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Sample records for abnormal branching pattern

  1. Principles of branch formation and branch patterning in Hydrozoa.

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    Berking, Stefan

    2006-01-01

    The freshwater polyp Hydra produces buds which separate from the parent. Other Hydrozoa produce branches which remain connected to the parent, thus forming a colony. Some Hydrozoa grow by means of an organ that is like a shoot apical meristem. Others display a sympodial type of growth. In this article, I propose that these different types of branches are organized by a common pattern-forming system. This system has self-organizing properties. It causes branch tip formation and is kept active in the tip when the tip finally differentiates into a hypostome of a polyp. The system does not cause structure formation directly but rather, determines a tissue property called positional value, in such a way that a gradient of values forms in the tissue of the bud or branch. The local value determines the local morphodynamic processes, including differentiation of the hypostome (highest positional value), tentacles and basal disc and of the exoskeleton pattern along the shoot. A high positional value favors the onset of a new self-organizing process and by lateral inhibition, such a process prevents the initiation of a further process in its surroundings. Small quantitative differences in the range of the signals involved determine whether a bud or a branch forms and whether monopodial and sympodial growth follows.

  2. COELIAC TRUNK BRANCHING PATTERN AND VARIATION

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    Jude Jose Thomson

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Anatomical variations involving the visceral arteries are common. However, variations in coeliac trunk are usually asymptomatic, they may become important in patients undergoing diagnostic angiography for gastrointestinal bleeding or prior to an operative procedure. This study was useful for knowing the possible morphological variations before an upper abdominal surgery. MATERIALS AND METHODS This was a descriptive study done by cadaveric dissection, conducted on thirty cadavers. The coeliac trunk being examined for its origin, branching pattern, distribution, and variations. Results were statistically analysed and compared with the previous studies. RESULTS In our study, 60% of the coeliac trunk shows variations and 40% have normal branching pattern. A complete absence of coeliac trunk was observed in one case. In the present study the Right inferior phrenic artery arising from coeliac trunk in 2 cases (6.6% and left inferior phrenic artery arising from coeliac trunk in 3 cases (9.9%. Both inferior phrenic arteries are arising from coeliac trunk in 2 cases (6.6%. The common hepatomesenteric trunk and gastro splenic trunk was found in 1 case (3.3%. Hepatosplenic trunk was found in 2 cases (6.6%. In another 2 cases (6.6% gastric and hepatic artery originate from coeliac trunk but splenic artery has a separate origin from abdominal aorta. An absent trunk was also found in 1 case (3.3%. In 5 cases (16.7% showed trifurcation with variation in the branching pattern. CONCLUSION The branching pattern and extreme degree variability in coeliac trunk as brought out in the observations of the present study make it obvious that the present study almost falls in description with previous studies.

  3. Automated branching pattern report generation for laparoscopic surgery assistance

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    Oda, Masahiro; Matsuzaki, Tetsuro; Hayashi, Yuichiro; Kitasaka, Takayuki; Misawa, Kazunari; Mori, Kensaku

    2015-05-01

    This paper presents a method for generating branching pattern reports of abdominal blood vessels for laparoscopic gastrectomy. In gastrectomy, it is very important to understand branching structure of abdominal arteries and veins, which feed and drain specific abdominal organs including the stomach, the liver and the pancreas. In the real clinical stage, a surgeon creates a diagnostic report of the patient anatomy. This report summarizes the branching patterns of the blood vessels related to the stomach. The surgeon decides actual operative procedure. This paper shows an automated method to generate a branching pattern report for abdominal blood vessels based on automated anatomical labeling. The report contains 3D rendering showing important blood vessels and descriptions of branching patterns of each vessel. We have applied this method for fifty cases of 3D abdominal CT scans and confirmed the proposed method can automatically generate branching pattern reports of abdominal arteries.

  4. Endogenous patterns of mechanical stress are required for branching morphogenesis

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    Gjorevski, Nikolce; Nelson, Celeste M.

    2011-01-01

    Spatial patterning of cell behaviors establishes the regional differences within tissues that collectively develop branched organs into their characteristic treelike shapes. Here we show that the pattern of branching morphogenesis of three-dimensional (3D) engineered epithelial tissues is controlled in part by gradients of endogenous mechanical stress. We used microfabrication to build model mammary epithelial tissues of defined geometry that branched in a stereotyped pattern when induced with growth factors. Branches initiated from sites of high mechanical stress within the tissues, as predicted numerically and measured directly using 3D traction force microscopy. Branch sites were defined by activation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK), inhibition of which disrupted morphogenesis. Stress, FAK activation, and branching were all altered by manipulating cellular contractility, matrix stiffness, intercellular cohesion and tissue geometry. These data suggest that the pattern and magnitude of mechanical stress across epithelial tissues cooperate with biochemical signals to specify branching pattern. Insight, innovation, integration Morphogenesis is ultimately a physical process wherein tissues are sculpted into their final three-dimensional (3D) patterns. Mechanical stresses from the microenvironment can also play regulatory roles, but their influence on pattern is difficult to ascertain in 3D systems in vivo. Here we integrate 3D microscale engineered tissues with insight from biological mechanics to understand the role of endogenous mechanical stresses in patterning tissue development. The innovation lies in the use of numerical modeling to design experiments that can predict the stress distribution and resulting morphogenesis of model tissues. PMID:20717570

  5. A rare variation of the branching pattern of radial nerve

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    Jamuna M

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Variation in the branching pattern of posterior cord of the brachial plexus is common but variation in the branching pattern of the radial nerve is rare. A rare and unreported variation in the branching pattern of the radial nerve was noted in the left sided axilla of an embalmed adult male cadaver during the regular gross anatomical dissection for undergraduate students. The radial nerve was having its origin from the posterior cord as a terminal branch and it split into anterior and posterior divisions. Branches of the radial nerve in the arm were given off from the posterior division and the anterior division continued as the main radial nerve with normal course and relations. These variations are important in evaluating post-traumatic injuries and repair of peripheral nerve injuries and during flap dissections.

  6. Variant branching pattern of axillary artery: a case report.

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    Shantakumar, Swamy Ravindra; Mohandas Rao, K G

    2012-01-01

    During routine dissection of an approximately 50-year-old male cadaver for the undergraduate medical students at Melaka Manipal Medical College, Manipal University, Manipal, we came across a variation in branching pattern of right axillary artery. The second part of axillary artery gave rise to a common trunk which divided into the subscapular and lateral thoracic arteries. The third part of right axillary artery gave rise to anterior and posterior circumflex humeral arteries. Variations in the branching pattern of axillary artery are important for the surgeons performing interventional or diagnostic procedures in cardiovascular diseases.

  7. Variation in the Branching Pattern of the Superficial Palmar Arch

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    Sumalatha S

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article we describe a rare variation in the superficial palmar arch (SPA encountered during routine cadaveric dissection. SPA was formed by the superficial branches of ulnar and radial arteries which provided a proper digital branch to the ulnar side of the little finger and three common palmar digital branches to the medial four digits. Additionally a first common digital artery was seen to emerge from the radial side of SPA which further divided into the arteria princeps pollicis and arteria radialis indicis. We also found a small communicating branch between the arteria princeps pollicis and the radial artery in the anatomical snuff box. Such arterial variations in the palm due to alteration in the developmental sequence remains a crucial issue in the reconstructive hand surgeries, especially while dealing with the innovative microsurgical procedures, where these varied patterns act as pivotal points around which successful results of various advanced surgical procedures revolve.

  8. Popliteal artery branching patterns-an angiographic study

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    Day, C.P. [Department of Radiology, Royal Shrewsbury Hospital, Shrewsbury (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: chris.laura2001@ntlworld.com; Orme, R. [Department of Radiology, Royal Shrewsbury Hospital, Shrewsbury (United Kingdom)

    2006-08-15

    AIM: To analyse the variations in branching patterns of the popliteal artery and infrapopliteal vessels using angiography. MATERIALS And METHODS: Femoral angiograms of 1037 lower limbs in 568 patients were examined to assess the popliteal artery branching pattern. Variations of the infrapopliteal vessels supplying the foot were assessed in 662 limbs from the same cohort of patients. RESULTS: Nine hundred and forty-one (90.7%) limbs had the usual branching pattern with anterior tibial artery (AT) arising first followed by the tibial-peroneal trunk (TPT), which then gives rise to the posterior tibial (PT) and peroneal (PR) arteries. Variations in popliteal branching pattern were seen in 96 (9.3%) limbs. The commonest variation is high origin of the AT in 47 (4.5%) limbs or trifurcation of the popliteal artery in 33 (3.2%) limbs with AT, PT and PR arising together with no true TPT. The course of AT with high origin either anterior or posterior to popliteus was almost equal [25 (2.4%) or 22 (2.1%) limbs, respectively]. Eleven limbs (1.1%) had high origin of PT and two (0.2%) had a high origin of the PR. Six hundred and fifty-five (99%) limbs had normal infrapopliteal vessels. Seven (1%) had hypoplasia-aplasia of the infrapopliteal vessels. Five (0.8%) limbs had a hypoplastic PT with the remaining 2 (0.2%) having either a hypoplastic-aplastic AT or hypoplasia-aplasia of both AT and PT. CONCLUSION: Variations in the branching of the popliteal artery occur in about 10% of patients. Knowledge of these variations is important because of the potential consequences for the management of peripheral vascular disease.

  9. Anomalous branching pattern of common hepatic artery: a case report

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    Sushant S. Das

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A number of hepatic artery variations exists which is continuously proving a hindrance for the surgeons and radiologists. During routine dissection in the subhepatic region in 50 year old male cadaver for undergraduate teaching, a variation in the branching pattern of common hepatic artery was noticed. We observed an unusual branching of the common hepatic artery into seven terminal branches, of which two were left hepatic arteries, two were right gastric arteries and the remaining three were right hepatic artery, cystic artery and gastroduodenal artery. Hepatic artery proper was absent. Embryological basis of these variations were discussed. The present case is a rarity and will further throw light on the knowledge of the hepatic artery variations, thus assisting surgeons and radiologists in various surgical and diagnostic procedures. [Int J Res Med Sci 2014; 2(4.000: 1740-1742

  10. Plasma branched chain amino acid abnormalities in sake-treated rats.

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    Watanabe,Akiharu

    1985-02-01

    Full Text Available Plasma amino acid abnormalities in rats treated with large doses of sake and whisky for 3 days were investigated under adequate nutritional conditions. A significant decrease in plasma branched-chain amino acid (BCAA levels was observed in sake- but not whisky-treated rats. However, known factors affecting BCAA levels, such as serum insulin and plasma glucagon levels ahd BCAA-metabolizing enzyme (BCAA transaminase and branched chain alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase activities in the liver and skeletal muscle, were not significantly altered in the sake group. Furthermore, ethanol-metabolizing enzyme (alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenases and the microsomal ethanol-oxidizing system activities in the liver were not altered in the sake group. Other mechanisms need to be considered for explaining the diminished levels of plasma BCAA in sake-treated rats.

  11. Mixed pattern matching-based traffic abnormal behavior recognition.

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    Wu, Jian; Cui, Zhiming; Sheng, Victor S; Shi, Yujie; Zhao, Pengpeng

    2014-01-01

    A motion trajectory is an intuitive representation form in time-space domain for a micromotion behavior of moving target. Trajectory analysis is an important approach to recognize abnormal behaviors of moving targets. Against the complexity of vehicle trajectories, this paper first proposed a trajectory pattern learning method based on dynamic time warping (DTW) and spectral clustering. It introduced the DTW distance to measure the distances between vehicle trajectories and determined the number of clusters automatically by a spectral clustering algorithm based on the distance matrix. Then, it clusters sample data points into different clusters. After the spatial patterns and direction patterns learned from the clusters, a recognition method for detecting vehicle abnormal behaviors based on mixed pattern matching was proposed. The experimental results show that the proposed technical scheme can recognize main types of traffic abnormal behaviors effectively and has good robustness. The real-world application verified its feasibility and the validity.

  12. Branched-chain amino acid metabolism in rat muscle: abnormal regulation in acidosis

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    May, R.C.; Hara, Y.; Kelly, R.A.; Block, K.P.; Buse, M.G.; Mitch, W.E.

    1987-06-01

    Branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) metabolism is frequently abnormal in pathological conditions accompanied by chronic metabolic acidosis. To study how metabolic acidosis affects BCAA metabolism in muscle, rats were gavage fed a 14% protein diet with or without 4 mmol NH/sub 4/Cl x 100 g body wt/sup -1/ x day/sup -1/. Epitrochlearis muscles were incubated with L-(1-/sup 14/C)-valine and L-(1-/sup 14/C)leucine, and rates of decarboxylation, net transamination, and incorporation into muscle protein were measured. Plasma and muscle BCAA levels were lower in acidotic rats. Rates of valine and leucine decarboxylation and net transamination were higher in muscles from acidotic rats; these differences were associated with a 79% increase in the total activity of branched-chain ..cap alpha..-keto acid dehydrogenase and a 146% increase in the activated form of the enzyme. They conclude that acidosis affects the regulation of BCAA metabolism by enhancing flux through the transaminase and by directly stimulating oxidative catabolism through activation of branched-chain ..cap alpha..-keto acid dehydrogenase.

  13. Abnormal erythrocyte membrane protein pattern in severe megaloblastic anemia.

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    Ballas, S K

    1978-01-01

    The erythrocyte membrane protein pattern of patients with megaloblastic anemia was determined by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in sodium dodecyl sulfate. In severe megaloblastic anemia, secondary either to folic acid or vitamin B12 deficiency, the erythrocyte membrane protein pattern was grossly abnormal, lacking bands 1, 2 (spectrin), and 3 and having several diffuse, faster migrating bands. After adequate vitamin replacement therapy, the erythrocyte membrane protein pattern returned to normal. In mild megaloblastic anemia, secondary either to folic acid of vitamin B12 deficiency, and in severe iron deficiency anemia, the erythrocyte membrane protein pattern was normal. Erythrocyte membrane protein pattern of normal membranes did not change after mixing with abnormal membranes before polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in sodium dodecyl sulfate. Protease activity extracted from membranes of megalocytes was not different from normal. These findings indicate that the erythrocyte membrane protein pattern is abnormal in severe megaloblastic anemia and that this abnormality is not secondary to increased activity of the endogenous erythrocyte membrane proteinase. Images PMID:659579

  14. Abnormal depolarizing patterns in three patients with filarial infection.

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    Crespo, S; Palacios, G; Scott, S; Lago, M; Puente, S; Martínez, M; Baquero, M; Subirats, M

    2004-05-01

    Several authors have described a particular potential of automated depolarization analysis in detecting malaria infection as part of the routine full blood count (FBC) performed by the Cell-Dyn 4000 analyzer. In these cases, abnormal depolarizing patterns are due to the presence of leukocyte-associated malaria hemozoin, a pigment which depolarizes the laser light. In this report we describe samples from three individual patients who did not have malaria infection but showed abnormal depolarizing events. Further investigation determined that these samples were from patients infected by the nematode Mansonella perstans. The observed depolarizing pattern consisted of a normal depolarizing eosinophil population and in addition an abnormal depolarizing population that showed a close "linear" relationship between "granularity" (90 degrees depolarization) and "lobularity" (90 degrees polarization). This atypical population was smaller than normal leukocytes and thus clearly different from the patterns associated with malaria infection. Abnormal depolarization patterns of M. perstans clearly do not reflect leukocyte-associated malaria hemozoin. It is possible however that the erythrocyte-lysing agent used to facilitate leukocyte analysis by the instrument may have caused microfilaria fragmentation and thus the distinctive "straight-line" features of the abnormal scatter plots

  15. Dietary Patterns and Glucose Tolerance Abnormalities in Chinese Adults

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    He, Y.; Ma, G.; Zhai, F.; Li, Y.; Hu, Y.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Yang, X.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate the association of the dietary pattern with the presence of newly diagnosed glucose tolerance abnormalities among Chinese adults. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A total of 20,210 adults aged 45–69 years from the 2002 China National Nutrition and Health Survey were included. Inf

  16. An extracellular adhesion molecule complex patterns dendritic branching and morphogenesis.

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    Dong, Xintong; Liu, Oliver W; Howell, Audrey S; Shen, Kang

    2013-10-10

    Robust dendrite morphogenesis is a critical step in the development of reproducible neural circuits. However, little is known about the extracellular cues that pattern complex dendrite morphologies. In the model nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, the sensory neuron PVD establishes stereotypical, highly branched dendrite morphology. Here, we report the identification of a tripartite ligand-receptor complex of membrane adhesion molecules that is both necessary and sufficient to instruct spatially restricted growth and branching of PVD dendrites. The ligand complex SAX-7/L1CAM and MNR-1 function at defined locations in the surrounding hypodermal tissue, whereas DMA-1 acts as the cognate receptor on PVD. Mutations in this complex lead to dramatic defects in the formation, stabilization, and organization of the dendritic arbor. Ectopic expression of SAX-7 and MNR-1 generates a predictable, unnaturally patterned dendritic tree in a DMA-1-dependent manner. Both in vivo and in vitro experiments indicate that all three molecules are needed for interaction.

  17. Histopathological pattern of abnormal uterine bleeding in endometrial biopsies.

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    Vaidya, S; Lakhey, M; Vaidya, S; Sharma, P K; Hirachand, S; Lama, S; KC, S

    2013-03-01

    Abnormal uterine bleeding is a common presenting complaint in gyanecology out patient department. Histopathological evaluation of the endometrial samples plays a significant role in the diagnosis of abnormal uterine bleeding. This study was carried out to determine the histopathological pattern of the endometrium in women of various age groups presenting with abnormal uterine bleeding. Endometrial biopsies and curettings of patients presenting with abnormal uterine bleeding was retrospectively studied. A total of 403 endometrial biopsies and curettings were analyzed. The age of the patients ranged from 18 to 70 years. Normal cyclical endometrium was seen in 165 (40.94%) cases, followed by 54 (13.40%) cases of disordered proliferative endometrium and 44 (10.92%) cases of hyperplasia. Malignancy was seen in 10 (2.48%) cases. Hyperplasia and malignancy were more common in the perimenopausal and postmenopausal age groups. Histopathological examination of endometrial biopsies and curettings in patients presenting with abnormal uterine bleeding showed a wide spectrum of changes ranging from normal endometrium to malignancy. Endometrial evaluation is specially recommended in women of perimenopausal and postmenopausal age groups presenting with AUB, to rule out a possibility of any preneoplastic condition or malignancy.

  18. Branching patterns emerge in a mathematical model of the dynamics of lung development.

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    Guo, Yina; Chen, Ting-Hsuan; Zeng, Xingjuan; Warburton, David; Boström, Kristina I; Ho, Chih-Ming; Zhao, Xin; Garfinkel, Alan

    2014-01-15

    Recent experimental work has described an elegant pattern of branching in the development of the lung. Multiple forms of branching have been identified, including side branching and tip bifurcation. A particularly interesting feature is the phenomenon of 'orthogonal rotation of the branching plane'. The lung must fill 3D space with the essentially 2D phenomenon of branching. It accomplishes this by rotating the branching plane by 90° with each generation. The mechanisms underlying this rotation are not understood. In general, the programmes that underlie branching have been hypothetically attributed to genetic 'subroutines' under the control of a 'global master routine' to invoke particular subroutines at the proper time and location, but the mechanisms of these routines are not known. Here, we demonstrate that fundamental mechanisms, the reaction and diffusion of biochemical morphogens, can create these patterns. We used a partial differential equation model that postulates three morphogens, which we identify with specific molecules in lung development. We found that cascades of branching events, including side branching, tip splitting and orthogonal rotation of the branching plane, all emerge immediately from the model, without further assumptions. In addition, we found that one branching mode can be easily switched to another, by increasing or decreasing the values of key parameters. This shows how a 'global master routine' could work by the alteration of a single parameter. Being able to simulate cascades of branching events is necessary to understand the critical features of branching, such as orthogonal rotation of the branching plane between successive generations, and branching mode switch during lung development. Thus, our model provides a paradigm for how genes could possibly act to produce these spatial structures. Our low-dimensional model gives a qualitative understanding of how generic physiological mechanisms can produce branching phenomena, and how

  19. Intelligent Process Abnormal Patterns Recognition and Diagnosis Based on Fuzzy Logic.

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    Hou, Shi-Wang; Feng, Shunxiao; Wang, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Locating the assignable causes by use of the abnormal patterns of control chart is a widely used technology for manufacturing quality control. If there are uncertainties about the occurrence degree of abnormal patterns, the diagnosis process is impossible to be carried out. Considering four common abnormal control chart patterns, this paper proposed a characteristic numbers based recognition method point by point to quantify the occurrence degree of abnormal patterns under uncertain conditions and a fuzzy inference system based on fuzzy logic to calculate the contribution degree of assignable causes with fuzzy abnormal patterns. Application case results show that the proposed approach can give a ranked causes list under fuzzy control chart abnormal patterns and support the abnormity eliminating.

  20. Analysis of abnormally thickened endometrial patterns on transvaginal sonography

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    Lee, Myung Sook; Cho, Hyeun Cha [Samsung Cheil Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-06-15

    To determine whether the transvaginal sonographic appearance of the thickened endometrium can help to predict the underlying endometrial pathologic process. The sonogram reports of fall 41 pre- and 21 postmenopausal women who underwent transvaginal sonogram were retrospectively analyzed. The women undergoing estrogen replacement therapy, tamoxifen therapy or having abnormal cervical cytology were excluded from this study. The analysis of sonographic and histologic results was performed in all patients. Three distinct sonographic patterns were encountered. Type I consisted of heterogeneous endometrial thickening with internal hypoechoic areas (normal [n=4], polyp [n=1] and cancer [n=4] in premenopausal women and cancer [n=4] in postmenopausal women). Type II consisted of echogenic endometrial thickening with or without tiny cysts (normal[n=5], and hyperplasia [n=7] in premenopausal women and normal [n=4], polyp [n=2], and hyperplasia [n=1] in postmenopausal women). Type III consisted of localized well defined endoluminal lesion (normal [n=1], polyp [n=14], hyperplasia [n=1], cancer [n=1], and submucosal mass [n=3] in premenopausal women and normal [n=4], polyp [n=2],submucosal mass [n=3], and hematoma [n=1] in postmenopausal women). The measurement of the endometrial thickness combined with analysis of sonographic echo patterns may be helpful in prediction and differentiation of endometrial disease in pre- and postmenopausal women. Also it can contribute to avoiding unnecessary D and C.

  1. A CADAVERIC STUDY OF VARIATION IN BRANCHING PATTERN OF COELIAC TRUNK IN SOUTH INDIAN POPULATION

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    Jayamma

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: purpose of present study was to describe the variations in the branching pattern of caeliac trunk. Caeliac trunk is one of the ventral branch of abdominal aorta.it arises from the abdominal aorta opposite to intervertebral disc of T12 & L1 vertebrae.it has short course of 1.5 cm after which it terminates by dividing in to three branches splenic artery , left ga stric artery and common hepatic artery. Here we report unusual branching pattern of caeliac trunk. Knowledge of such variations in branching pattern of caeliac trunk is very important for surgeons , anatomists and anaesthetists. METHODS : The present study is done on 30 cadavers irrespective of sex in department of Anatomy in KURNOOL MEDICAL COLLEGE , Kurnool. According to dissection guidelines of cunnighams practical manual of Anatomy. RESULTS: The present study was an attempt to study the occurrence of the branching pattern of the coeliac trunk. The available literature was reviewed. The coeliac trunk took origin from the ventral surface of the aorta in all the 30 specimens. The various patterns were normal hepatolienogastric trunk in 92% , lienogastric trunk in. In one Type I , 2% to Type II , 2% to Type III , 2% to Type IV. The most common pattern of branching of the Coeliac trunk was the Hepatogastrolienal type , which has been accepted as the normal pattern o f specimen , coeliac trunk divided into common hepati c & splenic arteries , the left gastric artery took origin from the splenic artery. CONCLUSION : In my study out of 30 specimens 92% belonged to Type I , 2% to Type II , 2% to Type III , 2% to Type IV. This classification is according to LIPSCHUTZ (1917. The most common pattern of branching of the Coeliac trunk was the Hepatogastrolienal type , which has been accepted as the normal pattern of branching of the Coeliac trunk.

  2. Prevalence and patterns of morphological abnormalities in patients with childhood cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merks, Johannes H. M.; Ozgen, Heval M.; Koster, Jan; Zwinderman, Aeilko H.; Caron, Huib N.; Hennekam, Raoul C. M.

    2008-01-01

    Context Constitutional gene defects predispose to cancer in children. Such tumor predisposition syndromes can be recognized by specific patterns of morphological abnormalities. Objectives To assess the prevalence of morphological abnormalities in a large cohort of patients with childhood cancer and

  3. Robust PCA-Based Abnormal Traffic Flow Pattern Isolation and Loop Detector Fault Detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Xuexiang; ZHANG Yi; LI Li; HU Jianming

    2008-01-01

    One key function of intelligent transportation systems is to automatically detect abnormal traffic phenomena and to help further investigations of the cause of the abnormality. This paper describes a robust principal components analysis (RPCA)-based abnormal traffic flow pattern isolation and loop detector fault detection method. The results show that RPCA is a useful tool to distinguish regular traffic flow from abnor-mal traffic flow patterns caused by accidents and loop detector faults. This approach gives an effective traffic flow data pre-processing method to reduce the human effort in finding potential loop detector faults. The method can also be used to further investigate the causes of the abnormality.

  4. 8 Abnormal antepartum fetal heart-rate patterns and subsequent handicap

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    Visser, G. H. A.

    1988-01-01

    In this paper data on abnormal antepartum FHR patterns are related to the state of fetal oxygenation, fetal brain abnormalities and to neurological outcome. It is concluded that in IUGR fetuses changes in heart rate (and movement) patterns are late signs of impairment. Antepartum heart rate decelera

  5. Applying the functional abnormality ontology pattern to anatomical functions

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    Hoehndorf Robert

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several biomedical ontologies cover the domain of biological functions, including molecular and cellular functions. However, there is currently no publicly available ontology of anatomical functions. Consequently, no explicit relation between anatomical structures and their functions is expressed in the anatomy ontologies that are available for various species. Such an explicit relation between anatomical structures and their functions would be useful both for defining the classes of the anatomy and the phenotype ontologies accurately. Results We provide an ontological analysis of functions and functional abnormalities. From this analysis, we derive an approach to the automatic extraction of anatomical functions from existing ontologies which uses a combination of natural language processing, graph-based analysis of the ontologies and formal inferences. Additionally, we introduce a new relation to link material objects to processes that realize the function of these objects. This relation is introduced to avoid a needless duplication of processes already covered by the Gene Ontology in a new ontology of anatomical functions. Conclusions Ontological considerations on the nature of functional abnormalities and their representation in current phenotype ontologies show that we can extract a skeleton for an ontology of anatomical functions by using a combination of process, phenotype and anatomy ontologies automatically. We identify several limitations of the current ontologies that still need to be addressed to ensure a consistent and complete representation of anatomical functions and their abnormalities. Availability The source code and results of our analysis are available at http://bioonto.de.

  6. A morphological study of variations in the branching pattern and termination of the radial artery.

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    Gupta, C; Ray, B; Dsouza, A S; Nair, N; Pai, S R; Manju, M

    2012-03-01

    Coronary artery bypass grafting is an established means of treating advanced coronary artery disease. In recent years, there has been an increased interest in the radial artery as an entry route during coronary angiography. Accurate knowledge of the branching pattern of this artery and its relation to surrounding structures is of great importance in the care of surgical patients. This study was conducted on 75 formalin-fixed upper limbs in order to note the variations in the branching pattern and termination of the radial artery. The radial artery divided into three branches in 2.7% of cases and into two branches in 52.0% of cases. The radial recurrent artery originated from the brachial artery instead of the radial artery in 12.0% of cases. The radial recurrent artery, palmar carpal artery, first dorsal metacarpal artery and superficial palmar artery were absent in 1.3%, 26.7%, 9.3% and 5.3% of cases, respectively. 6.7% of cases had a high origin of the superficial palmar artery. The rich photographic documentation of the variation of branching pattern and termination of radial artery is not only of academic interest but also useful to surgeons and radiologists working in the same area.

  7. Noise effects on the complex patterns of abnormal heartbeats

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    Schulte-Frohlinde, V.; Ashkenazy, Y.; Ivanov, P. C.; Glass, L.; Goldberger, A. L.; Stanley, H. E.

    2001-01-01

    Patients at high risk for sudden death often exhibit complex heart rhythms in which abnormal heartbeats are interspersed with normal heartbeats. We analyze such a complex rhythm in a single patient over a 12-h period and show that the rhythm can be described by a theoretical model consisting of two interacting oscillators with stochastic elements. By varying the magnitude of the noise, we show that for an intermediate level of noise, the model gives best agreement with key statistical features of the dynamics.

  8. Intravenous lipid emulsion in wide complex arrhythmia with alternating bundle branch block pattern from cocaine overdose.

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    Kundu, Ria; Almasri, Hamzeh; Moza, Ankush; Ghose, Abhimanyu; Assaly, Ragheb

    2013-01-01

    We describe the management of a young patient who had experienced a cocaine overdose. The patient presented with altered mental status and seizures and subsequently developed a wide complex arrhythmia with a rare alternating bundle branch block pattern. Intravenous lipid emulsion was administered following initial resuscitation and endotracheal intubation, because conservative methods of treating the persistent cardiac arrhythmias failed.

  9. Variation in brachial plexus formation, branching pattern and relation with major vessels

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    G. Anwer Khan

    2014-08-01

    Conclusion: The present study carried out on adult human cadavers revealed some rare variations in the formation, branching pattern and relations of the brachial plexus. These variations are of clinical significance for the surgeons, radiologists and the anesthesiologists. [Int J Res Med Sci 2014; 2(4.000: 1591-1594

  10. Patterns of Structural MRI Abnormalities in Deficit and Nondeficit Schizophrenia

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    Galderisi, Silvana; Quarantelli, Mario; Volpe, Umberto; Mucci, Armida; Cassano, Giovanni Battista; Invernizzi, Giordano; Rossi, Alessandro; Vita, Antonio; Pini, Stefano; Cassano, Paolo; Daneluzzo, Enrico; De Peri, Luca; Stratta, Paolo; Brunetti, Arturo; Maj, Mario

    2008-01-01

    Negative symptoms of schizophrenia have generally been found in association with ventricular enlargement and prefrontal abnormalities. These relationships, however, have not been observed consistently, most probably because negative symptoms are heterogeneous and result from different pathophysiological mechanisms. The concept of deficit schizophrenia (DS) was introduced by Carpenter et al to identify a clinically homogeneous subgroup of patients characterized by the presence of primary and enduring negative symptoms. Findings of brain structural abnormalities reported by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies focusing on DS have been mixed. The present study included 34 patients with DS, 32 with nondeficit schizophrenia (NDS), and 31 healthy comparison subjects, providing the largest set of MRI findings in DS published so far. The Schedule for the Deficit Syndrome was used to categorize patients as DS or NDS patients. The 2 patient groups were matched on age and gender and did not differ on clinical variables, except for higher scores on the negative dimension and more impaired interpersonal relationships in DS than in NDS subjects. Lateral ventricles were larger in NDS than in control subjects but were not enlarged in patients with DS. The cingulate gyri volume was smaller in NDS but not in DS patients as compared with healthy subjects. Both groups had smaller dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and temporal lobes than healthy subjects, but DS patients had significantly less right temporal lobe volume as compared with NDS patients. These findings do not support the hypothesis that DS is the extreme end of a severity continuum within schizophrenia. PMID:17728266

  11. Abnormal uterine bleeding: a study of menstrual patterns and histopathological patterns in perimenopausal females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahima Jain

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: In gynecology out-patient department there is a large group of patients especially in perimenopausal age group who present with various menstrual disorders. These can be as such caused due to various etiologies, which need to be investigated as line of management is thereupon decided. This study is undertaken to know the various abnormal uterine bleeding in perimenopausal women, and their histopathological pattern. Methods: This study is done at PDU medical college hospital, Rajkot, Gujarat which is a tertiary care centre. A retrospective analysis of 268 cases clinically presenting with abnormal uterine bleeding is done. They are further posted for dilatation and curettage after thorough investigation to rule out other pathologies. The endometrial samplings from the D and C material are collected and sent for histopathological assessment. The data is recorded and further analysed. Women between 40-55 years age group are included in this study. Women with diagnosed pelvic pathology, endocrinal cause and bleeding tendencies are excluded from the study. Results: In our study almost all menstrual disorders are found, commonest being menorrhagia in 42.16%. Other patterns reported are metrorrhagia in 3.35%, oligomenorrhea in 14.80%, polymenorrhea and polymenorrhagia in 5.22% and 5.59% cases. Post-menopausal bleeding is found in one case. The histopathological diagnoses reported in this study are proliferative and secretory phase in 26.49% and 19.77% respectively. Other endometrial hyperplasias reported are Swiss cheese in 1.86%, simple cystic hyperplasia in 12.31%, complex hyperplasia with or without atypia in 7% and 4.10% respectively. Malignancy is found in 2 cases. Conclusions: From this study it is well established that endometrial sampling from D and C material still remains the gold standard in diagnosis of various endometrial pathologies in low resource set-up. Thereby the further line of management can also be decided for a

  12. Branching patterns of intramural coronary vessels determined by microangiography using synchrotron radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, A; Mori, H; Tanaka, E; Mohammed, M U; Tanaka, Y; Sekka, T; Ito, K; Shinozaki, Y; Hyodo, K; Ando, M; Umetani, K; Tanioka, K; Kubota, M; Abe, S; Handa, S; Nakazawa, H

    1999-06-01

    The intramural coronary artery (IMCA) with a diameter of 50-500 micrometers is critical for blood supply to the inner layers of heart muscle. We introduced digital measurement to microangiography using monochromatic synchrotron radiation and quantified branching patterns of the IMCA, the epicardial coronary artery (EPCA), and the distal ileal artery (DIA). The pre- and postbranching diameters were measured (95-1,275 micrometers) in seven dogs. A typical arterial segment divided into two nearly equivalent branches, and a regression line of daughter-to-mother diameter plots was almost identical among the EPCA (y = 0.838x - 16.7 in micrometers), IMCA (y = 0.737x - 2.18), and DIA (y = 0.755x + 8.63). However, a considerable difference was present at a segment where a proximal IMCA branched off from an EPCA (y = 0.182x + 90.2). Moreover, a proximal IMCA diameter had no relationship to the branching order from an EPCA. The precision of this method was confirmed by the good correlation of diameter measurements between two independent observers (r = 0.999, y = 1.02x - 1.07). In conclusion, using digital microangiography we demonstrated that the self-similar branching pattern of coronary arteries was discrete at the connection between the IMCA and EPCA.

  13. Optical branching effect in Ti:LiNbO3 waveguides: near-field pattern studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerominek, H; Delisle, C; Tremblay, R

    1986-03-01

    The paper presents a detailed study of a single optical beam splitting into several beams (the branching effect) in photorefractive sensitive Ti:LiNbO3 optical slab waveguides. The near-field patterns of the multibeam structures are presented for different values of optical power coupled into TE guided modes of different orders. The process of partial recovery of the optically damaged waveguide (the partial shrinking of the multibeam bundle created) is also described.

  14. Pattern recognition of abnormal left ventricle wall motion in cardiac MR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yingli; Radau, Perry; Connelly, Kim; Dick, Alexander; Wright, Graham

    2009-01-01

    There are four main problems that limit application of pattern recognition techniques for recognition of abnormal cardiac left ventricle (LV) wall motion: (1) Normalization of the LV's size, shape, intensity level and position; (2) defining a spatial correspondence between phases and subjects; (3) extracting features; (4) and discriminating abnormal from normal wall motion. Solving these four problems is required for application of pattern recognition techniques to classify the normal and abnormal LV wall motion. In this work, we introduce a normalization scheme to solve the first and second problems. With this scheme, LVs are normalized to the same position, size, and intensity level. Using the normalized images, we proposed an intra-segment classification criterion based on a correlation measure to solve the third and fourth problems. Application of the method to recognition of abnormal cardiac MR LV wall motion showed promising results.

  15. Variations of the aortic arch - a study on the most common branching patterns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muller, Marguerite; Schmitz, Bernd L; Schick, Melanie; Schloetzer, Wiebke (Dept. of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Section Neuroradiology, Univ. Ulm (Germany)), email: marguerite.mueller@uni-ulm.de; Pauls, Sandra (Dept. of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Univ. Ulm (Germany)); Roehrer, Stefan; Kapapa, Thomas (Dept. of Neurosurgery, Univ. Ulm (Germany))

    2011-09-15

    Background: Anatomical variants of the aortic arch and its branching patterns often appear as an incidental finding during routine computed tomography (CT) scanning. These variations can be of relevance when performing angiography or endovascular interventions and may cause symptoms such as dysphagia. Purpose: To analyze common anatomical variations found within the arteries originating from the aortic arch in patients using contrast CT imaging techniques. Material and Methods: A total of 2033 contrast CT scans were analyzed. To obtain a truly representative sample, cases were chosen from different hospital departments without previous knowledge of the patient history. Results: The total percentage of variations within the analyzed patients was 13.3%. In 8.0% a truncus bicaroticus was found. 4.2% of the patients showed a left vertebral artery originating directly from the aortic arch, mostly proximal, and in 1 case distal to the left subclavian artery. In 1.0% we found an aberrant right subclavian artery. We also found a single case of a right descending aortic arch. Conclusion: Variations of the aortic arch and its branching are frequently found, mostly as an incidental finding during routine diagnostic scanning. A contrast-enhanced CT scan is a good method with which to study the aortic arch and its associated branching pattern

  16. Left ventricular regional contraction abnormalities by echocardiographic speckle tracking in combined right bundle branch with left anterior fascicular block compared to left bundle branch block

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leeters, Irene P M; Davis, Ashlee; Zusterzeel, Robbert

    2016-01-01

    and anterior LV walls, similar to abnormalities between septal and lateral walls in LBBB. METHODS AND RESULTS: Ten healthy volunteers with no-BBB, 28 LBBB and 28 RBBB+LAFB heart failure patients were included in this retrospective study. Two-dimensional regional-strains were obtained by speckle-tracking. Scar...

  17. Association of Concussion With Abnormal Menstrual Patterns in Adolescent and Young Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snook, Meredith L; Henry, Luke C; Sanfilippo, Joseph S; Zeleznik, Anthony J; Kontos, Anthony P

    2017-09-01

    Brain injury may interrupt menstrual patterns by altering hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis function. Investigators have yet to evaluate the association of concussion with menstrual patterns in young women. To compare abnormal menstrual patterns in adolescent and young women after a sport-related concussion with those after sport-related orthopedic injuries to areas other than the head (nonhead). This prospective cohort study of adolescent and young women with a sport-related concussion (n = 68) or a nonhead sport-related orthopedic injury (n = 61) followed up participants for 120 days after injury. Patients aged 12 to 21 years who presented within 30 days after a sport-related injury to a concussion or sports medicine clinic at a single academic center were eligible. Menstrual patterns were assessed using a weekly text message link to an online survey inquiring about bleeding episodes each week. The first patient was enrolled on October 14, 2014, and follow-up was completed on January 24, 2016. Inclusion criteria required participants to be at least 2 years postmenarche, to report regular menses in the previous year, and to report no use of hormonal contraception. Sport-related concussion or nonhead sport-related orthopedic injury. Abnormal menstrual patterns were defined by an intermenstrual interval of less than 21 days (short) or more than 35 days (long) or a bleeding duration of less than 3 days or more than 7 days. A total of 1784 survey responses were completed of the 1888 text messages received by patients, yielding 487 menstrual patterns in 128 patients (mean [SD] age, 16.2 [2.0] years). Of the 68 patients who had a concussion, 16 (23.5%) experienced 2 or more abnormal menstrual patterns during the study period compared with 3 of 60 patients (5%) who had an orthopedic injury. Despite similar gynecologic age, body mass index, and type of sports participation between groups, the risk of 2 or more abnormal menstrual bleeding patterns after injury

  18. FORMATION AND BRANCHING PATTERN OF CORDS OF BRACHIAL PLEXUS- A CADAVERIC STUDY IN NORTH INDIAN POPULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priti Chaudhary

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The anatomical variations in the different parts of brachial plexus in human have been described by many authors. These variations have clinical significance for the surgeons, radiologists and the anatomists. A lot of work has been done on the morphology of branching pattern of the different cords of brachial plexus but almost all the workers are silent about their morphometry. That’s why this study is planned on morphology & morphometry of branching pattern of different cords of brachial plexus. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The present study was conducted on 60 upper limbs belonging to 30 cadavers (Male:Female = 28:02, (Right:Left = 30:30 obtained from Department of Anatomy, Govt. Medical College, Amritsar. These were dissected to expose the different components of brachial plexus. OBSERVATIONS: Out of 60 limbs, the lateral and the medial cords were formed in the usual way in 56 limbs, while the posterior cord was normal in 57 limbs. The average lengths of lateral, medial & posterior cords were 3.37 cm, 4.05 cm & 1.95 cm respectively. The branches of lateral cord depicted more variations in the form of origin as compared with those of medial & posterior cords. The distance of different branches of all the cords from the point of origin to parent cord varied between the two sides of same cadaver as well as on the same side of different cadavers. DISCUSSION & CONCLUSION: The present study on the adult human cadavers is an essential prerequisite for the initial built up of the data base at the grass root level. The anatomy has always provided a bedrock for the sound surgical endeavors. It definitely has an upper edge to widely and indiscriminately used radiological and sophisticated CT and MRI observations which carry a margin of error inherent to any diagnostic procedure because no doubt the machines are a good bet but the eyes see the best.

  19. Sulfation pattern of fucose branches affects the anti-hyperlipidemic activities of fucosylated chondroitin sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Nian; Zhang, Yu; Ye, Xingqian; Hu, Yaqin; Ding, Tian; Chen, Shiguo

    2016-08-20

    Fucosylated chondroitin sulfates (fCSs) are glycosaminoglycans extracted from sea cucumbers, consisting of chondroitin sulfate E (CSE) backbones and sulfated fucose branches. The biological properties of fCSs could be affected by the sulfation pattern of their fucose branches. In the present study, two fCSs were isolated from sea cucumbers Isostichopus badionotus (fCS-Ib) and Pearsonothuria graeffei (fCS-Pg). Their monosaccharide compositions of glucuronic acid (GlcA), N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc), fucose (Fuc) and sulfate were at similar molar ratio with 1.0/0.7/0.9/3.1 for fCS-Ib and 1.0/0.8/1.5/2.6 for fCS-Pg. The two fCSs have different sulfation patterns on their fucose branches, fCS-Pg with 3,4-O-disulfation while fCS-Ib with 2,4-O-disulfation. Their antihyperlipidemic effects were compared using a high-fat high-fructose diet (HFFD)-fed C57BL/6J mice model. Both fCS-Ib and fCS-Pg had significant effects on lipid profile improvement, liver protection, blood glucose diminution and hepatic glycogen synthesis. Specifically, fCS-Pg with 3,4-O-disulfation fucose branches was more effective in reduction of blood cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein (LDL) and atherogenic index (AI). Our results indicate that both fCSs, especially fCS-Pg, could be used as a potential anti-hyperlipidemic drug.

  20. >From branching to nebula patterning during colonial development of the Paenibacillus alvei bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Inon; Ron, Ilan G.; Ben-Jacob, Eshel

    2000-10-01

    We present the morphology diagram (morphologies as function of peptone levels and agar concentrations) observed during colonial development of Paenibacillus alvei bacteria. These bacteria are close to Paenibacillus dendritiformis and have been studied extensively in the past. Like P. dendritiformis, P. alvei produces a layer of lubricating fluid for movement on hard surfaces. Unlike P. dendritiformis which attempts to swim on hard surfaces, P. alvei main movement on hard surfaces is swarming, like the movement of P. vortex. Under some growth conditions P. alvei and P. vortex exhibit collective migration of clusters of bacteria and formation of bacterial vortices. Under different growth conditions P. alvei develop branching patterns. P. alvei also develop new class of patterns which we coin “nebula patterns”. Modeling of the new patterns is still an open challenge.

  1. 桃树修剪分枝模式的模拟%Modeling the Branching Patterns of Peach Tree Branches (Prunus persica) After Being Pruned

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏宁; 李保国; 邓西民; 郭焱

    2004-01-01

    在不同修剪手法下,对栽培桃树(Prunuspersica(L.)Batsch)不同母枝上的分枝模式进行了比较研究.从分枝模式来看:修剪后的母枝基本由3个不同的区域组成,基部是不萌发的潜伏芽形成的未分枝区域;中部是延迟分枝和多次分枝组成的分枝区域(主要的枝条类型有短枝、长枝和多次枝);顶部是被剪除的部分.我们通过隐式半马尔可夫模型来模拟这一分枝模式,主要是定量描述1次枝和多次枝在母枝上的数量及其分布状况.在上述模型中,未分枝区、延迟分枝区和多次分枝区称为瞬时态,被剪除的部分称为吸收态.模拟的结果与观察的结果进行对比后发现,两者具有很好的一致性.这说明隐式半马尔可夫模型是模拟植物分枝过程的一种有效方法,尽管隐式半马尔可夫链模型只是一个描述性的模型,但仍能对其所描述的生物现象进行解释,在预测修剪手法对母枝分枝模式影响方面比传统的方法具有明显的优势.本研究结果是建立三维虚拟桃树树冠分枝结构的基础.%The shoot branching patterns of the two-year-old branches of peach trees (Prunus parsica (L.) Batsch cv. Elberta) were compared with different pruning measures. The branches were divided into a basal non-branching zone, a proleptic branching zone, a sylleptic branching zone and the part removed. We used the hidden semi-Markov model to capture the branching patterns. The final results showed that theoretical probability distributions of diverse lateral shoots of the parent branches calculated on the basis of the parameters of the hidden semi-Markov chain model were in good agreement with probabilities extracted from the observed data. This paper described the quantitative effects of pruning on branching architecture of a parent branch, taking into account of branch morphology. Results suggest that the hidden semi-Markov model could be used as an effective tool to describe the

  2. A phase unwrapping algorithm based on Branch cuts for living cell's interference pattern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meng; Xia, Wang; Schmidt, Greg; Moore, Duncan T.; McGrath, James L.

    2011-06-01

    Fibroblast is the main part in the loose connective tissue and differentiates from the mesenchymal cell when it is in embryo. It exhibits highly reproducible growth kinetics and reproducible healing dynamics in the scratch-wound assay and the height of it could show this prediction. In order to measure the height of these cells, we construct an interferometer measuration system. As we all know, the interference pattern should be unwrapped first, there are plenty of methods that are under research. In this paper we want to find out a typical methods that could be used in living cell's interference pattern during image processing, and also we can get the conclusion that how to use the method and why it is fit to unwrap the phase of cells. There are mainly three parts in this paper: Firstly, we have designed an Interference system which can be used to get the interference pattern, here we used multiphase interference microscope to measure the cell height. Secondly, a typical method which is based on Goldstein's branch cuts algorithm were used to guide the way that how the phase is unwrapped, this method is the most efficient way to phase unwrapping, and it could induct the unwrapping path through using the branch cut method which could get rid of the residues as much as it could be. As a comparison, we also used some other methods to find different results. Such as the quality-guided path following phase unwrapping; and the Costantini phase unwrapping. Finally, we analyzed the results of the three-dimensional model of the cell surface topography, as a result of the various noises during the experiment, all these unwrapping methods above can't eliminate all the residues and noises, but compared with the other results, the Goldstein's branch cut method has the fittest advantages, it gives the most fluent topography of the living cells.

  3. Branch pattern of starch internal structure influences the glucogenesis by mucosal Nt-maltase-glucoamylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Amy Hui-Mei; Ao, Zihua; Quezada-Calvillo, Roberto; Nichols, Buford L; Lin, Chi-Tien; Hamaker, Bruce R

    2014-10-13

    To produce sufficient amounts of glucose from food starch, both α-amylase and mucosal α-glucosidases are required. We found previously that the digestion rate of starch is influenced by its susceptibility to mucosal α-glucosidases. In the present study, six starches and one glycogen were pre-hydrolyzed by α-amylase for various time periods, and then further hydrolyzed with the mucosal α-glucosidase, the N-terminal subunit of maltase-glucoamylase (Nt-MGAM), to generate free glucose. Results showed that α-amylase amplified the Nt-MGAM glucogenesis, and that the amplifications differed in various substrates. The amount of branches within α-amylase hydrolysate substrates was highly related to the rate of Nt-MGAM glucogenesis. After de-branching, the hydrolysates showed three fractions, Fraction 1, 2, and 3, in size exclusion chromatographs. We found that the α-amylase hydrolysates with higher quantity of the Fraction 3 (molecules with relatively short chain-length) and shorter average chain-length of this fraction had lower rates of Nt-MGAM glucogenesis. This study revealed that the branch pattern of α-amylase hydrolysates modulates glucose release by Nt-MGAM. It further supported the hypothesis that the internal structure of starch affects its digestibility at the mucosal α-glucosidase level.

  4. Movement-related cortical potentials in paraplegic patients: abnormal patterns and considerations for BCI-rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren eXu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Non-invasive EEG-based Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCI can be promising for the motor neuro-rehabilitation of paraplegic patients. However, this shall require detailed knowledge of the abnormalities in the EEG signatures of paraplegic patients. The association of abnormalities in different subgroups of patients and their relation to the sensorimotor integration are relevant for the design, implementation and use of BCI systems in patient populations. This study explores the patterns of abnormalities of movement related cortical potentials (MRCP during motor imagery tasks of feet and right hand in patients with paraplegia (including the subgroups with/without central neuropathic pain and complete/incomplete injury patients and the level of distinctiveness of abnormalities in these groups using pattern classification. The most notable observed abnormalities were the amplified execution negativity and its slower rebound in the patient group. The potential underlying mechanisms behind these changes and other minor dissimilarities in patients’ subgroups, as well as the relevance to BCI applications, are discussed. The findings are of interest from a neurological perspective as well as for BCI-assisted neuro-rehabilitation and therapy.

  5. Pattern of epithelial cell abnormality in Pap smear: A clinicopathological and demographic correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urmila Banik

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In the low resource settings of a developing country, a conventional Papanicolaou (Pap test is the mainstay screening system for cervical cancer. In order to counsel women and to organize a public health system for cervical cancer screening by Pap smear examination, it is imperative to know the pattern of premalignant and malignant lesions. This study was undertaken to find out the prevalence of an abnormal Pap smear, in a tertiary hospital of a developing country, and to carry out a clinicopathological and demographical analysis for establishing the pattern of epithelial cell abnormality in a Pap smear. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out in a total of 1699 patients who underwent Pap smear examination. The prevalence of epithelial cell abnormality in the Pap smear was calculated in proportions / percentages. Specimen adequacy and reporting was assessed according to the revised Bethesda system. Results: Among the total of 1699 patients who had their Pap smear done, 139 (8.18% revealed epithelial cell abnormality. Altogether 26 smears revealed high-grade lesions and malignancy, most of which were found to be in women belonging to the 30 - 39 and ≥ 45 age group. A total of 75 (53.96% women were in the 20 - 44 age group and 64 (46.04% were in the ≥ 45 age group. A bimodal age distribution was detected in the epithelial cell abnormality, with the bulk being diagnosed in patients aged 45 or above. Overall one-third of the patients with an abnormal Pap smear result showed healthy cervix in per vaginal examination. Conclusions: A raised prevalence of epithelial cell abnormality reflects the lack of awareness about cervical cancer screening. Women aged 45 or above harbor the bulk of premalignant and malignant lesions in the Pap smear, signifying that these women are among the under users of cytological screening.

  6. Patterned photostimulation with digital micromirror devices to investigate dendritic integration across branch points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Conrad W; Mohammadi, Michael; Santos, M Daniel; Santos, M Danial; Tang, Cha-Min

    2011-03-02

    Light is a versatile and precise means to control neuronal excitability. The recent introduction of light sensitive effectors such as channel-rhodopsin and caged neurotransmitters have led to interests in developing better means to control patterns of light in space and time that are useful for experimental neuroscience. One conventional strategy, employed in confocal and 2-photon microscopy, is to focus light to a diffraction limited spot and then scan that single spot sequentially over the region of interest. This approach becomes problematic if large areas have to be stimulated within a brief time window, a problem more applicable to photostimulation than for imaging. An alternate strategy is to project the complete spatial pattern on the target with the aid of a digital micromirror device (DMD). The DMD approach is appealing because the hardware components are relatively inexpensive and is supported by commercial interests. Because such a system is not available for upright microscopes, we will discuss the critical issues in the construction and operations of such a DMD system. Even though we will be primarily describing the construction of the system for UV photolysis, the modifications for building the much simpler visible light system for optogenetic experiments will also be provided. The UV photolysis system was used to carryout experiments to study a fundamental question in neuroscience, how are spatially distributed inputs integrated across distal dendritic branch points. The results suggest that integration can be non-linear across branch points and the supralinearity is largely mediated by NMDA receptors.

  7. Unsupervised Pattern Classifier for Abnormality-Scaling of Vibration Features for Helicopter Gearbox Fault Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jammu, Vinay B.; Danai, Kourosh; Lewicki, David G.

    1996-01-01

    A new unsupervised pattern classifier is introduced for on-line detection of abnormality in features of vibration that are used for fault diagnosis of helicopter gearboxes. This classifier compares vibration features with their respective normal values and assigns them a value in (0, 1) to reflect their degree of abnormality. Therefore, the salient feature of this classifier is that it does not require feature values associated with faulty cases to identify abnormality. In order to cope with noise and changes in the operating conditions, an adaptation algorithm is incorporated that continually updates the normal values of the features. The proposed classifier is tested using experimental vibration features obtained from an OH-58A main rotor gearbox. The overall performance of this classifier is then evaluated by integrating the abnormality-scaled features for detection of faults. The fault detection results indicate that the performance of this classifier is comparable to the leading unsupervised neural networks: Kohonen's Feature Mapping and Adaptive Resonance Theory (AR72). This is significant considering that the independence of this classifier from fault-related features makes it uniquely suited to abnormality-scaling of vibration features for fault diagnosis.

  8. Correlation of bleeding pattern with endometrial histopathologic results in perimenopausal women with abnormal uterine bleeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zehra Yilmaz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Abnormal Uterine Bleeding (AUB is referred as bleeding outside of normal menstruation pattern and it is the most common gynecological problem for women of all ages. This study was evaluated the correlation of menstrual bleeding patterns and endometrial histopathological findings in perimenopausal women. Methods: This study was done on perimenopausal aged women presented with AUB for the last 6 months at a gynecology clinic of a tertiary medical center. Only the patients with isolated endometrial causes of AUB were selected for study. A total of 313 cases were included in the study. Abnormal bleeding patterns of the patients were recorded and endometrial sampling was performed to all women. AUB was classified as menorrhagia, metrorrhagia, menometrorrhagia, polymenorrhea, intermenstrual bleeding, and histopathological findings were classified as Proliferative Endometrium (PE, Secretory Endometrium (SE, Disordered Proliferative Pattern (DPP, Endometrial Polyp (EP, Chronic Endometritis (CE, Endometrial Hyperplasia (EH, and Endometrial Adenocarcinoma (CA. Results: The most common bleeding pattern was menorrhagia (45.0% and the most common histopathological finding was PE+SE (52.0% in our study. PE+SE and endometrial hyperplasia without atypia were found more common in menorrhagia group. The most histopathological findings were found PE+SE in menometrorrhagia and polymenorrhea group (P 0.05. Conclusions: We concluded that although menometrorrhagia and polymenorrhea were significantly more associated with PE+SE, intermenstrual bleeding was significantly more associated with EP and CE. It is noteworthy that endometrial hyperplasia without atypia is significantly higher in patients with menorrhagia which is the most common abnormal bleeding pattern in perimenopausal aged women. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2015; 4(3.000: 547-550

  9. Plant roots use a patterning mechanism to position lateral root branches toward available water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Yun; Aggarwal, Pooja; Robbins, Neil E; Sturrock, Craig J; Thompson, Mark C; Tan, Han Qi; Tham, Cliff; Duan, Lina; Rodriguez, Pedro L; Vernoux, Teva; Mooney, Sacha J; Bennett, Malcolm J; Dinneny, José R

    2014-06-24

    The architecture of the branched root system of plants is a major determinant of vigor. Water availability is known to impact root physiology and growth; however, the spatial scale at which this stimulus influences root architecture is poorly understood. Here we reveal that differences in the availability of water across the circumferential axis of the root create spatial cues that determine the position of lateral root branches. We show that roots of several plant species can distinguish between a wet surface and air environments and that this also impacts the patterning of root hairs, anthocyanins, and aerenchyma in a phenomenon we describe as hydropatterning. This environmental response is distinct from a touch response and requires available water to induce lateral roots along a contacted surface. X-ray microscale computed tomography and 3D reconstruction of soil-grown root systems demonstrate that such responses also occur under physiologically relevant conditions. Using early-stage lateral root markers, we show that hydropatterning acts before the initiation stage and likely determines the circumferential position at which lateral root founder cells are specified. Hydropatterning is independent of endogenous abscisic acid signaling, distinguishing it from a classic water-stress response. Higher water availability induces the biosynthesis and transport of the lateral root-inductive signal auxin through local regulation of tryptophan aminotransferase of Arabidopsis 1 and PIN-formed 3, both of which are necessary for normal hydropatterning. Our work suggests that water availability is sensed and interpreted at the suborgan level and locally patterns a wide variety of developmental processes in the root.

  10. Axonal branching patterns as sources of delay in the mammalian auditory brainstem: a re-examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karino, Shotaro; Smith, Philip H; Yin, Tom C T; Joris, Philip X

    2011-02-23

    In models of temporal processing, time delays incurred by axonal propagation of action potentials play a prominent role. A pre-eminent model of temporal processing in audition is the binaural model of Jeffress (1948), which has dominated theories regarding our acute sensitivity to interaural time differences (ITDs). In Jeffress' model, a binaural cell is maximally active when the ITD is compensated by an internal delay, which brings the inputs from left and right ears in coincidence, and which would arise from axonal branching patterns of monaural input fibers. By arranging these patterns in systematic and opposite ways for the ipsilateral and contralateral inputs, a range of length differences, and thereby of internal delays, is created so that the ITD is transformed into a spatial activation pattern along the binaural nucleus. We reanalyze single, labeled, and physiologically characterized axons of spherical bushy cells of the cat anteroventral cochlear nucleus, which project to binaural coincidence detectors in the medial superior olive (MSO). The reconstructions largely confirm the observations of two previous reports, but several features are observed that are inconsistent with Jeffress' model. We found that ipsilateral projections can also form a caudally directed delay line pattern, which would counteract delays incurred by caudally directed contralateral projections. Comparisons of estimated axonal delays with binaural physiological data indicate that the suggestive anatomical patterns cannot account for the frequency-dependent distribution of best delays in the cat. Surprisingly, the tonotopic distribution of the afferent endings indicate that low characteristic frequencies are under-represented rather than over-represented in the MSO.

  11. Sex Differences and the Heritability of Scute Pattern Abnormalities in the Green Sea Turtle from the Ogasawara Archipelago, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Shohei; Morimoto, Yukari; Kondo, Satomi; Sato, Takayuki; Suganuma, Hiroyuki; Arai, Katsuhiko; Watanabe, Gen

    2017-08-01

    Although scute pattern abnormalities in sea turtle species are considered to be strongly correlated with survival rate, there is little information available regarding these abnormalities and the primary cause for their development is unclear. For the conservation of sea turtle species, accumulating basic knowledge of scute pattern abnormalities is a fundamental step towards a better understanding of the causes of these abnormalities. In the present study, we counted vertebral and costal scutes from adults hunted for food (male and female) (n = 899), nesting females (n = 155), and hatchlings (n = 44,537) of the green sea turtle (Chelonia mydas) from the Ogasawara Archipelago, Japan. We found that the frequency of turtles with non-modal scute patterns was significantly greater in adult females than that in adult males (P = 0.02). Since females are produced by warmer incubation temperatures, and the period of sex determination coincides with the period of scute pattern determination, high incubation temperatures may be responsible for the induction of scute pattern abnormalities. Moreover, females with non-modal scute patterns produced a higher frequency of hatchlings with non-modal scute patterns than females with modal scute patterns (P < 0.01), indicating that scute abnormality may be heritable. For conservation of this species, our results suggest that decrease of the incubation temperature by cooling methods, such as provision of shade, may minimize the frequency of non-modal scute patterns, with consideration for the natural sex ratio.

  12. Menstrual abnormalities in school going girls - are they related to dietary and exercise pattern?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vani K, Rupa; K S, Veena; L, Subitha; Kumar V R, Hemanth; A, Bupathy

    2013-11-01

    Adolescence is the transitional phase of physical and mental development between childhood and adulthood and is characterized by immense hormonal changes.75% of girls experience some problems associated with menstruation. We tried to find out the prevalence of menstrual abnormalities in school going girls in Pondicherry and their association with dietary and exercise habits. A cross-sectional questionnaire based study was conducted in adolescent girls who attained menarche in four secondary schools of Pondicherry, India. All students who attained menarche and willing to participate in the study were invited to answer the questionnaire, which dealt with anthropometric data, socioeconomic data, menstrual history, and diet and exercise pattern. Chi-square test and Fisher's exact test was used to compare the dietary and exercise patterns among students having menstrual abnormalities and those who do not have menstrual abnormalities. A total of 853 students participated in the study. Dysmenorrhea and premenstrual symptoms were the most frequent problems encountered. Premenstrual symptoms were significantly more common among girls who were overweight, in girls who were eating junk food regularly, in girls who were eating less food (dieting) in order to lose weight and in those who were not doing regular physical activity. Dysmenorrhea was significantly more common in the girls who were dieting to lose weight. Passage of clots was also significantly high in the girls who were dieting. Lifestyle modifications like regular physical activity, decreasing the intake of junk food and promoting healthy eating habits should be emphasised in school health education programs to improve their menstrual health.

  13. XPC branch-point sequence mutations disrupt U2 snRNP binding, resulting in abnormal pre-mRNA splicing in xeroderma pigmentosum patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Sikandar G; Yamanegi, Koji; Zheng, Zhi-Ming; Boyle, Jennifer; Imoto, Kyoko; Oh, Kyu-Seon; Baker, Carl C; Gozukara, Engin; Metin, Ahmet; Kraemer, Kenneth H

    2010-02-01

    Mutations in two branch-point sequences (BPS) in intron 3 of the XPC DNA repair gene affect pre-mRNA splicing in association with xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) with many skin cancers (XP101TMA) or no skin cancer (XP72TMA), respectively. To investigate the mechanism of these abnormalities we now report that transfection of minigenes with these mutations revealed abnormal XPC pre-mRNA splicing that mimicked pre-mRNA splicing in the patients' cells. DNA oligonucleotide-directed RNase H digestion demonstrated that mutations in these BPS disrupt U2 snRNP-BPS interaction. XP101TMA cells had no detectable XPC protein but XP72TMA had 29% of normal levels. A small amount of XPC protein was detected at sites of localized ultraviolet (UV)-damaged DNA in XP72TMA cells which then recruited other nucleotide excision repair (NER) proteins. In contrast, XP101TMA cells had no detectable recruitment of XPC or other NER proteins. Post-UV survival and photoproduct assays revealed greater reduction in DNA repair in XP101TMA cells than in XP72TMA. Thus mutations in XPC BPS resulted in disruption of U2 snRNP-BPS interaction leading to abnormal pre-mRNA splicing and reduced XPC protein. At the cellular level these changes were associated with features of reduced DNA repair including diminished NER protein recruitment, reduced post-UV survival and impaired photoproduct removal.

  14. H1N1 influenza infection in children: Frequency, pattern, and outcome of chest radiographic abnormalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, S.-Y. [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, J.H., E-mail: jhkate@skku.ed [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Eo, H.; Jeon, T.Y.; Shin, K.E.; Shin, W.S.; Jung, H.N. [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Y.-J. [Department of Pediatrics, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-04-15

    Aim: To describe the frequency, pattern, and outcome of chest radiographic abnormalities in children with H1N1 influenza infection. Materials and methods: Three hundred and fourteen paediatric patients with confirmed H1N1 influenza infection who underwent chest radiography at presentation at a single institution during the outbreak in 2009 were retrospectively reviewed. Abnormal chest radiographic findings related to acute infection were analysed in terms of frequency, pattern, and distribution. Medical records and follow-up radiographs were also reviewed to assess clinical features and outcomes. Results: Chest lesions suggesting acute infection were identified in 49 (16%) patients (mean age 8.2 years, range approximately 1.8-18.5 years). The most common finding was prominent peribronchial marking (71%), followed by air-space opacity (51%) with or without volume decrease, generalized hyperinflation (24%), and pleural effusion (20%). Other minor findings included pneumomediastinum (n = 2) and a nodule (n = 1). Distributions were bilateral (55%) or unilateral (45%) with frequent involvement of lower (78%), and middle (59%) lung zones. Thirty-nine patients (80%) were hospitalized and six (12%) required mechanical ventilation, followed by recovery. Thirty-one out of the 33 patients that underwent follow-up radiography showed marked resolution of all radiographic abnormalities. Conclusion: The frequency of a chest radiographic abnormality was found to be low in children with H1N1 influenza infection. Although typical radiographic findings of a viral lower respiratory infection were more common, unilateral involvement and air-space opacity were common, often with pleural effusion. Furthermore, pulmonary lesions showed near complete resolution on follow-up radiographs in the majority of patients.

  15. Abnormal brain connectivity patterns in adults with ADHD: a coherence study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Ricardo Sato

    Full Text Available Studies based on functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI during the resting state have shown decreased functional connectivity between the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC and regions of the Default Mode Network (DMN in adult patients with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD relative to subjects with typical development (TD. Most studies used Pearson correlation coefficients among the BOLD signals from different brain regions to quantify functional connectivity. Since the Pearson correlation analysis only provides a limited description of functional connectivity, we investigated functional connectivity between the dACC and the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC in three groups (adult patients with ADHD, n=21; TD age-matched subjects, n=21; young TD subjects, n=21 using a more comprehensive analytical approach - unsupervised machine learning using a one-class support vector machine (OC-SVM that quantifies an abnormality index for each individual. The median abnormality index for patients with ADHD was greater than for TD age-matched subjects (p=0.014; the ADHD and young TD indices did not differ significantly (p=0.480; the median abnormality index of young TD was greater than that of TD age-matched subjects (p=0.016. Low frequencies below 0.05 Hz and around 0.20 Hz were the most relevant for discriminating between ADHD patients and TD age-matched controls and between the older and younger TD subjects. In addition, we validated our approach using the fMRI data of children publicly released by the ADHD-200 Competition, obtaining similar results. Our findings suggest that the abnormal coherence patterns observed in patients with ADHD in this study resemble the patterns observed in young typically developing subjects, which reinforces the hypothesis that ADHD is associated with brain maturation deficits.

  16. Mining geographic episode association patterns of abnormal events in global earth science data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Abnormal events in earth science have great influence on both the natural envi-ronment and the human society. Finding association patterns among these events has great significance. Because data in earth science has characteristics of mass,high dimension,spatial autocorrelation and time delay,existing mining technolo-gies cannot be directly used on it. We propose a RSNN (range-based searching nearest neighbors) spatial clustering algorithm to reduce the data size and auto-correlation. Based on the clustered data,we propose a GEAM (geographic episode association pattern mining) algorithm which can deal with events time lags and find interesting patterns with specific constraints,to mine the association patterns. We carried out experiments on global climate datasets and found many interesting association patterns. Some of the patterns are coincident with known knowledge in climate science,which indicates the correctness and feasibilities of our methods,and the others are unknown to us before,which will give new information to this research field.

  17. Abnormal joint torque patterns exhibited by chronic stroke subjects while walking with a prescribed physiological gait pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blonien Natalie

    2008-09-01

    tended to abduct their impaired leg, both being typical abnormal torque synergy patterns common to stroke gait. Conclusion Despite the Lokomat guiding stroke subjects through physiologically symmetric kinematic gait patterns, abnormal asymmetric joint torque patterns are still generated. These differences from the control group are characteristic of the hip hike and circumduction strategy employed by stroke subjects.

  18. An investigation of the correlation between abnormal patterns of ocular microtremor and an abnormal pupil reflex in neurological patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abakumova, L Y; Shakhnovich, A R; Thomas, J G

    1975-12-01

    Twenty-two patients and 7 normal subjects at the Burdenko Institute of Neurosurgery, Moscow, have taken part in an investigation in which the direct light reflex to a brief flash, and the high-frequency microtremor of the eyes, have been recorded. The direct pupil reflex recordings obtained with a flash of 20 msec duration and 100 lux intensity at the plane of the pupil were registered from the right eye of each patient. Ocular microtremor recordings were obtained simultaneously from both eyes of 20 of the patients. A set of criteria of abnormality of ocular microtremor, as judged by visual examination of the records, is proposed by the authors. Abnormality of the pupil reflex is assessed in terms of the amplitude, latent period, and time course of the contraction and relaxation phases of the reflex. A strong correlation has been found between the occurrence of an abnormal ocular tremor record and an abnormal pupil reflex. On the basis of this correlation, the authors propose that ocular tremor recordings may be used in diagnosis as sensitive indicators of brain-stem dysfunction.

  19. Does Expectation of Abnormality Affect the Search Pattern of Radiologists When Looking for Pulmonary Nodules?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littlefair, Stephen; Brennan, Patrick; Reed, Warren; Mello-Thoms, Claudia

    2017-02-01

    This experiment investigated whether there might be an effect on the visual search strategy of radiologists during image interpretation of the same adult chest radiographs when given different clinical information. Each of 17 experienced radiologists was asked to interpret a set of 57 (10 abnormal) posteroanterior chest images to identify the presence of pulmonary lesions using differing clinical information (leading to unknown, low and high expectations of prevalence). Eye position metrics (search time, dwell time and time to first fixation) were compared for normal and abnormal images, as well as between conditions. For all images, there was a significantly longer search time at high prevalence expectation compared to low prevalence expectation (W = 75.19, P = expectation compared to both unknown (U = 364.5, P = 0.02) and high prevalence expectation (U = 397.0, P = 0.0002). Visual search patterns of radiologists appear to be affected by changing a priori information where such information fosters an expectation of abnormality.

  20. Incidence and patterns of ALK FISH abnormalities seen in a large unselected series of lung carcinomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dai Zunyan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anaplastic lymphoma receptor tyrosine kinase (ALK gene rearrangements have been reported in 2-13% of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC. Patients with ALK rearrangements do not respond to EGFR-specific tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs; however, they do benefit from small molecule inhibitors targeting ALK. Results In this study, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH using a break-apart probe for the ALK gene was performed on formalin fixed paraffin-embedded tissue to determine the incidence of ALK rearrangements and hybridization patterns in a large unselected cohort of 1387 patients with a referred diagnosis of non-small cell lung cancer (1011 of these patients had a histologic diagnosis of adenocarcinoma. The abnormal FISH signal patterns varied from a single split signal to complex patterns. Among 49 abnormal samples (49/1387, 3.5%, 32 had 1 to 3 split signals. Fifteen samples had deletions of the green 5′ end of the ALK signal, and 1 of these 15 samples showed amplification of the orange 3′ end of the ALK signal. Two patients showed a deletion of the 3′ALK signal. Thirty eight of these 49 samples (38/1011, 3.7% were among the 1011 patients with confirmed adenocarcinoma. Five of 8 patients with ALK rearrangements detected by FISH were confirmed to have EML4-ALK fusions by multiplex RT-PCR. Among the 45 ALK-rearranged samples tested, only 1 EGFR mutation (T790M was detected. Two KRAS mutations were detected among 24 ALK-rearranged samples tested. Conclusions In a large unselected series, the frequency of ALK gene rearrangement detected by FISH was approximately 3.5% of lung carcinoma, and 3.7% of patients with lung adenocarcinoma, with variant signal patterns frequently detected. Rare cases with coexisting KRAS and EGFR mutations were seen.

  1. A novel branching pattern in the lipopolysaccharide expressed by non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae strain 1232.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitiazeva, Varvara; Li, Jianjun; Hood, Derek W; Moxon, E Richard; Schweda, Elke K H

    2013-08-30

    We report the novel branching pattern in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) expressed by non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) strain 1232. The strain expressed the β-d-Glcp-(1→4)-[α-d-Galp-(1→4)-β-d-Galp-(1→7)]-d-α-d-Hepp-(1→6)-β-d-Glcp chain linked to the proximal heptose (HepI) of the conserved triheptosyl inner-core moiety of NTHi LPS: l-α-d-HepIIIp-(1→2)-[PEtn→6]-l-α-d-HepIIp-(1→3)-l-α-d-HepIp-(1→5)-[PPEtn→4]-α-Kdop-(2→6)-lipid A. The structure has been elucidated using NMR spectroscopy, electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and capillary electrophoresis coupled to electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (CE-ESI-MS(n)) on O-deacylated LPS and core oligosaccharide (OS) materials, as well as HPLC-ESI-MS(n) on permethylated, dephosphorylated OS. It was also found that a tetrasaccharide unit bearing sialic acid [α-Neu5Ac-(2→3)-β-d-Galp-(1→4)-β-d-GlcNAcp-(1→3)-β-d-Galp-(1→] could substitute O-4 of the β-d-Glcp linked to HepI. In addition, the distal heptose (HepIII) was substituted by PCho→6-β-d-Galp-(1→ at the O-2 position.

  2. Menstrual Abnormalities in School Going Girls – Are They Related to Dietary and Exercise Pattern?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vani K., Rupa; K.S., Veena; L., Subitha; Kumar V.R., Hemanth; A., Bupathy

    2013-01-01

    Context: Adolescence is the transitional phase of physical and mental development between childhood and adulthood and is characterized by immense hormonal changes.75% of girls experience some problems associated with menstruation. Aim: We tried to find out the prevalence of menstrual abnormalities in school going girls in Pondicherry and their association with dietary and exercise habits. Setting and Design: A cross-sectional questionnaire based study was conducted in adolescent girls who attained menarche in four secondary schools of Pondicherry, India. Material and Methods: All students who attained menarche and willing to participate in the study were invited to answer the questionnaire, which dealt with anthropometric data, socioeconomic data, menstrual history, and diet and exercise pattern. Statistical Analysis: Chi-square test and Fisher’s exact test was used to compare the dietary and exercise patterns among students having menstrual abnormalities and those who do not have menstrual abnormalities. Results: A total of 853 students participated in the study. Dysmenorrhea and premenstrual symptoms were the most frequent problems encountered. Premenstrual symptoms were significantly more common among girls who were overweight, in girls who were eating junk food regularly, in girls who were eating less food (dieting) in order to lose weight and in those who were not doing regular physical activity. Dysmenorrhea was significantly more common in the girls who were dieting to lose weight. Passage of clots was also significantly high in the girls who were dieting. Conclusion: Lifestyle modifications like regular physical activity, decreasing the intake of junk food and promoting healthy eating habits should be emphasised in school health education programs to improve their menstrual health. PMID:24392394

  3. Abnormal three-steplike sub-Tg enthalpy relaxation pattern in hyperquenched metallic glasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Lina; Yue, Yuanzheng

    Our recent work observed a quite different relaxation pattern, i.e., the abnormal three-steplike sub-Tg relaxation in CuZrAl GRs[1]. However, the generality and the origin of this remarkable thermodynamic anomaly remain enigmatic. By hyperquenching strategy, the present work investigated...... the dependence of thermal history on the sub-Tg enthalpy relaxation pattern (ERP) of Cu46Zr46Al8 glasses, as well as La55Al25Ni20 for comparisons. It has been found that the presence of the three-steplike sub-Tg ERP of Cu46Zr46Al8 closely relates to the fictive temperature Tf, whereas no such anomaly is observed...... in La55Al25Ni20 GRs. However, the correlation between Tf and the activation energy for initiating the energy releasing during thermal scanning is three-steplike for La55Al25Ni20, revealing the similar phenomenon with the abnormal ERP of Cu46Zr46Al8. These unexpected phenomena have been well explained...

  4. Lung development in laminin γ2 deficiency: abnormal tracheal hemidesmosomes with normal branching morphogenesis and epithelial differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uitto Jouni

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Laminin γ2 (Lamc2, one of the polypeptides in laminin-332 (laminin-5, is prominent in the basement membrane of alveolar walls and airways of developing and adult lung. Laminins are important for lung morphogenesis and based on its localization, a function for laminin γ2 in lung development has been hypothesized. Targeted deletion of the laminin γ2 gene in mice results in skin blistering and neonatal death at 3–5 days after birth due to failure to thrive. Methods Examination of lung development in Lamc2-/- mice through 1–2 days postnatal was accomplished by morphometric analysis, lung bud culture, electron microscopy, immunohistochemical and immunofluorescence staining. Results Compared to littermate controls, Lamc2-/- lungs were similar in morphology during embryonic life. At post-natal day 1–2, distal saccules were mildly dilated by chord length measurements. Epithelial differentiation as evaluated by immunohistochemical staining for markers of ciliated cells, Clara cells, alveolar type I cells and alveolar type II cells did not reveal a difference between Lamc2-/- and littermate control lungs. Likewise, vascular development, smooth muscle cell differentiation, and elastic fiber formation looked similar, as did airway basement membrane ultrastructure. Branching morphogenesis by lung bud culture was similar in Lamc2-/- and littermate control lungs. Since laminin-332 is important for hemidesmosome formation, we examined the structure of tracheal hemidesmosomes by transmission electron microscopy. Compared to littermate controls, Lamc2-/- tracheal hemidesmosomes were less organized and lacked the increased electron density associated with the basement membrane abutting the hemidesmosome. Conclusion These findings indicate that laminin γ2 and laminin-332, despite their prominence in the lung, have a minimal role in lung development through the saccular stage.

  5. Different action patterns of glucoamylases on branched gluco-oligosaccharides from amylopectin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonathan, M.C.; Brussel, Van M.; Scheffers, M.S.; Kabel, M.A.

    2016-01-01

    A bottleneck in enzymatic starch hydrolysis, like in biofuel industry, is relatively slow degradation of branched structures compared to linear ones. This research aimed to evaluate glucoamylases for their activity towards branched gluco-oligosaccharides. The activity of seven modified glucoamyla

  6. Neural code alterations and abnormal time patterns in Parkinson’s disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andres, Daniela Sabrina; Cerquetti, Daniel; Merello, Marcelo

    2015-04-01

    Objective. The neural code used by the basal ganglia is a current question in neuroscience, relevant for the understanding of the pathophysiology of Parkinson’s disease. While a rate code is known to participate in the communication between the basal ganglia and the motor thalamus/cortex, different lines of evidence have also favored the presence of complex time patterns in the discharge of the basal ganglia. To gain insight into the way the basal ganglia code information, we studied the activity of the globus pallidus pars interna (GPi), an output node of the circuit. Approach. We implemented the 6-hydroxydopamine model of Parkinsonism in Sprague-Dawley rats, and recorded the spontaneous discharge of single GPi neurons, in head-restrained conditions at full alertness. Analyzing the temporal structure function, we looked for characteristic scales in the neuronal discharge of the GPi. Main results. At a low-scale, we observed the presence of dynamic processes, which allow the transmission of time patterns. Conversely, at a middle-scale, stochastic processes force the use of a rate code. Regarding the time patterns transmitted, we measured the word length and found that it is increased in Parkinson’s disease. Furthermore, it showed a positive correlation with the frequency of discharge, indicating that an exacerbation of this abnormal time pattern length can be expected, as the dopamine depletion progresses. Significance. We conclude that a rate code and a time pattern code can co-exist in the basal ganglia at different temporal scales. However, their normal balance is progressively altered and replaced by pathological time patterns in Parkinson’s disease.

  7. Selection of abnormal neural oscillation patterns associated with sentence-level language disorder in Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tingting; Stephane, Massoud; Parhi, Keshab K

    2012-01-01

    Language disorder is one of the core symptoms in schizophrenia. We propose a new framework based on machine intelligence techniques to investigate abnormal neural oscillations related to this impairment. Schizophrenia patients and healthy control subjects were instructed to discriminate semantically and syntactically correct sentences from syntactically correct but semantically incorrect sentences presented visually, and 248-channel MEG signals were recorded with a whole head machine during the task performance. Oscillation patterns were extracted from the MEG recordings in 8 frequency sub-bands throughout sentence processing, which form a large feature set. A two-step feature selection algorithm combining F-score filtering and Support Vector Machine recursive feature elimination (SVM-RFE) was designed to pick out a small subset of features which could discriminate patients and controls with high accuracy. We achieved a 90.48% prediction accuracy based on the selected top features, following the leave-one-out cross validation procedure. These top features provide interpretable spectral, spatial, and temporal information about the electrophysiological basis of sentence processing abnormality in schizophrenia which may help understand the underlying mechanism of this disease.

  8. Exhaled Aerosol Pattern Discloses Lung Structural Abnormality: A Sensitivity Study Using Computational Modeling and Fractal Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Jinxiang; Si, Xiuhua A.; Kim, JongWon; Mckee, Edward; Lin, En-Bing

    2014-01-01

    Background Exhaled aerosol patterns, also called aerosol fingerprints, provide clues to the health of the lung and can be used to detect disease-modified airway structures. The key is how to decode the exhaled aerosol fingerprints and retrieve the lung structural information for a non-invasive identification of respiratory diseases. Objective and Methods In this study, a CFD-fractal analysis method was developed to quantify exhaled aerosol fingerprints and applied it to one benign and three malign conditions: a tracheal carina tumor, a bronchial tumor, and asthma. Respirations of tracer aerosols of 1 µm at a flow rate of 30 L/min were simulated, with exhaled distributions recorded at the mouth. Large eddy simulations and a Lagrangian tracking approach were used to simulate respiratory airflows and aerosol dynamics. Aerosol morphometric measures such as concentration disparity, spatial distributions, and fractal analysis were applied to distinguish various exhaled aerosol patterns. Findings Utilizing physiology-based modeling, we demonstrated substantial differences in exhaled aerosol distributions among normal and pathological airways, which were suggestive of the disease location and extent. With fractal analysis, we also demonstrated that exhaled aerosol patterns exhibited fractal behavior in both the entire image and selected regions of interest. Each exhaled aerosol fingerprint exhibited distinct pattern parameters such as spatial probability, fractal dimension, lacunarity, and multifractal spectrum. Furthermore, a correlation of the diseased location and exhaled aerosol spatial distribution was established for asthma. Conclusion Aerosol-fingerprint-based breath tests disclose clues about the site and severity of lung diseases and appear to be sensitive enough to be a practical tool for diagnosis and prognosis of respiratory diseases with structural abnormalities. PMID:25105680

  9. Exhaled aerosol pattern discloses lung structural abnormality: a sensitivity study using computational modeling and fractal analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinxiang Xi

    Full Text Available Exhaled aerosol patterns, also called aerosol fingerprints, provide clues to the health of the lung and can be used to detect disease-modified airway structures. The key is how to decode the exhaled aerosol fingerprints and retrieve the lung structural information for a non-invasive identification of respiratory diseases.In this study, a CFD-fractal analysis method was developed to quantify exhaled aerosol fingerprints and applied it to one benign and three malign conditions: a tracheal carina tumor, a bronchial tumor, and asthma. Respirations of tracer aerosols of 1 µm at a flow rate of 30 L/min were simulated, with exhaled distributions recorded at the mouth. Large eddy simulations and a Lagrangian tracking approach were used to simulate respiratory airflows and aerosol dynamics. Aerosol morphometric measures such as concentration disparity, spatial distributions, and fractal analysis were applied to distinguish various exhaled aerosol patterns.Utilizing physiology-based modeling, we demonstrated substantial differences in exhaled aerosol distributions among normal and pathological airways, which were suggestive of the disease location and extent. With fractal analysis, we also demonstrated that exhaled aerosol patterns exhibited fractal behavior in both the entire image and selected regions of interest. Each exhaled aerosol fingerprint exhibited distinct pattern parameters such as spatial probability, fractal dimension, lacunarity, and multifractal spectrum. Furthermore, a correlation of the diseased location and exhaled aerosol spatial distribution was established for asthma.Aerosol-fingerprint-based breath tests disclose clues about the site and severity of lung diseases and appear to be sensitive enough to be a practical tool for diagnosis and prognosis of respiratory diseases with structural abnormalities.

  10. Arterial spin labelling reveals an abnormal cerebral perfusion pattern in Parkinson’s disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Richard; MacAskill, Michael R.; Pearson, John F.; Rüeger, Sina; Pitcher, Toni L.; Livingston, Leslie; Graham, Charlotte; Keenan, Ross; Shankaranarayanan, Ajit; Alsop, David C.; Dalrymple-Alford, John C.; Anderson, Tim J.

    2011-01-01

    There is a need for objective imaging markers of Parkinson’s disease status and progression. Positron emission tomography and single photon emission computed tomography studies have suggested patterns of abnormal cerebral perfusion in Parkinson’s disease as potential functional biomarkers. This study aimed to identify an arterial spin labelling magnetic resonance-derived perfusion network as an accessible, non-invasive alternative. We used pseudo-continuous arterial spin labelling to measure cerebral grey matter perfusion in 61 subjects with Parkinson’s disease with a range of motor and cognitive impairment, including patients with dementia and 29 age- and sex-matched controls. Principal component analysis was used to derive a Parkinson’s disease-related perfusion network via logistic regression. Region of interest analysis of absolute perfusion values revealed that the Parkinson’s disease pattern was characterized by decreased perfusion in posterior parieto-occipital cortex, precuneus and cuneus, and middle frontal gyri compared with healthy controls. Perfusion was preserved in globus pallidus, putamen, anterior cingulate and post- and pre-central gyri. Both motor and cognitive statuses were significant factors related to network score. A network approach, supported by arterial spin labelling-derived absolute perfusion values may provide a readily accessible neuroimaging method to characterize and track progression of both motor and cognitive status in Parkinson’s disease. PMID:21310726

  11. A note on Heterophylly and Branching patterns in the Amyema complex (Loranthaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijt, Job

    1980-01-01

    Attention is drawn to the unusual distribution of flowers and inflorescences in a number of species, and to certain peculiarities of branching and phyllotaxy. The latter are explained by a heterophylly which so far has escaped notice, involving the formation and early disappearance of a pair of minu

  12. A Study of Variations of the Branching Patterns of right Upper Lobar Bronchus by Corrosive Cast Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SV Solanki

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Respiratory system is the basic prerequisite for living organisms. So precise knowledge of normal anatomy and various dimensions of human respiratory tract is inevitable. The right upper lobe bronchus is prevailingly trifurcates into apical, anterior and posterior segmental bronchi. Material and Methods: The present study was done on 28 tracheo-bronchial casts prepared by corrosive cast method in the anatomy department of B. J. medical college of Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India from 2011 to 2013. Result and Observation: In 16 specimens (57% normal trifurcate branching pattern was seen in right upper lobar bronchus. Most common variation observed was bifurcate pattern in right upper lobar bronchus in 36% of specimens. In 7% specimens quadrivial pattern was seen in right upper lobar bronchus in which it divided into four bronchi. Conclusion: The knowledge of anatomy and variation in branching pattern of the tracheo-bronchial tree enables the physicians to recognize clinical picture and pathology of human lungs, as well as the application of therapeutic and diagnostic methods like tracheal intubation, bronchoscopy, bronchography and postural drainage etc.

  13. Abnormal innervation patterns in the anorectum of ETU-induced fetal rats with anorectal malformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weilin; Jia, Huimin; Zhang, Hailan; Chen, Qingjiang; Zhang, Tao; Bai, Yuzuo; Yuan, Zhengwei

    2011-05-16

    To investigate whether anorectal malformations (ARMs) were associated with a global neuromuscular maldevelopment of the lower gastrointestinal (GI) tract and anorectum, the distribution of neuronal markers protein gene product (PGP9.5), nitric oxide synthases (NOs), neuromuscular junction markers (synaptophysin, SYP), interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) marker (c-kit) within the terminal rectum were analyzed by immunohistochemistry and Western blot in rat embryos with ethylenethiourea (ETU) induced ARMs. From Gestational day16 (Gd16) to Gd21, neural crest-derived cells (NCC) migrated from the proximal gut into the terminal colon, colonising it along its entire length, gradually proliferated and differentiated to innervate the distal gut. From Gd19 to Gd21, significant gross-morphological differences of the anorectum of normal (n=90) and ARMs (n=90) embryos were found. Different myenteric plexus (MPs) development of the anorectum suggested that ARMs were associated with a global abnormal innervation patterns in the anorectum in gestational course and might have some postoperative effect.

  14. Continuum analysis of common branching patterns in the human arch of the aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamir, M; Sinclair, P

    1990-01-01

    A model is proposed for describing common variations in the arrangement of branches on the arch of the human aorta, and the model is used to analyze data from 123 human arches. The analysis allows the observed variations to fall freely along a continuous spectrum, rather than be confined to discrete categories as is commonly done at present. The results thus describe these variations in a more natural way and throw some new light on their likely source.

  15. Milk Odd- and Branched-Chain Fatty Acids in Relation to the Rumen Fermentation Pattern

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlaeminck, B.; Fievez, V.; Tamminga, S.; Dewhurst, R.J.; Vuuren, van A.M.; Brabander, de D.; Demeyer, D.

    2006-01-01

    The objectives of this study were 1) to determine whether a relationship exists between molar proportions of volatile fatty acids in the rumen and milk odd-and branched-chain fatty acid concentrations (i.e., iso C13:0, anteiso C13:0, iso C14:0, C15:0, iso C15:0, anteiso C15:0, iso C16:0, C17:0, iso

  16. A systematic review and meta-analysis of variations in branching patterns of the adult aortic arch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popieluszko, Patrick; Henry, Brandon Michael; Sanna, Beatrice; Hsieh, Wan Chin; Saganiak, Karolina; Pękala, Przemysław A; Walocha, Jerzy A; Tomaszewski, Krzysztof A

    2017-08-30

    The aortic arch (AA) is the main conduit of the left side of the heart, providing a blood supply to the head, neck, and upper limbs. As it travels through the thorax, the pattern in which it gives off the branches to supply these structures can vary. Variations of these branching patterns have been studied; however, a study providing a comprehensive incidence of these variations has not yet been conducted. The objective of this study was to perform a meta-analysis of all the studies that report prevalence data on AA variants and to provide incidence data on the most common variants. A systematic search of online databases including PubMed, Embase, Scopus, ScienceDirect, Web of Science, SciELO, BIOSIS, and CNKI was performed for literature describing incidence of AA variations in adults. Studies including prevalence data on adult patients or cadavers were collected and their data analyzed. A total of 51 articles were included (N = 23,882 arches). Seven of the most common variants were analyzed. The most common variants found included the classic branching pattern, defined as a brachiocephalic trunk, a left common carotid, and a left subclavian artery (80.9%); the bovine arch variant (13.6%); and the left vertebral artery variant (2.8%). Compared by geographic data, bovine arch variants were noted to have a prevalence as high as 26.8% in African populations. Although patients who have an AA variant are often asymptomatic, they compose a significant portion of the population of patients and pose a greater risk of hemorrhage and ischemia during surgery in the thorax. Because of the possibility of encountering such variants, it is prudent for surgeons to consider potential variations in planning procedures, especially of an endovascular nature, in the thorax. Copyright © 2017 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Frequency and patterns of abnormal Pap smears in Sudanese women with infertility: What are the perspectives?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed O Almobarak

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: Epithelial cell abnormalities are significantly higher in women with infertility as compared with fertile women. Importantly, inflammatory smears were reported two times more than in the controls. We recommend pap smear as a routine practice for all women assessed for infertility problems. Further studies are necessary to evaluate the incidence of human papilloma virus infections in infertile women with abnormal cervical cytology.

  18. Abnormal Brain Areas Common to the Focal Epilepsies: Multivariate Pattern Analysis of fMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Mangor; Curwood, Evan K; Vaughan, David N; Omidvarnia, Amir H; Jackson, Graeme D

    2016-04-01

    Individuals with focal epilepsy have heterogeneous sites of seizure origin. However, there may be brain regions that are common to most cases of intractable focal epilepsy. In this study, we aim to identify these using multivariate analysis of task-free functional MRI. Fourteen subjects with extratemporal focal epilepsy and 14 healthy controls were included in the study. Task-free functional MRI data were used to calculate voxel-wise regional connectivity with regional homogeneity (ReHo) and weighted degree centrality (DCw), in addition to regional activity using fraction of amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (fALFF). Multivariate pattern analysis was applied to each of these metrics to discriminate brain areas that differed between focal epilepsy subjects and healthy controls. ReHo and DCw classified focal epilepsy subjects from healthy controls with high accuracy (89.3% and 75%, respectively). However, fALFF did not significantly classify patients from controls. Increased regional network activity in epilepsy subjects was seen in the ipsilateral piriform cortex, insula, and thalamus, in addition to the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex and lateral frontal cortices. Decreased regional connectivity was observed in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, as well as lateral temporal cortices. Patients with extratemporal focal epilepsy have common areas of abnormality (ReHo and DCw measures), including the ipsilateral piriform cortex, temporal neocortex, and ventromedial prefrontal cortex. ReHo shows additional increase in the "salience network" that includes anterior insula and anterior cingulate cortex. DCw showed additional effects in the ipsilateral thalamus and striatum. These brain areas may represent key regional network properties underlying focal epilepsy.

  19. UNILATERAL VARIATION IN THE BRANCHING PATTERN OF RIGHT AXILLARY ARTERY: A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.K.Manicka Vasuki

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Axillary artery and its branches are prone to have variations in their course. Knowledge about such variations are important for Radiologists in imaging techniques, Surgeons,Orthopedicians and Anesthetists in performing surgeries in the axilla and giving regional nerve blocks in the axilla.During dissection of a cadaver in the department of Anatomy, PSG IMS &R, Coimbatore, We observed a variation in the third part of right Axillary artery. From the common trunk, Subscapular artery, Anterior and Posterior circumflex humeral arteries and Profunda brachii artery arose. Third part of Axillary artery continued down as brachial artery. We are highlighting the variation in this study.

  20. Branched poly(ethyleneimine): a versatile scaffold for patterning polymer brushes by means of remote photocatalytic lithography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panzarasa, Guido; Dübner, Matthias; Soliveri, Guido; Edler, Matthias; Griesser, Thomas

    2017-09-29

    Patterning of functional surfaces is one of the cornerstones of nanotechnology as it allows the fabrication of sensors and lab-on-a-chip devices. Here, the patterning of self-assembled monolayers of branched poly(ethyleneimine) (bPEI) on silica was achieved by means of remote photocatalytic lithography. Moreover, when 2-bromoisobutyryl-modified bPEI was used, the resulting pattern could be amplified by grafting polymer brushes by means of surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization. In contrast to previous reports for the patterning of bPEI, the present approach can be conducted in minutes instead of hours, reducing the exposure time to UV radiation and enhancing the overall efficiency. Furthermore, our approach is much more user-friendly, allowing a facile fabrication of patterned initiator-modified surfaces and the use of inexpensive instrumentation such as a low-power UV source and a simple photomask. Considering the versatility of bPEI as a scaffold for the development of biosensors, patterning by means of remote photocatalytic lithography will open new opportunities in a broad field of applications.

  1. Differing patterns of brain structural abnormalities between black and white patients with their first episode of psychosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Morgan, K D

    2010-07-01

    African-Caribbean and black African people living in the UK are reported to have a higher incidence of diagnosed psychosis compared with white British people. It has been argued that this may be a consequence of misdiagnosis. If this is true they might be less likely to show the patterns of structural brain abnormalities reported in white British patients. The aim of this study therefore was to investigate whether there are differences in the prevalence of structural brain abnormalities in white and black first-episode psychosis patients.

  2. Comparison of reproductive outcome, including the pattern of loss, between couples with chromosomal abnormalities and those with unexplained repeated miscarriages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Helen; Yan, Junhao; Saravelos, Sotirios H; Li, Tin-Chiu

    2014-01-01

    Chromosomal abnormalities are an important cause of repeated miscarriage. Several studies have discussed the association between chromosomal abnormalities and repeated miscarriage. This study attempts to describe the pattern of miscarriage in this group of women and the eventual pregnancy outcome of couples with chromosomal abnormalities compared with couples with unexplained repeated pregnancy loss. This was a retrospective study involving 795 couples with repeated miscarriages. Out of 795 couples, 28 (3.52%) were found to have a chromosomal abnormality (carrier group). Over half (65.5%) of the chromosomal abnormalities were balanced reciprocal translocations. After referral, this carrier group had a total of 159 pregnancies, leading to 36 live births (22.6%) among 18 couples. The after referral miscarriage rate in the chromosomal anomaly group (55.6%) was significantly (P chromosomal anomaly, the miscarriages were more likely to occur between 6 and 12 weeks' gestation. The encouraging cumulative live birth rate of 64.3% for couples with chromosomal anomaly and repeated miscarriage suggests that further attempts at natural conception are a viable option. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2013 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  3. Pattern analysis approach reveals restriction enzyme cutting abnormalities and other cDNA library construction artifacts using raw EST data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Sun

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Expressed Sequence Tag (EST sequences are widely used in applications such as genome annotation, gene discovery and gene expression studies. However, some of GenBank dbEST sequences have proven to be “unclean”. Identification of cDNA termini/ends and their structures in raw ESTs not only facilitates data quality control and accurate delineation of transcription ends, but also furthers our understanding of the potential sources of data abnormalities/errors present in the wet-lab procedures for cDNA library construction. Results After analyzing a total of 309,976 raw Pinus taeda ESTs, we uncovered many distinct variations of cDNA termini, some of which prove to be good indicators of wet-lab artifacts, and characterized each raw EST by its cDNA terminus structure patterns. In contrast to the expected patterns, many ESTs displayed complex and/or abnormal patterns that represent potential wet-lab errors such as: a failure of one or both of the restriction enzymes to cut the plasmid vector; a failure of the restriction enzymes to cut the vector at the correct positions; the insertion of two cDNA inserts into a single vector; the insertion of multiple and/or concatenated adapters/linkers; the presence of 3′-end terminal structures in designated 5′-end sequences or vice versa; and so on. With a close examination of these artifacts, many problematic ESTs that have been deposited into public databases by conventional bioinformatics pipelines or tools could be cleaned or filtered by our methodology. We developed a software tool for Abnormality Filtering and Sequence Trimming for ESTs (AFST, http://code.google.com/p/afst/ using a pattern analysis approach. To compare AFST with other pipelines that submitted ESTs into dbEST, we reprocessed 230,783 Pinus taeda and 38,709 Arachis hypogaea GenBank ESTs. We found 7.4% of Pinus taeda and 29.2% of Arachis hypogaea GenBank ESTs are “unclean” or abnormal, all of which could be cleaned

  4. [Epidemiological pattern of abnormal urinary fluoride rates in population with occupational fluoride exposure in Shanghai].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, M H; Su, J; Liu, C H; Zhu, Y Q; Shen, H; Huang, Y H; Zhong, L; Zhang, M H; Li, Y H

    2017-01-10

    Objective: To investigate the epidemiological features of abnormal urinary fluoride rates in population with occupational exposure, and its relationships with age, work years and gender in Shanghai. Methods: A questionnaire survey was conducted respectively in 4 999 exposed workers and 283 non-exposed people during 2012-2015. Their urine samples were collected in plastic bottles and the fluoride ion selective electrode method was used for urinary fluoride level analysis. Logistic regression model was used to estimate associations between the abnormal rates and demographic/socioeconomic status of the study subjects. Results: In the past 4 years, the abnormal urinary fluoride rates (≥1.6 mg/L) in the population with occupational exposure was about 14.38%, it was about 1.43% in the control groups without occupational exposure. Their geometric mean of urinary fluoride content was 0.95 mg/L and 0.46 mg/L, respectively. The incidences of the abnormal rates in those aged ≥50 years and 34-39 years were 19.15% and 22.39%, respectively. The abnormal rate in males was 16.87%, much higher than that in females (6.85%). The abnormal rate had an upward trend along with the increased work years, especially in those with work years of ≥20 years. The abnormal rate was 23.28% in those with work years of ≥20 years and 13.29% in those with work years of fluoride rates was higher in male group, older age group and longer work year group, the odds ratio was 2.28, 1.10 and 1.13, respectively. Conclusions: Serious challenges exist in occupational health supervision. The relevant national standards should be updated as soon as possible. Males, those aged >50 years, and those with longer work years are the risk groups for intervention measures. More efforts are needed, such as strengthening the innovative application of health examination data and the equalization of basic public health service with comprehensive occupational health supervision programs among off-farm workers in the

  5. Patients with left bundle branch block pattern and high cardiac risk myocardial SPECT: does the current management suffice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ten Cate, T J F; Kelder, J C; Plokker, H W M; Verzijlbergen, J F; van Hemel, N M

    2013-03-01

    Myocardial perfusion SPECT (MPS) is frequently used for cardiovascular risk stratification. The significance of MPS in patients with abnormal electrical ventricular activation is often questionable. This review assesses the value of MPS for risk stratification of patients with intrinsic left bundle branch block or that due to right ventricular apical pacing. We reviewed the literature by a search of the MEDLINE database (January 1980 to September 2010). The terms prognosis or prognostic value were combined with SPECT and LBBB or pacing or pacemakers. MPS was categorised as low and high risk according to the original definitions. We identified 11 studies suitable for review. A low-risk MPS is associated with a low risk of cardiac events whereas high-risk MPS carries a 4.8-fold increased risk, 95% CI [3.2 - 7.2] (p < 0.0001). Despite secondary prevention and an improved medical and interventional care, these figures have hardly changed over time. A low-risk MPS permits a policy of watchful waiting whereas a high-risk MPS requires further analysis and treatment. The persistent high cardiac death and acute myocardial infarction rate after a high-risk MPS suggest that the current management of these patients does not suffice and needs reconsideration.

  6. Myocardial perfusion SPECT identifies patients with left bundle branch block patterns at high risk for future coronary events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ten Cate, Tim J F; Kelder, Johannes C; Plokker, Herbert W M; Verzijlbergen, J Fred; van Hemel, Norbert M

    2010-04-01

    The value of myocardial perfusion SPECT (MPS) for patients with left bundle branch block (LBBB) or right ventricular apical (RVA) pacing seems reduced. The prognosis of patients with only abnormal activation related perfusion defects (AARD) due to LBBB or RVA-pacing is similar to those with a normal MPS. We assessed the prognostic value of MPS in patients with LBBB or RVA pacing. Patients with LBBB or RVA pacing referred for vasodilator stress MPS between April 2002 and January 2006 were analyzed. Group 1 are patients with normal MPS and MPS with AARD. Group 2 are patients with an MPS with a perfusion defect extending outside the AARD area. Events were cardiac death, acute myocardial infarction and coronary revascularization. In Group 1 (101 patients) 12 events and in Group 2 (96 patients) 45 events occurred during a mean follow-up of 2.6 +/- 1.5 years. The prognosis of Group 2 was significantly worse (49%) compared with Group 1 (91%). The annual cardiac death rate was 0.7%/year in Group 1 and 6.4%/year in Group 2 (P < .001). The prognosis of patients with LBBB was not different from those with RVA pacing. Group 2 had a significantly worse cardiac prognosis compared to Group 1. The annual cardiac death rate of <1% in Group 1 warrants a watchful waiting strategy, whereas the cardiac death rate in Group 2 warrants aggressive invasive coronary strategies.

  7. Myocardial metabolic abnormalities in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy assessed by iodine-123-labeled beta-methyl-branched fatty acid myocardial scintigraphy and its relation to exercise-induced ischemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuo, Shinro; Nakamura, Yasuyuki; Takahashi, Masayuki; Mitsunami, Kenichi; Kinoshita, Masahiko [Shiga Univ. of Medical Science, Otsu (Japan)

    1998-03-01

    Reversible thallium-201 ({sup 201}Tl) abnormalities during exercise stress have been used as markers of myocardial ischemia in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) and are most likely to identify relatively underperfused myocardium. Although metabolic abnormalities in HCM were reported, the relationship between impaired energy metabolism and exercise-induced ischemia has not been fully elucidated as yet. To assess the relationship between myocardial perfusion abnormalities and fatty acid metabolic abnormalities, 28 patients with HCM underwent exercise {sup 201}Tl and rest {sup 123}I-15-(p-iodophenyl)-3-methyl pentadecanoic acid (BMIPP) scintigraphy. Perfusion abnormalities were observed by exercise {sup 201}Tl in 19/28 patients with HCM. {sup 123}I-BMIPP uptake was decreased compared with delayed {sup 201}Tl in 106/364 (29%) of the total myocardial segments (p<0.01, McNemar symmetry test). Such disparity between {sup 123}I-BMIPP and {sup 201}Tl was observed more often in the 49/75 (65%) segments with reversible exercise {sup 201}Tl defects (p<0.001). Our results indicate that exercise-induced myocardial ischemia exists in HCM, resulting in metabolic abnormalities. The combination of {sup 123}I-BMIPP and {sup 201}Tl suggests that myocardial ischemia may play an important role in metabolic abnormalities in HCM. (author)

  8. Impact of different patterns of sperm chromosomal abnormalities on the chromosomal constitution of preimplantation embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigo, Lorena; Peinado, Vanessa; Mateu, Emilia; Remohí, José; Pellicer, Antonio; Simón, Carlos; Gil-Salom, Manuel; Rubio, Carmen

    2010-09-01

    To evaluate the effect of sperm chromosome abnormalities--disomy for sex chromosomes and diploidy--in the chromosomal constitution of preimplantation embryos. Retrospective cohort study. Infertility clinic. Three groups: 46,XY infertile men with increased incidence of sex chromosome disomy in sperm; 46,XY infertile men with increased diploidy rates in sperm; 47,XYY infertile men with increased sex chromosome disomy and diploidy rates in sperm. Sperm collection for fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis. Embryo biopsy for preimplantation genetic screening. Frequencies of numerical abnormalities in sperm for chromosomes 13, 18, 21, X, and Y, and in embryos for chromosomes 13, 16, 18, 21, 22, X, and Y. A significant increase of chromosomally abnormal and mosaic embryos was observed in the three study groups compared with controls. Those sperm samples with increased sex chromosome disomy rates produced significantly higher percentages of aneuploid embryos, with a threefold increase for sex chromosomes. Sperm samples with increased diploidy rates were mainly associated to the production of triploid embryos. A strong correlation between sperm and embryo chromosomal constitution has been shown in infertile men with 46,XY and 47,XYY karyotypes. Copyright (c) 2010 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Weakly coupled map lattice models for multicellular patterning and collective normalization of abnormal single-cell states

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Morales, Vladimir; Manzanares, José A.; Mafe, Salvador

    2017-04-01

    We present a weakly coupled map lattice model for patterning that explores the effects exerted by weakening the local dynamic rules on model biological and artificial networks composed of two-state building blocks (cells). To this end, we use two cellular automata models based on (i) a smooth majority rule (model I) and (ii) a set of rules similar to those of Conway's Game of Life (model II). The normal and abnormal cell states evolve according to local rules that are modulated by a parameter κ . This parameter quantifies the effective weakening of the prescribed rules due to the limited coupling of each cell to its neighborhood and can be experimentally controlled by appropriate external agents. The emergent spatiotemporal maps of single-cell states should be of significance for positional information processes as well as for intercellular communication in tumorigenesis, where the collective normalization of abnormal single-cell states by a predominantly normal neighborhood may be crucial.

  10. The pattern of abnormalities on sperm analysis: A study of 1186 infertile male in Yasmin IVF clinic Jakarta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aulia, S. N.; Lestari, S. W.; Pratama, G.; Harzief, A. K.; Sumapraja, K.; Hestiantoro, A.; Wiweko, B.

    2017-08-01

    A declined in semen quality resulted an increase of male infertility has been reported. The pattern of abnormalities differs from one country to another. Conflicting results from different studies may be influenced by many factor. The aims are to evaluate the pattern of semen analysis of male partners of infertile couples and identify the current status of the contribution of male factor towards the infertility in our environment. The study is a descriptive analysis of the semen analysis of male partners in infertile couples, who were present at Yasmin IVF Clinic, infertility clinic of a Tertiary Care University Teaching Hospital between 1st January 2012 and 31st December 2015. A total of 1186 consenting male partners of infertile couple were recruited into the study. According to 2010 WHO normal reference values for semen parameters, 795 (67%) of patients were normozoospermia which had normal semen parameters and 391 (33%) patients had abnormal semen parameters. Oligozospermia was evident in 155 (39.5%) patients, being the most common disorder observed. It is followed by azoospermia (24.4%), oligoasthenozospermia (17.8%), asthenozospermia (5.9%), oligoasthenotera-tozospermia (5,7%), teratozospermia (2.6%), asthenoteratozospermia (2.8%), cryptozoospermia (0.8%), necrozospermia (0.3%), and oligoteratozospermia (0.3%). Abnormal semen quality remains a significant contribution to the overall infertility with oligozospermia being the most common semen quality abnormality. This condition is an indication for the need to focus on the prevention and management of male infertility. In addition, further studies are needed to address possible etiologies and treatment in order to improve fertility rates.

  11. Abnormal metabolic pattern associated with cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease : a validation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meles, Sanne K.; Tang, Chris C.; Teune, Laura K.; Dierckx, Rudi A.; Dhawan, Vijay; Mattis, Paul J.; Leenders, Klaus L.; Eidelberg, David

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive deficits in Parkinson's disease (PD) have been associated with a specific metabolic covariance pattern. Although the expression of this PD cognition-related pattern (PDCP) correlates with neuropsychological performance, it is not known whether the PDCP topography is reproducible across PD

  12. Experimental evaluation of streamline patterns and separated flows in a series of branching vessels with implications for atherosclerosis and thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    el-Masry, O A; Feuerstein, I A; Round, G F

    1978-10-01

    Flow conditions in four models representing the aortic bifurcation, iliac bifuraction, and a renal artery branch were investigated at volumetric flow rates corresponding to Reynolds numbers from 1000 to 4000 over the complete range of flow division between daughter vessels. Qualitative flow streamline patterns and quantitative definition of those flow conditions leading to disturbed flow (flow separation ) were determined primarily at steady flow with a limited set of pulsatie experiments. Under conditions of no flow separation, common characteristic streamline patterns not parallel to the center lines of parent or daughter tubes were found for all models. These effects were accentuated with increasing Reynolds number. Flow separation was inducible through alteration of flow division between daughter vessels or by an increase in flow rate. Each of the four models had distinct combinations of flow division ratio and flow rate which gave: (1) no flow separation, (2) flow separation at the outside of the right daughter tube, and (3) flow separation at the outside of the left daughter tube. Models representing the renal artery also had regions of simultaneous left- and righthand separation on the outside of their daughter tubes. The separated flows observed here displayed streamlines forming an open vortex with flows entering and leaving. These regions, which occur only at distinct combinations of flow rate and flow division, may be key centers where platelet aggregates may form, release constituents, and cause vessel injury.

  13. Sleep Patterns and Other Sleep Related Factors Affecting the Students of Islamic Azad University, Rasht Branch, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namazi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Adequate sleep is essential for general health. Several factors disrupt sleep patterns. The quality of sleep affects health and daily functions. Objectives The current study aimed to determine the students' sleep patterns and other sleep related factors. Patients and Methods The current cross-sectional study was conducted on 350 female students of the Islamic Azad University, Rasht branch (Rasht, Iran who were selected by multistage random sampling method. Data collection tool was a self-reporting questionnaire. Data were analyzed using SPSS software, employing Chi-square, and Pearson product moment correlation coefficients. Results The mean age of the subjects was 22.16 ± 2.86 years. Results showed 35.7% disruption of sleep onset, 46.3% impairment of sleep continuity, and 32% awakening early in the morning. Also, 42.3% of the subjects expressed excellent sleep quality. There was a significant relationship among sleep quality with the time of going to bed, difficulty in sleeping, awakening by noise, repeated awakening at night, waking up early in the morning, fatigue, and sleepiness in classroom. Conclusions The results of the current study showed a high prevalence of sleep problems among the students. Identification and treatment of students’ sleep disorders may improve academic performance and life quality.

  14. Ultrasound assessment of the posterior circumflex humeral artery in elite volleyball players: Aneurysm prevalence, anatomy, branching pattern and vessel characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Pol, Daan; Maas, Mario; Terpstra, Aart; Pannekoek-Hekman, Marja; Alaeikhanehshir, Sena; Kuijer, P Paul F M; Planken, R Nils

    2017-03-01

    To determine the prevalence of posterior circumflex humeral artery (PCHA) aneurysms and vessel characteristics of the PCHA and deep brachial artery (DBA) in elite volleyball players. Two-hundred and eighty players underwent standardized ultrasound assessment of the dominant arm by a vascular technologist. Assessment included determination of PCHA aneurysms (defined as segmental vessel dilatation ≥150 %), PCHA and DBA anatomy, branching pattern, vessel course and diameter. The PCHA and DBA were identified in 100 % and 93 % (260/280) of cases, respectively. The prevalence of PCHA aneurysms was 4.6 % (13/280). All aneurysms were detected in proximal PCHA originating from the axillary artery (AA). The PCHA originated from the AA in 81 % of cases (228/280), and showed a curved course dorsally towards the humeral head in 93 % (211/228). The DBA originated from the AA in 73 % of cases (190/260), and showed a straight course parallel to the AA in 93 % (177/190). PCHA aneurysm prevalence in elite volleyball players is high and associated with a specific branching type: a PCHA that originates from the axillary artery. Radiologists should have a high index of suspicion for this vascular overuse injury. For the first time vessel characteristics and reference values are described to facilitate ultrasound assessment. • Prevalence of PCHA aneurysms is 4.6 % among elite volleyball players. • All aneurysms are in proximal PCHA that originates directly from AA. • Vessel characteristics and reference values are described to facilitate US assessment. • Mean PCHA and DBA diameters can be used as reference values. • Radiologists need a high index of suspicion for this vascular overuse injury.

  15. Identification of Abnormal System Noise Temperature Patterns in Deep Space Network Antennas Using Neural Network Trained Fuzzy Logic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Thomas; Pham, Timothy; Liao, Jason

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the development of a fuzzy logic function trained by an artificial neural network to classify the system noise temperature (SNT) of antennas in the NASA Deep Space Network (DSN). The SNT data were classified into normal, marginal, and abnormal classes. The irregular SNT pattern was further correlated with link margin and weather data. A reasonably good correlation is detected among high SNT, low link margin and the effect of bad weather; however we also saw some unexpected non-correlations which merit further study in the future.

  16. Identification of Abnormal System Noise Temperature Patterns in Deep Space Network Antennas Using Neural Network Trained Fuzzy Logic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Thomas; Pham, Timothy; Liao, Jason

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the development of a fuzzy logic function trained by an artificial neural network to classify the system noise temperature (SNT) of antennas in the NASA Deep Space Network (DSN). The SNT data were classified into normal, marginal, and abnormal classes. The irregular SNT pattern was further correlated with link margin and weather data. A reasonably good correlation is detected among high SNT, low link margin and the effect of bad weather; however we also saw some unexpected non-correlations which merit further study in the future.

  17. Abnormal auditory forward masking pattern in the brainstem response of individuals with Asperger syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Källstrand, Johan; Olsson, Olle; Nehlstedt, Sara Fristedt; Sköld, Mia Ling; Nielzén, Sören

    2010-01-01

    Abnormal auditory information processing has been reported in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). In the present study auditory processing was investigated by recording auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) elicited by forward masking in adults diagnosed with Asperger syndrome (AS). Sixteen AS subjects were included in the forward masking experiment and compared to three control groups consisting of healthy individuals (n = 16), schizophrenic patients (n = 16) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder patients (n = 16), respectively, of matching age and gender. The results showed that the AS subjects exhibited abnormally low activity in the early part of their ABRs that distinctly separated them from the three control groups. Specifically, wave III amplitudes were significantly lower in the AS group than for all the control groups in the forward masking condition (P < 0.005), which was not the case in the baseline condition. Thus, electrophysiological measurements of ABRs to complex sound stimuli (eg, forward masking) may lead to a better understanding of the underlying neurophysiology of AS. Future studies may further point to specific ABR characteristics in AS individuals that separate them from individuals diagnosed with other neurodevelopmental diseases. PMID:20628629

  18. Abnormal auditory forward masking pattern in the brainstem response of individuals with Asperger syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Källstrand

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Johan Källstrand1, Olle Olsson2, Sara Fristedt Nehlstedt1, Mia Ling Sköld1, Sören Nielzén21SensoDetect AB, Lund, Sweden; 2Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Section of Psychiatry, Lund University, Lund, SwedenAbstract: Abnormal auditory information processing has been reported in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD. In the present study auditory processing was investigated by recording auditory brainstem responses (ABRs elicited by forward masking in adults diagnosed with Asperger syndrome (AS. Sixteen AS subjects were included in the forward masking experiment and compared to three control groups consisting of healthy individuals (n = 16, schizophrenic patients (n = 16 and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder patients (n = 16, respectively, of matching age and gender. The results showed that the AS subjects exhibited abnormally low activity in the early part of their ABRs that distinctly separated them from the three control groups. Specifically, wave III amplitudes were significantly lower in the AS group than for all the control groups in the forward masking condition (P < 0.005, which was not the case in the baseline condition. Thus, electrophysiological measurements of ABRs to complex sound stimuli (eg, forward masking may lead to a better understanding of the underlying neurophysiology of AS. Future studies may further point to specific ABR characteristics in AS individuals that separate them from individuals diagnosed with other neurodevelopmental diseases.Keywords: asperger syndrome, auditory brainstem response, forward masking, psychoacoustics

  19. Abnormal fMRI Activation Pattern during Story Listening in Individuals with Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds Losin, Elizabeth A.; Rivera, Susan M.; O'Hare, Elizabeth D.; Sowell, Elizabeth R.; Pinter, Joseph D.

    2009-01-01

    Down syndrome is characterized by disproportionately severe impairments of speech and language, yet little is known about the neural underpinnings of these deficits. We compared fMRI activation patterns during passive story listening in 9 young adults with Down syndrome and 9 approximately age-matched, typically developing controls. The typically…

  20. Abnormalities of lymphocyte function and phenotypic pattern in a case of toxic epidermal necrolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagdrup, H; Tønnesen, E; Clemmensen, O

    1992-01-01

    We examined the blood lymphocyte function and phenotypic pattern in a patient with toxic epidermal necrolysis after taking salazopyrin. We studied cell surface markers, natural killer cell activity and mitogen-induced lymphocyte transformation. Our results point to temporary immunosuppression...... as evidenced by lymphopenia with a large "null cell" population, reduced natural killer cell activity, and impaired lymphocyte response to mitogens....

  1. Abnormal fMRI Activation Pattern during Story Listening in Individuals with Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds Losin, Elizabeth A.; Rivera, Susan M.; O'Hare, Elizabeth D.; Sowell, Elizabeth R.; Pinter, Joseph D.

    2009-01-01

    Down syndrome is characterized by disproportionately severe impairments of speech and language, yet little is known about the neural underpinnings of these deficits. We compared fMRI activation patterns during passive story listening in 9 young adults with Down syndrome and 9 approximately age-matched, typically developing controls. The typically…

  2. Quantification of functional weakness and abnormal synergy patterns in the lower limb of individuals with chronic stroke

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    Nichols Diane

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The presence of abnormal muscle activation patterns is a well documented factor limiting the motor rehabilitation of patients following stroke. These abnormal muscle activation patterns, or synergies, have previously been quantified in the upper limbs. Presented here are the lower limb joint torque patterns measured in a standing position of sixteen chronic hemiparetic stroke subjects and sixteen age matched controls used to examine differences in strength and coordination between the two groups. Methods With the trunk stabilized, stroke subjects stood on their unaffected leg while their affected foot was attached to a 6-degree of freedom load cell (JR3, Woodland CA which recorded forces and torques. The subjects were asked to generate a maximum torque about a given joint (hip abduction/adduction; hip, knee, and ankle flexion/extension and provided feedback of the torque they generated for that primary joint axis. In parallel, EMG data from eight muscle groups were recorded, and secondary torques generated about the adjacent joints were calculated. Differences in mean primary torque, secondary torque, and EMG data were compared using a single factor ANOVA. Results The stroke group was significantly weaker in six of the eight directions tested. Analysis of the secondary torques showed that the control and stroke subjects used similar strategies to generate maximum torques during seven of the eight joint movements tested. The only time a different strategy was used was during maximal hip abduction exertions where stroke subjects tended to flex instead of extend their hip, which was consistent with the classically defined "flexion synergy." The EMG data of the stroke group was different than the control group in that there was a strong presence of co-contraction of antagonistic muscle groups, especially during ankle flexion and ankle and knee extension. Conclusion The results of this study indicate that in a standing position

  3. Exploring non-stationarity patterns in schizophrenia: neural reorganization abnormalities in the alpha band

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez, Pablo; Poza, Jesús; Bachiller, Alejandro; Gomez-Pilar, Javier; Lubeiro, Alba; Molina, Vicente; Hornero, Roberto

    2017-08-01

    Objective. The aim of this paper was to characterize brain non-stationarity during an auditory oddball task in schizophrenia (SCH). The level of non-stationarity was measured in the baseline and response windows of relevant tones in SCH patients and healthy controls. Approach. Event-related potentials were recorded from 28 SCH patients and 51 controls. Non-stationarity was estimated in the conventional electroencephalography frequency bands by means of Kullback-Leibler divergence (KLD). Relative power (RP) was also computed to assess a possible complementarity with KLD. Main results. Results showed a widespread statistically significant increase in the level of non-stationarity from baseline to response in all frequency bands for both groups. Statistically significant differences in non-stationarity were found between SCH patients and controls in beta-2 and in the alpha band. SCH patients showed more non-stationarity in the left parieto-occipital region during the baseline window in the beta-2 band. A leave-one-out cross validation classification study with feature selection based on binary stepwise logistic regression to discriminate between SCH patients and controls provided a positive predictive value of 72.73% and negative predictive value of 78.95%. Significance. KLD can characterize transient neural reorganization during an attentional task in response to novelty and relevance. Our findings suggest anomalous reorganization of neural dynamics in SCH during an oddball task. The abnormal frequency-dependent modulation found in SCH patients during relevant tones is in agreement with the hypothesis of aberrant salience detection in SCH. The increase in non-stationarity in the alpha band during the active task supports the notion that this band is involved in top-down processing. The baseline differences in the beta-2 band suggest that hyperactivation of the default mode network during attention tasks may be related to SCH symptoms. Furthermore, the classification

  4. Mice with Dab1 or Vldlr insufficiency exhibit abnormal neonatal vocalization patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraley, E R; Burkett, Z D; Day, N F; Schwartz, B A; Phelps, P E; White, S A

    2016-05-17

    Genetic and epigenetic changes in components of the Reelin-signaling pathway (RELN, DAB1) are associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) risk. Social communication deficits are a key component of the ASD diagnostic criteria, but the underlying neurogenetic mechanisms remain unknown. Reln insufficient mice exhibit ASD-like behavioral phenotypes including altered neonatal vocalization patterns. Reelin affects multiple pathways including through the receptors, Very low-density lipoprotein receptor (Vldlr), Apolipoprotein receptor 2 (Apoer2), and intracellular signaling molecule Disabled-1 (Dab1). As Vldlr was previously implicated in avian vocalization, here we investigate vocalizations of neonatal mice with a reduction or absence of these components of the Reelin-signaling pathway. Mice with low or no Dab1 expression exhibited reduced calling rates, altered call-type usage, and differential vocal development trajectories. Mice lacking Vldlr expression also had altered call repertoires, and this effect was exacerbated by deficiency in Apoer2. Together with previous findings, these observations 1) solidify a role for Reelin in vocal communication of multiple species, 2) point to the canonical Reelin-signaling pathway as critical for development of normal neonatal calling patterns in mice, and 3) suggest that mutants in this pathway could be used as murine models for Reelin-associated vocal deficits in humans.

  5. A study of the formation and branching pattern of brachial plexus and its variations in adult human cadavers of north Karnataka

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    Sheetal V Pattanshetti

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and Objectives: The brachial plexus is highly variable, in its formation and branching pattern thus, knowledge of its anatomical patterns, may be insufficient for the surgeon operating on or around these nerves or for the regional anesthesiologist working in this area. Therefore, the present study was an attempt to study further about variations of brachial plexus encountered during routine dissection classes. Materials and Methods: The present descriptive study was carried out by dissection of 60 upper limbs of 30 cadavers, in the age group of 18 to 85 years, obtained during a study period of 2 years from the Department of Anatomy. The plexus was studied in its entire course commencing from the formation in cervical region, course through root of the neck and axilla, up to the main terminal branches of the upper extremity. During the dissection, variations of brachial plexus pertaining to its formation from the roots, trunks, divisions and cords and the branching pattern were observed and data was collected. Results: Out of the 60 cadaveric upper limbs studied for the anatomical variations of the brachial plexus, 2 limbs (3.33% were pre-fixed plexuses. Fusion of adjacent trunks was detected in 2 limbs (3.33%. Variations in branches of lateral cord were detected in 8 limbs (13.33%. Among Posterior cord variations 2-thoracodorsal nerves were detected in 2 limbs (3.33%. All the other branches from brachial plexus had been found to have no anatomical variations. Conclusion: In the present study, an attempt has been made to know the possible variations of the brachial plexus. Though the variations mentioned may not alter the normal functioning of the limb of the individual, but knowledge of the variations is of prime importance to be kept in mind, during anaesthetic and surgical procedures.

  6. Central projection of auditory receptors in the prothoracic ganglion of the buschcricket Psorodonotus illyricus (tettigoniidae): computer-aided analysis of the end branch pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebendt, R; Friedel, J; Kalmring, K

    1994-01-01

    The projection patterns of morphologically and functionally identified auditory and auditory-vibratory receptor cells of receptor organs (the crista acustica and the intermediate organ) in the foreleg of the tettigoniid Psorodonotus illyricus, were investigated with combined recording and staining techniques, and subsequent histological examination and morphometric measurements. With the application of a computer program (AutoCAD), three-dimensional reconstructions of the axon end branches of receptor cells within the neuropile of the anterior Ring Tract (aRT) were made, in order to determine, the entire shape of each, the pattern and density of the end branches, and the positions of the target areas within the auditory neuropile. Clear differences for different functional types of receptors were found.

  7. Asia Pacific menu patterns in relation to lipid abnormalities: An Indonesian perspective

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    Walujo Soerjodibroto

    2004-12-01

    which is 1.47% of the total energy intake. Although appears to be low, but it has a 157% increase if compared to the same value fifteen years before. Indonesian CHD mortality rate is still relatively low (below 50 per 100,000, however it is only a matter of time that the this value will soon increase in line with the increase of fat (especially animal fat and total energy intakes. (Med J Indones 2004; 13: 252-7Keywords: Asia Pacific, Indonesia, menu pattern, energy, protein, fat, animal fat, mortality rate, cardiovascular disease, coronary heart disease, cerebrovascular disease

  8. Abnormality of pituitary gonadal axis among Nigerian males with infertility: study of patterns and possible etiologic interrelationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozoemena, Ofn; Ezugworie, Jo; Mbah, Au; Esom, Ea; Ayogu, Bo; Ejezie, Fe

    2011-01-01

    Hormonal derangements potentially contribute to the diagnosis of infertility in over 60%-70% of couples investigated. Use of hormonal and antihormonal agents has achieved great success in the treatment of male infertility. Our aim was to investigate the prevalence of hormonal abnormalities in males diagnosed with infertility. Males diagnosed clinically with infertility and referred from the gynecologic clinics of the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Ituku/Ozalla, Enugu State University Teaching Hospital, and some private hospitals in and around Enugu metropolis were recruited for the study. They were grouped according to whether they had primary or secondary infertility on the basis of the World Health Organization definition. Routine fertility test profiles for the subjects were evaluated, and detailed hormonal assays were analyzed. Of 216 men, 173 (80.1%) were found to have a hormonal imbalance. The mean age was 47.7 ± 3.5 (range 30-55) years for primary infertility and 47.2 ± 6.8 (range 33-61) years for secondary infertility. Patterns of hormonal abnormalities diagnosed amongst the 62 (35.80%) primary infertility subjects included hypergonadotrophic hypogonadism in 39 (62.90%), hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism in 18 (29.03%), and hyperprolactinemia in five (8.07%). Among the 111 (64.2%) cases of secondary infertility, there were 55 (49.55%) cases of hypergonadotrophic hypogonadism, 52 (46.85%) of hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism, and four (3.60%) of hyperprolactinemia. There was no statistically significant difference in the mean values between the two groups (χ(2) 0.05) for hormonal indices. The hormonal profile should be considered as the gold standard for diagnosis and management of male infertility.

  9. Growth pattern and natural mortality of elephant fishes (Mormyrus kannume, Mormyridae in the Damietta branch of Nile, Egypt

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    Evelyn Ragheb

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study sheds light on the growth pattern of the elephant snout fish (Mormyrus kannume, Mormyridae in the Damietta branch of the Nile during the period from January to December 2010. This is done through studying the biometric characters, length–weight relationship, condition factors, growth performance index as well as the natural mortality. The linear regression for 15 morphometric characters in total length and 4 morphometric characters in head length was applied. The higher coefficient of the characters’ determinations which fit best was also applied. Five meristic characters were determined (dorsal fin rays, 49–69; pectoral fin rays, 12–15; ventral fin rays, 6; anal fin rays, 17–21 and vertebrae, 49–52. Fish length varied between 14.0 cm and 43.0 cm TL with a modal length range from 19 to 22 cm representing 61.36% of the fish sample. A length–weight relationship using the total weight was found to be LogW = −2.2218 + 3.063LogL (R2 = 0.997 and using the gutted weight was LogW = −2.1549 + 3.003LogL (R2 = 0.995 hence exhibiting isometric growth. The average condition factors for different lengths were 0.76 ± 0.06. The chi-square of the overall sex ratio (male:female = 1:0.42 was significant at P < 0.01. The life span of this species is five years, with individuals of two years of age dominating the population. The different growth parameters were estimated at (K = 0.141, to = −0.271, L∞ = 80.65 cm, W∞ = 4151 g, ФL = 2.96 and ФW = 1.56. The natural mortality was 0.34, the M/K ratio was 2.38 and the variation of M by age model was also computed.

  10. Automated classification of wall motion abnormalities by principal component analysis of endocardial shape motion patterns in echocardiograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, Johan G.; Nijland, Francisca; Mitchell, Steven C.; Lelieveldt, Boudewijn P. F.; Kamp, Otto; Sonka, Milan; Reiber, Johan H. C.

    2003-05-01

    Principal Component Analysis of sets of temporal shape sequences renders eigenvariations of shape/motion, including typical normal and pathological endocardial contraction patterns. A previously developed Active Appearance Model for time sequences (AAMM) was employed to derive AAMM shape coefficients (ASCs) and we hypothesized these would allow classification of wall motion abnormalities (WMA). A set of stress echocardiograms (single-beat 4-chamber and 2-chamber sequences with expert-verified endocardial contours) of 129 infarct patients was split randomly into training (n=65) and testing (n=64) sets. AAMMs were generated from the training set and for all sequences ASCs were extracted and statistically related to regional/global Visual Wall Motion Scoring (VWMS) and clinical infarct severity and volumetric parameters. Linear regression showed clear correlations between ASCs and VWMS. Infarct severity measures correlated poorly to both ASCs and VWMS. Discriminant analysis showed good prediction from low #ASCs of both segmental (85% correctness) and global WMA (90% correctness). Volumetric parameters correlated poorly to regional VWMS. Conclusions: 1)ASCs show promising accuracy for automated WMA classification. 2)VWMS and endocardial border motion are closely related; with accurate automated border detection, automated WMA classification should be feasible. 3)ASC shape analysis allows contour set evaluation by direct comparison to clinical parameters.

  11. The influence of family pattern abnormalities in the early stages of life on the course of inflammatory bowel diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Włodarczyk, Marcin; Sobolewska-Włodarczyk, Aleksandra; Stec-Michalska, Krystyna; Fichna, Jakub; Wiśniewska-Jarosińska, Maria

    2016-08-01

    Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) belong to the group of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), chronic immune mediated diseases of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract with significant negative impact on patients' quality of life. CD and UC are related with the development of chronic inflammatory lesions in the GI tract, causing digestive and absorption disorders. Typical symptoms of IBD are: abdominal pain, vomiting, diarrhea, rectal bleeding, and weight loss. In addition, IBD are often associated with the extraintestinal manifestations, including arthritis and dermatoses. While the cause of IBD is still not fully understood, the psychological aspects are regarded as possible trigger factors. Moreover, most recent studies suggest that family pattern abnormalities associated with stress at the early stages of life may strongly affect health balance. In this paper, the most relevant studies focusing on the association between early life stress and IBD, found in MEDLINE, Cochrane Library and EMBASE are discussed. Possible effects of the early life stress on IBD progression and response to undertaken therapies are analyzed. Copyright © 2016 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  12. Study on patterns and prevalence of EEG abnormalities in children presenting with behavioural disturbances in psychiatry OPD, Gauhati Medical College and Hospital

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    Bobby Hmar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background of the study: Children with behavioural abnormalities and developmental disorders are often advised electroencephalography (EEG for evaluation of electrophysiological process of the brain to rule out any organic pathology. Various studies have reported abnormal EEG in these groups of children without history of clinical seizure on routine EEG and sleep EEG. Aim of the study: To study pattern and prevalence of EEG abnormalities in children with behavioural abnormalities without history of clinical seizure. Materials and methods: The study is a retrospective study. Ethical clearance has been obtained from institutional ethical committee for the study. To collect data, socio-demographic and clinical data proforma has been used. Data has been evaluated during the period from June 2011 to June 2014 as per selection criteria from the case history record of children with behavioural abnormalities attending child guidance clinic (CGC. Associations of abnormal EEG with various psychiatric diagnoses has been analysed and chi-square test has been used. p value <0.05 has been taken as test of significance. Result: Total 2011 children attended CGC from 2011 June to 2014 June. One hundred and ninety two children of various psychiatric diagnoses as per the tenth revision of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD-10 criteria had fulfilled the selection criteria and 113 children had done EEG. Abnormal EEG was found in 26.54% of children with various psychiatric diagnoses. Association was statistically significant (p<0.05. The EEG abnormalities were found more in male gender than female (p<0.05 and more in younger age group (four to ten years, p<0.05. Conclusion: Children with various psychiatric diagnoses have significant association with abnormal EEG without history of clinical seizure.

  13. Abnormality of pituitary gonadal axis among Nigerian males with infertility: study of patterns and possible etiologic interrelationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozoemena OF

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available OFN Ozoemena1, JO Ezugworie2, AU Mbah3, EA Esom4, BO Ayogu5, FE Ejezie61Department of Anatomy and Surgery, 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 3Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, College of Medicine, University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, 4Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine, University of Nigeria Enugu Campus; 5Urology Unit, Department of Surgery, University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Ituku/Ozalla; 6Department of Medical Biochemistry, College of Medicine, University of Nigeria, Enugu Campus, Enugu, NigeriaBackground: Hormonal derangements potentially contribute to the diagnosis of infertility in over 60%–70% of couples investigated. Use of hormonal and antihormonal agents has achieved great success in the treatment of male infertility. Our aim was to investigate the prevalence of hormonal abnormalities in males diagnosed with infertility.Methods: Males diagnosed clinically with infertility and referred from the gynecologic clinics of the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Ituku/Ozalla, Enugu State University Teaching Hospital, and some private hospitals in and around Enugu metropolis were recruited for the study. They were grouped according to whether they had primary or secondary infertility on the basis of the World Health Organization definition. Routine fertility test profiles for the subjects were evaluated, and detailed hormonal assays were analyzed.Results: Of 216 men, 173 (80.1% were found to have a hormonal imbalance. The mean age was 47.7 ± 3.5 (range 30–55 years for primary infertility and 47.2 ± 6.8 (range 33–61 years for secondary infertility. Patterns of hormonal abnormalities diagnosed amongst the 62 (35.80% primary infertility subjects included hypergonadotrophic hypogonadism in 39 (62.90%, hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism in 18 (29.03%, and hyperprolactinemia in five (8.07%. Among the 111 (64.2% cases of secondary infertility, there were 55 (49.55% cases of hypergonadotrophic hypogonadism

  14. Patterns of white matter diffusivity abnormalities in Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy: a tract-based spatial statistics study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milesi, Jacopo; Rocca, Maria A; Bianchi-Marzoli, Stefania; Petrolini, Melissa; Pagani, Elisabetta; Falini, Andrea; Comi, Giancarlo; Filippi, Massimo

    2012-09-01

    Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) is a mitochondrial disease characterized by retinal ganglion cell degeneration and optic nerve atrophy, leading to a loss of central vision. The aim of this study was to explore the topographical pattern of damage to the brain white matter (WM) tracts from patients with chronic LHON using diffusion tensor (DT) MRI and tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS). Brain dual-echo and DT MRI scans were acquired from 13 patients with chronic LHON and 25 matched controls using a 3.0 T scanner. TBSS analysis was performed using the FMRIB's Diffusion Toolbox. A complete neuro-ophthalmologic examination, including standardized automated Humphrey perimetry as well as average and temporal peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (PRNFL) measurements, was obtained in all patients. Mean average and temporal PRNFL thicknesses were decreased significantly in LHON patients. Compared to controls, TBSS analysis revealed significant diffusivity abnormalities in these patients, which were characterized by a decreased fractional anisotropy (FA) and an increased mean diffusivity and radial diffusivity, affecting exclusively the optic tracts and optic radiations (OR). In patients, a significant correlation was found between optic tract average FA and mean visual acuity (r = 0.57, p = 0.04). In LHON patients, DT MRI reveals a microstructural alteration of the WM along the entire visual pathways, with a sparing of the other main WM tracts of the brain. Damage to the OR may be secondary either to trans-synaptic degeneration, which in turn is due to neuroaxonal loss in the retina and optic nerve, or to local mitochondrial dysfunction.

  15. Observation and analysis of abnormal strong saltwater intrusion in the North Branch of the Yangtze Estuary%长江口北支异常强盐水入侵观测与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张二凤; 陈沈良; 刘小喜

    2014-01-01

    长江口北支由于径流分流比很小,盐水入侵较强,特别是枯季大潮期盐水甚至倒灌进入南支,影响上海市和江苏省的水源地水质。为了进一步研究北支盐水入侵的规律及影响因素,2014年1月1-9日在北支进行了大小潮同步水文观测。本次观测到了北支异常强盐水入侵:小潮期发生强盐水入侵,且强度大于大潮期。小潮期强盐水入侵导致中下游河段被高浓度盐水控制,盐度从下游B01到中游B02几乎没有变化,且盐度的涨落潮变化几乎消失。分析认为,小潮观测期间长江入河口流量较小、河口潮差不是太小,加上强偏北风,三者的叠加是导致强盐水入侵的主要原因。%Due to the very small river discharge ratio, saltwater intrusion in the North Branch of the Yangtze Estuary is strong. Particularly during spring tide in the dry season, salt water even spills over into the South Branch, which affects water quality of the water intakes of Shanghai Municipality and Jiangsu Province. In order to further research the law and impact factors of saltwater intrusion in the North Branch, the synchronous hydrologic measurements were carried out during spring tide and neap tide on 1-9 January 2014. The abnormal strong saltwater intrusion was observed. During the neap tide, strong saltwater intrusion occurred, which was even stronger than spring tide. The strong saltwater intrusion during neap tide resulted in the high salinity in the middle and lower reach, almost without change from B01 in the lower reach to B02 in the middle reach. And the variations of salinity during flood and ebb disappeared. The analysis indicated that during neap tide, the river discharge into the estuary was small, the tidal range was not very small, and the wind was strong from the north, the combination of which was the main reason inducing the strong saltwater intrusion.

  16. Dietary intake, food pattern, and abnormal blood glucose status of middle-aged adults: a cross-sectional community-based study in Myanmar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hlaing Hlaing Hlaing

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lifestyle changes, particularly dietary intake, had resulted in increasing trends of type-2 diabetes mellitus worldwide. However, dietary intake is diverse across country contexts. This study aimed to compare the dietary intake, food patterns, and blood glucose among middle-aged adults living in urban and suburban areas in Mandalay city, Myanmar, and explore their relationships. Methods: A cross-sectional community-based study was conducted during June–November 2014. Adults aged 35–64 were randomly selected and requested to record all food they ate in a 4-day diary. Fasting and 2-hour postprandial blood glucose values were measured over two consecutive days. Dietary intakes were calculated in terms of energy, macronutrients, glycemic index, and glycemic load, and food patterns were identified by factor analysis. The relationships between food pattern, dietary intake, and blood glucose were assessed. Results: Of 440 participants, dietary intake between urban and suburban residents was significantly different. Six food patterns were identified. There was no difference in fasting and 2-hour postprandial blood glucose between urban and suburban residents, but a strong correlation between fasting blood glucose and 2-hour postprandial blood glucose was found (correlation coefficient=0.8. Identification of abnormal blood glucose status using original fasting and converted 2-hour postprandial values showed substantial agreement (prevalence-adjusted bias-adjusted Kappa= 0.8. Relationships between food patterns and blood glucose or abnormal blood glucose status were not found. Conclusion: Food patterns were associated with dietary intake, not with abnormal blood glucose status. Two-hour postprandial blood glucose was highly correlated with fasting blood glucose and may be used for identifying abnormal blood glucose status.

  17. Dietary intake, food pattern, and abnormal blood glucose status of middle-aged adults: a cross-sectional community-based study in Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlaing, Hlaing Hlaing; Liabsuetrakul, Tippawan

    2016-01-01

    Lifestyle changes, particularly dietary intake, had resulted in increasing trends of type-2 diabetes mellitus worldwide. However, dietary intake is diverse across country contexts. This study aimed to compare the dietary intake, food patterns, and blood glucose among middle-aged adults living in urban and suburban areas in Mandalay city, Myanmar, and explore their relationships. A cross-sectional community-based study was conducted during June-November 2014. Adults aged 35-64 were randomly selected and requested to record all food they ate in a 4-day diary. Fasting and 2-hour postprandial blood glucose values were measured over two consecutive days. Dietary intakes were calculated in terms of energy, macronutrients, glycemic index, and glycemic load, and food patterns were identified by factor analysis. The relationships between food pattern, dietary intake, and blood glucose were assessed. Of 440 participants, dietary intake between urban and suburban residents was significantly different. Six food patterns were identified. There was no difference in fasting and 2-hour postprandial blood glucose between urban and suburban residents, but a strong correlation between fasting blood glucose and 2-hour postprandial blood glucose was found (correlation coefficient=0.8). Identification of abnormal blood glucose status using original fasting and converted 2-hour postprandial values showed substantial agreement (prevalence-adjusted bias-adjusted Kappa=0.8). Relationships between food patterns and blood glucose or abnormal blood glucose status were not found. Food patterns were associated with dietary intake, not with abnormal blood glucose status. Two-hour postprandial blood glucose was highly correlated with fasting blood glucose and may be used for identifying abnormal blood glucose status.

  18. Hepatic DNA Damage and Abnormality in Serum Protein Pattern Due to Long Term Use of Tramadol in Rats

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    Laila Abd El kawy

    2012-10-01

    of the comet tail relative to the head reflects the number of DNA breaks. The rates of tailed cells detected by the comet assay increased significantly when the rats were exposed to 200 and 400mg/kg of tramal compared with control (however, the tail length did not differ significantly between the same groups. The intensity of the comet tail relative to the head reflects the number of DNA breaks.Conclusions:Our findings pointed out the risk of increased lipid peroxidation, hepatic DNA damage and abnormality in serum protein pattern due to long term use of tramadol, although opioids are reported to be effective in pain management, their toxic effects should be kept in mind.

  19. Patterns of Gray Matter Abnormalities in Idiopathic Generalized Epilepsy: A Meta-Analysis of Voxel-Based Morphology Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Hongwu; He, Xiaoming; Li, Feng; Zhang, Jian; Huang, Bingsheng

    2017-01-01

    Objective We aimed to identify the consistent regions of gray matter volume (GMV) abnormalities in idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE), and to study the difference of GMV abnormalities among IGE subsyndromes by applying activation likelihood estimation (ALE) meta-analysis. Methods A systematic review of VBM studies on GMV of patients with absence epilepsy (AE), juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME), IGE and controls indexed in PubMed and ScienceDirect from January 1999 to June 2016 was conducted. A total of 12 IGE studies, including 7 JME and 3 AE studies, were selected. Meta-analysis was performed on these studies by using the pooled and within-subtypes analysis (www.brainmap.org). Based on the above results, between-subtypes contrast analysis was carried out to detect the abnormal GMV regions common in and unique to each subtype as well. Results IGE demonstrated significant GMV increase in right ventral lateral nucleus (VL) and right medial frontal gyrus, and significant GMV decrease in bilateral pulvinar. For JME, significant GMV increase was seen in right medial frontal gyrus, right anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), while significant GMV decrease was found in right pulvinar. In AE, the most significant GMV increase was found in right VL, and slight GMV reduction was seen in right medial dorsal nucleus, right subcallosal gyrus, left caudate and left precuneus. No overlapped and unique regions with significant GMV abnormalities were found between JME and AE. Significance This meta-analysis demonstrated that thalamo-frontal network was a structure with significant GMV abnormality in IGE, and the IGE subsyndromes showed different GMV abnormal regions. These observations may provide instructions on the clinical diagnosis of IGE. PMID:28060866

  20. Patterns in hydraulic architecture from roots to branches in six tropical tree species from cacao agroforestry and their relation to wood density and stem growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martyna Malgorzata Kotowska

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available For decades it has been assumed that the largest vessels are generally found in roots and that vessel size and corresponding sapwood area-specific hydraulic conductivity are acropetally decreasing towards the distal twigs. However, recent studies from the perhumid tropics revealed a hump-shaped vessel size distribution. Worldwide tropical perhumid forests are extensively replaced by agroforestry systems often using introduced species of various biogeographical and climatic origins. Nonetheless, it is unknown so far what kind of hydraulic architectural patterns are developed in those agroforestry tree species and which impact this exerts regarding important tree functional traits, such as stem growth, hydraulic efficiency and wood density. We investigated wood anatomical and hydraulic properties of the root, stem and branch wood in Theobroma cacao and five common shade tree species in agroforestry systems on Sulawesi (Indonesia; three of these were strictly perhumid tree species, and the other three tree species are tolerating seasonal drought. The overall goal of our study was to relate these properties to stem growth and other tree functional traits such as foliar nitrogen content and sapwood to leaf area ratio. Our results confirmed a hump-shaped vessel size distribution in nearly all species. Drought-adapted species showed divergent patterns of hydraulic conductivity, vessel density and relative vessel lumen area between root, stem and branch wood compared to wet forest species. Confirming findings from natural old-growth forests in the same region, wood density showed no relationship to specific conductivity. Overall, aboveground growth performance was better predicted by specific hydraulic conductivity than by foliar traits and wood density. Our study results suggest that future research on conceptual trade-offs of tree hydraulic architecture should consider biogeographical patterns underlining the importance of anatomical adaptation

  1. Patterns in hydraulic architecture from roots to branches in six tropical tree species from cacao agroforestry and their relation to wood density and stem growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotowska, Martyna M; Hertel, Dietrich; Rajab, Yasmin Abou; Barus, Henry; Schuldt, Bernhard

    2015-01-01

    For decades it has been assumed that the largest vessels are generally found in roots and that vessel size and corresponding sapwood area-specific hydraulic conductivity are acropetally decreasing toward the distal twigs. However, recent studies from the perhumid tropics revealed a hump-shaped vessel size distribution. Worldwide tropical perhumid forests are extensively replaced by agroforestry systems often using introduced species of various biogeographical and climatic origins. Nonetheless, it is unknown so far what kind of hydraulic architectural patterns are developed in those agroforestry tree species and which impact this exerts regarding important tree functional traits, such as stem growth, hydraulic efficiency and wood density (WD). We investigated wood anatomical and hydraulic properties of the root, stem and branch wood in Theobroma cacao and five common shade tree species in agroforestry systems on Sulawesi (Indonesia); three of these were strictly perhumid tree species, and the other three tree species are tolerating seasonal drought. The overall goal of our study was to relate these properties to stem growth and other tree functional traits such as foliar nitrogen content and sapwood to leaf area ratio. Our results confirmed a hump-shaped vessel size distribution in nearly all species. Drought-adapted species showed divergent patterns of hydraulic conductivity, vessel density, and relative vessel lumen area between root, stem and branch wood compared to wet forest species. Confirming findings from natural old-growth forests in the same region, WD showed no relationship to specific conductivity. Overall, aboveground growth performance was better predicted by specific hydraulic conductivity than by foliar traits and WD. Our study results suggest that future research on conceptual trade-offs of tree hydraulic architecture should consider biogeographical patterns underlining the importance of anatomical adaptation mechanisms to environment.

  2. Branching Patterns Variation of Leucaena leucocephala in Different Management Patterns%不同经营模式下新银合欢的枝系特征差异分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林勇明; 王道杰; 葛永刚; 杨美玲

    2009-01-01

    在中国科学院东川泥石流定位观测站附近,对不同经营模式下新银合欢的枝系特征进行了统计分析,结果表明:新银合欢在不同经营模式下的总体分枝率和逐步分枝率SBR1:2发生显著变化,逐步分枝率SBR2:3则未表现出显著差异;截干新银合欢二、三级枝长度,枝径比2:1及一、二、三级枝倾角显著大于未截干新银合欢;两种经营模式下叶片的分布特征未发生显著差异.通过对各种枝系特征综合分析,发现截干新银合欢的生长对策表现为向上拓展自身生长空间,保持其原有的生态位.%In plantation of Leucaena leucocephala in Dongchuan station of debris flow observation and re-search, Yunan Province, the branching patterns of Leucaena leucocephala in different management patterns were examined. The results showed that overall bifurcation ratio and stepwise bifurcation (SBR1:2) varied signif-icantly among different management patterns, but the stepwise bifurcation (SBR2:3) didnt vary significantly. The second-order and third-order branch length, branch angle to horizon and ratio of branch diameter in cop-pice management are significantly different with non-coppice management, but the characteristics of leaf distri-bution of two management patterns were similar. In coppice management patterns, the architectural counter-measure showed that: Leucaena leucocephala will expand its living space through sprouting from its base.

  3. Phylogeny and expression pattern of starch branching enzyme family genes in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) under diverse environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Jinli; Wang, Huijun; Xia, Zhiqiang; Liu, Chen; Chen, Xin; Ma, Pingan; Lu, Cheng; Wang, Wenquan

    2015-08-01

    Starch branching enzyme (SBE) is one of the key enzymes involved in starch biosynthetic metabolism. In this study, six SBE family genes were identified from the cassava genome. Phylogenetic analysis divided the MeSBE family genes into dicot family A, B, C, and the new group. Tissue-specific analysis showed that MeSBE2.2 was strongly expressed in leaves, stems cortex, and root stele, and MeSBE3 had high expression levels in stem cortex and root stele of plants in the rapid growth stage under field condition, whereas the expression levels of MeSBE2.1, MeSBE4, and MeSBE5 were low except for in stems cortex. The transcriptional activity of MeSBE2.2 and MeSBE3 was higher compared with other members and gradually increased in the storage roots during root growth process, while the other MeSBE members normally remained low expression levels. Expression of MeSBE2.2 could be induced by salt, drought, exogenous abscisic acid, jasmonic acid, and salicylic acid signals, while MeSBE3 had positive response to drought, salt, exogenous abscisic acid, and salicylic acid in leaves but not in storage root, indicating that they might be more important in starch biosynthesis pathway under diverse environments.

  4. Texture analysis of collagen second-harmonic generation images based on local difference local binary pattern and wavelets differentiates human skin abnormal scars from normal scars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yao; Zhu, Xiaoqin; Huang, Zufang; Cai, Jianyong; Chen, Rong; Xiong, Shuyuan; Chen, Guannan; Zeng, Haishan

    2015-01-01

    Quantitative methods for noninvasive diagnosis of scars are a challenging issue in medicine. This work aims to implement a texture analysis method for quantitatively discriminating abnormal scars from normal scars based on second-harmonic generation (SHG) images. A local difference local binary pattern (LD-LBP) operator combined with a wavelet transform was explored to extract diagnosis features from scar SHG images that were related to the alteration in collagen morphology. Based on the quantitative parameters including the homogeneity, directional and coarse features in SHG images, the scar collagen SHG images were classified into normal or abnormal scars by a support vector machine classifier in a leave-one-out cross-validation procedure. Our experiments and data analyses demonstrated apparent differences between normal and abnormal scars in terms of their morphological structure of collagen. By comparing with gray level co-occurrence matrix, wavelet transform, and combined basic local binary pattern and wavelet transform with respect to the accuracy and receiver operating characteristic analysis, the method proposed herein was demonstrated to achieve higher accuracy and more reliable classification of SHG images. This result indicated that the extracted texture features with the proposed method were effective in the classification of scars. It could provide assistance for physicians in the diagnostic process.

  5. Abnormalities in Pattern of Lateralization in Relation to Visuospatial Short Term Memory in Children with Williams Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonios Chasouris

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Williams syndrome (WS is a genetic disorder characterised by significant intellectual disability. Initial studies indicate that children with WS have a profound bias for information in the top left of visual arrays. Study 1, using a visuospatial memory test for items presented in a 3×3 matrix, found a significant top left bias in WS children relative to controls. Study 2 used a probe-based memory test with arrays in which items appeared with equal probability in each position. Relative to controls, WS children showed a significant top and left bias. In Study 3, the same children engaged in a visual search task and again, a top and left bias was found in the WS group. It is concluded that children with WS display atypical laterality, which might be explained by abnormal saccadic movements, by abnormalities involving development of the dorsal stream or by uneven cortical development.

  6. H1N1 influenza in an Irish population: patterns of chest radiograph abnormality in patients testing positive.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Sullivan, K

    2012-02-29

    The winter of 2010\\/2011 saw a second peak in the number of H1N1 cases detected in Ireland. The purpose of this study was to investigate the radiological characteristics of patients diagnosed during this period. A retrospective analysis of these cases was performed. Chest radiographs were classified as normal or abnormal. A total of 37 patients were included. Of these, 22 (59%) of chest radiographs were abnormal and 15 (41%) were normal. In the 7 paediatric patients, 4 (57%) had a perihilar distribution of disease, 2 (28%) had peripherally based disease with 1 (14%) having a mixed distribution. A series of radiographs was available for 9 patients, 6 of these showed a radiographic deterioration from the initial study. The majority of chest radiographs of patients with confirmed H1N1 infection will be abnormal. In children, disease is more likely to be perihilar in distribution. Chest radiography is an important initial investigation in patients with H1N1 infection and is useful to track progression of disease in the subset of patients requiring hospitalization for severe disease.

  7. Analysis of patterns of patient compliance after an abnormal Pap smear result: the influence of demographic characteristics on patient compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Christine; Zhou, Ming K; Khamis, Harry J; Amesse, Lawrence

    2013-07-01

    This study aimed to determine population characteristics that correlate to suboptimal follow-up after an abnormal cervical cytology result. Nonpregnant women, ages 21 to 65 years, with newly diagnosed abnormal cervical cytology result between January 2009 and January 2012 at an urban clinic were eligible for inclusion in this retrospective chart review. Cervical cytology data and demographic characteristics such as age, ethnicity, employment, marital and smoking status, health insurance and number of pregnancies were abstracted from electronic medical record. A log-linear model was used to determine which factors influenced patient compliance. Of the total of 206 women, 78 (37.9%) had optimal follow-up and 128 (62.1%) had suboptimal follow-up. The 3 variables that were statistically significant in influencing patient follow-up after adjusted analyses included severity of cytology result (p = .0013), ethnicity (p = .02), and employment status (p = .0159). The risk ratio for optimal follow-up for those with severe cytology result was 1.81; for the non-whites, 1.77; and for the employed, 1.53. Ethnicity, severity of cervical cytology result, and employment status play an important role in patient follow-up after an abnormal cervical cytology result. Detecting trends in our patient population that influence adherence to follow-up will help health care providers formulate strategies that target this problem.

  8. DNA methylation patterns in tissues from mid-gestation bovine foetuses produced by somatic cell nuclear transfer show subtle abnormalities in nuclear reprogramming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Rita SF

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cloning of cattle by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT is associated with a high incidence of pregnancy failure characterized by abnormal placental and foetal development. These abnormalities are thought to be due, in part, to incomplete re-setting of the epigenetic state of DNA in the donor somatic cell nucleus to a state that is capable of driving embryonic and foetal development to completion. Here, we tested the hypothesis that DNA methylation patterns were not appropriately established during nuclear reprogramming following SCNT. A panel of imprinted, non-imprinted genes and satellite repeat sequences was examined in tissues collected from viable and failing mid-gestation SCNT foetuses and compared with similar tissues from gestation-matched normal foetuses generated by artificial insemination (AI. Results Most of the genomic regions examined in tissues from viable and failing SCNT foetuses had DNA methylation patterns similar to those in comparable tissues from AI controls. However, statistically significant differences were found between SCNT and AI at specific CpG sites in some regions of the genome, particularly those associated with SNRPN and KCNQ1OT1, which tended to be hypomethylated in SCNT tissues. There was a high degree of variation between individuals in methylation levels at almost every CpG site in these two regions, even in AI controls. In other genomic regions, methylation levels at specific CpG sites were tightly controlled with little variation between individuals. Only one site (HAND1 showed a tissue-specific pattern of DNA methylation. Overall, DNA methylation patterns in tissues of failing foetuses were similar to apparently viable SCNT foetuses, although there were individuals showing extreme deviant patterns. Conclusion These results show that SCNT foetuses that had developed to mid-gestation had largely undergone nuclear reprogramming and that the epigenetic signature at this stage was not a

  9. Tracheobronchial Branching Anomalies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Min Ji; Kim, Young Tong; Jou, Sung Shick [Soonchunhyang University, Cheonan Hospital, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Park, A Young [Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Asan (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-04-15

    There are various congenital anomalies with respect to the number, length, diameter, and location of tracheobronchial branching patterns. The tracheobronchial anomalies are classified into two groups. The first one, anomalies of division, includes tracheal bronchus, cardiac bronchus, tracheal diverticulum, pulmonary isomerism, and minor variations. The second one, dysmorphic lung, includes lung agenesis-hypoplasia complex and lobar agenesis-aplasia complex

  10. Unusual and Unique Variant Branches of Lateral Cord of Brachial Plexus and its Clinical Implications- A Cadaveric Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padur, Ashwini Aithal; Shanthakumar, Swamy Ravindra; Shetty, Surekha Devadas; Prabhu, Gayathri Sharath; Patil, Jyothsna

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Adequate knowledge on variant morphology of brachial plexus and its branches are important in clinical applications pertaining to trauma and surgical procedures of the upper extremity. Aim Current study was aimed to report variations of the branches of the lateral cord of brachial plexus in the axilla and their possible clinical complications. Materials and Methods Total number of 82 upper limbs from 41 formalin embalmed cadavers was dissected. Careful observation was made to note the formation and branching pattern of lateral cord. Meticulous inspection for absence of branches, presence of additional or variant branches and presence of abnormal communications between its branches or with branches of other cords was carried out. Results In the present study, we noted varied branching pattern of lateral cord in 6 out of 82 limbs (7%). In one of the limb, the median nerve was formed by three roots; two from lateral cord and one from medial cord. Two limbs had absence of lateral pectoral nerve supplemented by medial pectoral nerves. One of which had an atypical ansa pectoralis. In 2 upper limbs, musculocutaneous nerve was absent and in both cases it was supplemented by median nerve. In one of the limb, coracobrachialis had dual nerve supply by musculocutaneous nerve and by an additional branch from the lateral cord. Conclusion Variations of brachial plexus and its branches could pose both intraoperative and postoperative complications which eventually affect the normal sensory and motor functions of the upper limb. PMID:27190783

  11. Derivation and Evaluation of Age-Specific Multivariate Reference Regions to Aid in Identification of Abnormal Filling Patterns: The HUNT and VaMIS Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selmeryd, Jonas; Henriksen, Egil; Dalen, Håvard; Hedberg, Pär

    2017-07-13

    This study aimed to derive age-specific multivariate reference regions (MVRs) able to classify subjects into those having normal or abnormal filling patterns and to evaluate the prognostic impact of this classification. The integration of several parameters is necessary to diagnose disorders of left ventricular (LV) filling because no single measurement accurately describes the complexity of diastolic function. However, no generally accepted validated multiparametric algorithm currently exists. A cohort of 1,240 apparently healthy subjects from HUNT (the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study) with measured early (E) and late (A) mitral inflow velocity and early mitral annular diastolic tissue velocity (e') were used to derive univariate 95% reference bands and age-specific MVRs. Subsequently, the prognostic impact of this MVR-based classification was evaluated by Cox regression in a community-based cohort (n = 726) and in a cohort of subjects with recent acute myocardial infarction (n = 551). Both evaluation cohorts were derived from VaMIS (the Västmanland Myocardial Infarction Study). Univariate reference bands and MVRs are presented graphically and as regression equations. After adjustment for sex, age, hypertension, body mass index, diabetes, prior ischemic heart disease, LV mass, LV ejection fraction, and left atrial size, the hazard ratio associated with abnormal filling patterns in the community-based cohort was 3.5 (95% confidence interval: 1.7 to 7.0; p filling patterns and showed, in a community-based cohort and in a cohort of patients with recent acute myocardial infarction, that these MVRs conveyed important prognostic information. An MVR-based classification of LV filling patterns could lead to more consistent diagnostic algorithms for identification of different filling disorders. Copyright © 2017 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Identifying drug-induced repolarization abnormalities from distinct ECG patterns in congenital long QT syndrome: a study of sotalol effects on T-wave morphology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graff, Claus; Andersen, Mads P; Xue, Joel Q

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The electrocardiographic QT interval is used to identify drugs with potential harmful effects on cardiac repolarization in drug trials, but the variability of the measurement can mask drug-induced ECG changes. The use of complementary electrocardiographic indices of abnormal repolariz......BACKGROUND: The electrocardiographic QT interval is used to identify drugs with potential harmful effects on cardiac repolarization in drug trials, but the variability of the measurement can mask drug-induced ECG changes. The use of complementary electrocardiographic indices of abnormal...... are typical ECG patterns in LQT2. Blinded to labels, the new morphology measures were tested in a third group of 39 healthy subjects receiving sotalol. Over 3 days the sotalol group received 0, 160 and 320 mg doses, respectively, and a 12-lead Holter ECG was recorded for 22.5 hours each day. Drug...... with QTcF, p ECG patterns in LQT2 carriers effectively quantified repolarization changes induced by sotalol. Further studies are needed to validate whether this measure has...

  13. A correlation between long-term in vitro dynamic calcification and abnormal flow patterns past bioprosthetic heart valves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barannyk, Oleksandr; Fraser, Robert; Oshkai, Peter

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, a long-term in vitro dynamic calcification of three porcine aortic heart valves was investigated using a combined approach that involved accelerated wear testing of the valves in the rapid calcification solution, hydrodynamic assessment of the progressive change of effective orifice area (EOA) along with the transaortic pressure gradient, and quantitative visualization of the flow. The motivation for this study was developing a standardized, economical, and feasible in vitro testing methodology for bioprosthetic heart valve calcification, which would address both the hydrodynamic performance of the valves as well as the subsequent changes in the flow field. The results revealed the failure of the test valves at 40 million cycles mark, associated with the critical decrease in the EOA, followed by the increase in the maximum value of viscous shear stress of up to 52%, compared to the values measured at the beginning of the study. The decrease in the EOA was subsequently followed by the rapid increase in the maximum streamwise velocity of the central orifice jet up to the value of about 2.8 m/s, compared to the initial value of 2 m/s, and to the value of 2.2 m/s in the case of a control valve along with progressive narrowing of the velocity profile for two test valves. The significance of the current work is in demonstrating a correlation between calcification of the aortic valve and spatial as well as the temporal development of abnormal flow features.

  14. The pattern of plasma sodium abnormalities in an acute elderly care ward: a cross-sectional study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connor, K A

    2012-02-03

    INTRODUCTION: The combination of ageing, illness, and medications can lead to hyponatraemia or hypernatraemia. AIMS: To describe the distribution of plasma sodium levels in older patients admitted to hospital. METHODS: We carried out a hospital based cross-sectional study examining 1,511 serum sodium concentrations ([Na+]) among 336 elderly patients and attempted to elucidate the cause(s) of the abnormal serum [Na+]. RESULTS: The study population had a mean age of 81.4. Ninety-two (27.4%) patients had hyponatraemia and seven patients (2.1%) had hypernatraemia during their hospitalisation. The distribution of [Na+] results was towards the lower end of the normal range. The mortality rate of patients with hyponatraemia was 14.1% and that of patients with normal serum [Na+] was 8.9%. Six patients with hypernatraemia died in hospital. Lower respiratory tract infection and medication accounted for the majority of cases. CONCLUSIONS: Deranged [Na+] is common among elderly patients admitted to hospital.

  15. Prescription Patterns and Mineral Metabolism Abnormalities in the Cinacalcet Era: Results from the MBD-5D Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukagawa, Masafumi; Fukuma, Shingo; Onishi, Yoshihiro; Yamaguchi, Takuhiro; Hasegawa, Takeshi; Akizawa, Tadao; Kurokawa, Kiyoshi

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background and objectives Prescription patterns for hemodialysis patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism have varied widely since market introduction of cinacalcet. This study examined associations between prescription patterns and subsequent laboratory values. Design, setting, participants, & measurements Using a Mineral and Bone Disorder Outcomes Study for Japanese CKD Stage 5D Patients subcohort, 1716 prevalent hemodialysis patients (4048 sets for repeated measures between January 2008 and July 2009) with an intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) level >180 pg/ml who used intravenous vitamin D receptor activator (VDRA) without cinacalcet were selected. Prescription patterns were defined based on cinacalcet administration (starting or not) and VDRA dosage change (decreased [25%]). Proportion differences (PDs) were determined for decreasing iPTH levels by at least one category (<180, 180–299, 300–499, and ≥500 pg/ml) and for achieving target phosphorus (3.5–6.0 mg/dl) and calcium (8.4–10.0 mg/dl) levels, adjusting for potential confounders. Results The starting cinacalcet and increased VDRA patterns were associated with decreasing iPTH levels (PD, 0.25 and 0.13; 95% confidence intervals [95% CIs], 0.19–0.31 and 0.09–0.17, respectively); combination use had an additive association (PD, 0.34; 95% CI, 0.20–0.42). The starting cinacalcet and decreased VDRA combination was associated with simultaneously achieving target phosphorus (PD, 0.12; 95% CI: 0.04–0.20) and calcium (PD, 0.09; 95% CI, 0.01–0.17) levels. Conclusions Certain combinations of cinacalcet and VDRA were associated with decreasing iPTH and achieving targets for phosphorus and calcium. Combinations may prove advantageous versus VDRA alone in managing secondary hyperparathyroidism. PMID:22822017

  16. Effects of planting density on the branching pattern and biomass of Moringa oleifera plantation%不同栽培密度对辣木人工林分枝格局及生物量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宿爱芝; 郑益兴; 吴疆翀; 张燕平

    2012-01-01

    为了探讨干热河谷盆地辣木种植密度与分枝格局和生物量的关系及较为合理的种植密度,通过野外实地调查和数据分析对该地区不同栽培密度辣木人工林分枝格局及生物量进行研究,结果表明:辣木林分在株高、地径、冠幅以及分枝数量方面与栽培密度呈现显著负相关;不同密度下,根、茎、叶生物量及果荚数和果荚均长、直径和果荚均仔粒数之间都存在显著的差异性;栽培密度对辣木的分枝格局有较显著影响,主要表现在一级/二级分枝率、二级/三级分枝率以及三级分枝长度上有显著差异;辣木在不同方位上分枝格局有明显差异,主要体现在主、侧枝分枝长度和一级分枝角度上的差异显著;在本试验范围内,以叶用辣木为培育目标的较适宜的栽培密度为株行距0.9 m×0.9 m,以果用为栽培目标的较适宜的栽培密度为株行距1.5 m×1.5 m.在不同的栽培密度下,辣木人工林之间分枝格局及生物量的显著性差异,反映了辣木随环境的变化具有较高的形态可塑性和生态适应性.%In order to explore the relationships between the planting density and the branching pattern and biomass of Moringa oleifera in dry and hot valley basin, and to search for a more reasonable planting density of this plant, a field survey was conducted on the branching pattern and biomass of M. oleifera plantations under different planting densities. There existed significant negative correlations between the plant height, basal diameter, crown breadth, and branch number and the planting density, and significant differences in the biomass of root, stem, and foliage , the pod number, length, and diameter, and the grains per pod under different planting densities. Planting density had significant effects on the branching pattern of M. oleifera, mainly manifesting in the significant differences in the ratios of first order branch to second order branch and

  17. Histopathological pattern of gonads in cases of sex abnormalities in dogs: An attempt of morphological evaluation involving potential for neoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzimira, Stanislaw; Nizanski, Wojciech; Ochota, Malgorzata; Madej, Janusz A

    2015-10-01

    Disturbances in sex differentiation (DSD - disorder of sexual development) may result from disturbances in sex chromosomes or a disturbed development of gonads, or from genotypic disturbances. The objective of this article is to describe the histological structure of gonads in dogs showing sexual disturbances and a case of a cancer resembling gonadoblastoma in one of the animals. Among the 10 examined dogs with disturbances of sex development only a single case of a gonadoblastoma was observed. In animals with sex disturbances, similarly to humans, there exists a potential tendency for neoplastic lesions in dysgenetic gonads. As a rule, its frequency in population is confined due to the early procedure of castration of non-breeding dogs. In the present study dogs demonstrated phenotypical traits of bitches with developmental anomalies such as hyperplastic clitoris with vestigial os penis (baculum), or abnormalities in the location and structure of the vulva. The material for the study included canine gonads of various breeds, sampled from phenotypical bitches, aged 7 months to 4 years - patients of the Department of Reproduction and Clinic of Farm Animals, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Environmental and Life Sciences in Wroclaw (Poland) in years 2006-2013. The organs were surgically removed from the abdomen and sent for histopathological examination for the purpose of determining their histological structure. The 10 examined cases of altered gonads included 6 bilateral cases of testes (60%), 2 cases of bilateral ovotestis (20%), one case of co-manifestation of testis and ovotestis (10%), and a single case of a testis and a neoplastically altered gonad (gonadoblastoma) (10%).

  18. Aberrant gene expression patterns in placentomes are associated with phenotypically normal and abnormal cattle cloned by somatic cell nuclear transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everts, Robin E; Chavatte-Palmer, Pascale; Razzak, Anthony; Hue, Isabelle; Green, Cheryl A; Oliveira, Rosane; Vignon, Xavier; Rodriguez-Zas, Sandra L; Tian, X Cindy; Yang, Xiangzhong; Renard, Jean-Paul; Lewin, Harris A

    2008-03-14

    Transcription profiling of placentomes derived from somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT, n = 20), in vitro fertilization (IVF, n = 9), and artificial insemination (AI, n = 9) at or near term development was performed to better understand why SCNT and IVF often result in placental defects, hydrops, and large offspring syndrome (LOS). Multivariate analysis of variance was used to distinguish the effects of SCNT, IVF, and AI on gene expression, taking into account the effects of parturition (term or preterm), sex of fetus, breed of dam, breed of fetus, and pathological finding in the offspring (hydrops, normal, or other abnormalities). Differential expression of 20 physiologically important genes was confirmed with quantitative PCR. The largest effect on placentome gene expression was attributable to whether placentas were collected at term or preterm (i.e., whether the collection was because of disease or to obtain stage-matched controls) followed by placentome source (AI, IVF, or SCNT). Gene expression in SCNT placentomes was dramatically different from AI (n = 336 genes; 276 >2-fold) and from IVF (n = 733 genes; 162 >2-fold) placentomes. Functional analysis of differentially expressed genes (DEG) showed that IVF has significant effects on genes associated with cellular metabolism. In contrast, DEG associated with SCNT are involved in multiple pathways, including cell cycle, cell death, and gene expression. Many DEG were shared between the gene lists for IVF and SCNT comparisons, suggesting that common pathways are affected by the embryo culture methods used for IVF and SCNT. However, the many unique gene functions and pathways affected by SCNT suggest that cloned fetuses may be starved and accumulating toxic wastes due to placental insufficiency caused by reprogramming errors. Many of these genes are candidates for hydrops and LOS.

  19. Abnormal patterns of cerebral lateralisation as revealed by the Universal Chimeric Faces Task in individuals with autistic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Sandie; Workman, Lance; Yeomans, Heather

    2012-01-01

    A previous study by Workman, Chilvers, Yeomans, and Taylor (2006), using the "Universal" Chimeric Faces Task (UCFT) for six emotional expressions, demonstrated that an overall left hemispatial/right hemisphere (RH) advantage has begun to develop by the age of 7-8. Moreover, the development of this left hemispatial advantage was observed to correlate positively with the ability to read emotions in the faces of others. Adopting the UCFT, the current study compared autistic children (11-15) with unimpaired children of two age groups (5-6 and 7-8) from this previous study. The autistic children showed a left hemispatial/RH advantage only for the two emotional expressions of "happiness" and "anger". Results for the autistic children revealed a similar overall pattern of lateralisation to the 5-6-year-olds and one that is less lateralised than the pattern for the 7-8-year-olds. Autistic children appear to show a developmental deficit for left hemispatial/RH advantage for emotional expression with the exception of "happiness" and "anger." The findings are discussed in terms of role hemisphericity and an approach-avoidance model.

  20. Abnormalities in A-to-I RNA editing patterns in CNS injuries correlate with dynamic changes in cell type composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gal-Mark, Nurit; Shallev, Lea; Sweetat, Sahar; Barak, Michal; Billy Li, Jin; Levanon, Erez Y.; Eisenberg, Eli; Behar, Oded

    2017-01-01

    Adenosine to Inosine (A-to-I) RNA editing is a co- or post-transcriptional mechanism that modifies genomically encoded nucleotides at the RNA level. A-to-I RNA editing is abundant in the brain, and altered editing levels have been reported in various neurological pathologies and following spinal cord injury (SCI). The prevailing concept is that the RNA editing process itself is dysregulated by brain pathologies. Here we analyzed recent RNA-seq data, and found that, except for few mammalian conserved editing sites, editing is significantly higher in neurons than in other cell populations of the brain. We studied A-to-I RNA editing in stab wound injury (SWI) and SCI models and showed that the apparent under-editing observed after injury correlates with an approximately 20% reduction in the relative density of neurons, due to cell death and immune cell infiltration that may account for the observed under-editing. Studies of neuronal and astrocyte cultures and a computational analysis of SCI RNA-seq data further supported the possibility that a reduction in neuronal density is responsible for alterations in the tissue-wide editing patterns upon injury. Thus, our data suggest that the case for a mechanistic linkage between A-to-I RNA editing and brain pathologies should be revisited. PMID:28266523

  1. Patterns of abnormal FDG uptake by various histological types of non-small cell lung cancer at initial staging by PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, C.O.; Nunez, R.; Bohdiewicz, P.; Fink-Bennett, D.; Balon, H.; Dickinson, C.; Dworkin, H.J. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, MI (United States); Welsh, R.J.; Chmielewski, G.W.; Pursel, S.E. [Dept. of Thoracic Surgery, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, MI (United States); Ravikrishnan, K.P. [Dept. of Pulmonary Medicine, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, MI (United States); Hill, J.C. [Information Service, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, MI (United States)

    2001-11-01

    The aim of this study was to identify useful patterns of abnormal fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake by different types of non-small cell (NSC) lung cancer and to assess their clinical implications. One hundred and three sequential patients with newly diagnosed, pathology-proven NSC lung cancer were included. FDG positron emission tomography (PET) images were acquired using a dedicated PET scanner. There were 35 squamous cell carcinomas (SQC), 17 large cell cancers (LGC), 38 adenocarcinomas (ADC), 1 bronchioloalveolar carcinoma (BAC) and 12 non-classified NSC cancers. PET images were categorized into detectable patterns of necrotic center in the primary tumor, satellite lesions (T4), hilar lymph nodes (N1), and N2, N3, and M1 lesions by visual interpretation of PET images for SQC, LGC, and ADC (n=90; BAC and non-classified NSC cancers were excluded). The PET lesions were correlated with surgical pathology and with CT findings in inoperable cases. Necrosis was more commonly present in the primary tumors of LGC (53%) and SQC (43%) than in those of ADC (26%) (P<0.0001 and <0.01, respectively). The frequencies of nodal uptake in ADC, SQC and LGC were similar (71%, 60%, and 59%, respectively). However, M1 lesions were present significantly more often in LGC (41%) and ADC (34%) than in SQC (3%) (both P<0.0001). Significantly more surgically inoperable cases were found by PET (T4, N3, M1) in ADC (50%) and LGC (41%) than in SQC (26%) (P<0.001 and <0.02, respectively). Our results suggest a wide variation of PET findings for different types of NSC lung cancer. Identification of these patterns is useful in clinical PET interpretation, in that knowledge of the most probable association between the PET patterns and the histological types will facilitate initial staging and planning of management. (orig.)

  2. Mutational Landscape and Gene Expression Patterns in Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemias with Monosomy 7 as a Sole Abnormality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisfeld, Ann-Kathrin; Kohlschmidt, Jessica; Mrózek, Krzysztof; Volinia, Stefano; Blachly, James S; Nicolet, Deedra; Oakes, Christopher; Kroll, Karl; Orwick, Shelley; Carroll, Andrew J; Stone, Richard M; Byrd, John C; de la Chapelle, Albert; Bloomfield, Clara D

    2017-01-01

    Monosomy of chromosome 7 is the most frequent autosomal monosomy in acute myeloid leukemia (AML), where it associates with poor clinical outcomes. However, molecular features associated with this sole monosomy subtype (-7 AML), which may give insights into the basis for its poor prognosis, have not been characterized. In this study, we analyzed 36 cases of -7 AML for mutations in 81 leukemia/cancer-associated genes using a customized targeted next-generation sequencing panel (Miseq). Global gene and miRNA expression profiles were also determined using paired RNA and small RNA sequencing data. Notably, gene mutations were detected in all the major AML-associated functional groups, which include activated signaling, chromatin remodeling, cohesin complex, methylation, NPM1, spliceosome, transcription factors, and tumor suppressors. Gene mutations in the chromatin remodeling groups were relatively more frequent in patients <60 years of age, who also had less mutations in the methylation and spliceosome groups compared with patients ≥60 years of age. Novel recurrent mutational events in AML were identified in the SMARCA2 gene. In patients ≥60 years of age, the presence of spliceosome mutations associated with a lower complete remission rate (P = 0.03). RNA sequencing revealed distinct gene and miRNA expression patterns between the sole -7 and non -7 AML cases, with reduced expression, as expected, of many genes and miRNAs mapped to chromosome 7, and overexpression of ID1, MECOM, and PTPRM, among others. Overall, our findings illuminate a number of molecular features of the underlying aggressive pathobiology in -7 AML patients. Cancer Res; 77(1); 207-18. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  3. Evidence that dendritic mitochondria negatively regulate dendritic branching in pyramidal neurons in the neocortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Toshiya; Murakami, Fujio

    2014-05-14

    The precise branching patterns of dendritic arbors have a profound impact on information processing in individual neurons and the brain. These patterns are established by positive and negative regulation of the dendritic branching. Although the mechanisms for positive regulation have been extensively investigated, little is known about those for negative regulation. Here, we present evidence that mitochondria located in developing dendrites are involved in the negative regulation of dendritic branching. We visualized mitochondria in pyramidal neurons of the mouse neocortex during dendritic morphogenesis using in utero electroporation of a mitochondria-targeted fluorescent construct. We altered the mitochondrial distribution in vivo by overexpressing Mfn1, a mitochondrial shaping protein, or the Miro-binding domain of TRAK2 (TRAK2-MBD), a truncated form of a motor-adaptor protein. We found that dendritic mitochondria were preferentially targeted to the proximal portion of dendrites only during dendritic morphogenesis. Overexpression of Mfn1 or TRAK2-MBD depleted mitochondria from the dendrites, an effect that was accompanied by increased branching of the proximal portion of the dendrites. This dendritic abnormality cannot be accounted for by changes in the distribution of membrane trafficking organelles since the overexpression of Mfn1 did not alter the distributions of the endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi, or endosomes. Additionally, neither did these constructs impair neuronal viability or mitochondrial function. Therefore, our results suggest that dendritic mitochondria play a critical role in the establishment of the precise branching pattern of dendritic arbors by negatively affecting dendritic branching.

  4. Meiotic abnormalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 19, describes meiotic abnormalities. These include nondisjunction of autosomes and sex chromosomes, genetic and environmental causes of nondisjunction, misdivision of the centromere, chromosomally abnormal human sperm, male infertility, parental age, and origin of diploid gametes. 57 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Refining the criterion for an abnormal Integrated Relaxation Pressure in esophageal pressure topography based on the pattern of esophageal contractility using a classification and regression tree model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zhiyue; Kahrilas, P J; Roman, S; Boris, L; Carlson, D; Pandolfino, J E

    2012-08-01

    The Integrated Relaxation Pressure (IRP) is the esophageal pressure topography (EPT) metric used for assessing the adequacy of esophagogastric junction (EGJ) relaxation in the Chicago Classification of motility disorders. However, because the IRP value is also influenced by distal esophageal contractility, we hypothesized that its normal limits should vary with different patterns of contractility. Five hundred and twenty two selected EPT studies were used to compare the accuracy of alternative analysis paradigms to that of a motility expert (the 'gold standard'). Chicago Classification metrics were scored manually and used as inputs for MATLAB™ programs that utilized either strict algorithm-based interpretation (fixed abnormal IRP threshold of 15 mmHg) or a classification and regression tree (CART) model that selected variable IRP thresholds depending on the associated esophageal contractility. The sensitivity of the CART model for achalasia (93%) was better than that of the algorithm-based approach (85%) on account of using variable IRP thresholds that ranged from a low value of >10 mmHg to distinguish type I achalasia from absent peristalsis to a high value of >17 mmHg to distinguish type III achalasia from distal esophageal spasm. Additionally, type II achalasia was diagnosed solely by panesophageal pressurization without the IRP entering the algorithm. Automated interpretation of EPT studies more closely mimics that of a motility expert when IRP thresholds for impaired EGJ relaxation are adjusted depending on the pattern of associated esophageal contractility. The range of IRP cutoffs suggested by the CART model ranged from 10 to 17 mmHg. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Diagnosis of abnormal patterns in multivariate microclimate monitoring: a case study of an open-air archaeological site in Pompeii (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merello, Paloma; García-Diego, Fernando-Juan; Zarzo, Manuel

    2014-08-01

    Chemometrics has been applied successfully since the 1990s for the multivariate statistical control of industrial processes. A new area of interest for these tools is the microclimatic monitoring of cultural heritage. Sensors record climatic parameters over time and statistical data analysis is performed to obtain valuable information for preventive conservation. A case study of an open-air archaeological site is presented here. A set of 26 temperature and relative humidity data-loggers was installed in four rooms of Ariadne's house (Pompeii). If climatic values are recorded versus time at different positions, the resulting data structure is equivalent to records of physical parameters registered at several points of a continuous chemical process. However, there is an important difference in this case: continuous processes are controlled to reach a steady state, whilst open-air sites undergo tremendous fluctuations. Although data from continuous processes are usually column-centred prior to applying principal components analysis, it turned out that another pre-treatment (row-centred data) was more convenient for the interpretation of components and to identify abnormal patterns. The detection of typical trajectories was more straightforward by dividing the whole monitored period into several sub-periods, because the marked climatic fluctuations throughout the year affect the correlation structures. The proposed statistical methodology is of interest for the microclimatic monitoring of cultural heritage, particularly in the case of open-air or semi-confined archaeological sites. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. A variant extensor indicis muscle and the branching pattern of the deep radial nerve could explain hand functionality and clinical symptoms in the living patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumka, Myroslava

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to document the topographic anatomy of an extensor indicis (EI) muscle with a double tendon and the associated distribution of the deep branch of the radial nerve (DBRN). Both EI tendons were positioned deep to the tendons of the extensor digitorum as they traversed the dorsal osseofibrous tunnel. They then joined the medial slips of the extensor expansion of the second and third digits. In all other dissected forearms, a tendon of the EI muscle joined the medial slip of the extensor expansion to the index finger. The DBRN provided short branches to the superficial extensor muscles, long branches to the abductor pollicis longus and extensor pollicis brevis muscles, and terminated as the posterior interosseous nerve. Descending deep to the extensor pollicis longus muscle, the posterior interosseous nerve sent branches to the extensor pollicis brevis and EI muscles. Understanding of the topographic anatomy of an EI with a double tendon, and the associated distribution of the DBRN, may contribute to accurate diagnosis and treatment of hand lesions.

  8. Two patterns of cerebral metabolite abnormalities are detected on proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in HIV-infected subjects commencing antiretroviral therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winston, Alan; Taylor-Robinson, Simon D. [Imperial College London, St. Mary' s Hospital, London (United Kingdom); Duncombe, Chris [HIV-NAT, Thai Red Cross AIDS Research Centre, Bangkok (Thailand); Li, Patrick C.K. [Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Hong Kong (China); Gill, John M. [Calgary Regional Health Authority, Calgary (Canada); Kerr, Stephen J. [HIV-NAT, Thai Red Cross AIDS Research Centre, Bangkok (Thailand); University of New South Wales, National Centre in HIV Epidemiology and Clinical Research, Sydney, NSW (Australia); Puls, Rebekah L.; Emery, Sean; Cooper, David A. [University of New South Wales, National Centre in HIV Epidemiology and Clinical Research, Sydney, NSW (Australia); Collaboration: for the Altair Study Group

    2012-12-15

    Cerebral function impairment remains problematic in subjects with chronic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection despite effective combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). Using cerebral proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ({sup 1}H MRS), we aimed to determine if abnormalities could be detected in neurologically asymptomatic HIV-infected subjects electively commencing cART. Therapy-naive, HIV-infected individuals and HIV-uninfected controls underwent {sup 1}H MRS in several anatomical voxels including the mid-frontal grey matter (FGM) and right basal ganglia (RBG). Differences in cerebral metabolite ratios between groups and correlations between immune and virological status were assessed. Forty-six subjects were recruited (26 HIV-infected and 20 control subjects). In the HIV-infected group, mean CD4+ count (SD, cells per microlitre) and plasma HIV RNA (SD, log10 copies per millilitre) were 192 (86) and 4.71 (0.64), respectively. Choline (Cho)/Creatine (Cr) and myoinositol (MI)/Cr ratios were significantly lower in the FGM in HIV-infected subjects compared to controls (0.67 (0.14) versus 0.88 (0.49), p = 0.036, and 0.94 (0.28) and 1.17 (0.26), p = 0.008, for Cho/Cr and MI/Cr, respectively) and Cho/Cr ratio associated with CD4+ lymphocyte count (p = 0.041). N-Acetyl-aspartate (NAA)/Cho ratio was significantly lower in the RBG in HIV-infected subjects compared to controls (2.27 (0.54) versus 2.63 (0.68), p = 0.002), and this was associated with greater plasma HIV RNA load (p = 0.014). Two patterns of cerebral metabolite abnormalities were observed in HIV-infected subjects electively commencing cART. Greater inflammatory metabolite ratios (Cho/Cr and MI/Cr) associated with lower markers of peripheral immune markers (CD4+ lymphocyte count) in the FGM and lower neuronal metabolite ratios (NAA/Cho) associated with greater HIV viraemia in the RBG were present in HIV-infected subjects. (orig.)

  9. Leukocyte abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabig, T G

    1980-07-01

    Certain qualitative abnormalities in neutrophils and blood monocytes are associated with frequent, severe, and recurrent bacterial infections leading to fatal sepsis, while other qualitative defects demonstrated in vitro may have few or no clinical sequelae. These qualitative defects are discussed in terms of the specific functions of locomotion, phagocytosis, degranulation, and bacterial killing.

  10. Mechanisms of side branching and tip splitting in a model of branching morphogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yina Guo

    Full Text Available Recent experimental work in lung morphogenesis has described an elegant pattern of branching phenomena. Two primary forms of branching have been identified: side branching and tip splitting. In our previous study of lung branching morphogenesis, we used a 4 variable partial differential equation (PDE, due to Meinhardt, as our mathematical model to describe the reaction and diffusion of morphogens creating those branched patterns. By altering key parameters in the model, we were able to reproduce all the branching styles and the switch between branching modes. Here, we attempt to explain the branching phenomena described above, as growing out of two fundamental instabilities, one in the longitudinal (growth direction and the other in the transverse direction. We begin by decoupling the original branching process into two semi-independent sub-processes, 1 a classic activator/inhibitor system along the growing stalk, and 2 the spatial growth of the stalk. We then reduced the full branching model into an activator/inhibitor model that embeds growth of the stalk as a controllable parameter, to explore the mechanisms that determine different branching patterns. We found that, in this model, 1 side branching results from a pattern-formation instability of the activator/inhibitor subsystem in the longitudinal direction. This instability is far from equilibrium, requiring a large inhomogeneity in the initial conditions. It successively creates periodic activator peaks along the growing stalk, each of which later on migrates out and forms a side branch; 2 tip splitting is due to a Turing-style instability along the transversal direction, that creates the spatial splitting of the activator peak into 2 simultaneously-formed peaks at the growing tip, the occurrence of which requires the widening of the growing stalk. Tip splitting is abolished when transversal stalk widening is prevented; 3 when both instabilities are satisfied, tip bifurcation occurs

  11. Rupture of the Pitáycachi Fault in the 1887 Mw 7.5 Sonora, Mexico earthquake (southern Basin-and-Range Province): Rupture kinematics and epicenter inferred from rupture branching patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suter, Max

    2015-01-01

    During the 3 May 1887 Mw 7.5 Sonora earthquake (surface rupture end-to-end length: 101.8 km), an array of three north-south striking Basin-and-Range Province faults (from north to south Pitáycachi, Teras, and Otates) slipped sequentially along the western margin of the Sierra Madre Occidental Plateau. This detailed field survey of the 1887 earthquake rupture zone along the Pitáycachi fault includes mapping the rupture scarp and measurements of surface deformation. The surface rupture has an endpoint-to-endpoint length of ≥41.0 km, dips ~70°W, and is characterized by normal left-lateral extension. The maximum surface offset is 487 cm and the mean offset 260 cm. The rupture trace shows a complex pattern of second-order segmentation. However, this segmentation is not expressed in the 1887 along-rupture surface offset profile, which indicates that the secondary segments are linked at depth into a single coherent fault surface. The Pitáycachi surface rupture shows a well-developed bipolar branching pattern suggesting that the rupture originated in its central part, where the polarity of the rupture bifurcations changes. Most likely the rupture first propagated bilaterally along the Pitáycachi fault. The southern rupture front likely jumped across a step over to the Teras fault and from there across a major relay zone to the Otates fault. Branching probably resulted from the lateral propagation of the rupture after breaching the seismogenic part of the crust, given that the much shorter ruptures of the Otates and Teras segments did not develop branches.

  12. Multiple pathways regulate shoot branching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine eRameau

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Shoot branching patterns result from the spatio-temporal regulation of axillary bud outgrowth. Numerous endogenous, developmental and environmental factors are integrated at the bud and plant levels to determine numbers of growing shoots. Multiple pathways that converge to common integrators are most probably involved. We propose several pathways involving not only the classical hormones auxin, cytokinins and strigolactones, but also other signals with a strong influence on shoot branching such as gibberellins, sugars or molecular actors of plant phase transition. We also deal with recent findings about the molecular mechanisms and the pathway involved in the response to shade as an example of an environmental signal controlling branching. We propose the TCP transcription factor TB1/BRC1 and the polar auxin transport stream in the stem as possible integrators of these pathways. We finally discuss how modeling can help to represent this highly dynamic system by articulating knowledges and hypothesis and calculating the phenotype properties they imply.

  13. Therapy-related patterns of cytogenetic abnormalities in acute myeloid leukemia and myelodysplastic syndrome post polycythemia vera: single center experience and review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swolin, Birgitta; Rödjer, Stig; Westin, Jan

    2008-06-01

    A minor fraction of patients with polycythemia vera (PV) develop a terminal acute myeloid leukemia (AML) or myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). Analysis of the cytogenetic abnormalities during AML or MDS may help in understanding if this development is part of the natural course of the disease or induced by myelosuppressive therapy. Thirty-six cases with AML or MDS post PV, collected in a single Swedish institution during a 33-year period, are described with special regard to time to development of AML or MDS, therapy given during active PV, and cytogenetic findings during AML or MDS. A further 118 cases of AML or MDS post PV, in whom type of therapy during active PV and cytogenetic findings during AML or MDS were reported, were collected from the literature. AML or MDS developed in our own series after 1-30 years with a fairly constant rate (two cases per year). The most frequent cytogenetic abnormalities were +1q, -5, 5q-, -7, 7q-, +8, +9, 11q-, 13q-, and 20q-. When patients in the total material (n = 154) were divided with regard to treatment during active PV, marked differences were observed. The highest frequency of abnormalities was found in patients given multiple lines of therapy (n = 61), dominating features being -5/5q- in 28 patients (46%), -7/7q- in 19 patients (31%), numerous translocations in 24 patients (39%), and unidentified markers in 22 patients (36%). Half of the patients treated with hydroxyurea alone showed a -5 or 5q- abnormality. In patients treated with phlebotomy alone, +8 and +9 were the most frequent findings. The type of therapy given during active PV influences the type of chromosome abnormalities present during terminal AML or MDS and can also be instrumental in the development of leukemia.

  14. The return branch of viscous fingers

    CERN Document Server

    Vera, F

    2005-01-01

    We report a simple experiment of two-dimensional pattern formation in a circular Hele-Shaw cell, showing the appearance of a return branch that is equivalent to the upward-connecting leader of lightning. Injecting water from the center into a foam filled cell, we obtained patterns similar to dendrites of two-dimensional dielectric breakdown experiments. When we repeat this experiment allowing the presence of water in the outer (low pressure) region, dendrites grow initially as in a normal experiment, but when a branch is near the outer boundary, the low pressure water begins to penetrate the foam against the pressure field, forming several return branches.

  15. Differentiation of the various lesions causing an abnormality of the endometrial cavity using MR imaging: emphasis on enhancement patterns on dynamic studies and late contrast-enhanced T1-weighted images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Byung Kwan; Kim, Bohyun; Park, Jong Min; Ryu, Jeong Ah [Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Center for Imaging Science, Seoul (Korea); Kim, Mi Sung [Kwandong University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Myongji Hospital, Seoul (Korea); Bae, Duk Soo [Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Seoul (Korea); Ahn, Geung Hwan [Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Department of Pathology, Seoul (Korea)

    2006-07-15

    The objectives of this study were to determine the usefulness of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in the differentiation of various lesions causing an abnormality of the endometrial cavity by evaluating the imaging features on dynamic contrast-enhanced study and late contrast-enhanced T1-weighted images (T1WI). Contrast-enhanced MR imaging of 59 pathologically proven lesions that showed an abnormality of the endometrial cavity, including 32 endometrial cancers, five sarcomas, nine hyperplastic polyps, nine submucosal myomas, three hyperplasia, and one adenomyoma, were retrospectively reviewed. The enhancement degree and patterns on dynamic contrast-enhanced study and late contrast-enhanced T1WI were compared among different pathologies. On dynamic contrast-enhanced study, 72% (23/32) of endometrial cancers showed early peak enhancement to be reached within 1 min following intravenous administration of contrast material. On late-contrast-enhanced T1WI, lesions showed weak enhancement with gradual washout. Ninety-five percent (21/22) of benign lesions and 100% (5/5) of sarcomas showed late peak enhancement to be reached in 2-3 min following intravenous administration of contrast material. On late contrast-enhanced T1WI, both of these lesions showed persistent strong enhancement. Different enhancement patterns on dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging and late contrast-enhanced T1WI can provide a useful clue in the differentiation of various lesions causing an abnormality of the endometrial cavity. (orig.)

  16. Branched polynomial covering maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Vagn Lundsgaard

    1999-01-01

    A Weierstrass polynomial with multiple roots in certain points leads to a branched covering map. With this as the guiding example, we formally define and study the notion of a branched polynomial covering map. We shall prove that many finite covering maps are polynomial outside a discrete branch...

  17. Branched polynomial covering maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Vagn Lundsgaard

    2002-01-01

    A Weierstrass polynomial with multiple roots in certain points leads to a branched covering map. With this as the guiding example, we formally define and study the notion of a branched polynomial covering map. We shall prove that many finite covering maps are polynomial outside a discrete branch...

  18. Patterns of epithelial cell abnormalities in Pap smears and its clinicopathological and demographic association: a descriptive study from Visakhapatnam city, Andhra Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bhagya Lakshmi

    2014-02-01

    Results: Among the 194 women, in 8 subjects, the smears collected were unsatisfactory for evaluation. Analysis was done in the remaining 186 subjects. Among the latter, in 83.9%, the smears were negative for intraepithelial lesions (NIEL and 16.1% revealed epithelial cell abnormalities (ECA. Among those with ECA, Atypical cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS was identified in 66.67%, Low grade squamous intraepithelial lesions(LSIL in 16.67%, Atypical squamous cells-cannot exclude HSIL (ASC-H and Atypical glandular cells-not otherwise specified (AGC-NOS in 6.67% each and High grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL in 3.33%. Epithelial cell abnormalities were more common in women in the age group of 30-60 years (80%, they were more common in those with age at marriage between 13-18 years (63.3% and in those with age at first child birth between 15-19 years (56.7%. Conclusions: Therefore there is a need for Pap screening at regular intervals through camp based approach in these populations to motivate the women, increase their awareness, ensure follow up and referral and timely intervention in appropriate cases. [Int J Res Med Sci 2014; 2(1.000: 300-305

  19. Anormalidades do potencial evocado visual por padrão reverso em pacientes com esclerose múltipla definida Pattern reversal visual evoked potential abnormalities in patients with defined multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vítor Tumas

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available O potencial evocado visual por padrão reverso, obtido por padrões de 14' e 28', foi analisado retrospectivamente em 28 pacientes com diagnóstico de esclerose múltipla definida. Observamos respostas anormais em 27/28 (96,4% pacientes, em 31/36 (86% dos olhos considerados sintomáticos e em 16/20 (80% dos ollhos assintomáticos. Classificando os achados em cada olho segundo as respostas obtidas aos dois estímulos, observamos uma possível relação entre essa classificação e a gravidade de comprometimento visual pela doença. Detectamos em alguns olhos anormalidades isoladas do N75 e também de P100 apenas à estimulação de 28'. Dessa forma, a técnica empregada foi considerada sensível e pôde definir inclusive comprometimento visual subclínico. Entretanto, não teve sensibilidade absoluta para detectar anormalidades em alguns olhos sintomáticos. O tipo de resposta aos estímulos empregados pode sugerir o grau de extensão de envolvimento do sistema visual pela doença. Os achados mostram ainda o envolvimento irregular e predominante das fibras mais centrais da visão pela esclerose múltipla, e sugerem processadores neurais distintos e paralelos para as respostas aos dois padrões utilizados.The pattern reversal visual evoked potential with checks of 14' and 28' was restropectivelly studied in 28 patients with definite multiple sclerosis. We observed abnormal responses in 27/28 (96.4% patients, in 31/36 (86% of symptomatic eyes, and in 16/20 (80% of asymptomatic eyes. When we classified the abnormalities in each eye according to the findings obtained with each check, there was a correlation between the pattern of abnormalities and the severity of visual involvement. Occasionally there were isolated abnormalities of N75 or only in P100 obtained with 28' checks. In conclusion the methodology applied was very sensible in detecting abnormalities in visual pathway. We could classify the findings in each eye and correlate them with the

  20. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding FAQ

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS FAQ095 GYNECOLOGIC PROBLEMS Abnormal Uterine Bleeding • What is a normal menstrual cycle? • When is bleeding abnormal? • At what ages is abnormal bleeding more ...

  1. Melons are branched polymers

    CERN Document Server

    Gurau, Razvan

    2013-01-01

    Melonic graphs constitute the family of graphs arising at leading order in the 1/N expansion of tensor models. They were shown to lead to a continuum phase, reminiscent of branched polymers. We show here that they are in fact precisely branched polymers, that is, they possess Hausdorff dimension 2 and spectral dimension 4/3.

  2. Coherent branching feature bisimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tessa Belder

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Progress in the behavioral analysis of software product lines at the family level benefits from further development of the underlying semantical theory. Here, we propose a behavioral equivalence for feature transition systems (FTS generalizing branching bisimulation for labeled transition systems (LTS. We prove that branching feature bisimulation for an FTS of a family of products coincides with branching bisimulation for the LTS projection of each the individual products. For a restricted notion of coherent branching feature bisimulation we furthermore present a minimization algorithm and show its correctness. Although the minimization problem for coherent branching feature bisimulation is shown to be intractable, application of the algorithm in the setting of a small case study results in a significant speed-up of model checking of behavioral properties.

  3. Auxin transport in the evolution of branching forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, C Jill

    2016-11-24

    I. II. III. IV. V. VI. VII. Acknowledgements References SUMMARY: Branching is one of the most striking aspects of land plant architecture, affecting resource acquisition and yield. Polar auxin transport by PIN proteins is a primary determinant of flowering plant branching patterns regulating both branch initiation and branch outgrowth. Several lines of experimental evidence suggest that PIN-mediated polar auxin transport is a conserved regulator of branching in vascular plant sporophytes. However, the mechanisms of branching and auxin transport and relationships between the two are not well known outside the flowering plants, and the paradigm for PIN-regulated branching in flowering plants does not fit bryophyte gametophytes. The evidence reviewed here suggests that divergent auxin transport routes contributed to the diversification of branching forms in distinct land plant lineages.

  4. Branching processes in biology

    CERN Document Server

    Kimmel, Marek

    2015-01-01

    This book provides a theoretical background of branching processes and discusses their biological applications. Branching processes are a well-developed and powerful set of tools in the field of applied probability. The range of applications considered includes molecular biology, cellular biology, human evolution and medicine. The branching processes discussed include Galton-Watson, Markov, Bellman-Harris, Multitype, and General Processes. As an aid to understanding specific examples, two introductory chapters, and two glossaries are included that provide background material in mathematics and in biology. The book will be of interest to scientists who work in quantitative modeling of biological systems, particularly probabilists, mathematical biologists, biostatisticians, cell biologists, molecular biologists, and bioinformaticians. The authors are a mathematician and cell biologist who have collaborated for more than a decade in the field of branching processes in biology for this new edition. This second ex...

  5. Coherent branching feature bisimulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Belder (Tessa); M.H. ter Beek (Maurice); E.P. de Vink (Erik Peter)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractProgress in the behavioral analysis of software product lines at the family level benefits from further development of the underlying semantical theory. Here, we propose a behavioral equivalence for feature transition systems (FTS) generalizing branching bisimulation for labeled

  6. Koenigs function and branching processes

    CERN Document Server

    Chikilev, O G

    2001-01-01

    An explicit solution of time-homogeneous pure birth branching processes is described. It gives alternative extensions for the negative binomial distribution (branching processes with immigration) and for the Furry-Yule distribution (branching processes without immigration).

  7. Branched Polymer Revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Aoki, H; Kawai, H; Kitazawa, Y; Aoki, Hajime; Iso, Satoshi; Kawai, Hikaru; Kitazawa, Yoshihisa

    2000-01-01

    We show that correlation functions for branched polymers correspond to those for $\\phi^3$ theory with a single mass insertion, not those for the $\\phi^3$ theory themselves, as has been widely believed. In particular, the two-point function behaves as 1/p^4, not as 1/p^2. This behavior is consistent with the fact that the Hausdorff dimension of the branched polymer is four.

  8. Up-regulation of the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 subunit Raptor by aldosterone induces abnormal pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell survival patterns to promote pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghamohammadzadeh, Reza; Zhang, Ying-Yi; Stephens, Thomas E; Arons, Elena; Zaman, Paula; Polach, Kevin J; Matar, Majed; Yung, Lai-Ming; Yu, Paul B; Bowman, Frederick P; Opotowsky, Alexander R; Waxman, Aaron B; Loscalzo, Joseph; Leopold, Jane A; Maron, Bradley A

    2016-07-01

    Activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) subunit Raptor induces cell growth and is a downstream target of Akt. Elevated levels of aldosterone activate Akt, and, in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), correlate with pulmonary arteriole thickening, which suggests that mTORC1 regulation by aldosterone may mediate adverse pulmonary vascular remodeling. We hypothesized that aldosterone-Raptor signaling induces abnormal pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell (PASMC) survival patterns to promote PAH. Remodeled pulmonary arterioles from SU-5416/hypoxia-PAH rats and monocrotaline-PAH rats with hyperaldosteronism expressed increased levels of the Raptor target, p70S6K, which provided a basis for investigating aldosterone-Raptor signaling in human PASMCs. Aldosterone (10(-9) to 10(-7) M) increased Akt/mTOR/Raptor to activate p70S6K and increase proliferation, viability, and apoptosis resistance in PASMCs. In PASMCs transfected with Raptor-small interfering RNA or treated with spironolactone/eplerenone, aldosterone or pulmonary arterial plasma from patients with PAH failed to increase p70S6K activation or to induce cell survival in vitro Optimal inhibition of pulmonary arteriole Raptor was achieved by treatment with Staramine-monomethoxy polyethylene glycol that was formulated with Raptor-small interfering RNA plus spironolactone in vivo, which decreased arteriole muscularization and pulmonary hypertension in 2 experimental animal models of PAH in vivo Up-regulation of mTORC1 by aldosterone is a critical pathobiologic mechanism that controls PASMC survival to promote hypertrophic vascular remodeling and PAH.-Aghamohammadzadeh, R., Zhang, Y.-Y., Stephens, T. E., Arons, E., Zaman, P., Polach, K. J., Matar, M., Yung, L.-M., Yu, P. B., Bowman, F. P., Opotowsky, A. R., Waxman, A. B., Loscalzo, J., Leopold, J. A., Maron, B. A. Up-regulation of the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 subunit Raptor by aldosterone induces abnormal pulmonary artery smooth

  9. Placental loctogen levels associated with gross fetal abnormality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gau, G S; Cadle, G

    1977-02-01

    Four cases of severe congenital abnormality associated with persistently low maternal serum human placental lactogen levels are described. It is thought that this pattern might act as a warning of severe fetal abnormality.

  10. Multi-voxel pattern analysis (MVPA) reveals abnormal fMRI activity in both the “core” and “extended” face network in congenital prosopagnosia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivolta, Davide; Woolgar, Alexandra; Palermo, Romina; Butko, Marina; Schmalzl, Laura; Williams, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    The ability to identify faces is mediated by a network of cortical and subcortical brain regions in humans. It is still a matter of debate which regions represent the functional substrate of congenital prosopagnosia (CP), a condition characterized by a lifelong impairment in face recognition, and affecting around 2.5% of the general population. Here, we used functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) to measure neural responses to faces, objects, bodies, and body-parts in a group of seven CPs and ten healthy control participants. Using multi-voxel pattern analysis (MVPA) of the fMRI data we demonstrate that neural activity within the “core” (i.e., occipital face area and fusiform face area) and “extended” (i.e., anterior temporal cortex) face regions in CPs showed reduced discriminability between faces and objects. Reduced differentiation between faces and objects in CP was also seen in the right parahippocampal cortex. In contrast, discriminability between faces and bodies/body-parts and objects and bodies/body-parts across the ventral visual system was typical in CPs. In addition to MVPA analysis, we also ran traditional mass-univariate analysis, which failed to show any group differences in face and object discriminability. In sum, these findings demonstrate (i) face-object representations impairments in CP which encompass both the “core” and “extended” face regions, and (ii) superior power of MVPA in detecting group differences. PMID:25431556

  11. Multi-voxel pattern analysis (MVPA reveals abnormal fMRI activity in both the core and extended face network in congenital prosopagnosia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide eRivolta

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The ability to identify faces is mediated by a network of cortical and subcortical brain regions in humans. It is still a matter of debate which regions represent the functional substrate of congenital prosopagnosia (CP, a condition characterized by a lifelong impairment in face recognition, and affecting around 2.5% of the general population. Here, we used functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI to measure neural responses to faces, objects, bodies and body-parts in a group of seven CPs and ten healthy control participants. Using multi-voxel pattern analysis (MVPA of the fMRI data we demonstrate that neural activity within the core (i.e., occipital face area and fusiform face area and extended (i.e., anterior temporal cortex face regions in CPs showed reduced discriminability between faces and objects. Reduced differentiation between faces and objects in CP was also seen in the right parahippocampal cortex. In contrast, discriminability between faces and bodies/body-parts and objects and bodies/body-parts across the ventral visual system was typical in CPs. In addition to MVPA analysis, we also ran traditional mass-univariate analysis, which failed to show any group differences in face and object discriminability. In sum, these findings demonstrate (i face-object representations impairments in CP which encompass both the core and extended face regions, and (ii superior power of MVPA in detecting group differences.

  12. Multi-voxel pattern analysis (MVPA) reveals abnormal fMRI activity in both the "core" and "extended" face network in congenital prosopagnosia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivolta, Davide; Woolgar, Alexandra; Palermo, Romina; Butko, Marina; Schmalzl, Laura; Williams, Mark A

    2014-01-01

    The ability to identify faces is mediated by a network of cortical and subcortical brain regions in humans. It is still a matter of debate which regions represent the functional substrate of congenital prosopagnosia (CP), a condition characterized by a lifelong impairment in face recognition, and affecting around 2.5% of the general population. Here, we used functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) to measure neural responses to faces, objects, bodies, and body-parts in a group of seven CPs and ten healthy control participants. Using multi-voxel pattern analysis (MVPA) of the fMRI data we demonstrate that neural activity within the "core" (i.e., occipital face area and fusiform face area) and "extended" (i.e., anterior temporal cortex) face regions in CPs showed reduced discriminability between faces and objects. Reduced differentiation between faces and objects in CP was also seen in the right parahippocampal cortex. In contrast, discriminability between faces and bodies/body-parts and objects and bodies/body-parts across the ventral visual system was typical in CPs. In addition to MVPA analysis, we also ran traditional mass-univariate analysis, which failed to show any group differences in face and object discriminability. In sum, these findings demonstrate (i) face-object representations impairments in CP which encompass both the "core" and "extended" face regions, and (ii) superior power of MVPA in detecting group differences.

  13. Altered fetal growth, placental abnormalities, and stillbirth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukowski, Radek; Hansen, Nellie I; Pinar, Halit; Willinger, Marian; Reddy, Uma M; Parker, Corette B; Silver, Robert M; Dudley, Donald J; Stoll, Barbara J; Saade, George R; Koch, Matthew A; Hogue, Carol; Varner, Michael W; Conway, Deborah L; Coustan, Donald; Goldenberg, Robert L

    2017-01-01

    Worldwide, stillbirth is one of the leading causes of death. Altered fetal growth and placental abnormalities are the strongest and most prevalent known risk factors for stillbirth. The aim of this study was to identify patterns of association between placental abnormalities, fetal growth, and stillbirth. Population-based case-control study of all stillbirths and a representative sample of live births in 59 hospitals in 5 geographic areas in the U.S. Fetal growth abnormalities were categorized as small (90th percentile) for gestational age at death (stillbirth) or delivery (live birth) using a published algorithm. Placental examination by perinatal pathologists was performed using a standardized protocol. Data were weighted to account for the sampling design. Among 319 singleton stillbirths and 1119 singleton live births at ≥24 weeks at death or delivery respectively, 25 placental findings were investigated. Fifteen findings were significantly associated with stillbirth. Ten of the 15 were also associated with fetal growth abnormalities (single umbilical artery; velamentous insertion; terminal villous immaturity; retroplacental hematoma; parenchymal infarction; intraparenchymal thrombus; avascular villi; placental edema; placental weight; ratio birth weight/placental weight) while 5 of the 15 associated with stillbirth were not associated with fetal growth abnormalities (acute chorioamnionitis of placental membranes; acute chorioamionitis of chorionic plate; chorionic plate vascular degenerative changes; perivillous, intervillous fibrin, fibrinoid deposition; fetal vascular thrombi in the chorionic plate). Five patterns were observed: placental findings associated with (1) stillbirth but not fetal growth abnormalities; (2) fetal growth abnormalities in stillbirths only; (3) fetal growth abnormalities in live births only; (4) fetal growth abnormalities in stillbirths and live births in a similar manner; (5) a different pattern of fetal growth abnormalities in

  14. Prevalence of abnormalities in dental structure, position, and eruption pattern in a population of unilateral and bilateral cleft lip and palate patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tortora, Chiara; Meazzini, Maria C; Garattini, Giovanna; Brusati, Roberto

    2008-03-01

    To evaluate the dental characteristics of patients subjected to a protocol that included early secondary gingivoalveoloplasty (ESGAP). Panoramic radiographs of 87 patients with unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP) and 29 with bilateral cleft lip and palate (BCLP) were evaluated. Missing and supernumerary teeth were also quantified on the cleft and noncleft side and in the maxilla and mandible. Crown and root malformations and tooth rotations were quantified. A subsample in permanent dentition was extrapolated to analyze canine eruption patterns. A total of 48.8% of the UCLP patients presented with missing permanent lateral incisors in the cleft area and 6.1% contralaterally. A total of 4.9% presented with missing second maxillary premolars on the cleft site and 1.2% contralaterally. A total of 7.3% presented with supernumerary lateral incisors, and 45% of the BCLP cleft sites presented with missing lateral incisors, while 25% of the cleft sites presented second maxillary premolars agenesis. Five percent of the cleft sites presented with supernumerary lateral incisors. Evaluation of the subsample in permanent dentition showed that 15.5% had a canine retention and 4.4% of the canines had to be surgically exposed. A significant association was observed between canine inclination and retention but not with absence of the lateral incisor. The frequency of dental anomalies in this sample was similar to other cleft populations. As surgical trauma has been suggested to damage forming teeth, the results of this study indicated that ESGAP has no detrimental influence on subsequent dental development.

  15. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... first few months of a normal pregnancy. Some birth control pills or the intrauterine device (IUD) can also cause ... this type can significantly reduce abnormal bleeding. Like birth control pills, sometimes IUDs can actually cause abnormal bleeding. Tell ...

  16. Urine - abnormal color

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003139.htm Urine - abnormal color To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The usual color of urine is straw-yellow. Abnormally colored urine ...

  17. Damage Tolerance Assessment Branch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, James L.

    2013-01-01

    The Damage Tolerance Assessment Branch evaluates the ability of a structure to perform reliably throughout its service life in the presence of a defect, crack, or other form of damage. Such assessment is fundamental to the use of structural materials and requires an integral blend of materials engineering, fracture testing and analysis, and nondestructive evaluation. The vision of the Branch is to increase the safety of manned space flight by improving the fracture control and the associated nondestructive evaluation processes through development and application of standards, guidelines, advanced test and analytical methods. The Branch also strives to assist and solve non-aerospace related NDE and damage tolerance problems, providing consultation, prototyping and inspection services.

  18. Right bundle branch block

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bussink, Barbara E; Holst, Anders Gaarsdal; Jespersen, Lasse

    2013-01-01

    AimsTo determine the prevalence, predictors of newly acquired, and the prognostic value of right bundle branch block (RBBB) and incomplete RBBB (IRBBB) on a resting 12-lead electrocardiogram in men and women from the general population.Methods and resultsWe followed 18 441 participants included.......5%/2.3% in women, P Right bundle branch block was associated with significantly...... increased all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in both genders with age-adjusted hazard ratios (HR) of 1.31 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.11-1.54] and 1.87 (95% CI, 1.48-2.36) in the gender pooled analysis with little attenuation after multiple adjustment. Right bundle branch block was associated...

  19. Applied anatomy on deep branch of ulnar nerve%尺神经深支的应用解剖

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王斌; 张小雪; 马铁鹏; 李春江; 尹佳丽; 杨焕友; 张文龙; 杨义; 蒋文萍

    2009-01-01

    目的:为尺神经深支卡压和损伤的临床诊治以及高位尺神经损伤直接移植修复尺神经深支提供解剖学依据.方法:选择30侧自肘以上离断新鲜完整无畸形上肢进行解剖,观察尺神经深支的走行和分支.测量小鱼际各肌支的长度、宽度和厚度;尺神经深支相邻肌支间距离;豌豆骨近缘至深支最末分支间长度;尺神经深支逆向可分离长度和分离后的近端宽度和厚度,骨间前神经旋前方肌支远端宽度和厚度.结果:尺神经深支分支复杂,呈树枝状结构,在其走行过程中经Guyon管、豆钩管、对掌肌管、拇收肌腱弓等,解剖关系复杂.相应骨间肌支和蚓状肌支大部在尺神经深支主干同一平面呈不同角度发出.结论:尺神经深支易卡压部位多,可能是高位尺神经损伤后手内在肌功能不易恢复的原因之一;邻近骨折脱位较易损伤尺神经深支;高位尺神经损伤早期行神经移位直接修复尺神经深支,有利于手功能的恢复.%Objective:To provide anatomical basis of neural transplantation to repair deep branch of the ulnar nerve early after injury to the superior position on profundus nervi ulnaris, clinical diagnosis and treatment of injury, and compression of ulnar nerve. Methods:Thirty fresh upper limbs mutilated above elbow without abnormality were dissected. The course and branches of the deep branch of the ulnar nerve were observed. The construction of the wrist ulnar canal, the muscles in-nerved from the deep branch of the ulnar nerve were investigated. The length, width, thickness and the points to enter muscles of branches of the deep branch of the ulnar nerve in muscle of hypothenar and the length of the consecutive branches from the branch of abductor digiti minimi to the branch of the second palmar interossei were measured. The length of the deep branch of the ulnar nerve from proximate of pisiform bone to ending branch and the segregated deep branch of the ulnar

  20. Radioiodinated branched carbohydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Mark M.; Knapp, Jr., Furn F.

    1989-01-01

    A radioiodinated branched carbohydrate for tissue imaging. Iodine-123 is stabilized in the compound by attaching it to a vinyl functional group that is on the carbohydrate. The compound exhibits good uptake and retention and is promising in the development of radiopharmaceuticals for brain, heart and tumor imaging.

  1. Multimode geodesic branching components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, D.; Voges, E.

    1983-01-01

    Geodesic branching components are investigated for multimode guided wave optics. Geodesic structures with particular properties, e.g. focussing star couplers, are derived by a synthesis technique based on a theorem of Toraldo di Francia. Experimentally, the geodesic surfaces are printed on acrylic glass and are spin-coated with organic film waveguides.

  2. Seizure increases electroencephalographic abnormalities in children with tuberculous meningitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prastiya Indra Gunawan

    2016-04-01

    The EEG pattern in children with TBM varies, and EEG abnormalities were more frequently localized in the frontotemporal region. Seizures were associated with EEG abnormalities in children with TBM. EEG abnormalities occurring simultaneously with seizures may predict the occurrence of seizures.

  3. Critical branching neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kello, Christopher T

    2013-01-01

    It is now well-established that intrinsic variations in human neural and behavioral activity tend to exhibit scaling laws in their fluctuations and distributions. The meaning of these scaling laws is an ongoing matter of debate between isolable causes versus pervasive causes. A spiking neural network model is presented that self-tunes to critical branching and, in doing so, simulates observed scaling laws as pervasive to neural and behavioral activity. These scaling laws are related to neural and cognitive functions, in that critical branching is shown to yield spiking activity with maximal memory and encoding capacities when analyzed using reservoir computing techniques. The model is also shown to account for findings of pervasive 1/f scaling in speech and cued response behaviors that are difficult to explain by isolable causes. Issues and questions raised by the model and its results are discussed from the perspectives of physics, neuroscience, computer and information sciences, and psychological and cognitive sciences.

  4. Generalized Markov branching models

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Junping

    2005-01-01

    In this thesis, we first considered a modified Markov branching process incorporating both state-independent immigration and resurrection. After establishing the criteria for regularity and uniqueness, explicit expressions for the extinction probability and mean extinction time are presented. The criteria for recurrence and ergodicity are also established. In addition, an explicit expression for the equilibrium distribution is presented.\\ud \\ud We then moved on to investigate the basic proper...

  5. Generalized Markov branching models

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Junping

    2005-01-01

    In this thesis, we first considered a modified Markov branching process incorporating both state-independent immigration and resurrection. After establishing the criteria for regularity and uniqueness, explicit expressions for the extinction probability and mean extinction time are presented. The criteria for recurrence and ergodicity are also established. In addition, an explicit expression for the equilibrium distribution is presented. We then moved on to investigate the basic proper...

  6. Tau leptonic branching ratios

    CERN Document Server

    Buskulic, Damir; De Bonis, I; Décamp, D; Ghez, P; Goy, C; Lees, J P; Lucotte, A; Minard, M N; Odier, P; Pietrzyk, B; Ariztizabal, F; Chmeissani, M; Crespo, J M; Efthymiopoulos, I; Fernández, E; Fernández-Bosman, M; Gaitan, V; Garrido, L; Martínez, M; Orteu, S; Pacheco, A; Padilla, C; Palla, Fabrizio; Pascual, A; Perlas, J A; Sánchez, F; Teubert, F; Colaleo, A; Creanza, D; De Palma, M; Farilla, A; Gelao, G; Girone, M; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, G; Maggi, M; Marinelli, N; Natali, S; Nuzzo, S; Ranieri, A; Raso, G; Romano, F; Ruggieri, F; Selvaggi, G; Silvestris, L; Tempesta, P; Zito, G; Huang, X; Lin, J; Ouyang, Q; Wang, T; Xie, Y; Xu, R; Xue, S; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Zhao, W; Bonvicini, G; Cattaneo, M; Comas, P; Coyle, P; Drevermann, H; Engelhardt, A; Forty, Roger W; Frank, M; Hagelberg, R; Harvey, J; Jacobsen, R; Janot, P; Jost, B; Kneringer, E; Knobloch, J; Lehraus, Ivan; Markou, C; Martin, E B; Mato, P; Minten, Adolf G; Miquel, R; Oest, T; Palazzi, P; Pater, J R; Pusztaszeri, J F; Ranjard, F; Rensing, P E; Rolandi, Luigi; Schlatter, W D; Schmelling, M; Schneider, O; Tejessy, W; Tomalin, I R; Venturi, A; Wachsmuth, H W; Wiedenmann, W; Wildish, T; Witzeling, W; Wotschack, J; Ajaltouni, Ziad J; Bardadin-Otwinowska, Maria; Barrès, A; Boyer, C; Falvard, A; Gay, P; Guicheney, C; Henrard, P; Jousset, J; Michel, B; Monteil, S; Montret, J C; Pallin, D; Perret, P; Podlyski, F; Proriol, J; Rossignol, J M; Saadi, F; Fearnley, Tom; Hansen, J B; Hansen, J D; Hansen, J R; Hansen, P H; Nilsson, B S; Kyriakis, A; Simopoulou, Errietta; Siotis, I; Vayaki, Anna; Zachariadou, K; Blondel, A; Bonneaud, G R; Brient, J C; Bourdon, P; Passalacqua, L; Rougé, A; Rumpf, M; Tanaka, R; Valassi, Andrea; Verderi, M; Videau, H L; Candlin, D J; Parsons, M I; Focardi, E; Parrini, G; Corden, M; Delfino, M C; Georgiopoulos, C H; Jaffe, D E; Antonelli, A; Bencivenni, G; Bologna, G; Bossi, F; Campana, P; Capon, G; Chiarella, V; Felici, G; Laurelli, P; Mannocchi, G; Murtas, F; Murtas, G P; Pepé-Altarelli, M; Dorris, S J; Halley, A W; ten Have, I; Knowles, I G; Lynch, J G; Morton, W T; O'Shea, V; Raine, C; Reeves, P; Scarr, J M; Smith, K; Smith, M G; Thompson, A S; Thomson, F; Thorn, S; Turnbull, R M; Becker, U; Braun, O; Geweniger, C; Graefe, G; Hanke, P; Hepp, V; Kluge, E E; Putzer, A; Rensch, B; Schmidt, M; Sommer, J; Stenzel, H; Tittel, K; Werner, S; Wunsch, M; Beuselinck, R; Binnie, David M; Cameron, W; Colling, D J; Dornan, Peter J; Konstantinidis, N P; Moneta, L; Moutoussi, A; Nash, J; San Martin, G; Sedgbeer, J K; Stacey, A M; Dissertori, G; Girtler, P; Kuhn, D; Rudolph, G; Bowdery, C K; Brodbeck, T J; Colrain, P; Crawford, G; Finch, A J; Foster, F; Hughes, G; Sloan, Terence; Whelan, E P; Williams, M I; Galla, A; Greene, A M; Kleinknecht, K; Quast, G; Raab, J; Renk, B; Sander, H G; Wanke, R; Van Gemmeren, P; Zeitnitz, C; Aubert, Jean-Jacques; Bencheikh, A M; Benchouk, C; Bonissent, A; Bujosa, G; Calvet, D; Carr, J; Diaconu, C A; Etienne, F; Thulasidas, M; Nicod, D; Payre, P; Rousseau, D; Talby, M; Abt, I; Assmann, R W; Bauer, C; Blum, Walter; Brown, D; Dietl, H; Dydak, Friedrich; Ganis, G; Gotzhein, C; Jakobs, K; Kroha, H; Lütjens, G; Lutz, Gerhard; Männer, W; Moser, H G; Richter, R H; Rosado-Schlosser, A; Schael, S; Settles, Ronald; Seywerd, H C J; Saint-Denis, R; Wolf, G; Alemany, R; Boucrot, J; Callot, O; Cordier, A; Courault, F; Davier, M; Duflot, L; Grivaz, J F; Heusse, P; Jacquet, M; Kim, D W; Le Diberder, F R; Lefrançois, J; Lutz, A M; Musolino, G; Nikolic, I A; Park, H J; Park, I C; Schune, M H; Simion, S; Veillet, J J; Videau, I; Abbaneo, D; Azzurri, P; Bagliesi, G; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bozzi, C; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Ciocci, M A; Ciulli, V; Dell'Orso, R; Fantechi, R; Ferrante, I; Foà, L; Forti, F; Giassi, A; Giorgi, M A; Gregorio, A; Ligabue, F; Lusiani, A; Marrocchesi, P S; Messineo, A; Rizzo, G; Sanguinetti, G; Sciabà, A; Spagnolo, P; Steinberger, Jack; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, G; Triggiani, G; Vannini, C; Verdini, P G; Walsh, J; Betteridge, A P; Blair, G A; Bryant, L M; Cerutti, F; Gao, Y; Green, M G; Johnson, D L; Medcalf, T; Mir, L M; Perrodo, P; Strong, J A; Bertin, V; Botterill, David R; Clifft, R W; Edgecock, T R; Haywood, S; Edwards, M; Maley, P; Norton, P R; Thompson, J C; Bloch-Devaux, B; Colas, P; Emery, S; Kozanecki, Witold; Lançon, E; Lemaire, M C; Locci, E; Marx, B; Pérez, P; Rander, J; Renardy, J F; Roussarie, A; Schuller, J P; Schwindling, J; Trabelsi, A; Vallage, B; Johnson, R P; Kim, H Y; Litke, A M; McNeil, M A; Taylor, G; Beddall, A; Booth, C N; Boswell, R; Cartwright, S L; Combley, F; Dawson, I; Köksal, A; Letho, M; Newton, W M; Rankin, C; Thompson, L F; Böhrer, A; Brandt, S; Cowan, G D; Feigl, E; Grupen, Claus; Lutters, G; Minguet-Rodríguez, J A; Rivera, F; Saraiva, P; Smolik, L; Stephan, F; Apollonio, M; Bosisio, L; Della Marina, R; Giannini, G; Gobbo, B; Ragusa, F; Rothberg, J E; Wasserbaech, S R; Armstrong, S R; Bellantoni, L; Elmer, P; Feng, Z; Ferguson, D P S; Gao, Y S; González, S; Grahl, J; Harton, J L; Hayes, O J; Hu, H; McNamara, P A; Nachtman, J M; Orejudos, W; Pan, Y B; Saadi, Y; Schmitt, M; Scott, I J; Sharma, V; Turk, J; Walsh, A M; Wu Sau Lan; Wu, X; Yamartino, J M; Zheng, M; Zobernig, G

    1996-01-01

    A sample of 62249 \\tau-pair events is selected from data taken with the ALEPH detector in 1991, 1992 and 1993. The measurement of the branching fractions for \\tau decays into electrons and muons is presented with emphasis on the study of systematic effects from selection, particle identification and decay classification. Combined with the most recent ALEPH determination of the \\tau lifetime, these results provide a relative measurement of the leptonic couplings in the weak charged current for transverse W bosons.

  7. Electrochemical Energy Storage Branch

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    The activities of the Electrochemical Energy Storage Branch are highlighted, including the Technology Base Research and the Exploratory Technology Development and Testing projects within the Electrochemical Energy Storage Program for the 1984 fiscal year. General Headquarters activities are presented first; and then, a summary of the Director Controlled Milestones, followed by other major accomplishments. A listing of the workshops and seminars held during the year is also included.

  8. Meiotic abnormalities and spermatogenic parameters in severe oligoasthenozoospermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vendrell, J M; García, F; Veiga, A; Calderón, G; Egozcue, S; Egozcue, J; Barri, P N

    1999-02-01

    The incidence of meiotic abnormalities and their relationship with different spermatogenic parameters was assessed in 103 male patients with presumably idiopathic severe oligoasthenozoospermia (motile sperm concentration Meiotic patterns included normal meiosis and two meiotic abnormalities, i.e. severe arrest and synaptic anomalies. A normal pattern was found in 64 (62.1%), severe arrest in 21 (20.4%) and synaptic anomalies in 18 (17.5%). The overall rate of meiotic abnormalities was 37.9%. Most (66.7%) meiotic abnormalities occurred in patients with a sperm concentration meiotic abnormalities were found in 57.8% of the patients; of these, 26.7% had synaptic anomalies. When the sperm concentration was meiotic abnormalities occurred in 54.8% (synaptic anomalies in 22.6%). There were statistically significant differences among the three meiotic patterns in relation to sperm concentration (P 10 IU/l were the only predictors of meiotic abnormalities.

  9. A-V型斜视合并斜肌功能异常的手术特点%The surgical treatment of A-V patterns strabismus combined with oblique muscles abnormality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴夕; 蒋晶晶; 牛兰俊

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨合并斜肌功能异常A-V型斜视的手术特点.方法 120例因A-V型斜视分别行双眼上斜肌或下斜肌对称性手术、不对称性手术联合常规水平直肌后退和(或)缩短术患者,同顾性分析手术前后原在位垂直斜视度数,斜肌功能状况等.平均手术年龄12岁;平均随访时间6年.结果 (1)V型斜视61例施行对称性双下斜肌减弱术,术前合并原在位垂直斜视组和不合并原在位垂直斜视组,术后原在位残余上斜视发生率分别是32.0%( 8/25)和19.4%( 7/36),残余上斜视3~8△.A型斜视23例施行对称性双上斜肌断腱术中,术后原在位残余上斜视发生率分别是20.0%(2/10)和15.4%(2/13),术后残余上斜视角5~15△.8例施行对称双上斜肌减弱术联合水平直肌垂直移位术,术后原在位残余垂直性斜视角8~15△者2例占25%.(2)V型斜视28例施行各种不对称性斜肌手术方式,术后原在位残余垂直斜视12例占42.9%,残余上斜视5~25△,其中以行单侧下斜肌后徙联合对侧边缘切开术组最高,5例中有3例第二次手术施行高位眼上直肌后徙5~~6 mm,术后原在位残余垂直斜视角和异常头位均消失.结论 施行斜肌对称性或不对称性手术治疗合并斜肌功能异常A-V型斜视,能有效地改善斜肌的功能,术后原在位残余垂直斜视总发生率27.5%,其中以下斜肌边缘切开术更为明显.%Objective To investigate the surgical treatment of A-V patterns strabismus combined with oblique abnormality.Method Pre- and post-operative deviation and oblique muscle action were evaluated in 120 cases of A-V patterns combined with oblique muscles abnormality by symmetrical or asymmetrical bilateral superior or inferior oblique weakening procedure.The average age of surgery was 12 years old.The average following duration was about 6 years.Results Sixty-one patients were treated with symmetrical bilateral inferior oblique weakening procedure

  10. Whey protein supplementation does not alter plasma branched-chained amino acid profiles but results in unique metabolomics patterns in obese women enrolled in an 8-week weight loss trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: It has been suggested that perturbations in branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) catabolism are associated with insulin resistance and contribute to elevated systemic BCAAs. Evidence in rodents suggests dietary protein rich in BCAAs can increase BCAA catabolism, but there is limited evidence...

  11. A variable depth search branching

    OpenAIRE

    Cornillier, Fabien; Pécora, José Eduardo; Charles, Vincent

    2017-01-01

    We introduce a variable depth search branching, an extension to the local branching for solving Mixed-Integer Programs. Two strategies are assessed, a best improvement strategy and a first improvement strategy. The extensive computational assessment evidences a significant improvement over the local branching for both strategies. This record was migrated from the OpenDepot repository service in June, 2017 before shutting down.

  12. Abnormal Event Detection Using Local Sparse Representation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Huamin; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2014-01-01

    We propose to detect abnormal events via a sparse subspace clustering algorithm. Unlike most existing approaches, which search for optimized normal bases and detect abnormality based on least square error or reconstruction error from the learned normal patterns, we propose an abnormality measurem...... is found that satisfies: the distance between its local space and the normal space is large. We evaluate our method on two public benchmark datasets: UCSD and Subway Entrance datasets. The comparison to the state-of-the-art methods validate our method's effectiveness....

  13. CHROMOSOME ABNORMALITIES IN INFERTILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateja Smogavec

    2009-08-01

    Conclusions Chromosomal analysis is an important method in diagnostic procedures of infertility, because chromosomal abnormalities could play the important role in etiology of infertility and are more frequently detected in this group of patients compared to general population. In the infertile couples balanced chromosomal abnormalities are the main cause of spontaneous abortions. Sex chromosome aneuploidies are highly correlated to infertility of females and males.

  14. Hereditary urea cycle abnormality

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... vitro so the specific genetic cause is known. Teamwork between parents, the affected child, and doctors can help prevent severe illness. Alternative Names Abnormality of the urea cycle - hereditary; Urea cycle - hereditary abnormality Images Male urinary system Urea cycle References Lichter-Konecki ...

  15. Airway branching morphogenesis in three dimensional culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gudjonsson Thorarinn

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lungs develop from the fetal digestive tract where epithelium invades the vascular rich stroma in a process called branching morphogenesis. In organogenesis, endothelial cells have been shown to be important for morphogenesis and the maintenance of organ structure. The aim of this study was to recapitulate human lung morphogenesis in vitro by establishing a three dimensional (3D co-culture model where lung epithelial cells were cultured in endothelial-rich stroma. Methods We used a human bronchial epithelial cell line (VA10 recently developed in our laboratory. This cell line cell line maintains a predominant basal cell phenotype, expressing p63 and other basal markers such as cytokeratin-5 and -14. Here, we cultured VA10 with human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs, to mimic the close interaction between these cell types during lung development. Morphogenesis and differentiation was monitored by phase contrast microscopy, immunostainings and confocal imaging. Results We found that in co-culture with endothelial cells, the VA10 cells generated bronchioalveolar like structures, suggesting that lung epithelial branching is facilitated by the presence of endothelial cells. The VA10 derived epithelial structures display various complex patterns of branching and show partial alveolar type-II differentiation with pro-Surfactant-C expression. The epithelial origin of the branching VA10 colonies was confirmed by immunostaining. These bronchioalveolar-like structures were polarized with respect to integrin expression at the cell-matrix interface. The endothelial-induced branching was mediated by soluble factors. Furthermore, fibroblast growth factor receptor-2 (FGFR-2 and sprouty-2 were expressed at the growing tips of the branching structures and the branching was inhibited by the FGFR-small molecule inhibitor SU5402. Discussion In this study we show that a human lung epithelial cell line can be induced by endothelial cells to

  16. Combustion Branch Website Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Eric

    2004-01-01

    The NASA combustion branch is a leader in developing and applying combustion science to focused aerospace propulsion systems concepts. It is widely recognized for unique facilities, analytical tools, and personnel. In order to better communicate the outstanding research being done in this Branch to the public and other research organization, a more substantial website was desired. The objective of this project was to build an up-to-date site that reflects current research in a usable and attractive manner. In order to accomplish this, information was requested from all researchers in the Combustion branch, on their professional skills and on the current projects. This information was used to fill in the Personnel and Research sections of the website. A digital camera was used to photograph all personnel and these photographs were included in the personnel section as well. The design of the site was implemented using the latest web standards: xhtml and external css stylesheets. This implementation conforms to the guidelines recommended by the w3c. It also helps to ensure that the web site is accessible by disabled users, and complies with Section 508 Federal legislation (which mandates that all Federal websites be accessible). Graphics for the new site were generated using the gimp (www.gimp.org) an open-source graphics program similar to Adobe Photoshop. Also, all graphics on the site were of a reasonable size (less than 20k, most less than 2k) so that the page would load quickly. Technologies such as Macromedia Flash and Javascript were avoided, as these only function on some clients which have the proper software installed or enabled. The website was tested on different platforms with many different browsers to ensure there were no compatibility issues. The website was tested on windows with MS IE 6, MSIE 5 , Netscape 7, Mozilla and Opera. On a Mac, the site was tested with MS IE 5 , Netscape 7 and Safari.

  17. Branch formation during organ development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjorevski, Nikolce; Nelson, Celeste M.

    2010-01-01

    Invertebrates and vertebrates use branching morphogenesis to build epithelial trees to maximize the surface area of organs within a given volume. Several molecular regulators of branching have recently been discovered, a number of which are conserved across different organs and species. Signals that control branching at the cellular and tissue levels are also starting to emerge, and are rapidly unveiling the physical nature of branch development. Here we discuss the molecular, cellular and physical processes that govern branch formation and highlight the major outstanding questions in the field. PMID:20890968

  18. Cookie branching random walks

    CERN Document Server

    Bartsch, Christian; Kochler, Thomas; Müller, Sebastian; Popov, Serguei

    2011-01-01

    We consider a branching random walk on $\\Z$, where the particles behave differently in visited and unvisited sites. Informally, each site on the positive half-line contains initially a cookie. On the first visit of a site its cookie is removed and particles at positions with a cookie reproduce and move differently from particles on sites without cookies. Therefore, the movement and the reproduction of the particles depend on the previous behaviour of the population of particles. We study the question if the process is recurrent or transient, i.e., whether infinitely many particles visit the origin or not.

  19. The branch librarians' handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Rivers, Vickie

    2004-01-01

    ""Recommended""--Booklist; ""an excellent addition...highly recommended""--Public Libraries; ""clear...very sound advice...strongly recommend""--Catholic Library World; ""excellent resource...organized...well written""--Against the Grain; ""interesting...thoroughly practical...a very good book...well organized...clearly written""--ARBA. This handbook covers a wide variety of issues that the branch librarian must deal with every day. Chapters are devoted to mission statements (the Dallas Public Library and Dayton Metro Library mission statements are highlighted as examples), library systems,

  20. Chemical synthesis of a dual branched malto-decaose: A potential substrate for alpha-amylases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damager, Iben; Jensen, Morten; Olsen, Carl Erik

    2005-01-01

    . Using this chemically defined branched oligosaccharide as a substrate, the cleavage pattern of seven different alpha-amylases were investigated. alpha-Amylases from human saliva, porcine pancreas, barley alpha-amylose 2 and recombinant barley alpha-amylase 1 all hydrolysed the decasaccharide selectively....... This resulted in a branched hexasaccharide and a branched tetrasoccharide. alpha-Amylases from Asperagillus oryzae, Bacillus licheniformis and Bacillus sp. cleaved the decasoccharide at two distinct sites, either producing two branched pentasoccharides, or a branched hexasoccharide and a branched...

  1. An empirical assessment of tree branching networks and implications for plant allometric scaling models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, Lisa Patrick; Stegen, James C; Savage, Van M; Smith, Duncan D; von Allmen, Erica I; Sperry, John S; Reich, Peter B; Enquist, Brian J

    2013-08-01

    Several theories predict whole-tree function on the basis of allometric scaling relationships assumed to emerge from traits of branching networks. To test this key assumption, and more generally, to explore patterns of external architecture within and across trees, we measure branch traits (radii/lengths) and calculate scaling exponents from five functionally divergent species. Consistent with leading theories, including metabolic scaling theory, branching is area preserving and statistically self-similar within trees. However, differences among scaling exponents calculated at node- and whole-tree levels challenge the assumption of an optimised, symmetrically branching tree. Furthermore, scaling exponents estimated for branch length change across branching orders, and exponents for scaling metabolic rate with plant size (or number of terminal tips) significantly differ from theoretical predictions. These findings, along with variability in the scaling of branch radii being less than for branch lengths, suggest extending current scaling theories to include asymmetrical branching and differential selective pressures in plant architectures.

  2. Abnormal menstrual periods (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may have a variety of causes, such as endometrial hyperplasia, endometrial polyps, uterine fibroids, and abnormal thyroid or ... the endometrium becomes unusually thick it is called endometrial ... Hyperplasia may cause profuse or extended menstrual bleeding.

  3. "Jeopardy" in Abnormal Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keutzer, Carolin S.

    1993-01-01

    Describes the use of the board game, Jeopardy, in a college level abnormal psychology course. Finds increased student interaction and improved application of information. Reports generally favorable student evaluation of the technique. (CFR)

  4. Chromosomal Abnormalities in ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of fragile X syndrome, velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS, and other cytogenetic abnormalities among 100 children (64 boys with combined type ADHD and normal intelligence was assessed at the NIMH and Georgetown University Medical Center.

  5. Chromosomal abnormalities and autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farida El-Baz

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Chromosomal abnormalities were not detected in the studied autistic children, and so the relation between the genetics and autism still needs further work up with different study methods and techniques.

  6. Path-valued branching processes and nonlocal branching superprocesses

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Zenghu

    2012-01-01

    A family of continuous-state branching processes with immigration are constructed as the solution flow of a stochastic equation system driven by time-space noises. The family can be regarded as an inhomogeneous increasing path-valued branching process with immigration. Two nonlocal branching immigration superprocesses can be defined from the flow. We identify explicitly the branching and immigration mechanisms of those processes. The results provide new perspectives into the tree-valued Markov processes of Aldous and Pitman [Ann. Inst. H. Poincare Probab. Statist. 34 (1998), 637--686] and Abraham and Delmas [Ann. Probab. To appear].

  7. Clinical profile of patients with abnormal uterine bleeding at a tertiary care hospital

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Background: Abnormal uterine bleeding is a very common gynecological condition that affects all age groups. One third of patients attending gynaecology OPD present with complaints of abnormal uterine bleeding. Bleeding is said to be abnormal when the pattern is irregular, abnormal duration (>7 days), or menorrhagia or abnormal amount (>80 ml/menses). Methods: All patients in the perimenopausal age group (45+/- 5 years) with symptoms of abnormal uterine bleeding presenting at department of ...

  8. Abnormal protein aggregationand neurodegenerativediseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Abnormal protein aggregation or amyloid is the major cause ofmany neurodegenerative disorders. The present review focuses on the correlation between sequence and structure features of proteins related to the diseases and abnormal protein aggregation. Recent progress has improved our knowledge on understand-ing the mechanism of amyloid formation. We suggest a nucleation model for ordered protein aggregation, which can also explain pathogenesis mechanisms of these neurodegenerative diseases in vivo.

  9. Alterações encontradas no potencial visual evocado por padrão reverso em pacientes com esclerose múltipla definida Pattern-reversal visual evoked potential abnormalities in patients with defined multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Pinheiro de Andrade

    2007-12-01

    patients with prior diagnosis of multiple sclerosis and to compare them to visual acuity. METHODS: Twenty-four patients with a definite diagnosis of multiple sclerosis were submitted to pattern reversal VEP from October 2001 to March 2007. RESULTS: In P100 component response, at 15' and 1º stimuli, 19 eyes presented latency response up to 115 ms in both stimuli, which coincided in 6 eyes with latency response between 116 and 135 ms; 11 eyes had a latency response higher than 135 ms, and four eyes did not respond to stimuli. Correlating visual acuity with P100 latency for 15', in Pearson r correlation, r=0.85 with p=0.000000123, and for 1º, r = 0.87 with p=0.0000000338. CONCLUSION: Approximately 60.4% of patients presented abnormalities. However, the correlation between the P100 latency (15' and 1º and visual acuity was statistically significant; therefore the better the visual acuity, the better the response to stimuli of the pattern-reversal VEP.

  10. Quiver Varieties and Branching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiraku Nakajima

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Braverman and Finkelberg recently proposed the geometric Satake correspondence for the affine Kac-Moody group Gaff [Braverman A., Finkelberg M., arXiv:0711.2083]. They conjecture that intersection cohomology sheaves on the Uhlenbeck compactification of the framed moduli space of Gcpt-instantons on $R^4/Z_r$ correspond to weight spaces of representations of the Langlands dual group $G_{aff}^{vee}$ at level $r$. When $G = SL(l$, the Uhlenbeck compactification is the quiver variety of type $sl(r_{aff}$, and their conjecture follows from the author's earlier result and I. Frenkel's level-rank duality. They further introduce a convolution diagram which conjecturally gives the tensor product multiplicity [Braverman A., Finkelberg M., Private communication, 2008]. In this paper, we develop the theory for the branching in quiver varieties and check this conjecture for $G = SL(l$.

  11. Integrating over Higgs branches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, G. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States). Dept. of Physics; Nekrasov, N. [Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, 117259, Moscow (Russian Federation); Shatashvili, S. [Lyman Laboratory of Physics, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2000-01-01

    We develop some useful techniques for integrating over Higgs branches in supersymmetric theories with 4 and 8 supercharges. In particular, we define a regularized volume for hyperkaehler quotients. We evaluate this volume for certain ALE and ALF spaces in terms of the hyperkaehler periods. We also reduce these volumes for a large class of hyperkaehler quotients to simpler integrals. These quotients include complex coadjoint orbits, instanton moduli spaces on R{sup 4} and ALE manifolds, Hitchin spaces, and moduli spaces of (parabolic) Higgs bundles on Riemann surfaces. In the case of Hitchin spaces the evaluation of the volume reduces to a summation over solutions of Bethe ansatz equations for the non-linear Schroedinger system. We discuss some applications of our results. (orig.)

  12. Unusually Looped and Muzzled Branches of Right Coronary Artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anitha Guru

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Coronary artery disease (CAD is the major cause of death in developed countries as it accounts on an average for 1 of every 5 deaths. Morphological variations of coronary arterial system is one of the causative factor for CAD. Anatomical knowledge of all possible variant patterns of coronary arterial system is imperative in the diagnostic and therapeutic approach of CAD. We report here a rare branching pattern of right coronary artery (RCA. The origin of RCA was normal but the course and branching pattern of it were atypical. RCA was not occupying its usual position in atrioventricular (coronary sulcus and its course was incomplete. It gave a ventricular branch to right ventricle, which presented an unusual looping pattern. It terminated as right marginal artery following its muzzled appearance within the musculature of the ventricle.

  13. Local hemodynamic changes caused by main branch stent implantation and subsequent virtual side branch balloon angioplasty in a representative coronary bifurcation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Andrew R; Koo, Bon-Kwon; Gundert, Timothy J; Fitzgerald, Peter J; LaDisa, John F

    2010-08-01

    Abnormal blood flow patterns promoting inflammation, cellular proliferation, and thrombosis may be established by local changes in vessel geometry after stent implantation in bifurcation lesions. Our objective was to quantify altered hemodynamics due to main vessel (MV) stenting and subsequent virtual side branch (SB) angioplasty in a coronary bifurcation by using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis. CFD models were generated from representative vascular dimensions and intravascular ultrasound images. Time-averaged wall shear stress (TAWSS), oscillatory shear index (OSI), and fractional flow reserve (FFR) were quantified. None of the luminal surface was exposed to low TAWSS (stenting introduced eccentric areas of low TAWSS along the lateral wall of the MV. Virtual SB angioplasty resulted in a more concentric region of low TAWSS in the MV distal to the carina and along the lateral wall of the SB. The luminal surface exposed to low TAWSS was similar before and after virtual SB angioplasty (rest: 43% vs. 41%; hyperemia: 18% vs. 21%) and primarily due to stent-induced flow alterations. Sites of elevated OSI (>0.1) were minimal but more impacted by general vessel geometry established after MV stenting. FFR measured at a jailed SB was within the normal range despite angiographic stenosis of 54%. These findings indicate that the most commonly used percutaneous interventional strategy for a bifurcation lesion causes abnormal local hemodynamic conditions. These results may partially explain the high clinical event rates in bifurcation lesions.

  14. Methods and Technologies Branch (MTB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Methods and Technologies Branch focuses on methods to address epidemiologic data collection, study design and analysis, and to modify technological approaches to better understand cancer susceptibility.

  15. Branching Dynamics of Viral Information Spreading

    CERN Document Server

    Iribarren, José Luis

    2011-01-01

    Despite its importance for rumors or innovations propagation, peer-to-peer collaboration, social networking or Marketing, the dynamics of information spreading is not well understood. Since the diffusion depends on the heterogeneous patterns of human behavior and is driven by the participants' decisions, its propagation dynamics shows surprising properties not explained by traditional epidemic or contagion models. Here we present a detailed analysis of our study of real Viral Marketing campaigns where tracking the propagation of a controlled message allowed us to analyze the structure and dynamics of a diffusion graph involving over 31,000 individuals. We found that information spreading displays a non-Markovian branching dynamics that can be modeled by a two-step Bellman-Harris Branching Process that generalizes the static models known in the literature and incorporates the high variability of human behavior. It explains accurately all the features of information propagation under the "tipping-point" and can...

  16. Tau hadronic branching ratios

    CERN Document Server

    Buskulic, Damir; De Bonis, I; Décamp, D; Ghez, P; Goy, C; Lees, J P; Lucotte, A; Minard, M N; Odier, P; Pietrzyk, B; Ariztizabal, F; Chmeissani, M; Crespo, J M; Efthymiopoulos, I; Fernández, E; Fernández-Bosman, M; Gaitan, V; Martínez, M; Orteu, S; Pacheco, A; Padilla, C; Palla, Fabrizio; Pascual, A; Perlas, J A; Sánchez, F; Teubert, F; Colaleo, A; Creanza, D; De Palma, M; Farilla, A; Gelao, G; Girone, M; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, G; Maggi, M; Marinelli, N; Natali, S; Nuzzo, S; Ranieri, A; Raso, G; Romano, F; Ruggieri, F; Selvaggi, G; Silvestris, L; Tempesta, P; Zito, G; Huang, X; Lin, J; Ouyang, Q; Wang, T; Xie, Y; Xu, R; Xue, S; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Zhao, W; Bonvicini, G; Cattaneo, M; Comas, P; Coyle, P; Drevermann, H; Engelhardt, A; Forty, Roger W; Frank, M; Hagelberg, R; Harvey, J; Jacobsen, R; Janot, P; Jost, B; Kneringer, E; Knobloch, J; Lehraus, Ivan; Markou, C; Martin, E B; Mato, P; Minten, Adolf G; Miquel, R; Oest, T; Palazzi, P; Pater, J R; Pusztaszeri, J F; Ranjard, F; Rensing, P E; Rolandi, Luigi; Schlatter, W D; Schmelling, M; Schneider, O; Tejessy, W; Tomalin, I R; Venturi, A; Wachsmuth, H W; Wiedenmann, W; Wildish, T; Witzeling, W; Wotschack, J; Ajaltouni, Ziad J; Bardadin-Otwinowska, Maria; Barrès, A; Boyer, C; Falvard, A; Gay, P; Guicheney, C; Henrard, P; Jousset, J; Michel, B; Monteil, S; Pallin, D; Perret, P; Podlyski, F; Proriol, J; Rossignol, J M; Saadi, F; Fearnley, Tom; Hansen, J B; Hansen, J D; Hansen, J R; Hansen, P H; Nilsson, B S; Kyriakis, A; Simopoulou, Errietta; Siotis, I; Vayaki, Anna; Zachariadou, K; Blondel, A; Bonneaud, G R; Brient, J C; Bourdon, P; Passalacqua, L; Rougé, A; Rumpf, M; Tanaka, R; Valassi, Andrea; Verderi, M; Videau, H L; Candlin, D J; Parsons, M I; Focardi, E; Parrini, G; Corden, M; Delfino, M C; Georgiopoulos, C H; Jaffe, D E; Antonelli, A; Bencivenni, G; Bologna, G; Bossi, F; Campana, P; Capon, G; Chiarella, V; Felici, G; Laurelli, P; Mannocchi, G; Murtas, F; Murtas, G P; Pepé-Altarelli, M; Dorris, S J; Halley, A W; ten Have, I; Knowles, I G; Lynch, J G; Morton, W T; O'Shea, V; Raine, C; Reeves, P; Scarr, J M; Smith, K; Smith, M G; Thompson, A S; Thomson, F; Thorn, S; Turnbull, R M; Becker, U; Braun, O; Geweniger, C; Graefe, G; Hanke, P; Hepp, V; Kluge, E E; Putzer, A; Rensch, B; Schmidt, M; Sommer, J; Stenzel, H; Tittel, K; Werner, S; Wunsch, M; Beuselinck, R; Binnie, David M; Cameron, W; Colling, D J; Dornan, Peter J; Konstantinidis, N P; Moneta, L; Moutoussi, A; Nash, J; San Martin, G; Sedgbeer, J K; Stacey, A M; Dissertori, G; Girtler, P; Kuhn, D; Rudolph, G; Bowdery, C K; Brodbeck, T J; Colrain, P; Crawford, G; Finch, A J; Foster, F; Hughes, G; Sloan, Terence; Whelan, E P; Williams, M I; Galla, A; Greene, A M; Kleinknecht, K; Quast, G; Raab, J; Renk, B; Sander, H G; Wanke, R; Van Gemmeren, P; Zeitnitz, C; Aubert, Jean-Jacques; Bencheikh, A M; Benchouk, C; Bonissent, A; Bujosa, G; Calvet, D; Carr, J; Diaconu, C A; Etienne, F; Thulasidas, M; Nicod, D; Payre, P; Rousseau, D; Talby, M; Abt, I; Assmann, R W; Bauer, C; Blum, Walter; Brown, D; Dietl, H; Dydak, Friedrich; Ganis, G; Gotzhein, C; Jakobs, K; Kroha, H; Lütjens, G; Lutz, Gerhard; Männer, W; Moser, H G; Richter, R H; Rosado-Schlosser, A; Schael, S; Settles, Ronald; Seywerd, H C J; Saint-Denis, R; Wolf, G; Alemany, R; Boucrot, J; Callot, O; Cordier, A; Courault, F; Davier, M; Duflot, L; Grivaz, J F; Heusse, P; Jacquet, M; Kim, D W; Le Diberder, F R; Lefrançois, J; Lutz, A M; Musolino, G; Nikolic, I A; Park, H J; Park, I C; Schune, M H; Simion, S; Veillet, J J; Videau, I; Abbaneo, D; Azzurri, P; Bagliesi, G; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bozzi, C; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Ciocci, M A; Ciulli, V; Dell'Orso, R; Fantechi, R; Ferrante, I; Foà, L; Forti, F; Giassi, A; Giorgi, M A; Gregorio, A; Ligabue, F; Lusiani, A; Marrocchesi, P S; Messineo, A; Rizzo, G; Sanguinetti, G; Sciabà, A; Spagnolo, P; Steinberger, Jack; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, G; Triggiani, G; Vannini, C; Verdini, P G; Walsh, J; Betteridge, A P; Blair, G A; Bryant, L M; Cerutti, F; Gao, Y; Green, M G; Johnson, D L; Medcalf, T; Mir, L M; Perrodo, P; Strong, J A; Bertin, V; Botterill, David R; Clifft, R W; Edgecock, T R; Haywood, S; Edwards, M; Maley, P; Norton, P R; Thompson, J C; Bloch-Devaux, B; Colas, P; Emery, S; Kozanecki, Witold; Lançon, E; Lemaire, M C; Locci, E; Marx, B; Pérez, P; Rander, J; Renardy, J F; Roussarie, A; Schuller, J P; Schwindling, J; Trabelsi, A; Vallage, B; Johnson, R P; Kim, H Y; Litke, A M; McNeil, M A; Taylor, G; Beddall, A; Booth, C N; Boswell, R; Cartwright, S L; Combley, F; Dawson, I; Köksal, A; Letho, M; Newton, W M; Rankin, C; Thompson, L F; Böhrer, A; Brandt, S; Cowan, G D; Feigl, E; Grupen, Claus; Lutters, G; Minguet-Rodríguez, J A; Rivera, F; Saraiva, P; Smolik, L; Stephan, F; Apollonio, M; Bosisio, L; Della Marina, R; Giannini, G; Gobbo, B; Ragusa, F; Rothberg, J E; Wasserbaech, S R; Armstrong, S R; Bellantoni, L; Elmer, P; Feng, Z; Ferguson, D P S; Gao, Y S; González, S; Grahl, J; Harton, J L; Hayes, O J; Hu, H; McNamara, P A; Nachtman, J M; Orejudos, W; Pan, Y B; Saadi, Y; Schmitt, M; Scott, I J; Sharma, V; Turk, J; Walsh, A M; Wu Sau Lan; Wu, X; Yamartino, J M; Zheng, M; Zobernig, G

    1996-01-01

    From 64492 selected \\tau-pair events, produced at the Z^0 resonance, the measurement of the tau decays into hadrons from a global analysis using 1991, 1992 and 1993 ALEPH data is presented. Special emphasis is given to the reconstruction of photons and \\pi^0's, and the removal of fake photons. A detailed study of the systematics entering the \\pi^0 reconstruction is also given. A complete and consistent set of tau hadronic branching ratios is presented for 18 exclusive modes. Most measurements are more precise than the present world average. The new level of precision reached allows a stringent test of \\tau-\\mu universality in hadronic decays, g_\\tau/g_\\mu \\ = \\ 1.0013 \\ \\pm \\ 0.0095, and the first measurement of the vector and axial-vector contributions to the non-strange hadronic \\tau decay width: R_{\\tau ,V} \\ = \\ 1.788 \\ \\pm \\ 0.025 and R_{\\tau ,A} \\ = \\ 1.694 \\ \\pm \\ 0.027. The ratio (R_{\\tau ,V} - R_{\\tau ,A}) / (R_{\\tau ,V} + R_{\\tau ,A}), equal to (2.7 \\pm 1.3) \\ \\%, is a measure of the importance of Q...

  17. [Hair shaft abnormalities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itin, P H; Düggelin, M

    2002-05-01

    Hair shaft disorders may lead to brittleness and uncombable hair. In general the hair feels dry and lusterless. Hair shaft abnormalities may occur as localized or generalized disorders. Genetic predisposition or exogenous factors are able to produce and maintain hair shaft abnormalities. In addition to an extensive history and physical examination the most important diagnostic examination to analyze a hair shaft problem is light microscopy. Therapy of hair shaft disorders should focus to the cause. In addition, minimizing traumatic influences to hair shafts, such as dry hair with an electric dryer, permanent waves and dyes is important. A short hair style is more suitable for such patients with hair shaft disorders.

  18. MRI of fetal GI tract abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veyrac, C; Couture, A; Saguintaah, M; Baud, C

    2004-01-01

    We describe the magnetic resonance (MR) patterns of a variety of fetal gastrointestinal (GI) abnormalities. Thirty-two fetuses between 23 and 38 weeks' gestation with abnormal appearance of the GI tract by ultrasound underwent MR imaging with T1- and T2-weighted sequences. The MR aspect of intestinal atresia (duodenal atresia, one case; small bowel atresia, nine cases) included dilatation of the bowel loops, accurate assessment of the normal bowel distal to the atresia (except in the patient with multiple atresia and apple-peel syndrome), and micro-rectum with decreased T1 signal (except in the patient with duodenal atresia). Megacystis-microcolon-intestinal hypoperistalsis syndrome (one case) was indicated by an abnormal signal of the entire bowel and an abnormal pattern for the urinary tract. Meconium pseudocysts (two cases) were easily differentiated from enteric cysts (two cases). High anorectal malformations with (two cases) or without (one case) urinary fistula and cloacal malformation (one case) are described and MR findings are discussed. The capability of MR imaging to demonstrate the normal bowel with intraperitoneal anomalies (e.g., congenital diaphragmatic hernia, and sacrococcygeal teratoma) is emphasized. MR imaging is informative in the diagnosis of GI tract abnormalities, especially the severe malformations, with much more accuracy than sonography.

  19. Hybrid Bacterial Foraging and Particle Swarm Optimization for detecting Bundle Branch Block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kora, Padmavathi; Kalva, Sri Ramakrishna

    2015-01-01

    Abnormal cardiac beat identification is a key process in the detection of heart diseases. Our present study describes a procedure for the detection of left and right bundle branch block (LBBB and RBBB) Electrocardiogram (ECG) patterns. The electrical impulses that control the cardiac beat face difficulty in moving inside the heart. This problem is termed as bundle branch block (BBB). BBB makes it harder for the heart to pump blood effectively through the heart circulatory system. ECG feature extraction is a key process in detecting heart ailments. Our present study comes up with a hybrid method combining two heuristic optimization methods: Bacterial Forging Optimization (BFO) and Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) for the feature selection of ECG signals. One of the major controlling forces of BFO algorithm is the chemotactic movement of a bacterium that models a test solution. The chemotaxis process of the BFO depends on random search directions which may lead to a delay in achieving the global optimum solution. The hybrid technique: Bacterial Forging-Particle Swarm Optimization (BFPSO) incorporates the concepts from BFO and PSO and it creates individuals in a new generation. This BFPSO method performs local search through the chemotactic movement of BFO and the global search over the entire search domain is accomplished by a PSO operator. The BFPSO feature values are given as the input for the Levenberg-Marquardt Neural Network classifier.

  20. A role for mesenchyme dynamics in mouse lung branching morphogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Blanc

    Full Text Available Mammalian airways are highly ramified tree-like structures that develop by the repetitive branching of the lung epithelium into the surrounding mesenchyme through reciprocal interactions. Based on a morphometric analysis of the epithelial tree, it has been recently proposed that the complete branching scheme is specified early in each lineage by a programme using elementary patterning routines at specific sites and times in the developing lung. However, the coupled dynamics of both the epithelium and mesenchyme have been overlooked in this process. Using a qualitative and quantitative in vivo morphometric analysis of the E11.25 to E13.5 mouse whole right cranial lobe structure, we show that beyond the first generations, the branching stereotypy relaxes and both spatial and temporal variations are common. The branching pattern and branching rate are sensitive to the dynamic changes of the mesoderm shape that is in turn mainly dependent upon the volume and shape of the surrounding intrathoracic organs. Spatial and temporal variations of the tree architecture are related to local and subtle modifications of the mesoderm growth. Remarkably, buds never meet after suffering branching variations and continue to homogenously fill the opening spaces in the mesenchyme. Moreover despite inter-specimen variations, the growth of the epithelial tree and the mesenchyme remains highly correlated over time at the whole lobe level, implying a long-range regulation of the lung lobe morphogenesis. Together, these findings indicate that the lung epithelial tree is likely to adapt in real time to fill the available space in the mesenchyme, rather than being rigidly specified and predefined by a global programme. Our results strongly support the idea that a comprehensive understanding of lung branching mechanisms cannot be inferred from the branching pattern or behavior alone. Rather it needs to be elaborated upon with the reconsideration of mesenchyme

  1. Chromosomal abnormalities and autism

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Farida El-Baz

    2015-06-19

    Jun 19, 2015 ... Received 19 April 2015; accepted 11 May 2015 ... Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted at the Child Psychiatry Clinic, ... Males are affected more than females, only one case had ... communication, repetitive behavior, abnormal movement ... course, age, sex and consanguinity of the patients.

  2. Cortical Abnormalities in ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Grey-matter abnormalities at the cortical surface and regional brain size were mapped by high-resolution MRI and surface-based, computational image analytical techniques in a group of 27 children and adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD and 46 controls, matched by age and sex, at the University of California at Los Angeles.

  3. Neurological abnormalities predict disability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poggesi, Anna; Gouw, Alida; van der Flier, Wiesje

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the role of neurological abnormalities and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) lesions in predicting global functional decline in a cohort of initially independent-living elderly subjects. The Leukoaraiosis And DISability (LADIS) Study, involving 11 European centres, was primarily aimed...

  4. Lacrimal system abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, B D

    1994-03-01

    This report outlines several of the more important abnormalities of the lacrimal system in infants and young children. Although rare, alacrima can be a very difficult clinical problem to treat. The most common cause of alacrima is the Riley-Day syndrome. Nasolacrimal duct obstruction is a very common anomaly in children. The clinical appearance and treatment of this disorder are discussed.

  5. Abnormalities of gonadal differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkovitz, G D; Seeherunvong, T

    1998-04-01

    Gonadal differentiation involves a complex interplay of developmental pathways. The sex determining region Y (SRY) gene plays a key role in testis determination, but its interaction with other genes is less well understood. Abnormalities of gonadal differentiation result in a range of clinical problems. 46,XY complete gonadal dysgenesis is defined by an absence of testis determination. Subjects have female external genitalia and come to clinical attention because of delayed puberty. Individuals with 46,XY partial gonadal dysgenesis usually present in the newborn period for the valuation of ambiguous genitalia. Gonadal histology always shows an abnormality of seminiferous tubule formation. A diagnosis of 46,XY true hermaphroditism is made if the gonads contain well-formed testicular and ovarian elements. Despite the pivotal role of the SRY gene in testis development, mutations of SRY are unusual in subjects with a 46,XY karyotype and abnormal gonadal development. 46,XX maleness is defined by testis determination in an individual with a 46,XX karyotype. Most affected individuals have a phenotype similar to that of Klinefelter syndrome. In contrast, subjects with 46,XX true hermaphroditism usually present with ambiguous genitalia. The majority of subjects with 46,XX maleness have Y sequences including SRY in genomic DNA. However, only rare subjects with 46,XX true hermaphroditism have translocated sequences encoding SRY. Mosaicism and chimaerism involving the Y chromosome can also be associated with abnormal gonadal development. However, the vast majority of subjects with 45,X/46,XY mosaicism have normal testes and normal male external genitalia.

  6. Hemorheological abnormalities in human arterial hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Presti, Rosalia; Hopps, Eugenia; Caimi, Gregorio

    2014-05-01

    Blood rheology is impaired in hypertensive patients. The alteration involves blood and plasma viscosity, and the erythrocyte behaviour is often abnormal. The hemorheological pattern appears to be related to some pathophysiological mechanisms of hypertension and to organ damage, in particular left ventricular hypertrophy and myocardial ischemia. Abnormalities have been observed in erythrocyte membrane fluidity, explored by fluorescence spectroscopy and electron spin resonance. This may be relevant for red cell flow in microvessels and oxygen delivery to tissues. Although blood viscosity is not a direct target of antihypertensive therapy, the rheological properties of blood play a role in the pathophysiology of arterial hypertension and its vascular complications.

  7. Scaling Behaviors of Branched Polymers

    CERN Document Server

    Aoki, H; Kawai, H; Kitazawa, Y; Aoki, Hajime; Iso, Satoshi; Kawai, Hikaru; Kitazawa, Yoshihisa

    2000-01-01

    We study the thermodynamic behavior of branched polymers. We first study random walks in order to clarify the thermodynamic relation between the canonical ensemble and the grand canonical ensemble. We then show that correlation functions for branched polymers are given by those for $\\phi^3$ theory with a single mass insertion, not those for the $\\phi^3$ theory themselves. In particular, the two-point function behaves as $1/p^4$, not as $1/p^2$, in the scaling region. This behavior is consistent with the fact that the Hausdorff dimension of the branched polymer is four.

  8. Continuous-state branching processes

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Zenghu

    2012-01-01

    These notes were used in a short graduate course on branching processes the author gave in Beijing Normal University. The following main topics are covered: scaling limits of Galton--Watson processes, continuous-state branching processes, extinction probabilities, conditional limit theorems, decompositions of sample paths, martingale problems, stochastic equations, Lamperti's transformations, independent and dependent immigration processes. Some of the results are simplified versions of those in the author's book "Measure-valued branching Markov processes" (Springer, 2011). We hope these simplified results will set out the main ideas in an easy way and lead the reader to a quick access of the subject.

  9. Describing the Sensory Abnormalities of Children and Adults with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leekam, Susan R.; Nieto, Carmen; Libby, Sarah J.; Wing, Lorna; Gould, Judith

    2007-01-01

    Patterns of sensory abnormalities in children and adults with autism were examined using the Diagnostic Interview for Social and Communication Disorders (DISCO). This interview elicits detailed information about responsiveness to a wide range of sensory stimuli. Study 1 showed that over 90% of children with autism had sensory abnormalities and had…

  10. Developmental morphology of branching flowers in Nymphaea prolifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grob, Valentin; Moline, Philip; Pfeifer, Evelin; Novelo, Alejandro R; Rutishauser, Rolf

    2006-11-01

    Nymphaea and Nuphar (Nymphaeaceae) share an extra-axillary mode of floral inception in the shoot apical meristem (SAM). Some leaf sites along the ontogenetic spiral are occupied by floral primordia lacking a subtending bract. This pattern of flower initiation in leaf sites is repeated inside branching flowers of Nymphaea prolifera (Central and South America). Instead of fertile flowers this species usually produces sterile tuberiferous flowers that act as vegetative propagules. N. prolifera changes the meristem identity from reproductive to vegetative or vice versa repeatedly. Each branching flower first produces some perianth-like leaves, then it switches back to the vegetative meristem identity of the SAM with the formation of foliage leaves and another set of branching flowers. This process is repeated up to three times giving rise to more than 100 vegetative propagules. The developmental morphology of the branching flowers of N. prolifera is described using both microtome sections and scanning electron microscopy.

  11. Liver abnormalities in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Than, Nwe Ni; Neuberger, James

    2013-08-01

    Abnormalities of liver function (notably rise in alkaline phosphatase and fall in serum albumin) are common in normal pregnancy, whereas rise in serum bilirubin and aminotransferase suggest either exacerbation of underlying pre-existing liver disease, liver disease related to pregnancy or liver disease unrelated to pregnancy. Pregnant women appear to have a worse outcome when infected with Hepatitis E virus. Liver diseases associated with pregnancy include abnormalities associated hyperemesis gravidarum, acute fatty liver disease, pre-eclampsia, cholestasis of pregnancy and HELLP syndrome. Prompt investigation and diagnosis is important in ensuring a successful maternal and foetal outcome. In general, prompt delivery is the treatment of choice for acute fatty liver, pre-eclampsia and HELLP syndrome and ursodeoxycholic acid is used for cholestasis of pregnancy although it is not licenced for this indication. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Nitrofurantoin and congenital abnormalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czeizel, A.E.; Rockenbauer, M.; Sørensen, Henrik Toft;

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To study human teratogenic potential of oral nitrofurantoin treatment during pregnancy. Materials and Methods: Pair analysis of cases with congenital abnormalities and matched population controls in the population-based dataset of the Hungarian Case-Control Surveillance of Congenital...... or fetuses with Down’s syndrome (patient controls), 23 (2.8%) pregnant women were treated with nitrofurantoin. The above differences between population controls and cases may be connected with recall bias, because the case-control pair analysis did not indicate a teratogenic potential of nitrofurantoin use...... during the second and the third months of gestation, i.e. in the critical period for major congenital abnormalities. Conclusion: Treatment with nitrofurantoin during pregnancy does not present detectable teratogenic risk to the fetus....

  13. Left bundle-branch block

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risum, Niels; Strauss, David; Sogaard, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between myocardial electrical activation by electrocardiogram (ECG) and mechanical contraction by echocardiography in left bundle-branch block (LBBB) has never been clearly demonstrated. New strict criteria for LBBB based on a fundamental understanding of physiology have recently...

  14. Left bundle-branch block

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risum, Niels; Strauss, David; Sogaard, Peter;

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between myocardial electrical activation by electrocardiogram (ECG) and mechanical contraction by echocardiography in left bundle-branch block (LBBB) has never been clearly demonstrated. New strict criteria for LBBB based on a fundamental understanding of physiology have recently...

  15. Novel side branch ostial stent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shao-Liang; Lv, Shu-Zheng; Kwan, Tak W

    2009-04-01

    Bifurcation lesions are technically challenging and plagued by a high incidence of restenosis, especially at the side branch orifice, which results in a more frequent need for revascularization during the follow-up period. This report discusses two clinical experiences with a novel side branch ostial stent, the BIGUARD stent, designed for the treatment of bifurcation lesions; procedural success with no in-hospital complications was observed in types IVb and Ia lesions.

  16. Structural Mechanics and Dynamics Branch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefko, George

    2003-01-01

    The 2002 annual report of the Structural Mechanics and Dynamics Branch reflects the majority of the work performed by the branch staff during the 2002 calendar year. Its purpose is to give a brief review of the branch s technical accomplishments. The Structural Mechanics and Dynamics Branch develops innovative computational tools, benchmark experimental data, and solutions to long-term barrier problems in the areas of propulsion aeroelasticity, active and passive damping, engine vibration control, rotor dynamics, magnetic suspension, structural mechanics, probabilistics, smart structures, engine system dynamics, and engine containment. Furthermore, the branch is developing a compact, nonpolluting, bearingless electric machine with electric power supplied by fuel cells for future "more electric" aircraft. An ultra-high-power-density machine that can generate projected power densities of 50 hp/lb or more, in comparison to conventional electric machines, which generate usually 0.2 hp/lb, is under development for application to electric drives for propulsive fans or propellers. In the future, propulsion and power systems will need to be lighter, to operate at higher temperatures, and to be more reliable in order to achieve higher performance and economic viability. The Structural Mechanics and Dynamics Branch is working to achieve these complex, challenging goals.

  17. Radiation effects on branched polysilanes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maeda, K.; Seki, S.; Tagawa, S. [Osaka Univ., Ibaraki (Japan). Inst. of Scientific and Industrial Research; Shibata, H.; Iwai, T. [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Research Center for Nuclear Science and Technology

    2000-03-01

    We observed crosslinking and scission caused by gamma radiation in linear and branched polysilanes which have from 5% to 33% of the branching points. The crosslinking reactions become predominant for the irradiation with branching density increasing. The cleavage did not take place exclusively at the branching points and branching polysilanes are sensitive to radiation extraordinary as compared with linear polysilane from a careful study of the radiolysis products of a series of polysilanes. This is due to the increasing Si {center_dot} contributing to the crosslinking reaction and that they are not resonance-stabilized by double bonds as the reaction mechanism in the irradiated polysilanes. However, the gelation curve in linear PMPS irradiated by 2 MeV He{sup +} is almost consistent with that in branching PMPS, indicating that the size of chemical track is responsible for the gel fraction. The crosslinking G value for high molecular weight PMPS irradiated by 2 MeV He{sup +} was drastically decreased as compared with that for low molecular weight. It suggests that there are a large number of intramolecular crosslinking points for high molecular weight PMPS. (author)

  18. Critical evaluation of branch polarity and apical dominance as dictators of colony astogeny in a branching coral.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Shaish

    Full Text Available The high morphological resemblance between branching corals and trees, can lead to comparative studies on pattern formation traits, best exemplified in plants and in some cnidarians. Here, 81 branches of similar size of the hermatypic coral Stylophora pistillata were lopped of three different genets, their skeletons marked with alizarin red-S, and divided haphazardly into three morphometric treatment groups: (I upright position; (II horizontal position, intact tip; and (III horizontal position, cut tip. After 1 y of in-situ growth, the 45 surviving ramets were brought to the laboratory, their tissues removed and their architectures analyzed by 22 morphological parameters (MPs. We found that within 1 y, isolated branches developed into small coral colonies by growing new branches from all branch termini, in all directions. No architectural dissimilarity was assigned among the three studied genets of treatment I colonies. However, a major architectural disparity between treatment I colonies and colonies of treatments II and III was documented as the development of mirror structures from both sides of treatments II and III settings as compared to tip-borne architectures in treatment I colonies. We did not observe apical dominance since fragments grew equally from all branch sides without documented dominant polarity along branch axis. In treatment II colonies, no MP for new branches originating either from tips or from branch bases differed significantly. In treatment III colonies, growth from the cut tip areas was significantly lower compared to the base, again, suggesting lack of apical dominance in this species. Changes in branch polarity revealed genet associated plasticity, which in one of the studied genets, led to enhanced growth. Different genets exhibited canalization flexibility of growth patterns towards either lateral growth, or branch axis extension (skeletal weight and not porosity was measured. This study revealed that colony

  19. Abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuzil, C.E.

    1995-01-01

    So-called abnormal pressures, subsurface fluid pressures significantly higher or lower than hydrostatic, have excited speculation about their origin since subsurface exploration first encountered them. Two distinct conceptual models for abnormal pressures have gained currency among earth scientists. The static model sees abnormal pressures generally as relict features preserved by a virtual absence of fluid flow over geologic time. The hydrodynamic model instead envisions abnormal pressures as phenomena in which flow usually plays an important role. This paper develops the theoretical framework for abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena, shows that it explains the manifold occurrences of abnormal pressures, and examines the implications of this approach. -from Author

  20. [Molecular abnormalities in lymphomas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delsol, G

    2010-11-01

    Numerous molecular abnormalities have been described in lymphomas. They are of diagnostic and prognostic value and are taken into account for the WHO classification of these tumors. They also shed some light on the underlying molecular mechanisms involved in lymphomas. Overall, four types of molecular abnormalities are involved: mutations, translocations, amplifications and deletions of tumor suppressor genes. Several techniques are available to detect these molecular anomalies: conventional cytogenetic analysis, multicolor FISH, CGH array or gene expression profiling using DNA microarrays. In some lymphomas, genetic abnormalities are responsible for the expression of an abnormal protein (e.g. tyrosine-kinase, transcription factor) detectable by immunohistochemistry. In the present review, molecular abnormalities observed in the most frequent B, T or NK cell lymphomas are discussed. In the broad spectrum of diffuse large B-cell lymphomas microarray analysis shows mostly two subgroups of tumors, one with gene expression signature corresponding to germinal center B-cell-like (GCB: CD10+, BCL6 [B-Cell Lymphoma 6]+, centerine+, MUM1-) and a subgroup expressing an activated B-cell-like signature (ABC: CD10-, BCL6-, centerine-, MUM1+). Among other B-cell lymphomas with well characterized molecular abnormalies are follicular lymphoma (BCL2 deregulation), MALT lymphoma (Mucosa Associated Lymphoid Tissue) [API2-MALT1 (mucosa-associated-lymphoid-tissue-lymphoma-translocation-gene1) fusion protein or deregulation BCL10, MALT1, FOXP1. MALT1 transcription factors], mantle cell lymphoma (cycline D1 [CCND1] overexpression) and Burkitt lymphoma (c-Myc expression). Except for ALK (anaplastic lymphoma kinase)-positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma, well characterized molecular anomalies are rare in lymphomas developed from T or NK cells. Peripheral T cell lymphomas not otherwise specified are a heterogeneous group of tumors with frequent but not recurrent molecular abnormalities

  1. Abscisic acid signaling is controlled by a BRANCHED1/HD-ZIP i cascade in Arabidopsis axillary buds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gonzalez-Grandio, Eduardo; Pajoro, Alice; Franco-Zorrilla, Jose M.; Tarancon, Carlos; Immink, Richard G.H.; Cubas, Pilar

    2017-01-01

    Shoot-branching patterns determine key aspects of plant life and are important targets for crop breeding. However, we are still largely ignorant of the genetic networks controlling locally themost important decision during branch development: whether the axillary bud, or branch primordium, grows out

  2. Feeling Abnormal: Simulation of Deviancy in Abnormal and Exceptionality Courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernald, Charles D.

    1980-01-01

    Describes activity in which student in abnormal psychology and psychology of exceptional children classes personally experience being judged abnormal. The experience allows the students to remember relevant research, become sensitized to the feelings of individuals classified as deviant, and use caution in classifying individuals as abnormal.…

  3. Russia: An Abnormal Country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Rosefielde

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Andrei Shleifer and Daniel Treisman recently rendered a summary verdict on the post Soviet Russian transition experience finding that the Federation had become a normal country with the west's assistance, and predicting that it would liberalize and develop further like other successful nations of its type. This essay demonstrates that they are mistaken on the first count, and are likely to be wrong on the second too. It shows factually, and on the norms elaborated by Pareto, Arrow and Bergson that Russia is an abnormal political economy unlikely to democratize, westernize or embrace free enterprise any time soon

  4. Abnormal ionization in sonoluminescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wen-Juan; An, Yu

    2015-04-01

    Sonoluminescence is a complex phenomenon, the mechanism of which remains unclear. The present study reveals that an abnormal ionization process is likely to be present in the sonoluminescing bubble. To fit the experimental data of previous studies, we assume that the ionization energies of the molecules and atoms in the bubble decrease as the gas density increases and that the decrease of the ionization energy reaches about 60%-70% as the bubble flashes, which is difficult to explain by using previous models. Project supported by the Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (Grant No. 20120002110031) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11334005).

  5. Photovoltaic measurements and performance branch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asher, S. E.; Dippo, P.

    1990-05-01

    The Photovoltaic (PV) Measurements and Performance Branch of the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) provides comprehensive PV materials, device and component characterization, measurement, fabrication, and modeling research and support for the international PV research community in the context of the U.S. Department of Energy's PV m goals. The progress of the Branch is summarized. The seven technical sections present a succinct overview of the capabilities and accomplishments of each group in the Branch. The Branch is comprised of the following groups; Surface and Interface Analysis, Materials Characterization, Device Development, Electro-Optical Characterization, Cell Performance, Advanced Module Testing and Performance, and Surface and Interface Modification and Stability. The main research projects completed in FY 1989 are highlighted including measurements and tests of PV materials, cells, submodules and modules. The report contains a comprehensive bibliography of the more than 80 branch-originated journal and conference publications which were authored in collaboration with, or in support of, approximately 130 university, industrial, government, and in-house research groups.

  6. Fractal Study of Multi-branched Domains in Garnet Bubble Films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李丹; 郑德娟; 周雁; 韩宝善

    2002-01-01

    The line-measuring dimension Dlinc has been developed and selected to describe the curved and branched patterns of multi-branched domains (MBDs) formed by using the "low-bias-field method" in magnetic garnet bubble films.The definition of Dline is given. The domain pattern processing and the "double boundary description" of MBDs are introduced. It has been verified that the MBD patterns truly possess the characteristic of fractal structure over a certain range. The meaningful Dline seems to be a better parameter to quantitatively describe the curved and branched structure of MBDs, and can be related to the nucleation of vertical Bloch lines in their walls.

  7. A hitherto unreported disruption of cervical branches of facial artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma P

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available According to its course, the branches of the facial artery are arranged under two headings; cervical component (branches in the digastric triangle and facial component (branches on the face.Variations in the branches of the facial component of the facial artery have been frequently studied and reported. However, variations in the cervical component are rare. A hitherto unreported variant of the cervical component of the facial artery was observed in a 55-year-old male cadaver during routine undergraduate dissection. The facial artery was arising from the external carotid artery as a common trunk with the lingual artery in the right carotid triangle and its ascending palatine and tonsillar branches were arising from the external carotid artery. It is important for surgeons and radiologists to be aware of the normal anatomy of the facial artery and the external carotid artery. Herein, we describe the detailed anatomical features of the variant branching pattern of the right facial artery and its clinical implications.

  8. Warped branches of flux compactifications

    CERN Document Server

    Lim, Yen-Kheng

    2012-01-01

    We consider Freund-Rubin-type compactifications which are described by (p+q)-dimensional Einstein gravity with a positive cosmological constant and a q-form flux. Using perturbative expansions of Kinoshita's ansatz for warped dS_pxS^q and AdS_pxS^q spacetimes, we obtain analytical solutions describing the warped branches and their respective phase spaces. These equations are given by inhomogeneous Gegenbauer differential equations which can be solved by the Green's function method. The requirement that the Green's functions are regular provides constraints which determine the structure of the phase space of the warped branches. We apply the perturbation results to calculate the thermodynamic variables for the warped dS_pxS^q branch. In particular, the first law of thermodynamics can be reproduced using this method.

  9. 30 CFR 56.6403 - Branch circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Branch circuits. 56.6403 Section 56.6403... Blasting § 56.6403 Branch circuits. (a) If electric blasting includes the use of branch circuits, each branch shall be equipped with a safety switch or equivalent method to isolate the circuits to be used....

  10. 30 CFR 57.6403 - Branch circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Branch circuits. 57.6403 Section 57.6403... Blasting-Surface and Underground § 57.6403 Branch circuits. (a) If electric blasting includes the use of branch circuits, each branch shall be equipped with a safety switch or equivalent method to isolate...

  11. A Rare Stapes Abnormality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hala Kanona

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to increase awareness of rare presentations, diagnostic difficulties alongside management of conductive hearing loss and ossicular abnormalities. We report the case of a 13-year-old female reporting progressive left-sided hearing loss and high resolution computed tomography was initially reported as normal. Exploratory tympanotomy revealed an absent stapedius tendon and lack of connection between the stapes superstructure and footplate. The footplate was fixed. Stapedotomy and stapes prosthesis insertion resulted in closure of the air-bone gap by 50 dB. A review of world literature was performed using MedLine. Middle ear ossicular discontinuity can result in significant conductive hearing loss. This can be managed effectively with surgery to help restore hearing. However, some patients may not be suitable or decline surgical intervention and can be managed safely conservatively.

  12. Strigolactone inhibition of shoot branching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gomez-Roldan, M.V.; Fermas, S.; Brewer, P.B.; Puech-Pages, V.; Dun, E.A.; Pillot, J.P.; Letisse, F.; Matusova, R.; Danoun, S.; Portais, J.C.; Bouwmeester, H.J.; Becard, G.; Beveridge, C.A.; Rameau, C.; Rochange, S.F.

    2008-01-01

    A carotenoid-derived hormonal signal that inhibits shoot branching in plants has long escaped identification. Strigolactones are compounds thought to be derived from carotenoids and are known to trigger the germination of parasitic plant seeds and stimulate symbiotic fungi. Here we present evidence

  13. Strigolactone inhibition of shoot branching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gomez-Roldan, M.V.; Fermas, S.; Brewer, P.B.; Puech-Pages, V.; Dun, E.A.; Pillot, J.P.; Letisse, F.; Matusova, R.; Danoun, S.; Portais, J.C.; Bouwmeester, H.J.; Becard, G.; Beveridge, C.A.; Rameau, C.; Rochange, S.F.

    2008-01-01

    A carotenoid-derived hormonal signal that inhibits shoot branching in plants has long escaped identification. Strigolactones are compounds thought to be derived from carotenoids and are known to trigger the germination of parasitic plant seeds and stimulate symbiotic fungi. Here we present evidence

  14. Cash efficiency for bank branches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabello, Julia García

    2013-01-01

    Bank liquidity management has become a major issue during the financial crisis as liquidity shortages have intensified and have put pressure on banks to diversity and improve their liquidity sources. While a significant strand of the literature concentrates on wholesale liquidity generation and on the alternative to deposit funding, the management of an inventory of cash holdings within the banks' branches is also a relevant issue as any significant improvement in cash management at the bank distribution channels may have a positive effect in reducing liquidity tensions. In this paper, we propose a simple programme of cash efficiency for the banks' branches, very easy to implement, which conform to a set of instructions to be imposed from the bank to their branches. This model proves to significantly reduce cash holdings at branches thereby providing efficiency improvements in liquidity management. The methodology we propose is based on the definition of some stochastic processes combined with renewal processes, which capture the random elements of the cash flow, before applying suitable optimization programmes to all the costs involved in cash movements. The classical issue of the Transaction Demand for the Cash and some aspects of Inventory Theory are also present. Mathematics Subject Classification (2000) C02, C60, E50.

  15. Branching of keratin intermediate filaments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nafeey, Soufi; Martin, Ines; Felder, Tatiana; Walther, Paul; Felder, Edward

    2016-06-01

    Keratin intermediate filaments (IFs) are crucial to maintain mechanical stability in epithelial cells. Since little is known about the network architecture that provides this stiffness and especially about branching properties of filaments, we addressed this question with different electron microscopic (EM) methods. Using EM tomography of high pressure frozen keratinocytes, we investigated the course of several filaments in a branching of a filament bundle. Moreover we found several putative bifurcations in individual filaments. To verify our observation we also visualized the keratin network in detergent extracted keratinocytes with scanning EM. Here bifurcations of individual filaments could unambiguously be identified additionally to bundle branchings. Interestingly, identical filament bifurcations were also found in purified keratin 8/18 filaments expressed in Escherichia coli which were reassembled in vitro. This excludes that an accessory protein contributes to the branch formation. Measurements of the filament cross sectional areas showed various ratios between the three bifurcation arms. This demonstrates that intermediate filament furcation is very different from actin furcation where an entire new filament is attached to an existing filament. Instead, the architecture of intermediate filament bifurcations is less predetermined and hence consistent with the general concept of IF formation.

  16. NCI: DCTD: Biometric Research Branch

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Biometric Research Branch (BRB) is the statistical and biomathematical component of the Division of Cancer Treatment, Diagnosis and Centers (DCTDC). Its members provide statistical leadership for the national and international research programs of the division in developmental therapeutics, developmental diagnostics, diagnostic imaging and clinical trials.

  17. Vertical deviation and A pattern of type Ⅲ Duane retraction syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHE Hai-cheng; MAN Feng-yuan; WANG Zhen-chang; WANG Jing-hui; JIAO Yong-hong; ZHAO Kan-xing

    2012-01-01

    Background Researches in ocular electromyography (EMG) and Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of patients with Duane retraction syndrome (DRS) suggest that there may be additional abnormalities such as paradoxical innervation between horizontal rectus muscles and vertical rectus muscles,hypoplasia of vertical rectus muscle and that oblique muscles may also contribute to the heterogeneity of the clinical manifestation of DRS.This paper reports the results of superior rectus recession for vertical deviation and A pattern in DRS Type Ⅲ and discusses the pathogenesis of the disease.Methods Superior and lateral rectus recession were performed in 5 cases of Huber type Ⅲ DRS to treat vertical deviation and A pattern strabismus.Before operation,MRI of the brain,brainstem,cavernous sinus,and orbits were performed.Results All subjects had unilateral limitation of both abduction and adduction,with palpebral fissure narrowing and globe retraction in adduction.Three cases had A pattern of strabismus,three cases had hypertropia.The abducens nerves (CN6) were either absent or hypoplasitic in the brainstem in all patients.Two eyes had larger oculomotor foramen.Two eyes had hypoplasia of the superior rectus and the inferior rectus.There was presumably a branch of the third cranial nerve (CN3) innervating the lateral rectus (LR) in one eye.While in another eye,two branches of CN3 sent into medial rectus were revealed.After surgery,vertical deviation in the primary position was reduced in all patients and A pattern was eliminated in 3 patients.One patient developed 10Δ consecutive esotropia postoperatively,Conclusion The results suggest that structural abnormalities of vertical muscle and abnormal orbital innervation may be related to vertical deviation and the presence of A pattern in DRS type Ⅲ.Recession of the superior rectus muscle seems to be a safe and effective treatment for vertical deviation and A pattern strabismus in DRS Type Ⅲ.

  18. Branching dynamics of viral information spreading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iribarren, José Luis; Moro, Esteban

    2011-10-01

    Despite its importance for rumors or innovations propagation, peer-to-peer collaboration, social networking, or marketing, the dynamics of information spreading is not well understood. Since the diffusion depends on the heterogeneous patterns of human behavior and is driven by the participants’ decisions, its propagation dynamics shows surprising properties not explained by traditional epidemic or contagion models. Here we present a detailed analysis of our study of real viral marketing campaigns where tracking the propagation of a controlled message allowed us to analyze the structure and dynamics of a diffusion graph involving over 31 000 individuals. We found that information spreading displays a non-Markovian branching dynamics that can be modeled by a two-step Bellman-Harris branching process that generalizes the static models known in the literature and incorporates the high variability of human behavior. It explains accurately all the features of information propagation under the “tipping point” and can be used for prediction and management of viral information spreading processes.

  19. Abnormal events detection in crowded scenes by trajectory cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shifu; Zhang, Zhijiang; Zeng, Dan; Shen, Wei

    2015-02-01

    Abnormal events detection in crowded scenes has been a challenge due to volatility of the definitions for both normality and abnormality, the small number of pixels on the target, appearance ambiguity resulting from the dense packing, and severe inter-object occlusions. A novel framework was proposed for the detection of unusual events in crowded scenes using trajectories produced by moving pedestrians based on an intuition that the motion patterns of usual behaviors are similar to these of group activity, whereas unusual behaviors are not. First, spectral clustering is used to group trajectories with similar spatial patterns. Different trajectory clusters represent different activities. Then, unusual trajectories can be detected using these patterns. Furthermore, behavior of a mobile pedestrian can be defined by comparing its direction with these patterns, such as moving in the opposite direction of the group or traversing the group. Experimental results indicated that the proposed algorithm could be used to reliably locate the abnormal events in crowded scenes.

  20. Autoshaping of abnormal children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deckner, C W; Wilcox, L M; Maisto, S A; Blanton, R L

    1980-09-01

    Three experimentally naive abnormal children were exposed to a terminal operant contingency, i.e., reinforcement was delivered only if the children pressed a panel during intervals when it was lighted. Despite the absence of both successive approximation and manual shaping, it was found that each child began to respond discriminatively within a small number of trials. These data replicated previous animal studies concerned with the phenomena of autoshaping and signal-controlled responding. It was also found, however, that one type of autoshaping, the classical conditioning procedure, had a powerful suppressive effect on the discriminative responding. An experimental analysis that consisted procedure, had a powerful suppressive effect on discriminative responding. An experimental analysis that consisted of intrasubject reversal an multiple baseline designs established the internal validity of the findings. The finding of rapid acquisition of signal-controlled responding obtained with the initial procedure is suggessted to have practical significance. The disruptive effects of the classical form of autoshaping are discussed in terms of negative behavioral contrast.

  1. Communication and abnormal behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crown, S

    1979-01-01

    In this paper the similarities between normal and abnormal behaviour are emphasized and selected aspects of communication, normal and aberrant, between persons are explored. Communication in a social system may be verbal or non-verbal: one person's actions cause a response in another person. This response may be cognitive, behavioural or physiological. Communication may be approached through the individual, the social situation or social interaction. Psychoanalysis approaches the individual in terms of the coded communications of psychoneurotic symptoms or psychotic behaviour; the humanist-existential approach is concerned more with emotional expression. Both approaches emphasize the development of individual identity. The interaction between persons and their social background is stressed. Relevant are sociological concepts such as illness behaviour, stigma, labelling, institutionalization and compliance. Two approaches to social interactions are considered: the gamesplaying metaphor, e.g. back pain as a psychosocial manipulation--the 'pain game'; and the 'spiral of reciprocal perspectives' which emphasizes the interactional complexities of social perceptions. Communicatory aspects of psychological treatments are noted: learning a particular metaphor such as 'resolution' of the problem (psychotherapy), learning more 'rewarding' behaviour (learning theory) or learning authenticity or self-actualization (humanist-existential).

  2. RAB-10 Regulates Dendritic Branching by Balancing Dendritic Transport.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caitlin A Taylor

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The construction of a large dendritic arbor requires robust growth and the precise delivery of membrane and protein cargoes to specific subcellular regions of the developing dendrite. How the microtubule-based vesicular trafficking and sorting systems are regulated to distribute these dendritic development factors throughout the dendrite is not well understood. Here we identify the small GTPase RAB-10 and the exocyst complex as critical regulators of dendrite morphogenesis and patterning in the C. elegans sensory neuron PVD. In rab-10 mutants, PVD dendritic branches are reduced in the posterior region of the cell but are excessive in the distal anterior region of the cell. We also demonstrate that the dendritic branch distribution within PVD depends on the balance between the molecular motors kinesin-1/UNC-116 and dynein, and we propose that RAB-10 regulates dendrite morphology by balancing the activity of these motors to appropriately distribute branching factors, including the transmembrane receptor DMA-1.

  3. Abnormally dark or light skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyperpigmentation; Hypopigmentation; Skin - abnormally light or dark ... Normal skin contains cells called melanocytes. These cells produce melanin , the substance that gives skin its color. Skin with ...

  4. Streamers in air splitting into three branches

    CERN Document Server

    Heijmans, L C J; van Veldhuizen, E M; Ebert, U

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the branching of positive streamers in air and present the first systematic investigation of splitting into more than two branches. We study discharges in 100 mbar artificial air that is exposed to voltage pulses of 10 kV applied to a needle electrode 160 mm above a grounded plate. By imaging the discharge with two cameras from three angles, we establish that about every 200th branching event is a branching into three. Branching into three occurs more frequently for the relatively thicker streamers. In fact, we find that the surface of the total streamer cross-sections before and after a branching event is roughly the same.

  5. Developmental pragmatics in normal and abnormal children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bara, B G; Bosco, F M; Bucciarelli, M

    1999-07-01

    We propose a critical review of current theories of developmental pragmatics. The underlying assumption is that such a theory ought to account for both normal and abnormal development. From a clinical point of view, we are concerned with the effects of brain damage on the emergence of pragmatic competence. In particular, the paper deals with direct speech acts, indirect speech acts, irony, and deceit in children with head injury, closed head injury, hydrocephalus, focal brain damage, and autism. Since no single theory covers systematically the emergence of pragmatic capacity in normal children, it is not surprising that we have not found a systematic account of deficits in the communicative performance of brain injured children. In our view, the challenge for a pragmatic theory is the determination of the normal developmental pattern within which different pragmatic phenomena may find a precise role. Such a framework of normal behavior would then permit the systematic study of abnormal pragmatic development.

  6. BDC 500 branch driver controller

    CERN Document Server

    Dijksman, A

    1981-01-01

    This processor has been designed for very fast data acquisition and date pre-processing. The dataway and branch highway speeds have been optimized for approximately 1.5 mu sec. The internal processor cycle is approximately 0.8 mu sec. The standard version contains the following functions (slots): crate controller type A1; branch highway driver including terminator; serial I/O port (TTY, VDU); 24 bit ALU and 24 bit program counter; 16 bit memory address counter and 4 word stack; 4k bit memory for program and/or data; battery backup for the memory; CNAFD and crate LAM display; request/grant logic for time- sharing operation of several BDCs. The free slots can be equipped with e.g. extra RAM, computer interfaces, hardware multiplier/dividers, etc. (0 refs).

  7. Solid State Photovoltaic Research Branch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-09-01

    This report summarizes the progress of the Solid State Photovoltaic Research Branch of the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) from October 1, 1988, through September 30,l 1989. Six technical sections of the report cover these main areas of SERIs in-house research: Semiconductor Crystal Growth, Amorphous Silicon Research, Polycrystalline Thin Films, III-V High-Efficiency Photovoltaic Cells, Solid-State Theory, and Laser Raman and Luminescence Spectroscopy. Sections have been indexed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  8. Flow-induced pruning of branched systems and brittle reconfiguration

    CERN Document Server

    Lopez, Diego; de Langre, Emmanuel

    2011-01-01

    Whereas most plants are flexible structures that undergo large deformations under flow, another process can occur when the plant is broken by heavy fluid-loading. We investigate here the mechanism of such possible breakage, focusing on the flow-induced pruning that can be observed in plants or aquatic vegetation when parts of the structure break under flow. By computation on an actual tree geometry, a 20-yr-old walnut tree (Juglans Regia L.) and comparison with simple models, we analyze the influence of geometrical and physical parameters on the occurrence of branch breakage and on the successive breaking events occurring in a tree-like structure when the flow velocity is increased. We show that both the branching pattern and the slenderness exponent, defining the branch taper, play a major role in the breakage scenario. We identify a criterion for branch breakage to occur before breakage of the trunk. In that case, we show that the successive breakage of peripheral branches allows the plant to sustain higher...

  9. A Power-Aware Branch Predictor by Accessing the BTB Selectively

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheol Hong Kim; Sung Woo Chung; Chu Shik Jhon

    2005-01-01

    Microarchitects should consider power consumption, together with accuracy, when designing a branch predictor,especially in embedded processors. This paper proposes a power-aware branch predictor, which is based on the gshare predictor, by accessing the BTB (Branch Target Buffer) selectively. To enable the selective access to the BTB, the PHT (Pattern History Table) in the proposed branch predictor is accessed one cycle earlier than the traditional PHT if the program is executed sequentially without branch instructions. As a side effect, two predictions from the PHT are obtained through one access to the PHT, resulting in more power savings. In the proposed branch predictor, if the previous instruction was not a branch and the prediction from the PHT is untaken, the BTB is not accessed to reduce power consumption. If the previous instruction was a branch, the BTB is always accessed, regardless of the prediction from the PHT, to prevent the additional delay/accuracy decrease. The proposed branch predictorreduces the power consumption with little hardware overhead, not incurring additional delay and never harming prediction accuracy. The simulation results show that the proposed branch predictor reduces the power consumption by 29-47%.

  10. Branching processes and neutral evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Taïb, Ziad

    1992-01-01

    The Galton-Watson branching process has its roots in the problem of extinction of family names which was given a precise formulation by F. Galton as problem 4001 in the Educational Times (17, 1873). In 1875, an attempt to solve this problem was made by H. W. Watson but as it turned out, his conclusion was incorrect. Half a century later, R. A. Fisher made use of the Galton-Watson process to determine the extinction probability of the progeny of a mutant gene. However, it was J. B. S. Haldane who finally gave the first sketch of the correct conclusion. J. B. S. Haldane also predicted that mathematical genetics might some day develop into a "respectable branch of applied mathematics" (quoted in M. Kimura & T. Ohta, Theoretical Aspects of Population Genetics. Princeton, 1971). Since the time of Fisher and Haldane, the two fields of branching processes and mathematical genetics have attained a high degree of sophistication but in different directions. This monograph is a first attempt to apply the current sta...

  11. Coherent field emission from a multi-walled carbon nanotube with two open-ended branches

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bai Xin; Zhang Geng-Min; Wang Ming-Sheng; Zhang Zhao-Xiang; Yu Jie; Zhao Xing-Yu; Guo Deng-Zhu; Xue Zeng-Quan

    2009-01-01

    Interference fringes are obtained in a field-emission microscopy (FEM) study of a multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) with two open-ended branches.The FEM pattern,which is composed of three parallel streaks,can be interpreted by using classical Young's double-slit interference with the ends of the two MWCNT branches treated as two secondary sources of the electron wave.The origin of the coherency of the electron beams from the two branches is discussed on the basis of the quantitative analysis of the FEM pattern.The result suggests a new approach to obtaining a coherent electron source.

  12. Electrophysiological abnormalities associated with extensive myelinated retinal nerve fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Ann Tay

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An observational case report of electrophysiological abnormalities in a patient with anisomyopic amblyopia as a result of unilateral extensive myelinated retinal nerve fibers (MNFs is illustrated. The electrophysiological readings revealed an abnormal pattern electroretinogram (PERG but normal full-field electroretinogram readings in the affected eye. The visual-evoked potential was also undetectable in that eye. Our findings suggest that extensive MNFs can be associated with electrophysiological abnormalities, in particular the PERG, which can aid in diagnosing the cause of impaired vision when associated with amblyopia.

  13. Abnormal pressure in hydrocarbon environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, B.E.; Spencer, C.W.

    1998-01-01

    Abnormal pressures, pressures above or below hydrostatic pressures, occur on all continents in a wide range of geological conditions. According to a survey of published literature on abnormal pressures, compaction disequilibrium and hydrocarbon generation are the two most commonly cited causes of abnormally high pressure in petroleum provinces. In young (Tertiary) deltaic sequences, compaction disequilibrium is the dominant cause of abnormal pressure. In older (pre-Tertiary) lithified rocks, hydrocarbon generation, aquathermal expansion, and tectonics are most often cited as the causes of abnormal pressure. The association of abnormal pressures with hydrocarbon accumulations is statistically significant. Within abnormally pressured reservoirs, empirical evidence indicates that the bulk of economically recoverable oil and gas occurs in reservoirs with pressure gradients less than 0.75 psi/ft (17.4 kPa/m) and there is very little production potential from reservoirs that exceed 0.85 psi/ft (19.6 kPa/m). Abnormally pressured rocks are also commonly associated with unconventional gas accumulations where the pressuring phase is gas of either a thermal or microbial origin. In underpressured, thermally mature rocks, the affected reservoirs have most often experienced a significant cooling history and probably evolved from an originally overpressured system.

  14. Systemic abnormalities in liver disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Masami Minemura; Kazuto Tajiri; Yukihiro Shimizu

    2009-01-01

    Systemic abnormalities often occur in patients with liver disease. In particular, cardiopulmonary or renal diseases accompanied by advanced liver disease can be serious and may determine the quality of life and prognosis of patients. Therefore, both hepatologists and non-hepatologists should pay attention to such abnormalities in the management of patients with liver diseases.

  15. Mechanical properties of branched actin filaments

    CERN Document Server

    Razbin, Mohammadhosein; Benetatos, Panayotis; Zippelius, Annette

    2015-01-01

    Cells moving on a two dimensional substrate generate motion by polymerizing actin filament networks inside a flat membrane protrusion. New filaments are generated by branching off existing ones, giving rise to branched network structures. We investigate the force-extension relation of branched filaments, grafted on an elastic structure at one end and pushing with the free ends against the leading edge cell membrane. Single filaments are modeled as worm-like chains, whose thermal bending fluctuations are restricted by the leading edge cell membrane, resulting in an effective force. Branching can increase the stiffness considerably; however the effect depends on branch point position and filament orientation, being most pronounced for intermediate tilt angles and intermediate branch point positions. We describe filament networks without cross-linkers to focus on the effect of branching. We use randomly positioned branch points, as generated in the process of treadmilling, and orientation distributions as measur...

  16. Resolution of long standing tinnitus following radiofrequency ablation of C2-C3 medial branches--a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gritsenko, Karina; Caldwell, William; Shaparin, Naum; Vydyanathan, Amaresh; Kosharskyy, Boleslav

    2014-01-01

    Tinnitus is described as an auditory phantom perception analogous to central neuropathic pain. Despite the high prevalence of this debilitating symptom, no intervention is recognized that reliably eliminates tinnitus symptoms; a cause has yet to be determined. A 65-year-old healthy man presented with a 3 year history of left-sided tinnitus. Full workup performed by the primary care physician including blood tests for electrolyte imbalance, consultations by 2 independent otholaryngologists, and imaging did not reveal abnormalities to provide etiology of the tinnitus. No other complaints were noted except for occasional minimal left sided neck pain. Cervical spine x-ray showed degenerative changes with facet hypertrophy more pronounced on the left side. Subsequently, the patient underwent diagnostic left-sided C2-C3 medial branch block, resulting in complete resolution of tinnitus for more than 6 hours. After successful radiofrequency ablation of left C2-C3 medial branches, the patient became asymptomatic. At one year follow-up, he continued to be symptom free. Sparce studies have shown interaction between the somatosensory and auditory system at dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN), inferior colliculus, and parietal association areas. Upper cervical nerve (C2) electrical stimulation evokes potentials in the DCN, eliciting strong patterns of inhibition and weak excitation of the DCN principal cells. New evidence demonstrated successful transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) of upper cervical nerve (C2) for treatment of somatic tinnitus in 240 patients. This case indicates that C2-C3 facet arthropathy may cause tinnitus and radiofrequency ablation of C2-C3 medial branches can provide an effective approach not previously considered.

  17. Cost differentials of dental outpatient care across clinical dentistry branches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovana Rančić

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dental care presents affordability issues in Central & Eastern European transitional economies due to lack of insurance coverage in most countries of the region and almost complete out-of-pocket payments by citizens.Objective: Real world estimates on cost differentials across clinical dentistry branches, ICD-10 diagnostic groups and groups of dental services.Methods: Prospective case-series cost analysis was conducted from the patient perspective. A six months time horizon was adopted. Sample size was 752 complete episodes of treatment in 250 patients, selected in 2012/2013 throughout several specialist state- and private-owned dental clinics in Serbia. All direct costs of dental care were taken into account and expressed in Euros (€.Results: Mean total costs of dental care were € 46 ± 156 per single dentist visit while total costs incurred by this population sample were € 34,424. Highest unit utilization of services belongs to conservative dentistry (31.9%, oral surgery (19.5% and radiology (17.4%, while the resource with the highest monetary value belongs to implantology € 828 ± 392, orthodontics € 706 ± 667 and prosthetics € 555 ± 244. The most frequently treated diagnosis was tooth decay (33.8% unit services provided, pulpitis (11.2% and impacted teeth (8.5%, while most expensive to treat were anomalies of tooth position (€ 648 ± 667, abnormalities of size and form of teeth (€ 508 ± 705 and loss of teeth due to accident, extraction or local periodontal disease (€ 336 ± 339.Conclusion: Although the range of dental costs currently falls behind EU average, Serbia’s emerging economy is likely to expand in the long run while market demand for dental services will grow. Due to threatened financial sustainability of current health insurance patterns in Western Balkans, getting acquainted with true size and structure of dental care costs could essentially support informed decision making in future

  18. AORTIC ARCH-STUDY OF DIFFERENT BRANCHING PATTERNS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nijagunappa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION The arch of aorta is the continuation of ascending aorta which arises from the left ventricle inside the fibrous pericardium. The arch is convex upwards, behind and somewhat towards the left sided if it has to be described in 3 dimensionally. The study was conducted in the Department of Anatomy at KMCT, Kozhikode from 2014-2015. Fifty formalin fixed heart specimens of both sexes with age ranging between 50 to 70 years were used. Mainly three types were noted.

  19. [Abnormal hemoglobins in a Negroid population in Peru].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz Franco, O E; Villacorta Wettstein, M E; Zaga Catacora, R E; Márquez Torres, M C

    1990-08-01

    A study was performed on 100 blood samples from black people native of the Chincha province and living in Pueblo Nuevo Ica district, in Peru. No haematological abnormalities were seen in any of the cases. Upon haemoglobin electrophoresis, 8 carriers of abnormal haemoglobin were found, the A/S pattern appearing in 5 instances and the A/C pattern in 3. These 8 samples were subjected to deoxyhaemoglobin solubility tests and to differential solubility test with urea, the initial results being confirmed. These data correlate, in general terms with previous findings.

  20. Imaging findings of sternal abnormalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franquet, T. [Dept. of Radiology, Hospital de Sant Pau, Universidad Autonoma de Barcelona (Spain); Gimenez, A. [Dept. of Radiology, Hospital de Sant Pau, Universidad Autonoma de Barcelona (Spain); Alegret, X. [Dept. of Radiology, Hospital de Sant Pau, Universidad Autonoma de Barcelona (Spain); Sanchis, E. [Dept. of Radiology, Hospital de Sant Pau, Universidad Autonoma de Barcelona (Spain); Rivas, A. [Dept. of Radiology, Hospital Vall d`Hebron, Universidad Autonoma de Barcelona (Spain)

    1997-05-01

    Radiographic findings in the sternal abnormalities are often nonspecific, showing appearances from a localized benign lesion to an aggressive lesion as seen with infections and malignant neoplasms. A specific diagnosis of sternal abnormalities can be suggested on the basis of CT and MR characteristics. Familiarity with the presentation and variable appearance of sternal abnormalities may aid the radiologist is suggesting a specific diagnosis. We present among others characteristic radiographic findings of hemangioma, chondrosarcoma, hydatid disease, and SAPHO syndrome. In those cases in which findings are not specific, cross-sectional imaging modalities may help the clinician in their management. (orig.)

  1. The anatomy of the fundic branches of the stomach: preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregorczyk, M; Dabkowska, A; Tarka, S; Ciszek, B

    2008-05-01

    The fundic branches of the stomach can be defined as a group of vessels that can arise either directly or indirectly from the following source arteries: the left inferior phrenic artery, the accessory left hepatic artery, the left gastric artery, the left middle suprarenal artery, the main trunk of the splenic artery, the posterior gastric artery, the superior polar artery, the gastrosplenic artery, the left gastroepiploic artery and the splenic artery with its inferior and superior terminal branches. It is worth mentioning that the fundic branches of the left gastroepiploic artery and the superior and inferior terminal branches of the splenic artery, like other vessels arising from these three source arteries and supplying the stomach, are defined as short gastric arteries. The anatomy of these fundic branches, particularly relevant to some surgical procedures, is not sufficiently described, and the current literature suffers from lack of publications on this particular topic. We therefore decided to explore in detail the arterial vascularisation of the gastric fundus. The research was carried out on material consisting of 15 human stomach specimens. The anatomical analysis comprised the following: the number of occurrences of fundic branches in each of the source arteries defined above, the distance between the origins of the source artery and its arising fundic branch, the way in which the fundic branches arose, the length, diameter at point of origin and morphology of the fundic branches, as well as the exact point of perforation of each fundic branch on the fundus. The highest incidence of the direct-branching pattern of fundic branches was in the left middle suprarenal artery, the gastrosplenic artery and the left gastrosplenic artery. The accessory left hepatic artery, the left gastric artery and the main trunk of the splenic artery were the most frequent site of the indirectly arising pattern of fundic branch. The highest median value of fundic branch

  2. Normal anatomy and abnormal patterns of the supraspinatus muscle: Ultrasound versus surgery. Analysis of the possible sources of misdiagnosis; Anatomia normale e quadri patologici del muscolo sovraspinato: Confronto tra ecografia e chirurgia. Analisi delle possibili fonti di errore diagnostico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montrucchio, Edgardo [Ospedale S. Andrea, La Spezia (Italy); Iovane, Angelo; Midiri, Massimo; Finazzo, Mario; La Tona, Giuseppe; Lagalla, Roberto [Palermo, Univ. (Italy). Istituto di Radiologia ``Piero Cignolini``

    1997-04-01

    The supraspinatus muscle performs about 60 % of the elevation-abduction motion of the arm; it has a prominent functional role among the extra rotational muscles of the shoulder and is the most injured in subacromial space conditions. Seventy-four patients, aged 21-64 years, were examined to compare ultrasonography (US) results with surgical findings in supraspinatus conditions and to analyze the possible pitfalls in US diagnosis. All the patients underwent conventional X-ray US and then surgery or arthroscopy. The following criteria were considered: morphology, thickness, echotexture, the convexity of the superior border of supraspinatus tendon, the relationships with the subacromial bursa and the tendon of the biceps long head, the regularity of the bone cortex of the humeral head. US showed: perforating focal injuries in 21 patients; deep focal injuries in 10 patients; intramural focal injuries in 6 patients; superficial focal injuries in 8 patients; complete tendon tear with detachment in 19 cases. 62/74 US diagnoses were surgically confirmed, with a specificity of 83.7 %. In their experience, US provided very useful information about the pattern, size and site of the injuries and was very helpful in the surgical planning.

  3. Wnt/PCP proteins regulate stereotyped axon branch extension in Drosophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Julian

    2012-01-01

    Branching morphology is a hallmark feature of axons and dendrites and is essential for neuronal connectivity. To understand how this develops, I analyzed the stereotyped pattern of Drosophila mushroom body (MB) neurons, which have single axons branches that extend dorsally and medially. I found that components of the Wnt/Planar Cell Polarity (PCP) pathway control MB axon branching. frizzled mutant animals showed a predominant loss of dorsal branch extension, whereas strabismus (also known as Van Gogh) mutants preferentially lost medial branches. Further results suggest that Frizzled and Strabismus act independently. Nonetheless, branching fates are determined by complex Wnt/PCP interactions, including interactions with Dishevelled and Prickle that function in a context-dependent manner. Branching decisions are MB-autonomous but non-cell-autonomous as mutant and non-mutant neurons regulate these decisions collectively. I found that Wnt/PCP components do not need to be asymmetrically localized to distinct branches to execute branching functions. However, Prickle axonal localization depends on Frizzled and Strabismus. PMID:22147954

  4. Chiral methyl-branched pheromones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Tetsu; Yamakawa, Rei

    2015-07-01

    Insect pheromones are some of the most interesting natural products because they are utilized for interspecific communication between various insects, such as beetles, moths, ants, and cockroaches. A large number of compounds of many kinds have been identified as pheromone components, reflecting the diversity of insect species. While this review deals only with chiral methyl-branched pheromones, the chemical structures of more than one hundred non-terpene compounds have been determined by applying excellent analytical techniques. Furthermore, their stereoselective syntheses have been achieved by employing trustworthy chiral sources and ingenious enantioselective reactions. The information has been reviewed here not only to make them available for new research but also to understand the characteristic chemical structures of the chiral pheromones. Since biosynthetic studies are still limited, it might be meaningful to examine whether the structures, particularly the positions and configurations of the branched methyl groups, are correlated with the taxonomy of the pheromone producers and also with the function of the pheromones in communication systems.

  5. Pregnancy Complications: Umbilical Cord Abnormalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... defects. These tests may include a detailed ultrasound, amniocentesis (to check for chromosomal abnormalities) and in some ... the provider may recommend additional tests, such as amniocentesis and a detailed ultrasound, to diagnose or rule ...

  6. Branching diffusions in random environment

    CERN Document Server

    Böinghoff, Christian

    2011-01-01

    We consider the diffusion approximation of branching processes in random environment (BPREs). This diffusion approximation is similar to and mathematically more tractable than BPREs. We obtain the exact asymptotic behavior of the survival probability. As in the case of BPREs, there is a phase transition in the subcritical regime due to different survival opportunities. In addition, we characterize the process conditioned to never go extinct and establish a backbone construction. In the strongly subcritical regime, mean offspring numbers are increased but still subcritical in the process conditioned to never go extinct. Here survival is solely due to an immortal individual, whose offspring are the ancestors of additional families. In the weakly subcritical regime, the mean offspring number is supercritical in the process conditioned to never go extinct. Thus this process survives with positive probability even if there was no immortal individual.

  7. Branching process models of cancer

    CERN Document Server

    Durrett, Richard

    2015-01-01

    This volume develops results on continuous time branching processes and applies them to study rate of tumor growth, extending classic work on the Luria-Delbruck distribution. As a consequence, the authors calculate the probability that mutations that confer resistance to treatment are present at detection and quantify the extent of tumor heterogeneity. As applications, the authors evaluate ovarian cancer screening strategies and give rigorous proofs for results of Heano and Michor concerning tumor metastasis. These notes should be accessible to students who are familiar with Poisson processes and continuous time. Richard Durrett is mathematics professor at Duke University, USA. He is the author of 8 books, over 200 journal articles, and has supervised more than 40 Ph.D. students. Most of his current research concerns the applications of probability to biology: ecology, genetics, and most recently cancer.

  8. Stabilization of Branching Queueing Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Brázdil, Tomáš

    2011-01-01

    Queueing networks are gaining attraction for the performance analysis of parallel computer systems. A Jackson network is a set of interconnected servers, where the completion of a job at server i may result in the creation of a new job for server j. We propose to extend Jackson networks by "branching" and by "control" features. Both extensions are new and substantially expand the modelling power of Jackson networks. On the other hand, the extensions raise computational questions, particularly concerning the stability of the networks, i.e, the ergodicity of the underlying Markov chain. We show for our extended model that it is decidable in polynomial time if there exists a controller that achieves stability. Moreover, if such a controller exists, one can efficiently compute a static randomized controller which stabilizes the network in a very strong sense; in particular, all moments of the queue sizes are finite.

  9. Memetics clarification of abnormal behavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    AIM: Biological medicine is hard to fully and scientifically explain the etiological factor and pathogenesis of abnormal behaviors; while, researches on philosophy and psychology (including memetics) are beneficial to better understand and explain etiological factor and pathogenesis of abnormal behaviors. At present, the theory of philosophy and psychology is to investigate the entity of abnormal behavior based on the views of memetics.METHODS: Abnormal behavior was researched in this study based on three aspects, including instinctive behavior disorder, poorly social-adapted behavior disorder and mental or body disease associated behavior disorder. Most main viewpoints of memetics were derived from "The Meme Machine", which was written by Susan Blackmore. When questions about abnormal behaviors induced by mental and psychological diseases and conduct disorder of teenagers were discussed, some researching achievements which were summarized by authors previously were added in this study, such as aggressive behaviors, pathologically aggressive behaviors, etc.RESULTS: The abnormal behaviors mainly referred to a part of people's substandard behaviors which were not according with the realistic social environment, culture background and the pathologic behaviors resulted from people's various psychological diseases. According to the theory of "meme", it demonstrated that the relevant behavioral obstacles of various psychological diseases, for example, the unusual behavior of schizophrenia, were caused, because the old meme was destroyed thoroughly but the new meme was unable to establish; psychoneurosis and personality disorder were resulted in hard establishment of meme; the behavioral obstacles which were ill-adapted to society, for example, various additional and homosexual behaviors, were because of the selfish replications and imitations of "additional meme" and "homosexual meme"; various instinct behavioral and congenital intelligent obstacles were not significance

  10. [Diagnosticum of abnormalities of plant meiotic division].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamina, N V

    2006-01-01

    Abnormalities of plant meiotic division leading to abnormal meiotic products are summarized schematically in the paper. Causes of formation of monads, abnormal diads, triads, pentads, polyads, etc. have been observed in meiosis with both successive and simultaneous cytokinesis.

  11. Thyroid abnormality in perimenopausal women with abnormal uterine bleeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasanna Byna

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: AUB is a common but complicated clinical presentation and occurs in 15-20% of women between menarche to menopause and significantly affects the women's health. Women with thyroid dysfunction often have menstrual irregularities, infertility and increased morbidity during pregnancy. The objective of present study is to find the correlation between thyroid disorders and AUB in perimenopausal women attending gynecology OPD. Methods: In the present study, fifty five patients with AUB were included and were evaluated for the cause including thyroid abnormality. Thyroid function tests were done in all patients. Results: Among 55 patients, 12 patients were diagnosed as hypothyroidism and 7 as hyperthyroidism, women with AUB 36 (65.4% were euthyroid. Among 19 women with thyroid abnormality, heavy menstrual bleeding was seen in 8 (42% women, 6 (31.57% had polymenorrhagia, 5 (26.31% had oligomenorrhoea. The frequent menstrual abnormality in women with hypothyroidism (12 women was heavy menstrual bleeding in 5 (41.6% women, 3 (25% had oligomennorhoea, 4 (33.3% had polymenorrhagia. Out of 7 women with hyperthyroidism, 2 (28.57% had oligomenorrhoea, 3 (42.8% had heavy menstrual bleeding, 2 (28.57% had polymenorrhagia. In a total of 55 patients with AUB, 11 (20% had structural abnormalities in uterus and ovaries. 5 (9% had adenomyosis, 3 (5.4% had ovarian cysts, 3 (5.4% had fibroids. Conclusions: It is important to screen all women for thyroid abnormality who are presenting with AUB especially with non-structural causes of AUB. Correction of thyroid abnormalities also relieves AUB. This will avoid unnecessary hormonal treatment and surgery. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(11.000: 3250-3253

  12. Vegetation survey of PEN Branch wetlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    A survey was conducted of vegetation along Pen Branch Creek at Savannah River Site (SRS) in support of K-Reactor restart. Plants were identified to species by overstory, understory, shrub, and groundcover strata. Abundance was also characterized and richness and diversity calculated. Based on woody species basal area, the Pen Branch delta was the most impacted, followed by the sections between the reactor and the delta. Species richness for shrub and groundcover strata were also lowest in the delta. No endangered plant species were found. Three upland pine areas were also sampled. In support of K Reactor restart, this report summarizes a study of the wetland vegetation along Pen Branch. Reactor effluent enters Indian Grove Branch and then flows into Pen Branch and the Pen Branch Delta.

  13. Seizure increases electroencephalographic abnormalities in children with tuberculous meningitis

    OpenAIRE

    Prastiya Indra Gunawan; Darto Saharso

    2016-01-01

    Background Tuberculous meningitis (TBM) is a severe intracranial infection with fatal outcomes, permanent disabilities, and electroencephalographic (EEG) abnormalities. Seizures may occur in TBM. The EEG findings in TBM vary according to the site of the inflammatory process. There are few studies describing the EEG patterns and clinical manifestations of TBM. The objective of this study was to investigate the correlation between clinical findings and EEG patterns in children with TBM. ...

  14. Controlled Electronic Transport through Branched Molecular Conductors

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Abstract The conductance through a branched conductor placed between two electrodes is analyzed using the Landauer transport formulation within the framework of the single electron, and the tight binding approximations. Terminal side chains are expressed as self energy terms which map the branched conductor onto an effective linear chain Hamiltonian. The effect of uniform side branches on resonant zero-bias conductance is shown to be analytically solvable and particularly simple, w...

  15. Kidney transplantation in abnormal bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashi K Mishra

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Structural urologic abnormalities resulting in dysfunctional lower urinary tract leading to end stage renal disease may constitute 15% patients in the adult population and up to 20-30% in the pediatric population. A patient with an abnormal bladder, who is approaching end stage renal disease, needs careful evaluation of the lower urinary tract to plan the most satisfactory technical approach to the transplant procedure. Past experience of different authors can give an insight into the management and outcome of these patients. This review revisits the current literature available on transplantation in abnormal bladder and summarizes the clinical approach towards handling this group of difficult transplant patients. We add on our experience as we discuss the various issues. The outcome of renal transplant in abnormal bladder is not adversely affected when done in a reconstructed bladder. Correct preoperative evaluation, certain technical modification during transplant and postoperative care is mandatory to avoid complications. Knowledge of the abnormal bladder should allow successful transplantation with good outcome.

  16. Branched silver nanowires as controllable plasmon routers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yurui; Li, Zhipeng; Huang, Yingzhou; Zhang, Shunping; Nordlander, Peter; Halas, Naomi J; Xu, Hongxing

    2010-05-12

    Using polarization dependent scattering spectroscopy, we investigate plasmon propagation on branched silver nanowires. By controlling the polarization of the incident laser light, the wire plasmons can be routed into different wire branches and result in light emission from the corresponding wire ends. This routing behavior is found to be strongly dependent on the wavelength of light. Thus for certain incident polarizations, light of different wavelength will be routed into different branches. The branched nanowire can thus serve as a controllable router and multiplexer in integrated plasmonic circuits.

  17. Current perspectives on shoot branching regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cunquan YUAN,Lin XI,Yaping KOU,Yu ZHAO,Liangjun ZHAO

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Shoot branching is regulated by the complex interactions among hormones, development, and environmental factors. Recent studies into the regulatory mecha-nisms of shoot branching have focused on strigolactones, which is a new area of investigation in shoot branching regulation. Elucidation of the function of the D53 gene has allowed exploration of detailed mechanisms of action of strigolactones in regulating shoot branching. In addition, the recent discovery that sucrose is key for axillary bud release has challenged the established auxin theory, in which auxin is the principal agent in the control of apical dominance. These developments increase our understan-ding of branching control and indicate that regulation of shoot branching involves a complex network. Here, we first summarize advances in the systematic regulatory network of plant shoot branching based on current information. Then we describe recent developments in the synthesis and signal transduction of strigolactones. Based on these considerations, we further summarize the plant shoot branching regulatory network, including long distance systemic signals and local gene activity mediated by strigolactones following perception of external envi-ronmental signals, such as shading, in order to provide a comprehensive overview of plant shoot branching.

  18. Networks of companies and branches in Poland

    CERN Document Server

    Chmiel, A M; Sienkiewicz, J; Suchecki, K; Chmiel, Anna M.; Holyst, Janusz A.; Sienkiewicz, Julian; Suchecki, Krzysztof

    2006-01-01

    In this study we consider relations between companies in Poland taking into account common branches they belong to. It is clear that companies belonging to the same branch compete for similar customers, so the market induces correlations between them. On the other hand two branches can be related by companies acting in both of them. To remove weak, accidental links we shall use a concept of threshold filtering for weighted networks where a link weight corresponds to a number of existing connections (common companies or branches) between a pair of nodes.

  19. Patterns - "A crime solver"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Nagasupriya

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study is intended to analyze the predominant pattern of lip and finger prints in males and females and to correlate lip print and finger print for gender identity. Materials and Methods: The study sample comprised of 200 students of Vishnu Dental College, Bhimavaram, Andhra Pradesh, 100 males and 100 females aged between 18 to 27 years. Brown/pink colored lip stick was applied on the lips and the subject was asked to spread it uniformly over the lips. Lip prints were traced in the normal rest position of the lips with the help of cellophane tape. The imprint of the left thumb was taken on a white chart sheet and visualized using magnifying lens. While three main types of finger prints are identified, the classification of lip prints is simplified into branched, reticular, and vertical types. Association between lip prints and finger prints was statistically tested using Chi-square test. Results: This study showed that lip and finger patterns did not reveal statistically significant results within the gender. The correlation between lip and finger patterns for gender identification, was statistically significant. In males, branched type of lip pattern associated with arch, loop, and whorl type of finger pattern was most significant. In females, vertical lip pattern associated with arch finger pattern and reticular lip pattern associated with whorl finger patterns were most significant. Conclusion: We conclude that a correlative study between the lip print and finger print will be very useful in forensic science for gender identification.

  20. Simulated lipoprotein transport in the wall of branched arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darbeau, M Z; Lutz, R J; Collins, W E

    2000-01-01

    Study of arterial blood flow dynamics improves our understanding of the development of cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis. The transport and accumulation of macromolecules in the arterial wall can be influenced by local fluid mechanics. We used numeric simulations to investigate such transport in a T-junction model. Presumably an in vitro experiment would consist of gel segments inserted in the walls of a mechanical flow T-junction model near branch points where separation and recirculation zones are expected. The transport of low density lipoprotein (LDL) was investigated theoretically at these sites in a two dimensional numeric T-branch model. In the numeric model, the hydraulic conductivity of the porous gel wall segments was varied for a fixed species diffusivity to provide simulations with wall transmural Peclet numbers ranging from 0.3 to 30. Steady state flow patterns in the lumen of the two dimensional T-branch were simulated at Reynolds numbers of 250 and 500, using the software package FIDAP 7.61 to implement the finite element method. The simulations demonstrated that wall Peclet numbers greater than 1.0 were needed to achieve species concentration gradients within the wall that varied in the axial direction, thereby reflecting the influence of disturbed flow and pressure patterns in the lumen. As expected, the transmural concentration gradients were steeper when convection predominated. Blood flow in the lumen can influence the distribution of macromolecules in the arterial wall and needs to be investigated for the relevance to atherosclerosis.

  1. A role for Fas II in the stabilization of motor neuron branches during pruning in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebbar, Sarita; Fernandes, Joyce J

    2005-09-01

    During insect metamorphosis, the nervous system is extensively remodeled resulting in the development of new circuits that will execute adult-specific behaviors. The peripheral remodeling seen during development of innervation to the Dorsal Longitudinal (flight) Muscle (DLM) in Drosophila involves an initial retraction of larval neuromuscular junctions followed by adult-specific branch outgrowth. Subsequently, a phase of pruning occurs during which motor neuron branches are pruned back to reveal the stereotypic pattern of multiple contact points (or arbors) along the length of each DLM fiber. In this study, we show that the cell adhesion molecule, Fasciclin II (Fas II), is important for generating the stereotypic pattern. In Fas II hypomorphs, the number of contact points is increased, and the phenotype is rescued by targeted expression of Fas II in either synaptic partner. Arbor development has three distinct phases: outgrowth and elaboration, pruning and stabilization, and expansion of stabilized arbors. Fas II is expressed during the first two phases. A subset of branches is labeled during the elaboration phase, which is likely to initiate a stabilization pathway allowing branches to survive the pruning phase. However, since not all Fas II positive branches are retained, we propose that it primes branches for stabilization. Our data suggest that Fas II functions to restrict branch length and arbor expanse.

  2. Abnormal insulin levels and vertigo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, C A

    1981-10-01

    Fifty patients with unexplained vertigo (36) or lightheadedness (14) are evaluated, all of whom had abnormal ENGs and normal audiograms. Five hour insulin glucose tolerance tests were performance on all patients, with insulin levels being obtained fasting and at one-half, one, two, and three hours. The results of this investigation were remarkable. Borderline or abnormal insulin levels were discovered in 82% of patients; 90% were found to have either an abnormal glucose tolerance test or at least borderline insulin levels. The response to treatment in these dizzy patients was also startling, with appropriate low carbohydrate diets improving the patient's symptoms in 90% of cases. It is, therefore, apparent that the earliest identification of carbohydrate imbalance with an insulin glucose tolerance test is extremely important in the work-up of the dizzy patients.

  3. Stochastic transition between turbulent branch and thermodynamic branch of an inhomogeneous plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawasaki, Mitsuhiro; Itoh, Sanae-I.; Yagi, Masatoshi [Kyushu Univ., Research Institute for Applied Mechanics, Kasuga, Fukuoka (Japan); Itoh, Kimitaka [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu (Japan)

    2002-05-01

    Transition phenomena between thermodynamic branch and turbulent branch in submarginal turbulent plasma are analyzed with statistical theory. Time-development of turbulent fluctuation is obtained by numerical simulations of Langevin equation which contains submarginal characteristics. Probability density functions and transition rates between two states are analyzed. Transition from turbulent branch to thermodynamic branch occurs in almost entire region between subcritical bifurcation point and linear stability boundary. (author)

  4. Asymptotics of Simple Branching Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huillet, Thierry; Kłopotowski, Andrzej; Porzio, Anna

    1995-09-01

    In this paper we study a simple deterministic tree structure: an initial individual generates a finite number of offspring, each of which has given integer valued lifetime, iterating the same procedure when dying. Three asymptotic distributions of this asynchronous deterministic branching procedure are considered: the generation distribution, the ability of individuals to generate offspring and the age distribution. Thermodynamic formalism is then developped to reveal the multifractal nature of the mass splitting associated to our process. On considère l'itération d'une structure déterministe arborescente selon laquelle un ancêtre engendre un nombre fini de descendants dont la durée de vie (à valeurs entières) est donnée. Dans un premier temps on s'intéresse aux trois distributions asymptotiques suivantes : répartition des générations, aptitude à engendrer des descendants et répartition selon l'âge. Ensuite nous développons le formalisme thermodynamique pour mettre en évidence le caractère multifractal de la scission d'une masse unitaire associée à cette arborescence.

  5. ECONOMIC ISSUES OF BRANCH PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamrov K. N.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with topical questions of economy industry production of rice grain. The need for improving the business efficiency of rice today is dictated by political and economic sanctions, the needs of our society in full substitution of this important product. State stimulation of rice development today is carried out through a complex of economic and administrative activities. The economic measures of the state include: price control on rice price and processing products, support of agricultural producers’ incomes, leasing involving the state, marketing of products, and infrastructure development of the grain market. The system of public administrative measures also includes standardization and certification of grain products, control quality of grain and products of its processing, the quarantine protection, licensing activities organizations, and mandatory statistical account of the rice market. These measures are intended to ensure equal conditions of competition between local and imported rice, to spur investment and expansion of domestic production, increase profitability of rice, allowing the rice enterprises to carry out expensive irrigation systems repairs and capital inputs in lot lend. The article suggests that rice branch industry remains competitive and with abolition of import customs barriers within frameworks WTO. It is necessary to invest more heavily in infrastructure with the aim of improving business efficiency of rice

  6. An archetypal mechanism for branching organogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clément, Raphaël; Mauroy, Benjamin

    2014-02-01

    Branched structures are ubiquitous in nature, both in living and non-living systems. While the functional benefits of branching organogenesis are straightforward, the developmental mechanisms leading to the repeated branching of epithelia in surrounding mesoderm remain unclear. Both molecular and physical aspects of growth control seem to play a critical role in shape emergence and maintenance. On the molecular side, the existence of a gradient of growth-promoting ligand between epithelial tips and distal mesenchyme seems to be common to branched organs. On the physical side, the branching process seems to require a mechanism of real-time adaptation to local geometry, as suggested by the self-avoiding nature of branching events. In this paper, we investigate the outcomes of a general three-dimensional growth model, in which epithelial growth is implemented as a function of ligand income, while the mesenchyme is considered as a proliferating viscous medium. Our results suggest that the existence of a gradient of growth-promoting ligand between distal and proximal mesenchyme implies a growth instability of the epithelial sheet, resulting in spontaneous self-avoiding branching morphogenesis. While the general nature of the model prevents one from fitting the development of specific organs, it suggests that few ingredients are actually required to achieve branching organogenesis.

  7. Discovery of Abnormal Flight Patterns in Flight Track Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The National Airspace System (NAS) is an ever changing and complex engineering system. As the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) is developed, there...

  8. Hereditary sideroblastic anemia with associated platelet abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soslau, G; Brodsky, I

    1989-12-01

    A 62 year old male (R.H.) presented with a mild anemia (Hb 11-12 gm%) and a history of multiple hemorrhagic episodes. The marrow had 40-50% sideroblasts. Marrow chromosomes were normal. His wife was hematologically normal, while one daughter, age 30 years, had a sideroblastic anemia (Hb 11-12 gm%) with 40-50% sideroblasts in the marrow. Her anemia was first noted at age 15 years. Administration of vitamin B6 did not correct the anemia in either the father or daughter. Platelet abnormalities inherited jointly with this disorder are described for the first time. Both R.H. and his daughter had prolonged bleeding times, with normal PTT, PT times, fVIII:C, fVIII:Ag levels, and vWF multimers, which may rule out a von Willebrand's disease. They have normal platelet numbers but abnormally low platelet adhesiveness and greatly depressed ADP, collagen, and epinephrine responsiveness. Response to ristocetin was in the low normal range, and aggregation with thrombin was normal. While desmopressin completely normalized R.H.'s bleeding time, none of these platelet parameters were improved. No differences in the SDS PAGE protein patterns of RH platelets could be detected in comparison to normal samples. His platelets took up and released serotonin (5HT) normally, and electron micrographs defined no morphological abnormalities. However, no ATP was released from platelets activated with collagen, and when followed by thrombin about fourfold greater ATP was released by control platelets as compared to RH platelets. The dense granule fraction derived from RH platelets contained about 20% the level of ATP, 40% the level of ADP, and 50% the level of 5HT detected in a normal sample. The results indicate that the bleeding disorder is related to a non-classical heritable storage pool defect. The connection between the inherited sideroblastic anemia and platelet defects is obscure.

  9. Haematological abnormalities in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleem, Aamer; Al Arfaj, Abdurahman Saud; khalil, Najma; Alarfaj, Husain

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the frequency and pattern of haematological abnormalities (HA) in SLE patients at the time of diagnosis and last follow-up, and their relationship with organ involvement. This retrospective study included patients who were diagnosed and treated for SLE from 1982 to 2008 at King Khalid University hospital, Riyadh. Demographic and haematological parameters at diagnosis and the last follow-up, disease manifestations, organ involvement and clinical hematological complications were recorded. Association of HA with organ involvement was explored by multivariate analysis. A total of 624 patients (90.7% females, mean age 34.3±11.9 years) were studied. HA were present in 516 (82.7 %) patients at the time of diagnosis. Anemia was the most frequent HA in 63.0% patients followed by lymphopenia in 40.3%, leukopenia in 30.0%, thrombocytopenia in 10.9% and autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) in 4.6% patients. Deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism were diagnosed in 7.4% and 2.6% patients respectively. After a mean follow-up of 9.3±5.3 years, 329/491 (67%) patients still had some HA present. Anemia remained the most common abnormality (51.7% patients) followed by lymphopenia in 33.1%, and thrombocytopenia in 4.8% patients. Leucopenia was associated with oral ulcers (p=0.021) and alopecia (p=0.031), anemia with renal disease (p=0.017), AIHA with neurological involvement (p=0.003), elevated IgG with malar rash (p=0.027), and low C3 with serositis (p=0.026). HA are very common at the time of diagnosis and during follow-up in SLE, and some of these abnormalities are associated with organ damage. This information may help in better management planning of SLE patients.

  10. Mutation of zebrafish dihydrolipoamide branched-chain transacylase E2 results in motor dysfunction and models maple syrup urine disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timo Friedrich

    2012-03-01

    Analysis of zebrafish mutants that demonstrate abnormal locomotive behavior can elucidate the molecular requirements for neural network function and provide new models of human disease. Here, we show that zebrafish quetschkommode (que mutant larvae exhibit a progressive locomotor defect that culminates in unusual nose-to-tail compressions and an inability to swim. Correspondingly, extracellular peripheral nerve recordings show that que mutants demonstrate abnormal locomotor output to the axial muscles used for swimming. Using positional cloning and candidate gene analysis, we reveal that a point mutation disrupts the gene encoding dihydrolipoamide branched-chain transacylase E2 (Dbt, a component of a mitochondrial enzyme complex, to generate the que phenotype. In humans, mutation of the DBT gene causes maple syrup urine disease (MSUD, a disorder of branched-chain amino acid metabolism that can result in mental retardation, severe dystonia, profound neurological damage and death. que mutants harbor abnormal amino acid levels, similar to MSUD patients and consistent with an error in branched-chain amino acid metabolism. que mutants also contain markedly reduced levels of the neurotransmitter glutamate within the brain and spinal cord, which probably contributes to their abnormal spinal cord locomotor output and aberrant motility behavior, a trait that probably represents severe dystonia in larval zebrafish. Taken together, these data illustrate how defects in branched-chain amino acid metabolism can disrupt nervous system development and/or function, and establish zebrafish que mutants as a model to better understand MSUD.

  11. Cardiac abnormalities after subarachnoid hemorrhage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bilt, I.A.C. van der

    2016-01-01

    Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage(aSAH) is a devastating neurological disease. During the course of the aSAH several neurological and medical complications may occur. Cardiac abnormalities after aSAH are observed often and resemble stress cardiomyopathy or Tako-tsubo cardiomyopathy(Broken Heart Syn

  12. Congenital abnormalities in methylmercury poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilani, S.H.

    1975-04-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the teratogenic potential of methylmercury on chick embryogenesis. Methylmercuric chloride was dissolved in sodium bicarbonate (0.2%) and administered to the chick embryos at doses ranging from 0.0009 to 0.010 mg per egg. The injections were made at days 2 and 3 on incubation (Groups A and B). All the embryos including controls were examined on the 7th day of incubation. Methylmercury poisoning was observed to be both embryolethal and teratogenic. Within the two groups, embryolethality was higher in Group A. The following congenital abnormalities were observed: exencephaly, shortened and twisted limbs, microphthalmia, shortened and twisted neck, beak abnormalities, everted viscera, reduced body size and hemorrhage all over the body. Exencephaly and limb abnormalities were very common. No differences in the incidence and types of gross abnormalities within both the groups (A and B) were noted. The incidence of malformations among the controls was low. The results of present investigation show that methylmercury poisoning is both embryolethal and teratogenic to early chick embryogenesis. (auth)

  13. Skeleton-Based Abnormal Gait Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trong-Nguyen Nguyen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Human gait analysis plays an important role in musculoskeletal disorder diagnosis. Detecting anomalies in human walking, such as shuffling gait, stiff leg or unsteady gait, can be difficult if the prior knowledge of such a gait pattern is not available. We propose an approach for detecting abnormal human gait based on a normal gait model. Instead of employing the color image, silhouette, or spatio-temporal volume, our model is created based on human joint positions (skeleton in time series. We decompose each sequence of normal gait images into gait cycles. Each human instant posture is represented by a feature vector which describes relationships between pairs of bone joints located in the lower body. Such vectors are then converted into codewords using a clustering technique. The normal human gait model is created based on multiple sequences of codewords corresponding to different gait cycles. In the detection stage, a gait cycle with normality likelihood below a threshold, which is determined automatically in the training step, is assumed as an anomaly. The experimental results on both marker-based mocap data and Kinect skeleton show that our method is very promising in distinguishing normal and abnormal gaits with an overall accuracy of 90.12%.

  14. Hereditary gingival fibromatosis with distinct dental, skeletal and developmental abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Joseph; Guelmann, Marcio; Barak, Shlomo

    2002-01-01

    A case of a 9-year-old child with hereditary gingival fibromatosis, supernumerary tooth, chest deformities, auricular cartilage deformation, joint laxity and undescended testes is described. The exact mode of inheritance is unclear; a new mutation pattern is possible. These features resemble but differ from the previously reported Laband syndrome. The dental treatment consisted of surgical removal of the fibrous tissue and conservative restorative treatment under general anesthesia. The dental practitioner should be alert for developmental abnormalities such as supernumerary teeth and delayed tooth eruption. A comprehensive medical history and physical systemic evaluation is essential to rule out other systemic abnormalities. Genetic consultation is mandatory for future family planing.

  15. Abnormal uterine bleeding: a clinicohistopathological analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anupamasuresh Y

    2014-06-01

    Methods: In our prospective study of 359 Patients of the age between 46 and 73 years, clinical characteristics and the pattern of endometrial histopathology and their association in women, who present with abnormal uterine bleeding, are categorised into six groups. Results: In our study, a significant correlation of histopathology and BMI was observed with endometrial hyperplasia and malignancy in obese patient i.e. 37 out 96 and 13 out of 23 respectively. The incidence of malignancy has been increasing with the age being 1.6% in 46-50 years to 60% in 70-75 years. In our study 116 (32.3% had hypertension, 33 patients (9.2% had diabetes mellitus, 40 patients (11.1% had hypothyroidism. Conclusions: We found a maximum incidence of AUB in multiparous women. Clinicohistopathological analysis of AUB revealed endometrial hyperplasia in majority of patients. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2014; 3(3.000: 656-661

  16. Mechanically patterning the embryonic airway epithelium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varner, Victor D.; Gleghorn, Jason P.; Miller, Erin; Radisky, Derek C.; Nelson, Celeste M.

    2015-01-01

    Collections of cells must be patterned spatially during embryonic development to generate the intricate architectures of mature tissues. In several cases, including the formation of the branched airways of the lung, reciprocal signaling between an epithelium and its surrounding mesenchyme helps generate these spatial patterns. Several molecular signals are thought to interact via reaction-diffusion kinetics to create distinct biochemical patterns, which act as molecular precursors to actual, physical patterns of biological structure and function. Here, however, we show that purely physical mechanisms can drive spatial patterning within embryonic epithelia. Specifically, we find that a growth-induced physical instability defines the relative locations of branches within the developing murine airway epithelium in the absence of mesenchyme. The dominant wavelength of this instability determines the branching pattern and is controlled by epithelial growth rates. These data suggest that physical mechanisms can create the biological patterns that underlie tissue morphogenesis in the embryo. PMID:26170292

  17. Advanced microtechnologies for detection of chromosome abnormalities by fluorescent in situ hybridization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kwasny, Dorota; Vedarethinam, Indumathi; Shah, Pranjul

    2012-01-01

    Cytogenetic and molecular cytogenetic analyses, which aim to detect chromosome abnormalities, are routinely performed in cytogenetic laboratories all over the world. Traditional cytogenetic studies are performed by analyzing the banding pattern of chromosomes, and are complemented by molecular cy...

  18. Nail abnormalities in rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, C; Cribier, B; Sibilia, J; Kuntz, J L; Grosshans, E

    1997-12-01

    Many nail abnormalities have traditionally been described in association with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), but their specificity has never been assessed in a controlled study. Our purpose was to evaluate the frequency and the specificity of nail changes associated with RA in a case-controlled study including 50 patients suffering from RA and 50 controls. For each patient, a general skin examination was performed and the 20 nails were examined. The nail features were noted and classified. A chi 2 test or a Fisher test was used to compare the two groups. The only nail abnormalities significantly associated with RA were longitudinal ridging on nine or 10 finger nails (29 patients in the RA group vs. three in the controls, chi 2: P nail (24 patients vs. 10, chi 2: P nail changes were noticed but were not frequent enough to be significant. The presence of longitudinal ridging on the finger nails was significantly associated with RA.

  19. Neuroendocrine abnormalities in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Pablo-Fernández, Eduardo; Breen, David P; Bouloux, Pierre M; Barker, Roger A; Foltynie, Thomas; Warner, Thomas T

    2017-02-01

    Neuroendocrine abnormalities are common in Parkinson's disease (PD) and include disruption of melatonin secretion, disturbances of glucose, insulin resistance and bone metabolism, and body weight changes. They have been associated with multiple non-motor symptoms in PD and have important clinical consequences, including therapeutics. Some of the underlying mechanisms have been implicated in the pathogenesis of PD and represent promising targets for the development of disease biomarkers and neuroprotective therapies. In this systems-based review, we describe clinically relevant neuroendocrine abnormalities in Parkinson's disease to highlight their role in overall phenotype. We discuss pathophysiological mechanisms, clinical implications, and pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions based on the current evidence. We also review recent advances in the field, focusing on the potential targets for development of neuroprotective drugs in Parkinson's disease and suggest future areas for research.

  20. A Nuclear Polariton with Two Entangled Counter-Propagating Branches

    CERN Document Server

    Liao, Wen-Te

    2014-01-01

    A setup for generating the special superposition of a simultaneously forward- and backward-propagating collective excitation in a nuclear sample is studied. We show that by actively manipulating the scattering channels of single x-ray quanta with the help of a normal incidence x-ray mirror, a nuclear polariton which propagates in two opposite directions can be generated. The two counter-propagating polariton branches are entangled by a single x-ray photon. The quantum nature of the nuclear excitation entanglement gives rise to a sub-angstrom wavelength standing wave excitation pattern that can be used as a flexible tool to probe matter dynamically on the atomic scale.

  1. Left bundle branch block: a rare ECG manifestation of hyperkalemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkata Madhav M

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A 20-year-old female patient with chronic kidney disease was brought to our emergency medical department with symptoms of pain in chest and abdomen, vomitings. Laboratory testing revealed serum potassium 7.7 mEq/L, serum creatinine 9.1 mg/dL. Electrocardiogram (ECG showed left bundle branch block (LBBB pattern with left axis deviation, tall T waves and ST elevation. Among ECG alterations in hyperkalemia, LBBB is rare and is being reported in our case.

  2. Chemical synthesis of a dual branched malto-decaose: A potential substrate for alpha-amylases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damager, Iben; Jensen, Morten; Olsen, Carl Erik;

    2005-01-01

    . Using this chemically defined branched oligosaccharide as a substrate, the cleavage pattern of seven different alpha-amylases were investigated. alpha-Amylases from human saliva, porcine pancreas, barley alpha-amylose 2 and recombinant barley alpha-amylase 1 all hydrolysed the decasaccharide selectively...... tetrasaccharide. In addition, the enzymes were tested on the single branched octasoccharide 6-alpha-maltosyl-maltohexaose, which was prepared from 6,6""-bis(alpha-maltosyl)-maltohexoose by treatment with malt limit dextrinose. A similar cleavage pattern to that found for the corresponding linear malto...

  3. Mastoid abnormalities in Down syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glass, R.B.J.; Yousefzadeh, D.K.; Roizen, N.J.

    1989-06-01

    Hearing loss and otitis media are commonly associated with Down syndrome. Hypoplasia of the mastoids is seen in many affected children and sclerosis of mastoid bones is not uncommon in Down syndrome. Awareness and early recognition of mastoid abnormality may lead to appropriate and timely therapy, thereby preserving the child's hearing or compensating for hearing loss; factors which are important for learning and maximum development.

  4. Computed tomography of thymic abnormalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schnyder, P.; Candardjis, G.

    1987-05-01

    Computed tomographic examinations of 38 patients with surgically and histologically proven diagnosis were reviewed. Twenty subjects (52%) had an invasive thymoma and 16% an hyperplastic thymus. Myasthenia gravis was present in 6 cases (16%) of thymic abnormalities, four (10,5%) with invasive thymoma and two (5%) with thymic hyperplasia. Graves' disease was also present in one case of thymic hyperplasia. We emphasize the contribution of CT to the diagnosis and the prognosis.

  5. Measurement of Prominent eta Decay Branching Fractions

    CERN Document Server

    López, A; Méndez, H; Ramírez, J; Ge, J Y; Miller, D H; Sanghi, B; Shipsey, I P J; Xin, B; Adams, G S; Anderson, M; Cummings, J P; Danko, I; Hu, D; Moziak, B; Napolitano, J; He, Q; Insler, J; Muramatsu, H; Park, C S; Thorndike, E H; Yang, F; Artuso, M; Blusk, S; Khalil, S; Li, J; Menaa, N; Mountain, R; Nisar, S; Randrianarivony, K; Sia, R; Skwarnicki, T; Stone, S; Wang, J C; Bonvicini, G; Cinabro, D; Dubrovin, M; Lincoln, A; Asner, D M; Edwards, K W; Naik, P; Briere, R A; Ferguson, T; Tatishvili, G; Vogel, H; Watkins, M E; Rosner, J L; Adam, N E; Alexander, J P; Cassel, D G; Duboscq, J E; Ehrlich, R; Fields, L; Galik, R S; Gibbons, L; Gray, R; Gray, S W; Hartill, D L; Heltsley, B K; Hertz, D; Jones, C D; Kandaswamy, J; Kreinick, D L; Kuznetsov, V E; Mahlke-Krüger, H; Mohapatra, D; Onyisi, P U E; Patterson, J R; Peterson, D; Riley, D; Ryd, A; Sadoff, A J; Shi, X; Stroiney, S; Sun, W M; Wilksen, T; Athar, S B; Patel, R; Yelton, J; Rubin, P; Eisenstein, B I; Karliner, I; Lowrey, N; Selen, M; White, E J; Wiss, J; Mitchell, R E; Shepherd, M R; Besson, D; Pedlar, T K; Cronin-Hennessy, D; Gao, K Y; Hietala, J; Kubota, Y; Klein, T; Lang, B W; Poling, R; Scott, A W; Zweber, P; Dobbs, S; Metreveli, Z; Seth, K K; Tomaradze, A G; Ernst, J; Ecklund, K M; Severini, H; Love, W; Savinov, V

    2007-01-01

    The decay psi(2S) --> eta J/psi is used to measure, for the first time, all prominent eta-meson branching fractions with the same experiment in the same dataset, thereby providing a consistent treatment of systematics across branching fractions. We present results for eta decays to gamma gamma, pi+pi-pi0, 3 pi0, pi+ pi- gamma, and e+ e- gamma, accounting for 99.9% of all eta decays. The precisions for several of the branching fractions and their ratios are improved. Two channels, pi+ pi- gamma and e+ e- gamma, show results that differ at the level of three standard deviations from those previously determined.

  6. Agents in branching space-times

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nuel; Belnap

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this essay Is to make some brief suggestions on the beginnings of a theory of agentsand agency In branching spacetlmes.foe thought Is to combine the ideas of agency as developed agalnst the relatively simple background of branching time with the richer notions of Indetermlnlsm asstructured In the theory of branching space-times.My plan Is to say a little about agency In branchingtime and a little about branchlg spacetlmes,and then ask how the two can be brought together.Atthe end there Is an ...

  7. Cellular and physical mechanisms of branching morphogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varner, Victor D.; Nelson, Celeste M.

    2014-01-01

    Branching morphogenesis is the developmental program that builds the ramified epithelial trees of various organs, including the airways of the lung, the collecting ducts of the kidney, and the ducts of the mammary and salivary glands. Even though the final geometries of epithelial trees are distinct, the molecular signaling pathways that control branching morphogenesis appear to be conserved across organs and species. However, despite this molecular homology, recent advances in cell lineage analysis and real-time imaging have uncovered surprising differences in the mechanisms that build these diverse tissues. Here, we review these studies and discuss the cellular and physical mechanisms that can contribute to branching morphogenesis. PMID:25005470

  8. Tillering and panicle branching genes in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Wei-hong; Shang, Fei; Lin, Qun-ting; Lou, Chen; Zhang, Jing

    2014-03-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is one of the most important staple food crops in the world, and rice tillering and panicle branching are important traits determining grain yield. Since the gene MONOCULM 1 (MOC 1) was first characterized as a key regulator in controlling rice tillering and branching, great progress has been achieved in identifying important genes associated with grain yield, elucidating the genetic basis of yield-related traits. Some of these important genes were shown to be applicable for molecular breeding of high-yielding rice. This review focuses on recent advances, with emphasis on rice tillering and panicle branching genes, and their regulatory networks.

  9. Meiotic abnormalities in infertile males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egozcue, J; Sarrate, Z; Codina-Pascual, M; Egozcue, S; Oliver-Bonet, M; Blanco, J; Navarro, J; Benet, J; Vidal, F

    2005-01-01

    Meiotic anomalies, as reviewed here, are synaptic chromosome abnormalities, limited to germ cells that cannot be detected through the study of the karyotype. Although the importance of synaptic errors has been underestimated for many years, their presence is related to many cases of human male infertility. Synaptic anomalies can be studied by immunostaining of synaptonemal complexes (SCs), but in this case their frequency is probably underestimated due to the phenomenon of synaptic adjustment. They can also be studied in classic meiotic preparations, which, from a clinical point of view, is still the best approach, especially if multiplex fluorescence in situ hybridization is at hand to solve difficult cases. Sperm chromosome FISH studies also provide indirect evidence of their presence. Synaptic anomalies can affect the rate of recombination of all bivalents, produce achiasmate small univalents, partially achiasmate medium-sized or large bivalents, or affect all bivalents in the cell. The frequency is variable, interindividually and intraindividually. The baseline incidence of synaptic anomalies is 6-8%, which may be increased to 17.6% in males with a severe oligozoospermia, and to 27% in normozoospermic males with one or more previous IVF failures. The clinical consequences are the production of abnormal spermatozoa that will produce a higher number of chromosomally abnormal embryos. The indications for a meiotic study in testicular biopsy are provided.

  10. Does water availability regulate biomass partitioning between trunk and branches?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnin, Amaru; Torres, Cristian Daniel; Villalba, Ricardo; Puntieri, Javier Guido

    2017-08-23

    The extent to which a vertical trunk is differentiated from its branches is a key trait for the architecture of trees and may affect interspecific relationships. In this study, we analyzed the effect of soil water availability on biomass partitioning for Nothofagus pumilio by means of a nursery experiment. Juvenile trees were subject to three irrigation conditions: no irrigation, intermediate irrigation and high irrigation. Irrigation conditions emulated the mean precipitation of the most representative environments inhabited by N. pumilio. Changes in soil water availability modified the biomass partitioning patterns of trees. In comparison to the other two conditions, high irrigation caused: (1) higher ratio of biomass partitioning to stems than roots; (2) more trunk growth in relation to its branches; and (3) more photosynthetic organs relative to the aboveground biomass. Trunk size relative to that of its most recent branches was not increased by water availability. Water availability may play a significant role in the capacity of N. pumilio for space occupation due to the effects on axis differentiation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  11. Widespread Epigenetic Abnormalities Suggest a Broad DNA Methylation Erasure Defect in Abnormal Human Sperm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegmund, Kimberly; Yang, Allen; Laird, Peter W.; Sokol, Rebecca Z.

    2007-01-01

    Background Male-factor infertility is a common condition, and etiology is unknown for a high proportion of cases. Abnormal epigenetic programming of the germline is proposed as a possible mechanism compromising spermatogenesis of some men currently diagnosed with idiopathic infertility. During germ cell maturation and gametogenesis, cells of the germ line undergo extensive epigenetic reprogramming. This process involves widespread erasure of somatic-like patterns of DNA methylation followed by establishment of sex-specific patterns by de novo DNA methylation. Incomplete reprogramming of the male germ line could, in theory, result in both altered sperm DNA methylation and compromised spermatogenesis. Methodology/Principal Finding We determined concentration, motility and morphology of sperm in semen samples collected by male members of couples attending an infertility clinic. Using MethyLight and Illumina assays we measured methylation of DNA isolated from purified sperm from the same samples. Methylation at numerous sequences was elevated in DNA from poor quality sperm. Conclusions This is the first report of a broad epigenetic defect associated with abnormal semen parameters. Our results suggest that the underlying mechanism for these epigenetic changes may be improper erasure of DNA methylation during epigenetic reprogramming of the male germ line. PMID:18074014

  12. Widespread epigenetic abnormalities suggest a broad DNA methylation erasure defect in abnormal human sperm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahar Houshdaran

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Male-factor infertility is a common condition, and etiology is unknown for a high proportion of cases. Abnormal epigenetic programming of the germline is proposed as a possible mechanism compromising spermatogenesis of some men currently diagnosed with idiopathic infertility. During germ cell maturation and gametogenesis, cells of the germ line undergo extensive epigenetic reprogramming. This process involves widespread erasure of somatic-like patterns of DNA methylation followed by establishment of sex-specific patterns by de novo DNA methylation. Incomplete reprogramming of the male germ line could, in theory, result in both altered sperm DNA methylation and compromised spermatogenesis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDING: We determined concentration, motility and morphology of sperm in semen samples collected by male members of couples attending an infertility clinic. Using MethyLight and Illumina assays we measured methylation of DNA isolated from purified sperm from the same samples. Methylation at numerous sequences was elevated in DNA from poor quality sperm. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report of a broad epigenetic defect associated with abnormal semen parameters. Our results suggest that the underlying mechanism for these epigenetic changes may be improper erasure of DNA methylation during epigenetic reprogramming of the male germ line.

  13. A computational model of dendrite elongation and branching based on MAP2 phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hely, T A; Graham, B; Ooyen, A V

    2001-06-07

    We introduce a new computational model of dendritic development in neurons. In contrast to previous models, our model explicitly includes cellular mechanisms involved in dendritic development. It is based on recent experimental data which indicates that the phosphorylation state of microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2) may play a key role in controlling dendritic elongation and branching (Audesirk et al., 1997). Dephosphorylated MAP2 favours elongation by promoting microtubule polymerization and bundling, whilst branching is more likely to occur when MAP2 is phosphorylated and microtubules are spaced apart. In the model, the rate of elongation and branching is directly determined by the ratio of phosphorylated to dephosphorylated MAP2. This is regulated by calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) and calcineurin, which are both dependent on the intracellular calcium concentration. Results from computer simulations of the model suggest that the wide variety of branching patterns observed among different cell types may be generated by the same underlying mechanisms and that elongation and branching are not necessarily independent processes. The model predicts how the branching pattern will change following manipulations with calcium, CaMKII and MAP2 phosphorylation.

  14. Longitudinal cross sectional mixing images of the pipe flow with periodical branching flow injections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Toshihisa; Sunho, You; Higuchi, Naotaka

    2008-11-01

    Effect of periodical injection of branching flows on the mixing in a pipe flow is experimentally investigated. Glycerin is used as a working fluid. The glycerin flows in a steady state condition in the main flow pipe while the branching flow is injected periodically from three pipes equipped normal to the main flow pipe. The longitudinal cross sectional image of the mixing of main flow and branching flows is visualized by LIF method, inserting the Rodamine B in the first branching flow. When only one branching flow is periodically injected, the fluid injected from the side flow pipe is stretched and folded by the parabolic laminar flow velocity profile and then the length of the boundary increases linearly. When branching flow is injected from multiple side flow pipe, the mixing pattern becomes more complicated. As a result, the length of the boundary increases more rapidly compared to the linear increase. The results suggest that the multiple branching flow injection enhances the mixing although no element is inserted in the pipe.

  15. Retinal vessel width measurement at branchings using an improved electric field theory-based graph approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiayu Xu

    Full Text Available The retinal vessel width relationship at vessel branch points in fundus images is an important biomarker of retinal and systemic disease. We propose a fully automatic method to measure the vessel widths at branch points in fundus images. The method is a graph-based method, in which a graph construction method based on electric field theory is applied which specifically deals with complex branching patterns. The vessel centerline image is used as the initial segmentation of the graph. Branching points are detected on the vessel centerline image using a set of detection kernels. Crossing points are distinguished from branch points and excluded. The electric field based graph method is applied to construct the graph. This method is inspired by the non-intersecting force lines in an electric field. At last, the method is further improved to give a consistent vessel width measurement for the whole vessel tree. The algorithm was validated on 100 artery branchings and 100 vein branchings selected from 50 fundus images by comparing with vessel width measurements from two human experts.

  16. Unilateral high origin of facial artery associated with a variant origin of the glandular branch to the submandibular gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohandas Rao KG

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The variations in the carotid arteries and their branches are common in the anterior triangle of the neck. However, variations in the origin of facial artery and its branches given in the digastric triangle are not very common. A case of high origin of facial artery and abnormal origin of the glandular branch to submandibular gland encountered during routine dissection of anterior triangle of the neck is reported. The facial artery was arising from the external carotid artery deep in the digastric triangle and the glandular branch to submandibular gland was also arising from the external carotid artery about 1 cm below the origin of facial artery in the digastric triangle. Further, the surgical, importance of the case was discussed.

  17. Interactions of neurons with topographic nano cues affect branching morphology mimicking neuron-neuron interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranes, Koby; Kollmar, Davida; Chejanovsky, Nathan; Sharoni, Amos; Shefi, Orit

    2012-08-01

    We study the effect of topographic nano-cues on neuronal growth-morphology using invertebrate neurons in culture. We use photolithography to fabricate substrates with repeatable line-pattern ridges of nano-scale heights of 10-150 nm. We plate leech neurons atop the patterned-substrates and compare their growth pattern to neurons plated atop non-patterned substrates. The model system allows us the analysis of single neurite-single ridge interactions. The use of high resolution electron microscopy reveals small filopodia processes that attach to the line-pattern ridges. These fine processes, that cannot be detected in light microscopy, add anchoring sites onto the side of the ridges, thus additional physical support. These interactions of the neuronal process dominantly affect the neuronal growth direction. We analyze the response of the entire neuronal branching tree to the patterned substrates and find significant effect on the growth patterns compared to non-patterned substrates. Moreover, interactions with the nano-cues trigger a growth strategy similarly to interactions with other neuronal cells, as reflected in their morphometric parameters. The number of branches and the number of neurites originating from the soma decrease following the interaction demonstrating a tendency to a more simplified neuronal branching tree. The effect of the nano-cues on the neuronal function deserves further investigation and will strengthen our understanding of the interplay between function and form.

  18. Branch xylem density variations across the Amazon Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Patiño

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Xylem density is a physical property of wood that varies between individuals, species and environments. It reflects the physiological strategies of trees that lead to growth, survival and reproduction. Measurements of branch xylem density, ρx, were made for 1653 trees representing 598 species, sampled from 87 sites across the Amazon basin. Measured values ranged from 218 kg m−3 for a Cordia sagotii (Boraginaceae from Mountagne de Tortue, French Guiana to 1130 kg m−3 for an Aiouea sp. (Lauraceae from Caxiuana, Central Pará, Brazil. Analysis of variance showed significant differences in average ρx across regions and sampled plots as well as significant differences between families, genera and species. A partitioning of the total variance in the dataset showed that species identity (family, genera and species accounted for 33% with environment (geographic location and plot accounting for an additional 26%; the remaining "residual" variance accounted for 41% of the total variance. Variations in plot means, were, however, not only accountable by differences in species composition because xylem density of the most widely distributed species in our dataset varied systematically from plot to plot. Thus, as well as having a genetic component, branch xylem density is a plastic trait that, for any given species, varies according to where the tree is growing in a predictable manner. Within the analysed taxa, exceptions to this general rule seem to be pioneer species belonging for example to the Urticaceae whose branch xylem density is more constrained than most species sampled in this study. These patterns of variation of branch xylem density across Amazonia suggest a large functional diversity amongst Amazonian trees which is not well understood.

  19. Multiple branching rupture of the 2009 Tonga-Samoa earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Wenyuan; Shearer, Peter M.; Ji, Chen; Bassett, Dan

    2016-08-01

    Several source models have been proposed to explain the enigmatic 2009 Tonga-Samoa earthquake. The long-period data require a composite source model and can be fit with a normal-faulting subevent followed by one or more reverse-faulting subevents. The short-period data, in contrast, indicate a more compact rupture pattern around the epicenter. The lack of a unified source model reflects the complexity of the event. We analyze the spatiotemporal evolution of this earthquake with P wave back-projection from globally distributed stations in different frequency bands (low frequency: 0.05-0.2 Hz, high frequency: 0.2-2 Hz) and a multiple moment tensor inversion. The rupture propagation revealed by back-projection exhibits frequency-dependent behavior, with two branches of high-frequency-enriched bilateral rupture around the epicenter and a high-frequency-deficient rupture branch at the subduction interface. A composite source model with one Mw 8.0 normal-faulting earthquake east of the trench axis (seaward) followed by one Mw 8.1 reverse-faulting earthquake along the subduction interface west of the trench axis (landward) can explain the very long period data (200˜500 s). Combined with high-resolution swath bathymetry data, the back-projection images show that the azimuth of rupture branches east of the trench axis were controlled by the geometry of bending-related faults on the Pacific plate and that the rupture branch west of the trench axis may correlate with the along-strike fore-arc segmentation. The rupture along the subduction interface was triggered by the seaward rupture and a partially subducted normal fault may have played a key role in facilitating the triggering. The apparent normal-reverse faulting interactions pose a higher seismic risk to this region than their individual strands at the northernmost corner of the Tonga subduction zone.

  20. Overview of the Advanced High Frequency Branch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Felix A.

    2015-01-01

    This presentation provides an overview of the competencies, selected areas of research and technology development activities, and current external collaborative efforts of the NASA Glenn Research Center's Advanced High Frequency Branch.

  1. Human Dimensions Branch 2016 Annual Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual report provides an overview of the work that the Human Dimensions Branch completed in FY2016, including a peak at: Monarch butterfly conservation and how...

  2. Residence times of branching diffusion processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumonteil, E.; Mazzolo, A.

    2016-07-01

    The residence time of a branching Brownian process is the amount of time that the mother particle and all its descendants spend inside a domain. Using the Feynman-Kac formalism, we derive the residence-time equation as well as the equations for its moments for a branching diffusion process with an arbitrary number of descendants. This general approach is illustrated with simple examples in free space and in confined geometries where explicit formulas for the moments are obtained within the long time limit. In particular, we study in detail the influence of the branching mechanism on those moments. The present approach can also be applied to investigate other additive functionals of branching Brownian process.

  3. FY 1990 Applied Sciences Branch annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keyes, B.M.; Dippo, P.C. (eds.)

    1991-11-01

    The Applied Sciences Branch actively supports the advancement of DOE/SERI goals for the development and implementation of the solar photovoltaic technology. The primary focus of the laboratories is to provide state-of-the-art analytical capabilities for materials and device characterization and fabrication. The branch houses a comprehensive facility which is capable of providing information on the full range of photovoltaic components. A major objective of the branch is to aggressively pursue collaborative research with other government laboratories, universities, and industrial firms for the advancement of photovoltaic technologies. Members of the branch disseminate research findings to the technical community in publications and presentations. This report contains information on surface and interface analysis, materials characterization, development, electro-optical characterization module testing and performance, surface interactions and FTIR spectroscopy.

  4. Damping by branching: a bioinspiration from trees

    CERN Document Server

    Theckes, Benoit; Boutillon, Xavier

    2011-01-01

    Man-made slender structures are known to be sensitive to high levels of vibration, due to their flexibility, which often cause irreversible damage. In nature, trees repeatedly endure large amplitudes of motion, mostly caused by strong climatic events, yet with minor or no damage in most cases. A new damping mechanism inspired by the architecture of trees is here identified and characterized in the simplest tree-like structure, a Y-shape branched structure. Through analytical and numerical analyses of a simple two-degree-of-freedom model, branching is shown to be the key ingredient in this protective mechanism that we call damping-by-branching. It originates in the geometrical nonlinearities so that it is specifically efficient to damp out large amplitudes of motion. A more realistic model, using flexible beam approximation, shows that the mechanism is robust. Finally, two bioinspired architectures are analyzed, showing significant levels of damping achieved via branching with typically 30% of the energy being...

  5. Arkansas State University Beebe Branch Faculty Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkansas State Univ., Beebe.

    Arkansas State University Beebe Branch provides a liberal arts oriented program for traditional and nontraditional students. Its faculty handbook contains institutional goals, description of responsibilities of administrative officers and faculty committees, faculty employment policies, and administrative and instructional policies. The…

  6. Surgical repair of pulmonary artery branches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghez, Olivier; Saeed, Imran; Serrato, Maria; Quintero, Diana Bernal; Kreitmann, Bernard; Fraisse, Alain; Uemura, Hideki; Seale, Anna; Daubeney, Piers; McCarthy, Karen; Ho, S Yen

    2013-01-01

    Surgical repair of pulmonary artery (PA) branches encompasses many different clinical scenarios and technical challenges. The most common, such as bifurcation and central PA reconstruction, are described, as well as the challenges of complex and peripheral reconstruction.

  7. Variations in branching of the posterior cord of brachial plexus in a Kenyan population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matakwa Ludia C

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Variations in the branching of posterior cord are important during surgical approaches to the axilla and upper arm, administration of anesthetic blocks, interpreting effects of nervous compressions and in repair of plexus injuries. The patterns of branching show population differences. Data from the African population is scarce. Objective To describe the branching pattern of the posterior cord in a Kenyan population. Materials and methods Seventy-five brachial plexuses from 68 formalin fixed cadavers were explored by gross dissection. Origin and order of branching of the posterior cord was recorded. Representative photographs were then taken using a digital camera (Sony Cybershot R, W200, 7.2 Megapixels. Results Only 8 out of 75 (10.7% posterior cords showed the classical branching pattern. Forty three (57.3% lower subscapular, 8(10.3% thoracodorsal and 8(10.3% upper subscapular nerves came from the axillary nerve instead of directly from posterior cord. A new finding was that in 4(5.3% and in 3(4% the medial cutaneous nerves of the arm and forearm respectively originated from the posterior cord in contrast to their usual origin from the medial cord. Conclusions Majority of posterior cords in studied population display a wide range of variations. Anesthesiologists administering local anesthetic blocks, clinicians interpreting effects of nerve injuries of the upper limb and surgeons operating in the axilla should be aware of these patterns to avoid inadvertent injury. A wider study of the branching pattern of infraclavicular brachial plexus is recommended.

  8. Soils of Walker Branch Watershed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lietzke, D.A.

    1994-01-01

    The soil survey of Walker Branch Watershed (WBW) utilized the most up-to-date knowledge of soils, geology, and geohydrology in building the soils data base needed to reinterpret past research and to begin new research in the watershed. The soils of WBW were also compared with soils mapped elsewhere along Chestnut Ridge on the Oak Ridge Reservation to (1) establish whether knowledge obtained elsewhere could be used within the watershed, (2) determine whether there were any soils restricted to the watershed, and (3) evaluate geologic formation lateral variability. Soils, surficial geology, and geomorphology were mapped at a scale of 1:1200 using a paper base map having 2-ft contour intervals. Most of the contours seemed to reasonably represent actual landform configurations, except for dense wooded areas. For example, the very large dolines or sinkholes were shown on the contour base map, but numerous smaller ones were not. In addition, small drainageways and gullies were often not shown. These often small but important features were located approximately as soil mapping progressed. WBW is underlain by dolostones of the Knox Group, but only a very small part of the surface area contains outcroppings of rock and most outcrops were located in the lower part. Soil mapping revealed the presence of both ancient alluvium and ancient colluvium deposits, not recognized in previous soil surveys, that have been preserved in high-elevation stable portions of present-day landforms. An erosional geomorphic process of topographic inversion requiring several millions of years within the Pleistocene is necessary to bring about the degree of inversion that is expressed in the watershed. Indeed, some of these ancient alluvial and colluvial remnants may date back into the Tertiary. Also evident in the watershed, and preserved in the broad, nearly level bottoms of dolines, are multiple deposits of silty material either devoid or nearly devoid of coarse fragments. Recent research

  9. The Novel Y-Branch With Two Reflectors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ruei-Chang Lu; Yu-Pin Liao

    2003-01-01

    A novel Y-branch waveguide with two reflectors is proposed. The normalized transmitted power for the branching angle of 50°is greater than 70%, which is higher than conventional Y-branch with such wide angle.

  10. Perivascular exudates in frosted branch angiitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Lingmin; Moshfeghi, Darius M; Wong, Ira G

    2014-01-01

    Three cases of young, minimally symptomatic patients found to have vitritis and extensive perivenous vitreous exudates resembling frosted branch angiitis are presented. Optical coherence tomography showed that these exudates appear to be extravascated from the vasculature. The material persisted over 1 year on immunosuppressive therapy, suggesting that its resolution should not be a treatment end point. These cases add to our understanding of the spectrum of clinical findings in frosted branch angiitis.

  11. Branch retinal artery occlusion in Susac's syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Evangelista Marrocos de Aragão

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Susac's syndrome is a rare disease attribuited to a microangiopathy involving the arterioles of the cochlea, retina and brain. Encefalopathy, hearing loss, and visual deficits are the hallmarks of the disease. Visual loss is due to multiple, recurrent branch arterial retinal occlusions. We report a case of a 20-year-old women with Susac syndrome presented with peripheral vestibular syndrome, hearing loss, ataxia, vertigo, and vision loss due occlusion of the retinal branch artery.

  12. CAST Xi'an Branch Established

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ China Academy of Space Technology (CAST) Xi'an Branch was established on April 8,2008.The new branch consists of the headquarters of the former Xi'an Institute of Space Radio Technology (XISRT) of CAST and five former subsidiaries of the XISRT,i.e.the Institute of Space Electronic Technology,the Institute of Microwave Technology,the Institute of Space Antenna Technology,the Manufacturing Center for Space Electronics and Civilian High-tech Company.

  13. $\\tau$ hadronic branching ratios at DELPHI

    CERN Document Server

    Humble, Stephen

    1999-01-01

    Using data collected in the DELPHI detector at LEP1, we have measured the exclusive branching ratios in modes with several hadrons. Both classical cuts and neural network methods have been performed to make the best use of the DELPHI neutral particle identification capability. In addition, a measurement of inclusive branching ratios for tau decays containing one or three charged particles has been performed. (4 refs).

  14. Parton Branching in Color Mutation Model

    CERN Document Server

    Hwa, R C

    1999-01-01

    The soft production problem in hadronic collisions as described in the eikonal color mutation branching model is improved in the way that the initial parton distribution is treated. Furry branching of the partons is considered as a means of describing the nonperturbative process of parton reproduction in soft interaction. The values of all the moments, and $C_q$, for q=2,...,5, as well as their energy dependences can be correctly determined by the use of only two parameters.

  15. All change at the CERN UBS branch

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2012-01-01

    UBS branches across the country are being modernised, and the CERN branch is no exception. The Bulletin brings you a preview of the project, which will get under way in January 2013.   Mock-up of the renovated UBS branch. The changes at the UBS branch in CERN's Main Building will be no simple facelift. The entire bank will be renovated, transforming the present relatively confined premises into an open and attractive area. "The renovation of the UBS branches is part of a wider campaign designed to further enhance our customer relations," explains Ezio Mangia, the head of the CERN branch.  The UBS bank currently occupies three sets of premises in CERN's Main Building (two on the ground floor and one in the basement). "By the end of the work, which is scheduled to be completed by the middle of next year, CERN customers will benefit from a new area with open-plan counters and "hole-in-the-wall" machines accessible to...

  16. Terminal Branch of Recurrent Human Laryngeal Nerve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Aparecida Ferreira Pascoal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The importance of the recurrent laryngeal nerve in surgery on the anterior region of the neck has motivated many published papers on critical points of its pathway, relationship with the inferior thyroid artery, penetration in the larynx, division outside the larynx, and branches communicating with the internal branch of the superior laryngeal nerve. We analyze the terminal branches of the recurrent laryngeal nerve and their distribution through the laryngeal muscles. 44 laryngeal nerves had been dissected. Most frequently, the recurrent laryngeal nerve presents a division below or at the level of the lower margin of the cricoid cartilage (outside the larynx. One of these branches forms the communication with the internal branch of the superior laryngeal nerve, and the other penetrates the laryngeal space. Above the lower margin of the cricoid cartilage, the inferior laryngeal nerve issues a variable number of branches to muscles (3 to 7: to the posterior cricoarytenoid muscle; to the oblique and transversal arytenoid muscles; and to the lateral cricoarytenoid muscle and the thyroarytenoid muscle.

  17. NRAGE: a potential rheostat during branching morphogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikopoulos, George N; Martins, Joao Ferreira; Adams, Tamara L; Karaczyn, Aldona; Adams, Derek; Vary, Calvin; Oxburgh, Leif; Verdi, Joseph M

    2009-01-01

    Branching morphogenesis is a developmental process characteristic of many organ systems. Specifically, during renal branching morphogenesis, its been postulated that the final number of nephrons formed is one key clinical factor in the development of hypertension in adulthood. As it has been established that BMPs regulate, in part, renal activity of p38 MAP kinase (p38(MAPK)) and it has demonstrated that the cytoplasmic protein Neurotrophin Receptor MAGE homologue (NRAGE) augments p38(MAPK) activation, it was hypothesized that a decrease in the expression of NRAGE during renal branching would result in decreased branching of the UB that correlated with changes in p38(MAPK) activation. To verify this, the expression of NRAGE was reduced in ex vivo kidney explants cultures using antisense morpholino. Morpholino treated ex vivo kidney explants expression were severely stunted in branching, a trait that was rescued with the addition of exogenous GDNF. Renal explants also demonstrated a precipitous drop in p38(MAPK) activation that too was reversed in the presence of recombinant GDNF. RNA profiling of NRAGE diminished ex vivo kidney explants resulted in altered expression of GDNF, Ret, BMP7 and BMPRIb mRNAs. Our results suggested that in early kidney development NRAGE might have multiple roles during renal branching morphogenesis through association with both the BMP and GDNF signaling pathways.

  18. Mechanisms and consequences of paternally transmitted chromosomal abnormalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchetti, F; Wyrobek, A J

    2005-04-05

    Paternally transmitted chromosomal damage has been associated with pregnancy loss, developmental and morphological defects, infant mortality, infertility, and genetic diseases in the offspring including cancer. There is epidemiological evidence linking paternal exposure to occupational or environmental agents with an increased risk of abnormal reproductive outcomes. There is also a large body of literature on germ cell mutagenesis in rodents showing that treatment of male germ cells with mutagens has dramatic consequences on reproduction producing effects such as those observed in human epidemiological studies. However, we know very little about the etiology, transmission and early embryonic consequences of paternally-derived chromosomal abnormalities. The available evidence suggests that: (1) there are distinct patterns of germ cell-stage differences in the sensitivity of induction of transmissible genetic damage with male postmeiotic cells being the most sensitive; (2) cytogenetic abnormalities at first metaphase after fertilization are critical intermediates between paternal exposure and abnormal reproductive outcomes; and, (3) there are maternally susceptibility factors that may have profound effects on the amount of sperm DNA damage that is converted into chromosomal aberrations in the zygote and directly affect the risk for abnormal reproductive outcomes.

  19. Detection of abnormalities in a human gait using smart shoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Kyoungchul; Bae, Joonbum; Tomizuka, Masayoshi

    2008-03-01

    Health monitoring systems require a means for detecting and quantifying abnormalities from measured signals. In this paper, a new method for detecting abnormalities in a human gait is proposed for an improved gait monitoring system for patients with walking problems. In the previous work, we introduced a fuzzy logic algorithm for detecting phases in a human gait based on four foot pressure sensors for each of the right and left foot. The fuzzy logic algorithm detects the gait phases smoothly and continuously, and retains all information obtained from sensors. In this paper, a higher level algorithm for detecting abnormalities in the gait phases obtained from the fuzzy logic is discussed. In the proposed algorithm, two major abnormalities are detected 1) when the sensors measure improper foot pressure patterns, and 2) when the human does not follow a natural sequence of gait phases. For mathematical realization of the algorithm, the gait phases are dealt with by a vector analysis method. The proposed detection algorithm is verified by experiments on abnormal gaits as well as normal gaits. The experiment makes use of the Smart Shoes that embeds four bladders filled with air, the pressure changes in which are detected by pressure transducers.

  20. Fibrillin abnormalities and prognosis in Marfan syndrome and related disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoyama, T.; Furthmayr, H.; Francke, U.; Gasner, C. [Stanford Univ. Medical Center, CA (United States)

    1995-08-28

    Marfan syndrome (MFS), a multisystem autosomal-dominant disorder, is characterized by mutations of the fibrillin-1 (FBN1) gene and by abnormal patterns of synthesis, secretion, and matrix deposition of the fibrillin protein. To determine the sensitivity and specificity of fibrillin protein abnormalities in the diagnosis of MFS, we studied dermal fibroblasts from 57 patients with classical MFS, 15 with equivocal MFS, 8 with single-organ manifestations, and 16 with other connective tissue disorders including homocystinuria and Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. Abnormal fibrillin metabolism was identified in 70 samples that were classified into four different groups based on quantitation of fibrillin synthesis and matrix deposition. Significant correlations were found for phenotypic features including arachnodactyly, striae distensae, cardiovascular manifestations, and fibrillin groups II and IV, which included 70% of the MFS patients. In addition, these two groups were associated with shortened {open_quotes}event-free{close_quotes} survival and more severe cardiovascular complications than groups I and III. The latter included most of the equivocal MFS/single manifestation patients with fibrillin abnormalities. Our results indicate that fibrillin defects at the protein level per se are not specific for MFS, but that the drastically reduced fibrillin deposition, caused by a dominant-negative effect of abnormal fibrillin molecules in individuals defined as groups II and IV, is of prognostic and possibly diagnostic significance. 25 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs.

  1. Evoked potentials and head injury. 1. Rating of evoked potential abnormality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rappaport, M; Hall, K; Hopkins, H K; Belleza, T

    1981-10-01

    This paper describes a method for rating the degree of abnormality of auditory, visual and somatosensory evoked potential patterns in head injury (HI) patients. Criteria for judging degree of EP abnormality are presented that allow assessment of the extent and severity of subcortical and cortical dysfunction associated with traumatic brain damage. Interrater reliability data based upon blind ratings of normal and HI patients are presented and shown to be highly significant. Tables of normative values of peak latencies and amplitudes are given and illustrations of EP patterns of different degrees of abnormality are presented.

  2. Arterial glomerulus at the hilum of the right kidney and the abnormal course of the right testicular artery: a case report.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badagabettu Satheesha Nayak

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Variations in the origin of arteries in the abdomen are very common. With the invention of new operative techniques within the abdomen cavity, the anatomy of abdominal vessels has assumed a great deal of clinical importance. We report here a rare case of formation of an "arterial glomerulus" at the hilum of the right kidney by the branches of right renal artery. There were 2 renal veins; a superficial and a deep. The deep vein had a peculiar course through the arterial glomerulus. The right testicular vein drained into the deep renal vein. We also observed a variant origin and course of right testicular artery. Prior knowledge of unusual branching pattern of renal vessels is necessary in the surgical interventions which require hilar dissection. Similarly, abnormal origin or course of testicular artery becomes apparent during surgical procedures like varicocele and undescended testes. Therefore, knowledge of such an anomaly in the testicular artery helps to avoid iatrogenic injuries during radiological or surgical procedures.

  3. Low-set ears and pinna abnormalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low-set ears; Microtia; "Lop" ear; Pinna abnormalities; Genetic defect-pinna; Congenital defect-pinna ... conditions: Abnormal folds or location of the pinna Low-set ears No opening to the ear canal ...

  4. Relationship among sera lipoprotein abnormalities in healthy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Relationship among sera lipoprotein abnormalities in healthy individuals with background of diabetic sibling. ... As the prevalence of lipoprotein abnormalities in adolescents is increasing dramatically, the identification of ... Article Metrics.

  5. Abnormal Cervical Cancer Screening Test Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS FAQ187 GYNECOLOGIC PROBLEMS Abnormal Cervical Cancer Screening Test Results • What is cervical cancer screening? • What causes abnormal cervical cancer screening test results? • ...

  6. [Phenomenology of abnormal body perceptions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, M L

    1983-01-01

    The present paper deals with the problematic nature of the phenomenological grasping of the consciousness of the body and its pathological modifications. The reasoning is oriented by the doctrine of Husserl of the so-called sentiments as the fundamentals of the experience of the own body. This basic approach does not only seem to be basically for a psychology of the consciousness of the body, but also to give the theoretical-conceptual structure for a great number of psychopathological modifications. Subsequent to a criticism of the conventional use of the term 'hallucination of the body' we attempt to chart elements of a scheme of the abnormal consciousness of the body.

  7. Foot abnormalities of wild birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, C.M.; Locke, L.N.; Clark, G.M.

    1962-01-01

    The various foot abnormalities that occur in birds, including pox, scaly-leg, bumble-foot, ergotism and freezing are reviewed. In addition, our findings at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center include pox from dove, mockingbird, cowbird, grackle and several species of sparrows. Scaly-leg has been particularly prevalent on icterids. Bumble foot has been observed in a whistling swan and in a group of captive woodcock. Ergotism is reported from a series of captive Canada geese from North Dakota. Several drug treatments recommended by others are presented.

  8. EMPIRICAL EVALUATION OF LBP AND ITS DERIVATES FOR ABNORMALITY DETECTION IN MAMMOGRAM IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Suruliandi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Digital image processing techniques are useful in abnormality detection in mammogram images. Recently, texture based image segmentation of mammogram images has become popular due to its better precision and accuracy. Local Binary Pattern has been a recently proposed texture descriptor which attracted the research community rigorously towards texture based analysis of digital images. Many texture descriptors have been developed as variants of Local Binary Pattern, because of its success. In this work, the performance of Local Binary Pattern descriptor and its variants namely Local Ternary pattern, Extended Local Ternary Pattern, Local Texture Pattern and Local Line Binary Pattern are evaluated for mammogram image segmentation using a supervised KNN algorithm. Performance metrics such as accuracy, error rate, sensitivity, specificity, Under Estimation Fraction and Over Estimation Fraction are used for comparison purpose. The results show that Local Binary Pattern outperforms other descriptors in terms of abnormality detection in mammogram images.

  9. TRUNK WITH BRANCHES PUBLIC TRANSPORT LINE SCHEDULLING UNDER CONDITION OF UNIFORM HEADWAY OPERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikola Krstanoski

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Planning of public transport network for good spatial coverage may lead to an operation of radial or diametrical public transport lines that branch at one or both ends of the line. This trunk with branches operation means that all vehicles on the line serve the main - trunk section, usually covering the central area of the city, and then split in two or more branches in the peripheral areas, in order to offer better spatial service. The scheduling of this type of operation is not an easy task since only certain patterns of headways and therefore passenger demands can be met, if efficient operation under the condition of uniform headways on all sections on the line is required. In this article the author analyzes the key variables that define the uniform headway operation and establishes their relationships, thus providing answer to the question what headway patterns are feasible and if they could be acceptable for real life operation.

  10. Eye-head coordination abnormalities in schizophrenia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Schwab

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Eye-movement abnormalities in schizophrenia are a well-established phenomenon that has been observed in many studies. In such studies, visual targets are usually presented in the center of the visual field, and the subject's head remains fixed. However, in every-day life, targets may also appear in the periphery. This study is among the first to investigate eye and head movements in schizophrenia by presenting targets in the periphery of the visual field. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Two different visual recognition tasks, color recognition and Landolt orientation tasks, were presented at the periphery (at a visual angle of 55° from the center of the field of view. Each subject viewed 96 trials, and all eye and head movements were simultaneously recorded using video-based oculography and magnetic motion tracking of the head. Data from 14 patients with schizophrenia and 14 controls were considered. The patients had similar saccadic latencies in both tasks, whereas controls had shorter saccadic latencies in the Landolt task. Patients performed more head movements, and had increased eye-head offsets during combined eye-head shifts than controls. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Patients with schizophrenia may not be able to adapt to the two different tasks to the same extent as controls, as seen by the former's task-specific saccadic latency pattern. This can be interpreted as a specific oculomotoric attentional dysfunction and may support the hypothesis that schizophrenia patients have difficulties determining the relevance of stimuli. Patients may also show an uneconomic over-performance of head-movements, which is possibly caused by alterations in frontal executive function that impair the inhibition of head shifts. In addition, a model was created explaining 93% of the variance of the response times as a function of eye and head amplitude, which was only observed in the controls, indicating abnormal eye-head coordination in patients

  11. On Regularity of Abnormal Subriemannian Geodesics

    CERN Document Server

    Tan, Kanghai

    2012-01-01

    We prove the smoothness of abnormal minimizers of subriemannian manifolds of step 3 with a nilpotent basis. We prove that rank 2 Carnot groups of step 4 admit no strictly abnormal minimizers. For any subriemannian manifolds of step less than 7, we show all abnormal minimizers have no corner type singularities, which partly generalize the main result of Leonardi-Monti.

  12. Wellens' syndrome with segmental wall-motion abnormalities

    OpenAIRE

    Bugan, Baris; Celik,Turgay; Celik,Murat; Dermikoh,Sait; Iyisoy,Atila; Serdar ,Firtina

    2010-01-01

    Turgay Celik1, Baris Bugan1, Serdar Firtina1, Murat Celik2, Sait Demirkol1, Atila Iyisoy11Gulhane Military Medical Academy, Department of Cardiology, Ankara, Turkey; 2Van Army District Hospital, Department of Cardiology, Van, TurkeyAbstract: Wellens' syndrome is a pattern of electrocardiographic T-wave changes associated with critical, proximal left anterior descending (LAD) artery stenosis. We herein report 2 cases of Wellens' syndrome with segmental wall-motion abnormalities...

  13. Abnormal visuomotor processing in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siân E. Robson

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Subtle disturbances of visual and motor function are known features of schizophrenia and can greatly impact quality of life; however, few studies investigate these abnormalities using simple visuomotor stimuli. In healthy people, electrophysiological data show that beta band oscillations in sensorimotor cortex decrease during movement execution (event-related beta desynchronisation (ERBD, then increase above baseline for a short time after the movement (post-movement beta rebound (PMBR; whilst in visual cortex, gamma oscillations are increased throughout stimulus presentation. In this study, we used a self-paced visuomotor paradigm and magnetoencephalography (MEG to contrast these responses in patients with schizophrenia and control volunteers. We found significant reductions in the peak-to-peak change in amplitude from ERBD to PMBR in schizophrenia compared with controls. This effect was strongest in patients who made fewer movements, whereas beta was not modulated by movement in controls. There was no significant difference in the amplitude of visual gamma between patients and controls. These data demonstrate that clear abnormalities in basic sensorimotor processing in schizophrenia can be observed using a very simple MEG paradigm.

  14. Chromosomal phenotypes and submicroscopic abnormalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devriendt Koen

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The finding, during the last decade, that several common, clinically delineated syndromes are caused by submicroscopic deletions or, more rarely, by duplications, has provided a powerful tool in the annotation of the human genome. Since most microdeletion/microduplication syndromes are defined by a common deleted/duplicated region, abnormal dosage of genes located within these regions can explain the phenotypic similarities among individuals with a specific syndrome. As such, they provide a unique resource towards the genetic dissection of complex phenotypes such as congenital heart defects, mental and growth retardation and abnormal behaviour. In addition, the study of phenotypic differences in individuals with the same microdeletion syndrome may also become a treasury for the identification of modifying factors for complex phenotypes. The molecular analysis of these chromosomal anomalies has led to a growing understanding of their mechanisms of origin. Novel tools to uncover additional submicroscopic chromosomal anomalies at a higher resolution and higher speed, as well as the novel tools at hand for deciphering the modifying factors and epistatic interactors, are 'on the doorstep' and will, besides their obvious diagnostic role, play a pivotal role in the genetic dissection of complex phenotypes.

  15. Structure-Property Relationships for Branched Worm-Like Micelles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaucage, Gregory; Rai, Durgesh

    2013-03-01

    Micellar solutions can display a wide range of phase structure as a function of counter ion content, surfactant concentration, and the presence of ternary components. Under some conditions, common to consumer products, extended cylindrical structures that display persistence and other chain features of polymers are produced. These worm-like micelles (WLMs) can form branched structures that dynamically change under shear and even in quiescent conditions. The rheology of these branched WLMs is strongly dependent on migration of the branch points, and the dynamics of branch formation and removal. Persistence and other polymer-based descriptions are also of importance. We have recently developed a scattering model for branched polyolefins and other topologically complex materials that can quantify the branching density, branch length, branch functionality and the hyperbranch (branch-on-branch) content of polymers. This work is being extended to study branching in WLMs in work coupled with Ron Larson at UMich to predict rheological properties.

  16. Chemical synthesis of a dual branched malto-decaose: A potential substrate for alpha-amylases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damager, Iben; Jensen, Morten; Olsen, Carl Erik

    2005-01-01

    . Using this chemically defined branched oligosaccharide as a substrate, the cleavage pattern of seven different alpha-amylases were investigated. alpha-Amylases from human saliva, porcine pancreas, barley alpha-amylose 2 and recombinant barley alpha-amylase 1 all hydrolysed the decasaccharide selectively...

  17. Branching structure of uniform recursive trees

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG; Qunqiang; SU; Chun; HU; Zhishui

    2005-01-01

    The branching structure of uniform recursive trees is investigated in this paper.Using the method of sums for a sequence of independent random variables, the distribution law of ηn, the number of branches of the uniform recursive tree of size n are given first. It is shown that the strong law of large numbers, the central limit theorem and the law of iterated logarithm for ηn follow easily from this method. Next it is shown that ηn and ξn, the depth of vertex n, have the same distribution, and the distribution law of ζn,m, the number of branches of size m, is also given, whose asymptotic distribution is the Poisson distribution with parameter λ = 1/m. In addition, the joint distribution and the asymptotic joint distribution of the numbers of various branches are given. Finally, it is proved that the size of the biggest branch tends to infinity almost sure as n -→∞.

  18. CHROMOSOMAL ABNORMALITIES IN PATIENTS WITH RECURRENT MISCARRIAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Mierla

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Chromosomal abnormalities are involved in the etiology of recurrent spontaneous pregnancy loss and sub-fertility. The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency and contribution of chromosomal abnormalities in recurrent miscarriages. The results obtained and literature review are helpful in understanding the importance of cytogenetics analysis of female infertility. To investigate the distribution of chromosomal abnormalities in the Romanian population with recurrent miscarriage, karyotype analysis by G-banding was performed from peripheral blood in 967 women infertility. Results: Chromosomal abnormalities were found to 79 women (8,17%. The percentage of chromosomal abnormalities in the studied population correlates with the data in the literature. Chromosomal abnormalities could play the important role in etiology of infertility and are more frequently detected in this group of patients compared to general population. In the infertile couples balanced chromosomal abnormalities are the main cause of spontaneous abortions.

  19. A study of cluster behavioral abnormalities in down syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhattacharyya Ranjan

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Background :The behavioral phenotype in Down syndrome follows a characteristic pattern. Aims: To find the incidence of behavioral abnormalities in Down syndrome, to compare these findings with other causes of intellectual disability and normal population and to cluster these abnormalities. Settings :One hundred forty mentally challenged people attending at tertiary care set up and from various non-governmental organizations were included in the study. Patients from both rural and urban set up participated in the study. The age-matched group from normal population was also studied for comparison. Design :The study design is a cross-sectional survey done independently by four observers. Materials and Methods :A semi-structured proforma for demographic profile has been used. The behavioral abnormalities are assessed by using DASH II (Diagnostic Assessment for the Severely Handicapped second modified version scale. Statistical Analysis :Demographic comparison has been done by analysis of variance. Correlation matrix has been run to identify correlation between individual items. Principal component analysis has been used for grouping the behavioral pattern. Results :Behavioral abnormalities as expected are more common in people having intellectual disability than the normal population. The Down syndrome group unlike other causes of intellectual disability shows higher scores in Stereotypy. Impulse control and Mania subscales. Factor analysis yields five characteristic factor structures, namely, hyperactive-impulsive, biological functions, affective, neurotic and organic-pervasive developmental disorder clusters. Conclusions :Contrary to the conventional belief of docile-fun and music loving prototype, individuals diagnosed with Down syndrome show clusters of behavioral abnormalities and management can vary depending on these target symptoms.

  20. Cyanogen in NGC 1851 Red Giant Branch and Asymptotic Giant Branch Stars: Quadrimodal Distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campbell, S. W.; Yong, D.; Wylie-de Boer, E. C.

    2012-01-01

    The Galactic globular cluster NGC 1851 has raised much interest since Hubble Space Telescope photometry revealed that it hosts a double subgiant branch. Here we report on our homogeneous study into the cyanogen (CN) band strengths in the red giant branch (RGB) population (17 stars) and asymptotic...

  1. Cyanogen in NGC 1851 Red Giant Branch and Asymptotic Giant Branch Stars: Quadrimodal Distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campbell, S. W.; Yong, D.; Wylie-de Boer, E. C.;

    2012-01-01

    The Galactic globular cluster NGC 1851 has raised much interest since Hubble Space Telescope photometry revealed that it hosts a double subgiant branch. Here we report on our homogeneous study into the cyanogen (CN) band strengths in the red giant branch (RGB) population (17 stars) and asymptotic...

  2. Abnormal Returns and Contrarian Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Dall'Agnol

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available We test the hypothesis that strategies which are long on portfolios of looser stocks and short on portfolios of winner stocks generate abnormal returns in Brazil. This type of evidence for the US stock market was interpreted by The Bondt and Thaler (1985 as reflecting systematic evaluation mistakes caused by investors overreaction to news related to the firm performance. We found evidence of contrarian strategies profitability for horizons from 3 months to 3 years in a sample of stock returns from BOVESPA and SOMA from 1986 to 2000. The strategies are more profitable for shorter horizons. Therefore, there was no trace of the momentum effect found by Jagadeesh and Titman (1993 for the same horizons with US data. There are remaing unexplained positive returns for contrarian strategies after accounting for risk, size, and liquidity. We also found that the strategy profitability is reduced after the Real Plan, which suggests that the Brazilian stock market became more efficient after inflation stabilization.

  3. Spiral CT of acute pulmonary thromboembolism: evaluation of pleuroparenchymal abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, P T; Wechsler, R J; Salazar, A M; Fisher, A M; Nazarian, L N; Steiner, R M

    1999-01-01

    The goal of this work was to identify and categorize the spectrum of pulmonary parenchymal and pleural abnormalities identified by CT in patients with acute pulmonary thromboembolism (PE). A review of interpretations from 4,715 consecutive contrast-enhanced thoracic CT studies identified 41 examinations in which the diagnosis of PE was reported. Thirty-four studies were available for review, and two radiologists confirmed intraluminal defects in 31 patients. The number of emboli were counted and localized using bronchopulmonary nomenclature. Associated parenchymal and pleural abnormalities were tabulated. Of the 31 patients, 13 underwent confirmatory or correlative studies including angiography, radionuclide study, or autopsy. In addition, deep venous thrombosis was confirmed by ultrasound or MRI in 13 patients. An average of 7.5 emboli per patient was detected. Pleuroparenchymal findings were as follows: Nine patients (29%) had no acute pulmonary parenchymal or pleural abnormality. In the remaining 22 patients, pleural effusion was the most common abnormality, found in 14 of 31 (45%). Ten patients (32%) had peripheral wedge-shaped parenchymal opacities suggestive of pulmonary infarction. Normally enhancing lobar atelectasis was seen in nine patients (29%). Six patients (19%) demonstrated heterogeneous parenchymal enhancement within nonaerated lung, two of whom had pathologically proven pulmonary infarct. Thirteen of 31 patients underwent high resolution CT; a typical mosaic perfusion pattern was seen in only 1 patient. Twenty-nine percent of patients with acute PE had no acute lung parenchymal abnormality on CT; thus, the absence of parenchymal abnormality on CT does not exclude PE. High resolution CT mosaic perfusion was not a common feature of acute pulmonary embolism. Regions of decreased enhancement within nonaerated lung, seen in 19%, may prove to be an indicator of pulmonary infarction; however, this is a nonspecific finding.

  4. Highly branched dextrin prepared from high-amylose maize starch using waxy rice branching enzyme (WRBE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yaoqi; Chen, Huangli; Zhang, Xiwen; Zhan, Jinling; Jin, Zhengyu; Wang, Jinpeng

    2016-07-15

    Branching enzyme (BE, EC 2.4.1.18) was isolated from the developing waxy rice endosperm and used to prepare a highly branched dextrin based on high-amylose maize starch (HAMS) as a substrate. The molecular mass of the starch initially degraded quickly from 2.5 × 10(7) to 4.1 × 10(5)Da, and then stabilized, with a minimal increase during the BE treatment. The resultant branched dextrin had a narrow size distribution, with a mean molecular weight of 5.1 × 10(5)Da and a polydispersity index (PI) of 1.567. The results of high-performance anion exchange chromatography indicated that the degree of polymerization (DP) of the branched chains ranged from 3 to 27; approximately 75.26% of these chains were short (DPhighly branched dextrins with a narrow size distribution and short side chains. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. 46 CFR 169.690 - Lighting branch circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lighting branch circuits. 169.690 Section 169.690... branch circuits. Each lighting branch circuit must meet the requirements of § 111.75-5 of this chapter... to a lighting distribution panelboard; and (b) Branch circuits in excess of 30 amperes may...

  6. The branching channel network in the Yangtze Estuary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Z.B.; Ding, P.X.

    2012-01-01

    The channels in the Yangtze Estuary have an ordered-branching structure: The estuary is first divided by the Chongming Island into the North Branch and the South Branch. Then the South Branch is divided into the North Channel and South Channel by the Islands Changxing and Hengsha. The South Channel

  7. General collision branching processes with two parameters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN AnYue; LI JunPing

    2009-01-01

    A new class of branching models, the general collision branching processes with two parameters, is considered in this paper. For such models, it is necessary to evaluate the absorbing probabilities and mean extinction times for both absorbing states. Regularity and uniqueness criteria are firstly established. Explicit expressions are then obtained for the extinction probability vector, the mean extinction times and the conditional mean extinction times. The explosion behavior of these models is investigated and an explicit expression for mean explosion time is established. The mean global holding time is also obtained. It is revealed that these properties are substantially different between the super-explosive and sub-explosive cases.

  8. Crack branching in carbon steel. Fracture mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syromyatnikova, A. S.; Alekseev, A. A.; Levin, A. I.; Lyglaev, A. V.

    2010-04-01

    The fracture surfaces of pressure vessels made of carbon steel that form during crack branching propagation are examined by fractography. Crack branching is found to occur at a crack velocity higher than a certain critical value V > V c . In this case, the material volume that is involved in fracture and depends on the elastoplastic properties of the material and the sample width has no time to dissipate the energy released upon crack motion via the damage mechanisms intrinsic in the material under given deformation conditions (in our case, via cracking according to intragranular cleavage).

  9. Nature of branching in disordered materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Amit S.

    The phenomenon of structural branching is ubiquitous in a wide array of materials such as polymers, ceramic aggregates, networks and gels. These materials with structural branching are a unique class of disordered materials and often display complex architectures. Branching has a strong influence over the structure-property relationships of these materials. Despite the generic importance across a wide spectrum of materials, our physical understanding of the scientific nature of branching and the analytic description and quantification of branching is at an early stage, though many decades of effort have been made. For polymers, branching is conventionally characterized by hydrodynamic radius (size exclusion chromatography, SEC, rheology) or by counting branch sites (nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, NMR). SEC and rheology are, at best, qualitative; and quantitative characterization techniques like NMR and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) (for ceramic nanoparticulate aggregates) have limitations in providing routine quantification. Effective structure characterization, though an important step in understanding these materials, remains elusive. For ceramic aggregates, theoretical work has dominated and only a few publications on analytic studies exist to support theory. A new generic scaling model is proposed in Chapter I, which encompasses the critical structural features associated with these complex architectures. The central theme of this work is the application of this model to describe a variety of disordered structures like aggregated nano-particulates, long chain branched polymers like polyethylene, hyperbranched polymers, multi-arm star polymers, and cyclic macromolecules. The application of the proposed model to these materials results in a number of fundamental structural parameters, like the mass-fractal dimension, df, the minimum path dimension, dmin, connectivity dimension, c, and the mole fraction branch content, φbr. These dimensions

  10. Branching model for vegetation. [polarimetric remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yueh, Simon H.; Kong, J. A.; Jao, Jen K.; Shin, Robert T.; Le Toan, Thuy

    1992-01-01

    In the present branching model for remote sensing of vegetation, the frequency and angular responses of a two-scale cylinder cluster are calculated to illustrate the importance of vegetation architecture. Attention is given to the implementation of a two-scale branching model for soybeans, where the relative location of soybean plants is described by a pair of distribution functions. Theoretical backscattering coefficients evaluated by means of hole-correction pair distribution are in agreement with extensive data collected from soybean fields. The hole-correction approximation is found to be the more realistic.

  11. Bayesian long branch attraction bias and corrections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susko, Edward

    2015-03-01

    Previous work on the star-tree paradox has shown that Bayesian methods suffer from a long branch attraction bias. That work is extended to settings involving more taxa and partially resolved trees. The long branch attraction bias is confirmed to arise more broadly and an additional source of bias is found. A by-product of the analysis is methods that correct for biases toward particular topologies. The corrections can be easily calculated using existing Bayesian software. Posterior support for a set of two or more trees can thus be supplemented with corrected versions to cross-check or replace results. Simulations show the corrections to be highly effective.

  12. Branching model for vegetation. [polarimetric remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yueh, Simon H.; Kong, J. A.; Jao, Jen K.; Shin, Robert T.; Le Toan, Thuy

    1992-01-01

    In the present branching model for remote sensing of vegetation, the frequency and angular responses of a two-scale cylinder cluster are calculated to illustrate the importance of vegetation architecture. Attention is given to the implementation of a two-scale branching model for soybeans, where the relative location of soybean plants is described by a pair of distribution functions. Theoretical backscattering coefficients evaluated by means of hole-correction pair distribution are in agreement with extensive data collected from soybean fields. The hole-correction approximation is found to be the more realistic.

  13. Statistical voxel-wise analysis of ictal SPECT reveals pattern of abnormal perfusion in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy Análise estatística baseada em voxel do SPECT ictal revela um padrão de alteração perfusional em pacientes com epilepsia de lobo temporal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara Juarez Amorim

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the pattern of perfusion abnormalities in ictal and interictal brain perfusion SPECT images (BSI from patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE. METHOD: It was acquired interictal and ictal BSI from 24 patients with refractory TLE. BSIs were analyzed by visual inspection and statistical parametric mapping (SPM2. Statistical analysis compared the patients group to a control group of 50 volunteers. The images from patients with left-TLE were left-right flipped. RESULTS: It was not observed significant perfusional differences in interictal scans with SPM. Ictal BSI in SPM analysis revealed hyperperfusion within ipsilateral temporal lobe (epileptogenic focus and also contralateral parieto-occipital region, ipsilateral posterior cingulate gyrus, occipital lobes and ipsilateral basal ganglia. Ictal BSI also showed areas of hypoperfusion. CONCLUSION: In a group analysis of ictal BSI of patients with TLE, voxel-wise analysis detects a network of distant regions of perfusional alteration which may play active role in seizure genesis and propagation.OBJETIVO: Investigar o padrão de anormalidades perfusionais no SPECT de perfusão cerebral (SPC ictal e interictal na epilepsia de lobo temporal (ELT. MÉTODO: Foram realizados SPCs ictal e interictal de 24 pacientes com ELT que foram analisados visualmente e com o statistical parametric mapping (SPM2. A análise estatística comparou o grupo de pacientes versus um grupo controle de 50 voluntários. RESULTADOS: Na análise do SPM não foram observadas diferenças significativas no grupo de SPC interictal. No grupo de SPC ictal o SPM revelou hiperperfusão no lobo temporal ipsilateral (foco epileptogênico e também na região parieto-occipital contralateral, porção posterior do cíngulo ipsilateral, lobos occipitais e núcleos da base ipsilateral. O SPC ictal também mostrou áreas de hipoperfusão. CONCLUSÃO: Em uma análise de grupo do SPC ictal de pacientes com ELT, a an

  14. Efficiency Measurement in: Branch Bank Service with Data Envelopment Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Qing Cao; Karyl B. Leggio; Marc J. Schniederjans

    2012-01-01

    Banking is a competitive market since the industry deregulated. Consumers’ demand for convenience services led to an increase in the number of branches to serve a geographically dispersed customer base. Increasing the number of branches indiscriminately is not advisable since more branches increase the cost structure for the bank. Banking executives can evaluate the relative efficiency of branches, segments, and markets using analytical tools such as DEA. This research assists the branch ma...

  15. Control of Abnormal Synchronization in Neurological Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleksandr V. Popovych

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the nervous system synchronization processes play an important role, e.g., in the context of information processing and motor control. However, pathological, excessive synchronization may strongly impair brain function and is a hallmark of several neurological disorders. This focused review addresses the question of how an abnormal neuronal synchronization can specifically be counteracted by invasive and non-invasive brain stimulation as, for instance, by deep brain stimulation for the treatment of Parkinson's disease, or by acoustic stimulation for the treatment of tinnitus. On the example of coordinated reset (CR neuromodulation we illustrate how insights into the dynamics of complex systems contribute to successful model-based approaches, which use methods from synergetics, nonlinear dynamics, and statistical physics, for the development of novel therapies for normalization of brain function and synaptic connectivity. Based on the intrinsic multistability of the neuronal populations induced by spike timing-dependent plasticity (STDP,CR neuromodulation utilizes the mutual interdependence between synaptic connectivity and dynamics of the neuronal networks in order to restore more physiological patterns of connectivity via desynchronization of neuronal activity. The very goal is to shift the neuronal population by stimulation from anabnormally coupled and synchronized state to a desynchronized regime with normalized synaptic connectivity, which significantly outlasts the stimulation cessation, so that long-lasting therapeutic effects can be achieved.

  16. Electroencephalographic abnormalities in antisocial personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calzada-Reyes, Ana; Alvarez-Amador, Alfredo; Galán-García, Lídice; Valdés-Sosa, Mitchell

    2012-01-01

    The presence of brain dysfunction in violent offenders has been frequently examined with inconsistent results. The aim of the study was to assess the EEG of 84 violent offenders by visual inspection and frequency-domain quantitative analysis in 84 violent prisoners. Low-resolution electromagnetic tomography (LORETA) was also employed for theta band of the EEG spectra. Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) was present in 50 of the offenders and it was absent in the remaining 34. The prevalence of EEG abnormalities, by visual inspection, was similar for both the ASPD group (82%) and non-ASPD group (79%). The brain topography of these anomalies also did not differ between groups, in contrast to results of the EEG quantitative analysis (QEEG) and LORETA that showed remarkable regional differences between both groups. QEEG analysis showed a pattern of excess of theta-delta activities and decrease of alpha band on the right fronto-temporal and left temporo-parietal regions in the ASPD group. LORETA signified an increase of theta activity (5.08 Hz) in ASPD group relative to non-ASPD group within left temporal and parietal regions. Findings indicate that QEEG analysis and techniques of source localization may reveal differences in brain electrical activity among offenders with ASPD, which was not obvious to visual inspection.

  17. Breathing abnormalities in a female mouse model of Rett syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Christopher M; Cui, Ningren; Zhong, Weiwei; Oginsky, Max F; Jiang, Chun

    2015-09-01

    Rett syndrome (RTT) is a female neurodevelopmental disease with breathing abnormalities. To understand whether breathing defects occur in the early lives of a group of female Mecp2(+/-) mice, a mouse model of RTT, and what percentage of mice shows RTT-like breathing abnormality, breathing activity was measured by plethysmography in conscious mice. Breathing frequency variation and central apnea in a group of Mecp2(+/-) females displayed a distribution pattern similar to Mecp2(-/Y) males, while the rest resembled the wild-type mice. Similar results were obtained using the k-mean clustering statistics analysis. With two independent methods, about 20% of female Mecp2(+/-) mice showed RTT-like breathing abnormalities that began as early as 3 weeks of age in the Mecp2(+/-) mice, and were suppressed with 3% CO2. The finding that only a small proportion of Mecp2(+/-) mice develops RTT-like breathing abnormalities suggests incomplete allele inactivation in the RTT-model Mecp2(+/-) mice.

  18. Clinical Prediction of Fall Risk and White Matter Abnormalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Bang-Bon; Bergethon, Peter; Qiu, Wei Qiao; Scott, Tammy; Hussain, Mohammed; Rosenberg, Irwin; Caplan, Louis R.; Bhadelia, Rafeeque A.

    2015-01-01

    Background The Tinetti scale is a simple clinical tool designed to predict risk of falling by focusing on gait and stance impairment in elderly persons. Gait impairment is also associated with white matter (WM) abnormalities. Objective To test the hypothesis that elderly subjects at risk for falling, as determined by the Tinetti scale, have specific patterns of WM abnormalities on diffusion tensor imaging. Design, Setting, and Patients Community-based cohort of 125 homebound elderly individuals. Main Outcome Measures Diffusion tensor imaging scans were analyzed using tract-based spatial statistics analysis to determine the location of WM abnormalities in subjects with Tinetti scale scores of 25 or higher (without risk of falls) and lower than 25 (with risk of falls). Multivariate linear least squares correlation analysis was performed to determine the association between Tinetti scale scores and local fractional anisotropy values on each skeletal voxel controlling for possible confounders. Results In subjects with risk of falls (Tinetti scale score scores, while the other locations were unrelated to these scores. Conclusions Elderly individuals at risk for falls as determined by the Tinetti scale have WM abnormalities in specific locations on diffusion tensor imaging, some of which correlate with cognitive function scores. PMID:22332181

  19. Chromosomal abnormalities, meiotic behavior and fertility in domestic animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villagómez, D A F; Pinton, A

    2008-01-01

    Since the advent of the surface microspreading technique for synaptonemal complex analysis, increasing interest in describing the synapsis patterns of chromosome abnormalities associated with fertility of domestic animals has been noticed during the past three decades. In spite of the number of scientific reports describing the occurrence of structural chromosome abnormalities, their meiotic behavior and gametic products, little is known in domestic animal species about the functional effects of such chromosome aberrations in the germ cell line of carriers. However, some interesting facts gained from recent and previous studies on the meiotic behavior of chromosome abnormalities of domestic animals permit us to discuss, in the frame of recent knowledge emerging from mouse and human investigations, the possible mechanism implicated in the well known association between meiotic disruption and chromosome pairing failure. New cytogenetic techniques, based on molecular and immunofluorescent analyses, are allowing a better description of meiotic processes, including gamete production. The present communication reviews the knowledge of the meiotic consequences of chromosome abnormalities in domestic animals.

  20. Intermittent Left Bundle Branch Block and Myocardial Ischemia in Patient Without Coronary Artery Stenosis: A Case Report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ju-fang CHI; Hang-yuan GUO; Long-bin LIU

    2009-01-01

    @@ Left bundle branch block (LBBB), traditionally viewed as an electrophysiologic abnormality, is increas-ingly recognized for its effects on hemodynamics and patient's prognosis[1]. Exercise nuclear studies frequently show reversible perfusion defects in the absence of ob-structive coronary artery disease[2] and some patients with intermittent LBBB develop angina coincident with the onset of LBBB[3]. We report a case of intermittent LBBB with abnormal stress technetium 99mTc single-pho-ton emission computed tomography (SPECT) study and normal coronary artery angiography.

  1. Computational Fluid Dynamics Study of Bifurcation Aneurysms Treated with Pipeline Embolization Device: Side Branch Diameter Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Abraham Yik-Sau; Chung, Wai-Choi; Liu, Eric Tian-Yang; Qu, Jie-Qiong; Tsang, Anderson Chun-On; Leung, Gilberto Ka-Kit; Leung, Kar-Ming; Yu, Alfred Cheuk-Hang; Chow, Kwok-Wing

    An intracranial aneurysm, abnormal swelling of the cerebral artery, may lead to undesirable rates of mortality and morbidity upon rupture. Endovascular treatment involves the deployment of a flow-diverting stent that covers the aneurysm orifice, thereby reducing the blood flow into the aneurysm and mitigating the risk of rupture. In this study, computational fluid dynamics analysis is performed on a bifurcation model to investigate the change in hemodynamics with various side branch diameters. The condition after the deployment of a pipeline embolization device is also simulated. Hemodynamic factors such as flow velocity, pressure, and wall shear stress are studied. Aneurysms with a larger side branch vessel might have greater risk after treatment in terms of hemodynamics. Although a stent could lead to flow reduction entering the aneurysm, it would drastically alter the flow rate inside the side branch vessel. This may result in side-branch hypoperfusion subsequent to stenting. In addition, two patient-specific bifurcation aneurysms are tested, and the results show good agreement with the idealized models. Furthermore, the peripheral resistance of downstream vessels is investigated by varying the outlet pressure conditions. This quantitative analysis can assist in treatment planning and therapeutic decision-making.

  2. On the red giant branch mass loss in 47 Tucanae: Constraints from the horizontal branch morphology

    CERN Document Server

    Salaris, Maurizio; Pietrinferni, Adriano

    2016-01-01

    We obtain stringent constraints on the actual efficiency of mass loss for red giant branch stars in the Galactic globular cluster 47 Tuc, by comparing synthetic modeling based on stellar evolution tracks with the observed distribution of stars along the horizontal branch in the colour-magnitude-diagram. We confirm that the observed, wedge-shaped distribution of the horizontal branch can be reproduced only by accounting for a range of initial He abundances --in agreement with inferences from the analysis of the main sequence-- and a red giant branch mass loss with a small dispersion. We have carefully investigated several possible sources of uncertainty that could affect the results of the horizontal branch modeling, stemming from uncertainties in both stellar model computations and the cluster properties such as heavy element abundances, reddening and age. We determine a firm lower limit of ~0.17$Mo for the mass lost by red giant branch stars, corresponding to horizontal branch stellar masses between ~0.65Mo ...

  3. Higgs Branching Ratio Study in CEPC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU; Shou-yang; LIANG; Hao; ZHOU; Jing; LI; Xiao-mei; LI; Xing-long; ZHOU; Shu-hua

    2015-01-01

    Higgs branching ratio(BR)measurement is one of the important issue of the Circular Electron Positron Collider(CEPC)project,which is strongly related to the coupling strength with particles and reveal their mass generation mechanism.The Large Hadron Collider(LHC)has discovered the Higgs boson in 2012,CEPC can confirm whether that is the standard model(SM)

  4. Branch II : Neutrino Oscillations at Low Energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabrera, A., E-mail: anatael@in2p3.fr [CNRS/IN2P3. Laboratoire d' Astro-Particule et Cosmologie. 10 rue Alice Domont et Leonie Duquet. Paris. 75205. Cedex 13 (France); Volpe, C., E-mail: volpe@ipno.in2p3.fr [Institut de Physique Nucleaire Orsay and University of Paris XI,CNRS/IN2P3, F-91406 Orsay cedex (France)

    2011-08-15

    We summarize here briefly the experimental and theoretical results presented at the NOW2010 workshop during the parallel session Branch II 'Oscillations at low energies'. The topics have covered open problems and recent advances in solar neutrinos, reactor and geo-neutrinos, as well as neutrinos from core-collapse supernovae.

  5. Branching Processes with Immigration and Related Topics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zeng-hu

    2006-01-01

    This is a survey on the recent progresses in the study of branching processes with immigration,generalized Ornstein-Uhlenbeck processes,and affine Markov processes.We mainly focus on the applications of skew convolution semigroups and the connections in those processes.

  6. Medial branch neurotomy in low back pain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masala, Salvatore; Mammucari, Matteo; Simonetti, Giovanni [Interventional Radiology and Radiotherapy University ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , Department of Diagnostic and Molecular Imaging, Rome (Italy); Nano, Giovanni [Interventional Radiology and Radiotherapy University ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , Department of Diagnostic and Molecular Imaging, Rome (Italy); University ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , Department of Radiology, Rome (Italy); Marcia, Stefano [S. Giovanni di Dio Hospital, Department of Diagnostic and Molecular Imaging, Cagliari (Italy)

    2012-07-15

    This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of pulsed radiofrequency medial branch dorsal ramus neurotomy in patients with facet joint syndrome. From January 2008 to April 2010, 92 patients with facet joint syndrome diagnosed by strict inclusion criteria and controlled diagnostic blocks undergone medial branch neurotomy. We did not exclude patients with failed back surgery syndrome (FBSS). Electrodes (20G) with 5-mm active tip were placed under fluoroscopy guide parallel to medial branch. Patients were followed up by physical examination and by Visual Analog Scale and Oswestry Disability Index at 1, 6, and 12 months. In all cases, pain improvement was statistically significant and so quality of life. Three non-FBSS patients had to undergo a second neurotomy because of non-satisfactory pain decrease. Complications were reported in no case. Medial branch radiofrequency neurotomy has confirmed its well-established effectiveness in pain and quality of life improvement as long as strict inclusion criteria be fulfilled and nerve ablation be accomplished by parallel electrode positioning. This statement can be extended also to FBSS patients. (orig.)

  7. Detonation Structure Under Chain Branching Kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Z.; Bauwens, L.

    2006-07-01

    Hydrogen-oxygen chemistry is characterized by a chain branching mechanism that yields three explosion limits. While a detailed kinetic scheme appropriate for hydrogen-oxygen should produce correct results, in many circumstances, a simpler yet reasonably realistic model will be warranted. In particular, it is easier to develop a clear understanding of the reaction zone structure using a simpler model, that includes only the key mechanisms. To that effect, we consider a four-step chain branching scheme that exhibits an explosion behavior with three limits, which behaves at least qualitatively like hydrogen chemistry. We focus in particular on the structure of the initiation and chain branching zones, using a combination between numerical simulation and analysis. Numerical simulations using this chemical model show distinctive keystone figures in the flow field, close to observations in hydrogen-oxygen detonation experiments. The structure of the chain branching zone is resolved using a perturbation analysis, which clarifies the differences between explosion and no-explosion regions and allows for an evaluation of the induction length in the steady wave. The analysis assumes both high activation energy and a slow initiation. Three cases are identified, respectively, with pressure and temperature located within the explosion region, close to the explosion limit and within the no-explosion region. The induction length is shorter and the reaction rate is faster by several orders of magnitude in the explosion region.

  8. Delayed evolutionary branching in small populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claessen, D.; Andersson, J.; Persson, L.; de Roos, A.M.

    2007-01-01

    Abstract: Question: How is the process of evolutionary branching influenced by demographic stochasticity? Mathematical methods: Adaptive dynamics of (i) a simple consumer-resource model and (ii) an analogous but individual-based model with finite population size. Key assumptions: Consumers have acce

  9. Heavy metal contamination in TIMS Branch sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pickett, J.B.

    1990-06-25

    The objective of this memorandum is to summarize results of previous sediment studies on Tims Branch and Steed's Pond conducted by Health Protection (HP) and by the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) in conjunction with Reactor Materials Engineering Technology (RMET). The results for other heavy metals, such as lead, nickel, copper, mercury, chromium, cadmium, zinc, and thorium are also summarized.

  10. Heavy metal contamination in TIMS Branch sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pickett, J.B.

    1990-06-25

    The objective of this memorandum is to summarize results of previous sediment studies on Tims Branch and Steed`s Pond conducted by Health Protection (HP) and by the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) in conjunction with Reactor Materials Engineering & Technology (RMET). The results for other heavy metals, such as lead, nickel, copper, mercury, chromium, cadmium, zinc, and thorium are also summarized.

  11. Detection of Bundle Branch Block using Adaptive Bacterial Foraging Optimization and Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padmavthi Kora

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The medical practitioners analyze the electrical activity of the human heart so as to predict various ailments by studying the data collected from the Electrocardiogram (ECG. A Bundle Branch Block (BBB is a type of heart disease which occurs when there is an obstruction along the pathway of an electrical impulse. This abnormality makes the heart beat irregular as there is an obstruction in the branches of heart, this results in pulses to travel slower than the usual. Our current study involved is to diagnose this heart problem using Adaptive Bacterial Foraging Optimization (ABFO Algorithm. The Data collected from MIT/BIH arrhythmia BBB database applied to an ABFO Algorithm for obtaining best(important feature from each ECG beat. These features later fed to Levenberg Marquardt Neural Network (LMNN based classifier. The results show the proposed classification using ABFO is better than some recent algorithms reported in the literature.

  12. The AFCRL Lunar amd Planetary Research Branch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Stephan D.

    2011-07-01

    The Lunar and Planetary research program led by Dr John (Jack) Salisbury in the 1960s at the United States Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratories (AFCRL) investigated the surface characteristics of Solar System bodies. The Branch was one of the first groups to measure the infrared spectra of likely surface materials in the laboratory under appropriate vacuum and temperature conditions. The spectral atlases created from the results were then compared to photometric and spectral measurements obtained from ground- and balloon-based telescopes to infer the mineral compositions and physical conditions of the regoliths of the Moon, Mars and asteroids. Starting from scratch, the Branch initially sponsored observations of other groups while its in-house facilities were being constructed. The earliest contracted efforts include the spatially-resolved mapping of the Moon in the first half of the 1960s by Richard W. Shorthill and John W. Saari of the Boeing Scientific Research Laboratories in Seattle. This effort ultimately produced isophotal and isothermal contour maps of the Moon during a lunation and time-resolved thermal images of the eclipsed Moon. The Branch also sponsored probe rocket-based experiments flown by Riccardo Giacconi and his group at American Science and Engineering Inc. that produced the first observations of X-ray stars in 1962 and later the first interferometric measurement of the ozone and C02 emission in the upper atmosphere. The Branch also made early use of balloon-based measurements. This was a singular set of experiments, as these observations are among the very few mid-infrared astronomical measurements obtained from a balloon platform. Notable results of the AFCRL balloon flights were the mid-infrared spectra of the spatially-resolved Moon obtained with the University of Denver mid-infrared spectrometer on the Branch's balloon-borne 61-cm telescope during a 1968 flight. These observations remain among the best available. Salisbury also funded

  13. Abnormal retinal development associated with FRMD7 mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Mervyn G; Crosier, Moira; Lindsay, Susan; Kumar, Anil; Araki, Masasuke; Leroy, Bart P; McLean, Rebecca J; Sheth, Viral; Maconachie, Gail; Thomas, Shery; Moore, Anthony T; Gottlob, Irene

    2014-08-01

    Idiopathic infantile nystagmus (IIN) is a genetically heterogeneous disorder, often associated with FRMD7 mutations. As the appearance of the retina is reported to be normal based on conventional fundus photography, IIN is postulated to arise from abnormal cortical development. To determine whether the afferent visual system is involved in FRMD7 mutations, we performed in situ hybridization studies in human embryonic and fetal stages (35 days post-ovulation to 9 weeks post-conception). We show a dynamic retinal expression pattern of FRMD7 during development. We observe expression within the outer neuroblastic layer, then in the inner neuroblastic layer and at 9 weeks post-conception a bilaminar expression pattern. Expression was also noted within the developing optic stalk and optic disk. We identified a large cohort of IIN patients (n = 100), and performed sequence analysis which revealed 45 patients with FRMD7 mutations. Patients with FRMD7 mutations underwent detailed retinal imaging studies using ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography. The tomograms were compared with a control cohort (n = 60). The foveal pit was significantly shallower in FRMD7 patients (P < 0.0001). The optic nerve head morphology was abnormal with significantly decreased optic disk area, retinal nerve fiber layer thickness, cup area and cup depth in FRMD7 patients (P < 0.0001). This study shows for the first time that abnormal afferent system development is associated with FRMD7 mutations and could be an important etiological factor in the development of nystagmus.

  14. Biochemical abnormalities in Pearson syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crippa, Beatrice Letizia; Leon, Eyby; Calhoun, Amy; Lowichik, Amy; Pasquali, Marzia; Longo, Nicola

    2015-03-01

    Pearson marrow-pancreas syndrome is a multisystem mitochondrial disorder characterized by bone marrow failure and pancreatic insufficiency. Children who survive the severe bone marrow dysfunction in childhood develop Kearns-Sayre syndrome later in life. Here we report on four new cases with this condition and define their biochemical abnormalities. Three out of four patients presented with failure to thrive, with most of them having normal development and head size. All patients had evidence of bone marrow involvement that spontaneously improved in three out of four patients. Unique findings in our patients were acute pancreatitis (one out of four), renal Fanconi syndrome (present in all patients, but symptomatic only in one), and an unusual organic aciduria with 3-hydroxyisobutyric aciduria in one patient. Biochemical analysis indicated low levels of plasma citrulline and arginine, despite low-normal ammonia levels. Regression analysis indicated a significant correlation between each intermediate of the urea cycle and the next, except between ornithine and citrulline. This suggested that the reaction catalyzed by ornithine transcarbamylase (that converts ornithine to citrulline) might not be very efficient in patients with Pearson syndrome. In view of low-normal ammonia levels, we hypothesize that ammonia and carbamylphosphate could be diverted from the urea cycle to the synthesis of nucleotides in patients with Pearson syndrome and possibly other mitochondrial disorders.

  15. Semen abnormalities with SSRI antidepressants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Despite decades of widespread use, the adverse effect profile of "selective" serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressants has still not been fully elucidated. Studies in male animals have shown delayed sexual development and reduced fertility. Three prospective cohort studies conducted in over one hundred patients exposed to an SSRI for periods ranging from 5 weeks to 24 months found altered semen param-eters after as little as 3 months of exposure: reduced sperm concentration, reduced sperm motility, a higher percentage of abnormal spermatozoa, and increased levels of sperm DNA fragmentation. One clinical trial showed growth retardation in children considered depressed who were exposed to SSRls. SSRls may have endocrine disrupting properties. Dapoxetine is a short-acting serotonin reuptake inhibitor that is chemically related to fluoxetine and marketed in the European Union for men complaining of premature ejaculation. But the corresponding European summary of product characteristics does not mention any effects on fertility. In practice, based on the data available as of mid-2014, the effects of SSRI exposure on male fertility are unclear. However, it is a risk that should be taken into account and pointed out to male patients who would like to father a child or who are experiencing fertility problems.

  16. Hemostatic abnormalities in liver cirrhosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kendal YALÇIN

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, 44 patients with liver cirrhosis were investigated for hemostatic parameters. Patients with spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, hepatocellular carcinoma, hepatorenal syndrome and cholestatic liver diseases were excluded. Patients were classified by Child-Pugh criterion and according to this 4 patients were in Class A, 20 in Class B and 20 in C. Regarding to these results, it was aimed to investigate the haematological disturbances in liver cirrhotic patients.In the result there was a correlation between activated partial thromboplastin time, serum iron, ferritin, transferrin, haptoglobin and Child-Pugh classification. Besides there was no correlation between prothrombin time, factor 8 and 9, protein C and S, anti-thrombin 3, fibrinogen, fibrin degradation products, serum iron binding capacity, hemoglobin, leukocyte, mean corpuscular volume and Child-Pugh classification.There were significant difference, in terms of AST, ferritin, haptoglobulin, sex and presence of ascites between groups (p0.05. In the summary, we have found correlation between hemostatic abnormalities and disease activity and clinical prognosis in patients with liver cirrhosis which is important in the management of these patients. This is also important for identification of liver transplant candidiates earlier.

  17. The Branching Bifurcation of Adaptive Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Rossa, Fabio; Dercole, Fabio; Landi, Pietro

    2015-06-01

    We unfold the bifurcation involving the loss of evolutionary stability of an equilibrium of the canonical equation of Adaptive Dynamics (AD). The equation deterministically describes the expected long-term evolution of inheritable traits — phenotypes or strategies — of coevolving populations, in the limit of rare and small mutations. In the vicinity of a stable equilibrium of the AD canonical equation, a mutant type can invade and coexist with the present — resident — types, whereas the fittest always win far from equilibrium. After coexistence, residents and mutants effectively diversify, according to the enlarged canonical equation, only if natural selection favors outer rather than intermediate traits — the equilibrium being evolutionarily unstable, rather than stable. Though the conditions for evolutionary branching — the joint effect of resident-mutant coexistence and evolutionary instability — have been known for long, the unfolding of the bifurcation has remained a missing tile of AD, the reason being related to the nonsmoothness of the mutant invasion fitness after branching. In this paper, we develop a methodology that allows the approximation of the invasion fitness after branching in terms of the expansion of the (smooth) fitness before branching. We then derive a canonical model for the branching bifurcation and perform its unfolding around the loss of evolutionary stability. We cast our analysis in the simplest (but classical) setting of asexual, unstructured populations living in an isolated, homogeneous, and constant abiotic environment; individual traits are one-dimensional; intra- as well as inter-specific ecological interactions are described in the vicinity of a stationary regime.

  18. Abnormalities of cell packing density and dendritic complexity in the MeCP2 A140V mouse model of Rett syndrome/X-linked mental retardation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blue Mary

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rett syndrome (RTT, a common cause of mental retardation in girls, is associated with mutations in the MECP2 gene. Most human cases of MECP2 mutation in girls result in classical or variant forms of RTT. When these same mutations occur in males, they often present as severe neonatal encephalopathy. However, some MECP2 mutations can also lead to diseases characterized as mental retardation syndromes, particularly in boys. One of these mutations, A140V, is a common, recurring missense mutation accounting for about 0.6% of all MeCP2 mutations and ranking 21st by frequency. It has been described in familial X-linked mental retardation (XLMR, PPM- X syndrome (Parkinsonism, Pyramidal signs, Macroorchidism, X-linked mental retardation and in other neuropsychiatric syndromes. Interestingly, this mutation has been reported to preserve the methyl-CpG binding function of the MeCP2 protein while compromising its ability to bind to the mental retardation associated protein ATRX. Results We report the construction and initial characterization of a mouse model expressing the A140V MeCP2 mutation. These initial descriptive studies in male hemizygous mice have revealed brain abnormalities seen in both RTT and mental retardation. The abnormalities found include increases in cell packing density in the brain and a significant reduction in the complexity of neuronal dendritic branching. In contrast to some MeCP2 mutation mouse models, the A140V mouse has an apparently normal lifespan and normal weight gain patterns with no obvious seizures, tremors, breathing difficulties or kyphosis. Conclusion We have identified various neurological abnormalities in this mouse model of Rett syndrome/X-linked mental retardation which may help to elucidate the manner in which MECP2 mutations cause neuronal changes resulting in mental retardation without the confounding effects of seizures, chronic hypoventilation, or other Rett syndrome associated symptoms.

  19. DEVELOPMENT OF A SMALLMOUTH BASS QUANTITATIVE REAL-TIME PCR ASSAY TO MEASURE VTG GENE INDUCTION IN MALE FISH FROM THE SOUTH BRANCH OF THE POTOMAC RIVER

    Science.gov (United States)

    A high incidence of intersex bass, primarily male smallmouth bass with previtellogenic oocytes, exists in the south branch of the Potomac River. Exposures to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) may be the cause of these abnormalities. Potential sources of EDCs to the river are ...

  20. 3rd Workshop on Branching Processes and their Applications

    CERN Document Server

    González, Miguel; Gutiérrez, Cristina; Martínez, Rodrigo; Minuesa, Carmen; Molina, Manuel; Mota, Manuel; Ramos, Alfonso; WBPA15

    2016-01-01

    This volume gathers papers originally presented at the 3rd Workshop on Branching Processes and their Applications (WBPA15), which was held from 7 to 10 April 2015 in Badajoz, Spain (http://branching.unex.es/wbpa15/index.htm). The papers address a broad range of theoretical and practical aspects of branching process theory. Further, they amply demonstrate that the theoretical research in this area remains vital and topical, as well as the relevance of branching concepts in the development of theoretical approaches to solving new problems in applied fields such as Epidemiology, Biology, Genetics, and, of course, Population Dynamics. The topics covered can broadly be classified into the following areas: 1. Coalescent Branching Processes 2. Branching Random Walks 3. Population Growth Models in Varying and Random Environments 4. Size/Density/Resource-Dependent Branching Models 5. Age-Dependent Branching Models 6. Special Branching Models 7. Applications in Epidemiology 8. Applications in Biology and Genetics Offer...

  1. Detection of Respiratory Abnormalities Using Artificial Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi J. Baemani

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem Statement: Lung disease is a major threat to the human health regarding the industrial life, air pollution, smoking, and infections. Lung function tests are often performed using spirometry. Approach: The present study aims at detecting obstructive and restrictive pulmonary abnormalities. Lung function tests are often performed using spirometry. In this study, the data were obtained from 250 volunteers with standard recording protocol in order to detect and classify pulmonary diseases into normal, obstructive and restrictive. Firstly, spirometric data was statistically analyzed concerning its significance for neural networks. Then, such parameters were presented as input to MLP and recurrent networks. Results: These two networks detected normal and abnormal disorders as well as obstructive and restrictive patterns, respectively. Moreover, the output data was confirmed by measuring accuracy and sensitivity. Conclusion: The results show that the proposed method could be useful for detecting the function of respiratory system.

  2. Unsupervised behaviour-specific dictionary learning for abnormal event detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Huamin; Liu, Weifeng; Olsen, Søren Ingvor

    2015-01-01

    Abnormal event detection has been a challenge due to the lack of complete normal information in the training data and the volatility of the definitions of both normality and abnormality. Recent research applying sparse representation has shown its effectiveness in the expression of normal patterns...... the training data is only a small proportion of the surveillance data. Therefore, we propose behavior-specific dictionaries (BSD) through unsupervised learning, pursuing atoms from the same type of behavior to represent one behavior dictionary. To further improve the dictionary by introducing information from....... Despite progress in this area, the relationship of atoms within the dictionary is commonly neglected, thereafter anomalies which are detected based on reconstruction error could brings high false alarm - noise or infrequent normal visual features could be wrongly detected as anomalies, especially when...

  3. [Renal abnormalities in ankylosing spondylitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samia, Barbouch; Hazgui, Faiçal; Abdelghani, Khaoula Ben; Hamida, Fethi Ben; Goucha, Rym; Hedri, Hafedh; Taarit, Chokri Ben; Maiz, Hedi Ben; Kheder, Adel

    2012-07-01

    We will study the epidemiologic, clinical, biological, therapeutic, prognostic characteristics and predictive factors of development of nephropathy in ankylosing spondylitis patients. We retrospectively reviewed the medical record of 32 cases with renal involvement among 212 cases of ankylosing spondylitis followed in our service during the period spread out between 1978 and 2006. The renal involvement occurred in all patients a mean of 12 years after the clinical onset of the rheumatic disease. Thirty-two patients presented one or more signs of renal involvement: microscopic hematuria in 22 patients, proteinuria in 23 patients, nephrotic syndrome in 11 patients and decreased renal function in 24 patients (75%). Secondary renal amyloidosis (13 patients), which corresponds to a prevalence of 6,1% and tubulointerstitial nephropathy (7 patients) were the most common cause of renal involvement in ankylosing spondylitis followed by IgA nephropathy (4 patients). Seventeen patients evolved to the end stage renal disease after an average time of 29.8 ± 46 months. The average follow-up of the patients was 4,4 years. By comparing the 32 patients presenting a SPA and renal disease to 88 with SPA and without nephropathy, we detected the predictive factors of occurred of nephropathy: tobacco, intense inflammatory syndrome, sacroileite stage 3 or 4 and presence of column bamboo. The finding of 75% of the patients presented a renal failure at the time of the diagnosis of renal involvement suggests that evidence of renal abnormality involvement should be actively sought in this disease. Copyright © 2011 Association Société de néphrologie. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Platelet enzyme abnormalities in leukemias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Sharma

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the Study: The aim of this study was to evaluate platelet enzyme activity in cases of leukemia. Materials and Methods: Platelet enzymes glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD, pyruvate kinase (PK and hexokinase (HK were studied in 47 patients of acute and chronic leukemia patients, 16 patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML(13 relapse, three in remission, 12 patients with acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL (five in relapse, seven in remission, 19 patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML. Results: The platelet G6PD activity was significantly low in cases of AML, ALL and also in CML. G6PD activity was normalized during AML remission. G6PD activity, although persistently low during ALL remission, increased significantly to near-normal during remission (P < 0.05 as compared with relapse (P < 0.01. Platelet PK activity was high during AML relapse (P < 0.05, which was normalized during remission. Platelet HK however was found to be decreased during all remission (P < 0.05. There was a significant positive correlation between G6PD and PK in cases of AML (P < 0.001 but not in ALL and CML. G6PD activity did not correlate with HK activity in any of the leukemic groups. A significant positive correlation was however seen between PK and HK activity in cases of ALL remission (P < 0.01 and CML (P < 0.05. Conclusions: Both red cell and platelet enzymes were studied in 36 leukemic patients and there was no statistically significant correlation between red cell and platelet enzymes. Platelet enzyme defect in leukemias suggests the inherent abnormality in megakaryopoiesis and would explain the functional platelet defects in leukemias.

  5. A rare cause of abnormal epiglottic mobility and dyspagia: calcification of the epiglottis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günbey, Hediye Pinar; Günbey, Emre; Sayit, Asli Tanrivermiş

    2014-11-01

    The dynamic function of the epiglottis plays an important role in preventing the aspiration of foods into the trachea during deglutition. Abnormal epiglottic movement may cause swallowing and aspiration problems. Epiglottic calcification is a rare cause of abnormal epiglottic movement pattern and dysphagia. In this report, we present a case of epiglottic calcification caused by dysphagia and discuss the clinical and radiologic features of this very rare condition.

  6. Artery to Cystic Duct: A Consistent Branch of Cystic Artery Seen in Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arshad Rashid

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Uncontrolled arterial bleeding during laparoscopic cholecystectomy is a serious problem and may increase the risk of bile duct damage. Therefore, accurate identification of the anatomy of the cystic artery is very important. Cystic artery is notoriously known to have a highly variable branching pattern. We reviewed the anatomy of the cystic artery and its branch to cystic duct as seen through the video laparoscope. A single artery to cystic duct with the classical “H-configuration” was demonstrated in 161 (91.47% patients. This branch may cause troublesome bleeding during laparoscopic dissection in the hepatobiliary triangle. Careful identification of artery to cystic duct is helpful in the proper dissection of Calot’s triangle as it reduces the chances of hemorrhage and thus may also be helpful in prevention of extrahepatic biliary radical injuries.

  7. Structured Dendritic Inhibition Supports Branch-Selective Integration in CA1 Pyramidal Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloss, Erik B; Cembrowski, Mark S; Karsh, Bill; Colonell, Jennifer; Fetter, Richard D; Spruston, Nelson

    2016-03-02

    Neuronal circuit function is governed by precise patterns of connectivity between specialized groups of neurons. The diversity of GABAergic interneurons is a hallmark of cortical circuits, yet little is known about their targeting to individual postsynaptic dendrites. We examined synaptic connectivity between molecularly defined inhibitory interneurons and CA1 pyramidal cell dendrites using correlative light-electron microscopy and large-volume array tomography. We show that interneurons can be highly selective in their connectivity to specific dendritic branch types and, furthermore, exhibit precisely targeted connectivity to the origin or end of individual branches. Computational simulations indicate that the observed subcellular targeting enables control over the nonlinear integration of synaptic input or the initiation and backpropagation of action potentials in a branch-selective manner. Our results demonstrate that connectivity between interneurons and pyramidal cell dendrites is more precise and spatially segregated than previously appreciated, which may be a critical determinant of how inhibition shapes dendritic computation.

  8. Morphological abnormalities in the cladoceran Ilyocryptus spinifer (Apipucos Reservoir, Pernambuco State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. A. Elmoor-Loureiro

    Full Text Available In a sample taken from Apipucos Reservoir (Recife, PE, Brazil for taxonomic study, a high percentage (40% was found of cladoceran Ilyocryptus spinifer individuals with morphological abnormalities on their postabdomen. There was not a fixed pattern of the malformations, which varied in gravity, and could affect the postanal spines or terminal claws. The postabdominal abnormalities are described and compared to the ones described in the literature. The hypothesis of the morphological abnormalities being induced by an occasional environmental toxicant is discussed.

  9. Abnormal Raman spectral phenomenon of silicon nanowires

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The Raman spectra of two one-dimensional silicon nanowire samples with different excitation wavelengths were measured and an abnormal phenomenon was discovered that the Raman spectral features change with the wavelengths of excitation. Closer analysis of the crystalline structure of samples and the changes in Raman spectral features showed that the abnormal behavior is the result of resonance Raman scattering selection effect.

  10. An Abnormal Vibrational Mode of Torsion Pendulum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵亮; 涂英; 顾邦明; 胡忠坤; 罗俊

    2003-01-01

    In the experiment for the determination of the gravitational constant G, we found an abnormal vibrational mode of the torsion pendulum. The abnormal mode disappeared as a magnetic damper was introduced to the torsion pendulum system. Our experimental results also show that the magnetic damper can be used to suppress the high frequency vibrational noises to torsion pendulums effectively.

  11. Nail abnormalities in patients with vitiligo*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topal, Ilteris Oguz; Gungor, Sule; Kocaturk, Ozgur Emek; Duman, Hatice; Durmuscan, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    Background Vitiligo is an acquired pigmentary skin disorder affecting 0.1-4% of the general population. The nails may be affected in patients with an autoimmune disease such as psoriasis, and in those with alopecia areata. It has been suggested that nail abnormalities should be apparent in vitiligo patients. Objective We sought to document the frequency and clinical presentation of nail abnormalities in vitiligo patients compared to healthy volunteers. We also examined the correlations between nail abnormalities and various clinical parameters. Methods This study included 100 vitiligo patients and 100 healthy subjects. Full medical histories were collected from the subjects, who underwent thorough general and nail examinations. All nail changes were noted. In the event of clinical suspicion of a fungal infection, additional mycological investigations were performed. Results Nail abnormalities were more prevalent in the patients (78%) than in the controls (55%) (p=0.001). Longitudinal ridging was the most common finding (42%), followed by (in descending order): leukonychia, an absent lunula, onycholysis, nail bed pallor, onychomycosis, splinter hemorrhage and nail plate thinning. The frequency of longitudinal ridging was significantly higher in patients than in controls (p<0.001). Conclusions Nail abnormalities were more prevalent in vitiligo patients than in controls. Systematic examination of the nails in such patients is useful because nail abnormalities are frequent. However, the causes of such abnormalities require further study. Longitudinal ridging and leukonychia were the most common abnormalities observed in this study. PMID:27579738

  12. An Abnormal Psychology Community Based Interview Assignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Geoffry D.

    1977-01-01

    A course option in abnormal psychology involves students in interviewing and observing the activities of individuals in the off-campus community who are concerned with some aspect of abnormal psychology. The technique generates student interest in the field when they interview people about topics such as drug abuse, transsexualism, and abuse of…

  13. [CHROMOSOMAL ABNORMALITIES IN PATIENTS WITH INFERTILITY].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pylyp, L Y; Spinenko, L O; Verhoglyad, N V; Kashevarova, O O; Zukin, V D

    2015-01-01

    To assess the frequency and structure of chromosomal abnormalities in patients with infertility, a retrospective analysis of cytogenetic studies of 3414 patients (1741 females and 1673 males), referred to the Clinic of reproductive medicine "Nadiya" from 2007 to 2012, was performed. Chromosomal abnormalities were detected in 2.37% patients: 2.79% in males and 1.95% in females. Balanced structural chromosomal abnormalities prevailed over numerical abnormalities and corresponded to 80.2% of all chromosomal abnormalities detected in the studied group. Sex chromosome abnormalities made up 23.5% of chromosomal pathology (19/81) and included gonosomal aneuploidies in 84% of cases (16/19) and structural abnormalities of chromosome Y in 16% of cases (3/19). The low level sex chromosome mosaicism was detected with the frequency of 0.55%. Our results highlight the importance of cytogenetic studies in patients seeking infertility treatment by assisted reproductive technologies, since an abnormal finding not only provide a firm diagnosis to couples with infertility, but also influences significantly the approach to infertility treatment in such patients.

  14. How plastic can phenotypic plasticity be? The branching coral Stylophora pistillata as a model system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Shaish

    Full Text Available Phenotypic plasticity enables multicellular organisms to adjust morphologies and various life history traits to variable environmental challenges. Here, we elucidate fixed and plastic architectural rules for colony astogeny in multiple types of colonial ramets, propagated by cutting from genets of the branching coral Stylophora pistillata from Eilat, the Red Sea. We examined 16 morphometric parameters on 136 one-year old S. pistillata colonies (of seven genotypes, originating from small fragments belonging, each, to one of three single-branch types (single tips, start-up, and advanced bifurcating tips or to structural preparative manipulations (representing a single or two growth axes. Experiments were guided by the rationale that in colonial forms, complexity of evolving phenotypic plasticity can be associated with a degree of structural modularity, where shapes are approached by erecting iterative growth patterns at different levels of coral-colony organization. Analyses revealed plastic morphometric characters at branch level, and predetermined morphometric traits at colony level (only single trait exhibited plasticity under extreme manipulation state. Therefore, under the experimental manipulations of this study, phenotypic plasticity in S. pistillata appears to be related to branch level of organization, whereas colony traits are controlled by predetermined genetic architectural rules. Each level of organization undergoes its own mode of astogeny. However, depending on the original ramet structure, the spherical 3-D colonial architecture in this species is orchestrated and assembled by both developmental trajectories at the branch level, and traits at the colony level of organization. In nature, branching colonial forms are often subjected to harsh environmental conditions that cause fragmentation of colony into ramets of different sizes and structures. Developmental traits that are plastic, responding to fragment structure and are not

  15. General collision branching processes with two parameters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    A new class of branching models,the general collision branching processes with two parameters,is considered in this paper.For such models,it is necessary to evaluate the absorbing probabilities and mean extinction times for both absorbing states.Regularity and uniqueness criteria are firstly established.Explicit expressions are then obtained for the extinction probability vector,the mean extinction times and the conditional mean extinction times.The explosion behavior of these models is investigated and an explicit expression for mean explosion time is established.The mean global holding time is also obtained.It is revealed that these properties are substantially different between the super-explosive and sub-explosive cases.

  16. Photovoltaic Program Branch annual report, FY 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Summers, K A [ed.

    1990-03-01

    This report summarizes the progress of the Photovoltaic (PV) Program Branch of the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) from October 1, 1988, through September 30, 1989. The branch is responsible for managing the subcontracted portion of SERI's PV Advanced Research and Development Project. In fiscal year (FY) 1989, this included nearly 50 subcontracts, with a total annualized funding of approximately $13.1 million. Approximately two-thirds of the subcontracts were with universities, at a total funding of nearly $4 million. The six technical sections of the report cover the main areas of the subcontracted program: Amorphous Silicon Research, Polycrystalline Thin Films, Crystalline Silicon Materials Research, High-Efficiency Concepts, New Ideas, and University Participation. Technical summaries of each of the subcontracted programs provide a discussion of approaches, major accomplishments in FY 1989, and future research directions. Each report will be cataloged individually.

  17. Branched standard spines of 3-manifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Benedetti, Riccardo

    1997-01-01

    This book provides a unified combinatorial realization of the categroies of (closed, oriented) 3-manifolds, combed 3-manifolds, framed 3-manifolds and spin 3-manifolds. In all four cases the objects of the realization are finite enhanced graphs, and only finitely many local moves have to be taken into account. These realizations are based on the notion of branched standard spine, introduced in the book as a combination of the notion of branched surface with that of standard spine. The book is intended for readers interested in low-dimensional topology, and some familiarity with the basics is assumed. A list of questions, some of which concerning relations with the theory of quantum invariants, is enclosed.

  18. Branch management into micropipeline joint dot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitar Tyanev

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers problems related to hardware implementation of computational process with conditional jumps. Hardware refers to asynchronous pipeline organization at microoperational level. Exploration is dedicated to one of the tasks presented in (Tyanev, D., 2009 concerning to micropipeline controller design to control micropipeline stage into joint dot of branch algorithm. Joint dot is the point at which few preceding branches are combined. It appears inevitably into conditional jump structures and this is the reason for the actuality of its problem. Analysis of this new task is presented and request arbitration functioning principles are formulated for the incoming to joint dot requests. The arbiter is responsible for the fair choice on which depends steady peformance of separate pipeline brances. Paper also describes pipeline controller synthesis and analysis of its operation in two variants: about 2-phase and 4-phase data transfer protocol. The synthesized asynchronous arbiter scheme is invariant to the type of pipeline protocol.

  19. Computers in Some Branches of Applied Physiology .

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.S. Verma

    1994-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the applications of computers in the evaluation of different types of problems occuring in some branches of applied physiology. The recent applications of computers to perform advanced multivariate regression analysis for developing regression models in applied physiology are also highlighted. The regression models are practical significance for screening personnel in defence services, mines, industrial works, sports and the like.

  20. Dynamic Crack Branching - A Photoelastic Evaluation,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-05-01

    occur prior to the precipitous drop in ro . At the onset of branching, the characteristic r0 value reaches its average minimum, rc = 1.3 mm for this...79184 ’begilke.. 1tlerrc C-0p. Vs. J. L. 9110l." Velveresty of tills. Idrecte Seatr Dvi .,.. cbSroso.1b11e dSeret? seprmest of ?%*"neleel MW me. 1. C

  1. A Branching Process for Virus Survival

    CERN Document Server

    Cox, J Theodore

    2011-01-01

    Quasispecies theory predicts that there is a critical mutation probability above which a viral population will go extinct. Above this threshold the virus loses the ability to replicate the best adapted genotype, leading to a population composed of low replicating mutants that is eventually doomed. We propose a new branching model that shows that this is not necessarily so. That is, a population composed of ever changing mutants may survive.

  2. Branch Retinal Vein Occlusion and Its Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Desmond; Archer

    1992-01-01

    The natural course of Branch Retinal Vein Occlusion is determined by the site and completeness of the occlusion, the integrity of arterial perfusion to the affected sector and the efficiency of the developing collateral circulation. Most patients with tributary vein occlusion have some capillary fall out and microvascular incompetence in the distribution of the affected retina and vision is significantly compromised in over 50% of patients who have either chronic macular oedema or ischemia involving the...

  3. Branched Nanowire Architectures for Compact Power Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-13

    implementation of more complicated and integrated nanodevice systems, could be more easily and reproducibly achieved in branched structures versus bottom up...which is analogous to the polymer melt used in industry, expansion of a bubble from the nanomaterial solution at a controlled direction and speed...approaches reported previously. Our BBF approach also has the potential to be scaled to very large area structures, in analogy to large plastic

  4. Multiple populations along the asymptotic giant branch of the globular cluster M4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lardo, C.; Salaris, M.; Savino, A.; Donati, P.; Stetson, P. B.; Cassisi, S.

    2017-04-01

    Nearly all Galactic globular clusters host stars that display characteristic abundance anticorrelations, like the O-rich/Na-poor pattern typical of field halo stars, together with O-poor/Na-rich additional components. A recent spectroscopic investigation questioned the presence of O-poor/Na-rich stars amongst a sample of asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars in the cluster M4, at variance with the spectroscopic detection of a O-poor/Na-rich component along both the cluster red giant branch (RGB) and horizontal branch. This is contrary to what is expected from the cluster horizontal branch morphology and horizontal branch stellar evolution models. Here, we have investigated this issue by employing the CUBI = (U - B) - (B - I) index, that previous studies have demonstrated to be very effective in separating multiple populations along both the RGB and AGB sequences. We confirm previous results that the RGB is intrinsically broad in the V-CUBI diagram, with the presence of two components that nicely correspond to the two populations identified by high-resolution spectroscopy. We find that AGB stars are distributed over a wide range of CUBI values, in close analogy with what is observed for the RGB, demonstrating that the AGB of M4 also hosts multiple stellar populations.

  5. Synergistic amylomaltase and branching enzyme catalysis to suppress cassava starch digestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorndech, Waraporn; Meier, Sebastian; Jansson, Anita M; Sagnelli, Domenico; Hindsgaul, Ole; Tongta, Sunanta; Blennow, Andreas

    2015-11-05

    Starch provides our main dietary caloric intake and over-consumption of starch-containing foods results in escalating life-style disease including diabetes. By increasing the content of α-1,6 branch points in starch, digestibility by human amylolytic enzymes is expected to be retarded. Aiming at generating a soluble and slowly digestible starch by increasing the content and changing the relative positioning of the branch points in the starch molecules, we treated cassava starch with amylomaltase (AM) and branching enzyme (BE). We performed a detailed molecular analysis of the products including amylopectin chain length distribution, content of α-1,6 glucosidic linkages, absolute molecular weight distribution and digestibility. Step-by-step enzyme catalysis was the most efficient treatment, and it generated branch structures even more extreme than those of glycogen. All AM- and BE-treated samples showed increased resistance to degradation by porcine pancreatic α-amylase and glucoamylase as compared to cassava starch. The amylolytic products showed chain lengths and branching patterns similar to the products obtained from glycogen. Our data demonstrate that combinatorial enzyme catalysis provides a strategy to generate potential novel soluble α-glucan ingredients with low dietary digestibility assets.

  6. Endocrine abnormalities in dilated cardiomyopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankit Jain

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Progress has been made in the understanding of cellular and molecular mechanisms of hormone action and its effects on the cardiac tissue. There is evidence from observational studies that patients with postpartum cardiomyopathy improve after inhibition of release of prolactin from the pituitary by bromocriptine. This has renewed interest in the role of hormones in the pathogenesis of cardiomyopathy, especially in women. We intended to assess the hormonal changes in female patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM. Methods: Twenty female patients aged 20-40 years old (mean age 29 ΁ 5.6 years with a diagnosis of idiopathic DCMP with left ventricular ejection fraction [EF] <35% and a stable clinical course in the last 3 months were included in the study. All the patients were in New York Heart Association (NYHA Class II or III. All the patients underwent clinical evaluation followed by blood sampling for hormonal analysis. Blood was taken after overnight fasting and analyzed for thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH, T3, T4, insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I, prolactin, insulin, parathyroid hormone (PTH, and 25 (OH Vitamin D. The results were compared with twenty age and sex matched controls. Results: The mean EF of the twenty patients was 24.4 ΁ 5.3% and duration of symptoms was 29.1 ΁ 24 months. Insulin growth factor 1 levels were significantly lower than normal. Fifty percent of the patients had levels lower than normal, but there was no correlation of IGF-I with NYHA class and EF. Testing of the thyroid hormones revealed that TSH levels were similar between patient and controls though 40% of the patients had elevated TSH levels. Of these patients, 5% (1 had hypothyroid. In addition to this, 10% (2 had isolated low T3, suggestive of the low T3 syndrome. None of the thyroid abnormalities showed a correlation with NYHA class or EF. All other hormone concentrations were comparable in both groups. Conclusion: In this cohort of female

  7. Liver abnormalities and endocrine diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burra, Patrizia

    2013-08-01

    The liver and its pleotropic functions play a fundamental role in regulating metabolism, and is also an inevitable target of multiple metabolic disorders. The numerous and constant relationships and feedback mechanisms between the liver and all endocrine organs is reflected by the fact that an alteration of one oftentimes results in the malfunction of the other. Hypo- and hyperthyroidism are frequently associated with hepatic alterations, and thyroid diseases must be excluded in transaminase elevation of unknown cause. Drugs such as propylthiouracil, used in the treatment of hyperthyroidism, may induce liver damage, and other drugs such as amiodarone, carbamazepine, and several chemotherapeutic agents can lead to both thyroid and liver abnormalities. Liver diseases such as hepatitis, hepatocellular carcinoma, and cirrhosis may cause altered levels of thyroid hormones, and alcoholic liver disease, both due to the noxious substance ethanol as well as to the hepatic damage it causes, may be responsible for altered thyroid function. Both excess and insufficiency of adrenal function may result in altered liver function, and adrenocortical dysfunction may be present in patients with cirrhosis, especially during episodes of decompensation. Again an important player which affects both the endocrine system and the liver, alcohol may be associated with pseudo-Cushing syndrome. Sex hormones, both intrinsic as well as extrinsically administered, have an important impact on liver function. While oestrogens are related to cholestatic liver damage, androgens are the culprit of adenomas and hepatocellular carcinoma, among others. Chronic liver disease, on the other hand, has profound repercussions on sex hormone metabolism, inducing feminization in men and infertility and amenorrhoea in women. Lastly, metabolic syndrome, the pandemia of the present and future centuries, links the spectrum of liver damage ranging from steatosis to cirrhosis, to the array of endocrine alterations

  8. Histopathological study of endometrium in cases of abnormal uterine bleeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saroj A. Bolde

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Abnormal uterine bleeding is one of the commonest complaints in women and when it occurs without organic lesions like tumor, inflammation, it is called as dysfunctional uterine bleeding. Aim of current study was to find out the histopathological pattern of endometrium in Abnormal Uterine Bleeding (AUB also to study organic causes of AUB. Methods: Specimens received as endometrial curettage and hysterectomy specimens were studied followed by correlation of histopathology with age and clinical presentation. Results: The patients were mainly from the age group of 30-49 years (74.24%. The most common menstrual disorder was menorrhagia (46.86%. In dysfunctional uterine bleeding the most common histological pattern of endometrium includes proliferative endometrium (22.8% followed by endometrial hyperplasia (19.40%, atrophic endometrium (7.16%, secretory endometrium (5.97%, irregular shedding [1.80%], irregular ripening (1.20% and anovulatory endometrium (0.59%. Organic lesions encountered in AUB cases were leiomyoma (17.92%, endometrial polyp (1.79%, endometrial carcinoma (1.50%, endometriosis (0.59% and choriocarcinoma (0.29%. Conclusion: It is important to know the histological pattern of the endometrium like proliferative endometrium, endometrial hyperplasia, atrophic endometrium, secretory endometrium, irregular ripening and shredding and organic lesions in patients diagnosed as AUB in different age groups since recognition of these conditions will help and will avoid further complications. [Int J Res Med Sci 2014; 2(4.000: 1378-1381

  9. The origin of extreme horizontal branch stars

    CERN Document Server

    Dorman, B; O'Connell, R W; Dorman, Ben; Rood, Robert T; O'Connell, Robert W

    1995-01-01

    Strong mass loss on the red giant branch (RGB) can result in the formation of extreme horizontal branch (EHB) stars. The EHB stars spend most of their He core and shell burning phase at high temperatures and produce copious ultraviolet flux. They have very small hydrogen envelopes and occupy a small range in mass. We have computed evolutionary RGB models with mass loss for stars with a range of metallicities at initial masses < 1.1 Msun corresponding to populations ages between 12.5 and 14.5 Gyr. We used the Reimers formula to characterize mass loss, but investigated a larger range of the mass loss efficiency parameter, eta, than is common. To understand how the number of EHB stars varies with metallicity in a stellar population we considered how the zero-age horizontal branch (ZAHB) is populated. The range in eta producing EHB stars is comparable to that producing `mid-HB' stars. Somewhat surprisingly, neither the range nor magnitude of eta producing EHB stars varies much metallicity. In contrast, the ran...

  10. Fabrication and characterization of branched carbon nanostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharali Malik

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanotubes (CNTs have atomically smooth surfaces and tend not to form covalent bonds with composite matrix materials. Thus, it is the magnitude of the CNT/fiber interfacial strength that limits the amount of nanomechanical interlocking when using conventional CNTs to improve the structural behavior of composite materials through reinforcement. This arises from two well-known, long standing problems in this research field: (a inhomogeneous dispersion of the filler, which can lead to aggregation and (b insufficient reinforcement arising from bonding interactions between the filler and the matrix. These dispersion and reinforcement issues could be addressed by using branched multiwalled carbon nanotubes (b-MWCNTs as it is known that branched fibers can greatly enhance interfacial bonding and dispersability. Therefore, the use of b-MWCNTs would lead to improved mechanical performance and, in the case of conductive composites, improved electrical performance if the CNT filler was better dispersed and connected. This will provide major benefits to the existing commercial application of CNT-reinforced composites in electrostatic discharge materials (ESD: There would be also potential usage for energy conversion, e.g., in supercapacitors, solar cells and Li-ion batteries. However, the limited availability of b-MWCNTs has, to date, restricted their use in such technological applications. Herein, we report an inexpensive and simple method to fabricate large amounts of branched-MWCNTs, which opens the door to a multitude of possible applications.

  11. Study of recurrent branch of median nerve (Thenar's muscular branch in relation to the flexor retinaculum and median in 64 hands (32 Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amirsadri R

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available Variation of recurred branch of median nerve in relation to the median and flexor retinaculum are significant for both hand surgeons and specialists always. In this study, 64 cadaver hands (32 men have been dissected. The median nerve was identified at the proximal edge of the flexor retinaculum, and in order to expose carpal tunnel the ligament was divided, and the above subjects were studied. The results are: 1 The relation of recurrent nerve to the flexor retinaculum was classified into 4 types: A In (53.1% of subjects, this branch arises from the median after the flexor retinaculum. B In (31.3% of subjects, it arises from the median in the carpal tunnel and the moves around the lower edge of flexor retinaculum and enters the thenar region. C In (14.1% of subjects, it arises from the median in the carpal tunnel and pierces the flexor retinaculum. D In (1.56% of subjects it arises, in the carpal tunnel and it divides into two subbranches here. One follows pattern A and the other pattern C. 2 In this step, the relation of the recurrent branch to the median nerve was studied. The results show that inspite of this image even though most often the recurrent branch arises from the lateral side of median, in (68.75% of subjects it arises from it's anterior surface. The MC Nemar test reveals that there is no relation between manifestation of mentioned patterns with right or left hands.

  12. False ring formation in eastern hemlock branches: impacts of hemlock woolly adelgid and elongate hemlock scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonda-King, Liahna; Radville, Laura; Preisser, Evan L

    2012-06-01

    Herbivores can alter plant physiology through the induction of abnormal wood formation. Feeding by some insects induces the formation of false rings, a band of thick-walled latewood cells within the earlywood portion of the tree ring that reduces water transport. Hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsugae Annand) and elongate hemlock scale (Fiorinia externa Ferris) are invasive insects that both feed on eastern hemlock [Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carrière]. Adelges tsugae has a greater effect on tree health than F. externa, but the mechanism underlying their differential effect is unknown. We explored the effects of these herbivores by assessing growth ring formation in branches of trees that had been experimentally infested for 4 yr with A. tsugae, F. externa, or neither insect. We measured false ring density, ring growth, and earlywood: latewood ratios in the two most recently deposited growth rings. Branches from A. tsugae-infested trees had 30% more false rings than branches from F. externa-infested trees and 50% more than branches from uninfested trees. In contrast, branches from F. externa-infested trees and control trees did not differ in false ring formation. Radial growth and earlywood: latewood ratios did not differ among treatments. Our results show that two invasive herbivores with piercing-sucking mouth parts have differing effects on false ring formation in eastern hemlock. These false rings may be the product of a systemic plant hypersensitive response to feeding by A. tsugae on hemlock stems. If false rings are responsible for or symptomatic of hemlock water stress, this may provide a potential explanation for the relatively large effect of A. tsugae infestations on tree health.

  13. ADEPT - Abnormal Doppler Enteral Prescription Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCormick Kenny

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pregnancies complicated by abnormal umbilical artery Doppler blood flow patterns often result in the baby being born both preterm and growth-restricted. These babies are at high risk of milk intolerance and necrotising enterocolitis, as well as post-natal growth failure, and there is no clinical consensus about how best to feed them. Policies of both early milk feeding and late milk feeding are widely used. This randomised controlled trial aims to determine whether a policy of early initiation of milk feeds is beneficial compared with late initiation. Optimising neonatal feeding for this group of babies may have long-term health implications and if either of these policies is shown to be beneficial it can be immediately adopted into clinical practice. Methods and Design Babies with gestational age below 35 weeks, and with birth weight below 10th centile for gestational age, will be randomly allocated to an "early" or "late" enteral feeding regimen, commencing milk feeds on day 2 and day 6 after birth, respectively. Feeds will be gradually increased over 9-13 days (depending on gestational age using a schedule derived from those used in hospitals in the Eastern and South Western Regions of England, based on surveys of feeding practice. Primary outcome measures are time to establish full enteral feeding and necrotising enterocolitis; secondary outcomes include sepsis and growth. The target sample size is 400 babies. This sample size is large enough to detect a clinically meaningful difference of 3 days in time to establish full enteral feeds between the two feeding policies, with 90% power and a 5% 2-sided significance level. Initial recruitment period was 24 months, subsequently extended to 38 months. Discussion There is limited evidence from randomised controlled trials on which to base decisions regarding feeding policy in high risk preterm infants. This multicentre trial will help to guide clinical practice and may also

  14. Chromosomal abnormalities in patients with sperm disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Y. Pylyp

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Chromosomal abnormalities are among the most common genetic causes of spermatogenic disruptions. Carriers of chromosomal abnormalities are at increased risk of infertility, miscarriage or birth of a child with unbalanced karyotype due to the production of unbalanced gametes. The natural selection against chromosomally abnormal sperm usually prevents fertilization with sperm barring in cases of serious chromosomal abnormalities. However, assisted reproductive technologies in general and intracytoplasmic sperm injection in particular, enable the transmission of chromosomal abnormalities to the progeny. Therefore, cytogenetic studies are important in patients with male factor infertility before assisted reproduction treatment. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the types and frequencies of chromosomal abnormalities in 724 patients with infertility and to estimate the risk of chromosomal abnormalities detection in subgroups of patients depending on the severity of spermatogenic disruption, aiming at identifying groups of patients in need of cytogenetic studies. Karyotype analysis was performed in 724 blood samples of men attending infertility clinic. Chromosomal preparation was performed by standard techniques. At least 20 GTG-banded metaphase plates with the resolution from 450 to 750 bands per haploid set were analysed in each case. When chromosomal mosaicism was suspected, this number was increased to 50. Abnormal karyotypes were observed in 48 (6.6% patients, including 67% of autosomal abnormalities and 33% of gonosomal abnormalities. Autosomal abnormalities were represented by structural rearrangements. Reciprocal translocations were the most common type of structural chromosomal abnormalities in the studied group, detected with the frequency of 2.6% (n = 19, followed by Robertsonian translocation, observed with the frequency of 1.2% (n = 9. The frequency of inversions was 0.6% (n = 4. Gonosomal abnormalities included 14 cases

  15. Roles for Auxin, Cytokinin, and Strigolactone in Regulating Shoot Branching

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brett J. Ferguson; Christine A. Beveridge

    2009-01-01

    .... In addition, RAMOSUS (RMS) branching genes in pea (Pisum sativum) control the synthesis and perception of a long-distance inhibitory branching signal produced in the stem and roots, a strigolactone or product...

  16. Preserving the pulmonary vagus nerve branches during thoracoscopic esophagectomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijs, Teus J.; Ruurda, Jelle P.; Luyer, Misha D P; Nieuwenhuijzen, Grard A P; van der Horst, Sylvia; Bleys, Ronald L A W; van Hillegersberg, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Background: Pulmonary vagus branches are transected as part of a transthoracic esophagectomy and lymphadenectomy for cancer. This may contribute to the development of postoperative pulmonary complications. Studies in which sparing of the pulmonary vagus nerve branches during thoracoscopic esophagect

  17. Ablation of lung epithelial cells deregulates FGF-10 expression and impairs lung branching morphogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Namjin; Yamamoto, Hiroaki; Pauling, Michelle Haynes; Lorizio, Walter; Vu, Thiennu H

    2009-01-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal interactions are essential for tissue patterning during organogenesis. Distal lung epithelium and its adjacent mesenchyme comprise the epithelial-mesenchymal signaling unit that regulates lung branching morphogenesis. Tissue recombination experiments have demonstrated the importance of mesenchymal signals in inducing lung epithelial differentiation and branching, but the role of the epithelium in regulating mesenchymal signals has not been well characterized. Using transgenic mice, we ablated distal lung epithelial cells during lung development by inducing the expression of a constitutively active proapoptotic Bax protein under the surfactant protein C (SP-C) promoter. We found that epithelial cell ablation results in impaired lung branching morphogenesis, which progresses to emphysematous airspaces in the adults. Mesenchymal expression of fibroblast growth factor 10 (Fgf-10), whose strict spatial and temporal expression is critical for proper lung branching morphogenesis, is disrupted and loses its localized pattern. Interestingly, the expression of sonic hedgehog (Shh), an epithelial gene known to modulate Fgf-10 expression, is unchanged, indicating the existence of other distal epithelial signals that regulate mesenchymal Fgf-10expression. We propose that distal SP-C expressing lung epithelial cells provide essential signals for the downregulation of Fgf-10 expression in the distal mesenchyme during lung development. 292:123-130, 2009. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. Abnormal pigmentation within cutaneous scars: A complication of wound healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Chadwick

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abnormally pigmented scars are an undesirable consequence of cutaneous wound healing and are a complication every single individual worldwide is at risk of. They present a challenge for clinicians, as there are currently no definitive treatment options available, and render scars much more noticeable making them highly distressing for patients. Despite extensive research into both wound healing and the pigment cell, there remains a scarcity of knowledge surrounding the repigmentation of cutaneous scars. Pigment production is complex and under the control of many extrinsic and intrinsic factors and patterns of scar repigmentation are unpredictable. This article gives an overview of human skin pigmentation, repigmentation following wounding and current treatment options.

  19. A Wnt-planar polarity pathway instructs neurite branching by restricting F-actin assembly through endosomal signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chun-Hao; Liao, Chien-Po

    2017-01-01

    Spatial arrangement of neurite branching is instructed by both attractive and repulsive cues. Here we show that in C. elegans, the Wnt family of secreted glycoproteins specify neurite branching sites in the PLM mechanosensory neurons. Wnts function through MIG-1/Frizzled and the planar cell polarity protein (PCP) VANG-1/Strabismus/Vangl2 to restrict the formation of F-actin patches, which mark branching sites in nascent neurites. We find that VANG-1 promotes Wnt signaling by facilitating Frizzled endocytosis and genetically acts in a common pathway with arr-1/β-arrestin, whose mutation results in defective PLM branching and F-actin patterns similar to those in the Wnt, mig-1 or vang-1 mutants. On the other hand, the UNC-6/Netrin pathway intersects orthogonally with Wnt-PCP signaling to guide PLM branch growth along the dorsal-ventral axis. Our study provides insights for how attractive and repulsive signals coordinate to sculpt neurite branching patterns, which are critical for circuit connectivity. PMID:28384160

  20. ABNORMAL UTERINE BLEEDING IN PERIMENOPAUSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivaji

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND In the peri-menopausal and post-menopausal women, 70% of the gynaecological problems are due to AUB. In the United States, 11% of the hysterectomies are performed for AUB per year. During climacteric, ovarian activity declines leading to anovulation or irregular maturation of follicles. Therefore, the menstrual cycles are often anovulatory and irregular leading to AUB. Prolonged anovulatory periods with unopposed oestrogen stimulation lead to endometrial hyperplasia. This increases the risk of endometrial cancers. Over a decade the progression of endometrial hyperplasia to carcinoma is as follows: Simple hyperplasia - 1%, Complex hyperplasia - 3%, Simple hyperplasia with atypia - 8% and Complex hyperplasia with atypia 29% [Jeffcoate]. AIMS The objective of this study is to correlate the symptoms and the various menstrual patterns to the histopathological diagnosis, so that this knowledge can be applied for an early evaluation and diagnosis of the complications of AUB, and thus arrive at a timely and effective therapeutic strategies. METHODS This is a retrospective study of 314 patients of peri-menopausal age group presenting with AUB in the Department of Gynaecology at SVMCH and RC, Ariyur, Pondicherry, between 2011 and 2014. The study sample consisted of 314 samples of endometrium obtained by dilation and curettage as a day care procedure. RESULTS Menorrhagia is the predominant symptom, 128 cases [40.8%] and was associated with proliferative, secretory and hyperplastic endometrium. Metrorrhagia cases were 53 [16.9%], which predominantly showed secretory followed by proliferative histological pattern. There were 4 cases of Endometrial carcinoma [1.27%]. Simple hyperplasia with atypia were 10 cases [3.29%] and Complex hyperplasia with atypia cases were 7 [2.33%]. CONCLUSION AUB in perimenopausal period is very significant, as it accounts for about 70% of all gynaecologic outpatients. Endometrial hyperplasia is a precursor of

  1. Catalytic production of branched small alkanes from biohydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oya, Shin-ichi; Kanno, Daisuke; Watanabe, Hideo; Tamura, Masazumi; Nakagawa, Yoshinao; Tomishige, Keiichi

    2015-08-10

    Squalane, C30 algae-derived branched hydrocarbon, was successfully converted to smaller hydrocarbons without skeletal isomerization and aromatization over ruthenium on ceria (Ru/CeO2 ). The internal CH2 CH2 bonds located between branches are preferably dissociated to give branched alkanes with very simple distribution as compared with conventional methods using metal-acid bifunctional catalysts.

  2. Asymptotic behaviour near extinction of continuous-state branching processes

    OpenAIRE

    Pardo, Juan Carlos; Berzunza, Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    In this note, we study the asymptotic behaviour near extinction of (sub-) critical continuous state branching processes. In particular, we establish an analogue of Khintchin's law of the iterated logarithm near extinction time for a continuous state branching process whose branching mechanism satisfies a given condition and its reflected process at its infimum.

  3. A new RNA branching activity: the GIR1 ribozyme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Henrik; Johansen, Steinar D

    2006-01-01

    ',5'-phosphodiester bonds in biology. We recently described a new ribozyme, the GIR1 branching ribozyme, which catalyzes the formation of a tiny lariat that caps an mRNA. This new example together with work on artificial branching ribozymes and deoxyribozymes shows that branching is facile and points...

  4. Structural dynamics branch research and accomplishments for fiscal year 1987

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    This publication contains a collection of fiscal year 1987 research highlights from the Structural Dynamics Branch at NASA Lewis Research Center. Highlights from the branch's four major work areas, Aeroelasticity, Vibration Control, Dynamic Systems, and Computational Structural Methods, are included in the report as well as a complete listing of the FY87 branch publications.

  5. 46 CFR 111.75-5 - Lighting branch circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lighting branch circuits. 111.75-5 Section 111.75-5...-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Lighting Circuits and Protection § 111.75-5 Lighting branch circuits. (a) Loads. A lighting distribution panel must not supply branch circuits rated at over 30 amperes. (b) Connected...

  6. 24 CFR 3280.805 - Branch circuits required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Branch circuits required. 3280.805... Branch circuits required. (a) The number of branch circuits required shall be determined in accordance... or 20 ampere lighting area circuits. e.g. = number of 15 or 20 ampere circuits. (2) Small...

  7. Structural dynamics branch research and accomplishments to FY 1992

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Charles

    1992-12-01

    This publication contains a collection of fiscal year 1992 research highlights from the Structural Dynamics Branch at NASA LeRC. Highlights from the branch's major work areas--Aeroelasticity, Vibration Control, Dynamic Systems, and Computational Structural Methods are included in the report as well as a listing of the fiscal year 1992 branch publications.

  8. Weighted Branching Simulation Distance for Parametric Weighted Kripke Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foshammer, Louise; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Mariegaard, Anders

    2016-01-01

    This paper concerns branching simulation for weighted Kripke structures with parametric weights. Concretely, we consider a weighted extension of branching simulation where a single transitions can be matched by a sequence of transitions while preserving the branching behavior. We relax this notio...

  9. Similarity of solution branches for two-point semilinear problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Korman

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available For semilinear autonomous two-point problems, we show that all Neumann branches and all Dirichlet branches with odd number of interior roots have the same shape. On the other hand, Dirichlet branches with even number of roots may look differently. While this result has been proved previously by Schaaf cite{S}, our approach appears to be simpler.

  10. Neurologic Correlates of Gait Abnormalities in Cerebral Palsy: Implications for Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Joanne; Butler, Erin E.; Rose, Jessica

    2017-01-01

    Cerebral palsy (CP) is the most common movement disorder in children. A diagnosis of CP is often made based on abnormal muscle tone or posture, a delay in reaching motor milestones, or the presence of gait abnormalities in young children. Neuroimaging of high-risk neonates and of children diagnosed with CP have identified patterns of neurologic injury associated with CP, however, the neural underpinnings of common gait abnormalities remain largely uncharacterized. Here, we review the nature of the brain injury in CP, as well as the neuromuscular deficits and subsequent gait abnormalities common among children with CP. We first discuss brain injury in terms of mechanism, pattern, and time of injury during the prenatal, perinatal, or postnatal period in preterm and term-born children. Second, we outline neuromuscular deficits of CP with a focus on spastic CP, characterized by muscle weakness, shortened muscle-tendon unit, spasticity, and impaired selective motor control, on both a microscopic and functional level. Third, we examine the influence of neuromuscular deficits on gait abnormalities in CP, while considering emerging information on neural correlates of gait abnormalities and the implications for strategic treatment. This review of the neural basis of gait abnormalities in CP discusses what is known about links between the location and extent of brain injury and the type and severity of CP, in relation to the associated neuromuscular deficits, and subsequent gait abnormalities. Targeted treatment opportunities are identified that may improve functional outcomes for children with CP. By providing this context on the neural basis of gait abnormalities in CP, we hope to highlight areas of further research that can reduce the long-term, debilitating effects of CP. PMID:28367118

  11. Comparison of dynamic changes in endogenous hormones and sugars between abnormal and normal Castanea mollissima

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao Liu; Yunqian Hu; Xiaoxian Li

    2008-01-01

    To elucidate the possible functions of endogenous hormones in the flowering of chestnut, concentrations of four endogenous hormones [indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), gibberellic acid (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), zeatin riboside (ZR)) and the soluble sugars content were measured in both normal and developmentally abnormal Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima) during flowering and fruiting stages. Our results showed that the contents of ZR, ABA, and GA exhibited a significant different pattern in normal trees from that in abnormal trees, while the contents of IAA and soluble sugars showed a similar change pattern between them. These results suggest that quantitative changes in endogenous hormones may correspond to different flowering and fruiting mechanisms.

  12. Theoretical prediction of side branch compromise after main branch stenting in coronary bifurcation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dobrin Vassilev; Robert Gil

    2008-01-01

    One of the main problems of treatment of bifurcation lesions is side branch (SB) stenosis appearing after stent placement in the main vessel.The aim of this study was to create quantitative method for prediction of side branch compromise extent.We accepted that the main mechanism for SB ostial stenosis is flow divider (FD) displacement from stent struts after stent implantation in the main vessel.Using easily measurable parameters from coronary angiography,as SB diameter,angle α (initial angle between axes of parent vessel and SB axis) and angle α' (angle between above mentioned axes after stent placement) we can calculate percentage diameter stenosis at branch ostium (%DS):%DS = sin (α - α')/(tan α).In boundary condition of full FD displacement %DS = cos α.We tested our theoretical predictions with fluoroscopic observation of elastic wall model of bifurcation (45°distal angle between branches)permitting wall deformations with stent.There is full coincidence of values of %DS and percentage area stenosis (%AS).The regular formulas for calculations of %DS and %AS overestimate stenosis severity between 10% and 25%.Our model tests have shown full coincidence between predicted values for %DS and observed values.We demonstrate that part of the SB ostium is not visible in regular angiography and contributes to ostial lumen area.This is a method that permits quantitative prediction of side branch compromise.

  13. Numerically abnormal chromosome constitutions in humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 24, discusses numerically abnormal chromosome constitutions in humans. This involves abnormalities of human chromosome number, including polyploidy (when the number of sets of chromosomes increases) and aneuploidy (when the number of individual normal chromosomes changes). Chapter sections discuss the following chromosomal abnormalities: human triploids, imprinting and uniparental disomy, human tetraploids, hydatidiform moles, anomalies caused by chromosomal imbalance, 13 trisomy (D{sub 1} trisomy, Patau syndrome), 21 trisomy (Down syndrome), 18 trisomy syndrome (Edwards syndrome), other autosomal aneuploidy syndromes, and spontaneous abortions. The chapter concludes with remarks on the nonrandom participation of chromosomes in trisomy. 69 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  14. Ductal Stent Implantation in Tetralogy of Fallot with Aortic Arch Abnormality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergul, Yakup; Saygi, Murat; Ozyilmaz, Isa; Guzeltas, Alper; Odemis, Ender

    2015-01-01

    Stenting of patent ductus arteriosus is an alternative to palliative cardiac surgery in newborns with duct-dependent or decreased pulmonary circulation; however, the use of this technique in patients with an aortic arch abnormality presents a challenge. Tetralogy of Fallot is a congenital heart defect that is frequently associated with anomalies of the aortic arch and its branches. The association is even more common in patients with chromosome 22q11 deletion. We present the case of an 18-day-old male infant who had cyanosis and a heart murmur. After an initial echocardiographic evaluation, the patient was diagnosed with tetralogy of Fallot and right-sided aortic arch. The pulmonary annulus and the main pulmonary artery and its branches were slightly hypoplastic; the ductus arteriosus was small. Conventional and computed tomographic angiograms revealed a double aortic arch and an aberrant left subclavian artery. The right aortic arch branched into the subclavian arteries and continued into the descending aorta, whereas the left aortic arch branched into the common carotid arteries and ended with the patent ductus arteriosus. After evaluation of the ductal anatomy, we implanted a 3.5 × 15-mm coronary stent in the duct. Follow-up injections showed augmented pulmonary flow and an increase in oxygen saturation from 65% to 94%. The patient was also found to have chromosome 22q11 deletion. PMID:26175649

  15. Simulations demonstrate a simple network to be sufficient to control branch point selection, smooth muscle and vasculature formation during lung branching morphogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Géraldine Cellière

    2012-06-01

    Proper lung functioning requires not only a correct structure of the conducting airway tree, but also the simultaneous development of smooth muscles and vasculature. Lung branching morphogenesis is strongly stereotyped and involves the recursive use of only three modes of branching. We have previously shown that the experimentally described interactions between Fibroblast growth factor (FGF10, Sonic hedgehog (SHH and Patched (Ptc can give rise to a Turing mechanism that not only reproduces the experimentally observed wildtype branching pattern but also, in part counterintuitive, patterns in mutant mice. Here we show that, even though many proteins affect smooth muscle formation and the expression of Vegfa, an inducer of blood vessel formation, it is sufficient to add FGF9 to the FGF10/SHH/Ptc module to successfully predict simultaneously the emergence of smooth muscles in the clefts between growing lung buds, and Vegfa expression in the distal sub-epithelial mesenchyme. Our model reproduces the phenotype of both wildtype and relevant mutant mice, as well as the results of most culture conditions described in the literature.

  16. Mandibular branch of the facial nerve in wistar rats: new experimental model to assess facial nerve regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bento, Ricardo Ferreira; Salomone, Raquel; Nascimento, Silvia Bona do; Ferreira, Ricardo Jose Rodriguez; Silva, Ciro Ferreira da; Costa, Heloisa Juliana Zabeu Rossi

    2014-07-01

    Introduction The ideal animal model for nerve regeneration studies is the object of controversy, because all models described by the literature have advantages and disadvantages. Objective To describe the histologic and functional patterns of the mandibular branch of the facial nerve of Wistar rats to create a new experimental model of facial nerve regeneration. Methods Forty-two male rats were submitted to a nerve conduction test of the mandibular branch to obtain the compound muscle action potential. Twelve of these rats had the mandibular branch surgically removed and submitted to histologic analysis (number, partial density, and axonal diameter) of the proximal and distal segments. Results There was no statistically significant difference in the functional and histologic variables studied. Conclusion These new histologic and functional standards of the mandibular branch of the facial nerve of rats establish an objective, easy, and greatly reproducible model for future facial nerve regeneration studies.

  17. Branched-chain fatty acid biosynthesis in a branched-chain amino acid aminotransferase mutant of Staphylococcus carnosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck, Hans Christian

    2005-01-01

    Fatty acid biosynthesis by a mutant strain of Staphylococcus carnosus deficient in branched-chain amino acid aminotransferase (IlvE) activity was analysed. This mutant was unable to produce the appropriate branched-chain alpha-ketoacid precursors for branched-chain fatty acid biosynthesis from...... for 2-methylpropanoic acid production, revealing that the IlvE protein plays an important, but not essential role in the biosynthesis of branched-chain fatty acids and secondary metabolites in S. carnosus....

  18. Amphibian abnormalities on National Wildlife Refuges

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This fact sheet outlines a study done to 1) find the percentage of abnormal frogs and toads on the nation’s National Wildlife Refuges and 2) determine how the...

  19. On two abnormal sharks from Gujarat

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gopalan, U.K.

    The description of the two abnormal sharks, Carchariaswalbeehmi and Eulamia dussumieri collected from Gujarat, India, is given Of these C walbeehmi was double-headed The other shark E dussumieri had thumb snouted albino...

  20. immunological arthritis Prevalence of biochemical and abnormalities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1991-02-02

    Feb 2, 1991 ... immunological abnormalities noted were a positive rheumatoid factor (78,9%), positive ... Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic disease characterised by the occurrence of articular and ..... treatment. Br Med] 1982; 285: ...

  1. The glycometabolism abnormality among schizophrenia patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴小立

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the potential glycometabolism abnormality and the related factors of schizophrenia patients in China. Methods This cross-sectional study included 44 healthy controls(group 1) and 178 inpatient

  2. Optimizing energy transfer efficiency in highly branched nanoplasmonic waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voronine, Dmitri; Traverso, Andrew; Wang, Kai; Yi, Zhenhuan; Sokolov, Alexei

    2011-03-01

    Energy transfer in highly branched nanoplasmonic particle waveguides is simulated and optimized by varying the waveguide branching geometry and composition. The periodically branched nanostructures provide a new route towards efficient nanoscale light concentration and local field enhancement. On the one hand, they mimick the analogous randomly branched plasmonic nanostructures which have been previously used for surface-enhanced optical spectroscopy such as SERS. On the other hand, the design is inspired by branched molecular aggregates used for energy funneling. The proposed nanostructures may find applications in sensing, light harvesting and nanophotonics.

  3. Subtle Sensory Abnormalities Detected by Quantitative Sensory Testing in Patients with Trigeminal Neuralgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flor, Herta; Rasche, Dirk; Islamian, Ariyan Pirayesh; Rolko, Claudia; Yilmaz, Pinar; Ruppolt, Marc; Capelle, H Holger; Tronnier, Volker; Krauss, Joachim K

    2016-01-01

    Trigeminal neuralgia (TN) is characterized by paroxysmal pain attacks affecting the somatosensory distributions of the trigeminal nerve. It is thought to be associated with a neurovascular conflict most frequently, but pathomechanisms have not been fully elucidated. In general, no sensory deficit is found in routine clinical examination. There is limited data available, however, showing subtle subclinical sensory deficits upon extensive testing. We used quantitative sensory testing (QST) to detect abnormalities in sensory processing in patients with TN by comparing the affected and non-affected nerve branches with their contralateral counterparts and by comparing the results of the patients with those of controls. Observational study. University Hospital, Departments of Neurosurgery, Institute for Cognitive and Clinical Neuroscience. QST was conducted on 48 patients with idiopathic TN and 27 controls matched for age and gender using the standardized protocol of the German Neuropathic Pain Network. Stimulations were performed bilaterally in the distribution of the trigeminal branches. The patients had no prior invasive treatment, and medications at the time of examination were noted. In patients with TN deficits in warm and cold sensory detection thresholds in the affected and also the non-affected nerve branches were found. Tactile sensation thresholds were elevated in the involved nerve branches compared to the contralateral side. More data are needed on the correlation of such findings with the length of history of TN and with changes of the morphology of the trigeminal nerve. QST shows subtle sensory abnormalities in patients with TN despite not being detected in routine clinical examination. Our data may provide a basis for further research on the development of TN and also on improvement after treatment. Quantitative sensory testing, trigeminal neuralgia, facial pain, neuropathic pain, microvascular decompression, cranial nerve.

  4. Strategy of Irrigation Branch in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeyliger, A.; Ermolaeva, O.

    2012-04-01

    At this moment, at the starting time of the program on restoration of a large irrigation in Russia till 2020, the scientific and technical community of irrigation branch does not have clear vision on how to promote a development of irrigated agriculture and without repeating of mistakes having a place in the past. In many respects absence of a vision is connected to serious backlog of a scientific and technical and informational and technological level of development of domestic irrigation branch from advanced one. Namely such level of development is necessary for the resolving of new problems in new conditions of managing, and also for adequate answers to new challenges from climate and degradation of ground & water resources, as well as a rigorous requirement from an environment. In such important situation for irrigation branch when it is necessary quickly generate a scientific and technical politics for the current decade for maintenance of translation of irrigated agriculture in the Russian Federation on a new highly effective level of development, in our opinion, it is required to carry out open discussion of needs and requirements as well as a research for a adequate solutions. From political point of view a framework organized in FP6 DESIRE 037046 project is an example of good practice that can serve as methodical approach how to organize and develop such processes. From technical point of view a technology of operational management of irrigation at large scale presents a prospective alternative to the current type of management based on planning. From point of view ICT operational management demands creation of a new platform for the professional environment of activity. This platform should allow to perceive processes in real time, at their partial predictability on signals of a straight line and a feedback, within the framework of variability of decision making scenarious, at high resolution and the big ex-awning of sensor controls and the gauges

  5. Branch Processes of Regular Magnetic Monopole

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MO Shu-Fan; REN Ji-Rong; ZHU Tao

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, by making use of Duan's topological current theory, the branch process of regular magnetic monopoles is discussed in detail Regular magnetic monopoles are found generating or annihilating at the limit point and encountering, splitting, or merging at the bifurcation point and the degenerate point systematically of the vector order parameter field φ(x).Furthermore, it is also shown that when regular magnetic monopoles split or merge at the degenerate point of field function φ, the total topological charges of the regular magnetic monopoles axe still unchanged.

  6. Organization and targets of the European Branch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cataldi, R.

    1997-12-01

    After a short historical review of the formation, objectives and organization of the International Geothermal Association (IGA), this paper describes the functions, goals and activities of the IGA European Branch. In particular, the paper illustrates the plan of action established for the periods 1993-`95 and 1996-`98, and the issues dealt with by the European Forum as of August 1996. The last section of the paper outlines the main problems to be faced in the near future in order to facilitate the aggregation of efforts, the amalgamation of promotional initiatives and the coordination of the basic activities needed for the consolidation and growth of the geothermal community in Europe. (orig.)

  7. NASA Glenn Research Center Electrochemistry Branch Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzo, Michelle A.; Hoberecht, Mark; Reid, Concha

    2010-01-01

    This presentation covers an overview of NASA Glenn's history and heritage in the development of electrochemical systems for aerospace applications. Current programs related to batteries and fuel cells are addressed. Specific areas of focus are Li-ion batteries and Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel cells systems and their development for future Exploration missions. The presentation covers details of current component development efforts for high energy and ultra high energy Li-ion batteries and non-flow-through fuel cell stack and balance of plant development. Electrochemistry Branch capabilities and facilities are also addressed.

  8. Annual report, Basic Sciences Branch, FY 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-04-01

    This report summarizes the progress of the Basic Sciences Branch of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) from October 1, 1990, through September 30, 1991. Seven technical sections of the report cover these main areas of NREL`s in-house research: Semiconductor Crystal Growth, Amorphous Silicon Research, Polycrystalline Thin Films, III-V High-Efficiency Photovoltaic Cells, Solid-State Theory, Solid-State Spectroscopy, and Superconductivity. Each section explains the purpose and major accomplishments of the work in the context of the US Department of Energy`s National Photovoltaic Research Program plans.

  9. A branching model for hadronic air showers

    CERN Document Server

    Novotny, Vladimir; Ebr, Jan

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a simple branching model for the development of hadronic showers in the Earth's atmosphere. Based on this model, we show how the size of the pionic component followed by muons can be estimated. Several aspects of the subsequent muonic component are also discussed. We focus on the energy evolution of the muon production depth. We also estimate the impact of the primary particle mass on the size of the hadronic component. Even though a precise calculation of the development of air showers must be left to complex Monte Carlo simulations, the proposed model can reveal qualitative insight into the air shower physics.

  10. Annual report, Basic Sciences Branch, FY 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-04-01

    This report summarizes the progress of the Basic Sciences Branch of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) from October 1, 1990, through September 30, 1991. Seven technical sections of the report cover these main areas of NREL's in-house research: Semiconductor Crystal Growth, Amorphous Silicon Research, Polycrystalline Thin Films, III-V High-Efficiency Photovoltaic Cells, Solid-State Theory, Solid-State Spectroscopy, and Superconductivity. Each section explains the purpose and major accomplishments of the work in the context of the US Department of Energy's National Photovoltaic Research Program plans.

  11. Basilar artery migraine and reversible imaging abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maytal, J; Libman, R B; Lustrin, E S

    1998-01-01

    We report a case of a basilar artery migraine in a 17-year-old boy with transient CT and MR abnormalities after each of two migraine episodes. A repeat MR study 6 months after the last event showed complete resolution of the lesion. Transient abnormalities on brain images similar to those shown in our case have been reported in patients with migraine and other neurologic conditions and are most likely related to cerebral vasogenic edema.

  12. Abnormal Chromosome Segregation May Trigger Tumors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ Cancer is a primary threat to human health as it kills millions of people each year.Scientists have shown that 75% of human cancers have an abnormal number of chromosomes in cells,and the proportion of the cells with an abnormal chromosome number is tightly and positively related to malignance progression and metastasis of cancers. But the pathological mechanism behind the anomaly still remains unknown.

  13. Abnormal Asymmetry of Brain Connectivity in Schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Ribolsi, Michele; Zafiris J Daskalakis; Siracusano, Alberto; Koch, Giacomo

    2014-01-01

    Recently, a growing body of data has revealed that beyond a dysfunction of connectivity among different brain areas in schizophrenia patients (SCZ), there is also an abnormal asymmetry of functional connectivity compared with healthy subjects. The loss of the cerebral torque and the abnormalities of gyrification, with an increased or more complex cortical folding in the right hemisphere may provide an anatomical basis for such aberrant connectivity in SCZ. Furthermore, diffusion tensor imagin...

  14. Heterotaxy syndromes and abnormal bowel rotation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newman, Beverley [Stanford University, Lucile Packard Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Stanford, CA (United States); Koppolu, Raji; Sylvester, Karl [Lucile Packard Children' s Hospital at Stanford, Department of Surgery, Stanford, CA (United States); Murphy, Daniel [Lucile Packard Children' s Hospital at Stanford, Department of Cardiology, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2014-05-15

    Bowel rotation abnormalities in heterotaxy are common. As more children survive cardiac surgery, the management of gastrointestinal abnormalities has become controversial. To evaluate imaging of malrotation in heterotaxy with surgical correlation and provide an algorithm for management. Imaging reports of heterotaxic children with upper gastrointestinal (UGI) and/or small bowel follow-through (SBFT) were reviewed. Subsequently, fluoroscopic images were re-reviewed in conjunction with CT/MR studies. The original reports and re-reviewed images were compared and correlated with surgical findings. Nineteen of 34 children with heterotaxy underwent UGI, 13/19 also had SBFT. In 15/19 reports, bowel rotation was called abnormal: 11 malrotation, 4 non-rotation, no cases of volvulus. Re-review, including CT (10/19) and MR (2/19), designated 17/19 (90%) as abnormal, 10 malrotation (abnormal bowel arrangement, narrow or uncertain length of mesentery) and 7 non-rotation (small bowel and colon on opposite sides plus low cecum with probable broad mesentery). The most useful CT/MR findings were absence of retroperitoneal duodenum in most abnormal cases and location of bowel, especially cecum. Abnormal orientation of mesenteric vessels suggested malrotation but was not universal. Nine children had elective bowel surgery; non-rotation was found in 4/9 and malrotation was found in 5/9, with discrepancies (non-rotation at surgery, malrotation on imaging) with 4 original interpretations and 1 re-review. We recommend routine, early UGI and SBFT studies once other, urgent clinical concerns have been stabilized, with elective laparoscopic surgery in abnormal or equivocal cases. Cross-sectional imaging, usually obtained for other reasons, can contribute diagnostically. Attempting to assess mesenteric width is important in differentiating non-rotation from malrotation and more accurately identifies appropriate surgical candidates. (orig.)

  15. Prevalence of asymptomatic urinary abnormalities among adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Fouad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine the prevalence of asymptomatic urinary abnormalities in adolescents, first morning clean mid-stream urine specimens were obtained from 2500 individuals and examined by dipstick and light microscopy. Adolescents with abnormal screening results were reexamined after two weeks and those who had abnormal results twice were subjected to systemic clinical examination and further clinical and laboratory investigations. Eight hundred and three (32.1% individuals had urinary abnormalities at the first screening, which significantly decreased to 345 (13.8% at the second screening, (P <0.001. Hematuria was the most common urinary abnormalities detected in 245 (9.8% adolescents who had persistent urine abnormalities; 228 (9.1% individuals had non glomerular hematuria. The hematuria was isolated in 150 (6% individuals, combined with leukocyturia in 83 (3.3% individuals, and combined with proteinuria in 12 (0.5% individuals. Leukocyturia was detected in 150 (6% of all studied adolescents; it was isolated in 39 (1.6% individuals and combined with proteinuria in 28 (1.1% of them. Asymp- tomatic bacteriuria was detected in 23 (0.9% of all studied adolescents; all the cases were females. Proteinuria was detected in 65 (2.6% of all the studied adolescents; 45 (1.8% indivi- duals had <0.5 g/day and twenty (0.8% individuals had 0.5-3 g/day. Asymptomatic urinary abnormalities were more common in males than females and adolescents from rural than urban areas (P <0.01 and (P <0.001, respectively. The present study found a high prevalence of asymptomatic urinary abnormalities among adolescents in our population.

  16. Nail abnormalities in patients with vitiligo

    OpenAIRE

    Topal, Ilteris Oguz; Gungor, Sule; Kocaturk, Ozgur Emek; Duman, Hatice; Durmuscan, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: Background: Vitiligo is an acquired pigmentary skin disorder affecting 0.1-4% of the general population. The nails may be affected in patients with an autoimmune disease such as psoriasis, and in those with alopecia areata. It has been suggested that nail abnormalities should be apparent in vitiligo patients. Objective: We sought to document the frequency and clinical presentation of nail abnormalities in vitiligo patients compared to healthy volunteers. We also examined the corre...

  17. The Fra(X) syndrome: neurological, electrophysiological, and neuropathological abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisniewski, K E; Segan, S M; Miezejeski, C M; Sersen, E A; Rudelli, R D

    1991-01-01

    We have evaluated 62 fragile X syndrome [fra(X)] individuals (55 males and 7 females) with different degrees of developmental disabilities that were clinically non-progressive and non-focal in character. The mean age for the 55 males was 23.1 years +/- 14.3 SD with a range of 2-70: for the 7 females, the mean age was 15.7 years +/- 3.5 SD with a range of 10-20 years. Mental retardation (MR) was found in 53 males (8/53 [15.1%] mild, 26/53 [49.1%] moderate, 14/53 [26.4%] severe, and 5/53 [9.4%] profound). Learning disabilities were found in 2/55 (3.6%) of males. One of the 7 females had mild and one had moderate MR: the other 5 were learning disabled. Autistic stigmata were present in 10/62 (16%) of the patients. Only 14/62 (23%) had a history of seizures, all of which were controlled with anticonvulsants. In 36/62 cases, an electroencephalogram (EEG) was performed. We compared these data with that of others. Brain stem auditory evoked response (BAER) was performed in 12 cases. Abnormalities were found in only 5/12. Neuroimaging and computerized cranial transaxial tomography (CT scan) were performed on 21/62 (34%) of the patients. Only 8 of these 21 (38%) studies were abnormal. One patient died; neuropathological studies showed mild brain atrophy, with light microscopic and ultrastructural abnormalities. Rapid Golgi dendritic spine patterns showed that the proximal apical segments were abnormally developed. Very thin, long tortuous spines with prominent terminal heads and irregular dilatations were present. Marked reductions in the length of the synapses, as determined on EPTA-postfixed tissue where noted.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. Slower deviations of the branching Brownian motion and of branching random walks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derrida, Bernard; Shi, Zhan

    2017-08-01

    We have shown recently how to calculate the large deviation function of the position X\\max(t) of the rightmost particle of a branching Brownian motion at time t. This large deviation function exhibits a phase transition at a certain negative velocity. Here we extend this result to more general branching random walks and show that the probability distribution of X\\max(t) has, asymptotically in time, a prefactor characterized by a non trivial power law. Dedicated to John Cardy on the occasion of his 70th birthday.

  19. Salivary gland branching morphogenesis: a quantitative systems analysis of the Eda/Edar/NFκB paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melnick Michael

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ectodysplasin-A appears to be a critical component of branching morphogenesis. Mutations in mouse Eda or human EDA are associated with absent or hypoplastic sweat glands, sebaceous glands, lacrimal glands, salivary glands (SMGs, mammary glands and/or nipples, and mucous glands of the bronchial, esophageal and colonic mucosa. In this study, we utilized EdaTa (Tabby mutant mice to investigate how a marked reduction in functional Eda propagates with time through a defined genetic subcircuit and to test the proposition that canonical NFκB signaling is sufficient to account for the differential expression of developmentally regulated genes in the context of Eda polymorphism. Results The quantitative systems analyses do not support the stated hypothesis. For most NFκB-regulated genes, the observed time course of gene expression is nearly unchanged in Tabby (EdaTa as compared to wildtype mice, as is NFκB itself. Importantly, a subset of genes is dramatically differentially expressed in Tabby (Edar, Fgf8, Shh, Egf, Tgfa, Egfr, strongly suggesting the existence of an alternative Eda-mediated transcriptional pathway pivotal for SMG ontogeny. Experimental and in silico investigations have identified C/EBPα as a promising candidate. Conclusion In Tabby SMGs, upregulation of the Egf/Tgfα/Egfr pathway appears to mitigate the potentially severe abnormal phenotype predicted by the downregulation of Fgf8 and Shh. Others have suggested that the buffering of the phenotypic outcome that is coincident with variant Eda signaling could be a common mechanism that permits viable and diverse phenotypes, normal and abnormal. Our results support this proposition. Further, if branching epithelia use variations of a canonical developmental program, our results are likely applicable to understanding the phenotypes of other branching organs affected by Eda (EDA mutation.

  20. Occurrences and distributions of branched alkylbenzenes in the Dongsheng sedimentary uranium ore deposits, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuo, Jincai; Chen, Ru; Zhang, Mingfeng; Wang, Xianbin

    2010-11-01

    A series of branched alkylbenzene ranging from C 15 to C 19 with several isomers (2-5) at each carbon number were identified in sediments from the Dongsheng sedimentary uranium ore deposits, Ordos Basin, China. The distribution patterns of the branched alkylbenzenes show significant differences in the sample extracts. The branched alkylbenzenes from organic-rich argillites and coals range from C 15 to C 19 homologues, in which the C 17 or C 18 dominated. On the other hand, the C 19 branched alkylbenzenes dominated in the sandstone/siltstone extracts. The obvious differences of the branched alkylbenzene distributions between the uranium-host sandstones/siltstones and the interbedded barren organic-rich mudstones/coals probably indicate their potential use as biological markers associated with particular depositional environments and/or maturity diagenetic processes. Possible origins for these branched alkylbenzenes include interaction of simple aromatic compounds with, or cyclization and aromatization reactions of, these linear lipid precursors such as fatty acids, methyl alkanoates, wax esters or alkanes/alkenes that occur naturally in carbonaceous sediments. The possible simple aromatic compounds may include substituted benzenes, functionalized compounds such as phenols that are bound to kerogen at the benzyl position, and phenols that are decomposition products derived from aquatic and terrestrial sources. The distributions of methyl alkanoates and n-alkanes were found to be different between organic-rich mudstone/coal and sandstone/siltstone. From this result, it can be concluded that such differences of the alkylbenzene distributions were mainly resulting from the differences of organic precursors, although maturity effect and radiolytic alteration cannot be completely excluded.