benny; Long, Rodney

    2007-03-01

    Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia (CIN) is a precursor to invasive cervical cancer, which annually accounts for about 3700 deaths in the United States and about 274,000 worldwide. Early detection of CIN is important to reduce the fatalities due to cervical cancer. While the Pap smear is the most common screening procedure for CIN, it has been proven to have a low sensitivity, requiring multiple tests to confirm an abnormality and making its implementation impractical in resource-poor regions. Colposcopy and cervicography are two diagnostic procedures available to trained physicians for non-invasive detection of CIN. However, many regions suffer from lack of skilled personnel who can precisely diagnose the bio-markers due to CIN. Automatic detection of CIN deals with the precise, objective and non-invasive identification and isolation of these bio-markers, such as the Acetowhite (AW) region, mosaicism and punctations, due to CIN. In this paper, we study and compare three different approaches, based on Mathematical Morphology (MM), Deterministic Annealing (DA) and Gaussian Mixture Models (GMM), respectively, to segment the AW region of the cervix. The techniques are compared with respect to their complexity and execution times. The paper also presents an adaptive approach to detect and remove Specular Reflections (SR). Finally, algorithms based on MM and matched filtering are presented for the precise segmentation of mosaicism and punctations from AW regions containing the respective abnormalities.

  7. Positive diagnostic values and histological detection ratios from the Rotterdam cervical cancer screening programme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.A. Kreuger; H. Beerman (Henk); H.G. Nijs (Huub); M. van Ballegooijen (Marjolein)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: In organized screening programmes for cervical cancer, pre-cancerous lesions are detected by cervical smears. However, during follow-up after a positive smear these pre-cancerous lesions are not always found. The purpose of the study is to analys

  8. DNA probes for papillomavirus strains readied for cervical cancer screening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merz, B.

    1988-11-18

    New Papillomavirus tests are ready to come to the aid of the standard Papanicolauo test in screening for cervical cancer. The new tests, which detect the strains of human papillomavirus (HPV) most commonly associated with human cervical cancer, are designed to be used as an adjunct to rather than as a replacement for the Papanicolaou smears. Their developers say that they can be used to indicated a risk of developing cancer in women whose Papanicolaou smears indicate mild cervical dysplasia, and, eventually, to detect papillomavirus infection in normal Papanicolaou smears. The rationale for HPV testing is derived from a growing body of evidence that HPV is a major factor in the etiology of cervical cancer. Three HPV tests were described recently in Chicago at the Third International Conference on Human Papillomavirus and Squamous Cervical Cancer. Each relies on DNA probes to detect the presence of papillomavirus in cervical cells and/or to distinguish the strain of papillomavirus present.

  9. Qualidade e desempenho das colpocitologias na prevenção de câncer de colo uterino Quality and performance of pap smears in the cervical cancer screening program in a city of southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Shozo Uchimura

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estimar a prevalência e analisar a qualidade e o desempenho das colpocitologias realizadas no Programa de Prevenção de Câncer de Colo Uterino no município de Maringá-PR. MÉTODOS: Estudo retrospectivo dos dados do SIS-Colo do Ministério da Saúde. Foram analisadas as variáveis idade, resultado de colpocitologia e procedência. As idades foram categorizadas em faixas etárias, a procedência distribuída em cinco regionais de saúde do município de Maringá; a colpocitologia foi categorizada conforme o Sistema Bethesda. Calculou-se a cobertura de colpocitologia dividindo-se o número de exames na população de 25 a 59 anos pelo número de mulheres nesta mesma faixa etária. RESULTADOS: As 17.664 colpocitologias coletadas, no ano de 2005, pela rede pública se distribuíram entre as mulheres com idade mínima de 12 e máxima de 82 anos, sendo 12.961 (73,4% exames na faixa entre 25 e 59 anos, considerada de maior risco para o câncer. Foram negativos para neoplasia 17.458 (98,84% exames e as alterações celulares (ASCUS/AGUS, LIEBG, LIEAG e câncer invasor totalizaram 206 (1,16%. Encontrou-se prevalência de ASCUS de 0,85% (151, de atipias celulares 1,14% (203/17.664 e a relação ASCUS/atipias celulares 2,75% (151/55. CONCLUSÃO: A prevalência das alterações colpocitológicas e da ASCUS abaixo dos índices esperados, a relação ASCUS/atipias celulares em níveis elevados, a cobertura populacional insuficiente de colpocitologia compromete o desempenho da prevenção de câncer de colo uterino. A população de baixa condição sócio-econômica requer uma atenção especial e a população mais privilegiada deve ser orientada quanto a periodicidade do exame e faixa etária de maior risco.OBJECTIVE: To estimate prevalence and analyze quality and performance of colpocytology carried out under the Cervical Cancer Screening Program in Maringá, Paraná, Brazil. METHODS: A retrospective study of the SIS-Colo database of the

  10. Validation study of HPV DNA detection from stained FNA smears by polymerase chain reaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Channir, Hani Ibrahim; Grønhøj Larsen, Christian; Ahlborn, Lise Barlebo;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Human papillomavirus (HPV)-related oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) often presents with cystic cervical metastasis and a small primary tumor localized in the palatine tonsils or base of the tongue, which is diagnostically challenging. Testing for HPV DNA in fine......-needle aspiration (FNA) smears from metastases may facilitate a targeted diagnostic workup for identifying the primary tumor. This study was designed to assess the ability to detect HPV DNA in FNA smears with polymerase chain reaction (PCR). METHODS: May-Grünvald-Giemsa (MGG)-stained FNA smears from metastases...... and corresponding surgical specimens were collected from 71 patients with known HPV-positive OPSCC, 12 patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), 20 patients with branchial cleft cysts, and 20 patients with Warthin tumors. Thirty-eight patients with OPSCC and 7 patients with OSCC had FNA smears available...

  11. Rapid pre-screening is more sensitive in liquid-based cytology than in conventional smears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudding, Nick; Renshaw, Andrew A; Ellis, Kay

    2011-01-01

    Rapid pre-screening (RPS) is a useful tool to measure and improve performance in the cytology laboratory. Whether RPS is more or less effective in liquid-based cytology than in conventional smears is unknown. We compared the estimated sensitivity in a laboratory of 11 cytotechnologists which converted from conventional smears to SurePath™ (Becton Dickinson, Franklin Lakes, N.J., USA) liquid based cytology. In the 9 months prior to conversion, 23,286 smears were screened compared with 30,610 smears in the 12 months immediately after conversion. The estimated sensitivity of rapid pre-screening for 90 s improved significantly with liquid based cytology for all abnormalities (58.7 vs. 68.7%, pliquid-based cytology compared with conventional smears, and detects significant lesions that are missed by routine screening.

  12. Pap smears for men: a vision of the future?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Oon, S F

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) rarely receives as much publicity as its neighbouring orifice, the cervix. As in the cervix, intraepithelial neoplasias are precursors to cancer in the anal canal. AIN and cervical interstitial neoplasia (CIN) undergo dysplasia as a consequence of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Since the advent of screening with the Pap smear in CIN, cervical cancer has plummeted to a fifth of its initial incidence. Anal cancer, however, has been rising, with a predilection for human immunodeficiency virus-infected men. HPV causes a squamous epithelial dysplasia and converts healthy tissue into AINs of increasing severity until anal cancer manifests. CLINICAL CASE: This article describes a clinical case of anogenital HPV infection refractory to medical and surgical therapy. It also describes an effective surgical excision technique associated with a good cosmetic outcome. CONCLUSIONS: The paper concludes by briefly discussing the implications of a national screening programme against AIN in the future.

  13. Correlation between cervical curvature abnormality and symptoms of adolescent headache%颈椎曲度异常与青少年头痛等症状的相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常蜀英; 张国强; 张卫清; 陈勇; 黎建民; 李申生

    2004-01-01

    度异常源性头痛伴随症状中以头晕(81例)最多见,其中记忆障碍21例,晕厥发作17例和其他症状39例,3组间积分差异显著(P<0.05~0.01).3组患者中Hoffmann征(40例)和Romberg征(58例)阳性积分比较差异显著(P<0.05~0.01).随颈椎曲度异常加重,120例患者中血压呈上升趋势,收缩期血压3组分别为(108.6±13.1),(112.6±13.4)和(118.5±17.9)mmHg(1mmHg=0.133 kPa),组间比较差异显著(F=4.374,P=0.015),舒张期血压3组分别为(72.6±6.8),(77.1±9.5)和(78.8±10.2)mmHg,组间比较差异显著(F=5.219,P=0.007).颈曲异常各组的脑电图和经颅血管彩色超声检查比较差异显著(F=8.243,P<0.05和F=11.983,P<0.01),重度颈曲异常组阳性积分值最高.疗效分析:100例接受治疗的患者中9例因路途远,学习忙而中断治疗,其余91例中,痊愈55例(60%),显效22例(24%),好转9例(10%),无效加重5例,总有效率95%;曲度异常轻、中、重三组间疗效差异不显著(X2=2.865,P=0.239).结论:颈椎曲度异常与青少年头痛的异常临床症状、体征密切相关,与脑电图、TCD检查异常有关,可能是青少年颈源性头痛一个不可忽视的潜在病因;牵引、按摩的物理治疗对减轻此类头痛有效.%BACKGROUND: The detective rate of abnormal cervical curvature in adolescent patients with headache is comparatively high, which suggests that cervical curvature abnormality may be the potential pathogenesis inducing the clinical symptoms of cervicogenic headache(CEH) and dizziness. The correlation between cervical curvature abnormality and the clinical symptoms of adolescent headache requires thorough researches.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the correlation between cervical curvature abnormality and the clinical symptoms and physical signs of adolescent headache for the exploration of effective therapeutic methods.DESIGN: A case-controlled trial based on diagnosis.SETTING and PARTICIPANTS: A total of 120 patients including 43 male and 77 female

  14. 急性无骨折脱位型颈髓损伤的MRI诊断价值探讨%MRI Features of Acute Cervical Spinal Cord Injuries without Radiographic Abnormality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟俊远; 刘晓玉; 彭吉东; 梁宗辉

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To illustrate the MRI features of acute cervical spinal cord injuries without radiographic abnormality(SCIWORA) in order to improve the knowledge and diagnosis accuracy.Methods:Clinical proved 108 cases of acute cervical spinal cord injuries without radiographic abnormality were included in this series.All patients were examined with X - rays, CT and MRI plain scan.The image data were analyzed.Results: In 108 cases, there were 86 males and 22 females, their age ranged from 22 to 79 years with average 43.8 years.Acute cervical spinal cord injuries without radiographic abnormality may occur in every part of the cervical spine, mostly in the fourth and fifth vertebral plain (63.3%).Among all cases, 51 cases were gross edema type, 19 cases were edema with hemorrhage and 38 cases were localized.Moreover, 24 cases were found bone contusion in 38 vertebrae; 85 cases were found 183 herniated nucleus pulposus with dural sac and spine compression, mostly in C4/5 and C5/6 (85.2%); 17 cases were found thickened anterior longitudinal ligament with edema; 32 cases were found edema in nuchal region soft tissue.Conclusion: MRI could find and classify acute cervical spinal cord injuries without radiographic abnormality in time, also find the injury of ligaments and soft tissue.MRI plays a valuable role in diagnosis, treatment and prognosis in acute cervical spinal cord injuries without radiographic abnormality.%目的:探讨MRI对急性无骨折脱位型颈髓损伤的诊断价值.方法:回顾108例经X线和CT证实无骨折脱位型颈髓损伤的MRI表现,分析其影像特征.结果:无骨折脱位型颈髓损伤可累及颈髓任一平面,而以C、C椎体对应平面最多见(63.3%),其中广泛水肿型51例,出血水肿型19例,局限型38例.此外,24例共计38个椎体骨挫伤;85例183个椎间盘髓核突出,相应平面硬膜囊及脊髓受压,以C、C椎间盘突出多见(85.2%);17例可见前纵韧带增厚及水肿信号;32例可见颈后部软组织

  15. Smear Layer Outcome on Healing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-31

    diode laser on removal of smear layer. Journal of Endodontics , 39, 1589-92. 2. Barcelos R, Tannure P, Gleiser R, Luiz R, Primo L. (2012). The...canal regimens. Journal of Endodontics , 13 (4), 147-157. 4. Bystrom A, Sundqvist G. (1985). The antibacterial effect of sodium hypochlorite and EDTA...in 60 cases of endodontic therapy. International Endodontic Journal , 18 (6), 35-40. 5. Calt S, Serper A. (2002). Time-dependent effects ofEDTA on

  16. STUDY OF VAGINAL INFECTIONS, CERVICAL CYTOLOGY AND PREVALENCE OF MENSTRUAL PROBLEMS IN HIV INFECTED PATIENTS

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    Balvin Kaur

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To study vaginal infections, cervical cytology and prevalence of menstrual problems in HIV seropositive patients. METHODS: Study D esign: hospital based non - randomized prospective observational study. Study Type: case control study. SAMPLE SIZE: 130 cases & 100 contols. INCLUSION CRITERIA: All married women in the age group of 20 - 55 yrs. Cases were taken from the seropositive women register ed at the ART C entre willing to participate. Controls were HIV seronegative women attending gynaecology OPD. RESULTS: Out of the 130 cases, 78.4% were on ART & 21.5% were not on ART. In the present study, 87.09% of cases had abnormal Pap smear results comp ared to 29.09% of controls. 20% of cases had SILs compared to 8.18% of controls. Low grade intraepithelial lesions were 4.56 times more prevalent in cases. In the present study, it was found that 44.4% of SILs were found in cases with CD4 cell count <200/μ l. When studied for lower reproductive tract infections, 54.6% of cases had LRTIs compared to 30% of controls. The most common infection was candidiasis, found in 20% cases vs . 10% controls. CONCLUSION: The present study has shown that the prevalence of Pa p smear abnormalities & LRTIs is higher in HIV seropositive women. Hence, periodic gynaecological testing, Pap smear examination & vaginal swab testing should be done in HIV seropositive women to provide timely treatment & early identification of risk fact ors of malignancy.

  17. Human papillomavirus detection from human immunodeficiency virus-infected Colombian women's paired urine and cervical samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Munoz

    Full Text Available Infection, coinfection and type-specific human papillomavirus (HPV distribution was evaluated in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-positive women from paired cervical and urine samples. Paired cervical and urine samples (n = 204 were taken from HIV-positive women for identifying HPV-DNA presence by using polymerase chain reaction (PCR with three generic primer sets (GP5+/6+, MY09/11 and pU1M/2R. HPV-positive samples were typed for six high-risk HPV (HR-HPV (HPV-16, -18, -31, -33, -45 and -58 and two low-risk (LR-HPV (HPV-6/11 types. Agreement between paired sample results and diagnostic performance was evaluated. HPV infection prevalence was 70.6% in cervical and 63.2% in urine samples. HPV-16 was the most prevalent HPV type in both types of sample (66.7% in cervical samples and 62.0% in urine followed by HPV-31(47.2% in cervical samples and HPV-58 (35.7% in urine samples. There was 55.4% coinfection (infection by more than one type of HPV in cervical samples and 40.2% in urine samples. Abnormal Papanicolau smears were observed in 25.3% of the women, presenting significant association with HPV-DNA being identified in urine samples. There was poor agreement of cervical and urine sample results in generic and type-specific detection of HPV. Urine samples provided the best diagnosis when taking cytological findings as reference. In conclusion including urine samples could be a good strategy for ensuring adherence to screening programs aimed at reducing the impact of cervical cancer, since this sample is easy to obtain and showed good diagnostic performance.

  18. Human papillomavirus detection from human immunodeficiency virus-infected Colombian women's paired urine and cervical samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, Marina; Camargo, Milena; Soto-De Leon, Sara C; Sanchez, Ricardo; Parra, Diana; Pineda, Andrea C; Sussmann, Otto; Perez-Prados, Antonio; Patarroyo, Manuel E; Patarroyo, Manuel A

    2013-01-01

    Infection, coinfection and type-specific human papillomavirus (HPV) distribution was evaluated in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive women from paired cervical and urine samples. Paired cervical and urine samples (n = 204) were taken from HIV-positive women for identifying HPV-DNA presence by using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with three generic primer sets (GP5+/6+, MY09/11 and pU1M/2R). HPV-positive samples were typed for six high-risk HPV (HR-HPV) (HPV-16, -18, -31, -33, -45 and -58) and two low-risk (LR-HPV) (HPV-6/11) types. Agreement between paired sample results and diagnostic performance was evaluated. HPV infection prevalence was 70.6% in cervical and 63.2% in urine samples. HPV-16 was the most prevalent HPV type in both types of sample (66.7% in cervical samples and 62.0% in urine) followed by HPV-31(47.2%) in cervical samples and HPV-58 (35.7%) in urine samples. There was 55.4% coinfection (infection by more than one type of HPV) in cervical samples and 40.2% in urine samples. Abnormal Papanicolau smears were observed in 25.3% of the women, presenting significant association with HPV-DNA being identified in urine samples. There was poor agreement of cervical and urine sample results in generic and type-specific detection of HPV. Urine samples provided the best diagnosis when taking cytological findings as reference. In conclusion including urine samples could be a good strategy for ensuring adherence to screening programs aimed at reducing the impact of cervical cancer, since this sample is easy to obtain and showed good diagnostic performance.

  19. [Coverage of Pap smear tests in the city of São Leopoldo, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Deise Karine; Dias-da-Costa, Juvenal Soares; Luz, Anna Maria Hecker; Olinto, Maria Teresa Anselmo

    2008-11-01

    This cross-sectional study aimed to verify the coverage of Pap smear tests and associated factors in a cluster sample of women 20 to 60 years of age in the city of São Leopoldo, Rio Grande Sul State, Brazil, in 2003. Two outcomes were analyzed: Pap smear in the previous three years and Pap smear never performed. Among 867 women, 741 (85.5%; 95%CI: 83.1-87.8) had a Pap smear in the previous three years, 60 (6.9%; 95%CI: 5.2-8.6) were late with the test, and 66 (7.6%; 95%CI: 5.8-9.4) had never done a Pap smear. Poisson regression showed significant association with: income, age, skin color, and marital status. Although coverage was high, risk factors for uterine cervical cancer were not associated with performing the test.

  20. Automatic Detection of Cervical Cancer Cells by a Two-Level Cascade Classification System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Su

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We proposed a method for automatic detection of cervical cancer cells in images captured from thin liquid based cytology slides. We selected 20,000 cells in images derived from 120 different thin liquid based cytology slides, which include 5000 epithelial cells (normal 2500, abnormal 2500, lymphoid cells, neutrophils, and junk cells. We first proposed 28 features, including 20 morphologic features and 8 texture features, based on the characteristics of each cell type. We then used a two-level cascade integration system of two classifiers to classify the cervical cells into normal and abnormal epithelial cells. The results showed that the recognition rates for abnormal cervical epithelial cells were 92.7% and 93.2%, respectively, when C4.5 classifier or LR (LR: logical regression classifier was used individually; while the recognition rate was significantly higher (95.642% when our two-level cascade integrated classifier system was used. The false negative rate and false positive rate (both 1.44% of the proposed automatic two-level cascade classification system are also much lower than those of traditional Pap smear review.

  1. 40岁以下头痛患者颈椎曲度异常及相关检测分析%Analysis of relevant factors for headache patients under 40 with abnormal cervical curvature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    辛晋敏

    2012-01-01

    Objective To observe ihe incidence rale of abnormal cervical physiological curvature in primary headache patients under 40 and the causes of cerebral hemodynamics, and further explore causes of and treatment for primary headache. Methods A total of 332 headache patients under 40 were included in the study group and another 131 healthy subjects were included in the control group. All subjects received cervical X - rays examination. According to the severity of headache, patients with abnormal cervical curvature were divided into three groups (mild, moderate and severe groups). The cerebral blood flow was further detected by transcranial Doppler ultrasound (TCD). The incidences of abnormal cerebral blood flow were analyzed and compared in above three groups. Results The difference with abnormal cervical curvature detection between headache patients and the control group was statistically significant (P<0. 005). The incidence rate of cervical abnormal curvature was 77. 71 % , and the detection rate of cerebral blood flow anomaly was 72. 48 %. The difference among three groups of cerebral blood flow anomaly was significantly different (P<0. 005). Abnormal incidence of cerebral blood flow velocity of the moderate group and the severe group were 83. 91 % and 93. 94% , respectively. The incidences of cerebral blood flow anomaly between mild group and other groups were significantly different and no significant difference between the moderate and severe group was observed. Flow velocity anomaly showed vasospasm, and blood flow increased. Conclusion Abnormal cervical curvature may play an important role in the pathogenesis of primary headache patients under 40, and is closely related to abnormal intracranial flow velocity. Clinical attention should be paid to the treatment of abnormal cervical curvalure value.%目的 观察40岁以下原发性头痛患者颈椎生理曲度异常的发生率以及引起的脑血流动力学改变,探讨中青年原发性头

  2. Assessment of gene promoter hypermethylation for detection of cervical neoplasia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wisman, G. Bea A.; Nijhuis, Esther R.; Hoque, Mohammad O.; Reesink-Peters, Nathalie; Koning, Alice J.; Volders, Haukeline H.; Buikema, Henk J.; Boezen, H. Marike; Hollema, Harry; Schuuring, Ed; Sidransky, David; van der Zee, Ate G. J.

    2006-01-01

    Current cervical cancer screening is based on morphological assessment of Pap smears and associated with significant false negative and false positive results. Previously, we have shown that detection of hypermethylated genes in cervical scrapings using quantitative methylation-specific PCR (QMSP) i

  3. An overview of innovative techniques to improve cervical cancer screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijhuis, Esther R.; Reesink-Peters, Nathalie; Wisman, G. Bea A.; Nijman, Hans W.; van Zanden, Jelmer; Volders, Haukeline; Hollema, Harry; Suurmeijer, Albert J. H.; Schuuring, Ed; van der Zee, Ate G. J.

    2006-01-01

    Although current cytomorphology-based cervical cancer screening has reduced the incidence of cervical cancer, Pap-smears are associated with high false positive and false negative rates. This has spurred the search for new technologies to improve current screening. New methodologies are automation o

  4. Factors associated with actinomyces-like organisms on Papanicolaou smear in users of intrauterine contraceptive devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petitti, D B; Yamamoto, D; Morgenstern, N

    1983-02-01

    To determine the factors associated with the presence of actinomyces-like organisms on cervicovaginal Papanicolaou smears in users of the intrauterine contraceptive device (IUD), we carried out a case-control study. Among about 80,000 Papanicolaou smears examined in one year in a large cytology laboratory, actinomyces-like organisms were identified on 107 smears; all but three smears were from IUD users. Compared with IUD users who did not have actinomyces-like organisms on Papanicolaou smears, those with actinomyces-like organisms had used the IUD for more years. An increased risk of actinomyces-like organisms on Papanicolaou smear was not apparent until 7 years of IUD use, however. No significant association of actinomyces-like organisms with the type of IUD was found after controlling for differences in duration of use between users of various IUDs. The percentage of women reporting gynecologic symptoms (vaginal discharge, pelvic pain, abnormal bleeding) also did not differ significantly between IUD users with and without actinomyces-like organisms on Papanicolaou smear (p = 0.5).

  5. First trial of cervical cytology in healthy women of urban Laos using by self-sampling instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabandith, Viengvansay; Pholsena, Vatsana; Mounthisone, Phouthasone; Shimoe, Kyoko; Kato, Saiko; Aoki, Kunio; Noda, Sadamu; Takamatsu, Reika; Saio, Masanao; Yoshimi, Naoki

    2012-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the most common cancer in Laos women and a screening programme, even with the PAP smear test (PAP test), has yet to be established for routine use. The Pap test is accepted as the most appropriate for cervical cancer screening in some settings but it is not commonly available in Laos hospitals, because there are few cytopathologists and gynecologists have little experience. As a pilot program, seminars for the PAP test were given in 2007 and 2008, and then PAP tests were carried out using self-sampling instrument (Kato's device) with 200 healthy volunteers in Setthathirath hospital, Laos, in 2008. The actual examination number was 196, divided into class I 104 (53.1%), class II 85 (43.3%), class IIIa 4 (2.0%), class IIIb 1 (0.5%), and class V 1 (0.5%) by modified Papanicolau classification. Four cases had menstruation. There were 6 cases with epithelial cell abnormalities including malignancy. There were 7 cases with fungus and 2 cases with trichomonas in Class II. More than 70% volunteers felt comfortable with the Kato's device and wanted to use it next time, because of the avoidance of the embarrassment and a low cost as compared with pelvic examination by gynecologists. This first trial for PAP test for healthy Laos women related to a hospital found three percent to have abnormal cervical epithelial cells. Therefore, this appraoch using a self-sampling device suggests that it should be planned for cervical cancer prevention in Laos.

  6. Os Odontoideum: Rare Cervical Lesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    the articulation between C1 and the os odontoideum on flexion imaging. The remainder of his cervical vertebral bodies had normal alignment with no...appears normal. Figure 3. Flexion view of plain cervical spine. This image shows abnormal translation of the articulation between C1 and the C2 os...worldwide. Peer Reviewed Title: Os Odontoideum: Rare Cervical Lesion Journal Issue: Western Journal of Emergency Medicine, 12(4) Author: Robson

  7. Smear layer--materials surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eick, J D

    1992-01-01

    SEM and TEM photomicrographs were presented of the smear layer and several dentin-adhesive interfaces. It was shown that as the wetting and penetration of the dentin adhesive increased, the shear bond strength also increased. Three categories of dentin adhesives were presented. Category one included Scotchbond, Dentin Adhesit and Gluma, with shear bond strength values between 5 and 7 MPa; the second category, dentin adhesives based on Dr. Bowen's research, included Tenure and Mirage Bond, with shear bond strengths between 8 and 14 MPa; the third category included Superbond and Scotchbond 2, with shear bond strength values up to 20 MPa. Failures occurred at the interface or in the resin adhesive for materials in categories one and two; failures occurred through the dentin or composite for materials in category three.

  8. Is there any association between hormonal contraceptives and cervical neoplasia in a poor Nigerian setting?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajah LO

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Leonard Ogbonna Ajah,1,2 Chibuike Ogwuegbu Chigbu,2 Benjamin Chukwuma Ozumba,2 Theophilus Chimezie Oguanuo,2 Paul Olisaemeka Ezeonu1 1Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Federal Teaching Hospital, Abakaliki, Nigeria; 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu, Nigeria Background: The association between hormonal contraception and cervical cancer is controversial. These controversies may hamper the uptake of hormonal contraceptives. Objective: To determine the association between hormonal contraceptives and cervical neoplasia. Materials and methods: This was a case-control study in which Pap-smear results of 156 participants on hormonal contraceptives were compared with those of 156 participants on no form of modern contraception. Modern contraception is defined as the use of such contraceptives as condoms, pills, injectables, intrauterine devices, implants, and female or male sterilization. Those found to have abnormal cervical smear cytology results were subjected further to colposcopy. Biopsy specimens for histology were collected from the participants with obvious cervical lesions or those with suspicious lesions on colposcopy. The results were analyzed with descriptive and inferential statistics at a 95% level of confidence. Results: A total of 71 (45.5%, 60 (38.5%, and 25 (16.0% of the participants on hormonal contraceptives were using oral contraceptives, injectable contraceptives, and implants, respectively. Cervical neoplasia was significantly more common among participants who were ≥35 years old (6% versus 1%, P<0.0001, rural dwellers (6% versus 3.5%, P<0.0001, unmarried (7.6% versus 3.5%, P<0.0001, unemployed (6.8% versus 3.5%, P<0.0001, less educated (6% versus 3.8%, P<0.0001, and had high parity (6.8% versus 3.6%, P<0.0001. There was no statistical significant difference in cervical neoplasia between the two groups of participants (7 [4.5%] versus 6 [3.8%], P=1.0. Conclusion

  9. SEM observations of an IUD from a patient with Actinomyces-like organisms on papanicolaou smear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, L; Method, M; Bailey, R; Bockoff, C; Hidvegi, D; Puleo, M

    1986-01-01

    Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to study an IUD from an asymptomatic patient with Actinomyces-like organisms on Papanicolaou smear and in whom Actinomyces israelii was determined to be present in cervical smears. The objective was to determine if there were any variations in surface morphology that might be correlated with the Actinomyces-like organisms. SEM revealed numerous areas of thick surface encrustation. The surface morphology of the IUD fragments showed basic similarities to the morphologies observed in other cases. Encrustations were attached to the arms and stem of the device. A unique finding was apparently biological material adherent to a fragment of encrusted material. Filamentous structures radiated perpendicularly from a central core. These filaments resembled Actinomyces-like organisms in the patient's Pap smear. Also of interest was a delicate network of hair-like structures at the bottom of a naturally occurring space in the surface encrustation.

  10. Cervical cancer screening in primary health care setting in Sudan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibrahim, Ahmed; Aro, Arja R.; Rasch, Vibeke;

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the feasibility of visual inspection with the use of acetic acid (VIA) as a screening method for cervical cancer, an alternative to the Pap smear used in primary health care setting in Sudan, and to compare sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values....../119 (73.9%) were positive for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. VIA had higher sensitivity than Pap smear (74.2% versus 72.9%; P = 0.05) respectively. Out of 88 confirmed positive cases, 22 (25.0%) cases were invasive cervical cancer in stage 1, of which 19 versus three were detected by VIA and Pap...... of this study showed that VIA has higher sensitivity and lower specificity compared to Pap smear, but a combination of both tests has greater sensitivity and specificity than each test independently. It indicates that VIA is useful for screening of cervical cancer in the primary health care setting in Sudan...

  11. Pap smear brochures, misogyny and language: a discourse analysis and feminist critique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, V; Lawler, J

    1997-12-01

    Text from a public health brochure on pap smears was analysed with particular reference to ways in which the language used conveys particular messages about women and their bodies. In the text, 'humans' were found to be excluded as such. Both the pap smear service provider and the women who are the recipients of this service--and at whom such brochures are targeted--are objectified and their characteristics of human existence (i.e. ontological capacities) were restricted. The language of the pamphlet invokes an image for women associated with vaginal (penile penetrative) sex. The discourse also is found to be didactic, biomedical and written in the voice of the service provider. Further, the encounter of pap smear events is contextualized as procedural such that not only is the woman 'done to' in the process of having a cervical smear test but the woman's and provider's experiences of the encounter are silenced. It is concluded that the texts may be viewed as misogynist and that such texts do not take account of the complexity of women's decisions to 'submit to' or comply with cervical cancer screening.

  12. WELL WOMAN CLINIC - SCREENING PROGRAM FOR CERVICAL C ARCINOMAS

    OpenAIRE

    Vani Padmaja

    2014-01-01

    Cervical cancer is a common cancer occurring in women in the reproductive age group. It is also a cancer that can be easily prevented by taking Cervical Smears, staining them by the Papanicalou’s stain, diagnosing and treating them at an early stage . It is a very cost effective, sensitive, specific and easy method of early detection of cervical canc er and thereby helps in preventing the mortality and morbidity caused by invasive carcinomas. This screening program ...

  13. Locally-smeared operator product expansions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monahan, Christopher; Orginos, Kostantinos

    2014-12-01

    We propose a "locally-smeared Operator Product Expansion" (sOPE) to decompose non-local operators in terms of a basis of locally-smeared operators. The sOPE formally connects nonperturbative matrix elements of smeared degrees of freedom, determined numerically using the gradient flow, to non-local operators in the continuum. The nonperturbative matrix elements do not suffer from power-divergent mixing on the lattice, provided the smearing scale is kept fixed in the continuum limit. The presence of this smearing scale prevents a simple connection to the standard operator product expansion and therefore requires the construction of a two-scale formalism. We demonstrate the feasibility of our approach using the example of real scalar field theory.

  14. Effects of Contraception on Cervical Cytology: Data from Mardin City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Işık İkbal BARIŞ

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Mardin is an area of low socioeconomic level with low rates of contraceptive method use. Our aim in this study was to evaluate the effects of the contraceptive methods used in the area on epithelial cell abnormalities and vaginal flora changes.Material and Method: Cervical smear samples received at the Pathology Department between 2010 and 2012 of 526 patients who had used a contraceptive method and 112 who had never used one were included in the study. The cases were divided into 3 groups as those using hormonal contraception (107, 20.3%, those using an intrauterine device (343, 65.2% and those using a barrier method (76, 14.4%. The evaluation was made using the Bethesda 2001 criteria for cervical epithelial abnormalities and specific cervicovaginal infections.Results: There was no significant difference between the groups for epithelial cell abnormalities while bacterial vaginitis (12%, p=0.03 and Trichomonas vaginalis (7.6% were more common in the IUD users. The Actinomyces rate in RIA users was 1.3%. There was only 1 case of bacterial vaginitis in the barrier group and none of the other patients had a specific infection.Discussion: We did not find a significant cytopathic effect of using a IUD or hormonal contraception in our study. There was a low rate of epithelial abnormality in the barrier method group. IUD was seen to increase the incidence of bacterial vaginitis, Trichomonas vaginalis and Actinomyces. We did not find a significant effect of hormone use on the vaginal flora.

  15. Correlation of Pap smear and visual inspection with acetic acid for screening of premalignant and malignant lesion of cervix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anshu Singh

    2015-09-01

    Results: The present study was conducted over a period of 6 months among 212 patients age of 18-60 years screened. Positive results obtained from cytology were 26, VIA was positive in 28 women. Cervical biopsy was done in 34 women who had positive results by either test. Histology in 31 cases was suggestive of cervical intraepithelial carcinoma (CIN. Conclusions: VIA, though less specific has comparable sensitivity to Pap smear and may be used as a primary screening tool for cervical cancer. In combination both the tests have a higher predictive accuracy. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(9.000: 2382-2385

  16. Cervical Cancer: Reality and Paradigm Shift

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Quiñones Ceballos

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Invasive cervical carcinoma usually reaches its highest frequency between 35-50 years of age. The Cuban prevention program screens the female population aged 25 to 60 years using the Pap smear and reexamines them every three years. Despite this effort, advanced cancer is diagnosed in young women as well as in those 40 to 60 years of age.

  17. Smears and cultures for diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis in an asymptomatic immigrant population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assael R

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Roberto Assael, Joaquin Cervantes, Gerardo Barrera Clinica Medica Internacional, Ciudad Juarez, Mexico Background: The World Health Organization estimated in 2010 that 8.8 million new tuberculosis (TB cases. About one-third of the world's population is infected and 10% will develop active TB disease. While cultures remain the international gold standard for diagnosing TB disease, in many other low-income countries, sputum smears remain the only and most accessible tool with which to diagnose active TB disease. As a consequence, in patients with TB who have negative smears, their TB remains undetected. Aim: The objective of the study reported here was to demonstrate the proportion of smear-positive/culture-positive cases compared with smear-negative/culture-positive TB cases in Mexican immigrants bound for the USA. Methods: A retrospective study was undertaken of the medical records of 122 active TB cases diagnosed at a clinic in Ciudad Juarez, Mexico, from 2009 to 2012. All cases were confirmed by culture, regardless of the sputum smear results. Results: Of the cases, 80% (97 active TB cases had negative sputum smears, while only 25 cases (20% had at least one positive smear. All of the cultures were confirmed as positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. Conclusion: The fact that 80% of the TB cases were smear negative and 20% smear positive shows that there is a clear gap between the actual state of active TB disease within patients under screening conditions, meaning that eight out of ten actual cases are being missed when sputum smear is the only diagnostic tool in asymptomatic patients with abnormal chest X-rays. Based on these results, it is highly recommended that countries that have not standardized culturing as the gold standard for the diagnosis of active TB do so, so that TB cases – which may endanger global public health – are not missed. It is also recommended that further studies be undertaken to determine the clinical

  18. 推拿手法配合颈椎电动间歇牵引治疗颈椎曲度异常的临床研究%Clinical research of massage combined with cervical electric intermittent traction on cervical curvature abnormality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张任; 海兴华

    2016-01-01

    [目的]观察推拿手法配合颈椎电动间歇牵引治疗颈椎曲度异常的临床疗效。[方法]将70例颈椎曲度异常并伴有颈、肩、背疼痛患者随机分为试验组和对照组,其中试验组36例,对照组34例。试验组患者先后采用推拿手法及颈椎电动间歇牵引疗法进行治疗,每日1次,持续治疗2周,共14次;对照组患者仅采用颈椎电动间歇牵引进行治疗,每日1次,持续治疗2周,共14次。疗程结束后分别对患者的临床疼痛症状及颈椎曲度变化进行评价。[结果]临床疗效分析方面,治疗后试验组与对照组总有效率分别为100%、76.47%,试验组临床疗效明显优于对照组(P﹤0.05);治疗前后视觉模拟评分(VAS)比较显示,试验组治疗方法对于改善患者局部疼痛症状明显优于对照组(P﹤0.05)。颈曲值比较分析方面,两组患者治疗后组间颈曲值比较显示,试验组改善颈椎曲度疗效明显优于对照组(P﹤0.05)。[结论]该研究初步证明了推拿手法配合颈椎电动间歇牵引对于改善颈椎曲度异常患者的临床症状及恢复其颈椎曲度具有较好疗效,值得临床中进一步的推广应用。%Objective] To observe the therapeutic effect of massage combined with cervical electric intermittent traction in treating cervical curvature abnormality. [Methods] We chose 70 patients of cervical curvature abnormality with the neck, shoulder, back pain, and randomly divided them into experimental group and control group, and 36 cases in test group, 34 cases in the control group. Patients in the experimental group were treated with massage and cervical electric intermittent traction, 1 treatment a day, continued for 2 weeks, a total of 14 times;the patients in control group only received the treatment of cervical electric intermittent traction, 1 treatment a day, continued for 2 weeks, a total of 14 times. After the treatment, we evaluated the

  19. Results of an Australian trial using SurePath liquid-based cervical cytology with FocalPoint computer-assisted screening technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowditch, Ron C; Clarke, Joanne M; Baird, Phillip J; Greenberg, Merle L

    2012-12-01

    BD FocalPoint GS™ computer-assisted screening of BD SurePath® liquid-based cervical cytology slides (SP + FP) was compared with screening an accompanying conventional cervical Papanicolaou (Pap) smear (CON) in a split sample trial of 2,198 routine specimens. The rate of unsatisfactory specimens in the SP + FP arm was 0.2% compared with 4.1% in the conventional Pap smear, a significant reduction. There was no statistically significant difference between SP + FP and CON for the detection of histologically confirmed high-grade (HG) lesions in the routine split sample specimens (n = 9). To further test the sensitivity of SP + FP for HG lesions, 38 SurePath slides from confirmed HG cases, without an accompanying CON, were interpolated among the routine smears. In every one of the 47 confirmed HG cases, either HG cells were present in the microscope fields selected by FocalPointGS™ for review by the screening cytologist (46 of 47), or full screening of the slide was indicated by the FocalPointGS™ (1 of 47), confirming the effectiveness of SP + FP technology for primary screening. In a small number of cases, the screening cytologist did not recognize the abnormality even though on review HG cells were present in fields selected by FocalPointGS™. The overall detection rate was 93% for HG squamous lesions; 89% for known HG endocervical glandular lesions; and 91% for known endometrial carcinoma. In conclusion, the SP + FP detected 100% of HG abnormalities in the trial set; significantly reduced the rate of unsatisfactory specimens; and improved the overall screening rate of detection of HG abnormalities particularly of glandular lesions when compared with other screening technologies.

  20. 妊娠期妇女子宫颈细胞学检查结果异常的相关因素分析%Factors associated with abnormal cervical cytology in pregnant women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范玲; 邹丽颖; 吴玉梅; 张为远

    2010-01-01

    Objective To investigate the risk factors associated with abnormal cervical cytology findings in pregnant women. Methods From Sep. 2007 to Sep. 2008, 12 112 pregnant women who underwent their antenatal examinations at 12-36 gostational weeks in Beijing Obsteties and Gynecology Hospital were enrolled in this study. They were all excluded from the following pathologic obstetrics factors including threatened abortion, premature rupture of membranes or placental previa Thinprep cytology test (TCT) were given at their first examination, meanwhile, a personal clinic file was established to record her occupation, education, address, family income, nationality, age of first intercourse, number of sex partners, contraception, marriage and pregnancy, current gynecologic diseases, family history of gynecologic tumors, history of gynecologic diseases and smoking and result of pelvic examination. Those risk factors leading to abnormal cervical cytology were analyzed. Results The complete clinical data were collected from 11 906 cases(98.30%, 11 906/12 112). It was found that 10 354 women were shown with normal TCT result, however, 1134 women (9.52%, 1134/11 906) with atypical squamaous cells of undetermined significance(ASCUS), 112 women (0.94%, 112/11 906) with atypical glandular cells of undetermined significance(AGUS), 229 women (1.92%, 229/11 906) with low grade squamaous intraepithelial(LSIL),74 women (0.62%, 74/11906) with high grade squamaous intraepithelial(HSIL). Multiple factorial non-conditioned logistic regression analysis showed that age of first sexual intercourse (OR_(ASCUS)=2.90, OR_(AGUS)=7. 32), number of sex partners (OR_(AGUS)=1.49, OR_(AGUS)=2. 02), number of abortion (OR_(ASCUS)=1.68,OR_(AGUS)=3.50) were correlated with ASCUS and AGUS. In LSIL group and HSIL group, age of first sexual intercourse (OR_(LSIL)=6. 34, OR_(HSIL)=9.26), number of sex partners (OR_(LSIL)=1.69, OR_(HSIL)=1.6.5),number of abortion (OR_(LSIL)=1.53, OR_(HSIL)=5. 33), smoking (OR

  1. Cervical cancer: screening, diagnosis and staging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsikouras, Panagiotis; Zervoudis, Stefanos; Manav, Bachar; Tomara, Eirini; Iatrakis, George; Romanidis, Constantinos; Bothou, Anastasia; Galazios, George

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Despite the widespread screening programs, cervical cancer remains the third most common cancer in developing countries. Based on the implementation of cervical screening programs with the referred adoption of improved screening methods in cervical cytology with the knowledge of the important role of the human papilloma virus (HPV) it's incidence is decreased in the developed world. Even if cervical HPV infection is incredibly common, cervical cancer is relatively rare. Depending on the rarity of invasive disease and the improvement of detection of pre-cancerous lesions due to the participation in screening programs, the goal of screening is to detect the cervical lesions early in order to be treated before cancer is developed. In populations with many preventive screening programs, a decrease in cervical cancer mortality of 50-75% is mentioned over the past 50 years. The preventive examination of vagina and cervix smear, Pap test, and the HPV DNA test are remarkable diagnostic tools according to the American Cancer Association guidelines, in the investigation of asymptomatic women and in the follow up of women after the treatment of pre-invasive cervical cancer. The treatment of cervical cancer is based on the FIGO 2009 cervical cancer staging.

  2. TCT联合TIS技术在中山市大规模宫颈癌筛查中的应用研究%Research on application of TCT combined with TIS technology in large-scale cervical cancer screening in Zhongshan city

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    米贤军; 王莹; 沈铿; 吴秋良; 肖琳; 陈昂; 徐秀梅; 孪峰; 钟守军

    2013-01-01

    % , respectively. The cases with positive smears underwent pathological examination, the coincidence rates of TP and TIS were 92. 61 % and 93. 40% , respectively. Conclusion: TCT combined with TIS can significantly improve the detection rate of abnormal cells and work efficiency, and the method is a power - efficient, high-quality and High accuracy screening technology of cervical cancer, which is very suitable for large - scale cervical cancer screening and helpful to early diagnose cervical cancer and precancerous lesion.%目的:评价新柏氏液基薄层细胞学检测(TCT)联合新柏氏电脑辅助阅片系统(TIS)在大规模宫颈癌筛查中的应用价值.方法:对10 000例受检者的宫颈细胞经TCT技术制片,细胞病理学医师阅片两次,先采用新柏氏TCT人工阅片(TP)进行第1次细胞学诊断,在适当的间隔期后用TIS进行第2次诊断,并对两次细胞学结果进行比较分析.将ASCUS/AGC+病变列为细胞学阳性病例并进行阴道镜下多点取材活检,将CIN1+病变列为病理学阳性病例,以病理学检查为金标准,将细胞学与病理活检结果作对照分析.结果:用TP每h能筛查13.8张片,而TIS能筛查29.8张片,工作效率提高了115.94%.在10 000例细胞涂片中,TP的细胞阳性病例568例,总检出率5.68%,其中LSIL 151例、HSIL 66例、CA3例、ASC-H 57例、ASCUS 259例、AGC 32例.TIS的细胞阳性病例621例,总检出率6.21%,其中LSIL 162例、HSIL 85例、CA 3例、ASC-H 65例、ASCUS 273例、AGC 33例.TIS与TP阳性细胞学结果比较,TIS的阳性细胞、LSIL、HSIL、ASC-H、ASCUS检出率比TP分别提高了9.33%、7.28%、28.79%、14.04%、5.41%.对细胞阳性病例均行病理学检查并与细胞学结果比较,TP和TIS的病理学符合率分别为92.61%和93.40%.结论:TCT联合TIS技术能明显提高异常细胞的检出率和大大提高工作效率,它是一种高效、高质量和高准确率的宫颈癌筛查技术,特别适合于大规

  3. 电针深刺颈夹脊穴治疗单纯性颈椎曲度异常临床随机对照观察%Clinical Randomized Control Observation on the Treatment of Cervical Curvature Abnormality by Deep Electro-acupuncture at Cervical Jiaji Points

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴曦; 段超; 彭锐

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To observe the effect of deep electro -acupuncture at cervical Jiaji points on simple cer-vical curvature abnormality and its clinical value.Methods:138 patients with simple cervical curvature abnor-mality ( from the loss of follow-up of the Group actually 131 ) in random questionnaires were randomly divided into three groups,electro -acupuncture ( EA ) deep needling Group ( group A ) with 53 cases; common EA Group (Group B)with 46 cases;the physical therapy group (Group C)with 32 cases.Group A:C3 ~C6 spinous level deep sting treated with EA at Jiaji points,with tip touching bone;Group B received levels of C 3~6 spinous Jiaji points EA,but the tip did not touch the bone;Group C:cervical physical therapy such as electrotherapy and ultra short wave radiation.All three groups were treated for 10 days.Three groups before treatment and six months after treatment were conducted by X -ray examination.Measure cervical curvature by the Borden's meas-urement for statistical analysis.Results:Measured values in Groups A,B and C before treatment were (6.9 ± 1.9)mm,(7.3 ±2.1)mm and(6.9 ±1.7)mm;Six months after treatment measurements in Groups A,B and C were(14.1 ±2.6)mm,(10.1 ±1.5)mm and(9.7 ±1.9)mm.The levels of recovery of cervical curvature after treatment between group A and group B or group C had a statistically significant difference ( P<0.01 ).Conclusion:EA deep acupuncture at cervical Jiaji points for the treatment of simple cervical curvature abnor-mality is effective,and is superior to the common EA and physical therapy.%目的:观察电针深刺颈夹脊穴疗法对单纯性颈椎曲度异常的影响并判断其临床价值.方法:138名单纯性颈椎曲度异常患者(因失随访入组实际131人)按随机量表法(分段随机化)分为3组,电针深刺组(A组)53人、普通电针组(B组)46人、物理治疗组(C组)32人.A组接受C3 ~C6 棘突水平夹脊穴深刺电针治疗,针尖触及骨质;B组接受C3 ~C6 棘突水平夹脊穴电针治

  4. Associated factors with cervical pre-malignant lesions among the married fisher women community at Sadras, Tamil Nadu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sornam Ganesan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify the associated factors of cervical pre-malignant lesions among the married fisher women residing in the coastal areas of Sadras, Tamil Nadu. Methods: The study was conducted in five fishermen communities under Sadras, a coastal area in Tamil Nadu, India. Two hundred and fifty married fisher women residing in the area. Quantitative descriptive approach with a cross-sectional study design was used. Data were collected using a structured interview schedule for identifying the associated factors and Pap smear test was performed for identifying the pre-malignant cervical lesions among the married fisher women. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Results: Among 250 women, about six (2.4% of them presented with pre-cancerous lesions such as atypical squamous cell of undifferentiated significance (ASCUS - five (2% and mild dysplasia one (0.4%. Majority of the women, about 178 (71.2% women, had abnormal cervical findings. Statistical analysis showed a significant association of risk factors such as advanced age, lack of education, low socioeconomic status, using tobacco, multiparity, premarital sex, extramarital relationship, using cloth as sanitary napkin, etc. Conclusion: The study findings clearly show the increased vulnerable state of the fisher women for acquiring cervical cancer as they had many risk factors contributing to the same.

  5. ANTERIOR OSTEOPHYTE IDENTIFICATION IN CERVICAL VERTEBRAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. T. Chougale

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Radiologist always examines X-ray to determine abnormal changes in cervical, lumbar & thoracic vertebrae. Osteophyte (bony growth may appear at the corners of vertebrae so that vertebral shape becomes abnormal. This paper presents the idea from Image processing techniques such as customised Hough transform which will be used for segmentation which should be independent of rotation, scale, noise & shape. This segmented image will be then used for computing size invariant, convex hull based features to differentiate normal cervical vertebrae from cervical vertebrae containing anterior osteophyte. This approach effectively finds anterior osteophytes in cervical vertebrae.

  6. Incidence of cervical disease associated to HPV in human immunodeficiency infected women under highly active antiretroviral therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mogtomo Martin

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Women infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV may be at higher risk of developing cervical cancer than non infected women. In a pilot study, we assessed the relationships among cervical cytology abnormalities associated to Human Papillomavirus (HPV, HIV infection and Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART on the development of Squamous Intraepithelial lesions (SILs. Out of the 70 HIV infected women from Douala -Cameroon (Central Africa that we included in the study, half (35 were under HAART. After obtaining information related to their lifestyle and sexual behaviour, cervicovaginal samples for Pap smears and venous blood for CD4 count were collected and further divided into two groups based upon the presence or absence of cervical cytology abnormalities i.e. those with normal cervical cytology and those with low and high Squamous Intraepithelial lesions (LSIL, HSIL. Results Assessment was done according to current antiretroviral regimens available nationwide and CD4 count. It was revealed that 44.3% of HIV-infected women had normal cytology. The overall prevalence of LSIL and HSIL associated to HPV in the studied groups was 24.3% (17/70 and 31.4% (22/70 respectively. Among the 22 HSIL-positive women, 63.6% (14/22 were not on antiretroviral therapy, while 36.4% (8/22 were under HAART. HIV infected women under HAART with positive HSIL, showed a median CD4+ T cell count of 253.7 +/- 31.7 higher than those without therapy (164.7 +/- 26.1. The incidence of HSIL related to HPV infection within the study group independently of HAART initiation was high. Conclusion These results suggest the need for extension and expansion of the current study in order to evaluate the incidence of HPV infection and cervical cancer among HIV-infected and non HIV- infected women in Cameroon.

  7. [Cervical cancer screening in Switzerland - current practice and future challenges].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Untiet, Sarah; Schmidt, Nicole; Low, Nicola; Petignat, Patrick

    2013-04-01

    At the beginning of the 20th Century, cervical cancer was the leading cause of death from cancer in women. A marked decline in cervical cancer has been observed since the 1960s, in parallel with the introduction of the Papanicolau (Pap) test as a cytological screening method. Today, Pap smear screening is still the most widely used tool for cervical cancer prevention. Testing for human papillomavirus (HPV) in cervical specimens or a combination of Pap and HPV testing are also now available. In this article we compare current guidelines for cervical cancer screening in Switzerland with those in other European countries. In view of the opportunities offered by HPV testing and, since 2008, HPV vaccination, current guidelines for cervical cancer screening should be updated. Both the choice of screening tests and general organization of cervical cancer screening should be reviewed.

  8. Nanotechnology in the management of cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiezhong; Gu, Wenyi; Yang, Lei; Chen, Chen; Shao, Renfu; Xu, Kewei; Xu, Zhi Ping

    2015-03-01

    Cervical cancer is a major disease with high mortality. All cervical cancers are caused by infection with human papillomaviruses (HPV). Although preventive vaccines for cervical cancer are successful, treatment of cervical cancer is far less satisfactory because of multidrug resistance and side effects. In this review, we summarize the recent application of nanotechnology to the diagnosis and treatment of cervical cancer as well as the development of HPV vaccines. Early detection of cervical cancer enables tumours to be efficiently removed by surgical procedures, leading to increased survival rate. The current method of detecting cervical cancer by Pap smear can only achieve 50% sensitivity, whereas nanotechnology has been used to detect HPVs with greatly improved sensitivity. In cervical cancer treatment, nanotechnology has been used for the delivery of anticancer drugs to increase treatment efficacy and decrease side effects. Nanodelivery of HPV preventive and therapeutic vaccines has also been investigated to increase vaccine efficacy. Overall, these developments suggest that nanoparticle-based vaccine may become the most effective way to prevent and treat cervical cancer, assisted or combined with some other nanotechnology-based therapy.

  9. Human papillomavirus infection and cervical lesions in rheumatic diseases: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Raposo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available An association between immune-mediated diseases and cervical pre-malignant and malignant lesions is described, having the human papillomavirus (HPV infection a causal role. Related studies have been generally focused on systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE patients, but relatively to other diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA, Sjögren's syndrome (SS and systemic sclerosis (SSc, data has not been systematically evaluated. We conducted a systematic review analysis of the literature in PubMed, including articles published until March of 2015, in patients with RA, SS, SLE and SSc, to evaluate the frequency of HPV infection, cervical dysplasia and cervical cancer, and associated factors, with particular interest on the role of glucocorticoids and immunosuppressive treatment. Moreover, safety and efficacy of HPV vaccines in these patients was investigated. Of 476 articles identified, 27 were finally included. The studies showed an increased prevalence of cervical dysplasia and cancer, with the HPV infection being an important associated factor, in particular in SLE patients. The data relatively to other rheumatic diseases was very scarse, but an increased prevalence of smear abnormalities was also found in RA. Patients exposed to glucocorticoids and to long-term immunosuppression, particularly cyclophosphamide, have increased risk of presenting more pre-malignant lesions than the general population. The available vaccines seem to be generally safe and immunogenic in the short- period evaluation, but long-term follow-up is required to evaluate the impact of the vaccine in the protection against HPV infection and occurrence of high-grade cervical lesions.

  10. A Preliminary Study of the Suitability of Archival Bone Marrow and Peripheral Blood Smears for Diagnosis of CML Using FISH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charwudzi, Alice; Olayemi, Edeghonghon E; Ekem, Ivy; Olopade, Olufunmilayo; Coyle, Mariann; Benneh, Amma Anima; Allotey, Emmanuel Alote

    2014-01-01

    Background. FISH is a molecular cytogenetic technique enabling rapid detection of genetic abnormalities. Facilities that can run fresh/wet samples for molecular diagnosis and monitoring of neoplastic disorders are not readily available in Ghana and other neighbouring countries. This study aims to demonstrate that interphase FISH can successfully be applied to archival methanol-fixed bone marrow and peripheral blood smear slides transported to a more equipped facility for molecular diagnosis of CML. Methods. Interphase FISH was performed on 22 archival methanol-fixed marrow (BM) and 3 peripheral blood (PB) smear slides obtained at diagnosis. The BM smears included 20 CML and 2 CMML cases diagnosed by morphology; the 3 PB smears were from 3 of the CML patients at the time of diagnosis. Six cases had known BCR-ABL fusion results at diagnosis by RQ-PCR. Full blood count reports at diagnosis were also retrieved. Result. 19 (95%) of the CML marrow smears demonstrated the BCR-ABL translocation. There was a significant correlation between the BCR-ABL transcript detected at diagnosis by RQ-PCR and that retrospectively detected by FISH from the aged BM smears at diagnosis (r = 0.870; P = 0.035). Conclusion. Archival methanol-fixed marrow and peripheral blood smears can be used to detect the BCR-ABL transcript for CML diagnosis.

  11. A Preliminary Study of the Suitability of Archival Bone Marrow and Peripheral Blood Smears for Diagnosis of CML Using FISH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Charwudzi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. FISH is a molecular cytogenetic technique enabling rapid detection of genetic abnormalities. Facilities that can run fresh/wet samples for molecular diagnosis and monitoring of neoplastic disorders are not readily available in Ghana and other neighbouring countries. This study aims to demonstrate that interphase FISH can successfully be applied to archival methanol-fixed bone marrow and peripheral blood smear slides transported to a more equipped facility for molecular diagnosis of CML. Methods. Interphase FISH was performed on 22 archival methanol-fixed marrow (BM and 3 peripheral blood (PB smear slides obtained at diagnosis. The BM smears included 20 CML and 2 CMML cases diagnosed by morphology; the 3 PB smears were from 3 of the CML patients at the time of diagnosis. Six cases had known BCR-ABL fusion results at diagnosis by RQ-PCR. Full blood count reports at diagnosis were also retrieved. Result. 19 (95% of the CML marrow smears demonstrated the BCR-ABL translocation. There was a significant correlation between the BCR-ABL transcript detected at diagnosis by RQ-PCR and that retrospectively detected by FISH from the aged BM smears at diagnosis (r=0.870; P=0.035. Conclusion. Archival methanol-fixed marrow and peripheral blood smears can be used to detect the BCR-ABL transcript for CML diagnosis.

  12. [Investigation of human papillomavirus prevalence in women in Eskişehir, Turkey by Pap smear, hybrid capture 2 test and consensus real-time polymerase chain reaction and typing with pyrosequencing method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, Ferhat Gürkan; Us, Tercan; Kaşifoğlu, Nilgün; Özalp, Sabit Sinan; Akgün, Yurdanur; Öge, Tufan

    2016-01-01

    samples were positive by HC2 test, 40 (26.3%) were positive by Pap smear, and 53 (34.9%) were positive by consensus RT-PCR. All of the 32 samples that were positive by HC2 were also positive by RT-PCR, however 21 samples that were positive by RT-PCR were negative by HC2 test. Among 40 samples that were positive (abnormal) by Pap smear, HPV-DNA was positive in nine (22.5%) by RT-PCR and in five (12.5%) by HC2 test, but HPV-DNA was not detected in 31 (77.5%) samples by both of the tests. Genotyping of the strains could be performed in 44 samples, and the most common type detected was HPV type 16 (n=15, 34.1%), followed by type 90 (n=11, 25%) and type 18 (n= 4, 9.1%). In our study, the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of Pap smear method were estimated as 16.1%, 96%, 10.6% and 97.5%, respectively, based on the HC2 results which was approved by U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). In addition, a significant degree of concordance was detected between HC2 and concensus RT-PCR methods (Cohen's kappa: 0.665). In conclusion, regarding the insufficient number of cytopathologists in our country and according to the recommendations of American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology (ASCCP) and FDA, it was once again demonstrated that, the implementation of molecular diagnostic methods in addition to the Pap smear for effective screening of CC are needed.

  13. Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the place where a baby grows during pregnancy. Cervical cancer is caused by a virus called HPV. The ... for a long time, or have HIV infection. Cervical cancer may not cause any symptoms at first. Later, ...

  14. Cervical Cancer

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-03-06

    Did you know that cervical cancer rates differ by race/ethnicity and region? Or that cervical cancer can usually be prevented if precancerous cervical lesions are found by a Pap test and treated? Find out how getting regular Pap tests can save a woman's life.  Created: 3/6/2007 by National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program.   Date Released: 4/25/2007.

  15. Extended duration of the detectable stage by adding HPV test in cervical cancer screening.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marie, ME van den Akker-v; Ballegooijen, van M.; Rozendaal, L.; Meijer, C.J.L.M.; Habbema, J.D.

    2003-01-01

    The human papillomavirus test (HPV) test could improve the (cost-) effectiveness of cervical screening by selecting women with a very low risk for cervical cancer during a long period. An analysis of a longitudinal study suggests that women with a negative Pap smear and a negative HPV test have a st

  16. Extended duration of the detectable stage by adding HPV test in cervical cancer screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.E. Van Den Akker-van Marie (M.); M. van Ballegooijen (Marjolein); L. Rozendaal (Lawrence); C.J.L.M. Meijer (Chris); J.D.F. Habbema (Dik)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThe human papillomavirus test (HPV) test could improve the (cost-) effectiveness of cervical screening by selecting women with a very low risk for cervical cancer during a long period. An analysis of a longitudinal study suggests that women with a negative Pap smear and a negative HPV te

  17. Cost-effectiveness of cervical cancer screening: comparison of screening policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.E. van den Akker-van Marle; M. van Ballegooijen (Marjolein); G.J. van Oortmarssen (Gerrit); R. Boer (Rob); J.D.F. Habbema (Dik)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: Recommended screening policies for cervical cancer differ widely among countries with respect to targeted age range, screening interval, and total number of scheduled screening examinations (i.e., Pap smears). We compared the efficiency of cervical cancer-sc

  18. Correlating Pap Smear Results and Colposcopy-Directed Large Loop Excision of the Transformation Zone Histopathology in HIV-Infected and HIV-Uninfected Women: A Case-Control Study in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis-J. van Bogaert

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. In low-resource settings (LRS with high HIV/AIDS and cervical cancer rates, new screening strategies face many logistic hurdles. Since cytology is there to stay, at least in the median-term future, it is important to assess to what extent HIV-HPV coinfection impacts the accuracy of screening methods and strategies. Methods. We audited the correlation between cytological diagnosis of minimal abnormality (CIN1, CIN2+, or cancer and the histological diagnosis of colposcopy-directed large loop excision of the transformation zone of 399 HIV-uninfected controls and 389 HIV-infected cases. Results. The average age at diagnosis of CIN2+ of the cases was 4.2 years younger than controls (. The endpoint used to assess the accuracy of cytology was minimal cytological abnormality (≤CIN1/LGSIL. The sensitivity, specificity, and negative and positive predictive values were 92.7, 18.5, 45.1, and 77.9%, respectively. The overall ratio of discordance/concordance between cytology and histology was similar in both groups. Conclusion. In LRS, where rapid-HPV testing is not yet part of screening algorithms, a cytological diagnosis of minimal abnormality requires visual inspection and treatment of visualized lesions especially in HIV-infected women aged 30 years. The cytological endpoint of accuracy should be set low to avoid false negative smears.

  19. Analysis of digitized cervical images to detect cervical neoplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferris, Daron G.

    2004-05-01

    Cervical cancer is the second most common malignancy in women worldwide. If diagnosed in the premalignant stage, cure is invariably assured. Although the Papanicolaou (Pap) smear has significantly reduced the incidence of cervical cancer where implemented, the test is only moderately sensitive, highly subjective and skilled-labor intensive. Newer optical screening tests (cervicography, direct visual inspection and speculoscopy), including fluorescent and reflective spectroscopy, are fraught with certain weaknesses. Yet, the integration of optical probes for the detection and discrimination of cervical neoplasia with automated image analysis methods may provide an effective screening tool for early detection of cervical cancer, particularly in resource poor nations. Investigative studies are needed to validate the potential for automated classification and recognition algorithms. By applying image analysis techniques for registration, segmentation, pattern recognition, and classification, cervical neoplasia may be reliably discriminated from normal epithelium. The National Cancer Institute (NCI), in cooperation with the National Library of Medicine (NLM), has embarked on a program to begin this and other similar investigative studies.

  20. A Qualitative Study about Cervical Cancer Screening among Latinas Living in a Rural Area of California: Lessons for Health Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinzon-Perez, Helda; Perez, Miguel; Torres, Victor; Krenz, Vickie

    2005-01-01

    Cervical cancer is a major health concern for Latinas, who are also less likely to undergo a Pap smear exam than the general population. This study identifies alterable determinants of Pap smear screening for Latino women living in a rural area of California. It involved the design and pilot testing of a culturally appropriate instrument and the…

  1. Entropy of local smeared field observables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satz, Alejandro

    2017-01-01

    We re-conceptualize the usual entanglement entropy of quantum fields in a spatial region as a limiting case of a more general and well-defined quantity, the entropy of a subalgebra of smeared field observables. We introduce this notion, discuss various examples, and recover from it the area law for the entanglement entropy of a sphere in Minkowski space.

  2. Impact of intravenous acetaminophen therapy on the necessity of cervical spine imaging in patients with cervical spine trauma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Koorosh Ahmadi; Amir Masoud Hashemian; Elham Pishbin; Mahdi Sharif-Alhoseini; Vafa Rahimi-Movaghar

    2014-01-01

    Objective:We evaluated a new hypothesis of acetaminophen therapy to reduce the necessity of imaging in patients with probable traumatic cervical spine injury.Methods:Patients with acute blunt trauma to the neck and just posterior midline cervical tenderness received acetaminophen (15 mg/kg) intravenously after cervical spine immobilization.Then,all the patients underwent plain radiography and computerized tomography of the cervical spine.The outcome measure was the presence of traumatic cervical spine injury.Sixty minutes after acetaminophen infusion,posterior midline cervical tendemess was reassessed.Results:Of 1 309 patients,41 had traumatic cervical spine injuries based on imaging.Sixty minutes after infusion,posterior midline cervical tenderness was eliminated in 1 041 patients,none of whom had abnormal imaging.Conclusion:Patients with cervical spine trauma do not need imaging if posterior midline cervical tendemess is eliminated after acetaminophen infusion.This analgesia could be considered as a diagnostic and therapeutic intervention.

  3. AFB (Acid-Fast Bacillus) Smear and Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Smear; Mycobacteria Culture; TB NAAT Formal name: Acid-Fast Bacillus Smear and Culture and Sensitivity; Mycobacteria tuberculosis ... used to detect several different types of acid-fast bacilli, but it is most commonly used to ...

  4. Fluorescence Spectrum and Decay Measurement for Hsil VS Normal Cytology Differentiation in Liquid Pap Smear Supernatant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaitkuviene, A.; Gegzna, V.; Juodkazis, S.; Jursenas, S.; Miasojedovas, S.; Kurtinaitiene, R.; Rimiene, J.; Vaitkus, J.

    2009-06-01

    Cervical smear material contains endo and exocervical cells, mucus and inflammative, immune cells in cases of pathology. Just not destroyed keratinocytes lay on the glass for microscopy. Liquid cytology supernatant apart other diagnostics could be used for photodiagnostic. The spectroscopic parameters suitable for Normal and HSIL cytology groups supernatant differentiation are demonstrated. The dried liquid PAP supernatant fractions—sediment and liquid were investigated. Excitation and emission matrices (EEM), supernatant fluorescence decay measured under 280 nm diode short pulse excitation and fluorescence spectroscopy by excitation with 355 nm laser light were analyzed. The differences between Normal and HSIL groups were statistically proven in the certain spectral regions. Fluorescence decay peculiarities show spectral regions consisting of few fluorophores. Obtained results on fluorescence differences in Normal and HSIL groups' supernatant shows the potency of photodiagnosis application in cervical screening.

  5. Differences in coverage patterns in cervical cytology screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Amy; Gale, Alastair G.; Wooding, David S.; Purdy, Kevin J.

    2003-05-01

    The visual screening of cervical smears is a complex process requiring appropriate slide coverage to detect any unusual appearances without making any omission errors. In examining a smear the observer has both to move the microscope stage appropriately to bring different slide areas into view, plus visually search the information presented within the binocular visual field. This study examined the patterns of slide coverage by different individuals when they inspected liquid based cervical smears. A binocular microscope was first adapted in order to record both the physical movement of the stage by the observer and also to access the microscope"s visual field. An image of the area of the smear under the microscope was displayed on a PC monitor and observers" eye movements were recorded as they searched this. By manually adjusting the microscope controls they also moved the stage and all stage movements and focussing were also recorded. The behaviour was examined of both novices and an expert screener as they searched a number of test cervical smears. It was found that novices adopted a regular examination pattern, which maximized slide coverage, albeit slowly. In contrast, the experienced screener covered the slides faster and more effectively ensuring more overlap between microscope fields.

  6. Human Papillomavirus Infection in HIV-1 Infected Women in Catalonia (Spain): Implications for Prevention of Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuardo, Valeria; Agustí, Cristina; Godinez, José Manuel; Montoliu, Alexandra; Torné, Aureli; Tarrats, Antoni; Alcalde, Carmen; Martín, Dolores; Fernández-Montoli, Eulalia; Vanrell, Cristina; Solé, Josefa; Canet, Yolanda; Marqueta, José Manuel; Mohamed, Jadiyettu; Cuenca, Isabel; Lonca, Montserrat; Sirera, Guillem; Ferrer, Elena; Domingo, Pere; Lloveras, Belen; Miro, Josep María; De Sanjosé, Silvia; Casabona, Jordi

    2012-01-01

    Background High-risk human Papillomavirus infection is a necessary factor for cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions and invasive cervical cancer. In HIV-1-infected women, HPV infection is more prevalent and a higher risk of cervical cancer has been identified. We aimed to calculate the prevalence of infection by HR-HPV, determine the factors associated with this infection and abnormal cytology findings and to describe the history of cervical cancer screening in HIV-1-infected women. Methods We enrolled 479 HIV-1–infected women from the PISCIS cohort. Each patient underwent a gynecological check-up, PAP smear, HPV AND Hybrid capture, HPV genotyping, and colposcopy and biopsy, if necessary. We applied questionnaires to obtain information on sociodemographic, behavioral, clinical, and cervical screening variables. We present a cross-sectional analysis. Results Median age was 42 years. The prevalence of HR-HPV infection was 33.2% and that of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL) was 3.8%. The most common genotypes were 16(23%), 53(20.3%), and 52(16.2%). The factor associated with HR-HPV infection was age 500cells/mm3 (OR,8.4; 95%CI,3.7–19.2), HIV-1 viral load >10,000copies/mL versus <400copies/mL (OR,2.1; 95%CI,1.0–4.4), and use of oral contraceptives (OR,2.0; 95%CI,1.0–3.9). Sixty percent of HIV-1–infected women had had one Pap smear within the last 2 years. Conclusions The high prevalence of HPV infection and cervical lesions in the HIV-1–infected population in Catalonia, as well as the low coverage and frequency of screening in this group, means that better preventive efforts are necessary and should include vaccination against HPV, better accessibility to screening programs, training of health care professionals, and specific health education for HIV-1–infected women. PMID:23118894

  7. A Large Cross-Sectional Survey Investigating the Knowledge of Cervical Cancer Risk Aetiology and the Predictors of the Adherence to Cervical Cancer Screening Related to Mass Media Campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corrado De Vito

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The aims of this study were to compare the characteristics of women who got a Pap-test during the mass media campaign, carried out in an Italian region by broadcasts advertising, and two years later and to identify the determinants of knowledge of cervical cancer etiology and of the adherence to the mass media campaign. Methods. A cross-sectional survey was carried out through a self-administered questionnaire. Results. A total of 8570 randomly selected women were surveyed, 823 of these had a Pap-test during the mass media campaign period and 7747 two years later. Higher educational level, being not married, and living in urban areas were the main independent characteristics associated with a higher level of knowledge of cervical cancer etiology, although a previous treatment following a Pap smear abnormality was the strongest predictor (OR = 2.88; 95% CI: 2.43–3.41. During the campaign period women had the Pap-test more frequently as a consequence of the mass media campaign (OR = 8.28; 95% CI; 5.51–12.45. Conclusions. Mass media campaign is a useful tool to foster cervical screening compliance; however, its short-term effect suggests repeating it regularly.

  8. Attitudes of women about breast cancer and cervical cancern screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ilknur Aydin Avci

    2015-06-01

    Conclusion: This research revealed that the women had moderate knowlege about breast and cervical cancer screening and artcipation in screening is low. Beside, the women who had BSE and mammography had more PAP smear. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2015; 14(3.000: 235-239

  9. Cervical Angina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussman, Walter I.; Makovitch, Steven A.; Merchant, Shabbir Hussain I.

    2015-01-01

    Cervical angina has been widely reported as a cause of chest pain but remains underrecognized. This series demonstrates the varied clinical presentation of patients with cervical angina, the delay in diagnosis, and the extensive cardiac examinations patients with this condition typically undergo prior to a definitive diagnosis. Recognition of this condition in patients with acute chest pain requires a high index of suspicion and an awareness of the common presenting features and clinical findings of cervical angina. PMID:25553225

  10. Analysis of two kinds of production methods results cervical cancer screening project of rural women in Tongren city in 2012%2012年铜仁市农村妇女宫颈癌检查项目两种制片方法结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨华; 雷成梅

    2014-01-01

    目的:对改良传统巴氏涂片及TCT检测进行农村妇女宫颈癌检查的结果进行比较。方法:选取铜仁市2012年进行农村妇女宫颈癌检查的两个项目县数据,其中使用改良传统巴氏涂片20000例、使用TCT法20000例进行宫颈病变筛查。结果:在两组受检者中,宫颈细胞直接涂片方法制片和薄层液基方法制片标本没有明显差异,两组受检者的异常细胞检出率、宫颈组织病理学检查结果统计学比较无差异。结论:改良传统巴氏涂片适合大范围的农村妇女宫颈癌检查项目筛查。%Objective :To compare the improvement of traditional Pap smear and TCT test for rural women cervical cancer screening results .Meth-ods :two project counties of Tongren city in 2012 data for the selection of rural women cervical cancer screening ,the use of improved conventional Pap smear in 20000 cases ,the use of TCT method in 20000 cases of cervical disease screening .Results:in the two groups of subjects ,there was no signifi-cant difference of cervical cell smear method production and ThinPrep cytology specimens ,abnormal cells in two groups of subjects ,the detection rate of cervical pathological examination results were no difference .Conclusion:the rural women cervical cancer screening program in improving the tradi-tional Pap smear is more suitable for large scale screening .

  11. EXAMINATION RESULTS OF CHILDREN WITH CERVICAL SYNDROME

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    N. H. Bakhteeva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available By the example of examination of 80 children aged from 4 to 18 with cervical syndrome it is indicated, that the diagnosed abnormalities of hemodynamics in vertebrobasilar basin in patients of all age groups are connected both with bone and vascular pathology of the cervical part of the spine. The pathology has functional or congenital character. Early detection of discicirculatory vascular injuries in the cervical part of the spine in children with cervical syndrome will allow to define the therapeutic management of patients and to prolong juvenile osteochondrosis clinical behaviour.

  12. The prevalence of actinomycetes-like organisms found in cervicovaginal smears of 300 IUD wearers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, M C; Buschmann, B O; Dowling, E A; Pollock, H M

    1979-01-01

    The association of Actinomyces with IUD wearers has been widely documented and the possibility of the recognition of actinomycetes-like organisms in routine Papanicolaou-stained cervicovaginal smears has been reported. We conducted a retrospective study of IUD wearers to determine the prevalence and significance of actinomycetes-like organisms found in such smears. Three hundred smears from current IUD wearers were rescreened for actinomycetes-like organisms. Of this group, 200 patients were from a public health family planning clinic, and 100 were private patients. The incidence for the public health group was 25.5% and for the private patient group, 8%. A case history of actinomycosis is included. Findings such as other infectious agents, abnormal cytology and symptoms are also discussed. Although the presence of Actinomyces probably represents an opportunistic infection, the threat of pelvic actinomycosis with serious complications poses a management problem to the clinician when Actinomyces is reported in a routine Papanicolaou smear. Our findings lead us to question the practicality of the earlier recommendations of IUD removal and antibiotic therapy.

  13. Aberrant DNA methylation in cervical carcinogenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui-Juan Yang

    2013-01-01

    Persistent infection with high-risk types of human papillomavirus(HPV) is known to cause cervical cancer; however,additional genetic and epigenetic alterations are required for progression from precancerous disease to invasive cancer.DNA methylation is an early and frequent molecular alteration in cervical carcinogenesis.In this review,we summarize DNA methylation within the HPV genome and human genome and identify its clinical implications.Methylation of the HPV long control region (LCR) and L1 gene is common during cervical carcinogenesis and increases with the severity of the cervical neoplasm.The L1 gene of HPV16 and HPV18 is consistently hypermethylated in invasive cervical cancers and can potentially be used as a clinical marker of cancer progression.Moreover,promoters of tumor suppressor genes (TSGs) involved in many cellular pathways are methylated in cervical precursors and invasive cancers.Some are associated with squamous cell carcinomas,and others are associated with adenocarcinomas.Identification of methylated TSGs in Pap smear could be an adjuvant test in cervical cancer screening for triage of women with high-risk HPV,atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance,or low grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL).However,consistent panels must be validated for this approach to be translated to the clinic.Furthermore,reversion of methylated TSGs using demethylating drugs may be an alternative anticancer treatment,but demethylating drugs without toxic carcinogenic and mutagenic properties must be identified and validated.

  14. [Factors associated with failure to take a Pap smear test among Quilombola women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Márcio Vasconcelos; Guimarães, Mark Drew Crosland; França, Elisabeth Barboza

    2014-11-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze factors associated with failure to take a Pap smear test among quilombola women living in Vitória da Conquista in the state of Bahia. A cross-sectional, population-based study was conducted with women aged 18 to 64. Descriptive analysis and univariate and multivariate analysis using a multinomial logistic model was applied. Women who had never performed the test or had not had one for over three years were compared separately from those who were examined within the preceding three years. Of the 348 women included in the analysis, 27.3%, reported never having a Pap smear test. The following factors were independently associated with never having taken the test: age of 18 to 29 years and 50 to 59 years; lack of education; not having a partner; seeking care in health-related units/establishments other than their place of residence; and having a clinical breast examination three or more years ago or never having one. The findings indicate a need for reflection in order to combat factors that are associated with not having a Pap smear test among quilombola women, since it is important to implement actions for the prevention of cervical cancer.

  15. Direct immunofluorescence for Chlamydia trachomatis on urogenital smears for epidemiological purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruijs, G J; Kauer, F M; van Gijssel, P M; Schirm, J; Schroder, F P

    1988-04-01

    A population of 197 asymptomatic women, attending an out-patient department for birth-control advice, was screened for urogenital infection with Chlamydia trachomatis by direct immunofluorescence on cervical and urethral smears. A blood sample was obtained for chlamydial serology and demographic, behavioural and clinical data were recorded. Eleven (5.5%) women had a chlamydial infection. Chlamydial infection, as diagnosed with direct immunofluorescence, correlated with a history of sexually transmitted disease (p less than 0.01), promiscuity (p less than 0.01), use of oral contraceptives (p less than 0.02) and high chlamydial antibody titres (p less than 0.01). These last also correlated with a history of sexually transmitted disease (p less than 0.02) and promiscuity (p less than 0.02). These results, obtained with direct immunofluorescence, are indistinguishable from those obtained previously with chlamydial culture. Direct immunofluorescence on urogenital smears seems a valuable tool for epidemiological investigation. Our data also support the hypothesis that oral contraceptive use is correlated with chlamydial infection because of increased cervical susceptibility to infection and not because of a sampling bias towards oral contraceptive users.

  16. Factors associated with cervical cancer screening in a safety net population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heberer, Meredith A; Komenaka, Ian K; Nodora, Jesse N; Hsu, Chiu-Hsieh; Gandhi, Sonal G; Welch, Lauren E; Bouton, Marcia E; Aristizabal, Paula; Weiss, Barry D; Martinez, Maria Elena

    2016-01-01

    AIM To identify factors associated with Papanicolaou-smear (Pap-smear) cervical cancer screening rates in a safety net population. METHODS From January 2012 to May 2013, the use of Pap-smear was determined for all patients seen at the breast clinic in a safety net hospital. Health literacy assessment was performed using the validated Newest Vital Sign. The records of patients were reviewed to determine if they had undergone Pap-smears for cervical cancer screening. Sociodemographic information was collected included age, education, monthly income, race/ethnicity, employment, insurance status, and primary care provider of the patient. Logistic regression analysis was then performed to determine factors associated with utilization of Pap-smears. Crude and adjusted odds ratios derived from multivariate logistic regression models were calculated as well as the associated 95%CIs and P-values. RESULTS Overall, 39% had Pap-smears in the prior 15 mo, 1377 consecutive women were seen during the study period and their records were reviewed. Significantly more patients with adequate health literacy underwent Pap-smears as compared to those with limited health literacy (59% vs 34%, P literacy, younger patients, and those with later age of first live birth were more likely to undergo Pap-smears. Patients whose primary care providers were gynecologists were also significantly more likely to have Pap-smears compared to other specialties (P literacy and primary care physician were associated with Pap-smear utilization. Development of interventions to target low health literacy populations could improve cervical cancer screening. PMID:27777883

  17. A comparative analysis of conventional Pap smear cytology, liquid based cytology and colposcopy clinical impression with colposcopy biopsy histology as gold standard in women undergoing colposcopy in Kenyatta National Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macharia H. C.

    2014-02-01

    Results: A total of 73 patients referred with abnormal pap smears were recruited into the study. The mean age of the patients was 38 yrs (SD ±10. About 45% of the patients interviewed did not have knowledge of Pap smear testing. Both the results of referral Pap smear and repeat pap smear were predominantly low grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LGSIL or HGSIL. With biopsy results being the gold standard, Liquid based cytology had a higher specificity of 75% when compared with conventional pap smears’ 11%. Conclusions: Even though colposcopy clinical impression has the highest agreement with colposcopy biopsy it’s a diagnostic and not a screening test, hence Liquid based cytology showed better performance as a screening test compared to conventional Pap smear. In general, there was good agreement for cytological results of repeat CPAP and LBC. We therefore recommend that for patients referred with abnormal pap smears requiring a repeat pap smear, liquid based cytology is used due to its higher specificity compared to conventional Pap smear. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2014; 3(1.000: 58-63

  18. Two cytological methods for screening for cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirschner, B.; Simonsen, K.; Junge, J.

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Denmark has had an organized screening programme for cervical cancer since the 1960s. In spite of this, almost 150 Danish women die from the disease each year. There are currently two different methods for preparation of cervical samples: conventional Papanicolaou smear and liquid......-based cytology. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In 2002, the Department of Pathology, Hvidovre Hospital changed over from the conventional Papanicolaou smear screening method to SurePath liquid-based cytology. This article is based on a retrospective comparison on data from the population screening programme for cervical...... cancer in the Municipality of Copenhagen. RESULTS: The number of tests with the diagnosis of "normal cells" decreased 1% after the conversion to liquid-based cytology, whilst the number of tests with "atypical cells" and "cells suspicious for malignancy" increased by 64.3% and 41.2% respectively...

  19. Meiotic abnormalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 19, describes meiotic abnormalities. These include nondisjunction of autosomes and sex chromosomes, genetic and environmental causes of nondisjunction, misdivision of the centromere, chromosomally abnormal human sperm, male infertility, parental age, and origin of diploid gametes. 57 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Scanning Electron Microscopic Evaluation of Smear Layer Removal Using Isolated or Interweaving EDTA with Sodium Hypochlorite

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Beraldo, Ângelo José; Silva, Rogério Vieira; da Gama Antunes, Alberto Nogueira; Silveira, Frank Ferreira; Nunes, Eduardo

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this study was to verify the effect of alternating 2.5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) on the smear layer removal from root canal surfaces. Methods and Materials: A total of 15 single-rooted human teeth, instrumented with ProTaper files, were randomly distributed in 3 groups. In group 1 (n=7) the canals were irrigated with 1 mL of 2.5% NaOCl between files and final irrigation was done with 1 mL of 2,5% NaOCl, followe by 1 mL of 17% EDTA, for a perio of 15 sec with new irrigtion of 1 mL of 2,5% NaOCl at each change of files. In group 3 (control group) (n=1), saline solution was used. All samples were cleaved into two sections, metalized and analyzed under scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The presence or absence of smear layer in the cervical, middle and apical thirds, with scores varying from 1 to 3, respectively were evaluated. The data were submitted to nonparametric Mann-Whitney U test. The level of significance was set at 0.05. Results: It was observed that there was a greater discrepancy between groups with respect to the apical third. In the other areas there was a greater similarity between the scores attributed to the groups. There was a statistically significant difference between the groups only in the apical third, when group 1 presented the higher median (P<0.05). Conclusion: The alternating use of EDTA during instrumentation with NaOCl was the most effective irrigation method to remove the apical smear layer. Both forms of irrigation were effective on removal of the smear layer in the coronal and middle thirds of the canals. PMID:28179925

  1. Induction of Cervical Neoplasia in the Mouse by Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, Donald D.; Budd Wentz, W.; Reagan, James W.; Heggie, Alfred D.

    1989-06-01

    Induction of cervical neoplasia in the mouse cervix by herpes simplex virus types 1 (HSV-1) and 2 (HSV-2) has been reported. The present study was done to determine if transfection with DNA of HSV-2 can induce carcinogenesis in this animal model. Genomic HSV-2 DNA was isolated from infected HEp-2 cells and separated from host cell DNA by cesium chloride density gradient centrifugation. The DNA was applied to mouse cervix for periods of 80-100 weeks. Experimental controls were treated with uninfected genomic HEp-2 cell DNA or with calf thymus DNA. Vaginal cytological preparations from all animals were examined monthly to detect epithelial abnormalities. Animals were sacrificed and histopathology studies were done when cellular changes indicative of premalignant or malignant lesions were seen on vaginal smears. Cytologic and histologic materials were coded and evaluated without knowledge of whether they were from animals treated with virus or control DNA. Premalignant and malignant cervical lesions similar to those that occur in women were detected in 61% of the histologic specimens obtained from animals exposed to HSV-2 DNA. The yield of invasive cancers was 21% in animals treated with HSV-2 DNA. No cancers were detected in mice treated with either HEp-2 or calf thymus DNA. Dysplasia was detected in only one of these control animals.

  2. Proposal to institutionalize criteria and quality standards for cervical cancer screening within a health care system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salmerón-Castro Jorge

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The uterine cervix is the most common cancer site for females. Approximately 52,000 new cases occur annually in Latin America, thus the need to improve efficiency and effectiveness of Cervical Cancer Screening Programs (CCSP is mandatory to decrease the unnecessary suffering women must bear. This paper is addressing essential issues to revamp the CCSP as proposed by the Mexican official norm. A general framework for institutionaling CCSP is outlined. Furthermore, strategies to strengthen CCSP performance through managerial strategies and quality assurance activities are described. The focus is on the following activities: 1 improving coverage; 2 implementing smear-taking quality control; 3 improving quality in interpretation of Pap test; 4 guaranteeing treatment for women for whom abnormalities are detected; 5 improving follow-up; 6 development of quality control measures and 7 development of monitoring and epidemiological surveillance information systems. Changes within the screening on cervical cancer may be advocated as new technologies present themselves and shortcomings in the existing program appear. It is crucial that these changes should be measured through careful evaluation in order to tally up potential benefits.

  3. Human Papillomavirus types distribution among women with cervical preneoplastic, lesions and cancer in Luanda, Angola

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damião, Paciência de Almeida; Oliveira-Silva, Michelle; Moreira, Miguel Ângelo; Poliakova, Natalia; de Lima, Maria Emilia RT; Chiovo, José; Nicol, Alcina Frederica

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Cervical cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths among females in Angola and human papillomavirus (HPV) is the main risk factor for the development of pre-cancerous squamous intraepithelial lesions. The diversity and frequency of HPV types in Angola has yet to be reported. Aim To determine the frequency of HPV among women with squamous intraepithelial lesions from women in Luanda, Angola. Methods Study participants included women diagnosed with cytological abnormalities that voluntarily provided Pap smears (n = 64). Genomic DNA was extracted from the samples for use as templates in the PCR amplification of HPV sequences. PCR products were sequenced to determine HPV type. Results HPV DNA was detected in 71.9% (46/64) in the samples. A higher diversity of HPV types was found in the cytological lesions, such as ASCUS and LSIL (HPV16, 6, 18, 31, 58, 66, 70 and 82, in order of frequency) than that detected for HSIL and SSC (HPV16, 18, 6 and 33). The most prevalent HPV type were: HPV16, HPV6 and HPV18. Conclusion This is the first report on HPV type diversity and frequency in woman of Angola. The results suggest that large-scale studies across Africa would improve our understanding of interrelationship between HPV infections and cervical cancer. More directly, the identification of the HPV types most prevalent suggests that women in Angola would benefit from currently available HPV vaccines. PMID:28154623

  4. Knowledge and acceptability of human papillomavirus vaccination and cervical cancer screening among women in Karnataka, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Martha P; Dune, Tanaka; Shetty, Prasanna K; Shetty, Avinash K

    2015-03-01

    Cervical cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality among women in India; however, participation in prevention and screening is low and the reasons for this are not well understood. In a cross-sectional survey in August 2008, 202 healthy women in Karnataka, India completed a questionnaire regarding knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to human papillomavirus (HPV) and cervical cancer. Factors associated with vaccination and Papanicolau (Pap) smear screening acceptance were explored. Thirty-six percent of women had heard of HPV while 15% had heard of cervical cancer. Five percent of women reported ever having a Pap smear, and 4% of women felt at risk of HPV infection. Forty-six percent of women were accepting of vaccination, but fewer (21%) were willing to have a Pap smear. Overall, knowledge related to HPV and cervical cancer topics was low. Women with negative attitudes toward HPV infection were 5.3 (95% confidence interval (CI) 2.8-10) times more likely to accept vaccination but were not significantly more likely to accept Pap smear (odds ratio 1.5, 95% CI 0.7-3.0). Cost and a low level of perceived risk were the most frequent factors cited as potential barriers. Improving awareness of HPV and cervical cancer through health care providers in addition to increasing access to vaccination and screening through government-sponsored programs may be feasible and effective methods to reduce cervical cancer burden in India.

  5. Automated red blood cell analysis compared with routine red blood cell morphology by smear review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Poonam Radadiya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The RBC histogram is an integral part of automated haematology analysis and is now routinely available on all automated cell counters. This histogram and other associated complete blood count (CBC parameters have been found abnormal in various haematological conditions and may provide major clues in the diagnosis and management of significant red cell disorders. Performing manual blood smears is important to ensure the quality of blood count results and to make presumptive diagnosis. In this article we have taken 100 samples for comparative study between RBC histograms obtained by automated haematology analyzer with peripheral blood smear. This article discusses some morphological features of dimorphism and the ensuing characteristic changes in their RBC histograms.

  6. Cervical dysplasia - series (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to detect cervical cancer. Limited or early cervical cancer (carcinoma in situ, or cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, or dysplasia) requires treatment with ablation therapy, usually in the form of ...

  7. Low adherence to cervical cancer screening after subtotal hysterectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lea Laird; Møller, Lars Mikael Alling; Gimbel, Helga Margrethe

    2015-01-01

    have unnecessary tests performed after total hysterectomy. Clarification of the use of cervical/vaginal smears after hysterectomy is needed to identify women at risk of cervical dysplasia or cancer. FUNDING: Research Foundation of Region Zealand, University of Southern Denmark, Nykøbing Falster......INTRODUCTION: A reason for not recommending subtotal hysterectomy is the risk of cervical pathology. We aimed to evaluate cervical cancer screening and to describe cervical pathology after subtotal and total hysterectomy for benign indications. METHODS: Data regarding adherence to screening...... and pathology results from the national Danish registry (Patobank) were obtained on women from a randomised clinical trial and an observational study of subtotal versus total abdominal hysterectomy from the time of surgery until 2014. RESULTS: We included 501 women (259 subtotal hysterectomies and 242 total...

  8. Modifying and Pilot Testing the Pap Smear Belief Questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Ackerson

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study is a report on modifications and pilot testing of a measurement tool to predict Pap testing based on the Interaction Model of Client Health Behavior. Women have been found to avoid routine cervical cancer screening (CCS due to personal influencing factors. For this study, the Pap Smear Belief Questionnaire (PSBQ was modified by adding items and evaluated through content validity index (CVI = .89 and cognitive interviews (think-aloud protocol, resulting in a 31-item instrument with four subscales (Benefits, Barriers, Vulnerability, Experiences. Pilot testing the modified PSBQ was conducted at a local agency. Fifty-three women completed and returned the PSBQ, which had good internal consistency, with a Cronbach’s alpha coefficient of .81 (Benefits α = .51; Barriers α = .85; Vulnerability α = .78; Experiences α = .87. Test–retest reliability of the 31-item PSBQ was also good (.878. Univariate logistic regression indicated that the only significant predictor of seeking/avoiding routine screening by women’s background characteristics was social influence (p = .04. Subscales found to be significant predictors in Pap testing were Barriers (p = .003 and Gynecological Exam Experiences (p = .04. The refined 31-item PSBQ has good psychometric data supporting its use in predicting CCS. However, this research should be replicated in a larger sample enabling further validity and reliability testing of the PSBQ. Understanding women’s attitudes toward CCS will help health care providers, who deal with gynecological health, develop more effective screening programs and interventions facilitating better experiences for women contributing to an increase in routine screening.

  9. Human papillomavirus genotypes in women with cervical cytological abnormalities from an area with high incidence of cervical cancer Genotipos de virus papiloma humano en mujeres con alteraciones citológicas cervicales de un área con alta incidencia de cáncer cervical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Daniel Deluca

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available It has been well demonstrated the relationship between the infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (HPVs genotypes and cervical cancer. In Northeastern Argentina a high incidence of this pathology has been described and therefore a high prevalence of HPV infection is expected. In order to identify HPV genotypes associated with malignant and pre-malignant cervical lesions present in the area, 53 ecto-endo cervical cell specimens obtained from women with cytohistological alterations were studied by a PCR-RFLP technique. Out of 53 patients, 34 (64.2% were positive for HPV infection, being HPV-16 (32.3% the most frequently found genotype, followed by HPV-58 (14.7%, -6, -18 and -45 (5.9%, -33, -52, -53, -54, -56, -66, -MM4 and -LVX100 (2.9%. Also 5 cases of infection caused by multiple genotypes were found, which corresponded to 14.7% of the positive cases. Results indicate that besides HPV-16 and -18, the most prevalent high-risk HPV genotypes worldwide, others like -45 and -58 as well as co-infection cases are frequent between women of Northeastern Argentina, and a particular attention should be paid to this circumstance because it could be an epidemiological feature of regional importance and a useful information for a future vaccination program.La relación entre la infección por los virus papiloma humanos (HPVs de alto riesgo y el cáncer de cuello de útero ha sido bien demostrada. En el Nordeste de Argentina se observa una alta incidencia de esta patología y en consecuencia se estima una alta prevalencia de infección por HPV. A fin de identificar los genotipos de HPV presentes en el área, asociados a casos de lesiones malignas y premalignas de cuello de útero, se estudiaron 53 muestras ecto-endo cervicales de mujeres con alteraciones citohistológicas residentes permanentes de las ciudades de Resistencia y Corrientes. De las 53 pacientes estudiadas, 34 resultaron positivas para HPV (64.2%, correspondiendo la mayor frecuencia a HPV

  10. Women's Understanding of the Term 'Pap smear': A Comparison of Spanish-Speaking Versus English-Speaking Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, David L; Soulli, Beth; Johnson, Nicole; Cooper, Saladin

    2016-11-01

    Objective To compare the understanding of the term 'Pap smear' among Spanish-speaking women, as compared to their English-speaking counterparts. Methods Surveys were distributed to English and Spanish speaking female patients in an urban Obstetrics and Gynecology clinic. Patients were at least 18 years old or they were less than 18 years old and pregnant. Results A majority of participants (77.3 % English-speaking vs. 74.1 % Spanish-speaking, respectively) were able to identify at least one correct descriptor for the term Pap smear. However, Spanish-speaking women were significantly less likely to choose incorrect descriptors. Spanish-speaking women were much less likely to say that a Pap smear was the same as a Pelvic exam (45.7 vs. 78.8 %; p = 0.001), or a test for a sexually transmitted disease (25 vs. 60.6 %; p = 0.001). Conclusions for Practice Compared to English-speaking women, Spanish-speaking women are much less likely to conflate a pelvic exam with a Pap smear. Overall understanding was suboptimal, regardless of primary language, indicating that major efforts are still needed to improve functional health literacy with respect to cervical cancer screening.

  11. Cervical Laminoplasty

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... spine showing extension of the spine following a cervical laminoplasty. B) Post-operative lateral x-rays of the same patient showing flexion. Note that the range of motion is maintained after the laminoplasty and that no ...

  12. Cervical spondylosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervical osteoarthritis; Arthritis - neck; Neck arthritis; Chronic neck pain; Degenerative disk disease ... therapist). Sometimes, a few visits will help with neck pain. Cold packs and heat therapy may help your ...

  13. Discussion of Detection Method for Cervical Glandular Intraepithelial Neoplasia%宫颈腺上皮瘤样病变检测方法的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周红荣; 马成斌; 王忠英

    2014-01-01

    neoplasia (HSIL) has one case (1.5%), low-grade squamous intraepithelial neoplasia (LSIL) 5 patients (7.5%), atypical squamous epithelium 9 cases (13.4%). The detection rate of simple CGIN between atypical glandular epithelium group and atypical squamous epithelium group had no dif erence(P=0.379). Conclusion: The sensitivity of detecting a glandular abnormality before a CGIN cone excision is lower with the papanicolaou smear and obviously increase after addition of biopsy and endocervical curet age. The exact preoperative prediction suspected of cervical glands lesions to make treatment plan is great significance.

  14. Use of HPV testing for cervical screening in vaccinated women--Insights from the SHEVa (Scottish HPV Prevalence in Vaccinated Women) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Ramya; Kavanagh, Kimberley; Cubie, Heather Ann; Serrano, Itziar; Wennington, Holli; Hopkins, Mark; Pan, Jiafeng; Pollock, Kevin G; Palmer, Tim J; Cuschieri, Kate

    2016-06-15

    The management of cervical disease is changing worldwide as a result of HPV vaccination and the increasing use of HPV testing for cervical screening. However, the impact of vaccination on the performance of HPV based screening strategies is unknown. The SHEVa (Scottish HPV Prevalence in Vaccinated women) projects are designed to gain insight into the impact of vaccination on the performance of clinically validated HPV assays. Samples collated from women attending for first cervical smear who had been vaccinated as part of a national "catch-up" programme were tested with three clinically validated HPV assays (2 DNA and 1 RNA). Overall HR-HPV and type specific positivity was assessed in total population and according to underlying cytology and compared to a demographically equivalent group of unvaccinated women. HPV prevalence was significantly lower in vaccinated women and was influenced by assay-type, reducing by 23-25% for the DNA based assays and 32% for the RNA assay (p = 0.0008). All assays showed over 75% reduction of HPV16 and/or 18 (p HPV was not significantly different in vaccinated vs unvaccinated women. In women with low grade abnormalities, the proportion associated with non 16/18 HR-HPV was significantly higher in vaccinated women (p HPV assays are affected differentially when applied to vaccinated women, dependent on assay chemistry. The increased proportion of non HPV16/18 infections may have implications for clinical performance, consequently, longitudinal studies linking HPV status to disease outcomes in vaccinated women are warranted.

  15. Significance of atypia in conventional Papanicolaou smears and liquid-based cytology: a follow-up study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schledermann, D; Ejersbo, D; Hoelund, B

    2004-01-01

    The diagnosis of atypical squamous epithelial cells, borderline nuclear changes, is associated with some controversy, as it encompasses benign, reactive, as well as possible neoplastic conditions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the follow-up diagnoses of cytological atypia in conventional...... Papanicolaou smears (CP) and liquid-based samples by the ThinPrep Pap Test (TP). A total of 1607 CP smears from 1 January 2000 to 31 December 2000 and 798 TP samples from 1 January 2002 to 31 December 2002 diagnosed as atypia were included. The results show that the detection rate of atypia in cervical...... cytological samples was reduced by 41.3% (P Cytological and histological follow-up data showed the presence of neoplastic lesions in 34.7% of patients screened by TP versus 22.3% of patients screened by CP, corresponding to a 55.6% increase in TP (P

  16. Age-specific prevalence of human papillomavirus by grade of cervical cytology in Tibetan women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Qiong; SHEN Keng; LI Hui; ZHOU Xian-rong; HUANG Hui-fang; LENG Jin-hua

    2010-01-01

    Background Human papillomavirus (HPV) is believed to be the most common sexually transmitted infection. However,little is known about the prevalence and distribution of HPV types in China. We aimed to assess the prevalence and the distribution of HPV types as well as risks for abnormal cervical cytology in women who reside in the Tibetan Autonomous Region of China.Methods A cross-sectional study was performed involving a sample of 3036 women. An epidemiological questionnaire was applied and cervical specimens were obtained for liquid-based cytology and HPV DNA detection. Statistical analysis included chi-square and Logistic regression model.Results In this population, 3.66% (111/3036) had atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS),1.45% (44/3036) low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL) and 1.09% (33/3036) had high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL). Tibetan women (5.74%, 137/2387) exhibited lower abnormal cytology rates than non-Tibetan women (8.01%, 52/649, P=0.03). The overall prevalence of HPV infection was 9.19% (279/3036). We failed to identify any differences in HPV prevalence by age. In the groups with normal, ASCUS, LSIL and HSIL, the overall HPV prevalences were 7.41% (211/2847), 24.32% (27/111), 56.82% (25/44) and 45.45% (15/33), respectively. HPV 16 (1.52%,46/3036) was the most common type, and was also the most prevalent in women with ASCUS (8.11%, 9/111) and HSIL (15.15%, 5/33). The most common HPV type for Tibetan women was HPV 16 (1.42%, 34/2387), whereas for non-Tibetan individuals it was HPV 33 (2.31%, 15/649). Of the 279 HPV-infected women, 40 individuals (14.34%) presented with multiple HPV positivity. Women who had two pregnancies were more likely to have abnormal cytology smear (OR=1.67;95% CI: 1.07-2.61).Conclusions A low prevalence of HPV positivity was observed in women who reside in the Tibetan Autonomous Region of China. The prevalence of abnormal cervical cytology and HPV type distributions were

  17. Study of a manual method of liquid-based cervical cytology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavatkar Anita

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available We report a study of a manual liquid-based cytology (MLBC method. Slides are prepared by using a polymer solution and allowing it to dry, forming a membrane. The aims of the study were to prepare cervical cytology smears using the manual method, observe morphology, compare with direct scrape smears and correlate with histopathology wherever possible. Out of 105 cases, the membrane was intact, indicating a good MLBC preparation, in 97 cases. Simultaneous conventional smears were taken in 81 patients. There was an 88.8% agreement in the diagnoses of general category in both groups. The diagnosis of negative for intraepithelial lesion or malignancy (NILM in both groups was made in 70 cases. The MLBC preparation was unsatisfactory in two cases which showed high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion and low grade squamous intraepithelial lesion, respectively, on the conventional smear. One MLBC smear diagnosed as atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance was reported as NILM on conventional smear. Cytohistologic correlation was done in nine cases, all of which showed cervicitis on histopathology. The MLBC method was found to be comparable to the conventional scrape smear. Further study of this method as a cost-effective alternative to the mechanized methods would be worthwhile.

  18. Association of human papillomavirus, Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis co-infections on the risk of high-grade squamous intraepithelial cervical lesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Abreu, André LP; Malaguti, Natália; Souza, Raquel P; Uchimura, Nelson S; Ferreira, Érika C; Pereira, Monalisa W; Carvalho, Maria DB; Pelloso, Sandra M; Bonini, Marcelo G; Gimenes, Fabrícia; Consolaro, Marcia EL

    2016-01-01

    The link between high-risk human Papillomavirus (HR-HPV) and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in the risk of developing cervical cancer still unclear. Thus, in this report we investigated the rates of co-infections between HPV and other important non-HPV STDs in different cervical findings using a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (M-PCR) to simultaneously detect Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Mycoplasma genitalium, Trichomonas vaginalis, HSV-1 and -2, and Treponema pallidum. A total of 838 women aged 18 to 68 years were screened using Papanicolaou smears for cervical abnormalities, HPV and non-HPV STDs using PCR and M-PCR methods. A total of 614 (73.3%) of the women had normal cytology (NILM) and 224 (26.7%) women exhibited abnormal cytology (≥ ASC-US). HPV-DNA prevalence was 33.9%, and HPV-16 was the most prevalent genotype in women with NILM and ≥ ASC-US cytology. Non-HPV STDs were detected in 30.4% women and T. vaginalis was the most prevalent one (11.6%). A higher increased risk of ≥ ASC-US and HSIL occurred in co-infections of HR-HPV with C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae. Co-infections of HPV-DNA and HR-HPV with HSV-2 exhibited a similar increased risk but only with ≥ ASC-US. Co-infections of HPV-DNA and HR-HPV with T. vaginalis demonstrated a similar increased risk of ≥ ASC-US and HSIL. We found that C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae were the primary pathogens associated with HR-HPV for the increased risk for all grades of cervical abnormalities but mainly for HSIL, suggesting a possible synergistic action in cervical lesions progression. Our results reinforce the hypothesis that some non-HPV STDs might play a role as co-factors in HPV-mediated cervical carcinogenesis. These data improve our understanding of the etiology of SCC and may also be useful for disease prevention. PMID:27429850

  19. Association of human papillomavirus, Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis co-infections on the risk of high-grade squamous intraepithelial cervical lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Abreu, André Lp; Malaguti, Natália; Souza, Raquel P; Uchimura, Nelson S; Ferreira, Érika C; Pereira, Monalisa W; Carvalho, Maria Db; Pelloso, Sandra M; Bonini, Marcelo G; Gimenes, Fabrícia; Consolaro, Marcia El

    2016-01-01

    The link between high-risk human Papillomavirus (HR-HPV) and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in the risk of developing cervical cancer still unclear. Thus, in this report we investigated the rates of co-infections between HPV and other important non-HPV STDs in different cervical findings using a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (M-PCR) to simultaneously detect Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Mycoplasma genitalium, Trichomonas vaginalis, HSV-1 and -2, and Treponema pallidum. A total of 838 women aged 18 to 68 years were screened using Papanicolaou smears for cervical abnormalities, HPV and non-HPV STDs using PCR and M-PCR methods. A total of 614 (73.3%) of the women had normal cytology (NILM) and 224 (26.7%) women exhibited abnormal cytology (≥ ASC-US). HPV-DNA prevalence was 33.9%, and HPV-16 was the most prevalent genotype in women with NILM and ≥ ASC-US cytology. Non-HPV STDs were detected in 30.4% women and T. vaginalis was the most prevalent one (11.6%). A higher increased risk of ≥ ASC-US and HSIL occurred in co-infections of HR-HPV with C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae. Co-infections of HPV-DNA and HR-HPV with HSV-2 exhibited a similar increased risk but only with ≥ ASC-US. Co-infections of HPV-DNA and HR-HPV with T. vaginalis demonstrated a similar increased risk of ≥ ASC-US and HSIL. We found that C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae were the primary pathogens associated with HR-HPV for the increased risk for all grades of cervical abnormalities but mainly for HSIL, suggesting a possible synergistic action in cervical lesions progression. Our results reinforce the hypothesis that some non-HPV STDs might play a role as co-factors in HPV-mediated cervical carcinogenesis. These data improve our understanding of the etiology of SCC and may also be useful for disease prevention.

  20. Cervical screening and cervical cancer death among older women: a population-based, case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rustagi, Alison S; Kamineni, Aruna; Weinmann, Sheila; Reed, Susan D; Newcomb, Polly; Weiss, Noel S

    2014-05-01

    Recent research suggests that cervical screening of older women is associated with a considerable decrease in cervical cancer incidence. We sought to quantify the efficacy of cervical cytology screening to reduce death from this disease. Among enrollees of 2 US health plans, we compared Papanicolaou smear screening histories of women aged 55-79 years who died of cervical cancer during 1980-2010 (cases) to those of women at risk of cervical cancer (controls). Controls were matched 2:1 to cases on health plan, age, and enrollment duration. Cytology screening during the detectable preclinical phase, estimated as the 5-7 years before diagnosis during which cervical neoplasia is asymptomatic but cytologically detectable, was ascertained from medical records. A total of 39 cases and 80 controls were eligible. The odds ratio of cervical cancer death associated with screening during the presumed detectable preclinical phase was 0.26 (95% confidence interval: 0.10, 0.63) after adjustment for matching characteristics, smoking, marital status, and race/ethnicity using logistic regression. We estimate that cervical cytology screening of all women aged 55-79 years in the United States could avert 630 deaths annually. These results provide a minimum estimate of the efficacy of human papillomavirus DNA screening-a more sensitive test-to reduce cervical cancer death among older women.

  1. MANUFACTURE OF THE FERMENTED SAUSAGES WITH THE SMEARED CONSISTENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nesterenko A. A.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In foreign practice we have a great demand of using smoked sausage products with a smeared consistence. In the article the basic aspects of manufacturing smoked sausages with a smeared consistence are resulted: the choice of spices, starting cultures and the way of drawing up of forcemeat

  2. 不能明确意义的不典型鳞状细胞伴DNA倍体异常在宫预早期病变筛查中的意义%Diagnostic implications of atypical squamous cells of unknown significance with abnormal DNA ploidy for early cervical lesions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梅金红; 徐姗; 韩永良; 涂轶; 熊一峰; 余燕青

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinical significance of atypical squamous cells of unknown significance (ASCUS) with abnormal DNA ploidy in the early diagnosis of cervical lesions.Methods Eight thousand four hundred and forty-eight patients were included in this study and all had DNA quantitative analysis and cervical liquid-based cytology.Among 1041 cases with DNA aneuploidy and/or abnormal cervical liquid-based cytology and additional cervical biopsy,histological review was performed in 247 ASCUS cases with abnormal DNA ploidy.Results (1) Among 8448 cases,7877 were normal or benign,426 were ASCUS,45 were ASC-H,55 were LSIL and 22 were HSIL by TBS diagnosis.The presence of 1-2 abnormal DNA ploidy cells was detected in 15.3% (65/426) of ASCUS,11.1% (5/45) of ASC-H,9.1% (5/55) of LSIL,and 0 (0/22) of HSIL.The presence of ≥ 3 abnormal DNA ploidy cells was detected in 39.0% (166/426) of ASCUS,75.6% (34/45) of ASC-H,76.4% (42/55) of LSIL,and 95.5% (21/22) of HSIL.(2) A total of 67 cases of CIN 2,CIN 3 or cancers were found in 247 patients with ASCUS by colposcopy biopsies,of which 13.9% (5/36) had 1-2 abnormal DNA ploidy cells,45.5% (56/123) had ≥3 abnormal DNA ploidy cells and 6.8% (6/88) had normal DNA polidy.ASCUS with 1-2 abnormal DNA ploidy cells and with ≥ 3 abnormal DNA ploidy cells were compared.The difference was statistically significant (x2 =11.79,P <0.01).But the difference between ASCUS with 1-2 abnormal DNA ploidy cells and normal DNA ploidy had no statistical significance (P > 0.05).Conclusions ASCUS with ≥3 abnormal DNA ploidy cells has higher risk for developing CIN 2,CIN 3 or invasive carcinoma.The application of DNA quantitative analysis and cervical liquid-based cytology test can help in guiding clinical follow-up and treatment options in patients with ASCUS.%目的 通过DNA定量分析与薄层液基细胞学检查,探讨不能明确意义的不典型鳞状细胞(ASCUS)伴DNA倍体异常在宫颈早期

  3. Dentine sealing provided by smear layer/smear plugs vs. adhesive resins/resin tags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrilho, Marcela R; Tay, Franklin R; Sword, Jeremy; Donnelly, Adam M; Agee, Kelli A; Nishitani, Yoshihiro; Sadek, Fernanda T; Carvalho, Ricardo M; Pashley, David H

    2007-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of five experimental resins, which ranged from hydrophobic to hydrophilic blends, to seal acid-etched dentine saturated with water or ethanol. The experimental resins (R1, R2, R3, R4, and R5) were evaluated as neat bonding agents (100% resin) or as solutions solvated with absolute ethanol (70% resin/30% ethanol). Fluid conductance was measured at 20 cm H(2)O hydrostatic pressure after sound dentine surfaces were: (i) covered with a smear layer; (ii) acid-etched; or (iii) bonded with neat or solvated resins, which were applied to acid-etched dentine saturated with water or ethanol. In general, the fluid conductance of resin-bonded dentine was significantly higher than that of smear layer-covered dentine. However, when the most hydrophobic neat resins (R1 and R2) were applied to acid-etched dentine saturated with ethanol, the fluid conductance was as low as that produced by smear layers. The fluid conductance of resin-bonded dentine saturated with ethanol was significantly lower than for resin bonded to water-saturated dentine, except for resin R4. Application of more hydrophobic resins may provide better sealing of acid-etched dentine if the substrate is saturated with ethanol instead of with water.

  4. Abnormalities of uterine cervix in women with inflammatory bowel disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jyoti Bhatia; Panayota Kotsali; Oana Vele; Jason Bratcher; Burton Korelitz; Katherine Vakher; Shlomo Mannor; Maria Shevchuk; Gworgia Panagopoulos; Adam Ofer; Ecaterina Tamas

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the prevalence of abnormalities of the uterine cervix in women with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) when compared to healthy controls.METHODS: One hundred and sixteen patients with IBD [64 with Crohn's disease (CD) and 52 with ulcerative colitis (UC)] were matched to 116 healthy controls by age (+/- 2 years) at the time of most recent papanicolaou (Pap) smear. Data collected consisted of age, race, marital status, number of pregnancies,abortions/miscarriages, duration and severity of IBD,Pap smear results within five years of enrollment, and treatment with immunosuppressive drugs. Pap smear results were categorized as normal or abnormal including atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS), low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LGSIL), and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HGSIL). RESULTS: The median age at the time of Pap smear was 46 (range: 17-74) years for the IBD group and matched controls (range: 19-72 years). There were more Caucasian subjects than other ethnicities in the IBD patient group (P = 0.025), as well as fewer abortions (P = 0.008), but there was no significant difference regarding marital status. Eighteen percent of IBD patients had abnormal Pap smears compared to 5% of controls (P = 0.004). Subgroup analysis of the IBD patients revealed no significant differences between CD and UC patients in age, ethnicity, marital status, number of abortions, disease severity, family history of IBD, or disease duration. No significant difference was observed in the number of abnormal Pap smears or the use of immunosuppressive medications between CD and UC patients (P = 0.793). No definitive observation could be made regarding HPV status, as this was not routinely investigated during the timeframe of our study.CONCLUSION: Diagnosis of IBD in women is related to an increased risk of abnormal Pap smear, while type of IBD and exposure to immunosuppressive medications are not. This has significant implications for

  5. Management of Cervical Cytology with HPV Test

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-10-15

    Dr. Stewart Massad, a professor in the Division of Gynecologic Oncology at Washington University in Saint Louis and a board member of the American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Cancer Prevention (ASCCP), talks about ASCCP's 2006 Consensus Guidelines on the management of abnormal cervical cytology and histology.  Created: 10/15/2009 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Cancer Prevention and Control (DCPC).   Date Released: 6/9/2010.

  6. 宫颈液基细胞学检查与高危型HPV检测早期筛查宫颈癌前病变的对比分析%Comparative study of liquid-based cervical cytology and high-risk HPV testing on ear-ly screening for cervical precancerous lesions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘志红; 邹艳芬

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To study the effect of cervical cytology liquid-based and high-risk HPV screening for early detection of cervical lesions before. Methods:From March 2013 to March 2014 to select cervical screening 700 cases as subjects. Using high-risk HPV testing and liquid-based cervical cytology screening to test early cervical lesions. Results:In 700 cases with high-risk HPV-positive in 47 cases. HPV16 type was the most,accounting for 48. 94 percent,followed by HPV18,accounting for 21. 28%. Liquid-based cytology in cervical smear abnormalities in patients with 40 cases. LSIL accounted for 2. 71%,HSIL accounted for 0. 57%. TCT method combined high-risk HPV,LSIL and HSIL were 2. 32% and 0. 54%,and TCT was 0. 45% and 0. 19%. Conclusion:High-risk HPV tes-ting can improve the accuracy of cervical cancer screening,combined with liquid-based cervical cytology high-risk HPV testing can improve the success rate of screening for cervical precancerous lesions.%目的:对比研究宫颈液基细胞学检查与高危型HPV检测早期筛查宫颈癌前病变.方法:选取2013年3月到2014年3月接受宫颈病理变化筛选检查的700例患者作为研究对象.采用高危型HPV检查和宫颈液基细胞检查进行早期宫颈癌前病变筛查.结果:在700例患者中,高危型HPV检查结果阳性有47例.其中HPV16型最多,占48.94%,其次是HPV18型,占21.28%.在宫颈液基细胞学检查中涂片异常病人有40例.其中LSIL占2.71%,HSIL占0.57%.高危HPV联合TCT方法,LSIL和HSIL分别是2.32%和0.54%;而TCT则是0.45%和0.19%.结论:高危型HPV检查能够提高宫颈癌前筛查的准确率,宫颈液基细胞检查联合高危HPV检查能够提高宫颈癌前病变筛查成功率.

  7. Cytologic follow up of Low-grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesions in Pap smears after integrated treatment with antimicrobials followed by oral turmeric oil extract

    OpenAIRE

    Joshi, Jayashree Vinay; Jagtap, Sujata S.; Paradkar, Prajakta Hemant; Walwatkar, Priya; Paradkar, Hemant S.; Affandi, Zubair M.; Ashok D.B Vaidya

    2016-01-01

    Cervical cancer is preventable because the carcinogenesis is slow and there are opportunities to detect precancerous lesions by Papanicolaou (Pap) smears, colposcopy, or HPV DNA tests and to treat them by antimicrobials, surgery or cold CO2 vapourization. We have earlier reported on the chemopreventive potential of integrated treatment with antimicrobials therapy followed by a standardized oral Turmeric Oil (TO) extract upto 12 weeks in women who had persistent Low-grade Squamous Intra-epithe...

  8. Inequity of healthcare utilization on mammography examination and Pap smear screening in Thailand: Analysis of a population-based household survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Healthcare in Thailand is not equally distributed, and not all people can equally access healthcare resources even if they are covered by health insurance. To examine factors associated with the utilization of mammography examination for breast cancer and Pap smear screening for cervical cancer, data from the national reproductive health survey conducted by the National Statistical Office of Thailand in 2009 was examined. The survey was carried out on 15,074,126 women aged 30–59 years. The results showed that the wealthier respondents had more mammograms than did the lower-income groups. The concentration index was 0.144. The data on Pap smears for cervical cancer also showed that the wealthier respondents were more likely to have had a Pap smear than their lower-income counterparts. The concentration index was 0.054. Determinants of mammography examination were education, followed by health welfare and wealth index, whereas the determinants of Pap smear screening were wealth index, followed by health welfare and education. The government should support greater education for women because education was associated with socioeconomic status and wealth. There should be an increase in the number of screening campaigns, mobile clinics, and low-cost mammograms and continued support for accessibility to mammograms, especially in rural areas and low-income communities. PMID:28282430

  9. Cervical cancer screening in the Faroe Islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammer, Turið; Lynge, Elsebeth; Djurhuus, Gisela W;

    2014-01-01

    Background. The Faroe Islands have had nationally organised cervical cancer screening since 1995. Women aged 25-60 years are invited every third year. Participation is free of charge. Although several European overviews on cervical screening are available, none have included the Faroe Islands. Our...... aim was to provide the first description of cervical cancer screening, and to determine the screening history of women diagnosed with cervical cancer in the Faroe Islands. Material and methods. Screening data from 1996 to 2012 were obtained from the Diagnostic Centre at the National Hospital...... 1999. At present, 7.0% of samples have abnormal cytology. Of all ASCUS samples, 76-95% were tested for HPV. A total of 58% of women diagnosed with cervical cancer did not participate in screening prior to their diagnosis, and 32% had normal cytology in the previous four years. Conclusion. Despite...

  10. Leukocyte abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabig, T G

    1980-07-01

    Certain qualitative abnormalities in neutrophils and blood monocytes are associated with frequent, severe, and recurrent bacterial infections leading to fatal sepsis, while other qualitative defects demonstrated in vitro may have few or no clinical sequelae. These qualitative defects are discussed in terms of the specific functions of locomotion, phagocytosis, degranulation, and bacterial killing.

  11. [The European aptitude test for cervical cytopathology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branca, M

    2001-02-01

    The EFCS/QUATE aptitude test is an important measure for evaluating quality in cervical cytopathology and for assessing the level of experience and competence in cervical cancer screening. The test, set up in the 1990s by the ECTP/CCS working party, has been performed since 1992 in several European countries: United Kingdom, The Netherlands, Germany, Denmark, Portugal, Slovenia, Hungary and Italy. In Italy, the test has been performed at the Istituto Superiore di Sanità in 1992 and 1993 and in some Italian universities (Padua 1993, Turin 1994, Sassari 1995, Naples 1996, Messina 1998) and in one hospital (Genoa 1997). The minimum passing score is 60/100 (60% in all sections). The aptitude test for cytotechnologists includes: a written test (50 multiple choice questions); a practical test (screening 10 unmarked cervical smears; spot test of 20 slides with a fixed field of view); and an oral test, for borderline candidates when necessary (60%) or for the diploma with 'distinction' (95%). Successful candidates receive the Certificate of Aptitude in Gynecological Cytotechnology and are entitled to use the initials CT (EFCS-GYN) after their names for professional purposes. The aptitude test for anatomopathologists includes an oral test and a practical test (screening 5 unmarked cervical smears, spot test of 20 slides with a fixed field of view, and reading and diagnosing 3 complex cases). Successful candidates receive the certificate of gynecological cytopathology. The first aptitude test for anatomopathologists in Italy, organized and endorsed by the Istituto Superiore di Sanità in collaboration with SIAPEC (Italian Society of Pathological Anatomy and Cytopathology) and in agreement with the European guidelines for cervical cancer screening, was performed on 18 December 1997 in Rome. The total number of aptitude tests carried out in Europe is 15 for cytotechnologists and 4 for anatomopathologists. A total of 317 cytotechnologists and 73 anatomopathologists has taken

  12. Teenage cervical screening in a high risk American population

    OpenAIRE

    Songlin Zhang; Jaiyeola Thomas; Joel Thibodeaux; Ami Bhalodia; Fleurette Abreo

    2011-01-01

    Background: The new 2009 ACOG guideline for cervical cytology screening changed the starting age to 21 years regardless of the age of onset of sexual intercourse. However, many recent studies have shown a dramatic increase in the incidence of cervical epithelial abnormalities among adolescents within the past two decades. Materials and Methods: For this study, the reports of 156,342 cervical cytology were available of which 12,226 (7.8%) were from teenagers. A total of 192 teenagers with high...

  13. Evaluation of adjunctive HPV testing by Hybrid Capture II® in women with minor cytological abnormalities for the diagnosis of CIN2/3 and cost comparison with colposcopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyi May S

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As a proportion of high grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN2/3 are associated with equivocal cervical smears, which show borderline or mild dyskaryosis, follow up with repeat smears, colposcopy and biopsy is required. Since infection with oncogenic Human Papilloma Virus (HR HPV has been found to be associated with the development of cervical cancer, HRHPV testing appears to be an alternative. Objective The present study assesses if HRHPV testing can predict CIN2/3 in women referred for mild dyskaryosis and borderline cytological changes in an health authority with a referral policy to colposcopy after one single mild dyskaryotic Pap smear. Study design The HPV DNA Hybrid Capture II (Digene/Abbott, Maidenhead was evaluated on 110 consenting women with mild dyskaryosis and 23 women with persistent borderline changes, who were referred for colposcopy between May and November 2001. A cost comparison between two referral policies was performed. Results CIN2/3 was diagnosed histologically in 30 of 133 women (22% with minor cytological abnormalities. As the Receiver Operator Characteristics plot suggested a cut-off of 3 pg/ml the HRHPV HCII was evaluated at 3 RLU (relative light units and at the manufacturer's recommendation of 1 RLU. At both cut-offs sensitivity and negative predictive value were high at 97%. Specificity was low at 37% at a cut-off of 1 pg/ml and 46% at a cut-off of 3 RLU. To remain cost neutral in comparison to immediate colposcopy the costs for one HR HPV HC II must not exceed £34.37 per test at a cut off of 3 pg/ml. Conclusion The negative likelihood ratio (NLR was of good diagnostic value with 0.089 at 1 RLU and 0.072 at 3 RLU, which reduces the post-test probability for CIN2/3 to 2% in this population. Women with minor cytological disorders can be excluded from colposcopy on a negative HR HPV result. Specificity can be improved by restricting HR HPV testing to women with persistent borderline

  14. The value of electromyography in differentiating intramedullary tumor from inflammatory demyelinating disease of cervical region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王红芬

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the value of needle electromyography(EMG)in differentiating intramedullary tumor from inflammatory demyelinating disease of cervical region.Methods Patients hospitalized in the Chinese PLA General Hospital from March 2008 to June 2013 with abnormalities on MRI of cervical vertabra and preliminary diagnosed as intramedullary tumor or inflammatory demyelinating disease of cervical region were enrolled in the

  15. A Virtual Microscopy System to Scan, Evaluate and Archive Biomarker Enhanced Cervical Cytology Slides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niels Grabe

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although cytological screening for cervical precancers has led to a reduction of cervical cancer incidence worldwide it is a subjective and variable method with low single-test sensitivity. New biomarkers like p16 that specifically highlight abnormal cervical cells can improve cytology performance. Virtual microscopy offers an ideal platform for assisted evaluation and archiving of biomarker-stained slides.

  16. Os Odontoideum: Rare Cervical Lesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristie A Robson

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a 22-year-old Marine who presented to the emergency department, after a martial arts exercise, with transient weakness and numbness in all extremities. Computed tomography cervical spine radiographs revealed os odontoideum. Lateral flexion–extension radiographs identified atlanto-axillary instability. This abnormality is rare and can be career ending for military members who do not undergo surgical fusion. [West J Emerg Med. 2011;12(4:520–522.

  17. Cytologic follow up of Low-grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesions in Pap smears after integrated treatment with antimicrobials followed by oral turmeric oil extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Jayashree Vinay; Jagtap, Sujata S; Paradkar, Prajakta Hemant; Walwatkar, Priya; Paradkar, Hemant S; Affandi, Zubair M; Vaidya, Ashok D B

    2016-01-01

    Cervical cancer is preventable because the carcinogenesis is slow and there are opportunities to detect precancerous lesions by Papanicolaou (Pap) smears, colposcopy, or HPV DNA tests and to treat them by antimicrobials, surgery or cold CO2 vapourization. We have earlier reported on the chemopreventive potential of integrated treatment with antimicrobials therapy followed by a standardized oral Turmeric Oil (TO) extract upto 12 weeks in women who had persistent Low-grade Squamous Intra-epithelial Lesion (LSIL) in their Pap smears. In this communication we report their post-therapy follow up for 36 months (N = 18) with Pap smears. We were also able to follow up for 36 months control cases (N = 10) who had only standard therapy with antimicrobials. During 36 months of follow up none of the cases with integrated treatment, progressed to HSIL or cancer. Out of 15/18 cases which had a regression of Pap smear, all 15 remained free of LSIL from 6 to 36 months post-therapy showing persistent therapeutic effect of integrated therapy. In one case there was recurrence of LSIL in Pap smear, ten months post-therapy, which regressed to mild atypia after a second course of oral TO for 8 weeks. In the control group, persistence of LSIL after antimicrobials was observed in Pap smears in 5/10 cases when followed up by Pap smears up to 36 months. This preliminary report indicates some post-therapeutic benefit with integrative treatment as compared to the use of antimicrobials alone. A large scale controlled study is warranted.

  18. Prevalence of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia AND cervical carcinoma in ever married women in rural area of a district in Haryana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amandeep Kaur

    2015-06-01

    Conclusions: Low prevalence (0.9% of epithelial cell abnormalities observed in study confirmed the national estimates for Haryana as low prevalence area for cervical cancers. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2015; 4(3.000: 814-819

  19. Cytological diagnosis of tuberculous cervicitis: A case report with review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Kalyani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis of cervix is a rare disease. Tuberculosis usually affects women of childbearing age, indicating hormone dependence of infection. The patient presents with menstrual irregularities, infertility or vaginal discharge. Cervical lesions presents as papillary/vegetative growth or ulceration mimicking cervical cancer. Cervical Papanicolaou (Pap smear plays an important role in diagnosing the disease by non-invasive technique in which the presence of epithelioid cells and Langhan′s type of giant cells is diagnostic. However, other causes of granulomatous cervicitis should be considered and ruled out. Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN stain for acid fast bacilli, fluorescent technique, biopsy and culture help in confirming the disease. We present the case of a 45-year-old female, who presented with vaginal discharge, dysfunctional uterine bleeding, first degree uterine descent with grade II cystocele and rectocele and cervical ulcer. Pap smear revealed epithelioid cells and Langhan′s type of giant cells, confirmed by ZN stain of cervical smear, fluorescent technique and culture.

  20. Follow-up strategies after treatment (large loop excision of the transformation zone (LLETZ)) for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN): Impact of human papillomavirus (HPV) test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijden, E.M. van der; Lopes, A.D.; Bryant, A.; Bekkers, R.L.M.; Galaal, K.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Development of cancer of the cervix is a multi-step process as before cervical cancer develops, cervical cells undergo changes and become abnormal. These abnormalities are called cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and are associated with increased risk of subsequent invasive cancer

  1. Extraordinary incidence of cervical ribs indicates vulnerable condition in Late Pleistocene mammoths

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reumer, J.W.F.; ten Broek, C.M.A.; Galis, F.

    2014-01-01

    The number of cervical vertebrae in mammals is highly conserved at seven. We have shown that changes of this number are selected against due to a coupling with major congenital abnormalities (pleiotropic effects). Here we show that the incidence of abnormal cervical vertebral numbers in Late Pleisto

  2. HPV-Based Screening, Triage, Treatment, and Followup Strategies in the Management of Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia

    OpenAIRE

    Oscar Peralta-Zaragoza; Jessica Deas; Claudia Gómez-Cerón; Wendy Argelia García-Suastegui; Geny del Socorro Fierros-Zárate; Nadia Judith Jacobo-Herrera

    2013-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the second most common cause of death from cancer in women worldwide, and the development of new diagnostic, prognostic, and treatment strategies merits special attention. Many efforts have been made to design new drugs and develop immunotherapy and gene therapy strategies to treat cervical cancer. HPV genotyping has potentially valuable applications in triage of low-grade abnormal cervical cytology, assessment of prognosis and followup of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia...

  3. Tuberculosis:an experience from Mycobacterium smears and culture analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zeehaida M; Siti Asma H; Siti Hawa H; Zaidah AR; Norbanee TH

    2009-01-01

    Objective:Simple tests like direct smear of the acid fast bacilli (AFB)and Mycobacterium culture could assist the diagnosis of tuberculosis.This study is aimed at reviewing the outcome of smears,culture results and con-tamination rate among specimens requested for AFB smear and Mycobacterium culture.Methods:Retrospec-tive laboratory data analysis requesting for Mycobacterium culture from January 2005 till December 2006 was done in a tertiary teaching hospital of Universiti Sains Malaysia,Kubang Kerian,Kelantan,Malaysia.Re-sults:Four hundred and sixty seven (36.6%)isolates grew from 1 277 specimens.Of these isolates,314 (67.2%)grew Mycobacterium tuberculosis,23 (4.9%)grew Mycobacterium other than tuberculosis and 38 (8.1%)grew contaminants.Among the M.tuberculosis cultures,165 (52.5%)had growth of more than 100 confluent colonies,whereas 39 cultures (12.4%)had growth of less than 19 colonies.Direct smear for AFB among smear positive cases showed presence of more than 50 bacilli /line in 231 (49.5%)cases and smear negative cases accounted for 63 (13.5%).Among smear positive cases,291 (94.5%)cultures grew Myco-bacterium species and another 17 (5.5%)cultures grew contaminants.In smear negative cases,32 (62.7%) cultures grew Mycobacterium species and 19 (37.3%)cultures grew contaminants.Conclusion:The results from data analysis of the Mycobacterium cultures should be critically utilized in order to review the laboratory performance and to improve its services in the future.Some of the data is also useful to the administrators of the hospital in terms of estimating the risk of occupational hazard faced by the health care workers.

  4. The Effect of Smear Layer Removal on Endodontic Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    smear layer as described by Yoshida et al. in the Journal of Endodontics in 1995. The use of NaOCl has been shown to remove pulpal remnants on the...The Effect of Smear Layer Removal on Endodontic Outcomes by Susan E. Hinman, LCDR, DC, USN A...thesis submitted to the Faculty of the Endodontics Graduate Program Naval Postgraduate Dental School Uniformed Services University of the Health

  5. Cervical Cancer Stage IVA

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... historical Searches are case-insensitive Cervical Cancer Stage IVA Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 756x576 ... Large: 3150x2400 View Download Title: Cervical Cancer Stage IVA Description: Stage IVA cervical cancer; drawing and inset ...

  6. Socioeconomic position and stage of cervical cancer in Danish women diagnosed 2005 to 2009

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibfelt, Else; Kjær, Susanne Krüger; Johansen, Christoffer

    2012-01-01

    To reduce social disparities in cervical cancer survival, it is important to understand the mechanisms by which social position influence cancer prognosis. We investigated the relations between socioeconomic factors, comorbidity, time since last Papanicolau smear, and stage at diagnosis in Danish...

  7. “Comparative evaluation of dentinal penetration of three different endodontic sealers with and without smear layer removal” - Scanning electron microscopic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K R Sonu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim and Objectives: The aim of this study was to test the dentinal tubule penetration of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA Fillapex (Angelus, Londria, PR, Brazil, GuttaFlow® 2 sealer (Coltene/Whaledent with standard sealer AH Plus (Dentsply Detrey, Konstanz, Germany in instrumented root canals obturated by using cold lateral compaction techniques in either the presence or absence of the smear layer. Materials and Methods: Sixty extracted human mandibular premolars with a single root canal were used for this study. All teeth were prepared using F2 Pro Taper nickel–titanium rotary system. Teeth were randomly divided into three groups of 20 teeth each. GuttaFlow 2, MTA Fillapex and AH Plus were used as sealers in Group I, Group II, and Group III, respectively. Groups were divided into two subgroups in which either the smear layer was removed or retained. Removal of smear layer was achieved by continuous irrigation with 5.25% sodium hypochlorite and 2 ml of 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid. The canals were dried and obturated using respective sealers by cold lateral compaction techniques. After storage at 37°C and 100% humidity for 14 days, the roots were then split into two halves using chisel and mallet. On each section, sealer penetration in the dentinal tubules at cervical, middle, and apical levels was examined by using scanning electron microscope. Results: Sealer penetration into the dentinal tubules was noticed in all groups. AH plus showed deeper penetration, followed by MTA Fillapex and GuttaFlow® 2. The penetration depth of the sealers at the cervical and middle third of root was significantly more than those at apical third. Conclusions: Within the parameters of the present study it was concluded, with the removal of smear layer AH plus sealer showed deeper penetration into the dentinal tubules at cervical and middle third of root compared with apical third.

  8. Detection of GBV-C/HGV RNA in cervico-vaginal smears from healthy individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Angelica Ehara Watanabe

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the sexual transmission of GBV-C/HGV, through RNA detection in cervicovaginal smears. Therefore the GBV-C/HGV RNA in cervicovaginal smears from apparently healthy women was investigated using routine proceedings for prophylactic screening to cervical cancer. GBV-C/HGV RNA was detected by reverse transcriptase and polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. Only one woman presented co-infection with human papilloma virus (HPV. The GBV-C/HGV RNA was detected in 13/73 (17.57% healthy women and it's prevalence in participating women between 28-43 years old was 53.85%. No association was found with GBV-C/HGV for the age of first sexual intercourse and number of pregnancies. In GBV-C/HGV RNA positive women, 69.23% were married. In conclusion, the present findings show that cervical and vaginal specimens could contain the GBV-C/HGV RNA.O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar a transmissão sexual de GBV-C/HBV, através da detecção do RNA viral em raspados cérvico-vaginais. Portanto, a presença do RNA GBV-C/HGV foi investigada em raspados cérvico-vaginais em mulheres aparentemente saudáveis que realizaram exames preventivos para câncer cervical. GBV-C/HGV RNA foi detectado por reação de transcriptase reversa e reação em cadeia da polimerase (RT-PCR. Apenas uma mulher apresentou a co-infecção com o papiloma vírus humano (HPV. O RNA GBV-C/HGV foi detectado em 13/73 (17,57% mulheres saudáveis e sua prevalência entre participantes da idade de 28-43 anos foi de 53,85%. Não foi observada relação entre a presença do RNA GBV-C/HGV com a idade de primeira relação sexual, nem com o número de gestações. Entre as mulheres que apresentavam o RNA viral, 69,23% eram casadas. O presente estudo demonstrou que secreções cérvico-vaginais podem conter o RNA viral GBV-C/HBV.

  9. Clinical significance of colposcopy on screening cervical intraepithelial neoplasia in cytological negative and smooth cervices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dianyun Shi; Saiying Chen; Yan Sun

    2014-01-01

    Objective:The aim of the study was to evaluate the clinical value of the video colposcopy in screening cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) in cytological negative and smooth cervices by optical y gynecological examination. Methods:The 1050 women, whose cervices had been shown smooth and cytological negative by optical examine, were examined with electronic colposcopy in gynecological clinic, and biopsy was taken when the double abnormality of aceto-white epithelium and iodine negative, and other abnormal images were shown. A retrospective analysis of these cases was performed. Re-sults:(1) The 514 samples from 458 cases, including 458 samples of abnormal tissues under colposcopy and 56 samples of polyp or polypoid tumors by optical y, were examined by biopsy. Among them, 68 samples were found to be CIN, including 11 cases of CINII/CINIII;(2) The 72 of 1050 cases showed the double-abnormality of aceto-white epithelium and iodine nega-tive. Among them, 64 cases were CIN determined by biopsy. And the positive predictive value of the double-abnormality of aceto-white epithelium and iodine negative under colposcopy was 88.9%, with a false negative rate of 3.3%;(3) Among 458 women examined by biopsy, only one of 350 samples from cervical polyp tissue was CIN (0.3%), while 67 of 164 samples from the tissues with abnormal colposcopic images were found to be CIN (40.9%), indicating the close relation between abnormal colposcopic findings and CIN;(4) The results of age-distribution analysis showed that, in the 164 cases with abnormal features under colposcopy, the incidence of double abnormality of aceto-white epithelium and iodine negative was higher in the age of sexual activity, just the same as the age distribution feature of CIN;while single abnormality of iodine negative appeared more in the age of over 50 years. Conclusion:Abnormal features displayed by colposcopy, especial y the double abnormality of aceto-white epithelium and iodine negative, has an important

  10. MRI findings in the upper cervical spine of rheumatoid arthritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawaida, Hidefumi; Sakou, Takashi; Morizono, Yoshiyuki; Yoshikuni, Nagatoshi; Taketomi, Eiji; Hashiguchi, Masanao

    1989-04-01

    In 55 patients with rheumatoid arthritis associated with upper cervical spine abnormality, the presence or absence of medullary and upper cervical pressures was examined on sagittal MRI scans. Atlanto-dental anterior incomplete dislocation and horizontal dislocation were imaged concurrently with X-rays. For horizontal dislocation, an abnormal Redlund-Johnell value and a Ranawat value of 7 mm or less were always associated with medullary pressure as seen on MRI. For anterior incomplete dislocation, upper cervical pressure was always associated when a space available for the spinal cord was 13 mm or less or frequently associated when the atlanto-dental interval was 8 mm or more. Many of the patients with the upper cervical abnormalities complained of occipital or cervical pain. The pain was always encountered in patients with an abnormal Redlund-Johnell value. Roentgenography of the cervical spine confirmed MRI-proven medullary or upper cervical pressure, suggesting the potential of MRI in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. (Namekawa, K).

  11. Cervical Dysplasia and High-Risk Human Papillomavirus Infections among HIV-Infected and HIV-Uninfected Adolescent Females in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David H. Adler

    2014-01-01

    In this cross-sectional study, we compared the HPV DNA and Pap smear results between 35 HIV-infected and 50 HIV-uninfected adolescents in order to determine the prevalence of HR-HPV genotypes and cervical cytological abnormalities. Comparisons were made using Pearson χ2 and independent-samples t-tests analyses, and associations between demographic and behavioral characteristics and HPV infections were examined. Results. HIV-infected participants were more likely to be infected with any HPV (88.6% versus 48.0%; P<0.001 and with at least one HR-HPV (60.0% versus 24.0%; P=0.001, and to have multiple concurrent HPV infections (68.6% versus 22.0%; P<0.001. HPV 16 and 18 were relatively underrepresented among HR-HPV infections. Abnormal Pap test results were more common among HIV-infected participants (28.8% versus 12.0%; P=0.054. A history of smoking was associated with HR-HPV infection. Conclusions. HIV-infected adolescents have an increased risk of infection with HR-HPV and of Pap test abnormalities. The majority of HR-HPV infections among our participants would not be prevented by the currently available vaccinations against HPV.

  12. Update on prevention and screening of cervical cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGraw, Shaniqua L; Ferrante, Jeanne M

    2014-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the third most common cause of cancer in women in the world. During the past few decades tremendous strides have been made toward decreasing the incidence and mortality of cervical cancer with the implementation of various prevention and screening strategies. The causative agent linked to cervical cancer development and its precursors is the human papillomavirus (HPV). Prevention and screening measures for cervical cancer are paramount because the ability to identify and treat the illness at its premature stage often disrupts the process of neoplasia. Cervical carcinogenesis can be the result of infections from multiple high-risk HPV types that act synergistically. This imposes a level of complexity to identifying and vaccinating against the actual causative agent. Additionally, most HPV infections spontaneously clear. Therefore, screening strategies should optimally weigh the benefits and risks of screening to avoid the discovery and needless treatment of transient HPV infections. This article provides an update of the preventative and screening methods for cervical cancer, mainly HPV vaccination, screening with Pap smear cytology, and HPV testing. It also provides a discussion of the newest United States 2012 guidelines for cervical cancer screening, which changed the age to begin and end screening and lengthened the screening intervals. PMID:25302174

  13. 北京市月坛社区妇女免费宫颈癌筛查结果分析%Results of Cervical Cancer Screening in Yuetan Community in Beijing City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙艳格; 张诗敏; 杜雪平; 张树静; 赖爱鸾

    2011-01-01

    Objective To understand the prevalence of cervical diseases in Yuetan community in Beijing, with an attempt to provide evidences for community — based prevention of cervical cancer. Methods Conventional cervical scraping smear screening was performed in 3850 women who attended the " Two Cancers Screening" project in Yuetan community from 2008 to 2009. Results In Yuetan community, 3850 women received screening, with an screening rate of 9. 9% and a government budget of 96250 RMB yuan. Abnormal pelvic conditions were found in 1209 women ( 31. 4% ). Of 165 women ( 4. 3% ) with abnormal cervical cytology, 23 ( 0. 6% ) had cervical lesions, including one case of cervical cancer. Conclusion The screening rate is low in Yuetan community in Beijing. The prevalence of cervical lesions is 0. 6% . Health education should be strengthened in rural communities in Beijing so as to urge more women to accept cervix screening.%目的 了解月坛社区妇女宫颈病变流行状况,为社区宫颈癌的防治提供依据.方法 回顾分析2008-2009年月坛社区"两癌筛查"项目中3 850例传统宫颈刮片筛查结果.结果 宫颈癌筛查妇女3 850例,筛查率为9.9%;政府投入9.625万元;3 850例妇女妇科检查异常者1 209例(31.4%);宫颈细胞学检查异常165例(4.3%);对165例宫颈细胞学异常者行病理检查宫颈病变23例(0.6%),其中宫颈癌1例.结论 月坛社区妇女宫颈癌筛查率较低,宫颈疾病患病率为0.6%,应进一步加对强居民的宣传和教育,使更多的妇女接受宫颈癌的筛查.

  14. Comparison of clinical and microbiological profiles in smear-positive and smear-negative cases of suspected microbial keratitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Savitri

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To examine the hypothesis that initial smear examination results have a significant bearing on the management and outcome of suspected microbial keratitis. Materials and Methods: One hundred and seventy consecutive patients with suspected microbial keratitis were included in a prospective nonrandomized comparative study and their detailed clinical and microbiological data (smears and cultures of corneal scrapings were captured on a predesigned corneal ulcer database. Patients were divided into two groups: Group 1 included 68 patients with corneal scrapings negative in smears while Group 2 included 102 patients with corneal scrapings positive in smears. The two groups were compared for their clinico-microbiological profile, management and clinical outcome. The outcome was noted at three months. Fisher′s exact test was applied for statistical analysis. Results: Cultures were sterile in 57.3% of patients in Group 1 compared to 17.6% in Group 2. Scrapings that grew S. pneumoniae , gram-negative organisms, fungi and Acanthamoeba were more often positive in smears (18.6%, 11.8%, 19.6% and 2.9% respectively. While data on duration of prior treatment was not available, prior medication made no significant difference to smear results. More (79.3% patients of Group 1 had small infiltrate size (< 25 mm[[2

  15. Multiform cervical melanocytoma: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shownkeen, Harish N. [Department of Neurological Surgery, Loyola University Medical Center, Maywood, IL 60153 (United States); Department of Radiology, Loyola University Medical Center, Maywood, IL 60153 (United States); Harmath, Carla [Department of Radiology, Loyola University Medical Center, Maywood, IL 60153 (United States); Thomas, Chinnamma [Department of Pathology, Loyola University Medical Center, Maywood, IL 60153 (United States)

    2002-12-01

    Melanocytomas are very rare benign melanocytic tumors of the central nervous system (CNS). We present a case of a cervical melanocytoma diagnosed after trauma as a result of persistent neck pain and abnormal neurological examination. Early recognition of benign melanocytic lesions of the CNS is important, as a complete resection can often lead to cure with no need for further treatment. (orig.)

  16. Manual liquid based cytology in primary screening for cervical cancer--a cost effective preposition for scarce resource settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandini, N M; Nandish, S M; Pallavi, P; Akshatha, S K; Chandrashekhar, A P; Anjali, S; Dhar, Murali

    2012-01-01

    Conventional pap smear (CPS) examination has been the mainstay for early detection of cervical cancer. However, its widespread use has not been possible due to the inherent limitations, like presence of obscuring blood and inflammation, reducing its sensitivity considerably. Automated methods in use in developed countries may not be affordable in the developing countries due to paucity of resources. On the other hand, manual liquid based cytology (MLBC) is a technique that is cost effective and improves detection of precursor lesions and specimen adequacy. Therefore the aim of the study was to compare the utility of MLBC with that of CPS in cervical cancer screening. A prospective study of 100 cases through MLBC and CPS was conducted from October 2009 to July 2010, in a Medical College in India, by two independent pathologists and correlated with histopathology (22 cases). Morphological features as seen through MLBC and CPS were compared. Subsequently, all the cases were grouped based on cytological diagnosis according to two methods into 10 groups and a subjective comparison was made. In order to compare the validity of MLBC with CPS in case of major diagnoses, sensitivity and specificity of the two methods were estimated considering histological examination as the gold standard. Increased detection rate with MLBC was 150%. The concordance rate by LBC/histopathology v/s CPS/histopathology was also improved (86% vs 77%) The percentage agreement by the two methods was 68%. MLBC was more sensitive in diagnosis of LSIL and more specific in the diagnosis of inflammation. Thus, MLBC was found to be better than CPS in diagnosis of precursor lesions. It provided better morphology with increased detection of abnormalities and preservation of specimen for cell block and ancillary studies like immunocytochemistry and HPV detection. Therefore, it can be used as alternative strategy for cervical cancer prevention in limited resource settings.

  17. Impact of intravenous acetaminophen therapy on the necessity of cervical spine imaging in patients with cervical spine trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmadi Koorosh

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Objective: We evaluated a new hypothesis of acetaminophen therapy to reduce the necessity of imaging in patients with probable traumatic cervical spine injury. Methods:Patients with acute blunt trauma to the neck and just posterior midline cervical tenderness received acetaminophen (15 mg/kg intravenously after cervical spine immobilization. Then, all the patients underwent plain radiography and computerized tomography of the cervical spine. The outcome measure was the presence of traumatic cervical spine injury. Sixty minutes after acetaminophen infusion, posterior midline cervical tenderness was reassessed. Results:Of 1 309 patients, 41 had traumatic cervical spine injuries based on imaging. Sixty minutes after infusion, posterior midline cervical tenderness was eliminated in 1 041 patients, none of whom had abnormal imaging. Conclusion: Patients with cervical spine trauma do not need imaging if posterior midline cervical tenderness is eliminated after acetaminophen infusion. This analgesia could be considered as a diagnostic and therapeutic intervention. Key words: Acetaminophen; Diagnosis; Spinal Injuries; Cervical vertebrae; Radiography

  18. Spinal osteoblastoma: relationship between paravertebral muscle abnormalities and scoliosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saifuddin, A. [Department of Radiology, Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital Trust, 45-51 Bolsover Street, London W1P 8AQ (United Kingdom)]|[Department of Radiology, Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital Trust, Stanmore (United Kingdom); Sherazi, Z. [Department of Radiology, Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital Trust, Stanmore (United Kingdom); Shaikh, M.I. [Department of Radiology, Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital Trust, Stanmore (United Kingdom); Natali, C. [Department of Orthopaedics, Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital Trust, Stanmore (United Kingdom); Ransford, A.O. [Department of Orthopaedics, Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital Trust, Stanmore (United Kingdom); Pringle, J.A.S. [Department of Histopathology, Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital Trust, Stanmore (United Kingdom)

    1996-08-01

    Objective. To illustrate the variety of paravertebral muscle abnormalities as seen on computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in association with spinal osteoblastomas and correlate the findings with the presence of scoliosis. Design. In a retrospective study the clinical notes, plain radiographic, CT and/or MRI features were reviewed for the presence of scoliosis and paravertebral muscle abnormality (either inflammation or atrophy). Patients. Twelve patients (7 male, 5 female) with a mean age of 17 years were studied. Three lesions occurred in the cervical spine, five in the thoracic spine and four in the lumbar spine. Results and conclusions. Nine patients had scoliosis. All patients with a thoracic or lumbar lesion and scoliosis (n=8) had an associated abnormality of the paravertebral muscles (usually atrophy with fatty replacement). One patient with a lumbar lesion and no scoliosis had normal paravertebral muscles. One patient with a cervical lesion had thoracic scoliosis but no muscle abnormality in the cervical region, while two patients with cervical lesions and no scoliosis showed muscle abnormalities. The results support the clinical hypothesis that scoliosis in patients with spinal osteoblastoma is due to paravertebral muscle spasm, although this would not appear to be the case for cervical lesions. (orig.). With 4 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Adherence to cervical cancer screening in an Italian SLE cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Talarico

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Papanicolau (Pap smear abnormalities are more frequently observed in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE respect to the general population. The primary objective of the present study was to evaluate the adherence to cervical cancer (CC screening in an Italian cohort of SLE patients and, secondly, to evaluate the disease-related factors possibly influencing the patients’ behavior. Methods: Consecutive 25 to 64 year old SLE patients and aged- matched healthy women were enrolled for the study. All patients were interviewed during ambulatory visits, at admission to the clinic or by a telephone contact; disease related variables were also collected from the clinical charts. Results: 140 SLE patients (mean age 48.3±12 years and 70 controls matched for demographic and sociocultural characteristics were enrolled. Ninety-three SLE patients (66.4% declared to perform the Pap test at least every three years (23.6% yearly and 42.8% when asked by the screening programs while 47 (33.6% did not perform regular CC screening (16.4% never did the test and 17.1% only occasionally. No significant differences were observed between patients and controls in cancer screening adherence. No significant associations were observed between the screening program behaviours and disease-related variables. Conclusions: Despite the growing evidence of an increased risk of CC in SLE, and regardless of the broad availability of screening programs and official recommendations, our results show insufficient CC surveillance among SLE patients and emphasize to rheumatologists and/or general practitioners the importance to discuss with patients this aspect during routine evaluations in order to encourage compliance to the recommended preventive measures.

  20. Image Smearing Modeling and Verification for Strapdown Star Sensor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Haiyong; ZHOU Wenrui; CHENG Xuan; LIN Haoyu

    2012-01-01

    To further extend study on celestial attitude determination with strapdown star sensor from static into dynamic field,one prerequisite is to generate precise dynamic simulating star maps.First a neat analytical solution of the smearing trajectory caused by spacecraft attitude maneuver is deduced successfully,whose parameters cover the geometric size of optics,three-axis angular velocities and CCD integral time.Then for the first time the mathematical law and method are discovered about how to synthesize the two formulae of smearing trajectory and the static Gaussian distribution function (GDF) model,the key of which is a line integral with regard to the static GDF attenuated by a factor 1/Ls (Ls is the arc length of the smearing trajectory) along the smearing trajectory.The dynamic smearing model is then obtained,also in an analytical form.After that,three sets of typical simulating maps and data are simulated from this dynamic model manifesting the expected smearing effects,also compatible with the linear model as its special case of no boresight rotation.Finally,model validity tests on a rate turntable are carried out,which results in a mean correlation coefficient 0.920 0 between the camera images and the corresponding model simulated ones with the same parameters.The sufficient similarity verifies the validity of the dynamic smearing model.This model,after parameter calibration,can serve as a front-end loop of the ground semi-physical simulation system for celestial attitude determination with strapdown star sensor.

  1. Molecular tests to detect human papillomavirus infection in patients with cervical dysplasia and invasive cervical cancer in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sait KH

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Khalid H Sait1, Faten S Gazzaz21Obstetrics and Gynecology Department, 2Medical Virology Department, Faculty of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi ArabiaPurpose: The aim of this study was to determine the actual human papillomavirus (HPV subtype that presents in cervical dysplasia and invasive carcinoma in the Saudi population, and the feasibility of using Hybrid Capture 2 technique (HC2 on biopsy specimens to detect certain HPV subtypes.Patients and methods: A prospective study was conducted from March 2007 to December 2008. The subjects studied were women with a mean age of 48.18 years, who attended the hospital for cervical biopsy due to the suspected diagnosis of cervical dysplasia or an invasive disease, based on previous suspicious Pap smear. HPV DNA hybridization by HC2 was performed on the cervical biopsies of these patients, to detect HPV infection.Results: During the period of this study, 45 patients had cervical biopsies taken for HPV testing. Seven patients had a negative HC2 result and were found to have no cervical dysplasia on the final pathology review. Seventeen cases with cervical dysplasia and 21 patients with invasive disease were presented; the mean age was 48 years. HC2 testing for HPV were found to be positive in patients with cervical dysplasia, invasive carcinoma, and all in 5 (29.4%, 13 (61.9% and 18 (47.4%, respectively. The sensitivity of the test is 47% and specificity is 100%.Conclusion: The use of molecular detection of HPV DNA by HC2 in biopsy is feasible and effective. These results confirm the finding that HPV contributes to the etiology of cervical cancer in Muslim society.Keywords: HPV, subtyping, cervical neoplasia

  2. Prevalence of micronuclei in exfoliated uterine cervical cells from patients with risk factors for cervical cancer

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    Lízia Maria Franco dos Reis Campos

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Pap smears are the most common and inexpensive screening method for cervical cancer. We analyzed micronucleus prevalence in exfoliated cervical mucosa cells, to investigate associations between increased numbers of micronuclei and risk factors for cervical cancer. DESIGN AND SETTING: Analytical cross-sectional study, at Instituto de Pesquisa em Oncologia (IPON. METHODS: Exfoliated cervical cells were obtained from 101 patients between September 2004 and November 2005. Patients' ages, habits (passive or active smoking, alcoholism and numbers of sexual partners, age at first sexual intercourse, contraceptive methods used, histories of sexually transmitted diseases, use of hormone replacement therapy, numbers of pregnancies and abortions, inflammatory cytology and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN were obtained. Cells were collected using Ayre spatulas, transferred to vials containing 0.9% saline solution for micronucleus tests and analyzed at 1000x magnification. The number of micronuclei in 1,000 epithelial cells per patient sample was counted. RESULTS: Comparisons between groups with active (7.9 ± 7.8 and passive (7.2 ± 10.6 smoking versus no smoking (3.7 ± 5.1; with/without alcoholism (7.8 ± 1.4 and 6.9 ± 10.1; with/without inflammatory cytology (10.7 ± 10.5 and 1.3 ± 1.7; and with CIN I, II and III and no CIN (respectively 4.3 ± 4.3, 10.6 ± 5.3, 22.7 ± 11.9 and 1.3 ± 1.4 found elevated micronucleus prevalence (P < 0.05. CONCLUSIONS: We concluded that the prevalence of micronuclei in exfoliated uterine cervical cells was greater in patients with one or more risk factors for uterine cervical cancer than in patients without risk factors.

  3. Morphological evaluation of canine platelets on Giemsa- and PAS-stained blood smears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halmay, Dóra; Sótonyi, P; Vajdovich, P; Gaál, T

    2005-01-01

    The morphology of canine platelets (changes in size, shape, staining characteristics, degree of activation and clump formation, distribution of granules, appearance of vacuoles on Giemsa-stained smears) was investigated in 20 healthy control and 181 diseased dogs. In the group of the sick dogs 84 animals suffered from disorders affecting directly the haematological parameters or the haematopoietic organs such as bleeding, thymic haemorrhage, haemolytic disorders, lymphoma, immune-mediated thrombocytopenia, and other 97 dogs were affected by other diseases (hepatopathy, nephropathy, hepatic, splenic or intestinal neoplasm, skin diseases, diabetes mellitus, Cushing's syndrome, sepsis). The alterations found in platelet morphology were not specific for any disorder. The most common platelet abnormalities were polychromasia and the presence of giant platelets. These changes occurred in a high number in disorders accompanied by bleeding or haemolysis. Anisocytosis was the most frequent finding in hepatic, splenic or intestinal neoplasms and in certain endocrinopathies. Microcytosis was observed in immune-mediated thrombocytopenia, hepatic neoplasms and endocrine disorders. Extreme platelet activation was common in haemolysis, hepatopathies, neoplastic diseases and sepsis. Vacuolisation was present in thymic haemorrhage, pancreatitis, diabetes mellitus and Cushing's syndrome. A new morphologic phenomenon, i.e. a ring-like formation of granules, was described in the cytoplasm of the platelets both in healthy and diseased animals. In addition, two forms of pathologic granulation were also described for the first time in Giemsa-stained blood smears: the pseudonuclear and the spot-like formation of granules, which were observed especially in disorders affecting the blood cells. The granulation and morphological characteristics of platelets on smears stained by periodic acid-Schiff reaction (PAS) were also studied. Three localisations of granulation were observed, such as

  4. WELL WOMAN CLINIC - SCREENING PROGRAM FOR CERVICAL C ARCINOMAS

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    Vani Padmaja

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer is a common cancer occurring in women in the reproductive age group. It is also a cancer that can be easily prevented by taking Cervical Smears, staining them by the Papanicalou’s stain, diagnosing and treating them at an early stage . It is a very cost effective, sensitive, specific and easy method of early detection of cervical canc er and thereby helps in preventing the mortality and morbidity caused by invasive carcinomas. This screening program was conducted in the outpatient department of Gandhi hospital. All th e women between the age of 21 and 65years were included. The antenatal women were excluded. A total of 2864 women were screened and 2562 Pap smears were done. 228 High grade intraepithelial lesions [HSIL ] and 365 Low Grade intraepithelial lesions [LSIL] were diagnosed. Cervical biopsy was done. Curative treatment was offered to all those who had intraepithelial lesions on biopsy. Hence such screening programs are of great help in detecting early cancer and preventing invasive cancers. Thus reducing mortality and morbidity associated with invasive cancers

  5. Can the skin smear examination in NLEP be reconsidered?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porichha, D; Nayak, S; Sahoo, L B; Sahoo, N N; Jinde, B N

    2011-01-01

    Slit and skin smear examination is an important laboratory test which was made optional in the NLEP. In a laboratory managed by LEPRA Society, this test was provided to voluntary reporting cases and those referred by the general health service institutions of the area. Total cases tested were 1180, out of which 152 (12.9%) were positive. Of the 152 smear reports, 121 were from Koraput district and constitute the sample for this study. Regarding the spread of site wise highest BI, 56% cases had BI of 3.1+ to 6+. Of the 121 cases, 112 (92.6%) cases completed 12 doses of MDT. Seventy patients, from whom detailed information was collected by personal contact, responded well to MDT resulting in regression of lesions. Out of them, 46 cases had repeat smear showing negative smear in 39% and decline of 81 in the rest of cases. There are 16 contact cases with 2 family clusters. A rough block-wise mapping showed 4 strata with a dense clustering in the urban area where the laboratory facility is available. The probable reasons for uneven distribution of cases and causes for late diagnosis were discussed. The study reflects the leprosy problem in urban pockets which high infection pool. Together these two factors remain unexposed due to winding up of smear labs and pose a potential threat to elimination. The paper also emphasized on the reasons for past failure of the test along with suggestions to revive this facility with minor modifications.

  6. Prevalence of human papillomavirus types in women with pre-neoplastic and neoplastic cervical lesions in the Federal District of Brazil

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    Geni NL Camara

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available As a contribution to the public health authorities in planning prophylactic and therapeutic vaccine strategies, we describe the prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV types in women presenting abnormal cytological results in Pap smear screening tests in the Federal District, Central Brazil. We studied 129 cervical scraping samples from women whose cytological tests showed either pre-neoplastic or neoplastic lesions. Amplification of HPV DNA was performed by polymerase chain reaction using consensus primers MY09 and MY11 followed by identification of isolates by restriction fragment length polymorphism. We detected HPV DNA in 62% of the samples, including HPV-16 in 43.8%, HPV-58 in 12.5%, HPV-31 in 10%, HPV-53 in 6.3%, each of HPV-18 and HPV-33 in 3.8% of the isolates. Other types (HPV-35, -52, -66, -CP8304, -6, -11, and -CP8061 were less frequent (= or < 2.5% each. The prevalence of HPV-58 was relatively higher in this population than in data in South America, but similar to results obtained in other studies in Latin America, Europe, and Eastern Asia. Case-control studies need to be carried out to establish the association between the prevalence of HPV types specially the less frequent high-risk types and cervical cancer.

  7. 液基薄层细胞学检查用于宫颈疾病筛查的临床应用%ThinPrep Cervical Cytology in Clinical Applications for Disease Screening

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔泳

    2014-01-01

    Objective To discuss the clinical ThinPrep cytology in cervical disease screening.Methods A randomized extracted from January 2012 to December 2012 in our hospital gynecology clinic and hospital treatment of patients with cervical lesions, combined Bethesda 2001 reporting classification standards, using technology TCT producer, randomized patients with cervical lesions in these 60 cases of cervical cells School screening. And more cases of atypical squamous cervical histopathological examination.Results 60 patients were satisfied with the drawn smear:abnormal results detected atypical squamous eight cases,not excluding the height of five cases of atypical squamous lesions,low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions in 2 cases, high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions in one case,Histopathological results for intraepithelial lesion (≥LSIL)14 cases of pathological 87.5%.Conclusion ThinPrep cytology, early detection of precancerous cervical lesions and cervical cancer even change that clinical application in cervical disease screening.%目的:讨论液基薄层细胞学检查在宫颈疾病筛查中的临床应用。方法随机提取2012年1~12月在我院妇科门诊及住院就诊的宫颈病变患者,结合Bethesda2001报告分类标准,采用TCT制片技术,随机对这60例宫颈病变患者进行宫颈细胞学筛查。并对非典型鳞状上皮以上病例进行宫颈组织病理学检查。结果60例患者取材均为满意涂片:检出异常结果非典型鳞状上皮8例,不除外高度病变的非典型鳞状上皮5例,低度鳞状上皮内病变2例,高度鳞状上皮内病变1例。病理组织学结果为上皮内病变(≥LSIL)14例,病理符合率为87.5%。结论在宫颈疾病筛查中应用液基薄层细胞学检查,可早期发现宫颈病变和癌前病变甚至宫颈癌变,可临床推广应用。

  8. Factors associated to cervical lesions or presence of human papiloma virus in two populations of students from Lima

    OpenAIRE

    Valderrama C, María; Unidad de Epidemiología ETS y VIH, Facultad de Salud Pública, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú. Obstetriz.; Campos, Francisco E.; Hospital Nacional Docente Madre Niño San Bartolomé. Lima, Perú. médico infectólogo pediatra.; Cárcamo, César P; Unidad de Epidemiología ETS y VIH, Facultad de Salud Pública, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú. Departamento de Microbiología, Facultad de Ciencias y Filosofía, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Médico Epidemiólogo. Médico Infectólogo.; García, Patricia J; Unidad de Epidemiología ETS y VIH, Facultad de Salud Pública, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú. Instituto Nacional de Salud. Lima, Perú. Médico Epidemiólogo. Médico Infectólogo.

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the prevalence and factors associated with cervical lesions or presence of human papilloma virus (HPV) in women students with higher education from 18 to 26 years. Materials and methods: A cross-sectional study in students from two universities and a technical institute in Lima were carried out from August through December 2001. We surveyed women and collected cervical samples for PAP smear and HPV DNA detection for the 6, 11, 16 and 18 strains using polymerase ch...

  9. A feasibility assessment of automated FISH image and signal analysis to assist cervical cancer detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xingwei; Li, Yuhua; Liu, Hong; Li, Shibo; Zhang, Roy R.; Zheng, Bin

    2012-02-01

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technology provides a promising molecular imaging tool to detect cervical cancer. Since manual FISH analysis is difficult, time-consuming, and inconsistent, the automated FISH image scanning systems have been developed. Due to limited focal depth of scanned microscopic image, a FISH-probed specimen needs to be scanned in multiple layers that generate huge image data. To improve diagnostic efficiency of using automated FISH image analysis, we developed a computer-aided detection (CAD) scheme. In this experiment, four pap-smear specimen slides were scanned by a dual-detector fluorescence image scanning system that acquired two spectrum images simultaneously, which represent images of interphase cells and FISH-probed chromosome X. During image scanning, once detecting a cell signal, system captured nine image slides by automatically adjusting optical focus. Based on the sharpness index and maximum intensity measurement, cells and FISH signals distributed in 3-D space were projected into a 2-D con-focal image. CAD scheme was applied to each con-focal image to detect analyzable interphase cells using an adaptive multiple-threshold algorithm and detect FISH-probed signals using a top-hat transform. The ratio of abnormal cells was calculated to detect positive cases. In four scanned specimen slides, CAD generated 1676 con-focal images that depicted analyzable cells. FISH-probed signals were independently detected by our CAD algorithm and an observer. The Kappa coefficients for agreement between CAD and observer ranged from 0.69 to 1.0 in detecting/counting FISH signal spots. The study demonstrated the feasibility of applying automated FISH image and signal analysis to assist cyto-geneticists in detecting cervical cancers.

  10. Cervical Cancer Screening between 35–40 Aged Women at Kisecik Region of Hatay Provinence

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    Ersin Nazlican

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM: Cervical cancer is the most frequently seen genital system cancer in women after endometrium adenocarcinoma. Because cervical is an easy reach organ, early diagnosis can be done due to Papanicolau (Pap smear in the cancer cases of this organ and prognosis ameliorates considerably. In this ailment there are two peaks. The first one is around the ages 35-39, the second one is around the ages 60-64. The aim of the study is to scan cervical cancer among the women between the ages of 35-40 in the district of Kisecik health office. METHOD: This study is a definitional, society based sectional study performed among the women between the ages of 35- 40 in the district of Kisecik in Hatay. 187 women between the ages of 35- 40 were enrolled to the study; 10 out of 187 women who were single were not included to the study. The study was completed after enrolling 150 women out of 177. Cervical smear samples were taken from the participants; and these samples were evaluated in a pathology laboratory according to the Bethesda 2001 scale. RESULTS: The avarage age of the participants was 37.55±1.77. After the evaluation of the cervical smears in the pathology laboratory, the results were normal for 73 participants (%48.7. 36 participants (%24.0 had non specific inflamation, 20 participants (%13.3 had bacterial vaginosis, 19 participants (%12.7 had seconder reactive changes to the inflamation and 2 participants (%1.3 was reported to be ASC-US. CONCLUSION: By the help of cheap and easily applied Pap smear test, society based scanning programmes can be performed frequently and thus; servical lesions may be detected in early phases. Furthermore through education, the level of information about cervical cancer should be raised and consciousness should be created. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2010; 9(5.000: 471-474

  11. Evaluation of visual inspection with acetic acid and Lugol's iodine as cervical cancer screening tools in a low-resource setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Sabuhi; Das, Vinta; Zahra, Fatima

    2010-01-01

    In view of the failure of cytology screening programmes for cervical cancer in developing countries, the World Health Organization suggested unaided visual inspection of the cervix after an application of acetic acid (VIA) and Lugol's iodine (VILI) as alternative screening methods. Our study evaluates the effectiveness of VIA and VILI compared to Pap smear as screening methods for carcinoma of the cervix in a low-resource setting. Three hundred and twenty-eight women were subjected to a Pap smear test, VIA, VILI and colposcopy. The results were as follows: Pap smear test (20.83%, specificity 98.38%), VIA (55.5%, 71.39%) and VILI (86.84%, 48.93%). Although VIA and VILI are less specific in comparison to the Pap smear test, they are more sensitive in detecting pre-invasive lesions. Hence VIA and VILI can be used as cervical cancer screening tools in low-resource settings.

  12. The Value of Cytology Smears for Acanthamoeba Keratitis

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    Sangita P. Patel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Acanthamoeba keratitis remains a difficult diagnosis despite advances in genetic and imaging technologies. The purpose of this paper is to highlight the utility of cytology smears for diagnosis of Acanthamoeba keratitis. Methods. This is a case study of the diagnostic course for a patient with suspected Acanthamoeba keratitis. Results. A 40-year-old male with poor contact lens hygiene presented with severe left eye pain. Slit lamp examination showed two peripheral ring infiltrates without an epithelial defect. The epithelium over both infiltrates was removed with a Kimura spatula. Half of the sample was smeared on a dry microscope slide and the other half was submitted for Acanthamoeba culture and PCR. Both culture and PCR were negative for Acanthamoeba, but hematoxylin and eosin stain of the smear revealed double-walled cysts. Conclusion. H&E staining of corneal cytology specimens is an efficient and readily available test for diagnosis of Acanthamoeba keratitis.

  13. The Value of Cytology Smears for Acanthamoeba Keratitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Jamie L.; Paterson, Joyce; Liu, Weiguo; Gonzalez-Fernandez, Federico

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. Acanthamoeba keratitis remains a difficult diagnosis despite advances in genetic and imaging technologies. The purpose of this paper is to highlight the utility of cytology smears for diagnosis of Acanthamoeba keratitis. Methods. This is a case study of the diagnostic course for a patient with suspected Acanthamoeba keratitis. Results. A 40-year-old male with poor contact lens hygiene presented with severe left eye pain. Slit lamp examination showed two peripheral ring infiltrates without an epithelial defect. The epithelium over both infiltrates was removed with a Kimura spatula. Half of the sample was smeared on a dry microscope slide and the other half was submitted for Acanthamoeba culture and PCR. Both culture and PCR were negative for Acanthamoeba, but hematoxylin and eosin stain of the smear revealed double-walled cysts. Conclusion. H&E staining of corneal cytology specimens is an efficient and readily available test for diagnosis of Acanthamoeba keratitis. PMID:27403362

  14. Thick Smear is a Good Substitute for the Thin Smear in Parasitological Confirmation of Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mello, Cintia Xavier; Figueiredo, Fabiano Borges; Mendes Júnior, Artur Augusto Velho; Miranda, Luciana de Freitas Campos; de Oliveira, Raquel de Vasconcellos Carvalhaes; Madeira, Maria de Fátima

    2016-07-01

    Although direct examination methods are important for diagnosing leishmaniasis, such methods are often neglected because of their low sensitivity relative to other techniques. Our study aimed to evaluate the performance of bone marrow (BM) thick smears and cytocentrifugation tests as alternatives to direct examination for diagnosing canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL). Ninety-two dogs exhibiting leishmaniasis seroreactivity were evaluated. The animals were euthanized; and healthy skin, spleen, popliteal lymph node, and BM puncture samples were cultured. BM cultures were used as the reference standard. Of the 92 dogs studied, 85.9% exhibited positive cultures, and Leishmania infantum (synonym Leishmania chagasi) was confirmed in all positive culture cases. The sensitivity rates for cytocentrifugation as well as thin and thick smears were 47.1%, 52.8%, and 77%, respectively. However, no association between the dogs' clinical status and culture or direct examination results was found. To our knowledge, this was the first study to use thick smears and cytocentrifugation for diagnosing CVL. Our results indicate that BM thick smears have a good sensitivity and their use reduces the time required to read slides. Therefore, thick smears can provide a rapid and safe alternative to parasitological confirmation of seroreactive dogs.

  15. Free-form smearing for bottomonium and B meson spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Wurtz, Mark; Woloshyn, R M

    2015-01-01

    To obtain high-quality results from lattice QCD, it is important to use operators that produce good signals for the quantities of interest. Free-form smearing is a powerful tool that helps to accomplish that goal. The present work introduces a new implementation of free-form smearing that maintains its usefulness and reduces its computational time dramatically. Applications to the mass spectrum of $B$, $B_s$, $B_c$ and bottomonium mesons show the effectiveness of the method. Results are compared with other lattice QCD studies and with experimental data where available. The present work includes the first lattice QCD exploration for some of these mesons.

  16. Validity and reliability of using a self-lavaging device for cytology and HPV testing for cervical cancer screening: findings from a pilot study.

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    Heidi E Jones

    Full Text Available Self-sampling could increase cervical cancer screening uptake. While methods have been identified for human papillomavirus (HPV testing, to date, self-sampling has not provided adequate specimens for cytology. We piloted the validity and reliability of using a self-lavaging device for cervical cytology and HPV testing. We enrolled 198 women in New York City in 2008-2009 from three ambulatory clinics where they received cervical cancer screening. All were asked to use the Delphi Screener™ to self-lavage 1-3 months after clinician-collected index cytological smear (100 normal; 98 abnormal. Women with abnormal cytology results from either specimen underwent colposcopy; 10 women with normal results from both specimens also underwent colposcopy. We calculated sensitivity of self-collected cytology to detect histologically confirmed high grade lesions (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, CIN, 2+; specificity for histology-negative (CIN 1 or lower, paired cytology negative, or a third cytology negative; and kappa for paired results. One hundred and ninety-seven (99.5% women self-collected a lavage. Seventy-five percent had moderate to excellent cellularity, two specimens were unsatisfactory for cytology. Seven of 167 (4% women with definitive results had CIN2+; one had normal and six abnormal cytology results with the self-lavage (sensitivity = 86%, 95% Confidence Interval, CI: 42, 100. The kappa for paired cytology was low (0.36; 95% CI: 0.25, 0.47 primarily due to clinician specimens with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US and low grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL coded as normal using Screener specimens. However, three cases of HSIL were coded as ASC-US and one as normal using Screener specimens. Seventy-three women had paired high-risk HPV tests with a kappa of 0.66 (95% CI: 0.49, 0.84. Based on these preliminary findings, a larger study to estimate the performance of the Screener for co-testing cytology and

  17. A simple cost-effective modification improves the quality of immunocytochemical staining in cervical scrape samples characterized by presence of excess mucus

    OpenAIRE

    Pawar, Sagar; Mahantshetty, Umesh; Deodhar, Kedar; Teni, Tanuja

    2014-01-01

    Immunocytochemistry (ICC) is a very important tool in a diverse range of biomedical research as well as in diagnostic cytopathology. Smears prepared from cervical scrapes contain a large amount of overlying mucus that interferes with the standard immunocytochemical staining protocol. A modified ICC protocol is described, which involves pretreatment of these smears with 1 mg/ml solution of Ambroxol hydrochloride in methanol for 1 hour. Source of Ambroxol hydrochloride was a 30 mg Mucolite™ tab...

  18. Actinomyces-like organisms in the cervical Papanicolaou-stained smears of intrauterine device (IUD) users

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    Foi investigada a prevalência de organismos semelhantes a Actinomyces em esfregaços cérvico-vaginais de 2.347 mulheres brasileiras, incluindo 151 (6,4%) portadoras de dispositivo intra-uterino (DIU) por pelo menos seis meses; e como grupo controle 2.196 (93,6%) mulheres não portadoras de DIU, com idade similar, usando métodos contraceptivos diversos (hormonais, de barreira e outros) ou nenhum, morando em Salvador, Estado da Bahia. Os esfregaços cervicais foram corados pelo método ...

  19. Role of intraoperative squash smear cytology as a diagnostic modality in lipoma of quadrigeminal cistern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaushik Majumdar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Quadrigeminal lipoma is a rare tumor that has been categorized as developmental malformation rather than a hamartoma or true neoplasm, due to its origin from abnormal persistence and mal-differentiation of meninx primitiva during the development of the subarachnoid cisterns. Reported admixture of adipose tissue with heterotopic elements also supports a developmental origin. Quadrigeminal lipomas are frequently asymptomatic and detected incidentally. Though a favorable clinical course is usually expected, recurrences may occur due to partial removal of lesions in close relation to vital structure. We describe the role of intraoperative squash smear cytology as a diagnostic aid in quadrigeminal cistern lipoma and an alternative to frozen sections that are technically difficult to obtain due to presence of lobules of fibro-adipose tissue. With radiological correlation, squash cytology can be an economical method for intraoperative diagnosis, pending subsequent histopathological confirmation.

  20. Analysis of the Functional Independence Measure Value of Cervical Spine Injury Patients with Conservative Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zafrullah Arifin

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of the Functional Independence Measure Value of Cervical Spine Injury Patients with Conservative Management. Cervical spine injury is one of the most common spinal cord injuries in trauma patients. From 100,000 spinal cord injury cases reported in the United States of America (2008, sixty seven percent involve cervical spine injury. American Spinal Cord Injury Association (ASIA impairment score is used as an initial assessment but not enough attention prognostic outcome of these patients was paid to. The objective of this study is to analyze the value of functional independence measure (FIM cervical spine injury patients with conservative management and its correlation with age, sex, type of trauma, onset of trauma, cervical abnormalities, type of cervical spine lesion and ASIA impairment score. A prospective cohort study was performed to all patients with cervical spine injury treated inNeurosurgery Department of Dr. Hasan Sadikin Hospital Bandung that fullfiled the inclusion criteria. The subjects were classified based on age, sex, single/multiple trauma, acute /chronic, cervical abnormalities, complete/incomplete lesion and ASIA impairment score. The FIM examination was performed in Outpatient clinic of Neurosurgery. T-test and chi-square test was done to analyze the data. There were 17 cervical spine injury patients treated in Neurosurgery Department of Dr. Hasan Sadikin Hospital during April 2009–April 2010. The average FIM value of cervical spine injury in those patients is 4+ 1.63 by cohort prospective study. There were no correlation between FIM value with age, sex, type of trauma, onset of trauma and cervical abnormalities. Significant correlations were found between FIM value with type of cervical spine lesion and ASIA impairment score in cervical spine patients. Type of cervical spine lesion and ASIA impairment score have significant correlation with FIM value of patients in 6 months after cervical injury.

  1. Factors Affecting Cervical Cancer Screening Behaviors Based On the Precaution Adoption Process Model: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahmani, Afshin; Baghianimoghadam, Mohammah Hossein; Enjezab, Behnaz; Mazloomy Mahmoodabad, Seyed Saeed; Askarshahi, Mohsen

    2015-11-17

    One of the most preventable cancers in women is cervical cancer. Pap smear test is an effective screening program; however, it is not conducted very frequently. The aim of this study is explaining the determinants affecting women's participation in the Pap smear test based on precaution adoption process model with a qualitative approach. This study was a qualitative approach using a Directed Content Analysis methodology which was conducted in 2014. Participants were 30 rural women who participated in this study voluntarily in sarvabad, Iran. Purposive sampling was initiated and continued until data saturation. Semi-structured interviews were the primary method of data collection. Data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis and continuous comparisons. Women`s information and awareness about cervical cancer and Pap smear is insufficient and most of them believed that they were not at risk; however, they perceived the severity of the disease. Some of them had no adequate understanding of the test benefits. They pointed to the lack of time, financial difficulties, fear of test result and lack of awareness as the main barriers against the Pap smear test; however, they did not say that they were not willing to do the test. Findings could help health policy makers to find the right area and purpose to facilitate the participation of women in the Pap smear test.

  2. Cervical cancer - screening and prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer cervix - screening; HPV - cervical cancer screening; Dysplasia - cervical cancer screening; Cervical cancer - HPV vaccine ... Almost all cervical cancers are caused by HPV (human papilloma virus). HPV is a common virus that spreads through sexual contact. Certain ...

  3. Anterior cervical hypertrichosis: a sporadic case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostan, Sezen; Yaşar, Şirin; Serdar, Zehra Aşiran; Gizlenti, Sevda

    2016-03-01

    Anterior cervical hypertrichosis is a very rare form of primary localized hypertrichosis. It consists of a tuft of terminal hair on the anterior neck just above the laryngeal prominence. The etiology is still unknown. In this article, we reported a 15-year-old female patient who presented to our clinic with a complaint of hypertrichosis on the anterior aspect of the neck for the last five years. Her past medical history revealed no pathology except for vesicoureteral reflux. On the basis of clinical presentation, our patient was diagnosed with anterior cervical hypertrichosis and she was considered to be a sporadic case due to lack of other similar cases in familial history. To date, 33 patients with anterior cervical hypertrichosis have been reported. Anterior cervical hypertrichosis can be associated with other abnormalities, but it frequently presents as an isolated defect (70%). The association of vesicoureteral reflux and anterior cervical hypertrichosis which was observed in our patient might be coincidental. So far, no case of anterior cervical hypertrichosis associated with vesicoureteral reflux has been reported in the literature.

  4. European guidelines for quality assurance in cervical cancer screening: recommendations for collecting samples for conventional and liquid-based cytology.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arbyn, M.; Herbert, A.; Schenck, U.; Nieminen, P.; Jordan, J.; Mcgoogan, E.; Patnick, J.; Bergeron, C.; Baldauf, J.J.; Klinkhamer, P.; Bulten, J.; Martin-Hirsch, P.

    2007-01-01

    The current paper presents an annex in the second edition of the European Guidelines for Quality Assurance in Cervical Cancer Screening. It provides guidance on how to make a satisfactory conventional Pap smear or a liquid-based cytology (LBC) sample. Practitioners taking samples for cytology should

  5. Scanning electron microscopy and dentinal permeability analysis of smear layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prati, C; Mongiorgi, R; Pashley, D H; Riva di Sanseverino, L

    1991-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the surface morphology and the permeability of dentine after different acid treatments: polyacrylic acid, maleic acid, phosphoric acid and saline solution as control. Dentine permeability was expressed as hydraulic conductance. All the acid treatments removed the smear layer and increased the dentine permeability.

  6. Factors affecting compliance with clinical practice guidelines for pap smear screening among healthcare providers in africa: systematic review and meta-summary of 2045 individuals.

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    Etienne Asonganyi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although the importance of the Pap smear in reducing cancer incidence and mortality is known, many countries in Africa have not initiated yet widespread national cervical cancer screening programs. The World Health Organization (WHO has published Clinical Practice Guidelines (CPGs on cervical cancer screening in developing countries; however, there is a gap between expectations and clinical performance. Thus, the aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review and meta-summary to identify factors affecting compliance with CPGs for Pap screening among healthcare providers in Africa. METHODS: And Findings: MEDLINE, Scirus, Opengate and EMBASE databases were searched in January 2012. Studies involving medical personnel practicing in Africa, whose outcome measured any factors that affect medical personnel from using a Pap smear to screen for cervical cancer, were included. Two reviewers independently evaluated titles and abstracts, then full-texts, extracted data and assessed quality of the included studies. A descriptive analysis of the included studies was conducted. We calculated Frequency effect sizes (FES for each finding and Intensity effect sizes (IES for each article to represent their magnitudes in the analyses. Of 1011 studies retrieved, 11 studies were included (2045 individuals. Six different themes related to the factors affecting compliance with CPGs were identified: Insufficient Knowledge/Lack of awareness (FES = 82%, Negligence/Misbeliefs (FES = 82%, Psychological Reasons (FES = 73%, Time/Cost Constraint (FES = 36%, Insufficient infrastructure/training (FES = 45% and also no reason given (FES = 36%. IES for articles ranged between 33 and 83%. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that prevention initiatives should be comprehensive to include education and resources needs assessments and improvement, Pap smear test training, strategies on costing, and practitioner time studies.

  7. Barriers to adoption of recent technology in cervical screening

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    Jhala Darshana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Pap smear is one of the modern success stories in the field of preventive medicine. Since its introduction as a screening test, there has been a dramatic reduction in the incidence of cervical cancer. However, the search for a better screening test continues. The new technologies, including liquid-based cytology (LBC, Human Papilloma Virus (HPV testing and automated or machine-assisted screening have been introduced. However, there is continuous debate about whether society's limited resources are better spent on reaching the underserved rather than on these technologies. Another question is whether these technologies create yet another kind of disparity in delivering preventive care. For example, despite the wide use of LBC (99% of tests submitted to our laboratory are LBC, conventional Pap smears are still used to screen/follow up some women. It is not clear why some providers continue to prefer conventional smear over LBC and what are the barriers for adopting LBC in cervical cancer screening. We hypothesize the lower cost of conventional compared to LBC Pap testing, patient's lower socio-economic indices, a patient's medical history and provider's subspecialty/training all appear to play a role in the choice of using conventional Pap testing rather than LBC. Unintentionally, this choice results in repeat testing, delayed treatment and potentially higher costs than intended. The ultimate goal of this review article is to understand and explore possible barriers and disparities to adopting new technology in cancer screening.

  8. Perceptions of Nigerian Women about Human Papilloma Virus, Cervical Cancer, and HPV Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akanbi, Olusola Anuoluwapo; Iyanda, Abiodun; Osundare, Folakemi; Opaleye, Oluyinka Oladele

    2015-01-01

    Background. Cervical cancer caused by human papilloma virus (HPV) though preventable has claimed the lives of many women worldwide. This study was embarked upon to evaluate the general knowledge and perceptions of Nigerian women on HPV, cervical cancer, and HPV vaccine. Methods. Structured questionnaires were administered to a cross section of 737 women randomly selected from the general population in two southwestern States of Nigeria. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS computer software version 16. A P value >0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results. One hundred and seventy-six (23.9%) of the respondents had knowledge of HPV; 474 (64.3%) are aware of cervical cancer but only 136 (18.5%) know that HPV causes cervical cancer. 200 (27.1%) are aware that there is an HPV vaccine while 300 (40.7%) had knowledge of Pap smear test. Two hundred and sixty (35.3%) of the respondents know that early detection of HPV can prevent cervical cancer and in spite of this, only 110 (14.9%) have taken the Pap smear test before while 151 (20.5%) are not willing to go for the test at all. Conclusions. There is therefore the need to create proper awareness on the HPV and its possible consequence of cervical carcinoma.

  9. Perceptions of Nigerian Women about Human Papilloma Virus, Cervical Cancer, and HPV Vaccine

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    Olusola Anuoluwapo Akanbi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Cervical cancer caused by human papilloma virus (HPV though preventable has claimed the lives of many women worldwide. This study was embarked upon to evaluate the general knowledge and perceptions of Nigerian women on HPV, cervical cancer, and HPV vaccine. Methods. Structured questionnaires were administered to a cross section of 737 women randomly selected from the general population in two southwestern States of Nigeria. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS computer software version 16. A P value >0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results. One hundred and seventy-six (23.9% of the respondents had knowledge of HPV; 474 (64.3% are aware of cervical cancer but only 136 (18.5% know that HPV causes cervical cancer. 200 (27.1% are aware that there is an HPV vaccine while 300 (40.7% had knowledge of Pap smear test. Two hundred and sixty (35.3% of the respondents know that early detection of HPV can prevent cervical cancer and in spite of this, only 110 (14.9% have taken the Pap smear test before while 151 (20.5% are not willing to go for the test at all. Conclusions. There is therefore the need to create proper awareness on the HPV and its possible consequence of cervical carcinoma.

  10. STUDY OF TZANCK SMEARS OVER A PERIOD OF SIX MONTHS

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    Shailaja

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION : Cytology of cutaneous lesions can be used for preliminary and rapid diagnosis of many skin diseases. Though the gold standard is a biopsy with or without immunofluorescent studies, the use of simple Tzanck test gives reliable information in many varieties of skin lesions. It is especially useful for cutaneous herpetic lesions and also for early presumptive diagnosis of pemphigus vulgaris. AIMS : The study was carried out to determine the usefulness of Tzanck test in herpetic lesions, pemphigus vulgaris and other cutaneous lesions. MATERIALS AND METHODS : The present study was a prospective one, carried out over a six month period in the department of pathology at Kamineni Academy of Medical Sciences and Resear ch Centre, Hyderabad, from June 2014 to December 2014. A total of twenty - one Tzanck smears were studied. The material was collected in the Dermatology out - patient department by the dermatologist and sent to the laboratory. A Giemsa stain was used for all t he smears and examined under the microscope. RESULTS : There were total 21 cases ranging in age from 3 years to 62 years. There were 11 male and 10 female patients, the male to female ratio being 1.1:1. There were 8 cases of herpes zoster and Tzanck smear w as reported positive in 5 cases (62.5%. For pemphigus vulgaris, out of 4 cases, 2 (50% were reported positive on Tzanck smear. As biopsy was not available for all the cases the histopathological correlation could not be done. CONCLUSION : Tzanck smear is a rapid, simple, inexpensive and reliable test which is useful for the diagnosis of cutaneous viral infections like herpes zoster, varicella and molluscum contagiosum. It is also helpful for the presumptive diagnosis of pemphigus vulgaris thereby facilitat ing early treatment of the patients

  11. Evaluation of the knowledge regarding prevention of cervical cancer among women from a Health Unit

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    Ernandes Gonçalves Dias

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Cervical cancer is a disease with high degree of morbidity and mortality, but has early detection by performing screening test which allows healing. This study aimed to evaluate the knowledge regarding prevention of Cervical Cancer among women in a Basic Health Unit in Minas Gerais. Methods: This is a study descriptive with approach qualitative with 44 women. Was used as the data collection instrument of a semistructured script consisting of subjective questions. Data were collected between March April 2014. Results: The women had age of 40-57 years old, 33 (75% were married, 43(97,73% had children, 20 (45,45% had incomplete primary education, 36 (81,82% were responsible for all financial income of the family and lived with up to the minimum wage. As for the Pap smear, considered important, however showed little clarity as to the meaning of prevention. Performed the test as means of prevention and early diagnosis of Cervical Cancer. Among women who did not perform the preventive the cause was discouragement. Conclusion: We conclude that although the Pap smear be offered for free, there is still women who do not have adequate knowledge about the same and not makes periodically, fitting to health services intensify health education programs to seeking to raise awareness about the importance of regular practice of the Pap smear. Keywords: Cervix Uteri. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms. Health centers.

  12. A six-year study of the clinical presentation of cervical cancer and the management challenges encountered at a state teaching hospital in southeast Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eze, Justus N; Emeka-Irem, Esther N; Edegbe, Felix O

    2013-01-01

    Cervical cancer is still a major contributor to cancer-related mortality amongst women living in poor, rural communities of developing countries. The objective of this study is to establish the clinical presentation of cervical cancer and the management challenges encountered in Abakaliki, southeast Nigeria, with a view to finding intervention strategies. This study is a retrospective descriptive assessment of cases of clinically diagnosed cervical cancer managed at a state teaching hospital over six years. Of 76 cases managed, 61 (80.3%) cases notes were available for study. The mean age and parity of patients were 53.8 years and 6.8 years, respectively. The majority (75.4%) were illiterate. All had been married, but 42.6% were widowed. The main occupations were farming or petty trading. One patient (1.6%) had had a single Pap smear in her life. The major presenting complaints were abnormal vaginal bleeding (86.9%), offensive vaginal discharge (41.0%), and weight loss. Twenty patients (32.8%) were lost to follow-up prior to staging. Of the remaining 41 patients, 16 (39.0%) had stage III disease and 17.1% stage IV. Fifteen patients (24.6%) with late stage disease accepted referral, and were referred for radiotherapy. Those who declined were discharged home on request, though 4 (9.8%) died in the hospital. There was no feedback from referred patients confirming that they went and benefitted from the referral. The presentation followed known trends. Illiteracy, poverty, early marriages, high parity, widowhood, non-use of screening methods, late presentation, non-acceptance of referral, and lack of communication after referral were some of the major challenges encountered. These underscore the needs for health education and awareness creation, women educational and economic empowerment, legislation against early marriages and in protection of widows, and creation of a well-staffed and well-equipped dedicated gynecologic oncology unit to forestall further referral.

  13. Adesão de mulheres de 18 a 50 anos ao exame colpocitológico na estratégia saúde da família Adhesión de mujeres de los 18 a los 50 años a una prueba de Papanicolaou en la estrategia de salud de la familia Adherence of women aged 18 to 50 years to a cervical smear test in the Family Health Strategy

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    Wágna Maria de Araújo Oliveira

    2012-07-01

    of women to the smear test in the Health Family Strategy of Iporá, Goiás, Brazil. The study sample consisted of 114 women from 18 to 50 years old who attended the Family Health Strategy to have a smear test in October and November 2010. The descriptive analysis performed using Epi Info 3.5.1 showed that the higher level of adherence is in the 46 to 50 years age group (24% and the lower level is at 18 to 20 and 41 to 45 years (10% each. Among the interviewees, 70% had the test every two years or less and 12% had never had it. The Family Health Strategy unit with higher adherence was Jadim Monte Alto with 16%, and the lower was Umuarama district with 8%. It was concluded that prevention is the main reason for women to take the smear test.

  14. Acute lymphoblastic leukemia presenting with a uterine cervical mass

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    N Geetha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Involvement of female genital tract with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL is extremely rare, and it is even rarer for a patient to have symptomatic presentation. We report the case of a middle-aged lady with ALL, who presented with severe abnormal uterine bleeding and a uterine cervical mass. Biopsy of the cervical mass showed infiltration by leukemic blasts. She received chemotherapy with Berlin-Frankfurt-Munster protocol and is alive in remission after 10 years.

  15. Cervical Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer found early may be easier to treat. Cervical cancer screening is usually part of a woman's health ... may do more tests, such as a biopsy. Cervical cancer screening has risks. The results can sometimes be ...

  16. Cervical Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are at increased risk for HPV infections. Other risk factors for cervical cancer include: Giving birth to many children. Smoking cigarettes. Using oral contraceptives ("the Pill"). Having a weakened immune system . Cervical Cancer Screening ...

  17. Cervical Cancer Stage IVB

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the body, such as the lymph nodes, lung, liver, intestine, or bone. Stage IVB cervical cancer. Topics/Categories: Anatomy -- Gynecologic Cancer Types -- Cervical Cancer Staging Type: Color, ...

  18. A survey of cervical screening among refugee and non-refugee African immigrant women in Brisbane, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anaman, Judith A; Correa-Velez, Ignacio; King, Julie

    2016-10-31

    Issue addressed: To compare the level of cervical screening uptake between refugee and non-refugee African immigrant women living in Brisbane, Australia, and examine factors associated with Pap smear testing. Methods: Cross-sectional survey with a convenience sample of 254 women aged 21-62 years from 22 African countries (144 refugees, 110 non-refugees). Chi-square tests were used to compare the demographic and health-related characteristics between refugee and non-refugee women. Bivariate and multiple logistic regression analyses were used to assess the relationship between the outcome variable (Pap smear testing) and the independent variables. Results: Two-thirds of women had used Pap smear services in Australia. Chi-square test analysis established that non-refugee women were significantly more likely to have used Pap smear services than refugee women (73.6% vs 61.8% respectively; P=0.047). Immigration status, however, was not a significant predictor of cervical screening uptake in the multiple regression analyses. The significant predictors for screening uptake in these analyses were work arrangement, parity, healthcare visit, knowledge about Pap smear and perceived susceptibility to cervical cancer. Conclusion: Most women relied on opportunistic screening after receiving invitation letters to screen or after visiting health professionals for antenatal or postnatal care. So what?: The findings suggest that organised cervical screening programs are not reaching most African immigrant women living in Brisbane. It is incumbent on the public health sector, including healthcare professionals and settlement agencies working with African communities, to develop health promotion strategies that meaningfully engage African immigrant women, including those from refugee backgrounds, to enhance their knowledge about cervical cancer and screening practices.

  19. Biogenic amines in smear and mould-ripened cheeses

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    Pavel Pleva

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was the monitoring of six biogenic amines (histamine, tyramine, phenylethylamine, tryptamine, putrescine, and cadaverine and two polyamines (spermidine and spermine in 30 samples of dairy products purchased in the Czech Republic, namely in 15 samples of mould-ripened cheeses and in 15 samples of smear-ripened cheeses. A further goal was the microbiological analysis of the individual samples of cheeses (total count of microorganisms, number of enterobacteria, enterococci, lactic acid bacteria, yeasts and moulds. The monitored biogenic amines were analyzed by a high performance liquid chromatography equipped with a UV/VIS DAD detector. The amount of enterobacteria in fresh cheese exceeded 105 CFU.g‑1. In smear-ripened cheese flavourless (Romadur type, the amount was >103 CFU.g-1 and 104-105 CFU.g-1 in smear-ripened cheese with flavour. Biogenic amines were observed in two groups of blue cheeses (white veined cheese and blue veined cheese and smear-ripened cheeses. In both groups, there is a possibility of the presence of biogenic amines because the number of microorganisms and concentration of free amino acids increase during ripening. In ten samples of soft smear-ripening acid cheese and in smear-ripened cheese, the total content of biogenic amines were 22-1000 mg.kg-1 and in 5 samples of these cheeses, it was in range 1000-6000 mg.kg-1. The total amount of biogenic amines in the blue cheeses were in range 40-600 mg.kg-1. The presense of the tyramine was observed in the all analysed cheeses. The tyramine producing strains generated more than 900 mg.kg-1 of this biogenic amine. The production of tryptamine in the analysed cheeses was not proved by this study. The results of this study show that biogenic amines and polyamines are common in cheese. However, in some cases, they can pose a significant health danger for consumers. Any legislative control authority does not monitor them, as they are secondary metabolites even

  20. Sputum Conversion Among Patients With Smear Positive Pulmonary Tuberculosis

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    Soudbakhsh A R

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In the patients with smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis (TB bacteriologic assessment of sputum for detection of acid bacilli (AFB Has essential role. This evaluation is accomplished by direct sputum smear & sputum culture. These examinations must be done in regular and preferably monthly after beginning of treatment. These tests have two important aims, including, determining of treatment efficacy & duration of isolation."nMethods and Materials: Most of the studies have that classic six month regimen led to sputum smear conversion & negative sputum culture in 85% of patient. This treatment regimen has two phases, including, attack phase and maintenance phase. In the attack phase we use four drugs, including, Isoniazid (INH, Rifampin (RMP, Pyrazinamide (PZA and Ethambutol (EMB for the first 2 months and if necessary until the end of third month. In the maintenance phase we use INH and Rif for the remaining of treatment course. The main objectives of this study were to determine the time needed for smear conversion and assessment of probable factors which may influence the smear conversion until 4 months after beginning of therapy. The factors that were assessed, were, Age, nationality, sex, clinical symptoms, underlying diseases, chest radiography (number of cavities, smoking, drug abuse and concentration of AF13 in the sputum Generally, we did this cross sectional study on the patient's records, who had been observed in Imam Khomeni Hospital, west health service center and masih daneshvary hospital between."nResults: This study showed that from totally 218 patients, 138(74.6% patients had sputum conversion at the first 2 months of treatment and until the end of 3rd & 4th month this rate reached to 83.3% respectively. So in the end of fourth month only 32(14.7% patients did not show sputum smear conversion. On the other hand this study showed that two factors including presence of cavities in chest radiography

  1. Correlation of DNA Ploidy with Progression of Cervical Cancer

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    M. Singh

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The majority of squamous cell carcinomas of cervix are preceded by visible changes in the cervix, most often detected by cervical smear. As cervical cancer is preceded by long precancerous stages, identification of the high-risk population through detection of DNA ploidy may be of importance in effective management of this disease. Here we attempted to correlate aneuploid DNA patterns and their influence on biological behavior of flow-cytometry analysis of DNA ploidy which was carried out in cytologically diagnosed cases of mild (79, moderate (36, and severe (12 dysplasia, as well as “atypical squamous cells of unknown significance (ASCUS” (57 along with controls (69, in order to understand its importance in malignant progression of disease. Cytologically diagnosed dysplasias, which were employed for DNA ploidy studies, 39 mild, 28 moderate, and 11 severe dysplasia cases were found to be aneuploid. Out of the 69 control subjects, 6 cases showed aneuploidy pattern and the rest 63 subjects were diploid. An aneuploidy pattern was observed in 8 out of 57 cases of cytologically evaluated ASCUS. The results of the followup studies showed that aberrant DNA content reliably predicts the occurrence of squamous cell carcinoma in cervical smear. Flow cytometric analysis of DNA ploidy may provide a strategic diagnostic tool for early detection of carcinoma cervix. Therefore, it is a concept of an HPV screening with reflex cytology in combination with DNA flow cytometry to detect progressive lesions with the greatest possible sensitivity and specificity.

  2. 荧光原位杂交检测宫颈脱落细胞端粒酶基因扩增临床价值的探讨%Fluorescence in situ hybridization detection of abnormal cervical cytology in the clinical significance of telomerase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕丽丽; 娄阁; 刘运铎; 姬宏飞

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the amplification detection rate of the telomerase gene in exfoliated cells of cervical state for the diagnostic value of cervical lesions.METHODS: from July 27th 2007 to January ninth 2009, in the third affiliated clinical medical school of haerbin medical university, 113 cases of cervical exfoliated cells gynecological specimens, 27 cases in which atypical squamous cells (ASC) patients, light-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL) 33 patients, high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) 26 patients, 2 cases of cervical squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), normal cytology in 25 cases of women using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to detect exfoliated cells of human chromosome ends gene (human telomerase gene, hTERC) hTERC gene amplification.These results above of ASC were compared with histopathological results.RESULTS: hTERC gene in the group of ASC, LSIL, HSIL, SCC, and normal women with cervical cytology in exfoliated cells, amplification of hTERC detection rate was 44.4%(12/27), 57.6%(19/33), 92.3%(24/26) and 100.0%(2/2), 0.Comparison between groups (P<0.001), hTERC gene amplification detection rate difference was statistically significant.hTERC gene in CIN Ⅰ , CIN Ⅱ / Ⅲ and SCC, the amplification rates were 60.0%(18/30), 73.9% (34/46) and 100.0% (5/5).CIN Ⅰ ,CIN Ⅱ/Ⅲ, SCC group compared with the normal control group,there was significant difference (P = 0.001).CONCLUSION:hTERC gene in CIN and SCC in the abnormal expression and its copy numbers are increased with the serious degree of pathological and cytological grades, can be used as an effective indicator of cervical cancer screening and precancerous lesions of progress monitoring indicators of biological genetics.%目的:检测宫颈脱落细胞中端粒酶基因扩增的检出率,探讨其在宫颈病变中诊断的价值.方法:收集2007-07-27-2009-01-09哈尔滨医科大学附属第三临床医学院妇科113例宫颈脱

  3. Human papillomavirus status and cervical abnormalities in women from public and private health care in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil Papilomavírus humano e anormalidades cervicais em mulheres do sistema de saúde privado e público no Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil

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    Ledy H.S. Oliveira

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available This article reports the HPV status and cervical cytological abnormalities in patients attended at public and private gynecological services from Rio de Janeiro State. It also comments the performance of each HPV DNA tests used. A set of 454 women from private health clinics was tested by routine Capture Hybrid II HPV DNA assay. Among these, 58.4% presented HPV and nearly 90% of them were infected by high risk HPV types. However, this group presented few premalignant cervical lesions and no invasive cervical cancer was registered. We also studied 220 women from low income class attended at public health system. They were HPV tested by polymerase chain reaction using My09/11 primers followed by HPV typing with E6 specific primers. The overall HPV prevalence was 77.3%. They also showed a high percentage of high squamous intraepithelial lesion-HSIL (26.3%, and invasive cervical carcinoma (16.3%. HPV infection was found in 93.1% and 94.4% of them, respectively. The mean ages in both groups were 31.5 and 38 years, respectively. In series 1, HPV prevalence declined with age, data consistent with viral transient infection. In series 2, HPV prevalence did not decline, independent of age interval, supporting not only the idea of viral persistence into this group, but also regional epidemiological variations in the same geographic area. Significant cytological differences were seen between both groups. Normal and benign cases were the most prevalent cytological findings in series 1 while pre-malignant lesions were the most common diagnosis in the series 2. HPV prevalence in normal cases were statistically higher than those from series 1 (p Este artigo analisa a infecção por HPV e anormalidades citológicas cervicais encontradas em pacientes atendidas em serviços ginecológicos dos sistemas de saúde público e privado do estado do Rio de Janeiro. O trabalho também avalia os testes utilizados para detecção de DNA do HPV em cada população estudada

  4. Classification and Management of Pediatric Subaxial Cervical Spine Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madura, Casey J; Johnston, James M

    2017-01-01

    Appropriate management of subaxial spine injury in children requires an appreciation for the differences in anatomy, biomechanics, injury patterns, and treatment options compared with adult patients. Increased flexibility, weak neck muscles, and cranial disproportion predispose younger children to upper cervical injuries and spinal cord injury without radiographic abnormality. A majority of subaxial cervical spine injuries can be treated nonoperatively. Surgical instrumentation options for children have significantly increased in recent years. Future studies of outcomes for children with subaxial cervical spine injury should focus on injury classification and standardized outcome measures to ensure continued improvement in quality of care for this patient population.

  5. Comparison of the thick smear and Kato-Katz techniques for diagnosis of intestinal helminth infections

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    Santos Fred Luciano Neves

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This study compared the efficiency of Kato-Katz thick smear and thick smear techniques for the diagnosis of intestinal helminths. The sensitivity of the thick smear technique was higher than that of the Kato-Katz method for the diagnosis of all helminths except Schistosoma mansoni.

  6. Magnetic resonance imaging of traumatic cervical injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juhng, S. K.; Lee, K. S.; Sohn, K. J.; Choi, S. S.; Won, J. J. [Wonkwang University School of Medicine, Iri (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-04-15

    To evaluate magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of cevical injuries. MRI studies of 34 patients with cervical spinal injuries were analyzed retrospectively. All MRI scans were obtained with an 1.0T superconductive MRI scanner (Siemens Magnetom 42SPE) and their findings were analyzed regarding the spinal cord, bony spine, ligaments, and intervertebral disks. A variety of abnormal findings were detected: 25 cord abnormalities including cord compression (15 cases), cord edema (4 cases), syringomyelia (4 cases), myelomalacia (1 case), and hemorrhagic contusion (1 case), 18 ligamentous injuries, 22 disk herniations (9 post-traumatic, 13 chronic degenerative), 11 spine fractures, and 4 subluxations. MRI is useful in evaluating the spinal cord itself, in depicting ligamentous injuries, in establishing the presence of disc herniation, and in assessing the alignment of cervical spine.

  7. Human papillomavirus type-specific prevalence in the cervical cancer screening population of Czech women.

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    Ruth Tachezy

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (HPVtypes has been recognized as a causal factor for the development of cervical cancer and a number of other malignancies. Today, vaccines against HPV, highly effective in the prevention of persistent infection and precancerous lesions, are available for the routine clinical practice. OBJECTIVES: The data on the prevalence and type-specific HPV distribution in the population of each country are crucial for the surveillance of HPV type-specific prevalence at the onset of vaccination against HPV. METHODS: Women attending a preventive gynecological examination who had no history of abnormal cytological finding and/or surgery for cervical lesions were enrolled. All samples were tested for the presence of HPV by High-Risk Hybrid Capture 2 (HR HC2 and by a modified PCR-reverse line blot assay with broad spectrum primers (BS-RLB. RESULTS: Cervical smears of 1393 women were analyzed. In 6.5% of women, atypical cytological findings were detected. Altogether, 28.3% (394/1393 of women were positive for any HPV type by BS-RLB, 18.2% (254/1393 by HR HC2, and 22.3% (310/1393 by BS-RLB for HR HPV types. In women with atypical findings the prevalence for HR and any HPV types were significantly higher than in women with normal cytological findings. Overall, 36 different HPV types were detected, with HPV 16 being the most prevalent (4.8%. HPV positivity decreased with age; the highest prevalence was 31.5% in the age group 21-25 years. CONCLUSIONS: Our study subjects represent the real screening population. HPV prevalence in this population in the Czech Republic is higher than in other countries of Eastern Europe. Also the spectrum of the most prevalent HPV types differs from those reported by others but HPV 16 is, concordantly, the most prevalent type. Country-specific HPV type-specific prevalences provide baseline information which will enable to measure the impact of HPV vaccination in the future.

  8. Eggs containing larvae of Enterobius vermicularis in vaginal smear

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    Jyothi B Shetty

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Enterobius vermicularis also known commonly as pinworm is the most common intestinal parasite. It is a nematode that inhabits the human terminal ileum, colon and appendix. The fertilized female migrates to the perianal area where eggs are deposited but occasionally introduces itself into adjacent orifices, most commonly the female genitourinary tract. Thus the eggs can be seen in the vaginal smear as a result of contamination. We report a case wherein the patient presented with signs and symptoms of vulvovaginitis. In her vaginal smear there were eggs of Enterobius vermicularis which showed a coiled larva within it. In the background there were plenty of acute inflammatory cells. This patient responded favorably to antihelminthics. We report this case to highlight the morphology of the parasite and also to emphasize that such findings should not be neglected. Timely reporting and appropriate treatment of such cases will prevent further complications of this parasite including endometritis, salphingitis and peritonitis.

  9. Surface contamination by smearing during polishing - A PIXE study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franklyn, C.B. E-mail: franklyn@aec.co.za; Merkle, R.K.W

    2001-07-01

    Preparation of samples for PIXE analysis follows standard procedures in order to present a smooth, uniform surface for microscopic investigation and analysis. Reports on the quality of the surface preparation are scant. We report on investigations of preparation of metallic samples for micro-probe analysis. These samples are metal strips of typically 0.5 mm width and 10-15 mm length, sandwiched between natural pyrite crystals and quartz glass, mounted in epoxy resin. The surface was polished using diamond abrasives. The smearing of metallic Ag, Au and Cu was investigated and was found to be most prevalent for Cu, but also clearly detectable for Ag and Au. The potential influence of beam halo and beam scattering in the resin mount appears to be negligible, but the results imply additional, as yet unidentified, factors besides smearing to explain all observations.

  10. RBCs and Parasites Segmentation from Thin Smear Blood Cell Images

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    Vishal V. Panchbhai

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Manually examine the blood smear for the detection of malaria parasite consumes lot of time for trend pathologists. As the computational power increases, the role of automatic visual inspection becomes more important. An automated system is therefore needed to complete as much work as possible for the identification of malaria parasites. The given scheme based on used of RGB color space, G layer processing, and segmentation of Red Blood Cells (RBC as well as cell parasites by auto-thresholding with offset value and use of morphological processing. The work compare with the manual results obtained from the pathology lab, based on total RBC count and cells parasite count. The designed system successfully detects malaria parasites and RBC cells in thin smear image.

  11. An overview on applications of optical spectroscopy in cervical cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chilakapati Murali

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite advances in the treatment modalities, cervical cancers are one of the leading causes of cancer death among women. Pap smear and colposcopy are the existing screening methods and histopathology is the gold standard for diagnosis. However, these methods have been shown to be prone to reporting errors, which could be due to their subjective interpretation. Radiotherapy is the mainstay of treatment for the locally advanced stages of cervical cancers. The typical treatment regimen spans over 4 months, from the first fraction of radiation to clinical assessment of tumor response to radiotherapy. It is often noticed that due to intrinsic properties of tumors, patients with the same clinical stage and histological type respond differently to radiotherapy. Hence, there exists a need for the development of new methods for early diagnosis as well as for early prediction of tumor radioresponse. Optical spectroscopic methods have been shown to be potential alternatives for use in cancer diagnosis. In this review, we provide a brief background on the anatomy and histology of the uterine cervix and the etiology of cervical cancers; we briefly discuss the optical spectroscopic approach to cervical cancer diagnosis. A very brief discussion on radiation therapy and radiation resistance is also provided. We also share our experiences with the Raman spectroscopic methodologies in cervical cancer diagnosis as well as in the prediction of tumor radioresponse.

  12. IDENTIFICATION OF RISK FACTORS FOR CERVICAL CANCER IN WOMEN ASSISTED BY A FAMILY HEALTH TEAM IN CUIABÁ, MATO GROSSO, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Gomes de Almeida

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to identify risk factors for cervical neoplasia in women residing in the area covered by the Family Healthcare Strategy of Altos da Serra I, in Cuiabá, Mato Grosso, Brazil. The population of this descriptive study consisted of 19 women who had abnormal results of Pap smears from October 2007 to September 2009. Data were collected using a semi-structured questionnaire applied at the participants’ residences after they provided informed consent. Nine respondents (47.4% began sexual activity from 10 to 15 years of age, 11 (57.9% did not use condoms routinely, 11 (58% had had more than one unprotected sexual intercourse, 6 (31.6% were 15 to 17 years of age at first pregnancy. Early beginning of sexual activity and absence of condom use were the most prevalent situations found among the participants. The results indicate the need to address aspects related to sexuality through health education approaches designed for adolescents, in order to reduce the occurrence of the situations revealed by the study.

  13. Mammography and pap smear use by older rural women.

    OpenAIRE

    Ives, D G; Lave, J R; Traven, N D; Schulz, R.; Kuller, L.H. (Lewis H.)

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. To compare the characteristics of older women who did and did not have screening mammograms and Pap smears during the first two years both services were a Medicare Part B benefit. METHODS. A prospective study was conducted in five rural Pennsylvania counties of 2205 female community-dwelling Medicare Part B beneficiaries who volunteered to participate in a Medicare prevention demonstration project. The baseline health risk appraisal included information on demographics, insurance s...

  14. Declining total leucoyte count, an indication of transient abnormal myelopoisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yogesh K Yadav

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Neonates with Down syndrome have an increased predisposition to transient abnormal myelopoisis, a haematological abnormality which is characterized by uncontrolled proliferation of myeloblasts. The unique ability of this disorder to spontaneously enter in to a state of remission led to the creation of a new class in 2008 World Health Organization (W.H.O. classification of haemopoitic and lymphoid tumours. It has now been classified as transient abnormal myelopoisis (TAM. The cause of remission is still not clear although it is possibly linked to the abnormal expression of GATA-1 transcription factor and to a switch from hepatic haematopoesis to medullary haematopoesis. Simple laboratory monitoring by serial complete blood count and peripheral smear can give indication of this rare disorder. As very few cases of this disorder exist we share our experience and report a case of transient myeloproliferative disorder in a male newborn having Down syndrome.

  15. ANALYSIS OF CELL BLOCK VS . CONVENTIONAL SMEAR IN FLUID CYTOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyotsna

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The cytological examination of aspirates of serous effusions is a routinely accepted , simple , safe and minimally invasive technique . Diagnosis in this investigation , especially in malignant effusions , helps in staging , prognosis and management of the patients . AIMS: To assess the utility and sensitivity of cell block method over conventional smear technique in cytodiagnosis of the serous effusions . METHODS: A total of 72 fluid specimens were subjected to simultaneous processing by conventional s mear and cell block technique . Each fluid specimen was divided into two equal parts and results compared for cellularity , cell architecture , cytoplasmic and nuclear features . Cell blocks were prepared using modified cell block technique using alcohol forma lin fixative . RESULTS: The utility of cell block technique in diagnosing malignant effusions is highly significant as compared to the conventional smear technique . Also , the technique using alcohol formalin fixative is simple , safe and these chemicals are routinely used in laboratory . CONCLUSION: Cell block technique is superior to conventional smear technique , especially for malignant effusions . It gives more information about the architectural arrangement and the likely source of primary . More important is that diagnostic material in cell blocks is available for special studies for . I mmunohistochemistry which can further supplement our knowledge about the primary source of metastasis

  16. Challenges to cervical screening in a developing country: The case of Malaysia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Othman, Nor Hayati; Rebolj, Matejka

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Many developing countries, including Malaysia, will need to continue relying on cervical screening because they will not be able to cover their entire female adolescent populations with HPV vaccination. The aim of this paper was to establish the extent of the health care, informational......, financial and psychosocial barriers to cervical screening in Malaysia. METHODS: A literature search was made for reports on implementation, perceptions and reception of cervical screening in Malaysia published between January 2000 and September 2008. RESULTS: Despite offering Pap smears for free since 1995......: Improving screening coverage will remain an important strategy for combating cervical cancer in Malaysia. The focus should be on the policy-making context, improving awareness and the screening infrastructure, and making the service better accessible to women....

  17. Anterior cervical plating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonugunta V

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Although anterior cervical instrumentation was initially used in cervical trauma, because of obvious benefits, indications for its use have been expanded over time to degenerative cases as well as tumor and infection of the cervical spine. Along with a threefold increase in incidence of cervical fusion surgery, implant designs have evolved over the last three decades. Observation of graft subsidence and phenomenon of stress shielding led to the development of the new generation dynamic anterior cervical plating systems. Anterior cervical plating does not conclusively improve clinical outcome of the patients, but certainly enhances the efficacy of autograft and allograft fusion and lessens the rate of pseudoarthrosis and kyphosis after multilevel discectomy and fusions. A review of biomechanics, surgical technique, indications, complications and results of various anterior cervical plating systems is presented here to enable clinicians to select the appropriate construct design.

  18. An observation of curative effect on cervical nonmalignant abnormity which treated by kangfuxin liquid and fujieshuan cooperating with microwave%康复新液联合妇洁栓辅助微波治疗子宫颈良性异常的疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范湘玲; 郭金利; 刘燕

    2011-01-01

    目的 观察子宫颈良性异常微波治疗后,应用康复新液联合妇洁栓对宫颈创面愈合的疗效.方法 460例宫颈良性异常患者,随机分为2组,每组230例.治疗组微波治疗后阴道联合应用康复新液、妇洁栓,对照组仅作微波治疗,观察两组治疗后宫颈创面愈合、阴道排液、出血等情况.结果 12周末时治疗组、对照组一次治愈率分别为97.39%、90.43%,两组比较有显著性差异(P<0.05);治疗组第1、2周的脱痂过程短,术后2、3、4周上皮覆盖过程明显优于对照组,两组有极显著性差异(P<0.01).治疗组阴道排液量明显减少,平均排液时间18d,对照组30d;治疗组阴道平均出血时间(8.13±2.31)d,对照组(14.67±2.95)d,两组比较均有显著性差异(P<0.05).结论 子宫颈良性异常微波治疗后,应用康复新液联合妇洁栓对减少阴道排液、出血及创面的修复起到了积极的作用,简便易行,疗效可靠.%Objective To observe curative effect of cervical nonmalignant abnormity which treated by kangfuxin liquid and fujieshuan (adsorption of vaginal inflammation suppository )cooperating with microwave. Methods Vaginas of patients in treating group were stuffed cotton ball with tail which dipped by kangfuxin liquid and 0.5% iodophor after cervical nonmalignant abnormity having been cured by microwave, and used them everynight for 12 days. Observe concrescence of cervix and bad reaction. Results Once curative ratio of treating group was 97.39% untill the end of the 12th week after curing, and that of control group was 90.43%. There were difference between two groupo(P < 0.05). It was short that decrustation after one week and two week in treating group; Epidermic bestrows in treating group were better obviously than those in control group after two week and three week and four week after curing. There were significant difference between two groups (P < 0.01 ). The number of the liquid flowing from vagina in treating

  19. Targeted treatments for cervical cancer: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peralta-Zaragoza O

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Oscar Peralta-Zaragoza,1 Víctor Hugo Bermúdez-Morales,1 Carlos Pérez-Plasencia,2,3 Jonathan Salazar-León,1 Claudia Gómez-Cerón,1 Vicente Madrid-Marina11Direction of Chronic Infections and Cancer, Research Center in Infection Diseases, National Institute of Public Health, Cuernavaca, Morelos, México; 2Oncogenomics Laboratory, National Cancer Institute of Mexico, Tlalpan, México; 3Biomedicine Unit, FES-Iztacala UNAM, México City, MéxicoAbstract: Cervical cancer is the second most common cause of cancer death in women worldwide and the development of new diagnosis, prognostic, and treatment strategies merits special attention. Although surgery and chemoradiotherapy can cure 80%–95% of women with early stage cancer, the recurrent and metastatic disease remains a major cause of cancer death. Many efforts have been made to design new drugs and develop gene therapies to treat cervical cancer. In recent decades, research on treatment strategies has proposed several options, including the role of HPV E6 and E7 oncogenes, which are retained and expressed in most cervical cancers and whose respective oncoproteins are critical to the induction and maintenance of the malignant phenotype. Other efforts have been focused on antitumor immunotherapy strategies. It is known that during the development of cervical cancer, a cascade of abnormal events is induced, including disruption of cellular cycle control, perturbation of antitumor immune response, alteration of gene expression, and deregulation of microRNA expression. Thus, in this review article we discuss potential targets for the treatment of cervical cancer associated with HPV infection, with special attention to immunotherapy approaches, clinical trials, siRNA molecules, and their implications as gene therapy strategies against cervical cancer development.Keywords: Cervical cancer, clinical trials, gene therapy, HPV E6 and E7 oncogenes, siRNAs

  20. Cervical instability in Klippel-Feil syndrome:case report and review of the literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Aaron Wessell; Peter DeRosa; Abraham Cherrick; Jonathan H.Sherman

    2015-01-01

    Background: The authors present a case of cervical myelopathy and radiculopathy in the setting of multiple Klippel-Feil syndrome abnormalities treated surgically with a single-level C3-C4 anterior cervical discectomy and fusion.We discuss the clinical presentation, radiographic findings, and various treatment options for cervical spine abnormalities in Klippel-Feil syndrome.Case Presentation: This 22-year-old female with Klippel-Feil syndrome presented with intermittent neck pain, left upper extremity weakness, and paresthesias.Preoperative MRI, CT, and X-rays of the cervical spine revealed anterolisthesis at C3/4 with unstable movement on flexion and extension imaging.In addition, there were multiple segmental fusion abnormalities including hemivertebrae and other congenital fusion abnormalities.A C3-C4 anterior cervical discectomy and fusion was performed with intervertebral disc spacer.Adequate decompression was achieved with postoperative resolution of the patient's symptoms and improvement in neurological exam.Conclusions: Single-level anterior cervical discectomy and fusion can be utilized for treatment of cervical myelopathy and radiculopathy in the setting of multiple congenital Klippel-Feil syndrome abnormalities.

  1. Loss of accuracy using smeared properties in composite beam modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ning

    Advanced composite materials have broad, proven applications in many engineering systems ranging from sports equipment sectors to components on the space shuttle because of their lightweight characteristics and significantly high stiffness. Together with this merit of composite materials is the challenge of improving computational simulation process for composites analysis. Composite structures, particularly composite laminates, usually consist of many layers with different lay-up angles. The anisotropic and heterogeneous features render 3D finite element analysis (FEA) computationally expensive in terms of the computational time and the computing power. At the constituent level, composite materials are heterogeneous. But quite often one homogenizes each layer of composites, i.e. lamina, and uses the homogenized material properties as averaged (smeared) values of those constituent materials for analysis. This is an approach extensively used in design and analysis of composite laminates. Furthermore, many industries tempted to use smeared properties at the laminate level to further reduce the model of composite structures. At this scale, smeared properties are averaged material properties that are weighted by the layer thickness. Although this approach has the advantage of saving computational time and cost of modeling significantly, the prediction of the structural responses may not be accurate, particularly the pointwise stress distribution. Therefore, it is important to quantify the loss of accuracy when one uses smeared properties. In this paper, several different benchmark problems are carefully investigated in order to exemplify the effect of the smeared properties on the global behavior and pointwise stress distribution of the composite beam. In the classical beam theory, both Newtonian method and variational method include several ad hoc assumptions to construct the model, however, these assumptions are avoided if one uses variational asymptotic method. VABS

  2. Is it necessary to repeat cervical cytology at the tie of a colposcopy? É necessário repetir a citologia cervical no momento da colposcopia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leticia Maria Correia Katz

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: to evaluate whether repeating Papanicolaou smear testing at the time of colposcopy improves agreement between cytology and histopathology in the diagnosis of cervical cancer. METHODS: this cross-sectional study included 397 women referred for colposcopic evaluation following an abnormal cervical smear test. The cytology was repeated at the time of the colposcopy using a conventional medium. The two cytology tests were compared with each other and with the histopathological findings obtained by colposcopy-directed biopsy. The 2001 Bethesda system and the WHO 1994 classification were used for reporting cytology and histology results. The kappa coefficient was used to determine the agreement between methods. RESULTS: the comparison between the initial cytology findings and cytology performed at the time of colposcopy revealed a kappa of 0.297 (95%CI: 0.235-0.359, indicating a fair degree of agreement. When the results of the initial cytology were compared with histopathology, a kappa of 0.261, considered to represent a fair degree of agreement, was obtained (95%CI: 0.181-0.340. A kappa of 0.408, considered to represent moderate agreement, was found when the second cytology findings were compared with the histopathology (95%CI: 0.332-0.485. CONCLUSIONS: the agreement between cytology and histology improved when cytology was repeated at the time of colposcopy, following an initial abnormal test.OBJETIVOS: avaliar se a repetição do Papanicolaou no momento da colposcopia melhora a concordância entre os métodos diagnósticos (citologia e histopatologia do câncer do colo do útero. MÉTODOS: o estudo foi realizado no Laboratório Central de Saúde Pública do Estado de Pernambuco (LACEN/PE, de janeiro a julho de 2008, em 397 mulheres com exame citopatológico alterado encaminhadas para avaliação colposcópica. No momento da colposcopia, repetiu-se a citologia, em meio convencional. As duas citologias foram comparadas entre si e com o

  3. Performance of Early Diagnosis of Breast and Cervical Cancer in the Municipality of Cienfuegos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Padrón González

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: breast and cervical cancer are among the most frequent causes of death in women. Therefore, the early detection of these diseases is one of the prioritized programs of the Public Health System. Objective: to describe the performance of the Breast and Cervical Cancer Program in the municipality of Cienfuegos. Methods: a cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted over the period 2010-2011 in the context of the CARMEN project. A random sample was selected which was randomly stratified. The variables analyzed included age, marital status, skin color, health professional’s visits, knowledge of breast self-examination, clinical breast exam, mammography, cervical smear and time from the last medical examination of each test. The questionnaire of the CARMEN study was used. Results analysis was performed by SPSS package version 15, 0. Statistical significance level used was 95 %. Results: a total of 428 women (41,1 % had not been examined in over a year; 49 of them (4,6 % had not been checked for more than five years. 7,2 % of the study sample have never undergone a mammography, 28,6 % have had this test performed. 91,0 % of the women whose ages are included in the program has undergone a cervical smear. Conclusions: the objectives of the General Program for Cancer Control in Cuba are not being achieved. The inefficient areas of the Breast and Cervical Cancer Program are exposed.

  4. 30 years of preventive studies of uterine cervical cancer 1982-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garrido JL

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To show and describe the clinical evolution of cervical cancer screening patients following the protocol established by the University of Padua. Methods: 12,679 patients were examined using Pap smear, colposcopy and biopsy in cases it was required. Results: From these large group of patients, 6,411 were diagnosed as patients at risk of developing cancer, from which 4,257 only had HPV infection, 1,150 had dysplastic lesions, 210 had cervical cancer and 794 cases were classified as simple oncogenic risk.

  5. HPV-Based Screening, Triage, Treatment, and Followup Strategies in the Management of Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Peralta-Zaragoza

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer is the second most common cause of death from cancer in women worldwide, and the development of new diagnostic, prognostic, and treatment strategies merits special attention. Many efforts have been made to design new drugs and develop immunotherapy and gene therapy strategies to treat cervical cancer. HPV genotyping has potentially valuable applications in triage of low-grade abnormal cervical cytology, assessment of prognosis and followup of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, and in treatment strategies for invasive cervical cancer. It is known that during the development of cervical cancer associated with HPV infection, a cascade of abnormal events is induced, including disruption of cellular cycle control, alteration of gene expression, and deregulation of microRNA expression. Thus, the identification and subsequent functional evaluation of host proteins associated with HPV E6 and E7 oncoproteins may provide useful information in understanding cervical carcinogenesis, identifying cervical cancer molecular markers, and developing specific targeting strategies against tumor cells. Therefore, in this paper, we discuss the main diagnostic methods, management strategies, and followup of HPV-associated cervical lesions and review clinical trials applying gene therapy strategies against the development of cervical cancer.

  6. Risk of invasive cervical cancer after atypical glandular cells in cervical screening: nationwide cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrae, Bengt; Sundström, Karin; Ström, Peter; Ploner, Alexander; Elfström, K Miriam; Arnheim-Dahlström, Lisen; Dillner, Joakim; Sparén, Pär

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the risks of invasive cervical cancer after detection of atypical glandular cells (AGC) during cervical screening. Design Nationwide population based cohort study. Setting Cancer and population registries in Sweden. Participants 3 054 328 women living in Sweden at any time between 1 January 1980 and 1 July 2011 who had any record of cervical cytological testing at ages 23-59. Of these, 2 899 968 women had normal cytology results at the first screening record. The first recorded abnormal result was atypical glandular cells (AGC) in 14 625, high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) in 65 633, and low grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL) in 244 168. Main outcome measures Cumulative incidence of invasive cervical cancer over 15.5 years; proportion of invasive cervical cancer within six months of abnormality (prevalence); crude incidence rates for invasive cervical cancer over 0.5-15.5 years of follow-up; incidence rate ratios compared with women with normal cytology, estimated with Poisson regression adjusted for age and stratified by histopathology of cancer; distribution of clinical assessment within six months after the abnormality. Results The prevalence of cervical cancer was 1.4% for women with AGC, which was lower than for women with HSIL (2.5%) but higher than for women with LSIL (0.2%); adenocarcinoma accounted for 73.2% of the prevalent cases associated with AGC. The incidence rate of invasive cervical cancer after AGC was significantly higher than for women with normal results on cytology for up to 15.5 years and higher than HSIL and LSIL for up to 6.5 years. The incidence rate of adenocarcinoma was 61 times higher than for women with normal results on cytology in the first screening round after AGC, and remained nine times higher for up to 15.5 years. Incidence and prevalence of invasive cervical cancer was highest when AGC was found at ages 30-39. Only 54% of women with AGC underwent histology assessment

  7. Visual inspection with acetic acid for cervical cancer screening in a tertiary health care centre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaily Agarwal

    2016-03-01

    Conclusions: VIA is useful for detection of precursor lesions of cervical cancer not only in low-resource settings but also in well-equipped health centers and cancer centers. In these non low-resource settings, VIA has a positive predictive value comparable to the conventional Pap smear, but it is more likely to achieve earlier diagnosis, follow-up, and treatment than cytology based screening. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(3.000: 752-756

  8. Factors associated with cervical cancer knowledge and prac-tice among Bahraini women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ibtihal Fadhil; Batool Hasan GBaqer; Fatima Faisal Al Hlwachi; Eman Ahmed Dashti; Samara Al Reefy

    2008-01-01

    The study was conducted to assess the women's knowledge and attitude towards cervical cancer and cervical cancer screening,to support the health education programs in this field.A total sample of 350 women (n =350),70 women from each health center was chosen based on a multistage sampling technique according to a number of 21 health centers that serve the population.One health center from each government was selected based on the population it serves,thus the health center with the highest population number was chosen.The main tool of data collection was a face to face interview questionnaire.When assessing the knowledge,atti-tude,and practice (KAP)of our sample,we observed that approximately equal percentages (70%)of women have heard of both Pap smear and cervical cancer.Only 47.4 % had ever had Pap smear and of those 35.1 %had it during a period of 5 years or less.The main source of knowledge for those who have done the procedure is the family physician (30.8%).When asked about the reason behind having a Pap smear,the majority (62.3 %)had it during postnatal visits.Nevertheless,those that didn't have it,almost half (46.6%)disap-proved to do so because they are healthy even after being told that Pap smear is a painless significant proce-dure.In conclusion,majority of respondents have a good knowledge about cervical cancer but is not reflected in their practice.The results strongly recommend continued health education for the women which can be a-chieved through the introduction of this topic into the schools'curriculum and planning educational programs within antenatal and postnatal visits.

  9. Cervical insufficiency and cervical cerclage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Richard; Gagnon, Robert; Delisle, Marie-France; Gagnon, Robert; Bujold, Emmanuel; Basso, Melanie; Bos, Hayley; Brown, Richard; Cooper, Stephanie; Crane, Joan; Davies, Gregory; Gouin, Katy; Menticoglou, Savas; Mundle, William; Pylypjuk, Christy; Roggensack, Anne; Sanderson, Frank; Senikas, Vyta

    2013-12-01

    Objectif : La présente directive clinique a pour but de fournir un cadre de référence que les cliniciens pourront utiliser pour identifier les femmes qui sont exposées aux plus grands risques de connaître une insuffisance cervicale, ainsi que pour déterminer les circonstances en présence desquelles la mise en place d’un cerclage pourrait s’avérer souhaitable. Résultats : La littérature publiée a été récupérée par l’intermédiaire de recherches menées dans PubMed ou MEDLINE, CINAHL et The Cochrane Library en 2012 au moyen d’un vocabulaire contrôlé (p. ex. « uterine cervical incompetence ») et de mots clés appropriés (p. ex. « cervical insufficiency », « cerclage », « Shirodkar », « cerclage », « MacDonald », « cerclage », « abdominal », « cervical length », « mid-trimester pregnancy loss »). Les résultats ont été restreints aux analyses systématiques, aux essais comparatifs randomisés / essais cliniques comparatifs et aux études observationnelles. Aucune restriction n’a été appliquée en matière de date ou de langue. Les recherches ont été mises à jour de façon régulière et intégrées à la directive clinique jusqu’en janvier 2011. La littérature grise (non publiée) a été identifiée par l’intermédiaire de recherches menées dans les sites Web d’organismes s’intéressant à l’évaluation des technologies dans le domaine de la santé et d’organismes connexes, dans des collections de directives cliniques, dans des registres d’essais cliniques et auprès de sociétés de spécialité médicale nationales et internationales. Valeurs : La qualité des résultats est évaluée au moyen des critères décrits dans le rapport du Groupe d’étude canadien sur les soins de santé préventifs (Tableau). Recommandations 1. Les femmes qui sont enceintes ou qui planifient connaître une grossesse devraient faire l’objet d’une évaluation visant les facteurs de

  10. Analysis on the results of cervical cytological screening among the population undergoing physical examination from 2006 to 2009%2006~2009年健康体检人群宫颈细胞学筛查结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏清柱; 赵彤; 刘江欢; 张志雄; 阳巧

    2012-01-01

    Objective; To explore the significance and problems of cervical cytological screening among the population undergoing physical examination. Methods; The results of cervical cytological screening among the population undergoing physical examination from 2006 to 2009 were analyzed retrospectively. Results; A total of 33 605 women underwent cervical cytological screening from 2006 to 2009, including 2 970 women (8. 8% ) undergoing liquid - based cytological test, 280 women (0. 83% ) were found with epithelial cell abnormalities, 841 women (2. 50% ) were found with positive organisms; 20 086 women underwent cervical cytological screening for more than consecutive two years, 33 case - times (21. 57% ) were found with epithelial cell abnormalities for more than consecutive two years, 98 case -times (21.40% ) were found with positive organisms, and 15 case - times (62.50% ) were found with positive trichomonad. Conclusion; Cervical cytological screening among the population undergoing physical examination can find the cases with epithelial cell abnormalities early , which is helpful to prevent the occurrence of cervical cancer; conventional Papanicolaou smear is still a main screening method for cervical cancer, the training of the technique and quality control should be enhanced; persistent epithelial cell abnormalities and microbial infection account for a large proportion of the population undergoing physical examination, so follow - up should be strengthened.%目的:探讨健康体检人群宫颈细胞学筛查的意义及存在问题.方法:回顾性分析2006~2009年健康体检人群宫颈细胞学筛查结果.结果:2006~2009年共33 605例宫颈细胞学检查,其中液基细胞学2 970例(8.8%),上皮细胞异常280例(0.83%),微生物阳性841例(2.50%);连续两年以上行宫颈细胞学筛查20 086例,连续两年以上上皮细胞异常33例次(21.57%)、念珠菌阳性98例次(21.40%)、滴虫阳性15例次(62.50%).结论:健康体检人

  11. Treatment Option Overview (Cervical Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Prevention Cervical Cancer Screening Research Cervical Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Cervical Cancer ... Certain factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery) depends on ...

  12. Liquid-based cervical cytology using ThinPrep technology: weighing the pros and cons in a cost-effectiveness analysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekker-Grob, E.W. de; Kok, I.M. de; Bulten, J.; Rosmalen, J. van; Vedder, J.E.M.; Arbyn, M.; Klinkhamer, P.J.; Siebers, A.G.; Ballegooijen, M. van

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: Cervical cancer screening with liquid-based cytology (LBC) has been developed as an alternative to the conventional Papanicolaou (CP) smear. Cost-effectiveness is one of the issues when evaluating LBC. Based on the results of a Dutch randomised controlled trial, we conducted cost-effectiven

  13. Cervical spinal canal narrowing in idiopathic syringomyelia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Struck, Aaron F. [Massachusetts General Hospital, Department of Neurology, Boston, MA (United States); Carr, Carrie M. [Mayo Clinic, Department of Radiology, Rochester, MN (United States); Shah, Vinil [University of California San Francisco, Department of Radiology, San Francisco, CA (United States); Hesselink, John R. [University of California San Diego, Department of Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States); Haughton, Victor M. [University of Wisconsin, Department of Radiology, Madison, WI (United States)

    2016-08-15

    The cervical spine in Chiari I patient with syringomyelia has significantly different anteroposterior diameters than it does in Chiari I patients without syringomyelia. We tested the hypothesis that patients with idiopathic syringomyelia (IS) also have abnormal cervical spinal canal diameters. The finding in both groups may relate to the pathogenesis of syringomyelia. Local institutional review boards approved this retrospective study. Patients with IS were compared to age-matched controls with normal sagittal spine MR. All subjects had T1-weighted spin-echo (500/20) and T2-weighted fast spin-echo (2000/90) sagittal cervical spine images at 1.5 T. Readers blinded to demographic data and study hypothesis measured anteroposterior diameters at each cervical level. The spinal canal diameters were compared with a Mann-Whitney U test. The overall difference was assessed with a Friedman test. Seventeen subjects were read by two reviewers to assess inter-rater reliability. Fifty IS patients with 50 age-matched controls were studied. IS subjects had one or more syrinxes varying from 1 to 19 spinal segments. Spinal canal diameters narrowed from C1 to C3 and then enlarged from C5 to C7 in both groups. Diameters from C2 to C4 were narrower in the IS group (p < 0.005) than in controls. The ratio of the C3 to the C7 diameters was also smaller (p = 0.004) in IS than controls. Collectively, the spinal canal diameters in the IS were significantly different from controls (Friedman test p < 0.0001). Patients with IS have abnormally narrow upper and mid cervical spinal canal diameters and greater positive tapering between C3 and C7. (orig.)

  14. Mechanisms of clay smear formation in 3D - a field study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kettermann, Michael; Tronberens, Sebastian; Urai, Janos; Asmus, Sven

    2016-04-01

    Clay smears in sedimentary basins are important factors defining the sealing properties of faults. However, as clay smears are highly complex 3D structures, processes involved in the formation and deformation of clay smears are not well identified and understood. To enhance the prediction of sealing properties of clay smears extensive studies of these structures are necessary including the 3D information. We present extraordinary outcrop data from an open cast lignite mine (Hambach) in the Lower Rhine Embayment, Germany. The faults formed at a depth of 150 m, and have Shale Gouge Ratios between 0.1 and 0.3. Material in the fault zones is layered, with sheared sand, sheared clay and tectonically mixed sand-clay gouge. We studied the 3D thickness distribution of clay smear from a series of thin-spaced incremental cross-sections and several cross-sections in larger distances along the fault. Additionally, we excavated two large clay smear surfaces. Our observations show that clay smears are strongly affected by R- and R'-shears, mostly at the footwall side of our outcrops. These shears can locally cross and offset clay smears, forming holes. Thinnest parts of the clay smears are often located close to source layer cutoffs. Investigating the 3D thickness of the clay smears shows a heterogeneous distribution, rather than a continuous thinning of the smear with increasing distance to the source layers. We found two types of layered clay smears: one with continuous sheared sand between two clay smears providing vertical pathways for fluid flow, and one which consists of overlapping clay patches separated by sheared sand that provide a tortuous pathway across the clay smear. On smaller scale we identified grain-scale mixing as an important process for the formation of clay smears. Sand can be entrained into the clay smear by mixing from the surrounding host rock as well as due to intense shearing of sand lenses that were incorporated into the smear. This causes clay smears

  15. Urine - abnormal color

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003139.htm Urine - abnormal color To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The usual color of urine is straw-yellow. Abnormally colored urine ...

  16. Detection of microRNAs in archival cytology urine smears.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Simonato

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs' dysregulation and profiling have been demonstrated to be clinically relevant in urothelial carcinoma (UC. Urine cytology is commonly used as the mainstay non-invasive test for secondary prevention and follow-up of UC patients. Ancillary tools are needed to support cytopathologists in the diagnosis of low-grade UC. The feasibility and reliability of microRNAs profiling by qRT-PCR analysis (miR-145 and miR-205 in archival routine urine cytology smears (affected by fixation/staining [Papanicolau] and room temperature storage was tested in a series of 15 non-neoplastic and 10 UC urine specimens. Only samples with >5,000 urothelial cells and with <50% of inflammatory cells/red blood cells clusters were considered. Overall, a satisfactory amount of total RNA was obtained from all the considered samples (mean 1.27±1.43 µg, range 0.06-4.60 µg. Twenty nanograms of total RNA have been calculated to be the minimal total RNA concentration for reliable and reproducible miRNAs expression profiling analysis of archival cytological smears (slope= -3.4084; R-squared=0.99; efficiency=1.94. miR-145 and miR-205 were significantly downregulated in UC samples in comparison to non-tumor controls. These findings demonstrate that urine archival cytology smears are suitable for obtaining high-quality RNA to be used in microRNAs expression profiling. Further studies should investigate if miRNAs profiling can be successfully translated into clinical practice as diagnostic or prognostic markers.

  17. Detection of microRNAs in archival cytology urine smears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonato, Francesca; Ventura, Laura; Sartori, Nicola; Cappellesso, Rocco; Fassan, Matteo; Busund, Lill-Tove; Fassina, Ambrogio

    2013-01-01

    MicroRNAs' dysregulation and profiling have been demonstrated to be clinically relevant in urothelial carcinoma (UC). Urine cytology is commonly used as the mainstay non-invasive test for secondary prevention and follow-up of UC patients. Ancillary tools are needed to support cytopathologists in the diagnosis of low-grade UC. The feasibility and reliability of microRNAs profiling by qRT-PCR analysis (miR-145 and miR-205) in archival routine urine cytology smears (affected by fixation/staining [Papanicolau] and room temperature storage) was tested in a series of 15 non-neoplastic and 10 UC urine specimens. Only samples with >5,000 urothelial cells and with <50% of inflammatory cells/red blood cells clusters were considered. Overall, a satisfactory amount of total RNA was obtained from all the considered samples (mean 1.27±1.43 µg, range 0.06-4.60 µg). Twenty nanograms of total RNA have been calculated to be the minimal total RNA concentration for reliable and reproducible miRNAs expression profiling analysis of archival cytological smears (slope= -3.4084; R-squared=0.99; efficiency=1.94). miR-145 and miR-205 were significantly downregulated in UC samples in comparison to non-tumor controls. These findings demonstrate that urine archival cytology smears are suitable for obtaining high-quality RNA to be used in microRNAs expression profiling. Further studies should investigate if miRNAs profiling can be successfully translated into clinical practice as diagnostic or prognostic markers.

  18. Peripheral blood smear image analysis: A comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Emad A; Mohamed, Mostafa M A; Far, Behrouz H; Naugler, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Peripheral blood smear image examination is a part of the routine work of every laboratory. The manual examination of these images is tedious, time-consuming and suffers from interobserver variation. This has motivated researchers to develop different algorithms and methods to automate peripheral blood smear image analysis. Image analysis itself consists of a sequence of steps consisting of image segmentation, features extraction and selection and pattern classification. The image segmentation step addresses the problem of extraction of the object or region of interest from the complicated peripheral blood smear image. Support vector machine (SVM) and artificial neural networks (ANNs) are two common approaches to image segmentation. Features extraction and selection aims to derive descriptive characteristics of the extracted object, which are similar within the same object class and different between different objects. This will facilitate the last step of the image analysis process: pattern classification. The goal of pattern classification is to assign a class to the selected features from a group of known classes. There are two types of classifier learning algorithms: supervised and unsupervised. Supervised learning algorithms predict the class of the object under test using training data of known classes. The training data have a predefined label for every class and the learning algorithm can utilize this data to predict the class of a test object. Unsupervised learning algorithms use unlabeled training data and divide them into groups using similarity measurements. Unsupervised learning algorithms predict the group to which a new test object belong to, based on the training data without giving an explicit class to that object. ANN, SVM, decision tree and K-nearest neighbor are possible approaches to classification algorithms. Increased discrimination may be obtained by combining several classifiers together.

  19. Peripheral blood smear image analysis: A comprehensive review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emad A Mohammed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Peripheral blood smear image examination is a part of the routine work of every laboratory. The manual examination of these images is tedious, time-consuming and suffers from interobserver variation. This has motivated researchers to develop different algorithms and methods to automate peripheral blood smear image analysis. Image analysis itself consists of a sequence of steps consisting of image segmentation, features extraction and selection and pattern classification. The image segmentation step addresses the problem of extraction of the object or region of interest from the complicated peripheral blood smear image. Support vector machine (SVM and artificial neural networks (ANNs are two common approaches to image segmentation. Features extraction and selection aims to derive descriptive characteristics of the extracted object, which are similar within the same object class and different between different objects. This will facilitate the last step of the image analysis process: pattern classification. The goal of pattern classification is to assign a class to the selected features from a group of known classes. There are two types of classifier learning algorithms: supervised and unsupervised. Supervised learning algorithms predict the class of the object under test using training data of known classes. The training data have a predefined label for every class and the learning algorithm can utilize this data to predict the class of a test object. Unsupervised learning algorithms use unlabeled training data and divide them into groups using similarity measurements. Unsupervised learning algorithms predict the group to which a new test object belong to, based on the training data without giving an explicit class to that object. ANN, SVM, decision tree and K-nearest neighbor are possible approaches to classification algorithms. Increased discrimination may be obtained by combining several classifiers together.

  20. An evaluation of blood smears made by a new method using a spinner and diluted blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nourbakhsh, M; Atwood, J G; Raccio, J; Seligson, D

    1978-12-01

    Blood smears were prepared with the use of a spinner, which rotated with a fixed velocity for a fixed time. All blood samples used for spun smears were diluted with a fixed ratio of buffered isotonic saline solution. Distribution of cells in these smears was found to be random. The average number of cells per unit area was substantially uniform from place to place on the same slide and on multiple slides made with the smae sample. The distribution of leukocytes by type was also iniform. For different blood samples, the average number of cells per unit area in the smears correlated well with the measured cell concentrations per unit volume in the samples for leukocytes, erythrocytes and platelets. Leukocyte differential counts on replicate spun smears using the same bloods also agreed to within the sampling error. They similarly agreed with differential counts on pulled smears made from undiluted samples of the same bloods. With few exceptions, erythrocytic morphology on the spun smears was comparable to that on the good areas of pulled smears made with undiluted samples of the same bloods. Nearly all the spun smears were suitable for both viual and fully automated hematologic examination for leukocytes, erythrocytes, and platelets. This was true over nearly the whole area of each spun slide. In these ways this spinner method makes smears whose consistently high quality is little affected by either the properties of the blood sample or the skill of maker.

  1. Muscular and skeletal changes in cervical dysphonic in women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menoncin, Laiza Carine Maia

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The vocal and neck are associated with the presence of tension and cervical muscle contraction. These disorders compromise the vocal tract and musculoskeletal cervical region and, thus, can cause muscle shortening, pain and fatigue in the neck and shoulder girdle. Objective:To evaluate and identify cervical abnormalities in women with vocal disorders, and neck pains comparing them to women without vocal complaints independent of the neck. Method: This prospective study of 32 subjects studied in the dysphonic group and 18 subjects in the control group, aged between 25 and 55 year old female. The subjects underwent assessments, ENT, orthopedic, physical therapy and voice recording. Results: At Rx cervical region more patients in the control group had this normal, however, with regard to the reduction of spaces interdiscal dysphonic patients prevailed. Furthermore, postural assessment, the kyphosis of the 1st thoracic vertebra occurred in 77.0% of non-dysphonic group (p = 0.0091, while cervical rotation was present in 83% of control (p = 0.0051. Conclusion: Significant cervical abnormalities in both groups, but cannot be inferred that the changes are directly related to dysphonia.

  2. Mass shell smearing effects in top pair production

    CERN Document Server

    Kuksa, V I; Vlasenko, D E

    2011-01-01

    The top quark pair production and decay are considered in the framework of the smeared-mass unstable particles model. The results for total and differential cross sections in vicinity of $t\\bar{t}$ threshold are in good agreement with the previous ones in the literature. The strategy of calculations of the higher order corrections in the framework of the model is discussed. Suggested approach significantly simplifies calculations compared to the standard perturbative one and can serve as a convenient tool for fast and precise preliminary analysis of processes involving intermediate time-like top quark exchanges in the near-threshold region.

  3. Pap-smear Benchmark Data For Pattern Classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jantzen, Jan; Norup, Jonas; Dounias, Georgios;

    2005-01-01

    This case study provides data and a baseline for comparing classification methods. The data consists of 917 images of Pap-smear cells, classified carefully by cyto-technicians and doctors. Each cell is described by 20 numerical features, and the cells fall into 7 classes. A basic data analysis...... includes scatter plots and linear classification results, in order to provide domain knowledge and lower bounds on the acceptable performance of future classifiers. Students and researchers can access the database on the Internet, and use it to test and compare their own classification methods....

  4. Cervical Total Disc Arthroplasty

    OpenAIRE

    Basho, Rahul; Hood, Kenneth A.

    2012-01-01

    Symptomatic adjacent segment degeneration of the cervical spine remains problematic for patients and surgeons alike. Despite advances in surgical techniques and instrumentation, the solution remains elusive. Spurred by the success of total joint arthroplasty in hips and knees, surgeons and industry have turned to motion preservation devices in the cervical spine. By preserving motion at the diseased level, the hope is that adjacent segment degeneration can be prevented. Multiple cervical disc...

  5. Acupoints for cervical spondylosis

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Jihe; Arsovska, Blagica; Vasileva, Dance; Petkovska, Sofija; Kozovska, Kristina

    2015-01-01

    Cervical spondylosis is a chronic degenerative condition of the cervical spine that affects the vertebral bodies and intervertebral disks of the neck, as well as the contents of the spinal canal. This is one of the most common degenerative disorders of the spine. The disease can be symptomatic and asymptomatic. Symptoms that are distinctive for cervical spondylosis are: tingling, numbness and weakness in the limbs, lack of coordination, stiff neck, shoulder pain, occipital pain, vertigo, poor...

  6. Temporal discrimination, a cervical dystonia endophenotype: penetrance and functional correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimmich, Okka; Molloy, Anna; Whelan, Robert; Williams, Laura; Bradley, David; Balsters, Joshua; Molloy, Fiona; Lynch, Tim; Healy, Daniel G; Walsh, Cathal; O'Riordan, Seán; Reilly, Richard B; Hutchinson, Michael

    2014-05-01

    The pathogenesis of adult-onset primary dystonia remains poorly understood. There is variable age-related and gender-related expression of the phenotype, the commonest of which is cervical dystonia. Endophenotypes may provide insight into underlying genetic and pathophysiological mechanisms of dystonia. The temporal discrimination threshold (TDT)-the shortest time interval at which two separate stimuli can be detected as being asynchronous-is abnormal both in patients with cervical dystonia and in their unaffected first-degree relatives. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have shown that putaminal activation positively correlates with the ease of temporal discrimination between two stimuli in healthy individuals. We hypothesized that abnormal temporal discrimination would exhibit similar age-related and gender-related penetrance as cervical dystonia and that unaffected relatives with an abnormal TDT would have reduced putaminal activation during a temporal discrimination task. TDTs were examined in a group of 192 healthy controls and in 158 unaffected first-degree relatives of 84 patients with cervical dystonia. In 24 unaffected first-degree relatives, fMRI scanning was performed during a temporal discrimination task. The prevalence of abnormal TDTs in unaffected female relatives reached 50% after age 48 years; whereas, in male relatives, penetrance of the endophenotype was reduced. By fMRI, relatives who had abnormal TDTs, compared with relatives who had normal TDTs, had significantly less activation in the putamina and in the middle frontal and precentral gyri. Only the degree of reduction of putaminal activity correlated significantly with worsening of temporal discrimination. These findings further support abnormal temporal discrimination as an endophenotype of cervical dystonia involving disordered basal ganglia circuits.

  7. The impact of insurance coverage during insurance reform on diagnostic resolution of cancer screening abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, Alok; Battaglia, Tracy A; Isabelle, Alexis P; Hanchate, Amresh D; Kalish, Richard L; Bak, Sharon; Mishuris, Rebecca G; Shroff, Swati M; Freund, Karen M

    2014-02-01

    We examined the impact of Massachusetts insurance reform on the care of women at six community health centers with abnormal breast and cervical cancer screening to investigate whether stability of insurance coverage was associated with more timely diagnostic resolution. We conducted Cox proportional hazards models to predict time from cancer screening to diagnostic resolution, examining the impact of 1) insurance status at time of screening abnormality, 2) number of insurance switches over a three-year period, and 3) insurance history over a three-year period. We identified 1,165 women with breast and 781 with cervical cancer screening abnormalities. In the breast cohort, Medicaid insurance at baseline, continuous public insurance, and losing insurance predicted delayed resolution. We did not find these effects in the cervical cohort. These data provide evidence that stability of health insurance coverage with insurance reform nationally may improve timely care after abnormal cancer screening in historically underserved women.

  8. Bonafide, type-specific human papillomavirus persistence among HIV-positive pregnant women: predictive value for cytological abnormalities, a longitudinal cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela RI Meyrelles

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the rate of human papillomavirus (HPV persistence, associated risk factors, and predictors of cytological alteration outcomes in a cohort of human immunodeficiency virus-infected pregnant women over an 18-month period. HPV was typed through L1 gene sequencing in cervical smears collected during gestation and at 12 months after delivery. Outcomes were defined as nonpersistence (clearance of the HPV in the 2nd sample, re-infection (detection of different types of HPV in the 2 samples, and type-specific HPV persistence (the same HPV type found in both samples. An unfavourable cytological outcome was considered when the second exam showed progression to squamous intraepithelial lesion or high squamous intraepithelial lesion. Ninety patients were studied. HPV DNA persistence occurred in 50% of the cases composed of type-specific persistence (30% or re-infection (20%. A low CD4+T-cell count at entry was a risk factor for type-specific, re-infection, or HPV DNA persistence. The odds ratio (OR was almost three times higher in the type-specific group when compared with the re-infection group (OR = 2.8; 95% confidence interval: 0.43-22.79. Our findings show that bonafide (type-specific HPV persistence is a stronger predictor for the development of cytological abnormalities, highlighting the need for HPV typing as opposed to HPV DNA testing in the clinical setting.

  9. Bonafide, type-specific human papillomavirus persistence among HIV-positive pregnant women: predictive value for cytological abnormalities, a longitudinal cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyrelles, Angela RI; Siqueira, Juliana D; dos Santos, Pâmela P; Hofer, Cristina B; Luiz, Ronir R; Seuánez, Héctor N; Almeida, Gutemberg; Soares, Marcelo A; Soares, Esmeralda A; Machado, Elizabeth S

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the rate of human papillomavirus (HPV) persistence, associated risk factors, and predictors of cytological alteration outcomes in a cohort of human immunodeficiency virus-infected pregnant women over an 18-month period. HPV was typed through L1 gene sequencing in cervical smears collected during gestation and at 12 months after delivery. Outcomes were defined as nonpersistence (clearance of the HPV in the 2nd sample), re-infection (detection of different types of HPV in the 2 samples), and type-specific HPV persistence (the same HPV type found in both samples). An unfavourable cytological outcome was considered when the second exam showed progression to squamous intraepithelial lesion or high squamous intraepithelial lesion. Ninety patients were studied. HPV DNA persistence occurred in 50% of the cases composed of type-specific persistence (30%) or re-infection (20%). A low CD4+T-cell count at entry was a risk factor for type-specific, re-infection, or HPV DNA persistence. The odds ratio (OR) was almost three times higher in the type-specific group when compared with the re-infection group (OR = 2.8; 95% confidence interval: 0.43-22.79). Our findings show that bonafide (type-specific) HPV persistence is a stronger predictor for the development of cytological abnormalities, highlighting the need for HPV typing as opposed to HPV DNA testing in the clinical setting. PMID:26872340

  10. Preventing cervical cancer globally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmeler, Kathleen M

    2012-11-01

    Cervical cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer and cancer-related deaths among women worldwide. More than 85% of cases and deaths occur in the developing world where the availability of effective screening is limited. In this issue of the journal, Pierce and colleagues (beginning on page 1273) describe a novel technique using a high-resolution microendoscope (HRME) to diagnose cervical dysplasia. This perspective reviews the limitations of existing cervical cancer screening methods currently in use in low-resource settings and the potential for HRME imaging to contribute to cervical cancer prevention in the developing world.

  11. Clinical and radiographic factors do not accurately diagnose smear-negative tuberculosis in HIV-infected inpatients in Uganda: a cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Lucian Davis

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although World Health Organization guidelines recommend clinical judgment and chest radiography for diagnosing tuberculosis in HIV-infected adults with unexplained cough and negative sputum smears for acid-fast bacilli, the diagnostic performance of this approach is unknown. Therefore, we sought to assess the accuracy of symptoms, physical signs, and radiographic findings for diagnosing tuberculosis in this population in a low-income country with a high incidence of tuberculosis. METHODOLOGY: We performed a cross-sectional study enrolling consecutive HIV-infected inpatients with unexplained cough and negative sputum smears for acid-fast bacilli at Mulago Hospital in Kampala, Uganda. Trained medical officers prospectively collected data on standard symptoms and signs of systemic respiratory illness, and two radiologists interpreted chest radiographs in a standardized fashion. We calculated positive- and negative-likelihood ratios of these factors for diagnosing pulmonary tuberculosis (defined when mycobacterial cultures of sputum or bronchoalveolar lavage fluid were positive. We used both conventional and novel regression techniques to develop multivariable prediction models for pulmonary tuberculosis. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Among 202 enrolled HIV-infected adults with negative sputum smears for acid-fast bacilli, 72 (36% had culture-positive pulmonary tuberculosis. No single factor, including respiratory symptoms, physical findings, CD4+ T-cell count, or chest radiographic abnormalities, substantially increased or decreased the likelihood of pulmonary tuberculosis. After exhaustive testing, we were also unable to identify any combination of factors which reliably predicted bacteriologically confirmed tuberculosis. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: Clinical and radiographic criteria did not help diagnose smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis among HIV-infected patients with unexplained cough in a low-income setting. Enhanced diagnostic

  12. Knowledge and views of secondary school students in Kuala Lumpur on cervical cancer and its prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashwan, Hesham; Ishak, Ismarulyusda; Sawalludin, Nurhidayah

    2013-01-01

    Cervical cancer is one of the most frequent cancers in women worldwide. Persistent infection with a human papillomavirus (HPV) is the main cause for cervical cancer. Vaccination and Pap smear screening are the best methods for prevention of the disease. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to assess the knowledge and views of upper secondary school female students in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, toward prevention of cervical cancer. This study was conducted from April 2009 to September 2009 in 8 schools in Kuala Lumpur area using pre-tested and validated questionnaires. Results indicated that the respondents had low knowledge of cervical cancer and its prevention although the majority of students (80.4%) had heard about the disease. The level of knowledge of cervical cancr and its prevention was significantly higher among students from the science stream (p<0.001) compared to students from the art stream. Most students (69.3%) agreed to take the vaccination if the service was available in schools. A high percentage of students (82.2%) agreed that the vaccination should be compulsory to the students. In conclusion, most students had low knowledge of cervical cancer and its prevention but they had positive attitude toward vaccination and agreed that vaccination should be compulsory. Therefore, suitable educational programmes should be developed to improve the knowledge of secondary school students on the prevention of cervical cancer.

  13. Trigemino-cervical reflex in patients with headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milanov, I; Bogdanova, D

    2003-02-01

    Neurophysiological studies have shown abnormal activity of some brainstem nuclei in headache patients. The trigemino-cervical reflex is an anti-nociceptive reflex that gives an opportunity for evaluation of the brainstem interneurone activity. It has not been previously examined in headache patients. We studied 15 patients with predominantly unilateral chronic tension-type headache, 15 patients with migraine without aura and 32 healthy subjects. The trigemino-cervical reflex was recorded bilaterally from the resting sternocleidomastoid muscle using surface electromyographic recordings. In all headache patients the trigemino-cervical reflex on the painful side was with shortened latency compared with the non-painful side and with healthy persons. The results suggest decreased activity of the brainstem inhibitory interneurones. We suggest that although the pathophysiological mechanisms of tension-type headache and migraine are different, they share common mechanisms of abnormal pain control.

  14. Recurrent Aspiration Pneumonia due to Anterior Cervical Osteophyte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Jun Lee

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A 74-year-old man presented with recurrent vomiting and aspiration pneumonia in the left lower lobe. He entered the intensive care unit to manage the pneumonia and septic shock. Although a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube was implanted for recurrent vomiting, vomiting and aspiration recurred frequently during admission. Subsequently, he complained of neck pain when in an upright position. A videofluoroscopic swallowing study showed compression of the esophagus by cervical osteophytes and tracheal aspiration caused by an abnormality at the laryngeal inlet. Cervical spine X-rays and computed tomography showed anterior cervical osteophytes at the C3-6 levels. Surgical decompression was scheduled, but was cancelled due to his frailty. Unfortunately, further recurrent vomiting and aspiration resulted in respiratory arrest leading to hypoxic brain damage and death. Physicians should consider cervical spine disease, such as diffuse skeletal hyperostosis as an uncommon cause of recurrent aspiration pneumonia.

  15. DNA typing from vaginal smear slides in suspected rape cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayse Aparecida da Silva

    Full Text Available In an investigation of suspected rape, proof of sexual assault with penetration is required. In view of this, detailed descriptions of the genitalia, the thighs and pubic region are made within the forensic medical service. In addition, vaginal swabs are taken from the rape victim and some of the biological material collected is then transferred to glass slides. In this report, we describe two rape cases solved using DNA typing from cells recovered from vaginal smear slides. In 1999, two young women informed the Rio de Janeiro Police Department that they had been victims of sexual assaults. A suspect was arrested and the victims identified him as the offender. The suspect maintained that he was innocent. In order to elucidate these crimes, vaginal smear slides were sent to the DNA Diagnostic Laboratory for DNA analysis three months after the crimes, as unique forensic evidence. To get enough epithelial and sperm cells to perform DNA analysis, we used protocols modified from the previously standard protocols used for DNA extraction from biological material fixed on glass slides. The quantity of cells was sufficient to perform human DNA typing using nine short tandem repeat (STR loci. It was 3.3 billion times more probable that it was the examined suspect who had left sperm cells in the victims, rather than any other individual in the population of Rio de Janeiro.

  16. Etiology and pathogenesis of precancerous lesions and invasive cervical carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panjković Milana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer is the second most common gynecological malignancy in the world. Human papilloma virus (HPV infection is the leading ethiologic agent in the development of premalignant and malignant cervical diseases. HPV is a member of the Papovaviridae family and until now over 100 types have been recognized. There are two types of viral infection: latent and productive. Virus induced oncogenesis is the result of interaction between virus oncoproteins E6 and E7 and tumor supresor host genes p53 and Rb. Many cofactors such as immunosuppression, early sexual relationship, multiple sexual partners, other sexualy transsmited infections and smooking are contributing factors of the precancerous and invasive cervical lesions. According to the oncogenic potential HPV are divided into three groups: low, intermediate and high oncogenic risk viruses. Molecular technics which are used for the virus detection are: In situ hibridisation,, Hybrid capture test and polymerasa chain reaction. Human papilloma virus testing has an important role in the follow up and treatment of women with 'atypical squamous cells of unknown significant' changes in cervical smears and low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions, changes in punch biopsy.

  17. Teenage cervical screening in a high risk American population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songlin Zhang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The new 2009 ACOG guideline for cervical cytology screening changed the starting age to 21 years regardless of the age of onset of sexual intercourse. However, many recent studies have shown a dramatic increase in the incidence of cervical epithelial abnormalities among adolescents within the past two decades. Materials and Methods: For this study, the reports of 156,342 cervical cytology were available of which 12,226 (7.8% were from teenagers. A total of 192 teenagers with high grade intraepithelial lesion (HSIL cervical cytology were identified. The ages ranged from 13 to 19 years with a mean of 17.7 years and a median of 18 years. Among them, 31.3% were pregnant, 12.0% were postpartum, and 13.5% were on oral contraceptive. Ninety-eight had prior cervical cytology. Results: The teenagers had statistically significant higher detection rates of overall abnormal cervical cytology (23.6% vs. 6.6%, P = 0, with 15.4% vs. 3.2% (P = 0 of low grade intraepithelial lesion (LSIL and 1.8% vs. 1.0% (P = 2.56 Χ 10 -13 of HSIL compared to women ≥20 years. The teenage group had the highest abnormal cytology among all age groups. The LSIL/HSIL ratio was 8.5:1 for teenagers and 3.1:1 for women ≥20 years. A total of 131 teenagers had cervical biopsies within 12 months of the HSIL cytology, with diagnoses of 39 CIN 3, 1 VAIN 3, 15 CIN 2, 62 CIN 1, and 14 had a negative histology (CIN 0. Only in 19 of these 39 women, the CIN 2/3 lesion proved to be persistent. Conclusion: We conclude that cytology screening of high risk teenagers is effective in detecting CIN 2/3 lesions. Moreover, treatment and careful follow-up can be realized.

  18. Spinal cord injury without radiographic abnormality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Anil

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Spinal cord injury without radiological abnormality is rare in adults. Below we present a case report of 20 yrs old male with isolated cervical cord injury, without accompanying vertebral dislocation or fracture involving the spinal canal rim. He fell down on plain and smooth ground while carrying 40 kg weight overhead and developed quadriparesis with difficulty in respiration. Plain radiographs of the neck revealed no fractures or dislocations. MRI showed bulky spinal cord and an abnormal hyper intense signal on the T2W image from C2 vertebral body level to C3/4 intervertebral disc level predominantly in the anterior aspect of the cord The patient was managed conservatively with head halter traction and invasive ventilatory support for the initial 7 days period in the ICU. In our patient recovery was good and most of the neurological deficit improved over 4 weeks with conservative management.

  19. Human papillomavirus prevalence in paired urine and cervical samples in women invited for cervical cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burroni, Elena; Bonanni, Paolo; Sani, Cristina; Lastrucci, Vieri; Carozzi, Francesca; Iossa, Anna; Andersson, Karin Louise; Brandigi, Livia; Di Pierro, Carmelina; Confortini, Massimo; Levi, Miriam; Boccalini, Sara; Indiani, Laura; Sala, Antonino; Tanini, Tommaso; Bechini, Angela; Azzari, Chiara

    2015-03-01

    With the introduction of Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination in young girls in 2007, it is important to monitor HPV infections and epidemiological changes in this target population. The present study has evaluated the detection of human papillomavirus DNA in paired cervical and urine samples to understand if HPV testing in urine could be used as non-invasive method to monitor HPV status in young women. The study enrolled 216 twenty five-year-old women, resident in Florence and invited for the first time to the cervical cancer Screening Program within a project evaluating the impact of HPV vaccination. HPV genotyping was performed on 216 paired urine and cervical samples. The overall concordance between cervix and urine samples, investigated by HPV genotyping (INNO-LiPA HPV Genotyping Extra), was: 85.6% (184/215), 84.6% (182/215), 80% (172/215) when the same HPV, at least the same HR HPV and all HR HPV, respectively, were detected. HPV type specific concordance in paired urine and cervical samples was observed in 85.8% (175/204) of women with normal cytology and in seven out of nine women with abnormal cytology. Urine seems to be a suitable and reliable biological material for HPV DNA detection as evidenced by the high concordance with HPV detected in cervical samples. These results suggest that urine could be a good noninvasive tool to monitor HPV infection in vaccinated women.

  20. Screening for cervical cancer: when theory meets reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nygård Mari

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cervical cancer screening reduces morbidity and mortality due to cervical cancer. However, there are many factors that determine the success of any cervical cancer prevention effort: the prevalence of human papillomavirus infection in general population, the existence of an organized screening program and the corresponding coverage, the existence and quality of the field and laboratory facilities for screening and diagnostic follow-up, and the facilities available for treating diagnosed lesions. Monitoring the patient path or "chain of action" for each patient with an abnormal screening result is of crucial importance. Cost-effectiveness models are widely used by decision-makers to determine which cervical cancer screening program would maximize health benefits within a given, usually limited, set of resources. Regardless of their level of sophistication, however, these models cannot replace empirical evaluations of the effectiveness of screening programs. Cervical cancer prevention activities need to be monitored and evaluated in each country where they are introduced to see that they meet performance standards. Policy-makers responsible for allocating resources for cervical cancer prevention have a duty to allocate resources not only for cervical cancer screening, but also for screening program surveillance.

  1. Knowledge of Human Papillomavirus Infection, Cervical Cancer and Willingness to pay for Cervical Cancer Vaccination among Ethnically Diverse Medical Students in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maharajan, Mari Kannan; Rajiah, Kingston; Num, Kelly Sze Fang; Yong, Ng Jin

    2015-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to assess the knowledge of medical students and determine variation between different cultural groups. A secondary aim was to find out the willingness to pay for cervical cancer vaccination and the relationships between knowledge and attitudes towards Human Papillomavirus vaccination. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in a private medical university between June 2014 and November 2014 using a convenient sampling method. A total of 305 respondents were recruited and interviewed with standard questionnaires for assessment of knowledge, attitudes and practice towards human papilloma virus and their willingness to pay for HPV vaccination. Knowledge regarding human papilloma virus, human papilloma virus vaccination, cervical cancer screening and cervical cancer risk factors was good. Across the sample, a majority (90%) of the pupils demonstrated a high degree of knowledge about cervical cancer and its vaccination. There were no significant differences between ethnicity and the participants' overall knowledge of HPV infection, Pap smear and cervical cancer vaccination. Some 88% of participants answered that HPV vaccine can prevent cervical cancer, while 81.5% of medical students said they would recommend HPV vaccination to the public although fewer expressed an intention to receive vaccination for themselves.

  2. 液基薄层细胞学检测对宫颈病变的诊断价值%Diagnostic value of thinPrep liquid-base cytologic test(TCT)examination in patients with cervical disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱淑玲; 武彤彤

    2010-01-01

    目的 探讨液基薄层细胞学检测(TCT)技术对宫颈癌前病变的诊断价值.方法 收集宫颈病变患者1 000例,分别应用TCT(500例)检查及传统巴氏涂片(500例)检查.结果 TCT法满意490例(98.0%),高于传统涂片法的440例(88.0%)(χ~2=3.987,P<0.05);传统涂片法检查ⅡB~V级阳性50例(10.0%)低于TCT法的85例(17.1%)(χ~2=3.923,P<0.05);TCT检查与病理活检的阳性符合率64.7%,明显高于传统涂片法的44.0%(χ~2=3.893,P<0.05).结论 TCT技术明显提高了标本的满意率及宫颈异常细胞检出率,并且与组织病理活检有较高的阳性符合率,适合于临床推广应用.%Objective To evaluate the clinical significance of liquid-based cytological test(TCT)examina-tion for screening of cervical disease.Method 1000 case were divided into two groups,500 cases were examined by liquid-based cytological examination.and 500 cases were examined by traditional Papanicoloaou smear.Results TCT satisfied with 490 cases(98.0%)which was higher than the traditional smear method 440 cases(88.0%)(χ~2=3.987,P<0.05);The traditional smear examination ⅡB~V-class positive 50 cases(10.0%)were lower than TGT 85 cases(17.1%)(χ~2=3.923,P<0.05);TCT examination、with biopsy of the positive coincidence rate of 64.7% were significantly higher than the traditional smear 44.0%(χ~2=3.893,P<0.05).Conclusion TCT technology significantly improves satisfaction rates and detection rate of abnormal cells,also with the pathology biopsy have a higher positive coincidence rate,suitable for clinical application.

  3. Smear correction of highly-variable, frame-transfer-CCD images with application to polarimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Iglesias, Francisco A; Nagaraju, K

    2015-01-01

    Image smear, produced by the shutter-less operation of frame transfer CCD detectors, can be detrimental for many imaging applications. Existing algorithms used to numerically remove smear, do not contemplate cases where intensity levels change considerably between consecutive frame exposures. In this report we reformulate the smearing model to include specific variations of the sensor illumination. The corresponding desmearing expression and its noise properties are also presented and demonstrated in the context of fast imaging polarimetry.

  4. Smear correction of highly variable, frame-transfer CCD images with application to polarimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias, Francisco A; Feller, Alex; Nagaraju, Krishnappa

    2015-07-01

    Image smear, produced by the shutterless operation of frame-transfer CCD detectors, can be detrimental for many imaging applications. Existing algorithms used to numerically remove smear do not contemplate cases where intensity levels change considerably between consecutive frame exposures. In this report, we reformulate the smearing model to include specific variations of the sensor illumination. The corresponding desmearing expression and its noise properties are also presented and demonstrated in the context of fast imaging polarimetry.

  5. Effective treatment of cervical incompetence in a monochorionic monoamniotic twin pregnancy with a rescue cervical cerclage and pessary--a case report and review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosińska-Kaczyńska, Katarzyna; Szymusik, Iwona; Bomba-Opoń, Dorota; Brawura-Biskupski-Samaha, Robert; Wegrzyn, Piotr; Wielgoś, Mirosław

    2012-12-01

    A monochorionic monoamniotic (MCMA) twin pregnancy is the rarest form of twin gestation, accounting for around 1:10000 to 1:20000 of all deliveries regardless of the region of the world. All multiple gestations have a higher risk of preterm delivery due to either preterm uterine contractions or asymptomatic cervical shortening (cervical incompetence). A case of a 28-year-old primigravida in MCMA twin pregnancy with cervical incompetence diagnosed at 22 weeks of gestation is presented. After obtaining cervical swabs, negative laboratory infection parameters and confirming concordant gestational age on ultrasound scan with no structural abnormalities of both fetuses, the patient was qualified for an emergency cervical cerclage according to Wurm-Hefner method. Five days after the procedure, a cervical pessary was additionally inserted. She was administered antibiotics and steroids. The wellbeing of both fetuses was strictly monitored by means of cardiotocography tracing and ultrasound examinations, on which they were both eutrophic, with no abnormalities in Doppler blood flow patterns. Spontaneous premature rupture of membranes took place at 32 weeks of gestation, a cesarean section was performed and two female fetuses of 1740 g and 1760 g were delivered. They both required antibiotics because of congenital pneumonia, but no respiratory support was necessary The twins were discharged from the hospital 22 days after birth in good general condition. This case of a rescue cervical cerclage and pessary used simultaneously can be an example of an effective method of cervical incompetence treatment in twin pregnancies.

  6. Bacterial imbalance of the vaginal flora: a cytological and biomolecular concept of Gardnerella vaginalis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klomp, J.M.

    2008-01-01

    Since 1996 all women aged 30 to 60 years are invited for a cervical smear on a 5 year interval. KOPAC, the Dutch national coding system for cervical smears, introduced for determination of cervical abnormalities also evaluates the inflammatory status of the vaginal flora. In this system dysbacterios

  7. [Intact cervical pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habek, D; Bobic, M V; Dosen, L

    2003-01-01

    The authors describe a case of intact cervical pregnancy in a 24-year-old secundigravida. The patient was treated successfully with Methotrexate. Conservative treatment is the first choice in the therapy of uncomplicated cervical pregnancy. Conservative and operative therapeutic procedures are discussed.

  8. Abnormal Neuroimaging in a Case of Infant Botulism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, Ryan J; Messacar, Kevin; Stence, Nicholas V; Press, Craig A; Carpenter, Todd C

    2015-01-01

    We present the first case of abnormal neuroimaging in a case of infant botulism. The clinical findings of the patient with constipation, bulbar weakness, and descending, symmetric motor weakness are consistent with the classic findings of infant botulism. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), however, revealed restricted diffusion in the brain and enhancement of the cervical nerve roots. Traditionally, normal neuroimaging was used to help differentiate infant botulism from other causes of weakness in infants. Abnormal neuroimaging is seen in other causes of weakness in an infant including metabolic disorders and hypoxic-ischemic injury, but these diagnoses did not fit the clinical findings in this case. The explanation for the MRI abnormalities in the brain and cervical nerve roots is unclear as botulinum toxin acts at presynaptic nerve terminals and does not cross the blood-brain barrier. Possible explanations for the findings include inflammation from the botulinum toxin at the synapse, alterations in sensory signaling and retrograde transport of the botulinum toxin. The patient was treated with human botulism immune globulin and had rapid recovery in weakness. A stool sample from the patient was positive for Type A Clostridium botulinum toxin eventually confirming the diagnosis of infant botulism. The findings in this case support use of human botulism immune globulin when the clinical findings are consistent with infant botulism despite the presence of MRI abnormalities in the brain and cervical nerve roots.

  9. Extraction and detection of Mycobacterium leprae DNA from ZNCF-stained skin smear slides for better identification of negative skin smears

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamble R

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Identification of Mycobacterium leprae, which causes leprosy, is done by Ziehl Neelsen Carbol Fuchsin (ZNCF stained slit skin smear microscopy that aids in the diagnosis and quantification of approximate bacterial load carried by the patient. We attempted M. leprae DNA extraction from 46 stained slit skin smear negative slides, using Proteinase K and SDS lysis, followed by ethanol precipitation. M. leprae specific primers (16SrRNA were used for PCR-based amplification of DNA. We could detect M. leprae DNA in 15 (32.6% samples. The method can be useful in the diagnosis of apparently slit skin smear negative leprosy cases.

  10. Molecular Identification of Leishmania Species Using Samples Obtained from Negative Stained Smears

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MA Mohaghegh

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (CL is a parasitic skin disease. Diagnosis primarily is based on clinical signs and microscopic observation of parasite on direct stained smears or tissue sections. Sensitivity of direct smear is not as high as molecular methods. The aim of this study was to identify and characterize Leishmania species among the negative direct smears obtained from skin ulcers sus­pected to CL by PCR method.Methods: Among 81 patients with suspicious skin lesions to CL referred to the Parasitology lab, nega­tive Giemsa stained smears were collected. DNA extraction performed by scraping stained smears, then PCR was performed.Results: Among the DNA extracted from smears, L. tropica was isolated from 9 (11.1% of the smears and L.major was not isolated from any samples.Conclusion: Direct microscopy on stained smears for diagnosis of leishmaniasis is not enough accu­rate. PCR is recommended for clinically suspected lesions with negative result of direct smear.

  11. Retinal image smear as a source of information about magnitude of eye movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Festinger, L; Holtzman, J D

    1978-11-01

    A number of experiments were conducted to determine to what extent retinal image smearing during saccades provides information about the eye movement magnitude to the perceptual system. The technique involved obtaining measures of perceived movement when the total visual field was displaced in conjunction with saccadic eye movements. Trials with normal retinal smear were compared with trials on which smearing was greatly reduced or eliminated. The results are interpreted as showing that the absence of normal retinal smear during a saccade increases the uncertainty in the information available to the perceptual system and that this uncertainty results in a tendency to perceive smaller than veridical amounts of movement.

  12. A PRELIMINARY STUDY ON SURVIVIN AND BCL-2 EXPRESSION IN CERVICAL CARCINOMAS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Objective To study the expression of a novel inhibitor of apptosis and survivin in cervical carcinoma and its relationship to the expression of Bcl-2.Methods Using SP immunohistochemical technique, we examined the expression of survivin and Bcl-2 in 59 cervical invasive squamous cell carcinomas.Results Survivin was expressed in 41 of 59 cases(69.5%) of cervical carcinomas. In contrast, no expression of survivin in normal cervical tissues was observed. Overexpression of survivin was related to the tumor grade and clinical stage. Survivin positive cases were strongly associated with Bcl-2 expression(80% versus 35.7%;P<0.005).Conclusion Apoptosis inhibition by survivin abnormal expression, alone or in cooperation with Bcl-2, may participate in the onset and progression of cervical carcinoma. Survivin is a new diagnostic/therapeutic target in cervical cancer.

  13. Misdiagnosing absent pedicle of cervical spine in the acute trauma setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahad H. Abduljabbar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Congenital absence of cervical spine pedicle can be easily misdiagnosed as facet dislocation on plain radiographs especially in the acute trauma setting. Additional imaging, including computed tomography (CT-scan with careful interpretation is required in order to not misdiagnose cervical posterior arch malformation with subsequent inappropriate management. A 39-year-old patient presented to the emergency unit of our university hospital after being trampled by a cow over her back and head followed by loss of consciousness, retrograde amnesia and neck pain. Her initial cervical CT-scan showed possible C5-C6 dislocation, then, it became clear that her problem was a misdiagnosed congenital cervical abnormality. Patient was treated symptomatically without consequences. The congenital absence of a cervical pedicle is a very unusual condition that is easily misdiagnosed. Diagnosis can be accurately confirmed with a CT-scan of the cervical spine. Symptomatic conservative treatment will result in resolution of the symptoms.

  14. The utility of diffusion-weighted MR imaging in cervical cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Jianyu, E-mail: Chenjianyu5562@163.co [Department of Radiology, Second Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, 107 Yanjiangxi Road, Guangzhou 510120 (China); Zhang Yun, E-mail: Zhangyun.7@163.co [State Key Laboratory of Oncology in Southern China, Guangzhou, 510060 (China) and Imaging Diagnosis and Interventional Center, Cancer Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, 510060 (China); Liang Biling, E-mail: liangbil@126.co [Department of Radiology, Second Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, 107 Yanjiangxi Road, Guangzhou 510120 (China); Yang Zehong, E-mail: Yangzehong2000@163.co [Department of Radiology, Second Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, 107 Yanjiangxi Road, Guangzhou 510120 (China)

    2010-06-15

    Purpose: To investigate the value of diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DWI) in detection of cervical cancer, and to determine the diagnostic accuracy of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values for evaluating cervical cancer before and after chemoradiotherapy. Materials and methods: Thirty-three patients with cervical squamous carcinoma and 20 patients with other pelvic abnormalities underwent diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in addition to routine MR imaging. The ADC values of normal cervical tissue, cervical area before and after chemoradiotherapy were measured and compared. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was employed to investigate whether ADC values could help in discrimination among normal cervical tissue, cervical cancer before and after therapy, and to obtain the optimal ADC threshold value. Results: Cervical cancer lesion demonstrated obviously hyperintensity on DWI images. The mean ADC value of cervical carcinoma (1.110 {+-} 0.175 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s) was significantly lower than that of normal cervical tissue (1.593 {+-} 0.151 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s) (P < 0.001). The mean ADC value of the cervical area in 22 patients treated by chemoradiotherapy (1.436 {+-} 0.129 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s) was significantly higher than that before therapy (1.013 {+-} 0.094 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s) (P < 0.001). The difference of ADC values between normal cervical tissue and cervical area after therapy was statistically significant (P < 0.01). The optimal ADC threshold values for distinguishing between normal cervical tissue and cervical carcinoma was 1.359 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s, between cervical area before and after therapy was 1.255 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s, between normal cervical tissue and cervical area after therapy was 1.525 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s. The sensitivity and specificity were 100% and 84.8%, 95.5% and 100%, 70% and 81.8%, respectively. Conclusion: DWI can be applied for the detection of cervical cancer because of its superior

  15. Cervical cancer: beyond what it is. The perception of women from Antioquia (Colombia and Colima (Mexico, 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia S. Tamayo

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To describe and interpret women’s perceptions about cervical cancer, its causes, prevention and self care. Methodology: qualitative studie, through the discussion group, 22 groups were formed in three municipalities in Antioquia (Colombia and one municipality of Colima (Mexico, with 108 women. Results: descriptions and interpretations are collectively influenced by information from the health sector, the media and the family. Most women are not related cervical cancer or cervical infections with sexual and reproductive behavior. The acceptance of the Pap smear is a product of experience and responsibility. Conclusions: equity in access considers cultural differences and specific needs of women, breaking cultural barriers and opens up opportunities for participation in health services. In body care, women recognize the level of severity of signs and gynecoobstetrical symptoms and the need for medical care. There is little knowledge about cervical cancer, its causes and prevention, due to lack of information and education from health care providers.

  16. Functional turbo spin echo magnetic resonance imaging versus tomography for evaluating cervical spine involvement in rheumatoid arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostveen, JCM; Roozeboom, AR; van de Laar, MAFJ; Heeres, J; den Boer, JA; Lindeboom, SF

    1998-01-01

    Study Design. Comparison of findings in plain radiography and conventional tomography with findings in plain radiography and magnetic resonance imaging of the upper cervical spine in consecutive patients with rheumatoid arthritis and with known or suspected abnormalities of the cervical spine. Objec

  17. A STUDY OF SEX CHEROMATIN FORM BUCCAL SMEAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shankar

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The determination of sex of an individual is an important subject in Forensic Medicine and Criminology and in Civil Law. The determination of sex is necessary in both living and the dead bodies. The expert opinion of the medico legal specialist regarding positive identification of an individual will be required for the following reasons. For the identification of the sex of individual whether living or dead , For deciding cases relating to legitimacy, divorce, paternity, affiliation, marriage, education, im potence, right to disposal of property, and in intersex condition & in cases of concealed sex. Determination of sex will be done by presumptive, probable and certain signs of sex. Sex chromatin is a planoconvex mass of about 1 micron in diameter lying near nuclear membrane - Barr body. In the buccal smear the percentage of the nuclei containing chromatin body ranges from 0 to 4 in males & 20n to 80 in females . In females neutrophil leucocytes contain a small nuclear attachment of drum stick form - David son bo dy in up to 6% of cell . This is absent in males . Exact sex determination can be made by using a single specimen of buccal smear , saliva or hair follicle, by the combined treatment of quinacrinedi hydrochloride staining for Y chromosome which is seen as bright florescent body in the nuclei of male cell & florescent feulgen reaction using acriflavin Schiff reagent for X chromosomes , which is seen as bright yellow spot in the nuclei . The percentage of quanacrine positive bodies ranges from 45 to 80% in male s , and 0 to 4% in females . With feulgen reaction technique florescent bodies are found in 50 to 70 % of cell in females, and 0 to 2% in males. Determination of sex chromatin pattern was done by examination of oral smears technique on 50 males and 50 female s who have attended the Casualty of Government General Hospital, Ananthapuramu., A. P . , in the Dept . of forensic Medicine from 17 - 06 - 2012 to 30 - 12 - 2014. Slides were

  18. Study on impression smears of hepatic coccidiosis in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivajothi, S; Reddy, B Sudhakara; Rayulu, V C

    2016-09-01

    Hepatic coccidiosis is a contagious and lethal disease condition in rabbits. The disease was recorded in six rabbits suffering with watery diarrhoea. Clinically, affected rabbits showed decreased growth rate, anorexia, debilitation, diarrhea and rough hair coat. Examination of the faecal samples revealed the presence of unsporulated oocysts of Eimeria spp. After sporulation Eimeria stiedae oocysts were identified. Postmortem examination revealed hepatomegaly with presence of discrete yellowish-white nodules on the surface of the liver. Impression smears from the liver revealed the presence of numerous developmental stages of E. stiedae corresponding with the stage of the liver lesion and also represent the histological changes of the liver. Rabbits were treated with a combination of sulphaquinoxaline and diaveridine for five days.

  19. Smearing of chaos in sandwich pp-waves

    CERN Document Server

    Podolsky, J

    1999-01-01

    Recent results demonstrating the chaotic behavior of geodesics in non-homogeneous vacuum pp-wave solutions are generalized. Here we concentrate on motion in non-homogeneous sandwich pp-waves and show that chaos smears as the duration of these gravitational waves is reduced. As the number of radial bounces of any geodesic decreases, the outcome channels to infinity become fuzzy, and thus the fractal structure of the initial conditions characterizing chaos is cut at lower and lower levels. In the limit of impulsive waves, the motion is fully non-chaotic. This is proved by presenting the geodesics in a simple explicit form which permits a physical interpretation, and demonstrates the focusing effect. It is shown that a circle of test particles is deformed by the impulse into a family of closed hypotrochoidal curves in the transversal plane. These are deformed in the longitudinal direction in such a way that a specific closed caustic surface is formed.

  20. Numerical insight of a variational smeared approach to cohesive fracture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freddi, F.; Iurlano, F.

    2017-01-01

    In the present paper we numerically investigate and validate a variational smeared model for cohesive crack, recently proposed and theoretically justified by Γ-convergence. To achieve this main goal, we first analyze the response of a bar subjected to traction. Possible solutions are discussed, reconstructing the classical cohesive fracture energy and its related stress-crack opening law through a backtracking procedure. Preliminary 2D investigations are also conducted by using a regularized version of the adopted formulation. This permits to explore the transition phase of the damage evolution and to determine the peculiarities of the model, such as mesh-objectivity and Γ-convergence as damage concentration is forced. Therefore, the numerical simulations confirm the analytical results and put the basis for further engineering applications and possible improvements of the model.

  1. A pilot study of short-duration sputum pretreatment procedures for optimizing smear microscopy for tuberculosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Daley

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Direct sputum smear microscopy for tuberculosis (TB lacks sensitivity for the detection of acid fast bacilli. Sputum pretreatment procedures may enhance sensitivity. We did a pilot study to compare the diagnostic accuracy and incremental yield of two short-duration (<1 hour sputum pretreatment procedures to optimize direct smears among patients with suspected TB at a referral hospital in India. METHODOLOGY/FINDINGS: Blinded laboratory comparison of bleach and universal sediment processing (USP pretreated centrifuged auramine smears to direct Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN and direct auramine smears and to solid (Loweinstein-Jensen (LJ and liquid (BACTEC 460 culture. 178 pulmonary and extrapulmonary TB suspects were prospectively recruited during a one year period. Thirty six (20.2% were positive by either solid or liquid culture. Direct ZN smear detected 22 of 36 cases and direct auramine smears detected 26 of 36 cases. Bleach and USP centrifugation detected 24 cases each, providing no incremental yield beyond direct smears. When compared to combined culture, pretreated smears were not more sensitive than direct smears (66.6% vs 61.1 (ZN or 72.2 (auramine, and were not more specific (92.3% vs 93.0 (ZN or 97.2 (auramine. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Short duration sputum pretreatment with bleach and USP centrifugation did not increase yield as compared to direct sputum smears. Further work is needed to confirm this in a larger study and also determine if longer duration pre-treatment might be effective in optimizing smear microscopy for TB.

  2. Magnetic resonance tomography for trauma of the cervical spine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meydam, K.; Sehlen, S.; Schlenkhoff, D.; Kiricuta, J.C.; Beyer, H.K.

    1986-12-01

    Twenty patients who had suffered spinal trauma were examined by magnetic resonance tomography. Fifteen patients with first degree trauma in Erdmann's classification showed no abnormality. Magnetic resonance tomography of the cervical spine appears to be a suitable method for investigating patients with whiplash injuries. It is indicated following severe flexion injuries with subluxations and neurological symptoms, since it is the only method that can demonstrate the spinal cord directly and completely and show the extent of cord compression. For patients with thoracic trauma and rapidly developing neurological symptoms, magnetic resonance tomography is ideal for showing post-traumatic syringomyelia. Magnetic resonance tomography following whiplash injuries is recommended if plain films of the cervical spine show any abnormalities, as well as for the investigation of acute or sub-acute neurological abnormalities. The various findings are discussed.

  3. COMPARABLE CYTOLOGICAL DIAGNOSTIC OF BLOOD SMEARS ON BABESIA INFECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pokhyl S.І.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In last time Babesiosis as a tick-borne hemoprotozoans human disease have a very important role in differentil diagnostics of modern infectious medicine. It caused by protozon of the genus Babesia, which invade and destory erythrocytes. Babesiosis olso has been called tick fever. So, Babesia has been known by other genus names, including Nuttallia, Microbabesia, Babesialla, and Gonderia. Because all Babesia species are piroplasms, a more inclusive term for anthropozoonotic infections caused by these organisms would be piroplasmosis.They detective complicacy are bild that, tick-borne disease agents from prolongate life cycles involving arthropod and vertebrate host. The complexity is enhanced by the diversity of hosts in different biotopes, which depends on factors life type of vegetation, climate and/or human influence, such as restoration of former industrial sites, which leads to the development of new biotopes. So, on the one hand, new habitats for plants and animals including ticks, and nature are created. About the first case of babesiosis infection was reported as a cause of human sickness in 1969 in northeastern United State. Several hundred cases are now reported from this region each year. The disease is characterized by a grandual oncet of malaise with anorexia, fever, headaches, myalgia, and other vague symptoms, which may persist for long period. Occasionally dangerous fulminating infections occur particularly in immunocompromised or aged individuals. The purpose of the present research was to study of the cytological diagnostic of blood smears from object’s with the Babesia infection. Materials and methods. Blood smears (by Romanovsky- Gimze (standart, Wright’s standart and staining, the author’s modification, 2014 of domestic dogs (n = 31 of both sexes with Babesia infection at the age from 3 months to 6 years served as the material for the study. The preparations were fixed during 1-2 seconds with 96 % ethyl alcohol. Then

  4. Oncogenic potential of Human Papillomavirus (HPV and its relation with cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idrees Muhammad

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Human Papillomavirus (HPV is the most common cause of cervical cancer. Cervical cancer being the second most common cancer after lung cancer, affecting women of different age groups; has a prevalence of about 20% in young sexually active women. Among different types of HPV, HPV16 the major strain causing this cancer and is sexually transmitted had been unnoticed for decades. Keeping in mind the multiple risk factors related with cervical cancer such as early age sexual activities, teenage pregnancies, smoking, use of oral contraceptives, having multiple sex partners, hormone replacement therapies and various other unknown factors lead to the onset of the disease. Awareness for various diagnostic procedures such as Pap smears screening prove to be an effective way in eradicating the oncogenic potential of HPV.

  5. 高危型HPV检测联合细胞学检查在宫颈病变中的意义%Significance of high - risk HPV test combined with cytological examination in cervical lesions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋萌颖; 陈东梅

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨高危型HPV检测联合细胞学检查在宫颈病变中的意义,为预防宫颈癌的发生及早期诊断与治疗提供进一步的指导依据.方法:该院2008年1月~2011年1月门诊自愿接受官颈癌筛查的妇女2 697例,分别进行HR - HPV-DNA、TCT、HR - HPV - DNA+ TCT检查,阳性病例均进行阴道镜活检.结果:2 697例进行筛查的妇女中标本发现异常涂片266例,占9.86%,其中意义不明的不典型鳞状细胞(ASCUS) 170例,占6.30%,低度鳞状上皮内病变(LSIL) 74例,占2.74%,高度鳞状上皮内病变(HSIL) 72例,占2.67%,鳞状细胞癌(SCC)8例,占0.30%.266例TCT检测细胞学异常(ASCUS及以上)标本中高危型HPV阳性162例,HPV感染率60.90%.不同类型标本高危型HPV感染情况结果显示:ASCUS、LSIL、HSIL各组间的HPV感染率有统计学差异(P<0.01).结论:将高危型HPV检测与TCT检测技术相结合应用于早期宫颈癌及癌前病变筛查中,提高了筛查宫颈病变的准确性.%Objective-. To explore the significance of high - risk HPV test combined with cytological examination in cervical lesions, provide further guidance and reference for prevention of occurrence, early diagnosis, and treatment of cervical cancer. Methods; A total of 2 697 women who received cervical screening voluntarily in outpatient department of the hospital from January 2008 to January 2011 were selected, then they underwent HR - HPV - DNA detection, TCT, and HR - HPV - DNA detection combined with TCT, the positive cases received biopsy under colposcope. Results: Among 2 697 cases, 266 cases were found with abnormal smears, accounting for 9. 86% , 170 cases were found with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) , accounting for 6. 30% , 74 cases were found with low - grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL) , accounting for 2. 74% , 72 cases were found with high - grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL), accounting for 2. 67% , 8 cases were

  6. DUKUNGAN SUAMI MENDORONG KEIKUTSERTAAN PAP SMEAR PASANGAN USIA SUBUR (PUS DI PERUMAHAN PUCANG GADING SEMARANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinanthi Estu Linadi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Pendahuluan: Kanker serviks menjadi penyebab kematian wanita tertinggi di Indonesia. Jawa Tengah merupakan salah satu provinsi dengan kasus kanker serviks yang tinggi sepanjang tahun 2004-2008 dengan prevalensi tertinggi di Kota Semarang. Deteksi dini dengan pap smear terbukti menurunkan angka kematian penderita tetapi keikutsertaan pap smear di Indonesia masih rendah (5%. Tujuan: Studi ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui faktor yang berhubungan dengan keikutsertaan pap smear oleh PUS di Perumahan Pucang Gading Semarang. Metode : Penelitian ini merupakan studi kuantitatifdengan pendekatan potong lintang. Data PUS didapat dari kader (N=316 dan sebanyak 75 sampel ditentukan secara acak sederhan. Data dianalisis dengan distribusi frekuensi dan metode chi squareuntuk mengetahui hubungan antar variabel. Hasil : Sebanyak 15 responden (20% melakukan pap smear. Dukungan suami dan pengetahuan memiliki hubungan signifikan terhadap keikutsertaan pap smear (p<0,05. Sedangkan variabel sikap memiliki sedikit hubungan (p=0,066. Kesimpulan : Karakteristik dan persepsi responden mengenai sosialisasitidak berhubungan dengan keikutsertaan pap smear. Pengetahuan, sikap, dan dukungan suami menjadi faktor yang meningkatkan keikutsertaan PUS melakukan pap smear. Kata kunci: pap smear, dukungan suami, Semarang

  7. Improvements of the smearing technique for cross-stiffened thin rectangular plates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luan, Yu; Ohlrich, Mogens; Jacobsen, Finn

    2011-01-01

    New developments in the simplified smearing technique for modeling vibrations of cross-stiffened, thin rectangular plates are presented. The computationally efficient smearing technique has been known for many years, but so far the accuracy of, say, predicted natural frequencies has been inadequa...

  8. Hereditary urea cycle abnormality

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... vitro so the specific genetic cause is known. Teamwork between parents, the affected child, and doctors can help prevent severe illness. Alternative Names Abnormality of the urea cycle - hereditary; Urea cycle - hereditary abnormality Images Male urinary system Urea cycle References Lichter-Konecki ...

  9. Congenital cervical bronchogenic cyst: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiralj Aleksandar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Bronchogenic cysts are rare congenital anomalies of the embryonic foregut. They are caused by abnormal budding of diverticulum of the embryonic foregut between the 26th and 40th day of gestation. Bronchogenic cysts can appear in the mediastinum and pulmonary parenchyma, or at ectopic sites (neck, subcutaneous tissue or abdomen. So far, 70 cases of cervical localization of bronchogenic cysts have been reported. Majority of bronchogenic cysts have been diagnosed in the pediatric population. Bronchogenic cysts of the cervical area are generally asymptomatic and symptoms may occur if cysts become large or in case of infection of the cyst. The diagnosis is made based on clinical findings, radiological examination, but histopathologic findings are essential for establishing the final diagnosis. Treatment of cervical bronchogenic cyst involves surgical excision. Case Outline. Authors present a case of a 6-year-old female patient sent by a pediatrician to a maxillofacial surgeon due to asymptomatic lump on the left side of the neck. The patient had frequent respiratory infections and respiratory obstructions. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of the neck was performed and a well-circumscribed cystic formation on the left side of the neck was observed, with paratracheal location. The complete excision of the cyst was made transcervically. Histopathological findings pointed to bronchogenic cyst. Conclusion. Cervical bronchogenic cysts are rare congenital malformations. Considering the location, clinical findings and the radiological features, these cysts resemble other cervical lesions. Surgical treatment is important because it is both therapeutic and diagnostic. Reliable diagnosis of bronchogenic cysts is based on histopathological examination.

  10. Extraordinary incidence of cervical ribs indicates vulnerable condition in Late Pleistocene mammoths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelle W.F. Reumer

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The number of cervical vertebrae in mammals is highly conserved at seven. We have shown that changes of this number are selected against due to a coupling with major congenital abnormalities (pleiotropic effects. Here we show that the incidence of abnormal cervical vertebral numbers in Late Pleistocene mammoths from the North Sea is high (33.3% and approximately 10 times higher than that of extant elephants (3.6%. Abnormal numbers were due to the presence of large cervical ribs on the seventh vertebra, which we deduced from the presence of rib articulation facets on sixth (posterior side and seventh (anterior side cervical vertebrae. The incidence of abnormal cervical vertebral numbers in mammoths appears to be much higher than in other mammalian species, apart from exceptional sloths, manatees and dugongs and indicates a vulnerable condition. We argue that the increased incidence of cervical ribs in mammoths is probably caused by inbreeding and adverse conditions that impact early pregnancies in declining populations close to extinction in the Late Pleistocene.

  11. Point: cervical cancer screening guidelines should consider observational data on screening efficacy in older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rustagi, Alison S; Kamineni, Aruna; Weiss, Noel S

    2013-10-01

    Recent guidelines from the American Cancer Society, the American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology, and the American Society for Clinical Pathology recommend cessation of cervical cancer screening at age 65 years for women with an "adequate" history of negative Papanicolaou smears. In our view, those who formulated these guidelines did not consider a growing body of evidence from nonrandomized studies that provides insight into the efficacy of cervical cancer screening among older women. First, older women are not at indefinitely low risk following negative screening results. Second, recent data from the United States, the United Kingdom, and Sweden suggest that screening of older women is associated with substantial reductions in cervical cancer incidence and mortality, even among previously screened women. It may be that after consideration of the reduced incidence of (and reduced mortality from) cervical cancer that may result from screening older women, the harms and economic costs of screening will be judged to outweigh its benefits. However, it is essential to consider the now-documented benefits of cervical screening when formulating screening guidelines for older women, and recommendations that do not do so will lack an evidence base.

  12. [Adhesion of sealer cements to dentin with and without smear layer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gettleman, B H; Messer, H H; ElDeeb, M E

    1991-01-01

    The influence of a smear layer on the adhesion of sealer cements to dentin was assessed in recently extracted human anterior teeth. A total of 120 samples was tested, 40 per sealer; 20 each with and without the smear layer. The teeth were split longitudinally, and the internal surfaces were ground flat. One-half of each tooth was left with the smear layer intact, while the other half had the smear removed by washing for 3 min with 17% EDTA followed by 5.25% NaOCI. Evidence of the ability to remove the smear layer was verified by scanning electron microscopy. Using a specially designed jig, the sealer was placed into a 4-mm wide x 4 mm deep well which was then set onto the tooth.

  13. Dopaminergic system abnormalities Etiopathogenesis of dystonia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuhui Wu; Huifang Shang; Xiaoyi Zou

    2008-01-01

    etiopathogenesis of several primary dystonias has been observed at the molecular level. CONCLUSION: Various abnormalities of the dopaminergic system exist for different forms of dystonia; therefore, much more research is needed in this area. At the molecular level, relationships between abnormalities of the dopaminergic system and etiopathogenesis of the following syndromes have been observed: dopa-responsive dystonia, early-onset torsion dystonia, X-linked dystonia-parkinsonism syndrome, myoclonus dystonia syndrome, primary cervical dystonia, and focal dystonia blepharospasm.

  14. Cervical spine CT scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... defects of the cervical spine Bone problems Fracture Osteoarthritis Disc herniation Risks Risks of CT scans include: ... Ma, MD, Assistant Professor, Chief, Sports Medicine and Shoulder Service, UCSF Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, San Francisco, ...

  15. Cervical Radiculopathy (Pinched Nerve)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... help relieve pain, strengthen neck muscles, and improve range of motion. In some cases, traction can be used to ... Learn more about surgery for radiculopathy online at Cervical ... a wide range of musculoskeletal conditions and injuries. All articles are ...

  16. Immunotherapy for Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    In an early phase NCI clinical trial, two patients with metastatic cervical cancer had a complete disappearance of their tumors after receiving treatment with a form of immunotherapy called adoptive cell transfer.

  17. Cervical cancer in north-eastern Libya: 2000-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Khaial, F; Bodalal, Z; Elramli, A; Elkhwsky, F; Eltaguri, A; Bendardaf, R

    2014-08-01

    Libya is a country with a low population, listed under the EMRO. Using registers and patient records from a major primary oncology clinic, data was gathered from Libyan cervical cancer patients and various parameters were studied across 9 years. Out of 4,090 female cancer cases during the study period, 1.8% were cervical cancer (n = 74). The average age of presentation was 53 years, with most of the cases (60%, n = 44) being premenopausal. Approximately 65% (n = 48) of cervical cancer patients are diagnosed at later stages (i.e. stages III and IV). The majority of these cases are squamous cell carcinoma (83.8%, n = 62), while 16.2% (n = 12) were found to be adenocarcinoma. Patients with squamous cell carcinoma presented at later stages more often than those with adenocarcinoma. Human papilloma virus was strongly implicated in cervical cancer, with 94% (n = 63) of those who were tested being positive for HPV-16 (82.5%, n = 52) and HPV-18 (12.7%, n = 8). Diagnosis was most frequently made through biopsy (97.3%, n = 72) as opposed to Pap smears (2.7%, n = 2). Most Libyan patients were put through chemotherapy (75%, n = 55) and triple therapy (surgery with combined chemotherapy and radiotherapy) was the most common (38%, n = 28) modality of treatment. Comparisons were made between Libya and other nations, either in the developed world or neighbouring countries. The major problem of cervical cancer in Libya is delayed presentation and hence, all the recommendations focus on increased awareness for the populace, implementation of a national cancer control plan and a national screening programme.

  18. Burden of cervical cancer and role of screening in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobdey, Saurabh; Sathwara, Jignasa; Jain, Aanchal; Balasubramaniam, Ganesh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cervical cancer is a major cause of cancer mortality in women and more than a quarter of its global burden is contributed by developing countries. In India, in spite of alarmingly high figures, there is no nationwide government-sponsored screening program. This study was conducted to assess the burden of cervical cancer in India and review the performance characteristics of available cervical cancer screening tools, so as to provide evidence-based recommendations for application of most practically suited screening test to be used in resource-poor field settings. Materials and Methods: MEDLINE and Web of Science electronic database were searched from January 1990 to December 2015, using the keywords such as “cervical cancer”, “screening”, “early detection”, “cervical cytology” and “visual inspection”, and their corresponding MeSH terms in combination with Boolean operators “OR, AND.” Two authors independently selected studies that are published in English and conducted in India. A total of 11 studies were found to be relevant and eligible to be included in the present study. Results: In India, cervical cancer contributes to approximately 6–29% of all cancers in women. The age-adjusted incidence rate of cervical cancer varies widely among registries; highest is 23.07/100,000 in Mizoram state and the lowest is 4.91/100,000 in Dibrugarh district. The pooled estimates of sensitivity and specificity of visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA), magnified VIA, visual inspection with Lugol's iodine (VILI), cytology (Pap smear), and human papillomavirus DNA were found to be 67.65% and 84.32%, 65.36% and 85.76%, 78.27% and 87.10%, 62.11% and 93.51%, and 77.81% and 91.54%, respectively. Conclusions: In developing countries because of lack of necessary infrastructure and quality control, high-quality cytology screening may not be feasible for wide-scale implementation. Hence, cervical cancer screening program based on visual screening test

  19. Burden of cervical cancer and role of screening in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh Bobdey

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cervical cancer is a major cause of cancer mortality in women and more than a quarter of its global burden is contributed by developing countries. In India, in spite of alarmingly high figures, there is no nationwide government-sponsored screening program. This study was conducted to assess the burden of cervical cancer in India and review the performance characteristics of available cervical cancer screening tools, so as to provide evidence-based recommendations for application of most practically suited screening test to be used in resource-poor field settings. Materials and Methods: MEDLINE and Web of Science electronic database were searched from January 1990 to December 2015, using the keywords such as “cervical cancer”, “screening”, “early detection”, “cervical cytology” and “visual inspection”, and their corresponding MeSH terms in combination with Boolean operators “OR, AND.” Two authors independently selected studies that are published in English and conducted in India. A total of 11 studies were found to be relevant and eligible to be included in the present study. Results: In India, cervical cancer contributes to approximately 6–29% of all cancers in women. The age-adjusted incidence rate of cervical cancer varies widely among registries; highest is 23.07/100,000 in Mizoram state and the lowest is 4.91/100,000 in Dibrugarh district. The pooled estimates of sensitivity and specificity of visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA, magnified VIA, visual inspection with Lugol's iodine (VILI, cytology (Pap smear, and human papillomavirus DNA were found to be 67.65% and 84.32%, 65.36% and 85.76%, 78.27% and 87.10%, 62.11% and 93.51%, and 77.81% and 91.54%, respectively. Conclusions: In developing countries because of lack of necessary infrastructure and quality control, high-quality cytology screening may not be feasible for wide-scale implementation. Hence, cervical cancer screening program based on

  20. In vivo and in vitro hyperspectral imaging of cervical neoplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chaojian; Zheng, Wenli; Bu, Yanggao; Chang, Shufang; Tong, Qingping; Zhang, Shiwu; Xu, Ronald X.

    2014-02-01

    Cervical cancer is a prevalent disease in many developing countries. Colposcopy is the most common approach for screening cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). However, its clinical efficacy heavily relies on the examiner's experience. Spectroscopy is a potentially effective method for noninvasive diagnosis of cervical neoplasia. In this paper, we introduce a hyperspectral imaging technique for noninvasive detection and quantitative analysis of cervical neoplasia. A hyperspectral camera is used to collect the reflectance images of the entire cervix under xenon lamp illumination, followed by standard colposcopy examination and cervical tissue biopsy at both normal and abnormal sites in different quadrants. The collected reflectance data are calibrated and the hyperspectral signals are extracted. Further spectral analysis and image processing works are carried out to classify tissue into different types based on the spectral characteristics at different stages of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. The hyperspectral camera is also coupled with a lab microscope to acquire the hyperspectral transmittance images of the pathological slides. The in vivo and the in vitro imaging results are compared with clinical findings to assess the accuracy and efficacy of the method.

  1. Dolor cervical incoercible

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrián F Narváez-Muñoz

    2014-03-01

    Astrocytomas are relatively common glial neoplasm of the central nervous system, but only a small percentage of them are located in the spinal cord, with a predilection for the cervical and dorsal regions. In most cases, extend longitudinally, affecting several cord segments. Pain is a frequent symptom of local character bone segments involving the tumor, associated with sensory deficit and / or motor. The following is the case of a 60 year old woman with cervical cord astrocytoma extended to the brainstem.

  2. Differences in screening history, tumour characteristics and survival between women with screen-detected versus not screen-detected cervical cancer in the east of The Netherlands, 1992-2001.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aa, M.A. van der; Schutter, E.M.; Looijen-Salamon, M.; Martens, J.E.; Siesling, S.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In The Netherlands, despite a national screening programme since 1996, invasive cervical cancers have been detected in screened and non-screened women. The aim of this study was to determine differences between Pap-smear history, tumour characteristics and survival of patients with a tumo

  3. Rapid and reliable diagnosis of murine myeloid leukemia (ML by FISH of peripheral blood smear using probe of PU. 1, a candidate ML tumor suppressor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ban Nobuhiko

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Murine myeloid leukemia (ML provides a good animal model to study the mechanisms of radiation-induced leukemia in humans. This disease has been cytogenetically characterized by a partial deletion of chromosome 2 with G-banding. For the rapid diagnosis of ML, this study reports a FISH method using spleen cells and peripheral blood smears from ML mice exposed to gamma rays and neutrons with PU.1, a candidate ML tumor suppressor, as a probe. Results Among mice that were tentatively diagnosed with ML by clinical findings and blood smear examination, 85% carried spleen cells showing the loss of PU.1 although the frequency of these abnormal cells varied among individuals. Mice with very low frequencies of cells showing the loss of one copy of PU.1 (one-PU.1 frequency were later diagnosed pathologically not with ML but with blastic or eosinophilic leukemia. Some neutron-irradiated mice had cells showing translocated PU.1, although no pathological features differentiated these ML mice from ML mice expressing the simple loss of PU.1. The one-PU.1 frequency can be detected from spleen metaphase cells, spleen interphase cells, and blood smears. There was a good correlation between the one-PU.1 frequency in spleen metaphase cells and that in spleen interphase cells (r = 0.96 and between one-PU.1 frequency in spleen interphase cells and that in blood cells (r = 0.83. Conclusion The FISH method was capable of detecting aberration of copy number of the PU.1 gene on murine chromosome 2, and using a peripheral blood smear is more practical and less invasive than conventional pathological diagnosis or the cytogenetic examination of spleen cells.

  4. Association between cervical lesion grade and micronucleus frequency in the Papanicolaou test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Tanski Bueno

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between the frequency of micronuclei (MN and the cellular changes detected in the conventional Papanicolaou test. One hundred and seventy-four Papanicolaou test smears with cellular changes were examined. MN screening was done in cytopathological smears by counting 1,000 cervical cells in a light microscope. MN frequencies were significantly higher in the group with cellular changes compared to the control group (p < 0.001. The mean MN frequencies were 0.95 ± 1.12 (mean ± SD in the control group (n = 223, 2.98 ± 1.20 in individuals with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US (n = 50, 4.04 ± 1.45 in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN I (n = 52, 5.97 ± 1.83 in CIN II (n = 30, 7.29 ± 1.55 in CIN III (n = 17 and 8.64 ± 1.55 in invasive cancer (n = 25. These findings suggest that MN monitoring should be included as an additional criterion for the early detection of cytogenetic damage in routine examinations. This monitoring should be done in the same smear as used for cytopathological examination. More specific and systematic studies are necessary to confirm this proposal.

  5. Association between cervical lesion grade and micronucleus frequency in the Papanicolaou test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno, Caroline Tanski; Dornelles da Silva, Cláudia Maria; Barcellos, Regina Bones; da Silva, Juliana; Dos Santos, Carla Rossana; Menezes, João Evangelista Sampaio; Menezes, Honório Sampaio; Rossetti, Maria Lucia Rosa

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between the frequency of micronuclei (MN) and the cellular changes detected in the conventional Papanicolaou test. One hundred and seventy-four Papanicolaou test smears with cellular changes were examined. MN screening was done in cytopathological smears by counting 1,000 cervical cells in a light microscope. MN frequencies were significantly higher in the group with cellular changes compared to the control group (p < 0.001). The mean MN frequencies were 0.95 ± 1.12 (mean ± SD) in the control group (n = 223), 2.98 ± 1.20 in individuals with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US) (n = 50), 4.04 ± 1.45 in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) I (n = 52), 5.97 ± 1.83 in CIN II (n = 30), 7.29 ± 1.55 in CIN III (n = 17) and 8.64 ± 1.55 in invasive cancer (n = 25). These findings suggest that MN monitoring should be included as an additional criterion for the early detection of cytogenetic damage in routine examinations. This monitoring should be done in the same smear as used for cytopathological examination. More specific and systematic studies are necessary to confirm this proposal.

  6. Quantitative differences in sputum smear microscopy results for acid-fast bacilli by age and sex in four countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rieder, H L; Lauritsen, Jens; Naranbat, N

    2009-01-01

    To examine the influence of age and sex on the grading of tuberculosis (TB) sputum smear microscopy results.......To examine the influence of age and sex on the grading of tuberculosis (TB) sputum smear microscopy results....

  7. Optoelectronic method for detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and cervical cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruski, D.; Przybylski, M.; Kędzia, W.; Kędzia, H.; Jagielska-Pruska, J.; Spaczyński, M.

    2011-12-01

    The optoelectronic method is one of the most promising concepts of biophysical program of the diagnostics of CIN and cervical cancer. Objectives of the work are evaluation of sensitivity and specificity of the optoelectronic method in the detection of CIN and cervical cancer. The paper shows correlation between the pNOR number and sensitivity/specificity of the optoelectronic method. The study included 293 patients with abnormal cervical cytology result and the following examinations: examination with the use of the optoelectronic method — Truscreen, colposcopic examination, and histopathologic biopsy. Specificity of the optoelectronic method for LGSIL was estimated at 65.70%, for HGSIL and squamous cell carcinoma of cervix amounted to 90.38%. Specificity of the optoelectronic method used to confirm lack of cervical pathology was estimated at 78.89%. The field under the ROC curve for the optoelectronic method was estimated at 0.88 (95% CI, 0.84-0.92) which shows high diagnostic value of the test in the detection of HGSIL and squamous cell carcinoma. The optoelectronic method is characterised by high usefulness in the detection of CIN, present in the squamous epithelium and squamous cell carcinoma of cervix.

  8. Chlamydia trachomatis in cervicitis and urethritis in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paavonen, J; Vesterinen, E

    1982-01-01

    In the Scandinavian countries today, Chlamydia trachomatis seems to be the most important cause of sexually transmitted diseases. Although C. trachomatis is most prevalent in symptomatic women and in persons visiting venereal disease clinics, the asymptomatic carrier rate, particularly in young women, appears to be surprisingly high. In addition to young age and level of sexual activity, the use of oral contraceptives and the presence of cervical ectopy are important risk factors for chlamydial infection. Chlamydial cervicitis often is characterized by a hypertrophic follicular appearance, with severe edema, erythema, friability, and endocervical mucopurulent discharge. On colposcopy, an atypical transformation zone is frequently observed. Papanicolaou smears taken from C. trachomatis culture-positive patients often reveal benign atypias and dyskaryotic changes. C. trachomatis, therefore, being a venereally transmitted intracellular organism, may well play a role in the development of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). Future studies on patients with cytological atypias, therefore, also should include tests for C. trachomatis. Prospective studies are needed to determine the natural history and outcome of C. trachomatis-associated atypias and their behavior after adequate therapy. A large proportion of C. trachomatis-infected women also are culture-positive from the urethra. The demonstration that C. trachomatis is a common causative agent of acute urethral syndrome (also called abacterial urethritis, dysuria-pyuria syndrome) in women has been a valuable contribution. The diagnosis of pyuria in a patient with abacterial dysuria is of critical importance, since it suggests a chlamydial etiology and thus is a potentially treatable condition.

  9. "Jeopardy" in Abnormal Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keutzer, Carolin S.

    1993-01-01

    Describes the use of the board game, Jeopardy, in a college level abnormal psychology course. Finds increased student interaction and improved application of information. Reports generally favorable student evaluation of the technique. (CFR)

  10. Chromosomal Abnormalities in ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of fragile X syndrome, velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS, and other cytogenetic abnormalities among 100 children (64 boys with combined type ADHD and normal intelligence was assessed at the NIMH and Georgetown University Medical Center.

  11. Abnormal menstrual periods (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may have a variety of causes, such as endometrial hyperplasia, endometrial polyps, uterine fibroids, and abnormal thyroid or ... the endometrium becomes unusually thick it is called endometrial ... Hyperplasia may cause profuse or extended menstrual bleeding.

  12. Chromosomal abnormalities and autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farida El-Baz

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Chromosomal abnormalities were not detected in the studied autistic children, and so the relation between the genetics and autism still needs further work up with different study methods and techniques.

  13. Assessment of smear layer removal protocols in curved root canals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, William; Raldi, Denise Pontes; Cunha, Rodrigo Sanches; Mello, Isabel

    2014-08-01

    This study sought to assess if the final rinse protocol interferes with the smear layer removal in the apical area of curved canals. Sixty-four extracted human mandibular molars with curved mesial roots were instrumented with rotary files and divided into six experimental groups for final rinse: 1EDTA (syringe irrigation with 1 mL of 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) ), 5EDTA (syringe irrigation with 5 mL of 17% EDTA), 1EDTA-P (syringe irrigation with 1 mL of 17% EDTA + pumping with gutta-percha point), 5EDTA-P (syringe irrigation with 5 mL of 17% EDTA + pumping with gutta-percha point), 1EDTA-EA (syringe irrigation with 1 mL of 17% EDTA + EndoActivator) and 5EDTA-EA (syringe irrigation with 5 mL of 17% EDTA + EndoActivator). Final rinsing was carried out over 3 min. The specimens were split lengthwise and observed under a scanning electron microscope using a score criterion. Comparison among the groups showed statistically significant difference only between the 5EDTA-EA group and the other groups (Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn's post-hoc tests, P protocols used.

  14. Abnormal protein aggregationand neurodegenerativediseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Abnormal protein aggregation or amyloid is the major cause ofmany neurodegenerative disorders. The present review focuses on the correlation between sequence and structure features of proteins related to the diseases and abnormal protein aggregation. Recent progress has improved our knowledge on understand-ing the mechanism of amyloid formation. We suggest a nucleation model for ordered protein aggregation, which can also explain pathogenesis mechanisms of these neurodegenerative diseases in vivo.

  15. Identification of mycobacterium tuberculosis in sputum smear slide using automatic scanning microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rulaningtyas, Riries; Suksmono, Andriyan B.; Mengko, Tati L. R.; Saptawati, Putri

    2015-04-01

    Sputum smear observation has an important role in tuberculosis (TB) disease diagnosis, because it needs accurate identification to avoid high errors diagnosis. In development countries, sputum smear slide observation is commonly done with conventional light microscope from Ziehl-Neelsen stained tissue and it doesn't need high cost to maintain the microscope. The clinicians do manual screening process for sputum smear slide which is time consuming and needs highly training to detect the presence of TB bacilli (mycobacterium tuberculosis) accurately, especially for negative slide and slide with less number of TB bacilli. For helping the clinicians, we propose automatic scanning microscope with automatic identification of TB bacilli. The designed system modified the field movement of light microscope with stepper motor which was controlled by microcontroller. Every sputum smear field was captured by camera. After that some image processing techniques were done for the sputum smear images. The color threshold was used for background subtraction with hue canal in HSV color space. Sobel edge detection algorithm was used for TB bacilli image segmentation. We used feature extraction based on shape for bacilli analyzing and then neural network classified TB bacilli or not. The results indicated identification of TB bacilli that we have done worked well and detected TB bacilli accurately in sputum smear slide with normal staining, but not worked well in over staining and less staining tissue slide. However, overall the designed system can help the clinicians in sputum smear observation becomes more easily.

  16. The smear layer created by scaling and root planing is physiologically eliminated in a biphasic process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Regina Godoy ROCHA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical instrumentation of the root surface causes the formation of a smear layer, which is a physical barrier that can affect periodontal regeneration. Although different procedures have been proposed to remove the smear layer, there is no information concerning how long the smear layer persists on root surfaces after instrumentation in vivo. This study assessed the presence of the smear layer on root surfaces over a 28-day period after subgingival instrumentation with hand instruments. Fifty human teeth that were referred for extraction because of advanced periodontal disease were scaled and root planed (SRP by a single experienced operator. Ten teeth were randomly assigned to be extracted 7, 14, 21, and 28 days after SRP. Another 10 teeth were extracted immediately after instrumentation (Day 0, control group. The subgingival area of the instrumented roots was evaluated with scanning electron microscopy. Representative photomicrographs were assessed by a blinded and calibrated examiner according to a scoring system. A rapid and significant (p < 0.05, Z test initial reduction in the amount of smear layer was observed at 7 days, and a further significant (p < 0.05 decrease was observed 28 days after SRP. Interestingly, even 28 days after SRP, the smear layer was still present on root surfaces. This study showed that the physiological elimination of the smear layer occurred in a biphasic manner: a rapid initial reduction was observed 7 days after instrumentation, which was followed by a slow process leading to a significant decrease 28 days after instrumentation.

  17. DIRECT SMEAR VS CELL BLOCK (PLASMA- THROMBIN CLOT METHOD: DIAGNOSTIC VALUE IN SEROSAL CAVITIES FLUIDS CYTOLOGY

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    P MAHZOUNI

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. To improve testing sensitivity, most laboratories use two or more preparation methods but in our laboratories only one method is used which is "direct smear". In this study we tried to evaluate the diagnostic value of cell block as adjunct to direct smear in the cytologic investigation of serosal cavities fluids. Methods. In a clinical trial study 62 specimens of serosal cavity fluids were investigated in AL-Zahrapathology laboratory (Get. 1998 to Get. 1999. Cytologic slides from each specimens were prepared in two methods: direct smear and cell block (plasma- thrombin clot method. Smears and cell blocks were studied separately by the same cytopathologist. The diagnosis were categorized as positive, negative, suspicious or unsatisfactory. Also, the time required for studing of each slides were noted. Findings. The findings indicated that there are discrepancy between direct smear and cell block methods in the number of "suspicious" cases. Also there is significant difference between the mean time needed for studing of direct smear and cell block. Conclusion. It is recommended that the remainer of each specimen should be kept in refrigerator in order to prepare cell blocks in suspicious cases of direct smear. This method facilitates making a more definite diagnosis and reducing the number of suspicious cases.

  18. COMPARISION AND CORRELATION OF PAP SMEAR WITH COLPOSCOPY AND HISTOPATHIOLOGY IN EVALUATION OF CERVIX

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    Zainab S

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available AIMS AND OBJECTIVES : Correlate pap smear findings wi th colposcopic findings, To localize the lesion by colposcopy and obtain biopsy and to provide appropriate treatment wherever possible. MATERIAL AND METHODS : This was a prospective comparative study of 104 patients who attended the Gynecology OPD of KIMS f rom may2012 to may 2014. INCLUSION CRITERIA : 1. Women of age between 20 - 65 years. 2. Women with symptoms like vaginal discharge, post coital bleeding, postmenopausal bleeding, intermenstrual bleeding and persistent leucorrhoea . 3. Women with normal looking cervix but symptomatic. EXCLUSION CRITERIA : 1. Women with bleeding at the time of examination . 2. Women with frank lesions . 3. Women with clinical evidence of acute pelvic infection . 4. Women who was previously treated for carcinoma cervix . 5. Pregnant wome n. RESULTS : Sensitivity of pap smear was found to be very low which was 31.25% compared to its specificity which was 94.44%. Which means pap smear shows higher no. of false negative smears Colposcopy showed a high sensitivity 96.57% and a good specificity 88.55% compared to pap smear . CONCLUSIOS: It is evident that colposcopy is definitely more sensitive and accurate than pap smear. By combining pap smear with colposcopy, we can maximize the sensitivity and specificity of cancer cervix screening.

  19. Quantitative exfoliative cytology of normal and abnormal oral mucosal squames: preliminary communication.

    OpenAIRE

    Cowpe, J G

    1984-01-01

    Quantitative techniques have been applied to the exfoliative cytology of normal and abnormal human oral mucosal squames. This study is ongoing but early results indicate that a normal baseline for clinically normal oral squames, related to age and site, may be difficult to achieve. However, results obtained for the pathological smears suggest that these techniques may improve the diagnostic sensitivity of cytology in the management of oral cancer.

  20. Imaging diagnosis of cervical spine and spinal cord injuries in children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To provide the experience in imaging diagnosis of cervical spine and spinal cord injuries in children.Methods: Imaging data of cervical spine and spinal cord injuries in 62 children were retrospectively reviewed.The routine radiography including the lateral,anteroposterior and open-mouth odontoid views were performed in all the patients. Tomography was available for 25 patients, and flexion-extension lateral views for 28patients, CT scanning for 21 patients, MRI for 26 patients.Results: Of these patients, 46 patients were identified with injuries of upper cervical spine (9 with atlantal arch fracture, seven with axial fracture, 21 with odontoid fracture, 1 with atlantal arch fracture combining with odontoid fracture, and 1 with atlantal transverse ligament disruption); 7 patients sustained injuries of lower cervical spine (3 fractures of vertebral body, 2 dislocations and 6fracture-dislocations ); 2 patients had multiple noncontiguous cervical injuries; and 3 had cervical spinal cord injury without radiographic abnormalities