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Sample records for abnormal cardiac function

  1. Tansig activation function (of MLP network) for cardiac abnormality detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adnan, Ja'afar; Daud, Nik Ghazali Nik; Ishak, Mohd Taufiq; Rizman, Zairi Ismael; Rahman, Muhammad Izzuddin Abd

    2018-02-01

    Heart abnormality often occurs regardless of gender, age and races. This problem sometimes does not show any symptoms and it can cause a sudden death to the patient. In general, heart abnormality is the irregular electrical activity of the heart. This paper attempts to develop a program that can detect heart abnormality activity through implementation of Multilayer Perceptron (MLP) network. A certain amount of data of the heartbeat signals from the electrocardiogram (ECG) will be used in this project to train the MLP network by using several training algorithms with Tansig activation function.

  2. Ictal Cardiac Ryhthym Abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Rushna

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac rhythm abnormalities in the context of epilepsy are a well-known phenomenon. However, they are under-recognized and often missed. The pathophysiology of these events is unclear. Bradycardia and asystole are preceded by seizure onset suggesting ictal propagation into the cortex impacting cardiac autonomic function, and the insula and amygdala being possible culprits. Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) refers to the unanticipated death of a patient with epilepsy not related to status epilepticus, trauma, drowning, or suicide. Frequent refractory generalized tonic-clonic seizures, anti-epileptic polytherapy, and prolonged duration of epilepsy are some of the commonly identified risk factors for SUDEP. However, the most consistent risk factor out of these is an increased frequency of generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTC). Prevention of SUDEP is extremely important in patients with chronic, generalized epilepsy. Since increased frequency of GTCS is the most consistently reported risk factor for SUDEP, effective seizure control is the most important preventive strategy.

  3. Physiologic abnormalities of cardiac function in progressive systemic sclerosis with diffuse scleroderma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Follansbee, W.P.; Curtiss, E.I.; Medsger, T.A. Jr.; Steen, V.D.; Uretsky, B.F.; Owens, G.R.; Rodnan, G.P.

    1984-01-01

    To investigate cardiopulmonary function in progressive systemic sclerosis with diffuse scleroderma, we studied 26 patients with maximal exercise and redistribution thallium scans, rest and exercise radionuclide ventriculography, pulmonary-function testing, and chest roentgenography. Although only 6 patients had clinical evidence of cardiac involvement, 20 had abnormal thallium scans, including 10 with reversible exercise-induced defects and 18 with fixed defects (8 had both). Seven of the 10 patients who had exercise-induced defects and underwent cardiac catheterization had normal coronary angiograms. Mean resting left ventricular ejection fraction and mean resting right ventricular ejection fraction were lower in patients with post-exercise left ventricular thallium defect scores above the median (59 +/- 13 per cent vs. 69 +/- 6 per cent, and 36 +/- 12 per cent vs. 47 +/- 7 per cent, respectively). The authors conclude that in progressive systemic sclerosis with diffuse scleroderma, abnormalities of myocardial perfusion are common and appear to be due to a disturbance of the myocardial microcirculation. Both right and left ventricular dysfunction appear to be related to this circulatory disturbance, suggesting ischemically mediated injury

  4. Disruption of Ah Receptor Signaling during Mouse Development Leads to Abnormal Cardiac Structure and Function in the Adult.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinicius S Carreira

    Full Text Available The Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD Theory proposes that the environment encountered during fetal life and infancy permanently shapes tissue physiology and homeostasis such that damage resulting from maternal stress, poor nutrition or exposure to environmental agents may be at the heart of adult onset disease. Interference with endogenous developmental functions of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR, either by gene ablation or by exposure in utero to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD, a potent AHR ligand, causes structural, molecular and functional cardiac abnormalities and altered heart physiology in mouse embryos. To test if embryonic effects progress into an adult phenotype, we investigated whether Ahr ablation or TCDD exposure in utero resulted in cardiac abnormalities in adult mice long after removal of the agent. Ten-months old adult Ahr-/- and in utero TCDD-exposed Ahr+/+ mice showed sexually dimorphic abnormal cardiovascular phenotypes characterized by echocardiographic findings of hypertrophy, ventricular dilation and increased heart weight, resting heart rate and systolic and mean blood pressure, and decreased exercise tolerance. Underlying these effects, genes in signaling networks related to cardiac hypertrophy and mitochondrial function were differentially expressed. Cardiac dysfunction in mouse embryos resulting from AHR signaling disruption seems to progress into abnormal cardiac structure and function that predispose adults to cardiac disease, but while embryonic dysfunction is equally robust in males and females, the adult abnormalities are more prevalent in females, with the highest severity in Ahr-/- females. The findings reported here underscore the conclusion that AHR signaling in the developing heart is one potential target of environmental factors associated with cardiovascular disease.

  5. Lentiginosis, Deafness and Cardiac Abnormalities*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1973-01-06

    Jan 6, 1973 ... His height. mass. intelligence and genitalia were normal. The aSSOCiatIOn between deafness and disturbance of cardiac conduction and between pigmented skin lesions and cardiac abnormalities, has been well described. Should. ~I patient present with multiple lentigines and/or familial sensineural ...

  6. Cardiac abnormalities after subarachnoid hemorrhage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bilt, I.A.C. van der

    2016-01-01

    Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage(aSAH) is a devastating neurological disease. During the course of the aSAH several neurological and medical complications may occur. Cardiac abnormalities after aSAH are observed often and resemble stress cardiomyopathy or Tako-tsubo cardiomyopathy(Broken Heart

  7. CARDIAC STRUCTURAL AND FUNCTIONAL ABNORMALITIES IN FEMALES WITH UNTREATED HYPOPITUITARISM DUE TO SHEEHAN SYNDROME: RESPONSE TO HORMONE REPLACEMENT THERAPY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laway, Bashir Ahmad; Ramzan, Mahroosa; Allai, Mohd Sultan; Wani, Arshad Iqbal; Misgar, Raiz Ahmad

    2016-09-01

    Data on cardiac abnormalities in females with untreated hypopituitarism are limited. We investigated echocardiographic abnormalities in females with untreated hypopituitarism and their response to treatment. Twenty-three females with treatment-naïve hypopituitarism and 30 matched healthy controls were evaluated for cardiac structure and function. Echocardiographic evaluation was done at presentation and after achieving a euthyroid and eucortisol state. Fourteen (61%) patients had mitral regurgitation, and 11 (48%) had pericardial effusion as against none among controls. Indices of left ventricular (LV) size like LV end diastolic dimension (LVEDD; 44.5 ± 3.5 mm in cases vs. 47.6 ± 3.8 mm in controls, P = .004), and LV diastolic volume (LVEDV; 91.8 ± 18.0 mL versus 106.5 ± 20.4 mL, P = .009) were significantly lower in the SS group compared with controls. LV mass (LVM) was 70.8 ± 19.2 g in cases and 108.0 ± 33.2 g in controls (P = .02). Similarly, indices of LV systolic function like stroke volume (SV; 59.1 ± 12.0 mL in cases and 74.4 ± 15.8 mL in controls; P = .000), ejection fraction (EF; 64.3 ± 6.2 % in cases against 69.9 ± 9.2 % in controls; P = .03), and fractional shortening (FS; 34.9 ± 4.7% versus 40.1 ± 4.4%, P = .000) were significantly decreased in patients compared with controls. Cardiac abnormalities normalized with restoration of a euthyroid and eucortisol state. Pericardial effusion, mitral regurgitation, and diminished LVM are common in females with untreated hypopituitarism. ACTH = adrenocorticotrophic hormone BMI = body mass index DT = deceleration time EDV = end-diastolic volume EF = ejection fraction FS = fractional shortening GH = growth hormone IGF-1 = insulin growth factor-1 ITT = insulin tolerance test IVSd = interventricular septal diameter LH = luteinizing hormone LV = left ventricular LVEDD = LV end diastolic dimension LVEDV = LV end diastolic volume LVM = LV mass MRI = magnetic resonance imaging MVP = mitral value prolapse PPH

  8. Assessment of structural cardiac abnormalities and diastolic function in women with gestational diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Alexandra P; Calderon, Iracema M P; Costa, Roberto A A; Roscani, Meliza G; Magalhães, Claudia G; Borges, Vera T M

    2015-05-01

    The main manifestation of hyperglycaemia during pregnancy is gestational diabetes mellitus. It can herald diabetes mellitus type 2 and its deleterious long-term effects, such as hypertension and cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to assess diastolic function in women with gestational diabetes mellitus, one of the first signs of future cardiovascular disease. A total of 21 women with gestational diabetes mellitus and 23 healthy pregnant women (control group) between 34 and 37 weeks of gestation underwent echocardiographic assessment. The diagnosis of gestational diabetes mellitus was made in agreement with the American Diabetes Association criteria. Echocardiographic images obtained were analysed according to the criteria of the American Society of Echocardiography. Data were analysed using Pearson correlation coefficient, analysis of variance and Student's t-test. Women with gestational diabetes mellitus had higher posterior wall and interventricular septum thickness, increased left ventricular mass and left ventricular mass index, lower early diastolic annular velocity and early diastolic annular velocity/late diastolic annular velocity ratio. There was a positive correlation between left ventricular mass index and fasting glucose and pregnancy body mass index. Patients with gestational diabetes mellitus seem to have a different diastolic profile as well as a mildly dysfunctional pattern on echocardiogram, which may show a need for greater glycaemic control. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. Architecture design of the multi-functional wavelet-based ECG microprocessor for realtime detection of abnormal cardiac events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Li-Fang; Chen, Tung-Chien; Chen, Liang-Gee

    2012-01-01

    Most of the abnormal cardiac events such as myocardial ischemia, acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and fatal arrhythmia can be diagnosed through continuous electrocardiogram (ECG) analysis. According to recent clinical research, early detection and alarming of such cardiac events can reduce the time delay to the hospital, and the clinical outcomes of these individuals can be greatly improved. Therefore, it would be helpful if there is a long-term ECG monitoring system with the ability to identify abnormal cardiac events and provide realtime warning for the users. The combination of the wireless body area sensor network (BASN) and the on-sensor ECG processor is a possible solution for this application. In this paper, we aim to design and implement a digital signal processor that is suitable for continuous ECG monitoring and alarming based on the continuous wavelet transform (CWT) through the proposed architectures--using both programmable RISC processor and application specific integrated circuits (ASIC) for performance optimization. According to the implementation results, the power consumption of the proposed processor integrated with an ASIC for CWT computation is only 79.4 mW. Compared with the single-RISC processor, about 91.6% of the power reduction is achieved.

  10. Cardiac abnormality prediction using HMLP network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adnan, Ja'afar; Ahmad, K. A.; Mat, Muhamad Hadzren; Rizman, Zairi Ismael; Ahmad, Shahril

    2018-02-01

    Cardiac abnormality often occurs regardless of gender, age and races but depends on the lifestyle. This problem sometimes does not show any symptoms and usually detected once it already critical which lead to a sudden death to the patient. Basically, cardiac abnormality is the irregular electrical signal that generate by the pacemaker of the heart. This paper attempts to develop a program that can detect cardiac abnormality activity through implementation of Hybrid Multilayer Perceptron (HMLP) network. A certain amount of data of the heartbeat signals from the electrocardiogram (ECG) will be used in this project to train the MLP and HMLP network by using Modified Recursive Prediction Error (MRPE) algorithm and to test the network performance.

  11. Hibiscus sabdariffa (Roselle) Polyphenol-rich Extract Averts Cardiac Functional and Structural Abnormalities in Type 1 Diabetic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed Yusof, Nur Liyana; Zainalabidin, Satirah; Mohd Fauzi, Norsyahida; Budin, Siti Balkis

    2018-05-04

    Diabetes mellitus is often associated with cardiac functional and structural alteration, an initial event leading to cardiovascular complications. Hibiscus sabdariffa or roselle has been widely proven as an antioxidant and recently has incited research interest for its potential in treating cardiovascular disease. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the cardioprotective effects of H. sabdariffa (roselle) polyphenol-rich extract (HPE) in type-1 induced diabetic rats. Twenty-four male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into four groups (n=6/group): non-diabetic (NDM), diabetic alone (DM), diabetic supplemented with HPE (DM+HPE) and metformin (DM+MET). Type-1 diabetes was induced with streptozotocin (55 mg/kg/i.p). Rats were forced-fed HPE (100 mg/kg) and metformin (150 mg/kg) daily for eight weeks. Results showed that HPE supplementation improved hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia significantly (p<0.05) in DM+HPE compared to DM group. HPE supplementation attenuated cardiac oxidative damage in DM group, indicated by low malondialdehyde and advanced oxidation protein product. As for the antioxidant status, HPE significantly (p<0.05) increased glutathione level, as well as catalase and superoxide dismutase 1 and 2 activities. These findings correlate with cardiac function, whereby HPE supplementation improved left ventricle developed pressure, coronary flow, cardiac contractility and relaxation rate significantly (p<0.05). Histological analysis showed a marked decrease in cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and fibrosis in DM+HPE compared to DM group. Ultrastructural changes and impairment of mitochondria induced by diabetes were minimized by HPE supplementation. Collectively, these findings suggest that HPE is a potential cardioprotective agent in a diabetic setting through its hypoglycemic, anti-hyperlipidemia and antioxidant properties.

  12. Echocardiographic Evaluation of Coronary Abnormalities and Cardiac Function in a Murine Model of Kawasaki Disease Using High-frequency Ultrasound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-Xin Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: Echocardiography could identify the consecutive changes of coronary artery in KD mice. Echocardiography is more convenient and direct in evaluating the coronary abnormalities in this animal model.

  13. Cardiac function in acute hypothyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donaghue, K.; Hales, I.; Allwright, S.; Cooper, R.; Edwards, A.; Grant, S.; Morrow, A.; Wilmshurst, E.; Royal North Shore Hospital, Sydney

    1985-01-01

    It has been established that chronic hypothyroidism may affect cardiac function by several mechanisms. It is not known how long the patient has to be hypothyroid for cardiac involvement to develop. This study was undertaken to assess the effect of a short period of hypothyroidism (10 days) on cardiac function. Nine patients who had had total tyroidectomy, had received ablative radioiodine for thyroid cancer and were euthyroid on replacement therapy were studied while both euthyroid and hypothyroid. Cardiac assessment was performed by X-ray, ECG, echocardiography and gated blood-pool scans. After 10 days of hypothyroidisms, the left-ventricular ejection fraction failed to rise after exercise in 4 of the 9 patients studied, which was significant (P<0.002). No significant changes in cardiac size or function at rest were detected. This functional abnormality in the absence of any demonstrable change in cardiac size and the absence of pericardial effussion with normal basal function suggest that short periods of hypothyroidism may reduce cardiac reserve, mostly because of alterations in metabolic function. (orig.)

  14. Cardiac Abnormalities in Youth with Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacha, Fida; Gidding, Samuel S

    2016-07-01

    Childhood obesity has been linked to cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in adulthood. Of great concern is the expected increase in the population's CVD burden in relation to childhood obesity. This is compounded by the risk related to chronic hyperglycemia exposure in youth with type 2 diabetes. We herein provide an overview of the spectrum of early cardiovascular disease manifestation in youth with obesity and type 2 diabetes, in particular abnormalities in cardiac structure and function. Cardiac remodeling and adverse target organ damage is already evident in the pediatric age group in children with obesity and type 2 diabetes. This supports the importance of intensifying obesity prevention efforts and early intervention to treat comorbidities of obesity in the pediatric age group to prevent cardiac events in early adulthood.

  15. Thallium-201 is comparable to technetium-99m-sestamibi for estimating cardiac function in patients with abnormal myocardial perfusion imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Che Wu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed the left-ventricular functional data obtained by cardiac-gated single-photon emission computed tomography myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI with thallium-201 (Tl-201 and technetium-99m-sestamibi (MIBI protocols in different groups of patients, and compared the data between Tl-201 and MIBI. Two hundred and seventy-two patients undergoing dipyridamole stress/redistribution Tl-201 MPI and 563 patients undergoing 1-day rest/dipyridamole stress MIBI MPI were included. Higher mean stress ejection fraction (EF, rest EF, and change in EF (ΔEF were noticed in the normal MPI groups by both Tl-201 and MIBI protocols. Higher mean EF was observed in the females with normal MPI results despite their higher mean age. Comparisons between the Tl-201 and MIBI groups suggested a significant difference in all functional parameters, except for the rest end diastolic volume/end systolic volume and ΔEF between groups with negative MPI results. For the positive MPI groups, there was no significant difference in all parameters, except for the change in end diastolic volume and change in end systolic volume after stress between both protocols. The Tl-201 provides comparable left-ventricular functional data to MIBI cardiac-gated single-photon emission computed tomography in patients with positive MPI results, and may therefore be undertaken routinely for incremental functional information that is especially valuable to this patient group.

  16. Cardiac function studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horn, H.J.

    1986-01-01

    A total of 27 patients were subjected tointramyocardial sequential scintiscanning (first pass) using 99m-Tc human serum albumin. A refined method is described that is suitable to analyse clinically relevant parameters like blood volume, cardiac output, ejection fraction, stroke volume, enddiastolic and endsystolic volumes as well as pulmonal transition time and uses a complete camaracomputer system adapted to the requirements of a routine procedure. Unless there is special hardware available, the method does not yet appear mature enough to be put into general practice. Its importance recently appeared in a new light due to the advent of particularly shortlived isotopes. For the time being, however, ECG-triggered equilibrium studies are to be preferred for cardiac function tests. (TRV) [de

  17. Abnormal Cardiac Autonomic Regulation in Mice Lacking ASIC3

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    Ching-Feng Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Integration of sympathetic and parasympathetic outflow is essential in maintaining normal cardiac autonomic function. Recent studies demonstrate that acid-sensing ion channel 3 (ASIC3 is a sensitive acid sensor for cardiac ischemia and prolonged mild acidification can open ASIC3 and evoke a sustained inward current that fires action potentials in cardiac sensory neurons. However, the physiological role of ASIC3 in cardiac autonomic regulation is not known. In this study, we elucidate the role of ASIC3 in cardiac autonomic function using Asic3−/− mice. Asic3−/− mice showed normal baseline heart rate and lower blood pressure as compared with their wild-type littermates. Heart rate variability analyses revealed imbalanced autonomic regulation, with decreased sympathetic function. Furthermore, Asic3−/− mice demonstrated a blunted response to isoproterenol-induced cardiac tachycardia and prolonged duration to recover to baseline heart rate. Moreover, quantitative RT-PCR analysis of gene expression in sensory ganglia and heart revealed that no gene compensation for muscarinic acetylcholines receptors and beta-adrenalin receptors were found in Asic3−/− mice. In summary, we unraveled an important role of ASIC3 in regulating cardiac autonomic function, whereby loss of ASIC3 alters the normal physiological response to ischemic stimuli, which reveals new implications for therapy in autonomic nervous system-related cardiovascular diseases.

  18. Correlation between arterial wall stiffness, N-terminal prohormone of brain natriuretic peptide, functional and structural myocardial abnormalities in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiac autonomic neuropathy

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    Viktoriya Aleksandrovna Serhiyenko

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To assess arterial wall stiffness, plasma levels of of N-terminal prohormone of brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP, as well as functional state and structure of the myocardium in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM and cardiac autonomic neuropathy (CAN.Materials and Methods. The study involved a total of 65 patients with T2DM. 12 had no evidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD or CAN, 14 were diagnosed with subclinical stage of CAN, 18 – with functional stage, and 21 – with organic stage. We measured aortic pulse wave velocity (PWV, aortic augmentation index (AIx, brachial artery AIx, ambulatory arterial stiffness index (AASI and plasma levels of NT-proBNP. Clinical examination included ECG, Holter monitoring, ambulatory BP measurement and echocardiography.Results. Patients with isolated T2DM showed a trend for increased vascular wall stiffness. PWV was increased in patients with subclinical stage of CAN. Aortic and brachial AIx, PWV and AASI were elevated in patients with functional stage of CAN, PWV being significantly higher vs. subclinical CAN subgroup. Organic stage was characterized by pathologically increased values of all primary parameters; PWV and AASI were significantly higher compared with other groups. Development and progression of CAN was accompanied by an increase in NT-proBNP plasma levels. Concentration of NT-proBNP was in direct correlation with left ventricular mass (LVM and PWV. PWV and LVM values also directly correlated between themselves.Conclusion. Development and progression of CAN in patients with T2DM is accompanied by an increase in vascular wall stiffness. The elevation of plasma NT-proBNP in patients with T2DM correlates with the development of CAN and is significantly and independently associated with an increase in LVM and PWV. Our data suggests the pathophysiological interconnection between metabolic, functional and structural myocardial abnormalities in patients with T2DM and CAN.

  19. Correlation between arterial wall stiffness, N-terminal prohormone of brain natriuretic peptide, functional and structural myocardial abnormalities in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiac autonomic neuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktoriya Alexandrovna Serhiyenko

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To assess arterial wall stiffness, plasma levels of of N-terminal prohormone of brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP, as well as functional state and structure of the myocardium in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM and cardiac autonomic neuropathy (CAN. Materials and Methods. The study involved a total of 65 patients with T2DM. 12 had no evidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD or CAN, 14 were diagnosed with subclinical stage of CAN, 18 ? with functional stage, and 21 ? with organic stage. We measured aortic pulse wave velocity (PWV, aortic augmentation index (AIx, brachial artery AIx, ambulatory arterial stiffness index (AASI and plasma levels of NT-proBNP. Clinical examination included ECG, Holter monitoring, ambulatory BP measurement and echocardiography. Results.  Patients with isolated T2DM showed a trend for increased vascular wall stiffness. PWV was increased in patients with subclinical stage of CAN. Aortic and brachial AIx, PWV and AASI were elevated in patients with functional stage of CAN, PWV being significantly higher vs. subclinical CAN subgroup. Organic stage was characterized by pathologically increased values of all primary parameters; PWV and AASI were significantly higher compared with other groups. Development and progression of CAN was accompanied by an increase in NT-proBNP plasma levels. Concentration of NT-proBNP was in direct correlation with left ventricular mass (LVM and PWV. PWV and LVM values also directly correlated between themselves. Conclusion. Development and progression of CAN in patients with T2DM is accompanied by an increase in vascular wall stiffness. The elevation of plasma NT-proBNP in patients with T2DM correlates with the development of CAN and is significantly and independently associated with an increase in LVM and PWV. Our data suggests the pathophysiological interconnection between metabolic, functional and structural myocardial abnormalities in patients with T2DM and CAN.

  20. Normal and abnormal electrical activation of the heart. Imaging patterns obtained by phase analysis of equilibrium cardiac studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavel, D.; Byrom, E.; Swiryn, S.; Meyer-Pavel, C.; Rosen, K.

    1981-01-01

    By using a temporal Fourier analysis of gated equilibrium cardiac studies, phase images were obtained. These functional images were analysed qualitatively and quantitatively to determine if specific patterns can be found for normal versus abnormal electrical activation of the heart. The study included eight subjects with normal cardiac function and 24 patients with abnormal electrical activation: eight with left bundle branch block (LBBB), two with right bundle branch block (RBBB), six with Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome (WPW), one with junctional rhythm, one with spontaneous sustained ventricular tachycardia (VT) (all with normal wall motion), two with chronic transvenous pacemakers, and four with induced sustained VT (all with regional wall motion abnormalities). The results show that the two ventricals have the same mean phase (within +-9 0 ) in normals, but significantly different mean phases in all patients with bundle branch blocks. Of the six WPW patients, three had a distinctive abnormal pattern. The patient with junctional rhythm, those with transvenous pacemakers, and those with VT all had abnormal patterns on the phase image. The phase image is capable of showing differences between patients with electrical activation and a variety of electrical abnormalities. Within the latter category distinct patterns can be associated with each type of abnormality. (author)

  1. Usefulness of cardiac 125I-metaiodobenzylguanidine uptake for evaluation of cardiac sympathetic nerve abnormalities in diabetic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Nanami; Kashiwagi, Atsunori; Shigeta, Yukio

    1992-01-01

    We investigated cardiac sympathetic nerve abnormalities in streptozocin-induced diabetic rats using 125 I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG). The radioactivity ratio of cardiac tissue to 1 ml blood (H/B) was used as an index of cardiac MIBG uptake. Cardiac 125 I-MIBG uptake (H/B) in 4-, 8- and 20-wk diabetic rats was 48% lower than that in control rats. Similar results were obtained even when the data were corrected for g wet tissue weight. Although there was no improvement in H/B following 2-wk insulin treatment, the H/B ratio increased significantly, to 85% of control levels, following 4 wk insulin treatment indicating the reversibility of impaired MIBG uptake in diabetic rats. In vivo reserpine treatment resulted in a 50% reduction in the H/B value in control rats. However, the treatment did not significantly suppress uptake in diabetic rats. Cardiac norepinephrine content in both * 4- and ** 8-wk diabetic rats was significantly ( * p ** p 125 I-MIBG in diabetic rats is significantly impaired due to cardiac sympathetic nerve abnormalities. These abnormalities are reversible, however, dependent on the diabetic state. (author)

  2. High-sugar intake does not exacerbate metabolic abnormalities or cardiac dysfunction in genetic cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecker, Peter A; Galvao, Tatiana F; O'Shea, Karen M; Brown, Bethany H; Henderson, Reney; Riggle, Heather; Gupte, Sachin A; Stanley, William C

    2012-05-01

    A high-sugar intake increases heart disease risk in humans. In animals, sugar intake accelerates heart failure development by increased reactive oxygen species (ROS). Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) can fuel ROS production by providing reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) for superoxide generation by NADPH oxidase. Conversely, G6PD also facilitates ROS scavenging using the glutathione pathway. We hypothesized that a high-sugar intake would increase flux through G6PD to increase myocardial NADPH and ROS and accelerate cardiac dysfunction and death. Six-week-old TO-2 hamsters, a non-hypertensive model of genetic cardiomyopathy caused by a δ-sarcoglycan mutation, were fed a long-term diet of high starch or high sugar (57% of energy from sucrose plus fructose). After 24 wk, the δ-sarcoglycan-deficient animals displayed expected decreases in survival and cardiac function associated with cardiomyopathy (ejection fraction: control 68.7 ± 4.5%, TO-2 starch 46.1 ± 3.7%, P sugar 58.0 ± 4.2%, NS, versus TO-2 starch or control; median survival: TO-2 starch 278 d, TO-2 sugar 318 d, P = 0.133). Although the high-sugar intake was expected to exacerbate cardiomyopathy, surprisingly, there was no further decrease in ejection fraction or survival with high sugar compared with starch in cardiomyopathic animals. Cardiomyopathic animals had systemic and cardiac metabolic abnormalities (increased serum lipids and glucose and decreased myocardial oxidative enzymes) that were unaffected by diet. The high-sugar intake increased myocardial superoxide, but NADPH and lipid peroxidation were unaffected. A sugar-enriched diet did not exacerbate ventricular function, metabolic abnormalities, or survival in heart failure despite an increase in superoxide production. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. THE STUDY OF CARDIAC ABNORMALITY IN GERIATRIC POPULATION OF RURAL CENTRAL INDIA

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    Aman Chaturvedi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Health care of elderly in the society has emerged as an increasingly important issue in the recent years. As the elderly proportion of our population expands, maintaining health and wellness of the aged will continue to be an important research priority in the near future. This study was undertaken to determine cardiac abnormalities in geriatric population by echocardiography in rural central India. The aim of this study is to map the spectrum of cardiac abnormality in geriatric population of rural central India. MATERIALS AND METHODS The study was carried out on subjects from September 2014 – August 2016. All geriatric subjects i.e. above the age of 60 years who were admitted in medicine ward or who attended medicine OPD were considered for the study. All the preliminary biodata was collected, history taking and physical examination were done, ECG was recorded and finally 2D echo was performed in MMode, 2D echo, Doppler (CW and PW and TDI. All observations were recorded on a standard proforma sheet, statistical analysis was performed and results and conclusions drawn. RESULTS In present study, there was higher prevalence of major diseases. On M-Mode echocardiography, left atrial enlargement, LV hypertrophy/dilatation was found in significant number of subjects. On 2D echo, Myocardial Scarring/Thinning, valvular Degeneration was found significantly higher in elderly males, mitral and aortic calcification was found most frequently with prevalence higher in males. On Doppler echocardiography, diastolic dysfunction was common in elderly with very few subjects having normal diastolic function, most of the subjects having grade II diastolic dysfunction. Aortic, mitral and tricuspid regurgitation was common in elderly, and stenotic lesions of aortic and mitral valve were common. CONCLUSION We recommend that echocardiography should become an investigative norm in the elderly, this will aid in early detection of cardiovascular abnormalities

  4. Perceived functional impact of abnormal facial appearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, Marlene; Borah, Gregory L

    2003-06-01

    Functional facial deformities are usually described as those that impair respiration, eating, hearing, or speech. Yet facial scars and cutaneous deformities have a significant negative effect on social functionality that has been poorly documented in the scientific literature. Insurance companies are declining payments for reconstructive surgical procedures for facial deformities caused by congenital disabilities and after cancer or trauma operations that do not affect mechanical facial activity. The purpose of this study was to establish a large, sample-based evaluation of the perceived social functioning, interpersonal characteristics, and employability indices for a range of facial appearances (normal and abnormal). Adult volunteer evaluators (n = 210) provided their subjective perceptions based on facial physical appearance, and an analysis of the consequences of facial deformity on parameters of preferential treatment was performed. A two-group comparative research design rated the differences among 10 examples of digitally altered facial photographs of actual patients among various age and ethnic groups with "normal" and "abnormal" congenital deformities or posttrauma scars. Photographs of adult patients with observable congenital and posttraumatic deformities (abnormal) were digitally retouched to eliminate the stigmatic defects (normal). The normal and abnormal photographs of identical patients were evaluated by the large sample study group on nine parameters of social functioning, such as honesty, employability, attractiveness, and effectiveness, using a visual analogue rating scale. Patients with abnormal facial characteristics were rated as significantly less honest (p = 0.007), less employable (p = 0.001), less trustworthy (p = 0.01), less optimistic (p = 0.001), less effective (p = 0.02), less capable (p = 0.002), less intelligent (p = 0.03), less popular (p = 0.001), and less attractive (p = 0.001) than were the same patients with normal facial

  5. Cardiac function and cognition in older community-dwelling cardiac patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eggermont, Laura H.P.; Aly, Mohamed F.A.; Vuijk, Pieter J.; de Boer, Karin; Kamp, Otto; van Rossum, Albert C.; Scherder, Erik J.A.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Cognitive deficits have been reported in older cardiac patients. An underlying mechanism for these findings may be reduced cardiac function. The relationship between cardiac function as represented by different echocardiographic measures and different cognitive function domains in older

  6. Functional neuroimaging abnormalities in idiopathic generalized epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan L. McGill

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI techniques have been used to quantitatively assess focal and network abnormalities. Idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE is characterized by bilateral synchronous spike–wave discharges on electroencephalography (EEG but normal clinical MRI. Dysfunctions involving the neocortex, particularly the prefrontal cortex, and thalamus likely contribute to seizure activity. To identify possible morphometric and functional differences in the brains of IGE patients and normal controls, we employed measures of thalamic volumes, cortical thickness, gray–white blurring, fractional anisotropy (FA measures from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI and fractional amplitude of low frequency fluctuations (fALFF in thalamic subregions from resting state functional MRI. Data from 27 patients with IGE and 27 age- and sex-matched controls showed similar thalamic volumes, cortical thickness and gray–white contrast. There were no differences in FA values on DTI in tracts connecting the thalamus and prefrontal cortex. Functional analysis revealed decreased fALFF in the prefrontal cortex (PFC subregion of the thalamus in patients with IGE. We provide minimum detectable effect sizes for each measure used in the study. Our analysis indicates that fMRI-based methods are more sensitive than quantitative structural techniques for characterizing brain abnormalities in IGE.

  7. Cardiac Abnormalities in Adult Patients With Polymyositis or Dermatomyositis as Assessed by Noninvasive Modalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diederichsen, L P; Simonsen, J A; Diederichsen, A C

    2016-01-01

    age (P = 0.001), disease duration (P = 0.004), presence of myositis-specific or -associated autoantibodies (P = 0.05), and high cardiac (99m) Tc-PYP uptake (P = 0.006). In multivariate analysis of the pooled data for patients and HCs, a diagnosis of PM/DM (P .... CONCLUSION: Patients with PM or DM had an increased prevalence of cardiac abnormalities compared to HCs. LVDD was a common occurrence in PM/DM patients and correlated to disease duration. In addition, the association of LVDD with myositis-specific or -associated autoantibodies and high cardiac (99m) Tc...

  8. Assessment of Cardiac Function in Fetuses of Gestational Diabetic Mothers During the Second Trimester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atiq, Mehnaz; Ikram, Anum; Hussain, Batool M; Saleem, Bakhtawar

    2017-06-01

    Fetuses of diabetic mothers may have structural or functional cardiac abnormalities which increase morbidity and mortality. Isolated functional abnormalities have been identified in the third trimester. The aim of the present study was to assess fetal cardiac function (systolic, diastolic, and global myocardial performance) in the second trimester in mothers with gestational diabetes, and also to relate cardiac function with glycemic control. Mothers with gestational diabetes mellitus referred for fetal cardiac evaluation in the second trimester (between 19 and 24 weeks) from March 2015 to February 2016 were enrolled as case subjects in this study. Non-diabetic mothers who had a fetal echocardiogram done between 19 and 24 weeks for other indications were enrolled as controls. Functional cardiac variables showed a statistically significant difference in isovolumetric relaxation and contraction times and the myocardial performance index and mitral E/A ratios in the gestational diabetic group (p = 0.003). Mitral annular plane systolic excursion was significantly less in the diabetic group (p = 0.01). The only functional cardiac variable found abnormal in mothers with poor glycemic control was the prolonged isovolumetric relaxation time. Functional cardiac abnormalities can be detected in the second trimester in fetuses of gestational diabetic mothers and timely intervention can improve postnatal outcomes.

  9. Cardiac abnormalities in a follow-up study on carriers of Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Westrum, S. M. Schade; Hoogerwaard, E. M.; Dekker, L.; Standaar, T. S.; Bakker, E.; Ippel, P. F.; Oosterwijk, J. C.; Majoor-Krakauer, D. F.; van Essen, A. J.; Leschot, N. J.; Wilde, A. A. M.; de Haan, R. J.; de Visser, M.; van der Kooi, A. J.

    Objectives: Cardiac involvement has been reported in carriers of dystrophin mutations giving rise to Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) and Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD). The progress of these abnormalities during long-term follow-up is unknown. We describe the long-term follow-up of dilated

  10. Cardiac abnormalities in a follow-up study on carriers of Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schade van Westrum, S. M.; Hoogerwaard, E. M.; Dekker, L.; Standaar, T. S.; Bakker, E.; Ippel, P. F.; Oosterwijk, J. C.; Majoor-Krakauer, D. F.; van Essen, A. J.; Leschot, N. J.; Wilde, A. A. M.; de Haan, R. J.; de Visser, M.; van der Kooi, A. J.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: Cardiac involvement has been reported in carriers of dystrophin mutations giving rise to Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) and Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD). The progress of these abnormalities during long-term follow-up is unknown. We describe the long-term follow-up of dilated

  11. Crack Cocaine-Induced Cardiac Conduction Abnormalities Are Reversed by Sodium Bicarbonate Infusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Henrique Miranda

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a dramatic case of a 19-year-old man with crack cocaine overdose with important clinical complications as cardiac arrest due to ventricular fibrillation and epileptics status. During this intoxication, electrocardiographic abnormalities similar to those found in tricyclic antidepressant poisoning were observed, and they were reversed by intravenous sodium bicarbonate infusion.

  12. Detecting Regional Myocardial Abnormalities in Patients With Wolff-Parkinson-White Syndrome With the Use of ECG-Gated Cardiac MDCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hye-Jeong; Uhm, Jae-Sun; Joung, Boyoung; Hong, Yoo Jin; Hur, Jin; Choi, Byoung Wook; Kim, Young Jin

    2016-04-01

    Myocardial dyskinesia caused by the accessory pathway and related reversible heart failure have been well documented in echocardiographic studies of pediatric patients with Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome. However, the long-term effects of dyskinesia on the myocardium of adult patients have not been studied in depth. The goal of the present study was to evaluate regional myocardial abnormalities on cardiac CT examinations of adult patients with WPW syndrome. Of 74 patients with WPW syndrome who underwent cardiac CT from January 2006 through December 2013, 58 patients (mean [± SD] age, 52.2 ± 12.7 years), 36 (62.1%) of whom were men, were included in the study after the presence of combined cardiac disease was excluded. Two observers blindly evaluated myocardial thickness and attenuation on cardiac CT scans. On the basis of CT findings, patients were classified as having either normal or abnormal findings. We compared the two groups for other clinical findings, including observations from ECG, echocardiography, and electrophysiologic study. Of the 58 patients studied, 16 patients (27.6%) were found to have myocardial abnormalities (i.e., abnormal wall thinning with or without low attenuation). All abnormal findings corresponded with the location of the accessory pathway. Patients with abnormal findings had statistically significantly decreased left ventricular function, compared with patients with normal findings (p syndrome. These abnormal findings might reflect the long-term effects of dyskinesia, suggesting irreversible myocardial injury that ultimately causes left ventricular dysfunction.

  13. Mathematical Models of Cardiac Pacemaking Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pan; Lines, Glenn T.; Maleckar, Mary M.; Tveito, Aslak

    2013-10-01

    Over the past half century, there has been intense and fruitful interaction between experimental and computational investigations of cardiac function. This interaction has, for example, led to deep understanding of cardiac excitation-contraction coupling; how it works, as well as how it fails. However, many lines of inquiry remain unresolved, among them the initiation of each heartbeat. The sinoatrial node, a cluster of specialized pacemaking cells in the right atrium of the heart, spontaneously generates an electro-chemical wave that spreads through the atria and through the cardiac conduction system to the ventricles, initiating the contraction of cardiac muscle essential for pumping blood to the body. Despite the fundamental importance of this primary pacemaker, this process is still not fully understood, and ionic mechanisms underlying cardiac pacemaking function are currently under heated debate. Several mathematical models of sinoatrial node cell membrane electrophysiology have been constructed as based on different experimental data sets and hypotheses. As could be expected, these differing models offer diverse predictions about cardiac pacemaking activities. This paper aims to present the current state of debate over the origins of the pacemaking function of the sinoatrial node. Here, we will specifically review the state-of-the-art of cardiac pacemaker modeling, with a special emphasis on current discrepancies, limitations, and future challenges.

  14. Mathematical Models of Cardiac Pacemaking Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan eLi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Over the past half century, there has been intense and fruitful interaction between experimental and computational investigations of cardiac function. This interaction has, for example, led to deep understanding of cardiac excitation-contraction coupling; how it works, as well as how it fails. However, many lines of inquiry remain unresolved, among them the initiation of each heartbeat. The sinoatrial node, a cluster of specialized pacemaking cells in the right atrium of the heart, spontaneously generates an electro-chemical wave that spreads through the atria and through the cardiac conduction system to the ventricles, initiating the contraction of cardiac muscle essential for pumping blood to the body. Despite the fundamental importance of this primary pacemaker, this process is still not fully understood, and ionic mechanisms underlying cardiac pacemaking function are currently under heated debate. Several mathematical models of sinoatrial node cell membrane electrophysiology have been constructed as based on different experimental data sets and hypotheses. As could be expected, these differing models offer diverse predictions about cardiac pacemaking activities. This paper aims to present the current state of debate over the origins of the pacemaking function of the sinoatrial node. Here, we will specifically review the state-of-the-art of cardiac pacemaker modeling, with a special emphasis on current discrepancies, limitations, and future challenges.

  15. A null mutation of Hhex results in abnormal cardiac development, defective vasculogenesis and elevated Vegfa levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallaq, Haifa; Pinter, Emese; Enciso, Josephine; McGrath, James; Zeiss, Caroline; Brueckner, Martina; Madri, Joseph; Jacobs, Harris C; Wilson, Christine M; Vasavada, Hemaxi; Jiang, Xiaobing; Bogue, Clifford W

    2004-10-01

    The homeobox gene Hhex has recently been shown to be essential for normal liver, thyroid and forebrain development. Hhex(-/-) mice die by mid-gestation (E14.5) and the cause of their early demise remains unclear. Because Hhex is expressed in the developing blood islands at E7.0 in the endothelium of the developing vasculature and heart at E9.0-9.5, and in the ventral foregut endoderm at E8.5-9.0, it has been postulated to play a critical role in heart and vascular development. We show here, for the first time, that a null mutation of Hhex results in striking abnormalities of cardiac and vascular development which include: (1) defective vasculogenesis, (2) hypoplasia of the right ventricle, (3) overabundant endocardial cushions accompanied by ventricular septal defects, outflow tract abnormalities and atrio-ventricular (AV) valve dysplasia and (4) aberrant development of the compact myocardium. The dramatic enlargement of the endocardial cushions in the absence of Hhex is due to decreased apoptosis and dysregulated epithelial-mesenchymal transformation (EMT). Interestingly, vascular endothelial growth factor A (Vegfa) levels in the hearts of Hhex(-/-) mice were elevated as much as three-fold between E9.5 and E11.5, and treatment of cultured Hhex(-/-) AV explants with truncated soluble Vegfa receptor 1, sFlt-1, an inhibitor of Vegf signaling, completely abolished the excessive epithelial-mesenchymal transformation seen in the absence of Hhex. Therefore, Hhex expression in the ventral foregut endoderm and/or the endothelium is necessary for normal cardiovascular development in vivo, and one function of Hhex is to repress Vegfa levels during development.

  16. Significance of cardiac sympathetic nervous system abnormality for predicting vascular events in patients with idiopathic paroxysmal atrial fibrillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akutsu, Yasushi; Kaneko, Kyouichi; Kodama, Yusuke; Li, Hui-Ling; Kawamura, Mitsuharu; Asano, Taku; Hamazaki, Yuji; Tanno, Kaoru; Kobayashi, Youichi; Suyama, Jumpei; Shinozuka, Akira; Gokan, Takehiko

    2010-01-01

    Neuronal system activity plays an important role for the prognosis of patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). Using 123 I metaiodobenzylguanidine ( 123 I-MIBG) scintigraphy, we investigated whether a cardiac sympathetic nervous system (SNS) abnormality would be associated with an increased risk of vascular events in patients with paroxysmal AF. 123 I-MIBG scintigraphy was performed in 69 consecutive patients (67 ± 13 years, 62% men) with paroxysmal AF who did not have structural heart disease. SNS integrity was assessed from the heart to mediastinum (H/M) ratio on delayed imaging. Serum concentration of C-reactive protein (CRP) was measured before 123 I-MIBG study. During a mean of 4.5 ± 3.6 years follow-up, 19 patients had myocardial infarction, stroke or heart failure (range: 0.2-11.5 years). SNS abnormality (H/M ratio <2.7) and high CRP (≥0.3 mg/dl) were associated with the vascular events (58.3% in 14 of 24 patients with SNS abnormality vs 11.1% in 5 of 45 patients without SNS abnormality, p < 0.0001, 52.4% in 11 of 21 patients with high CRP vs 16.7% in 8 of 48 patients without high CRP, p < 0.0001). After adjustment for potential confounding variables such as age, left atrial dimension and left ventricular function, SNS abnormality was an independent predictor of vascular events with a hazard ratio of 4.1 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.3-12.6, p = 0.014]. Further, SNS abnormality had an incremental and additive prognostic power in combination with high CRP with an adjusted hazard ratio of 4.1 (95% CI: 1.5-10.9, p = 0.006). SNS abnormality is predictive of vascular events in patients with idiopathic paroxysmal AF. (orig.)

  17. Significance of cardiac sympathetic nervous system abnormality for predicting vascular events in patients with idiopathic paroxysmal atrial fibrillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akutsu, Yasushi; Kaneko, Kyouichi; Kodama, Yusuke; Li, Hui-Ling; Kawamura, Mitsuharu; Asano, Taku; Hamazaki, Yuji; Tanno, Kaoru; Kobayashi, Youichi [Showa University School of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Suyama, Jumpei; Shinozuka, Akira; Gokan, Takehiko [Showa University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Tokyo (Japan)

    2010-04-15

    Neuronal system activity plays an important role for the prognosis of patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). Using {sup 123}I metaiodobenzylguanidine ({sup 123}I-MIBG) scintigraphy, we investigated whether a cardiac sympathetic nervous system (SNS) abnormality would be associated with an increased risk of vascular events in patients with paroxysmal AF. {sup 123}I-MIBG scintigraphy was performed in 69 consecutive patients (67 {+-} 13 years, 62% men) with paroxysmal AF who did not have structural heart disease. SNS integrity was assessed from the heart to mediastinum (H/M) ratio on delayed imaging. Serum concentration of C-reactive protein (CRP) was measured before {sup 123}I-MIBG study. During a mean of 4.5 {+-} 3.6 years follow-up, 19 patients had myocardial infarction, stroke or heart failure (range: 0.2-11.5 years). SNS abnormality (H/M ratio <2.7) and high CRP ({>=}0.3 mg/dl) were associated with the vascular events (58.3% in 14 of 24 patients with SNS abnormality vs 11.1% in 5 of 45 patients without SNS abnormality, p < 0.0001, 52.4% in 11 of 21 patients with high CRP vs 16.7% in 8 of 48 patients without high CRP, p < 0.0001). After adjustment for potential confounding variables such as age, left atrial dimension and left ventricular function, SNS abnormality was an independent predictor of vascular events with a hazard ratio of 4.1 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.3-12.6, p = 0.014]. Further, SNS abnormality had an incremental and additive prognostic power in combination with high CRP with an adjusted hazard ratio of 4.1 (95% CI: 1.5-10.9, p = 0.006). SNS abnormality is predictive of vascular events in patients with idiopathic paroxysmal AF. (orig.)

  18. Functional cardiac imaging: positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mullani, N.A.; Gould, K.L.

    1984-01-01

    Dynamic cardiovascular imaging plays a vital role in the diagnosis and treatment of cardiac disease by providing information about the function of the heart. During the past 30 years, cardiovascular imaging has evolved from the simple chest x-ray and fluoroscopy to such sophisticated techniques as invasive cardiac angiography and cinearteriography and, more recently, to noninvasive cardiac CT scanning, nuclear magnetic resonance, and positron emission tomography, which reflect more complex physiologic functions. As research tools, CT, NMR, and PET provide quantitative information on global as well as regional ventricular function, coronary artery stenosis, myocardial perfusion, glucose and fatty acid metabolism, or oxygen utilization, with little discomfort or risk to the patient. As imaging modalities become more sophisticated and more oriented toward clinical application, the prospect of routinely obtaining such functional information about the heart is becoming realistic. However, these advances are double-edged in that the interpretation of functional data is more complex than that of the anatomic imaging familiar to most physicians. They will require an enhanced understanding of the physiologic and biochemical processes, as well as of the instrumentation and techniques for analyzing the data. Of the new imaging modalities that provide functional information about the heart, PET is the most useful because it quantitates the regional distribution of radionuclides in vivo. Clinical applications, interpretation of data, and the impact of PET on our understanding of cardiac pathophysiology are discussed. 5 figures

  19. Methyl-CpG binding-protein 2 function in cholinergic neurons mediates cardiac arrhythmogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, José A; Ward, Christopher S; Wehrens, Xander H T; Neul, Jeffrey L

    2016-11-15

    Sudden unexpected death occurs in one quarter of deaths in Rett Syndrome (RTT), a neurodevelopmental disorder caused by mutations in Methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MECP2). People with RTT show a variety of autonomic nervous system (ANS) abnormalities and mouse models show similar problems including QTc interval prolongation and hypothermia. To explore the role of cardiac problems in sudden death in RTT, we characterized cardiac rhythm in mice lacking Mecp2 function. Male and female mutant mice exhibited spontaneous cardiac rhythm abnormalities including bradycardic events, sinus pauses, atrioventricular block, premature ventricular contractions, non-sustained ventricular arrhythmias, and increased heart rate variability. Death was associated with spontaneous cardiac arrhythmias and complete conduction block. Atropine treatment reduced cardiac arrhythmias in mutant mice, implicating overactive parasympathetic tone. To explore the role of MeCP2 within the parasympathetic neurons, we selectively removed MeCP2 function from cholinergic neurons (MeCP2 ChAT KO), which recapitulated the cardiac rhythm abnormalities, hypothermia, and early death seen in RTT male mice. Conversely, restoring MeCP2 only in cholinergic neurons rescued these phenotypes. Thus, MeCP2 in cholinergic neurons is necessary and sufficient for autonomic cardiac control, thermoregulation, and survival, and targeting the overactive parasympathetic system may be a useful therapeutic strategy to prevent sudden unexpected death in RTT.

  20. Magnetic resonance imaging in familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy associated with abnormal thallium perfusion and cardiac enzymes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishimura, Tsunehiko; Nagata, Seiki; Sakakibara, Hiroshi

    1988-05-01

    Gated magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed in 6 patients with familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy associated with abnormal thallium perfusion, and 12 patients with ordinary hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. The patients with ordinary hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and abnormal thickening of the septal wall and normal left ventricular dimensions, while the patients with familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy had focal wall thinning (usually involving the apical-septal wall) and dilated left ventricle in addition to hypertrophied heart. The quantitative measurement for cardiac dimensions using MRI was similar to that found on echocardiography in all cases. In addition, inhomogeneous signal intensities at left ventricular wall were observed in 3 cases of familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, which may suggest the existence of myocardial fibrosis. Gated MRI should be performed for early detection and follow-up of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, since some patients will progress from hypertrophic cardiomyopathy to dilated cardiomyopathy.

  1. Reduced Right Ventricular Function Predicts Long-Term Cardiac Re-Hospitalization after Cardiac Surgery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leela K Lella

    Full Text Available The significance of right ventricular ejection fraction (RVEF, independent of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF, following isolated coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG and valve procedures remains unknown. The aim of this study is to examine the significance of abnormal RVEF by cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR, independent of LVEF in predicting outcomes of patients undergoing isolated CABG and valve surgery.From 2007 to 2009, 109 consecutive patients (mean age, 66 years; 38% female were referred for pre-operative CMR. Abnormal RVEF and LVEF were considered 30 days outcomes included, cardiac re-hospitalization, worsening congestive heart failure and mortality. Mean clinical follow up was 14 months.Forty-eight patients had reduced RVEF (mean 25% and 61 patients had normal RVEF (mean 50% (p<0.001. Fifty-four patients had reduced LVEF (mean 30% and 55 patients had normal LVEF (mean 59% (p<0.001. Patients with reduced RVEF had a higher incidence of long-term cardiac re-hospitalization vs. patients with normal RVEF (31% vs.13%, p<0.05. Abnormal RVEF was a predictor for long-term cardiac re-hospitalization (HR 3.01 [CI 1.5-7.9], p<0.03. Reduced LVEF did not influence long-term cardiac re-hospitalization.Abnormal RVEF is a stronger predictor for long-term cardiac re-hospitalization than abnormal LVEF in patients undergoing isolated CABG and valve procedures.

  2. Do thallium myocardial perfusion scan abnormalities predict survival in sarcoid patients without cardiac symptoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinney, E.L.; Caldwell, J.W.

    1990-01-01

    Whereas the total mortality rate for sarcoidosis is 0.2 per 100,000, the prognosis, when the heart is involved, is very much worse. The authors used the difference in mortality rate to infer whether thallium 201 myocardial perfusion scan abnormalities correspond to myocardial sarcoid by making the simplifying assumption that if they do, then patients with abnormal scans will be found to have a death rate similar to patients with sarcoid heart disease. The authors therefore analyzed complete survival data on 52 sarcoid patients without cardiac symptoms an average of eighty-nine months after they had been scanned as part of a protocol. By use of survival analysis (the Cox proportional hazards model), the only variable that was significantly associated with survival was age. The patients' scan pattern, treatment status, gender, and race were not significantly related to survival. The authors conclude that thallium myocardial perfusion scans cannot reliably be used to diagnose sarcoid heart disease in sarcoid patients without cardiac symptoms

  3. Abnormal parietal function in conversion paresis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marije van Beilen

    Full Text Available The etiology of medically unexplained symptoms such as conversion disorder is poorly understood. This is partly because the interpretation of neuroimaging results in conversion paresis has been complicated by the use of different control groups, tasks and statistical comparisons. The present study includes these different aspects in a single data set. In our study we included both normal controls and feigners to control for conversion paresis. We studied both movement execution and imagery, and we contrasted both within-group and between-group activation. Moreover, to reveal hemisphere-specific effects that have not been reported before, we performed these analyses using both flipped and unflipped data. This approach resulted in the identification of abnormal parietal activation which was specific for conversion paresis patients. Patients also showed reduced activity in the prefrontal cortex, supramarginal gyrus and precuneus, including hemisphere-specific activation that is lateralized in the same hemisphere, regardless of right- or left-sided paresis. We propose that these regions are candidates for an interface between psychological mechanisms and disturbed higher-order motor control. Our study presents an integrative neurophysiological view of the mechanisms that contribute to the etiology of this puzzling psychological disorder, which can be further investigated with other types of conversion symptoms.

  4. Application of ultrasound in fetal cardiac abnormalitis screening and analyzing of influencing factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Wei; Chen Hui; Guo Hua; Fu Lijuan

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To identify the application value of ultrasound in the screening of fetal cardiac abnormalities and to reduce its affecting factors, in order to maximally decrease the birth of oaf. Methods: Adopting the method of four chamber hearts cross-section and sound beam plane head laterodeviation, 3821 fetal hearts were screened by ultrasonocardiography in middle and late fetal period. The influencing factors were also analyzed. Screening results were compared with the autopsy following induced labor and the ultrasonocardiogram after borne. Results: Total 23 cases of the cardiac anomalies were confirmed by odinopoeia or after borned, 21 cases were diagnosed by antepartum ultrasonocardiography, the detectable rate were 91.3%(21/23). And the complex cardiac anomalies were 19 cases, accounted for 82.61%(19/23), the general malformation were 4 cases, accounted for 17.39%(4/23). In 19 cases of the complex anomalies, 17 cases were diagnosed by antepartum examination in the first time, 2 cases were diagnosed by reexamination, the total detectable rate were 100%(19/19). Conclusion: Ultrasonography is not only non-invasive but also unique method in detecting fetal heart defects. It will help to diagnose definitely the vast majority of congenital malformation in the fetal heart, especially complex malformation in the middle and later fetal period. There are some limitations and chronergy in ultrasonography for the screening of fetal heart defects, which should be followed-up when the fetal appeared 'normal' in the early screening. (authors)

  5. Correlation of an abnormal rest /sup 201/Tl myocardial image: Pathological findings in cardiac transplant recipients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKillop, J.H.; McDougall, I.R.; Billingham, M.; Schroeder, J.S.

    1982-06-01

    Rest myocardial /sup 201/Tl scintigraphy was undertaken in 15 males mean age 39 years (22-54) who had been accepted for cardiac transplantation. Complete pathological correlation was obtained in 14 after transplantation and in 1 who died before a suitable donor heart became available. The average time from scintigraphy to pathological evaluation was 42 days (9-103). All the /sup 201/Tl images were grossly abnormal and on the basis of these studies it was not possible to differentiate ischemic from idiopathic cardiomyopathy. Each of the three views of the /sup 201/Tl study was divided into three segments, therefore 135 areas were available for comparison (3 x 3 x 15). Eighty-eight of these were abnormal on scan and 78 of these were abnormal pathologically. The right ventricle was seen on all rest images but the degree of uptake bore no relationship to the measured thickness of the right ventricular wall. Structures such as the atrial wall and the enlarged papillary muscle were visualized in some patients. In two patients there was an improvement of the rest /sup 201/Tl image in delayed views and histologically these areas showed a mixture of muscle and fibrous tissue. The sensitivity of /sup 201/Tl imaging in this study was 89% and there was close correlation of the images with gross and microscopic pathological findings.

  6. Diverticular Disease of the Colon: Neuromuscular Function Abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassotti, Gabrio; Villanacci, Vincenzo; Bernardini, Nunzia; Dore, Maria P

    2016-10-01

    Colonic diverticular disease is a frequent finding in daily clinical practice. However, its pathophysiological mechanisms are largely unknown. This condition is likely the result of several concomitant factors occurring together to cause anatomic and functional abnormalities, leading as a result to the outpouching of the colonic mucosa. A pivotal role seems to be played by an abnormal colonic neuromuscular function, as shown repeatedly in these patients, and by an altered visceral perception. There is recent evidence that these abnormalities might be related to the derangement of the enteric innervation, to an abnormal distribution of mucosal neuropeptides, and to low-grade mucosal inflammation. The latter might be responsible for the development of visceral hypersensitivity, often causing abdominal pain in a subset of these patients.

  7. Abnormal lung function at preschool age asthma in adolescence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lajunen, Katariina; Kalliola, Satu; Kotaniemi-Syrjänen, Anne; Sarna, Seppo; Malmberg, L Pekka; Pelkonen, Anna S; Mäkelä, Mika J

    2018-05-01

    Asthma often begins early in childhood. However, the risk for persistence is challenging to evaluate. This longitudinal study relates lung function assessed with impulse oscillometry (IOS) in preschool children to asthma in adolescence. Lung function was measured with IOS in 255 children with asthma-like symptoms aged 4-7 years. Baseline measurements were followed by exercise challenge and bronchodilation tests. At age 12-16 years, 121 children participated in the follow-up visit, when lung function was assessed with spirometry, followed by a bronchodilation test. Asthma symptoms and medication were recorded by a questionnaire and atopy defined by skin prick tests. Abnormal baseline values in preschool IOS were significantly associated with low lung function, the need for asthma medication, and asthma symptoms in adolescence. Preschool abnormal R5 at baseline (z-score ≥1.645 SD) showed 9.2 odds ratio (95%CI 2.7;31.7) for abnormal FEV1/FVC, use of asthma medication in adolescence, and 9.9 odds ratio (95%CI 2.9;34.4) for asthma symptoms. Positive exercise challenge and modified asthma-predictive index at preschool age predicted asthma symptoms and the need for asthma medication, but not abnormal lung function at teenage. Abnormal preschool IOS is associated with asthma and poor lung function in adolescence and might be utilised for identification of asthma persistence. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Importance of Calibration Method in Central Blood Pressure for Cardiac Structural Abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negishi, Kazuaki; Yang, Hong; Wang, Ying; Nolan, Mark T; Negishi, Tomoko; Pathan, Faraz; Marwick, Thomas H; Sharman, James E

    2016-09-01

    Central blood pressure (CBP) independently predicts cardiovascular risk, but calibration methods may affect accuracy of central systolic blood pressure (CSBP). Standard central systolic blood pressure (Stan-CSBP) from peripheral waveforms is usually derived with calibration using brachial SBP and diastolic BP (DBP). However, calibration using oscillometric mean arterial pressure (MAP) and DBP (MAP-CSBP) is purported to provide more accurate representation of true invasive CSBP. This study sought to determine which derived CSBP could more accurately discriminate cardiac structural abnormalities. A total of 349 community-based patients with risk factors (71±5years, 161 males) had CSBP measured by brachial oscillometry (Mobil-O-Graph, IEM GmbH, Stolberg, Germany) using 2 calibration methods: MAP-CSBP and Stan-CSBP. Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) and left atrial dilatation (LAD) were measured based on standard guidelines. MAP-CSBP was higher than Stan-CSBP (149±20 vs. 128±15mm Hg, P curve analyses, MAP-CSBP significantly better discriminated LVH compared with Stan-CSBP (area under the curve (AUC) 0.66 vs. 0.59, P = 0.0063) and brachial SBP (0.62, P = 0.027). Continuous net reclassification improvement (NRI) (P AUC 0.63 vs. 0.56, P = 0.005) and conventional brachial SBP (0.58, P = 0.006), whereas Stan-CSBP provided no better discrimination than conventional brachial BP (P = 0.09). CSBP is calibration dependent and when oscillometric MAP and DBP are used, the derived CSBP is a better discriminator for cardiac structural abnormalities. © American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd 2016. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Myocardin-related transcription factors are required for cardiac development and function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokalled, Mayssa H.; Carroll, Kelli J.; Cenik, Bercin K.; Chen, Beibei; Liu, Ning; Olson, Eric N.; Bassel-Duby, Rhonda

    2016-01-01

    Myocardin-Related Transcription Factors A and B (MRTF-A and MRTF-B) are highly homologous proteins that function as powerful coactivators of serum response factor (SRF), a ubiquitously expressed transcription factor essential for cardiac development. The SRF/MRTF complex binds to CArG boxes found in the control regions of genes that regulate cytoskeletal dynamics and muscle contraction, among other processes. While SRF is required for heart development and function, the role of MRTFs in the developing or adult heart has not been explored. Through cardiac-specific deletion of MRTF alleles in mice, we show that either MRTF-A or MRTF-B is dispensable for cardiac development and function, whereas deletion of both MRTF-A and MRTF-B causes a spectrum of structural and functional cardiac abnormalities. Defects observed in MRTF-A/B null mice ranged from reduced cardiac contractility and adult onset heart failure to neonatal lethality accompanied by sarcomere disarray. RNA-seq analysis on neonatal hearts identified the most altered pathways in MRTF double knockout hearts as being involved in cytoskeletal organization. Together, these findings demonstrate redundant but essential roles of the MRTFs in maintenance of cardiac structure and function and as indispensible links in cardiac cytoskeletal gene regulatory networks. PMID:26386146

  10. Simultaneous determination of dynamic cardiac metabolism and function using PET/MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Gregory P; Vildberg, Lauren; Goss, Kara; Aggarwal, Niti; Eldridge, Marlowe; McMillan, Alan B

    2018-05-01

    Cardiac metabolic changes in heart disease precede overt contractile dysfunction. However, metabolism and function are not typically assessed together in clinical practice. The purpose of this study was to develop a cardiac positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance (PET/MR) stress test to assess the dynamic relationship between contractile function and metabolism in a preclinical model. Following an overnight fast, healthy pigs (45-50 kg) were anesthetized and mechanically ventilated. 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose ( 18 F-FDG) solution was administered intravenously at a constant rate of 0.01 mL/s for 60 minutes. A cardiac PET/MR stress test was performed using normoxic gas (F I O 2  = .209) and hypoxic gas (F I O 2  = .12). Simultaneous cardiac imaging was performed on an integrated 3T PET/MR scanner. Hypoxic stress induced a significant increase in heart rate, cardiac output, left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (EF), and peak torsion. There was a significant decline in arterial SpO 2 , LV end-diastolic and end-systolic volumes in hypoxia. Increased LV systolic function was coupled with an increase in myocardial FDG uptake (Ki) during hypoxic stress. PET/MR with continuous FDG infusion captures dynamic changes in both cardiac metabolism and contractile function. This technique warrants evaluation in human cardiac disease for assessment of subtle functional and metabolic abnormalities.

  11. LV function monitoring to discard functional abnormalities in athletes with altered ventricular re-polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flotats, A.; Camacho, V.; Mena, E.; Tembl, A.; Estorch, M.; Carrio, I.; Serra-Grima, R.; Borras, X.; Cinca, J.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: Marked ventricular re-polarization abnormalities (MRA) in athletes may suggest the presence of associated heart disease. Assessment of LV function during exercise may contribute to rule out heart disease and help to decide continuation of physical training. The aim of the study was to assess whether athletes with MRA show a particular response of LV function to exhausting exercise. Material and Methods: Thirty-nine male athletes underwent monitoring of LV function with a miniaturised radionuclide detector (VEST, Capintec, Inc.) during bicycle exhausting exercise. There were 22 athletes with MRA in the ECG at rest (negative T waves equal or more than 2mm in up to 3 ECG leads) and 17 with normal ECG. All were symptom free. Age and physical fitness were comparable in both groups. Clinical examination, ECG, exercise test and echocardiography were performed in all athletes. Results: In all cases LV wall thickness was that expected for highly conditioned sportsmen. Both groups of athletes attained a similar energy expenditure. During exercise, athletes with MRA showed a tendency to normalise re-polarization. There were no differences in heart rate, LV end-systolic volume, LVEF, cardiac output , and peak ejection and filling rates at rest, 50%, 75%, 85% and 100% of peak HR, nor at 2, 5 and 10 min of recovery between both groups of athletes. At rest stroke volume was lower in athletes with MRA (60% vs. 64%, p=0.044). There were also no differences in LV end-diastolic volume (EDV), except at peak HR, when EDV increased in athletes with normal ECG while it decreased in athletes with MRA (p=0.047). Conclusions: The presence of marked ventricular re-polarization abnormalities in athletes does not substantially affect exercise performance nor LV function and should not preclude physical training. The VEST is a useful means to assess LV function during exhausting upright bicycle exercise

  12. Frequency and severity of myocardial perfusion abnormalities using Tc-99m MIBI SPECT in cardiac syndrome X

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saghari, Mohsen; Assadi, Majid; Eftekhari, Mohammad; Yaghoubi, Mohammad; Fard-Esfahani, Armaghan; Malekzadeh, Jan-Mohammad; Sichani, Babak Fallhi; Beiki, Davood; Takavar, Abbas

    2006-01-01

    Cardiac syndrome X is defined by a typical angina pectoris with normal or near normal (stenosis <40%) coronary angiogram with or without electrocardiogram (ECG) change or atypical angina pectoris with normal or near normal coronary angiogram plus a positive none-invasive test (exercise tolerance test or myocardial perfusion scan) with or without ECG change. Studies with myocardial perfusion imaging on this syndrome have indicated some abnormal perfusion scan. We evaluated the role of myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) and also the severity and extent of perfusion abnormality using Tc-99m MIBI Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) in these patients. The study group consisted of 36 patients with cardiac syndrome X. The semiquantitative perfusion analysis was performed using exercise Tc-99m MIBI SPECT. The MPI results were analyzed by the number, location and severity of perfusion defects. Abnormal perfusion defects were detected in 13 (36.10%) cases, while the remaining 23 (63.90%) had normal cardiac imaging. Five of 13 (38.4%) abnormal studies showed multiple perfusion defects. The defects were localized in the apex in 3, apical segments in 4, midventricular segments in 12 and basal segments in 6 cases. Fourteen (56%) of all abnormal segments revealed mild, 7(28%) moderate and 4 (16%) severe reduction of tracer uptake. No fixed defects were identified. The vessel territories were approximately the same in all subjects. The Exercise treadmill test (ETT) was positive in 25(69%) and negative in 11(30%) patients. There was no consistent pattern as related to the extent of MPI defects or exercise test results. Our study suggests that multiple perfusion abnormalities with different levels of severity are common in cardiac syndrome X, with more than 30 % of these patients having at least one abnormal perfusion segment. Our findings suggest that in these patients microvascular angina is probably more common than is generally believed

  13. Cardiac function and cognition in older community-dwelling cardiac patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggermont, Laura H P; Aly, Mohamed F A; Vuijk, Pieter J; de Boer, Karin; Kamp, Otto; van Rossum, Albert C; Scherder, Erik J A

    2017-11-01

    Cognitive deficits have been reported in older cardiac patients. An underlying mechanism for these findings may be reduced cardiac function. The relationship between cardiac function as represented by different echocardiographic measures and different cognitive function domains in older cardiac patients remains unknown. An older (≥70 years) heterogeneous group of 117 community-dwelling cardiac patients under medical supervision by a cardiologist underwent thorough echocardiographic assessment including left ventricular ejection fraction, cardiac index, left atrial volume index, left ventricular mass index, left ventricular diastolic function, and valvular calcification. During a home visit, a neuropsychological assessment was performed within 7.1 ± 3.8 months after echocardiographic assessment; the neuropsychological assessment included three subtests of a word-learning test (encoding, recall, recognition) to examine one memory function domain and three executive function tests, including digit span backwards, Trail Making Test B minus A, and the Stroop colour-word test. Regression analyses showed no significant linear or quadratic associations between any of the echocardiographic functions and the cognitive function measures. None of the echocardiographic measures as representative of cardiac function was correlated with memory or executive function in this group of community-dwelling older cardiac patients. These findings contrast with those of previous studies. © 2017 Japanese Psychogeriatric Society.

  14. Cardiac Function Remains Impaired Despite Reversible Cardiac Remodeling after Acute Experimental Viral Myocarditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Moritz Becher

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Infection with Coxsackievirus B3 induces myocarditis. We aimed to compare the acute and chronic phases of viral myocarditis to identify the immediate effects of cardiac inflammation as well as the long-term effects after resolved inflammation on cardiac fibrosis and consequently on cardiac function. Material and Methods. We infected C57BL/6J mice with Coxsackievirus B3 and determined the hemodynamic function 7 as well as 28 days after infection. Subsequently, we analyzed viral burden and viral replication in the cardiac tissue as well as the expression of cytokines and matrix proteins. Furthermore, cardiac fibroblasts were infected with virus to investigate if viral infection alone induces profibrotic signaling. Results. Severe cardiac inflammation was determined and cardiac fibrosis was consistently colocalized with inflammation during the acute phase of myocarditis. Declined cardiac inflammation but no significantly improved hemodynamic function was observed 28 days after infection. Interestingly, cardiac fibrosis declined to basal levels as well. Both cardiac inflammation and fibrosis were reversible, whereas the hemodynamic function remains impaired after healed viral myocarditis in C57BL/6J mice.

  15. Structural and Functional Coronary Artery Abnormalities in Patients With Vasospastic Angina Pectoris

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ong, Peter; Aziz, Ahmed; Hansen, Henrik Steen

    2015-01-01

    Coronary spasm is involved in many clinical scenarios, such as stable angina, acute coronary syndrome, sudden cardiac death, non-ischemic cardiomyopathy, arrhythmia and syncope. In recent years, imaging tools such as computerized tomographic angiography, intravascular ultrasound or optical...... coherence tomography have been applied to study the coronary pathology in patients with vasospastic angina. Patients with vasospastic angina represent a heterogeneous cohort of patients with regard to the extent of concomitant coronary atherosclerosis. They share the common pathophysiological phenomenon...... of this article is to review structural and functional coronary artery abnormalities in patients with vasospastic angina....

  16. Structural and functional cardiac changes in myotonic dystrophy type 1: a cardiovascular magnetic resonance study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermans Mieke CE

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (MD1 is a neuromuscular disorder with potential involvement of the heart and increased risk of sudden death. Considering the importance of cardiomyopathy as a predictor of prognosis, we aimed to systematically evaluate and describe structural and functional cardiac alterations in patients with MD1. Methods Eighty MD1 patients underwent physical examination, electrocardiography (ECG, echocardiography and cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR. Blood samples were taken for determination of NT-proBNP plasma levels and CTG repeat length. Results Functional and structural abnormalities were detected in 35 patients (44%. Left ventricular systolic dysfunction was found in 20 cases, left ventricular dilatation in 7 patients, and left ventricular hypertrophy in 6 patients. Myocardial fibrosis was seen in 10 patients (12.5%. In general, patients had low left ventricular mass indexes. Right ventricular involvement was uncommon and only seen together with left ventricular abnormalities. Functional or structural cardiac involvement was associated with age (p = 0.04, male gender (p Conclusions CMR can be useful to detect early structural and functional myocardial abnormalities in patients with MD1. Myocardial involvement is strongly associated with conduction abnormalities, but a normal ECG does not exclude myocardial alterations. These findings lend support to the hypothesis that MD1 patients have a complex cardiac phenotype, including both myocardial and conduction system alteration.

  17. Prevalence of abnormal liver function tests in rheumatoid arthritis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of Abnormal Liver Function Tests (LFTs) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis at the rheumatology out-patient clinic, Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH). Design: Cross-sectional descriptive study. Setting: Rheumatology out-patient clinic at KNH. Participants: One hundred and seven RA ...

  18. Pulse wave velocity and cardiac autonomic function in type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chorepsima, Stamatina; Eleftheriadou, Ioanna; Tentolouris, Anastasios; Moyssakis, Ioannis; Protogerou, Athanasios; Kokkinos, Alexandros; Sfikakis, Petros P; Tentolouris, Nikolaos

    2017-05-19

    Increased carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV) has been associated with incident cardiovascular disease, independently of traditional risk factors. Cardiac autonomic dysfunction is a common complication of diabetes and has been associated with reduced aortic distensibility. However, the association of cardiac autonomic dysfunction with PWV is not known. In this study we examined the association between cardiac autonomic function and PWV in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus. A total of 290 patients with type 2 diabetes were examined. PWV was measured at the carotid-femoral segment with applanation tonometry. Central mean arterial blood pressure (MBP) was determined by the same apparatus. Participants were classified as having normal (n = 193) or abnormal (n = 97) PWV values using age-corrected values. Cardiac autonomic nervous system activity was determined by measurement of parameters of heart rate variability (HRV). Subjects with abnormal PWV were older, had higher arterial blood pressure and higher heart rate than those with normal PWV. Most of the values of HRV were significantly lower in subjects with abnormal than in those with normal PWV. Multivariate analysis, after controlling for various confounding factors, demonstrated that abnormal PWV was associated independently only with peripheral MBP [odds ratio (OR) 1.049, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 1.015-1.085, P = 0.005], central MBP (OR 1.052, 95% CI 1.016-1.088, P = 0.004), log total power (OR 0.490, 95% CI 0.258-0.932, P = 0.030) and log high frequency power (OR 0.546, 95% CI 0.301-0.991, P = 0.047). In subjects with type 2 diabetes, arterial blood pressure and impaired cardiac autonomic function is associated independently with abnormal PWV.

  19. Abnormal megakaryocyte development and platelet function in Nbeal2(-/-) mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahr, Walter H A; Lo, Richard W; Li, Ling; Pluthero, Fred G; Christensen, Hilary; Ni, Ran; Vaezzadeh, Nima; Hawkins, Cynthia E; Weyrich, Andrew S; Di Paola, Jorge; Landolt-Marticorena, Carolina; Gross, Peter L

    2013-11-07

    Gray platelet syndrome (GPS) is an inherited bleeding disorder associated with macrothrombocytopenia and α-granule-deficient platelets. GPS has been linked to loss of function mutations in NEABL2 (neurobeachin-like 2), and we describe here a murine GPS model, the Nbeal2(-/-) mouse. As in GPS, Nbeal2(-/-) mice exhibit splenomegaly, macrothrombocytopenia, and a deficiency of platelet α-granules and their cargo, including von Willebrand factor (VWF), thrombospondin-1, and platelet factor 4. The platelet α-granule membrane protein P-selectin is expressed at 48% of wild-type levels and externalized upon platelet activation. The presence of P-selectin and normal levels of VPS33B and VPS16B in Nbeal2(-/-) platelets suggests that NBEAL2 acts independently of VPS33B/VPS16B at a later stage of α-granule biogenesis. Impaired Nbeal2(-/-) platelet function was shown by flow cytometry, platelet aggregometry, bleeding assays, and intravital imaging of laser-induced arterial thrombus formation. Microscopic analysis detected marked abnormalities in Nbeal2(-/-) bone marrow megakaryocytes, which when cultured showed delayed maturation, decreased survival, decreased ploidy, and developmental abnormalities, including abnormal extracellular distribution of VWF. Our results confirm that α-granule secretion plays a significant role in platelet function, and they also indicate that abnormal α-granule formation in Nbeal2(-/-) mice has deleterious effects on megakaryocyte survival, development, and platelet production.

  20. Evaluation of cardiac functions in patients with thalassemia major

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kucuk, N.O.; Aras, G.; Sipahi, T.; Ibis, E.; Akar, N.; Soylu, A.; Erbay, G.

    1999-01-01

    It is known that a blood transfusion is necessary for survival in patients with thalassemia, but it may cause myocardial dysfunction due to myocardial siderosis as in other organs. The aim of this study was to evaluate myocardial perfusion by means of stress thallium scanning (MPS) and left ventricular functions by rest radionuclide ventriculography (RNV). Twenty-one patients at ages 9-16 (mean 12.1±3.2) who have been diagnosed with thalassemia for 4-15 years mean 12.7±4.8) were included in the study. They had blood transfusion 78-318 times (mean 162.1±71). MPS and RNV was performed within two days after the any transfusion. MPS showed ischemia in 3 patients and normal perfusion in 18 patients. RNV revealed normal systolic parameters (wall motion, EF, PER, TPE) but diminished diastolic parameters (TPF, PFR) compared with normal values (p<0.05). We conclude that ischemia or fixed defects may be seen in stress MPS as results of cardiac involvement in patients with thalassemia. But, RNV is an important and preferable test for the early detection of subclinic cardiomyopathy. RNV may therefore show diastolic abnormalities before the systolic abnormalities show up. (author)

  1. Evaluation of cardiac functions in patients with thalassemia major

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kucuk, N.O.; Aras, G.; Sipahi, T.; Ibis, E.; Akar, N.; Soylu, A.; Erbay, G. [Ankara Univ. (Turkey). Medical School

    1999-06-01

    It is known that a blood transfusion is necessary for survival in patients with thalassemia, but it may cause myocardial dysfunction due to myocardial siderosis as in other organs. The aim of this study was to evaluate myocardial perfusion by means of stress thallium scanning (MPS) and left ventricular functions by rest radionuclide ventriculography (RNV). Twenty-one patients at ages 9-16 (mean 12.1{+-}3.2) who have been diagnosed with thalassemia for 4-15 years mean 12.7{+-}4.8) were included in the study. They had blood transfusion 78-318 times (mean 162.1{+-}71). MPS and RNV was performed within two days after the any transfusion. MPS showed ischemia in 3 patients and normal perfusion in 18 patients. RNV revealed normal systolic parameters (wall motion, EF, PER, TPE) but diminished diastolic parameters (TPF, PFR) compared with normal values (p<0.05). We conclude that ischemia or fixed defects may be seen in stress MPS as results of cardiac involvement in patients with thalassemia. But, RNV is an important and preferable test for the early detection of subclinic cardiomyopathy. RNV may therefore show diastolic abnormalities before the systolic abnormalities show up. (author)

  2. Novel axolotl cardiac function analysis method using magnetic resonance imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanches, Pedro Gomes; Op 't Veld, Roel C.; de Graaf, Wolter; Strijkers, Gustav J.; Grüll, Holger

    2017-01-01

    The salamander axolotl is capable of complete regeneration of amputated heart tissue. However, non-invasive imaging tools for assessing its cardiac function were so far not employed. In this study, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging is introduced as a non-invasive technique to image heart function

  3. Novel axolotl cardiac function analysis method using magnetic resonance imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanches, P.G.; Op ‘t Veld, R.C.; de Graaf, W.; Strijkers, G.J.; Grüll, H.

    2017-01-01

    The salamander axolotl is capable of complete regeneration of amputated heart tissue. However, non-invasive imaging tools for assessing its cardiac function were so far not employed. In this study, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging is introduced as a noninvasive technique to image heart function of

  4. Connectivity and functional profiling of abnormal brain structures in pedophilia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poeppl, Timm B; Eickhoff, Simon B; Fox, Peter T; Laird, Angela R; Rupprecht, Rainer; Langguth, Berthold; Bzdok, Danilo

    2015-06-01

    Despite its 0.5-1% lifetime prevalence in men and its general societal relevance, neuroimaging investigations in pedophilia are scarce. Preliminary findings indicate abnormal brain structure and function. However, no study has yet linked structural alterations in pedophiles to both connectional and functional properties of the aberrant hotspots. The relationship between morphological alterations and brain function in pedophilia as well as their contribution to its psychopathology thus remain unclear. First, we assessed bimodal connectivity of structurally altered candidate regions using meta-analytic connectivity modeling (MACM) and resting-state correlations employing openly accessible data. We compared the ensuing connectivity maps to the activation likelihood estimation (ALE) maps of a recent quantitative meta-analysis of brain activity during processing of sexual stimuli. Second, we functionally characterized the structurally altered regions employing meta-data of a large-scale neuroimaging database. Candidate regions were functionally connected to key areas for processing of sexual stimuli. Moreover, we found that the functional role of structurally altered brain regions in pedophilia relates to nonsexual emotional as well as neurocognitive and executive functions, previously reported to be impaired in pedophiles. Our results suggest that structural brain alterations affect neural networks for sexual processing by way of disrupted functional connectivity, which may entail abnormal sexual arousal patterns. The findings moreover indicate that structural alterations account for common affective and neurocognitive impairments in pedophilia. The present multimodal integration of brain structure and function analyses links sexual and nonsexual psychopathology in pedophilia. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Next-generation sequencing of 100 candidate genes in young victims of suspected sudden cardiac death with structural abnormalities of the heart

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertz, C L; Christiansen, S L; Ferrero-Miliani, Laura

    2016-01-01

    with non-diagnostic structural abnormalities of the heart. METHODS AND RESULTS: We screened 72 suspected SCD cases (HaloPlex Target Enrichment System (Agilent) and NGS (Illumina MiSeq) for 100 genes previously associated with inherited cardiomyopathies and channelopathies. Fifty......-two cases had non-diagnostic structural cardiac abnormalities and 20 cases, diagnosed with a cardiomyopathy post-mortem (ARVC = 14, HCM = 6), served as comparators. Fifteen (29 %) of the deceased individuals with non-diagnostic findings had variants with likely functional effects based on conservation......, computational prediction, allele-frequency and supportive literature. The corresponding frequency in deceased individuals with cardiomyopathies was 35 % (p = 0.8). CONCLUSION: The broad genetic screening revealed variants with likely functional effects at similar high rates, i.e. in 29 and 35 % of the suspected...

  6. Improvement in cardiac function and free fatty acid metabolism in a case of dilated cardiomyopathy with CD36 deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirooka, K; Yasumura, Y; Ishida, Y; Komamura, K; Hanatani, A; Nakatani, S; Yamagishi, M; Miyatake, K

    2000-09-01

    A 27-year-old man diagnosed as having dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) without myocardial accumulation of 123I-beta-methyl-iodophenylpentadecanoic acid, and he was found to have type I CD36 deficiency. This abnormality of cardiac free fatty acid metabolism was also confirmed by other methods: 18F-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography, measurements of myocardial respiratory quotient and cardiac fatty acid uptake. Although the type I CD36 deficiency was reconfirmed after 3 months, the abnormal free fatty acid metabolism improved after carvedilol therapy and was accompanied by improved cardiac function. Apart from a cause-and-effect relationship, carvedilol can improve cardiac function and increase free fatty acid metabolism in patients with both DCM and CD36 deficiency.

  7. Abnormal Structure–Function Relationship in Spasmodic Dysphonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludlow, Christy L.

    2012-01-01

    Spasmodic dysphonia (SD) is a primary focal dystonia characterized by involuntary spasms in the laryngeal muscles during speech production. Although recent studies have found abnormal brain function and white matter organization in SD, the extent of gray matter alterations, their structure–function relationships, and correlations with symptoms remain unknown. We compared gray matter volume (GMV) and cortical thickness (CT) in 40 SD patients and 40 controls using voxel-based morphometry and cortical distance estimates. These measures were examined for relationships with blood oxygen level–dependent signal change during symptomatic syllable production in 15 of the same patients. SD patients had increased GMV, CT, and brain activation in key structures of the speech control system, including the laryngeal sensorimotor cortex, inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), superior/middle temporal and supramarginal gyri, and in a structure commonly abnormal in other primary dystonias, the cerebellum. Among these regions, GMV, CT and activation of the IFG and cerebellum showed positive relationships with SD severity, while CT of the IFG correlated with SD duration. The left anterior insula was the only region with decreased CT, which also correlated with SD symptom severity. These findings provide evidence for coupling between structural and functional abnormalities at different levels within the speech production system in SD. PMID:21666131

  8. Autonomic, locomotor and cardiac abnormalities in a mouse model of muscular dystrophy: targeting the renin-angiotensin system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabharwal, Rasna; Chapleau, Mark W

    2014-04-01

    New Findings What is the topic of this review? This symposium report summarizes autonomic, cardiac and skeletal muscle abnormalities in sarcoglycan-δ-deficient mice (Sgcd-/-), a mouse model of limb girdle muscular dystrophy, with emphasis on the roles of autonomic dysregulation and activation of the renin-angiotensin system at a young age. What advances does it highlight? The contributions of the autonomic nervous system and the renin-angiotensin system to the pathogenesis of muscular dystrophy are highlighted. Results demonstrate that autonomic dysregulation precedes and predicts later development of cardiac dysfunction in Sgcd-/- mice and that treatment of young Sgcd-/- mice with the angiotensin type 1 receptor antagonist losartan or with angiotensin-(1-7) abrogates the autonomic dysregulation, attenuates skeletal muscle pathology and increases spontaneous locomotor activity. Muscular dystrophies are a heterogeneous group of genetic muscle diseases characterized by muscle weakness and atrophy. Mutations in sarcoglycans and other subunits of the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex cause muscular dystrophy and dilated cardiomyopathy in animals and humans. Aberrant autonomic signalling is recognized in a variety of neuromuscular disorders. We hypothesized that activation of the renin-angiotensin system contributes to skeletal muscle and autonomic dysfunction in mice deficient in the sarcoglycan-δ (Sgcd) gene at a young age and that this early autonomic dysfunction contributes to the later development of left ventricular (LV) dysfunction and increased mortality. We demonstrated that young Sgcd-/- mice exhibit histopathological features of skeletal muscle dystrophy, decreased locomotor activity and severe autonomic dysregulation, but normal LV function. Autonomic regulation continued to deteriorate in Sgcd-/- mice with age and was accompanied by LV dysfunction and dilated cardiomyopathy at older ages. Autonomic dysregulation at a young age predicted later development of

  9. Association Between Tangential Beam Treatment Parameters and Cardiac Abnormalities After Definitive Radiation Treatment for Left-Sided Breast Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correa, Candace R.; Das, Indra J.; Litt, Harold I.; Ferrari, Victor; Hwang, W.-T.; Solin, Lawrence J.; Harris, Eleanor E.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the association between radiation treatment (RT) parameters, cardiac diagnostic test abnormalities, and clinical cardiovascular diagnoses among patients with left-sided breast cancer after breast conservation treatment with tangential beam RT. Methods and Materials: The medical records of 416 patients treated between 1977 and 1995 with RT for primary left-sided breast cancer were reviewed for myocardial perfusion imaging and echocardiograms. Sixty-two patients (62/416, 15%) underwent these cardiac diagnostic tests for cardiovascular symptoms and were selected for further study. Central lung distance and maximum heart width and length in the treatment field were determined for each patient. Medical records were reviewed for cardiovascular diagnoses and evaluation of cardiac risk factors. Results: At a median of 12 years post-RT the incidence of cardiac diagnostic test abnormalities among symptomatic left-sided irradiated women was significantly higher than the predicted incidence of cardiovascular disease in the patient population, 6/62 (9%) predicted vs. 24/62 (39%) observed, p 0.001. As compared with patients with normal tests, patients with cardiac diagnostic test abnormalities had a larger median central lung distance (2.6 cm vs. 2.2 cm, p = 0.01). Similarly, patients with vs. without congestive heart failure had a larger median central lung distance (2.8 cm vs. 2.3 cm, p = 0.008). Conclusions: Contemporary RT for early breast cancer may be associated with a small, but potentially avoidable, risk of cardiovascular morbidity that is associated with treatment technique

  10. Age-related normal structural and functional ventricular values in cardiac function assessed by magnetic resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiechter, Michael; Gaemperli, Oliver; Kaufmann, Philipp A; Fuchs, Tobias A; Gebhard, Catherine; Stehli, Julia; Klaeser, Bernd; Stähli, Barbara E; Manka, Robert; Manes, Costantina; Tanner, Felix C

    2013-01-01

    The heart is subject to structural and functional changes with advancing age. However, the magnitude of cardiac age-dependent transformation has not been conclusively elucidated. This retrospective cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) study included 183 subjects with normal structural and functional ventricular values. End systolic volume (ESV), end diastolic volume (EDV), and ejection fraction (EF) were obtained from the left and the right ventricle in breath-hold cine CMR. Patients were classified into four age groups (20–29, 30–49, 50–69, and ≥70 years) and cardiac measurements were compared using Pearson’s rank correlation over the four different groups. With advanced age a slight but significant decrease in ESV (r=−0.41 for both ventricles, P<0.001) and EDV (r=−0.39 for left ventricle, r=−0.35 for right ventricle, P<0.001) were observed associated with a significant increase in left (r=0.28, P<0.001) and right (r=0.27, P<0.01) ventricular EF reaching a maximal increase in EF of +8.4% (P<0.001) for the left and +6.1% (P<0.01) for the right ventricle in the oldest compared to the youngest patient group. Left ventricular myocardial mass significantly decreased over the four different age groups (P<0.05). The aging process is associated with significant changes in left and right ventricular EF, ESV and EDV in subjects with no cardiac functional and structural abnormalities. These findings underline the importance of using age adapted values as standard of reference when evaluating CMR studies

  11. Early MR abnormality indicating functional recovery from spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fumeya, Hiroshi; Hideshima, Hiroshi [Hideshima Hospital, Musashino, Tokyo (Japan)

    1991-10-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging as an indicator of recovery from hemiparesis was evaluated in 60 patients with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage. T{sub 2}-weighted MR images revealed early MR abnormality (EMA) of the corticospinal tract within 1 week of ictus. Most patients without EMA recovered beyond Brunnstrom's Recovery Stage 3 while only a few patients with EMA did so. Patients with EMA cannot regain motor function because EMA is almost always followed by complete tract degeneration. EMA in the brainstem and poor motor function recovery are closely correlated. (author).

  12. Early MR abnormality indicating functional recovery from spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fumeya, Hiroshi; Hideshima, Hiroshi (Hideshima Hospital, Musashino, Tokyo (Japan))

    1991-10-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging as an indicator of recovery from hemiparesis was evaluated in 60 patients with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage. T{sub 2}-weighted MR images revealed early MR abnormality (EMA) of the corticospinal tract within 1 week of ictus. Most patients without EMA recovered beyond Brunnstrom's Recovery Stage 3 while only a few patients with EMA did so. Patients with EMA cannot regain motor function because EMA is almost always followed by complete tract degeneration. EMA in the brainstem and poor motor function recovery are closely correlated. (author).

  13. Abnormal Functional Connectivity Density in Post-traumatic Stress Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Youxue; Xie, Bing; Chen, Heng; Li, Meiling; Liu, Feng; Chen, Huafu

    2016-05-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a psychiatric disorder that occurs in individuals who have experienced life-threatening mental traumas. Previous neuroimaging studies have indicated that the pathology of PTSD may be associated with the abnormal functional integration among brain regions. In the current study, we used functional connectivity density (FCD) mapping, a novel voxel-wise data-driven approach based on graph theory, to explore aberrant FC through the resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging of the PTSD. We calculated both short- and long-range FCD in PTSD patients and healthy controls (HCs). Compared with HCs, PTSD patients showed significantly increased long-range FCD in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), but no abnormal short-range FCD was found in PTSD. Furthermore, seed-based FC analysis of the left DLPFC showed increased connectivity in the left superior parietal lobe and visual cortex of PTSD patients. The results suggested that PTSD patients experienced a disruption of intrinsic long-range functional connections in the fronto-parietal network and visual cortex, which are associated with attention control and visual information processing.

  14. Role of MDCT angiography in the preoperative evaluation of anomalous pulmonary venous connection associated with complex cardiac abnormality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jingzhe; Wu Qingyu; Xu Yufeng; Bai Yan; Liu Zhibo; Li Hongyin; Zhu Jiemin

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of MDCT in patients with APVC associated with complex cardiac abnormality. Materials and methods: The clinical and imaging data of 39 patients with APVC confirmed by surgery were retrospectively reviewed. According to accompanied cardiac malformations, patients with APVC were classified as isolated and complex group. Using surgical findings as the reference standard, diagnostic agreement of MDCT, TTE (transthoracic echocardiography) and cardiac catheterization for detection of APVC were calculated. Results: At surgery, 27 patients were considered as complex APVCs. MDCT correctly diagnosed APVC in all patients and the diagnostic agreements between MDCT and surgery were both 100% in isolated and complex groups. All 5 APVCs which could not be detected at cardiac catheterization were in complex group, and the diagnostic agreements were 100% and 76.2% in isolated and complex groups, respectively. At TTE, eight of nine disagreed patients were complex cases. The diagnostic agreements of TTE were 91.7% and 66.7% in isolated and complex groups, respectively. The dysmorphic pulmonary veins were identified in 11 patients by MDCT. Conclusions: MDCT is superior to catheterization and TTE in evaluation of APVC associated with complex cardiac defects.

  15. Added value of three-dimensional ultrasound with STIC technology in the diagnosis of fetus with cardiac abnormalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Hongning; Zhu Yunxiao; Lin Meifang; Li Lijuan; Wang Zilian; Shi Huijuan

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of the spatio-temporal image correlation (STIC) technology of three- dimensional ultrasound (3DUS) for fetal congenital heart disease (CHD). Methods: The study was conducted in the First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University from January 2006 to October 2008. Twenty-four fetuses with suspected cardiac defects on routine 2DUS underwent STIC volume sweep. The diagnosis was confirmed by autopsy. Fetal cardiac STIC volume data set was analyzed by using the software of 4D View (GE, Kretztechnik). The concordance of' fetal cardiac defects diagnosed on 2DUS and STIC was compared to autopsy. Results: There were 92 cardiac defects in 24 cases. The overall concordance of various fetal cardiac defects diagnosed on STIC (97.8%) was significantly higher than that of 2DUS (64.1%) (P 0.05). However, concordance rate of STIC (100%, 100%, 97.5%) was significantly (P<0.05) higher than that of 2DUS (37.5%, 54.5%, 57.5%) for diagnosing anomalies of atrio-venous junction and ventriculo-arterial junction, arterial trunk and its branch. Conclusion: STIC technology of 3DUS may provide considerable diagnostic information for prenatal diagnosis of complex CHD, especially in abnormalities of atrio-venous junction, ventriculo-arterial junction, arterial trunk and its branches. (authors)

  16. Transitory electrocardiographic abnormalities following blunt cardiac trauma: Case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Valle-Alonso

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Blunt cardiac trauma (BCT includes a number of diseases ranging from clinically silent arrhythmias to lethal cardiac wall rupture. The most common form is “cardiac contusion”, which is currently under debate. The absence of a clear definition and the lack of diagnostic tests of choice make diagnosing cardiac contusion difficult. We present the case report of a healthy young patient who went to the emergency department with electrocardiogram changes following blunt chest trauma, and review the current literature on the subject.

  17. Abnormal pulmonary function in adults with sickle cell anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klings, Elizabeth S; Wyszynski, Diego F; Nolan, Vikki G; Steinberg, Martin H

    2006-06-01

    Pulmonary complications of sickle cell anemia (Hb-SS) commonly cause morbidity, yet few large studies of pulmonary function tests (PFTs) in this population have been reported. PFTs (spirometry, lung volumes, and diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide [DLCO]) from 310 adults with Hb-SS were analyzed to determine the pattern of pulmonary dysfunction and their association with other systemic complications of sickle cell disease. Raw PFT data were compared with predicted values. Each subject was subclassified into one of five groups: obstructive physiology, restrictive physiology, mixed obstructive/restrictive physiology, isolated low DLCO, or normal. The association between laboratory data of patients with decreased DLCO or restrictive physiology and those of normal subjects was assessed by multivariate linear regression. Normal PFTs were present in only 31 of 310 (10%) patients. Overall, adults with Hb-SS were characterized by decreased total lung capacities (70.2 +/- 14.7% predicted) and DLCO (64.5 +/- 19.9%). The most common PFT patterns were restrictive physiology (74%) and isolated low DLCO (13%). Decreased DLCO was associated with thrombocytosis (p = 0.05), with hepatic dysfunction (elevated alanine aminotransferase; p = 0.07), and a trend toward renal dysfunction (elevated blood urea nitrogen and creatinine; p = 0.05 and 0.07, respectively). Pulmonary function is abnormal in 90% of adult patients with Hb-SS. Common abnormalities include restrictive physiology and decreased DLCO. Decreased DLCO may indicate more severe sickle vasculopathy characterized by impaired hepatic and renal function.

  18. Latent and Abnormal Functional Connectivity Circuits in Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shuo; Xing, Yishi; Kang, Jian

    2017-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is associated with disrupted brain networks. Neuroimaging techniques provide noninvasive methods of investigating abnormal connectivity patterns in ASD. In the present study, we compare functional connectivity networks in people with ASD with those in typical controls, using neuroimaging data from the Autism Brain Imaging Data Exchange (ABIDE) project. Specifically, we focus on the characteristics of intrinsic functional connectivity based on data collected by resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI). Our aim was to identify disrupted brain connectivity patterns across all networks, instead of in individual edges, by using advanced statistical methods. Unlike many brain connectome studies, in which networks are prespecified before the edge connectivity in each network is compared between clinical groups, we detected the latent differentially expressed networks automatically. Our network-level analysis identified abnormal connectome networks that (i) included a high proportion of edges that were differentially expressed between people with ASD and typical controls; and (ii) showed highly-organized graph topology. These findings provide new insight into the study of the underlying neuropsychiatric mechanism of ASD.

  19. Evaluation of cardiac function in active and hibernating grizzly bears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, O Lynne; McEwen, Margaret-Mary; Robbins, Charles T; Felicetti, Laura; Christensen, William F

    2003-10-15

    To evaluate cardiac function parameters in a group of active and hibernating grizzly bears. Prospective study. 6 subadult grizzly bears. Indirect blood pressure, a 12-lead ECG, and a routine echocardiogram were obtained in each bear during the summer active phase and during hibernation. All measurements of myocardial contractility were significantly lower in all bears during hibernation, compared with the active period. Mean rate of circumferential left ventricular shortening, percentage fractional shortening, and percentage left ventricular ejection fraction were significantly lower in bears during hibernation, compared with the active period. Certain indices of diastolic function appeared to indicate enhanced ventricular compliance during the hibernation period. Mean mitral inflow ratio and isovolumic relaxation time were greater during hibernation. Heart rate was significantly lower for hibernating bears, and mean cardiac index was lower but not significantly different from cardiac index during the active phase. Contrary to results obtained in hibernating rodent species, cardiac index was not significantly correlated with heart rate. Cardiac function parameters in hibernating bears are opposite to the chronic bradycardic effects detected in nonhibernating species, likely because of intrinsic cardiac muscle adaptations during hibernation. Understanding mechanisms and responses of the myocardium during hibernation could yield insight into mechanisms of cardiac function regulation in various disease states in nonhibernating species.

  20. Abnormal Default System Functioning in Depression: Implications for Emotion Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messina, Irene; Bianco, Francesca; Cusinato, Maria; Calvo, Vincenzo; Sambin, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Depression is widely seen as the result of difficulties in regulating emotions. Based on neuroimaging studies on voluntary emotion regulation, neurobiological models have focused on the concept of cognitive control, considering emotion regulation as a shift toward involving controlled processes associated with activation of the prefrontal and parietal executive areas, instead of responding automatically to emotional stimuli. According to such models, the weaker executive area activation observed in depressed patients is attributable to a lack of cognitive control over negative emotions. Going beyond the concept of cognitive control, psychodynamic models describe the development of individuals' capacity to regulate their emotional states in mother-infant interactions during childhood, through the construction of the representation of the self, others, and relationships. In this mini-review, we link these psychodynamic models with recent findings regarding the abnormal functioning of the default system in depression. Consistently with psychodynamic models, psychological functions associated with the default system include self-related processing, semantic processes, and implicit forms of emotion regulation. The abnormal activation of the default system observed in depression may explain the dysfunctional aspects of emotion regulation typical of the condition, such as an exaggerated negative self-focus and rumination on self-esteem issues. We also discuss the clinical implications of these findings with reference to the therapeutic relationship as a key tool for revisiting impaired or distorted representations of the self and relational objects.

  1. Cardiac telomere length in heart development, function, and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, S A; Charchar, F J

    2017-07-01

    Telomeres are repetitive nucleoprotein structures at chromosome ends, and a decrease in the number of these repeats, known as a reduction in telomere length (TL), triggers cellular senescence and apoptosis. Heart disease, the worldwide leading cause of death, often results from the loss of cardiac cells, which could be explained by decreases in TL. Due to the cell-specific regulation of TL, this review focuses on studies that have measured telomeres in heart cells and critically assesses the relationship between cardiac TL and heart function. There are several lines of evidence that have identified rapid changes in cardiac TL during the onset and progression of heart disease as well as at critical stages of development. There are also many factors, such as the loss of telomeric proteins, oxidative stress, and hypoxia, that decrease cardiac TL and heart function. In contrast, antioxidants, calorie restriction, and exercise can prevent both cardiac telomere attrition and the progression of heart disease. TL in the heart is also indicative of proliferative potential and could facilitate the identification of cells suitable for cardiac rejuvenation. Although these findings highlight the involvement of TL in heart function, there are important questions regarding the validity of animal models, as well as several confounding factors, that need to be considered when interpreting results and planning future research. With these in mind, elucidating the telomeric mechanisms involved in heart development and the transition to disease holds promise to prevent cardiac dysfunction and potentiate regeneration after injury. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  2. Bone Morphogenetic Protein 9 Reduces Cardiac Fibrosis and Improves Cardiac Function in Heart Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morine, Kevin J; Qiao, Xiaoying; York, Sam; Natov, Peter S; Paruchuri, Vikram; Zhang, Yali; Aronovitz, Mark J; Karas, Richard H; Kapur, Navin K

    2018-02-27

    Background -Heart failure is a growing cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β1) promotes cardiac fibrosis, but also activates counter-regulatory pathways that serve to regulate TGF-β1 activity in heart failure. Bone morphogenetic protein 9 (BMP9) is a member of the TGFβ family of cytokines and signals via the downstream effector protein Smad1. Endoglin is a TGFβ co-receptor that promotes TGF-β1 signaling via Smad3 and binds BMP9 with high affinity. We hypothesized that BMP9 limits cardiac fibrosis by activating Smad1 and attenuating Smad3 and further that neutralizing endoglin activity promotes BMP9 activity. Methods -We examined BMP9 expression and signaling in human cardiac fibroblasts and human subjects with heart failure. We utilized the thoracic aortic constriction (TAC) induced model of heart failure to evaluate the functional effect of BMP9 signaling on cardiac remodeling. Results -BMP9 expression is increased in the circulation and left ventricle (LV) of human subjects with heart failure and is expressed by cardiac fibroblasts. Next, we observed that BMP9 attenuates Type I collagen synthesis in human cardiac fibroblasts using recombinant human BMP9 and an siRNA approach. In BMP9 -/- mice subjected to TAC, loss of BMP9 activity promotes cardiac fibrosis, impairs LV function, and increases LV levels of phosphorylated Smad3 (pSmad3), not pSmad1. In contrast, treatment of wild-type mice subjected to TAC with recombinant BMP9 limits progression of cardiac fibrosis, improves LV function, enhances myocardial capillary density, and increases LV levels of pSmad1, not pSmad3 compared to vehicle treated controls. Since endoglin binds BMP9 with high affinity, we explored the effect of reduced endoglin activity on BMP9 activity. Neutralizing endoglin activity in human cardiac fibroblasts or in wild-type mice subjected to TAC induced heart failure limits collagen production, increases BMP9 protein levels, and increases

  3. Cardiac MRI in pulmonary artery hypertension: correlations between morphological and functional parameters and invasive measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alunni, Jean-Philippe; Otal, Philippe; Rousseau, Herve; Chabbert, Valerie [CHU Rangueil, Department of Radiology, Toulouse (France); Degano, Bruno; Tetu, Laurent; Didier, Alain [CHU Larrey, Department of Pneumology, Toulouse (France); Arnaud, Catherine [CHU Rangueil, Department of Methods in Clinical Research, Toulouse (France); Blot-Souletie, Nathalie [CHU Rangueil, Department of Cardiology, Toulouse (France)

    2010-05-15

    To compare cardiac MRI with right heart catheterisation in patients with pulmonary hypertension (PH) and to evaluate its ability to assess PH severity. Forty patients were included. MRI included cine and phase-contrast sequences, study of ventricular function, cardiac cavity areas and ratios, position of the interventricular septum (IVS) in systole and diastole, and flow measurements. We defined four groups according to the severity of PH and three groups according to IVS position: A, normal position; B, abnormal in diastole; C, abnormal in diastole and systole. IVS position was correlated with pulmonary artery pressures and PVR (pulmonary vascular resistance). Median pulmonary artery pressures and resistance were significantly higher in patients with an abnormal septal position compared with those with a normal position. Correlations were good between the right ventricular ejection fraction and PVR, right ventricular end-systolic volume and PAP, percentage of right ventricular area change and PVR, and diastolic and systolic ventricular area ratio and PVR. These parameters were significantly associated with PH severity. Cardiac MRI can help to assess the severity of PH. (orig.)

  4. Cardiac structure and function predicts functional decline in the oldest old.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leibowitz, David; Jacobs, Jeremy M; Lande-Stessman, Irit; Gilon, Dan; Stessman, Jochanan

    2018-02-01

    Background This study examined the association between cardiac structure and function and the deterioration in activities of daily living (ADLs) in an age-homogenous, community-dwelling population of patients born in 1920-1921 over a five-year follow-up period. Design Longitudinal cohort study. Methods Patients were recruited from the Jerusalem Longitudinal Cohort Study, which has followed an age-homogenous cohort of Jerusalem residents born in 1920-1921. Patients underwent home echocardiography and were followed up for five years. Dependence was defined as needing assistance with one or more basic ADL. Standard echocardiographic assessment of cardiac structure and function, including systolic and diastolic function, was performed. Reassessment of ADLs was performed at the five-year follow-up. Results A total of 459 patients were included in the study. Of these, 362 (79%) showed a deterioration in at least one ADL at follow-up. Patients with functional deterioration had a significantly higher left ventricular mass index and left atrial volume with a lower ejection fraction. There was no significant difference between the diastolic parameters the groups in examined. When the data were examined categorically, a significantly larger percentage of patients with functional decline had an abnormal left ventricular ejection fraction and left ventricular hypertrophy. The association between left ventricular mass index and functional decline remained significant in all multivariate models. Conclusions In this cohort of the oldest old, an elevated left ventricular mass index, higher left atrial volumes and systolic, but not diastolic dysfunction, were predictive of functional disability.

  5. Pheochromocytoma with Markedly Abnormal Liver Function Tests and Severe Leukocytosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chai Ryoung Eun

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Pheochromocytoma is a rare neuroendocrine tumor arising from the medulla of the adrenal glands, which causes an overproduction of catecholamines. The common symptoms are headache, palpitations, and sweating; however, various other clinical manifestations might also be present. Accurate diagnosis of pheochromocytoma is important because surgical treatment is usually successful, and associated clinical problems are reversible if treated early. A 49-year-old man with a history of uncontrolled hypertension and diabetes mellitus presented with chest pain, fever, and sweating. His liver function tests and white blood cell counts were markedly increased and his echocardiography results suggested stress-induced cardiomyopathy. His abdominal computed tomography showed a 5×5-cm-sized tumor in the left adrenal gland, and laboratory tests confirmed catecholamine overproduction. After surgical resection of the left adrenal gland, his liver function tests and white blood cell counts normalized, and echocardiography showed normal cardiac function. Moreover, his previous antihypertensive regimen was deescalated, and his previously uncontrolled blood glucose levels normalized without medication.

  6. Abnormal Pulmonary Function in Adults with Sickle Cell Anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klings, Elizabeth S.; Wyszynski, Diego F.; Nolan, Vikki G.; Steinberg, Martin H.

    2006-01-01

    Rationale: Pulmonary complications of sickle cell anemia (Hb-SS) commonly cause morbidity, yet few large studies of pulmonary function tests (PFTs) in this population have been reported. Objectives: PFTs (spirometry, lung volumes, and diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide [DLCO]) from 310 adults with Hb-SS were analyzed to determine the pattern of pulmonary dysfunction and their association with other systemic complications of sickle cell disease. Methods: Raw PFT data were compared with predicted values. Each subject was subclassified into one of five groups: obstructive physiology, restrictive physiology, mixed obstructive/restrictive physiology, isolated low DLCO, or normal. The association between laboratory data of patients with decreased DLCO or restrictive physiology and those of normal subjects was assessed by multivariate linear regression. Measurements and Main Results: Normal PFTs were present in only 31 of 310 (10%) patients. Overall, adults with Hb-SS were characterized by decreased total lung capacities (70.2 ± 14.7% predicted) and DlCO (64.5 ± 19.9%). The most common PFT patterns were restrictive physiology (74%) and isolated low DlCO (13%). Decreased DLCO was associated with thrombocytosis (p = 0.05), with hepatic dysfunction (elevated alanine aminotransferase; p = 0.07), and a trend toward renal dysfunction (elevated blood urea nitrogen and creatinine; p = 0.05 and 0.07, respectively). Conclusions: Pulmonary function is abnormal in 90% of adult patients with Hb-SS. Common abnormalities include restrictive physiology and decreased DLCO. Decreased DLCO may indicate more severe sickle vasculopathy characterized by impaired hepatic and renal function. PMID:16556694

  7. Functional capacity and muscular abnormalities in subclinical hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuters, Vaneska S; Teixeira, Patrícia de Fátima S; Vigário, Patrícia S; Almeida, Cloyra P; Buescu, Alexandre; Ferreira, Márcia M; de Castro, Carmen L N; Gold, Jaime; Vaisman, Mario

    2009-10-01

    Neuromuscular abnormalities and low exercise tolerance are frequently observed in overt hypothyroidism, but it remains controversial if they can also occur in subclinical hypothyroidism (sHT). The aim of this study is to evaluate neuromuscular symptoms, muscle strength, and exercise capacity in sHT, compared with healthy euthyroid individuals. A cross-sectional study was performed with 44 sHT and 24 euthyroid outpatients from a university hospital. Neuromuscular symptoms were questioned. Muscle strength was tested for neck, shoulder, arm, and hip muscle groups, using manual muscle testing (MMT). Quadriceps muscle strength was tested with a chair dynamometer and inspiratory muscle strength (IS) by a manuvacuometer. Functional capacity was estimated based on the peak of oxygen uptake (mL/kg/min), using the Bruce treadmill protocol. Cramps (54.8% versus 25.0%; P muscle strength by MMT and the coexistence of neuromuscular complaints in patients with sHT may indicate neuromuscular dysfunction.

  8. Analysis of cardiac diastolic function: application in coronary artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, T.R.; Goldman, K.J.; Sampathkumaran, K.S.; Biello, D.R.; Ludbrook, P.A.; Sobel, B.E.

    1983-01-01

    Separation of systolic and diastolic parameters in gated cardiac blood-pool imaging (RVG) was achieved with the retention of two harmonics in the Fourier-series representation of the time-activity curve. Regional and global analysis of left-ventricular peak filling rate (PFR) and time to peak filling (TPF) was performed in 18 control subjects, 20 patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) but with normal RVG (normal regional wall motion and ejection fraction, and 16 CAD patients with abnormal RVG. In regional analysis of CAD patients, the standard deviation of the TPF histogram identified 13/20 (65%) of normal RVG patients and 12/16 (75%) of abnormal RVG patients as abnormal. In global analysis of CAD patients, PFR values identified 10/20 (50%) of normal RVG patients and 11/16 (69%) of abnormal RVG patients as abnormal. Thus, left-ventricular systolic and diastolic parameters can be separately measured with retention of higher-order harmonics in the Fourier transform, and regional inhomogeneity of diastolic filling can be detected in CAD patients with normal resting ejection fraction and wall motion

  9. Association of Weight and Body Composition on Cardiac Structure and Function in the ARIC Study (Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bello, Natalie A; Cheng, Susan; Claggett, Brian; Shah, Amil M; Ndumele, Chiadi E; Roca, Gabriela Querejeta; Santos, Angela B S; Gupta, Deepak; Vardeny, Orly; Aguilar, David; Folsom, Aaron R; Butler, Kenneth R; Kitzman, Dalane W; Coresh, Josef; Solomon, Scott D

    2016-08-01

    Obesity increases cardiovascular risk. However, the extent to which various measures of body composition are associated with abnormalities in cardiac structure and function, independent of comorbidities commonly affecting obese individuals, is not clear. This study sought to examine the relationship between body mass index, waist circumference, and percent body fat with conventional and advanced measures of cardiac structure and function. We studied 4343 participants of the ARIC study (Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities) who were aged 69 to 82 years, free of coronary heart disease and heart failure, and underwent comprehensive echocardiography. Increasing body mass index, waist circumference, and body fat were associated with greater left ventricular (LV) mass and left atrial volume indexed to height(2.7) in both men and women (Pheart disease or heart failure, obesity was associated with subclinical abnormalities in cardiac structure in both men and women and with adverse LV remodeling and impaired LV systolic function in women. These data highlight the association of obesity and subclinical abnormalities of cardiac structure and function, particularly in women. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  10. Abnormal rich club organization and functional brain dynamics in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Heuvel, Martijn P; Sporns, Olaf; Collin, Guusje; Scheewe, Thomas; Mandl, René C W; Cahn, Wiepke; Goñi, Joaquín; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E; Kahn, René S

    2013-08-01

    The human brain forms a large-scale structural network of regions and interregional pathways. Recent studies have reported the existence of a selective set of highly central and interconnected hub regions that may play a crucial role in the brain's integrative processes, together forming a central backbone for global brain communication. Abnormal brain connectivity may have a key role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. To examine the structure of the rich club in schizophrenia and its role in global functional brain dynamics. Structural diffusion tensor imaging and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging were performed in patients with schizophrenia and matched healthy controls. Department of Psychiatry, Rudolf Magnus Institute of Neuroscience, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, the Netherlands. Forty-eight patients and 45 healthy controls participated in the study. An independent replication data set of 41 patients and 51 healthy controls was included to replicate and validate significant findings. MAIN OUTCOME(S) AND MEASURES: Measures of rich club organization, connectivity density of rich club connections and connections linking peripheral regions to brain hubs, measures of global brain network efficiency, and measures of coupling between brain structure and functional dynamics. Rich club organization between high-degree hub nodes was significantly affected in patients, together with a reduced density of rich club connections predominantly comprising the white matter pathways that link the midline frontal, parietal, and insular hub regions. This reduction in rich club density was found to be associated with lower levels of global communication capacity, a relationship that was absent for other white matter pathways. In addition, patients had an increase in the strength of structural connectivity-functional connectivity coupling. Our findings provide novel biological evidence that schizophrenia is characterized by a selective

  11. Image processing of x-ray left ventricular cineangiocardiograms and displays of cardiac functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eiho, Shigeru; Yamada, Shigeru; Kuwahara, Michiyoshi

    1980-01-01

    Cineangiocardiography has been often used as one of the highly helpful techniques to examine the cardiac function. This paper deals with the method of tracing automatically the boundaries of the left ventricle on cineangiocardiograms, the method to evaluate and display various cardiac functions, the method to reconstruct the left ventricular cavity from biplane cineangiocardiograms and the method to display a 3-dimensional shape of the left ventricle reconstructed. Our algorithm of boundary tracing is based on a heuristic search for a local maximum of the changing rate in the gray level of cineangiocardiogram. The boundaries of endocardial margins of the left ventricle on 80 to 120 consecutive frames are automatically traced by our method. By using the detected boundaries of the left ventricle, a lot of quantitative information may be established on the cardiac function. The volume change, the wall motions and the %-shortening are displayed graphically. The motion of the boundary of the left ventricle is displayed on a CRT as a moving picture. The left ventricular cavity is reconstructed from the detected boundaries of the left ventricle on biplane cineangiocardiograms. A reconstructed image can be shown as superimposed lines or halftone planes to produce a 3-dimensional perspective. The %-shortening which shows the contractility of the regional myocardium is displayed on a silhouette of the left ventricle. We can easily recognize the abnormal area of contraction and the level and spread of abnormality from this displayed image. With the use of the system described in this paper, we can grasp the movement of the left ventricle exactly and evaluate the cardiac function quantitatively. (author)

  12. Action Potential Shortening and Impairment of Cardiac Function by Ablation of Slc26a6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirish, Padmini; Ledford, Hannah A; Timofeyev, Valeriy; Thai, Phung N; Ren, Lu; Kim, Hyo Jeong; Park, Seojin; Lee, Jeong Han; Dai, Gu; Moshref, Maryam; Sihn, Choong-Ryoul; Chen, Wei Chun; Timofeyeva, Maria Valeryevna; Jian, Zhong; Shimkunas, Rafael; Izu, Leighton T; Chiamvimonvat, Nipavan; Chen-Izu, Ye; Yamoah, Ebenezer N; Zhang, Xiao-Dong

    2017-10-01

    Intracellular pH (pH i ) is critical to cardiac excitation and contraction; uncompensated changes in pH i impair cardiac function and trigger arrhythmia. Several ion transporters participate in cardiac pH i regulation. Our previous studies identified several isoforms of a solute carrier Slc26a6 to be highly expressed in cardiomyocytes. We show that Slc26a6 mediates electrogenic Cl - /HCO 3 - exchange activities in cardiomyocytes, suggesting the potential role of Slc26a6 in regulation of not only pH i , but also cardiac excitability. To test the mechanistic role of Slc26a6 in the heart, we took advantage of Slc26a6 knockout ( Slc26a6 -/ - ) mice using both in vivo and in vitro analyses. Consistent with our prediction of its electrogenic activities, ablation of Slc26a6 results in action potential shortening. There are reduced Ca 2+ transient and sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca 2+ load, together with decreased sarcomere shortening in Slc26a6 -/ - cardiomyocytes. These abnormalities translate into reduced fractional shortening and cardiac contractility at the in vivo level. Additionally, pH i is elevated in Slc26a6 -/ - cardiomyocytes with slower recovery kinetics from intracellular alkalization, consistent with the Cl - /HCO 3 - exchange activities of Slc26a6. Moreover, Slc26a6 -/ - mice show evidence of sinus bradycardia and fragmented QRS complex, supporting the critical role of Slc26a6 in cardiac conduction system. Our study provides mechanistic insights into Slc26a6, a unique cardiac electrogenic Cl - /HCO 3 - transporter in ventricular myocytes, linking the critical roles of Slc26a6 in regulation of pH i , excitability, and contractility. pH i is a critical regulator of other membrane and contractile proteins. Future studies are needed to investigate possible changes in these proteins in Slc26a6 -/ - mice. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  13. Lamin A/C mutations with lipodystrophy, cardiac abnormalities, and muscular dystrophy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Kooi, A. J.; Bonne, G.; Eymard, B.; Duboc, D.; Talim, B.; van der Valk, M.; Reiss, P.; Richard, P.; Demay, L.; Merlini, L.; Schwartz, K.; Busch, H. F. M.; de Visser, M.

    2002-01-01

    Mutations in the lamin A/C gene are found in Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy, limb girdle muscular dystrophy with cardiac conduction disturbances, dilated cardiomyopathy with conduction system disease, and familial partial lipodystrophy. Cases with lamin A/C mutations presenting with lipodystrophy

  14. Frequency and Prognostic Significance of Abnormal Liver Function Tests in Patients With Cardiogenic Shock

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jäntti, Toni; Tarvasmäki, Tuukka; Harjola, Veli Pekka

    2017-01-01

    Cardiogenic shock (CS) is a cardiac emergency often leading to multiple organ failure and death. Assessing organ dysfunction and appropriate risk stratification are central for the optimal management of these patients. The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of abnormal liver funct...

  15. Congenital left ventricular wall abnormalities in adults detected by gated cardiac multidetector computed tomography: Clefts, aneurysms, diverticula and terminology problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erol, Cengiz; Koplay, Mustafa; Olcay, Ayhan; Kivrak, Ali Sami; Ozbek, Seda; Seker, Mehmet; Paksoy, Yahya

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Our aim was to evaluate congenital left ventricular wall abnormalities (clefts, aneurysms and diverticula), describe and illustrate imaging features, discuss terminology problems and determine their prevalence detected by cardiac CT in a single center. Materials and methods: Coronary CT angiography images of 2093 adult patients were evaluated retrospectively in order to determine congenital left ventricular wall abnormalities. Results: The incidence of left ventricular clefts (LVC) was 6.7% (141 patients) and statistically significant difference was not detected between the sexes regarding LVC (P = 0.5). LVCs were single in 65.2% and multiple in 34.8% of patients. They were located at the basal to mid inferoseptal segment of the left ventricle in 55.4%, the basal to mid anteroseptal segment in 24.1%, basal to mid inferior segment in 17% and septal–apical septal segment in 3.5% of cases. The cleft length ranged from 5 to 22 mm (mean 10.5 mm) and they had a narrow connection with the left ventricle (mean 2.5 mm). They were contractile with the left ventricle and obliterated during systole. Congenital left ventricular septal aneurysm that was located just under the aortic valve was detected in two patients (0.1%). No case of congenital left ventricular diverticulum was detected. Conclusion: Cardiac CT allows us to recognize congenital left ventricular wall abnormalities which have been previously overlooked in adults. LVC is a congenital structural variant of the myocardium, is seen more frequently than previously reported and should be differentiated from aneurysm and diverticulum for possible catastrophic complications of the latter two.

  16. The effects of malnutrition on cardiac function in African children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Jonathan A; Chimalizeni, Yamikani; Hawes, Stephen E; Wolf, Elizabeth R; Batra, Maneesh; Khofi, Harriet; Molyneux, Elizabeth M

    2016-02-01

    Cardiac dysfunction may contribute to high mortality in severely malnourished children. Our objective was to assess the effect of malnutrition on cardiac function in hospitalised African children. Prospective cross-sectional study. Public referral hospital in Blantyre, Malawi. We enrolled 272 stable, hospitalised children ages 6-59 months, with and without WHO-defined severe acute malnutrition. Cardiac index, heart rate, mean arterial pressure, stroke volume index and systemic vascular resistance index were measured by the ultrasound cardiac output monitor (USCOM, New South Wales, Australia). We used linear regression with generalised estimating equations controlling for age, sex and anaemia. Our primary outcome, cardiac index, was similar between those with and without severe malnutrition: difference=0.22 L/min/m(2) (95% CI -0.08 to 0.51). No difference was found in heart rate or stroke volume index. However, mean arterial pressure and systemic vascular resistance index were lower in children with severe malnutrition: difference=-8.6 mm Hg (95% CI -12.7 to -4.6) and difference=-200 dyne s/cm(5)/m(2) (95% CI -320 to -80), respectively. In this largest study to date, we found no significant difference in cardiac function between hospitalised children with and without severe acute malnutrition. Further study is needed to determine if cardiac function is diminished in unstable malnourished children. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  17. Cardiac dimensions and function in female handball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmgren, A; Dencker, M; Stagmo, M; Gudmundsson, P

    2015-04-01

    Long-term intensive endurance training leads to increased left ventricular mass and increased left ventricular end-diastolic and left atrial end-systolic diameters. Different types of sports tend to give rise to distinct morphological forms of the athlete's heart. However, the sport-specific aspects have not been fully investigated in female athletes. The purpose of the present study was to investigate differences in left and right cardiac dimensions, cardiac volumes, and systolic and diastolic function in elite female handball players compared to sedentary controls. A cross-sectional study of 33 elite female handball players was compared to 33 matched sedentary controls. Mean age was 21.5±2 years. The subjects underwent echocardiography examinations, both 2-dimensional (2DE) and 3-dimensional (3DE). Cardiac dimensions and volumes were quantified using M-mode, 2DE and 3DE. Systolic and diastolic left ventricular functions were also evaluated. All cardiac dimensions and volumes were adjusted for body surface area (BSA). Left atrium and left ventricle volumes were significantly (Phandball players compared with sedentary controls. Even right atrium area as well as right ventricular end-diastolic and end-systolic area were significantly (Phandball players. Significant differences were observed in three out of five systolic parameters. Most diastolic function parameters did not differ between the two groups. The findings from the present study suggest that similar cardiac remodeling takes place in elite female handball players as it does in athletes pursuing endurance or team game sports.

  18. Mammalian enabled (Mena) is a critical regulator of cardiac function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Frédérick; Belmonte, Stephen L; Ram, Rashmi; Noujaim, Sami F; Dunaevsky, Olga; Protack, Tricia L; Jalife, Jose; Todd Massey, H; Gertler, Frank B; Blaxall, Burns C

    2011-05-01

    Mammalian enabled (Mena) of the Drosophila enabled/vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein gene family is a cytoskeletal protein implicated in actin regulation and cell motility. Cardiac Mena expression is enriched in intercalated discs (ICD), the critical intercellular communication nexus between adjacent muscle cells. We previously identified Mena gene expression to be a key predictor of human and murine heart failure (HF). To determine the in vivo function of Mena in the heart, we assessed Mena protein expression in multiple HF models and characterized the effects of genetic Mena deletion on cardiac structure and function. Immunoblot analysis revealed significant upregulation of Mena protein expression in left ventricle tissue from patients with end-stage HF, calsequestrin-overexpressing mice, and isoproterenol-infused mice. Characterization of the baseline cardiac function of adult Mena knockout mice (Mena(-/-)) via echocardiography demonstrated persistent cardiac dysfunction, including a significant reduction in percent fractional shortening compared with wild-type littermates. Electrocardiogram PR and QRS intervals were significantly prolonged in Mena(-/-) mice, manifested by slowed conduction on optical mapping studies. Ultrastructural analysis of Mena(-/-) hearts revealed disrupted organization and widening of ICD structures, mislocalization of the gap junction protein connexin 43 (Cx43) to the lateral borders of cardiomyoycytes, and increased Cx43 expression. Furthermore, the expression of vinculin (an adherens junction protein) was significantly reduced in Mena(-/-) mice. We report for the first time that genetic ablation of Mena results in cardiac dysfunction, highlighted by diminished contractile performance, disrupted ICD structure, and slowed electrical conduction.

  19. Isolated Non-Compaction of the Left Ventricle in a Patient with New-Onset Heart Failure: Morphologic and Functional Evaluation with Cardiac Multidetector Computed Tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Heon [Soonchuhyang University Bucheon Hospital, Bucheon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seok Yeon [Seoul Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Schoepf, U. Joseph [Medical University of South Carolina, SC (United States)

    2012-03-15

    We describe a case of new-onset heart failure in a patient in whom cardiac CT enabled the non-invasive diagnosis of isolated non-compaction and associated functional abnormalities of the left ventricle with the concomitant evaluation of coronary arteries. This case highlights the utility of cardiac CT for the morphological and functional evaluation of the heart as a single imaging modality.

  20. An Echocardiographic Study of Left Ventricular Size and Cardiac Function in Adolescent Females with Anorexia Nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escudero, Carolina A; Potts, James E; Lam, Pei-Yoong; De Souza, Astrid M; Mugford, Gerald J; Sandor, George G S

    2016-01-01

    This retrospective case-control study investigated cardiac dimensions and ventricular function in female adolescents with anorexia nervosa (AN) compared with controls. Echocardiographic measurements of left ventricular (LV) dimensions, LV mass index, left atrial size and cardiac index were made. Detailed measures of systolic and diastolic ventricular function were made including tissue Doppler imaging. Patients were stratified by body mass index ≤10th percentile (AN ≤ 10th) and >10th percentile (AN > 10th). Ninety-five AN patients and 58 controls were included. AN and AN ≤ 10th groups had reduced LV dimensions, LV mass index, left atrial size and cardiac index compared with controls. There were no differences between groups in measures of systolic function. Measures of diastolic tissue Doppler imaging were decreased in AN and AN ≤ 10th. No differences in echocardiographic measurements existed between controls and AN > 10th. Female adolescents with AN have preserved systolic function and abnormalities of diastolic ventricular function. AN ≤ 10th may be a higher risk group. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  1. Cardiac abnormalities assessed by non-invasive techniques in patients with newly diagnosed idiopathic inflammatory myopathies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diederichsen, Louise Pyndt; Simonsen, Jane Angel; Diederichsen, Axel Cosmus Pyndt

    2015-01-01

    inflammatory myopathies (IIM) by means of non-invasive techniques. METHODS: Fourteen patients with IIM (8 polymyositis, 4 dermatomyositis, 2 cancer-associated dermatomyositis) and 14 gender- and age- matched healthy control subjects were investigated. Participant assessments included a cardiac questionnaire...... in 8 (57%) of the patients compared to none of the controls (pgroup (p=0.01). Two patients had systolic dysfunction, and one diastolic dysfunction...

  2. Consequences on offspring of abnormal function in ageing gametes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarín, J J; Pérez-Albalá, S; Cano, A

    2000-01-01

    The present review aims to analyse (i) the molecular, biochemical and cellular changes that accompany oocyte and sperm ageing in any of the internal or external environments where they can reside, and (ii) the consequences of the abnormal function in ageing gametes on pre- and post-implantation development and later life of offspring. This review also aims to propose and discuss cellular/molecular mechanisms framed within the 'free radical theory of ageing'. It appears that the ageing of gametes prior to fertilization may affect many molecular, biochemical and cellular pathways that may jeopardize not only pre- and post-implantation embryo/fetal development but also later life of offspring. Consequences of gamete ageing range from decreased vigour (with the concomitant decrease in intelligence, reproductive fitness and longevity) of apparently normal-looking offspring to severe congenital, epigenetic and/or genetic anomalies. All these effects may be easily prevented by efficient diffusion of both the potential risks of gamete ageing and the steps that should be taken by couples wishing to achieve pregnancy to guarantee a correct maturational synchronization of gametes at fertilization. Although in-vitro antioxidant therapy appears to protect from or retard the ageing process of gametes, it may not assure the total absence of negative effects on the resulting offspring.

  3. Biochemical and functional abnormalities in hypercholesterolemic rabbit platelets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalal, K.B.; Ebbe, S.; Mazoyer, E.; Carpenter, D.; Yee, T.

    1990-01-01

    This study was designed to elucidate changes in rabbit platelet lipids induced by a cholesterol rich diet and to explore the possible correlation of these lipid changes with platelet abnormalities. Pronounced biochemical alterations were observed when serum cholesterol levels of 700-1000 mg% were reached. Hypercholesterolemic (HC) platelets contained 37% more neutral lipids and 16% less phospholipids than the controls. Lysolecithin, cholesterol esters and phosphatidylinositol (PI) levels were increased in HC platelets, and the levels of phosphatidylcholine (PC) were decreased. The cholesterol/phospholipid molar ratio of lipidemic platelets increased from 0.55 +/- 0.011 to 0.89 +/- 0.016 (P less than 0.01) in eight weeks. HC platelets had 90% more arachidonic acid (AA) in the PI than normal platelets. No significant changes in AA of PC were observed. Platelet function was monitored by the uptake and release of [14C]serotonin in platelet rich plasma (PRP), using varying concentrations of collagen as an aggregating agent. The uptake of [14C]serotonin in HC and normal platelets ranged from 78-94%. The percent of [14C]serotonin released from normal and HC platelets was proportional to the concentration of collagen. However, lipidemic platelets were hyperreactive to low concentrations of collagen. Incorporation of 50 microM acetylsalicylic acid into the aggregating medium suppressed the release of [14C]serotonin in normal PRP by more than 90%, but had only a partial effect on lipidemic PRP

  4. EANM/ESC guidelines for radionuclide imaging of cardiac function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hesse, B.; Lindhardt, T.B.; Acampa, W.

    2008-01-01

    radionuclide ventriculography, gated myocardial perfusion scintigraphy, gated PET, and studies with non-imaging devices for the evaluation of cardiac function. The items covered are presented in 11 sections: clinical indications, radiopharmaceuticals and dosimetry, study acquisition, RV EF, LV EF, LV volumes...

  5. [Structure and functional organization of integrated cardiac intensive care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherillo, Marino; Miceli, Domenico; Tubaro, Marco; Guiducci, Umberto

    2007-05-01

    The early invasive strategy for the treatment of acute coronary syndromes and the increasing number of older and sicker patients requiring prolonged and more complex intensive care have induced many changes in the function of the intensive care units. These changes include the statement that specially trained cardiologists and cardiac nurses who can manage patients with acute cardiac conditions should staff the intensive care units. This document indicates the structure of the units and specific recommendations for the number of beds, monitoring system, respirators, pacemaker/defibrillators and additional equipment.

  6. Abnormal autonomic cardiac response to transient hypoxia in sickle cell anemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sangkatumvong, S; Khoo, M C K; Coates, T D

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to non-invasively assess cardiac autonomic control in subjects with sickle cell anemia (SCA) by tracking the changes in heart rate variability (HRV) that occur following brief exposure to a hypoxic stimulus. Five African–American SCA patients and seven healthy control subjects were recruited to participate in this study. Each subject was exposed to a controlled hypoxic stimulus consisting of five breaths of nitrogen. Time-varying spectral analysis of HRV was applied to estimate the cardiac autonomic response to the transient episode of hypoxia. The confounding effects of changes in respiration on the HRV spectral indices were reduced by using a computational model. A significant decrease in the parameters related to parasympathetic control was detected in the post-hypoxic responses of the SCA subjects relative to normal controls. The spectral index related to sympathetic activity, on the other hand, showed a tendency to increase the following hypoxic stimulation, but the change was not significant. This study suggests that there is some degree of cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction in SCA that is revealed by the response to transient hypoxia

  7. Autoimmune Response Confers Decreased Cardiac Function in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    inflammatory response; rather, autoimmune response would keep affecting decreased heart function in. RHD patients who ... untreated children. Nearly 30 - 45 % of the affected children could ..... Technology Department of Anhui Province (PR.

  8. Evaluation of left ventricular function by cardiac CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naito, Hiroaki; Kozuka, Takahiro

    1982-01-01

    Left ventricular function was evaluated by CT, which was compared with the data of left ventriculography for various cardiac diseases. The end diastolic volume of the left ventricle can be readily computed from CT, with a satisfactory correlation with that of left ventriculography (r = 0.95). The left ventricular ejection fraction, calculated from the areal ratio of the left ventricular lumen in end-diastolic imaging to that in end-sytolic imaging, also roughly reflects left ventricular contractile function, but shows correlation with left ventriculography by only r = 0.79. Although the cardiac output is not sensitive for functional evaluation, it can be directly calculated by means of dynamic scanning and shows a satisfactory correlation with the ear piece pigment dilution (r = 0.85). Evaluation of left ventricular function by CT shows a high precision in comparison with left ventriculography, but still lacks temporal resolving power. (Chiba, N.)

  9. Translating golden retriever muscular dystrophy microarray findings to novel biomarkers for cardiac/skeletal muscle function in Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galindo, Cristi L; Soslow, Jonathan H; Brinkmeyer-Langford, Candice L; Gupte, Manisha; Smith, Holly M; Sengsayadeth, Seng; Sawyer, Douglas B; Benson, D Woodrow; Kornegay, Joe N; Markham, Larry W

    2016-04-01

    In Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), abnormal cardiac function is typically preceded by a decade of skeletal muscle disease. Molecular reasons for differences in onset and progression of these muscle groups are unknown. Human biomarkers are lacking. We analyzed cardiac and skeletal muscle microarrays from normal and golden retriever muscular dystrophy (GRMD) dogs (ages 6, 12, or 47+ mo) to gain insight into muscle dysfunction and to identify putative DMD biomarkers. These biomarkers were then measured using human DMD blood samples. We identified GRMD candidate genes that might contribute to the disparity between cardiac and skeletal muscle disease, focusing on brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF) and osteopontin (OPN/SPP1, hereafter indicated as SPP1). BDNF was elevated in cardiac muscle of younger GRMD but was unaltered in skeletal muscle, while SPP1 was increased only in GRMD skeletal muscle. In human DMD, circulating levels of BDNF were inversely correlated with ventricular function and fibrosis, while SPP1 levels correlated with skeletal muscle function. These results highlight gene expression patterns that could account for differences in cardiac and skeletal disease in GRMD. Most notably, animal model-derived data were translated to DMD and support use of BDNF and SPP1 as biomarkers for cardiac and skeletal muscle involvement, respectively.

  10. Cardiac abnormalities in diabetic patients with mutation in the mitochondrial tRNA Leu(UUR)Gene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueno, Hiroshi; Shiotani, Hideyuki

    1999-01-01

    An A-to-G transition at position 3243 of the mitochondrial DNA is known to be a pathogenic factor for mitochondrial myopathy, encephalopathy, lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes (MELAS), diabetes and cardiomyopathy. This mutation causes dysfunction of the central nervous system in MELAS. Because the heart, as well as the brain and nervous system, is highly dependent on the energy produced by mitochondrial oxidation, these tissues are more vulnerable to mitochondrial defects. Cardiac abnormalities were assessed in 10 diabetic patients associated with this mutation using echocardiography and 123 I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) scintigraphy, and compared with 19 diabetic patients without the mutation. Duration of diabetes, therapy, control of blood glucose and diabetic complications, such as diabetic retinopathy and nephropathy, were not different between the 2 groups. Diabetic patients with the mutation had a significantly thicker interventricular septum (16.8±3.7 vs 11.0±1.6 mm, p 0.05). In conclusion, left ventricular hypertrophy with or without abnormal wall motion and severely reduced MIBG uptake may be characteristic in diabetic patients with a mutation in the mitochondrial tRNA Leu(UUR) gene. (author)

  11. Cardiac structure and function in Cushing's syndrome: a cardiac magnetic resonance imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamenický, Peter; Redheuil, Alban; Roux, Charles; Salenave, Sylvie; Kachenoura, Nadjia; Raissouni, Zainab; Macron, Laurent; Guignat, Laurence; Jublanc, Christel; Azarine, Arshid; Brailly, Sylvie; Young, Jacques; Mousseaux, Elie; Chanson, Philippe

    2014-11-01

    Patients with Cushing's syndrome have left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy and dysfunction on echocardiography, but echo-based measurements may have limited accuracy in obese patients. No data are available on right ventricular (RV) and left atrial (LA) size and function in these patients. The objective of the study was to evaluate LV, RV, and LA structure and function in patients with Cushing's syndrome by means of cardiac magnetic resonance, currently the reference modality in assessment of cardiac geometry and function. Eighteen patients with active Cushing's syndrome and 18 volunteers matched for age, sex, and body mass index were studied by cardiac magnetic resonance. The imaging was repeated in the patients 6 months (range 2-12 mo) after the treatment of hypercortisolism. Compared with controls, patients with Cushing's syndrome had lower LV, RV, and LA ejection fractions (P Cushing's syndrome is associated with subclinical biventricular and LA systolic dysfunctions that are reversible after treatment. Despite skeletal muscle atrophy, Cushing's syndrome patients have an increased LV mass, reversible upon correction of hypercortisolism.

  12. The Therapeutic Function of the Instructor in Abnormal Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halgin, Richard P.

    1982-01-01

    Describes three main types of therapeutic problems which college instructors of abnormal psychology courses may encounter with their students. Students may seek the instructor's assistance in helping a relative or acquaintance or for self-help. Often a student may not seek help but may display pathological behavior. (AM)

  13. Is an Abnormal ECG Just the Tip of the ICE-berg? Examining the Utility of Electrocardiography in Detecting Methamphetamine-Induced Cardiac Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paratz, Elizabeth D; Zhao, Jessie; Sherwen, Amanda K; Scarlato, Rose-Marie; MacIsaac, Andrew I

    2017-07-01

    Methamphetamine use is escalating in Australia and New Zealand, with increasing emergency department attendance and mortality. Cardiac complications play a large role in methamphetamine-related mortality, and it would be informative to assess the frequency of abnormal electrocardiograms (ECGs) amongst methamphetamine users. To determine the frequency and severity of ECG abnormalities amongst methamphetamine users compared to a control group. We conducted a retrospective cohort analysis on 212 patients admitted to a tertiary hospital (106 patients with methamphetamine use, 106 age and gender-matched control patients). Electrocardiograms were analysed according to American College of Cardiology guidelines. Mean age was 33.4 years, with 73.6% male gender, with no significant differences between groups in smoking status, ECG indication, or coronary angiography rates. Methamphetamine users were more likely to have psychiatric admissions (22.6% vs 1.9%, pmethamphetamine users, particularly tachyarrhythmias (38.7% vs 26.4%, pmethamphetamine users than age and gender-matched controls. Due to the high frequency of abnormalities, ECGs should be performed in all methamphetamine users who present to hospital. Methamphetamine users with abnormal ECGs should undergo further cardiac investigations. Copyright © 2016 Australian and New Zealand Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons (ANZSCTS) and the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand (CSANZ). All rights reserved.

  14. Cardiac Autonomic Function Is Associated With the Coronary Microcirculatory Function in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Scholten, Bernt Johan; Hansen, Christian Stevns; Hasbak, Philip

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac autonomic dysfunction and cardiac microvascular dysfunction are diabetic complications associated with increased mortality, but the association between these has been difficult to assess. We applied new and sensitive methods to assess this in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM......). In a cross-sectional design, coronary flow reserve (CFR) assessed by cardiac (82)Rb-positron emission tomography/computed tomography, cardiac autonomic reflex tests, and heart rate variability indices were performed in 55 patients with T2DM, without cardiovascular disease, and in 28 control subjects. Cardiac....... A heart rate variability index, reflecting sympathetic and parasympathetic function (low-frequency power), and the late heart-to-mediastinum ratio, reflecting the function of adrenergic receptors and sympathetic activity, were positively correlated with CFR after adjustment for age and heart rate...

  15. The incidence and functional consequences of RT-associated cardiac perfusion defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marks, Lawrence B.; Yu Xiaoli; Prosnitz, Robert G.; Zhou Sumin; Hardenbergh, Patricia H.; Blazing, Michael; Hollis, Donna; Lind, Pehr; Tisch, Andrea; Wong, Terence Z.; Borges-Neto, Salvador

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Radiation therapy (RT) for left-sided breast cancer has been associated with cardiac dysfunction. We herein assess the temporal nature and volume dependence of RT-induced left ventricular perfusion defects and whether these perfusion defects are related to changes in cardiac wall motion or alterations in ejection fraction. Methods: From 1998 to 2001, 114 patients were enrolled onto an IRB-approved prospective clinical study to assess changes in regional and global cardiac function after RT for left-sided breast cancer. Patients were imaged 30 to 60 minutes after injection of technetium 99m sestamibi or tetrofosmin. Post-RT perfusion scans were compared with the pre-RT studies to assess for RT-induced perfusion defects as well as functional changes in wall motion and ejection fraction. Two-tailed Fisher's exact test and the Cochran-Armitage test for linear trends were used for statistical analysis. Results: The incidence of new perfusion defects 6, 12, 18, and 24 months after RT was 27%, 29%, 38%, and 42%, respectively. New defects occurred in approximately 10% to 20% and 50% to 60% of patients with less than 5%, and greater than 5%, of their left ventricle included within the RT fields, respectively (p = 0.33 to 0.00008). The rates of wall motion abnormalities in patients with and without perfusion defects were 12% to 40% versus 0% to 9%, respectively; p values were 0.007 to 0.16, depending on the post-RT interval. Conclusions: Radiation therapy causes volume-dependent perfusion defects in approximately 40% of patients within 2 years of RT. These perfusion defects are associated with corresponding wall-motion abnormalities. Additional study is necessary to better define the long-term functional consequences of RT-induced perfusion defects

  16. Chromosome 15 structural abnormalities: effect on IGF1R gene expression and function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossella Cannarella

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R, mapping on the 15q26.3 chromosome, is required for normal embryonic and postnatal growth. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the IGF1R gene expression and function in three unrelated patients with chromosome 15 structural abnormalities. We report two male patients with the smallest 15q26.3 chromosome duplication described so far, and a female patient with ring chromosome 15 syndrome. Patient one, with a 568 kb pure duplication, had overgrowth, developmental delay, mental and psychomotor retardation, obesity, cryptorchidism, borderline low testis volume, severe oligoasthenoteratozoospermia and gynecomastia. We found a 1.8-fold increase in the IGF1R mRNA and a 1.3-fold increase in the IGF1R protein expression (P < 0.05. Patient two, with a 650 kb impure duplication, showed overgrowth, developmental delay, mild mental retardation, precocious puberty, low testicular volume and severe oligoasthenoteratozoospermia. The IGF1R mRNA and protein expression was similar to that of the control. Patient three, with a 46,XX r(15 (p10q26.2 karyotype, displayed intrauterine growth retardation, developmental delay, mental and psychomotor retardation. We found a <0.5-fold decrease in the IGF1R mRNA expression and an undetectable IGF1R activity. After reviewing the previously 96 published cases of chromosome 15q duplication, we found that neurological disorders, congenital cardiac defects, typical facial traits and gonadal abnormalities are the prominent features in patients with chromosome 15q duplication. Interestingly, patients with 15q deletion syndrome display similar features. We speculate that both the increased and decreased IGF1R gene expression may play a role in the etiology of neurological and gonadal disorders.

  17. Exercise improves cardiac autonomic function in obesity and diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voulgari, Christina; Pagoni, Stamatina; Vinik, Aaron; Poirier, Paul

    2013-05-01

    Physical activity is a key element in the prevention and management of obesity and diabetes. Regular physical activity efficiently supports diet-induced weight loss, improves glycemic control, and can prevent or delay type 2 diabetes diagnosis. Furthermore, physical activity positively affects lipid profile, blood pressure, reduces the rate of cardiovascular events and associated mortality, and restores the quality of life in type 2 diabetes. However, recent studies have documented that a high percentage of the cardiovascular benefits of exercise cannot be attributed solely to enhanced cardiovascular risk factor modulation. Obesity in concert with diabetes is characterized by sympathetic overactivity and the progressive loss of cardiac parasympathetic influx. These are manifested via different pathogenetic mechanisms, including hyperinsulinemia, visceral obesity, subclinical inflammation and increased thrombosis. Cardiac autonomic neuropathy is an underestimated risk factor for the increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality associated with obesity and diabetes. The same is true for the role of physical exercise in the restoration of the heart cardioprotective autonomic modulation in these individuals. This review addresses the interplay of cardiac autonomic function in obesity and diabetes, and focuses on the importance of exercise in improving cardiac autonomic dysfunction. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Proangiogenic scaffolds as functional templates for cardiac tissue engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Madden, Lauran R.; Mortisen, Derek J.; Sussman, Eric M.; Dupras, Sarah K.; Fugate, James A.; Cuy, Janet L.; Hauch, Kip D.; Laflamme, Michael A.; Murry, Charles E.; Ratner, Buddy D.

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate here a cardiac tissue-engineering strategy addressing multicellular organization, integration into host myocardium, and directional cues to reconstruct the functional architecture of heart muscle. Microtemplating is used to shape poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate-co-methacrylic acid) hydrogel into a tissue-engineering scaffold with architectures driving heart tissue integration. The construct contains parallel channels to organize cardiomyocyte bundles, supported by micrometer-s...

  19. Abnormal ventilation scans in middle-aged smokers. Comparison with tests of overall lung function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barter, S.J.; Cunningham, D.A.; Lavender, J.P.; Gibellino, F.; Connellan, S.J.; Pride, N.B.

    1985-01-01

    The uniformity of regional ventilation during tidal breathing has been assessed using continuous inhalation of krypton-81m in 43 male, lifelong nonsmokers and 46 male, current cigarette smokers (mean daily consumption 24.1 cigarettes/day) between 44 and 61 yr of age and with mild or no respiratory symptoms. All subjects had normal chest radiographs. The results of the ventilation scans were compared with tests of overall lung function (spirometry, maximal expiratory flow-volume curves, and single-breath N2 test). Diffuse abnormalities of the ventilation scan were found in 19 (41%) of the 46 smokers but in none of the nonsmokers. Focal abnormalities were found in 7 smokers and 3 nonsmokers. Smokers showed the expected abnormalities in overall lung function (reduced FEV1 and VC, increased single-breath N2 slope, and closing volume), but in individual smokers there was only a weak relation between the severity of abnormality of overall lung function and an abnormal ventilation scan. Abnormal scans could be found when overall lung function was normal and were not invariably found when significant abnormalities in FEV1/VC or N2 slope were present. There was no relation between the presence of chronic expectoration and an abnormal scan. The prognostic significance of an abnormal ventilation scan in such smokers remains to be established

  20. Large-Scale Functional Brain Network Abnormalities in Alzheimer’s Disease: Insights from Functional Neuroimaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradford C. Dickerson

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Functional MRI (fMRI studies of mild cognitive impairment (MCI and Alzheimer’s disease (AD have begun to reveal abnormalities in large-scale memory and cognitive brain networks. Since the medial temporal lobe (MTL memory system is a site of very early pathology in AD, a number of studies have focused on this region of the brain. Yet it is clear that other regions of the large-scale episodic memory network are affected early in the disease as well, and fMRI has begun to illuminate functional abnormalities in frontal, temporal, and parietal cortices as well in MCI and AD. Besides predictable hypoactivation of brain regions as they accrue pathology and undergo atrophy, there are also areas of hyperactivation in brain memory and cognitive circuits, possibly representing attempted compensatory activity. Recent fMRI data in MCI and AD are beginning to reveal relationships between abnormalities of functional activity in the MTL memory system and in functionally connected brain regions, such as the precuneus. Additional work with “resting state” fMRI data is illuminating functional-anatomic brain circuits and their disruption by disease. As this work continues to mature, it will likely contribute to our understanding of fundamental memory processes in the human brain and how these are perturbed in memory disorders. We hope these insights will translate into the incorporation of measures of task-related brain function into diagnostic assessment or therapeutic monitoring, which will hopefully one day be useful for demonstrating beneficial effects of treatments being tested in clinical trials.

  1. Assessment of cardiac sympathetic nerve integrity with positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raffel, David M.; Wieland, Donald M.

    2001-01-01

    The autonomic nervous system plays a critical role in the regulation of cardiac function. Abnormalities of cardiac innervation have been implicated in the pathophysiology of many heart diseases, including sudden cardiac death and congestive heart failure. In an effort to provide clinicians with the ability to regionally map cardiac innervation, several radiotracers for imaging cardiac sympathetic neurons have been developed. This paper reviews the development of neuronal imaging agents and discusses their emerging role in the noninvasive assessment of cardiac sympathetic innervation

  2. Cardiac Diastolic Evaluation in Pregnant Women with Abnormal Glucose Tolerance: An Opportunity to Detect the Early and Subclinical Alterations and Prevent Cardiovascular Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Pintaudi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives of this study were to assess diastolic function in pregnant women with abnormal glucose tolerance (AGT, compared with normal glucose tolerance (NGT women, and to evaluate the insulin resistance status and its association with Doppler-echocardiographic indexes. Echocardiograms of 108 consecutive Caucasian women with singleton pregnancies were performed. Insulin resistance status was estimated by the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR and the quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI. All the studied women showed normal diastolic patterns. Patients with AGT (50.9%, as compared with NGT women, had higher HOMA-IR (1.70±1.30 versus 1.01±0.81, P=0.003, lower QUICKI (0.36±0.005 versus 0.40±0.06, P=0.004, higher lateral mitral annulus late diastolic velocity (13.6±4.9 versus 11.9±4.9, P=0.03, and higher A-wave velocity, the wave responsible for the active atrial contraction component (75.2±14.2 versus 67.7±16.2, P=0.01. At multivariate regression analysis HOMA-IR was the only parameter associated with A-wave velocity. In conclusion, women with AGT had an increased subclinical diastolic active participation, which is associated with higher levels of insulin resistance. For the increased risk of deterioration of cardiac diastolic function, earlier and more seriously than normal pregnancy, AGT women may have a careful followup to detect the early signs of cardiac alteration and to prevent cardiovascular diseases.

  3. Novel axolotl cardiac function analysis method using magnetic resonance imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Gomes Sanches

    Full Text Available The salamander axolotl is capable of complete regeneration of amputated heart tissue. However, non-invasive imaging tools for assessing its cardiac function were so far not employed. In this study, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging is introduced as a non-invasive technique to image heart function of axolotls. Three axolotls were imaged with magnetic resonance imaging using a retrospectively gated Fast Low Angle Shot cine sequence. Within one scanning session the axolotl heart was imaged three times in all planes, consecutively. Heart rate, ejection fraction, stroke volume and cardiac output were calculated using three techniques: (1 combined long-axis, (2 short-axis series, and (3 ultrasound (control for heart rate only. All values are presented as mean ± standard deviation. Heart rate (beats per minute among different animals was 32.2±6.0 (long axis, 30.4±5.5 (short axis and 32.7±4.9 (ultrasound and statistically similar regardless of the imaging method (p > 0.05. Ejection fraction (% was 59.6±10.8 (long axis and 48.1±11.3 (short axis and it differed significantly (p = 0.019. Stroke volume (μl/beat was 133.7±33.7 (long axis and 93.2±31.2 (short axis, also differed significantly (p = 0.015. Calculations were consistent among the animals and over three repeated measurements. The heart rate varied depending on depth of anaesthesia. We described a new method for defining and imaging the anatomical planes of the axolotl heart and propose one of our techniques (long axis analysis may prove useful in defining cardiac function in regenerating axolotl hearts.

  4. Pim-1 Kinase Phosphorylates Cardiac Troponin I and Regulates Cardiac Myofilament Function

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    Ni Zhu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Pim-1 is a serine/threonine kinase that is highly expressed in the heart, and exerts potent cardiac protective effects through enhancing survival, proliferation, and regeneration of cardiomyocytes. Its myocardial specific substrates, however, remain unknown. In the present study, we aim to investigate whether Pim-1 modulates myofilament activity through phosphorylation of cardiac troponin I (cTnI, a key component in regulating myofilament function in the heart. Methods: Coimmunoprecipitation and immunofluorescent assays were employed to investigate the interaction of Pim-1 with cTnI in cardiomyocytes. Biochemical, site directed mutagenesis, and mass spectrometric analyses were utilized to identify the phosphorylation sites of Pim1 in cTnI. Myofilament functional assay using skinned cardiac fiber was used to assess the effect of Pim1-mediated phosphorylation on cardiac myofilament activity. Lastly, the functional significance of Pim1-mediated cTnI in heart disease was determined in diabetic mice. Results: We found that Pim-1 specifically interacts with cTnI in cardiomyocytes and this interaction leads to Pim1-mediated cTnI phosphorylation, predominantly at Ser23/24 and Ser150. Furthermore, our functional assay demonstrated that Pim-1 induces a robust phosphorylation of cTnI within the troponin complex, thus leading to a decreased Ca2+ sensitivity. Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1, a peptide growth factor that has been shown to stimulate myocardial contractility, markedly induces cTnI phosphorylation at Ser23/24 and Ser150 through increasing Pim-1 expression in cardiomyocytes. In a high-fat diabetic mice model, the expression of Pim1 in the heart is significantly decreased, which is accompanied by a decreased phosphorylation of cTnI at Ser23/24 and Ser150, further implicating the pathological significance of the Pim1/cTnI axis in the development of diabetic cardiomyopathy. Conclusion: Our results demonstrate that Pim-1 is a

  5. Cardiac abnormalities in diabetic patients with mutation in the mitochondrial tRNA {sup Leu(UUR)}Gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueno, Hiroshi [Hyogo Medical Center for Adults, Akashi (Japan); Shiotani, Hideyuki

    1999-11-01

    An A-to-G transition at position 3243 of the mitochondrial DNA is known to be a pathogenic factor for mitochondrial myopathy, encephalopathy, lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes (MELAS), diabetes and cardiomyopathy. This mutation causes dysfunction of the central nervous system in MELAS. Because the heart, as well as the brain and nervous system, is highly dependent on the energy produced by mitochondrial oxidation, these tissues are more vulnerable to mitochondrial defects. Cardiac abnormalities were assessed in 10 diabetic patients associated with this mutation using echocardiography and {sup 123}I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) scintigraphy, and compared with 19 diabetic patients without the mutation. Duration of diabetes, therapy, control of blood glucose and diabetic complications, such as diabetic retinopathy and nephropathy, were not different between the 2 groups. Diabetic patients with the mutation had a significantly thicker interventricular septum (16.8{+-}3.7 vs 11.0{+-}1.6 mm, p<0.001) than those without the mutation. Fractional shortening was lower in diabetic patients with the mutation than those without it (30.7{+-}7.0 vs 42.5{+-}6.6, p<0.001). MIBG uptake on the delayed MIBG image was significantly lower in diabetic patients with the mutation than in those without the mutation (mean value of the heart to mediastinum ratio: 1.6{+-}0.2 vs 2.0{+-}0.4, p>0.05). In conclusion, left ventricular hypertrophy with or without abnormal wall motion and severely reduced MIBG uptake may be characteristic in diabetic patients with a mutation in the mitochondrial tRNA {sup Leu(UUR)} gene. (author)

  6. Identification and functional characterization of cardiac pacemaker cells in zebrafish.

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    Federico Tessadori

    Full Text Available In the mammalian heart a conduction system of nodes and conducting cells generates and transduces the electrical signals evoking myocardial contractions. Specialized pacemaker cells initiating and controlling cardiac contraction rhythmicity are localized in an anatomically identifiable structure of myocardial origin, the sinus node. We previously showed that in mammalian embryos sinus node cells originate from cardiac progenitors expressing the transcription factors T-box transcription factor 3 (Tbx3 and Islet-1 (Isl1. Although cardiac development and function are strikingly conserved amongst animal classes, in lower vertebrates neither structural nor molecular distinguishable components of a conduction system have been identified, questioning its evolutionary origin. Here we show that zebrafish embryos lacking the LIM/homeodomain-containing transcription factor Isl1 display heart rate defects related to pacemaker dysfunction. Moreover, 3D reconstructions of gene expression patterns in the embryonic and adult zebrafish heart led us to uncover a previously unidentified, Isl1-positive and Tbx2b-positive region in the myocardium at the junction of the sinus venosus and atrium. Through their long interconnecting cellular protrusions the identified Isl1-positive cells form a ring-shaped structure. In vivo labeling of the Isl1-positive cells by transgenic technology allowed their isolation and electrophysiological characterization, revealing their unique pacemaker activity. In conclusion we demonstrate that Isl1-expressing cells, organized as a ring-shaped structure around the venous pole, hold the pacemaker function in the adult zebrafish heart. We have thereby identified an evolutionary conserved, structural and molecular distinguishable component of the cardiac conduction system in a lower vertebrate.

  7. Early sepsis does not stimulate reactive oxygen species production and does not reduce cardiac function despite an increased inflammation status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Léger, Thibault; Charrier, Alice; Moreau, Clarisse; Hininger-Favier, Isabelle; Mourmoura, Evangelia; Rigaudière, Jean-Paul; Pitois, Elodie; Bouvier, Damien; Sapin, Vincent; Pereira, Bruno; Azarnoush, Kasra; Demaison, Luc

    2017-07-01

    If it is sustained for several days, sepsis can trigger severe abnormalities of cardiac function which leads to death in 50% of cases. This probably occurs through activation of toll-like receptor-9 by bacterial lipopolysaccharides and overproduction of proinflammatory cytokines such as TNF- α and IL-1 β In contrast, early sepsis is characterized by the development of tachycardia. This study aimed at determining the early changes in the cardiac function during sepsis and at finding the mechanism responsible for the observed changes. Sixty male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to two groups, the first one being made septic by cecal ligation and puncture (sepsis group) and the second one being subjected to the same surgery without cecal ligation and puncture (sham-operated group). The cardiac function was assessed in vivo and ex vivo in standard conditions. Several parameters involved in the oxidative stress and inflammation were determined in the plasma and heart. As evidenced by the plasma level of TNF- α and gene expression of IL-1 β and TNF- α in the heart, inflammation was developed in the sepsis group. The cardiac function was also slightly stimulated by sepsis in the in vivo and ex vivo situations. This was associated with unchanged levels of oxidative stress, but several parameters indicated a lower cardiac production of reactive oxygen species in the septic group. In conclusion, despite the development of inflammation, early sepsis did not increase reactive oxygen species production and did not reduce myocardial function. The depressant effect of TNF- α and IL-1 β on the cardiac function is known to occur at very high concentrations. The influence of low- to moderate-grade inflammation on the myocardial mechanical behavior must thus be revisited. © 2017 French National Institute of Agronomical Research (INRA). Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  8. Positron emission tomographic imaging of cardiac sympathetic innervation and function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldstein, D.S.; Chang, P.C.; Eisenhofer, G.; Miletich, R.; Finn, R.; Bacher, J.; Kirk, K.L.; Bacharach, S.; Kopin, I.J.

    1990-01-01

    Sites of uptake, storage, and metabolism of [ 18 F]fluorodopamine and excretion of [ 18 F]fluorodopamine and its metabolites were visualized using positron emission tomographic (PET) scanning after intravenous injection of the tracer into anesthetized dogs. Radioactivity was concentrated in the renal pelvis, heart, liver, spleen, salivary glands, and gall bladder. Uptake of 18F by the heart resulted in striking delineation of the left ventricular myocardium. Pretreatment with desipramine markedly decreased cardiac positron emission, consistent with dependence of the heart on neuronal uptake (uptake-1) for removal of circulating catecholamines. In reserpinized animals, cardiac positron emission was absent within 30 minutes after injection of [ 18 F]-6-fluorodopamine, demonstrating that the emission in untreated animals was from radioactive labeling of the sympathetic storage vesicles. Decreased positron emission from denervated salivary glands confirmed that the tracer was concentrated in sympathetic neurons. Radioactivity in the gall bladder and urinary system depicted the hepatic and renal excretion of the tracer and its metabolites. Administration of tyramine or nitroprusside increased and ganglionic blockade with trimethaphan decreased the rate of loss of myocardial radioactivity. The results show that PET scanning after administration of [ 18 F]fluorodopamine can be used to visualize sites of sympathetic innervation, follow the metabolism and renal and hepatic excretion of catecholamines, and examine cardiac sympathetic function

  9. Proangiogenic scaffolds as functional templates for cardiac tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, Lauran R; Mortisen, Derek J; Sussman, Eric M; Dupras, Sarah K; Fugate, James A; Cuy, Janet L; Hauch, Kip D; Laflamme, Michael A; Murry, Charles E; Ratner, Buddy D

    2010-08-24

    We demonstrate here a cardiac tissue-engineering strategy addressing multicellular organization, integration into host myocardium, and directional cues to reconstruct the functional architecture of heart muscle. Microtemplating is used to shape poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate-co-methacrylic acid) hydrogel into a tissue-engineering scaffold with architectures driving heart tissue integration. The construct contains parallel channels to organize cardiomyocyte bundles, supported by micrometer-sized, spherical, interconnected pores that enhance angiogenesis while reducing scarring. Surface-modified scaffolds were seeded with human ES cell-derived cardiomyocytes and cultured in vitro. Cardiomyocytes survived and proliferated for 2 wk in scaffolds, reaching adult heart densities. Cardiac implantation of acellular scaffolds with pore diameters of 30-40 microm showed angiogenesis and reduced fibrotic response, coinciding with a shift in macrophage phenotype toward the M2 state. This work establishes a foundation for spatially controlled cardiac tissue engineering by providing discrete compartments for cardiomyocytes and stroma in a scaffold that enhances vascularization and integration while controlling the inflammatory response.

  10. Functional capacity and mental state of patients undergoing cardiac surgery

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    Bruna Corrêa

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Cardiovascular diseases are a serious public health problem in Brazil. Myocardial revascularization surgery (MRS as well as cardiac valve replacement and repair are procedures indicated to treat them. Thus, extracorporeal circulation (ECC is still widely used in these surgeries, in which patients with long ECC times may have greater neurological deficits. Neurological damage resulting from MRS can have devastating consequences such as loss of independence and worsening of quality of life. Objective: To assess the effect of cardiac surgery on a patient’s mental state and functional capacity in both the pre- and postoperative periods. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study with convenience sampling of subjects undergoing MRS and valve replacement. Participants were administered the Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE and the Duke Activity Status Index (DASI in the pre- and postoperative periods, as well as before their hospital discharge. Results: This study assessed nine patients (eight males aged 62.4 ± 6.3 years with a BMI of 29.5 ± 2.3 kg/m2. There was a significant decrease in DASI scores and VO2 from preoperative to postoperative status (p = 0.003 and p = 0.003, respectively. Conclusion: This study revealed a loss of cognitive and exercise capacity after cardiac surgery. A larger sample however is needed to consolidate these findings.

  11. 8-Oxoguanine DNA glycosylase 1 (ogg1) maintains the function of cardiac progenitor cells during heart formation in zebrafish

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    Yan, Lifeng [State Key Laboratory of Reproductive Medicine, Institute of Toxicology, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 210029 (China); Key Laboratory of Modern Toxicology of Ministry of Education, School of Public Health, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 210029 (China); Zhou, Yong [Key Laboratory of Stem Cell Biology, Institute of Health Sciences, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200025 (China); Yu, Shanhe [Shanghai Institute of Hematology, RuiJin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, School of Medicine, Shanghai 200025 (China); Ji, Guixiang [Nanjing Institute of Environmental Sciences/Key Laboratory of Pesticide Environmental Assessment and Pollution Control, Ministry of Environmental Protection, Nanjing 210042 (China); Wang, Lei [Key Laboratory of Stem Cell Biology, Institute of Health Sciences, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200025 (China); Liu, Wei [State Key Laboratory of Reproductive Medicine, Institute of Toxicology, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 210029 (China); Key Laboratory of Modern Toxicology of Ministry of Education, School of Public Health, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 210029 (China); Gu, Aihua, E-mail: aihuagu@njmu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Reproductive Medicine, Institute of Toxicology, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 210029 (China); Key Laboratory of Modern Toxicology of Ministry of Education, School of Public Health, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 210029 (China)

    2013-11-15

    Genomic damage may devastate the potential of progenitor cells and consequently impair early organogenesis. We found that ogg1, a key enzyme initiating the base-excision repair, was enriched in the embryonic heart in zebrafish. So far, little is known about DNA repair in cardiogenesis. Here, we addressed the critical role of ogg1 in cardiogenesis for the first time. ogg1 mainly expressed in the anterior lateral plate mesoderm (ALPM), the primary heart tube, and subsequently the embryonic myocardium by in situ hybridisation. Loss of ogg1 resulted in severe cardiac morphogenesis and functional abnormalities, including the short heart length, arrhythmia, decreased cardiomyocytes and nkx2.5{sup +} cardiac progenitor cells. Moreover, the increased apoptosis and repressed proliferation of progenitor cells caused by ogg1 deficiency might contribute to the heart phenotype. The microarray analysis showed that the expression of genes involved in embryonic heart tube morphogenesis and heart structure were significantly changed due to the lack of ogg1. Among those, foxh1 is an important partner of ogg1 in the cardiac development in response to DNA damage. Our work demonstrates the requirement of ogg1 in cardiac progenitors and heart development in zebrafish. These findings may be helpful for understanding the aetiology of congenital cardiac deficits. - Highlights: • A key DNA repair enzyme ogg1 is expressed in the embryonic heart in zebrafish. • We found that ogg1 is essential for normal cardiac morphogenesis in zebrafish. • The production of embryonic cardiomyocytes requires appropriate ogg1 expression. • Ogg1 critically regulated proliferation of cardiac progenitor cells in zebrafish. • foxh1 is a partner of ogg1 in the cardiac development in response to DNA damage.

  12. Cardiac function and myocardial perfusion immediately following maximal treadmill exercise inside the MRI room

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ballinger Michelle R

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Treadmill exercise stress testing is an essential tool in the prevention, detection, and treatment of a broad spectrum of cardiovascular disease. After maximal exercise, cardiac images at peak stress are typically acquired using nuclear scintigraphy or echocardiography, both of which have inherent limitations. Although CMR offers superior image quality, the lack of MRI-compatible exercise and monitoring equipment has prevented the realization of treadmill exercise CMR. It is critical to commence imaging as quickly as possible after exercise to capture exercise-induced cardiac wall motion abnormalities. We modified a commercial treadmill such that it could be safely positioned inside the MRI room to minimize the distance between the treadmill and the scan table. We optimized the treadmill exercise CMR protocol in 20 healthy volunteers and successfully imaged cardiac function and myocardial perfusion at peak stress, followed by viability imaging at rest. Imaging commenced an average of 30 seconds after maximal exercise. Real-time cine of seven slices with no breath-hold and no ECG-gating was completed within 45 seconds of exercise, immediately followed by stress perfusion imaging of three short-axis slices which showed an average time to peak enhancement within 57 seconds of exercise. We observed a 3.1-fold increase in cardiac output and a myocardial perfusion reserve index of 1.9, which agree with reported values for healthy subjects at peak stress. This study successfully demonstrates in-room treadmill exercise CMR in healthy volunteers, but confirmation of feasibility in patients with heart disease is still needed.

  13. Association between abnormal myocardial fatty acid metabolism and cardiac-derived death among patients undergoing hemodialysis: results from a cohort study in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moroi, Masao; Tamaki, Nagara; Nishimura, Masato; Haze, Kazuo; Nishimura, Tsunehiko; Kusano, Eiji; Akiba, Takashi; Sugimoto, Tokuichiro; Hase, Hiroki; Hara, Kazuhiro; Nakata, Tomoaki; Kumita, Shinichiro; Nagai, Yoji; Hashimoto, Akiyoshi; Momose, Mitsuru; Miyakoda, Keiko; Hasebe, Naoyuki; Kikuchi, Kenjiro

    2013-03-01

    Detecting myocardial ischemia in hemodialysis patients is crucial given the high incidence of silent ischemia and the high cardiovascular mortality rates. Abnormal myocardial fatty acid metabolism as determined by imaging with (123)I-labeled BMIPP (β-methyl iodophenyl-pentadecanoic acid) might be associated with cardiac-derived death in hemodialysis patients. Prospective observational study. Asymptomatic hemodialysis patients with one or more cardiovascular risk factors, but without known coronary artery disease, were followed up for 3 years at 48 Japanese hospitals (406 men, 271 women; mean age, 64 years). Baseline BMIPP summed scores semiquantified using a 17-segment 5-point system (normal, 0; absent, 4). Cardiac-derived death, including cardiac and sudden death. HRs were estimated using a Cox model for associations between BMIPP summed scores and cardiac-derived death, adjusting for potential confounders of age, sex, body mass index, dialysis duration, and cardiovascular risk factors. Rates of all-cause mortality and cardiac-derived death were 18.5% and 6.8%, respectively. Cardiac-derived death (acute myocardial infarction [n = 10], congestive heart failure [n = 13], arrhythmia [n = 2], valvular heart disease [n = 1], and sudden death [n = 20]) accounted for 36.8% of all-cause deaths. Cardiac-derived death (n = 46) was associated with age, history of heart failure, and BMIPP summed scores of 4 or higher (HR, 2.9; P death-free survival rates were 95.7%, 90.6%, and 78.8% when BMIPP summed scores were 3 or lower, 4-8, and 9 or higher, respectively. BMIPP summed score also was a predictor of all-cause death (HR, 1.6; P = 0.009). Sudden death of unknown cause was considered to have been cardiac derived, although a coronary origin was not confirmed. Abnormal myocardial fatty acid metabolism is associated with cardiac-derived death in hemodialysis patients. BMIPP single-proton emission computed tomography appears clinically useful for predicting cardiac-derived death

  14. Abnormal Liver Function Tests in an Anorexia Nervosa Patient and an Atypical Manifestation of Refeeding Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vamshidhar R. Vootla

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Refeeding syndrome is defined as electrolyte and fluid abnormalities that occur in significantly malnourished patients when they are refed orally, enterally, or parenterally. The principal manifestations include hypophosphatemia, hypokalemia, vitamin deficiencies, volume overload and edema. This can affect multiple organ systems, such as the cardiovascular, pulmonary, or neurological systems, secondary to the above-mentioned abnormalities. Rarely, patients may develop gastrointestinal symptoms and show abnormal liver function test results. We report the case of a 52-year-old woman with anorexia nervosa who developed refeeding syndrome and simultaneous elevations of liver function test results, which normalized upon the resolution of the refeeding syndrome.

  15. Abnormal Liver Function Tests in an Anorexia Nervosa Patient and an Atypical Manifestation of Refeeding Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vootla, Vamshidhar R; Daniel, Myrta

    2015-01-01

    Refeeding syndrome is defined as electrolyte and fluid abnormalities that occur in significantly malnourished patients when they are refed orally, enterally, or parenterally. The principal manifestations include hypophosphatemia, hypokalemia, vitamin deficiencies, volume overload and edema. This can affect multiple organ systems, such as the cardiovascular, pulmonary, or neurological systems, secondary to the above-mentioned abnormalities. Rarely, patients may develop gastrointestinal symptoms and show abnormal liver function test results. We report the case of a 52-year-old woman with anorexia nervosa who developed refeeding syndrome and simultaneous elevations of liver function test results, which normalized upon the resolution of the refeeding syndrome.

  16. Effect of prolonged space flight on cardiac function and dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, W. L.; Epstein, S. E.; Griffith, J. M.; Goldstein, R. E.; Redwood, D. R.

    1974-01-01

    Echocardiographic studies were performed preflight 5 days before launch and on recovery day and 1, 2, 4, 11, 31 and 68 days postflight. From these echocardiograms measurements were made. From these primary measurements, left ventricular end-diastolic volume, end-systolic volume, stroke volume, and mass were derived using the accepted assumptions. Findings in the Scientist Pilot and Pilot resemble those seen in trained distance runners. Wall thickness measurements were normal in all three crewmembers preflight. Postflight basal studies were unchanged in the Commander on recovery day through 68 days postflight in both the Scientist Pilot and Pilot, however, the left ventricular end-diastolic volume, stroke volume, and mass were decreased slightly. Left ventricular function curves were constructed for the Commander and Pilot by plotting stroke volume versus end-diastolic volume. In both astronauts, preflight and postflight data fell on the same straight line demonstrating that no deterioration in cardiac function had occurred. These data indicate that the cardiovascular system adapts well to prolonged weightlessness and suggest that alterations in cardiac dimensions and function are unlikely to limit man's future in space.

  17. Cardiac effects of 3-iodothyronamine: a new aminergic system modulating cardiac function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiellini, Grazia; Frascarelli, Sabina; Ghelardoni, Sandra; Carnicelli, Vittoria; Tobias, Sandra C; DeBarber, Andrea; Brogioni, Simona; Ronca-Testoni, Simonetta; Cerbai, Elisabetta; Grandy, David K; Scanlan, Thomas S; Zucchi, Riccardo

    2007-05-01

    3-Iodothyronamine T1AM is a novel endogenous thyroid hormone derivative that activates the G protein-coupled receptor known as trace anime-associated receptor 1 (TAAR1). In the isolated working rat heart and in rat cardiomyocytes, T1AM produced a reversible, dose-dependent negative inotropic effect (e.g., 27+/-5, 51+/-3, and 65+/-2% decrease in cardiac output at 19, 25, and 38 microM concentration, respectively). An independent negative chronotropic effect was also observed. The hemodynamic effects of T1AM were remarkably increased in the presence of the tyrosine kinase inhibitor genistein, whereas they were attenuated in the presence of the tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor vanadate. No effect was produced by inhibitors of protein kinase A, protein kinase C, calcium-calmodulin kinase II, phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase, or MAP kinases. Tissue cAMP levels were unchanged. In rat ventricular tissue, Western blot experiments with antiphosphotyrosine antibodies showed reduced phosphorylation of microsomal and cytosolic proteins after perfusion with synthetic T1AM; reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction experiments revealed the presence of transcripts for at least 5 TAAR subtypes; specific and saturable binding of [125I]T1AM was observed, with a dissociation constant in the low micromolar range (5 microM); and endogenous T1AM was detectable by tandem mass spectrometry. In conclusion, our findings provide evidence for the existence of a novel aminergic system modulating cardiac function.

  18. Engineered hybrid cardiac patches with multifunctional electronics for online monitoring and regulation of tissue function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feiner, Ron; Engel, Leeya; Fleischer, Sharon; Malki, Maayan; Gal, Idan; Shapira, Assaf; Shacham-Diamand, Yosi; Dvir, Tal

    2016-06-01

    In cardiac tissue engineering approaches to treat myocardial infarction, cardiac cells are seeded within three-dimensional porous scaffolds to create functional cardiac patches. However, current cardiac patches do not allow for online monitoring and reporting of engineered-tissue performance, and do not interfere to deliver signals for patch activation or to enable its integration with the host. Here, we report an engineered cardiac patch that integrates cardiac cells with flexible, freestanding electronics and a 3D nanocomposite scaffold. The patch exhibited robust electronic properties, enabling the recording of cellular electrical activities and the on-demand provision of electrical stimulation for synchronizing cell contraction. We also show that electroactive polymers containing biological factors can be deposited on designated electrodes to release drugs in the patch microenvironment on demand. We expect that the integration of complex electronics within cardiac patches will eventually provide therapeutic control and regulation of cardiac function.

  19. Engineered hybrid cardiac patches with multifunctional electronics for online monitoring and regulation of tissue function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feiner, Ron; Engel, Leeya; Fleischer, Sharon; Malki, Maayan; Gal, Idan; Shapira, Assaf; Shacham-Diamand, Yosi; Dvir, Tal

    2016-01-01

    In cardiac tissue engineering approaches to treat myocardial infarction, cardiac cells are seeded within three-dimensional porous scaffolds to create functional cardiac patches. However, current cardiac patches do not allow for online monitoring and reporting of engineered-tissue performance, and do not interfere to deliver signals for patch activation or to enable its integration with the host. Here, we report an engineered cardiac patch that integrates cardiac cells with flexible, free-standing electronics and a 3D nanocomposite scaffold. The patch exhibited robust electronic properties, enabling the recording of cellular electrical activities and the on-demand provision of electrical stimulation for synchronizing cell contraction. We also show that electroactive polymers containing biological factors can be deposited on designated electrodes to release drugs in the patch microenvironment on-demand. We expect that the integration of complex electronics within cardiac patches will eventually provide therapeutic control and regulation of cardiac function. PMID:26974408

  20. Persistence of normal cardiac function and myocardial perfusion in irradiated long-term survivors of Hodgkin's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constine, L.S.; Schwartz, R.G.; Savage, D.E.; King, V.; Muhs, A.; Rubin, P.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: The risk of myocardial infarction and cardiac dysfunction following mantle irradiation (RT) for Hodgkin's disease is controversial. The relative risk of fatal myocardial infarction is 2.8 in our Hodgkin's patients, similar to other reports. Sensitive evaluations of cardiac function and myocardial perfusion might be expected to reveal pre-clinical abnormalities of potential significance. We hypothesized the presence of pre-clinical cardiac toxicity and progressive deterioration of left ventricular performance and myocardial ischemia over time in long-term survivors of Hodgkin's disease. The data reported herein extend our previous study in patient number (n=50) and follow-up duration (mean 16.5 years). Materials and Methods: Equilibrium radionuclide angiocardiography (ERNA) was used to quantify left ventricular (LV) systolic and diastolic function with LV ejection fraction (LVEF) and peak filling rate (PFR), respectively. Quantitative myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (MPS) and ECG stress testing with exercise or dipyridamole were used to assess myocardial perfusion and electrical function. Patients at least 1.0 year after RT were eligible if ≤ 50 years old at RT and without known Hodgkin's or cardiac disease. Fifty patients, ages 10-46 years (mean 26.0) at RT, were tested 1.1 to 29.1 years (mean 9.1) after RT. Seventeen patients were tested 2 - 3 times separated by 0.5 - 6.5 years (mean 3.3). The mean central cardiac RT dose was 35.1 Gy (range 18.5 - 47.5) in daily 1.5-2.0 Gy fractions. Twelve patients were additionally irradiated to the left ventricle (LVRT), usually through partial transmission left lung shields (range 14.3-21.3 Gy). Results: No patient had symptomatic cardiac disease at the time of evaluation. The mean LVEF (first test, n = 50) was 60 ± 6% (range 42-73%) [normal ≥ 50%], and PFR (first test, n=44) was 3.43 ± 0.83 end diastolic volume per second (range 1.5-5.2 EDV/sec) [normal ≥ 2.54 EDV/sec] with 2 and 7 patients below normal

  1. Cardiac abnormalities in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. A prospective study with a clinical-pathological correlation in twenty-one adult patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herdy Gesmar Volga Haddad

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE - To evaluate the cardiac abnormalities and their evolution during the course of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, as well as to correlate clinical and pathological data. METHODS - Twenty-one patients, admitted to the hospital with the diagnosis of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, were prospectively studied and followed until their death. Age ranged from 19 to 42 years (17 males. ECG and echocardiogram were also obtained every six months. After death, macro- and microscopic examinations were also performed. RESULTS - The most frequent causes of referral to the hospital were: diarrhea or repeated pneumonias, tuberculosis, toxoplasmosis or Kaposi sarcoma. The most frequent findings were acute or chronic pericarditis (42% and dilated cardiomyopathy (19%. Four patients died of cardiac problems: infective endocarditis, pericarditis with pericardial effusion, bacterial myocarditis and infection by Toxoplasma gondii. CONCLUSION - Severe cardiac abnormalities were the cause of death in some patients. In the majority of the patients, a good correlation existed between clinical and anatomical-pathological data. Cardiac evaluation was important to detect early manifestations and treat them accordingly, even in asymptomatic patients.

  2. The effect of childhood obesity on cardiac functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Üner, Abdurrahman; Doğan, Murat; Epcacan, Zerrin; Epçaçan, Serdar

    2014-03-01

    Obesity is a metabolic disorder defined as excessive accumulation of body fat, which is made up of genetic, environmental, and hormonal factors and has various social, psychological, and medical complications. Childhood obesity is a major indicator of adult obesity. The aim of this study is to evaluate the cardiac functions via electrocardiography (ECG), echocardiography (ECHO), and treadmill test in childhood obesity. A patient group consisting of 30 obese children and a control group consisting of 30 non-obese children were included in the study. The age range was between 8 and 17 years. Anthropometric measurements, physical examination, ECG, ECHO, and treadmill test were done in all patients. P-wave dispersion (PD) was found to be statistically significantly high in obese patients. In ECHO analysis, we found that end-diastolic diameter, end-systolic diameter, left ventricle posterior wall thickness, and interventricular septum were significantly greater in obese children. In treadmill test, exercise capacity was found to be significantly lower and the hemodynamic response to exercise was found to be defective in obese children. Various cardiac structural and functional changes occur in childhood obesity and this condition includes important cardiovascular risks. PD, left ventricle end-systolic and end-diastolic diameter, left ventricle posterior wall thickness, interventricular septum thickness, exercise capacity, and hemodynamic and ECG measurements during exercise testing are useful tests to determine cardiac dysfunctions and potential arrhythmias even in early stages of childhood obesity. Early recognition and taking precautions for obesity during childhood is very important to intercept complications that will occur in adulthood.

  3. Cardiac structure and function and dependency in the oldest old.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leibowitz, David; Jacobs, Jeremy M; Stessman-Lande, Irit; Cohen, Aharon; Gilon, Dan; Ein-Mor, Eliana; Stessman, Jochanan

    2011-08-01

    To examine the association between cardiac function and activities of daily living (ADLs) in an age-homogenous, community-dwelling population born in 1920 and 1921. Cross-sectional analysis of a prospective cohort study. Community-dwelling elderly population. Participants were recruited from the Jerusalem Longitudinal Cohort Study, which has followed an age-homogenous cohort of Jerusalem residents born in 1920 and 1921. Four hundred eighty-nine of the participants (228 male, 261 female) from the most recent set of data collection in 2005 and 2006 underwent echocardiography at their place of residence in addition to structured interviews and physical examination. A home-based comprehensive assessment was performed to assess health and functional status, including performance of ADLs. Dependence was defined as needing assistance with one or more basic ADLs. Standard echocardiographic assessment of cardiac structure and function, including ejection fraction (EF) and diastolic function as assessed using early diastolic mitral annular tissue velocity measurements obtained using tissue Doppler, was performed. Of the participants with limitation in at least one ADL, significantly more had low EF (dependence in ADL had higher left ventricular mass index (LVMI) (129.3 vs 119.7 g/m²) and left atrial volume index (LAVI) (41.3 vs 36.7 mL/m²). There were no differences between the groups in percentage of participants with impaired diastolic function or average ratio of early diastolic transmitral flow velocity to early diastolic mitral annular tissue velocity (11.5 vs 11.8; P=.64). In this age-homogenous cohort of the oldest old, high LVMI and LAVI and indices of systolic but not diastolic function as assessed according to Doppler were associated with limitations in ADLs. © 2011, Copyright the Authors. Journal compilation © 2011, The American Geriatrics Society.

  4. Longstanding Hyperthyroidism Is Associated with Normal or Enhanced Intrinsic Cardiomyocyte Function despite Decline in Global Cardiac Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redetzke, Rebecca A.; Gerdes, A. Martin

    2012-01-01

    Thyroid hormones (THs) play a pivotal role in cardiac homeostasis. TH imbalances alter cardiac performance and ultimately cause cardiac dysfunction. Although short-term hyperthyroidism typically leads to heightened left ventricular (LV) contractility and improved hemodynamic parameters, chronic hyperthyroidism is associated with deleterious cardiac consequences including increased risk of arrhythmia, impaired cardiac reserve and exercise capacity, myocardial remodeling, and occasionally heart failure. To evaluate the long-term consequences of chronic hyperthyroidism on LV remodeling and function, we examined LV isolated myocyte function, chamber function, and whole tissue remodeling in a hamster model. Three-month-old F1b hamsters were randomized to control or 10 months TH treatment (0.1% grade I desiccated TH). LV chamber remodeling and function was assessed by echocardiography at 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 months of treatment. After 10 months, terminal cardiac function was assessed by echocardiography and LV hemodynamics. Hyperthyroid hamsters exhibited significant cardiac hypertrophy and deleterious cardiac remodeling characterized by myocyte lengthening, chamber dilatation, decreased relative wall thickness, increased wall stress, and increased LV interstitial fibrotic deposition. Importantly, hyperthyroid hamsters demonstrated significant LV systolic and diastolic dysfunction. Despite the aforementioned remodeling and global cardiac decline, individual isolated cardiac myocytes from chronically hyperthyroid hamsters had enhanced function when compared with myocytes from untreated age-matched controls. Thus, it appears that long-term hyperthyroidism may impair global LV function, at least in part by increasing interstitial ventricular fibrosis, in spite of normal or enhanced intrinsic cardiomyocyte function. PMID:23056390

  5. Longstanding hyperthyroidism is associated with normal or enhanced intrinsic cardiomyocyte function despite decline in global cardiac function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan Y Weltman

    Full Text Available Thyroid hormones (THs play a pivotal role in cardiac homeostasis. TH imbalances alter cardiac performance and ultimately cause cardiac dysfunction. Although short-term hyperthyroidism typically leads to heightened left ventricular (LV contractility and improved hemodynamic parameters, chronic hyperthyroidism is associated with deleterious cardiac consequences including increased risk of arrhythmia, impaired cardiac reserve and exercise capacity, myocardial remodeling, and occasionally heart failure. To evaluate the long-term consequences of chronic hyperthyroidism on LV remodeling and function, we examined LV isolated myocyte function, chamber function, and whole tissue remodeling in a hamster model. Three-month-old F1b hamsters were randomized to control or 10 months TH treatment (0.1% grade I desiccated TH. LV chamber remodeling and function was assessed by echocardiography at 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 months of treatment. After 10 months, terminal cardiac function was assessed by echocardiography and LV hemodynamics. Hyperthyroid hamsters exhibited significant cardiac hypertrophy and deleterious cardiac remodeling characterized by myocyte lengthening, chamber dilatation, decreased relative wall thickness, increased wall stress, and increased LV interstitial fibrotic deposition. Importantly, hyperthyroid hamsters demonstrated significant LV systolic and diastolic dysfunction. Despite the aforementioned remodeling and global cardiac decline, individual isolated cardiac myocytes from chronically hyperthyroid hamsters had enhanced function when compared with myocytes from untreated age-matched controls. Thus, it appears that long-term hyperthyroidism may impair global LV function, at least in part by increasing interstitial ventricular fibrosis, in spite of normal or enhanced intrinsic cardiomyocyte function.

  6. Functional significance of cardiac reinnervation in heart transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwaiblmair, M; von Scheidt, W; Uberfuhr, P; Ziegler, S; Schwaiger, M; Reichart, B; Vogelmeier, C

    1999-09-01

    There is accumulating evidence of structural sympathetic reinnervation after human cardiac transplantation. However, the functional significance of reinnervation in terms of exercise capacity has not been established as yet; we therefore investigated the influence of reinnervation on cardiopulmonary exercise testing. After orthotopic heart transplantation 35 patients (mean age, 49.1 +/- 8.4 years) underwent positron emission tomography with scintigraphically measured uptake of C11-hydroxyephedrine (HED), lung function testing, and cardiopulmonary exercise testing. Two groups were defined based on scintigraphic findings, indicating a denervated group (n = 15) with a HED uptake of 5.45%/min and a reinnervated group (n = 20) with a HED uptake of 10.59%/min. The two study groups did not show significant differences with regard to anthropometric data, number of rejection episodes, preoperative hemodynamics, and postoperative lung function data. The reinnervated group had a significant longer time interval from transplantation (1625 +/- 1069 versus 800 +/- 1316 days, p exercise (137 +/- 15 versus 120 +/- 20 beats/min, p = .012), peak oxygen uptake (21.0 +/- 4 versus 16.1 +/- 5 mL/min/kg, p = .006), peak oxygen pulse (12.4 +/- 2.9 versus 10.2 +/- 2.7 mL/min/beat, p = .031), and anaerobic threshold (11.2 +/- 1.8 versus 9.5 +/- 2.1 mL/min, p = .046) were significantly increased in comparison to denervated transplant recipients. Additionally, a decreased functional dead space ventilation (0.24 +/- 0.05 versus 0.30 +/- 0.05, p = .004) was observed in the reinnervated group. Our study results support the hypothesis that partial sympathetic reinnervation after cardiac transplantation is of functional significance. Sympathetic reinnervation enables an increased peak oxygen uptake. This is most probably due to partial restoration of the chronotropic and inotropic competence of the heart as well as an improved oxygen delivery to the exercising muscles and a reduced ventilation

  7. Evaluation of Right Ventricular Function with Radionuclide Cardiac Angiography - Right Ventricular Ejection Fraction in Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohn, In; Shin, Sung Hae; Chung, June Key; Lee, Myung Chul; Cho, Bo Youn; Lee, Young Woo; Han, Yong Cheol; Koh, Chang Soon

    1982-01-01

    To evaluate the usefulness of radionuclide cardiac angiography in the assessment of the right ventricular function, we measured right ventricular ejection fraction (RVEF) using single pass method. In 12 normal persons, RVEF averaged 52.7±5.9% (mean±S.D.). In 25 patients with chronic obstructive lung disease, RVEF was 37.2±10.6% and significantly lower than that of normal person (p<0.01). All 10 patients with right ventricular failure had abnormal RVEF, which was significantly lower than that of 14 persons without right ventricular failure (27.6±5.7%, 43.9±8.5%, respectively, p<0.01). It concluded that RVEF measured by single pass radionuclide cardiac angiography was a useful, noninvasive method to assess right ventricular function.

  8. Evaluation of the diagnostic accuracy of ultra-miniaturized pocket ultrasound device on cardiac function in critically ill patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li WANG

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To compare the diagnostic accuracy of a new ultra-miniaturized pocket ultrasound device (PUD (VscanTM, GE Healthcare, Wauwatosa, WI and conventional high-quality echocardiography system (Vivid qTM, GE Healthcare for a cardiac focused ultrasonography in critical patients. Methods  The patients admitted to our hospital and receiving transthoracic echocardiography (TTE using a PUD and a conventional echocardiography system were included in this study during the 10 months from December 2013 to October 2014. Each examination was performed independently by an intensive care unit (ICU physician and an experienced ultrasound doctor, unaware of the results found by the alternative device. The following parameters were assessed: global cardiac systolic function, identification of ventricular size, whether or not accompanying enlargement or hypertrophy, assessment for the morphology of cardiac valves and its function, pericardial effusion and estimation of the inferior vena cava (IVC diameter. The time-consuming of each device were recorded. Results  One hundred and twenty-eight patients were included in the study. Their left ventricular wall motion abnormalities, global left ventricular systolic dysfunction, pericardial effusion, IVC dilation were assessed by PUD and the assessment results were highly consistent with those by Vivid q (κ>0.84. The consistency was slightly lower in evaluating the left and right ventricular size. For evaluating the cardiac valves function, the agreement of two devices were relatively low (κ=0.69-0.84. Compared with Vivid q, PUD took less time (4.7±1.4min vs 6.3±2.6min; P<0.05. Conclusion  PUD can provide fast, reliable cardiac examination, thus being an effective method for ICU physicians to assess the cardiac f unction in critical patients. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2016.08.10

  9. Abnormal red cell structure and function in neuroacanthocytosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith C A Cluitmans

    Full Text Available Panthothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration (PKAN belongs to a group of hereditary neurodegenerative disorders known as neuroacanthocytosis (NA. This genetically heterogeneous group of diseases is characterized by degeneration of neurons in the basal ganglia and by the presence of deformed red blood cells with thorny protrusions, acanthocytes, in the circulation.The goal of our study is to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying this aberrant red cell morphology and the corresponding functional consequences. This could shed light on the etiology of the neurodegeneration.We performed a qualitative and semi-quantitative morphological, immunofluorescent, biochemical and functional analysis of the red cells of several patients with PKAN and, for the first time, of the red cells of their family members.We show that the blood of patients with PKAN contains not only variable numbers of acanthocytes, but also a wide range of other misshapen red cells. Immunofluorescent and immunoblot analyses suggest an altered membrane organization, rather than quantitative changes in protein expression. Strikingly, these changes are not limited to the red blood cells of PKAN patients, but are also present in the red cells of heterozygous carriers without neurological problems. Furthermore, changes are not only present in acanthocytes, but also in other red cells, including discocytes. The patients' cells, however, are more fragile, as observed in a spleen-mimicking device.These morphological, molecular and functional characteristics of red cells in patients with PKAN and their family members offer new tools for diagnosis and present a window into the pathophysiology of neuroacanthocytosis.

  10. Alzheimer disease: functional abnormalities in the dorsal visual pathway.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bokde, Arun L W

    2012-02-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate whether patients with Alzheimer disease (AD) have altered activation compared with age-matched healthy control (HC) subjects during a task that typically recruits the dorsal visual pathway. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was performed in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki, with institutional ethics committee approval, and all subjects provided written informed consent. Two tasks were performed to investigate neural function: face matching and location matching. Twelve patients with mild AD and 14 age-matched HC subjects were included. Brain activation was measured by using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Group statistical analyses were based on a mixed-effects model corrected for multiple comparisons. RESULTS: Task performance was not statistically different between the two groups, and within groups there were no differences in task performance. In the HC group, the visual perception tasks selectively activated the visual pathways. Conversely in the AD group, there was no selective activation during performance of these same tasks. Along the dorsal visual pathway, the AD group recruited additional regions, primarily in the parietal and frontal lobes, for the location-matching task. There were no differences in activation between groups during the face-matching task. CONCLUSION: The increased activation in the AD group may represent a compensatory mechanism for decreased processing effectiveness in early visual areas of patients with AD. The findings support the idea that the dorsal visual pathway is more susceptible to putative AD-related neuropathologic changes than is the ventral visual pathway.

  11. Naltrexone ameliorates functional network abnormalities in alcohol‐dependent individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Kwangyeol; Tait, Roger; Elliott, Rebecca; Ersche, Karen D.; Flechais, Remy; McGonigle, John; Murphy, Anna; Nestor, Liam J.; Orban, Csaba; Passetti, Filippo; Paterson, Louise M.; Rabiner, Ilan; Reed, Laurence; Smith, Dana; Suckling, John; Taylor, Eleanor M.; Bullmore, Edward T.; Lingford‐Hughes, Anne R.; Deakin, Bill; Nutt, David J.; Sahakian, Barbara J.; Robbins, Trevor W.; Voon, Valerie

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Naltrexone, an opioid receptor antagonist, is commonly used as a relapse prevention medication in alcohol and opiate addiction, but its efficacy and the mechanisms underpinning its clinical usefulness are not well characterized. In the current study, we examined the effects of 50‐mg naltrexone compared with placebo on neural network changes associated with substance dependence in 21 alcohol and 36 poly‐drug‐dependent individuals compared with 36 healthy volunteers. Graph theoretic and network‐based statistical analysis of resting‐state functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data revealed that alcohol‐dependent subjects had reduced functional connectivity of a dispersed network compared with both poly‐drug‐dependent and healthy subjects. Higher local efficiency was observed in both patient groups, indicating clustered and segregated network topology and information processing. Naltrexone normalized heightened local efficiency of the neural network in alcohol‐dependent individuals, to the same levels as healthy volunteers. Naltrexone failed to have an effect on the local efficiency in abstinent poly‐substance‐dependent individuals. Across groups, local efficiency was associated with substance, but no alcohol exposure implicating local efficiency as a potential premorbid risk factor in alcohol use disorders that can be ameliorated by naltrexone. These findings suggest one possible mechanism for the clinical effects of naltrexone, namely, the amelioration of disrupted network topology. PMID:28247526

  12. Cardiac function adaptations in hibernating grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, O Lynne; Robbins, Charles T

    2010-03-01

    Research on the cardiovascular physiology of hibernating mammals may provide insight into evolutionary adaptations; however, anesthesia used to handle wild animals may affect the cardiovascular parameters of interest. To overcome these potential biases, we investigated the functional cardiac phenotype of the hibernating grizzly bear (Ursus arctos horribilis) during the active, transitional and hibernating phases over a 4 year period in conscious rather than anesthetized bears. The bears were captive born and serially studied from the age of 5 months to 4 years. Heart rate was significantly different from active (82.6 +/- 7.7 beats/min) to hibernating states (17.8 +/- 2.8 beats/min). There was no difference from the active to the hibernating state in diastolic and stroke volume parameters or in left atrial area. Left ventricular volume:mass was significantly increased during hibernation indicating decreased ventricular mass. Ejection fraction of the left ventricle was not different between active and hibernating states. In contrast, total left atrial emptying fraction was significantly reduced during hibernation (17.8 +/- 2.8%) as compared to the active state (40.8 +/- 1.9%). Reduced atrial chamber function was also supported by reduced atrial contraction blood flow velocities and atrial contraction ejection fraction during hibernation; 7.1 +/- 2.8% as compared to 20.7 +/- 3% during the active state. Changes in the diastolic cardiac filling cycle, especially atrial chamber contribution to ventricular filling, appear to be the most prominent macroscopic functional change during hibernation. Thus, we propose that these changes in atrial chamber function constitute a major adaptation during hibernation which allows the myocardium to conserve energy, avoid chamber dilation and remain healthy during a period of extremely low heart rates. These findings will aid in rational approaches to identifying underlying molecular mechanisms.

  13. AKAP13 Rho-GEF and PKD-binding domain deficient mice develop normally but have an abnormal response to β-adrenergic-induced cardiac hypertrophy.

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    Matthew J Spindler

    Full Text Available A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs are scaffolding molecules that coordinate and integrate G-protein signaling events to regulate development, physiology, and disease. One family member, AKAP13, encodes for multiple protein isoforms that contain binding sites for protein kinase A (PKA and D (PKD and an active Rho-guanine nucleotide exchange factor (Rho-GEF domain. In mice, AKAP13 is required for development as null embryos die by embryonic day 10.5 with cardiovascular phenotypes. Additionally, the AKAP13 Rho-GEF and PKD-binding domains mediate cardiomyocyte hypertrophy in cell culture. However, the requirements for the Rho-GEF and PKD-binding domains during development and cardiac hypertrophy are unknown.To determine if these AKAP13 protein domains are required for development, we used gene-trap events to create mutant mice that lacked the Rho-GEF and/or the protein kinase D-binding domains. Surprisingly, heterozygous matings produced mutant mice at Mendelian ratios that had normal viability and fertility. The adult mutant mice also had normal cardiac structure and electrocardiograms. To determine the role of these domains during β-adrenergic-induced cardiac hypertrophy, we stressed the mice with isoproterenol. We found that heart size was increased similarly in mice lacking the Rho-GEF and PKD-binding domains and wild-type controls. However, the mutant hearts had abnormal cardiac contractility as measured by fractional shortening and ejection fraction.These results indicate that the Rho-GEF and PKD-binding domains of AKAP13 are not required for mouse development, normal cardiac architecture, or β-adrenergic-induced cardiac hypertrophic remodeling. However, these domains regulate aspects of β-adrenergic-induced cardiac hypertrophy.

  14. HFE gene: Structure, function, mutations, and associated iron abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, James C; Edwards, Corwin Q; Acton, Ronald T

    2015-12-15

    The hemochromatosis gene HFE was discovered in 1996, more than a century after clinical and pathologic manifestations of hemochromatosis were reported. Linked to the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) on chromosome 6p, HFE encodes the MHC class I-like protein HFE that binds beta-2 microglobulin. HFE influences iron absorption by modulating the expression of hepcidin, the main controller of iron metabolism. Common HFE mutations account for ~90% of hemochromatosis phenotypes in whites of western European descent. We review HFE mapping and cloning, structure, promoters and controllers, and coding region mutations, HFE protein structure, cell and tissue expression and function, mouse Hfe knockouts and knockins, and HFE mutations in other mammals with iron overload. We describe the pertinence of HFE and HFE to mechanisms of iron homeostasis, the origin and fixation of HFE polymorphisms in European and other populations, and the genetic and biochemical basis of HFE hemochromatosis and iron overload. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Abnormal GABAergic function and negative affect in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Stephan F; Demeter, Elise; Phan, K Luan; Tso, Ivy F; Welsh, Robert C

    2014-03-01

    Deficits in the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) system have been reported in postmortem studies of schizophrenia, and therapeutic interventions in schizophrenia often involve potentiation of GABA receptors (GABAR) to augment antipsychotic therapy and treat negative affect such as anxiety. To map GABAergic mechanisms associated with processing affect, we used a benzodiazepine challenge while subjects viewed salient visual stimuli. Fourteen stable, medicated schizophrenia/schizoaffective patients and 13 healthy comparison subjects underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging using the blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) technique while they viewed salient emotional images. Subjects received intravenous lorazepam (LRZ; 0.01 mg/kg) or saline in a single-blinded, cross-over design (two sessions separated by 1-3 weeks). A predicted group by drug interaction was noted in the dorsal medial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC) as well as right superior frontal gyrus and left and right occipital regions, such that psychosis patients showed an increased BOLD signal to LRZ challenge, rather than the decreased signal exhibited by the comparison group. A main effect of reduced BOLD signal in bilateral occipital areas was noted across groups. Consistent with the role of the dmPFC in processing emotion, state negative affect positively correlated with the response to the LRZ challenge in the dmPFC for the patients and comparison subjects. The altered response to LRZ challenge is consistent with altered inhibition predicted by postmortem findings of altered GABAR in schizophrenia. These results also suggest that negative affect in schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder is associated-directly or indirectly-with GABAergic function on a continuum with normal behavior.

  16. Cardiac structure and functions in patients with asymptomatic primary hyperparathyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktas Yılmaz, B; Akyel, A; Kan, E; Ercin, U; Tavil, Y; Bilgihan, A; Cakır, N; Arslan, M; Balos Toruner, F

    2013-11-01

    The data about cardiovascular (CV) changes in patients with asymptomatic primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) are scarce. The aim of this study is to compare cardiac structure and functions in patients with asymptomatic PHPT and controls by using tissue Doppler echocardiography. Thirty-eight patients with asymptomatic PHPT and 31 sex- and age-matched controls with similar cardiac risk factors were evaluated. There was no significant difference in ejection fraction (EF) between the patients and the controls [64±5.95 vs 62±3.25% (p=0.094)]. Left ventricular mass index (LVMI) was significantly higher in patients than controls [105.96 (66.45-167.24) vs 93.79 (64.25- 139.25) g/m2, p=0.014]. There was a significant correlation between LVMI and serum calcium (Ca) (r=0.240, p<0.005). Myocardial performance index (MPI) was significantly higher in patients than controls [0.49 (0.35-0.60) vs 0.39 (0.33-0.62), p<0.001]. There was positive correlation between theMPI and serumCa levels (r=0.505, p<0.001), parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels (r=0.464, p<0.001) and LVMI (r=0.270, p<0.005). When the normotensive patients and controls were evaluated, the difference between the groups remained statistically significant considering LVMI and MPI [109 (66.45-167.24) g/m2 vs 94.17 (64.25-75.10) g/m2, p=0.03; and 0.49 (0.35-0.60) vs 0.39 (0.33-0.62), p<0.01, respectively]. There were significant correlations between MPI and Ca (r=0.566, p<0.001), and PTH (r=0.472, p<0.001). Our study results showed that cardiacmorphology and diastolic functions are altered in the patients with asymptomatic PHPT. High serum PTH and Ca levels may have an impact on these CV changes. Whether these subtle CV changes would affect cardiac systolic functions and mortality in patients with asymptomatic PHPT should be investigated in further prospective studies.

  17. Network interactions within the canine intrinsic cardiac nervous system: implications for reflex control of regional cardiac function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaumont, Eric; Salavatian, Siamak; Southerland, E Marie; Vinet, Alain; Jacquemet, Vincent; Armour, J Andrew; Ardell, Jeffrey L

    2013-01-01

    The aims of the study were to determine how aggregates of intrinsic cardiac (IC) neurons transduce the cardiovascular milieu versus responding to changes in central neuronal drive and to determine IC network interactions subsequent to induced neural imbalances in the genesis of atrial fibrillation (AF). Activity from multiple IC neurons in the right atrial ganglionated plexus was recorded in eight anaesthetized canines using a 16-channel linear microelectrode array. Induced changes in IC neuronal activity were evaluated in response to: (1) focal cardiac mechanical distortion; (2) electrical activation of cervical vagi or stellate ganglia; (3) occlusion of the inferior vena cava or thoracic aorta; (4) transient ventricular ischaemia, and (5) neurally induced AF. Low level activity (ranging from 0 to 2.7 Hz) generated by 92 neurons was identified in basal states, activities that displayed functional interconnectivity. The majority (56%) of IC neurons so identified received indirect central inputs (vagus alone: 25%; stellate ganglion alone: 27%; both: 48%). Fifty per cent transduced the cardiac milieu responding to multimodal stressors applied to the great vessels or heart. Fifty per cent of IC neurons exhibited cardiac cycle periodicity, with activity occurring primarily in late diastole into isovolumetric contraction. Cardiac-related activity in IC neurons was primarily related to direct cardiac mechano-sensory inputs and indirect autonomic efferent inputs. In response to mediastinal nerve stimulation, most IC neurons became excessively activated; such network behaviour preceded and persisted throughout AF. It was concluded that stochastic interactions occur among IC local circuit neuronal populations in the control of regional cardiac function. Modulation of IC local circuit neuronal recruitment may represent a novel approach for the treatment of cardiac disease, including atrial arrhythmias. PMID:23818689

  18. Abnormal interactions of calsequestrin with the ryanodine receptor calcium release channel complex linked to exercise-induced sudden cardiac death

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terentyev, Dmitry; Nori, Alessandra; Santoro, Massimo; Viatchenko-Karpinski, Serge; Kubalova, Zuzana; Gyorke, Inna; Terentyeva, Radmila; Vedamoorthyrao, Srikanth; Blom, Nico A.; Valle, Giorgia; Napolitano, Carlo; Williams, Simon C.; Volpe, Pompeo; Priori, Silvia G.; Gyorke, Sandor

    2006-01-01

    Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT) is a familial arrhythmogenic disorder associated with mutations in the cardiac ryanodine receptor (RyR2) and cardiac calsequestrin (CASQ2) genes. Previous in vitro studies suggested that RyR2 and CASQ2 interact as parts of a multimolecular

  19. Cardiac biomarkers in Neonatology

    OpenAIRE

    Vijlbrief, D.C.

    2015-01-01

    In this thesis, the role for cardiac biomarkers in neonatology was investigated. Several clinically relevant results were reported. In term and preterm infants, hypoxia and subsequent adaptation play an important role in cardiac biomarker elevation. The elevated natriuretic peptides are indicative of abnormal function; elevated troponins are suggestive for cardiomyocyte damage. This methodology makes these biomarkers of additional value in the treatment of newborn infants, separate or as a co...

  20. Sex differences in cardiac function after prolonged strenuous exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cote, Anita T; Phillips, Aaron A; Foulds, Heather J; Charlesworth, Sarah A; Bredin, Shannon S D; Burr, Jamie F; Koehle, Michael S; Warburton, Darren E R

    2015-05-01

    To evaluate sex differences in left ventricular (LV) function after an ultramarathon, and the association of vascular and training indices with the magnitude of exercise-induced cardiac fatigue. Descriptive field study. Fat Dog 100 Ultramarathon Trail Race, Canada. Thirty-four (13 women) recreational runners (aged 28-56 years). A 100-km or 160-km mountain marathon. Baseline baroreceptor sensitivity, heart rate variability, and arterial compliance; Pre-exercise and postexercise echocardiographic evaluations of LV dimensions, volumes, Doppler flow velocities, tissue velocities, strain, and strain rate. Finishers represented 17 men (44.8 ± 6.6 years) and 8 women (45.9 ± 10.2 years; P = 0.758). After ultraendurance exercise, significant reductions (P training status/experience. These findings suggest that vascular health is an important contributor to the degree of cardiovascular strain incurred as the result of an acute bout of prolonged strenuous exercise.

  1. Cardiac diastolic function after recovery from pre-eclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soma-Pillay, P; Louw, M C; Adeyemo, A O; Makin, J; Pattinson, R C

    Pre-eclampsia is associated with significant changes to the cardiovascular system during pregnancy. Eccentric and concentric remodelling of the left ventricle occurs, resulting in impaired contractility and diastolic dysfunction. It is unclear whether these structural and functional changes resolve completely after delivery. The objective of the study was to determine cardiac diastolic function at delivery and one year post-partum in women with severe pre-eclampsia, and to determine possible future cardiovascular risk. This was a descriptive study performed at Steve Biko Academic Hospital, a tertiary referral hospital in Pretoria, South Africa. Ninety-six women with severe preeclampsia and 45 normotensive women with uncomplicated pregnancies were recruited during the delivery admission. Seventy-four (77.1%) women in the pre-eclamptic group were classified as a maternal near miss. Transthoracic Doppler echocardiography was performed at delivery and one year post-partum. At one year post-partum, women with pre-eclampsia had a higher diastolic blood pressure (p = 0.001) and body mass index (p = 0.02) than women in the normotensive control group. Women with early onset pre-eclampsia requiring delivery prior to 34 weeks' gestation had an increased risk of diastolic dysfunction at one year post-partum (RR 3.41, 95% CI: 1.11-10.5, p = 0.04) and this was irrespective of whether the patient had chronic hypertension or not. Women who develop early-onset pre-eclampsia requiring delivery before 34 weeks are at a significant risk of developing cardiac diastolic dysfunction one year after delivery compared to normotensive women with a history of a low-risk pregnancy.

  2. Long-term Renal Function in Living Kidney Donors Who Had Histological Abnormalities at Donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahmy, Lara M; Massie, Allan B; Muzaale, Abimereki D; Bagnasco, Serena M; Orandi, Babak J; Alejo, Jennifer L; Boyarsky, Brian J; Anjum, Saad K; Montgomery, Robert A; Dagher, Nabil N; Segev, Dorry L

    2016-06-01

    Recent evidence suggests that living kidney donors are at an increased risk of end-stage renal disease. However, predicting which donors will have renal dysfunction remains challenging, particularly among those with no clinical evidence of disease at the time of donation. Although renal biopsies are not routinely performed as part of the donor evaluation process, they may yield valuable information that improves the ability to predict renal function in donors. We used implantation protocol biopsies to evaluate the association between histological abnormalities in the donated kidney and postdonation renal function (estimated glomerular filtration rate, eGFR) of the remaining kidney in living kidney donors. Longitudinal analysis using mixed-effects linear regression was used to account for multiple eGFR measures per donor. Among 310 donors between 1997 and 2012, median (IQR) follow-up was 6.2 (2.5-8.7; maximum 14.0) years. In this cohort, the overall prevalence of histological abnormalities was 65.8% (19.7% abnormal glomerulosclerosis, 23.9% abnormal interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy (IFTA), 4.8% abnormal mesangial matrix increase, 32.0% abnormal arteriolar hyalinosis, and 32.9% abnormal vascular intimal thickening). IFTA was associated with a 5-mL/min/1.73 m decrease of postdonation eGFR after adjusting for donor age at donation, sex, race, preoperative systolic blood pressure, preoperative eGFR, and time since donation (P < 0.01). In this single-center study, among healthy individuals cleared for living donation, IFTA was associated with decreased postdonation eGFR, whereas no other subclinical histological abnormalities provided additional information.

  3. Functional Effects of Hyperthyroidism on Cardiac Papillary Muscle in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabricio Furtado Vieira

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Hyperthyroidism is currently recognized to affect the cardiovascular system, leading to a series of molecular and functional changes. However, little is known about the functional influence of hyperthyroidism in the regulation of cytoplasmic calcium and on the sodium/calcium exchanger (NCX in the cardiac muscle. Objectives: To evaluate the functional changes in papillary muscles isolated from animals with induced hyperthyroidism. Methods: We divided 36 Wistar rats into a group of controls and another of animals with hyperthyroidism induced by intraperitoneal T3 injection. We measured in the animals' papillary muscles the maximum contraction force, speed of contraction (+df/dt and relaxation (-df/dt, contraction and relaxation time, contraction force at different concentrations of extracellular sodium, post-rest potentiation (PRP, and contraction force induced by caffeine. Results: In hyperthyroid animals, we observed decreased PRP at all rest times (p < 0.05, increased +df/dt and -df/dt (p < 0.001, low positive inotropic response to decreased concentration of extracellular sodium (p < 0.001, reduction of the maximum force in caffeine-induced contraction (p < 0.003, and decreased total contraction time (p < 0.001. The maximal contraction force did not differ significantly between groups (p = 0.973. Conclusion: We hypothesize that the changes observed are likely due to a decrease in calcium content in the sarcoplasmic reticulum, caused by calcium leakage, decreased expression of NCX, and increased expression of a-MHC and SERCA2.

  4. Cardiac microvascular endothelial cells express a functional Ca+ -sensing receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berra Romani, Roberto; Raqeeb, Abdul; Laforenza, Umberto; Scaffino, Manuela Federica; Moccia, Francesco; Avelino-Cruz, Josè Everardo; Oldani, Amanda; Coltrini, Daniela; Milesi, Veronica; Taglietti, Vanni; Tanzi, Franco

    2009-01-01

    The mechanism whereby extracellular Ca(2+) exerts the endothelium-dependent control of vascular tone is still unclear. In this study, we assessed whether cardiac microvascular endothelial cells (CMEC) express a functional extracellular Ca(2+)-sensing receptor (CaSR) using a variety of techniques. CaSR mRNA was detected using RT-PCR, and CaSR protein was identified by immunocytochemical analysis. In order to assess the functionality of the receptor, CMEC were loaded with the Ca(2+)-sensitive fluorochrome, Fura-2/AM. A number of CaSR agonists, such as spermine, Gd(3+), La(3+) and neomycin, elicited a heterogeneous intracellular Ca(2+) signal, which was abolished by disruption of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP(3)) signaling and by depletion of intracellular stores with cyclopiazonic acid. The inhibition of the Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger upon substitution of extracellular Na(+) unmasked the Ca(2+) signal triggered by an increase in extracellular Ca(2+) levels. Finally, aromatic amino acids, which function as allosteric activators of CaSR, potentiated the Ca(2+) response to the CaSR agonist La(3+). These data provide evidence that CMEC express CaSR, which is able to respond to physiological agonists by mobilizing Ca(2+) from intracellular InsP(3)-sensitive stores. Copyright 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Functional Effects of Hyperthyroidism on Cardiac Papillary Muscle in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Fabricio Furtado; Olivoto, Robson Ruiz; Silva, Priscyla Oliveira da; Francisco, Julio Cesar; Fogaça, Rosalvo Tadeu Hochmuller

    2016-12-01

    Hyperthyroidism is currently recognized to affect the cardiovascular system, leading to a series of molecular and functional changes. However, little is known about the functional influence of hyperthyroidism in the regulation of cytoplasmic calcium and on the sodium/calcium exchanger (NCX) in the cardiac muscle. To evaluate the functional changes in papillary muscles isolated from animals with induced hyperthyroidism. We divided 36 Wistar rats into a group of controls and another of animals with hyperthyroidism induced by intraperitoneal T3 injection. We measured in the animals' papillary muscles the maximum contraction force, speed of contraction (+df/dt) and relaxation (-df/dt), contraction and relaxation time, contraction force at different concentrations of extracellular sodium, post-rest potentiation (PRP), and contraction force induced by caffeine. In hyperthyroid animals, we observed decreased PRP at all rest times (p < 0.05), increased +df/dt and -df/dt (p < 0.001), low positive inotropic response to decreased concentration of extracellular sodium (p < 0.001), reduction of the maximum force in caffeine-induced contraction (p < 0.003), and decreased total contraction time (p < 0.001). The maximal contraction force did not differ significantly between groups (p = 0.973). We hypothesize that the changes observed are likely due to a decrease in calcium content in the sarcoplasmic reticulum, caused by calcium leakage, decreased expression of NCX, and increased expression of a-MHC and SERCA2.

  6. Relationship between cardiac function and resting cerebral blood flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Otto M; Jensen, Lars T; Krabbe, Katja

    2014-01-01

    ) and 2.4 l min(-1) m(-2), respectively, in females. No effects of cardiac output or cardiac index on CBF or structural signs of brain ageing were observed. However, fractional brain flow defined as the ratio of total brain flow to cardiac output was inversely correlated with cardiac index (r(2) = 0.22, P...... = 0.008) and furthermore lower in males than in females (8.6% versus 12.5%, P = 0.003). Fractional brain flow was also inversely correlated with cerebral white matter lesion grade, although this effect was not significant when adjusted for age. Frequency analysis of heart rate variability showed...

  7. Reversible cold-induced abnormalities in myocardial perfusion and function in systemic sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, E.L.; Firestein, G.S.; Weiss, J.L.; Heuser, R.R.; Leitl, G.; Wagner, H.N. Jr.; Brinker, J.A.; Ciuffo, A.A.; Becker, L.C.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of peripheral cold exposure on myocardial perfusion and function were studied in 13 patients with scleroderma without clinically evident myocardial disease. Ten patients had at least one transient, cold-induced, myocardial perfusion defect visualized by thallium-201 scintigraphy, and 12 had reversible, cold-induced, segmental left ventricular hypokinesis by two-dimensional echocardiography. The 10 patients with transient perfusion defects all had anatomically corresponding ventricular wall motion abnormalities. No one in either of two control groups (9 normal volunteers and 7 patients with chest pain and normal coronary arteriograms) had cold-induced abnormalities. This study is the first to show the simultaneous occurrence of cold-induced abnormalities in myocardial perfusion and function in patients with scleroderma. The results suggest that cold exposure in such patients may elicit transient reflex coronary vasoconstriction resulting in reversible myocardial ischemia and dysfunction. Chronic recurrent episodes of coronary spasm may lead to focal myocardial fibrosis

  8. Interoception across modalities: on the relationship between cardiac awareness and the sensitivity for gastric functions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beate M Herbert

    Full Text Available The individual sensitivity for ones internal bodily signals ("interoceptive awareness" has been shown to be of relevance for a broad range of cognitive and affective functions. Interoceptive awareness has been primarily assessed via measuring the sensitivity for ones cardiac signals ("cardiac awareness" which can be non-invasively measured by heartbeat perception tasks. It is an open question whether cardiac awareness is related to the sensitivity for other bodily, visceral functions. This study investigated the relationship between cardiac awareness and the sensitivity for gastric functions in healthy female persons by using non-invasive methods. Heartbeat perception as a measure for cardiac awareness was assessed by a heartbeat tracking task and gastric sensitivity was assessed by a water load test. Gastric myoelectrical activity was measured by electrogastrography (EGG and subjective feelings of fullness, valence, arousal and nausea were assessed. The results show that cardiac awareness was inversely correlated with ingested water volume and with normogastric activity after water load. However, persons with good and poor cardiac awareness did not differ in their subjective ratings of fullness, nausea and affective feelings after drinking. This suggests that good heartbeat perceivers ingested less water because they subjectively felt more intense signals of fullness during this lower amount of water intake compared to poor heartbeat perceivers who ingested more water until feeling the same signs of fullness. These findings demonstrate that cardiac awareness is related to greater sensitivity for gastric functions, suggesting that there is a general sensitivity for interoceptive processes across the gastric and cardiac modality.

  9. Abnormal functional motor lateralization in healthy siblings of patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altamura, Mario; Fazio, Leonardo; De Salvia, Michela; Petito, Annamaria; Blasi, Giuseppe; Taurisano, Paolo; Romano, Raffaella; Gelao, Barbara; Bellomo, Antonello; Bertolino, Alessandro

    2012-07-30

    Earlier neuroimaging studies of motor function in schizophrenia have demonstrated reduced functional lateralization in the motor network during motor tasks. Here, we used event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging during a visually guided motor task in 18 clinically unaffected siblings of patients with schizophrenia and 24 matched controls to investigate if abnormal functional lateralization is related to genetic risk for this brain disorder. Whereas activity associated with motor task performance was mainly contralateral with only a marginal ipsilateral component in healthy participants, unaffected siblings had strong bilateral activity with significantly greater response in ipsilateral and contralateral premotor areas as well as in contralateral subcortical motor regions relative to controls. Reduced lateralization in siblings was also identified with a measure of laterality quotient. These findings suggest that abnormal functional lateralization of motor circuitry is related to genetic risk of schizophrenia. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Spironolactone in chronic hemodialysis patients improves cardiac function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taheri, Shahram; Mortazavi, Mojhgan; Shahidi Shahrzad; Seirafian, Shiva; Pourmoghadas, Ali; Garakyaraghi, Mohammad; Eshaghian, Afrooz; Ghassami, Maryam

    2009-01-01

    We performed this study to assess whether low dose spironolactone could be administered in hemodialysis (HD) patients with moderate to severe heart failure to improve cardiovascular function and reduce hospitalization without inducing hyperkalemia. We enrolled 16 chronic HD patients with moderate to severe heart failure and left ventricle ejection fraction :5 45%. In a double blinded randomized placebo controlled study, one group of 8 patients received 25 mg of spironolactone after each dialysis session within six months, and the rest received a placebo. Echocardiography was performed on all the patients to assess ejection fraction and left ventricular mass during 12 hours after completion of hemodialysis at the beginning and the end of study. Serum potassium was measured predialysis every 4 weeks. The mean ejection fraction increased significantly more in spironolactone group during the study period than in the placebo group (6.2 + - 1.64 vs. 0.83 + - 4.9, P0.046). The mean left ventricular mass decreased in the spironolactone group, but increased significantly in the placebo group during the period (-8.4 + - 4.72 vs. 3 + -7.97. 95%, P= 0.021). The incidence of hyperkalemia was not significantly increased in the study or controlled groups. In conclusion, we found in this study that administration of spironolactone in chronic HD patients with moderate to severe heart failure substantially improved their cardiac function and decreases left ventricular mass without development of significant hyperkalemia. (author)

  11. Sodium Channel (Dys)Function and Cardiac Arrhythmias

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Remme, Carol Ann; Bezzina, Connie R.

    2010-01-01

    P>Cardiac voltage-gated sodium channels are transmembrane proteins located in the cell membrane of cardiomyocytes. Influx of sodium ions through these ion channels is responsible for the initial fast upstroke of the cardiac action potential. This inward sodium current thus triggers the initiation

  12. Evaluation of the cardiac efficiency by means of functional radiocardiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheibe, J; Stoll, W [Friedrich-Schiller-Universitaet, Jena (German Democratic Republic). Bereich Medizin

    1982-01-01

    A new method of evaluating the cardiac efficiency by means of radiocardiography performed on exertion with /sup 113m/InCl is reported. Analysis of stroke volume, end diastolic volume and of the quotient of cardiac output to end diastolic volume on exertion enables an adequate evaluation of the actual myocardial efficiency.

  13. Functional and anatomical connectivity abnormalities in left inferior frontal gyrus in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Bumseok; Wible, Cynthia G; Hashimoto, Ryu-ichiro; Kubicki, Marek

    2009-12-01

    Functional studies in schizophrenia demonstrate prominent abnormalities within the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and also suggest the functional connectivity abnormalities in language network including left IFG and superior temporal gyrus during semantic processing. White matter connections between regions involved in the semantic network have also been indicated in schizophrenia. However, an association between functional and anatomical connectivity disruptions within the semantic network in schizophrenia has not been established. Functional (using levels of processing paradigm) as well as diffusion tensor imaging data from 10 controls and 10 chronic schizophrenics were acquired and analyzed. First, semantic encoding specific activation was estimated, showing decreased activation within the left IFG in schizophrenia. Second, functional time series were extracted from this area, and left IFG specific functional connectivity maps were produced for each subject. In an independent analysis, tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) was used to compare fractional anisotropy (FA) values between groups, and to correlate these values with functional connectivity maps. Schizophrenia patients showed weaker functional connectivity within the language network that includes left IFG and left superior temporal sulcus/middle temporal gyrus. FA was reduced in several white matter regions including left inferior frontal and left internal capsule. Finally, left inferior frontal white matter FA was positively correlated with connectivity measures of the semantic network in schizophrenics, but not in controls. Our results indicate an association between anatomical and functional connectivity abnormalities within the semantic network in schizophrenia, suggesting further that the functional abnormalities observed in this disorder might be directly related to white matter disruptions. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. ABC of the cardiac magnetic resonance. Part 1: anatomy and function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loureiro, Ricardo; Rached, Heron; Castro, Claudio C.; Cerri, Giovanni G.; Favaro, Daniele; Baptista, Luciana; Andrade, Joalbo; Rochitte, Carlos E.; Parga Filho, Jose; Avila, Luiz F.; Piva, Rosa M.V.

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this work is to demonstrate the fundamental concepts, the basic sequences and the clinical and potential applications of cardiac magnetic resonance as a diagnostic technique in updated radiology and cardiology practices. In this first part, we present the basic planning of the cardiac image acquisition, the nomenclature and standardized myocardial segmentation, image synchronization principles for electrocardiogram and the heart functional and anatomical evaluation by cardiac magnetic resonance. (author)

  15. Relationship between cardiac function and resting cerebral blood flow: MRI measurements in healthy elderly subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksen, Otto M; Jensen, Lars T; Krabbe, Katja; Larsson, Henrik B W; Rostrup, Egill

    2014-11-01

    Although both impaired cardiac function and reduced cerebral blood flow are associated with ageing, current knowledge of the influence of cardiac function on resting cerebral blood flow (CBF) is limited. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential effects of cardiac function on CBF. CBF and cardiac output were measured in 31 healthy subjects 50-75 years old using magnetic resonance imaging techniques. Mean values of CBF, cardiac output and cardiac index were 43.6 ml per 100 g min(-1), 5.5 l min(-1) and 2.7 l min(-1) m(-2), respectively, in males, and 53.4 ml per 100 g min(-1), 4.3 l min(-1) and 2.4 l min(-1) m(-2), respectively, in females. No effects of cardiac output or cardiac index on CBF or structural signs of brain ageing were observed. However, fractional brain flow defined as the ratio of total brain flow to cardiac output was inversely correlated with cardiac index (r(2) = 0.22, P = 0.008) and furthermore lower in males than in females (8.6% versus 12.5%, P = 0.003). Fractional brain flow was also inversely correlated with cerebral white matter lesion grade, although this effect was not significant when adjusted for age. Frequency analysis of heart rate variability showed a gender-related inverse association of increased low-to-high-frequency power ratio with CBF and fractional brain flow. The findings do not support a direct effect of cardiac function on CBF, but demonstrates gender-related differences in cardiac output distribution. We propose fractional brain flow as a novel index that may be a useful marker of adequate brain perfusion in the context of ageing as well as cardiovascular disease. © 2013 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Microvascular and Macrovascular Abnormalities and Cognitive and Physical Function in Older Adults: Cardiovascular Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dae Hyun; Grodstein, Francine; Newman, Anne B; Chaves, Paulo H M; Odden, Michelle C; Klein, Ronald; Sarnak, Mark J; Lipsitz, Lewis A

    2015-09-01

    To evaluate and compare the associations between microvascular and macrovascular abnormalities and cognitive and physical function Cross-sectional analysis of the Cardiovascular Health Study (1998-1999). Community. Individuals with available data on three or more of five microvascular abnormalities (brain, retina, kidney) and three or more of six macrovascular abnormalities (brain, carotid artery, heart, peripheral artery) (N = 2,452; mean age 79.5). Standardized composite scores derived from three cognitive tests (Modified Mini-Mental State Examination, Digit-Symbol Substitution Test, Trail-Making Test (TMT)) and three physical tests (gait speed, grip strength, 5-time sit to stand) Participants with high microvascular and macrovascular burden had worse cognitive (mean score difference = -0.30, 95% confidence interval (CI) = -0.37 to -0.24) and physical (mean score difference = -0.32, 95% CI = -0.38 to -0.26) function than those with low microvascular and macrovascular burden. Individuals with high microvascular burden alone had similarly lower scores than those with high macrovascular burden alone (cognitive function: -0.16, 95% CI = -0.24 to -0.08 vs -0.13, 95% CI = -0.20 to -0.06; physical function: -0.15, 95% CI = -0.22 to -0.08 vs -0.12, 95% CI = -0.18 to -0.06). Psychomotor speed and working memory, assessed using the TMT, were only impaired in the presence of high microvascular burden. Of the 11 vascular abnormalities considered, white matter hyperintensity, cystatin C-based glomerular filtration rate, large brain infarct, and ankle-arm index were independently associated with cognitive and physical function. Microvascular and macrovascular abnormalities assessed using noninvasive tests of the brain, kidney, and peripheral artery were independently associated with poor cognitive and physical function in older adults. Future research should evaluate the usefulness of these tests in prognostication. © 2015, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2015

  17. The effects of levosimendan in cardiac surgery patients with poor left ventricular function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Hert, Stefan G.; Lorsomradee, Suraphong; Cromheecke, Stefanie; van der Linden, Philippe J.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients with poor left ventricular function often require inotropic drug support immediately after cardiopulmonary bypass. Levosimendan improves cardiac function by a novel mechanism of action compared to currently available drugs. We hypothesized that, in patients with severely

  18. Exercise tolerance, lung function abnormalities, anemia, and cardiothoracic ratio in sickle cell patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Beers, Eduard J.; van der Plas, Mart N.; Nur, Erfan; Bogaard, Harm-Jan; van Steenwijk, Reindert P.; Biemond, Bart J.; Bresser, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Many patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) have a reduced exercise capacity and abnormal lung function. Cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) can identify causes of exercise limitation. Forty-four consecutive SCD patients (27 HbSS, 11 HbSC, and 6 HbS-beta thalassemia) with a median age

  19. Cardiac Alpha1-Adrenergic Receptors: Novel Aspects of Expression, Signaling Mechanisms, Physiologic Function, and Clinical Importance

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Connell, Timothy D.; Jensen, Brian C.; Baker, Anthony J.

    2014-01-01

    Adrenergic receptors (AR) are G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) that have a crucial role in cardiac physiology in health and disease. Alpha1-ARs signal through Gαq, and signaling through Gq, for example, by endothelin and angiotensin receptors, is thought to be detrimental to the heart. In contrast, cardiac alpha1-ARs mediate important protective and adaptive functions in the heart, although alpha1-ARs are only a minor fraction of total cardiac ARs. Cardiac alpha1-ARs activate pleiotropic downstream signaling to prevent pathologic remodeling in heart failure. Mechanisms defined in animal and cell models include activation of adaptive hypertrophy, prevention of cardiac myocyte death, augmentation of contractility, and induction of ischemic preconditioning. Surprisingly, at the molecular level, alpha1-ARs localize to and signal at the nucleus in cardiac myocytes, and, unlike most GPCRs, activate “inside-out” signaling to cause cardioprotection. Contrary to past opinion, human cardiac alpha1-AR expression is similar to that in the mouse, where alpha1-AR effects are seen most convincingly in knockout models. Human clinical studies show that alpha1-blockade worsens heart failure in hypertension and does not improve outcomes in heart failure, implying a cardioprotective role for human alpha1-ARs. In summary, these findings identify novel functional and mechanistic aspects of cardiac alpha1-AR function and suggest that activation of cardiac alpha1-AR might be a viable therapeutic strategy in heart failure. PMID:24368739

  20. Cardiac function of the naked mole-rat: ecophysiological responses to working underground.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, Kelly M; Voorhees, Andrew; Chiao, Ying Ann; Han, Hai-Chao; Lindsey, Merry L; Buffenstein, Rochelle

    2014-03-01

    The naked mole-rat (NMR) is a strictly subterranean rodent with a low resting metabolic rate. Nevertheless, it can greatly increase its metabolic activity to meet the high energetic demands associated with digging through compacted soils in its xeric natural habitat where food is patchily distributed. We hypothesized that the NMR heart would naturally have low basal function and exhibit a large cardiac reserve, thereby mirroring the species' low basal metabolism and large metabolic scope. Echocardiography showed that young (2-4 yr old) healthy NMRs have low fractional shortening (28 ± 2%), ejection fraction (43 ± 2%), and cardiac output (6.5 ± 0.4 ml/min), indicating low basal cardiac function. Histology revealed large NMR cardiomyocyte cross-sectional area (216 ± 10 μm(2)) and cardiac collagen deposition of 2.2 ± 0.4%. Neither of these histomorphometric traits was considered pathological, since biaxial tensile testing showed no increase in passive ventricular stiffness. NMR cardiomyocyte fibers showed a low degree of rotation, contributing to the observed low NMR cardiac contractility. Interestingly, when the exercise mimetic dobutamine (3 μg/g ip) was administered, NMRs showed pronounced increases in fractional shortening, ejection fraction, cardiac output, and stroke volume, indicating an increased cardiac reserve. The relatively low basal cardiac function and enhanced cardiac reserve of NMRs are likely to be ecophysiological adaptations to life in an energetically taxing environment.

  1. New developments in paediatric cardiac functional ultrasound imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Korte, Chris L; Nillesen, Maartje M; Saris, Anne E C M; Lopata, Richard G P; Thijssen, Johan M; Kapusta, Livia

    2014-07-01

    Ultrasound imaging can be used to estimate the morphology as well as the motion and deformation of tissues. If the interrogated tissue is actively deforming, this deformation is directly related to its function and quantification of this deformation is normally referred as 'strain imaging'. Tissue can also be deformed by applying an internal or external force and the resulting, induced deformation is a function of the mechanical tissue characteristics. In combination with the load applied, these strain maps can be used to estimate or reconstruct the mechanical properties of tissue. This technique was named 'elastography' by Ophir et al. in 1991. Elastography can be used for atherosclerotic plaque characterisation, while the contractility of the heart or skeletal muscles can be assessed with strain imaging. Rather than using the conventional video format (DICOM) image information, radio frequency (RF)-based ultrasound methods enable estimation of the deformation at higher resolution and with higher precision than commercial methods using Doppler (tissue Doppler imaging) or video image data (2D speckle tracking methods). However, the improvement in accuracy is mainly achieved when measuring strain along the ultrasound beam direction, so it has to be considered a 1D technique. Recently, this method has been extended to multiple directions and precision further improved by using spatial compounding of data acquired at multiple beam steered angles. Using similar techniques, the blood velocity and flow can be determined. RF-based techniques are also beneficial for automated segmentation of the ventricular cavities. In this paper, new developments in different techniques of quantifying cardiac function by strain imaging, automated segmentation, and methods of performing blood flow imaging are reviewed and their application in paediatric cardiology is discussed.

  2. Safety and Yield of Diagnostic ERCP in Liver Transplant Patients with Abnormal Liver Function Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayapal Ramesh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Abnormal liver enzymes postorthotopic liver transplant (OLT may indicate significant biliary pathology or organ rejection. There is very little known in the literature regarding the current role of diagnostic ERCP in this scenario. Aim. To review the utility of diagnostic ERCP in patients presenting with abnormal liver function tests in the setting of OLT. Methods. A retrospective review of diagnostic ERCPs in patients with OLT from 2002 to 2013 from a prospectively maintained, IRB approved database. Results. Of the 474 ERCPs performed in OLT patients, 210 (44.3%; 95% CI 39.8–48.8 were performed for abnormal liver function tests during the study period. Majority of patients were Caucasian (83.8%, male (62.4% with median age of 55 years (IQR 48–62 years. Biliary cannulation was successful in 99.6% of cases and findings included stricture in 45 (21.4 %; biliary stones/sludge in 23 (11%; biliary dilation alone in 31 (14.8%; and normal in 91 (43.3%. Three (1.4% patients developed mild, self-limiting pancreatitis; one patient (0.5% developed cholangitis and two (1% had postsphincterotomy bleeding. Multivariate analyses showed significant association between dilated ducts on imaging with a therapeutic outcome. Conclusion. Diagnostic ERCP in OLT patients presenting with liver function test abnormalities is safe and frequently therapeutic.

  3. Impaired coupling of local and global functional feedbacks underlies abnormal synchronization and negative symptoms of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Kyungchul; Shin, Kyung Soon; Shin, Dongkwan; Hwang, Jae Yeon; Kim, June Sic; Jang, Joon Hwan; Chung, Chun Kee; Kwon, Jun Soo; Cho, Kwang-Hyun

    2013-04-10

    Abnormal synchronization of brain oscillations is found to be associated with various core symptoms of schizophrenia. However, the underlying mechanism of this association remains yet to be elucidated. In this study, we found that coupled local and global feedback (CLGF) circuits in the cortical functional network are related to the abnormal synchronization and also correlated to the negative symptom of schizophrenia. Analysis of the magnetoencephalography data obtained from patients with chronic schizophrenia during rest revealed an increase in beta band synchronization and a reduction in gamma band power compared to healthy controls. Using a feedback identification method based on non-causal impulse responses, we constructed functional feedback networks and found that CLGF circuits were significantly reduced in schizophrenia. From computational analysis on the basis of the Wilson-Cowan model, we unraveled that the CLGF circuits are critically involved in the abnormal synchronization and the dynamical switching between beta and gamma bands power in schizophrenia. Moreover, we found that the abundance of CLGF circuits was negatively correlated with the development of negative symptoms of schizophrenia, suggesting that the negative symptom is closely related to the impairment of this circuit. Our study implicates that patients with schizophrenia might have the impaired coupling of inter- and intra-regional functional feedbacks and that the CLGF circuit might serve as a critical bridge between abnormal synchronization and the negative symptoms of schizophrenia.

  4. Changes of cardiac function in hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morishita, Takeshi; Kawamura, Yasuaki; Yamazaki, Junichi; Okuzumi, Ichio; Muto, Toshinori; Wakakura, Manabu; Okamoto, Kiyoshi; Irie, Minoru; Inoue, Kazuko.

    1988-01-01

    Changes of cardiac parameters in patients with 21 hyperthyroidisms and 11 primary hypothyroidisms were studied administered by methimazole or 1-thyroxine using radionuclide method. In hyperthyroidisms, cardiac parameter (CI, EF, PEP/LVET, PEP) normalized 4 - 6 week delayed compared with hormonal level (T 3 , T 4 ) recovery period. On the other hand, in hypothyroidism PEP/LVET delayed about 2 weeks compared with hormonal level, however, other cardiac parameters were maintained within normal level, relatively. Correlation between T 3 and LVET was significant statistically (r = -0.59, p 3 and PEP was significant (r = -0.60, p < 0.01) in hypothyroidisms, respectively. (author)

  5. Administration of granulocyte-colony stimulating factor accompanied with a balanced diet improves cardiac function alterations induced by high fat diet in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daltro, Pâmela Santana; Alves, Paula Santana; Castro, Murilo Fagundes; Azevedo, Carine M; Vasconcelos, Juliana Fraga; Allahdadi, Kyan James; de Freitas, Luiz Antônio Rodrigues; de Freitas Souza, Bruno Solano; Dos Santos, Ricardo Ribeiro; Soares, Milena Botelho Pereira; Macambira, Simone Garcia

    2015-12-03

    High fat diet (HFD) is a major contributor to the development of obesity and cardiovascular diseases due to the induction of cardiac structural and hemodynamic abnormalities. We used a model of diabetic cardiomyopathy in C57Bl/6 mice fed with a HFD to investigate the effects of granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF), a cytokine known for its beneficial effects in the heart, on cardiac anatomical and functional abnormalities associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes. Groups of C57Bl/6 mice were fed with standard diet (n = 8) or HFD (n = 16). After 36 weeks, HFD animals were divided into a group treated with G-CSF + standard diet (n = 8) and a vehicle control group + standard diet (n = 8). Cardiac structure and function were assessed by electrocardiography, echocardiography and treadmill tests, in addition to the evaluation of body weight, fasting glicemia, insulin and glucose tolerance at different time points. Histological analyses were performed in the heart tissue. HFD consumption induced metabolic alterations characteristic of type 2 diabetes and obesity, as well as cardiac fibrosis and reduced exercise capacity. Upon returning to a standard diet, obese mice body weight returned to non-obese levels. G-CSF administration accelerated the reduction in of body weight in obese mice. Additionally, G-CSF treatment reduced insulin levels, diminished heart fibrosis, increased exercise capacity and reversed cardiac alterations, including bradycardia, elevated QRS amplitude, augmented P amplitude, increased septal wall thickness, left ventricular posterior thickening and cardiac output reduction. Our results indicate that G-CSF administration caused beneficial effects on obesity-associated cardiac impairment.

  6. Cardiac Function in 7-8-Year-Old Offspring of Women with Type 1 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarten Rijpert

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Offspring of type 1 diabetic mothers (ODMs are at risk of short-term and long-term complications, such as neonatal macrosomia (birth weight >90th percentile, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and cardiovascular morbidity in later life. However, no studies have been performed regarding cardiac outcome. In this study, we investigated cardiac dimensions and function in 30 ODMs at 7-8 years of age in relation to neonatal macrosomia and maternal glycemic control during pregnancy and compared these with those in a control group of 30 children of nondiabetic women. We found that cardiac dimensions and systolic and diastolic function parameters in ODMs were comparable with those in controls. Neonatal macrosomia and poorer maternal glycemic control during pregnancy were not related to worse cardiac outcome in ODM. We conclude that cardiac function at 7-8 years of age in offspring of women with type 1 diabetes is reassuring and comparable with that in controls.

  7. Assessment of cardiac neuronal function with iodine-123 MIBG scintigraphy in children with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maunoury, Ch.; Sebahoun, St.; Hallaj, I.; Barritault, L.; Acar, Ph.; Sidi, D.; Kachaner, J.; Agostini, D.; Bouvard, G.

    2000-01-01

    The I-123 MIBG cardiac scintigraphy can assess norepinephrine uptake. It has been showed that cardiac adrenergic neuronal function was impaired in adults with dilated cardiomyopathy. The aim of this prospective study was to assess cardiac neuronal function in children with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) and to compare cardiac uptake of I-123 MIBG with left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). We studied 26 consecutive patients with idiopathic DCM, aged 44 ± 50 months, and 12 controls, aged 49 ±65 months. A planar scintigraphy was performed in all children 4 hours after intravenous injection of 20 to 75 MBq of I-123 MIBG. A static anterior view was acquired for 10 minutes. Cardiac uptake of I-123 MIBG was expressed as the heart to mediastinum count ratio (HMR). Equilibrium radionuclide angiography was performed following a standard protocol. Cardiac uptake of I-123 MIBG was significantly decreased in patients with idiopathic DCM when compared with cardiac uptake in controls (172±34% vs 277±14%, P<0.0001. There was a good correlation between RCM and LVEF in patients with idiopathic DCM (y = 2.5 x +113.3, r = 0.80, P < 0.0001). In conclusion, cardiac neuronal function was impaired in children with idiopathic DCM and related to impairment of left ventricular function. (author)

  8. Type I Diabetic Akita Mouse Model is Characterized by Abnormal Cardiac Deformation During Early Stages of Diabetic Cardiomyopathy with Speckle-Tracking Based Strain Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yingchao; Xiao, Hong; Wu, Jianfei; Zha, Lingfeng; Zhou, Mengchen; Li, Qianqian; Wang, Mengru; Shi, Shumei; Li, Yanze; Lyu, Liangkun; Wang, Qing; Tu, Xin; Lu, Qiulun

    2018-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) has been demonstrated to have a strong association with heart failure. Conventional echocardiographic analysis cannot sensitively monitor cardiac dysfunction in type I diabetic Akita hearts, but the phenotype of heart failure is observed in molecular levels during the early stages. Male Akita (Ins2WT/C96Y) mice were monitored with echocardiographic imaging at various ages, and then with conventional echocardiographic analysis and speckle-tracking based strain analyses. With speckle-tracking based strain analyses, diabetic Akita mice showed changes in average global radial strain at the age of 12 weeks, as well as decreased longitudinal strain. These changes occurred in the early stage and remained throughout the progression of diabetic cardiomyopathy in Akita mice. Speckle-tracking showed that the detailed and precise changes of cardiac deformation in the progression of diabetic cardiomyopathy in the genetic type I diabetic Akita mice were uncoupled. We monitored early-stage changes in the heart of diabetic Akita mice. We utilize this technique to elucidate the underlying mechanism for heart failure in Akita genetic type I diabetic mice. It will further advance the assessment of cardiac abnormalities, as well as the discovery of new drug treatments using Akita genetic type I diabetic mice. © 2018 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Inhalation of Simulated Smog Atmospheres Affects Cardiac Function in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    The health effects of individual criteria air pollutants have been well investigated. However, little is known about the health effects of air pollutant mixtures that more realistically represent environmental exposures. The present study was designed to evaluate the cardiac eff...

  10. Uncomplicated obesity is associated with abnormal aortic function assessed by cardiovascular magnetic resonance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Channon Keith M

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aims Obese subjects with insulin resistance and hypertension have abnormal aortic elastic function, which may predispose them to the development of left ventricular dysfunction. We hypothesised that obesity, uncomplicated by other cardiovascular risk factors, is independently associated with aortic function. Methods and results We used magnetic resonance imaging to measure aortic compliance, distensibility and stiffness index in 27 obese subjects (BMI 33 kg/m2 without insulin resistance and with normal cholesterol and blood pressure, and 12 controls (BMI 23 kg/m2. Obesity was associated with reduced aortic compliance (0.9 ± 0.1 vs. 1.5 ± 0.2 mm2/mmHg in controls, p -1 × 10-3, p Conclusion Aortic elastic function is abnormal in obese subjects without other cardiovascular risk factors. These findings highlight the independent importance of obesity in the development of cardiovascular disease.

  11. Chronic Cardiac-Targeted RNA Interference for the Treatment of Heart Failure Restores Cardiac Function and Reduces Pathological Hypertrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suckau, Lennart; Fechner, Henry; Chemaly, Elie; Krohn, Stefanie; Hadri, Lahouaria; Kockskämper, Jens; Westermann, Dirk; Bisping, Egbert; Ly, Hung; Wang, Xiaomin; Kawase, Yoshiaki; Chen, Jiqiu; Liang, Lifan; Sipo, Isaac; Vetter, Roland; Weger, Stefan; Kurreck, Jens; Erdmann, Volker; Tschope, Carsten; Pieske, Burkert; Lebeche, Djamel; Schultheiss, Heinz-Peter; Hajjar, Roger J.; Poller, Wolfgang Ch.

    2009-01-01

    Background RNA interference (RNAi) has the potential to be a novel therapeutic strategy in diverse areas of medicine. We report on targeted RNAi for the treatment of heart failure (HF), an important disorder in humans resulting from multiple etiologies. Successful treatment of HF is demonstrated in a rat model of transaortic banding by RNAi targeting of phospholamban (PLB), a key regulator of cardiac Ca2+ homeostasis. Whereas gene therapy rests on recombinant protein expression as its basic principle, RNAi therapy employs regulatory RNAs to achieve its effect. Methods and Results We describe structural requirements to obtain high RNAi activity from adenoviral (AdV) and adeno-associated virus (AAV9) vectors and show that an AdV short hairpin RNA vector (AdV-shRNA) silenced PLB in cardiomyocytes (NRCMs) and improved hemodynamics in HF rats 1 month after aortic root injection. For simplified long-term therapy we developed a dimeric cardiotropic AAV vector (rAAV9-shPLB) delivering RNAi activity to the heart via intravenous injection. Cardiac PLB protein was reduced to 25% and SERCA2a suppression in the HF groups was rescued. In contrast to traditional vectors rAAV9 shows high affinity for myocardium, but low affinity for liver and other organs. rAAV9-shPLB therapy restored diastolic (LVEDP, dp/dtmin, Tau) and systolic (fractional shortening) functional parameters to normal range. The massive cardiac dilation was normalized and the cardiac hypertrophy, cardiomyocyte diameter and cardiac fibrosis significantly reduced. Importantly, there was no evidence of microRNA deregulation or hepatotoxicity during these RNAi therapies. Conclusion Our data show, for the first time, high efficacy of an RNAi therapeutic strategy in a cardiac disease. PMID:19237664

  12. Abnormal regional homogeneity in patients with essential tremor revealed by resting-state functional MRI.

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    Weidong Fang

    Full Text Available Essential tremor (ET is one of the most common movement disorders in human adults. It can be characterized as a progressive neurological disorder of which the most recognizable feature is a tremor of the arms or hands that is apparent during voluntary movements such as eating and writing. The pathology of ET remains unclear. Resting-state fMRI (RS-fMRI, as a non-invasive imaging technique, was employed to investigate abnormalities of functional connectivity in ET in the brain. Regional homogeneity (ReHo was used as a metric of RS-fMRI to assess the local functional connectivity abnormality in ET with 20 ET patients and 20 age- and gender-matched healthy controls (HC. The ET group showed decreased ReHo in the anterior and posterior bilateral cerebellar lobes, the bilateral thalamus and the insular lobe, and increased ReHo in the bilateral prefrontal and parietal cortices, the left primary motor cortex and left supplementary motor area. The abnormal ReHo value of ET patients in the bilateral anterior cerebellar lobes and the right posterior cerebellar lobe were negatively correlated with the tremor severity score, while positively correlated with that in the left primary motor cortex. These findings suggest that the abnormality in cerebello-thalamo-cortical motor pathway is involved in tremor generation and propagation, which may be related to motor-related symptoms in ET patients. Meanwhile, the abnormality in the prefrontal and parietal regions may be associated with non-motor symptoms in ET. These findings suggest that the ReHo could be utilized for investigations of functional-pathological mechanism of ET.

  13. Functional Relevance of Coronary Artery Disease by Cardiac Magnetic Resonance and Cardiac Computed Tomography: Myocardial Perfusion and Fractional Flow Reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluca Pontone

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Coronary artery disease (CAD is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality and it is responsible for an increasing resource burden. The identification of patients at high risk for adverse events is crucial to select those who will receive the greatest benefit from revascularization. To this aim, several non-invasive functional imaging modalities are usually used as gatekeeper to invasive coronary angiography, but the diagnostic yield of elective invasive coronary angiography remains unfortunately low. Stress myocardial perfusion imaging by cardiac magnetic resonance (stress-CMR has emerged as an accurate technique for diagnosis and prognostic stratification of the patients with known or suspected CAD thanks to high spatial and temporal resolution, absence of ionizing radiation, and the multiparametric value including the assessment of cardiac anatomy, function, and viability. On the other side, cardiac computed tomography (CCT has emerged as unique technique providing coronary arteries anatomy and more recently, due to the introduction of stress-CCT and noninvasive fractional flow reserve (FFR-CT, functional relevance of CAD in a single shot scan. The current review evaluates the technical aspects and clinical experience of stress-CMR and CCT in the evaluation of functional relevance of CAD discussing the strength and weakness of each approach.

  14. Nebivolol: impact on cardiac and endothelial function and clinical utility

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    Toblli JE

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Jorge Eduardo Toblli1, Federico DiGennaro1, Jorge Fernando Giani2, Fernando Pablo Dominici21Hospital Aleman, 2Instituto de Química y Fisicoquímica Biológicas (IQUIFIB, Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, ArgentinaAbstract: Endothelial dysfunction is a systemic pathological state of the endothelium characterized by a reduction in the bioavailability of vasodilators, essentially nitric oxide, leading to impaired endothelium-dependent vasodilation, as well as disarrangement in vascular wall metabolism and function. One of the key factors in endothelial dysfunction is overproduction of reactive oxygen species which participate in the development of hypertension, atherosclerosis, diabetes, cardiac hypertrophy, heart failure, ischemia-reperfusion injury, and stroke. Because impaired endothelial activity is believed to have a major causal role in the pathophysiology of vascular disease, hypertension, and heart failure, therapeutic agents which modify this condition are of clinical interest. Nebivolol is a third-generation β-blocker with high selectivity for β1-adrenergic receptors and causes vasodilation by interaction with the endothelial L-arginine/nitric oxide pathway. This dual mechanism of action underscores several hemodynamic qualities of nebivolol, which include reductions in heart rate and blood pressure and improvements in systolic and diastolic function. Although nebivolol reduces blood pressure to a degree similar to that of conventional β-blockers and other types of antihypertensive drugs, it may have advantages in populations with difficult-to-treat hypertension, such as patients with heart failure along with other comorbidities, like diabetes and obesity, and elderly patients in whom nitric oxide-mediated endothelial dysfunction may be more pronounced. Furthermore, recent data indicate that nebivolol appears to be a cost-effective treatment for elderly patients with

  15. Abnormal pulmonary function and associated risk factors in children and adolescents with sickle cell anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arteta, Manuel; Campbell, Andrew; Nouraie, Mehdi; Rana, Sohail; Onyekwere, Onyinye; Ensing, Gregory; Sable, Craig; Dham, Niti; Darbari, Deepika; Luchtman-Jones, Lori; Kato, Gregory J.; Gladwin, Mark T.; Castro, Oswaldo L.; Minniti, Caterina P.; Gordeuk, Victor R.

    2015-01-01

    Obstructive and restrictive pulmonary changes develop in children with sickle cell disease, but reports conflict as to the type of change that predominates. We prospectively performed spirometry, plethysmography and lung diffusing capacity in 146 children aged 7–20 years with hemoglobin SS or Sβ0-thalassemia. Nineteen percent of the patients had obstructive physiology as defined according to guidelines of the American Thoracic Society. In addition, 9% had restrictive physiology and 11% had abnormal but not categorized physiology. Increasing age, patient- or family-reported history of asthma or wheezing, and higher lactate dehydrogenase concentration were independent predictors of obstruction as reflected in lower FEV1/FVC. In conclusion, abnormal pulmonary function, most often obstructive, is common in children with hemoglobin SS and Sβ0-thalassemia. Full pulmonary function testing should be performed in children with hemoglobin SS or Sβ0 thalassemia, especially with history of asthma or wheezing and accentuated elevations in hemolytic markers. PMID:24309610

  16. Fermitins, the orthologs of mammalian Kindlins, regulate the development of a functional cardiac syncytium in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James H Catterson

    Full Text Available The vertebrate Kindlins are an evolutionarily conserved family of proteins critical for integrin signalling and cell adhesion. Kindlin-2 (KIND2 is associated with intercalated discs in mice, suggesting a role in cardiac syncytium development; however, deficiency of Kind2 leads to embryonic lethality. Morpholino knock-down of Kind2 in zebrafish has a pleiotropic effect on development that includes the heart. It therefore remains unclear whether cardiomyocyte Kind2 expression is required for cardiomyocyte junction formation and the development of normal cardiac function. To address this question, the expression of Fermitin 1 and Fermitin 2 (Fit1, Fit2, the two Drosophila orthologs of Kind2, was silenced in Drosophila cardiomyocytes. Heart development was assessed in adult flies by immunological methods and videomicroscopy. Silencing both Fit1 and Fit2 led to a severe cardiomyopathy characterised by the failure of cardiomyocytes to develop as a functional syncytium and loss of synchrony between cardiomyocytes. A null allele of Fit1 was generated but this had no impact on the heart. Similarly, the silencing of Fit2 failed to affect heart function. In contrast, the silencing of Fit2 in the cardiomyocytes of Fit1 null flies disrupted syncytium development, leading to severe cardiomyopathy. The data definitively demonstrate a role for Fermitins in the development of a functional cardiac syncytium in Drosophila. The findings also show that the Fermitins can functionally compensate for each other in order to control syncytium development. These findings support the concept that abnormalities in cardiomyocyte KIND2 expression or function may contribute to cardiomyopathies in humans.

  17. Structural and functional brain abnormalities place phenocopy frontotemporal dementia (FTD in the FTD spectrum

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    Rebecca M.E. Steketee

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: PhFTD and bvFTD show overlapping cortical structural abnormalities indicating a continuum of changes especially in the frontotemporal regions. Together with functional changes suggestive of a compensatory response to incipient pathology in the left prefrontal regions, these findings are the first to support a possible neuropathological etiology of phFTD and suggest that phFTD may be a neurodegenerative disease on the FTD spectrum.

  18. Abnormality of thyroid function tests in geriatric population undergoing chronic dialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Altay

    2014-06-01

    Conclusions: Elderly dialysis patients had higher thyroid function test abnormalities than controls. They had lower fT3 levels than controls such as young and middle age chronic dialysis patients. However, what does it mean for clinical process and how its clinical expression is not clearly known, especially in an elderly patients. Large, prospective, randomized and controlled trials are necessary for this topic. [J Contemp Med 2014; 4(2.000: 54-58

  19. Abnormal functional brain asymmetry in depression: evidence of biologic commonality between major depression and dysthymia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruder, Gerard E; Stewart, Jonathan W; Hellerstein, David; Alvarenga, Jorge E; Alschuler, Daniel; McGrath, Patrick J

    2012-04-30

    Prior studies have found abnormalities of functional brain asymmetry in patients having a major depressive disorder (MDD). This study aimed to replicate findings of reduced right hemisphere advantage for perceiving dichotic complex tones in depressed patients, and to determine whether patients having "pure" dysthymia show the same abnormality of perceptual asymmetry as MDD. It also examined gender differences in lateralization, and the extent to which abnormalities of perceptual asymmetry in depressed patients are dependent on gender. Unmedicated patients having either a MDD (n=96) or "pure" dysthymic disorder (n=42) and healthy controls (n=114) were tested on dichotic fused-words and complex-tone tests. Patient and control groups differed in right hemisphere advantage for complex tones, but not left hemisphere advantage for words. Reduced right hemisphere advantage for tones was equally present in MDD and dysthymia, but was more evident among depressed men than depressed women. Also, healthy men had greater hemispheric asymmetry than healthy women for both words and tones, whereas this gender difference was not seen for depressed patients. Dysthymia and MDD share a common abnormality of hemispheric asymmetry for dichotic listening. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Cardiac function in survivors of childhood acute myeloid leukemia treated with chemotherapy only

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jarfelt, Marianne; Andersen, Niels Holmark; Glosli, Heidi

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: We report cardiac function of patients treated for Childhood acute myeloid leukemia with chemotherapy only according to three consecutive Nordic protocols. METHODS: Ninety-eight of 138 eligible patients accepted examination with standardized echocardiography. Results were compared...

  1. Effect of Cardiac Rehabilitation on Heart Rate and Functional Capacity in Patients After Myocardial Infarction

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    Mandana Parvand

    2016-09-01

    Discussion: Cardiac rehabilitation can increase the performance of blood circulation and uptake of oxygen in body. Due to these changes, there was a significant increase in the functional capacity and an insignificant reduction in the heart rate.

  2. Functions of PDE3 Isoforms in Cardiac Muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movsesian, Matthew; Ahmad, Faiyaz

    2018-01-01

    Isoforms in the PDE3 family of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases have important roles in cyclic nucleotide-mediated signalling in cardiac myocytes. These enzymes are targeted by inhibitors used to increase contractility in patients with heart failure, with a combination of beneficial and adverse effects on clinical outcomes. This review covers relevant aspects of the molecular biology of the isoforms that have been identified in cardiac myocytes; the roles of these enzymes in modulating cAMP-mediated signalling and the processes mediated thereby; and the potential for targeting these enzymes to improve the profile of clinical responses. PMID:29415428

  3. Cardiac autonomic function and hot flashes among perimenopausal and postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Carolyn J; Mendes, Wendy Berry; Schembri, Michael; Grady, Deborah; Huang, Alison J

    2017-07-01

    Abnormalities in autonomic function are posited to play a pathophysiologic role in menopausal hot flashes. We examined relationships between resting cardiac autonomic activity and hot flashes in perimenopausal and postmenopausal women. Autonomic function was assessed at baseline and 12 weeks among perimenopausal and postmenopausal women (n = 121, mean age 53 years) in a randomized trial of slow-paced respiration for hot flashes. Pre-ejection period (PEP), a marker of sympathetic activation, was measured with impedance cardiography. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), a marker of parasympathetic activation, was measured with electrocardiography. Participants self-reported hot flash frequency and severity in 7-day symptom diaries. Analysis of covariance models were used to relate autonomic function and hot flash frequency and severity at baseline, and to relate changes in autonomic function to changes in hot flash frequency and severity over 12 weeks, adjusting for age, body mass index, and intervention assignment. PEP was not associated with hot flash frequency or severity at baseline or over 12 weeks (P > 0.05 for all). In contrast, there was a trend toward greater frequency of moderate-to-severe hot flashes with higher RSA at baseline (β = 0.43, P = 0.06), and a positive association between change in RSA and change in frequency of moderate-to-severe hot flashes over 12 weeks (β = 0.63, P = 0.04). Among perimenopausal and postmenopausal women with hot flashes, variations in hot flash frequency and severity were not explained by variations in resting sympathetic activation. Greater parasympathetic activation was associated with more frequent moderate-to-severe hot flashes, which may reflect increased sensitivity to perceiving hot flashes.

  4. Abnormal megakaryocyte development and platelet function in Nbeal2−/− mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Richard W.; Li, Ling; Pluthero, Fred G.; Christensen, Hilary; Ni, Ran; Vaezzadeh, Nima; Hawkins, Cynthia E.; Weyrich, Andrew S.; Di Paola, Jorge; Landolt-Marticorena, Carolina; Gross, Peter L.

    2013-01-01

    Gray platelet syndrome (GPS) is an inherited bleeding disorder associated with macrothrombocytopenia and α-granule-deficient platelets. GPS has been linked to loss of function mutations in NEABL2 (neurobeachin-like 2), and we describe here a murine GPS model, the Nbeal2−/− mouse. As in GPS, Nbeal2−/− mice exhibit splenomegaly, macrothrombocytopenia, and a deficiency of platelet α-granules and their cargo, including von Willebrand factor (VWF), thrombospondin-1, and platelet factor 4. The platelet α-granule membrane protein P-selectin is expressed at 48% of wild-type levels and externalized upon platelet activation. The presence of P-selectin and normal levels of VPS33B and VPS16B in Nbeal2−/− platelets suggests that NBEAL2 acts independently of VPS33B/VPS16B at a later stage of α-granule biogenesis. Impaired Nbeal2−/− platelet function was shown by flow cytometry, platelet aggregometry, bleeding assays, and intravital imaging of laser-induced arterial thrombus formation. Microscopic analysis detected marked abnormalities in Nbeal2−/− bone marrow megakaryocytes, which when cultured showed delayed maturation, decreased survival, decreased ploidy, and developmental abnormalities, including abnormal extracellular distribution of VWF. Our results confirm that α-granule secretion plays a significant role in platelet function, and they also indicate that abnormal α-granule formation in Nbeal2−/− mice has deleterious effects on megakaryocyte survival, development, and platelet production. PMID:23861251

  5. Comparative Toxicity of Different Crude Oils on the Cardiac Function of Marine Medaka (Oryzias melastigma Embryo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhendong Zhang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The acute toxic effect of different crude oils (heavy crude oil and bonny light crude oil on embryos of marine medaka Oryzias melastigma was measured and evaluated by exposure to the water-accommodated fraction (WAF in the present study. The cardiac function of medaka embryos was used as target organ of ecotoxicological effect induced by oil exposure. Results showed that the developing marine medaka heart was a sensitive target organ to crude oil exposure the heavy crude oil WAF was more toxic to cardiac function of medaka embryos than bonny light cured oil one. Cardiac function of medaka embryos was clearly affected by exposure to heavy crude oil WAF after 24 hours exposure and showed a dose-dependent slowing of heart rate. Furthermore, swelled and enlarged heart morphology, lowered blood circulation and accumulation of blood cells around the heart area were found. However, the toxic effect of bonny light crude oil on cardiac function of medaka embryos was comparatively low. Statistical results showed that the cardiac function was only affected by highest bonny light crude oil WAF (9.8 mg/L exposure treatment. These findings indicated that cardiac function of marine medaka embryo was a good toxicity model for oil pollution and could be used to compare and evaluate the toxicity of different crude oils. The heart rate was an appropriate endpoint in the acute toxicity test.

  6. A portable cadmium telluride multidetector probe for cardiac function monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arntz, Y.; Chambron, J.; Dumitresco, B.; Eclancher, B. E-mail: eclan@alsace.u-strasbg.fr; Prat, V

    1999-06-01

    A new nuclear stethoscope based on a matrix of small CdTe semiconductor detectors has been developed for studying the cardiac performance by gamma ventriculography at the equilibrium, in rest and stress conditions, in the early and recovery phases of the coronary disease and to follow the long-term therapy. The light-weight probe consists of an array of 64 detectors 5x5x2 mm grouped in 16 independent units in a lead shielded aluminum box including 16 preamplifiers. The probe is connected to an electronic box containing DC power supply, 16 channel amplifiers, discriminators and counters, two analog-triggering ECG channels, and interface to a PC. The left ventricle activity is, preferentially, detected by using a low-resolution matching convergent collimator. A physical evaluation of the probe has been performed, both with static tests and dynamically with a hydraulic home-built model of beating heart ventricle paced by a rhythm simulator. The sum of the 16 detectors activity provided a radiocardiogram (RCG) which well depicted the filling and ejection of the cardiac beats, allowing to compare the clinically relevant parameters of the cardiac performance, proportional variables of the stroke volume (SV), ejection fraction (EF) and ventricular flow-rate with the known absolute values programmed on the model. The portable system is now in operation for clinical assessment of cardiac patients.

  7. A portable cadmium telluride multidetector probe for cardiac function monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arntz, Y.; Chambron, J.; Dumitresco, B.; Eclancher, B.; Prat, V.

    1999-01-01

    A new nuclear stethoscope based on a matrix of small CdTe semiconductor detectors has been developed for studying the cardiac performance by gamma ventriculography at the equilibrium, in rest and stress conditions, in the early and recovery phases of the coronary disease and to follow the long-term therapy. The light-weight probe consists of an array of 64 detectors 5x5x2 mm grouped in 16 independent units in a lead shielded aluminum box including 16 preamplifiers. The probe is connected to an electronic box containing DC power supply, 16 channel amplifiers, discriminators and counters, two analog-triggering ECG channels, and interface to a PC. The left ventricle activity is, preferentially, detected by using a low-resolution matching convergent collimator. A physical evaluation of the probe has been performed, both with static tests and dynamically with a hydraulic home-built model of beating heart ventricle paced by a rhythm simulator. The sum of the 16 detectors activity provided a radiocardiogram (RCG) which well depicted the filling and ejection of the cardiac beats, allowing to compare the clinically relevant parameters of the cardiac performance, proportional variables of the stroke volume (SV), ejection fraction (EF) and ventricular flow-rate with the known absolute values programmed on the model. The portable system is now in operation for clinical assessment of cardiac patients

  8. Abnormal functional brain connectivity and personality traits in myotonic dystrophy type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra, Laura; Silvestri, Gabriella; Petrucci, Antonio; Basile, Barbara; Masciullo, Marcella; Makovac, Elena; Torso, Mario; Spanò, Barbara; Mastropasqua, Chiara; Harrison, Neil A; Bianchi, Maria L E; Giacanelli, Manlio; Caltagirone, Carlo; Cercignani, Mara; Bozzali, Marco

    2014-05-01

    Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1), the most common muscular dystrophy observed in adults, is a genetic multisystem disorder affecting several other organs besides skeletal muscle, including the brain. Cognitive and personality abnormalities have been reported; however, no studies have investigated brain functional networks and their relationship with personality traits/disorders in patients with DM1. To use resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging to assess the potential relationship between personality traits/disorders and changes to functional connectivity within the default mode network (DMN) in patients with DM1. We enrolled 27 patients with genetically confirmed DM1 and 16 matched healthy control individuals. Patients underwent personality assessment using clinical interview and Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 administration; all participants underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. Investigations were conducted at the Istituto di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico Santa Lucia Foundation, Catholic University of Sacred Heart, and Azienda Ospedaliera San Camillo Forlanini. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. Measures of personality traits in patients and changes in functional connectivity within the DMN in patients and controls. Changes in functional connectivity and atypical personality traits in patients were correlated. We combined results obtained from the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 and clinical interview to identify a continuum of atypical personality profiles ranging from schizotypal personality traits to paranoid personality disorder within our DM1 patients. We also demonstrated an increase in functional connectivity in the bilateral posterior cingulate and left parietal DMN nodes in DM1 patients compared with controls. Moreover, patients with DM1 showed strong associations between DMN functional connectivity and schizotypal-paranoid traits. Our findings provide novel

  9. Abnormalities in personal space and parietal–frontal function in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daphne J. Holt

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia is associated with subtle abnormalities in day-to-day social behaviors, including a tendency in some patients to “keep their distance” from others in physical space. The neural basis of this abnormality, and related changes in social functioning, is unknown. Here we examined, in schizophrenic patients and healthy control subjects, the functioning of a parietal–frontal network involved in monitoring the space immediately surrounding the body (“personal space”. Using fMRI, we found that one region of this network, the dorsal intraparietal sulcus (DIPS, was hyper-responsive in schizophrenic patients to face stimuli appearing to move towards the subjects, intruding into personal space. This hyper-responsivity was predicted both by the size of personal space (which was abnormally elevated in the schizophrenia group and the severity of negative symptoms. In contrast, in a second study, the activity of two lower-level visual areas that send information to DIPS (the fusiform face area and middle temporal area was normal in schizophrenia. Together, these findings suggest that changes in parietal–frontal networks that support the sensory-guided initiation of behavior, including actions occurring in the space surrounding the body, contribute to social dysfunction and negative symptoms in schizophrenia.

  10. Grey matter abnormalities in children and adolescents with functional neurological symptom disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlowska, Kasia; Griffiths, Kristi R; Foster, Sheryl L; Linton, James; Williams, Leanne M; Korgaonkar, Mayuresh S

    2017-01-01

    Functional neurological symptom disorder refers to the presence of neurological symptoms not explained by neurological disease. Although this disorder is presumed to reflect abnormal function of the brain, recent studies in adults show neuroanatomical abnormalities in brain structure . These structural brain abnormalities have been presumed to reflect long-term adaptations to the disorder, and it is unknown whether child and adolescent patients, with illness that is typically of shorter duration, show similar deficits or have normal brain structure. High-resolution, three-dimensional T1-weighted magnetic resonance images (MRIs) were acquired in 25 patients (aged 10-18 years) and 24 healthy controls. Structure was quantified in terms of grey matter volume using voxel-based morphometry. Post hoc, we examined whether regions of structural difference related to a measure of motor readiness to emotional signals and to clinical measures of illness duration, illness severity, and anxiety/depression. Patients showed greater volumes in the left supplementary motor area (SMA) and right superior temporal gyrus (STG) and dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (DMPFC) (corrected p disorder.

  11. Overhydration, Cardiac Function and Survival in Hemodialysis Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onofriescu, Mihai; Siriopol, Dimitrie; Voroneanu, Luminita; Hogas, Simona; Nistor, Ionut; Apetrii, Mugurel; Florea, Laura; Veisa, Gabriel; Mititiuc, Irina; Kanbay, Mehmet; Sascau, Radu; Covic, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    .29-5.89 for RFO >17.4%) and multivariate (HR = 2.31, 95%CI = 1.42-3.77 for RFO >15% and HR = 4.17, 95%CI = 2.48-7.02 for RFO >17.4%) Cox regression analysis. The study shows that the hydration status is associated with the mortality risk in a HD population, independently of cardiac morphology and function. We also describe and propose a new cut-off for RFO, in order to better define the relationship between overhydration and mortality risk. Further studies are needed to properly validate this new cut-off in other HD populations.

  12. Overhydration, Cardiac Function and Survival in Hemodialysis Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai Onofriescu

    .67, 95%CI = 2.29-5.89 for RFO >17.4% and multivariate (HR = 2.31, 95%CI = 1.42-3.77 for RFO >15% and HR = 4.17, 95%CI = 2.48-7.02 for RFO >17.4% Cox regression analysis.The study shows that the hydration status is associated with the mortality risk in a HD population, independently of cardiac morphology and function. We also describe and propose a new cut-off for RFO, in order to better define the relationship between overhydration and mortality risk. Further studies are needed to properly validate this new cut-off in other HD populations.

  13. Pulmonary function abnormalities and airway irritation symptoms of metal fumes exposure on automobile spot welders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jiin-Chyuan John; Hsu, Kuang-Hung; Shen, Wu-Shiun

    2006-06-01

    Spot or resistance welding has been considered less hazardous than other types of welding. Automobile manufacturing is a major industry in Taiwan. Spot and arc welding are common processes in this industry. The respiratory effects on automobile spot welders exposed to metal fumes are investigated. The cohort consisted of 41 male auto-body spot welders, 76 male arc welders, 71 male office workers, and 59 assemblers without welding exposure. Inductivity Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrophotometer (ICP-MS) was applied to detect metals' (zinc, copper, nickel) levels in the post-shift urine samples. Demographic data, work history, smoking status, and respiratory tract irritation symptoms were gathered by a standard self-administered questionnaire. Pulmonary function tests were also performed. There were significantly higher values for average urine metals' (zinc, copper, nickel) levels in spot welders and arc welders than in the non-welding controls. There were 4 out of 23 (17.4%) abnormal forced vital capacity (FVC) among the high-exposed spot welders, 2 out of 18 (11.1%) among the low-exposed spot welders, and 6 out of 130 (4.6%) non-welding-exposed workers. There was a significant linear trend between spot welding exposure and the prevalence of restrictive airway abnormalities (P = 0.036) after adjusting for other factors. There were 9 out of 23 (39.1%) abnormal peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) among high-exposed spot welders, 5 out of 18 (27.8%) among the low-exposed spot welders, and 28 out of 130 (21.5%) non-welding-exposed workers. There was a borderline significant linear trend between spot welding exposure and the prevalence of obstructive lung function abnormalities (P = 0.084) after adjusting for other factors. There was also a significant dose-response relationship of airway irritation symptoms (cough, phlegm, chronic bronchitis) among the spot welders. Arc welders with high exposure status also had a significant risk of obstructive lung abnormalities (PEFR

  14. Cardiac arrest

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... magnesium. These minerals help your heart's electrical system work. Abnormally high or low levels can cause cardiac arrest. Severe physical stress. Anything that causes a severe stress on your ...

  15. Effects of vildagliptin versus sitagliptin, on cardiac function, heart rate variability and mitochondrial function in obese insulin-resistant rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apaijai, Nattayaporn; Pintana, Hiranya; Chattipakorn, Siriporn C; Chattipakorn, Nipon

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose Long-term high-fat diet (HFD) consumption has been shown to cause insulin resistance, which is characterized by hyperinsulinaemia with metabolic inflexibility. Insulin resistance is associated with cardiac sympathovagal imbalance, cardiac dysfunction and cardiac mitochondrial dysfunction. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors, vildagliptin and sitagliptin, are oral anti-diabetic drugs often prescribed in patients with cardiovascular disease. Therefore, in this study, we sought to determine the effects of vildagliptin and sitagliptin in a murine model of insulin resistance. Experimental Approach Male Wistar rats weighing 180–200 g, were fed either a normal diet (20% energy from fat) or a HFD (59% energy from fat) for 12 weeks. These rats were then divided into three subgroups to receive vildagliptin (3 mg·kg−1·day−1), sitagliptin (30 mg·kg−1·day−1) or vehicle for another 21 days. Metabolic parameters, oxidative stress, heart rate variability (HRV), cardiac function and cardiac mitochondrial function were determined. Key Results Rats that received HFD developed insulin resistance characterized by increased body weight, plasma insulin, total cholesterol and oxidative stress levels along with a decreased high-density lipoprotein (HDL) level. Moreover, cardiac dysfunction, depressed HRV, cardiac mitochondrial dysfunction and cardiac mitochondrial morphology changes were observed in HFD rats. Both vildagliptin and sitagliptin decreased plasma insulin, total cholesterol and oxidative stress as well as increased HDL level. Furthermore, vildagliptin and sitagliptin attenuated cardiac dysfunction, prevented cardiac mitochondrial dysfunction and completely restored HRV. Conclusions and Implications Both vildagliptin and sitagliptin share similar efficacy in cardioprotection in obese insulin-resistant rats. PMID:23488656

  16. A High Fat Diet During Pregnancy and Lactation Induces Cardiac and Renal Abnormalities in GLUT4 +/- Male Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Kruse

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Altered nutrients during the in utero (IU and/or lactation (L period predispose offspring to cardio-renal diseases in adulthood. This study investigates the effect of a high fat diet (HFD fed to female mice during IU/L on gene expression patterns associated with heart and kidney failure and hypertension in male offspring. Methods: Female wild type (WT mice were fed either a HFD or control chow (C prior to mating with males with a genetic heterozygous deletion of GLUT4 (G4+/-, a model of peripheral insulin resistance and hypertension and throughout IU/L. After weaning male offspring were placed on a standard rodent chow until 24 weeks of age. Results: All offspring exposed to a maternal HFD showed increased heart and kidney weight and reduced cardiac insulin responsiveness. G4+/- offspring on a HFD displayed early hypertension associated with increased renal gene expression of renin and the AT1- receptors compared to G4+/- on a C diet. This group showed decreased cardiac expression of key genes involved in fatty acid oxidation compared to WT on a C diet. Conclusions: These results indicate an interaction between a HFD diet and genotype during early life development that can enhance susceptibility to cardio-renal diseases later in life.

  17. Multimodality Cardiac Imaging for the Assessment of Left Atrial Function and the Association With Atrial Arrhythmias

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Flemming Javier; Bertelsen, Litten; de Knegt, Martina Chantal

    2016-01-01

    Several cardiac imaging modalities are able to visualize the left atrium (LA) and, therefore, allow for quantification of both structural and functional properties of this cardiac chamber. In echocardiography, only the maximal LA volume is included in the assessment of diastolic function at the c......Several cardiac imaging modalities are able to visualize the left atrium (LA) and, therefore, allow for quantification of both structural and functional properties of this cardiac chamber. In echocardiography, only the maximal LA volume is included in the assessment of diastolic function...... atrial fibrillation, which will be a point of focus in this review. Pivotal cardiac magnetic resonance imaging studies have revealed high correlation between LA fibrosis and risk of atrial fibrillation recurrence after catheter ablation, and subsequent multimodality imaging studies have uncovered...... an inverse relationship between LA reservoir function and degree of LA fibrosis. This has sparked an increased interest into the application of advanced imaging modalities, including both speckle tracking echocardiography and tissue tracking by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. Even though increasing...

  18. Moderate-Intensity Exercise Affects Gut Microbiome Composition and Influences Cardiac Function in Myocardial Infarction Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuheng Liu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Physical exercise is commonly regarded as protective against cardiovascular disease (CVD. Recent studies have reported that exercise alters the gut microbiota and that modification of the gut microbiota can influence cardiac function. Here, we focused on the relationships among exercise, the gut microbiota and cardiac function after myocardial infarction (MI. Four-week-old C57BL/6J mice were exercised on a treadmill for 4 weeks before undergoing left coronary artery ligation. Cardiac function was assessed using echocardiography. Gut microbiomes were evaluated post-exercise and post-MI using 16S rRNA gene sequencing on an Illumina HiSeq platform. Exercise training inhibited declines in cardiac output and stroke volume in post-MI mice. In addition, physical exercise and MI led to alterations in gut microbial composition. Exercise training increased the relative abundance of Butyricimonas and Akkermansia. Additionally, key operational taxonomic units were identified, including 24 lineages (mainly from Bacteroidetes, Barnesiella, Helicobacter, Parabacteroides, Porphyromonadaceae, Ruminococcaceae, and Ureaplasma that were closely related to exercise and cardiac function. These results suggested that exercise training improved cardiac function to some extent in addition to altering the gut microbiota; therefore, they could provide new insights into the use of exercise training for the treatment of CVD.

  19. Abnormal intrinsic functional hubs in alcohol dependence: evidence from a voxelwise degree centrality analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luo X

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Xiaoping Luo,1,2 Linghong Guo,1 Xi-Jian Dai,3 Qinglai Wang,2 Wenzhong Zhu,2 Xinjun Miao,2 Honghan Gong1 1Department of Radiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Nangchang, Jiangxi, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Radiology, Wenzhou Chinese Medicine Hospital, Wenzhou, Zhejiang, People’s Republic of China; 3Department of Medical Imaging, Jinling Hospital, Medical School of Nanjing University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, People’s Republic of China Objective: To explore the abnormal intrinsic functional hubs in alcohol dependence using voxelwise degree centrality analysis approach, and their relationships with clinical features.Materials and methods: Twenty-four male alcohol dependence subjects free of medicine (mean age, 50.21±9.62 years and 24 age- and education-matched male healthy controls (mean age, 50.29±8.92 years were recruited. The alcohol use disorders identification test and the severity of alcohol dependence questionnaire (SADQ were administered to assess the severity of alcohol craving. Voxelwise degree centrality approach was used to assess the abnormal intrinsic functional hubs features in alcohol dependence. Simple linear regression analysis was performed to investigate the relationships between the clinical features and abnormal intrinsic functional hubs.Results: Compared with healthy controls, alcohol dependence subjects exhibited significantly different degree centrality values in widespread left lateralization brain areas, including higher degree centrality values in the left precentral gyrus (BA 6, right hippocampus (BA 35, 36, and left orbitofrontal cortex (BA 11 and lower degree centrality values in the left cerebellum posterior lobe, bilateral secondary visual network (BA 18, and left precuneus (BA 7, 19. SADQ revealed a negative linear correlation with the degree centrality value in the left precentral gyrus (R2=0.296, P=0.006.Conclusion: The specific abnormal intrinsic functional hubs appear

  20. Rbfox-regulated alternative splicing is critical for zebrafish cardiac and skeletal muscle function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Thomas L.; Arribere, Joshua A.; Geurts, Paul A.; Exner, Cameron R. T.; McDonald, Kent L.; Dill, Kariena K.; Marr, Henry L.; Adkar, Shaunak S.; Garnett, Aaron T.; Amacher, Sharon L.; Conboy, John G.

    2012-01-01

    Rbfox RNA binding proteins are implicated as regulators of phylogenetically-conserved alternative splicing events important for muscle function. To investigate the function of rbfox genes, we used morpholino-mediated knockdown of muscle-expressed rbfox1l and rbfox2 in zebrafish embryos. Single and double morphant embryos exhibited changes in splicing of overlapping sets of bioinformatically-predicted rbfox target exons, many of which exhibit a muscle-enriched splicing pattern that is conserved in vertebrates. Thus, conservation of intronic Rbfox binding motifs is a good predictor of Rbfox-regulated alternative splicing. Morphology and development of single morphant embryos was strikingly normal; however, muscle development in double morphants was severely disrupted. Defects in cardiac muscle were marked by reduced heart rate and in skeletal muscle by complete paralysis. The predominance of wavy myofibers and abnormal thick and thin filaments in skeletal muscle revealed that myofibril assembly is defective and disorganized in double morphants. Ultra-structural analysis revealed that although sarcomeres with electron dense M- and Z-bands are present in muscle fibers of rbfox1l/rbox2 morphants, they are substantially reduced in number and alignment. Importantly, splicing changes and morphological defects were rescued by expression of morpholino-resistant rbfox cDNA. Additionally, a target-blocking MO complementary to a single UGCAUG motif adjacent to an rbfox target exon of fxr1 inhibited inclusion in a similar manner to rbfox knockdown, providing evidence that Rbfox regulates the splicing of target exons via direct binding to intronic regulatory motifs. We conclude that Rbfox proteins regulate an alternative splicing program essential for vertebrate heart and skeletal muscle function. PMID:21925157

  1. Rbfox-regulated alternative splicing is critical for zebrafish cardiac and skeletal muscle functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Thomas L; Arribere, Joshua A; Geurts, Paul A; Exner, Cameron R T; McDonald, Kent L; Dill, Kariena K; Marr, Henry L; Adkar, Shaunak S; Garnett, Aaron T; Amacher, Sharon L; Conboy, John G

    2011-11-15

    Rbfox RNA binding proteins are implicated as regulators of phylogenetically-conserved alternative splicing events important for muscle function. To investigate the function of rbfox genes, we used morpholino-mediated knockdown of muscle-expressed rbfox1l and rbfox2 in zebrafish embryos. Single and double morphant embryos exhibited changes in splicing of overlapping sets of bioinformatically-predicted rbfox target exons, many of which exhibit a muscle-enriched splicing pattern that is conserved in vertebrates. Thus, conservation of intronic Rbfox binding motifs is a good predictor of Rbfox-regulated alternative splicing. Morphology and development of single morphant embryos were strikingly normal; however, muscle development in double morphants was severely disrupted. Defects in cardiac muscle were marked by reduced heart rate and in skeletal muscle by complete paralysis. The predominance of wavy myofibers and abnormal thick and thin filaments in skeletal muscle revealed that myofibril assembly is defective and disorganized in double morphants. Ultra-structural analysis revealed that although sarcomeres with electron dense M- and Z-bands are present in muscle fibers of rbfox1l/rbox2 morphants, they are substantially reduced in number and alignment. Importantly, splicing changes and morphological defects were rescued by expression of morpholino-resistant rbfox cDNA. Additionally, a target-blocking MO complementary to a single UGCAUG motif adjacent to an rbfox target exon of fxr1 inhibited inclusion in a similar manner to rbfox knockdown, providing evidence that Rbfox regulates the splicing of target exons via direct binding to intronic regulatory motifs. We conclude that Rbfox proteins regulate an alternative splicing program essential for vertebrate heart and skeletal muscle functions. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Use of I-123 MIBG cardiac scintigraphy to assess the impact of carvedilol on cardiac adrenergic neuronal function in childhood dilated cardiomyopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maunoury, C.; Acar, P.; Sidi, D.

    2006-01-01

    I-123 MIBG cardiac scintigraphy is a useful tool to assess cardiac adrenergic neuronal function, which is impaired in children with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). In adults with DCM, long-term treatment with carvedilol improves both cardiac adrenergic neuronal function and left ventricular function. The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate the impact of carvedilol on cardiac adrenergic neuronal function and on left ventricular function in seventeen patients (11 female, 6 male, mean age 39 ± 57 months, range 1 - 168 months) with DCM. All patients underwent I-123 MIBG cardiac scintigraphy and equilibrium radio-nuclide angiography before and after a 6 month period of carvedilol therapy. A static anterior view of the chest was acquired 4 hours after intravenous injection of 20 to 75 MBq of I-123 MIBG. Cardiac neuronal uptake of I-123 MIBG was measured using the heart to mediastinum count ratio (HMR). Radionuclide left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was assessed following a standard protocol. There was no major cardiac events (death or transplantation) during the follow-up period. I-123 MIBG cardiac uptake and left ventricular function respectively increased by 38% and 65% after 6 months of treatment with carvedilol (HMR 223 ± 49% vs 162 ± 26%, p < 0.0001 and LVEF = 43 ± 17% vs 26 ± 11%, p < 0.0001). Carvedilol can improve cardiac adrenergic neuronal function and left ventricular function in children with DCM. Further studies are needed to assess the relationship between improvement in I-123 MIBG cardiac uptake and the beneficial effects of carvedilol on morbidity and mortality. (authors)

  3. The spectrum of epilepsy and electroencephalographic abnormalities due to SHANK3 loss-of-function mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holder, J Lloyd; Quach, Michael M

    2016-10-01

    The coincidence of autism with epilepsy is 27% in those individuals with intellectual disability. 1 Individuals with loss-of-function mutations in SHANK3 have intellectual disability, autism, and variably, epilepsy. 2-5 The spectrum of seizure semiologies and electroencephalography (EEG) abnormalities has never been investigated in detail. With the recent report that SHANK3 mutations are present in approximately 2% of individuals with moderate to severe intellectual disabilities and 1% of individuals with autism, determining the spectrum of seizure semiologies and electrographic abnormalities will be critical for medical practitioners to appropriately counsel the families of patients with SHANK3 mutations. A retrospective chart review was performed of all individuals treated at the Blue Bird Circle Clinic for Child Neurology who have been identified as having either a chromosome 22q13 microdeletion encompassing SHANK3 or a loss-of-function mutation in SHANK3 identified through whole-exome sequencing. For each subject, the presence or absence of seizures, seizure semiology, frequency, age of onset, and efficacy of therapy were determined. Electroencephalography studies were reviewed by a board certified neurophysiologist. Neuroimaging was reviewed by both a board certified pediatric neuroradiologist and child neurologist. There is a wide spectrum of seizure semiologies, frequencies, and severity in individuals with SHANK3 mutations. There are no specific EEG abnormalities found in our cohort, and EEG abnormalities were present in individuals diagnosed with epilepsy and those without history of a clinical seizure. All individuals with a mutation in SHANK3 should be evaluated for epilepsy due to the high prevalence of seizures in this population. The most common semiology is atypical absence seizure, which can be challenging to identify due to comorbid intellectual disability in individuals with SHANK3 mutations; however, no consistent seizure semiology, neuroimaging

  4. The changes in beta-adrenoceptor-mediated cardiac function in experimental hypothyroidism: the possible contribution of cardiac beta3-adrenoceptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arioglu, E; Guner, S; Ozakca, I; Altan, V M; Ozcelikay, A T

    2010-02-01

    Thyroid hormone deficiency has been reported to decrease expression and function of both beta(1)- and beta(2)-adrenoceptor in different tissues including heart. The purpose of this study was to examine the possible contribution of beta(3)-adrenoceptors to cardiac dysfunction in hypothyroidism. In addition, effect of this pathology on beta(1)- and beta(2)-adrenoceptor was investigated. Hypothyroidism was induced by adding methimazole (300 mg/l) to drinking water of rats for 8 weeks. Cardiac hemodynamic parameters were measured in anesthetised rats in vivo. Responses to beta-adrenoceptor agonists were examined in rat papillary muscle in vitro. We also studied the effect of hypotyroidism on mRNA expression of beta-adrenoceptors, Gialpha, GRK, and eNOS in rat heart. All of the hemodynamic parameters (systolic, diastolic and mean arterial pressure, left ventricular pressure, heart rate, +dp/dt, and -dp/dt) were significantly reduced by the methimazole treatment. The negative inotropic effect elicited by BRL 37344 (a beta(3)-adrenoceptor preferential agonist) and positive inotropic effects produced by isoprenaline and noradrenaline, respectively, were significantly decreased in papillary muscle of hypothyroid rats as compared to those of controls. On the other hand, hypothyroidism resulted in increased cardiac beta(2)- and beta(3)-adrenoceptor, Gialpha(2), Gialpha(3), GRK3, and eNOS mRNA expressions. However, beta(1)-adrenoceptor and GRK2 mRNA expressions were not changed significantly in this pathology. These results show that mRNA expression of beta(3)-adrenoceptors as well as the signalling pathway components mediated through beta(3)-adrenoceptors are significantly increased in hypothyroid rat heart. Since we could not correlate these alternates with the decreased negative inotropic response mediated by this receptor subtype, it is not clear whether these changes are important for hypothyroid induced reduction in cardiac function.

  5. Matrine pretreatment improves cardiac function in rats with diabetic cardiomyopathy via suppressing ROS/TLR-4 signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhong-wei; Wang, Jun-kui; Qiu, Chuan; Guan, Gong-chang; Liu, Xin-hong; Li, Shang-jian; Deng, Zheng-rong

    2015-03-01

    Matrine is an alkaloid from Sophora alopecuroides L, which has shown a variety of pharmacological activities and potential therapeutic value in cardiovascular diseases. In this study we examined the protective effects of matrine against diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM) in rats. Male SD rats were injected with streptozotocin (STZ) to induce DCM. One group of DCM rats was pretreated with matrine (200 mg·kg(-1)·d(-1), po) for 10 consecutive days before STZ injection. Left ventricular function was evaluated using invasive hemodynamic examination, and myocardiac apoptosis was assessed. Primary rat myocytes were used for in vitro experiments. Intracellular ROS generation, MDA content and GPx activity were determined. Real-time PCR and Western blotting were performed to detect the expression of relevant mRNAs and proteins. DCM rats exhibited abnormally elevated non-fasting blood glucose levels at 4 weeks after STZ injection, and LV function impairment at 16 weeks. The cardiac tissues of DCM rats showed markedly increased apoptosis, excessive ROS production, and activation of TLR-4/MyD-88/caspase-8/caspase-3 signaling. Pretreatment with matrine significantly decreased non-fasting blood glucose levels and improved LV function in DCM rats, which were associated with reducing apoptosis and ROS production, and suppressing TLR-4/MyD-88/caspase-8/caspase-3 signaling in cardiac tissues. Incubation in a high-glucose medium induced oxidative stress and activation of TLR-4/MyD-88 signaling in cultured myocytes in vitro, which were significantly attenuated by pretreatment with N-acetylcysteine. Excessive ROS production in DCM activates the TLR-4/MyD-88 signaling, resulting in cardiomyocyte apoptosis, whereas pretreatment with matrine improves cardiac function via suppressing ROS/TLR-4 signaling pathway.

  6. Therapeutic Inhibition of miR-208a Improves Cardiac Function and Survival During Heart Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Rusty L.; Hullinger, Thomas G.; Semus, Hillary M.; Dickinson, Brent A.; Seto, Anita G.; Lynch, Joshua M.; Stack, Christianna; Latimer, Paul A.; Olson, Eric N.; van Rooij, Eva

    2012-01-01

    Background Diastolic dysfunction in response to hypertrophy is a major clinical syndrome with few therapeutic options. MicroRNAs act as negative regulators of gene expression by inhibiting translation or promoting degradation of target mRNAs. Previously, we reported that genetic deletion of the cardiac-specific miR-208a prevents pathological cardiac remodeling and upregulation of Myh7 in response to pressure overload. Whether this miRNA might contribute to diastolic dysfunction or other forms of heart disease is currently unknown. Methods and Results Here, we show that systemic delivery of an antisense oligonucleotide induces potent and sustained silencing of miR-208a in the heart. Therapeutic inhibition of miR-208a by subcutaneous delivery of antimiR-208a during hypertension-induced heart failure in Dahl hypertensive rats dose-dependently prevents pathological myosin switching and cardiac remodeling while improving cardiac function, overall health, and survival. Transcriptional profiling indicates that antimiR-208a evokes prominent effects on cardiac gene expression; plasma analysis indicates significant changes in circulating levels of miRNAs on antimiR-208a treatment. Conclusions These studies indicate the potential of oligonucleotide-based therapies for modulating cardiac miRNAs and validate miR-208 as a potent therapeutic target for the modulation of cardiac function and remodeling during heart disease progression. PMID:21900086

  7. Evidence of abnormal left ventricular function in patients with thalassaemia major: an echocardiography based study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohail, M.; Hyder, S.N.

    2009-01-01

    Thalassaemia represent one of the most common single gene disorder causing a major public health problem in Pakistan. Nearly 100,000 people are born worldwide with this severe blood disorder every year. Over the last 3 decades, the development of regular transfusion therapy and iron chelation has dramatically improved the quality of life and transformed thalassaemia from a rapidly fatal disease to a chronic disease compatible with prolonged survival. Objective of this observational cross sectional study was to determine the effects of chronic anaemia and transfusional iron overload on the left ventricular function using Doppler echocardiography. This study was conducted in the Department of Paediatric Cardiology, The Children's Hospital and Institute of Child Health, Lahore, Pakistan from first April 2006 to September 30, 2007. The study comprised of 50 consecutive cases of beta-Thalassaemia major and 30 controls with normal haemoglobin and electrophoresis pattern. beta- Thalassaemia major patients were diagnosed on the basis of haemoglobin electrophoresis. Patients with any congenital or acquired heart disease, concurrent infective disorder and with history of cardiac surgery were excluded from the study. 2-D, M-mode and Doppler echocardiography was performed in all the study cases and controls. Statistical comparison of study cases and controls was conducted by using unpaired t-test. The age of the patients ranged from 2 years to 25 years with mean age of 9.65 years. Males were 34 (68%) and females were 16 (32%). None of the study cases was on regular chelation programme while 31 (62%) patients were on irregular chelation with single dose of intravenous desferrioxamine only at the time of blood transfusion. 19 (38%) of the patients had LV dysfunction in the form of isolated systolic dysfunction in 2 (4%), isolated diastolic dysfunction in 15 (30%) while global dysfunction in 2 (4%) of the patients. Left ventricular dimensions, stroke volume and E/A ratio were

  8. Abnormal reticuloendothelial function in patients with active vasculitis and idiopathic membranous glomerulopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van der Woude, F J; Piers, D A; van der Giessen, M; Hoedemaeker, P J; Hauw The, T; van der Hem, G K

    1983-02-01

    Reticuloendothelial function was assessed in 11 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus, 8 patients with Wegener's granulomatosus, and 20 patients with idiopathic membranous sup(99m)Tc-labeled heat-damaged red blood cells. With this method organ uptake could be measured by quantitative scintigraphy. There was no relation between the Tsub(1/2) of the blood disappearance curve and the Tsub(1/2) of the splenic uptake curve. The Tsub(1/2) of the blood disappearance curve was normal in all the patient groups. However, there was a significant shift from spleen to liver uptake in patients with active systemic lupus erythematosus, active Wegener's granulomatosus, and membranous glomerulopathy in comparison with a control group. There was no relation with age, level of circulating immune complexes, complement level, kidney function, or immunosuppressive treatment. We conclude that an increase of the liver component of reticuloendothelial function may compensate abnormalities in splenic function. This stresses the importance of quantitative scanning to detect such abnormalities. The study provides evidence for disease related hyposplenism in patients with active systemical lupus erythematosus, active Wegener's granulamatosus, and membranous glomerulopathy.

  9. Abnormal reticuloendothelial function in patients with active vasculitis and idiopathic membranous glomerulopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woude, F.J. van der; Piers, D.A.; Giessen, M. van der; Hoedemaeker, P.J.; Hauw The, T.; Hem, G.K. van der; Rijksuniversiteit Groningen; Rijksuniversiteit Groningen

    1983-01-01

    Reticuloendothelial function was assessed in 11 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus, 8 patients with Wegener's granulomatosus, and 20 patients with idiopathic membranous sup(99m)Tc-labeled heat-damaged red blood cells. With this method organ uptake could be measured by quantitative scintigraphy. There was no relation between the Tsub(1/2) of the blood disappearance curve and the Tsub(1/2) of the splenic uptake curve. The Tsub(1/2) of the blood disappearance curve was normal in all the patient groups. However, there was a significant shift from spleen to liver uptake in patients with active systemic lupus erythematosus, active Wegener's granulomatosus, and membranous glomerulopathy in comparison with a control group. There was no relation with age, level of circulating immune complexes, complement level, kidney function, or immunosuppressive treatment. We conclude that an increase of the liver component of reticuloen-dothelial function may compensate abnormalities in splenic function. This stresses the importance of quantitative scanning to detect such abnormalities. The study provides evidence for disaase related hyposplenism in patients with active systemical lupus erythematosus, active Wegener's granulamatosus, and membranous glomerulopathy. (orig.)

  10. Should we look for celiac disease among all patients with liver function test abnormalities?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hassan Emami

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Celiac disease (CD has been found in up to 10% of the patients presenting with unexplained abnormal liver function tests (LFT. As there is no precise data from our country in this regard, we investigated the prevalence of CD in patients presenting with abnormal LFT. Methods: From 2003 to 2008, we measured IgA anti-tissue transglutaminase (t-TG antibody (with ELISA technique within the first-level screening steps for all patients presenting with abnormal LFT to three outpatient gastroenterology clinics in Isfahan, IRAN. All subjects with an IgA anti-tTG antibody value of >10 μ/ml (seropositive were undergone upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and duodenal biopsy. Histopathological changes were assessed according to the Marsh classification. CD was defined as being seropositive with Marsh I or above in histopathology and having a good response to gluten free diet (GFD. Results: During the study, 224 patients were evaluated, out of which, 10 patients (4.4% were seropositive for CD. Duodenal biopsies were performed in eight patients and revealed six (2.7% cases of Marsh I or above (four Marsh IIIA, two Marsh I, all of them had good response to GFD. The overall prevalence of CD among patients with hypertransaminasemia, autoimmune hepatitis, and cryptogenic cirrhosis was determined as 10.7% (3/28, 3.4% (2/59, and 5.3% (1/19, respectively. Conclusion: Serological screening with IgA anti-tTG antibody test should be routinely performed in patients presenting with abnormal LFT and especially those with chronic liver diseases including hypertransaminasemia, autoimmune hepatitis, and cryptogenic cirrhosis.

  11. Treatment Related Cardiac Toxicity in Patients Treated for Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Marks, Lawrence B

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the incidence dose/time-dependence and functional significance of regional cardiac perfusion abnormalities in patients with left-sided breast cancer treated with radiation therapy (RT...

  12. Morphological and functional abnormalities of salience network in the early-stage of paranoid schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Weidan; Li, Li; Zhang, Huiran; Ouyang, Xuan; Liu, Haihong; Zhao, Jingping; Li, Lingjiang; Xue, Zhimin; Xu, Ke; Tang, Haibo; Shan, Baoci; Liu, Zhening; Wang, Fei

    2012-10-01

    A salience network (SN), mainly composed of the anterior insula (AI) and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), has been suggested to play an important role in salience attribution which has been proposed as central to the pathology of paranoid schizophrenia. The role of this SN in the pathophysiology of paranoid schizophrenia, however, still remains unclear. In the present study, voxel-based morphometry and resting-state functional connectivity analyses were combined to identify morphological and functional abnormalities in the proposed SN in the early-stage of paranoid schizophrenia (ESPS). Voxel-based morphometry and resting-state functional connectivity analyses were applied to 90 ESPS patients and 90 age- and sex-matched healthy controls (HC). Correlation analyses were performed to examine the relationships between various clinical variables and both gray matter morphology and functional connectivity within the SN in ESPS. Compared to the HC group, the ESPS group showed significantly reduced gray matter volume (GMV) in both bilateral AI and ACC. Moreover, significantly reduced functional connectivity within the SN sub-networks was identified in the ESPS group. These convergent morphological and functional deficits in SN were significantly associated with hallucinations. Additionally, illness duration correlated with reduced GMV in the left AI in ESPS. In conclusion, these findings provide convergent evidence for the morphological and functional abnormalities of the SN in ESPS. Moreover, the association of illness duration with the reduced GMV in the left AI suggests that the SN and the AI, in particular, may manifest progressive morphological changes that are especially important in the emergence of ESPS. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Engineered hybrid cardiac patches with multifunctional electronics for online monitoring and regulation of tissue function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feiner, Ron; Engel, Leeya; Fleischer, Sharon; Malki, Maayan; Gal, Idan; Shapira, Assaf; Shacham-Diamand, Yosi; Dvir, Tal

    2016-06-01

    In cardiac tissue engineering approaches to treat myocardial infarction, cardiac cells are seeded within three-dimensional porous scaffolds to create functional cardiac patches. However, current cardiac patches do not allow for online monitoring and reporting of engineered-tissue performance, and do not interfere to deliver signals for patch activation or to enable its integration with the host. Here, we report an engineered cardiac patch that integrates cardiac cells with flexible, freestanding electronics and a 3D nanocomposite scaffold. The patch exhibited robust electronic properties, enabling the recording of cellular electrical activities and the on-demand provision of electrical stimulation for synchronizing cell contraction. We also show that electroactive polymers containing biological factors can be deposited on designated electrodes to release drugs in the patch microenvironment on demand. We expect that the integration of complex electronics within cardiac patches will eventually provide therapeutic control and regulation of cardiac function.

  14. The profound effects of microcystin on cardiac antioxidant enzymes, mitochondrial function and cardiac toxicity in rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu Tong; Xie Ping; Liu Ying; Li Guangyu; Xiong Qian; Hao Le; Li Huiying

    2009-01-01

    Deaths from microcystin toxication have widely been attributed to hypovolemic shock due to hepatic interstitial hemorrhage, while some recent studies suggest that cardiogenic complication is also involved. So far, information on cardiotoxic effects of MC has been rare and the underlying mechanism is still puzzling. The present study examined toxic effects of microcystins on heart muscle of rats intravenously injected with extracted MC at two doses, 0.16LD 50 (14 μg MC-LReq kg -1 body weight) and 1LD 50 (87 μg MC-LReq kg -1 body weight). In the dead rats, both TTC staining and maximum elevations of troponin I levels confirmed myocardial infarction after MC exposure, besides a serious interstitial hemorrhage in liver. In the 1LD 50 dose group, the coincident falls in heart rate and blood pressure were related to mitochondria dysfunction in heart, while increases in creatine kinase and troponin I levels indicated cardiac cell injury. The corresponding pathological alterations were mainly characterized as loss of adherence between cardiac myocytes and swollen or ruptured mitochondria at the ultrastructural level. MC administration at a dose of 1LD 50 not only enhanced activities and up-regulated mRNA transcription levels of antioxidant enzymes, but also increased GSH content. At both doses, level of lipid peroxides increased obviously, suggesting serious oxidative stress in mitochondria. Simultaneously, complex I and III were significantly inhibited, indicating blocks in electron flow along the mitochondrial respiratory chain in heart. In conclusion, the findings of this study implicate a role for MC-induced cardiotoxicity as a potential factor that should be considered when evaluating the mechanisms of death associated with microcystin intoxication in Brazil

  15. Abnormal glucose metabolism in acute myocardial infarction: influence on left ventricular function and prognosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høfsten, Dan E; Løgstrup, Brian B; Møller, Jacob E

    2009-01-01

    tolerance test before discharge. LV function was assessed using echocardiographic measurements (LV end-diastolic volume, LV end-systolic volume, LV ejection fraction, restrictive diastolic filling pattern, early transmitral flow velocity to early diastolic mitral annular velocity ratio [E/e'], and left...... atrial volume index) and by measuring plasma N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide levels. RESULTS: After adjustment for age and gender, a linear relationship between the degree of abnormal glucose metabolism was observed for each marker of LV dysfunction (p(trend)

  16. Abnormalities of functional brain networks in pathological gambling: a graph-theoretical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschernegg, Melanie; Crone, Julia S.; Eigenberger, Tina; Schwartenbeck, Philipp; Fauth-Bühler, Mira; Lemènager, Tagrid; Mann, Karl; Thon, Natasha; Wurst, Friedrich M.; Kronbichler, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Functional neuroimaging studies of pathological gambling (PG) demonstrate alterations in frontal and subcortical regions of the mesolimbic reward system. However, most investigations were performed using tasks involving reward processing or executive functions. Little is known about brain network abnormalities during task-free resting state in PG. In the present study, graph-theoretical methods were used to investigate network properties of resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging data in PG. We compared 19 patients with PG to 19 healthy controls (HCs) using the Graph Analysis Toolbox (GAT). None of the examined global metrics differed between groups. At the nodal level, pathological gambler showed a reduced clustering coefficient in the left paracingulate cortex and the left juxtapositional lobe (supplementary motor area, SMA), reduced local efficiency in the left SMA, as well as an increased node betweenness for the left and right paracingulate cortex and the left SMA. At an uncorrected threshold level, the node betweenness in the left inferior frontal gyrus was decreased and increased in the caudate. Additionally, increased functional connectivity between fronto-striatal regions and within frontal regions has also been found for the gambling patients. These findings suggest that regions associated with the reward system demonstrate reduced segregation but enhanced integration while regions associated with executive functions demonstrate reduced integration. The present study makes evident that PG is also associated with abnormalities in the topological network structure of the brain during rest. Since alterations in PG cannot be explained by direct effects of abused substances on the brain, these findings will be of relevance for understanding functional connectivity in other addictive disorders. PMID:24098282

  17. Abnormalities of Functional Brain Networks in Pathological Gambling: A Graph-Theoretical Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie eTschernegg

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Functional neuroimaging studies of pathological gambling demonstrate alterations in frontal and subcortical regions of the mesolimbic reward system. However, most investigations were performed using tasks involving reward processing or executive functions. Little is known about brain network abnormalities during task-free resting state in pathological gambling. In the present study, graph-theoretical methods were used to investigate network properties of resting state functional MRI data in pathological gambling. We compared 19 patients with pathological gambling to 19 healthy controls using the Graph Analysis Toolbox (GAT. None of the examined global metrics differed between groups. At the nodal level, pathological gambler showed a reduced clustering coefficient in the left paracingulate cortex and the left juxtapositional lobe (SMA, reduced local efficiency in the left SMA, as well as an increased node betweenness for the left and right paracingulate cortex and the left SMA. At an uncorrected threshold level, the node betweenness in the left inferior frontal gyrus was decreased and increased in the caudate. Additionally, increased functional connectivity between fronto-striatal regions and within frontal regions has also been found for the gambling patients.These findings suggest that regions associated with the reward system demonstrate reduced segregation but enhanced integration while regions associated with executive functions demonstrate reduced integration. The present study makes evident that pathological gambling is also associated with abnormalities in the topological network structure of the brain during rest. Since alterations in pathological gambling cannot be explained by direct effects of abused substances on the brain, these findings will be of relevance for understanding functional connectivity in other addictive disorders.

  18. Detecting abnormalities in left ventricular function during exercise by respiratory measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koike, A.; Itoh, H.; Taniguchi, K.; Hiroe, M.

    1989-01-01

    The degree of exercise-induced cardiac dysfunction and its relation to the anaerobic threshold were evaluated in 23 patients with chronic heart disease. A symptom-limited exercise test was performed with a cycle ergometer with work rate increased by 1 W every 6 seconds. Left ventricular function, as reflected by ejection fraction, was continuously monitored with a computerized cadmium telluride detector after the intravenous injection of technetium-labeled red blood cells. The anaerobic threshold (mean, 727 ± 166 ml/min) was determined by the noninvasive measurement of respiratory gas exchange. As work rate rose, the left ventricular ejection fraction increased but reached a peak value at the anaerobic threshold and then fell below resting levels. Ejection fraction at rest, anaerobic threshold, and peak exercise were 41.4 ± 11.3%, 46.5 ± 12.0%, and 37.2 ± 11.0%, respectively. Stroke volume also increased from rest (54.6 ± 17.0 ml/beat) to the point of the anaerobic threshold (65.0 ± 21.2 ml/beat) and then decreased at peak exercise (52.4 ± 18.7 ml/beat). The slope of the plot of cardiac output versus work rate decreased above the anaerobic threshold. The anaerobic threshold occurred at the work rate above which left ventricular function decreased during exercise. Accurate determination of the anaerobic threshold provides an objective, noninvasive measure of the oxygen uptake above which exercise-induced deterioration in left ventricular function occurs in patients with chronic heart disease

  19. Cardiac autonomic function in patients with diabetes improves with practice of comprehensive yogic breathing program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viveka P Jyotsna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to observe the effect comprehensive yogic breathing (Sudarshan Kriya Yoga [SKY] and Pranayam had on cardiac autonomic functions in patients with diabetes. Materials and Methods: This is a prospective randomized controlled intervention trial. Cardiac autonomic functions were assessed in 64 diabetics. Patients were randomized into two groups, one group receiving standard therapy for diabetes and the other group receiving standard therapy for diabetes and comprehensive yogic breathing program. Standard therapy included dietary advice, brisk walking for 45 min daily, and administration of oral antidiabetic drugs. Comprehensive yogic breathing program was introduced to the participants through a course of 12 h spread over 3 days. It was an interactive session in which SKY, a rhythmic cyclical breathing, preceded by Pranayam is taught under the guidance of a certified teacher. Cardiac autonomic function tests were done before and after 6 months of intervention. Results: In the intervention group, after practicing the breathing techniques for 6 months, the improvement in sympathetic functions was statistically significant (P 0.04. The change in sympathetic functions in the standard therapy group was not significant (P 0.75.Parasympathetic functions did not show any significant change in either group. When both parasympathetic and sympathetic cardiac autonomic functions were considered, there was a trend toward improvement in patients following comprehensive yogic breathing program (P 0.06. In the standard therapy group, no change in cardiac autonomic functions was noted (P 0.99. Conclusion: Cardiac autonomic functions improved in patients with diabetes on standard treatment who followed the comprehensive yogic breathing program compared to patients who were on standard therapy alone.

  20. Regulatory effects of phospholamban on cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hae Won.

    1989-01-01

    In this thesis, the author reports the effect of phospholamban on: (a) Ca 2+ release by cardiac SR and (b) the Ca 2+ -ATPase activity in a purified reconstituted system. Phosphorylation of phospholamban by Ca 2+ · calmodulin-dependent protein kinase had no appreciable effect on the initial rates of Ca 2+ release from cardiac SR vesicles loaded under passive conditions and on the apparent 45 Ca 2+ - 40 Ca 2+ exchange from cardiac SR vesicles loaded under active conditions. us, it appears that Ca 2+ · calmodulin-dependent phosphorylation of phospholamban is not involved in the regulation of Ca 2+ release and 45 Ca 2+-40 Ca 2+ exchange. To determine the molecular mechanism by which phospholamban regulates the Ca 2+ pump, a reconstituted system was developed, using a freeze-thaw sonication procedure. The Ca 2+ -ATPase was purified by a method which yields an active enzyme preparation essentially free of phospholamban. The best rates of Ca 2+ uptake were obtained when cholate and phosphatidylcholine (PC) were used at a ratio of cholate/PC/Ca 2 + -ATPase of 2/80/1. The maximal rates of Ca 2+ Uptake were 700 nmol/min/mg reconstituted vesicles compared to 800 nmol/min/mg SR vesicles. The EC 50 values for Ca 2+ were 0.05 μM for both Ca 2+ uptake and Ca 2+ -ATPase activity in the reconstituted vesicles compared to 0.63 μM Ca 2+ in native SR vesicles. To determine the effect of phospholamban on the Ca + -ATPase activity in the reconstituted vesicles, purified phospholamban was added to the cholate/Ca 2+ -ATPase mixture prior to combining it with liposomes

  1. Evaluation of left cardiac function by exercise in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konishi, Tokuji; Horayama, Norihisa; Hamada, Masayuki; Nakano, Takeshi; Takezawa, Hideo

    1981-01-01

    Left ventricular systolic and diastolic features at rest and exercise in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy were evaluated by Fourier analysis of blood pool scintigraphy (intracorporeal labelling with sup(99m)Tc-RBC). In the normal group (17 subjects), the left ventricular ejection fraction showed a linear increase, but no abnormality of regional ventricular wall motion, by multistage exercises. The hypertrophic cardiomyopathy group showed higher left ventricular ejection fractions at rest than those of the normal group, and in the HCM group (non-obstructive, from morphological features; 7 cases) the left ventricular ejection fraction did not increase any more when it reached a certain plateau in accordance with increased stress. In the HOCM (obstructive; 5 cases), the left ventricular ejection fraction showed a decreasing tendency as the stress was increased and also showed contractile abnormalities from the left ventricular center to the apex. Fourier analysis was effective for the evaluation of these changes. (Chiba, N.)

  2. Importance of circulating IGF-1 for normal cardiac morphology, function and post infarction remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharin Täng, M; Redfors, B; Lindbom, M; Svensson, J; Ramunddal, T; Ohlsson, C; Shao, Y; Omerovic, E

    2012-12-01

    IGF-1 plays an important role in cardiovascular homeostasis, and plasma levels of IGF-1 correlate inversely with systolic function in heart failure. It is not known to what extent circulating IGF-1 secreted by the liver and local autocrine/paracrine IGF-1 expressed in the myocardium contribute to these beneficial effects on cardiac function and morphology. In the present study, we used a mouse model of liver-specific inducible deletion of the IGF-1 gene (LI-IGF-1 -/- mouse) in an attempt to evaluate the importance of circulating IGF-I on cardiac morphology and function under normal and pathological conditions, with an emphasis on its regulatory role in myocardial phosphocreatine metabolism. Echocardiography was performed in LI-IGF-1 -/- and control mice at rest and during dobutamine stress, both at baseline and post myocardial infarction (MI). High-energy phosphate metabolites were compared between LI-IGF-1 -/- and control mice at 4 weeks post MI. We found that LI-IGF-1 -/- mice had significantly greater left ventricular dimensions at baseline and showed a greater relative increase in cardiac dimensions, as well as deterioration of cardiac function, post MI. Myocardial creatine content was 17.9% lower in LI-IGF-1 -/- mice, whereas there was no detectable difference in high-energy nucleotides. These findings indicate an important role of circulating IGF-1 in preserving cardiac structure and function both in physiological settings and post MI. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Endothelial Function as a Possible Significant Determinant of Cardiac Function during Exercise in Patients with Structural Heart Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonpei Takase

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was investigated the role that endothelial function and systemic vascular resistance (SVR play in determining cardiac function reserve during exercise by a new ambulatory radionuclide monitoring system (VEST in patients with heart disease. The study population consisted of 32 patients. The patients had cardiopulmonary stress testing using the treadmill Ramp protocol and the VEST. The anaerobic threshold (AT was autodetermined using the V-slope method. The SVR was calculated by determining the mean blood pressure/cardiac output. Flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD was measured in the brachial artery to evaluate endotheilial function. FMD and the percent change f'rom rest to AT in SVR correlated with those from rest to AT in ejection fraction and peak ejection ratio by VEST, respectively. Our findings suggest that FMD in the brachial artery and the SVR determined by VEST in patients with heart disease can possibly reflect cardiac function reserve during aerobic exercise.

  4. Abnormal Resting-State Functional Connectivity in Progressive Supranuclear Palsy and Corticobasal Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komal Bharti

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundPathological and MRI-based evidence suggests that multiple brain structures are likely to be involved in functional disconnection between brain areas. Few studies have investigated resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC in progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP and corticobasal syndrome (CBS. In this study, we investigated within- and between-network rsFC abnormalities in these two conditions.MethodsTwenty patients with PSP, 11 patients with CBS, and 16 healthy subjects (HS underwent a resting-state fMRI study. Resting-state networks (RSNs were extracted to evaluate within- and between-network rsFC using the Melodic and FSLNets software packages.ResultsIncreased within-network rsFC was observed in both PSP and CBS patients, with a larger number of RSNs being involved in CBS. Within-network cerebellar rsFC positively correlated with mini-mental state examination scores in patients with PSP. Compared to healthy volunteers, PSP and CBS patients exhibit reduced functional connectivity between the lateral visual and auditory RSNs, with PSP patients additionally showing lower functional connectivity between the cerebellar and insular RSNs. Moreover, rsFC between the salience and executive-control RSNs was increased in patients with CBS compared to HS.ConclusionThis study provides evidence of functional brain reorganization in both PSP and CBS. Increased within-network rsFC could represent a higher degree of synchronization in damaged brain areas, while between-network rsFC abnormalities may mainly reflect degeneration of long-range white matter fibers.

  5. Chronic Endurance Exercise Impairs Cardiac Structure and Function in Middle-Aged Mice with Impaired Nrf2 Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gobinath Shanmugam

    2017-05-01

    fractional shortening, pronounced ST segment, and J wave elevation upon CEE compared to age-matched WT littermates. In conclusion, our findings indicate that while the aged WT and Nrf2 knockout animals both exhibit hypertrophy after CEE, the older Nrf2 knockouts showed ventricular remodeling coupled with profound cardiac functional abnormalities and diastolic dysfunction.

  6. Stable xenon CT measurement of cerebral blood flow in cardiac transplantation candidates: Correlation with cognitive function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bello, J.A.; Fink, M.E.; Hilal, S.K.; Rose, E.A.; Reemtsma, K.

    1987-01-01

    Thirteen consecutive unselected patients with NYHA class 4 cardiac failure referred for cardiac transplantation underwent neurologic examination and cerebral blood flow measurement (rCBF) using the stable xenon enhanced CT method on a GE9800 system. Eleven men and two women were studied (mean age = 43.8 +- 6.1). On neurological examination, six of the patients demonstrated normal mental function; the remaining seven patients demonstrated memory, language, or learning impairment. There was no difference in mean cardiac output between the groups (4.9 L/min +- 1.68 vs. 4.2L/min +- 1.57). rCBF was significantly reduced in the impaired group. Cognitive impairment in patients with cardiac failure can be correlated with cerebral ischemia. Stable xenon CT measurement of rCBF in transplant candidates may help identify patients requiring more rapid transplantation to prevent permanent cerebral injury

  7. Pulmonary function abnormalities in long-term survivors of childhood cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, R.W.; Fusner, J.E.; Fink, R.J.; Murphy, T.M.; Getson, P.R.; Vojtova, J.A.; Reaman, G.H.

    1986-01-01

    Pulmonary function testing (PFT) was performed on 29 long-term survivors of childhood cancer. The patients, whose mean age was 11.7 years and whose mean age at diagnosis was 3.7 years, included 12 females and 17 males. Original diagnoses included 15 patients with leukemia and 14 individuals with solid tumors. Nine patients had received cyclophosphamide and 20 had received radiation therapy. Included in this latter group were five patients who had received radiation therapy to the thorax. Eight patients had acquired pneumonia during their treatment. Physical examination was normal in all the patients, and none had a history of acute or chronic pulmonary disease. PFT demonstrated an incidence of abnormalities in forced vital capacity (FVC) and/or total lung capacity (TLC) in 48% of the patients. Patients who were under 3 years of age at the time of diagnosis or who had received radiation to the thorax were more likely to demonstrate PFT abnormalities, but these differences did not reach statistical significance. The natural history of pulmonary function and subsequent respiratory disease in survivors of childhood cancer requires further definition

  8. Abnormal rich club organization and impaired correlation between structural and functional connectivity in migraine sufferers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kang; Liu, Lijun; Yin, Qin; Dun, Wanghuan; Xu, Xiaolin; Liu, Jixin; Zhang, Ming

    2017-04-01

    Because of the unique position of the topologically central role of densely interconnected brain hubs, our study aimed to investigate whether these regions and their related connections would be particularly vulnerable to migraine. In our study, we explored the rich club structure and its role in global functional dynamics in 30 patients with migraine without aura and 30 healthy controls. DTI and resting fMRI were used to construct structural connectivity (SC) and functional connectivity (FC) networks. An independent replication data set of 26 patients and 26 controls was included to replicate and validate significant findings. As compared with the controls, the structural networks of patients exhibited altered rich club organization with higher level of feeder connection density, abnormal small-world organization with increased global efficiency and decreased strength of SC-FC coupling. As these abnormal topological properties and headache attack duration exhibited a significant association with increased density of feeder connections, our results indicated that migraine may be characterized by a selective alteration of the structural connectivity of the rich club regions, tending to have higher 'bridgeness' with non-rich club regions, which may increase the integration among pain-related brain circuits with more excitability but less inhibition for the modulation of migraine.

  9. The exploration of the changes in bone metabolism in patients with abnormal thyroid function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu Shaolin; Li Xiaohong; Lei Qiufang; Ye Peihong; Chai Luhua

    2001-01-01

    To explore the changes in bone metabolism with abnormal thyroid function, BGP and PTH in 91 patients with hyperthyroidism, 37 patients with hypothyroidism, 51 controls, were measured by means of IRMA, calcaneus heel bone density (BMD) was measured by means of 241 Am single photon absorptiometry. BGP levels in hyperthyroidism were significantly higher than those in controls (P < 0.001). BGP levels in hypothyroidism were significantly lower than those in controls (P < 0.001). PTH levels in hyperthyroidism were a little lower than those in controls (P < 0.05). PTH levels in hypothyroidism were significantly higher than those in controls (P < 0.001). The measurement of BMD showed that the prevalence rates of osteoporosis (OP) in hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism were significantly higher than those in controls. In hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism groups the age of OP tends to be younger. The patients with hyperthyroidism over 55 years of age were all suffered from OP. The changes in BGP and PTH were earlier than BMD, so BGP and PTH can be used as sensitive indicator of the changes in bone metabolism with abnormal thyroid function, especially for curative effect observations

  10. Abnormal sympathetic nerve activity in women exposed to cigarette smoke: a potential mechanism to explain increased cardiac risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middlekauff, Holly R; Park, Jeanie; Agrawal, Harsh; Gornbein, Jeffrey A

    2013-11-15

    In women, cardiac deaths attributable to tobacco exposure have reached the same high levels as men. Normally, sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) fluctuates according to the menstrual phase, but in habitual smokers, SNA levels remain constant. Our purpose is to extend these observations to other groups of women exposed to tobacco smoke and to explore potential mechanisms. We hypothesize that women exposed to secondhand smoke, but not former smokers, have nonfluctuating SNA compared with never smokers, and that impaired baroreflex suppression of SNA, and/or heightened central SNA responses, underlie this nonfluctuating SNA. We also hypothesize that female smokers have impaired nocturnal blood pressure dipping, normally mediated by modulation of SNA. In 49 females (19 never, 12 current, 9 former, 9 passive smokers), SNA was recorded (microneurography) during high- and low-hormone ovarian phases at rest, during pharmacological baroreflex testing, and during the cold pressor test (CPT). Twenty-four hour blood pressure (BP) monitoring was performed. Current and passive smokers, but not former smokers, had a nonfluctuating pattern of SNA, unlike never smokers in whom SNA varied with the menstrual phase. Baroreflex control of SNA was significantly blunted in current smokers, independent of menstrual phase. In passive smokers, SNA response to CPT was markedly increased. Nondipping was unexpectedly high in all groups. SNA does not vary during the menstrual cycle in active and passive smokers, unlike never and former smokers. Baroreflex control of SNA is blunted in current smokers, whereas SNA response to CPT is heightened in passive smokers. Smoking cessation is associated with return of the altered SNA pattern to normal.

  11. A Cell Model to Evaluate Chemical Effects on Adult Human Cardiac Progenitor Cell Differentiation and Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adult cardiac stem cells (CSC) and progenitor cells (CPC) represent a population of cells in the heart critical for its regeneration and function over a lifetime. The impact of chemicals on adult human CSC/CPC differentiation and function is unknown. Research was conducted to dev...

  12. Polyamines mediate abnormal Ca2+ transport and Ca2+-induced cardiac cell injury in the calcium paradox

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trout, J.J.; Koenig, H.; Goldstone, A.D.; Lu, C.Y.; Fan, C.C.

    1986-01-01

    Ca 2+ -free perfusion renders heart cells Ca 2+ -sensitive so that readmission of Ca 2+ causes a sudden massive cellular injury attributed to abnormal entry of Ca 2+ into cells (Ca paradox). Hormonal stimulation of Ca 2+ fluxes was earlier shown to be mediated by polyamines (PA). 5 min perfusion of rat heart with Ca 2+ -free medium induce a prompt 40-50% decline in levels of the PA putrescine (PUT), spermidine and spermine and their rate-regulatory synthetic enzyme ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), and readmission of Ca 2+ -containing medium abruptly ( 2+ reperfusion-induced increases in ODC and PA and also prevented increased 45 Ca 2+ uptake and heart injury, manifested by loss of contractility, release of enzymes (CPK, LDH), myoglobin and protein, and E.M. lesions (contracture bands, mitochondrial changes). 1 mM PUT negated DFMO inhibition, repleted heart PA and restored Ca 2+ reperfusion-induced 45 Ca 2+ influx and cell injury. These data indicate that the Ca 2+ -directed depletion-repletion cycle of ODC and PA triggers excessive transsarcolemmal Ca 2+ transport leading to the calcium paradox

  13. A functional study of the esophagus in patients with non-cardiac chest pain and dysphagia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gullo, Roberto; Inviati, Angela; Almasio, Piero Luigi; Di Paola, Valentina; Di Giovanni, Silvia; Scerrino, Gregorio; Gulotta, Gaspare; Bonventre, Sebastiano

    2015-03-01

    Nutcracker esophagus and non-specific motility disorders are the main causes of non-cardiac chest pain (NCCP), with gastroesophageal reflux in 60% of cases. Achalasia and diffuse esophageal spasm are the most frequent anomalies described in patients with dysphagia. The goal of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of esophageal body and lower esophageal sphincter motor abnormalities in patients with dysphagia, NCCP, or both. This study is a retrospective analysis of 716 patients with NCCP and/or dysphagia tested between January 1994 and December 2010. 1023 functional studies were performed, 707 of which were esophageal manometries, 225 esophageal pH-meters, and 44 bilimetries. We divided the patients into three groups: group 1 was composed of patients affected with dysphagia, group 2 with NCCP and group 3 with NCCP and dysphagia. Manometric anomalies were detected in 84.4% of cases (p<0.001). The most frequent esophageal motility alteration was achalasia (36%). The lower esophageal sphincter was normal in 45.9% of patients (p<0.001). In all 3 groups, 80.9%, 98.8%, and 93.8, respectively, of patients showed normal upper esophageal sphincter (p=0.005). Our data differs from those of other studies because they were collected from and analyzed by a single tertiary level referral center by a single examiner. This could have eliminated the variability found in different hands and different experiences. The high percentage of symptomatic patients with non-pathologic esophageal motility pattern suggests an unclear origin of the disease, with possible neuromuscular involvement. As a result, these patients may need more-detailed diagnostic studies.

  14. Vascular calcification and cardiac function according to residual renal function in patients on hemodialysis with urination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Ho Shin

    Full Text Available Vascular calcification is common and may affect cardiac function in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD. However, little is known about the effect of residual renal function on vascular calcification and cardiac function in patients on hemodialysis.This study was conducted between January 2014 and January 2017. One hundred six patients with residual renal function on maintenance hemodialysis for 3 months were recruited. We used residual renal urea clearance (KRU to measure residual renal function. First, abdominal aortic calcification score (AACS and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV were measured in patients on hemodialysis. Second, we performed echocardiography and investigated new cardiovascular events after study enrollment.The median KRU was 0.9 (0.3-2.5 mL/min/1.73m2. AACS (4.0 [1.0-10.0] vs. 3.0 [0.0-8.0], p = 0.05 and baPWV (1836.1 ± 250.4 vs. 1676.8 ± 311.0 cm/s, p = 0.01 were significantly higher in patients with a KRU < 0.9 mL/min/1.73m2 than a KRU ≥ 0.9 mL/min/1.73m2. Log-KRU significantly negatively correlated with log-AACS (ß = -0.29, p = 0.002 and baPWV (ß = -0.19, P = 0.05 after factor adjustment. The proportion of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction was significantly higher in patients with a KRU < 0.9 mL/min/1.73m2 than with a KRU ≥ 0.9 mL/min/1.73m2 (67.9% vs. 49.1%, p = 0.05. Patients with a KRU < 0.9 mL/min/1.73m2 showed a higher tendency of cumulative cardiovascular events compared to those with a KRU ≥ 0.9 ml/min/1.73m2 (P = 0.08.Residual renal function was significantly associated with vascular calcification and left ventricular diastolic dysfunction in patients on hemodialysis.

  15. Recurrent postoperative CRPS I in patients with abnormal preoperative sympathetic function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, William E; Ahmad, Mahmood

    2008-02-01

    A complex regional pain syndrome of an extremity that has previously resolved can recur after repeat surgery at the same anatomic site. Complex regional pain syndrome is described as a disease of the autonomic nervous system. The purpose of this study was to evaluate preoperative and postoperative sympathetic function and the recurrence of complex regional pain syndrome type I (CRPS I) in patients after repeat carpal tunnel surgery. Thirty-four patients who developed CRPS I after initial carpal tunnel releases and required repeat open carpal tunnel surgeries were studied. Laser Doppler imaging (LDI) was used to assess preoperative sympathetic function 5-7 days prior to surgery and to assess postoperative sympathetic function 19-22 days after surgery or 20-22 days after resolution of the CRPS I. Sympathetic nervous system function was prospectively examined by testing reflex-evoked vasoconstrictor responses to sympathetic stimuli recorded with LDI of both hands. Patients were assigned to 1 of 2 groups based on LDI responses to sympathetic provocation. Group I (11 of 34) patients had abnormal preoperative LDI studies in the hands that had prior surgeries, whereas group II (23 of 34) patients had normal LDI studies. Each patient in this study had open repeat carpal tunnel surgery. In group I, 8 of 11 patients had recurrent CRPS I, whereas in group II, 3 of 23 patients had recurrent CRPS I. All of the recurrent CRPS I patients were successfully treated with sympathetic blockade, occupational therapy, and pharmacologic modalities. Repeat LDI after recurrent CRPS I resolution was abnormal in 8 of 8 group I patients and in 1 of 3 group II patients. CRPS I can recur after repeat hand surgery. Our study results may, however, identify those individuals who may readily benefit from perioperative therapies. Prognostic I.

  16. Chronic auditory hallucinations in schizophrenic patients: MR analysis of the coincidence between functional and morphologic abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martí-Bonmatí, Luis; Lull, Juan José; García-Martí, Gracián; Aguilar, Eduardo J; Moratal-Pérez, David; Poyatos, Cecilio; Robles, Montserrat; Sanjuán, Julio

    2007-08-01

    To prospectively evaluate if functional magnetic resonance (MR) imaging abnormalities associated with auditory emotional stimuli coexist with focal brain reductions in schizophrenic patients with chronic auditory hallucinations. Institutional review board approval was obtained and all participants gave written informed consent. Twenty-one right-handed male patients with schizophrenia and persistent hallucinations (started to hear hallucinations at a mean age of 23 years +/- 10, with 15 years +/- 8 of mean illness duration) and 10 healthy paired participants (same ethnic group [white], age, and education level [secondary school]) were studied. Functional echo-planar T2*-weighted (after both emotional and neutral auditory stimulation) and morphometric three-dimensional gradient-recalled echo T1-weighted MR images were analyzed using Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM2) software. Brain activation images were extracted by subtracting those with emotional from nonemotional words. Anatomic differences were explored by optimized voxel-based morphometry. The functional and morphometric MR images were overlaid to depict voxels statistically reported by both techniques. A coincidence map was generated by multiplying the emotional subtracted functional MR and volume decrement morphometric maps. Statistical analysis used the general linear model, Student t tests, random effects analyses, and analysis of covariance with a correction for multiple comparisons following the false discovery rate method. Large coinciding brain clusters (P < .005) were found in the left and right middle temporal and superior temporal gyri. Smaller coinciding clusters were found in the left posterior and right anterior cingular gyri, left inferior frontal gyrus, and middle occipital gyrus. The middle and superior temporal and the cingular gyri are closely related to the abnormal neural network involved in the auditory emotional dysfunction seen in schizophrenic patients.

  17. Major depressive disorder is associated with abnormal interoceptive activity and functional connectivity in the insula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avery, Jason A; Drevets, Wayne C; Moseman, Scott E; Bodurka, Jerzy; Barcalow, Joel C; Simmons, W Kyle

    2014-08-01

    Somatic complaints and altered interoceptive awareness are common features in the clinical presentation of major depressive disorder (MDD). Recently, neurobiological evidence has accumulated demonstrating that the insula is one of the primary cortical structures underlying interoceptive awareness. Abnormal interoceptive representation within the insula may thus contribute to the pathophysiology and symptomatology of MDD. We compared functional magnetic resonance imaging blood oxygenation level-dependent responses between 20 unmedicated adults with MDD and 20 healthy control participants during a task requiring attention to visceral interoceptive sensations and also assessed the relationship of this blood oxygenation level-dependent response to depression severity, as rated using the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale. Additionally, we examined between-group differences in insula resting-state functional connectivity and its relationship to Hamilton Depression Rating Scale ratings of depression severity. Relative to the healthy control subjects, unmedicated MDD subjects exhibited decreased activity bilaterally in the dorsal mid-insula cortex (dmIC) during interoception. Activity within the insula during the interoceptive attention task was negatively correlated with both depression severity and somatic symptom severity in depressed subjects. Major depressive disorder also was associated with greater resting-state functional connectivity between the dmIC and limbic brain regions implicated previously in MDD, including the amygdala, subgenual prefrontal cortex, and orbitofrontal cortex. Moreover, functional connectivity between these regions and the dmIC was positively correlated with depression severity. Major depressive disorder and the somatic symptoms of depression are associated with abnormal interoceptive representation within the insula. © 2013 Society of Biological Psychiatry Published by Society of Biological Psychiatry All rights reserved.

  18. Detecting early cardiac dysfunction with radionuclide cardiac blood-pool imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Kegui; Chen Daguang; Lin Haoxue

    1992-01-01

    Cardiac function was measured by radionuclide cardiac blood-pool imaging in 15 normal persons, 19 cases of hypertension, 32 cases of coronary heart disease, 35 cases of coronary heart disease combined with hypertension and 44 cases of myocardial infarction. Significant differences have been found in indices of cardiac function between normal subjects and patients with coronary heart disease and coronary heart disease combined with hypertension, even though the patients were without any clinical sin of cardiac failure. Lowered regional EF and decreased ventricular was motion were found in 38.8% of patients, while 65.7%of patients revealed marked abnormality in MFR. The results indicate that latent cardiac dysfunction is common in patients with coronary heart disease. The earliest change is diastolic function abnormalities

  19. PET measures of pre- and post-synaptic cardiac beta adrenergic function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Link, Jeanne M.; Stratton, John R.; Levy, Wayne; Poole, Jeanne E.; Shoner, Steven C.; Stuetzle, Werner; Caldwell, James H. E-mail: jcald@u.washington.edu

    2003-11-01

    Positron Emission Tomography was used to measure global and regional cardiac {beta}-adrenergic function in 19 normal subjects and 9 congestive heart failure patients. [{sup 11}C]-meta-hydroxyephedrine was used to image norepinephrine transporter function as an indicator of pre-synaptic function and [{sup 11}C]-CGP12177 was used to measure cell surface {beta}-receptor density as an indicator of post-synaptic function. Pre-synaptic, but not post-synaptic, function was significantly different between normals and CHF patients. Pre-synaptic function was well matched to post-synaptic function in the normal hearts but significantly different and poorly matched in the CHF patients studied. This imaging technique can help us understand regional sympathetic function in cardiac disease.

  20. Abnormal brain functional connectivity leads to impaired mood and cognition in hyperthyroidism: a resting-state functional MRI study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ling; Zhi, Mengmeng; Hou, Zhenghua; Zhang, Yuqun; Yue, Yingying; Yuan, Yonggui

    2017-01-01

    Patients with hyperthyroidism frequently have neuropsychiatric complaints such as lack of concentration, poor memory, depression, anxiety, nervousness, and irritability, suggesting brain dysfunction. However, the underlying process of these symptoms remains unclear. Using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI), we depicted the altered graph theoretical metric degree centrality (DC) and seed-based resting-state functional connectivity (FC) in 33 hyperthyroid patients relative to 33 healthy controls. The peak points of significantly altered DC between the two groups were defined as the seed regions to calculate FC to the whole brain. Then, partial correlation analyses were performed between abnormal DC, FC and neuropsychological performances, as well as some clinical indexes. The decreased intrinsic functional connectivity in the posterior lobe of cerebellum (PLC) and medial frontal gyrus (MeFG), as well as the abnormal seed-based FC anchored in default mode network (DMN), attention network, visual network and cognitive network in this study, possibly constitutes the latent mechanism for emotional and cognitive changes in hyperthyroidism, including anxiety and impaired processing speed. PMID:28009983

  1. Abnormal brain functional connectivity leads to impaired mood and cognition in hyperthyroidism: a resting-state functional MRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ling; Zhi, Mengmeng; Hou, Zhenghua; Zhang, Yuqun; Yue, Yingying; Yuan, Yonggui

    2017-01-24

    Patients with hyperthyroidism frequently have neuropsychiatric complaints such as lack of concentration, poor memory, depression, anxiety, nervousness, and irritability, suggesting brain dysfunction. However, the underlying process of these symptoms remains unclear. Using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI), we depicted the altered graph theoretical metric degree centrality (DC) and seed-based resting-state functional connectivity (FC) in 33 hyperthyroid patients relative to 33 healthy controls. The peak points of significantly altered DC between the two groups were defined as the seed regions to calculate FC to the whole brain. Then, partial correlation analyses were performed between abnormal DC, FC and neuropsychological performances, as well as some clinical indexes. The decreased intrinsic functional connectivity in the posterior lobe of cerebellum (PLC) and medial frontal gyrus (MeFG), as well as the abnormal seed-based FC anchored in default mode network (DMN), attention network, visual network and cognitive network in this study, possibly constitutes the latent mechanism for emotional and cognitive changes in hyperthyroidism, including anxiety and impaired processing speed.

  2. Gravity Reception and Cardiac Function in the Spider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finck, A.

    1985-01-01

    The following features of the arachnid gravity system were studied. (1) the absolute threshold to hyper-gz is quite low indicating fine proprioreceptive properties of the lyriform organ, the Gz/vibration detector; (2) the neurogenic heart of the spider is a good dependent variable for assessing its behavior to Gz and other stimuli which produce mechanical effects on the exoskeleton; (3) Not only is the cardiac response useful but it is now understood to be an integral part of the system which compensates for the consequences of gravity in the spider (an hydraulic leg extension); and (4) a theoretical model was proposed in which a mechanical amplifier, the leg lever, converts a weak force (at the tarsus) to a strong force (at the patella), capable of compressing the exoskeleton and consequently the lyriform receptor.

  3. Mitochondrial function in engineered cardiac tissues is regulated by extracellular matrix elasticity and tissue alignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyra-Leite, Davi M; Andres, Allen M; Petersen, Andrew P; Ariyasinghe, Nethika R; Cho, Nathan; Lee, Jezell A; Gottlieb, Roberta A; McCain, Megan L

    2017-10-01

    Mitochondria in cardiac myocytes are critical for generating ATP to meet the high metabolic demands associated with sarcomere shortening. Distinct remodeling of mitochondrial structure and function occur in cardiac myocytes in both developmental and pathological settings. However, the factors that underlie these changes are poorly understood. Because remodeling of tissue architecture and extracellular matrix (ECM) elasticity are also hallmarks of ventricular development and disease, we hypothesize that these environmental factors regulate mitochondrial function in cardiac myocytes. To test this, we developed a new procedure to transfer tunable polydimethylsiloxane disks microcontact-printed with fibronectin into cell culture microplates. We cultured Sprague-Dawley neonatal rat ventricular myocytes within the wells, which consistently formed tissues following the printed fibronectin, and measured oxygen consumption rate using a Seahorse extracellular flux analyzer. Our data indicate that parameters associated with baseline metabolism are predominantly regulated by ECM elasticity, whereas the ability of tissues to adapt to metabolic stress is regulated by both ECM elasticity and tissue alignment. Furthermore, bioenergetic health index, which reflects both the positive and negative aspects of oxygen consumption, was highest in aligned tissues on the most rigid substrate, suggesting that overall mitochondrial function is regulated by both ECM elasticity and tissue alignment. Our results demonstrate that mitochondrial function is regulated by both ECM elasticity and myofibril architecture in cardiac myocytes. This provides novel insight into how extracellular cues impact mitochondrial function in the context of cardiac development and disease. NEW & NOTEWORTHY A new methodology has been developed to measure O 2 consumption rates in engineered cardiac tissues with independent control over tissue alignment and matrix elasticity. This led to the findings that matrix

  4. Cortical Bone Stem Cell Therapy Preserves Cardiac Structure and Function After Myocardial Infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Thomas E; Schena, Giana J; Hobby, Alexander R; Starosta, Timothy; Berretta, Remus M; Wallner, Markus; Borghetti, Giulia; Gross, Polina; Yu, Daohai; Johnson, Jaslyn; Feldsott, Eric; Trappanese, Danielle M; Toib, Amir; Rabinowitz, Joseph E; George, Jon C; Kubo, Hajime; Mohsin, Sadia; Houser, Steven R

    2017-11-10

    Cortical bone stem cells (CBSCs) have been shown to reduce ventricular remodeling and improve cardiac function in a murine myocardial infarction (MI) model. These effects were superior to other stem cell types that have been used in recent early-stage clinical trials. However, CBSC efficacy has not been tested in a preclinical large animal model using approaches that could be applied to patients. To determine whether post-MI transendocardial injection of allogeneic CBSCs reduces pathological structural and functional remodeling and prevents the development of heart failure in a swine MI model. Female Göttingen swine underwent left anterior descending coronary artery occlusion, followed by reperfusion (ischemia-reperfusion MI). Animals received, in a randomized, blinded manner, 1:1 ratio, CBSCs (n=9; 2×10 7 cells total) or placebo (vehicle; n=9) through NOGA-guided transendocardial injections. 5-ethynyl-2'deoxyuridine (EdU)-a thymidine analog-containing minipumps were inserted at the time of MI induction. At 72 hours (n=8), initial injury and cell retention were assessed. At 3 months post-MI, cardiac structure and function were evaluated by serial echocardiography and terminal invasive hemodynamics. CBSCs were present in the MI border zone and proliferating at 72 hours post-MI but had no effect on initial cardiac injury or structure. At 3 months, CBSC-treated hearts had significantly reduced scar size, smaller myocytes, and increased myocyte nuclear density. Noninvasive echocardiographic measurements showed that left ventricular volumes and ejection fraction were significantly more preserved in CBSC-treated hearts, and invasive hemodynamic measurements documented improved cardiac structure and functional reserve. The number of EdU + cardiac myocytes was increased in CBSC- versus vehicle- treated animals. CBSC administration into the MI border zone reduces pathological cardiac structural and functional remodeling and improves left ventricular functional reserve

  5. Disruption of the podosome adaptor protein TKS4 (SH3PXD2B) causes the skeletal dysplasia, eye, and cardiac abnormalities of Frank-Ter Haar Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Zafar; Cejudo-Martin, Pilar; de Brouwer, Arjan; van der Zwaag, Bert; Ruiz-Lozano, Pilar; Scimia, M Cecilia; Lindsey, James D; Weinreb, Robert; Albrecht, Beate; Megarbane, Andre; Alanay, Yasemin; Ben-Neriah, Ziva; Amenduni, Mariangela; Artuso, Rosangela; Veltman, Joris A; van Beusekom, Ellen; Oudakker, Astrid; Millán, José Luis; Hennekam, Raoul; Hamel, Ben; Courtneidge, Sara A; van Bokhoven, Hans

    2010-02-12

    Frank-Ter Haar syndrome (FTHS), also known as Ter Haar syndrome, is an autosomal-recessive disorder characterized by skeletal, cardiovascular, and eye abnormalities, such as increased intraocular pressure, prominent eyes, and hypertelorism. We have conducted homozygosity mapping on patients representing 12 FTHS families. A locus on chromosome 5q35.1 was identified for which patients from nine families shared homozygosity. For one family, a homozygous deletion mapped exactly to the smallest region of overlapping homozygosity, which contains a single gene, SH3PXD2B. This gene encodes the TKS4 protein, a phox homology (PX) and Src homology 3 (SH3) domain-containing adaptor protein and Src substrate. This protein was recently shown to be involved in the formation of actin-rich membrane protrusions called podosomes or invadopodia, which coordinate pericellular proteolysis with cell migration. Mice lacking Tks4 also showed pronounced skeletal, eye, and cardiac abnormalities and phenocopied the majority of the defects associated with FTHS. These findings establish a role for TKS4 in FTHS and embryonic development. Mutation analysis revealed five different homozygous mutations in SH3PXD2B in seven FTHS families. No SH3PXD2B mutations were detected in six other FTHS families, demonstrating the genetic heterogeneity of this condition. Interestingly however, dermal fibroblasts from one of the individuals without an SH3PXD2B mutation nevertheless expressed lower levels of the TKS4 protein, suggesting a common mechanism underlying disease causation. Copyright (c) 2010 The American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Abnormal small-world brain functional networks in obsessive-compulsive disorder patients with poor insight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Hui; Cui, Yan; Fan, Jie; Zhang, Xiaocui; Zhong, Mingtian; Yi, Jinyao; Cai, Lin; Yao, Dezhong; Zhu, Xiongzhao

    2017-09-01

    There are limited data on neurobiological correlates of poor insight in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). This study explored whether specific changes occur in small-world network (SWN) properties in the brain functional network of OCD patients with poor insight. Resting-state electroencephalograms (EEGs) were recorded for 12 medication-free OCD patients with poor insight, 50 medication-free OCD patients with good insight, and 36 healthy controls. Both of the OCD groups exhibited topological alterations in the brain functional network characterized by abnormal small-world parameters at the beta band. However, the alterations at the theta band only existed in the OCD patients with poor insight. A relatively small sample size. Subjects were naïve to medications and those with Axis I comorbidity were excluded, perhaps limiting generalizability. Disrupted functional integrity at the beta bands of the brain functional network may be related to OCD, while disrupted functional integrity at the theta band may be associated with poor insight in OCD patients, thus this study might provide novel insight into our understanding of the pathophysiology of OCD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Positron Emission Tomography Reveals Abnormal Topological Organization in Functional Brain Network in Diabetic Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Xiangzhe; Zhang, Yanjun; Feng, Hongbo; Jiang, Donglang

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated alterations in the topological organization of structural brain networks in diabetes mellitus (DM). However, the DM-related changes in the topological properties in functional brain networks are unexplored so far. We therefore used fluoro-D-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) data to construct functional brain networks of 73 DM patients and 91 sex- and age-matched normal controls (NCs), followed by a graph theoretical analysis. We found that both DM patients and NCs had a small-world topology in functional brain network. In comparison to the NC group, the DM group was found to have significantly lower small-world index, lower normalized clustering coefficients and higher normalized characteristic path length. Moreover, for diabetic patients, the nodal centrality was significantly reduced in the right rectus, the right cuneus, the left middle occipital gyrus, and the left postcentral gyrus, and it was significantly increased in the orbitofrontal region of the left middle frontal gyrus, the left olfactory region, and the right paracentral lobule. Our results demonstrated that the diabetic brain was associated with disrupted topological organization in the functional PET network, thus providing functional evidence for the abnormalities of brain networks in DM.

  8. Positron Emission Tomography Reveals Abnormal Topological Organization in Functional Brain Network in Diabetic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiu eXiangzhe

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have demonstrated alterations in the topological organization of structural brain networks in diabetes mellitus (DM. However, the DM-related changes in the topological properties in functional brain networks are almost unexplored so far. We therefore used fluoro-D-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET data to construct functional brain networks of 73 DM patients and 91 sex- and age-matched normal controls (NCs, followed by a graph theoretical analysis. We found that both DM patients and NCs had a small-world topology in functional brain network. In comparison to the NC group, the DM group was found to have significantly lower small-world index, lower normalized clustering coefficients and higher normalized shortest path length. Moreover, for diabetic patients, the nodal centrality was significantly reduced in the right rectus, the right cuneus, the left middle occipital gyrus, and the left postcentral gyrus, and it was significantly increased in the orbitofrontal region of the left middle frontal gyrus, the left olfactory region, and the right paracentral lobule. Our results demonstrated that the diabetic brain was associated with disrupted topological organization in the functional PET network, thus providing the functional evidence for the abnormalities of brain networks in DM.

  9. Effects of a single terlipressin administration on cardiac function and perfusion in cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krag, Aleksander; Bendtsen, Flemming; Mortensen, Christian

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The vasoconstrictor terlipressin is widely used in the treatment of the hepatorenal syndrome and variceal bleeding. However, terlipressin may compromise cardiac function and induce ischemia. AIM: Therefore, we aimed to assess the effects of terlipressin on cardiac function and perfusion...... with nonrefractory ascites, both at baseline and after terlipressin treatment. The decrease in the left ventricular wall thickening and wall motion correlated with the Child--Pugh score, r=-0.59, P=0.005 and r=-0.48, P=0.03. CONCLUSION: In advanced cirrhosis, the increase in afterload and EDV after terlipressin...

  10. Evaluating the cardiac function of duchenne muscular dystrophy with Doppler Tei index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao Fengjuan; Zheng Ju; Lu Kun; Liu Donghong; Wu Miaoling; Lin Hong; Zhang Cheng; Yu Hongkui

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the cardiac function of early Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) by left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and pulse Doppler Tei index. Methods: Twenty-eight DMD patients and fifteen normal people were studied. LVEF, E/A and Tei index were measured and calculated by M-mode and Pulse wave Doppler respectively. Results: Compared with control group, Tei index and IRT were significantly high, and there were not significant difference in LVEF(%) and E/A. Conclusion: Tei index was valuable in assessing cardiac function of early DMD. (authors)

  11. Inspiration from heart development: Biomimetic development of functional human cardiac organoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Dylan J; Coyle, Robert C; Tan, Yu; Jia, Jia; Wong, Kerri; Toomer, Katelynn; Menick, Donald R; Mei, Ying

    2017-10-01

    Recent progress in human organoids has provided 3D tissue systems to model human development, diseases, as well as develop cell delivery systems for regenerative therapies. While direct differentiation of human embryoid bodies holds great promise for cardiac organoid production, intramyocardial cell organization during heart development provides biological foundation to fabricate human cardiac organoids with defined cell types. Inspired by the intramyocardial organization events in coronary vasculogenesis, where a diverse, yet defined, mixture of cardiac cell types self-organizes into functional myocardium in the absence of blood flow, we have developed a defined method to produce scaffold-free human cardiac organoids that structurally and functionally resembled the lumenized vascular network in the developing myocardium, supported hiPSC-CM development and possessed fundamental cardiac tissue-level functions. In particular, this development-driven strategy offers a robust, tunable system to examine the contributions of individual cell types, matrix materials and additional factors for developmental insight, biomimetic matrix composition to advance biomaterial design, tissue/organ-level drug screening, and cell therapy for heart repair. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Abnormal prefrontal cortex resting state functional connectivity and severity of internet gaming disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Chenwang; Zhang, Ting; Cai, Chenxi; Bi, Yanzhi; Li, Yangding; Yu, Dahua; Zhang, Ming; Yuan, Kai

    2016-09-01

    Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD) among adolescents has become an important public concern and gained more and more attention internationally. Recent studies focused on IGD and revealed brain abnormalities in the IGD group, especially the prefrontal cortex (PFC). However, the role of PFC-striatal circuits in pathology of IGD remains unknown. Twenty-five adolescents with IGD and 21 age- and gender-matched healthy controls were recruited in our study. Voxel-based morphometric (VBM) and functional connectivity analysis were employed to investigate the abnormal structural and resting-state properties of several frontal regions in individuals with online gaming addiction. Relative to healthy comparison subjects, IGD subjects showed significant decreased gray matter volume in PFC regions including the bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and the right supplementary motor area (SMA) after controlling for age and gender effects. We chose these regions as the seeding areas for the resting-state analysis and found that IGD subjects showed decreased functional connectivity between several cortical regions and our seeds, including the insula, and temporal and occipital cortices. Moreover, significant decreased functional connectivity between some important subcortical regions, i.e., dorsal striatum, pallidum, and thalamus, and our seeds were found in the IGD group and some of those changes were associated with the severity of IGD. Our results revealed the involvement of several PFC regions and related PFC-striatal circuits in the process of IGD and suggested IGD may share similar neural mechanisms with substance dependence at the circuit level.

  13. Abnormal functional architecture of amygdala-centered networks in adolescent posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghajani, Moji; Veer, Ilya M; van Hoof, Marie-José; Rombouts, Serge A R B; van der Wee, Nic J; Vermeiren, Robert R J M

    2016-03-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a prevalent, debilitating, and difficult to treat psychiatric disorder. Very little is known of how PTSD affects neuroplasticity in the developing adolescent brain. Whereas multiple lines of research implicate amygdala-centered network dysfunction in the pathophysiology of adult PTSD, no study has yet examined the functional architecture of amygdala subregional networks in adolescent PTSD. Using intrinsic functional connectivity analysis, we investigated functional connectivity of the basolateral (BLA) and centromedial (CMA) amygdala in 19 sexually abused adolescents with PTSD relative to 23 matched controls. Additionally, we examined whether altered amygdala subregional connectivity coincides with abnormal grey matter volume of the amygdaloid complex. Our analysis revealed abnormal amygdalar connectivity and morphology in adolescent PTSD patients. More specifically, PTSD patients showed diminished right BLA connectivity with a cluster including dorsal and ventral portions of the anterior cingulate and medial prefrontal cortices (p < 0.05, corrected). In contrast, PTSD patients showed increased left CMA connectivity with a cluster including the orbitofrontal and subcallosal cortices (p < 0.05, corrected). Critically, these connectivity changes coincided with diminished grey matter volume within BLA and CMA subnuclei (p < 0.05, corrected), with CMA connectivity shifts additionally relating to more severe symptoms of PTSD. These findings provide unique insights into how perturbations in major amygdalar circuits could hamper fear regulation and drive excessive acquisition and expression of fear in PTSD. As such, they represent an important step toward characterizing the neurocircuitry of adolescent PTSD, thereby informing the development of reliable biomarkers and potential therapeutic targets. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Abnormal GABAergic function and face processing in schizophrenia: A pharmacologic-fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tso, Ivy F; Fang, Yu; Phan, K Luan; Welsh, Robert C; Taylor, Stephan F

    2015-10-01

    The involvement of the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) system in schizophrenia is suggested by postmortem studies and the common use of GABA receptor-potentiating agents in treatment. In a recent study, we used a benzodiazepine challenge to demonstrate abnormal GABAergic function during processing of negative visual stimuli in schizophrenia. This study extended this investigation by mapping GABAergic mechanisms associated with face processing and social appraisal in schizophrenia using a benzodiazepine challenge. Fourteen stable, medicated schizophrenia/schizoaffective patients (SZ) and 13 healthy controls (HC) underwent functional MRI using the blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) technique while they performed the Socio-emotional Preference Task (SePT) on emotional face stimuli ("Do you like this face?"). Participants received single-blinded intravenous saline and lorazepam (LRZ) in two separate sessions separated by 1-3weeks. Both SZ and HC recruited medial prefrontal cortex/anterior cingulate during the SePT, relative to gender identification. A significant drug by group interaction was observed in the medial occipital cortex, such that SZ showed increased BOLD signal to LRZ challenge, while HC showed an expected decrease of signal; the interaction did not vary by task. The altered BOLD response to LRZ challenge in SZ was significantly correlated with increased negative affect across multiple measures. The altered response to LRZ challenge suggests that abnormal face processing and negative affect in SZ are associated with altered GABAergic function in the visual cortex, underscoring the role of impaired visual processing in socio-emotional deficits in schizophrenia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Interhemispheric functional disconnection because of abnormal corpus callosum integrity in bipolar disorder type II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuno, Fumihiko; Kudo, Takashi; Matsuoka, Kiwamu; Yamamoto, Akihide; Takahashi, Masato; Nakagawara, Jyoji; Nagatsuka, Kazuyuki; Iida, Hidehiro; Kishimoto, Toshifumi

    2016-11-01

    A significantly lower fractional anisotropy (FA) value has been shown in anterior parts of the corpus callosum in patients with bipolar disorder. We investigated the association between abnormal corpus callosum integrity and interhemispheric functional connectivity (IFC) in patients with bipolar disorder. We examined the association between FA values in the corpus callosum (CC-FA) and the IFC between homotopic regions in the anterior cortical structures of bipolar disorder ( n =16) and major depressive disorder ( n =22) patients with depressed or euthymic states. We found a positive correlation between the CC-FA and IFC values between homotopic regions of the ventral prefrontal cortex and insula cortex, and significantly lower IFC between these regions in bipolar disorder patients. The abnormal corpus callosum integrity in bipolar disorder patients is relevant to the IFC between homotopic regions, possibly disturbing the exchange of emotional information between the cerebral hemispheres resulting in emotional dysregulation. None. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2016. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Non-Commercial, No Derivatives (CC BY-NC-ND) license.

  16. The influence of abnormal thyroid function on sex hormones and bone metabolism in female patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xiaohong; Chu Shaolin; Lei Qiufang; Ye Peihong; Chai Luhua

    2001-01-01

    Objectives: To explore the influence of hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism on sex hormones and bone metabolism in female patients. Method: A single photon bone absorptiometry was used to measure calcareous bone mineral density (BMD) in 91 female patients with hyperthyroidism, and 37 female patients with hypothyroidism caused by Hashimoto's thyroiditis and 51 healthy female subjects with euthyroid. In addition the serum levels of BGP and PTH were determined by means of IRMA. Serum levels of FSH and E 2 were determined by RIA. Results: Serum levels of FSH , E 2 and BGP in hyperthyroidism group were significantly higher than those in control group. The serum levels of PTH were slightly lower than that in control group (P 2 and BGP were significantly lower than those in control group. The assessment of BMD showed that the prevalence rate of osteoporosis (OP) both in hyperthyroidism groups and in hypothyroidism groups was significantly higher than control group. The peak bone density in young and middle-aged female was decreased, and OP was more common in over 60-year-aged female with hypothyroidism. Conclusions: Female patients with abnormal thyroid function are often associated with abnormality of sex hormones. It leads to increasing the incidence of OP. The attack age of OP tends to be younger, especially aged patients with lymphocytic hypothyroidism increases more markedly. Therefore, BMD should be measured in all female patients with a variety of thyroid diseases

  17. The Role of Helicobacter pylori Seropositivity in Insulin Sensitivity, Beta Cell Function, and Abnormal Glucose Tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lou Rose Malamug

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Infection, for example, Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori, has been thought to play a role in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Our aim was to determine the role of H. pylori infection in glucose metabolism in an American cohort. We examined data from 4,136 non-Hispanic white (NHW, non-Hispanic black (NHB, and Mexican Americans (MA aged 18 and over from the NHANES 1999-2000 cohort. We calculated the odds ratios for states of glucose tolerance based on the H. pylori status. We calculated and compared homeostatic model assessment insulin resistance (HOMA-IR and beta cell function (HOMA-B in subjects without diabetes based on the H. pylori status. The results were adjusted for age, body mass index (BMI, poverty index, education, alcohol consumption, tobacco use, and physical activity. The H. pylori status was not a risk factor for abnormal glucose tolerance. After adjustment for age and BMI and also adjustment for all covariates, no difference was found in either HOMA-IR or HOMA-B in all ethnic and gender groups except for a marginally significant difference in HOMA-IR in NHB females. H. pylori infection was not a risk factor for abnormal glucose tolerance, nor plays a major role in insulin resistance or beta cell dysfunction.

  18. Cardiac ventriculography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillis, L.D.; Grossman, W.

    1986-01-01

    Cardiac ventriculography has been used extensively to define the anatomy of the ventricles and related structures in patients with congenital, valvular, coronary, and cardiomyopathic heart disease. Specifically, left ventriculography may provide valuable information about global and segmental left ventricular function, mitral valvular incompetence, and the presence, location, and severity of a number of other abnormalities, including ventricular septal defect and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. As a result, it should be a routine part of catheterization in patients being evaluated for coronary artery disease, aortic or mitral valvular disease, unexplained left ventricular failure, or congenital heart disease. Similarly, right ventriculography may provide information about global and segmental right ventricular function and can be especially helpful in patients with congenital heart disease

  19. Cardiac changes in anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaulding-Barclay, Michael A; Stern, Jessica; Mehler, Philip S

    2016-04-01

    Introduction Anorexia nervosa is an eating disorder, which is associated with many different medical complications as a result of the weight loss and malnutrition that characterise this illness. It has the highest mortality rate of any psychiatric disorder. A large portion of deaths are attributable to the cardiac abnormalities that ensue as a result of the malnutrition associated with anorexia nervosa. In this review, the cardiac complications of anorexia nervosa will be discussed. A comprehensive literature review on cardiac changes in anorexia nervosa was carried out. There are structural, functional, and rhythm-type changes that occur in patients with anorexia nervosa. These become progressively significant as ongoing weight loss occurs. Cardiac changes are inherent to anorexia nervosa and they become more life-threatening and serious as the anorexia nervosa becomes increasingly severe. Weight restoration and attention to these cardiac changes are crucial for a successful treatment outcome.

  20. Investigations of new cardiac functional imaging using Fourier analysis of gated blood-pool study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeda, H.; Takeda, K.; Nakagawa, T.; Yamaguchi, N.; Taguchi, M.; Konishi, T.; Hamada, M.

    1982-01-01

    A new cardiac functional imaging, using temporal Fourier analysis of 28-frame gated cardiac blood-pool studies, was developed. A time-activity curve of each pixel was approximated by its Fourier series. Approximation by the sum for terms to the 3rd frequency of its Fourier series was considered to be most reasonable because of having the least aberration due to statistical fluctuation and close agreement between the global left ventricular curve and the regional fitted curves in normal subjects. To evaluate the ventricular systolic and diastolic performances, 9 parameters were analyzed from thus fitted curves on a pixel-by-pixel basis and displayed on a colour CRT in 64x64 matrix form. In patients with hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy and other cardiac lesions, detailed information on the regional ventricular systolic and diastolic performances was clearly visualized by this method, which was difficult to obtain from the usual functional images of phase and amplitude at the fundamental frequency alone

  1. Engineering the heart: Evaluation of conductive nanomaterials for improving implant integration and cardiac function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jin; Chen, Jun; Sun, Hongyu; Qiu, Xiaozhong; Mou, Yongchao; Liu, Zhiqiang; Zhao, Yuwei; Li, Xia; Han, Yao; Duan, Cuimi; Tang, Rongyu; Wang, Chunlan; Zhong, Wen; Liu, Jie; Luo, Ying; (Mengqiu) Xing, Malcolm; Wang, Changyong

    2014-01-01

    Recently, carbon nanotubes together with other types of conductive materials have been used to enhance the viability and function of cardiomyocytes in vitro. Here we demonstrated a paradigm to construct ECTs for cardiac repair using conductive nanomaterials. Single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) were incorporated into gelatin hydrogel scaffolds to construct three-dimensional ECTs. We found that SWNTs could provide cellular microenvironment in vitro favorable for cardiac contraction and the expression of electrochemical associated proteins. Upon implantation into the infarct hearts in rats, ECTs structurally integrated with the host myocardium, with different types of cells observed to mutually invade into implants and host tissues. The functional measurements showed that SWNTs were essential to improve the performance of ECTs in inhibiting pathological deterioration of myocardium. This work suggested that conductive nanomaterials hold therapeutic potential in engineering cardiac tissues to repair myocardial infarction. PMID:24429673

  2. Abnormal Functional Connectivity of Frontopolar Subregions in Treatment-Nonresponsive Major Depressive Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fettes, Peter W; Moayedi, Massieh; Dunlop, Katharine; Mansouri, Farrokh; Vila-Rodriguez, Fidel; Giacobbe, Peter; Davis, Karen D; Lam, Raymond W; Kennedy, Sidney H; Daskalakis, Zafiris J; Blumberger, Daniel M; Downar, Jonathan

    2018-04-01

    Approximately 30% of patients with major depressive disorder develop treatment-nonresponsive depression (TNRD); novel interventions targeting the substrates of this illness population are desperately needed. Convergent evidence from lesion, stimulation, connectivity, and functional neuroimaging studies implicates the frontopolar cortex (FPC) as a particularly important region in TNRD pathophysiology; regions functionally connected to the FPC, once identified, could present favorable targets for novel brain stimulation treatments. We recently published a parcellation of the FPC based on diffusion tensor imaging data, identifying distinct medial and lateral subregions. Here, we applied this parcellation to resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scans obtained in 56 patients with TNRD and 56 matched healthy control subjects. In patients, the medial FPC showed reduced connectivity to the anterior midcingulate cortex and insula. The left lateral FPC showed reduced connectivity to the right lateral orbitofrontal cortex and increased connectivity to the fusiform gyri. In addition, TNRD symptom severity correlated significantly with connectivity of the left lateral FPC subregion to a medial orbitofrontal cortex region of the classical reward network. Taken together, these findings suggest that changes in FPC subregion connectivity may underlie several dimensions of TNRD pathology, including changes in reward/positive valence, nonreward/negative valence, and cognitive control domains. Nodes of functional networks showing abnormal connectivity to the FPC could be useful in generating novel candidates for therapeutic brain stimulation in TNRD. Copyright © 2017 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Abnormal functional connectivity of the medial cortex in euthymic bipolar II disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchand, William R; Lee, James N; Johnson, Susanna; Gale, Phillip; Thatcher, John

    2014-06-03

    This project utilized functional MRI (fMRI) and a motor activation paradigm to investigate neural circuitry in euthymic bipolar II disorder. We hypothesized that circuitry involving the cortical midline structures (CMS) would demonstrate abnormal functional connectivity. Nineteen subjects with recurrent bipolar disorder and 18 controls were studied using fMRI and a motor activation paradigm. We used functional connectivity analyses to identify circuits with aberrant connectivity. We found increased functional connectivity among bipolar subjects compared to healthy controls in two CMS circuits. One circuit included the medial aspect of the left superior frontal gyrus and the dorsolateral region of the left superior frontal gyrus. The other included the medial aspect of the right superior frontal gyrus, the dorsolateral region of the left superior frontal gyrus and the right medial frontal gyrus and surrounding region. Our results indicate that CMS circuit dysfunction persists in the euthymic state and thus may represent trait pathology. Future studies should address whether these circuits contribute to relapse of illness. Our results also suggest the possibility that aberrations of superior frontal circuitry may impact default mode network and cognitive processes. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Functional validation of GWAS gene candidates for abnormal liver function during zebrafish liver development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leah Y. Liu

    2013-09-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS have revealed numerous associations between many phenotypes and gene candidates. Frequently, however, further elucidation of gene function has not been achieved. A recent GWAS identified 69 candidate genes associated with elevated liver enzyme concentrations, which are clinical markers of liver disease. To investigate the role of these genes in liver homeostasis, we narrowed down this list to 12 genes based on zebrafish orthology, zebrafish liver expression and disease correlation. To assess the function of gene candidates during liver development, we assayed hepatic progenitors at 48 hours post fertilization (hpf and hepatocytes at 72 hpf using in situ hybridization following morpholino knockdown in zebrafish embryos. Knockdown of three genes (pnpla3, pklr and mapk10 decreased expression of hepatic progenitor cells, whereas knockdown of eight genes (pnpla3, cpn1, trib1, fads2, slc2a2, pklr, mapk10 and samm50 decreased cell-specific hepatocyte expression. We then induced liver injury in zebrafish embryos using acetaminophen exposure and observed changes in liver toxicity incidence in morphants. Prioritization of GWAS candidates and morpholino knockdown expedites the study of newly identified genes impacting liver development and represents a feasible method for initial assessment of candidate genes to instruct further mechanistic analyses. Our analysis can be extended to GWAS for additional disease-associated phenotypes.

  5. Abnormal rectoanal function in children recovered from chronic constipation and encopresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loening-Baucke, V A

    1984-12-01

    It is unknown if abnormal anal sphincter function as assessed by anorectal manometry is still present years after resolution of chronic constipation and encopresis. Twenty healthy controls, 12 children with constipation but no encopresis, and 20 children with chronic constipation and encopresis underwent anorectal manometric testing, using intraluminal pressure transducers and a balloon for rectal distention. Anorectal measurements were repeated in the 20 constipated and encopretic children 2.5-4 yr after treatment began; 11 children had recovered for at least 1 yr. The mean values of anal resting tone and of anal pull-through pressure were lower in the constipated and encopretic children than in the 20 control children (p less than 0.003). Percent relaxation of the rectosphincteric reflex after rectal distention of 30 and 60 ml was lower in constipated children with and without encopresis than in controls (p less than 0.003), whereas the means of rectosphincteric reflex threshold were comparable in the three groups of children. Three years after initiation of treatment with milk of magnesia, high-fiber diet, and bowel training techniques, the mean values of anal resting tone, anal pull-through pressure, and percent relaxation of rectosphincteric reflex remained significantly lower in both recovered and nonrecovered constipated and encopretic patients compared with controls. It was suggested that the underlying cause of chronic constipation is the decreased ability of the internal anal sphincter to relax with rectal distention, and the hypotonia of the anal canal is responsible for the encopresis. Abnormal anorectal functions were still present years after cessation of treatment and recovery and put the recovered patient at risk for recurrence of chronic constipation and encopresis.

  6. Cerebral Correlates of Abnormal Emotion Conflict Processing in Euthymic Bipolar Patients: A Functional MRI Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favre, Pauline; Polosan, Mircea; Pichat, Cédric; Bougerol, Thierry; Baciu, Monica

    2015-01-01

    Patients with bipolar disorder experience cognitive and emotional impairment that may persist even during the euthymic state of the disease. These persistent symptoms in bipolar patients (BP) may be characterized by disturbances of emotion regulation and related fronto-limbic brain circuitry. The present study aims to investigate the modulation of fronto-limbic activity and connectivity in BP by the processing of emotional conflict. Fourteen euthymic BP and 13 matched healthy subjects (HS) underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while performing a word-face emotional Stroop task designed to dissociate the monitoring/generation of emotional conflict from its resolution. Functional connectivity was determined by means of psychophysiological interaction (PPI) approach. Relative to HS, BP were slower to process incongruent stimuli, reflecting higher amount of behavioral interference during emotional Stroop. Furthermore, BP showed decreased activation of the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) during the monitoring and a lack of bilateral amygdala deactivation during the resolution of the emotional conflict. In addition, during conflict monitoring, BP showed abnormal positive connectivity between the right DLPFC and several regions of the default mode network. Overall, our results highlighted dysfunctional processing of the emotion conflict in euthymic BP that may be subtended by abnormal activity and connectivity of the DLPFC during the conflict monitoring, which, in turn, leads to failure of amygdala deactivation during the resolution of the conflict. Emotional dysregulation in BP may be underpinned by a lack of top-down cognitive control and a difficulty to focus on the task due to persistent self-oriented attention.

  7. The Role of Diacylglycerol Acyltransferase (DGAT) 1 and 2 in Cardiac Metabolism and Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roe, Nathan D; Handzlik, Michal K; Li, Tao; Tian, Rong

    2018-03-21

    It is increasingly recognized that synthesis and turnover of cardiac triglyceride (TG) play a pivotal role in the regulation of lipid metabolism and function of the heart. The last step in TG synthesis is catalyzed by diacylglycerol:acyltransferase (DGAT) which esterifies the diacylglycerol with a fatty acid. Mammalian heart has two DGAT isoforms, DGAT1 and DGAT2, yet their roles in cardiac metabolism and function remain poorly defined. Here, we show that inactivation of DGAT1 or DGAT2 in adult mouse heart results in a moderate suppression of TG synthesis and turnover. Partial inhibition of DGAT activity increases cardiac fatty acid oxidation without affecting PPARα signaling, myocardial energetics or contractile function. Moreover, coinhibition of DGAT1/2 in the heart abrogates TG turnover and protects the heart against high fat diet-induced lipid accumulation with no adverse effects on basal or dobutamine-stimulated cardiac function. Thus, the two DGAT isoforms in the heart have partially redundant function, and pharmacological inhibition of one DGAT isoform is well tolerated in adult hearts.

  8. Exercise and type 2 diabetes mellitus: changes in tissue-specific fat distribution and cardiac function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonker, Jacqueline T; de Mol, Pieter; de Vries, Suzanna T; Widya, Ralph L; Hammer, Sebastiaan; van Schinkel, Linda D; van der Meer, Rutger W; Gans, Rijk O B; Webb, Andrew G; Kan, Hermien E; de Koning, Eelco J P; Bilo, Henk J G; Lamb, Hildo J

    2013-11-01

    To prospectively assess the effects of an exercise intervention on organ-specific fat accumulation and cardiac function in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Written informed consent was obtained from all participants, and the study protocol was approved by the medical ethics committee. The study followed 12 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (seven men; mean age, 46 years ± 2 [standard error]) before and after 6 months of moderate-intensity exercise, followed by a high-altitude trekking expedition with exercise of long duration. Abdominal, epicardial, and paracardial fat volume were measured by using magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Cardiac function was quantified with cardiac MR, and images were analyzed by a researcher who was supervised by a senior researcher (4 and 21 years of respective experience in cardiac MR). Hepatic, myocardial, and intramyocellular triglyceride (TG) content relative to water were measured with proton MR spectroscopy at 1.5 and 7 T. Two-tailed paired t tests were used for statistical analysis. Exercise reduced visceral abdominal fat volume from 348 mL ± 57 to 219 mL ± 33 (P Exercise decreased hepatic TG content from 6.8% ± 2.3 to 4.6% ± 1.6 (P Exercise did not change epicardial fat volume (P = .9), myocardial TG content (P = .9), intramyocellular lipid content (P = .3), or cardiac function (P = .5). A 6-month exercise intervention in type 2 diabetes mellitus decreased hepatic TG content and visceral abdominal and paracardial fat volume, which are associated with increased cardiovascular risk, but cardiac function was unaffected. Tissue-specific exercise-induced changes in body fat distribution in type 2 diabetes mellitus were demonstrated in this study. RSNA, 2013

  9. A portable cadmium telluride multidetector probe for cardiac function monitoring

    CERN Document Server

    Arntz, Y; Dumitresco, B; Eclancher, B; Prat, V

    1999-01-01

    A new nuclear stethoscope based on a matrix of small CdTe semiconductor detectors has been developed for studying the cardiac performance by gamma ventriculography at the equilibrium, in rest and stress conditions, in the early and recovery phases of the coronary disease and to follow the long-term therapy. The light-weight probe consists of an array of 64 detectors 5x5x2 mm grouped in 16 independent units in a lead shielded aluminum box including 16 preamplifiers. The probe is connected to an electronic box containing DC power supply, 16 channel amplifiers, discriminators and counters, two analog-triggering ECG channels, and interface to a PC. The left ventricle activity is, preferentially, detected by using a low-resolution matching convergent collimator. A physical evaluation of the probe has been performed, both with static tests and dynamically with a hydraulic home-built model of beating heart ventricle paced by a rhythm simulator. The sum of the 16 detectors activity provided a radiocardiogram (RCG) wh...

  10. CARDIAC FUNCTION AND IRON CHELATION IN THALASSEMIA MAJOR AND INTERMEDIA: A REVIEW OF THE UNDERLYING PATHOPHYSIOLOGY AND APPROACH TO CHELATION MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanasios Aessopos

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Heart disease is the leading cause of mortality and one of the main causes of morbidity in beta-thalassemia. Patients with homozygous thalassemia may have either a severe phenotype which is usually transfusion dependent or a milder form that is thalassemia intermedia.  The two main factors that determine cardiac disease in homozygous β thalassemia are the high output state that results from chronic tissue hypoxia, hypoxia-induced compensatory reactions and iron overload.  The high output state playing a major role in thalassaemia intermedia and the iron load being more significant in the major form. Arrhythmias, vascular involvement that leads to an increased pulmonary vascular resistance and an increased systemic vascular stiffness and valvular abnormalities also contribute to the cardiac dysfunction in varying degrees according to the severity of the phenotype.  Endocrine abnormalities, infections, renal function and medications can also play a role in the overall cardiac function.  For thalassaemia major, regular and adequate blood transfusions and iron chelation therapy are the mainstays of management. The approach to thalassaemia intermedia, today, is aimed at monitoring for complications and initiating, timely, regular transfusions and/or iron chelation therapy.  Once the patients are on transfusions, then they should be managed in the same way as the thalassaemia major patients.  If cardiac manifestations of dysfunction are present in either form of thalassaemia, high pre transfusion Hb levels need to be maintained in order to reduce cardiac output and appropriate intensive chelation therapy needs to be instituted.  In general recommendations on chelation, today, are usually made according to the Cardiac Magnetic Resonance findings, if available.  With the advances in the latter technology and the ability to tailor chelation therapy according to the MRI findings as well as the availability of three iron chelators, together with

  11. Cardiac Function After Multimodal Breast Cancer Therapy Assessed With Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Echocardiography Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heggemann, Felix, E-mail: felix.heggemann@umm.de [First Medical Department, University Medical Center Mannheim, University of Heidelberg, Mannheim (Germany); German Center for Cardiovascular Research, Mannheim (Germany); Grotz, Hanna; Welzel, Grit [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Mannheim, University of Heidelberg, Mannheim (Germany); Dösch, Christina [First Medical Department, University Medical Center Mannheim, University of Heidelberg, Mannheim (Germany); German Center for Cardiovascular Research, Mannheim (Germany); Hansmann, Jan [Institute of Diagnostic Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Center Mannheim University of Heidelberg, Mannheim (Germany); Kraus-Tiefenbacher, Uta [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Mannheim, University of Heidelberg, Mannheim (Germany); Attenberger, Ulrike; Schönberg, Stephan Oswald [German Center for Cardiovascular Research, Mannheim (Germany); Institute of Diagnostic Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Center Mannheim University of Heidelberg, Mannheim (Germany); Borggrefe, Martin [First Medical Department, University Medical Center Mannheim, University of Heidelberg, Mannheim (Germany); German Center for Cardiovascular Research, Mannheim (Germany); Wenz, Frederik [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Mannheim, University of Heidelberg, Mannheim (Germany); Papavassiliu, Theano [First Medical Department, University Medical Center Mannheim, University of Heidelberg, Mannheim (Germany); German Center for Cardiovascular Research, Mannheim (Germany); Lohr, Frank [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Mannheim, University of Heidelberg, Mannheim (Germany)

    2015-11-15

    Purpose: Breast intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) reduces high-dose heart volumes but increases low-dose volumes. We prospectively assessed heart changes after 3D conformal RT (3DCRT) and IMRT for left-sided breast cancer. Heart dose was analyzed individually, 3DCRT patients were moderately exposed, and IMRT was performed only in patients with unacceptably high heart doses upon 3DCRT planning. Methods and Materials: In 49 patients (38 patients received 3DCRT; 11 patients received IMRT; and 20 patients received neoadjuvant or adjuvant chemotherapy) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and echocardiography were performed before and at 6, 12, and 24 months after treatment. Results: Mean heart dose for IMRT was 12.9 ± 3.9 Gy versus 4.5 ± 2.4 Gy for 3DCRT. Heart volumes receiving >40 Gy were 2.6% (3DCRT) versus 1.3% (IMRT); doses were >50 Gy only with 3DCRT. Temporary ejection fraction (EF) decrease was observed on MRI after 6 months (63%-59%, P=.005) resolving at 24 months. Only 3 patients had pronounced largely transient changes of EF and left ventricular enddiastolic diameter (LVEDD). Mitral (M) and tricuspid (T) annular plane systolic excursion (MAPSE and TAPSE) were reduced over the whole cohort (still within normal range). After 24 months left ventricular remodeling index decreased in patients receiving chemotherapy (0.80 vs 0.70, P=.028). Neither wall motion abnormalities nor late enhancements were found. On echocardiography, in addition to EF findings that were similar to those on MRI, global strain was unchanged over the whole cohort at 24 months after a transient decrease at 6 and 12 months. Longitudinal strain decreased in the whole cohort after 24 months in some segments, whereas it increased in others. Conclusions: Until 24 months after risk-adapted modern multimodal adjuvant therapy, only subclinical cardiac changes were observed in both 3DCRT patients with inclusion of small to moderate amounts of heart volume in RT tangents and

  12. Nasobronchial allergy and pulmonary function abnormalities among coir workers of Alappuzha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panicker, Venugopal; Karunakaran, Raseela; Ravindran, C

    2010-07-01

    Coir is a commercially important natural fiber obtained from the coconut husk. Coir can be woven into strong twine or rope, and is used for padding mattresses, upholstery, etc. Coir industry provides a major share of occupation to the natives of Alappuzha district of Kerala State. It has been noticed earlier that there is increased incidence of nasobronchial allergy among the population involved in this industry. This study was aimed at recognizing the symptomatology and pulmonary functional impairment among symptomatic coir workers. All coir workers who attended our institute over a period of three years were included in the study. Detailed occupational history was taken; symptom profile was studied in detail, clinical examination and pulmonary function tests conducted. Among the 624 symptomatic coir workers selected for this purpose, 64 patients had purely nasal symptoms, while 560 had symptoms of nasobronchial allergy. 357 patients had reversible obstruction on PFT, while 121 had only small airway obstruction. We conclude that coir work induced nasobronchial allergy and pulmonary function abnormalities. In absence of CT scan and bronchial challenge testing it may be inappropriate to label coir work as occupational hazard. However the present study may be used as thought provoking study to initiate further understanding.

  13. Abnormal functional integration across core brain networks in migraine without aura.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Dahua; Yuan, Kai; Luo, Lin; Zhai, Jinquan; Bi, Yanzhi; Xue, Ting; Ren, Xiaoying; Zhang, Ming; Ren, Guoyin; Lu, Xiaoqi

    2017-01-01

    As a complex subjective experience, pain processing may be related to functional integration among intrinsic connectivity networks of migraine patients without aura. However, few study focused on the pattern alterations in the intrinsic connectivity networks of migraine patients without aura. Thirty-one migraine patients without aura and 31 age- and education-matched healthy controls participated in this study. After identifying the default mode network, central executive network and salience network as core intrinsic connectivity networks by using independent component analysis, functional connectivity, and effective connectivity during the resting state were used to investigate the abnormalities in intrinsic connectivity network interactions. Migraine patients without aura showed decreased functional connectivity among intrinsic connectivity networks compared with healthy controls. The strength of causal influences from the right frontoinsular cortex to the right anterior cingulate cortex became weaker, and the right frontoinsular cortex to the right medial prefrontal cortex became stronger in migraine patients without aura. These changes suggested that the salience network may play a major role in the pathophysiological features of migraine patients without aura and helped us to synthesize previous findings into an aberrant network dynamical framework.

  14. Neurological abnormalities and neurocognitive functions in healthy elder people: A structural equation modeling analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan Raymond CK

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background/Aims Neurological abnormalities have been reported in normal aging population. However, most of them were limited to extrapyramidal signs and soft signs such as motor coordination and sensory integration have received much less attention. Very little is known about the relationship between neurological soft signs and neurocognitive function in healthy elder people. The current study aimed to examine the underlying relationships between neurological soft signs and neurocognition in a group of healthy elderly. Methods One hundred and eighty healthy elderly participated in the current study. Neurological soft signs were evaluated with the subscales of Cambridge Neurological Inventory. A set of neurocognitive tests was also administered to all the participants. Structural equation modeling was adopted to examine the underlying relationship between neurological soft signs and neurocognition. Results No significant differences were found between the male and female elder people in neurocognitive function performances and neurological soft signs. The model fitted well in the elderly and indicated the moderate associations between neurological soft signs and neurocognition, specifically verbal memory, visual memory and working memory. Conclusions The neurological soft signs are more or less statistically equivalent to capture the similar information done by conventional neurocognitive function tests in the elderly. The implication of these findings may serve as a potential neurological marker for the early detection of pathological aging diseases or related mental status such as mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease.

  15. Structural and functional cardiac adaptations to 6 months of football training in untrained hypertensive men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, L. J.; Randers, M. B.; Hansen, P. R.

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the effects of 3 and 6 months of regular football training on cardiac structure and function in hypertensive men. Thirty-one untrained males with mild-to-moderate hypertension were randomized 2:1 to a football training group (n = 20) and a control group receiving traditional...... training improves LV diastolic function in untrained men with mild-to-moderate arterial hypertension. Furthermore, it may improve longitudinal systolic function of both ventricles. The results suggest that football training has favorable effects on cardiac function in hypertensive men....... function improved with respect to tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (21.8 ± 3.2 to 24.5 ± 3.7 mm). Arterial blood pressure decreased in both groups, but significantly more in the football training group. No significant changes were observed in the control group. In conclusion, short-term football...

  16. Cardiac Morphology and Function, and Blood Gas Transport in Aquaporin-1 Knockout Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samer eAl-Samir

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We have studied cardiac and respiratory functions of aquaporin- 1-deficient mice by the Pressure-Volume-loop technique and by blood gas analysis. In addition, the morphological properties of the animals’ hearts were analysed. In anesthesia under maximal dobutamine stimulation, the mice exhibit a moderately elevated heart rate of < 600 min-1 and an O2 consumption of ~0.6 ml/min/g, which is about twice the basal rate. In this state, which is similar to the resting state of the conscious animal, all cardiac functions including stroke volume and cardiac output exhibited resting values and were identical between deficient and wildtype animals. Likewise, pulmonary and peripheral exchange of O2 and CO2 were normal. In contrast, several morphological parameters of the heart tissue of deficient mice were altered: 1 left ventricular wall thickness was reduced by 12%, 2 left ventricular mass, normalized to tibia length, was reduced by 10-20%, 3 cardiac muscle fiber cross sectional area was decreased by 17%, and 4 capillary density was diminished by 10%. As the P-V-loop technique yielded normal end-diastolic and end-systolic left ventricular volumes, the deficient hearts are characterized by thin ventricular walls in combination with normal intraventricular volumes. The aquaporin-1-deficient heart thus seems to be at a disadvantage compared to the wildtype heart by a reduced left-ventricular wall thickness and an increased diffusion distance between blood capillaries and muscle mitochondria. While under the present quasi-resting conditions these morphological alterations have no consequences for cardiac function, we expect that the deficient hearts will show a reduced maximal cardiac output.

  17. Survivors of cardiac arrest with good neurological outcome show considerable impairments of memory functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulzgruber, Patrick; Kliegel, Andreas; Wandaller, Cosima; Uray, Thomas; Losert, Heidrun; Laggner, Anton N; Sterz, Fritz; Kliegel, Matthias

    2015-03-01

    Deficits in cognitive function are a well-known dysfunction in survivors of cardiac arrest. However, data concerning memory function in this neurological vulnerable patient collective remain scarce and inconclusive. Therefore, we aimed to assess multiple aspects of retrospective and prospective memory performance in patients after cardiac arrest. We prospectively enrolled 33 survivors of cardiac arrest, with cerebral performance categories (CPC) 1 and 2 and a control-group (n=33) matched in sex, age and educational-level. To assess retrospective and prospective memory performance we administrated 4 weeks after cardiac arrest the "Rey Adult Learning Test" (RAVLT), the "Digit-Span-Backwards Test", the "Logic-Memory Test" and the "Red-Pencil Test". Results indicate an impairment in immediate and delayed free recall, but not in recognition. However, the overall impairment in immediate recall was qualified by analyzing RAVLT performance, showing that patients were only impaired in trials 4 and 5 of the learning sequence. Moreover, working and prospective memory as well as prose recall were worse in cardiac arrest survivors. Cranial computed tomography was available in 61% of all patients (n=20) but there was no specific neurological damage detectable that could be linked to this cognitive impairment. Episodic long-term memory functioning appears to be particularly impaired after cardiac arrest. In contrast, short-term memory storage, even tested via free-call, seems not to be affected. Based on cranial computed tomography we suggest that global brain ischemia rather than focal brain lesions appear to underlie these effects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Exercise and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus : Changes in Tissue-specific Fat Distribution and Cardiac Function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, Jacqueline T.; de Mol, Pieter; de Vries, Suzanna T.; Widya, Ralph L.; Hammer, Sebastiaan; van Schinkel, Linda D.; van der Meer, Rutger W.; Gans, Rijk O. B.; Webb, Andrew G.; Kan, Hermien E.; de Koning, Eelco J. P.; Bilo, Henk J. G.; Lamb, Hildo J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To prospectively assess the effects of an exercise intervention on organ-specific fat accumulation and cardiac function in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Materials and Methods: Written informed consent was obtained from all participants, and the study protocol was approved by the medical ethics

  19. The diagnostic and therapeutic aspects of loss-of-function cardiac sodium channelopathies in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chockalingam, Priya; Clur, Sally-Ann B.; Breur, Johannes M. P. J.; Kriebel, Thomas; Paul, Thomas; Rammeloo, Lukas A.; Wilde, Arthur A. M.; Blom, Nico A.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Loss-of-function sodium channelopathies manifest as a spectrum of diseases including Brugada syndrome (BrS) and cardiac conduction disease. OBJECTIVE To analyze the diagnostic and therapeutic aspects of these disorders in children. METHODS Patients aged <= 16 years with genetically

  20. Tei index in determination of fetal cardiac function in pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-Dong Li

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore the application value of Tei index in determination of fetal cardiac function in pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM. Methods: A total of 60 gestational diabetes mellitus pregnant women with single birth were included in the study and served as GDM group, while 60 healthy pregnant women with single birth were served as the control group. The fetal echocardiography was performed. The cardiac structure, function, and other related indicators were detected and compared. Results: IVSs, LVWT, RVWT, LVEF, LVFS, and RVFS in GDM group were significantly greater than those in the control group (P<0.05. E/A MV and E/A TV in GDM group were significantly lower than those in the control group (P<0.05. The left and right ventricular Tei index in GDM group was significantly higher than that in the control group (P<0.05. Conclusions: The fetal cardiac structure and function in GDM pregnant women can cause damage to a different degree. Tei index is an important indicator to evaluate the fetal cardiac function in GDM pregnant women, and can be applied in the early diagnosis and treatment; therefore, it deserved to be widely recommended in the clinic.

  1. Cardiac Autonomic Function during Submaximal Treadmill Exercise in Adults with Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendonca, Goncalo V.; Pereira, Fernando D.; Fernhall, Bo

    2011-01-01

    This study determined whether the cardiac autonomic function of adults with Down syndrome (DS) differs from that of nondisabled persons during submaximal dynamic exercise. Thirteen participants with DS and 12 nondisabled individuals performed maximal and submaximal treadmill tests with metabolic and heart rate (HR) measurements. Spectral analysis…

  2. Prevalence of respiratory symptoms and their correlation to pulmonary function abnormalities in individuals exposed to environmental pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalid, G.H.; Ali, M.; Ahmed, J.; Abbas, M.N.

    1999-01-01

    To find out the prevalence of respiratory symptoms and their correlation to pulmonary function abnormalities in individuals exposed to polluted air, 438 workers, and their family members were studied at Thermal Power Station (TPS), Sheikhmanda (Quetta). Individuals with a stay of less than three years at TPS and patients with known chronic respiratory infections (tuberculosis and its squelae, bronchiectasis) were excluded from the study. Remaining 175 males (mean age 43.4 years) and 71 females (mean age 34.2 years) were divided into three groups A, B, C on the basis of their exposure time to polluted air per day during the three years. Each groups was further subdivided into smoker and non-smoker members. Prevalence of respiratory symptoms was significantly higher in the individuals exposed to polluted air as compared to non-exposed individuals (P<0.05). A strong positive correlation (r=0.91) exists between respiratory symptoms and respiratory function abnormalities in smoker groups; however, no definite correlation (r=0.06) was found between respiratory symptoms and respiratory function abnormalities in non-smoker groups. Function abnormalities was noted only in smoker groups and non-smokers of even maximally exposed group (group C) had almost no respiratory function abnormalities. (author)

  3. Adaptive servo ventilation improves Cheyne-Stokes respiration, cardiac function, and prognosis in chronic heart failure patients with cardiac resynchronization therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyata, Makiko; Yoshihisa, Akiomi; Suzuki, Satoshi; Yamada, Shinya; Kamioka, Masashi; Kamiyama, Yoshiyuki; Yamaki, Takayoshi; Sugimoto, Koichi; Kunii, Hiroyuki; Nakazato, Kazuhiko; Suzuki, Hitoshi; Saitoh, Shu-ichi; Takeishi, Yasuchika

    2012-09-01

    Cheyne-Stokes respiration (CSR-CSA) is often observed in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF). Although cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) is effective for CHF patients with left ventricular dyssynchrony, it is still unclear whether adaptive servo ventilation (ASV) improves cardiac function and prognosis of CHF patients with CSR-CSA after CRT. Twenty two patients with CHF and CSR-CSA after CRT defibrillator (CRTD) implantation were enrolled in the present study and randomly assigned into two groups: 11 patients treated with ASV (ASV group) and 11 patients treated without ASV (non-ASV group). Measurement of plasma B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels (before 3, and 6 months later) and echocardiography (before and 6 months) were performed in each group. Patients were followed up to register cardiac events (cardiac death and re-hospitalization) after discharge. In the ASV group, indices for apnea-hypopnea, central apnea, and oxyhemoglobin saturation were improved on ASV. BNP levels, cardiac systolic and diastolic function were improved with ASV treatment for 6 months. Importantly, the event-free rate was significantly higher in the ASV group than in the non-ASV group. ASV improves CSR-CSA, cardiac function, and prognosis in CHF patients with CRTD. Patients with CSR-CSA and post CRTD implantation would get benefits by treatment with ASV. Copyright © 2012 Japanese College of Cardiology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Ultrasonographic assessment of maternal cardiac function and peripheral circulation during normal gestation in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Paula G; Tórtora, Mariana; Rodríguez, Raúl; Arias, Daniel O; Gobello, Cristina

    2011-10-01

    The aim of this study was to describe changes in cardiac morphology, systolic function and some peripheral hemodynamic parameters during normal pregnancy in dogs. Twenty healthy bitches, 10 pregnant (PG) and 10 non-pregnant controls (CG), were evaluated every 10 days using echocardiography from day 0 of the estrus cycle to parturition or to day 65 for the PG and CG groups, respectively. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) and uterine artery resistance index (RI) were also assessed. Throughout the study, the shortening fraction and cardiac output increased up to 30% vs. 5% (Pdogs. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The Role of Levosimendan in Patients with Decreased Left Ventricular Function Undergoing Cardiac Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Bozhinovska

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The postoperative low cardiac output is one of the most important complications following cardiac surgery and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. The condition requires inotropic support to achieve adequate hemodynamic status and tissue perfusion. While catecholamines are utilised as a standard therapy in cardiac surgery, their use is limited due to increased oxygen consumption. Levosimendan is calcium sensitising inodilatator expressing positive inotropic effect by binding with cardiac troponin C without increasing oxygen demand. Furthermore, the drug opens potassium ATP (KATP channels in cardiac mitochondria and in the vascular muscle cells, showing cardioprotective and vasodilator properties, respectively. In the past decade, levosimendan demonstrated promising results in treating patients with reduced left ventricular function when administered in peri- or post- operative settings. In addition, pre-operative use of levosimendan in patients with severely reduced left ventricular ejection fraction may reduce the requirements for postoperative inotropic support, mechanical support, duration of intensive care unit stay as well as hospital stay and a decrease in post-operative mortality. However, larger studies are needed to clarify clinical advantages of levosimendan versus conventional inotropes.

  6. Use of the cardiopulmonary flow index to evaluate cardiac function in thoroughbred horses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guthrie, A.J.; Killeen, V.M.; Grosskopf, J.F.W.

    1991-01-01

    The ratio of the cardiopulmonary blood volume to stroke volume is called the cardiopulmonary flow index (CPFI). The CPFI can be determined indirectly from the simultaneous recording of a radiocardiogram and an electrocardiogram. The CPFI and cardiac output were measured simultaneously in horses that were diagnosed as having cardiac disease. The results obtained from these subjects were compared with those from control animals and significant differences were found between the mean CPFI of the control horses and those with macroscopically visible myocardial fibrosis on post mortem examination. No significant differences were found between the means of the cardiac output measured in either of the groups of horses. The effect of pharmacological acceleration of the heart rate on the CPFI was also studied. Significant differences were found between the mean CPFI and the slopes of the regression lines of CPFI on heart rate of the control and principal groups of horses. These differences were greatest at heart rates near to the resting heart rates of the individuals. The CPFI was found to be a more sensitive measure of cardiac function than cardiac output, in the horses. 16 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  7. Effect of chronic L-thyroxine-suppressive therapy on cardiac function in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma: Radionuclide techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziada, G.; Farouk, S.; Zidan, A.; Mustafa, S.; El-Reffaie, S.

    2005-01-01

    Differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) is usually treated by a combination of surgery, radioiodine (I-131) and suppressive doses of thyroid hormones [L-thyroxine (Eltroxine)]. It is well-known that thyroid hormone affects the function of cardiovascular system. However there is no study to objectively substantiate this phenomenon. The objective of this study was to assess the left ventricular function with the help of radionuclide ventriculography in patients of DTC. Various parameters of systolic function [ejection fraction (EF), peak ejection rate (PER) and time to peak ejection rate (TPER)], diastolic function [peak filling rate (PFR) and time to peak filling rate (TPFR)] and heart rate were determined. Ten healthy control subjects and 50 patients of DTC on suppressive doses of eltroxine following surgery and radio-iodine (I-131) therapy were evaluated. The patients were divided into 5 groups according to their clinical status and thyroid hormone profile. These groups were: euthyroid, sub-clinical hypothyroid, hypothyroid, sub-clinical hyperthyroid and hyperthyroid groups. The results of the study revealed that Eltroxine significantly affected left ventricular function. Although it did not affect the systolic function, the diastolic function was significantly impaired. Prolongation of TPER was noted in hypothyroid patients, while the same was significantly decreased in hyper- and sub-clinical hyper-thyroids patients. Such abnormalities in cardiac function would be responsible for serious morbidity and could affect the lives of patients' in several ways. Hence, early effective treatment of thyroid function is important in patients of DTC, which would improve their quality of life and avoid long-term serious or irreversible cardiovascular disorder. (author)

  8. Reward Abnormalities Among Women with Full and Subthreshold Bulimia Nervosa: A Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohon, Cara; Stice, Eric

    2010-01-01

    Objective To test the hypothesis that women with full and subthreshold bulimia nervosa show abnormal neural activation in response to food intake and anticipated food intake relative to healthy control women. Method Females with and without full/subthreshold bulimia nervosa recruited from the community (N = 26) underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during receipt and anticipated receipt of chocolate milkshake and a tasteless control solution. Results Women with bulimia nervosa showed trends for less activation than healthy controls in the right anterior insula in response to anticipated receipt of chocolate milkshake (versus tasteless solution) and in the left middle frontal gyrus, right posterior insula, right precentral gyrus, and right mid dorsal insula in response to consumptions of milkshake (versus tasteless solution). Discussion Bulimia nervosa may be related to potential hypo-functioning of the brain reward system, which may lead these individuals to binge eat to compensate for this reward deficit, though the hypo-responsivity might be a result of a history of binge eating highly palatable foods. PMID:21997421

  9. GFI1B mutation causes a bleeding disorder with abnormal platelet function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, W S; Morel-Kopp, M-C; Chen, Q; Liang, H P; Bromhead, C J; Wright, S; Turakulov, R; Ng, A P; Roberts, A W; Bahlo, M; Ward, C M

    2013-11-01

    GFI1B is a transcription factor important for erythropoiesis and megakaryocyte development but previously unknown to be associated with human disease. A family with a novel bleeding disorder was identified and characterized. Genetic linkage analysis and massively parallel sequencing were used to localize the mutation causing the disease phenotype on chromosome 9. Functional studies were then performed in megakaryocytic cell lines to determine the biological effects of the mutant transcript. We have identified a family with an autosomal dominant bleeding disorder associated with macrothrombocytopenia, red cell anisopoikilocytosis, and platelet dysfunction. The severity of bleeding is variable with some affected individuals experiencing spontaneous bleeding while other family members exhibit only abnormal bleeding with surgery. A single nucleotide insertion was identified in GFI1B that predicts a frameshift mutation in the fifth zinc finger DNA-binding domain. This mutation alters the transcriptional activity of the protein, resulting in a reduction in platelet α-granule content and aberrant expression of key platelet proteins. GFI1B mutation represents a novel human bleeding disorder, and the described phenotype identifies GFI1B as a critical regulator of platelet shape, number, and function. © 2013 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

  10. Update on the slow delayed rectifier potassium current (I(Ks)): role in modulating cardiac function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhenzhen; Du, Lupei; Li, Minyong

    2012-01-01

    The slow delayed rectifier current (I(Ks)) is the slow component of cardiac delayed rectifier current and is critical for the late phase repolarization of cardiac action potential. This current is also an important target for Sympathetic Nervous System (SNS) to regulate the cardiac electivity to accommodate to heart rate alterations in response to exercise or emotional stress and can be up-regulated by β- adrenergic or other signal molecules. I(Ks) channel is originated by the co-assembly of pore-forming KCNQ1 α-subunit and accessory KCNE1 β-subunit. Mutations in any subunit can bring about severe long QT syndrome (LQT-1, LQT-5) as characterized by deliquium, seizures and sudden death. This review summarizes the normal physiological functions and molecular basis of I(Ks) channels, as well as illustrates up-to-date development on its blockers and activators. Therefore, the current extensive survey should generate fundamental understanding of the role of I(Ks) channel in modulating cardiac function and donate some instructions to the progression of I(Ks) blockers and activators as potential antiarrhythmic agents or pharmacological tools to determine the physiological and pathological function of I(Ks).

  11. Assessment of cardiac morphology and ventricular function in healthy Chinese individuals using MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Minjie; Zhao Shihua; Jiang Shiliang

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate reproducibility of cardiac MRI for assessment of cardiac morphology and ventricular function in selected normal Chinese Han population. Methods: Two hundred and sixty-nine normal volunteers underwent cardiac MRI using a 1.5 T MR system. HASTE and steady state free precession imaging were performed with long and short axis images and cine mode through the ventricle with wireless vector cardiac gating. The images were reviewed by two independent observers. The dimensions of cardiac chambers and ventricular function including ejection fraction (EF), end diastolic volume (EDV) , end systolic volume (ESV) and myocardial mass were evaluated. The data between male and female were compared by using two-tailed unpaired t test. Results: Total imaging time was (15±3) min. The anteroposterior diameter of the left atrium was (2.87±0.77) cm, the right atrial diameter perpendicular to the atrial septum was (3.61±0.57) cm, the end diastolic diameter of the left ventricle was (4.97± 0.52) cm, the end diastolic diameter of the right ventricle was (2.65±0.48) cm. On the left ventricle, EF was (60.62±7.08)%, EDV was (115.37±26.71) ml, ESV was (46.02±15.72) ml and LV mass was (82.97±24.03) g. On the right ventricle, EF was (47.73±6.50)%, EDV was (128.27±32.16) ml, ESV was (67.7±21.07) ml and RV mass was (48.24±13.42) g. There were no statistically significant differences in LVESV (P=0.144), LVEDV index (P=0.714), LVESV index (P=0.113), LVCI (P=0.199), RVEF (P=0.296) and RV mass (P=0.093), and statistically significant differences in other cardiac parameters between male and female. Conclusion: Cardiac MRI can provide useful information about cardiac function and morphology with a high level of reproducibility in normal Chinese Han population. (authors)

  12. Evaluation of cardiac function tests in Sudanese adult patients with sickle cell trait

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    Kamal E.A. Abdelsalam

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cardiac dysfunctions have been recognized as a common complication of sickle cell anaemia (SCA, and together with pulmonary disorder accounts for many deaths in these patients. However, sickle cell traits appear clinically normal, although they have genetic abnormality. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of sickle cell trait on cardiac prognostic markers by measuring high density lipoprotein (HDL-C, low density lipoprotein (LDL-C, cardiac creatine kinase (CK-MB, ultra-sensitive C reactive protein (us-CRP, total homocysteine (Hyc, and N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-pro BNP tests in adult Sudanese patients with sickle cell trait.Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed in 200 healthy volunteers as a control group and 200 diagnosed patients with sickle cell trait. It was carried out in Khartoum Specialized Hospital, Al-Bayan Hospital, Obayed Clinical Center and Dr. Nadir Specialized Hospital, Sudan between January 2015 and January 2016. All participants were between 20-32 years old. LDL-C, HDL-C, CK-MB, NT-proBNP and hs-CRP concentrations were measured by Hitachi 912 full-automated Chemistry Analyzer (Roche Diagnostics, Germany as manufacturer procedure, while homocysteine level was measured by ELISA technique using special kit.Results: When compared to control group, the levels of LDL-C, hs-CRP and NT-proBNP revealed significant increase in patients’ sera (p<0.001, while Hyc and CK-MB levels were increased insignificantly in patients with SCT (p=0.069, p=0.054 respectively. On the other hand, comparison to control group, HDL-C showed insignificant reduction in patients (p=0.099.Conclusion: The results suggest that sickle cell trait increased the risk of patient-related complication secondary to cardiac dysfunction.

  13. Myocardin-related transcription factors are required for cardiac development and function

    OpenAIRE

    Mokalled, Mayssa H.; Carroll, Kelli J.; Cenik, Bercin K.; Chen, Beibei; Liu, Ning; Olson, Eric N.; Bassel-Duby, Rhonda

    2015-01-01

    Myocardin-Related Transcription Factors A and B (MRTF-A and MRTF-B) are highly homologous proteins that function as powerful coactivators of serum response factor (SRF), a ubiquitously expressed transcription factor essential for cardiac development. The SRF/MRTF complex binds to CArG boxes found in the control regions of genes that regulate cytoskeletal dynamics and muscle contraction, among other processes. While SRF is required for heart development and function, the role of MRTFs in the d...

  14. TNNI3K is a novel mediator of myofilament function and phosphorylates cardiac troponin I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Hui; Wang, Lin; Song, Li; Zhang, Yan-Wan; Ye, Jue; Xu, Rui-Xia; Shi, Na; Meng, Xian-Min

    2013-01-01

    The phosphorylation of cardiac troponin I (cTnI) plays an important role in the contractile dysfunction associated with heart failure. Human cardiac troponin I-interacting kinase (TNNI3K) is a novel cardiac-specific functional kinase that can bind to cTnI in a yeast two-hybrid screen. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether TNNI3K can phosphorylate cTnI at specific sites and to examine whether the phosphorylation of cTnI caused by TNNI3K can regulate cardiac myofilament contractile function. Co-immunoprecipitation was performed to confirm that TNNI3K could interact with cTnI. Kinase assays further indicated that TNNI3K did not phosphorylate cTnI at Ser23/24 and Ser44, but directly phosphorylated Ser43 and Thr143 in vitro. The results obtained for adult rat cardiomyocytes also indicated that enhanced phosphorylation of cTnI at Ser43 and Thr143 correlated with rTNNI3K (rat TNNI3K) overexpression, and phosphorylation was reduced when rTNNI3K was knocked down. To determine the contractile function modulated by TNNI3K-mediated phosphorylation of cTnI, cardiomyocyte contraction was studied in adult rat ventricular myocytes. The contraction of cardiomyocytes increased with rTNNI3K overexpression and decreased with rTNNI3K knockdown. We conclude that TNNI3K may be a novel mediator of cTnI phosphorylation and contribute to the regulation of cardiac myofilament contraction function

  15. Effects of plasma viscosity modulation on cardiac function during moderate hemodilution

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    Chatpun Surapong

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Previous studies have found that increasing plasma viscosity as whole blood viscosity decrease has beneficial effects in microvascular hemodynamics. As the heart couples with systemic vascular network, changes in plasma and blood viscosity during hemodilution determine vascular pressure drop and flow rate, which influence cardiac function. This study aimed to investigate how changes in plasma viscosity affect on cardiac function during acute isovolemic hemodilution. Materials and Methods: Plasma viscosity was modulated by hemodilution of 40% of blood volume with three different plasma expanders (PEs. Dextran 2000 kDa (Dx2M, 6.3 cP and dextran 70 kDa (Dx70, 3.0 cP were used as high and moderate viscogenic PEs, respectively. Polyethylene glycol conjugated with human serum albumin (PEG-HSA, 2.2 cP was used as low viscogenic PE. The cardiac function was assessed using a miniaturized pressure-volume conductance catheter. Results: After hemodilution, pressure dropped to 84%, 79%, and 78% of baseline for Dx2M, Dx70 and PEG-HSA, respectively. Cardiac output markedly increased for Dx2M and PEG-HSA. Dx2M significantly produced higher stroke work relative to baseline and compared to Dx70. Conclusion: Acute hemodilution with PEG-HSA without increasing plasma viscosity provided beneficial effects on cardiac function compared to Dx70, and similar to those measured with Dx2M. Potentially negative effects of increasing peripheral vascular resistance due to the increase in plasma viscosity were prevented.

  16. Physiologic assessment before video thoracoscopic resection for lung cancer in patients with abnormal pulmonary function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benattia, Amira; Debeaumont, David; Guyader, Vincent; Tardif, Catherine; Peillon, Christophe; Cuvelier, Antoine; Baste, Jean-Marc

    2016-06-01

    Impaired respiratory function may prevent curative surgery for patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) reduces postoperative morbility-mortality and could change preoperative assessment practices and therapeutic decisions. We evaluated the relation between preoperative pulmonary function tests and the occurrence of postoperative complications after VATS pulmonary resection in patients with abnormal pulmonary function. We included 106 consecutive patients with ≤80% predicted value of presurgical expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and/or diffusing capacity of carbon monoxide (DLCO) and who underwent VATS pulmonary resection for NSCLC from a prospective surgical database. Patients (64±9.5 years) had lobectomy (n=91), segmentectomy (n=7), bilobectomy (n=4), or pneumonectomy (n=4). FEV1 and DLCO preoperative averages were 68%±21% and 60%±18%. Operative mortality was 1.89%. Only FEV1 was predictive of postoperative complications [odds ratio (OR), 0.96; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.926-0.991, P=0.016], but there was no determinable threshold. Twenty-five patients underwent incremental exercise testing. Desaturations during exercise (OR, 0.462; 95% CI, 0.191-0.878, P=0.039) and heart rate (HR) response (OR, 0.953; 95% CI, 0.895-0.993, P=0.05) were associated with postoperative complications. FEV1 but not DLCO was a significant predictor of pulmonary complications after VATS pulmonary resection despite a low rate of severe morbidity. Incremental exercise testing seems more discriminating. Further investigation is required in a larger patient population to change current pre-operative threshold in a new era of minimally invasive surgery.

  17. Abnormalities of resting state functional connectivity are related to sustained attention deficits in MS.

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    Marisa Loitfelder

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Resting state (RS functional MRI recently identified default network abnormalities related to cognitive impairment in MS. fMRI can also be used to map functional connectivity (FC while the brain is at rest and not adhered to a specific task. Given the importance of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC for higher executive functioning in MS, we here used the ACC as seed-point to test for differences and similarities in RS-FC related to sustained attention between MS patients and controls. DESIGN: Block-design rest phases of 3 Tesla fMRI data were analyzed to assess RS-FC in 31 patients (10 clinically isolated syndromes, 16 relapsing-remitting, 5 secondary progressive MS and 31 age- and gender matched healthy controls (HC. Participants underwent extensive cognitive testing. OBSERVATIONS: In both groups, signal changes in several brain areas demonstrated significant correlation with RS-activity in the ACC. These comprised the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC, insular cortices, the right caudate, right middle temporal gyrus, angular gyri, the right hippocampus, and the cerebellum. Compared to HC, patients showed increased FC between the ACC and the left angular gyrus, left PCC, and right postcentral gyrus. Better cognitive performance in the patients was associated with increased FC to the cerebellum, middle temporal gyrus, occipital pole, and the angular gyrus. CONCLUSION: We provide evidence for adaptive changes in RS-FC in MS patients compared to HC in a sustained attention network. These results extend and partly mirror findings of task-related fMRI, suggesting FC may increase our understanding of cognitive dysfunction in MS.

  18. Cardiac function associated with home ventilator care in Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sangheun; Lee, Heeyoung; Eun, Lucy Youngmin; Gang, Seung Woong

    2018-02-01

    Cardiomyopathy is becoming the leading cause of death in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy because mechanically assisted lung ventilation and assisted coughing have helped resolve respiratory complications. To clarify cardiopulmonary function, we compared cardiac function between the home ventilator-assisted and non-ventilator-assisted groups. We retrospectively reviewed patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy from January 2010 to March 2016 at Gangnam Severance Hospital. Demographic characteristics, pulmonary function, and echocardiography data were investigated. Fifty-four patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy were divided into 2 groups: home ventilator-assisted and non-ventilator-assisted. The patients in the home ventilator group were older (16.25±1.85 years) than those in the nonventilator group (14.73±1.36 years) ( P =0.001). Height, weight, and body surface area did not differ significantly between groups. The home ventilator group had a lower seated functional vital capacity (1,038±620.41 mL) than the nonventilator group (1,455±603.12 mL). Mean left ventricular ejection fraction and fractional shortening were greater in the home ventilator group, but the data did not show any statistical difference. The early ventricular filling velocity/late ventricular filling velocity ratio (1.7±0.44) was lower in the home ventilator group than in the nonventilator group (2.02±0.62). The mitral valve annular systolic velocity was higher in the home ventilator group (estimated β, 1.06; standard error, 0.48). Patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy on a ventilator may have better systolic and diastolic cardiac functions. Noninvasive ventilator assistance can help preserve cardiac function. Therefore, early utilization of noninvasive ventilation or oxygen may positively influence cardiac function in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

  19. [Cardiac Synchronization Function Estimation Based on ASM Level Set Segmentation Method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yaonan; Gao, Yuan; Tang, Liang; He, Ying; Zhang, Huie

    At present, there is no accurate and quantitative methods for the determination of cardiac mechanical synchronism, and quantitative determination of the synchronization function of the four cardiac cavities with medical images has a great clinical value. This paper uses the whole heart ultrasound image sequence, and segments the left & right atriums and left & right ventricles of each frame. After the segmentation, the number of pixels in each cavity and in each frame is recorded, and the areas of the four cavities of the image sequence are therefore obtained. The area change curves of the four cavities are further extracted, and the synchronous information of the four cavities is obtained. Because of the low SNR of Ultrasound images, the boundary lines of cardiac cavities are vague, so the extraction of cardiac contours is still a challenging problem. Therefore, the ASM model information is added to the traditional level set method to force the curve evolution process. According to the experimental results, the improved method improves the accuracy of the segmentation. Furthermore, based on the ventricular segmentation, the right and left ventricular systolic functions are evaluated, mainly according to the area changes. The synchronization of the four cavities of the heart is estimated based on the area changes and the volume changes.

  20. Establishing Early Functional Perfusion and Structure in Tissue Engineered Cardiac Constructs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo; Patnaik, Sourav S; Brazile, Bryn; Butler, J Ryan; Claude, Andrew; Zhang, Ge; Guan, Jianjun; Hong, Yi; Liao, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Myocardial infarction (MI) causes massive heart muscle death and remains a leading cause of death in the world. Cardiac tissue engineering aims to replace the infarcted tissues with functional engineered heart muscles or revitalize the infarcted heart by delivering cells, bioactive factors, and/or biomaterials. One major challenge of cardiac tissue engineering and regeneration is the establishment of functional perfusion and structure to achieve timely angiogenesis and effective vascularization, which are essential to the survival of thick implants and the integration of repaired tissue with host heart. In this paper, we review four major approaches to promoting angiogenesis and vascularization in cardiac tissue engineering and regeneration: delivery of pro-angiogenic factors/molecules, direct cell implantation/cell sheet grafting, fabrication of prevascularized cardiac constructs, and the use of bioreactors to promote angiogenesis and vascularization. We further provide a detailed review and discussion on the early perfusion design in nature-derived biomaterials, synthetic biodegradable polymers, tissue-derived acellular scaffolds/whole hearts, and hydrogel derived from extracellular matrix. A better understanding of the current approaches and their advantages, limitations, and hurdles could be useful for developing better materials for future clinical applications.

  1. The effects of pleural fluid drainage on respiratory function in mechanically ventilated patients after cardiac surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brims, Fraser J H; Davies, Michael G; Elia, Andy; Griffiths, Mark J D

    2015-01-01

    Pleural effusions occur commonly after cardiac surgery and the effects of drainage on gas exchange in this population are not well established. We examined pulmonary function indices following drainage of pleural effusions in cardiac surgery patients. We performed a retrospective study examining the effects of pleural fluid drainage on the lung function indices of patients recovering from cardiac surgery requiring mechanical ventilation for more than 7 days. We specifically analysed patients who had pleural fluid removed via an intercostal tube (ICT: drain group) compared with those of a control group (no effusion, no ICT). In the drain group, 52 ICTs were sited in 45 patients. The mean (SD) volume of fluid drained was 1180 (634) mL. Indices of oxygenation were significantly worse in the drain group compared with controls prior to drainage. The arterial oxygen tension (PaO2)/fractional inspired oxygen (FiO2) (P/F) ratio improved on day 1 after ICT placement (mean (SD), day 0: 31.01 (8.92) vs 37.18 (10.7); pdrain group patients were more likely to have an improved mode of ventilation on day 1 compared with controls (p=0.028). Pleural effusion after cardiac surgery may impair oxygenation. Drainage of pleural fluid is associated with a rapid and sustained improvement in oxygenation.

  2. The effects of pleural fluid drainage on respiratory function in mechanically ventilated patients after cardiac surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brims, Fraser J H; Davies, Michael G; Elia, Andy; Griffiths, Mark J D

    2015-01-01

    Background Pleural effusions occur commonly after cardiac surgery and the effects of drainage on gas exchange in this population are not well established. We examined pulmonary function indices following drainage of pleural effusions in cardiac surgery patients. Methods We performed a retrospective study examining the effects of pleural fluid drainage on the lung function indices of patients recovering from cardiac surgery requiring mechanical ventilation for more than 7 days. We specifically analysed patients who had pleural fluid removed via an intercostal tube (ICT: drain group) compared with those of a control group (no effusion, no ICT). Results In the drain group, 52 ICTs were sited in 45 patients. The mean (SD) volume of fluid drained was 1180 (634) mL. Indices of oxygenation were significantly worse in the drain group compared with controls prior to drainage. The arterial oxygen tension (PaO2)/fractional inspired oxygen (FiO2) (P/F) ratio improved on day 1 after ICT placement (mean (SD), day 0: 31.01 (8.92) vs 37.18 (10.7); pdrain group patients were more likely to have an improved mode of ventilation on day 1 compared with controls (p=0.028). Conclusions Pleural effusion after cardiac surgery may impair oxygenation. Drainage of pleural fluid is associated with a rapid and sustained improvement in oxygenation. PMID:26339492

  3. Awareness of cardiac function in anxious, phobic and hypochondriacal patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyrer, P; Lee, I; Alexander, J

    1980-02-01

    Awareness of pulse rate was tested in 60 psychiatric out-patients with anxiety, phobic or hypochondriacal neuroses by asking them to record how fast their hearts were beating during exposure to short film sequences. Correlations between subjective and objective heart rate (ECG) were significantly higher in anxious and hypochondriacal patients than in phobic ones. The results suggest that somatic symptoms in hypochondriacal and anxiety neurosis reflect increased awareness of bodily function.

  4. Clinical research on correlation between BNP and left cardiac function in patients with heart failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin Xin; Xu Dandan; Wu Chunxu

    2005-01-01

    To investigate the correlation between brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) and the cardiac function in patients with heart failure(HF), the plasma level of BNP was determined by IRMA and the left cardiac function parameters were measured on echocardiogram in patients with different grade of HF. The results showed that the plasma level of BNP elevated with the worsening of heart failure (NYHA classification). The plasma levels of BNP were negatively correlated with left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and left ventricular end-diastolic diameter (LVDd). The plasma level of BNP increases significantly along with the severity of HF classified by NYHA, and might be a biochemical parameter for evaluating the left ventricular function. (authors)

  5. Improved cardiac function and exercise capacity following correction of pectus excavatum: a review of current literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maagaard, Marie; Heiberg, Johan

    2016-09-01

    Patients with pectus excavatum (PE) often describe improvements in exercise stamina following corrective surgery. Studies have investigated the surgical effect on physiological parameters; still, no consensus has yet been reached. Therefore, the aim of this literature review was to describe the cardiac outcome after surgical correction, both at rest and during exercise. In February 2016, a detailed search of the databases PubMed, Medline, and EMBASE was performed. We assessed clinical studies that described cardiac outcomes both before and after surgical correction of PE. We only included studies reporting either pre-defined echocardiographic or exercise test parameters. No exclusion criteria or statistical analyses were applied. Twenty-one full-text articles, published between 1972 and 2016, were selected, with cohort-ranges of 3-168 patients, mean age-ranges of 5-33 years, and mean follow-up-ranges from immediately to 4 years after surgery. Twelve studies described resting cardiac parameters. Four studies measured cardiac output, where one described 36% immediate increase after surgery, one reported 15% increase after Nuss-bar removal and two found no difference. Three studies demonstrated improvement in mean stroke volume ranges of 22-34% and two studies found no difference. Fifteen studies investigated exercise capacity, with 11 considering peak O 2 pr. kg, where five studies demonstrated improvements with the mean ranging from 8% to 15% after surgery, five studies demonstrated no difference, and one saw a decrease of 19% 3 months after Nuss-bar implantation. A measurable increase in exercise capacity exists following surgery, which may be caused by multiple factors. This may be owed to the relief of compressed cardiac chambers with the increased anterior-posterior thoracic dimensions, which could facilitate an improved filling of the heart. With these results, the positive physiological impact of the surgery is emphasized and the potential gain in cardiac

  6. LRRC10 is required to maintain cardiac function in response to pressure overload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Matthew J; Feng, Li; Grimes, Adrian C; Hacker, Timothy A; Olson, Timothy M; Kamp, Timothy J; Balijepalli, Ravi C; Lee, Youngsook

    2016-01-15

    We previously reported that the cardiomyocyte-specific leucine-rich repeat containing protein (LRRC)10 has critical functions in the mammalian heart. In the present study, we tested the role of LRRC10 in the response of the heart to biomechanical stress by performing transverse aortic constriction on Lrrc10-null (Lrrc10(-/-)) mice. Mild pressure overload induced severe cardiac dysfunction and ventricular dilation in Lrrc10(-/-) mice compared with control mice. In addition to dilation and cardiomyopathy, Lrrc10(-/-) mice showed a pronounced increase in heart weight with pressure overload stimulation and a more dramatic loss of cardiac ventricular performance, collectively suggesting that the absence of LRRC10 renders the heart more disease prone with greater hypertrophy and structural remodeling, although rates of cardiac fibrosis and myocyte dropout were not different from control mice. Lrrc10(-/-) cardiomyocytes also exhibited reduced contractility in response to β-adrenergic stimulation, consistent with loss of cardiac ventricular performance after pressure overload. We have previously shown that LRRC10 interacts with actin in the heart. Here, we show that His(150) of LRRC10 was required for an interaction with actin, and this interaction was reduced after pressure overload, suggesting an integral role for LRRC10 in the response of the heart to mechanical stress. Importantly, these experiments demonstrated that LRRC10 is required to maintain cardiac performance in response to pressure overload and suggest that dysregulated expression or mutation of LRRC10 may greatly sensitize human patients to more severe cardiac disease in conditions such as chronic hypertension or aortic stenosis. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  7. Natriuretic peptides in developing medaka embryos: implications in cardiac development by loss-of-function studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyanishi, Hiroshi; Okubo, Kataaki; Nobata, Shigenori; Takei, Yoshio

    2013-01-01

    Cardiac natriuretic peptides (NPs), atrial NP (ANP) and B-type NP (BNP), and their receptor, guanylyl cyclase (GC)-A have attracted attention of many basic and clinical researchers because of their potent renal and cardiovascular actions. In this study, we used medaka, Oryzias latipes, as a model species to pursue the physiological functions of NPs because it is a suitable model for developmental analyses. Medaka has two ligands, BNP and C-type NP3 (CNP3) (but not ANP), that have greater affinity for the two O. latipes GC-A receptors (OLGC), OLGC7 and OLGC2, respectively. CNP3 is the ancestral molecule of cardiac NPs. Initially, we examined developmental expression of cardiac NP/receptor combinations, BNP/OLGC7 and CNP3/OLGC2, using quantitative real-time PCR and in situ hybridization. BNP and CNP3 mRNA increased at stages 25 (onset of ventricular formation) and 22 (appearance of heart anlage), respectively, whereas both receptor mRNAs increased at as early as stage 12. BNP/OLGC7 transcripts were found in arterial/ventricular tissues and CNP3/OLGC2 transcripts in venous/atrial tissues by in situ hybridization. Thus, BNP and CNP3 can act locally on cardiac myocytes in a paracrine/autocrine fashion. Double knockdown of BNP/OLGC7 genes impaired ventricular development by causing hypoplasia of ventricular myocytes as evidenced by reduced bromodeoxyuridine incorporation. CNP3 knockdown induced hypertrophy of atria and activated the renin-angiotensin system. Collectively, it appears that BNP is important for normal ventricular, whereas CNP3 is important for normal atrial development and performance, a role usually taken by ANP in other vertebrates. The current study provides new insights into the role of cardiac NPs in cardiac development in vertebrates.

  8. Functional modulation of cardiac form through regionally confined cell shape changes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi J Auman

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Developing organs acquire a specific three-dimensional form that ensures their normal function. Cardiac function, for example, depends upon properly shaped chambers that emerge from a primitive heart tube. The cellular mechanisms that control chamber shape are not yet understood. Here, we demonstrate that chamber morphology develops via changes in cell morphology, and we determine key regulatory influences on this process. Focusing on the development of the ventricular chamber in zebrafish, we show that cardiomyocyte cell shape changes underlie the formation of characteristic chamber curvatures. In particular, cardiomyocyte elongation occurs within a confined area that forms the ventricular outer curvature. Because cardiac contractility and blood flow begin before chambers emerge, cardiac function has the potential to influence chamber curvature formation. Employing zebrafish mutants with functional deficiencies, we find that blood flow and contractility independently regulate cell shape changes in the emerging ventricle. Reduction of circulation limits the extent of cardiomyocyte elongation; in contrast, disruption of sarcomere formation releases limitations on cardiomyocyte dimensions. Thus, the acquisition of normal cardiomyocyte morphology requires a balance between extrinsic and intrinsic physical forces. Together, these data establish regionally confined cell shape change as a cellular mechanism for chamber emergence and as a link in the relationship between form and function during organ morphogenesis.

  9. Study on the changes of leptin levels in females with abnormal thyroid function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Kejian; Zhang Qi; Xu Yundi; Guan Yu

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To study the changes of leptin levels in females with abnormal thyroid function. Methods: Serum leptin levels were determined with RIA in 60 cases of hyperthyroidism, 36 cases of hypothyroidism and 30 normal controls. In patients with thyroid dysfunction and treated, serum leptin levels were again measured after completion of therapy. Results: The serum leptin levels were positively correlated to BMI in all the cases (p 0.05). The serum leptin levels in hypothyroid patients after treatment (6.77 ± 2.35 μg/L) were significantly higher than those before treatment (4.19 ± 1.84 μg/L) (p < 0.05). No obvious differences in the levels of serum leptin were observed before and after treatment in the hyperthyroid group. Conclusion: Normal thyroid hormone levels may be an important factor to achieve an adequate leptin gene expression so as to maintain an energy metabolic balance and thyroid dysfunction will influence the normal regulation of leptin

  10. Serotonin transporter variant drives preventable gastrointestinal abnormalities in development and function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolis, Kara Gross; Li, Zhishan; Stevanovic, Korey; Saurman, Virginia; Anderson, George M.; Snyder, Isaac; Blakely, Randy D.; Gershon, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is an increasingly common behavioral condition that frequently presents with gastrointestinal (GI) disturbances. It is not clear, however, how gut dysfunction relates to core ASD features. Multiple, rare hyperfunctional coding variants of the serotonin (5-HT) transporter (SERT, encoded by SLC6A4) have been identified in ASD. Expression of the most common SERT variant (Ala56) in mice increases 5-HT clearance and causes ASD-like behaviors. Here, we demonstrated that Ala56-expressing mice display GI defects that resemble those seen in mice lacking neuronal 5-HT. These defects included enteric nervous system hypoplasia, slow GI transit, diminished peristaltic reflex activity, and proliferation of crypt epithelial cells. An opposite phenotype was seen in SERT-deficient mice and in progeny of WT dams given the SERT antagonist fluoxetine. The reciprocal phenotypes that resulted from increased or decreased SERT activity support the idea that 5-HT signaling regulates enteric neuronal development and can, when disturbed, cause long-lasting abnormalities of GI function. Administration of a 5-HT4 agonist to Ala56 mice during development prevented Ala56-associated GI perturbations, suggesting that excessive SERT activity leads to inadequate 5-HT4–mediated neurogenesis. We propose that deficient 5-HT signaling during development may contribute to GI and behavioral features of ASD. The consequences of therapies targeting SERT during pregnancy warrant further evaluation. PMID:27111230

  11. Left ventricular function abnormalities as a manifestation of silent myocardial ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, C R; Conti, C R; Pepine, C J

    1986-11-01

    A large body of evidence exists indicating that left ventricular dysfunction is a common occurrence in patients with severe coronary artery disease and represents silent or asymptomatic myocardial ischemia. Such dysfunction probably occurs early in the time course of every ischemic episode in patients with coronary artery disease whether symptoms are eventually manifested or not. The pathophysiology of silent versus symptomatic left ventricular dysfunction due to ischemia appears to be identical. Silent ischemia-related left ventricular dysfunction can be documented during spontaneous or stress-induced perturbations in the myocardial oxygen supply/demand ratio. It also may be detected by nitroglycerin-induced improvement in ventricular function or by salutary changes in wall motion following revascularization. Silent left ventricular dysfunction is a very early occurrence during ischemia and precedes electrocardiographic abnormalities. In this light, its existence should always be kept in mind when dealing with patients with ischemic heart disease. It can be hypothesized that because silent ischemia appears to be identical to ischemia with symptoms in a pathophysiologic sense, prognosis and treatment in both cases should be the same.

  12. Reward abnormalities among women with full and subthreshold bulimia nervosa: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohon, Cara; Stice, Eric

    2011-11-01

    To test the hypothesis that women with full and subthreshold bulimia nervosa show abnormal neural activation in response to food intake and anticipated food intake relative to healthy control women. Females with and without full/subthreshold bulimia nervosa recruited from the community (N = 26) underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during receipt and anticipated receipt of chocolate milkshake and a tasteless control solution. Women with bulimia nervosa showed trends for less activation than healthy controls in the right anterior insula in response to anticipated receipt of chocolate milkshake (vs. tasteless solution) and in the left middle frontal gyrus, right posterior insula, right precentral gyrus, and right mid dorsal insula in response to consumptions of milkshake (vs. tasteless solution). Bulimia nervosa may be related to potential hypofunctioning of the brain reward system, which may lead these individuals to binge eat to compensate for this reward deficit, though the hypo-responsivity might be a result of a history of binge eating highly palatable foods. Copyright © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Functional 3-D cardiac co-culture model using bioactive chitosan nanofiber scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Ali; Collins, George; Yip, Derek; Cho, Cheul H

    2013-02-01

    The in vitro generation of a three-dimensional (3-D) myocardial tissue-like construct employing cells, biomaterials, and biomolecules is a promising strategy in cardiac tissue regeneration, drug testing, and tissue engineering applications. Despite significant progress in this field, current cardiac tissue models are not yet able to stably maintain functional characteristics of cardiomyocytes for long-term culture and therapeutic purposes. The objective of this study was to fabricate bioactive 3-D chitosan nanofiber scaffolds using an electrospinning technique and exploring its potential for long-term cardiac function in the 3-D co-culture model. Chitosan is a natural polysaccharide biomaterial that is biocompatible, biodegradable, non-toxic, and cost effective. Electrospun chitosan was utilized to provide structural scaffolding characterized by scale and architectural resemblance to the extracellular matrix (ECM) in vivo. The chitosan fibers were coated with fibronectin via adsorption in order to enhance cellular adhesion to the fibers and migration into the interfibrous milieu. Ventricular cardiomyocytes were harvested from neonatal rats and studied in various culture conditions (i.e., mono- and co-cultures) for their viability and function. Cellular morphology and functionality were examined using immunofluorescent staining for alpha-sarcomeric actin (SM-actin) and gap junction protein, Connexin-43 (Cx43). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and light microscopy were used to investigate cellular morphology, spatial organization, and contractions. Calcium indicator was used to monitor calcium ion flux of beating cardiomyocytes. The results demonstrate that the chitosan nanofibers retained their cylindrical morphology in long-term cell cultures and exhibited good cellular attachment and spreading in the presence of adhesion molecule, fibronectin. Cardiomyocyte mono-cultures resulted in loss of cardiomyocyte polarity and islands of non-coherent contractions. However

  14. Abnormal functional global and local brain connectivity in female patients with anorexia nervosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geisler, Daniel; Borchardt, Viola; Lord, Anton R.; Boehm, Ilka; Ritschel, Franziska; Zwipp, Johannes; Clas, Sabine; King, Joseph A.; Wolff-Stephan, Silvia; Roessner, Veit; Walter, Martin; Ehrlich, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Background Previous resting-state functional connectivity studies in patients with anorexia nervosa used independent component analysis or seed-based connectivity analysis to probe specific brain networks. Instead, modelling the entire brain as a complex network allows determination of graph-theoretical metrics, which describe global and local properties of how brain networks are organized and how they interact. Methods To determine differences in network properties between female patients with acute anorexia nervosa and pairwise matched healthy controls, we used resting-state fMRI and computed well-established global and local graph metrics across a range of network densities. Results Our analyses included 35 patients and 35 controls. We found that the global functional network structure in patients with anorexia nervosa is characterized by increases in both characteristic path length (longer average routes between nodes) and assortativity (more nodes with a similar connectedness link together). Accordingly, we found locally decreased connectivity strength and increased path length in the posterior insula and thalamus. Limitations The present results may be limited to the methods applied during preprocessing and network construction. Conclusion We demonstrated anorexia nervosa–related changes in the network configuration for, to our knowledge, the first time using resting-state fMRI and graph-theoretical measures. Our findings revealed an altered global brain network architecture accompanied by local degradations indicating wide-scale disturbance in information flow across brain networks in patients with acute anorexia nervosa. Reduced local network efficiency in the thalamus and posterior insula may reflect a mechanism that helps explain the impaired integration of visuospatial and homeostatic signals in patients with this disorder, which is thought to be linked to abnormal representations of body size and hunger. PMID:26252451

  15. Influence of abnormal glucose metabolism on coronary microvascular function after a recent myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løgstrup, Brian B; Høfsten, Dan E; Christophersen, Thomas B

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study sought to assess the association between abnormal glucose metabolism and abnormal coronary flow reserve (CFR) in patients with a recent acute myocardial infarction (AMI). BACKGROUND: Mortality and morbidity after AMI is high among patients with abnormal glucose metabolism, ...... (140 microg/kg/min) to obtain the hyperemic flow profiles. The CFR was defined as the ratio of hyperemic to baseline peak diastolic coronary flow velocities. RESULTS: Median CFR was 1.9 (interquartile range [IQR] 1.4 to 2.4], and 109 (60%) patients had a CFR...

  16. [Limits of cardiac functional adaptation in "top level" resistance athletes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carù, B; Righetti, G; Bossi, M; Gerosa, C; Gazzotti, G; Maranetto, D

    2001-02-01

    Sports activity, particularly when performed at high level, provokes cardiovascular adjustments depending on the type of sport and on the level of the load. We evaluated 15 athletes from the Italian national team during a non-agonistic period of cross country skiing, with non-invasive tests including exercise test, color Doppler echocardiography, Holter monitoring, physical examination and standard rest electrocardiogram. Physical examination, rest electrocardiogram, exercise testing and echocardiography were all within the range of the expected values for this type of subjects. Holter monitoring recorded during the periods of agonistic activity revealed significant hypokinetic arrhythmias such as severe bradycardia, pauses, I and II degree atrioventricular blocks, and complete atrioventricular block in 2 cases; these features were not observed on Holter monitoring recorded during the non-agonistic period. The perfect health status of subjects and their racing results may bring about physiological functional adjustments, but these observations suggest the need for a follow-up to evaluate possible pathologic outcomes.

  17. Blood conservation techniques and platelet function in cardiac surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boldt, J; Zickmann, B; Czeke, A; Herold, C; Dapper, F; Hempelmann, G

    1991-09-01

    Postoperative alterations in platelet function induced by cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) are of importance. The effect on platelet aggregation of three different techniques for reducing blood consumption was studied in 30 patients undergoing elective aortocoronary bypass grafting from the beginning of anesthesia until the 1st postoperative day. The patients were randomly divided into three groups, in which 1) a cell separator was used during and after CPB; 2) a hemofiltration device was used; and 3) high-dose aprotinin was used in order to reduce the need of homologous blood. A fourth group undergoing neurosurgery procedures served as a control. Platelet aggregation induced by adenosine diphosphate (concentration 0.25, 0.50, 1.0, and 2.0 microM), collagen (4 microliters/ml), and epinephrine (25 microM) was determined by the turbidimetric method. Platelet aggregation was not significantly changed in the control group, indicating that the operation itself did not impair platelet function. At the end of the operation (after retransfusion of the salvaged pump blood), the maximum aggregation and maximum gradient of aggregation induced by all three inductors were most reduced (significantly) in the cell-separator patients. On the 1st postoperative day, platelet aggregation in the hemofiltration patients and the patients treated with aprotinin had normalized. Aggregation of patients pretreated with high-dose aprotinin was not different from that of the hemofiltration patients throughout the investigation. Blood loss was significantly highest in the cell-separator group (770 +/- 400 ml on the 1st postoperative day) but was not different between the hemofiltration (390 +/- 230 ml) and the aprotinin-treated patients (260 +/- 160 ml).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. Preserved cardiac function despite marked impairment of cAMP generation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei Hua Gao

    Full Text Available So many clinical trials of positive inotropes have failed, that it is now axiomatic that agents that increase cAMP are deleterious to the failing heart. An alternative strategy is to alter myocardial Ca(2+ handling or myofilament response to Ca(2+ using agents that do not affect cAMP. Although left ventricular (LV function is tightly linked to adenylyl cyclase (AC activity, the beneficial effects of AC may be independent of cAMP and instead stem from effects on Ca(2+ handling. Here we ask whether an AC mutant molecule that reduces LV cAMP production would have favorable effects on LV function through its effects on Ca(2+ handling alone.We generated transgenic mice with cardiac-directed expression of an AC6 mutant (AC6mut. Cardiac myocytes showed impaired cAMP production in response to isoproterenol (74% reduction; p<0.001, but LV size and function were normal. Isolated hearts showed preserved LV function in response to isoproterenol stimulation. AC6mut expression was associated with increased sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+ uptake and the EC50 for SERCA2a activation was reduced. Cardiac myocytes isolated from AC6mut mice showed increased amplitude of Ca(2+ transients in response to isoproterenol (p = 0.0001. AC6mut expression also was associated with increased expression of LV S100A1 (p = 0.03 and reduced expression of phospholamban protein (p = 0.01.LV AC mutant expression is associated with normal cardiac function despite impaired cAMP generation. The mechanism appears to be through effects on Ca(2+ handling - effects that occur despite diminished cAMP.

  19. Anti-tachycardia therapy can improve altered cardiac adrenergic function in tachycardia-induced cardiomyopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohkusu, Yasuo; Takahashi, Nobukazu; Ishikawa, Toshiyuki [Yokohama City Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine] [and others

    2002-11-01

    We investigated whether anti-tachycardia therapy might improve the altered cardiac adrenergic and systolic function in tachycardia-induced cardiomyopathy (TC) in contrast to dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). The subjects were 23 patients with heart failure, consisting of 8 patients with TC (43.6{+-}10.0 yrs) and 15 with DCM (45.3{+-}8.2 yrs). TC was determined as impairment of left ventricular function secondary to chronic or very frequent arrhythmia during more than 10% of the day. All patients were receiving anti-tachycardia treatment. Cardiac {sup 123}I-MIBG uptake was assessed as the heart/mediastinum activity ratio (H/M) before and after treatment. Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was also assessed. In the baseline study, H/M and LVEF showed no difference between TC and DCM (2.21{+-}0.44 vs. 2.10{+-}0.42, 35.3{+-}13.1 vs. 36.0{+-}10.9%, respectively). After treatment, the degree of change in H/M and LVEF differed significantly (0.41{+-}0.34 vs. 0.08{+-}0.20, 20.5{+-}14.4 vs. -2.1{+-}9.6%, p<0.01). In TC, heart failure improved after a shorter duration of treatment (p<0.05). In conclusion, anti-tachycardia therapy can improve altered cardiac adrenergic function and systolic function in patients with TC over a shorter period than in those with DCM. (author)

  20. Carriers with functional null mutations in LAMA3 have localized enamel abnormalities due to haploinsufficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gostynska, Katarzyna B.; Yuen, Wing Yan; Pasmooij, Anna Maria Gerdina; Stellingsma, Cornelius; Pas, Hendri H.; Lemmink, Henny; Jonkman, Marcel F.

    2017-01-01

    The hereditary blistering disease junctional epidermolysis bullosa (JEB) is always accompanied by structural enamel abnormalities of primary and secondary dentition, characterized as amelogenesis imperfecta. Autosomal recessive mutations in LAMA3, LAMB3 and LAMC2 encoding the heterotrimer laminin

  1. Resting-state functional connectivity abnormalities in limbic and salience networks in social anxiety disorder without comorbidity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pannekoek, J. Nienke; Veer, Ilya M.; van Tol, Marie-Jose; van der Werff, Steven J. A.; Demenescu, Liliana R.; Aleman, Andre; Veltman, Dick J.; Zitman, Frans G.; Rombouts, Serge A. R. B.; van der Wee, Nic J. A.

    The neurobiology of social anxiety disorder (SAD) is not yet fully understood. Structural and functional neuroimaging studies in SAD have identified abnormalities in various brain areas, particularly the amygdala and elements of the salience network. This study is the first to examine resting-state

  2. Resting-state functional connectivity abnormalities in limbic and salience networks in social anxiety disorder without comorbidity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pannekoek, J.N.; Veer, I.M.; van Tol, M.J.; van der Werff, S.J.A.; Demenescu, L.R.; Aleman, A.; Veltman, D.J.; Zitman, F. G.; Rombouts, S.A.R.B.; van der Wee, N.J.A.

    2013-01-01

    The neurobiology of social anxiety disorder (SAD) is not yet fully understood. Structural and functional neuroimaging studies in SAD have identified abnormalities in various brain areas, particularly the amygdala and elements of the salience network. This study is the first to examine resting-state

  3. Brain abnormalities on MRI in non-functioning pituitary adenoma patients treated with or without postoperative radiotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sattler, Margriet G. A.; Meiners, Linda C.; Sluiter, Wim J.; van den Berg, Gerrit; Langendijk, Johannes A.; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H. R.; van den Bergh, Alphons C. M.; van Beek, Andre P.

    Background and purpose: To assess and compare brain abnormalities on Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) in non-functioning pituitary macro-adenoma (NFA) patients treated with or without postoperative radiotherapy (RT). Material and methods: In 86 NFA patients, treated between 1987 and 2008 at the

  4. A population study of the association between thyroid autoantibodies in serum and abnormalities in thyroid function and structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, I.B.; Laurberg, P.; Knudsen, N.

    2005-01-01

    autoantibodies in serum and abnormalities in thyroid function and structure, and to study the thyroid volume in subjects with subclinical autoimmune hypothyroidism. Design A population study including 4649 randomly selected subjects. Measurements Blood tests were used to analyse for thyroid peroxidase...

  5. Meta-Analysis of the Relation of Baseline Right Ventricular Function to Response to Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Abhishek; Bax, Jerome J; Vallakati, Ajay; Goel, Sunny; Lavie, Carl J; Kassotis, John; Mukherjee, Debabrata; Einstein, Andrew; Warrier, Nikhil; Lazar, Jason M

    2016-04-15

    Right ventricular (RV) dysfunction has been associated with adverse clinical outcomes in patients with heart failure (HF). Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) improves left ventricular (LV) size and function in patients with markedly abnormal electrocardiogram QRS duration. However, relation of baseline RV function with response to CRT has not been well described. In this study, we aim to investigate the relation of baseline RV function with response to CRT as assessed by change in LV ejection fraction (EF). A systematic search of studies published from 1966 to May 31, 2015 was conducted using PubMed, CINAHL, Cochrane CENTRAL, and the Web of Science databases. Studies were included if they have reported (1) parameters of baseline RV function (tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion [TAPSE] or RVEF or RV basal strain or RV fractional area change [FAC]) and (2) LVEF before and after CRT. Random-effects metaregression was used to evaluate the effect of baseline RV function parameters and change in LVEF. Sixteen studies (n = 1,764) were selected for final analysis. Random-effects metaregression analysis showed no significant association between the magnitude of the difference in EF before and after CRT with baseline TAPSE (β = 0.005, p = 0.989); baseline RVEF (β = 0.270, p = 0.493); baseline RVFAC (β = -0.367, p = 0.06); baseline basal strain (β = -0.342, p = 0.462) after a mean follow-up period of 10.5 months. In conclusion, baseline RV function as assessed by TAPSE, FAC, basal strain, or RVEF does not determine response to CRT as assessed by change in LVEF. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Assessment of left ventricular function by gated cardiac blood-pool emission computed tomography using a rotating gamma camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narita, Michihiro; Kurihara, Tadashi; Murano, Kenichi; Usami, Masahisa; Honda, Minoru

    1991-01-01

    To elucidate the usefulness of gated cardiac blood-pool single photon emission CT (SPECT) with Tc-99m for the evaluation of left ventricular (LV) global and regional functions, 18 patients with coronary artery disease were studied. Thirty-two gated projection images were obtained over 360-degree at 16 frames per cardiac cycle. As LV volume was calculated by integrating the numbers of voxels which constituted LV and multiplying by the volume of a single voxel (0.1143 ml), we performed phantom studies to determine the appropriate cut-off level to detect LV outline. These cut-off levels were affected by the background activity and organ volume itself. So we constructed Volume-Cut-Level-Curve at each background activity. In clinical studies, short axis images which constituted LV were selected and provisional LV volumes were calculated at the cut-off levels of 45, 50 and 55%. These volumes were plotted on the Volume-Cut-Level-Curve and the true cut-off levels were obtained to calculate LV end-diastolic or end-systolic volume (EDV, ESV). The cut-off levels were different at every patient and ED or ES. EDV, ESV and LV ejection fraction obtained by SPECT were correlatd well with those obtained by contrast ventriculography (LVG) (r=0.89, 0.94, 0.94 each, p<0.01). For the LV wall motion analysis, LVGs obtained at two projections were compared with SPECT or gated cardiac blood-pool planar imaging (Planar) in 5 segments. In addition to visual comparison, wall motion scores (WMS) based on the degree of wall motion abnormality were calculated in each segment. Correlation of WMS between LVG and SPECT (r=0.84) was significantly (p<0.01) superior to that between LVG and Planar (r=0.62). Especially in SPECT, wall motion analyses at septal and infero-posterior segments were superior to those in Planar. Although gated SPECT requires relatively long time to perform, it is a useful method to detect LV global and regional functions. (author)

  7. Evaluation of cardiac motion and function by cine magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, Takeshi; Kurokawa, Hiroshi; Anno, Hirofumi

    1992-01-01

    Cardiac cine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was studied to evaluate the cardiac motion and function, and a water-stream phantom study was performed to clarify whether it was possible to quantitatively assess the valvular regurgitation flow by the size of the flow void. In normal subjects, the left ventricular (LV) epicardial apex swung up to the base only a few millimeters, and the mitral annulus ring moved about 14 mm as mean value toward the apex during systole. Those motions of mitral annulus ring may contribute to the left atrial filling. The LV longitudinal shortening and torsions were shown by the tagging method. This tagging method was the best method for estimating cardiac motions. Cardiac cine MRI using software including a modified Simpson's method program and a wall motion analysis program was useful for routine LV volumetry and wall motion analysis because it was a simple and reliable method. Our water-stream phantom studies demonstrated that it might be difficult to perform quantitative evaluation of valvular regurgitation flow by using only the size of the flow void without acquiring information relating to the orifice area. (author)

  8. Pioglitazone improves cardiac function and alters myocardial substrate metabolism without affecting cardiac triglyceride accumulation and high-energy phosphate metabolism in patients with well-controlled type 2 diabetes mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meer, Rutger W.; Rijzewijk, Luuk J.; de Jong, Hugo W. A. M.; Lamb, Hildo J.; Lubberink, Mark; Romijn, Johannes A.; Bax, Jeroen J.; de Roos, Albert; Kamp, Otto; Paulus, Walter J.; Heine, Robert J.; Lammertsma, Adriaan A.; Smit, Johannes W. A.; Diamant, Michaela

    2009-01-01

    Cardiac disease is the leading cause of mortality in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Pioglitazone has been associated with improved cardiac outcome but also with an elevated risk of heart failure. We determined the effects of pioglitazone on myocardial function in relation to cardiac high-energy

  9. A high-sugar and high-fat diet impairs cardiac systolic and diastolic function in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbone, Salvatore; Mauro, Adolfo G; Mezzaroma, Eleonora; Kraskauskas, Donatas; Marchetti, Carlo; Buzzetti, Raffaella; Van Tassell, Benjamin W; Abbate, Antonio; Toldo, Stefano

    2015-11-01

    Heart failure (HF) is a clinical syndrome characterized by dyspnea, fatigue, exercise intolerance and cardiac dysfunction. Unhealthy diet has been associated with increased risk of obesity and heart disease, but whether it directly affects cardiac function, and promotes the development and progression of HF is unknown. We fed 8-week old male or female CD-1 mice with a standard diet (SD) or a diet rich in saturated fat and sugar, resembling a "Western" diet (WD). Cardiac systolic and diastolic function was measured at baseline and 4 and 8 weeks by Doppler echocardiography, and left ventricular (LV) end-diastolic pressure (EDP) by cardiac catheterization prior to sacrifice. An additional group of mice received WD for 4 weeks followed by SD (wash-out) for 8 weeks. WD-fed mice experienced a significant decreased in LV ejection fraction (LVEF), reflecting impaired systolic function, and a significant increase in isovolumetric relaxation time (IRT), myocardial performance index (MPI), and LVEDP, showing impaired diastolic function, without any sex-related differences. Switching to a SD after 4 weeks of WD partially reversed the cardiac systolic and diastolic dysfunction. A diet rich in saturated fat and sugars (WD) impairs cardiac systolic and diastolic function in the mouse. Further studies are required to define the mechanism through which diet affects cardiac function, and whether dietary interventions can be used in patients with, or at risk for, HF. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  10. Natural aminoacyl tRNA synthetase fragment enhances cardiac function after myocardial infarction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret E McCormick

    Full Text Available A naturally-occurring fragment of tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase (TyrRS has been shown in higher eukaryotes to 'moonlight' as a pro-angiogenic cytokine in addition to its primary role in protein translation. Pro-angiogenic cytokines have previously been proposed to be promising therapeutic mechanisms for the treatment of myocardial infarction. Here, we show that systemic delivery of the natural fragment of TyRS, mini-TyrRS, improves heart function in mice after myocardial infarction. This improvement is associated with reduced formation of scar tissue, increased angiogenesis of cardiac capillaries, recruitment of c-kitpos cells and proliferation of myocardial fibroblasts. This work demonstrates that mini-TyrRS has beneficial effects on cardiac repair and regeneration and offers support for the notion that elucidation of the ever expanding repertoire of noncanonical functions of aminoacyl tRNA synthetases offers unique opportunities for development of novel therapeutics.

  11. Cardiodynamicsgram: a novel tool for monitoring cardiac function in exercise training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Xu; Guo, Bokai; Gong, Yinglan; Xia, Ling; Yu, Jie

    2018-04-27

    This study evaluated the feasibility of cardiodynamicsgram (CDG) for monitoring the cardiac functions of athletes and exercisers. CDG could provide an effective, simple, and economical tool for exercise training. Seventeen middle-distance race athletes aged 14-28 years old were recruited. CDG tests and blood test including creatine kinase (CK), CK-MB isoenzyme, and high-sensitivity troponin I (hsTnI) were performed before a high-intensity prolonged training, as well as 2 and 14 h after training, respectively. The CDG test result was unsatisfactory when the CK test result was used as standard. However, the accuracy of CDG test was about 80% when CK-MB and hsTnI were used as standards. Thus, CDG offers a noninvasive, simple, and economical approach for monitoring the cardiac function of athletes and exercisers during exercise training. Nonetheless, the applicability of CDG needs further investigation.

  12. Hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis activity and function of cardiac muscle in energy deficit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Lachowicz

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Frequently repeated statement that energy restriction is a factor that improves cardiovascular system function seems to be not fully truth. Low energy intake modifies the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis activity and thyroid hormone peripheral metabolism. Thyroid hormones, as modulators of the expression and activity of many cardiomyocyte proteins, control heart function. Decreased thyroid hormone levels and their disturbanced conversion and action result in alternation of cardiac remodeling, disorder of calcium homeostasis and diminish myocardial contractility. This review provides a summary of the current state of knowledge about the mechanisms of energy restriction effects on thyroidal axis activity, thyroid hormone peripheral metabolism and action in target tissues, especially in cardiac myocytes. We also showed the existence of energy restriction-thyroid-heart pathway.

  13. Cardiac function and tadalafil used for treating fetal growth restriction in pregnant women without cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Kayo; Tanaka, Hiroaki; Maki, Shintaro; Kubo, Michiko; Nii, Masafumi; Magawa, Shoichi; Hatano, Fumi; Tsuji, Makoto; Osato, Kazuhiro; Kamimoto, Yuki; Umekawa, Takashi; Ikeda, Tomoaki

    2018-02-20

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate tadalafil for the treatment of fetal growth restriction (FGR) and the cardiac function in pregnant women without cardiovascular disease who used tadalafil for this reason. We examined nine pregnant women without cardiovascular disease who were using tadalafil to treat FGR. Maternal heart rate, systolic blood pressure (BP), and echocardiographic findings were assessed before and after tadalafil use. Diastolic BP was lower after compared to that before using tadalafil, but the difference was not significant. Echocardiographic findings were not significantly different before and after tadalafil use. Tadalafil did not adversely affect pregnant women without cardiovascular disease and was considered acceptable for use since it did not affect the mother's cardiac function.

  14. Exposure to occupational air pollution and cardiac function in workers of the Esfahan Steel Industry, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golshahi, Jafar; Sadeghi, Masoumeh; Saqira, Mohammad; Zavar, Reihaneh; Sadeghifar, Mostafa; Roohafza, Hamidreza

    2016-06-01

    Air pollution is recognized as an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease. We investigated association of exposure to occupational air pollution and cardiac function in the workers of the steel industry. Fifty male workers of the agglomeration and coke-making parts of the Esfahan Steel Company were randomly selected (n = 50). Workers in the administrative parts were studied as controls (n = 50). Those with known history of hypertension, dyslipidemia, or diabetes, and active smokers were not included. Data of age, body mass index, employment duration, blood pressure, fasting blood sugar, and lipid profile were gathered. Echocardiography was performed to evaluate cardiac function. Left ventricular ejection fraction was lower in workers of the agglomeration/coke-making parts than in controls (mean difference = 5 to 5.5 %, P steel industry is associated with left heart systolic dysfunction. Possible right heart insults due to air pollution exposure warrant further investigations.

  15. CARDIAC TRANSPLANT REJECTION AND NON-INVASIVE COMON CAROTID ARTERY WALL FUNCTIONAL INDICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. O. Shevchenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Allograft rejection would entail an increase in certain blood biomarkers and active substances derived from activated inflammatory cells which could influence entire vascular endothelial function and deteriorate arterial wall stiffness. We propose that carotid wall functional indices measured with non-invasive ultrasound could we valuable markers of the subclinical cardiac allograft rejection. Aim. Our goal was to analyze the clinical utility of functional common carotid wall (CCW variables measured with high-resolution Doppler ultrasound as a non-invasive screening tool for allograft rejection in cardiac transplant patients (pts. Methods. One hundred and seventy one pts included 93 cardiac recipients, 30 dilated cardiomyopathy waiting list pts, and 48 stable coronary artery disease (SCAD pts without decompensated heart failure were included. Along with resistive index (Ri, pulsative index (Pi, and CCW intima-media thickness (IMT, CCW rigidity index (iRIG was estimated using empirical equation. Non-invasive evaluation was performed in cardiac transplant recipients prior the endomyo- cardial biopsy. Results. Neither of Ri, Pi, or CCW IMT were different in studied subgroups. iRIG was signifi- cantly lower in SCAD pts when compared to the dilated cardiomyopathy subgroup. The later had similar values with cardiac transplant recipients without rejection. Antibody-mediated and cellular rejection were found in 22 (23.7% and 17 (18.3% cardiac recipients, respectively. Mean iRIG in pts without rejection was significantly lower in comparison to antibody-mediated rejection and cell-mediated (5514.7 ± 2404.0 vs 11856.1 ± 6643.5 and 16071.9 ± 10029.1 cm/sec2, respectively, p = 0.001. Area under ROC for iRIG was 0.90 ± 0.03 units2. Analysis showed that iRIG values above estimated treshold 7172 cm/sec2 suggested relative risk of any type of rejection 17.7 (95%CI = 6.3–49.9 sensitivity 80.5%, specificity – 81.1%, negative predictive value – 84

  16. Renal and cardiac function during alpha1-beta-blockade in congestive heart failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heitmann, M; Davidsen, U; Stokholm, K H

    2002-01-01

    The kidney and the neurohormonal systems are essential in the pathogenesis of congestive heart failure (CHF) and the physiologic response. Routine treatment of moderate to severe CHF consists of diuretics, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition and beta-blockade. The need for control...... of renal function during initiation of ACE-inhibition in patients with CHF is well known. The aim of this study was to investigate whether supplementation by a combined alpha1-beta-blockade to diuretics and ACE-inhibition might improve cardiac function without reducing renal function....

  17. Resistance Training After Myocardial Infarction in Rats: Its Role on Cardiac and Autonomic Function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grans, Camilla Figueiredo; Feriani, Daniele Jardim; Abssamra, Marcos Elias Vergilino; Rocha, Leandro Yanase; Carrozzi, Nicolle Martins; Mostarda, Cristiano; Figueroa, Diego Mendrot; Angelis, Kátia De; Irigoyen, Maria Cláudia; Rodrigues, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    Although resistance exercise training is part of cardiovascular rehabilitation programs, little is known about its role on the cardiac and autonomic function after myocardial infarction. To evaluate the effects of resistance exercise training, started early after myocardial infarction, on cardiac function, hemodynamic profile, and autonomic modulation in rats. Male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: sedentary control, trained control, sedentary infarcted and trained infarcted rats. Each group with n = 9 rats. The animals underwent maximum load test and echocardiography at the beginning and at the end of the resistance exercise training (in an adapted ladder, 40% to 60% of the maximum load test, 3 months, 5 days/week). At the end, hemodynamic, baroreflex sensitivity and autonomic modulation assessments were made. The maximum load test increased in groups trained control (+32%) and trained infarcted (+46%) in relation to groups sedentary control and sedentary infarcted. Although no change occurred regarding the myocardial infarction size and systolic function, the E/A ratio (-23%), myocardial performance index (-39%) and systolic blood pressure (+6%) improved with resistance exercise training in group trained infarcted. Concomitantly, the training provided additional benefits in the high frequency bands of the pulse interval (+45%), as well as in the low frequency band of systolic blood pressure (-46%) in rats from group trained infarcted in relation to group sedentary infarcted. Resistance exercise training alone may be an important and safe tool in the management of patients after myocardial infarction, considering that it does not lead to significant changes in the ventricular function, reduces the global cardiac stress, and significantly improves the vascular and cardiac autonomic modulation in infarcted rats

  18. Resistance Training After Myocardial Infarction in Rats: Its Role on Cardiac and Autonomic Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla Figueiredo Grans

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although resistance exercise training is part of cardiovascular rehabilitation programs, little is known about its role on the cardiac and autonomic function after myocardial infarction. Objective: To evaluate the effects of resistance exercise training, started early after myocardial infarction, on cardiac function, hemodynamic profile, and autonomic modulation in rats. Methods: Male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: sedentary control, trained control, sedentary infarcted and trained infarcted rats. Each group with n = 9 rats. The animals underwent maximum load test and echocardiography at the beginning and at the end of the resistance exercise training (in an adapted ladder, 40% to 60% of the maximum load test, 3 months, 5 days/week. At the end, hemodynamic, baroreflex sensitivity and autonomic modulation assessments were made. Results: The maximum load test increased in groups trained control (+32% and trained infarcted (+46% in relation to groups sedentary control and sedentary infarcted. Although no change occurred regarding the myocardial infarction size and systolic function, the E/A ratio (-23%, myocardial performance index (-39% and systolic blood pressure (+6% improved with resistance exercise training in group trained infarcted. Concomitantly, the training provided additional benefits in the high frequency bands of the pulse interval (+45%, as well as in the low frequency band of systolic blood pressure (-46% in rats from group trained infarcted in relation to group sedentary infarcted. Conclusion: Resistance exercise training alone may be an important and safe tool in the management of patients after myocardial infarction, considering that it does not lead to significant changes in the ventricular function, reduces the global cardiac stress, and significantly improves the vascular and cardiac autonomic modulation in infarcted rats.

  19. Resistance Training After Myocardial Infarction in Rats: Its Role on Cardiac and Autonomic Function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grans, Camilla Figueiredo; Feriani, Daniele Jardim; Abssamra, Marcos Elias Vergilino; Rocha, Leandro Yanase; Carrozzi, Nicolle Martins [Laboratório do Movimento Humano, Universidade São Judas Tadeu (USJT), São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Mostarda, Cristiano [Departamento de Educação Física, Universidade Federal do Maranhão (UFMA), São Luís, MA (Brazil); Figueroa, Diego Mendrot [Laboratório de Hipertensão Experimental, Instituto do Coração (InCor), Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo (USP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Angelis, Kátia De [Laboratório de Fisiologia Translacional, Universidade Nove de Julho (Uninove), São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Irigoyen, Maria Cláudia [Laboratório de Hipertensão Experimental, Instituto do Coração (InCor), Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo (USP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Rodrigues, Bruno, E-mail: bruno.rodrigues@incor.usp.br [Laboratório do Movimento Humano, Universidade São Judas Tadeu (USJT), São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2014-07-15

    Although resistance exercise training is part of cardiovascular rehabilitation programs, little is known about its role on the cardiac and autonomic function after myocardial infarction. To evaluate the effects of resistance exercise training, started early after myocardial infarction, on cardiac function, hemodynamic profile, and autonomic modulation in rats. Male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: sedentary control, trained control, sedentary infarcted and trained infarcted rats. Each group with n = 9 rats. The animals underwent maximum load test and echocardiography at the beginning and at the end of the resistance exercise training (in an adapted ladder, 40% to 60% of the maximum load test, 3 months, 5 days/week). At the end, hemodynamic, baroreflex sensitivity and autonomic modulation assessments were made. The maximum load test increased in groups trained control (+32%) and trained infarcted (+46%) in relation to groups sedentary control and sedentary infarcted. Although no change occurred regarding the myocardial infarction size and systolic function, the E/A ratio (-23%), myocardial performance index (-39%) and systolic blood pressure (+6%) improved with resistance exercise training in group trained infarcted. Concomitantly, the training provided additional benefits in the high frequency bands of the pulse interval (+45%), as well as in the low frequency band of systolic blood pressure (-46%) in rats from group trained infarcted in relation to group sedentary infarcted. Resistance exercise training alone may be an important and safe tool in the management of patients after myocardial infarction, considering that it does not lead to significant changes in the ventricular function, reduces the global cardiac stress, and significantly improves the vascular and cardiac autonomic modulation in infarcted rats.

  20. Resistance Training After Myocardial Infarction in Rats: Its Role on Cardiac and Autonomic Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grans, Camilla Figueiredo; Feriani, Daniele Jardim; Abssamra, Marcos Elias Vergilino; Rocha, Leandro Yanase; Carrozzi, Nicolle Martins; Mostarda, Cristiano; Figueroa, Diego Mendrot; Angelis, Kátia De; Irigoyen, Maria Cláudia; Rodrigues, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    Background Although resistance exercise training is part of cardiovascular rehabilitation programs, little is known about its role on the cardiac and autonomic function after myocardial infarction. Objective To evaluate the effects of resistance exercise training, started early after myocardial infarction, on cardiac function, hemodynamic profile, and autonomic modulation in rats. Methods Male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: sedentary control, trained control, sedentary infarcted and trained infarcted rats. Each group with n = 9 rats. The animals underwent maximum load test and echocardiography at the beginning and at the end of the resistance exercise training (in an adapted ladder, 40% to 60% of the maximum load test, 3 months, 5 days/week). At the end, hemodynamic, baroreflex sensitivity and autonomic modulation assessments were made. Results The maximum load test increased in groups trained control (+32%) and trained infarcted (+46%) in relation to groups sedentary control and sedentary infarcted. Although no change occurred regarding the myocardial infarction size and systolic function, the E/A ratio (-23%), myocardial performance index (-39%) and systolic blood pressure (+6%) improved with resistance exercise training in group trained infarcted. Concomitantly, the training provided additional benefits in the high frequency bands of the pulse interval (+45%), as well as in the low frequency band of systolic blood pressure (-46%) in rats from group trained infarcted in relation to group sedentary infarcted. Conclusion Resistance exercise training alone may be an important and safe tool in the management of patients after myocardial infarction, considering that it does not lead to significant changes in the ventricular function, reduces the global cardiac stress, and significantly improves the vascular and cardiac autonomic modulation in infarcted rats. PMID:25014059

  1. Cardiovascular measurement and cardiac function analysis with electron beam computed tomography in health Chinese people (50 cases report)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Bin; Dai Ruping; Zhang Shaoxiong; Bai Hua; Jing Baolian; Cao Cheng; He Sha; Ren Li

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: To quantitatively measure cardiovascular diameters and function parameters by using electron beam computed tomography, EBCT. Methods: Men 50 health Chinese people accepted EBCT common transverse and short-axis enhanced movie scan (27 men, 23 women, average age 47.7 years.). The transverse scan was used to measure the diameters of the ascending aorta, descending aorta, pulmonary artery and left atrium. The movie study was used to measure the left ventricular myocardium thickness and analysis global, sectional and segmental function of the right and left ventricles. Results: The cardiovascular diameters and cardiac functional parameters were calculated. The diameters and most functional parameters (end syspoble volume, syspole volume, ejection fraction, cardiac-output, cardiac index) of normal Chinese men were greater than those of women (P>0.05). However, the EDV and MyM(myocardium mass) of both ventricles were significant (p<0.01). Conclusion: EBCT is a minimally invasive method for cardiovascular measurement and cardiac function evaluation

  2. Combining computer modelling and cardiac imaging to understand right ventricular pump function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walmsley, John; van Everdingen, Wouter; Cramer, Maarten J; Prinzen, Frits W; Delhaas, Tammo; Lumens, Joost

    2017-10-01

    Right ventricular (RV) dysfunction is a strong predictor of outcome in heart failure and is a key determinant of exercise capacity. Despite these crucial findings, the RV remains understudied in the clinical, experimental, and computer modelling literature. This review outlines how recent advances in using computer modelling and cardiac imaging synergistically help to understand RV function in health and disease. We begin by highlighting the complexity of interactions that make modelling the RV both challenging and necessary, and then summarize the multiscale modelling approaches used to date to simulate RV pump function in the context of these interactions. We go on to demonstrate how these modelling approaches in combination with cardiac imaging have improved understanding of RV pump function in pulmonary arterial hypertension, arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy, dyssynchronous heart failure and cardiac resynchronization therapy, hypoplastic left heart syndrome, and repaired tetralogy of Fallot. We conclude with a perspective on key issues to be addressed by computational models of the RV in the near future. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2017. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Usefulness of true FISP cine MR imaging in patients with poor cardiac function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakuma, Toshiharu; Yamada, Naoaki; Motooka, Makoto; Enomoto, Naoyuki; Maeshima, Isamu; Matsuda, Kazuhide; Urayama, Shinichi; Ikeo, Miki [National Cardiovascular Center, Suita, Osaka (Japan)

    2002-01-01

    This study was done to assess the value of True FISP cine in patients with poor cardiac function. True FISP cine and FLASH cine imaging were performed on a 1.5 T machine. Both short axis and horizontal long axis imaging sections were used. The imaging sections used a Matrix (120 x 128), FOV (24 x 32 cm), and had a slice thickness of 8 mm. The imaging time for True FISP cine was 8 heart beats and 17 heart beats for FLASH cine. The contrast-to-noise ratio between the blood and myocardium (CNR) was measured at enddiastole and endsystole. The subjects in the study were 10 healty volunteers (average age 26.5{+-}3.2 years) and 12 patients with hypofunction (average age 53.9{+-}13.2 years). In the volunteers, the CNR of the short axis imaging was similar in both True FISP (24.6{+-}3.7) and FLASH (23.4{+-}5.9). In the patients with poor cardiac function however, the CNR of True FISP was larger than FLASH in both the short and long axis. In the short axis (22.7{+-}6.1 vs. 17.9{+-}5.3, P<0.01) and in the long axis (17.4{+-}4.3 vs. 9.3{+-}4.0, P<0.01). We conclude that True FISP cine has a higher contrast in a shorter imaging time than FLASH cine. True FISP cine is especially useful in patients with poor cardiac function. (author)

  4. Functional and structural abnormalities associated with empathy in patients with schizophrenia: An fMRI and VBM study

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Sadhana; Modi, Shilpi; Goyal, Satnam; Kaur, Prabhjot; Singh, Namita; Bhatia, Triptish; Deshpande, Smita N; Khushu, Subash

    2015-01-01

    Empathy deficit is a core feature of schizophrenia which may lead to social dysfunction. The present study was carried out to investigate functional and structural abnormalities associated with empathy in patients with schizophrenia using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and voxel-based morphometry (VBM). A sample of 14 schizophrenia patients and 14 healthy control subjects matched for age, sex and education were examined with structural high-resolution T1-weighted MRI; fMRI image...

  5. Identifying potential functional impact of mutations and polymorphisms: Linking heart failure, increased risk of arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BENOIT eJAGU

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Researchers and clinicians have discovered several important concepts regarding the mechanisms responsible for increased risk of arrhythmias, heart failure and sudden cardiac death. One major step in defining the molecular basis of normal and abnormal cardiac electrical behaviour has been the identification of single mutations that greatly increase the risk for arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death by changing channel-gating characteristics. Indeed, mutations in several genes encoding ion channels, such as SCN5A, which encodes the major cardiac Na+ channel, have emerged as the basis for a variety of inherited cardiac arrhythmias such as long QT syndrome, Brugada syndrome, progressive cardiac conduction disorder, sinus node dysfunction or sudden infant death syndrome. In addition, genes encoding ion channel accessory proteins, like anchoring or chaperone proteins, which modify the expression, the regulation of endocytosis and the degradation of ion channel α-subunits have also been reported as susceptibility genes for arrhythmic syndromes. The regulation of ion channel protein expression also depends on a fine-tuned balance among different other mechanisms, such as gene transcription, RNA processing, post-transcriptional control of gene expression by miRNA, protein synthesis, assembly and post-translational modification and trafficking.

  6. 肾移植术后的肝功能异常%The abnormality of liver function following renal transplantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林荣禧; 欧良明; 陈子宣; 洪佳平; 林文洪; 吴卫真; 杨顺良

    1998-01-01

    为探讨肝功能异常对肾移植患者存活的影响,对48例肾移植前后发生肝功能异常的病例资料进行分析.术前乙型肝炎病毒表面抗原(HBsAg)阳性,伴或不伴丙氨酸转氨酶(ALT)升高者32例,术后肝功能正常者18例,肝功能异常但经治疗预后好者6例,预后差者8例;术前仅ALT升高者9例,术后肝功能正常者3例,肝功能异常但经治疗预后好者5例,预后差者1例;术前肝功能正常,术后发生肝功能异常者28例,大部分系药物的肝毒性所致,经治疗预后好者14例,预后差者14例.认为HBsAg阳性和ALT异常并非肾移植术的禁忌证;对药物的肝毒性应引起足够的重视.%In ordertoinvestigate the effects of the abnormality of liver function on the survival of the patients undergoing renal transplantation,the data of 48 patients having liver function abnormality pre-and post-transplantation of kidney were analyzed. After operation, 32 cases showed positive hepatitis B surface antigen(HBsAg)with or without an increase of ALT.After operation,liver function was normal in 18 cases.6 cases revealed abnormal liver function with favourable prognosis following treatment,while other 8 cases with unfavourable prognosis.Nine cases only showed an increase of ALT before operation.After operation.1iver function was normal in 3 cases;liver function was abnormal with good prognosis in 5,bad prognosis in one.28cases of preoperative normal liver function showed postoperative liver function abnormality mostly induced by the hepatoxication of the drugs.Of them,14 cases obtained good prognosis and 14 badprognosis after the treatment.It was suggested that positive HBsAg and ALT abnormality was not the controindications for renal transplantation and full attention should paytothe drug's hepatoxication.

  7. The specific case: cardiac amyloidosis as differential diagnosis in case of restricted cardiac pump function; Der besondere Fall. Amyloidose des Herzens als Differenzialdiagnose bei eingeschraenkter kardialer Pumpfunktion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Errico, L. [Universitaetsspital Basel (Switzerland). Klinik fuer Radiologie und Nuklearmedizin; Zellweger, M.; Niemann, T.

    2014-03-15

    The NMR imaging data in combination with clinical characterization and echocardiography are consistent with the diagnosis of a cardiac amyloidosis. The article describes disease pattern and diagnosis based on contrast agent accumulation and diastolic functional disturbances. CT was performed to exclude pulmonary embolism.

  8. Effects of milrinone on left ventricular cardiac function during cooling in an intact animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tveita, Torkjel; Sieck, Gary C

    2012-08-01

    Due to adverse effects of β-receptor agonists reported when applied during hypothermia, left ventricular (LV) cardiac effects of milrinone, a PDE3 inhibitor which mode of action is deprived the sarcolemmal β-receptor-G protein-PKA system, was tested during cooling to 15 °C. Sprague Dawley rats were instrumented to measure left ventricular (LV) pressure-volume changes using a Millar pressure-volume conductance catheter. Core temperature was reduced from 37 to 15 °C (60 min) using internal and external heat exchangers. Milrinone, or saline placebo, was given as continuous i.v. infusions for 30 min at 37 °C and during cooling. In normothermic controls continuous milrinone infusion for 90 min elevated cardiac output (CO) and stroke volume (SV) significantly. Significant differences in cardiac functional variables between the milrinone group and the saline control group during cooling to 15 °C were found: Compared to saline treated animals throughout cooling from 33 to 15 °CSV was significantly elevated in milrinone animals, the index of LV isovolumic relaxation, Tau, was significantly better preserved, and both HR and CO were significantly higher from 33 to 24 °C. Likewise, during cooling between 33 and 28 °C also LVdP/dt(max) was significantly higher in the milrinone group. Milrinone preserved LV systolic and diastolic function at a significantly higher level than in saline controls during cooling to 15 °C. In essential contrast to our previous results when using β-receptor agonists during hypothermia, the present experiment demonstrates the positive inotropic effects of milrinone on LV cardiac function during cooling to 15 °C. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Are Cardiac Autonomic Nervous System Activity and Perceived Stress Related to Functional Somatic Symptoms in Adolescents? The TRAILS Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssens, Karin A. M.; Riese, Harriette; Van Roon, Arie M.; Hunfeld, Joke A. M.; Groot, Paul F. C.; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.; Rosmalen, Judith G. M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Stressors have been related to medically insufficiently explained or functional somatic symptoms (FSS). However, the underlying mechanism of this association is largely unclear. In the current study, we examined whether FSS are associated with different perceived stress and cardiac

  10. Effects of protein-calorie restriction on mechanical function of hypertrophied cardiac muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Carlos Cicogna

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of food restriction (FR on hypertrophied cardiac muscle in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR. METHODS: Isolated papillary muscle preparations of the left ventricle (LV of 60-day-old SHR and of normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY rats were studied. The rats were fed either an unrestricted diet or FR diet (50% of the intake of the control diet for 30 days. The mechanical function of the muscles was evaluated through monitoring isometric and isotonic contractions. RESULTS: FR caused: 1 reduction in the body weight and LV weight of SHR and WKY rats; 2 increase in the time to peak shortening and the time to peak developed tension (DT in the hypertrophied myocardium of the SHR; 3 diverging changes in the mechanical function of the normal cardiac muscles of WKY rats with reduction in maximum velocity of isotonic shortening and of the time for DT to decrease 50% of its maximum value, and increase of the resting tension and of the rate of tension decline. CONCLUSION: Short-term FR causes prolongation of the contraction time of hypertrophied muscles and paradoxal changes in mechanical performance of normal cardiac fibers, with worsening of the shortening indices and of the resting tension, and improvement of the isometric relaxation.

  11. Pulmonary function and health-related quality of life 1-year follow up after cardiac surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerdahl, Elisabeth; Jonsson, Marcus; Emtner, Margareta

    2016-07-08

    Pulmonary function is severely reduced in the early period after cardiac surgery, and impairments have been described up to 4-6 months after surgery. Evaluation of pulmonary function in a longer perspective is lacking. In this prospective study pulmonary function and health-related quality of life were investigated 1 year after cardiac surgery. Pulmonary function measurements, health-related quality of life (SF-36), dyspnoea, subjective breathing and coughing ability and pain were evaluated before and 1 year after surgery in 150 patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting, valve surgery or combined surgery. One year after surgery the forced vital capacity and forced expiratory volume in 1 s were significantly decreased (by 4-5 %) compared to preoperative values (p < 0.05). Saturation of peripheral oxygen was unchanged 1 year postoperatively compared to baseline. A significantly improved health-related quality of life was found 1 year after surgery, with improvements in all eight aspects of SF-36 (p < 0.001). Sternotomy-related pain was low 1 year postoperatively at rest (median 0 [min-max; 0-7]), while taking a deep breath (0 [0-4]) and while coughing (0 [0-8]). A more pronounced decrease in pulmonary function was associated with dyspnoea limitations and impaired subjective breathing and coughing ability. One year after cardiac surgery static and dynamic lung function measurements were slightly decreased, while health-related quality of life was improved in comparison to preoperative values. Measured levels of pain were low and saturation of peripheral oxygen was same as preoperatively.

  12. Testosterone receptor blockade after trauma-hemorrhage improves cardiac and hepatic functions in males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remmers, D E; Wang, P; Cioffi, W G; Bland, K I; Chaudry, I H

    1997-12-01

    Although studies have shown that testosterone receptor blockade with flutamide after hemorrhage restores the depressed immune function, it remains unknown whether administration of flutamide following trauma and hemorrhage and resuscitation has any salutary effects on the depressed cardiovascular and hepatocellular functions. To study this, male rats underwent a laparotomy (representing trauma) and were then bled and maintained at a mean arterial pressure (MAP) of 40 mmHg until the animals could not maintain this pressure. Ringer lactate was given to maintain a MAP of 40 mmHg until 40% of the maximal shed blood volume was returned in the form of Ringer lactate. The rats were then resuscitated with four times the shed blood volume in the form of Ringer lactate over 60 min. Flutamide (25 mg/kg) or an equal volume of the vehicle propanediol was injected subcutaneously 15 min before the end of resuscitation. Various in vivo heart performance parameters (e.g., maximal rate of the pressure increase or decrease), cardiac output, and hepatocellular function (i.e., the maximum velocity and the overall efficiency of indocyanine green clearance) were determined at 20 h after resuscitation. Additionally, hepatic microvascular blood flow (HMBF) was determined using a laser Doppler flowmeter. The results indicate that left ventricular performance, cardiac output, HMBF, and hepatocellular function decreased significantly at 20 h after the completion of trauma, hemorrhage, and resuscitation. Administration of the testosterone receptor blocker flutamide, however, significantly improved cardiac performance, HMBF, and hepatocellular function. Thus flutamide appears to be a novel and useful adjunct for improving cardiovascular and hepatocellular functions in males following trauma and hemorrhagic shock.

  13. Relationship between myocardial T2* values and cardiac volumetric and functional parameters in β-thalassemia patients evaluated by cardiac magnetic resonance in association with serum ferritin levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liguori, Carlo, E-mail: c.liguori@unicampus.it [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Campus Bio Medico University, via Alvaro del Portillo 200, 00128 Rome (Italy); Pitocco, Francesca, E-mail: f.pitocco@unicampus.it [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Campus Bio Medico University, via Alvaro del Portillo 200, 00128 Rome (Italy); Di Giampietro, Ilenia, E-mail: i.digiampietro@unicampus.it [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Campus Bio Medico University, via Alvaro del Portillo 200, 00128 Rome (Italy); Vivo, Aldo Eros de, E-mail: devivoeros@gmail.com [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Campus Bio Medico University, via Alvaro del Portillo 200, 00128 Rome (Italy); Schena, Emiliano, E-mail: e.schena@unicampus.it [Unit of Measurements and Biomedical Instrumentation, Campus Bio Medico University, via Alvaro del Portillo 200, 00128 Rome (Italy); Cianciulli, Paolo, E-mail: CIANCIULLI.PAOLO@aslrmc.it [Thalassemia Unit, Ospedale Sant Eugenio, Piazzale dell’Umanesimo 10, 00143 Rome (Italy); Zobel, Bruno Beomonte, E-mail: b.zobel@unicampus.it [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Campus Bio Medico University, via Alvaro del Portillo 200, 00128 Rome (Italy)

    2013-09-15

    Purpose: Myocardial T2* cardiovascular magnetic resonance provides a rapid and reproducible assessment of cardiac iron load in thalassemia patients. Although cardiac involvement is mainly characterized by left ventricular dysfunction caused by iron overload, little is known about right ventricular function. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between T2* value in myocardium and left–right ventricular volumetric and functional parameters and to evaluate the existing associations between left–right ventricles volumetric and functional parameter, myocardial T2* values and blood ferritin levels. Materials and methods: A retrospective analysis of 208 patients with β-thalassemia major and thalassemia intermedia was performed (109 males and 99 females; mean age 37.7 ± 13 years; 143 thalassemia major, 65 thalassemia intermedia). Myocardial iron load was assessed by T2* measurements, and volumetric functions were analyzed using the steady state free precession sequence. Results: A significant correlation was observed between EFLV and T2* (p = 0.0001), EFRV and T2* (p = 0.0279). An inverse correlation was present between DVLV and T2* (p = 0.0468), SVLV and T2* (p = 0.0003), SVRV and T2* (p = 0.0001). There was no significant correlation between cardiac T2* and LV–RV mass indices. A significant correlation was observed between T2* and serum ferritin levels (p < 0.001) and between EFLV and serum ferritin (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Myocardial iron load assessed by T2* cardiac magnetic resonance is associated with deterioration in left–right ventricular function; this is more evident when T2* values fall below 14 ms. CMR appears to be a promising approach for cardiac risk evaluation in TM patients.

  14. Relationship between myocardial T2* values and cardiac volumetric and functional parameters in β-thalassemia patients evaluated by cardiac magnetic resonance in association with serum ferritin levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liguori, Carlo; Pitocco, Francesca; Di Giampietro, Ilenia; Vivo, Aldo Eros de; Schena, Emiliano; Cianciulli, Paolo; Zobel, Bruno Beomonte

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Myocardial T2* cardiovascular magnetic resonance provides a rapid and reproducible assessment of cardiac iron load in thalassemia patients. Although cardiac involvement is mainly characterized by left ventricular dysfunction caused by iron overload, little is known about right ventricular function. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between T2* value in myocardium and left–right ventricular volumetric and functional parameters and to evaluate the existing associations between left–right ventricles volumetric and functional parameter, myocardial T2* values and blood ferritin levels. Materials and methods: A retrospective analysis of 208 patients with β-thalassemia major and thalassemia intermedia was performed (109 males and 99 females; mean age 37.7 ± 13 years; 143 thalassemia major, 65 thalassemia intermedia). Myocardial iron load was assessed by T2* measurements, and volumetric functions were analyzed using the steady state free precession sequence. Results: A significant correlation was observed between EFLV and T2* (p = 0.0001), EFRV and T2* (p = 0.0279). An inverse correlation was present between DVLV and T2* (p = 0.0468), SVLV and T2* (p = 0.0003), SVRV and T2* (p = 0.0001). There was no significant correlation between cardiac T2* and LV–RV mass indices. A significant correlation was observed between T2* and serum ferritin levels (p < 0.001) and between EFLV and serum ferritin (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Myocardial iron load assessed by T2* cardiac magnetic resonance is associated with deterioration in left–right ventricular function; this is more evident when T2* values fall below 14 ms. CMR appears to be a promising approach for cardiac risk evaluation in TM patients

  15. Can Functional Cardiac Age be Predicted from ECG in a Normal Healthy Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlegel, Todd; Starc, Vito; Leban, Manja; Sinigoj, Petra; Vrhovec, Milos

    2011-01-01

    In a normal healthy population, we desired to determine the most age-dependent conventional and advanced ECG parameters. We hypothesized that changes in several ECG parameters might correlate with age and together reliably characterize the functional age of the heart. Methods: An initial study population of 313 apparently healthy subjects was ultimately reduced to 148 subjects (74 men, 84 women, in the range from 10 to 75 years of age) after exclusion criteria. In all subjects, ECG recordings (resting 5-minute 12-lead high frequency ECG) were evaluated via custom software programs to calculate up to 85 different conventional and advanced ECG parameters including beat-to-beat QT and RR variability, waveform complexity, and signal-averaged, high-frequency and spatial/spatiotemporal ECG parameters. The prediction of functional age was evaluated by multiple linear regression analysis using the best 5 univariate predictors. Results: Ignoring what were ultimately small differences between males and females, the functional age was found to be predicted (R2= 0.69, P ECGs, functional cardiac age can be estimated by multiple linear regression analysis of mostly advanced ECG results. Because some parameters in the regression formula, such as QTcorr, high frequency QRS amplitude and P-wave width also change with disease in the same direction as with increased age, increased functional age of the heart may reflect subtle age-related pathologies in cardiac electrical function that are usually hidden on conventional ECG.

  16. Intravital imaging of cardiac function at the single-cell level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, Aaron D; Vinegoni, Claudio; Sebas, Matt; Weissleder, Ralph

    2014-08-05

    Knowledge of cardiomyocyte biology is limited by the lack of methods to interrogate single-cell physiology in vivo. Here we show that contracting myocytes can indeed be imaged with optical microscopy at high temporal and spatial resolution in the beating murine heart, allowing visualization of individual sarcomeres and measurement of the single cardiomyocyte contractile cycle. Collectively, this has been enabled by efficient tissue stabilization, a prospective real-time cardiac gating approach, an image processing algorithm for motion-artifact-free imaging throughout the cardiac cycle, and a fluorescent membrane staining protocol. Quantification of cardiomyocyte contractile function in vivo opens many possibilities for investigating myocardial disease and therapeutic intervention at the cellular level.

  17. Effects of cigarette smoking on cardiac autonomic function during dynamic exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendonca, Goncalo V; Pereira, Fernando D; Fernhall, Bo

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the acute effect of cigarette smoking on cardiac autonomic function in young adult smokers during dynamic exercise. Fourteen healthy young smokers (21.4 ± 3.4 years) performed peak and submaximal exercise protocols under control and smoking conditions. Resting and submaximal beat-to-beat R-R series were recorded and spectrally decomposed using the fast Fourier transformation. Smoking resulted in a significant decrease in work time, VO(2peak) and peak O(2) pulse (P exercise after smoking (P smoking, both at rest and during exercise (P smoking (P smoking, but only at rest (P smoking is accompanied by acute changes in heart rate spectral components both at rest and during exercise. Therefore, the cardiac autonomic control is altered by smoking not only at rest, but also during exercise, resulting in reduced vagal modulation and increased sympathetic dominance.

  18. Functional Near-Infrared Fluorescence Imaging for Cardiac Surgery and Targeted Gene Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Nakayama

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac revascularization is presently performed without realtime visual assessment of myocardial blood flow or perfusion. Moreover, gene therapy of the heart cannot, at present, be directed to specific territories at risk for myocardial infarction. We have developed a surgical imaging system that exploits the low autofluorescence, deep tissue penetration, low tissue scatter, and invisibility of near-infrared (NIR fluorescent light. By completely isolating visible and NIR light paths, one is able to visualize, simultaneously, the anatomy and/or function of the heart, or any desired tissue. In rat model systems, we demonstrate that the heptamethine indocyanine-type NIR fluorophores IR-786 and the carboxylic acid form of IRDye78 can be injected intravenously in the living animal to provide real-time visual assessment of myocardial blood flow or perfusion intraoperatively. This imaging system may prove useful for the refinement of revascularization techniques, and for the administration of cardiac gene therapy.

  19. Hyperpolarized metabolic MR in the study of cardiac function and disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritzen, M. H.; Søgaard, L. V.; Madsen, Pia Lisbeth

    2014-01-01

    Several diseases of the heart have been linked to an insufficient ability to generate enough energy (ATP) to sustain proper heart function. Hyperpolarized magnetic resonance (MR) is a novel technique that can visualize and quantify myocardial energy metabolism. Hyperpolarization enhances the MR...... signal from a biological molecule of interest by more than 10,000 times, making it possible to measure its cellular uptake and conversion in specific enzymatic pathways in real time. We review the role of hyperpolarized MR in identifying changes in cardiac metabolism in vivo, and present the extensive...... literature on hyperpolarized pyruvate that has been used to characterize cardiac disease in various in vivo models, such as myocardial ischemia, hypertension, diabetes, hyperthyroidism and heart failure. The technical aspects of the technique are presented as well as the challenges of translating...

  20. Thalamocortical functional connectivity in Lennox-Gastaut syndrome is abnormally enhanced in executive-control and default-mode networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Aaron E L; Abbott, David F; Jackson, Graeme D; Archer, John S

    2017-12-01

    To identify abnormal thalamocortical circuits in the severe epilepsy of Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (LGS) that may explain the shared electroclinical phenotype and provide potential treatment targets. Twenty patients with a diagnosis of LGS (mean age = 28.5 years) and 26 healthy controls (mean age = 27.6 years) were compared using task-free functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The thalamus was parcellated according to functional connectivity with 10 cortical networks derived using group-level independent component analysis. For each cortical network, we assessed between-group differences in thalamic functional connectivity strength using nonparametric permutation-based tests. Anatomical locations were identified by quantifying spatial overlap with a histologically informed thalamic MRI atlas. In both groups, posterior thalamic regions showed functional connectivity with visual, auditory, and sensorimotor networks, whereas anterior, medial, and dorsal thalamic regions were connected with networks of distributed association cortex (including the default-mode, anterior-salience, and executive-control networks). Four cortical networks (left and right executive-control network; ventral and dorsal default-mode network) showed significantly enhanced thalamic functional connectivity strength in patients relative to controls. Abnormal connectivity was maximal in mediodorsal and ventrolateral thalamic nuclei. Specific thalamocortical circuits are affected in LGS. Functional connectivity is abnormally enhanced between the mediodorsal and ventrolateral thalamus and the default-mode and executive-control networks, thalamocortical circuits that normally support diverse cognitive processes. In contrast, thalamic regions connecting with primary and sensory cortical networks appear to be less affected. Our previous neuroimaging studies show that epileptic activity in LGS is expressed via the default-mode and executive-control networks. Results of the present study suggest that

  1. Efficacy of cardiac resynchronization with defibrillator insertion in patients undergone coronary artery bypass graft: A cohort study of cardiac function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Karbasi Afshar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT is a proven therapeutic method in selected patients with heart failure and systolic dysfunction which increases left ventricular function and patient survival. We designed a study that included patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft (CABG, with and without CRT-defibrillator (CRT-D inserting and then measured its effects on these two groups. Patients and Methods: Between 2010 and 2013, we conducted a prospective cohort study on 100 coronary artery disease patients where candidate for CABG. Then based on the receiving CRT-D, the patients were categorized in two groups; Group 1 ( n = 48, with CRT-D insertion before CABG and Group 2 ( n = 52 without receiving CRT-D. Thereafter both of these groups were followed-up at 1-3 months after CABG for mortality, hospitalization, atrial fibrillation (AF, echocardiographic assessment, and New York Heart Association (NYHA class level. Results: The mean age of participants in Group 1 (48 male and in Group 2 (52 male was 58 ± 13 and 57 ± 12 respectively. Difference between Groups 1 and 2 in cases of mean left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF changes and NYHA class level was significant ( P > 0.05. Hospitalization ( P = 0.008, mortality rate ( P = 0.007, and AF were significantly different between these two groups. Conclusions: The results showed that the increase in LVEF and patient′s improvement according to NYHA-class was significant in the first group, and readmission, mortality rate and AF was increased significantly in the second group.

  2. Optogenetic release of norepinephrine from cardiac sympathetic neurons alters mechanical and electrical function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wengrowski, Anastasia M; Wang, Xin; Tapa, Srinivas; Posnack, Nikki Gillum; Mendelowitz, David; Kay, Matthew W

    2015-02-01

    Release of norepinephrine (NE) from sympathetic neurons enhances heart rate (HR) and developed force through activation of β-adrenergic receptors, and this sympathoexcitation is a key risk for the generation of cardiac arrhythmias. Studies of β-adrenergic modulation of cardiac function typically involve the administration of exogenous β-adrenergic receptor agonists to directly elicit global β-adrenergic receptor activation by bypassing the involvement of sympathetic nerve terminals. In this work, we use a novel method to activate sympathetic fibres within the myocardium of Langendorff-perfused hearts while measuring changes in electrical and mechanical function. The light-activated optogenetic protein channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) was expressed in murine catecholaminergic sympathetic neurons. Sympathetic fibres were then photoactivated to examine changes in contractile force, HR, and cardiac electrical activity. Incidence of arrhythmia was measured with and without exposure to photoactivation of sympathetic fibres, and hearts were optically mapped to detect changes in action potential durations and conduction velocities. Results demonstrate facilitation of both developed force and HR after photostimulated release of NE, with increases in contractile force and HR of 34.5 ± 5.5 and 25.0 ± 9.3%, respectively. Photostimulation of sympathetic fibres also made hearts more susceptible to arrhythmia, with greater incidence and severity. In addition, optically mapped action potentials displayed a small but significant shortening of the plateau phase (-5.5 ± 1.0 ms) after photostimulation. This study characterizes a powerful and clinically relevant new model for studies of cardiac arrhythmias generated by increasing the activity of sympathetic nerve terminals and the resulting activation of myocyte β-adrenergic receptors. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2014. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Evaluation of cardiac morphology and function in mitral stenosis using CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohnishi, Masaki [Chiba Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1992-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate cardiac morphology and function in patients with mitral stenosis (MS). The subjects consisted of 96 patients (23 males and 73 females) with MS who underwent plain and contrast-enhanced CT. Follow-up examinations were performed at least twice in 42 patients, including 18 who were examined before and after surgery. The volume of each cardiac chamber was calculated by Simpson's rule and was divided by body surface area (BSA). The average left atrial (LA) volume was 171[+-]80 cm[sup 3]/m[sup 2] BSA in the 96 MS patients, and 46[+-]10 cm[sup 3]/m[sup 2] BSA in normal control subjects. Atrial fibrillation (Af) was present in 61 patients (64%), and left atrial thrombi were detected in 15 (25%) of them. LA volume increased by 16% in 24 patients without surgery during a mean follow-up period of 4.1 years. The LA tended to enlarge more in the patients with a smaller mitral valve area, a larger LA volume at the first examination, or Af. In 18 patients, after open surgery or percutaneous transvenous mitral commissurotomy, pulmonary CT values decreased significantly as a result of the improvement of pulmonary congestion. LA and RA volume decreased significantly and LV volume increased after surgery. It was concluded that CT was useful for evaluating cardiac function and morphological changes, not only by detecting mitral valve calcification and LA thrombi but also by measuring cardiac volume and pulmonary CT values. (author).

  4. Immune function surveillance: association with rejection, infection and cardiac allograft vasculopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikal, N M; Bader, F M; Martins, T B; Pavlov, I Y; Wilson, A R; Barakat, M; Stehlik, J; Kfoury, A G; Gilbert, E M; Delgado, J C; Hill, H R

    2013-01-01

    Rejection, cardiac allograft vasculopathy (CAV), and infection are significant causes of mortality in heart transplantation recipients. Assessing the immune status of a particular patient remains challenging. Although endomyocardial biopsy (EMB) and angiography are effective for the identification of rejection and CAV, respectively, these are expensive, invasive, and may have numerous complications. The aim of this study was to evaluate the immune function and assess its utility in predicting rejection, CAV, and infection in heart transplantation recipients. We prospectively obtained samples at the time of routine EMB and when clinically indicated for measurement of the ImmuKnow assay (IM), 12 cytokines and soluble CD30 (sCD30). EMB specimens were evaluated for acute cellular rejection, and antibody-mediated rejection (AMR). CAV was diagnosed by the development of angiographic coronary artery disease. Infectious episodes occurring during the next 30 days after testing were identified by the presence of positive bacterial or fungal cultures and/or viremia that prompted treatment with antimicrobials. We collected 162 samples from 56 cardiac transplant recipients. There were 31 infection episodes, 7 AMR, and 4 CAV cases. The average IM value was significantly lower during infection, (P = .04). Soluble CD30 concentrations showed significantly positive correlation with infection episodes, (P = .001). Significant positive correlation was observed between interleukin-5(IL-5) and AMR episodes (P = .008). Tumor necrosis factor-α and IL-8 showed significant positive correlation with CAV (P = .001). Immune function monitoring appears promising in predicting rejection, CAV, and infection in cardiac transplantation recipients. This approach may help in more individualized immunosuppression and it may also minimize unnecessary EMBs and cardiac angiographies. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Does ketogenic diet have any negative effect on cardiac systolic and diastolic functions in children with intractable epilepsy?: One-year follow-up results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdemir, Rahmi; Kucuk, Mehmet; Guzel, Orkide; Karadeniz, Cem; Yilmaz, Unsal; Mese, Timur

    2016-10-01

    The ketogenic diet (KD) has been referred to as an "effective therapy with side effects" for children with intractable epilepsy. Among the most recognized adverse effects, there are cardiac conduction abnormalities, vascular and myocardial dysfunction. However, very limited and controversial data are available regarding the effects of the KD on cardiac functions. We sought to analyze the mid-term effect of ketogenic diet on cardiac functions in patients with intractable epilepsy who received a ketogenic diet for at least 12months using conventional and relatively new imaging techniques. This prospective study included 61 patients with intractable epilepsy who received ketogenic diet for at least 12months. Clinical examinations, serum carnitine and selenium levels as well as electrocardiographic and echocardiographic examinations were scheduled prior to the procedure and at 1, 3, 6 and 12months. We utilized two-dimensional, M-mode, colored Doppler, spectral Doppler and pulsed wave tissue Doppler imaging techniques to investigate ventricular systolic and diastolic functions of this subgroup of patients. In our study, there was no significant difference after 1year of KD therapy compared to baseline values-except a significantly decreased A wave velocity-in terms of pulse wave Doppler echocardiographic measurements of the diastolic function. The tissue Doppler measurements obtained from the lateral wall of tricuspide and mitral annuli were not different at baseline and at month 12 of the treatment, as well. The ketogenic diet appears to have no disturbing effect on ventricular functions in epileptic children in the midterm. Copyright © 2016 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Polycystic Ovary-Like Abnormalities (PCO-L) in women with functional hypothalamic amenorrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robin, G; Gallo, C; Catteau-Jonard, S; Lefebvre-Maunoury, C; Pigny, P; Duhamel, A; Dewailly, D

    2012-11-01

    In the general population, about 30% of asymptomatic women have polycystic ovary-like abnormalities (PCO-L), i.e. polycystic ovarian morphology (PCOM) at ultrasound and/or increased anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) serum level. PCOM has also been reported in 30-50% of women with functional hypothalamic amenorrhea (FHA). The aim of this study was to verify whether both PCOM and excessive AMH level indicate PCO-L in FHA and to elucidate its significance. We conducted a retrospective analysis using a database and comparison with a control population. Subjects received ambulatory care in an academic hospital. Fifty-eight patients with FHA were compared to 217 control women with nonendocrine infertility and body mass index of less than 25 kg/m(2). There were no interventions. We measured serum testosterone, androstenedione, FSH, LH, AMH, and ovarian area values. The antral follicle count (AFC) was used as a binary variable (i.e. negative or positive) because of the evolution of its sensitivity over the time of this study. The ability of these variables (except AFC) to detect PCO-L in both populations was tested by cluster analysis. One cluster (cluster 2) suggesting PCO-L was detected in the control population (n = 52; 24%), whereas two such clusters were observed in the FHA population (n = 22 and n = 6; 38 and 10%; clusters 2 and 3, respectively). Cluster 2 in FHA had similar features of PCO-L as cluster 2 in controls, with higher prevalence of positive AFC (70%) and PCOM (70%), higher values of ovarian area and higher serum AMH (P < 0.0001 for all), and testosterone levels (P < 0.01) than in cluster 1. Cluster 3 in FHA was peculiar, with frankly elevated AMH levels. In the whole population (controls + FHA), PCO-L was significantly associated with lower FSH values (P < 0.0001). PCO-L in FHA is a frequent and usually incidental finding of unclear significance, as in controls. The association of PCO-L with hypothalamic amenorrhea should not lead to a mistaken diagnosis of

  7. Abnormal wiring of the connectome in adults with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Roine, Ulrika; Roine, Timo; Salmi, Juha; Nieminen-von Wendt, Taina; Tani, Pekka; Lepp?m?ki, Sami; Rintahaka, Pertti; Caeyenberghs, Karen; Leemans, Alexander; Sams, Mikko

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background Recent brain imaging findings suggest that there are widely distributed abnormalities affecting the brain connectivity in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Using graph theoretical analysis, it is possible to investigate both global and local properties of brain’s wiring diagram, i.e., the connectome. Methods We acquired diffusion-...

  8. Chronic resuscitation after trauma-hemorrhage and acute fluid replacement improves hepatocellular function and cardiac output.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remmers, D E; Wang, P; Cioffi, W G; Bland, K I; Chaudry, I H

    1998-01-01

    To determine whether prolonged (chronic) resuscitation has any beneficial effects on cardiac output and hepatocellular function after trauma-hemorrhage and acute fluid replacement. Acute fluid resuscitation after trauma-hemorrhage restores but does not maintain the depressed hepatocellular function and cardiac output. Male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent a 5-cm laparotomy (i.e., trauma was induced) and were bled to and maintained at a mean arterial pressure of 40 mmHg until 40% of maximal bleed-out volume was returned in the form of Ringer's lactate (RL). The animals were acutely resuscitated with RL using 4 times the volume of maximum bleed-out over 60 minutes, followed by chronic resuscitation of 0, 5, or 10 mL/kg/hr RL for 20 hours. Hepatocellular function was determined by an in vivo indocyanine green clearance technique. Hepatic microvascular blood flow was assessed by laser Doppler flowmetry. Plasma levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) were determined by bioassay. Chronic resuscitation with 5 mL/kg/hr RL, but not with 0 or 10 mL/kg/hr RL, restored cardiac output, hepatocellular function, and hepatic microvascular blood flow at 20 hours after hemorrhage. The regimen above also reduced plasma IL-6 levels. Because chronic resuscitation with 5 mL/kg/hr RL after trauma-hemorrhage and acute fluid replacement restored hepatocellular function and hepatic microvascular blood flow and decreased plasma levels of IL-6, we propose that chronic fluid resuscitation in addition to acute fluid replacement should be routinely used in experimental studies of trauma-hemorrhage.

  9. Chronic mitral regurgitation detected on cardiac MDCT: differentiation between functional and valvular aetiologies.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Killeen, Ronan P

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether cardiac computed tomography (MDCT) can differentiate between functional and valvular aetiologies of chronic mitral regurgitation (MR) compared with echocardiography (TTE). METHODS: Twenty-seven patients with functional or valvular MR diagnosed by TTE and 19 controls prospectively underwent cardiac MDCT. The morphological appearance of the mitral valve (MV) leaflets, MV geometry, MV leaflet angle, left ventricular (LV) sphericity and global\\/regional wall motion were analysed. The coronary arteries were evaluated for obstructive atherosclerosis. RESULTS: All control and MR cases were correctly identified by MDCT. Significant differences were detected between valvular and control groups for anterior leaflet length (30 +\\/- 7 mm vs. 22 +\\/- 4 mm, P < 0.02) and thickness (3.0 +\\/- 1 mm vs. 2.2 +\\/- 1 mm, P < 0.01). High-grade coronary stenosis was detected in all patients with functional MR compared with no controls (P < 0.001). Significant differences in those with\\/without MV prolapse were detected in MV tent area (-1.0 +\\/- 0.6 mm vs. 1.3 +\\/- 0.9 mm, P < 0.0001) and MV tent height (-0.7 +\\/- 0.3 mm vs. 0.8 +\\/- 0.8 mm, P < 0.0001). Posterior leaflet angle was significantly greater for functional MR (37.9 +\\/- 19.1 degrees vs. 22.9 +\\/- 14 degrees , P < 0.018) and less for valvular MR (0.6 +\\/- 35.5 degrees vs. 22.9 +\\/- 14 degrees, P < 0.017). Sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of MDCT were 100%, 95%, 96% and 100%. CONCLUSION: Cardiac MDCT allows the differentiation between functional and valvular causes of MR.

  10. Abnormality of cerebral cortical glucose metabolism in temporal lobe epilepsy with cognitive function impairment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bang-Hung Yang; Tsung-Szu Yeh; Tung-Ping Su; Jyh-Cheng Chen; Ren-Shyan Liu

    2004-01-01

    =95). Significantly negative correlation was demonstrated in superior temporal gyms of right temporal lobe (corrected p = 0.003, voxel size 113). Significantly positive correlation between PIQ and rCMRglc was shown in posterior lobe of cerebellum (corrected p < 0.001, voxel size =244). There was no significantly negative correlation between PIQ and rCMRglc. Conclusions: This study provided neuroimaging evidence of cerebral metabolic abnormalities which was related to cognition function impairment in temporal lobe epilepsy patient. All lesions were located with ipislateral hemisphere but outside the seizure foci. This may suggest that cognition impairment is not directly related to seizure foci but may be related with remoting areas. The epilepsy patients whose seizures will prove to be refractory should be identified as early as possible, and thus the need for new prognostic factors of intractable epilepsy is evident. Since multiple seizure foci indicated poor prognosis, quantification of Brodmann area 4, 32, 18 and cerebellum in FDG PET images may be a prognostic factor. (authors)

  11. Prediction of cardiac sympathetic nerve activity and cardiac functional outcome after treatment in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy. Examination using dobutamine gated blood pool scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasama, Shu; Toyama, Takuji; Iwasaki, Tsutomu; Suzuki, Tadashi [Gunma Univ., Maebashi (Japan). School of Medicine; Hoshizaki, Hiroshi; Oshima, Shigeru; Taniguchi, Koichi; Nagai, Ryozo

    2000-07-01

    This study evaluated whether dobutamine gated blood pool scintigraphy can predict improvement of cardiac sympathetic nerve activity and cardiac function. Sixteen patients (10 men and 6 women, mean age 59{+-}13 years) with dilated cardiomyopathy underwent dobutamine gated blood pool scintigraphy to measure left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) using tracer at 0, 5, 10 and 15 {mu}g/kg/min before treatment. Patients were divided into good responders (LVEF increase {>=}15%) 8 patients (GR Group) and poor responders (LVEF increase <15%) 8 patients (PR Group) after treatment with {beta}-blocker or amiodarone with a background treatment of digitalis, diuretics and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor. I-123 metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) imaging to evaluate cardiac sympathetic nerve activity and echocardiography were performed before and at one year after treatment. MIBG imaging was obtained 4 hours after tracer injection, and the heart/mediastinum count ratio (H/M ratio) calculated from the anterior planar image and the total defect score (TDS) from the single photon emission computed tomography image. LVEF and left ventricular endo-diastolic dimension (LVDd) were measured by echocardiography and New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class was evaluated. The GR Group showed TDS decreased from 28{+-}6 to 17{+-}12 (p<0.05), H/M ratio increased from 1.79{+-}0.26 to 2.07{+-}0.32 (p<0.05), LVEF increased from 29{+-}8% to 48{+-}10% (p<0.01), and LVDd decreased from 65{+-}4 mm to 58{+-}5 mm (p<0.05). In contrast, the PR group showed no significant changes in TDS. H/M ratio, LVEF and LVDd. NYHA functional class improved in both groups. The improvement was better in the GR Group than in the PR group. Dobutamine gated blood pool scintigraphy is useful to predict the improvement of the cardiac sympathetic nerve activity and cardiac function, and symptoms after treatment in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy. (author)

  12. Influence of Prescribed Herbal and Western Medicine on Patients with Abnormal Liver Function Tests: A Retrospective Quasi-Experimental Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ah-Ram; Yim, Je-Min; Kim, Won-Il

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the safety and the efficacy of Korean herbal, western and combination medicine use in patients with abnormal liver function tests. Methods: We investigated nerve disease patients with abnormal liver function tests who were treated with Korean herbal, western and combination medicine at Dong-Eui University Oriental Hospital from January 2011 to August 2011. We compared aspartic aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and total bilirubin (T-bil) levels before and after taking medicine and excluded patients who had liver-related disease when admitted. Results: AST and ALT were decreased significantly in patients who had taken herbal, western medicine. AST, ALT and ALP were decreased significantly in patients who had taken combination medicine. Compare to herbal medicine, AST, ALT and ALP were decreased significantly in patients who had taken western medicine, and ALT and ALP were decreased significantly in patients who had taken combination medicine. There were no significant differences between western and combination medicine. Conclusions: This study suggests that prescribed Korean herbal medicine, at least, does not injure liver function for patients’, moreover, it was shown to be effective in patients with abnormal liver function tests. PMID:25780634

  13. Right and left ventricular cardiac function in a developed world population with human immunodeficiency virus studied with radionuclide ventriculography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lebech, Anne-Mette; Gerstoft, Jan; Hesse, Birger

    2004-01-01

    . No correlations were found between reduced cardiac function and levels of the 3 peptides measured. CONCLUSIONS: No major dysfunction of the left ventricle is present in a developed world HIV population. However, a small but significant part of this population has modestly reduced right-sided systolic function.......-associated morbidity and mortality rates. Accordingly, the prevalence of HIV-associated cardiac dysfunction may also have changed. The aim of the study was to establish the prevalence of right- and left-sided cardiac dysfunction in a Danish HIV population, most of whom were undergoing HAART, with radionuclide...... ventricular ejection fraction and 6 (7%) had a reduced right ventricle ejection fraction (0.35-0.42) compared with reference values from the age- and sex-matched reference population. Patients with HIV and reduced cardiac function did not differ in the duration of HIV, CD4 count, CD4 nadir, or HIV RNA load...

  14. Long-lasting functional disabilities in patients who recover from coma after cardiac operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Rosendo A; Nair, Shona; Bussière, Miguel; Nathan, Howard J

    2013-03-01

    Uncertainty regarding the long-term functional outcome of patients who awaken from coma after cardiac operations is difficult for families and physicians and may delay rehabilitation. We studied the long-term functional status of these patients to determine if duration of coma predicted outcome. We followed 71 patients who underwent cardiac operations; recovered their ability to respond to verbal commands after coma associated with postoperative stroke, encephalopathy, and/or seizures; and were discharged from the hospital. The Glasgow Outcome Scale Extended (GOSE) was used to assess functional disability 2 to 4 years after discharge. Outcomes were classified as favorable (GOSE scores 7 and 8) and unfavorable (GOSE scores 1-6). Of 71 patients identified, 39 were interviewed, 15 died, 1 refused to be interviewed, and 16 were lost to follow-up. Of the 54 patients with completed GOSE evaluations, only 15 (28%) had favorable outcomes. Among patients with unfavorable outcomes, 15 (28%) died, 14 (26%) survived with moderate disabilities, and 10 (18%) had severe disabilities. Factors associated with unfavorable outcomes were increases in duration of coma (p = 0.007), time in intensive care (p = 0.006), length of hospitalization (p = 0.004), and postoperative serum creatine kinase levels (p = 0.006). Only duration of coma was an independent predictor of unfavorable outcome (odds ratio [OR], 1.25; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.008-1.537; p = 0.042). Patients with durations of coma greater than 4 days were more likely to have unfavorable outcomes (OR, 5.1; 95% CI, 1.3-21.3; p = 0.02). Two thirds of comatose patients who survived to discharge after cardiac operations had unfavorable long-term functional outcomes. A longer duration of unconsciousness is a predictor of unfavorable outcome. Copyright © 2013 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging in evaluation of anatomical structure and function of the ventricles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Jun-ichi; Usui, Masahiro; Takenaka, Katsu

    1990-01-01

    Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is being widely employed for evaluation of cardiovascular anatomies and functions. However, the indications for cardiac MRI to obtain information which cannot be obtained using other conventional methods have not yet been determined. To demonstrate the usefulness of MRI in delineating the apex of the left ventricle and free wall of the right ventricle, end-diastolic short axis MRI images were obtained in 20 patients with apical hypertrophy and in 9 normal volunteers. To compare the accuracy of estimations of left ventricular volumes obtained using the modified Simpson's method of MRI with that using the MRI area length method, 19 patients, in whom left ventriculography had been performed, were studied. The apex of the left ventricle was evaluated circumferentially and distribution of hypertrophied muscles was defined. Sixty-five percent of the length of the right ventricular free wall was clearly delineated. Correlation coefficients of the ejection fraction between MRI and angiography were 0.85 with the modified Simpson's method of MRI, and 0.62 with the area length method of MRI. Three themes were chosen to demonstrate good clinical indications for cardiac MRI. (author)

  16. Cardiac functional mapping for thallium-201 myocardial perfusion, washout, wall motion and phase using single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, Kenichi; Bunko, Hisashi; Taniguchi, Mitsuru; Taki, Junichi; Tonami, Norihisa; Hisada, Kinichi; Hirano, Takako; Wani, Hidenobu.

    1986-01-01

    A method for three-dimensional functional mapping of Tl-201 myocardial uptake, washout, wall motion and phase was developed using SPECT. Each parameter was mapped using polar display in the same format. Normal values were determined in Tl-201 exercise study in 16 patients. Myocardial counts were lower in the septum and inferior wall and the difference of counts between anterior and inferior walls were greater in man compared with the perfusion pattern in woman. Washout was slower at septum and inferior wall in man, and slightly slower at inferior wall in woman. In gated blood-pool tomography, length-based and count-based Fourier analyses were applied to calculate the parameters of contraction and phase. The results of both Fourier analyses generally agreed; however, the area of abnormality was slightly different. Phase maps were useful for the assessment of asynergy as well as in patients with conduction disorders. These cardiac functional maps using SPECT were considered to be effective for the understanding of three-dimensional informations of cardiac function. (author)

  17. Integrative analysis of cardiac function and metabolism in patients with idiopathic hypertrophic cardiomyopathy with H-1 cine MR imaging and P-31 MR spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, S.; Chew, W.M.; Semelka, R.; Tomei, E.; Caputo, G.; O'Sullivan, M.; Chatterjee, K.; Parmley, W.W.; Wolfe, C.L.; Higgins, C.B.

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to use MR imaging and P-31 spectroscopy for the functional and metabolic characterization of patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). Nine patients with HCM underwent combined P-31 spectroscopy (one-dimensional chemical shift imaging) and MR imaging at 1.5 T. MR imaging localized the distribution of ventricular hypertrophy and cine MR imaging quantitated cardiac volumes, contractility, and left ventricular mass. The phosphodiester/phosphocreatine ratio (PDE/PCr) in six HCM patients was not different from normal, but in three patients it was significantly (P <.01) higher. This finding could not be attributed to contractible abnormalities, the distribution of hypertrophy, or the left ventricular mass. The abnormal PDE/PCr ratio was found only in patients with echocardiographic findings of resting left ventricular outflow obstruction but was not associated with severity or distribution of hypertrophy. The study shows the use of combined MR imaging and MR spectroscopy to characterize HCM and possibly to identify abnormal myocardial tissue

  18. The spectrum of motor function abnormalities in gastroesophageal reflux disease and Barrett's esophagus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, D; Blondeau, K; Sifrim, D; Tack, J

    2009-01-01

    Barrett's esophagus has traditionally been regarded as the most severe end of the spectrum of gastroesophageal reflux disease and is of great clinical importance in view of the association with esophageal adenocarcinoma. Studies have documented high levels of esophageal acid exposure in Barrett's esophagus. Various pathogenetic mechanisms underlie this phenomenon. These include abnormalities in esophageal peristalsis, defective lower esophageal sphincter pressures, gastric dysmotility and bile reflux. Whilst these factors provide evidence for an acquired cause of Barrett's esophagus, an underlying genetic predisposition cannot be ruled out. Although the past decade has brought about many new discoveries in the pathogenesis of Barrett's esophagus, it has also added further controversy to this complex disorder. A detailed analysis of the gastrointestinal motor abnormalities occurring in Barrett's esophagus follows, with a review of the currently available literature and an update on this condition that continues to be of interest to the gastroenterologist.

  19. Global abnormalities in lymphatic function following systemic therapy in patients with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bains, S K; Peters, A M; Zammit, C; Ryan, N; Ballinger, J; Glass, D M; Allen, S; Stanton, A W B; Mortimer, P S; Purushotham, A D

    2015-04-01

    Breast cancer-related lymphoedema (BCRL) is a result of interaction between several pathophysiological processes, and is not simply a 'stopcock' effect resulting from removal of axillary lymph nodes. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that there is a constitutional 'global' lymphatic dysfunction in patients who develop BCRL. Lower-limb lymphoscintigraphy was performed in 30 women who had undergone axillary lymph node dissection at least 3 years previously, of whom 15 had BCRL and 15 did not. No patient had any clinical abnormality of the lower limb. The control group comprised 24 women with no history of cancer or lower-limb lymphoedema. (99m) Tc-Nanocoll was injected subcutaneously into the first webspace of each foot, followed by whole-body imaging. Scans were reported as abnormal if there was delay in lymph transport or rerouting through skin or deep system. Quantification was expressed as the percentage injected activity accumulating in ilioinguinal nodes. Mean(s.d.) ilioinguinal nodal accumulation at 150 min was significantly lower in women with BCRL than in those without (2·7(2·5) versus 5·9(4·8) per cent respectively; P = 0·006). Abnormal findings on lower-limb lymphoscintigraphy were observed in 17 of the 30 patients: ten of the 15 women who had BCRL and seven of the 15 who did not. None of the 24 control subjects had abnormal scan findings. Women with BCRL had reduced lower-limb lymph drainage, supporting the hypothesis of a predisposition to BCRL. A surprisingly high proportion of patients with breast cancer also demonstrated lymphatic dysfunction, despite clinically normal lower limbs. Possible explanations could be a systemic effect of breast cancer or its treatment, or an unidentified association between breast cancer and lymphatic dysfunction. ISRCTN84866416 ( http://www.isrctn.com). © 2015 BJS Society Ltd Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. How study of respiratory physiology aided our understanding of abnormal brain function in panic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, S; Papp, L A; Gorman, J M

    2000-12-01

    There is a substantial body of literature demonstrating that stimulation of respiration (hyperventilation) is a common event in panic disorder patients during panic attack episodes. Further, a number of abnormalities in respiration, such as enhanced CO2 sensitivity, have been detected in panic patients. This led some to posit that there is a fundamental abnormality in the physiological mechanisms that control breathing in panic disorder and that this abnormality is central to illness etiology. More recently, however, evidence has accumulated suggesting that respiratory physiology is normal in panic patients and that their tendency to hyperventilate and to react with panic to respiratory stimulants like CO2 represents the triggering of a hypersensitive fear network. The fear network anatomy is taken from preclinical studies that have identified the brain pathways that subserve the acquisition and maintenance of conditioned fear. Included are the amygdala and its brain stem projections, the hippocampus, and the medial prefrontal cortex. Although attempts to image this system in patients during panic attacks have been difficult, the theory that the fear network is operative and hyperactive in panic patients explains why both medication and psychosocial therapies are clearly effective. Studies of respiration in panic disorder are an excellent example of the way in which peripheral markers have guided researchers in developing a more complete picture of the neural events that occur in psychopathological states.

  1. Usefulness of true FISP cine MR imaging in patients with poor cardiac function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakuma, Toshiharu; Yamada, Naoaki; Motooka, Makoto; Enomoto, Naoyuki; Maeshima, Isamu; Matsuda, Kazuhide; Urayama, Shinichi; Ikeo, Miki

    2002-01-01

    This study was done to assess the value of True FISP cine in patients with poor cardiac function. True FISP cine and FLASH cine imaging were performed on a 1.5 T machine. Both short axis and horizontal long axis imaging sections were used. The imaging sections used a Matrix (120 x 128), FOV (24 x 32 cm), and had a slice thickness of 8 mm. The imaging time for True FISP cine was 8 heart beats and 17 heart beats for FLASH cine. The contrast-to-noise ratio between the blood and myocardium (CNR) was measured at enddiastole and endsystole. The subjects in the study were 10 healty volunteers (average age 26.5±3.2 years) and 12 patients with hypofunction (average age 53.9±13.2 years). In the volunteers, the CNR of the short axis imaging was similar in both True FISP (24.6±3.7) and FLASH (23.4±5.9). In the patients with poor cardiac function however, the CNR of True FISP was larger than FLASH in both the short and long axis. In the short axis (22.7±6.1 vs. 17.9±5.3, P<0.01) and in the long axis (17.4±4.3 vs. 9.3±4.0, P<0.01). We conclude that True FISP cine has a higher contrast in a shorter imaging time than FLASH cine. True FISP cine is especially useful in patients with poor cardiac function. (author)

  2. Effect of urokinase thrombolysis on the cardiac function, coagulation, and fibrinolytic system in patients with AMI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Bin Kuang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To observe the effect of urokinase thrombolysis on the cardiac function, coagulation, and fibrinolytic system in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI. Methods: A total of 39 patients with AMI who were admitted in our hospital from March, 2016 to November, 2016 were included in the study and served as the observation group. The peripheral venous blood before and after thrombolysis was collected. The plasma NTproBNP level, related coagulation factors, and fibrinolysis indicators were detected. The cardiac function before treatment was evaluated. A total of 30 healthy individuals who came for physical examinations were served as the control group for contrastive analysis. Results: The plasma NT-proBNP, Fg, and D-D levels before thrombolysis in the observation group were significantly higher than those in the control group, while PT, APTT, and TT in the observation group were significantly shortened. The plasma NT-proBNP and D-D levels 2-48 h after thrombolysis in the observation group were significantly elevated first and reduced later and reached the peak 4 h after treatment, while PT, APTT, and TT were significantly extended first and shortened later. The plasma Fg level was significantly reduced first and elevated later and reached the minimum 4 h after treatment. During the treatment process, in the observation group, 2 had mucocutaneous hemorrhage, 3 had nasal hemorrhage, and 1 had gingival bleeding, but no gastrointestinal bleeding or cerebral hemorrhage occurred. Conclusions: The thrombolytic therapy can effectively reduce the coagulation activity in patients with AMI, strengthen the fibrinolysis activity, and improve the cardiac function.

  3. Adaptive responses of cardiac function to fetal postural change as gestational age increases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Woo Jin; Choi, Hye Jin; Yang, Sun Young; Koo, Boo Hae; Ahn, Ki Hoon; Hong, Soon Cheol; Oh, Min-Jeong; Kim, Hai-Joong

    2016-01-01

    Objective The cardiovascular system maintains homeostasis through a series of adaptive responses to physiological requirements. However, little is known about the adaptation of fetal cardiac function to gravity, according to gestational age. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the adaptive responses of cardiac function to postural changes, using Tei index measurements. Methods Fetal echocardiography and Doppler examination were performed on 114 women with vertex singleton pregnancies at 19 to 40 weeks' gestation. Participants were placed in an upright seated position, and the Tei index for fetal left ventricular cardiac function was measured. The women were then moved into a supine position and the Tei index was re-measured. Results The mean Tei index when measured in an upright seated position was significantly lower than that measured in a supine positioning for all fetuses (0.528±0.103 vs. 0.555±0.106, P=0.014, respectively). This difference was also noted in fetuses with a gestational age of 28–40 weeks (0.539±0.107 vs. 0.574±0.102, P=0.011, respectively). However, there was no difference in the Tei index between an upright seated and a supine position among fetuses with a gestational age of Postural changes from an upright seated to a supine position result in an increased Tei index after a gestational age of 28 weeks. This appears to reflect maturation in the adaptive responses of the fetal cardiovascular system to postural changes. PMID:27896244

  4. Supplementary Administration of Everolimus Reduces Cardiac Systolic Function in Kidney Transplant Recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujimura, Kazuma; Ota, Morihito; Chinen, Kiyoshi; Nagayama, Kiyomitsu; Oroku, Masato; Nishihira, Morikuni; Shiohira, Yoshiki; Abe, Masami; Iseki, Kunitoshi; Ishida, Hideki; Tanabe, Kazunari

    2017-05-26

    BACKGROUND The effect of everolimus, one of the mammalian targets of rapamycin inhibitors, on cardiac function was evaluated in kidney transplant recipients. MATERIAL AND METHODS Seventy-six participants who underwent kidney transplant between March 2009 and May 2016 were retrospectively reviewed. To standardize everolimus administration, the following criteria were used: (1) the recipient did not have a donor-specific antigen before kidney transplantation; (2) the recipient did not have proteinuria and uncontrollable hyperlipidemia after kidney transplantation; and (3) acute rejection was not observed on protocol biopsy 3 months after kidney transplantation. According to these criteria, everolimus administration for maintenance immunosuppression after kidney transplantation was included. Cardiac function was compared between the treatment group (n=30) and non-treatment group (n=46). RESULTS The mean observation periods of the treatment and non-treatment groups were 41.3±12.6 and 43.9±19.8 months, respectively (p=0.573). The mean ejection fraction and fractional shortening of the treatment and non-treatment groups after kidney transplant were 66.5±7.9% vs. 69.6±5.5% (p=0.024) and 37.1±6.2% vs. 39.3±4.7% (p=0.045), respectively. In the treatment group, the mean ejection fraction and fractional shortening before and after kidney transplantation did not differ significantly (p=0.604 and 0.606, respectively). In the non-treatment group, the mean ejection fraction and fractional shortening before and after kidney transplantation differed significantly (p=0.004 and 0.006, respectively). CONCLUSIONS Supplementary administration of everolimus after kidney transplantation can reduce cardiac systolic function.

  5. Effects of ioxaglic acid on cardiac functions during coronary arteriography in canines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Traegaardh, B. (Malmoe Allmaenna Sjukhus, Malmoe, Sweden); Lynch, P.R. (Temple Univ., Philadelphia, PA (USA). School of Medicine)

    1983-01-01

    The new monoacid dimer ioxaglic acid (P286), the non-ionic metrizamide (Amipaque) and diatrizoate (Renografin 76) were compared regarding their effects on left ventricular pressure, the first derivative of left ventricular pressure, aortic pressures and on ECG changes during left and right coronary angiography in dogs. Ioxaglate was found to affect most of these parameters less than diatrizoate probably due to its lower osmolality. Ioxaglate should be regarded suitable for coronary angiography. However, ioxaglate was found to have greater effects on the cardiac function than the equiosmolar metrizamide. This is probably due to the chemotoxicity of the anion or possibly to the sodium content of the ioxaglic acid solution.

  6. Soccer training improves cardiac function in men with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Jakob Friis; Rostgaard Andersen, Thomas; Horton, Joshua

    2013-01-01

    training can counteract the early signs of diabetic heart disease. PURPOSE: To evaluate the effects of soccer training on cardiac function, exercise capacity and blood pressure in middle-aged men with T2DM. METHODS: Twenty-one men aged 49.8±1.7 yrs with T2DM and no history of cardiovascular disease......INTRODUCTION: Patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease which is worsened by physical inactivity. Subclinical myocardial dysfunction is associated with increased risk of heart failure and impaired prognosis in T2DM; however, it is not clear if exercise...

  7. Sca-1+ cardiosphere-derived cells are enriched for Isl1-expressing cardiac precursors and improve cardiac function after myocardial injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianqin Ye

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Endogenous cardiac progenitor cells are a promising option for cell-therapy for myocardial infarction (MI. However, obtaining adequate numbers of cardiac progenitors after MI remains a challenge. Cardiospheres (CSs have been proposed to have cardiac regenerative properties; however, their cellular composition and how they may be influenced by the tissue milieu remains unclear. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDING: Using "middle aged" mice as CSs donors, we found that acute MI induced a dramatic increase in the number of CSs in a mouse model of MI, and this increase was attenuated back to baseline over time. We also observed that CSs from post-MI hearts engrafted in ischemic myocardium induced angiogenesis and restored cardiac function. To determine the role of Sca-1(+CD45(- cells within CSs, we cloned these from single cell isolates. Expression of Islet-1 (Isl1 in Sca-1(+CD45(- cells from CSs was 3-fold higher than in whole CSs. Cloned Sca-1(+CD45(- cells had the ability to differentiate into cardiomyocytes, endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells in vitro. We also observed that cloned cells engrafted in ischemic myocardium induced angiogenesis, differentiated into endothelial and smooth muscle cells and improved cardiac function in post-MI hearts. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These studies demonstrate that cloned Sca-1(+CD45(- cells derived from CSs from infarcted "middle aged" hearts are enriched for second heart field (i.e., Isl-1(+ precursors that give rise to both myocardial and vascular tissues, and may be an appropriate source of progenitor cells for autologous cell-therapy post-MI.

  8. Traditional Chinese Medicine Tongxinluo Improves Cardiac Function of Rats with Dilated Cardiomyopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang-Fang Shen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed at testing the hypothesis that tongxinluo capsule might exert its cardioprotective effect by preventing ventricular remodeling and improving coronary microvascular function in a rat model of doxorubicin-induced dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM. Rats that survived DCM induction were randomly divided into three groups to be given 1.5 g·kg−1·day−1 (TXL-H, n=9 or 0.15 g·kg−1·day−1 (TXL-L, n=10 of tongxinluo, or normal saline at the same volume (DCM-C, n=10 intragastrically. Age matched normal rats treated with normal saline were used as normal controls (NOR-C, n=9. After four weeks of treatment, the DCM-C, TXL-H, and TXL-L groups exhibited significant cardiac dysfunction, left ventricular remodeling, and coronary microvascular dysfunction, compared with the NOR-C rats. However, myocardial functional parameters were significantly improved and microvascular density (MVD increased in the TXL-H group compared with the DCM-C group (all P<0.01. Left ventricular remodeling was prevented. There were close linear relationships between CVF and LVEF (r=-0.683, P<0.05, MVD and LVEF (r=0.895, P<0.05, and MVD and CVF (r=-0.798, P<0.05. It was indicated that high-dose tongxinluo effectively improved cardiac function in rat model of DCM.

  9. Prospective randomized controlled intervention trial: Comprehensive Yogic Breathing Improves Cardiac autonomic functions and Quality of life in Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V P Jyotsna

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims and Objectives: To assess the effect of Comprehensive Yogic Breathing Program on glycemic control, quality of life, and cardiac autonomic functions in diabetes. Material and Methods: This is a prospective randomized controlled intervention trial. Cardiac autonomic functions were assessed in 120 diabetics. Patients were randomized into two groups, one group receiving standard therapy for diabetes (n = 56 and the other group receiving standard therapy for diabetes and comprehensive yogic breathing program (n = 64. Standard therapy included advice on diet, walk, and oral antidiabetic drugs. Comprehensive yogic breathing program was an interactive session in which Sudarshan kriya yoga, a rhythmic cyclical breathing, preceded by Pranayam was taught under guidance of a certified teacher. Change in fasting, post prandial blood sugars, glycated hemoglobin, and quality of life were assessed. Cardiac autonomic function tests were done before and six months after intervention. Results: There was significant improvement in psychological (P = 0.006 and social domains (P = 0.04 and total quality of life (P = 0.02 in the group practicing comprehensive yogic breathing program as compared to the group following standard therapy alone. In the group following breathing program, the improvement in sympathetic cardiac autonomic functions was statistically significant (P = 0.01, while the change in the standard group was not significant (P = 0.17. When both parasympathetic and sympathetic cardiac autonomic functions were considered, there was a trend toward improvement in patients following comprehensive yogic breathing program (P = 0.07. In the standard therapy group, no change in cardiac autonomic functions was noted (P = 0.76. The parameters of glycemic control were comparable in both groups. Conclusion: There was significant improvement in quality of life and cardiac autonomic functions in the diabetes patients practicing comprehensive yogic breathing

  10. Peptide Functionalized Gold Nanorods for the Sensitive Detection of a Cardiac Biomarker Using Plasmonic Paper Devices (Postprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-10

    Albumin to saturate the non-specific binding sites on the paper substrate prior to troponin exposure. For testing the biosensor, troponin of various...AFRL-RX-WP-JA-2016-0191 PEPTIDE FUNCTIONALIZED GOLD NANORODS FOR THE SENSITIVE DETECTION OF A CARDIAC BIOMARKER USING PLASMONIC PAPER ...SENSITIVE DETECTION OF A CARDIAC BIOMARKER USING PLASMONIC PAPER DEVICES (POSTPRINT) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA8650-15-D-5405-0001 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c

  11. Recirculating cardiac delivery of AAV2/1SERCA2a improves myocardial function in an experimental model of heart failure in large animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, M J; Power, J M; Preovolos, A; Mariani, J A; Hajjar, R J; Kaye, D M

    2008-12-01

    Abnormal excitation-contraction coupling is a key pathophysiologic component of heart failure (HF), and at a molecular level reduced expression of the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+) ATPase (SERCA2a) is a major contributor. Previous studies in small animals have suggested that restoration of SERCA function is beneficial in HF. Despite this promise, the means by which this information might be translated into potential clinical application remains uncertain. Using a recently established cardiac-directed recirculating method of gene delivery, we administered adeno-associated virus 2 (AAV2)/1SERCA2a to sheep with pacing-induced HF. We explored the effects of differing doses of AAV2/1SERCA2a (low 1 x 10(10) d.r.p.; medium 1 x 10(12) d.r.p. and high 1 x 10(13) d.r.p.) in conjunction with an intra-coronary delivery group (2.5 x 10(13) d.r.p.). At the end of the study, haemodynamic, echocardiographic, histopathologic and molecular biologic assessments were performed. Cardiac recirculation delivery of AAV2/1SERCA2a elicited a dose-dependent improvement in cardiac performance determined by left ventricular pressure analysis, (+d P/d t(max); low dose -220+/-70, P>0.05; medium dose 125+/-53, P0.05; medium dose 1+/-2, P>0.05; high dose 6.5+/-3.9, Preversal of the HF molecular phenotype. In contrast, direct intra-coronary infusion did not elicit any effect on ventricular function. As such, AAV2/1SERCA2a elicits favourable functional and molecular actions when delivered in a mechanically targeted manner in an experimental model of HF. These observations lay a platform for potential clinical translation.

  12. Real-Time Three-Dimensional Echocardiography: Characterization of Cardiac Anatomy and Function-Current Clinical Applications and Literature Review Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco, Omar; Beckett, Morgan Q; James, Aaron W; Loehr, Megan N; Lewis, Taylor G; Hassan, Tahmin; Janardhanan, Rajesh

    2017-01-01

    Our review of real-time three-dimensional echocardiography (RT3DE) discusses the diagnostic utility of RT3DE and provides a comparison with two-dimensional echocardiography (2DE) in clinical cardiology. A Pubmed literature search on RT3DE was performed using the following key words: transthoracic, two-dimensional, three-dimensional, real-time, and left ventricular (LV) function. Articles included perspective clinical studies and meta-analyses in the English language, and focused on the role of RT3DE in human subjects. Application of RT3DE includes analysis of the pericardium, right ventricular (RV) and LV cavities, wall motion, valvular disease, great vessels, congenital anomalies, and traumatic injury, such as myocardial contusion. RT3DE, through a transthoracic echocardiography (TTE), allows for increasingly accurate volume and valve motion assessment, estimated LV ejection fraction, and volume measurements. Chamber motion and LV mass approximation have been more accurately evaluated by RT3DE by improved inclusion of the third dimension and quantification of volumetric movement. Moreover, RT3DE was shown to have no statistical significance when comparing the ejection fractions of RT3DE to cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR). Analysis of RT3DE data sets of the LV endocardial exterior allows for the volume to be directly quantified for specific phases of the cardiac cycle, ranging from end systole to end diastole, eliminating error from wall motion abnormalities and asymmetrical left ventricles. RT3DE through TTE measures cardiac function with superior diagnostic accuracy in predicting LV mass, systolic function, along with LV and RV volume when compared with 2DE with comparable results to CMR.

  13. Single ventricle cardiac defect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eren, B.; Turkmen, N.; Fedakar, R.; Cetin, V.

    2010-01-01

    Single ventricle heart is defined as a rare cardiac abnormality with a single ventricle chamber involving diverse functional and physiological defects. Our case is of a ten month-old baby boy who died shortly after admission to the hospital due to vomiting and diarrhoea. Autopsy findings revealed cyanosis of finger nails and ears. Internal examination revealed; large heart, weighing 60 grams, single ventricle, without a septum and upper membranous part. Single ventricle is a rare pathology, hence, this paper aims to discuss this case from a medico-legal point of view. (author)

  14. Impact of type 2 diabetes and duration of type 2 diabetes on cardiac structure and function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Peter G; Jensen, Magnus T; Mogelvang, Rasmus

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Contemporary treatment of type 2 diabetes (T2D) has improved patient outcome and may also have affected myocardial structure and function. We aimed to describe the effect of T2D and T2D duration on cardiac structure and function in a large outpatient population. METHODS: We performed...... comprehensive echocardiography on a representative sample of 1004 persons including a representative sample of 770 patients with T2D without known heart disease and 234 age- and sex-matched controls. RESULTS: T2D was associated with increased left ventricular (LV) wall thicknesses and decreased LV internal...... dysfunction persisted after multivariable adjustment (P=0.013). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with T2D, LV structural and functional alterations persist and are accentuated with increasing diabetes duration despite reductions in overall risk of cardiovascular disease in this patient population....

  15. Impact of thoracic surgery on cardiac morphology and function in small animal models of heart disease: a cardiac MRI study in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Nordbeck

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Surgical procedures in small animal models of heart disease might evoke alterations in cardiac morphology and function. The aim of this study was to reveal and quantify such potential artificial early or long term effects in vivo, which might account for a significant bias in basic cardiovascular research, and, therefore, could potentially question the meaning of respective studies. METHODS: Female Wistar rats (n = 6 per group were matched for weight and assorted for sham left coronary artery ligation or control. Cardiac morphology and function was then investigated in vivo by cine magnetic resonance imaging at 7 Tesla 1 and 8 weeks after the surgical procedure. The time course of metabolic and inflammatory blood parameters was determined in addition. RESULTS: Compared to healthy controls, rats after sham surgery showed a lower body weight both 1 week (267.5±10.6 vs. 317.0±11.3 g, n<0.05 and 8 weeks (317.0±21.1 vs. 358.7±22.4 g, n<0.05 after the intervention. Left and right ventricular morphology and function were not different in absolute measures in both groups 1 week after surgery. However, there was a confined difference in several cardiac parameters normalized to the body weight (bw, such as myocardial mass (2.19±0.30/0.83±0.13 vs. 1.85±0.22/0.70±0.07 mg left/right per g bw, p<0.05, or enddiastolic ventricular volume (1.31±0.36/1.21±0.31 vs. 1.14±0.20/1.07±0.17 µl left/right per g bw, p<0.05. Vice versa, after 8 weeks, cardiac masses, volumes, and output showed a trend for lower values in sham operated rats compared to controls in absolute measures (782.2±57.2/260.2±33.2 vs. 805.9±84.8/310.4±48.5 mg, p<0.05 for left/right ventricular mass, but not normalized to body weight. Matching these findings, blood testing revealed only minor inflammatory but prolonged metabolic changes after surgery not related to cardiac disease. CONCLUSION: Cardio-thoracic surgical procedures in experimental myocardial infarction

  16. Sarcolemmal cholesterol and caveolin-3 dependence of cardiac function, ischemic tolerance, and opioidergic cardioprotection

    Science.gov (United States)

    See Hoe, Louise E.; Schilling, Jan M.; Tarbit, Emiri; Kiessling, Can J.; Busija, Anna R.; Niesman, Ingrid R.; Du Toit, Eugene; Ashton, Kevin J.; Roth, David M.; Headrick, John P.; Patel, Hemal H.

    2014-01-01

    Cholesterol-rich caveolar microdomains and associated caveolins influence sarcolemmal ion channel and receptor function and protective stress signaling. However, the importance of membrane cholesterol content to cardiovascular function and myocardial responses to ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) and cardioprotective stimuli are unclear. We assessed the effects of graded cholesterol depletion with methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MβCD) and lifelong knockout (KO) or overexpression (OE) of caveolin-3 (Cav-3) on cardiac function, I/R tolerance, and opioid receptor (OR)-mediated protection. Langendorff-perfused hearts from young male C57Bl/6 mice were untreated or treated with 0.02–1.0 mM MβCD for 25 min to deplete membrane cholesterol and disrupt caveolae. Hearts were subjected to 25-min ischemia/45-min reperfusion, and the cardioprotective effects of morphine applied either acutely or chronically [sustained ligand-activated preconditioning (SLP)] were assessed. MβCD concentration dependently reduced normoxic contractile function and postischemic outcomes in association with graded (10–30%) reductions in sarcolemmal cholesterol. Cardioprotection with acute morphine was abolished with ≥20 μM MβCD, whereas SLP was more robust and only inhibited with ≥200 μM MβCD. Deletion of Cav-3 also reduced, whereas Cav-3 OE improved, myocardial I/R tolerance. Protection via SLP remained equally effective in Cav-3 KO mice and was additive with innate protection arising with Cav-3 OE. These data reveal the membrane cholesterol dependence of normoxic myocardial and coronary function, I/R tolerance, and OR-mediated cardioprotection in murine hearts (all declining with cholesterol depletion). In contrast, baseline function appears insensitive to Cav-3, whereas cardiac I/R tolerance parallels Cav-3 expression. Novel SLP appears unique, being less sensitive to cholesterol depletion than acute OR protection and arising independently of Cav-3 expression. PMID:25063791

  17. A functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging study of neurohemodynamic abnormalities during emotion processing in subjects at high risk for schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatasubramanian, Ganesan; Puthumana, Dawn Thomas K.; Jayakumar, Peruvumba N.; Gangadhar, B. N.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Emotion processing abnormalities are considered among the core deficits in schizophrenia. Subjects at high risk (HR) for schizophrenia also show these deficits. Structural neuroimaging studies examining unaffected relatives at high risk for schizophrenia have demonstrated neuroanatomical abnormalities involving neo-cortical and sub-cortical brain regions related to emotion processing. The brain functional correlates of emotion processing in these HR subjects in the context of ecologically valid, real-life dynamic images using functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) has not been examined previously. Aim: To examine the neurohemodynamic abnormalities during emotion processing in unaffected subjects at high risk for schizophrenia in comparison with age-, sex-, handedness- and education-matched healthy controls, using fMRI. Materials and Methods: HR subjects for schizophrenia (n=17) and matched healthy controls (n=16) were examined. The emotion processing of fearful facial expression was examined using a culturally appropriate and valid tool for Indian subjects. The fMRI was performed in a 1.5-T scanner during an implicit emotion processing paradigm. The fMRI analyses were performed using the Statistical Parametric Mapping 2 (SPM2) software. Results: HR subjects had significantly reduced brain activations in left insula, left medial frontal gyrus, left inferior frontal gyrus, right cingulate gyrus, right precentral gyrus and right inferior parietal lobule. Hypothesis-driven region-of-interest analysis revealed hypoactivation of right amygdala in HR subjects. Conclusions: Study findings suggest that neurohemodynamic abnormalities involving limbic and frontal cortices could be potential indicators for increased vulnerability toward schizophrenia. The clinical utility of these novel findings in predicting the development of psychosis needs to be evaluated. PMID:21267363

  18. Platelet Arachidonic Acid Deficiency May Contribute to Abnormal Platelet Function During Parenteral Fish Oil Monotherapy in a Piglet Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Justine M; Field, Catherine J; Goruk, Sue; Wizzard, Pamela; Dicken, Bryan J; Bruce, Aisha; Wales, Paul W

    2016-05-01

    Fish oil monotherapy has been an advance for treating intestinal failure-associated liver disease (IFALD). However, such patients are at risk of bleeding complications from liver disease and because fish oil can inhibit thrombosis. We have previously reported abnormal platelet function in neonatal piglets given fish oil monotherapy during parenteral nutrition (PN). The purpose of this study was to determine if abnormal fatty acid composition of the platelets could explain the prior observed antiplatelet effect. Neonatal piglets were assigned to 2 treatments: PN with fish oil monotherapy (FO; n = 4) or PN with soy oil (SO; n = 5). On day 14, plasma was collected and platelets isolated by centrifuging. The fatty acid content in plasma and platelet plug were measured using gas liquid chromatography and compared with controls (CON; n = 5). The arachidonic acid (AA) content in the FO group was on average half that of the SO group, in both the platelets (FO, 3.5% vs SO, 7.6%; P = .021; CON, 4.5%-11%) and the plasma (FO, 3.8% vs SO, 9.2%; P = .002; CON, 6.1%-9.5%). No bleeding complications were observed for any piglets during PN treatment. Using platelet mapping, we have previously shown that neonatal piglets given fish oil monotherapy have abnormal platelet function in the AA pathway. This report demonstrates that such an abnormality can be explained by platelet AA deficiency. Platelet mapping and platelet fatty acid analysis should be undertaken in human infants treated with fish oil monotherapy during PN. © 2015 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  19. Empagliflozin Prevents Worsening of Cardiac Function in an Experimental Model of Pressure Overload-Induced Heart Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikole J. Byrne, BSc

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This study sought to determine whether the sodium/glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2 inhibitor empagliflozin improved heart failure (HF outcomes in nondiabetic mice. The EMPA-REG OUTCOME (Empagliflozin, Cardiovascular Outcome Event Trial in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients trial demonstrated that empagliflozin markedly prevented HF and cardiovascular death in subjects with diabetes. However, despite ongoing clinical trials in HF patients without type 2 diabetes, there are no objective and translational data to support an effect of SGLT2 inhibitors on cardiac structure and function, particularly in the absence of diabetes and in the setting of established HF. Male C57Bl/6 mice were subjected to either sham or transverse aortic constriction surgery to induce HF. Following surgery, mice that progressed to HF received either vehicle or empagliflozin for 2 weeks. Cardiac function was then assessed in vivo using echocardiography and ex vivo using isolated working hearts. Although vehicle-treated HF mice experienced a progressive worsening of cardiac function over the 2-week treatment period, this decline was blunted in empagliflozin-treated HF mice. Treatment allocation to empagliflozin resulted in an improvement in cardiac systolic function, with no significant changes in cardiac remodeling or diastolic dysfunction. Moreover, isolated hearts from HF mice treated with empagliflozin displayed significantly improved ex vivo cardiac function compared to those in vehicle-treated controls. Empagliflozin treatment of nondiabetic mice with established HF blunts the decline in cardiac function both in vivo and ex vivo, independent of diabetes. These data provide important basic and translational clues to support the evaluation of SGLT2 inhibitors as a treatment strategy in a broad range of patients with established HF.

  20. Central-peripheral neural network interactions evoked by vagus nerve stimulation: functional consequences on control of cardiac function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardell, Jeffrey L; Rajendran, Pradeep S; Nier, Heath A; KenKnight, Bruce H; Armour, J Andrew

    2015-11-15

    Using vagus nerve stimulation (VNS), we sought to determine the contribution of vagal afferents to efferent control of cardiac function. In anesthetized dogs, the right and left cervical vagosympathetic trunks were stimulated in the intact state, following ipsilateral or contralateral vagus nerve transection (VNTx), and then following bilateral VNTx. Stimulations were performed at currents from 0.25 to 4.0 mA, frequencies from 2 to 30 Hz, and a 500-μs pulse width. Right or left VNS evoked significantly greater current- and frequency-dependent suppression of chronotropic, inotropic, and lusitropic function subsequent to sequential VNTx. Bradycardia threshold was defined as the current first required for a 5% decrease in heart rate. The threshold for the right vs. left vagus-induced bradycardia in the intact state (2.91 ± 0.18 and 3.47 ± 0.20 mA, respectively) decreased significantly with right VNTx (1.69 ± 0.17 mA for right and 3.04 ± 0.27 mA for left) and decreased further following bilateral VNTx (1.29 ± 0.16 mA for right and 1.74 ± 0.19 mA for left). Similar effects were observed following left VNTx. The thresholds for afferent-mediated effects on cardiac parameters were 0.62 ± 0.04 and 0.65 ± 0.06 mA with right and left VNS, respectively, and were reflected primarily as augmentation. Afferent-mediated tachycardias were maintained following β-blockade but were eliminated by VNTx. The increased effectiveness and decrease in bradycardia threshold with sequential VNTx suggest that 1) vagal afferents inhibit centrally mediated parasympathetic efferent outflow and 2) the ipsilateral and contralateral vagi exert a substantial buffering capacity. The intact threshold reflects the interaction between multiple levels of the cardiac neural hierarchy. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  1. Structural and functional abnormalities of default mode network in minimal hepatic encephalopathy: a study combining DTI and fMRI.

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    Rongfeng Qi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Live failure can cause brain edema and aberrant brain function in cirrhotic patients. In particular, decreased functional connectivity within the brain default-mode network (DMN has been recently reported in overt hepatic encephalopathy (HE patients. However, so far, little is known about the connectivity among the DMN in the minimal HE (MHE, the mildest form of HE. Here, we combined diffusion tensor imaging (DTI and resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI to test our hypothesis that both structural and functional connectivity within the DMN were disturbed in MHE. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty MHE patients and 20 healthy controls participated in the study. We explored the changes of structural (path length, tracts count, fractional anisotropy [FA] and mean diffusivity [MD] derived from DTI tractography and functional (temporal correlation coefficient derived from rs-fMRI connectivity of the DMN in MHE patients. Pearson correlation analysis was performed between the structural/functional indices and venous blood ammonia levels/neuropsychological tests scores of patients. All thresholds were set at P<0.05, Bonferroni corrected. RESULTS: Compared to the healthy controls, MHE patients showed both decreased FA and increased MD in the tract connecting the posterior cingulate cortex/precuneus (PCC/PCUN to left parahippocampal gyrus (PHG, and decreased functional connectivity between the PCC/PCUN and left PHG, and medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC. MD values of the tract connecting PCC/PCUN to the left PHG positively correlated to the ammonia levels, the temporal correlation coefficients between the PCC/PCUN and the MPFC showed positive correlation to the digital symbol tests scores of patients. CONCLUSION: MHE patients have both disturbed structural and functional connectivity within the DMN. The decreased functional connectivity was also detected between some regions without abnormal structural connectivity, suggesting that the

  2. Abnormal Intrinsic Functional Hubs in Severe Male Obstructive Sleep Apnea: Evidence from a Voxel-Wise Degree Centrality Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haijun; Li, Lan; Shao, Yi; Gong, Honghan; Zhang, Wei; Zeng, Xianjun; Ye, Chenglong; Nie, Si; Chen, Liting; Peng, Dechang

    2016-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has been associated with changes in brain structure and regional function in certain brain areas. However, the functional features of network organization in the whole brain remain largely uncertain. The purpose of this study was to identify the OSA-related spatial centrality distribution of the whole brain functional network and to investigate the potential altered intrinsic functional hubs. Forty male patients with newly confirmed severe OSA on polysomnography, and well-matched good sleepers, participated in this study. All participants underwent a resting-state functional MRI scan and clinical and cognitive evaluation. Voxel-wise degree centrality (DC) was measured across the whole brain, and group difference in DC was compared. The relationship between the abnormal DC value and clinical variables was assessed using a linear correlation analysis. Remarkably similar spatial distributions of the functional hubs (high DC) were found in both groups. However, OSA patients exhibited a pattern of significantly reduced regional DC in the left middle occipital gyrus, posterior cingulate cortex, left superior frontal gyrus, and bilateral inferior parietal lobule, and DC was increased in the right orbital frontal cortex, bilateral cerebellum posterior lobes, and bilateral lentiform nucleus, including the putamen, extending to the hippocampus, and the inferior temporal gyrus, which overlapped with the functional hubs. Furthermore, a linear correlation analysis revealed that the DC value in the posterior cingulate cortex and left superior frontal gyrus were positively correlated with Montreal cognitive assessment scores, The DC value in the left middle occipital gyrus and bilateral inferior parietal lobule were negatively correlated with apnea-hypopnea index and arousal index in OSA patients. Our findings suggest that OSA patients exhibited specific abnormal intrinsic functional hubs including relatively reduced and increased DC. This expands

  3. Strategies for the chemical and biological functionalization of scaffolds for cardiac tissue engineering: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallawi, Marwa; Rosellini, Elisabetta; Barbani, Niccoletta; Cascone, Maria Grazia; Rai, Ranjana; Saint-Pierre, Guillaume; Boccaccini, Aldo R

    2015-07-06

    The development of biomaterials for cardiac tissue engineering (CTE) is challenging, primarily owing to the requirement of achieving a surface with favourable characteristics that enhances cell attachment and maturation. The biomaterial surface plays a crucial role as it forms the interface between the scaffold (or cardiac patch) and the cells. In the field of CTE, synthetic polymers (polyglycerol sebacate, polyethylene glycol, polyglycolic acid, poly-l-lactide, polyvinyl alcohol, polycaprolactone, polyurethanes and poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)) have been proven to exhibit suitable biodegradable and mechanical properties. Despite the fact that they show the required biocompatible behaviour, most synthetic polymers exhibit poor cell attachment capability. These synthetic polymers are mostly hydrophobic and lack cell recognition sites, limiting their application. Therefore, biofunctionalization of these biomaterials to enhance cell attachment and cell material interaction is being widely investigated. There are numerous approaches for functionalizing a material, which can be classified as mechanical, physical, chemical and biological. In this review, recent studies reported in the literature to functionalize scaffolds in the context of CTE, are discussed. Surface, morphological, chemical and biological modifications are introduced and the results of novel promising strategies and techniques are discussed.

  4. Evaluation of right cardiac function with sup(81m)Kr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishimura, Tsunehiko; Uehara, Toshiisa; Hayashida, Kohei; Kotsuka, Takahiro [National Cardiovascular Center, Suita, Osaka (Japan)

    1982-10-01

    Right cardiac function was evaluated by a first-pass method of repeated rapid injections of sup(81m)Kr, and by a multigated scanning of continuous injections using a scinticamera and a computer system. Right ventricular ejection fraction (RVEF) was rather low in the ascending course of time-activity curve and rather high in the descending course by the use of rapid injection. The RVEF estimated by the rapid injection method was relatively high in ischemic heart disease; but the figure was a little changed in tricuspid insufficiency, especially in the case with high reflux, showing no effect of rapid injection. There was a good correlation between the result of rapid injection and that of the sup(99m)Tc-first-pass method. Clinically, a little increase in RVEF due to exercise was observed in a group of right coronary artery obstruction, and in all the cases of tricuspid insufficiency changes in RVEF due to exercise was in good accordance with the result of classification of severity of the disease. Accuracy in RVEF estimated by the rapid injection method was correlated with that of multi-gated scanning. In continuous observation of right cardiac function by the continuous injection method, decreased RVEF following exercise was noted in cases of inferior wall infarction with atrial fibrillation, compared with the RVEF in cases of anterior wall infarction with normal right coronary arteries.

  5. Morphological and Functional Evaluation of Quadricuspid Aortic Valves Using Cardiac Computed Tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Inyoung; Park, Jung Ah; Choi, Bo Hwa; Ko, Sung Min [Department of Radiology, Konkuk University Medical Center, Konkuk University School of Medicine, Seoul 05030 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Je Kyoun; Chee, Hyun Keun; Kim, Jun Seok [Department of Thoracic Surgery, Konkuk University Medical Center, Konkuk University School of Medicine, Seoul 05030 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the morphological and functional characteristics of quadricuspid aortic valves (QAV) on cardiac computed tomography (CCT). We retrospectively enrolled 11 patients with QAV. All patients underwent CCT and transthoracic echocardiography (TTE), and 7 patients underwent cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR). The presence and classification of QAV assessed by CCT was compared with that of TTE and intraoperative findings. The regurgitant orifice area (ROA) measured by CCT was compared with severity of aortic regurgitation (AR) by TTE and the regurgitant fraction (RF) by CMR. All of the patients had AR; 9 had pure AR, 1 had combined aortic stenosis and regurgitation, and 1 had combined subaortic stenosis and regurgitation. Two patients had a subaortic fibrotic membrane and 1 of them showed a subaortic stenosis. One QAV was misdiagnosed as tricuspid aortic valve on TTE. In accordance with the Hurwitz and Robert's classification, consensus was reached on the QAV classification between the CCT and TTE findings in 7 of 10 patients. The patients were classified as type A (n = 1), type B (n = 3), type C (n = 1), type D (n = 4), and type F (n = 2) on CCT. A very high correlation existed between ROA by CCT and RF by CMR (r = 0.99) but a good correlation existed between ROA by CCT and regurgitant severity by TTE (r = 0.62). Cardiac computed tomography provides comprehensive anatomical and functional information about the QAV.

  6. Morphological and functional evaluation of quadricuspid aortic valves using cardiac computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, In Young; Park, Jung Ah; Choi, Bo Hwa; Ko, Sung Min; Shin, Je Kyoun; Chee, Hyun Keun; KIm, Jun Seok [Konkuk University Medical Center, Konkuk University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-07-15

    The aim of this study was to identify the morphological and functional characteristics of quadricuspid aortic valves (QAV) on cardiac computed tomography (CCT). We retrospectively enrolled 11 patients with QAV. All patients underwent CCT and transthoracic echocardiography (TTE), and 7 patients underwent cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR). The presence and classification of QAV assessed by CCT was compared with that of TTE and intraoperative findings. The regurgitant orifice area (ROA) measured by CCT was compared with severity of aortic regurgitation (AR) by TTE and the regurgitant fraction (RF) by CMR. All of the patients had AR; 9 had pure AR, 1 had combined aortic stenosis and regurgitation, and 1 had combined subaortic stenosis and regurgitation. Two patients had a subaortic fibrotic membrane and 1 of them showed a subaortic stenosis. One QAV was misdiagnosed as tricuspid aortic valve on TTE. In accordance with the Hurwitz and Robert's classification, consensus was reached on the QAV classification between the CCT and TTE findings in 7 of 10 patients. The patients were classified as type A (n = 1), type B (n = 3), type C (n = 1), type D (n = 4), and type F (n = 2) on CCT. A very high correlation existed between ROA by CCT and RF by CMR (r = 0.99) but a good correlation existed between ROA by CCT and regurgitant severity by TTE (r = 0.62). Cardiac computed tomography provides comprehensive anatomical and functional information about the QAV.

  7. The Role of Oxygen Sensors, Hydroxylases, and HIF in Cardiac Function and Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. H. Davin Townley-Tilson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ischemic heart disease is the leading cause of death worldwide. Oxygen-sensing proteins are critical components of the physiological response to hypoxia and reperfusion injury, but the role of oxygen and oxygen-mediated effects is complex in that they can be cardioprotective or deleterious to the cardiac tissue. Over 200 oxygen-sensing proteins mediate the effects of oxygen tension and use oxygen as a substrate for posttranslational modification of other proteins. Hydroxylases are an essential component of these oxygen-sensing proteins. While a major role of hydroxylases is regulating the transcription factor HIF, we investigate the increasing scope of hydroxylase substrates. This review discusses the importance of oxygen-mediated effects in the heart as well as how the field of oxygen-sensing proteins is expanding, providing a more complete picture into how these enzymes play a multifaceted role in cardiac function and disease. We also review how oxygen-sensing proteins and hydroxylase function could prove to be invaluable in drug design and therapeutic targets for heart disease.

  8. Abnormal Spontaneous Neural Activity in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A Resting-State Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ping, Li; Su-Fang, Li; Hai-Ying, Han; Zhang-Ye, Dong; Jia, Luo; Zhi-Hua, Guo; Hong-Fang, Xiong; Yu-Feng, Zang; Zhan-Jiang, Li

    2013-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies of obsessive-compulsive disorder have found abnormalities in orbitofronto-striato-thalamic circuitry, including the orbitofrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, caudate, and thalamus, but few studies have explored abnormal intrinsic or spontaneous brain activity in the resting state. We investigated both intra- and inter-regional synchronized activity in twenty patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder and 20 healthy controls using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. Regional homogeneity (ReHo) and functional connectivity methods were used to analyze the intra- and inter-regional synchronized activity, respectively. Compared with healthy controls, patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder showed significantly increased ReHo in the orbitofrontal cortex, cerebellum, and insula, and decreased ReHo in the ventral anterior cingulate cortex, caudate, and inferior occipital cortex. Based on ReHo results, we determined functional connectivity differences between the orbitofrontal cortex and other brain regions in both patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder and controls. We found abnormal functional connectivity between the orbitofrontal cortex and ventral anterior cingulate cortex in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder compared with healthy controls. Moreover, ReHo in the orbitofrontal cortex was correlated with the duration of obsessive-compulsive disorder. These findings suggest that increased intra- and inter-regional synchronized activity in the orbitofrontal cortex may have a key role in the pathology of obsessive-compulsive disorder. In addition to orbitofronto-striato-thalamic circuitry, brain regions such as the insula and cerebellum may also be involved in the pathophysiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder.

  9. Report of the substudy assessing the impact of neurocognitive function on quality of life 5 years after cardiac surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, M F; Grocott, H P; Mathew, J P; White, W D; Landolfo, K; Reves, J G; Laskowitz, D T; Mark, D B; Blumenthal, J A

    2001-12-01

    The importance of perioperative cognitive decline has long been debated. We recently demonstrated a significant correlation between perioperative cognitive decline and long-term cognitive dysfunction. Despite this association, some still question the importance of these changes in cognitive function to the quality of life of patients and their families. The purpose of our investigation was to determine the association between cognitive dysfunction and long-term quality of life after cardiac surgery. After institutional review board approval and patient informed consent, 261 patients undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass were enrolled and followed for 5 years. Cognitive function was measured with a battery of tests at baseline, discharge, and 6 weeks and 5 years postoperatively. Quality of life was assessed with well-validated, standardized assessments at the 5-year end point. Our results demonstrate significant correlations between cognitive function and quality of life in patients after cardiac surgery. Lower 5-year overall cognitive function scores were associated with lower general health and a less productive working status. Multivariable logistic and linear regression controlling for age, sex, education, and diabetes confirmed this strong association in the majority of areas of quality of life. Five years after cardiac surgery, there is a strong relationship between neurocognitive functioning and quality of life. This has important social and financial implications for preoperative evaluation and postoperative care of patients undergoing cardiac surgery.

  10. Comparative impact of AAV and enzyme replacement therapy on respiratory and cardiac function in adult Pompe mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darin J Falk

    Full Text Available Pompe disease is an autosomal recessive genetic disorder characterized by a deficiency of the enzyme responsible for degradation of lysosomal glycogen (acid α-glucosidase (GAA. Cardiac dysfunction and respiratory muscle weakness are primary features of this disorder. To attenuate the progressive and rapid accumulation of glycogen resulting in cardiorespiratory dysfunction, adult Gaa−/− mice were administered a single systemic injection of rAAV2/9-DES-hGAA (AAV9-DES or bimonthly injections of recombinant human GAA (enzyme replacement therapy (ERT. Assessment of cardiac function and morphology was measured 1 and 3 months after initiation of treatment while whole-body plethysmography and diaphragmatic contractile function was evaluated at 3 months post-treatment in all groups. Gaa−/− animals receiving either AAV9-DES or ERT demonstrated a significant improvement in cardiac function and diaphragmatic contractile function as compared to control animals. AAV9-DES treatment resulted in a significant reduction in cardiac dimension (end diastolic left ventricular mass/gram wet weight; EDMc at 3 months postinjection. Neither AAV nor ERT therapy altered minute ventilation during quiet breathing (eupnea. However, breathing frequency and expiratory time were significantly improved in AAV9-DES animals. These results indicate systemic delivery of either strategy improves cardiac function but AAV9-DES alone improves respiratory parameters at 3 months post-treatment in a murine model of Pompe disease.

  11. Study on the relationship between plasma BNP levels and left cardiac function in patients with heart failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin Xin; Xu Dandan; Wu Chunxu

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relationship between plasma brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels and cardiac function in patients with heart failure. Methods: Plasma levels of BNP (with IRMA) and left cardiac function parameters (examined with echocardiogram) were obtained in 80 patients with heart failure at admission and repeatedly examined in 43 of them later after 2w treatment a swell as in 30 controls. Results: The plasma BNP levels increased along with the deterioration of cardiac function, with significant differences among the patients with different cardiac function grades (P<0.01). After 2w treatment, the plasma BNP levels were significantly lower than those before (P<0.01). The plasma levels of BNP were negatively correlated with left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and left ventricle fraction shortening, but positively correlated with left ventricular end-systolic diameter (LVSd) and left ventricular end-diastolic diameter (LVDd). Conclusion: Plasma levels of BNP were closely related to the severity of heart failure and could serve as a biochemical marker for assessing the left cardiac function. (authors)

  12. The natural history of cardiac and pulmonary function decline in patients with duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberto, Rolando; Fritz, Anto; Hagar, Yolanda; Boice, Braden; Skalsky, Andrew; Hwang, Hosun; Beckett, Laurel; McDonald, Craig; Gupta, Munish

    2011-07-01

    Retrospective review of scoliosis progression, pulmonary and cardiac function in a series of patients with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD). To determine whether operative treatment of scoliosis decreases the rate of pulmonary function loss in patients with DMD. It is generally accepted that surgical intervention should be undertaken in DMD scoliosis once curve sizes reach 35° to allow intervention before critical respiratory decline has occurred. There are conflicting reports, however, regarding the effect of scoliosis stabilization on the rate of pulmonary function decline when compared to nonoperative cohorts. We reviewed spinal radiographs, echocardiograms, and spirometry, hospital, and operative records of all patients seen at our tertiary referral center from July 1, 1992 to June 1, 2007. Data were recorded to Microsoft Excel (Microsoft, Redmond, WA) and analyzed with SAS (SAS Institute, Cary, NC) and R statistical processing software (www.r-project.org). The percent predicted forced vital capacity (PPFVC) decreased 5% per year before operation. The mean PPFVC was 54% (SD = 21%) before operation with a mean postoperative PPFVC of 43% (SD = 14%). Surgical treatment was associated with a 12% decline in PPFVC independent of other treatment variables. PPFVC after operation declined at a rate of 1% per year and while this rate was lower, it was not significantly different than the rate of decline present before operation (P = 0.18). Cardiac function as measured by left ventricular fractional shortening declined at a rate of 1% per year with most individuals exhibiting a left ventricular fractional shortening rate of more than 30 before operation. Operative treatment of scoliosis in DMD using the Luque Galveston method was associated with a reduction of forced vital capacity related to operation. The rate of pulmonary function decline after operation was not significantly reduced when compared with the rate of preoperative forced vital capacity decline.

  13. New aspects of HERG K⁺ channel function depending upon cardiac spatial heterogeneity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pen Zhang

    Full Text Available HERG K(+ channel, the genetic counterpart of rapid delayed rectifier K(+ current in cardiac cells, is responsible for many cases of inherited and drug-induced long QT syndromes. HERG has unusual biophysical properties distinct from those of other K(+ channels. While the conventional pulse protocols in patch-clamp studies have helped us elucidate these properties, their limitations in assessing HERG function have also been progressively noticed. We employed AP-clamp techniques using physiological action potential waveforms recorded from various regions of canine heart to study HERG function in HEK293 cells and identified several novel aspects of HERG function. We showed that under AP-clamp IHERG increased gradually with membrane repolarization, peaked at potentials around 20-30 mV more negative than revealed by pulse protocols and at action potential duration (APD to 60%-70% full repolarization, and fell rapidly at the terminal phase of repolarization. We found that the rising phase of IHERG was conferred by removal of inactivation and the decaying phase resulted from a fall in driving force, which were all determined by the rate of membrane repolarization. We identified regional heterogeneity and transmural gradient of IHERG when quantified with the area covered by IHERG trace. In addition, we observed regional and transmural differences of IHERG in response to dofetilide blockade. Finally, we characterized the influence of HERG function by selective inhibition of other ion currents. Based on our results, we conclude that the distinct biophysical properties of HERG reported by AP-clamp confer its unique function in cardiac repolarization thereby in antiarrhythmia and arrhythmogenesis.

  14. Heme oxygenase-1 induction improves cardiac function following myocardial ischemia by reducing oxidative stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yossi Issan

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress plays a key role in exacerbating diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1, a stress response protein, is cytoprotective, but its role in post myocardial infarction (MI and diabetes is not fully characterized. We aimed to investigate the protection and the mechanisms of HO-1 induction in cardiomyocytes subjected to hypoxia and in diabetic mice subjected to LAD ligation.In vitro: cultured cardiomyocytes were treated with cobalt-protoporphyrin (CoPP and tin protoporphyrin (SnPP prior to hypoxic stress. In vivo: CoPP treated streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice were subjected to LAD ligation for 2/24 h. Cardiac function, histology, biochemical damage markers and signaling pathways were measured.HO-1 induction lowered release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH and creatine phospho kinase (CK, decreased propidium iodide staining, improved cell morphology and preserved mitochondrial membrane potential in cardiomyocytes. In diabetic mice, Fractional Shortening (FS was lower than non-diabetic mice (35±1%vs.41±2, respectively p<0.05. CoPP-treated diabetic animals improved cardiac function (43±2% p<0.01, reduced CK, Troponin T levels and infarct size compared to non-treated diabetic mice (P<0.01, P<0.001, P<0.01 respectively. CoPP-enhanced HO-1 protein levels and reduced oxidative stress in diabetic animals, as indicated by the decrease in superoxide levels in cardiac tissues and plasma TNFα levels (p<0.05. The increased levels of HO-1 by CoPP treatment after LAD ligation led to a shift of the Bcl-2/bax ratio towards the antiapoptotic process (p<0.05. CoPP significantly increased the expression levels of pAKT and pGSK3β (p<0.05 in cardiomyocytes and in diabetic mice with MI. SnPP abolished CoPP's cardioprotective effects.HO-1 induction plays a role in cardioprotection against hypoxic damage in cardiomyocytes and in reducing post ischemic cardiac damage in the diabetic heart as proved by the increased levels of pAKT with

  15. [Sodium hydrosulfide improves cardiac functions and structures in rats with chronic heart failure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-hui; Zhang, Chao-ying; Zhang, Ting

    2011-11-22

    To explore the effects of sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS), a hydrogen sulphide (H(2)S) donor, on cardiac functions and structures in rats with chronic heart failure induced by volume overload and examine its influence on cardiac remodelling. A total of 47 SD rats (120 - 140 g) were randomly divided into 5 groups:shunt group (n = 11), sham group (n = 8), shunt + NaHS group (n = 10), sham + NaHS group (n = 8) and shunt + phentolamine group (n = 10). The rat model of chronic heart failure was induced by abdominal aorta-inferior vena cava puncture. At Week 8 post-operation, hemodynamic parameters, microstructures and ultrastructures of myocardial tissues were analyzed. Extracellular collagen content in myocardial tissues was analyzed after Sirius red staining. Right ventricular hydroxyproline concentration was determined and compared. At Week 8 post-operation, compared with the sham operation and shunt + NaHS groups, the shunt group showed significantly increased right ventricular systolic pressure (RVSP) and right ventricular end diastolic pressure (RVEDP) (mm Hg: 35.2 ± 3.9 vs 21.4 ± 3.7 and 28.1 ± 2.7, 32 ± 5 vs 21 ± 4 and 26 ± 4, all P vs 2336 ± 185 and 1835 ± 132, 1331 ± 107 vs 2213 ± 212 and 1768 ± 116, all P non-uniformly in the shunt group, some fiber mitochondria were highly swollen and contained vacuoles. And sarcoplasmic reticulum appeared slightly dilated. Polarized microscopy indicated that, collagen content (particularly type-I collagen) increased in the shunt group compared with the sham operation group. Additionally, compared with the shunt group, the shunt and NaHS treatment groups showed an amelioration of myocardial damage, an alleviation of myocardial fiber changes and a decrease in myocardial collagen content (particularly type-I collagen). Compared with the sham operation and shunt + NaHS groups, the shunt group displayed increased right ventricular hydroxyproline (mg×g(-1)·pro: 1.32 ± 0.25 vs 0.89 ± 0.18 and 0.83 ± 0.19, all P < 0

  16. The Abnormal Functional Connectivity between the Hypothalamus and the Temporal Gyrus Underlying Depression in Alzheimer's Disease Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaozheng; Chen, Wei; Tu, Yunhai; Hou, Hongtao; Huang, Xiaoyan; Chen, Xingli; Guo, Zhongwei; Bai, Guanghui; Chen, Wei

    2018-01-01

    Hypothalamic communication with the rest of the brain is critical for accomplishing a wide variety of physiological and psychological functions, including the maintenance of neuroendocrine circadian rhythms and the management of affective processes. Evidence has shown that major depressive disorder (MDD) patients exhibit increased functioning of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Neurofibrillary tangles are also found in the hypothalamus of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients, and AD patients exhibit abnormal changes in the HPA. However, little is known of how the hypothalamus interacts with other brain regions in AD patients with depression (D-AD). Functional connectivity (FC) analysis explores the connectivity between brain regions that share functional properties. Here, we used resting-state (rs) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technology and the FC method to measure hypothalamic connectivity across the whole brain in 22 D-AD patients and 21 non-depressed AD patients (nD-AD). Our results showed that D-AD patients had reduced FC among the hypothalamus, the right middle temporal gyrus (MTG) and the right superior temporal gyrus (STG) compared with the FC of nD-AD patients, suggesting that the abnormal FC between the hypothalamus and the temporal lobe may play a key role in the pathophysiology of depression in AD patients.

  17. Asymptomatic Changes in Cardiac Function Can Occur in DCIS Patients Following Treatment with HER-2/neu Pulsed Dendritic Cell Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahl, Susan; Roses, Robert; Sharma, Anupama; Koldovsky, Ursula; Xu, Shuwen; Weinstein, Susan; Nisenbaum, Harvey; Fox, Kevin; Pasha, Theresa; Zhang, Paul; Araujo, Louis; Carver, Joseph; Czerniecki, Brian J

    2009-01-01

    Background Targeting HER-2/neu with Trastuzumab has been associated with development of cardiac toxicity. Methods Twenty-seven patients with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) of the breast completed an IRB approved clinical trial of a HER-2/neu targeted dendritic cell based vaccine. Four weekly vaccinations were administered prior to surgical resection. All subjects underwent pre- and post-vaccine cardiac monitoring by MUGA/ECHO scanning allowing for a comparison of cardiac function. Results In 3 of 27 vaccinated patients (11%) transient asymptomatic decrements in ejection fraction of greater than 15% were noted after vaccination. Notably, evidence of circulating anti-HER-2/neu antibody was found prior to vaccination in all three patients, but cardiac toxicity was not noted until induction of cellular mediated immune responses. Conclusions This is the first description of HER-2/neu targeted vaccination associated with an incidence of cardiac changes, and the induction of cellular immune responses combined with antibody may contribute to changes in cardiac function. PMID:19800453

  18. Genetic modification of embryonic stem cells with VEGF enhances cell survival and improves cardiac function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xiaoyan; Cao, Feng; Sheikh, Ahmad Y; Li, Zongjin; Connolly, Andrew J; Pei, Xuetao; Li, Ren-Ke; Robbins, Robert C; Wu, Joseph C

    2007-01-01

    Cardiac stem cell therapy remains hampered by acute donor cell death posttransplantation and the lack of reliable methods for tracking cell survival in vivo. We hypothesize that cells transfected with inducible vascular endothelial growth factor 165 (VEGF(165)) can improve their survival as monitored by novel molecular imaging techniques. Mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells were transfected with an inducible, bidirectional tetracycline (Bi-Tet) promoter driving VEGF(165) and renilla luciferase (Rluc). Addition of doxycycline induced Bi-Tet expression of VEGF(165) and Rluc significantly compared to baseline (p<0.05). Expression of VEGF(165) enhanced ES cell proliferation and inhibited apoptosis as determined by Annexin-V staining. For noninvasive imaging, ES cells were transduced with a double fusion (DF) reporter gene consisting of firefly luciferase and enhanced green fluorescence protein (Fluc-eGFP). There was a robust correlation between cell number and Fluc activity (R(2)=0.99). Analysis by immunostaining, histology, and RT-PCR confirmed that expression of Bi-Tet and DF systems did not affect ES cell self-renewal or pluripotency. ES cells were differentiated into beating embryoid bodies expressing cardiac markers such as troponin, Nkx2.5, and beta-MHC. Afterward, 5 x 10(5) cells obtained from these beating embryoid bodies or saline were injected into the myocardium of SV129 mice (n=36) following ligation of the left anterior descending (LAD) artery. Bioluminescence imaging (BLI) and echocardiography showed that VEGF(165) induction led to significant improvements in both transplanted cell survival and cardiac function (p<0.05). This is the first study to demonstrate imaging of embryonic stem cell-mediated gene therapy targeting cardiovascular disease. With further validation, this platform may have broad applications for current basic research and further clinical studies.

  19. Cardiac Function in Patients with Early Cirrhosis during Maximal Beta-Adrenergic Drive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krag, Aleksander; Bendtsen, Flemming; Dahl, Emilie Kristine

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIM: Cardiac dysfunction in patients with early cirrhosis is debated. We investigated potential cardiac dysfunction by assessing left ventricular systolic performance during a dobutamine stress test in patients with early cirrhosis. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Nineteen patients with Chil...

  20. Lethal arrhythmias in Tbx3-deficient mice reveal extreme dosage sensitivity of cardiac conduction system function and homeostasis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frank, Deborah U.; Carter, Kandis L.; Thomas, Kirk R.; Burr, R. Michael; Bakker, Martijn L.; Coetzee, William A.; Tristani-Firouzi, Martin; Bamshad, Michael J.; Christoffels, Vincent M.; Moon, Anne M.

    2012-01-01

    TBX3 is critical for human development: mutations in TBX3 cause congenital anomalies in patients with ulnar-mammary syndrome. Data from mice and humans suggest multiple roles for Tbx3 in development and function of the cardiac conduction system. The mechanisms underlying the functional development,

  1. TRPA1 mediates changes in heart rate variability and cardiac mechanical function in mice exposed to acrolein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurhanewicz, Nicole [Curriculum in Toxicology, School of Medicine, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); McIntosh-Kastrinsky, Rachel [Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Gillings School of Global Public Health, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Tong, Haiyan; Ledbetter, Allen; Walsh, Leon; Farraj, Aimen [Environmental Public Health Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, US Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); Hazari, Mehdi, E-mail: hazari.mehdi@epa.gov [Environmental Public Health Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, US Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States)

    2017-06-01

    Short-term exposure to ambient air pollution is linked with adverse cardiovascular effects. While previous research focused primarily on particulate matter-induced responses, gaseous air pollutants also contribute to cause short-term cardiovascular effects. Mechanisms underlying such effects have not been adequately described, however the immediate nature of the response suggests involvement of irritant neural activation and downstream autonomic dysfunction. Thus, this study examines the role of TRPA1, an irritant sensory receptor found in the airways, in the cardiac response of mice to acrolein and ozone. Conscious unrestrained wild-type C57BL/6 (WT) and TRPA1 knockout (KO) mice implanted with radiotelemeters were exposed once to 3 ppm acrolein, 0.3 ppm ozone, or filtered air. Heart rate (HR) and electrocardiogram (ECG) were recorded continuously before, during and after exposure. Analysis of ECG morphology, incidence of arrhythmia and heart rate variability (HRV) were performed. Cardiac mechanical function was assessed using a Langendorff perfusion preparation 24 h post-exposure. Acrolein exposure increased HRV independent of HR, as well as incidence of arrhythmia. Acrolein also increased left ventricular developed pressure in WT mice at 24 h post-exposure. Ozone did not produce any changes in cardiac function. Neither gas produced ECG effects, changes in HRV, arrhythmogenesis, or mechanical function in KO mice. These data demonstrate that a single exposure to acrolein causes cardiac dysfunction through TRPA1 activation and autonomic imbalance characterized by a shift toward parasympathetic modulation. Furthermore, it is clear from the lack of ozone effects that although gaseous irritants are capable of eliciting immediate cardiac changes, gas concentration and properties play important roles. - Highlights: • Acute acrolein exposure causes autonomic imbalance and altered CV function in mice. • TRPA1 mediates acrolein-induced autonomic nervous system cardiac

  2. Genome-wide screens for in vivo Tinman binding sites identify cardiac enhancers with diverse functional architectures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Jin

    Full Text Available The NK homeodomain factor Tinman is a crucial regulator of early mesoderm patterning and, together with the GATA factor Pannier and the Dorsocross T-box factors, serves as one of the key cardiogenic factors during specification and differentiation of heart cells. Although the basic framework of regulatory interactions driving heart development has been worked out, only about a dozen genes involved in heart development have been designated as direct Tinman target genes to date, and detailed information about the functional architectures of their cardiac enhancers is lacking. We have used immunoprecipitation of chromatin (ChIP from embryos at two different stages of early cardiogenesis to obtain a global overview of the sequences bound by Tinman in vivo and their linked genes. Our data from the analysis of ~50 sequences with high Tinman occupancy show that the majority of such sequences act as enhancers in various mesodermal tissues in which Tinman is active. All of the dorsal mesodermal and cardiac enhancers, but not some of the others, require tinman function. The cardiac enhancers feature diverse arrangements of binding motifs for Tinman, Pannier, and Dorsocross. By employing these cardiac and non-cardiac enhancers in machine learning approaches, we identify a novel motif, termed CEE, as a classifier for cardiac enhancers. In vivo assays for the requirement of the binding motifs of Tinman, Pannier, and Dorsocross, as well as the CEE motifs in a set of cardiac enhancers, show that the Tinman sites are essential in all but one of the tested enhancers; although on occasion they can be functionally redundant with Dorsocross sites. The enhancers differ widely with respect to their requirement for Pannier, Dorsocross, and CEE sites, which we ascribe to their different position in the regulatory circuitry, their distinct temporal and spatial activities during cardiogenesis, and functional redundancies among different factor binding sites.

  3. TRPA1 mediates changes in heart rate variability and cardiac mechanical function in mice exposed to acrolein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurhanewicz, Nicole; McIntosh-Kastrinsky, Rachel; Tong, Haiyan; Ledbetter, Allen; Walsh, Leon; Farraj, Aimen; Hazari, Mehdi

    2017-01-01

    Short-term exposure to ambient air pollution is linked with adverse cardiovascular effects. While previous research focused primarily on particulate matter-induced responses, gaseous air pollutants also contribute to cause short-term cardiovascular effects. Mechanisms underlying such effects have not been adequately described, however the immediate nature of the response suggests involvement of irritant neural activation and downstream autonomic dysfunction. Thus, this study examines the role of TRPA1, an irritant sensory receptor found in the airways, in the cardiac response of mice to acrolein and ozone. Conscious unrestrained wild-type C57BL/6 (WT) and TRPA1 knockout (KO) mice implanted with radiotelemeters were exposed once to 3 ppm acrolein, 0.3 ppm ozone, or filtered air. Heart rate (HR) and electrocardiogram (ECG) were recorded continuously before, during and after exposure. Analysis of ECG morphology, incidence of arrhythmia and heart rate variability (HRV) were performed. Cardiac mechanical function was assessed using a Langendorff perfusion preparation 24 h post-exposure. Acrolein exposure increased HRV independent of HR, as well as incidence of arrhythmia. Acrolein also increased left ventricular developed pressure in WT mice at 24 h post-exposure. Ozone did not produce any changes in cardiac function. Neither gas produced ECG effects, changes in HRV, arrhythmogenesis, or mechanical function in KO mice. These data demonstrate that a single exposure to acrolein causes cardiac dysfunction through TRPA1 activation and autonomic imbalance characterized by a shift toward parasympathetic modulation. Furthermore, it is clear from the lack of ozone effects that although gaseous irritants are capable of eliciting immediate cardiac changes, gas concentration and properties play important roles. - Highlights: • Acute acrolein exposure causes autonomic imbalance and altered CV function in mice. • TRPA1 media