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Sample records for abnormal blood vessels

  1. Pericyte coverage of abnormal blood vessels in myelofibrotic bone marrows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zetterberg, Eva; Vannucchi, Alessandro M; Migliaccio, Anna Rita

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Myelofibrotic bone marrow displays abnormal angiogenesis but the pathogenic mechanisms of this are poorly understood. Since pericyte abnormalities are described on solid tumor vessels we studied whether vessel morphology and pericyte coverage in bone marrow samples from...

  2. Why are tumour blood vessels abnormal and why is it important to know?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, J A; Chang, S-H; Dvorak, A M; Dvorak, H F

    2009-01-01

    Tumour blood vessels differ from their normal counterparts for reasons that have received little attention. We report here that they are of at least six distinct types, we describe how each forms, and, looking forward, encourage the targeting of tumour vessel subsets that have lost their vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) dependency and so are likely unresponsive to anti-VEGF-A therapies. PMID:19240721

  3. Tumor Blood Vessel Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munn, Lance

    2009-11-01

    ``Normalization'' of tumor blood vessels has shown promise to improve the efficacy of chemotherapeutics. In theory, anti-angiogenic drugs targeting endothelial VEGF signaling can improve vessel network structure and function, enhancing the transport of subsequent cytotoxic drugs to cancer cells. In practice, the effects are unpredictable, with varying levels of success. The predominant effects of anti-VEGF therapies are decreased vessel leakiness (hydraulic conductivity), decreased vessel diameters and pruning of the immature vessel network. It is thought that each of these can influence perfusion of the vessel network, inducing flow in regions that were previously sluggish or stagnant. Unfortunately, when anti-VEGF therapies affect vessel structure and function, the changes are dynamic and overlapping in time, and it has been difficult to identify a consistent and predictable normalization ``window'' during which perfusion and subsequent drug delivery is optimal. This is largely due to the non-linearity in the system, and the inability to distinguish the effects of decreased vessel leakiness from those due to network structural changes in clinical trials or animal studies. We have developed a mathematical model to calculate blood flow in complex tumor networks imaged by two-photon microscopy. The model incorporates the necessary and sufficient components for addressing the problem of normalization of tumor vasculature: i) lattice-Boltzmann calculations of the full flow field within the vasculature and within the tissue, ii) diffusion and convection of soluble species such as oxygen or drugs within vessels and the tissue domain, iii) distinct and spatially-resolved vessel hydraulic conductivities and permeabilities for each species, iv) erythrocyte particles advecting in the flow and delivering oxygen with real oxygen release kinetics, v) shear stress-mediated vascular remodeling. This model, guided by multi-parameter intravital imaging of tumor vessel structure

  4. Blood Vessels in Allotransplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahimi, P; Liu, R; Pober, J S

    2015-07-01

    Human vascularized allografts are perfused through blood vessels composed of cells (endothelium, pericytes, and smooth muscle cells) that remain largely of graft origin and are thus subject to host alloimmune responses. Graft vessels must be healthy to maintain homeostatic functions including control of perfusion, maintenance of permselectivity, prevention of thrombosis, and participation in immune surveillance. Vascular cell injury can cause dysfunction that interferes with these processes. Graft vascular cells can be activated by mediators of innate and adaptive immunity to participate in graft inflammation contributing to both ischemia/reperfusion injury and allograft rejection. Different forms of rejection may affect graft vessels in different ways, ranging from thrombosis and neutrophilic inflammation in hyperacute rejection, to endothelialitis/intimal arteritis and fibrinoid necrosis in acute cell-mediated or antibody-mediated rejection, respectively, and to diffuse luminal stenosis in chronic rejection. While some current therapies targeting the host immune system do affect graft vascular cells, direct targeting of the graft vasculature may create new opportunities for preventing allograft injury and loss. © Copyright 2015 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  5. Ionizing radiations and blood vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vorob'ev, E.I.; Stepanov, R.P.

    1985-01-01

    Data on phenomenology of radiation-induced changes in blood vessels are systematized and authors' experience is generalized. Modern concepts about processes leading to vessel structure injury after irradiation is critically analyzed. Special attention is paid to reparation and compensation of X-ray vessel injury, consideration of which is not yet sufficiently elucidated in literature

  6. Ionizing radiations and blood vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vorob'ev, E.I.; Stepanov, R.P.

    1985-01-01

    Data on phenomeology of radiation changes of blood vessels are systemized and the authors' experience is generalyzed. A critical analysis of modern conceptions on processes resulting in vessel structure damage after irradiation, is given. Special attention is paid to reparation and compensation of radiation injury of vessels

  7. Interstitial Cells of Blood Vessels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimír Pucovský

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Blood vessels are made up of several distinct cell types. Although it was originally thought that the tunica media of blood vessels was composed of a homogeneous population of fully differentiated smooth muscle cells, more recent data suggest the existence of multiple smooth muscle cell subpopulations in the vascular wall. One of the cell types contributing to this heterogeneity is the novel, irregularly shaped, noncontractile cell with thin processes, termed interstitial cell, found in the tunica media of both veins and arteries. While the principal role of interstitial cells in veins seems to be pacemaking, the role of arterial interstitial cells is less clear. This review summarises the knowledge of the functional and structural properties of vascular interstitial cells accumulated so far, offers hypotheses on their physiological role, and proposes directions for future research.

  8. Improvement of retinal blood vessel detection using morphological component analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imani, Elaheh; Javidi, Malihe; Pourreza, Hamid-Reza

    2015-03-01

    Detection and quantitative measurement of variations in the retinal blood vessels can help diagnose several diseases including diabetic retinopathy. Intrinsic characteristics of abnormal retinal images make blood vessel detection difficult. The major problem with traditional vessel segmentation algorithms is producing false positive vessels in the presence of diabetic retinopathy lesions. To overcome this problem, a novel scheme for extracting retinal blood vessels based on morphological component analysis (MCA) algorithm is presented in this paper. MCA was developed based on sparse representation of signals. This algorithm assumes that each signal is a linear combination of several morphologically distinct components. In the proposed method, the MCA algorithm with appropriate transforms is adopted to separate vessels and lesions from each other. Afterwards, the Morlet Wavelet Transform is applied to enhance the retinal vessels. The final vessel map is obtained by adaptive thresholding. The performance of the proposed method is measured on the publicly available DRIVE and STARE datasets and compared with several state-of-the-art methods. An accuracy of 0.9523 and 0.9590 has been respectively achieved on the DRIVE and STARE datasets, which are not only greater than most methods, but are also superior to the second human observer's performance. The results show that the proposed method can achieve improved detection in abnormal retinal images and decrease false positive vessels in pathological regions compared to other methods. Also, the robustness of the method in the presence of noise is shown via experimental result. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. NMR blood vessel imaging method and apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riederer, S.J.

    1988-01-01

    A high speed method of forming computed images of blood vessels based on measurements of characteristics of a body is described comprising the steps of: subjecting a predetermined body area containing blood vessels of interest to, successively, applications of a short repetition time (TR) NMR pulse sequence during the period of high blood velocity and then to corresponding applications during the period of low blood velocity for successive heart beat cycles; weighting the collected imaging data from each application of the NMR pulse sequence according to whether the data was acquired during the period of high blood velocity or a period of low blood velocity of the corresponding heart beat cycle; accumulating weighted imaging data from a plurality of NMR pulse sequences corresponding to high blood velocity periods and from a plurality of NMR pulse sequences corresponding to low blood velocity periods; subtracting the weighted imaging data corresponding to each specific phase encoding acquired during the high blood velocity periods from the weighted imaging data for the same phase encoding corresponding to low blood velocity periods in order to compute blood vessel imaging data; and forming an image of the blood vessels of interest from the blood vessel imaging data

  10. Subconjunctival Hemorrhage (Broken Blood Vessel in Eye)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subconjunctival hemorrhage (broken blood vessel in eye) Overview A subconjunctival hemorrhage (sub-kun-JUNK-tih-vul HEM-uh-ruj) ... may not even realize you have a subconjunctival hemorrhage until you look in the mirror and notice ...

  11. Trends in Tissue Engineering for Blood Vessels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judee Grace Nemeno-Guanzon

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the years, cardiovascular diseases continue to increase and affect not only human health but also the economic stability worldwide. The advancement in tissue engineering is contributing a lot in dealing with this immediate need of alleviating human health. Blood vessel diseases are considered as major cardiovascular health problems. Although blood vessel transplantation is the most convenient treatment, it has been delimited due to scarcity of donors and the patient’s conditions. However, tissue-engineered blood vessels are promising alternatives as mode of treatment for blood vessel defects. The purpose of this paper is to show the importance of the advancement on biofabrication technology for treatment of soft tissue defects particularly for vascular tissues. This will also provide an overview and update on the current status of tissue reconstruction especially from autologous stem cells, scaffolds, and scaffold-free cellular transplantable constructs. The discussion of this paper will be focused on the historical view of cardiovascular tissue engineering and stem cell biology. The representative studies featured in this paper are limited within the last decade in order to trace the trend and evolution of techniques for blood vessel tissue engineering.

  12. Dysglycemia induces abnormal circadian blood pressure variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumarasamy Sivarajan

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prediabetes (PreDM in asymptomatic adults is associated with abnormal circadian blood pressure variability (abnormal CBPV. Hypothesis Systemic inflammation and glycemia influence circadian blood pressure variability. Methods Dahl salt-sensitive (S rats (n = 19 after weaning were fed either an American (AD or a standard (SD diet. The AD (high-glycemic-index, high-fat simulated customary human diet, provided daily overabundant calories which over time lead to body weight gain. The SD (low-glycemic-index, low-fat mirrored desirable balanced human diet for maintaining body weight. Body weight and serum concentrations for fasting glucose (FG, adipokines (leptin and adiponectin, and proinflammatory cytokines [monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1 and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α] were measured. Rats were surgically implanted with C40 transmitters and blood pressure (BP-both systolic; SBP and diastolic; DBP and heart rate (HR were recorded by telemetry every 5 minutes during both sleep (day and active (night periods. Pulse pressure (PP was calculated (PP = SBP-DBP. Results [mean(SEM]: The AD fed group displayed significant increase in body weight (after 90 days; p Conclusion These data validate our stated hypothesis that systemic inflammation and glycemia influence circadian blood pressure variability. This study, for the first time, demonstrates a cause and effect relationship between caloric excess, enhanced systemic inflammation, dysglycemia, loss of blood pressure control and abnormal CBPV. Our results provide the fundamental basis for examining the relationship between dysglycemia and perturbation of the underlying mechanisms (adipose tissue dysfunction induced local and systemic inflammation, insulin resistance and alteration of adipose tissue precursors for the renin-aldosterone-angiotensin system which generate abnormal CBPV.

  13. Immersive volume rendering of blood vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Gregory; Kim, Han Suk; Marsden, Alison; Bazilevs, Yuri; Schulze, Jürgen P.

    2012-03-01

    In this paper, we present a novel method of visualizing flow in blood vessels. Our approach reads unstructured tetrahedral data, resamples it, and uses slice based 3D texture volume rendering. Due to the sparse structure of blood vessels, we utilize an octree to efficiently store the resampled data by discarding empty regions of the volume. We use animation to convey time series data, wireframe surface to give structure, and utilize the StarCAVE, a 3D virtual reality environment, to add a fully immersive element to the visualization. Our tool has great value in interdisciplinary work, helping scientists collaborate with clinicians, by improving the understanding of blood flow simulations. Full immersion in the flow field allows for a more intuitive understanding of the flow phenomena, and can be a great help to medical experts for treatment planning.

  14. Blood vessel classification into arteries and veins in retinal images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondermann, Claudia; Kondermann, Daniel; Yan, Michelle

    2007-03-01

    The prevalence of diabetes is expected to increase dramatically in coming years; already today it accounts for a major proportion of the health care budget in many countries. Diabetic Retinopathy (DR), a micro vascular complication very often seen in diabetes patients, is the most common cause of visual loss in working age population of developed countries today. Since the possibility of slowing or even stopping the progress of this disease depends on the early detection of DR, an automatic analysis of fundus images would be of great help to the ophthalmologist due to the small size of the symptoms and the large number of patients. An important symptom for DR are abnormally wide veins leading to an unusually low ratio of the average diameter of arteries to veins (AVR). There are also other diseases like high blood pressure or diseases of the pancreas with one symptom being an abnormal AVR value. To determine it, a classification of vessels as arteries or veins is indispensable. As to our knowledge despite the importance there have only been two approaches to vessel classification yet. Therefore we propose an improved method. We compare two feature extraction methods and two classification methods based on support vector machines and neural networks. Given a hand-segmentation of vessels our approach achieves 95.32% correctly classified vessel pixels. This value decreases by 10% on average, if the result of a segmentation algorithm is used as basis for the classification.

  15. Transcriptional profiling of human glioblastoma vessels indicates a key role of VEGF-A and TGF beta 2 in vascular abnormalization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dieterich, Lothar C.; Mellberg, Sofie; Langenkamp, Elise; Zhang, Lei; Zieba, Agata; Salomaki, Henriikka; Teichert, Martin; Huang, Hua; Edqvist, Per-Henrik; Kraus, Theo; Augustin, Hellmut G.; Olofsson, Tommie; Larsson, Erik; Soderberg, Ola; Molema, Grietje; Ponten, Fredrik; Georgii-Hemming, Patrik; Alafuzoff, Irina; Dimberg, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Glioblastoma are aggressive astrocytic brain tumours characterized by microvascular proliferation and an abnormal vasculature, giving rise to brain oedema and increased patient morbidity. Here, we have characterized the transcriptome of tumour-associated blood vessels and describe a gene signature

  16. Imaging Blood Vessel Morphology in Skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schuh, Sandra; Holmes, Jon; Ulrich, Martina

    2017-01-01

    Conventional optical coherence tomography (OCT) enables the visualization of morphological changes of skin cancer. The use of OCT in the diagnostic investigation and in the therapy decision of non-melanoma skin cancer and other skin changes is already established, and has found its way into routine...... practice. With the development of speckle-variance OCT, also named dynamic OCT (D-OCT), the vascular architecture and the blood flow of the skin can be displayed in vivo and in 3D. This novel angiographic variant of OCT offers the ability to visualize and measure vessel morphology providing a new insight...... into healthy, inflammatory and neoplastic skin lesions such as malignant melanoma. This review focuses on the possibilities of using D-OCT on healthy and diseased skin. We suggest and illustrate key diagnostic characteristics by analyzing the initial publications and preliminary unpublished data on vessel...

  17. Automatic segmentation of blood vessels from retinal fundus images ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The retinal blood vessels were segmented through color space conversion and color channel .... Retinal blood vessel segmentation was also attempted through multi-scale operators. A few works in this ... fundus camera at 35 degrees field of view. The image ... vessel segmentation is available from two human observers.

  18. Margination of Stiffened Red Blood Cells Regulated By Vessel Geometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuanyuan; Li, Donghai; Li, Yongjian; Wan, Jiandi; Li, Jiang; Chen, Haosheng

    2017-11-10

    Margination of stiffened red blood cells has been implicated in many vascular diseases. Here, we report the margination of stiffened RBCs in vivo, and reveal the crucial role of the vessel geometry in the margination by calculations when the blood is seen as viscoelastic fluid. The vessel-geometry-regulated margination is then confirmed by in vitro experiments in microfluidic devices, and it establishes new insights to cell sorting technology and artificial blood vessel fabrication.

  19. Blood coagulation abnormalities in multibacillary leprosy patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Débora Santos da; Teixeira, Lisandra Antonia Castro; Beghini, Daniela Gois; Ferreira, André Teixeira da Silva; Pinho, Márcia de Berredo Moreira; Rosa, Patricia Sammarco; Ribeiro, Marli Rambaldi; Freire, Monica Di Calafiori; Hacker, Mariana Andrea; Nery, José Augusto da Costa; Pessolani, Maria Cristina Vidal; Tovar, Ana Maria Freire; Sarno, Euzenir Nunes; Perales, Jonas; Bozza, Fernando Augusto; Esquenazi, Danuza; Monteiro, Robson Queiroz; Lara, Flavio Alves

    2018-03-01

    Leprosy is a chronic dermato-neurological disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae infection. In 2016, more than 200,000 new cases of leprosy were detected around the world, representing the most frequent cause of infectious irreversible deformities and disabilities. In the present work, we demonstrate a consistent procoagulant profile on 40 reactional and non-reactional multibacillary leprosy patients. A retrospective analysis in search of signs of coagulation abnormalities among 638 leprosy patients identified 35 leprosy patients (5.48%) which displayed a characteristic lipid-like clot formed between blood clot and serum during serum harvesting, herein named 'leprosum clot'. Most of these patients (n = 16, 45.7%) belonged to the lepromatous leprosy pole of the disease. In addition, formation of the leprosum clot was directly correlated with increased plasma levels of soluble tissue factor and von Willebrand factor. High performance thin layer chromatography demonstrated a high content of neutral lipids in the leprosum clot, and proteomic analysis demonstrated that the leprosum clot presented in these patients is highly enriched in fibrin. Remarkably, differential 2D-proteomics analysis between leprosum clots and control clots identified two proteins present only in leprosy patients clots: complement component 3 and 4 and inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor family heavy chain-related protein (IHRP). In agreement with those observations we demonstrated that M. leprae induces hepatocytes release of IHRP in vitro. We demonstrated that leprosy MB patients develop a procoagulant status due to high levels of plasmatic fibrinogen, anti-cardiolipin antibodies, von Willebrand factor and soluble tissue factor. We propose that some of these components, fibrinogen for example, presents potential as predictive biomarkers of leprosy reactions, generating tools for earlier diagnosis and treatment of these events.

  20. Blood coagulation abnormalities in multibacillary leprosy patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Santos da Silva

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Leprosy is a chronic dermato-neurological disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae infection. In 2016, more than 200,000 new cases of leprosy were detected around the world, representing the most frequent cause of infectious irreversible deformities and disabilities.In the present work, we demonstrate a consistent procoagulant profile on 40 reactional and non-reactional multibacillary leprosy patients. A retrospective analysis in search of signs of coagulation abnormalities among 638 leprosy patients identified 35 leprosy patients (5.48% which displayed a characteristic lipid-like clot formed between blood clot and serum during serum harvesting, herein named 'leprosum clot'. Most of these patients (n = 16, 45.7% belonged to the lepromatous leprosy pole of the disease. In addition, formation of the leprosum clot was directly correlated with increased plasma levels of soluble tissue factor and von Willebrand factor. High performance thin layer chromatography demonstrated a high content of neutral lipids in the leprosum clot, and proteomic analysis demonstrated that the leprosum clot presented in these patients is highly enriched in fibrin. Remarkably, differential 2D-proteomics analysis between leprosum clots and control clots identified two proteins present only in leprosy patients clots: complement component 3 and 4 and inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor family heavy chain-related protein (IHRP. In agreement with those observations we demonstrated that M. leprae induces hepatocytes release of IHRP in vitro.We demonstrated that leprosy MB patients develop a procoagulant status due to high levels of plasmatic fibrinogen, anti-cardiolipin antibodies, von Willebrand factor and soluble tissue factor. We propose that some of these components, fibrinogen for example, presents potential as predictive biomarkers of leprosy reactions, generating tools for earlier diagnosis and treatment of these events.

  1. Inherited neurovascular diseases affecting cerebral blood vessels and smooth muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sam, Christine; Li, Fei-Feng; Liu, Shu-Lin

    2015-10-01

    Neurovascular diseases are among the leading causes of mortality and permanent disability due to stroke, aneurysm, and other cardiovascular complications. Cerebral autosomal-dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) and Marfan syndrome are two neurovascular disorders that affect smooth muscle cells through accumulation of granule and osmiophilic materials and defective elastic fiber formations respectively. Moyamoya disease, hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT), microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type II (MOPD II), and Fabry's disease are disorders that affect the endothelium cells of blood vessels through occlusion or abnormal development. While much research has been done on mapping out mutations in these diseases, the exact mechanisms are still largely unknown. This paper briefly introduces the pathogenesis, genetics, clinical symptoms, and current methods of treatment of the diseases in the hope that it can help us better understand the mechanism of these diseases and work on ways to develop better diagnosis and treatment.

  2. Bone marrow blood vessels: normal and neoplastic niche

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeid Shahrabi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Blood vessels are among the most important factors in the transport of materials such as nutrients and oxygen. This study will review the role of blood vessels in normal bone marrow hematopoiesis as well as pathological conditions like leukemia and metastasis. Relevant literature was identified by a Pubmed search (1992-2016 of English-language papers using the terms bone marrow, leukemia, metastasis, and vessel. Given that blood vessels are conduits for the transfer of nutrients, they create a favorable situation for cancer cells and cause their growth and development. On the other hand, blood vessels protect leukemia cells against chemotherapy drugs. Finally, it may be concluded that the vessels are an important factor in the development of malignant diseases.

  3. Glucose metabolism in diabetic blood vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, B.J.; Crass, M.F. III

    1986-01-01

    Since glycolysis appears to be coupled to active ion transport in vascular smooth muscle, alterations in glucose metabolism may contribute to cellular dysfunction and angiopathy in diabetes. Uptake and utilization of glucose were studied in perfused blood vessels in which pulsatile flow and perfusion pressure were similar to those measured directly in vivo. Thoracic aortae isolated from 8-wk alloxan diabetic (D) and nondiabetic control rabbits were cannulated, tethered, and perfused with oxygenated buffer containing 7 or 25 mM glucose and tracer amounts of glucose-U -14 C. Norepinephrine (NE) (10 -6 M) and/or insulin (I) (150 μU/ml) and albumin (0.2%) were added. NE-induced tension development increased glucose uptake 39% and 14 CO 2 and lactate production 2.3-fold. With 7 mM glucose, marked decreases in glucose uptake (74%), 14 CO 2 (68%), lactate (30%), total tissue glycogen (75%), and tissue phospholipids (70%) were observed in D. Addition of I or elevation of exogenous glucose to 25 mM normalized glucose uptake, but had differential effects on the pattern of substrate utilization. Thus, in D, there was a marked depression of vascular glucose metabolism that was partially reversed by addition of low concentrations of insulin or D levels of glucose

  4. Vessel abnormalization: another hallmark of cancer? Molecular mechanisms and therapeutic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bock, Katrien; Cauwenberghs, Sandra; Carmeliet, Peter

    2011-02-01

    As a result of excessive production of angiogenic molecules, tumor vessels become abnormal in structure and function. By impairing oxygen delivery, abnormal vessels fuel a vicious cycle of non-productive angiogenesis, which creates a hostile microenvironment from where tumor cells escape through leaky vessels and which renders tumors less responsive to chemoradiation. While anti-angiogenic strategies focused on inhibiting new vessel growth and destroying pre-existing vessels, clinical studies showed modest anti-tumor effects. For many solid tumors, anti-VEGF treatment offers greater clinical benefit when combined with chemotherapy. This is partly due to a normalization of the tumor vasculature, which improves cytotoxic drug delivery and efficacy and offers unprecedented opportunities for anti-cancer treatment. Here, we overview key novel molecular players that induce vessel normalization. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Absorbed dose calculations to blood and blood vessels for internally deposited radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akabani, G.; Poston, J.W. Sr.

    1992-01-01

    At present, absorbed dose calculations for radionuclides in the human circulatory system use relatively simple models and are restricted in their applications. To determine absorbed doses to the blood and to the surface of the blood vessel wall, Monte Carlo calculations were performed using the code Electron Gamma Shower (EGS4). Absorbed doses were calculated for the blood and the blood vessel wall (lumen) for different blood vessel sizes. The radionuclides chosen for this study were those commonly used in nuclear medicine. No diffusion of the radionuclide into the blood vessel was or cross fire between blood vessels was assumed. Results are useful in assessing the doses to blood and blood vessel walls for different nuclear medicine procedures

  6. Application of morphological bit planes in retinal blood vessel extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraz, M M; Basit, A; Barman, S A

    2013-04-01

    The appearance of the retinal blood vessels is an important diagnostic indicator of various clinical disorders of the eye and the body. Retinal blood vessels have been shown to provide evidence in terms of change in diameter, branching angles, or tortuosity, as a result of ophthalmic disease. This paper reports the development for an automated method for segmentation of blood vessels in retinal images. A unique combination of methods for retinal blood vessel skeleton detection and multidirectional morphological bit plane slicing is presented to extract the blood vessels from the color retinal images. The skeleton of main vessels is extracted by the application of directional differential operators and then evaluation of combination of derivative signs and average derivative values. Mathematical morphology has been materialized as a proficient technique for quantifying the retinal vasculature in ocular fundus images. A multidirectional top-hat operator with rotating structuring elements is used to emphasize the vessels in a particular direction, and information is extracted using bit plane slicing. An iterative region growing method is applied to integrate the main skeleton and the images resulting from bit plane slicing of vessel direction-dependent morphological filters. The approach is tested on two publicly available databases DRIVE and STARE. Average accuracy achieved by the proposed method is 0.9423 for both the databases with significant values of sensitivity and specificity also; the algorithm outperforms the second human observer in terms of precision of segmented vessel tree.

  7. Absorbed dose calculations to blood and blood vessels for internally deposited radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akabani, G.; Poston, J.W.

    1991-05-01

    At present, absorbed dose calculations for radionuclides in the human circulatory system used relatively simple models and are restricted in their applications. To determine absorbed doses to the blood and to the surface of the blood vessel wall, EGS4 Monte Carlo calculations were performed. Absorbed doses were calculated for the blood and the blood vessel wall (lumen) for different blood vessels sizes. The radionuclides chosen for this study were those commonly used in nuclear medicine. No diffusion of the radionuclide into the blood vessel was assumed nor cross fire between vessel was assumed. Results are useful in assessing the dose in blood and blood vessel walls for different nuclear medicine procedures. 6 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs

  8. Distinct bone marrow blood vessels differentially regulate haematopoiesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itkin, Tomer; Gur-Cohen, Shiri; Spencer, Joel A; Schajnovitz, Amir; Ramasamy, Saravana K; Kusumbe, Anjali P; Ledergor, Guy; Jung, Yookyung; Milo, Idan; Poulos, Michael G; Kalinkovich, Alexander; Ludin, Aya; Kollet, Orit; Shakhar, Guy; Butler, Jason M; Rafii, Shahin; Adams, Ralf H; Scadden, David T; Lin, Charles P; Lapidot, Tsvee

    2016-04-21

    Bone marrow endothelial cells (BMECs) form a network of blood vessels that regulate both leukocyte trafficking and haematopoietic stem and progenitor cell (HSPC) maintenance. However, it is not clear how BMECs balance these dual roles, and whether these events occur at the same vascular site. We found that mammalian bone marrow stem cell maintenance and leukocyte trafficking are regulated by distinct blood vessel types with different permeability properties. Less permeable arterial blood vessels maintain haematopoietic stem cells in a low reactive oxygen species (ROS) state, whereas the more permeable sinusoids promote HSPC activation and are the exclusive site for immature and mature leukocyte trafficking to and from the bone marrow. A functional consequence of high permeability of blood vessels is that exposure to blood plasma increases bone marrow HSPC ROS levels, augmenting their migration and differentiation, while compromising their long-term repopulation and survival. These findings may have relevance for clinical haematopoietic stem cell transplantation and mobilization protocols.

  9. Recovery of testicular blood flow following ligation of testicular vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pascual, J.A.; Villanueva-Meyer, J.; Salido, E.; Ehrlich, R.M.; Mena, I.; Rajfer, J.

    1989-01-01

    To determine whether initial ligation of the testicular vessels of the high undescended testis followed by a delayed secondary orchiopexy is a viable alternative to the classical Fowler-Stephens procedure, a series of preliminary experiments were conducted in the rat in which testicular blood flow was measured by the 133-xenon washout technique before, and 1 hour and 30 days after ligation of the vessels. In addition, testicular histology, and testis and sex-accessory tissue weights were measured in 6 control, 6 sham operated and 6 testicular vessel ligated rats 54 days after vessel ligation. The data demonstrate that ligation and division of the testicular blood vessels produce an 80 per cent decrease in testicular blood flow 1 hour after ligation of the vessels. However, 30 days later testis blood flow returns to the control and pre-treatment value. There were no significant changes in testis or sex-accessory tissue weights 54 days after vessel ligation. Histologically, 4 of the surgically operated testes demonstrated necrosis of less than 25 per cent of the seminiferous tubules while 1 testis demonstrated more than 75 per cent necrosis. The rest of the tubules in all 6 testes demonstrated normal spermatogenesis. From this study we conclude that initial testicular vessel ligation produces an immediate decrease in testicular blood flow but with time the collateral vessels are able to compensate and return the testis blood flow to its normal pre-treatment value. These preliminary observations lend support for the concept that initial ligation of the testicular vessels followed by a delayed secondary orchiopexy in patients with a high undescended testis may be a possible alternative to the classical Fowler-Stephens approach

  10. Dynamic stroma reorganization drives blood vessel dysmorphia during glioma growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathivet, Thomas; Bouleti, Claire; Van Woensel, Matthias; Stanchi, Fabio; Verschuere, Tina; Phng, Li-Kun; Dejaegher, Joost; Balcer, Marly; Matsumoto, Ken; Georgieva, Petya B; Belmans, Jochen; Sciot, Raf; Stockmann, Christian; Mazzone, Massimiliano; De Vleeschouwer, Steven; Gerhardt, Holger

    2017-12-01

    Glioma growth and progression are characterized by abundant development of blood vessels that are highly aberrant and poorly functional, with detrimental consequences for drug delivery efficacy. The mechanisms driving this vessel dysmorphia during tumor progression are poorly understood. Using longitudinal intravital imaging in a mouse glioma model, we identify that dynamic sprouting and functional morphogenesis of a highly branched vessel network characterize the initial tumor growth, dramatically changing to vessel expansion, leakage, and loss of branching complexity in the later stages. This vascular phenotype transition was accompanied by recruitment of predominantly pro-inflammatory M1-like macrophages in the early stages, followed by in situ repolarization to M2-like macrophages, which produced VEGF-A and relocate to perivascular areas. A similar enrichment and perivascular accumulation of M2 versus M1 macrophages correlated with vessel dilation and malignancy in human glioma samples of different WHO malignancy grade. Targeting macrophages using anti-CSF1 treatment restored normal blood vessel patterning and function. Combination treatment with chemotherapy showed survival benefit, suggesting that targeting macrophages as the key driver of blood vessel dysmorphia in glioma progression presents opportunities to improve efficacy of chemotherapeutic agents. We propose that vessel dysfunction is not simply a general feature of tumor vessel formation, but rather an emergent property resulting from a dynamic and functional reorganization of the tumor stroma and its angiogenic influences. © 2017 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license.

  11. Leukemic Cells "Gas Up" Leaky Bone Marrow Blood Vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itkin, Tomer; Rafii, Shahin

    2017-09-11

    In this issue of Cancer Cell, Passaro et al. demonstrate how leukemia through aberrant induction of reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide production trigger marrow vessel leakiness, instigating pro-leukemic function. Disrupted tumor blood vessels promote exhaustion of non-malignant stem and progenitor cells and may facilitate leukemia relapse following chemotherapeutic treatment. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. A Computational Model Predicting Disruption of Blood Vessel Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vascular development is a complex process regulated by dynamic biological networks that vary in topology and state across different tissues and developmental stages. Signals regulating de novo blood vessel formation (vasculogenesis) and remodeling (angiogenesis) come from a varie...

  13. Fluid and mass transport in a single lymphatic blood vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bestman, A.R.

    1987-08-01

    The problem considers the single blood vessel model in pulmonary circulation in the presence of gravitation and mass transfer. The tissue surrounding the blood vessel is modelled as a permeable medium distinct from the blood vessel which is a normal free space. On the assumption that the mass concentration varies slowly at the interface between the blood vessel and the tissue, the problem is tackled by asymptotic approximation. A crucial point of the analysis is the dependence of the flow variables on the permeability K of the tissue in a completely arbitrary manner. A primary conjecture of the study is the intimacy of the pathological pulmonary edema and the parameter K. (author). 4 refs

  14. Secondary hyperaldosteronism, caused by abnormalities of the renal vessels, in clinical endocrinologist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatjana N. Markova

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Aldosterone levels increase in clinical practice may be due to primary or secondary hyperaldosteronism. Secondary hyperaldosteronism (CAA is a clinical syndrome caused by increased synthesis of renin juxtaglomerular apparatus of the kidneys in response to lower perfusion pressure in the afferent glomerular arteriole. This mechanism leads to activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system with a consequent increase in systemic blood pressure. Clinically manifested CAA secondary (systemic arterial hypertension, the most common form of parenchymal renal disease and renal vascular lesions. Renovascular diseases are a heterogeneous group of pathologies, which includes atherosclerosis of renal arteries, the most common cause; fibromuscular dysplasia (FMD; other more rare diseases, accompanied by a narrowing of the lumen of the renal vessels. Some authors consider the possibility of including a group of renovascular disease presence of multiple renal arteries. Тhe article presents the clinical cases of secondary hyperaldosteronism, caused by FMD and abnormal amounts of the renal arteries, manifested hypertension and increased levels of aldosterone in the blood. Carrying out a detailed search of the diagnostic determination of the ratio of aldosterone to plasma renin helped eliminate endocrine genesis of the disease and to identify the true cause of aldosteronism.

  15. Depiction of blood vessels by x-ray phase contrast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Momose, Atsushi [School of Engineering, University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Takeda, Tohoru; Itai, Yuji [Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2001-04-01

    Blood vessels in livers of a mouse and a rat were depicted by phase-contrast x-ray imaging with an x-ray interferometer without using contrast agents. X-ray interference patterns were converted to image mapping x-ray phase shift caused by the livers using the technique of phase-shifting x-ray interferometry. The arteries and veins to and from the livers were tied before excision in order to prevent blood from flowing out of the liver. The x-ray phase shift caused by blood was substantially different from that caused by other soft sues, and consequently trees of blood vessels were revealed in the images. Vessels of diameter smaller than 0.1 mm were detected. This result suggests new possibilities for investigating vascular systems. (author)

  16. Guidelines on the management of abnormal liver blood tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramb, Rob; Davison, Suzanne M; Dillon, John F; Foulerton, Mark; Godfrey, Edmund M; Hall, Richard; Harrower, Ulrike; Hudson, Mark; Langford, Andrew; Mackie, Anne; Mitchell-Thain, Robert; Sennett, Karen; Sheron, Nicholas C; Verne, Julia; Walmsley, Martine; Yeoman, Andrew

    2018-01-01

    These updated guidelines on the management of abnormal liver blood tests have been commissioned by the Clinical Services and Standards Committee (CSSC) of the British Society of Gastroenterology (BSG) under the auspices of the liver section of the BSG. The original guidelines, which this document supersedes, were written in 2000 and have undergone extensive revision by members of the Guidelines Development Group (GDG). The GDG comprises representatives from patient/carer groups (British Liver Trust, Liver4life, PBC Foundation and PSC Support), elected members of the BSG liver section (including representatives from Scotland and Wales), British Association for the Study of the Liver (BASL), Specialist Advisory Committee in Clinical Biochemistry/Royal College of Pathology and Association for Clinical Biochemistry, British Society of Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition (BSPGHAN), Public Health England (implementation and screening), Royal College of General Practice, British Society of Gastrointestinal and Abdominal Radiologists (BSGAR) and Society of Acute Medicine. The quality of evidence and grading of recommendations was appraised using the AGREE II tool. These guidelines deal specifically with the management of abnormal liver blood tests in children and adults in both primary and secondary care under the following subheadings: (1) What constitutes an abnormal liver blood test? (2) What constitutes a standard liver blood test panel? (3) When should liver blood tests be checked? (4) Does the extent and duration of abnormal liver blood tests determine subsequent investigation? (5) Response to abnormal liver blood tests. They are not designed to deal with the management of the underlying liver disease. PMID:29122851

  17. Retinal blood vessel extraction using tunable bandpass filter and fuzzy conditional entropy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sil Kar, Sudeshna; Maity, Santi P

    2016-09-01

    Extraction of blood vessels on retinal images plays a significant role for screening of different opthalmologic diseases. However, accurate extraction of the entire and individual type of vessel silhouette from the noisy images with poorly illuminated background is a complicated task. To this aim, an integrated system design platform is suggested in this work for vessel extraction using a sequential bandpass filter followed by fuzzy conditional entropy maximization on matched filter response. At first noise is eliminated from the image under consideration through curvelet based denoising. To include the fine details and the relatively less thick vessel structures, the image is passed through a bank of sequential bandpass filter structure optimized for contrast enhancement. Fuzzy conditional entropy on matched filter response is then maximized to find the set of multiple optimal thresholds to extract the different types of vessel silhouettes from the background. Differential Evolution algorithm is used to determine the optimal gain in bandpass filter and the combination of the fuzzy parameters. Using the multiple thresholds, retinal image is classified as the thick, the medium and the thin vessels including neovascularization. Performance evaluated on different publicly available retinal image databases shows that the proposed method is very efficient in identifying the diverse types of vessels. Proposed method is also efficient in extracting the abnormal and the thin blood vessels in pathological retinal images. The average values of true positive rate, false positive rate and accuracy offered by the method is 76.32%, 1.99% and 96.28%, respectively for the DRIVE database and 72.82%, 2.6% and 96.16%, respectively for the STARE database. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed method outperforms the existing methods in detecting the various types of vessels and the neovascularization structures. The combination of curvelet transform and tunable bandpass

  18. Tracking blood vessels in human forearms using visual servoing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Savarimuthu, Thiusius Rajeeth; Ellekilde, Lars-Peter; Hansen, Morten

    compensation. By using images taken with near-infrared light to locate the blood vessels in a human forearm and using the same images to detects movements of the arm, this paper shows that it is possible make a robot arm, potentially equipped with a needle for drawing the blood, compensate for the movements......Drawing an average of more than 2 blood sample per Danish citizen per year increases the demand for an automatic blood sampling method. This paper presents a proof of concept to one of the main challenges in making a fully automated blood sampling procedure, namely: the patient movement...

  19. Laparoscopic prototype for optical sealing of renal blood vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Luke A.; Hutchens, Thomas C.; Larson, Eric R.; Gonzalez, David A.; Chang, Chun-Hung; Nau, William H.; Fried, Nathaniel M.

    2017-02-01

    Energy-based, radiofrequency and ultrasonic devices provide rapid sealing of blood vessels during laparoscopic procedures. We are exploring infrared lasers as an alternative for vessel sealing with less collateral thermal damage. Previous studies demonstrated vessel sealing in an in vivo porcine model using a 1470-nm laser. However, the initial prototype was designed for open surgery and featured tissue clasping and light delivery mechanisms incompatible with laparoscopic surgery. In this study, a laparoscopic prototype similar to devices in surgical use was developed, and tests were conducted on porcine renal blood vessels. The 5-mm-OD prototype featured a traditional Maryland jaw configuration. Laser energy was delivered through a 550-μm-core fiber and side-delivery from the lower jaw, with beam dimensions of 18-mm-length x 1.2-mm-width. The 1470-nm diode laser delivered 68 W with 3 s activation time. A total of 69 porcine renal vessels with mean diameter of 3.3 +/- 1.7 mm were tested, ex vivo. Vessels smaller than 5 mm were consistently sealed (48/51) with burst pressures greater than malignant hypertension blood pressure (180 mmHg), averaging 1038 +/- 474 mmHg. Vessels larger than 5 mm were not consistently sealed (6/18), yielding burst pressures of only 174 +/- 221 mmHg. Seal width, thermal damage zone, and thermal spread averaged 1.7 +/- 0.8, 3.4 +/- 0.7, and 1.0 +/- 0.4 mm. A novel optical laparoscopic prototype with 5-mm- OD shaft integrated within a standard Maryland jaw design consistently sealed vessels less than 5 mm with minimal thermal spread. Further in vivo studies are planned to test performance across a variety of vessels and tissues.

  20. Abnormal haemoglobin variants, ABO and Rh blood groups among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Abnormal haemoglobin variants ( HbSS,AS,AC,SC,etc) have been known to be common among blacks. Patients with sickle cell disease are often faced with the risk of alloimmunization from allogeneic blood transfusion. Objectives: The study was designed to sample students population of African descents for ...

  1. Aminopeptidase A is a functional target in angiogenic blood vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchiò, Serena; Lahdenranta, Johanna; Schlingemann, Reinier O; Valdembri, Donatella; Wesseling, Pieter; Arap, Marco A; Hajitou, Amin; Ozawa, Michael G; Trepel, Martin; Giordano, Ricardo J; Nanus, David M; Dijkman, Henri B P M; Oosterwijk, Egbert; Sidman, Richard L; Cooper, Max D; Bussolino, Federico; Pasqualini, Renata; Arap, Wadih

    2004-02-01

    We show that a membrane-associated protease, aminopeptidase A (APA), is upregulated and enzymatically active in blood vessels of human tumors. To gain mechanistic insight, we evaluated angiogenesis in APA null mice. We found that, although these mice develop normally, they fail to mount the expected angiogenic response to hypoxia or growth factors. We then isolated peptide inhibitors of APA from a peptide library and show that they specifically bind to and inhibit APA, suppress migration and proliferation of endothelial cells, inhibit angiogenesis, and home to tumor blood vessels. Finally, we successfully treated tumor-bearing mice with APA binding peptides or anti-APA blocking monoclonal antibodies. These data show that APA is a regulator of blood vessel formation, and can serve as a functional vascular target.

  2. Heritability of retinal vessel diameters and blood pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taarnhøj, Nina C B B; Larsen, Michael; Sander, Birgit

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE: To assess the relative influence of genetic and environmental effects on retinal vessel diameters and blood pressure in healthy adults, as well as the possible genetic connection between these two characteristics. METHODS: In 55 monozygotic and 50 dizygotic same-sex healthy twin pairs......%-80%) for CRAE, 83% (95% CI: 73%-89%) for CRVE, and 61% (95% CI: 44%-73%) for mean arterial blood pressure (MABP). Retinal artery diameter decreased with increasing age and increasing arterial blood pressure. Mean vessel diameters in the population were 165.8 +/- 14.9 microm for CRAE, 246.2 +/- 17.7 microm...... for CRVE, and 0.67 +/- 0.05 microm for AVR. No significant influence on artery or vein diameters was found for gender, smoking, body mass index (BMI), total cholesterol, fasting blood glucose, or 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test values. CONCLUSIONS: In healthy young adults with normal blood pressure...

  3. Estimation of center line and diameter of brain blood vessel using three-dimensional blood vessel matching method with head three-dimensional CTA image

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maekawa, Masashi; Shinohara, Toshihiro; Nakayama, Masato; Nakasako, Noboru

    2010-01-01

    To support and automate the brain blood vessel disease diagnosis, a novel method to obtain the center line and the diameter of a blood vessel is proposed with a three-dimensional head computed tomographic angiography (CTA) image. Although the line thinning processing with distance transform or gray information is generally used to obtain the blood vessel center line, this method is not essentially one to obtain the center line and tends to yield extra lines depending on CTA images. In this study, the center line of the blood vessel is obtained by tracing the vessel. The blood vessel is traced by sequentially estimating the center point and direction of the blood vessel. The center point and direction of the blood vessel are estimated by taking the correlation between the blood vessel and a solid model of the blood vessel that is designed by considering noise influence. In addition, the vessel diameter is also estimated by correlating the blood vessel and the blood vessel model of which the diameter is variable. The validity of the proposed method is confirmed by experimentally applied the proposed method to an actual three-dimensional head CTA image. (author)

  4. Electromechanical Model of Blood Flow in Vessels

    OpenAIRE

    Ivo Cap; Barbora Czippelova

    2008-01-01

    The present paper deals with some theoretical derivations connected with very efficient method of solution of hydrodynamic problems of blood flow in human cardiovascular system. The electromechanical analogy of liquid flow in a tube and electromagnetic wave propagating along an electric transmission line is discussed. We have derived a detailed circuit-like model of an elementary section of the elastic tube with viscose Newtonian liquid. The analogy harmonic current electrical cir...

  5. Electromechanical Model of Blood Flow in Vessels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Cap

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper deals with some theoretical derivations connected with very efficient method of solution of hydrodynamic problems of blood flow in human cardiovascular system. The electromechanical analogy of liquid flow in a tube and electromagnetic wave propagating along an electric transmission line is discussed. We have derived a detailed circuit-like model of an elementary section of the elastic tube with viscose Newtonian liquid. The analogy harmonic current electrical circuit has been designed

  6. Acrolein generation stimulates hypercontraction in isolated human blood vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conklin, D.J.; Bhatnagar, A.; Cowley, H.R.; Johnson, G.H.; Wiechmann, R.J.; Sayre, L.M.; Trent, M.B.; Boor, P.J.

    2006-01-01

    Increased risk of vasospasm, a spontaneous hyperconstriction, is associated with atherosclerosis, cigarette smoking, and hypertension-all conditions involving oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation, and inflammation. To test the role of the lipid peroxidation- and inflammation-derived aldehyde, acrolein, in human vasospasm, we developed an ex vivo model using human coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) blood vessels and a demonstrated acrolein precursor, allylamine. Allylamine induces hypercontraction in isolated rat coronary artery in a semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase activity (SSAO) dependent manner. Isolated human CABG blood vessels (internal mammary artery, radial artery, saphenous vein) were used to determine: (1) vessel responses and sensitivity to acrolein, allylamine, and H 2 O 2 exposure (1 μM-1 mM), (2) SSAO dependence of allylamine-induced effects using SSAO inhibitors (semicarbazide, 1 mM; MDL 72274-E, active isomer; MDL 72274-Z, inactive isomer; 100 μM), (3) the vasoactive effects of two other SSAO amine substrates, benzylamine and methylamine, and (4) the contribution of extracellular Ca 2+ to hypercontraction. Acrolein or allylamine but not H 2 O 2 , benzylamine, or methylamine stimulated spontaneous and pharmacologically intractable hypercontraction in CABG blood vessels that was similar to clinical vasospasm. Allylamine-induced hypercontraction and blood vessel SSAO activity were abolished by pretreatment with semicarbazide or MDL 72274-E but not by MDL 72274-Z. Allylamine-induced hypercontraction also was significantly attenuated in Ca 2+ -free buffer. In isolated aorta of spontaneously hypertensive rat, allylamine-induced an SSAO-dependent contraction and enhanced norepinephrine sensitivity but not in Sprague-Dawley rat aorta. We conclude that acrolein generation in the blood vessel wall increases human susceptibility to vasospasm, an event that is enhanced in hypertension

  7. Automatic segmentation of blood vessels from retinal fundus images ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The retinal blood vessels were segmented through color space conversion and color channel extraction, image pre-processing, Gabor filtering, image postprocessing, feature construction through application of principal component analysis, k-means clustering and first level classification using Naïve–Bayes classification ...

  8. Aminopeptidase A is a functional target in angiogenic blood vessels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marchiò, Serena; Lahdenranta, Johanna; Schlingemann, Reinier O.; Valdembri, Donatella; Wesseling, Pieter; Arap, Marco A.; Hajitou, Amin; Ozawa, Michael G.; Trepel, Martin; Giordano, Ricardo J.; Nanus, David M.; Dijkman, Henri B. P. M.; Oosterwijk, Egbert; Sidman, Richard L.; Cooper, Max D.; Bussolino, Federico; Pasqualini, Renata; Arap, Wadih

    2004-01-01

    We show that a membrane-associated protease, aminopeptidase A (APA), is upregulated and enzymatically active in blood vessels of human tumors. To gain mechanistic insight, we evaluated angiogenesis in APA null mice. We found that, although these mice develop normally, they fail to mount the expected

  9. Aminopeptidase A is a functional target in angiogenic blood vessels.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marchio, S.; Lahdenranta, J.; Schlingemann, R.O.; Valdembri, D.; Wesseling, P.; Arap, M.A.; Hajitou, A.; Ozawa, M.G.; Trepel, M.; Giordano, R.J.; Nanus, D.M.; Dijkman, H.B.P.M.; Oosterwijk, E.; Sidman, R.L.; Cooper, M.D.; Bussolino, F.; Pasqualini, R.; Arap, W.

    2004-01-01

    We show that a membrane-associated protease, aminopeptidase A (APA), is upregulated and enzymatically active in blood vessels of human tumors. To gain mechanistic insight, we evaluated angiogenesis in APA null mice. We found that, although these mice develop normally, they fail to mount the expected

  10. Gene expression analysis in human breast cancer associated blood vessels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dylan T Jones

    Full Text Available Angiogenesis is essential for solid tumour growth, whilst the molecular profiles of tumour blood vessels have been reported to be different between cancer types. Although presently available anti-angiogenic strategies are providing some promise for the treatment of some cancers it is perhaps not surprisingly that, none of the anti-angiogenic agents available work on all tumours. Thus, the discovery of novel anti-angiogenic targets, relevant to individual cancer types, is required. Using Affymetrix microarray analysis of laser-captured, CD31-positive blood vessels we have identified 63 genes that are upregulated significantly (5-72 fold in angiogenic blood vessels associated with human invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC of the breast as compared with blood vessels in normal human breast. We tested the angiogenic capacity of a subset of these genes. Genes were selected based on either their known cellular functions, their enriched expression in endothelial cells and/or their sensitivity to anti-VEGF treatment; all features implicating their involvement in angiogenesis. For example, RRM2, a ribonucleotide reductase involved in DNA synthesis, was upregulated 32-fold in IDC-associated blood vessels; ATF1, a nuclear activating transcription factor involved in cellular growth and survival was upregulated 23-fold in IDC-associated blood vessels and HEX-B, a hexosaminidase involved in the breakdown of GM2 gangliosides, was upregulated 8-fold in IDC-associated blood vessels. Furthermore, in silico analysis confirmed that AFT1 and HEX-B also were enriched in endothelial cells when compared with non-endothelial cells. None of these genes have been reported previously to be involved in neovascularisation. However, our data establish that siRNA depletion of Rrm2, Atf1 or Hex-B had significant anti-angiogenic effects in VEGF-stimulated ex vivo mouse aortic ring assays. Overall, our results provide proof-of-principle that our approach can identify a cohort of

  11. Visualization of blood vessels by corrosion technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Wróbel

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Corrosion technique is one of the basic and widely used methods of visualization of vascularization of organs in the anatomy of humans and animals. It consists in filling vascular (blood or lymph, wires or cavernous organs material, e.g., injection. Mass based on wax or putty material based on rubber, synthetic resin and subsequently etching the soft tissues. Ultimately obtained castings of these structures. The aim of the study was to evaluate the usefulness of this technique in morphological studies. In retrospect, corrosion technique has been used already in the seventeenth century, however, because of the use of filler materials such as water, liquid dyes, and even air, obtained anatomical specimens were unstable, therefore, did not yield the desired effect of the test. With time, however, the corrosion technician went through some modifications and new solutions in the embodiment and above all in the chemical composition of the filling material. In the twentieth century, they began to use compounds such as polyester resins, methyl methacrylate or polyvinyl chloride, the specific properties of these compounds allowed the visualization and consolidation of fine anatomic structures in the vascular system, the bronchial tree or the bile ducts. Extensive use of this technique in medicine, veterinary and comparative anatomy of vertebrates underlines its usefulness and the need to use.

  12. Customizable engineered blood vessels using 3D printed inserts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinnock, Cameron B; Meier, Elizabeth M; Joshi, Neeraj N; Wu, Bin; Lam, Mai T

    2016-04-15

    Current techniques for tissue engineering blood vessels are not customizable for vascular size variation and vessel wall thickness. These critical parameters vary widely between the different arteries in the human body, and the ability to engineer vessels of varying sizes could increase capabilities for disease modeling and treatment options. We present an innovative method for producing customizable, tissue engineered, self-organizing vascular constructs by replicating a major structural component of blood vessels - the smooth muscle layer, or tunica media. We utilize a unique system combining 3D printed plate inserts to control construct size and shape, and cell sheets supported by a temporary fibrin hydrogel to encourage cellular self-organization into a tubular form resembling a natural artery. To form the vascular construct, 3D printed inserts are adhered to tissue culture plates, fibrin hydrogel is deposited around the inserts, and human aortic smooth muscle cells are then seeded atop the fibrin hydrogel. The gel, aided by the innate contractile properties of the smooth muscle cells, aggregates towards the center post insert, creating a tissue ring of smooth muscle cells. These rings are then stacked into the final tubular construct. Our methodology is robust, easily repeatable and allows for customization of cellular composition, vessel wall thickness, and length of the vessel construct merely by varying the size of the 3D printed inserts. This platform has potential for facilitating more accurate modeling of vascular pathology, serving as a drug discovery tool, or for vessel repair in disease treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Extraction of liver volumetry based on blood vessel from the portal phase CT dataset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maklad, Ahmed S.; Matsuhiro, Mikio; Suzuki, Hidenobu; Kawata, Yoshiki; Niki, Noboru; Utsunomiya, Tohru; Shimada, Mitsuo

    2012-02-01

    At liver surgery planning stage, the liver volumetry would be essential for surgeons. Main problem at liver extraction is the wide variability of livers in shapes and sizes. Since, hepatic blood vessels structure varies from a person to another and covers liver region, the present method uses that information for extraction of liver in two stages. The first stage is to extract abdominal blood vessels in the form of hepatic and nonhepatic blood vessels. At the second stage, extracted vessels are used to control extraction of liver region automatically. Contrast enhanced CT datasets at only the portal phase of 50 cases is used. Those data include 30 abnormal livers. A reference for all cases is done through a comparison of two experts labeling results and correction of their inter-reader variability. Results of the proposed method agree with the reference at an average rate of 97.8%. Through application of different metrics mentioned at MICCAI workshop for liver segmentation, it is found that: volume overlap error is 4.4%, volume difference is 0.3%, average symmetric distance is 0.7 mm, Root mean square symmetric distance is 0.8 mm, and maximum distance is 15.8 mm. These results represent the average of overall data and show an improved accuracy compared to current liver segmentation methods. It seems to be a promising method for extraction of liver volumetry of various shapes and sizes.

  14. Continuum mathematical modelling of pathological growth of blood vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadnik, N. E.; Dats, E. P.

    2018-04-01

    The present study is devoted to the mathematical modelling of a human blood vessel pathological growth. The vessels are simulated as the thin-walled circular tube. The boundary value problem of the surface growth of an elastic thin-walled cylinder is solved. The analytical solution is obtained in terms of velocities of stress strain state parameters. The condition of thinness allows us to study finite displacements of cylinder surfaces by means of infinitesimal deformations. The stress-strain state characteristics, which depend on the mechanical parameters of the biological processes, are numerically computed and graphically analysed.

  15. Waves and fluid-solid interaction in stented blood vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frecentese, S.; Argani, L. P.; Movchan, A. B.; Movchan, N. V.; Carta, G.; Wall, M. L.

    2018-01-01

    This paper focuses on the modelling of fluid-structure interaction and wave propagation problems in a stented artery. Reflection of waves in blood vessels is well documented in the literature, but it has always been linked to a strong variation in geometry, such as the branching of vessels. The aim of this work is to detect the possibility of wave reflection in a stented artery due to the repetitive pattern of the stents. The investigation of wave propagation and possible blockages under time-harmonic conditions is complemented with numerical simulations in the transient regime.

  16. Melanopsin mediates light-dependent relaxation in blood vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikka, Gautam; Hussmann, G Patrick; Pandey, Deepesh; Cao, Suyi; Hori, Daijiro; Park, Jong Taek; Steppan, Jochen; Kim, Jae Hyung; Barodka, Viachaslau; Myers, Allen C; Santhanam, Lakshmi; Nyhan, Daniel; Halushka, Marc K; Koehler, Raymond C; Snyder, Solomon H; Shimoda, Larissa A; Berkowitz, Dan E

    2014-12-16

    Melanopsin (opsin4; Opn4), a non-image-forming opsin, has been linked to a number of behavioral responses to light, including circadian photo-entrainment, light suppression of activity in nocturnal animals, and alertness in diurnal animals. We report a physiological role for Opn4 in regulating blood vessel function, particularly in the context of photorelaxation. Using PCR, we demonstrate that Opn4 (a classic G protein-coupled receptor) is expressed in blood vessels. Force-tension myography demonstrates that vessels from Opn4(-/-) mice fail to display photorelaxation, which is also inhibited by an Opn4-specific small-molecule inhibitor. The vasorelaxation is wavelength-specific, with a maximal response at ∼430-460 nm. Photorelaxation does not involve endothelial-, nitric oxide-, carbon monoxide-, or cytochrome p450-derived vasoactive prostanoid signaling but is associated with vascular hyperpolarization, as shown by intracellular membrane potential measurements. Signaling is both soluble guanylyl cyclase- and phosphodiesterase 6-dependent but protein kinase G-independent. β-Adrenergic receptor kinase 1 (βARK 1 or GRK2) mediates desensitization of photorelaxation, which is greatly reduced by GRK2 inhibitors. Blue light (455 nM) regulates tail artery vasoreactivity ex vivo and tail blood blood flow in vivo, supporting a potential physiological role for this signaling system. This endogenous opsin-mediated, light-activated molecular switch for vasorelaxation might be harnessed for therapy in diseases in which altered vasoreactivity is a significant pathophysiologic contributor.

  17. Blood Vessel-Derived Acellular Matrix for Vascular Graft Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Dall’Olmo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To overcome the issues connected to the use of autologous vascular grafts and artificial materials for reconstruction of small diameter (<6 mm blood vessels, this study aimed to develop acellular matrix- (AM- based vascular grafts. Rat iliac arteries were decellularized by a detergent-enzymatic treatment, whereas endothelial cells (ECs were obtained through enzymatic digestion of rat skin followed by immunomagnetic separation of CD31-positive cells. Sixteen female Lewis rats (8 weeks old received only AM or previously in vitro reendothelialized AM as abdominal aorta interposition grafts (about 1 cm. The detergent-enzymatic treatment completely removed the cellular part of vessels and both MHC class I and class II antigens. One month after surgery, the luminal surface of implanted AMs was partially covered by ECs and several platelets adhered in the areas lacking cell coverage. Intimal hyperplasia, already detected after 1 month, increased at 3 months. On the contrary, all grafts composed by AM and ECs were completely covered at 1 month and their structure was similar to that of native vessels at 3 months. Taken together, our findings show that prostheses composed of AM preseeded with ECs could be a promising approach for the replacement of blood vessels.

  18. Fluid Dynamics of Magnetic Nanoparticles in Simulated Blood Vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blue, Lauren; Sewell, Mary Kathryn; Brazel, Christopher S.

    2008-11-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) can be used to locally target therapies and offer the benefit of using an AC magnetic field to combine hyperthermia treatment with the triggered release of therapeutic agents. Here, we investigate localization of MNPs in a simulated environment to understand the relationship between magnetic field intensity and bulk fluid dynamics to determine MNP retention in a simulated blood vessel. As MNPs travel through blood vessels, they can be slowed or trapped in a specific area by applying a magnetic field. Magnetic cobalt ferrite nanoparticles were synthesized and labeled with a fluorescent rhodamine tag to visualize patterns in a flow cell, as monitored by a fluorescence microscope. Particle retention was determined as a function of flow rate, concentration, and magnetic field strength. Understanding the relationship between magnetic field intensity, flow behavior and nanoparticle characteristics will aid in the development of therapeutic systems specifically targeted to diseased tissue.

  19. Regulation of blood vessels by prolactin and vasoinhibins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clapp, Carmen; Thebault, Stéphanie; Macotela, Yazmín; Moreno-Carranza, Bibiana; Triebel, Jakob; Martínez de la Escalera, Gonzalo

    2015-01-01

    Prolactin (PRL) stimulates the growth of new blood vessels (angiogenesis) either directly through actions on endothelial cells or indirectly by upregulating proangiogenic factors like vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Moreover, PRL acquires antiangiogenic properties after undergoing proteolytic cleavage to vasoinhibins, a family of PRL fragments (including 16 kDa PRL) with potent antiangiogenic, vasoconstrictive, and antivasopermeability effects. In view of the opposing actions of PRL and vasoinhibins, the regulation of the proteases responsible for specific PRL cleavage represents an efficient mechanism for controlling blood vessel growth and function. This review briefly describes the vascular actions of PRL and vasoinhibins, and addresses how their interplay could help drive biological effects of PRL in the context of health and disease.

  20. [Stem and progenitor cells in biostructure of blood vessel walls].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korta, Krzysztof; Kupczyk, Piotr; Skóra, Jan; Pupka, Artur; Zejler, Paweł; Hołysz, Marcin; Gajda, Mariusz; Nowakowska, Beata; Barć, Piotr; Dorobisz, Andrzej T; Dawiskiba, Tomasz; Szyber, Piotr; Bar, Julia

    2013-09-18

    Development of vascular and hematopoietic systems during organogenesis occurs at the same time. During vasculogenesis, a small part of cells does not undergo complete differentiation but stays on this level, "anchored" in tissue structures described as stem cell niches. The presence of blood vessels within tissue stem cell niches is typical and led to identification of niches and ensures that they are functioning. The three-layer biostructure of vessel walls for artery and vein, tunica: intima, media and adventitia, for a long time was defined as a mechanical barrier between vessel light and the local tissue environment. Recent findings from vascular biology studies indicate that vessel walls are dynamic biostructures, which are equipped with stem and progenitor cells, described as vascular wall-resident stem cells/progenitor cells (VW-SC/PC). Distinct zones for vessel wall harbor heterogeneous subpopulations of VW-SC/PC, which are described as "subendothelial or vasculogenic zones". Recent evidence from in vitro and in vivo studies show that prenatal activity of stem and progenitor cells is not only limited to organogenesis but also exists in postnatal life, where it is responsible for vessel wall homeostasis, remodeling and regeneration. It is believed that VW-SC/PC could be engaged in progression of vascular disorders and development of neointima. We would like to summarize current knowledge about mesenchymal and progenitor stem cell phenotype with special attention to distribution and biological properties of VW-SC/PC in biostructures of intima, media and adventitia niches. It is postulated that in the near future, niches for VW-SC/PC could be a good source of stem and progenitor cells, especially in the context of vessel tissue bioengineering as a new alternative to traditional revascularization therapies.

  1. Stem and progenitor cells in biostructure of blood vessel walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Korta

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Development of vascular and hematopoietic systems during organogenesis occurs at the same time. During vasculogenesis, a small part of cells does not undergo complete differentiation but stays on this level, “anchored” in tissue structures described as stem cell niches. The presence of blood vessels within tissue stem cell niches is typical and led to identification of niches and ensures that they are functioning. The three-layer biostructure of vessel walls for artery and vein, tunica: intima, media and adventitia, for a long time was defined as a mechanical barrier between vessel light and the local tissue environment. Recent findings from vascular biology studies indicate that vessel walls are dynamic biostructures, which are equipped with stem and progenitor cells, described as vascular wall-resident stem cells/progenitor cells (VW-SC/PC. Distinct zones for vessel wall harbor heterogeneous subpopulations of VW-SC/PC, which are described as “subendothelial or vasculogenic zones”. Recent evidence from in vitro and in vivo studies show that prenatal activity of stem and progenitor cells is not only limited to organogenesis but also exists in postnatal life, where it is responsible for vessel wall homeostasis, remodeling and regeneration. It is believed that VW-SC/PC could be engaged in progression of vascular disorders and development of neointima. We would like to summarize current knowledge about mesenchymal and progenitor stem cell phenotype with special attention to distribution and biological properties of VW-SC/PC in biostructures of intima, media and adventitia niches. It is postulated that in the near future, niches for VW-SC/PC could be a good source of stem and progenitor cells, especially in the context of vessel tissue bioengineering as a new alternative to traditional revascularization therapies.

  2. Migraine aura pathophysiology: the role of blood vessels and microembolisation

    OpenAIRE

    Dalkara, Turgay; Nozari, Ala; Moskowitz, Michael A

    2010-01-01

    Migraine attacks with auras are sometimes associated with underlying hereditary or acquired cerebrovascular disorders. A unifying pathophysiological explanation linking migraine to these conditions has been diffcult to identify. On the basis of genetic and epidemiological evidence, we suggest that changes in blood vessels, hypoperfusion disorders, and microembolisation can cause neurovascular dysfunction and evoke cortical spreading depression, an event that is widely thought to underlie aura...

  3. DLC coating of textile blood vessels using PLD

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kocourek, Tomáš; Jelínek, Miroslav; Vorlíček, Vladimír; Zemek, Josef; Janča, T.; Žížková, V.; Podlaha, J.; Popov, C.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 93, č. 3 (2008), s. 627-632 ISSN 0947-8396 R&D Projects: GA MPO FI-IM2/068; GA ČR GA202/06/0216 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100522 Keywords : blood vessels * PLD * DLC * sp2 * sp3 Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 1.884, year: 2008

  4. Molecular imaging of tumor blood vessels in prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilki, Derya; Seitz, Michael; Singer, Bernhard B; Irmak, Ster; Stief, Christian G; Reich, Oliver; Ergün, Süleyman

    2009-05-01

    In the past three decades many efforts have been undertaken to understand the mechanisms of tumor angiogenesis. The introduction of anti-angiogenic drugs in tumor therapy during the last few years necessitates the establishment of new techniques enabling molecular imaging of tumor vascular remodelling. The determination of tumor size as commonly used is not appropriate since the extended necrosis under anti-angiogenic therapy does not necessarily result in the reduction of tumor diameter. The basis for the molecular imaging of tumor blood vessels is the remodelling of the tumor vessels under anti-angiogenic therapy which obviously occurs at an early stage and seems to be a convincing parameter. Beside the enormous progress in this field during the last few years the resolution is still not high enough to evaluate the remodelling of the micro tumor vessels. New imaging approaches combining specific molecular markers for tumor vessels with the different imaging techniques are needed to overcome this issue as exemplarily discussed for prostate cancer in this review. Molecular contrast agents targeting the vasculature will allow clinicians the visualization of vascular remodelling processes taking place under anti-angiogenic therapy and improve tumor diagnosis and follow-up.

  5. Ultrasonographic Examination of Some Vessels in Dogs and the Characteristics of Blood Flow in These Vessels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Figurová M.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The examination by Doppler ultrasonography provides haemodynamic information about blood flow velocity in a respective vessel. It specifies high- and lowresistance flow patterns. The aim of our study was to record the flow in a. carotis communis, a. femoralis and aa. renales in 16 adult clinically healthy dogs of small and medium size; characterize the types of vessels and also determine the pulsatility index (PI and the resistive index (RI of these vessels. The a. femoralis is a high-resistance vessel with a pronounced three-peak waveform. The aa. renales gives a typical picture of a low-resistance flow pattern. The characteristics of a. carotis communis involves different images of its branches a. carotis interna and a. carotis externa. In the investigated groups we observed a medium degree of pulsatility (atypical highresistance flow pattern with an absence of reverse flow. The mean measured values of indices for a. carotis communis were: left side PI 1.824 and RI 0.742; right side PI 1.891 and RI 0.746, and for aa. renales: PI 1.366 ± 0.04 and RI 0.684 ± 0.05.

  6. Improvement of retinal blood vessel detection by spur removal and Gaussian matched filtering compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Di; Vignarajan, Janardhan; An, Dong; Tay-Kearney, Mei-Ling; Kanagasingam, Yogi

    2016-03-01

    Retinal photography is a non-invasive and well-accepted clinical diagnosis of ocular diseases. Qualitative and quantitative assessment of retinal images is crucial in ocular diseases related clinical application. In this paper, we proposed approaches for improving the quality of blood vessel detection based on our initial blood vessel detection methods. A blood vessel spur pruning method has been developed for removing the blood vessel spurs both on vessel medial lines and binary vessel masks, which are caused by artifacts and side-effect of Gaussian matched vessel enhancement. A Gaussian matched filtering compensation method has been developed for removing incorrect vessel branches in the areas of low illumination. The proposed approaches were applied and tested on the color fundus images from one publicly available database and our diabetic retinopathy screening dataset. A preliminary result has demonstrated the robustness and good performance of the proposed approaches and their potential application for improving retinal blood vessel detection.

  7. Angiogenesis and blood vessel stability in inflammatory arthritis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kennedy, Aisling

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess blood vessel stability in inflammatory synovial tissue (ST) and to examine neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM), oxidative DNA damage, and hypoxia in vivo. METHODS: Macroscopic vascularity and ST oxygen levels were determined in vivo in patients with inflammatory arthritis who were undergoing arthroscopy. Vessel maturity\\/stability was quantified in matched ST samples by dual immunofluorescence staining for factor VIII (FVIII)\\/alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA). NCAM and 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2\\'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) were examined by immunohistochemistry. Angiogenesis was assessed in vitro, using human dermal endothelial cells (HDECs) in a Matrigel tube formation assay. RESULTS: A significant number of immature vessels (showing no pericyte recruitment) was observed in tissue from patients with inflammatory arthritis (P < 0.001), in contrast to osteoarthritic and normal tissue, which showed complete recruitment of pericytes. Low in vivo PO(2) levels in the inflamed joint (median [range] 22.8 [3.2-54.1] mm Hg) were inversely related to increased macroscopic vascularity (P < 0.04) and increased microscopic expression of FVIII and alpha-SMA (P < 0.04 and P < 0.03, respectively). A significant proportion of vessels showed focal expression of NCAM and strong nuclear 8-oxodG expression, implicating a loss of EC-pericyte contact and increased DNA damage, levels of which were inversely associated with low in vivo PO(2) (P = 0.04 for each comparison). Circulating cells were completely negative for 8-oxodG. Exposure of HDEC to 3% O(2) (reflecting mean ST in vivo measurements) significantly increased EC tube formation (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate the presence of unstable vessels in inflamed joints associated with hypoxia, incomplete EC-pericyte interactions, and increased DNA damage. These changes may further contribute to persistent hypoxia in the inflamed joint to further drive this unstable microenvironment.

  8. Vessel Sampling and Blood Flow Velocity Distribution With Vessel Diameter for Characterizing the Human Bulbar Conjunctival Microvasculature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liang; Yuan, Jin; Jiang, Hong; Yan, Wentao; Cintrón-Colón, Hector R; Perez, Victor L; DeBuc, Delia C; Feuer, William J; Wang, Jianhua

    2016-03-01

    This study determined (1) how many vessels (i.e., the vessel sampling) are needed to reliably characterize the bulbar conjunctival microvasculature and (2) if characteristic information can be obtained from the distribution histogram of the blood flow velocity and vessel diameter. Functional slitlamp biomicroscope was used to image hundreds of venules per subject. The bulbar conjunctiva in five healthy human subjects was imaged on six different locations in the temporal bulbar conjunctiva. The histograms of the diameter and velocity were plotted to examine whether the distribution was normal. Standard errors were calculated from the standard deviation and vessel sample size. The ratio of the standard error of the mean over the population mean was used to determine the sample size cutoff. The velocity was plotted as a function of the vessel diameter to display the distribution of the diameter and velocity. The results showed that the sampling size was approximately 15 vessels, which generated a standard error equivalent to 15% of the population mean from the total vessel population. The distributions of the diameter and velocity were not only unimodal, but also somewhat positively skewed and not normal. The blood flow velocity was related to the vessel diameter (r=0.23, Psampling size of the vessels and the distribution histogram of the blood flow velocity and vessel diameter, which may lead to a better understanding of the human microvascular system of the bulbar conjunctiva.

  9. Regional cerebral blood flow abnormalities in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cermik, Tevfik F.; Kaya, Meryem; Bedel, Deniz; Berkarda, Sakir; Yigitbasi, Oemer N.; Ugur-Altun, Betuel

    2007-01-01

    We assessed the alterations in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (PHP) before parathyroidectomy by semiquantitative analysis of brain single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) images. Included in this prospective study were 14 patients (mean age 47.6 ± 10.4 years; 3 male, 11 female) and 10 control subjects (mean age 36.0 ± 8.5 years, 6 male, 4 female) were SPECT imaging was performed using a dual-headed gamma camera 60-90 min after intravenous administration of 925 MBq Tc-99m HMPAO. The corticocerebellar rCBF ratios were calculated from 52 brain areas and reference lower values (RLVs) were calculated from the rCBF ratios of control subjects. The regional ratios that were below the corresponding RLV were considered abnormal (hypoperfused). Hypoperfusion was shown in 171 out of 728 regions (23%) and there was a significant correlation between serum calcium, PTH levels and the sum of hypoperfused regions in the patient group (R = 0.75 and P = 0.001, and R = 0.75, P = 0.001, respectively). Significantly reduced rCBF were found in the following cortical regions: bilateral cingulate cortex, superior and inferior frontal cortex, anterior temporal cortex, precentral gyrus, postcentral gyrus and parietal cortex, and right posterior temporal cortex. Our results indicate that alterations in rCBF in patients with PHP can be demonstrated with brain SPECT. The correlation between serum calcium, PTH levels and the sum of hypoperfused regions indicates that there may be a strong relationship between rCBF abnormalities and increased levels of serum calcium and PTH. In addition, the degree of rCBF abnormalities could be determined by brain SPECT in PHP patients with or without psychiatric symptoms. (orig.)

  10. Regional cerebral blood flow abnormalities in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cermik, Tevfik F. [Hospital of the University of Trakya, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Edirne (Turkey); Trakya Universitesi Hastanesi, Nukleer Tip Anabilim Dali, Gullapoglu Yerleskesi, Edirne (Turkey); Kaya, Meryem; Bedel, Deniz; Berkarda, Sakir; Yigitbasi, Oemer N. [Hospital of the University of Trakya, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Edirne (Turkey); Ugur-Altun, Betuel [Hospital of the University of Trakya, Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Edirne (Turkey)

    2007-04-15

    We assessed the alterations in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (PHP) before parathyroidectomy by semiquantitative analysis of brain single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) images. Included in this prospective study were 14 patients (mean age 47.6 {+-} 10.4 years; 3 male, 11 female) and 10 control subjects (mean age 36.0 {+-} 8.5 years, 6 male, 4 female) were SPECT imaging was performed using a dual-headed gamma camera 60-90 min after intravenous administration of 925 MBq Tc-99m HMPAO. The corticocerebellar rCBF ratios were calculated from 52 brain areas and reference lower values (RLVs) were calculated from the rCBF ratios of control subjects. The regional ratios that were below the corresponding RLV were considered abnormal (hypoperfused). Hypoperfusion was shown in 171 out of 728 regions (23%) and there was a significant correlation between serum calcium, PTH levels and the sum of hypoperfused regions in the patient group (R = 0.75 and P = 0.001, and R = 0.75, P = 0.001, respectively). Significantly reduced rCBF were found in the following cortical regions: bilateral cingulate cortex, superior and inferior frontal cortex, anterior temporal cortex, precentral gyrus, postcentral gyrus and parietal cortex, and right posterior temporal cortex. Our results indicate that alterations in rCBF in patients with PHP can be demonstrated with brain SPECT. The correlation between serum calcium, PTH levels and the sum of hypoperfused regions indicates that there may be a strong relationship between rCBF abnormalities and increased levels of serum calcium and PTH. In addition, the degree of rCBF abnormalities could be determined by brain SPECT in PHP patients with or without psychiatric symptoms. (orig.)

  11. Effect of non-Newtonian characteristics of blood on magnetic particle capture in occluded blood vessel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Sayan; Banerjee, Moloy

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles drug carriers continue to attract considerable interest for drug targeting in the treatment of cancer and other pathological conditions. Magnetic carrier particles with surface-bound drug molecules are injected into the vascular system upstream from the desired target site, and are captured at the target site via a local applied magnetic field. Herein, a numerical investigation of steady magnetic drug targeting (MDT) using functionalized magnetic micro-spheres in partly occluded blood vessel having a 90° bent is presented considering the effects of non-Newtonian characteristics of blood. An Eulerian-Lagrangian technique is adopted to resolve the hemodynamic flow and the motion of the magnetic particles in the flow using ANSYS FLUENT. An implantable infinitely long cylindrical current carrying conductor is used to create the requisite magnetic field. Targeted transport of the magnetic particles in a partly occluded vessel differs distinctly from the same in a regular unblocked vessel. Parametric investigation is conducted and the influence of the insert configuration and its position from the central plane of the artery (zoffset), particle size (dp) and its magnetic property (χ) and the magnitude of current (I) on the "capture efficiency" (CE) is reported. Analysis shows that there exists an optimum regime of operating parameters for which deposition of the drug carrying magnetic particles in a target zone on the partly occluded vessel wall can be maximized. The results provide useful design bases for in vitro set up for the investigation of MDT in stenosed blood vessels.

  12. A Morphological Hessian Based Approach for Retinal Blood Vessels Segmentation and Denoising Using Region Based Otsu Thresholding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan BahadarKhan

    Full Text Available Diabetic Retinopathy (DR harm retinal blood vessels in the eye causing visual deficiency. The appearance and structure of blood vessels in retinal images play an essential part in the diagnoses of an eye sicknesses. We proposed a less computational unsupervised automated technique with promising results for detection of retinal vasculature by using morphological hessian based approach and region based Otsu thresholding. Contrast Limited Adaptive Histogram Equalization (CLAHE and morphological filters have been used for enhancement and to remove low frequency noise or geometrical objects, respectively. The hessian matrix and eigenvalues approach used has been in a modified form at two different scales to extract wide and thin vessel enhanced images separately. Otsu thresholding has been further applied in a novel way to classify vessel and non-vessel pixels from both enhanced images. Finally, postprocessing steps has been used to eliminate the unwanted region/segment, non-vessel pixels, disease abnormalities and noise, to obtain a final segmented image. The proposed technique has been analyzed on the openly accessible DRIVE (Digital Retinal Images for Vessel Extraction and STARE (STructured Analysis of the REtina databases along with the ground truth data that has been precisely marked by the experts.

  13. Gamma-secretase inhibitor treatment promotes VEGF-A-driven blood vessel growth and vascular leakage but disrupts neovascular perfusion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattias Kalén

    Full Text Available The Notch signaling pathway is essential for normal development due to its role in control of cell differentiation, proliferation and survival. It is also critically involved in tumorigenesis and cancer progression. A key enzyme in the activation of Notch signaling is the gamma-secretase protein complex and therefore, gamma-secretase inhibitors (GSIs--originally developed for Alzheimer's disease--are now being evaluated in clinical trials for human malignancies. It is also clear that Notch plays an important role in angiogenesis driven by Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A (VEGF-A--a process instrumental for tumor growth and metastasis. The effect of GSIs on tumor vasculature has not been conclusively determined. Here we report that Compound X (CX, a GSI previously reported to potently inhibit Notch signaling in vitro and in vivo, promotes angiogenic sprouting in vitro and during developmental angiogenesis in mice. Furthermore, CX treatment suppresses tumor growth in a mouse model of renal carcinoma, leads to the formation of abnormal vessels and an increased tumor vascular density. Using a rabbit model of VEGF-A-driven angiogenesis in skeletal muscle, we demonstrate that CX treatment promotes abnormal blood vessel growth characterized by vessel occlusion, disrupted blood flow, and increased vascular leakage. Based on these findings, we propose a model for how GSIs and other Notch inhibitors disrupt tumor blood vessel perfusion, which might be useful for understanding this new class of anti-cancer agents.

  14. THE ALGORITHM OF DETERMINATION OF EYE FUNDUS VESSELS BLOOD FLOW CHARACTERISTICS ON VIDEOSEQUENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Nedzvedz

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The method of determination of the dynamic characteristics like the vessel diameter change, the linear and volume blood velocities in the vessels of the eye fundus is considered. Such characteristics allow to determine blood flow changes in the microvasculature affecting the blood flow in the brain, kidneys and coronary vessels. Developed algorithm includes four stages: the video sequence stabilization, the vessels segmentation with the help of a neural network, the determination of the instantaneous velocity in the vessels based on the optical flow and the analysis of the results.

  15. Parametrically defined cerebral blood vessels as non-invasive blood input functions for brain PET studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asselin, Marie-Claude; Cunningham, Vincent J; Amano, Shigeko; Gunn, Roger N; Nahmias, Claude

    2004-01-01

    A non-invasive alternative to arterial blood sampling for the generation of a blood input function for brain positron emission tomography (PET) studies is presented. The method aims to extract the dimensions of the blood vessel directly from PET images and to simultaneously correct the radioactivity concentration for partial volume and spillover. This involves simulation of the tomographic imaging process to generate images of different blood vessel and background geometries and selecting the one that best fits, in a least-squares sense, the acquired PET image. A phantom experiment was conducted to validate the method which was then applied to eight subjects injected with 6-[ 18 F]fluoro-L-DOPA and one subject injected with [ 11 C]CO-labelled red blood cells. In the phantom study, the diameter of syringes filled with an 11 C solution and inserted into a water-filled cylinder were estimated with an accuracy of half a pixel (1 mm). The radioactivity concentration was recovered to 100 ± 4% in the 8.7 mm diameter syringe, the one that most closely approximated the superior sagittal sinus. In the human studies, the method systematically overestimated the calibre of the superior sagittal sinus by 2-3 mm compared to measurements made in magnetic resonance venograms on the same subjects. Sources of discrepancies related to the anatomy of the blood vessel were found not to be fundamental limitations to the applicability of the method to human subjects. This method has the potential to provide accurate quantification of blood radioactivity concentration from PET images without the need for blood samples, corrections for delay and dispersion, co-registered anatomical images, or manually defined regions of interest

  16. Heterogeneity of muscarinic receptor subtypes in cerebral blood vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Villalon, A.L.; Krause, D.N.; Ehlert, F.J.; Duckles, S.P.

    1991-01-01

    The identity and distribution of muscarinic cholinergic receptor subtypes and associated signal transduction mechanisms was characterized for the cerebral circulation using correlated functional and biochemical investigations. Subtypes were distinguished by the relative affinities of a panel of muscarinic antagonists, pirenzepine, AF-DX 116 [11-2-[[2-[diethylaminomethyl]- 1-piperidinyl]acetyl]-5,11-dihydro-6H- pyrido[2,3-b][1,4]benzodiazepine-6-one], hexahydrosiladifenidol, methoctramine, 4-diphenylacetoxy-N-methylpiperidine methobromide, dicyclomine, para-fluoro-hexahydrosiladifenidol and atropine. Muscarinic receptors characterized by inhibition of [3H]quinuclidinylbenzilate binding in membranes of bovine pial arteries were of the M2 subtype. In contrast pharmacological analysis of [3H]-quinuclidinylbenzilate binding in bovine intracerebral microvessels suggests the presence of an M4 subtype. Receptors mediating endothelium-dependent vasodilation in rabbit pial arteries were of the M3 subtype, whereas muscarinic receptors stimulating endothelium-independent phosphoinositide hydrolysis in bovine pial arteries were of the M1 subtype. These findings suggest that characteristics of muscarinic receptors in cerebral blood vessels vary depending on the type of vessel, cellular location and function mediated

  17. Blood Vessel Enhancement and Segmentation for Screening of Diabetic Retinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibaa Jamal

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic retinopathy is an eye disease caused by the increase of insulin in blood and it is one of the main cuases of blindness in idusterlized countries. It is a progressive disease and needs an early detection and treatment. Vascular pattern of human retina helps the ophthalmologists in automated screening and diagnosis of diabetic retinopathy. In this article, we present a method for vascular pattern ehnacement and segmentation. We present an automated system which uses wavelets to enhance the vascular pattern and then it applies a piecewise threshold probing and adaptive thresholding for vessel localization and segmentation respectively. The method is evaluated and tested using publicly available retinal databases and we further compare our method with already proposed techniques.

  18. Cerebral blood flow and metabolic abnormalities in Alzheimer's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Hiroshi

    2001-01-01

    In this review I summarize observations of PET and SPECT studies about cerebral blood flow and metabolic abnormalities in Alzheimer's disease (AD). In very early AD flow or metabolism reduces first in the posterior cingulate gyrus and precuneus. This reduction may arise from functional deafferentation caused by primary neural degeneration in the remote area of the entorhinal cortex that is the first to be pathologically affected in AD. Then medial temporal structures and parietotemporal association cortex show flow or metabolic reduction as disease processes. The reason why flow or metabolism in medial temporal structures shows delay in starting to reduce in spite of the earliest pathological affection remains to be elucidated. It is likely that anterior cingulate gyrus is functionally involved, since attention is the first non-memory domain to be affected, before deficits in language and visuospatial functions. However few reports have described involvement in the anterior cingulate gyrus. Relationship between cerebral blood flow or metabolism and apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype has been investigated. Especially, the APOEε4 allele has been reported to increase risk and to lower onset age as a function of the inherited dose of the ε4 allele. Reduction of flow or metabolism in the posterior cingulate gyrus and precuneus has been reported even in presymptomatic nondemented subjects who were cognitively normal and had at least a single ε4 allele. On the contrary the relation of ε4 allele to the progression rate of AD has been controversial from neuroimaging approaches. PET and SPECT imaging has become to be quite useful for assessing therapeutical effects of newly introduced treatment for AD. Recent investigations observed significant regional flow increase after donepezil hydrochloride treatment. Most of these observations have been made by applying computer assisted analysis of three-dimensional stereotactic surface projection or statistical parametric mapping

  19. Von Willebrand factor regulation of blood vessel formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randi, Anna M; Smith, Koval E; Castaman, Giancarlo

    2018-06-04

    Several important physiological processes, from permeability to inflammation to haemostasis, take place at the vessel wall and are regulated by endothelial cells (EC). Thus, proteins that have been identified as regulators of one process are increasingly found to be involved in other vascular functions. Such is the case for Von Willebrand Factor (VWF), a large glycoprotein best known for its critical role in haemostasis. In vitro and in vivo studies have shown that lack of VWF causes enhanced vascularisation, both constitutively and following ischemia. This evidence is supported by studies on blood outgrowth endothelial cells (BOEC) from patients with lack of VWF synthesis (type 3 von Willebrand disease [VWD]). The molecular pathways are likely to involve VWF binding partners, such as integrin αvβ3, and components of Weibel Palade bodies (WPB), such as Angiopoietin-2 and Galectin-3, whose storage is regulated by VWF; these converge on the master regulator of angiogenesis and endothelial homeostasis, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signalling. Recent studies suggest that the roles of VWF may be tissue-specific. The ability of VWF to regulate angiogenesis has clinical implications for a subset of VWD patients with severe, intractable gastrointestinal bleeding due to vascular malformations. In this article, we review the evidence showing that VWF is involved in blood vessel formation, discuss the role of VWF high molecular weight multimers in regulating angiogenesis, and the value of studies on BOEC in developing a precision medicine approach to validate novel treatments for angiodysplasia in congenital VWD and acquired von Willebrand syndrome. Copyright © 2018 American Society of Hematology.

  20. Influencing factors affecting the retinal blood vessel morphology in patients with diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Lu Kong

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To analyze the influencing factors affecting retinal blood vessel morphology in patients with diabetes mellitus. METHODS: Totally 312 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in our hospital from January 2012 to September 2016 were selected as study subjects. The patients were examined by fundus photography and related laboratory. As grouping factors in the patients'age, sex, disease duration, smoking, drinking, hypertension, hyperlipidemia or diabetic nephropathy, we compared the incidence of retinal vascular changes in different groups. The meaningful factors were introduced into the Logistic regression equation again. Independent risk factors for retinal vascular changes in patients with diabetes mellitus were screened out. RESULTS:In 312 cases of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus,169 cases were accompanied with retinal vascular abnormalities, and 143 cases were not associated with retinal vascular abnormalities. Univariate analysis showed that age, duration of disease, hypertension, hyperlipidemia or diabetes nephropathy were significantly correlated with retinal vascular morphological changes(PP>0.05. Retinal vascular abnormalities were used as the dependent variable, and the above mentioned factors were grouped as independent variables. By Logistic stepwise regression analysis showed that the course of disease, patients with hypertension or diabetic nephropathy were the independent risk factors of abnormal retinal vascular morphology(PCONCLUSION: The independent risk factors for the occurrence of retinal vascular changes in patients with diabetes mellitus are increased course of disease, hypertension or diabetic nephropathy. Early diagnosis and intervention, to take measures and control blood pressure, reduce kidney damage can reduce the incidence of diabetic retinopathy, and macrovascular disease caused by diabetes, the incidence of adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events.

  1. Accuracy of geometrical modelling of heat transfer from tissue to blood vessels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwen, van G.M.J.; Kotte, A.N.T.J.; Bree, de J.; Koijk, van der J.F.; Crezee, J.; Lagendijk, J.J.W.

    1997-01-01

    We have developed a thermal model in which blood vessels are described as geometrical objects, 3D curves with associated diameters. Here the behaviour of the model is examined for low resolutions compared with the vessel diameter and for strongly curved vessels. The tests include a single straight

  2. Blood Vessel Normalization in the Hamster Oral Cancer Model for Experimental Cancer Therapy Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ana J. Molinari; Romina F. Aromando; Maria E. Itoiz; Marcela A. Garabalino; Andrea Monti Hughes; Elisa M. Heber; Emiliano C. C. Pozzi; David W. Nigg; Veronica A. Trivillin; Amanda E. Schwint

    2012-07-01

    Normalization of tumor blood vessels improves drug and oxygen delivery to cancer cells. The aim of this study was to develop a technique to normalize blood vessels in the hamster cheek pouch model of oral cancer. Materials and Methods: Tumor-bearing hamsters were treated with thalidomide and were compared with controls. Results: Twenty eight hours after treatment with thalidomide, the blood vessels of premalignant tissue observable in vivo became narrower and less tortuous than those of controls; Evans Blue Dye extravasation in tumor was significantly reduced (indicating a reduction in aberrant tumor vascular hyperpermeability that compromises blood flow), and tumor blood vessel morphology in histological sections, labeled for Factor VIII, revealed a significant reduction in compressive forces. These findings indicated blood vessel normalization with a window of 48 h. Conclusion: The technique developed herein has rendered the hamster oral cancer model amenable to research, with the potential benefit of vascular normalization in head and neck cancer therapy.

  3. The morphological classification of normal and abnormal red blood cell using Self Organizing Map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmat, R. F.; Wulandari, F. S.; Faza, S.; Muchtar, M. A.; Siregar, I.

    2018-02-01

    Blood is an essential component of living creatures in the vascular space. For possible disease identification, it can be tested through a blood test, one of which can be seen from the form of red blood cells. The normal and abnormal morphology of the red blood cells of a patient is very helpful to doctors in detecting a disease. With the advancement of digital image processing technology can be used to identify normal and abnormal blood cells of a patient. This research used self-organizing map method to classify the normal and abnormal form of red blood cells in the digital image. The use of self-organizing map neural network method can be implemented to classify the normal and abnormal form of red blood cells in the input image with 93,78% accuracy testing.

  4. MACROMICROSCOPIC AND ULTRAMICROSCOPIC CHARACTERISTICS OF THE HART AND ITS BLOOD VESSELS IN MICE EHRLICHIOSIS INFECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pokhil S. I.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The macromicroscopic, ultramicroscopic studying change’s in the hart and its blood vessels in unlinear immunocomprometive laboratory male and female mice with the experimental ehrlichiosis is presented in this article. The cardiac destructive and degenerative changes,cardiomyopathy, cardiosclerosis had been established inexperimental animal group’s. The blood vessels endothelial lieyr disorganization, stasis, thrombosis has been noted.

  5. Captopril improves tumor nanomedicine delivery by increasing tumor blood perfusion and enlarging endothelial gaps in tumor blood vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bo; Jiang, Ting; Tuo, Yanyan; Jin, Kai; Luo, Zimiao; Shi, Wei; Mei, Heng; Hu, Yu; Pang, Zhiqing; Jiang, Xinguo

    2017-12-01

    Poor tumor perfusion and unfavorable vessel permeability compromise nanomedicine drug delivery to tumors. Captopril dilates blood vessels, reducing blood pressure clinically and bradykinin, as the downstream signaling moiety of captopril, is capable of dilating blood vessels and effectively increasing vessel permeability. The hypothesis behind this study was that captopril can dilate tumor blood vessels, improving tumor perfusion and simultaneously enlarge the endothelial gaps of tumor vessels, therefore enhancing nanomedicine drug delivery for tumor therapy. Using the U87 tumor xenograft with abundant blood vessels as the tumor model, tumor perfusion experiments were carried out using laser Doppler imaging and lectin-labeling experiments. A single treatment of captopril at a dose of 100 mg/kg significantly increased the percentage of functional vessels in tumor tissues and improved tumor blood perfusion. Scanning electron microscopy of tumor vessels also indicated that the endothelial gaps of tumor vessels were enlarged after captopril treatment. Immunofluorescence-staining of tumor slices demonstrated that captopril significantly increased bradykinin expression, possibly explaining tumor perfusion improvements and endothelial gap enlargement. Additionally, imaging in vivo, imaging ex vivo and nanoparticle distribution in tumor slices indicated that after a single treatment with captopril, the accumulation of 115-nm nanoparticles in tumors had increased 2.81-fold with a more homogeneous distribution pattern in comparison to non-captopril treated controls. Finally, pharmacodynamics experiments demonstrated that captopril combined with paclitaxel-loaded nanoparticles resulted in the greatest tumor shrinkage and the most extensive necrosis in tumor tissues among all treatment groups. Taken together, the data from the present study suggest a novel strategy for improving tumor perfusion and enlarging blood vessel permeability simultaneously in order to improve

  6. Predictive simulation of bidirectional Glenn shunt using a hybrid blood vessel model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hao; Leow, Wee Kheng; Chiu, Ing-Sh

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes a method for performing predictive simulation of cardiac surgery. It applies a hybrid approach to model the deformation of blood vessels. The hybrid blood vessel model consists of a reference Cosserat rod and a surface mesh. The reference Cosserat rod models the blood vessel's global bending, stretching, twisting and shearing in a physically correct manner, and the surface mesh models the surface details of the blood vessel. In this way, the deformation of blood vessels can be computed efficiently and accurately. Our predictive simulation system can produce complex surgical results given a small amount of user inputs. It allows the surgeon to easily explore various surgical options and evaluate them. Tests of the system using bidirectional Glenn shunt (BDG) as an application example show that the results produc by the system are similar to real surgical results.

  7. “Data characterizing microfabricated human blood vessels created via hydrodynamic focusing”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle A. DiVito

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This data article provides further detailed information related to our research article titled “Microfabricated Blood Vessels Undergo Neovascularization” (DiVito et al., 2017 [1], in which we report fabrication of human blood vessels using hydrodynamic focusing (HDF. Hydrodynamic focusing with advection inducing chevrons were used in concert to encase one fluid stream within another, shaping the inner core fluid into ‘bullseye-like” cross-sections that were preserved through click photochemistry producing streams of cellularized hollow 3-dimensional assemblies, such as human blood vessels (Daniele et al., 2015a, 2015b, 2014, 2016; Roberts et al., 2016 [2–6]. Applications for fabricated blood vessels span general tissue engineering to organ-on-chip technologies, with specific utility in in vitro drug delivery and pharmacodynamics studies. Here, we report data regarding the construction of blood vessels including cellular composition and cell positioning within the engineered vascular construct as well as functional aspects of the tissues.

  8. Agmatine Modulation of Noradrenergic Neurotransmission in Isolated Rat Blood Vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Török, Jozef; Zemančíková, Anna

    2016-06-30

    Agmatine, a vasoactive metabolite of L-arginine, is widely distributed in mammalian tissues including blood vessels. Agmatine binding to imidazoline and α₂-adrenoceptors induces a variety of physiological and pharmacological effects. We investigated the effect of agmatine on contractile responses of the rat pulmonary artery and portal vein induced by electrical stimulation of perivascular nerves and by exogenous adrenergic substances. Experiments were performed on isolated segments of rat main pulmonary artery and its extralobular branches, and portal vein suspended in organ bath containing modified Krebs bicarbonate solution and connected to a force-displacement transducer for isometric tension recording. Electrical field stimulation (EFS) produced tetrodotoxin-sensitive contractile responses of pulmonary artery and portal vein. Besides the well known vasorelaxant actions, we found that agmatine also produced a concentration-dependent inhibition of neurogenic contractions induced by EFS in pulmonary arteries; however, the agmatine treatment did not influence the responses to exogenous noradrenaline. The inhibitory effect on EFS-induced contractions was not abolished by the α₂-adrenoceptor antagonist rauwolscine. In portal vein, in contrast, agmatine increased spontaneous mechanical contractions and enhanced the contractions induced by EFS. The results suggest that agmatine can significantly influence vascular function of pulmonary arteries and portal veins by modulating sympathetically mediated vascular contractions by pre- and postsynaptic mechanisms.

  9. Bone marrow blood vessel ossification and "microvascular dead space" in rat and human long bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prisby, Rhonda D

    2014-07-01

    Severe calcification of the bone microvascular network was observed in rats, whereby the bone marrow blood vessels appeared ossified. This study sought to characterize the magnitude of ossification in relation to patent blood vessels and adipocyte content in femoral diaphyses. Additionally, this study confirmed the presence of ossified vessels in patients with arteriosclerotic vascular disease and peripheral vascular disease and cellulitis. Young (4-6 month; n=8) and old (22-24 month; n=8) male Fischer-344 rats were perfused with barium sulfate to visualize patent bone marrow blood vessels. Femoral shafts were processed for bone histomorphometry to quantify ossified (Goldner's Trichrome) and calcified (Alizarin Red) vessels. Adipocyte content was also determined. Additional femora (n=5/age group) were scanned via μCT to quantify microvascular ossification. Bone marrow blood vessels from the rats and the human patients were also isolated and examined via microscopy. Ossified vessels (rats and humans) had osteocyte lacunae on the vessel surfaces and "normal" vessels were transitioning into bone. The volume of ossified vessels was 4800% higher (pnecrosis. Progression of bone microvascular ossification may provide the common link associated with age-related changes in bone and bone marrow. The clinical implications may be evident in the difficulties treating bone disease in the elderly. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Correlation between blood and lymphatic vessel density and results of contrast-enhanced spectral mammography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luczynska, Elzbieta; Niemiec, Joanna; Ambicka, Aleksandra; Adamczyk, Agnieszka; Walasek, Tomasz; Ryś, Janusz; Sas-Korczyńska, Beata

    2015-09-01

    Contrast-enhanced spectral mammography (CESM) is a novel technique used for detection of tumour vascularity by imaging the moment in which contrast, delivered to the lesion by blood vessels, leaks out of them, and flows out through lymphatic vessels. In our study, we included 174 women for whom spectral mammography was performed for diagnostic purposes. The relationship between enhancement in CESM and blood vessel density (BVD), lymphatic vessel density (LVD) or the percentage of fields with at least one lymphatic vessel (distribution of podoplanin-positive vessels - DPV) and other related parameters was assessed in 55 cases. BVD, LVD and DPV were assessed immunohistochemically, applying podoplanin and CD31/CD34 as markers of lymphatic and blood vessels, respectively. The sensitivity (in detection of malignant lesions) of CESM was 100%, while its specificity - 39%. We found a significant positive correlation between the intensity of enhancement in CESM and BVD (p = 0.007, r = 0.357) and a negative correlation between the intensity of enhancement in CESM and DPV (p = 0.003, r = -0.390). Lesions with the highest enhancement in CESM showed a high number of blood vessels and a low number of lymphatics. 1) CESM is a method characterized by high sensitivity and acceptable specificity; 2) the correlation between CESM results and blood/lymphatic vessel density confirms its utility in detection of tissue angiogenesis and/or lymphangiogenesis.

  11. Personal identification based on blood vessels of retinal fundus images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuta, Keisuke; Nakagawa, Toshiaki; Hayashi, Yoshinori; Hatanaka, Yuji; Hara, Takeshi; Fujita, Hiroshi

    2008-03-01

    Biometric technique has been implemented instead of conventional identification methods such as password in computer, automatic teller machine (ATM), and entrance and exit management system. We propose a personal identification (PI) system using color retinal fundus images which are unique to each individual. The proposed procedure for identification is based on comparison of an input fundus image with reference fundus images in the database. In the first step, registration between the input image and the reference image is performed. The step includes translational and rotational movement. The PI is based on the measure of similarity between blood vessel images generated from the input and reference images. The similarity measure is defined as the cross-correlation coefficient calculated from the pixel values. When the similarity is greater than a predetermined threshold, the input image is identified. This means both the input and the reference images are associated to the same person. Four hundred sixty-two fundus images including forty-one same-person's image pairs were used for the estimation of the proposed technique. The false rejection rate and the false acceptance rate were 9.9×10 -5% and 4.3×10 -5%, respectively. The results indicate that the proposed method has a higher performance than other biometrics except for DNA. To be used for practical application in the public, the device which can take retinal fundus images easily is needed. The proposed method is applied to not only the PI but also the system which warns about misfiling of fundus images in medical facilities.

  12. A computational model predicting disruption of blood vessel development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Kleinstreuer

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Vascular development is a complex process regulated by dynamic biological networks that vary in topology and state across different tissues and developmental stages. Signals regulating de novo blood vessel formation (vasculogenesis and remodeling (angiogenesis come from a variety of biological pathways linked to endothelial cell (EC behavior, extracellular matrix (ECM remodeling and the local generation of chemokines and growth factors. Simulating these interactions at a systems level requires sufficient biological detail about the relevant molecular pathways and associated cellular behaviors, and tractable computational models that offset mathematical and biological complexity. Here, we describe a novel multicellular agent-based model of vasculogenesis using the CompuCell3D (http://www.compucell3d.org/ modeling environment supplemented with semi-automatic knowledgebase creation. The model incorporates vascular endothelial growth factor signals, pro- and anti-angiogenic inflammatory chemokine signals, and the plasminogen activating system of enzymes and proteases linked to ECM interactions, to simulate nascent EC organization, growth and remodeling. The model was shown to recapitulate stereotypical capillary plexus formation and structural emergence of non-coded cellular behaviors, such as a heterologous bridging phenomenon linking endothelial tip cells together during formation of polygonal endothelial cords. Molecular targets in the computational model were mapped to signatures of vascular disruption derived from in vitro chemical profiling using the EPA's ToxCast high-throughput screening (HTS dataset. Simulating the HTS data with the cell-agent based model of vascular development predicted adverse effects of a reference anti-angiogenic thalidomide analog, 5HPP-33, on in vitro angiogenesis with respect to both concentration-response and morphological consequences. These findings support the utility of cell agent-based models for simulating a

  13. Blood Pressure Abnormalities in Parkinson's Disease in a Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To compare the effect of posture on blood pressure in levodopa-treated Parkinson's disease (PD) patients with that of age-matched controls. The design is a case control study. Blood pressure was recorded manually in the seated position with Accossons® mercury sphygmomanometer in 30 consecutive patients with PD on ...

  14. An approach to localize the retinal blood vessels using bit planes and centerline detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraz, M M; Barman, S A; Remagnino, P; Hoppe, A; Basit, A; Uyyanonvara, B; Rudnicka, A R; Owen, C G

    2012-11-01

    The change in morphology, diameter, branching pattern or tortuosity of retinal blood vessels is an important indicator of various clinical disorders of the eye and the body. This paper reports an automated method for segmentation of blood vessels in retinal images. A unique combination of techniques for vessel centerlines detection and morphological bit plane slicing is presented to extract the blood vessel tree from the retinal images. The centerlines are extracted by using the first order derivative of a Gaussian filter in four orientations and then evaluation of derivative signs and average derivative values is performed. Mathematical morphology has emerged as a proficient technique for quantifying the blood vessels in the retina. The shape and orientation map of blood vessels is obtained by applying a multidirectional morphological top-hat operator with a linear structuring element followed by bit plane slicing of the vessel enhanced grayscale image. The centerlines are combined with these maps to obtain the segmented vessel tree. The methodology is tested on three publicly available databases DRIVE, STARE and MESSIDOR. The results demonstrate that the performance of the proposed algorithm is comparable with state of the art techniques in terms of accuracy, sensitivity and specificity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. High-resolution ultrasound imaging and noninvasive optoacoustic monitoring of blood variables in peripheral blood vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, Irene Y.; Petrov, Yuriy; Prough, Donald S.; Esenaliev, Rinat O.

    2011-03-01

    Ultrasound imaging is being widely used in clinics to obtain diagnostic information non-invasively and in real time. A high-resolution ultrasound imaging platform, Vevo (VisualSonics, Inc.) provides in vivo, real-time images with exceptional resolution (up to 30 microns) using high-frequency transducers (up to 80 MHz). Recently, we built optoacoustic systems for probing radial artery and peripheral veins that can be used for noninvasive monitoring of total hemoglobin concentration, oxyhemoglobin saturation, and concentration of important endogenous and exogenous chromophores (such as ICG). In this work we used the high-resolution ultrasound imaging system Vevo 770 for visualization of the radial artery and peripheral veins and acquired corresponding optoacoustic signals from them using the optoacoustic systems. Analysis of the optoacoustic data with a specially developed algorithm allowed for measurement of blood oxygenation in the blood vessels as well as for continuous, real-time monitoring of arterial and venous blood oxygenation. Our results indicate that: 1) the optoacoustic technique (unlike pure optical approaches and other noninvasive techniques) is capable of accurate peripheral venous oxygenation measurement; and 2) peripheral venous oxygenation is dependent on skin temperature and local hemodynamics. Moreover, we performed for the first time (to the best of our knowledge) a comparative study of optoacoustic arterial oximetry and a standard pulse oximeter in humans and demonstrated superior performance of the optoacoustic arterial oximeter, in particular at low blood flow.

  16. Estimation of vessel diameter and blood flow dynamics from laser speckle images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Postnov, Dmitry D.; Tuchin, Valery V.; Sosnovtseva, Olga

    2016-01-01

    Laser speckle imaging is a rapidly developing method to study changes of blood velocity in the vascular networks. However, to assess blood flow and vascular responses it is crucial to measure vessel diameter in addition to blood velocity dynamics. We suggest an algorithm that allows for dynamical...

  17. Abnormality in cerebellar blood flow in solo vertigo patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagahori, Takeshi [Shakaihoken Takaoka Hospital, Toyama (Japan); Nishijima, Michiharu; Endo, Shunro; Takaku, Akira

    1997-03-01

    Little is known about the blood flow of the vertebrobasilar system as a cause of vertigo and dizziness. We used Xe-CT to study cerebellar blood flow in 53 patients who ranged in age from 35 to 85 years. The patients were divided into two groups. One of them was the vertigo group that comprised 28 patients with rotatory sensation, and the other, the non-vertigo group of 25 patients with a sensation other than rotation. At the stage of severe symptoms, there was decreased cerebellar blood flow in all patients of both, the vertigo and the non-vertigo groups, and a decrease in the bilateral cerebellar hemisphere was observed in five patients and in a unilateral hemisphere in three patients of the vertigo group. By comparison, in the non-vertigo group, unilateral decrease of cerebellar blood flow was observed in only one patient, and a bilateral decrease in five. At the stage of severe symptoms, the mean regional cerebellar blood flow was 40.5{+-}8.0 ml/100 g/min (n=16 sides) in the vertigo group and 45.3{+-}9.5 ml/100 g/min (n=12 sides) in the non-vertigo group. At the stage of moderate symptoms, blood flow image was normal in four of 14 vertigo patients and in seven of 12 non-vertigo patients. The mean regional blood flow was 47.8{+-}8.6 ml/100 g/min (n=28 sides) in the vertigo group and 47.1{+-}5.1 ml/100 g/min (n=24 sides) in the non-vertigo group. At the asymptomatic stage, a high proportion of normal blood flow images (nine of 16 vertigo patients and 10 of 10 non-vertigo patients) was observed. The mean regional cerebellar blood flow was 51.6{+-}10.7 ml/100 g/min (n=32 sides) in the vertigo group and 52.8{+-}8.5 ml/100 g/min (n=20 sides) in the non-vertigo group. This study demonstrates that a unilateral or bilateral decrease in blood flow of the vertebrobasilar system may cause vertigo and dizziness. It also shows that Xe-CT of the cerebellum may be a valuable examination modality for the diagnosis and treatment of vertigo and dizziness. (author)

  18. Abnormality in cerebellar blood flow in solo vertigo patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagahori, Takeshi; Nishijima, Michiharu; Endo, Shunro; Takaku, Akira

    1997-01-01

    Little is known about the blood flow of the vertebrobasilar system as a cause of vertigo and dizziness. We used Xe-CT to study cerebellar blood flow in 53 patients who ranged in age from 35 to 85 years. The patients were divided into two groups. One of them was the vertigo group that comprised 28 patients with rotatory sensation, and the other, the non-vertigo group of 25 patients with a sensation other than rotation. At the stage of severe symptoms, there was decreased cerebellar blood flow in all patients of both, the vertigo and the non-vertigo groups, and a decrease in the bilateral cerebellar hemisphere was observed in five patients and in a unilateral hemisphere in three patients of the vertigo group. By comparison, in the non-vertigo group, unilateral decrease of cerebellar blood flow was observed in only one patient, and a bilateral decrease in five. At the stage of severe symptoms, the mean regional cerebellar blood flow was 40.5±8.0 ml/100 g/min (n=16 sides) in the vertigo group and 45.3±9.5 ml/100 g/min (n=12 sides) in the non-vertigo group. At the stage of moderate symptoms, blood flow image was normal in four of 14 vertigo patients and in seven of 12 non-vertigo patients. The mean regional blood flow was 47.8±8.6 ml/100 g/min (n=28 sides) in the vertigo group and 47.1±5.1 ml/100 g/min (n=24 sides) in the non-vertigo group. At the asymptomatic stage, a high proportion of normal blood flow images (nine of 16 vertigo patients and 10 of 10 non-vertigo patients) was observed. The mean regional cerebellar blood flow was 51.6±10.7 ml/100 g/min (n=32 sides) in the vertigo group and 52.8±8.5 ml/100 g/min (n=20 sides) in the non-vertigo group. This study demonstrates that a unilateral or bilateral decrease in blood flow of the vertebrobasilar system may cause vertigo and dizziness. It also shows that Xe-CT of the cerebellum may be a valuable examination modality for the diagnosis and treatment of vertigo and dizziness. (author)

  19. An experimental system for the study of ultrasound exposure of isolated blood vessels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tokarczyk, Anna; Rivens, Ian; van Bavel, E.; Symonds-Tayler, Richard; ter Haar, Gail

    2013-01-01

    An experimental system designed for the study of the effects of diagnostic or therapeutic ultrasound exposure on isolated blood vessels in the presence or absence of intraluminal contrast agent is described. The system comprised several components. A microscope was used to monitor vessel size (and

  20. Peptide-Mediated Liposomal Drug Delivery System Targeting Tumor Blood Vessels in Anticancer Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han-Chung Wu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Solid tumors are known to recruit new blood vessels to support their growth. Therefore, unique molecules expressed on tumor endothelial cells can function as targets for the antiangiogenic therapy of cancer. Current efforts are focusing on developing therapeutic agents capable of specifically targeting cancer cells and tumor-associated microenvironments including tumor blood vessels. These therapies hold the promise of high efficacy and low toxicity. One recognized strategy for improving the therapeutic effectiveness of conventional chemotherapeutics is to encapsulate anticancer drugs into targeting liposomes that bind to the cell surface receptors expressed on tumor-associated endothelial cells. These anti-angiogenic drug delivery systems could be used to target both tumor blood vessels as well as the tumor cells, themselves. This article reviews the mechanisms and advantages of various present and potential methods using peptide-conjugated liposomes to specifically destroy tumor blood vessels in anticancer therapy.

  1. Blood vessel growth blocker may treat AIDS-related Kaposi’s sarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patients with an AIDS-associated cancer, Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), showed improvement after receiving the combination of bevacizumab, a cancer drug that blocks the growth of new blood vessels, and highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART).

  2. Automatic detection of blood vessels in retinal images for diabetic retinopathy diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raja, D Siva Sundhara; Vasuki, S

    2015-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a leading cause of vision loss in diabetic patients. DR is mainly caused due to the damage of retinal blood vessels in the diabetic patients. It is essential to detect and segment the retinal blood vessels for DR detection and diagnosis, which prevents earlier vision loss in diabetic patients. The computer aided automatic detection and segmentation of blood vessels through the elimination of optic disc (OD) region in retina are proposed in this paper. The OD region is segmented using anisotropic diffusion filter and subsequentially the retinal blood vessels are detected using mathematical binary morphological operations. The proposed methodology is tested on two different publicly available datasets and achieved 93.99% sensitivity, 98.37% specificity, 98.08% accuracy in DRIVE dataset and 93.6% sensitivity, 98.96% specificity, and 95.94% accuracy in STARE dataset, respectively.

  3. Three-dimensional imaging of absolute blood flow velocity and blood vessel position under low blood flow velocity based on Doppler signal information included in scattered light from red blood cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyoden, Tomoaki; Akiguchi, Shunsuke; Tajiri, Tomoki; Andoh, Tsugunobu; Hachiga, Tadashi

    2017-11-01

    The development of a system for in vivo visualization of occluded distal blood vessels for diabetic patients is the main target of our research. We herein describe two-beam multipoint laser Doppler velocimetry (MLDV), which measures the instantaneous multipoint flow velocity and can be used to observe the blood flow velocity in peripheral blood vessels. By including a motorized stage to shift the measurement points horizontally and in the depth direction while measuring the velocity, the path of the blood vessel in the skin could be observed using blood flow velocity in three-dimensional space. The relationship of the signal power density between the blood vessel and the surrounding tissues was shown and helped us identify the position of the blood vessel. Two-beam MLDV can be used to simultaneously determine the absolute blood flow velocity distribution and identify the blood vessel position in skin.

  4. Sense, enrich and classify: The scanmaris workshop for assessment of vessel's abnormal behavior in the EEZ

    OpenAIRE

    Jangal , Florent; Giraud , Marie-Annick; Morel , Michel; Mano , Jean-Pierre; Napoli , Aldo; Littaye , Anne

    2008-01-01

    International audience; Constant monitoring of the Exclusive Economic Zone cannot be performed only using high performance sensors. On the one hand, all available information on the observed area as juridical history of vessels or delineation of fishing zone is not necessarily measurable. On the other hand, even if the large amount of available information could be caught out they would be useless if none thorough sorting and analysis are carried on. So, we propose to sense vessel trail in Ex...

  5. Effect of blood vessels on light distribution in optogenetic stimulation of cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azimipour, Mehdi; Atry, Farid; Pashaie, Ramin

    2015-05-15

    In this Letter, the impact of blood vessels on light distribution during photostimulation of cortical tissue in small rodents is investigated. Brain optical properties were extracted using a double-integrating sphere setup, and optical coherence tomography was used to image cortical vessels and capillaries to generate a three-dimensional angiogram of the cortex. By combining these two datasets, a complete volumetric structure of the cortical tissue was developed and linked to a Monte Carlo code which simulates light propagation in this inhomogeneous structure and illustrates the effect of blood vessels on the penetration depth and pattern preservation in optogenetic stimulation.

  6. Segmentation of retinal blood vessels using artificial neural networks for early detection of diabetic retinopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Kulwinder S.; Kaur, Sukhpreet

    2017-06-01

    There are various eye diseases in the patients suffering from the diabetes which includes Diabetic Retinopathy, Glaucoma, Hypertension etc. These all are the most common sight threatening eye diseases due to the changes in the blood vessel structure. The proposed method using supervised methods concluded that the segmentation of the retinal blood vessels can be performed accurately using neural networks training. It uses features which include Gray level features; Moment Invariant based features, Gabor filtering, Intensity feature, Vesselness feature for feature vector computation. Then the feature vector is calculated using only the prominent features.

  7. Establishment of an animal model of mice with radiation- injured soft tissue blood vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Daiyou; Yu Dahai; Wu Jiaxiao; Wei Shanliang; Wen Yuming

    2004-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to establish an animal model of mice with radiation-injured soft tissue blood vessels. Methods: Forty male mice were irradiated with 30 Gy on the right leg. After the irradiation was finished each of the 40 male mice was tested with angiography, and its muscle tissues on the bilateral legs were examined with vessel staining assay and electron microscopy. Results: The results showed that the number of vessels on the right leg was less than that on the left leg, the microvessel density, average diameter and average sectional area of the right leg were all lower than those of the left, and the configuration and ultra-structure of vessels were also different between both sides of legs. Conclusion: In the study authors successfully established an animal model of mice with radiation-injured soft tissue blood vessels

  8. Proteomic profiling of tissue-engineered blood vessel walls constructed by adipose-derived stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chen; Guo, Fangfang; Zhou, Heng; Zhang, Yun; Xiao, Zhigang; Cui, Lei

    2013-02-01

    Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) can differentiate into smooth muscle cells and have been engineered into elastic small diameter blood vessel walls in vitro. However, the mechanisms involved in the development of three-dimensional (3D) vascular tissue remain poorly understood. The present study analyzed protein expression profiles of engineered blood vessel walls constructed by human ASCs using methods of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE) and mass spectrometry (MS). These results were compared to normal arterial walls. A total of 1701±15 and 1265±26 protein spots from normal and engineered blood vessel wall extractions were detected by 2DE, respectively. A total of 20 spots with at least 2.0-fold changes in expression were identified, and 38 differently expressed proteins were identified by 2D electrophoresis and ion trap MS. These proteins were classified into seven functional categories: cellular organization, energy, signaling pathway, enzyme, anchored protein, cell apoptosis/defense, and others. These results demonstrated that 2DE, followed by ion trap MS, could be successfully utilized to characterize the proteome of vascular tissue, including tissue-engineered vessels. The method could also be employed to achieve a better understanding of differentiated smooth muscle protein expression in vitro. These results provide a basis for comparative studies of protein expression in vascular smooth muscles of different origin and could provide a better understanding of the mechanisms of action needed for constructing blood vessels that exhibit properties consistent with normal blood vessels.

  9. An experimental system for the study of ultrasound exposure of isolated blood vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokarczyk, Anna; Rivens, Ian; Symonds-Tayler, Richard; Ter Haar, Gail; Van Bavel, E

    2013-01-01

    An experimental system designed for the study of the effects of diagnostic or therapeutic ultrasound exposure on isolated blood vessels in the presence or absence of intraluminal contrast agent is described. The system comprised several components. A microscope was used to monitor vessel size (and thus vessel functionality), and potential leakage of intraluminal 70 kDa FITC-dextran fluorescence marker. A vessel chamber allowed the mounting of an isolated vessel whilst maintaining its viability, with pressure regulation for the control of intraluminal pressure and induction of flow for the infusion of contrast microbubbles. A fibre-optic hydrophone sensor mounted on the vessel chamber using a micromanipulator allowed pre-exposure targeting of the vessel to within 150 µm, and monitoring of acoustic cavitation emissions during exposures. Acoustic cavitation was also detected using changes in the ultrasound drive voltage and by detection of audible emissions using a submerged microphone. The suitability of this system for studying effects in the isolated vessel model has been demonstrated using a pilot study of 6 sham exposed and 18 high intensity focused ultrasound exposed vessels, with or without intraluminal contrast agent (SonoVue) within the vessels. (paper)

  10. HIFU procedures at moderate intensities-effect of large blood vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hariharan, P; Myers, M R; Banerjee, R K

    2007-01-01

    A three-dimensional computational model is presented for studying the efficacy of high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) procedures targeted near large blood vessels. The analysis applies to procedures performed at intensities below the threshold for cavitation, boiling and highly nonlinear propagation, but high enough to increase tissue temperature a few degrees per second. The model is based upon the linearized KZK equation and the bioheat equation in tissue. In the blood vessel the momentum and energy equations are satisfied. The model is first validated in a tissue phantom, to verify the absence of bubble formation and nonlinear effects. Temperature rise and lesion-volume calculations are then shown for different beam locations and orientations relative to a large vessel. Both single and multiple ablations are considered. Results show that when the vessel is located within about a beam width (few mm) of the ultrasound beam, significant reduction in lesion volume is observed due to blood flow. However, for gaps larger than a beam width, blood flow has no major effect on the lesion formation. Under the clinically representative conditions considered, the lesion volume is reduced about 40% (relative to the no-flow case) when the beam is parallel to the blood vessel, compared to about 20% for a perpendicular orientation. Procedures involving multiple ablation sites are affected less by blood flow than single ablations. The model also suggests that optimally focused transducers can generate lesions that are significantly larger (>2 times) than the ones produced by highly focused beams

  11. HIFU procedures at moderate intensities-effect of large blood vessels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hariharan, P [Mechanical, Industrial, and Nuclear Engineering Department, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Myers, M R [Division of Solid and Fluid Mechanics, Center for Devices and Radiological Health, US Food and Drug Administration, 10903 New Hampshire Avenue, Building 62, Silver Spring, MD 20993-0002 (United States); Banerjee, R K [Mechanical, Industrial, and Nuclear Engineering Department, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2007-07-21

    A three-dimensional computational model is presented for studying the efficacy of high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) procedures targeted near large blood vessels. The analysis applies to procedures performed at intensities below the threshold for cavitation, boiling and highly nonlinear propagation, but high enough to increase tissue temperature a few degrees per second. The model is based upon the linearized KZK equation and the bioheat equation in tissue. In the blood vessel the momentum and energy equations are satisfied. The model is first validated in a tissue phantom, to verify the absence of bubble formation and nonlinear effects. Temperature rise and lesion-volume calculations are then shown for different beam locations and orientations relative to a large vessel. Both single and multiple ablations are considered. Results show that when the vessel is located within about a beam width (few mm) of the ultrasound beam, significant reduction in lesion volume is observed due to blood flow. However, for gaps larger than a beam width, blood flow has no major effect on the lesion formation. Under the clinically representative conditions considered, the lesion volume is reduced about 40% (relative to the no-flow case) when the beam is parallel to the blood vessel, compared to about 20% for a perpendicular orientation. Procedures involving multiple ablation sites are affected less by blood flow than single ablations. The model also suggests that optimally focused transducers can generate lesions that are significantly larger (>2 times) than the ones produced by highly focused beams.

  12. Computational Fluid Dynamics Analysis of Pulsatile Blood Flow Behavior in Modelled Stenosed Vessels with Different Severities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Mehrabi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the behavior of blood flow in the stenosed vessels. Blood is modelled as an incompressible non-Newtonian fluid which is based on the power law viscosity model. A numerical technique based on the finite difference method is developed to simulate the blood flow taking into account the transient periodic behaviour of the blood flow in cardiac cycles. Also, pulsatile blood flow in the stenosed vessel is based on the Womersley model, and fluid flow in the lumen region is governed by the continuity equation and the Navier-Stokes equations. In this study, the stenosis shape is cosine by using Tu and Devil model. Comparing the results obtained from three stenosed vessels with 30%, 50%, and 75% area severity, we find that higher percent-area severity of stenosis leads to higher extrapressure jumps and higher blood speeds around the stenosis site. Also, we observe that the size of the stenosis in stenosed vessels does influence the blood flow. A little change on the cross-sectional value makes vast change on the blood flow rate. This simulation helps the people working in the field of physiological fluid dynamics as well as the medical practitioners.

  13. Cerebral blood flow in normal and abnormal sleep and dreaming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, J.S.; Ishikawa, Y.; Hata, T.; Karacan, I.

    1987-01-01

    Measurements of regional or local cerebral blood flow (CBF) by the xenon-133 inhalation method and stable xenon computerized tomography CBF (CTCBF) method were made during relaxed wakefulness and different stages of REM and non-REM sleep in normal age-matched volunteers, narcoleptics, and sleep apneics. In the awake state, CBF values were reduced in both narcoleptics and sleep apneics in the brainstem and cerebellar regions. During sleep onset, whether REM or stage I-II, CBF values were paradoxically increased in narcoleptics but decreased severely in sleep apneics, while in normal volunteers they became diffusely but more moderately decreased. In REM sleep and dreaming CBF values greatly increased, particularly in right temporo-parietal regions in subjects experiencing both visual and auditory dreaming

  14. Association of parental blood pressure with retinal microcirculatory abnormalities indicative of endothelial dysfunction in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Muhammad; Jafar, Tazeen H; Bux, Rasool; Hashmi, Shiraz; Chaturvedi, Nish; Hughes, Alun D

    2014-03-01

    Microcirculatory abnormalities precede the onset of hypertension and may explain its familial nature. We examined the relationship between parental blood pressure (BP) and offspring retinal microvasculature in Pakistani trios [father, mother, and child (aged 9-14 years)]. This is a substudy of a population-based trial of BP reduction. Data were available on 358 normotensive, and 410 offspring of at least one hypertensive parent. Retinal vessel characteristics were measured from digital images. Multivariable linear regression models were built to assess the associations between maternal and paternal BP and offspring retinal microvasculature. Optimality deviation was greatest in offspring of two hypertensive parents, compared with those with one or no hypertensive parent (P=0.030 for trend). Paternal SBP and DBP were each significantly associated with optimality deviation in offspring (P=0.023 and P=0.006, respectively). This relationship persisted after accounting for offspring cardiovascular risk factors [increase in optimality deviation (95% confidence interval, CI) 0.0053 (0.0001-0.0106, P=0.047) and 0.0109 (0.0025-0.0193, P=0.011), for each 10 mmHg increase in paternal SBP and DBP, respectively]. Maternal DBP was inversely associated with offspring arteriovenous ratio -0.0102 (-0.0198 to -0.0007, P=0.035). Microvascular endothelial dysfunction in children is associated with increasing levels of parental hypertension. The association with paternal BP is independent of other cardiovascular risk factors, including the child's BP. Higher maternal DBP is associated with evidence of arteriolar narrowing in offspring. These early microcirculatory changes may help explain familial predisposition to hypertension in people of Pakistani origin at an early age. :

  15. Fine structural alterations of the blood vessels in the delayed radionecrosis of the human brain and its pathogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumura, H [Nagasaki Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1981-05-01

    The blood vessels in the delayed radionecrosis of the human brain were studied under light and electron microscopes. Microscopically, the blood vessels demonstrated characteristic findings such as fibrinoid necrosis, hyalinized thickened vessels, perivascular fibrosis and thrombosed vessels. Electron microscopy revealed the formation of fenestrae, separation of endothelial cells, increased pinocytotic vesicles as well as the initial thrombus formation. Our results strongly verified that vascular alterations are primary in the pathogenesis of radionecrosis whereas the parenchymal changes are secondary.

  16. Expression of the growth factor progranulin in endothelial cells influences growth and development of blood vessels: a novel mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toh, Huishi; Cao, Mingju; Daniels, Eugene; Bateman, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Progranulin is a secreted glycoprotein that regulates cell proliferation, migration and survival. It has roles in development, tumorigenesis, wound healing, neurodegeneration and inflammation. Endothelia in tumors, wounds and placenta express elevated levels of progranulin. In culture, progranulin activates endothelial proliferation and migration. This suggested that progranulin might regulate angiogenesis. It was, however, unclear how elevated endothelial progranulin levels influence vascular growth in vivo. To address this issue, we generated mice with progranulin expression targeted specifically to developing endothelial cells using a Tie2-promoter/enhancer construct. Three Tie2-Grn mouse lines were generated with varying Tie2-Grn copy number, and were called GrnLo, GrnMid, and GrnHi. All three lines showed increased mortality that correlates with Tie2-Grn copy number, with greatest mortality and lowest germline transmission in the GrnHi line. Death of the transgenic animals occurred around birth, and continued for three days after birth. Those that survived beyond day 3 survived into adulthood. Transgenic neonates that died showed vascular abnormalities of varying severity. Some exhibited bleeding into body cavities such as the pericardial space. Smaller localized hemorrhages were seen in many organs. Blood vessels were often dilated and thin-walled. To establish the development of these abnormalities, we examined mice at early (E10.5-14.5) and later (E15.5-17.5) developmental phases. Early events during vasculogenesis appear unaffected by Tie2-Grn as apparently normal primary vasculature had been established at E10.5. The earliest onset of vascular abnormality was at E15.5, with focal cerebral hemorrhage and enlarged vessels in various organs. Aberrant Tie2-Grn positive vessels showed thinning of the basement membrane and reduced investiture with mural cells. We conclude that progranulin promotes exaggerated vessel growth in vivo, with subsequent effects in

  17. Expression of the growth factor progranulin in endothelial cells influences growth and development of blood vessels: a novel mouse model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huishi Toh

    Full Text Available Progranulin is a secreted glycoprotein that regulates cell proliferation, migration and survival. It has roles in development, tumorigenesis, wound healing, neurodegeneration and inflammation. Endothelia in tumors, wounds and placenta express elevated levels of progranulin. In culture, progranulin activates endothelial proliferation and migration. This suggested that progranulin might regulate angiogenesis. It was, however, unclear how elevated endothelial progranulin levels influence vascular growth in vivo. To address this issue, we generated mice with progranulin expression targeted specifically to developing endothelial cells using a Tie2-promoter/enhancer construct. Three Tie2-Grn mouse lines were generated with varying Tie2-Grn copy number, and were called GrnLo, GrnMid, and GrnHi. All three lines showed increased mortality that correlates with Tie2-Grn copy number, with greatest mortality and lowest germline transmission in the GrnHi line. Death of the transgenic animals occurred around birth, and continued for three days after birth. Those that survived beyond day 3 survived into adulthood. Transgenic neonates that died showed vascular abnormalities of varying severity. Some exhibited bleeding into body cavities such as the pericardial space. Smaller localized hemorrhages were seen in many organs. Blood vessels were often dilated and thin-walled. To establish the development of these abnormalities, we examined mice at early (E10.5-14.5 and later (E15.5-17.5 developmental phases. Early events during vasculogenesis appear unaffected by Tie2-Grn as apparently normal primary vasculature had been established at E10.5. The earliest onset of vascular abnormality was at E15.5, with focal cerebral hemorrhage and enlarged vessels in various organs. Aberrant Tie2-Grn positive vessels showed thinning of the basement membrane and reduced investiture with mural cells. We conclude that progranulin promotes exaggerated vessel growth in vivo, with

  18. New algorithm for detecting smaller retinal blood vessels in fundus images

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeAnder, Robert; Bidari, Praveen I.; Mohammed, Tauseef A.; Das, Moumita; Umbaugh, Scott E.

    2010-03-01

    About 4.1 million Americans suffer from diabetic retinopathy. To help automatically diagnose various stages of the disease, a new blood-vessel-segmentation algorithm based on spatial high-pass filtering was developed to automatically segment blood vessels, including the smaller ones, with low noise. Methods: Image database: Forty, 584 x 565-pixel images were collected from the DRIVE image database. Preprocessing: Green-band extraction was used to obtain better contrast, which facilitated better visualization of retinal blood vessels. A spatial highpass filter of mask-size 11 was applied. A histogram stretch was performed to enhance contrast. A median filter was applied to mitigate noise. At this point, the gray-scale image was converted to a binary image using a binary thresholding operation. Then, a NOT operation was performed by gray-level value inversion between 0 and 255. Postprocessing: The resulting image was AND-ed with its corresponding ring mask to remove the outer-ring (lens-edge) artifact. At this point, the above algorithm steps had extracted most of the major and minor vessels, with some intersections and bifurcations missing. Vessel segments were reintegrated using the Hough transform. Results: After applying the Hough transform, both the average peak SNR and the RMS error improved by 10%. Pratt's Figure of Merit (PFM) was decreased by 6%. Those averages were better than [1] by 10-30%. Conclusions: The new algorithm successfully preserved the details of smaller blood vessels and should prove successful as a segmentation step for automatically identifying diseases that affect retinal blood vessels.

  19. Polymer-based blood vessel models with micro-temperature sensors in EVE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizoshiri, Mizue; Ito, Yasuaki; Hayakawa, Takeshi; Maruyama, Hisataka; Sakurai, Junpei; Ikeda, Seiichi; Arai, Fumihito; Hata, Seiichi

    2017-04-01

    Cu-based micro-temperature sensors were directly fabricated on poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) blood vessel models in EVE using a combined process of spray coating and femtosecond laser reduction of CuO nanoparticles. CuO nanoparticle solution coated on a PDMS blood vessel model are thermally reduced and sintered by focused femtosecond laser pulses in atmosphere to write the sensors. After removing the non-irradiated CuO nanoparticles, Cu-based microtemperature sensors are formed. The sensors are thermistor-type ones whose temperature dependences of the resistance are used for measuring temperature inside the blood vessel model. This fabrication technique is useful for direct-writing of Cu-based microsensors and actuators on arbitrary nonplanar substrates.

  20. The efficiency of laser radiation absorption by hemoglobin and oxyhemoglobin in the skin blood vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asimov, M.; Asimov, R.; Gisbrecht, A.

    1999-01-01

    The results of the investigation of the efficiency of light absorption by oxyhemoglobin (HbO 2 ) and deoxyhemoglobin (Hb) in cutaneous blood vessels in dependence on the radiation wavelength and the optical properties of the tissue is presented. Using the Kubelka - Munk optical model of the tissue the spectral dependence of the efficiency of laser interaction both on HbO 2 and Hb of blood vessels at different depths of the tissue layer are calculated. The obtained results show that for blood vessels located in tissue up to a depth of 2500 μm the efficiency of laser radiation absorption follows the shape of the Q -absorption bands of HbO 2 and Hb

  1. Safety analyses for transient behavior of plasma and in-vessel components during plasma abnormal events in fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honda, Takuro; Okazaki, Takashi; Bartels, H.W.; Uckan, N.A.; Seki, Yasushi.

    1997-01-01

    Safety analyses on plasma abnormal events have been performed using a hybrid code of a plasma dynamics model and a heat transfer model of in-vessel components. Several abnormal events, e.g., increase in fueling rate, were selected for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) and transient behavior of the plasma and the invessel components during the events was analyzed. The physics model for safety analysis was conservatively prepared. In most cases, the plasma is terminated by a disruption or it returns to the original operation point. When the energy confinement improves by a factor of 2.0 in the steady state, which is a hypothetical assumption under the present plasma data, the maximum fusion power reaches about 3.3 GW at about 3.6 s and the plasma is terminated due to a disruption. However, the results obtained in this study show the confinement boundary of ITER can be kept almost intact during the abnormal plasma transients, as long as the cooling system works normally. Several parametric studies are needed to comprehend the overpower transient including structure behavior, since many uncertainties are connected to the filed of the plasma physics. And, future work will need to discuss the burn control scenario considering confinement mode transition, system specifications, experimental plans and safety regulations, etc. to confirm the safety related to the plasma anomaly. (author)

  2. Blood vessel damage correlated with irradiance for in vivo vascular targeted photodynamic therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jinde; Tan, Zou; Niu, Xiangyu; Lin, Linsheng; Lin, Huiyun; Li, Buhong

    2016-10-01

    Vascular targeted photodynamic therapy (V-PDT) has been widely utilized for the prevention or treatment of vascular-related diseases, including age-related macular degeneration, port-wine stains and prostate cancer. In order to quantitative assessment the blood vessel damage during V-PDT, nude mice were implanted with Titanium dorsal skin window chambers for in vivo V-PDT studies. For treatments, various irradiances including 50, 75, 100 and 200 mW/cm2 provided by a 532 nm semiconductor laser were performed with the same total light dose of 30 J/cm2 after the mice were intravenously injection of Rose Bengal for 25 mg/Kg body weight. Laser speckle imaging and microscope were used to monitor blood flow dynamics and vessel constriction during and after V-PDT, respectively. The V-PDT induced vessel damages between different groups were compared. The results show that significant difference in blood vessel damage was found between the lower irradiances (50, 75 and 100 mW/cm2) and higher irradiance (200 mW/cm2), and the blood vessel damage induced by V-PDT is positively correlated with irradiance. This study implies that the optimization of irradiance is required for enhancing V-PDT therapeutic efficiency.

  3. Mathematical modelling for trajectories of magnetic nanoparticles in a blood vessel under magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Shashi; Katiyar, V.K.; Singh, Uaday

    2015-01-01

    A mathematical model is developed to describe the trajectories of a cluster of magnetic nanoparticles in a blood vessel for the application of magnetic drug targeting (MDT). The magnetic nanoparticles are injected into a blood vessel upstream from a malignant tissue and are captured at the tumour site with help of an applied magnetic field. The applied field is produced by a rare earth cylindrical magnet positioned outside the body. All forces expected to significantly affect the transport of nanoparticles were incorporated, including magnetization force, drag force and buoyancy force. The results show that particles are slow down and captured under the influence of magnetic force, which is responsible to attract the magnetic particles towards the magnet. It is optimized that all particles are captured either before or at the centre of the magnet (z≤0) when blood vessel is very close proximity to the magnet (d=2.5 cm). However, as the distance between blood vessel and magnet (d) increases (above 4.5 cm), the magnetic nanoparticles particles become free and they flow away down the blood vessel. Further, the present model results are validated by the simulations performed using the finite element based COMSOL software. - Highlights: • A mathematical model is developed to describe the trajectories of magnetic nanoparticles. • The dominant magnetic, drag and buoyancy forces are considered. • All particles are captured when distance between blood vessel and magnet (d) is up to 4.5 cm. • Further increase in d value (above 4.5 cm) results the free movement of magnetic particles

  4. Detection of Blood Vessels in Color Fundus Images using a Local Radon Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Pourreza

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This paper addresses a method for automatic detection of blood vessels in color fundus images which utilizes two main tools: image partitioning and local Radon transform. Material and Methods: The input images are firstly divided into overlapping windows and then the Radon transform is applied to each. The maximum of the Radon transform in each window corresponds to the probable available sub-vessel. To verify the detected sub-vessel, the maximum is compared with a predefined threshold. The verified sub-vessels are reconstructed using the Radon transform information. All detected and reconstructed sub-vessels are finally combined to make the final vessel tree. Results: The algorithm’s performance was evaluated numerically by applying it to 40 images of DRIVE database, a standard retinal image database. The vessels were extracted manually by two physicians. This database was used to test and compare the available and proposed algorithms for vessel detection in color fundus images. By comparing the output of the algorithm with the manual results, the two parameters TPR and FPR were calculated for each image and the average of TPRs and FPRs were used to plot the ROC curve. Discussion and Conclusion: Comparison of the ROC curve of this algorithm with other algorithms demonstrated the high achieved accuracy. Beside the high accuracy, the Radon transform which is integral-based makes the algorithm robust against noise.

  5. Automated artery-venous classification of retinal blood vessels based on structural mapping method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Vinayak S.; Garvin, Mona K.; Reinhardt, Joseph M.; Abramoff, Michael D.

    2012-03-01

    Retinal blood vessels show morphologic modifications in response to various retinopathies. However, the specific responses exhibited by arteries and veins may provide a precise diagnostic information, i.e., a diabetic retinopathy may be detected more accurately with the venous dilatation instead of average vessel dilatation. In order to analyze the vessel type specific morphologic modifications, the classification of a vessel network into arteries and veins is required. We previously described a method for identification and separation of retinal vessel trees; i.e. structural mapping. Therefore, we propose the artery-venous classification based on structural mapping and identification of color properties prominent to the vessel types. The mean and standard deviation of each of green channel intensity and hue channel intensity are analyzed in a region of interest around each centerline pixel of a vessel. Using the vector of color properties extracted from each centerline pixel, it is classified into one of the two clusters (artery and vein), obtained by the fuzzy-C-means clustering. According to the proportion of clustered centerline pixels in a particular vessel, and utilizing the artery-venous crossing property of retinal vessels, each vessel is assigned a label of an artery or a vein. The classification results are compared with the manually annotated ground truth (gold standard). We applied the proposed method to a dataset of 15 retinal color fundus images resulting in an accuracy of 88.28% correctly classified vessel pixels. The automated classification results match well with the gold standard suggesting its potential in artery-venous classification and the respective morphology analysis.

  6. Computed aided system for separation and classification of the abnormal erythrocytes in human blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wąsowicz, Michał; Grochowski, Michał; Kulka, Marek; Mikołajczyk, Agnieszka; Ficek, Mateusz; Karpieńko, Katarzyna; Cićkiewicz, Maciej

    2017-12-01

    The human peripheral blood consists of cells (red cells, white cells, and platelets) suspended in plasma. In the following research the team assessed an influence of nanodiamond particles on blood elements over various periods of time. The material used in the study consisted of samples taken from ten healthy humans of various age, different blood types and both sexes. The markings were leaded by adding to the blood unmodified diamonds and oxidation modified. The blood was put under an impact of two diamond concentrations: 20μl and 100μl. The amount of abnormal cells increased with time. The percentage of echinocytes as a result of interaction with nanodiamonds in various time intervals for individual specimens was scarce. The impact of the two diamond types had no clinical importance on red blood cells. It is supposed that as a result of longlasting exposure a dehydratation of red cells takes place, because of the function of the cells. The analysis of an influence of nanodiamond particles on blood elements was supported by computer system designed for automatic counting and classification of the Red Blood Cells (RBC). The system utilizes advanced image processing methods for RBCs separation and counting and Eigenfaces method coupled with the neural networks for RBCs classification into normal and abnormal cells purposes.

  7. Mouse lung contains endothelial progenitors with high capacity to form blood and lymphatic vessels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barleon Bernhard

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Postnatal endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs have been successfully isolated from whole bone marrow, blood and the walls of conduit vessels. They can, therefore, be classified into circulating and resident progenitor cells. The differentiation capacity of resident lung endothelial progenitor cells from mouse has not been evaluated. Results In an attempt to isolate differentiated mature endothelial cells from mouse lung we found that the lung contains EPCs with a high vasculogenic capacity and capability of de novo vasculogenesis for blood and lymph vessels. Mouse lung microvascular endothelial cells (MLMVECs were isolated by selection of CD31+ cells. Whereas the majority of the CD31+ cells did not divide, some scattered cells started to proliferate giving rise to large colonies (> 3000 cells/colony. These highly dividing cells possess the capacity to integrate into various types of vessels including blood and lymph vessels unveiling the existence of local microvascular endothelial progenitor cells (LMEPCs in adult mouse lung. EPCs could be amplified > passage 30 and still expressed panendothelial markers as well as the progenitor cell antigens, but not antigens for immune cells and hematopoietic stem cells. A high percentage of these cells are also positive for Lyve1, Prox1, podoplanin and VEGFR-3 indicating that a considerabe fraction of the cells are committed to develop lymphatic endothelium. Clonogenic highly proliferating cells from limiting dilution assays were also bipotent. Combined in vitro and in vivo spheroid and matrigel assays revealed that these EPCs exhibit vasculogenic capacity by forming functional blood and lymph vessels. Conclusion The lung contains large numbers of EPCs that display commitment for both types of vessels, suggesting that lung blood and lymphatic endothelial cells are derived from a single progenitor cell.

  8. Polysaccharides from astragali radix restore chemical-induced blood vessel loss in zebrafish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Astragali Radix has been used widely for the treatment of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, and to enhance endurance and stamina in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) for over 2000 years. The polysaccharide constituents of Astragali Radix (ARP) are considered as one of the major constituents contributing to the multiple pharmacological effects of this medicinal plant. The purpose of the study is to evaluate the vascular regenerative activities of ARPs in a chemically-induced blood vessel loss model in zebrafish. Methods Blood vessel loss was induced in both Tg(fli-1a:EGFP)y1 and Tg(fli-1a:nEGFP)y7 embryos by administration of 300 nM VEGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor II (VRI) for 3 h at 24 hpf (hour post-fertilization). Then, the blood vessel damaged zebrafish were treated with ARPs for 21 h and 45 h after VRI withdrawal. Morphological changes in intersegmental vessels (ISVs) of zebrafish larvae were observed under the fluorescence microscope and measured quantitatively. The rescue effect of ARPs in the zebrafish models was validated by measuring the relative mRNA expressions of Kdrl, Kdr and Flt-1 using real-time PCR. Results Two polysaccharide fractions, P4 (50000 D 0.1 μm), isolated from Astragali Radix by ultrafiltration, produced a significant and dose-dependent recovery in VRI-induced blood vessel loss in zebrafish. Furthermore, the down-regulation of Flk-1 and Flt-1 mRNA expression induced by VRI was reversed by treatment with P4. Conclusion The present study demonstrates that P4 isolated from Astragali Radix reduces VRI-induced blood vessel loss in zebrafish. These findings support the hypothesis that polysaccharides are one of the active constituents in Astragali Radix, contributing to its beneficial effect on treatment of diseases associated with a deficiency in angiogenesis. PMID:22357377

  9. Feasibility of Using the Marginal Blood Vessels as Reference Landmarks for CT Colonography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Zhuoshi; Yao, Jianhua; Wang, Shijun; Liu, Jiamin; Dwyer, Andrew J.; Pickhardt, Perry J.; Nowinski, Wieslaw L.; Summers, Ronald M.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to show the spatial relationship of the colonic marginal blood vessels and the teniae coli on CT colonography (CTC) and the use of the marginal blood vessels for supine-prone registration of polyps and for determination of proper connectivity of collapsed colonic segments. MATERIALS AND METHODS We manually labeled the marginal blood vessels on 15 CTC examinations. Colon segmentation, centerline extraction, teniae detection, and teniae identification were automatically performed. For assessment of their spatial relationships, the distances from the marginal blood vessels to the three teniae coli and to the colon were measured. Student t tests (paired, two-tailed) were performed to evaluate the differences among these distances. To evaluate the reliability of the marginal vessels as reference points for polyp correlation, we analyzed 20 polyps from 20 additional patients who underwent supine and prone CTC. The average difference of the circumferential polyp position on the supine and prone scans was computed. Student t tests (paired, two-tailed) were performed to evaluate the supine-prone differences of the distance. We performed a study on 10 CTC studies from 10 patients with collapsed colonic segments by manually tracing the marginal blood vessels near the collapsed regions to resolve the ambiguity of the colon path. RESULTS The average distances (± SD) from the marginal blood vessels to the tenia mesocolica, tenia omentalis, and tenia libera were 20.1 ± 3.1 mm (95% CI, 18.5–21.6 mm), 39.5 ± 4.8 mm (37.1–42.0 mm), and 36.9 ± 4.2 mm (34.8–39.1 mm), respectively. Pairwise comparison showed that these distances to the tenia libera and tenia omentalis were significantly different from the distance to the tenia mesocolica (p marginal blood vessels to the colon wall was 15.3 ± 2.0 mm (14.2–16.3 mm). For polyp localization, the average difference of the circumferential polyp position on the supine and prone scans was 9

  10. Mathematical Modeling of Bingham Plastic Model of Blood Flow Through Stenotic Vessel

    OpenAIRE

    S.R. Verma

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present paper is to study the axially symmetric, laminar, steady, one-dimensional flow of blood through narrow stenotic vessel. Blood is considered as Bingham plastic fluid. The analytical results such as pressure drop, resistance to flow and wall shear stress have been obtained. Effect of yield stress and shape of stenosis on resistance to flow and wall shear stress have been discussed through tables and graphically. It has been shown that resistance to flow and th...

  11. Simulative study on dose distribution of 103Pd stent in blood-vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Shuyu; Dai Guangfu; Xu Zhiyong; Sun Fuyin; Xu Shuhe; Ma Fengwu

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the dose distribution of 103 Pd stent in the blood-vessel. Methods: Simulative study on dose distribution of endovascular 103 Pd stent was conducted with thermoluminescence dosimeter. The vessel wall was substituted by muscle equivalent material in this simulative study. Results: When radioactivity of the study 103 Pd stent was 9.8 MBq the absorbed dose from the stent surface by muscle equivalent material was 9.8 Gy at 17 d (the half-life period of 103 Pd). The radioactivity of 103 Pd stent surface rapidly attenuated over the radial distance. 80% of the radioactivity at the area that was radially 0.4 mm apart from the stent surface was absorbed by the simulative blood-vessel wall. Conclusion: Endovascular 103 Pd stent does not exert significant injury on the surrounding organs or tissues

  12. Wide-field absolute transverse blood flow velocity mapping in vessel centerline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Nanshou; Wang, Lei; Zhu, Bifeng; Guan, Caizhong; Wang, Mingyi; Han, Dingan; Tan, Haishu; Zeng, Yaguang

    2018-02-01

    We propose a wide-field absolute transverse blood flow velocity measurement method in vessel centerline based on absorption intensity fluctuation modulation effect. The difference between the light absorption capacities of red blood cells and background tissue under low-coherence illumination is utilized to realize the instantaneous and average wide-field optical angiography images. The absolute fuzzy connection algorithm is used for vessel centerline extraction from the average wide-field optical angiography. The absolute transverse velocity in the vessel centerline is then measured by a cross-correlation analysis according to instantaneous modulation depth signal. The proposed method promises to contribute to the treatment of diseases, such as those related to anemia or thrombosis.

  13. Photoacoustic imaging of blood vessels with a double-ring sensor featuring a narrow angular aperture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolkman, R.G.M.; Hondebrink, Erwin; Steenbergen, Wiendelt; van Leeuwen, Ton; de Mul, F.F.M.

    2004-01-01

    A photoacoustic double-ring sensor, featuring a narrow angular aperture, is developed for laser-induced photoacoustic imaging of blood vessels. An integrated optical fiber enables reflection-mode detection of ultrasonic waves. By using the cross-correlation between the signals detected by the two

  14. Mass Spectrometry and Antibody-Based Characterization of Blood Vessels from Brachylophosaurus canadensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleland, Timothy P; Schroeter, Elena R; Zamdborg, Leonid; Zheng, Wenxia; Lee, Ji Eun; Tran, John C; Bern, Marshall; Duncan, Michael B; Lebleu, Valerie S; Ahlf, Dorothy R; Thomas, Paul M; Kalluri, Raghu; Kelleher, Neil L; Schweitzer, Mary H

    2015-12-04

    Structures similar to blood vessels in location, morphology, flexibility, and transparency have been recovered after demineralization of multiple dinosaur cortical bone fragments from multiple specimens, some of which are as old as 80 Ma. These structures were hypothesized to be either endogenous to the bone (i.e., of vascular origin) or the result of biofilm colonizing the empty osteonal network after degradation of original organic components. Here, we test the hypothesis that these structures are endogenous and thus retain proteins in common with extant archosaur blood vessels that can be detected with high-resolution mass spectrometry and confirmed by immunofluorescence. Two lines of evidence support this hypothesis. First, peptide sequencing of Brachylophosaurus canadensis blood vessel extracts is consistent with peptides comprising extant archosaurian blood vessels and is not consistent with a bacterial, cellular slime mold, or fungal origin. Second, proteins identified by mass spectrometry can be localized to the tissues using antibodies specific to these proteins, validating their identity. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD001738.

  15. Bio-Adaption between Magnesium Alloy Stent and the Blood Vessel: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jun; Zhao, Nan; Betts, Lexxus; Zhu, Donghui

    2016-09-01

    Biodegradable magnesium (Mg) alloy stents are the most promising next generation of bio-absorbable stents. In this article, we summarized the progresses on the in vitro studies, animal testing and clinical trials of biodegradable Mg alloy stents in the past decades. These exciting findings led us to propose the importance of the concept "bio-adaption" between the Mg alloy stent and the local tissue microenvironment after implantation. The healing responses of stented blood vessel can be generally described in three overlapping phases: inflammation, granulation and remodeling. The ideal bio-adaption of the Mg alloy stent, once implanted into the blood vessel, needs to be a reasonable function of the time and the space/dimension. First, a very slow degeneration of mechanical support is expected in the initial four months in order to provide sufficient mechanical support to the injured vessels. Although it is still arguable whether full mechanical support in stented lesions is mandatory during the first four months after implantation, it would certainly be a safety design parameter and a benchmark for regulatory evaluations based on the fact that there is insufficient human in vivo data available, especially the vessel wall mechanical properties during the healing/remodeling phase. Second, once the Mg alloy stent being degraded, the void space will be filled by the regenerated blood vessel tissues. The degradation of the Mg alloy stent should be 100% completed with no residues, and the degradation products (e.g., ions and hydrogen) will be helpful for the tissue reconstruction of the blood vessel. Toward this target, some future research perspectives are also discussed.

  16. Bio-Adaption between Magnesium Alloy Stent and the Blood Vessel: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jun; Zhao, Nan; Betts, Lexxus; Zhu, Donghui

    2016-01-01

    Biodegradable magnesium (Mg) alloy stents are the most promising next generation of bio-absorbable stents. In this article, we summarized the progresses on the in vitro studies, animal testing and clinical trials of biodegradable Mg alloy stents in the past decades. These exciting findings led us to propose the importance of the concept “bio-adaption” between the Mg alloy stent and the local tissue microenvironment after implantation. The healing responses of stented blood vessel can be generally described in three overlapping phases: inflammation, granulation and remodeling. The ideal bio-adaption of the Mg alloy stent, once implanted into the blood vessel, needs to be a reasonable function of the time and the space/dimension. First, a very slow degeneration of mechanical support is expected in the initial four months in order to provide sufficient mechanical support to the injured vessels. Although it is still arguable whether full mechanical support in stented lesions is mandatory during the first four months after implantation, it would certainly be a safety design parameter and a benchmark for regulatory evaluations based on the fact that there is insufficient human in vivo data available, especially the vessel wall mechanical properties during the healing/remodeling phase. Second, once the Mg alloy stent being degraded, the void space will be filled by the regenerated blood vessel tissues. The degradation of the Mg alloy stent should be 100% completed with no residues, and the degradation products (e.g., ions and hydrogen) will be helpful for the tissue reconstruction of the blood vessel. Toward this target, some future research perspectives are also discussed. PMID:27698548

  17. Fetal blood vessel count increases in compensation of hypoxia in premature placentas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kartini

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Prematurity refers to live births before 37 weeks of gestation, wherein the baby is born before the body and its organ systems achieve perfect maturity, and this disorder is still a global problem. The high incidence of prematurity is a problem in developing and also in developed countries. Certain conditions accompanying pregnancies like preeclampsia, infection, and placental insufficiency, may trigger uterine hypoxia, causing premature birth. The placental condition is related to the intra-uterine fetal condition. In prolonged placental hypoxia, there occurs a compensatory mechanism, i.e. an increase in placental angiogenesis. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of hypoxia on fetal blood vessel count as compensatory mechanism for tissue hypoxia. Methods An observational-analytical cross-sectional design using paraffin blocks of conserved premature placentas, comprising 31 samples of hypoxic premature placentas and 28 samples of non-hypoxic premature placentas, selected using non-random consecutive sampling. The samples were made into slides and stained with hematoxylin-eosin for assessment of histological structure, including fetal blood vessel count and integrity, villus conditions, syncytiotrophoblastic nuclear changes, and syncytiotrophoblastic nuclear aggregation. Mann-Whitney test was used to compare the difference of blood vessel count between groups. Results Assessment of histological structure showed a significant increase in fetal blood vessel count in the hypoxic group [8.00 (5-15] as compared with the non-hypoxic group [7.50 (3-15]. Conclusion The hypoxia in premature placentas caused an increase in the number of fetal blood vessels as a form of compensation for disturbed oxygen homeostasis.

  18. Fetal blood vessel count increases in compensation of hypoxia in premature placentas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Kartini

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Prematurity refers to live births before 37 weeks of gestation, wherein the baby is born before the body and its organ systems achieve perfect maturity, and this disorder is still a global problem. The high incidence of prematurity is a problem in developing and also in developed countries. Certain conditions accompanying pregnancies like preeclampsia, infection, and placental insufficiency, may trigger uterine hypoxia, causing premature birth. The placental condition is related to the intra-uterine fetal condition. In prolonged placental hypoxia, there occurs a compensatory mechanism, i.e. an increase in placental angiogenesis. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of hypoxia on fetal blood vessel count as compensatory mechanism for tissue hypoxia. METHODS An observational-analytical cross-sectional design using paraffin blocks of conserved premature placentas, comprising 31 samples of hypoxic premature placentas and 28 samples of non-hypoxic premature placentas, selected using non-random consecutive sampling. The samples were made into slides and stained with hematoxylin-eosin for assessment of histological structure, including fetal blood vessel count and integrity, villus conditions, syncytiotrophoblastic nuclear changes, and syncytiotrophoblastic nuclear aggregation. Mann-Whitney test was used to compare the difference of blood vessel count between groups. RESULTS Assessment of histological structure showed a significant increase in fetal blood vessel count in the hypoxic group [8.00 (5-15] as compared with the non-hypoxic group [7.50 (3-15]. CONCLUSION The hypoxia in premature placentas caused an increase in the number of fetal blood vessels as a form of compensation for disturbed oxygen homeostasis.

  19. Hybrid PIV-PTV technique for measuring blood flow in rat mesenteric vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Hojin; Nam, Kweon-Ho; Lee, Sang Joon

    2012-11-01

    The micro-particle tracking velocimetry (μ-PTV) technique is used to obtain the velocity fields of blood flow in the microvasculature under in vivo conditions because it can provide the blood velocity distribution in microvessels with high spatial resolution. The in vivo μ-PTV technique usually requires a few to tens of seconds to obtain a whole velocity profile across the vessel diameter because of the limited number density of tracer particles under in vivo conditions. Thus, the μ-PTV technique alone is limited in measuring unsteady blood flows that fluctuate irregularly due to the heart beating and muscle movement in surrounding tissues. In this study, a new hybrid PIV-PTV technique was established by combining PTV and particle image velocimetry (PIV) techniques to resolve the drawbacks of the μ-PTV method in measuring blood flow in microvessels under in vivo conditions. Images of red blood cells (RBCs) and fluorescent particles in rat mesenteric vessels were obtained simultaneously. Temporal variations of the centerline blood velocity were monitored using a fast Fourier transform-based cross-correlation PIV method. The fluorescence particle images were analyzed using the μ-PTV technique to extract the spatial distribution of the velocity vectors. Data from the μ-PTV and PIV methods were combined to obtain a better estimate of the velocity profile in actual blood flow. This technique will be useful in investigating hemodynamics in microcirculation by measuring unsteady irregular blood flows more accurately. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Development of glia and blood vessels in the internal capsule of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earle, K L; Mitrofanis, J

    1998-02-01

    We have explored two aspects of internal capsule development that have not been described previously, namely, the development of glia and of blood vessels. To these ends, we used antibodies to glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and to vimentin (to identify astrocytes and to radial glia) and Griffonia simplicifolia (lectin; to identify microglia and blood vessels). Further, we made intracardiac injections of Evans Blue to examine the permeability of this dye in the vessels of the internal capsule during neonatal development. Our results show that large numbers of radial glia, astrocytes and microglia are not labelled with these markers in the white matter of the internal capsule until about birth; very few are labelled earlier, during the critical stages of corticofugal and corticopetal axonal ingrowth (E15-E20). The large glial labelling in the internal capsule at birth is accompanied by a dense vascular innervation of the capsule; as with the glia, very few labelled patent vessels are seen earlier. After intracardiac injections of Evans Blue, we find that the blood vessels of the internal capsule are not particularly permeable to Evans Blue. At each age examined (P0, P5, P15), blood vessels are outlined very clearly and there is no diffuse haze of fluorescence within the extracellular space, which is indicative of a leaky vessel. There are three striking differences between the glial environment of the internal capsule and that of the adjacent thalamus. First, the internal capsule is never rich with radial glial fibres (vimentin- and GFAP-immunoreactive) during development (except at P0), whereas the thalamus has many radial fibres from very early development (E15-E17). Second, astrocytes (vimentin- and GFAP-immunoreactive) first become apparent in the internal capsule (E20-P0) well before they do in the thalamus (P15). Third, the internal capsule houses a large transient population of amoeboid microglia (P0-P22), whereas the thalamus does not; only ramified

  1. CT appearance of the duodenum and mesenteric vessels in children with normal and abnormal bowel rotation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, George A. [Harvard Medical School and Children' s Hospital Boston, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States)

    2011-11-15

    Demonstration of the third duodenal segment (D3) in retroperitoneal location has been recently proposed as a method for excluding malrotation. This study was performed to determine whether a retroperitoneal third duodenal segment can reliably exclude malrotation. CTs of 38 patients with proven malrotation and 100 patients without malrotation were evaluated for the location of the duodenum/proximal small bowel, and the relationship of the superior mesenteric vein (SMV) to superior mesenteric artery (SMA). The D3 segment was in normal retroperitoneal location in 100% of control patients, compared to 2.5% or (1 of 38) of patients with malrotation. Nine of 11 patients (91%) with malrotation imaged prior to surgery had the proximal bowel in an abnormal location, while all 100 control patients had it in a normal location. The SMV was in normal relationship to the SMA in 11/38 patients (29%) with malrotation, compared to 79% of normal controls. In 10 controls, a branch of the SMV was partially wrapped around the SMA, potentially mimicking partial mesenteric volvulus. A retroperitoneal location of the D3 segment makes the diagnosis of malrotation unlikely but not impossible. Additional imaging of the duodenojejunal junction or cecum may be necessary to reliably exclude intestinal malrotation. (orig.)

  2. CT appearance of the duodenum and mesenteric vessels in children with normal and abnormal bowel rotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, George A.

    2011-01-01

    Demonstration of the third duodenal segment (D3) in retroperitoneal location has been recently proposed as a method for excluding malrotation. This study was performed to determine whether a retroperitoneal third duodenal segment can reliably exclude malrotation. CTs of 38 patients with proven malrotation and 100 patients without malrotation were evaluated for the location of the duodenum/proximal small bowel, and the relationship of the superior mesenteric vein (SMV) to superior mesenteric artery (SMA). The D3 segment was in normal retroperitoneal location in 100% of control patients, compared to 2.5% or (1 of 38) of patients with malrotation. Nine of 11 patients (91%) with malrotation imaged prior to surgery had the proximal bowel in an abnormal location, while all 100 control patients had it in a normal location. The SMV was in normal relationship to the SMA in 11/38 patients (29%) with malrotation, compared to 79% of normal controls. In 10 controls, a branch of the SMV was partially wrapped around the SMA, potentially mimicking partial mesenteric volvulus. A retroperitoneal location of the D3 segment makes the diagnosis of malrotation unlikely but not impossible. Additional imaging of the duodenojejunal junction or cecum may be necessary to reliably exclude intestinal malrotation. (orig.)

  3. Tissue Engineering of Blood Vessels: Functional Requirements, Progress, and Future Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vivek A; Brewster, Luke P; Caves, Jeffrey M; Chaikof, Elliot L

    2011-09-01

    Vascular disease results in the decreased utility and decreased availability of autologus vascular tissue for small diameter (requires combined approaches from biomaterials science, cell biology, and translational medicine to develop feasible solutions with the requisite mechanical support, a non-fouling surface for blood flow, and tissue regeneration. Over the past two decades interest in blood vessel tissue engineering has soared on a global scale, resulting in the first clinical implants of multiple technologies, steady progress with several other systems, and critical lessons-learned. This review will highlight the current inadequacies of autologus and synthetic grafts, the engineering requirements for implantation of tissue-engineered grafts, and the current status of tissue-engineered blood vessel research.

  4. Retinal hemodynamic oxygen reactivity assessed by perfusion velocity, blood oximetry and vessel diameter measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klefter, Oliver Niels; Lauritsen, Anne Øberg; Larsen, Michael

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: To test the oxygen reactivity of a fundus photographic method of measuring macular perfusion velocity and to integrate macular perfusion velocities with measurements of retinal vessel diameters and blood oxygen saturation. METHODS: Sixteen eyes in 16 healthy volunteers were studied at two...... is a valid method for assessing macular perfusion. Results were consistent with previous observations of hyperoxic blood flow reduction using blue field entoptic and laser Doppler velocimetry. Retinal perfusion seemed to be regulated around individual set points according to blood glucose levels. Multimodal...

  5. Optics based signal processing methods for intraoperative blood vessel detection and quantification in real time (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, Amal; Shukair, Shetha A.; Le Rolland, Paul; Vijayvergia, Mayank; Subramanian, Hariharan; Gunn, Jonathan W.

    2016-03-01

    Minimally invasive operations require surgeons to make difficult cuts to blood vessels and other tissues with impaired tactile and visual feedback. This leads to inadvertent cuts to blood vessels hidden beneath tissue, causing serious health risks to patients and a non-reimbursable financial burden to hospitals. Intraoperative imaging technologies have been developed, but these expensive systems can be cumbersome and provide only a high-level view of blood vessel networks. In this research, we propose a lean reflectance-based system, comprised of a dual wavelength LED, photodiode, and novel signal processing algorithms for rapid vessel characterization. Since this system takes advantage of the inherent pulsatile light absorption characteristics of blood vessels, no contrast agent is required for its ability to detect the presence of a blood vessel buried deep inside any tissue type (up to a cm) in real time. Once a vessel is detected, the system is able to estimate the distance of the vessel from the probe and the diameter size of the vessel (with a resolution of ~2mm), as well as delineate the type of tissue surrounding the vessel. The system is low-cost, functions in real-time, and could be mounted on already existing surgical tools, such as Kittner dissectors or laparoscopic suction irrigation cannulae. Having been successfully validated ex vivo, this technology will next be tested in a live porcine study and eventually in clinical trials.

  6. Right-sided phase abnormalities on gated blood pool ventriculography: Demonstration of six different patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahar, R.H.; Abdel-Dayem, H.M.; Ziada, G.; Al-Suhali, A.; Constantinides, C.; Nair, K.M.

    1986-01-01

    Phase pattern abnormalities on multiple gated blood pool ventriculography are better reported for the left ventricle (LV) than for the right side of the heart. In a study of 92 patients who also underwent contrast ventriculography, the authors identified six different patterns of right-sided phase abnormalities and their causes: right bundle-branch block, causing delayed phase in the entire right ventricle (RV); ischemic right coronary artery disease, causing delayed phase in the inferior RV wall; pericardial effusion, causing an L-shaped area of delayed phase to the right of the septum and below the LV; pulmonary hypertension, causing delayed phase in the pulmonary infundibulum; tricuspid regurgitation, causing a crescentic area of delayed phase around and below the right RV and extending below the LV as well, and atrial septal defect causing an abnormally large auricular phase

  7. A thresholding based technique to extract retinal blood vessels from fundus images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyotiprava Dash

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Retinal imaging has become the significant tool among all the medical imaging technology, due to its capability to extract many data which is linked to various eye diseases. So, the accurate extraction of blood vessel is necessary that helps the eye care specialists and ophthalmologist to identify the diseases at the early stages. In this paper, we have proposed a computerized technique for extraction of blood vessels from fundus images. The process is conducted in three phases: (i pre-processing where the image is enhanced using contrast limited adaptive histogram equalization and median filter, (ii segmentation using mean-C thresholding to extract retinal blood vessels, (iii post-processing where morphological cleaning operation is used to remove isolated pixels. The performance of the proposed method is tested on and experimental results show that our method achieve an accuracies of 0.955 and 0.954 on Digital retinal images for vessel extraction (DRIVE and Child heart and health study in England (CHASE_DB1 databases respectively.

  8. Vascular patterns in the heads of crocodilians: blood vessels and sites of thermal exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, William Ruger; Sedlmayr, Jayc C; Witmer, Lawrence M

    2016-12-01

    Extant crocodilians are a highly apomorphic archosaur clade that is ectothermic, yet often achieve large body sizes that can be subject to higher heat loads. Therefore, the anatomical and physiological roles that blood vessels play in crocodilian thermoregulation need further investigation to better understand how crocodilians establish and maintain cephalic temperatures and regulate neurosensory tissue temperatures during basking and normal activities. The cephalic vascular anatomy of extant crocodilians, particularly American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) was investigated using a differential-contrast, dual-vascular injection technique and high resolution X-ray micro-computed tomography (μCT). Blood vessels were digitally isolated to create representations of vascular pathways. The specimens were then dissected to confirm CT results. Sites of thermal exchange, consisting of the oral, nasal, and orbital regions, were given special attention due to their role in evaporative cooling and cephalic thermoregulation in other diapsids. Blood vessels to and from sites of thermal exchange were studied to detect conserved vascular patterns and to assess their ability to deliver cooled blood to neurosensory tissues. Within the orbital region, both the arteries and veins demonstrated consistent branching patterns, with the supraorbital, infraorbital, and ophthalmotemporal vessels supplying and draining the orbit. The venous drainage of the orbital region showed connections to the dural sinuses via the orbital veins and cavernous sinus. The palatal region demonstrated a vast plexus that comprised both arteries and veins. The most direct route of venous drainage of the palatal plexus was through the palatomaxillary veins, essentially bypassing neurosensory tissues. Anastomotic connections with the nasal region, however, may provide an alternative route for palatal venous blood to reach neurosensory tissues. The nasal region in crocodilians is probably the most

  9. Towards cavitation-enhanced permeability in blood vessel on a chip

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luca, R.; Silvani, G.; Scognamiglio, C.; Sinibaldi, G.; Peruzzi, G.; Chinappi, M.; Kiani, M. F.; Casciola, C. M.

    2017-08-01

    The development of targeted delivery systems releasing pharmaceutical agents directly at the desired site of action may improve their therapeutic efficiency while minimizing damage to healthy tissues, toxicity to the patient and drug waste. In this context, we have developed a bio-inspired microdevice mimicking the tumour microvasculature which represents a valuable tool for assessing the enhancement of blood vessel permeability due to cavitation. This novel system allows us to investigate the effects of ultrasound-driven microbubbles that temporarily open the endothelial intercellular junctions allowing drug to extravasate blood vessels into tumour tissues. The blood vessel on a chip consists of a tissue chamber and two independent vascular channels (width 200 µm, height 100 µm, length 2762 µm) cultured with endothelial cells placed side-by-side and separated by a series of 3 µm pores. Its geometry and dimensions mimic the three-dimensional morphology, size and flow characteristics of microvessels in vivo. The early stage of this project had a twofold objective: 1. To define the protocol for culturing of Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells (HUVECs) within the vascular channel; 2. To develop a fluorescence based microscopy technique for measuring permeability. We have developed a reliable and reproducible protocol to culture endothelial cells within the artificial vessels in a realistic manner: HUVECs show the typical elongated shape in the direction of flow, exhibit tight junction formation and form a continuous layer with a central lumen that completely covers the channels wall. As expected, the permeability of cell-free device is higher than the one cultured with HUVECs in the vascular channels. The proposed blood vessel on a chip and the permeability measurement protocol have a significant potential to allow for the study of cavitation-enhanced permeability of the endothelium and improve efficiency in screening drug delivery systems.

  10. Data on copper level in the blood of patients with normal and abnormal angiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Amiri

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this data article, we measured the levels of copper in the blood of patients undergoing coronary angiography. The samples were taken from patients with cardiovascular disease in Bushehr׳s university hospital, Iran. Patients were divided in two groups: normal angiography and abnormal angiography. After the chemical digestion of samples, the concentration levels of Cu in both groups were determined by using inductively coupled plasma optical spectrometry (ICP-OES.

  11. Direct bolus imaging of cervical blood vessels by means of MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satoh, Toshihiko; Fujioka, Mutsuhisa; Watari, Tsutomu; Nishimura, Gen; Matsumoto, Toshihiko; Washiya, Sumio; Inoue, Kiyoshi; Horita, Masatoshi; Shimizu, Kohji.

    1991-01-01

    Direct bolus imaging (DBI) is one of the non-invasive method for flow measurements which is based on the bolus tracking technique. DBI permits the direct visualization of flow velocity profiles and vessel band width. We performed screening for cervical vessel disease in patients with vertigo by means of DBI. MR system used here was 0.5 T superconducting imager-SMT-50A (Shimazu Co. Ltd). Pulse sequence parameters were TR= 60 ms, TE= 50 ms, NEX= 1, acquisition matrix; 128 x 256, slice thickness= 5 mm, with cardiac gating. Pulse sequence employed a slice selective RF pulse at the level of C5 vertebral body to tag a disk of fluid perpendicular to the direction of flow, followed by a gradient reforcussed echo. We evaluated each peak high and band width of the common-carotid arteries and the vertebral arteries. Seventy nine of 83 cases had optimal examinations. Abnormal findings of DBI were seen in 15 of 79 cases, (including 2 of subclavian steal syndrome, 1 of carotid obstruction, 5 of vertebral obstruction, 1 of basilar artery obstruction, and 6 of hypoplasia of vertebral artery). The abnormal findings of DBI were well correlated with those of angiographic examinations. We concluded that DBI was suitable to the screening for cervical vessel diseases in patients with vertigo, and should be added to the routine MR studies. (author)

  12. In vivo measurement of hemodynamic information in stenosed rat blood vessels using X-ray PIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hanwook; Park, Jun Hong; Lee, Sang Joon

    2016-11-28

    Measurements of the hemodynamic information of blood flows, especially wall shear stress (WSS), in animal models with circulatory vascular diseases (CVDs) are important to understand the pathological mechanism of CVDs. In this study, X-ray particle image velocimetry (PIV) with high spatial resolution was applied to obtain velocity field information in stenosed blood vessels with high WSS. 3D clips fabricated with a 3D printer were applied to the abdominal aorta of a rat cadaver to induce artificial stenosis in the real blood vessel of an animal model. The velocity and WSS information of blood flows in the stenosed vessel were obtained and compared at various stenosis severities. In vivo measurement was also conducted by fastening a stenotic clip on a live rat model through surgical intervention to reduce the flow rate to match the limited temporal resolution of the present X-ray PIV system. Further improvement of the temporal resolution of the system might be able to provide in vivo measurements of hemodynamic information from animal disease models under physiological conditions. The present results would be helpful for understanding the relation between hemodynamic characteristics and the pathological mechanism in animal CVD models.

  13. Bone Marrow Blood Vessel Ossification and “Microvascular Dead Space” in Rat and Human Long Bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prisby, Rhonda D.

    2014-01-01

    Severe calcification of the bone microvascular network was observed in rats, whereby the bone marrow blood vessels appeared ossified. This study sought to characterize the magnitude of ossification in relation to patent blood vessels and adipocyte content in femoral diaphyses. Additionally, this study confirmed the presence of ossified vessels in patients with arteriosclerotic vascular disease and peripheral vascular disease and cellulitis. Young (4–6 mon; n=8) and old (22–24 mon; n=8) male Fischer-344 rats were perfused with barium sulfate to visualize patent bone marrow blood vessels. Femoral shafts were processed for bone histomorphometry to quantify ossified (Goldner’s Trichrome) and calcified (Alizarin Red) vessels. Adipocyte content was also determined. Additional femora (n=5/age group) were scanned via µCT to quantify microvascular ossification. Bone marrow blood vessels from rats and the human patients were also isolated and examined via microscopy. Ossified vessels (rats and humans) had osteocyte lacunae on the vessel surfaces and “normal” vessels were transitioning into bone. The volume of ossified vessels was 4800% higher (p necrosis. The progression of bone microvascular ossification may provide the common link associated with age-related changes in bone and bone marrow. The clinical implications may be evident in the difficulties treating bone disease in the elderly. PMID:24680721

  14. Proof of concept in cardiovascular risk: the paradoxical findings in blood pressure and lipid abnormalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuchs FD

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Flavio Danni Fuchs, Sandra Costa Fuchs, Leila Beltrami Moreira, Miguel GusDivision of Cardiology and Postgraduate Studies Program in Cardiology, Hospital de Clinicas de Porto Alegre, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, BrazilAbstract: High blood pressure and lipoprotein abnormalities were identified by many cohort studies as the major risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Laboratory experiments apparently confirmed their role in the causation of atherosclerosis, but a proof of concept requires the corroboration by clinical trials in human beings. The size of benefit in clinical trials regarding the control of high blood pressure was within the estimations of risk provided by cohort studies. For a reduction of 10 mmHg in systolic blood pressure or 5 mmHg in diastolic blood pressure, the relative risk reduction of coronary heart disease was 22% (95% confidence interval 27%–17% in a meta-analysis of clinical trials, close to the estimation of reduction of 25% (95% confidence interval 23%–27% provided by a meta-analysis of cohort studies. The corresponding values for stroke were 41% (95% confidence interval 33%–48% in clinical trials compared to a cohort risk prediction of 36% (95% confidence interval 34%–38%. This efficacy was shared by all blood pressure-lowering drugs. The same figure has not paradoxically happened with drugs that act over abnormalities of cholesterol and lipoproteins. Only statins, which have other beneficial actions as well, have consistently lowered the incidence of cardiovascular diseases, an efficacy that was not reproduced by older and newer quite potent lipid drugs. The adverse effects of these drugs may nullify their beneficial effects over lipoproteins and abnormalities of lipoproteins may only be surrogate markers of the underlying real risks.Keywords: proof of concept, hypertension, lipoproteins, clinical trials

  15. Effects of X-irradiation on artificial blood vessel wall degradation by invasive tumor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heisel, M.A.; Laug, W.E.; Stowe, S.M.; Jones, P.A.

    1984-01-01

    Artificial vessel wall cultures, constructed by growing arterial endothelial cells on preformed layers of rat smooth muscle cells, were used to evaluate the effects of X-irradiation on tumor cell-induced tissue degradation. Bovine endothelial cells had radiation sensitivities similar to those of rat smooth muscle cells. Preirradiation of smooth muscle cells, before the addition of human fibrosarcoma (HT 1080) cells, did not increase the rate of degradation and destruction by the invasive cells. However, the degradation rate was decreased if the cultures were irradiated after the addition of HT 1080 cells. The presence of bovine endothelial cells markedly inhibited the destructive abilities of fibrosarcoma cells, but preirradiation of artificial vessel walls substantially decreased their capabilities to resist HT 1080-induced lysis. These findings suggest that the abilities of blood vessels to limit extravasation may be compromised by ionizing radiation

  16. [Topography of the blood vessels in the hilum of the kidney of Myrmecophaga tridactyla].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, W M; Miglino, M A; Arantes, I G; Nascimento, A A

    1991-01-01

    The study was undertaken in 10 formol-imbibed kidneys of great anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla). After the dissection the following characteristics were showed: kidney blood vessels are distributed in 2 different sites, namely hilar and extrahilar, amounting 3 to 6 in the right side 3 to 7 in the left side. Arterial branches in extrahilar region range from 1 to 2 in both sides and in hilar region they present from 1 to 4 in the right and 1 to 2 in the left. Venous roots occur in 1 to 2 vessels in the right and 1 to 3 vessels in the left, occupying only the hilar region, except one case where it was present in the right side.

  17. Vascular Patterns in Iguanas and Other Squamates: Blood Vessels and Sites of Thermal Exchange.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Ruger Porter

    Full Text Available Squamates use the circulatory system to regulate body and head temperatures during both heating and cooling. The flexibility of this system, which possibly exceeds that of endotherms, offers a number of physiological mechanisms to gain or retain heat (e.g., increase peripheral blood flow and heart rate, cooling the head to prolong basking time for the body as well as to shed heat (modulate peripheral blood flow, expose sites of thermal exchange. Squamates also have the ability to establish and maintain the same head-to-body temperature differential that birds, crocodilians, and mammals demonstrate, but without a discrete rete or other vascular physiological device. Squamates offer important anatomical and phylogenetic evidence for the inference of the blood vessels of dinosaurs and other extinct archosaurs in that they shed light on the basal diapsid condition. Given this basal positioning, squamates likewise inform and constrain the range of physiological thermoregulatory mechanisms that may have been found in Dinosauria. Unfortunately, the literature on squamate vascular anatomy is limited. Cephalic vascular anatomy of green iguanas (Iguana iguana was investigated using a differential-contrast, dual-vascular injection (DCDVI technique and high-resolution X-ray microcomputed tomography (μCT. Blood vessels were digitally segmented to create a surface representation of vascular pathways. Known sites of thermal exchange, consisting of the oral, nasal, and orbital regions, were given special attention due to their role in brain and cephalic thermoregulation. Blood vessels to and from sites of thermal exchange were investigated to detect conserved vascular patterns and to assess their ability to deliver cooled blood to the dural venous sinuses. Arteries within sites of thermal exchange were found to deliver blood directly and through collateral pathways. The venous drainage was found to have multiple pathways that could influence neurosensory

  18. Vascular Patterns in Iguanas and Other Squamates: Blood Vessels and Sites of Thermal Exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, William Ruger; Witmer, Lawrence M

    2015-01-01

    Squamates use the circulatory system to regulate body and head temperatures during both heating and cooling. The flexibility of this system, which possibly exceeds that of endotherms, offers a number of physiological mechanisms to gain or retain heat (e.g., increase peripheral blood flow and heart rate, cooling the head to prolong basking time for the body) as well as to shed heat (modulate peripheral blood flow, expose sites of thermal exchange). Squamates also have the ability to establish and maintain the same head-to-body temperature differential that birds, crocodilians, and mammals demonstrate, but without a discrete rete or other vascular physiological device. Squamates offer important anatomical and phylogenetic evidence for the inference of the blood vessels of dinosaurs and other extinct archosaurs in that they shed light on the basal diapsid condition. Given this basal positioning, squamates likewise inform and constrain the range of physiological thermoregulatory mechanisms that may have been found in Dinosauria. Unfortunately, the literature on squamate vascular anatomy is limited. Cephalic vascular anatomy of green iguanas (Iguana iguana) was investigated using a differential-contrast, dual-vascular injection (DCDVI) technique and high-resolution X-ray microcomputed tomography (μCT). Blood vessels were digitally segmented to create a surface representation of vascular pathways. Known sites of thermal exchange, consisting of the oral, nasal, and orbital regions, were given special attention due to their role in brain and cephalic thermoregulation. Blood vessels to and from sites of thermal exchange were investigated to detect conserved vascular patterns and to assess their ability to deliver cooled blood to the dural venous sinuses. Arteries within sites of thermal exchange were found to deliver blood directly and through collateral pathways. The venous drainage was found to have multiple pathways that could influence neurosensory tissue temperature

  19. Histomorphometric comparative study of blood vessels and their pattern in follicular cyst, odontogenic keratocyst, and ameloblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifi, Safora; Feizi, Farideh; Khafri, Thoraya; Aram, Mehrdad

    2013-03-01

    The present study aimed at assessment and histomorphometric analysis of intratumoral and peritumoral (cystic) blood vessels in odontogenic lesions and their pattern on their clinical behavior by immunohistochemistry and morphometry. In a descriptive and analytical cross-sectional study, 45 paraffin blocks of ameloblastoma, odontogenic keratocyst, and follicular cyst were selected and stained immunohistochemically for CD34. In each slide, images of 3 microscopic fields with the highest microvessel density in intratumoral and peritumoral (cystic) areas were captured at 40× magnification with attached camera system. Inner vascular diameter (IVD) and outer vascular diameter (OVD), cross-sectional area (CSA), and the wall thickness (WT) of the vessels were measured with Motic Plus 2 software. The vascular pattern in odontogenic lesions was analyzed. Outer vascular diameter, IVD, and CSA of the vessels in peritumoral (cystic) areas were greater in ameloblastoma than keratocyst (P = 0.001) and follicular cyst (P keratocyst and follicular cyst. Morphometric specifications of blood vessels (IVD, OVD, CSA) and their pattern in peritumoral (cystic) areas may influence the aggressive clinical behavior of ameloblastoma in comparison with keratocyst and follicular cyst.

  20. Tight junction between endothelial cells: the interaction between nanoparticles and blood vessels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Zhang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Since nanoparticles are now widely applied as food additives, in cosmetics and other industries, especially in medical therapy and diagnosis, we ask here whether nanoparticles can cause several adverse effects to human health. In this review, based on research on nanotoxicity, we mainly discuss the negative influence of nanoparticles on blood vessels in several aspects and the potential mechanism for nanoparticles to penetrate endothelial layers of blood vessels, which are the sites of phosphorylation of tight junction proteins (claudins, occludins, and ZO (Zonula occludens proteins, oxidative stress and shear stress. We propose a connection between the presence of nanoparticles and the regulation of the tight junction, which might be the key approach for nanoparticles to penetrate endothelial layers and then have an impact on other tissues and organs.

  1. A Strategy for Rapid Construction of Blood Vessel-Like Structures with Complex Cell Alignments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Nuoxin; Peng, Yunhu; Zheng, Wenfu; Tang, Lixue; Cheng, Shiyu; Yang, Junchuan; Liu, Shaoqin; Zhang, Wei; Jiang, Xingyu

    2018-04-17

    A method is developed that can rapidly produce blood vessel-like structures by bonding cell-laden electrospinning (ES) films layer by layer using fibrin glue within 90 min. This strategy allows control of cell type, cell orientation, and material composition in separate layers. Furthermore, ES films with thicker fibers (polylactic-co-glycolic acid, fiber diameter: ≈3.7 µm) are used as cell-seeding layers to facilitate the cell in-growth; those with thinner fibers (polylactic acid, fiber diameter: ≈1.8 µm) are used as outer reinforcing layers to improve the mechanical strength and reduce the liquid leakage of the scaffold. Cells grow, proliferate, and migrate well in the multilayered structure. This design aims at a new type of blood vessel substitute with flexible control of parameters and implementation of functions. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Segmentation of retinal blood vessels for detection of diabetic retinopathy: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rezty Amalia Aras

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic detinopathy (DR is effect of diabetes mellitus to the human vision that is the major cause of blindness. Early diagnosis of DR is an important requirement in diabetes treatment. Retinal fundus image is commonly used to observe the diabetic retinopathy symptoms. It can present retinal features such as blood vessel and also capture the pathologies which may lead to DR. Blood vessel is one of retinal features which can show the retina pathologies. It can be extracted from retinal image by image processing with following stages: pre-processing, segmentation, and post-processing. This paper contains a review of public retinal image dataset and several methods from various conducted researches. All discussed methods are applicable to each researcher cases. There is no further analysis to conclude the best method which can be used for general cases. However, we suggest morphological and multiscale method that gives the best accuracy in segmentation.

  3. An Automatic Cognitive Graph-Based Segmentation for Detection of Blood Vessels in Retinal Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasha Al Shehhi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a hierarchical graph-based segmentation for blood vessel detection in digital retinal images. This segmentation employs some of perceptual Gestalt principles: similarity, closure, continuity, and proximity to merge segments into coherent connected vessel-like patterns. The integration of Gestalt principles is based on object-based features (e.g., color and black top-hat (BTH morphology and context and graph-analysis algorithms (e.g., Dijkstra path. The segmentation framework consists of two main steps: preprocessing and multiscale graph-based segmentation. Preprocessing is to enhance lighting condition, due to low illumination contrast, and to construct necessary features to enhance vessel structure due to sensitivity of vessel patterns to multiscale/multiorientation structure. Graph-based segmentation is to decrease computational processing required for region of interest into most semantic objects. The segmentation was evaluated on three publicly available datasets. Experimental results show that preprocessing stage achieves better results compared to state-of-the-art enhancement methods. The performance of the proposed graph-based segmentation is found to be consistent and comparable to other existing methods, with improved capability of detecting small/thin vessels.

  4. Semiautomated segmentation of blood vessels using ellipse-overlap criteria: Method and comparison to manual editing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiffman, Smadar; Rubin, Geoffrey D.; Schraedley-Desmond, Pamela; Napel, Sandy

    2003-01-01

    Two-dimensional intensity-based methods for the segmentation of blood vessels from computed-tomography-angiography data often result in spurious segments that originate from other objects whose intensity distributions overlap with those of the vessels. When segmented images include spurious segments, additional methods are required to select segments that belong to the target vessels. We describe a method that allows experts to select vessel segments from sequences of segmented images with little effort. Our method uses ellipse-overlap criteria to differentiate between segments that belong to different objects and are separated in plane but are connected in the through-plane direction. To validate our method, we used it to extract vessel regions from volumes that were segmented via analysis of isolabel-contour maps, and showed that the difference between the results of our method and manually-edited results was within inter-expert variability. Although the total editing duration for our method, which included user-interaction and computer processing, exceeded that of manual editing, the extent of user interaction required for our method was about a fifth of that required for manual editing

  5. A SURVEY OF RETINA BASED DISEASE IDENTIFICATION USING BLOOD VESSEL SEGMENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Kuppusamy

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The colour retinal photography is one of the most essential features to identify the confirmation of various eye diseases. The iris is primary attribute to authenticate the human. This research work presents the survey and comparison of various blood vessel related feature identification, segmentation, extraction and enhancement methods. Additionally, this study is observed the various databases performance for storing the images and testing in minimal time. This paper is also provides the better performance techniques based on the survey.

  6. Effects of x rays on the morphology and physiology of the CNS blood vessels of mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gladysz, J [Akademia Medyczna, Poznan (Poland)

    1974-01-01

    Irradiation of the CNS of mice with 4000 to 7600 R produces transitional disorder of the permeability of vascular walls, followed by a permanent (irreversible) degenerative lesion of blood capillaries and the surrounding astrogial cells. Intensity of this alterations may however not be the same in different terminal blood vessels. It is very likely that the above described lesion appearing in the acute phase can be the main cause of further alterations in the CNS which are observed in late phase of postradiation disease.

  7. Modeling the Role of the Glymphatic Pathway and Cerebral Blood Vessel Properties in Alzheimer's Disease Pathogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Rose Kyrtsos

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease (AD is the most common cause of dementia in the elderly, affecting over 10% population over the age of 65 years. Clinically, AD is described by the symptom set of short term memory loss and cognitive decline, changes in mentation and behavior, and eventually long-term memory deficit as the disease progresses. On imaging studies, significant atrophy with subsequent increase in ventricular volume have been observed. Pathology on post-mortem brain specimens demonstrates the classic findings of increased beta amyloid (Aβ deposition and the presence of neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs within affected neurons. Neuroinflammation, dysregulation of blood-brain barrier transport and clearance, deposition of Aβ in cerebral blood vessels, vascular risk factors such as atherosclerosis and diabetes, and the presence of the apolipoprotein E4 allele have all been identified as playing possible roles in AD pathogenesis. Recent research has demonstrated the importance of the glymphatic system in the clearance of Aβ from the brain via the perivascular space surrounding cerebral blood vessels. Given the variety of hypotheses that have been proposed for AD pathogenesis, an interconnected, multilayer model offers a unique opportunity to combine these ideas into a single unifying model. Results of this model demonstrate the importance of vessel stiffness and heart rate in maintaining adequate clearance of Aβ from the brain.

  8. [Do double gloves protect against contamination during cannulation of blood vessels? A prospective randomized study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szarpak, Łukasz; Kurowski, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    Undamaged medical gloves protect medical personnel from contact with physiological fluids of the patient. Thus they protect the assistance provider from hand skin contamination with potentially infectious biological materials. The aim of the study was to evaluate the occurrence of pierce, perforations or damage of medical gloves during cannulation of blood vessels. In the prospective randomized study 303 pairs of gloves, used during cannulation of blood vessels under simulated resuscitation, were analyzed. Gloves were tested by the water leak test. The water test revealed 44 cases of damage to the gloves used during cannulation of blood vessels. Significant differences were noted in the frequency of damage to both the outer and single pairs of gloves and the inner pair of gloves. The study showed that the use of double gloves provides a higher level of security for a paramedic than the use of a single pair of gloves, however, double gloves reduce the manual dexterity of a paramedic. A large number of damages to gloves are not noticed by medical personnel during surgery.

  9. Acute effect of gamma-irradiation on blood vessels of the eye

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsushima, Hideno

    1977-01-01

    Radiation injuries to the eye were studied by examining the alteration of fine vasculature of irradiated rabbit eyes, by referring to the usual clinical findings, fundus photography, microangiography, and histological sections. These experiments were performed by using white rabbits whose eyes were locally irradiated with a single dose of 500, 1000, 2000, 3000, and 5000 R of 60 Co-γ-ray. The eyes were observed periodically for a period up to 10 weeks after irradiation, and the following results were obtained: 1) Radiation damage to the blood vessels was maximum around 6 weeks after irradiation for doses less than 2000 R, and the damage appeared to be reversible. 2) When given more than 3000 R irradiation, alteration of the blood vessels continued increasing for 10 weeks with no evidence of recovery. Experimental evidence from these studies supports the hypothesis that the degree of radiation injury of the eye depends highly on the damage to blood vessels serving each structure of the eye. (auth.)

  10. Modeling the Role of the Glymphatic Pathway and Cerebral Blood Vessel Properties in Alzheimer's Disease Pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyrtsos, Christina Rose; Baras, John S

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia in the elderly, affecting over 10% population over the age of 65 years. Clinically, AD is described by the symptom set of short term memory loss and cognitive decline, changes in mentation and behavior, and eventually long-term memory deficit as the disease progresses. On imaging studies, significant atrophy with subsequent increase in ventricular volume have been observed. Pathology on post-mortem brain specimens demonstrates the classic findings of increased beta amyloid (Aβ) deposition and the presence of neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) within affected neurons. Neuroinflammation, dysregulation of blood-brain barrier transport and clearance, deposition of Aβ in cerebral blood vessels, vascular risk factors such as atherosclerosis and diabetes, and the presence of the apolipoprotein E4 allele have all been identified as playing possible roles in AD pathogenesis. Recent research has demonstrated the importance of the glymphatic system in the clearance of Aβ from the brain via the perivascular space surrounding cerebral blood vessels. Given the variety of hypotheses that have been proposed for AD pathogenesis, an interconnected, multilayer model offers a unique opportunity to combine these ideas into a single unifying model. Results of this model demonstrate the importance of vessel stiffness and heart rate in maintaining adequate clearance of Aβ from the brain.

  11. Determinants of abnormal blood pressure response to exercise in coronary artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakki, A.H.; Munley, B.M.; Hadjimiltiades, S.; Meissner, M.D.; Iskandrian, A.S.

    1986-01-01

    This study assessed the determinants of exercise-induced abnormal systolic blood pressure (BP) response in 127 patients with documented coronary artery disease (CAD) who underwent exercise thallium-201 scintigraphy. Three types of systolic BP response to exercise were identified: an increase by more than 20 mm Hg (group I, n = 74); an increase by 20 mm Hg or less (group II, n = 36); and a decrease of at least 10 mm Hg (group III, n = 17). The 3 groups were not significantly different in age, gender or medications. The number of segments with perfusion defects was significantly higher in groups II and III than group I (group III, 2.9 +/- 1.5; group II, 2.9 +/- 2.1; and group I, 1.8 +/- 1.4, p = 0.009). Prior myocardial infarction, abnormal left ventricular ejection fraction, and multivessel CAD were more common in group III than in groups I and II. Stepwise discriminant analysis of 15 relevant clinical, angiographic and exercise scintigraphic descriptors showed that the number of thallium perfusion defects, abnormal LV ejection fraction at rest and multivessel CAD to be important predictors of hypotensive BP response. Multivariate analysis, however, showed that the number of thallium perfusion defects was the only important predictor of the hypotensive response. Thus, it is the functional significance of CAD assessed by the extent of thallium perfusion abnormalities rather than the extent of CAD or left ventricular dysfunction at rest that determines the systolic BP response to exercise

  12. An Experimental Study to Replace the Thoracic Descending Aorta for Pigs with a Self-Made Sutureless Blood Vessel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fenglin Song

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To simplify the procedure of blood vessel replacement operation and shorten the vascular anastomosis time, we developed a special artificial blood vessel which can be connected to native blood vessels without suture. The self-made sutureless blood vessel (SMSBV was made from two titanium connectors and a Gore-Tex graft. To investigate blood compatibility and histocompatibility of the SMSBV, we carried thoracic descending aorta replacement using either SMSBV or Gore-Tex, respectively, in pigs. The aortic clamp time and the operative blood loss in the experimental group (using SMSBV were less than those in the control group (using Gore-Tex. The whole blood hematocrit, platelet count, plasma soluble P-selectin, plasma free hemoglobin, and interleukins 2, 6 at each time point were not different significantly between the two groups. Light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy examination showed there were layers of vascular smooth muscle cells and endothelial cells adhered in the inner wall of artificial blood vessel without any signs of thrombosis. Based on the result, we have drawn the conclusion that the application of SMSBV can significantly shorten the vascular anastomosis time, reduce operative blood loss, and show good blood and tissue compatibility.

  13. Msx genes define a population of mural cell precursors required for head blood vessel maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Miguel; Goupille, Olivier; Saint Cloment, Cécile; Lallemand, Yvan; Cumano, Ana; Robert, Benoît

    2011-07-01

    Vessels are primarily formed from an inner endothelial layer that is secondarily covered by mural cells, namely vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) in arteries and veins and pericytes in capillaries and veinules. We previously showed that, in the mouse embryo, Msx1(lacZ) and Msx2(lacZ) are expressed in mural cells and in a few endothelial cells. To unravel the role of Msx genes in vascular development, we have inactivated the two Msx genes specifically in mural cells by combining the Msx1(lacZ), Msx2(lox) and Sm22α-Cre alleles. Optical projection tomography demonstrated abnormal branching of the cephalic vessels in E11.5 mutant embryos. The carotid and vertebral arteries showed an increase in caliber that was related to reduced vascular smooth muscle coverage. Taking advantage of a newly constructed Msx1(CreERT2) allele, we demonstrated by lineage tracing that the primary defect lies in a population of VSMC precursors. The abnormal phenotype that ensues is a consequence of impaired BMP signaling in the VSMC precursors that leads to downregulation of the metalloprotease 2 (Mmp2) and Mmp9 genes, which are essential for cell migration and integration into the mural layer. Improper coverage by VSMCs secondarily leads to incomplete maturation of the endothelial layer. Our results demonstrate that both Msx1 and Msx2 are required for the recruitment of a population of neural crest-derived VSMCs.

  14. Application of blood-pool agents in visualization of peripheral vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giovagnoni, A.; Catalano, C.

    2007-01-01

    Effective arterial imaging is essential in patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD) in whom a revascularization procedure is planned. Digital subtraction angiography (DSA) has traditionally been regarded as the gold standard for imaging in peripheral arterial disease, but this technique is subject to certain limitations, such as the risks of adverse reactions associated with arterial catheterization and iodinated contrast agents. Contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography is now recommended as an effective and useful imaging technique in peripheral arterial disease, since it offers high enhanced contrast between blood and stationary tissue and fast acquisition times. However, extracellular gadolinium contrast agents rapidly diffuse into the interstitial spaces, and thus are suitable only for first-pass imaging. This limitation can be overcome by the use of blood-pool (intravascular) contrast agents, such as gadofosveset trisodium (Vasovist, Bayer Schering Pharma AG, Berlin, Germany), which are retained within the blood vessels and hence facilitate both first-pass and steady-state imaging with high spatial resolution. Blood-pool agents, therefore, offer improved imaging, particularly of distal vessels, compared with extracellular contrast agents. Examples of first-pass and steady-state imaging with gadofosveset are presented. (orig.)

  15. Regulation of cellular communication by signaling microdomains in the blood vessel wall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billaud, Marie; Lohman, Alexander W; Johnstone, Scott R; Biwer, Lauren A; Mutchler, Stephanie; Isakson, Brant E

    2014-01-01

    It has become increasingly clear that the accumulation of proteins in specific regions of the plasma membrane can facilitate cellular communication. These regions, termed signaling microdomains, are found throughout the blood vessel wall where cellular communication, both within and between cell types, must be tightly regulated to maintain proper vascular function. We will define a cellular signaling microdomain and apply this definition to the plethora of means by which cellular communication has been hypothesized to occur in the blood vessel wall. To that end, we make a case for three broad areas of cellular communication where signaling microdomains could play an important role: 1) paracrine release of free radicals and gaseous molecules such as nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species; 2) role of ion channels including gap junctions and potassium channels, especially those associated with the endothelium-derived hyperpolarization mediated signaling, and lastly, 3) mechanism of exocytosis that has considerable oversight by signaling microdomains, especially those associated with the release of von Willebrand factor. When summed, we believe that it is clear that the organization and regulation of signaling microdomains is an essential component to vessel wall function.

  16. Blood Vessel Extraction in Color Retinal Fundus Images with Enhancement Filtering and Unsupervised Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zafer Yavuz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Retinal blood vessels have a significant role in the diagnosis and treatment of various retinal diseases such as diabetic retinopathy, glaucoma, arteriosclerosis, and hypertension. For this reason, retinal vasculature extraction is important in order to help specialists for the diagnosis and treatment of systematic diseases. In this paper, a novel approach is developed to extract retinal blood vessel network. Our method comprises four stages: (1 preprocessing stage in order to prepare dataset for segmentation; (2 an enhancement procedure including Gabor, Frangi, and Gauss filters obtained separately before a top-hat transform; (3 a hard and soft clustering stage which includes K-means and Fuzzy C-means (FCM in order to get binary vessel map; and (4 a postprocessing step which removes falsely segmented isolated regions. The method is tested on color retinal images obtained from STARE and DRIVE databases which are available online. As a result, Gabor filter followed by K-means clustering method achieves 95.94% and 95.71% of accuracy for STARE and DRIVE databases, respectively, which are acceptable for diagnosis systems.

  17. Adaptable three-dimensional Monte Carlo modeling of imaged blood vessels in skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfefer, T. Joshua; Barton, Jennifer K.; Chan, Eric K.; Ducros, Mathieu G.; Sorg, Brian S.; Milner, Thomas E.; Nelson, J. Stuart; Welch, Ashley J.

    1997-06-01

    In order to reach a higher level of accuracy in simulation of port wine stain treatment, we propose to discard the typical layered geometry and cylindrical blood vessel assumptions made in optical models and use imaging techniques to define actual tissue geometry. Two main additions to the typical 3D, weighted photon, variable step size Monte Carlo routine were necessary to achieve this goal. First, optical low coherence reflectometry (OLCR) images of rat skin were used to specify a 3D material array, with each entry assigned a label to represent the type of tissue in that particular voxel. Second, the Monte Carlo algorithm was altered so that when a photon crosses into a new voxel, the remaining path length is recalculated using the new optical properties, as specified by the material array. The model has shown good agreement with data from the literature. Monte Carlo simulations using OLCR images of asymmetrically curved blood vessels show various effects such as shading, scattering-induced peaks at vessel surfaces, and directionality-induced gradients in energy deposition. In conclusion, this augmentation of the Monte Carlo method can accurately simulate light transport for a wide variety of nonhomogeneous tissue geometries.

  18. Regulation of Cellular Communication by Signaling Microdomains in the Blood Vessel Wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billaud, Marie; Lohman, Alexander W.; Johnstone, Scott R.; Biwer, Lauren A.; Mutchler, Stephanie; Isakson, Brant E.

    2014-01-01

    It has become increasingly clear that the accumulation of proteins in specific regions of the plasma membrane can facilitate cellular communication. These regions, termed signaling microdomains, are found throughout the blood vessel wall where cellular communication, both within and between cell types, must be tightly regulated to maintain proper vascular function. We will define a cellular signaling microdomain and apply this definition to the plethora of means by which cellular communication has been hypothesized to occur in the blood vessel wall. To that end, we make a case for three broad areas of cellular communication where signaling microdomains could play an important role: 1) paracrine release of free radicals and gaseous molecules such as nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species; 2) role of ion channels including gap junctions and potassium channels, especially those associated with the endothelium-derived hyperpolarization mediated signaling, and lastly, 3) mechanism of exocytosis that has considerable oversight by signaling microdomains, especially those associated with the release of von Willebrand factor. When summed, we believe that it is clear that the organization and regulation of signaling microdomains is an essential component to vessel wall function. PMID:24671377

  19. Theoretical evaluations of magnetic nanoparticle-enhanced heating on tumor embedded with large blood vessels during hyperthermia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Q.; Deng, Z. S.; Liu, J.

    2012-01-01

    The large blood vessels surrounding the tumor would significantly result in heat sink, and thus seriously limit the thermal ablative area during tumor hyperthermia. Magnetic nanoparticle (MNP) was recently identified as an important heating enhancer to improve the treatment efficiency. It will not only help to absorb more energy under the irradiation of external magnetic field, but also can block the blood flow and subsequently weaken the heat sink effect of large vessels. In this study, these two critical factors, reserved to be undisclosed before in theory, were comprehensively investigated through three-dimensional numerical simulation. The results suggested that concerning the contribution to temperature increase in the tissues surrounding large vessel, the factor of blood flow blocking is more effective than that of energy absorption. Therefore, selective loading of MNPs to the target sites is expected to serve as a promising method to perform successful hyperthermia treatment for tumor tissues embedded with large blood vessels.

  20. Theoretical evaluations of magnetic nanoparticle-enhanced heating on tumor embedded with large blood vessels during hyperthermia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Q. [Tsinghua University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Medicine (China); Deng, Z. S. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Key Laboratory of Cryogenics, Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry (China); Liu, J., E-mail: jliubme@tsinghua.edu.cn [Tsinghua University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Medicine (China)

    2012-07-15

    The large blood vessels surrounding the tumor would significantly result in heat sink, and thus seriously limit the thermal ablative area during tumor hyperthermia. Magnetic nanoparticle (MNP) was recently identified as an important heating enhancer to improve the treatment efficiency. It will not only help to absorb more energy under the irradiation of external magnetic field, but also can block the blood flow and subsequently weaken the heat sink effect of large vessels. In this study, these two critical factors, reserved to be undisclosed before in theory, were comprehensively investigated through three-dimensional numerical simulation. The results suggested that concerning the contribution to temperature increase in the tissues surrounding large vessel, the factor of blood flow blocking is more effective than that of energy absorption. Therefore, selective loading of MNPs to the target sites is expected to serve as a promising method to perform successful hyperthermia treatment for tumor tissues embedded with large blood vessels.

  1. Comparison between PVHIS on the MRI and the permeability of brain blood vessels in elderly patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Katsuhiko; Tanaka, Yuriko; Kubo, Hideki; Takagi, Yasushi; Tachikawa, Shinzo; Katsunuma, Hideyo.

    1989-01-01

    The degree of PVHIS (periventricular high intensity signal) on the MRI was composed with the permeability of brain blood vessels using the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)/serum ratio for albumin, and the CSF/serum ratio for IgG in elderly patients. The 47 elderly patients (mean age=79.9) were divided into three groups: (1) Mild group (20 cases, M:6, F:14, mean age=75.8), (2) Moderate group (18 cases, M:7, F:11, mean age=82.6), (3) Severe group (9 cases, M:2, F:7, mean age=82.9), in accordance with the degree of PVHIS on the MRI. The MRI was operated at a field strength of 0.22 tesla. The pulse sequence (used on all patients) had a repetition times (TR) of 2,000 msec and a time to echo (TE) of 40 msec. The levels of albumin and IgG in the serum and CSF were measured. The CSF/serum ratio for albumin was used of analyze the permeability of the brain blood vessels in each group. There was no significant difference in the level of the serum albumin, the CSF albumin, the serum IgG, the CSF IgG and the CSF/serum ratio for IgG among the three groups. The same was found to be true for the IgG index which indicates the synthesis of immunoglobulin in the central nervous system. However, there was a statistically significant difference (p<0.05) in the CSF/serum ratio for albumin between groups (1) and (3). The increased CSF/serum ratio for albumin in the severe group indicated there were confluent lesions involving the entire extent of the periventriular white matter on the MRI. This suggested an increased permeability of brain blood vessels which revealed the dysfunction of the blood brain barrier due to affected cerebral endothelial cells in capillaries. (author)

  2. High Endothelial Venules and Other Blood Vessels: Critical Regulators of Lymphoid Organ Development and Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ager, Ann

    2017-01-01

    The blood vasculature regulates both the development and function of secondary lymphoid organs by providing a portal for entry of hemopoietic cells. During the development of lymphoid organs in the embryo, blood vessels deliver lymphoid tissue inducer cells that initiate and sustain the development of lymphoid tissues. In adults, the blood vessels are structurally distinct from those in other organs due to the requirement for high levels of lymphocyte recruitment under non-inflammatory conditions. In lymph nodes (LNs) and Peyer’s patches, high endothelial venules (HEVs) especially adapted for lymphocyte trafficking form a spatially organized network of blood vessels, which controls both the type of lymphocyte and the site of entry into lymphoid tissues. Uniquely, HEVs express vascular addressins that regulate lymphocyte entry into lymphoid organs and are, therefore, critical to the function of lymphoid organs. Recent studies have demonstrated important roles for CD11c+ dendritic cells in the induction, as well as the maintenance, of vascular addressin expression and, therefore, the function of HEVs. Tertiary lymphoid organs (TLOs) are HEV containing LN-like structures that develop inside organized tissues undergoing chronic immune-mediated inflammation. In autoimmune lesions, the development of TLOs is thought to exacerbate disease. In cancerous tissues, the development of HEVs and TLOs is associated with improved patient outcomes in several cancers. Therefore, it is important to understand what drives the development of HEVs and TLOs and how these structures contribute to pathology. In several human diseases and experimental animal models of chronic inflammation, there are some similarities between the development and function of HEVs within LN and TLOs. This review will summarize current knowledge of how hemopoietic cells with lymphoid tissue-inducing, HEV-inducing, and HEV-maintaining properties are recruited from the bloodstream to induce the development and

  3. Neutrophil-Mediated Delivery of Therapeutic Nanoparticles across Blood Vessel Barrier for Treatment of Inflammation and Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Chu, Dafeng; Gao, Jin; Wang, Zhenjia

    2015-01-01

    Endothelial cells form a monolayer in lumen of blood vessels presenting a great barrier for delivery of therapeutic nanoparticles (NPs) into extravascular tissues where most diseases occur, such as inflammation disorders and infection. Here, we report a strategy for delivering therapeutic NPs across this blood vessel barrier by nanoparticle in situ hitchhiking activated neutrophils. Using intravital microscopy of TNF-α-induced inflammation of mouse cremaster venules and a mouse model of acute...

  4. Magnetic navigation system for the precise helical and translational motions of a microrobot in human blood vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, S. M.; Jang, G. H.; Choi, H. C.; Park, S. H.; Park, J. O.

    2012-04-01

    Different magnetic navigation systems (MNSs) have been investigated for the wireless manipulation of microrobots in human blood vessels. Here we propose a MNS and methodology for generation of both the precise helical and translational motions of a microrobot to improve its maneuverability in complex human blood vessel. We then present experiments demonstrating the helical and translational motions of a spiral-type microrobot to verify the proposed MNS.

  5. Classic beta-amyloid deposits cluster around large diameter blood vessels rather than capillaries in sporadic Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Richard A

    2006-11-01

    Various hypotheses could explain the relationship between beta-amyloid (Abeta) deposition and the vasculature in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Amyloid deposition may reduce capillary density, affect endothelial cells of blood vessels, result in diffusion from blood vessels, or interfere with the perivascular clearance mechanism. Hence, the spatial pattern of the classic ('cored') type of Abeta deposit was studied in the upper laminae (I,II/III) of the superior frontal gyrus in nine cases of sporadic AD (SAD). Sections were immunostained with antibodies against Abeta and with collagen IV to study the relationships between the spatial distribution of the classic deposits and the blood vessel profiles. Both the classic deposits and blood vessel profiles were distributed in clusters. In all cases, there was a positive spatial correlation between the clusters of the classic deposits and the larger diameter (>10 microm) blood vessel profiles and especially the vertically penetrating arterioles. In only 1 case, was there a significant spatial correlation between the clusters of the classic deposits and the smaller diameter (upper laminae of the frontal cortex. This aggregation could result from diffusion of proteins from blood vessels or from overloading the system of perivascular clearance from the brain.

  6. Statistical distribution of blood serotonin as a predictor of early autistic brain abnormalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janušonis Skirmantas

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A wide range of abnormalities has been reported in autistic brains, but these abnormalities may be the result of an earlier underlying developmental alteration that may no longer be evident by the time autism is diagnosed. The most consistent biological finding in autistic individuals has been their statistically elevated levels of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT, serotonin in blood platelets (platelet hyperserotonemia. The early developmental alteration of the autistic brain and the autistic platelet hyperserotonemia may be caused by the same biological factor expressed in the brain and outside the brain, respectively. Unlike the brain, blood platelets are short-lived and continue to be produced throughout the life span, suggesting that this factor may continue to operate outside the brain years after the brain is formed. The statistical distributions of the platelet 5-HT levels in normal and autistic groups have characteristic features and may contain information about the nature of this yet unidentified factor. Results The identity of this factor was studied by using a novel, quantitative approach that was applied to published distributions of the platelet 5-HT levels in normal and autistic groups. It was shown that the published data are consistent with the hypothesis that a factor that interferes with brain development in autism may also regulate the release of 5-HT from gut enterochromaffin cells. Numerical analysis revealed that this factor may be non-functional in autistic individuals. Conclusion At least some biological factors, the abnormal function of which leads to the development of the autistic brain, may regulate the release of 5-HT from the gut years after birth. If the present model is correct, it will allow future efforts to be focused on a limited number of gene candidates, some of which have not been suspected to be involved in autism (such as the 5-HT4 receptor gene based on currently available clinical and

  7. Long-term streptozotocin-induced diabetes in rats leads to severe damage of brain blood vessels and neurons via enhanced oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hongying; Fan, Shourui; Song, Dianping; Wang, Zhuo; Ma, Shungao; Li, Shuqing; Li, Xiaohong; Xu, Mian; Xu, Min; Wang, Xianmo

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate pathophysiological alterations and oxidative stress in various stages of streptozotocin (STZ)‑induced diabetes mellitus (DM) in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (120) were randomized into DM and control groups. Body mass, plasma glucose, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) levels, as well as aldose reductase (AR) activities, in brain tissue and serum were determined. Electron microscopy was used to observe neuron and vessel changes in the brain. In STZ‑treated rats, blood glucose, low density lipoproteins, triglycerides and total cholesterol levels increased 1.43‑3.0‑fold and high density lipoprotein, HbA1c and insulin sensitivity index increased 1.1‑1.23‑fold compared with control. At week 16 following treatment, DM rat serum H2O2 concentration was increased, indicating oxidative stress and mRNA levels of GPx and SOD were 2‑fold higher than the control. Protein GPx and SOD levels were reduced (PNeuron cells and blood vessels in the DM rat brains became increasingly abnormal over time with altered Golgi bodies, mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum cisterns, concurrent with SOD inactivation and AR protein accumulation. Disease progression in rats with STZ‑induced DM included brain pathologies with vascular and neuron cell abnormalities, associated with the reduction of SOD, CAT and GPx activities and also AR accumulation.

  8. [Conjunct changes in the resistance and engorgement of the cerebral vessels in shifts in the blood gas composition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasil'nikov, V G; Artem'eva, A I

    1982-08-01

    In anesthetized cats, under perfusion and with constant volume of the hemodynamically isolated brain, hypercapnia and hypoxia led to a decrease of cerebral vessels resistance and to a reduction of the brain blood flow, whereas a decrease in the PCO2 and an increase in the PO2 in the blood exerted on opposite effect. The different responses of the vessels had some similar features in respect to threshold changes of the PCO2 and PO2, to potentiation of effects of both parts of the brain vascular system on increased shifts of the blood gas tension, to greater sensitivity of both parts to PCO2 changes, to effect of the blood gas tension on reactivity of both parts to noradrenaline. The authors suggest a possibility of alterations of the filter-absorption interrelationships in the brain due to different responses of arterial and venous vessels to changes of the blood gas tension.

  9. "Sausage-string" appearance of arteries and arterioles can be caused by an instability of the blood vessel wall

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Jens Christian Brings; Beierholm, Ulrik; Mikkelsen, Rene

    2002-01-01

    Vascular damage induced by acute hypertension is preceded by a peculiar pattern where blood vessels show alternating regions of constrictions and dilations ("sausages on a string"). The pattern occurs in the smaller blood vessels, and it plays a central role in causing the vascular damage. A rela...... phenomenon. Experimental data suggest that the structural changes induced by the instability may cause secondary damage to the wall of small arteries and arterioles in the form of endothelial hyperpermeability followed by local fibrinoid necrosis of the vascular wall.......Vascular damage induced by acute hypertension is preceded by a peculiar pattern where blood vessels show alternating regions of constrictions and dilations ("sausages on a string"). The pattern occurs in the smaller blood vessels, and it plays a central role in causing the vascular damage....... A related vascular pattern has been observed in larger vessels from several organs during angiography. In the larger vessels the occurrence of the pattern does not appear to be related to acute hypertension. A unifying feature between the phenomenon in large and small vessels seems to be an increase...

  10. An integrated 3-D image of cerebral blood vessels and CT view of tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suetens, P.; Baert, A.L.; Gybels, J.; Haegemans, S.; Jansen, P.; Oosterlinck, A.; Wilms, G.

    1984-01-01

    The authors developed a method that yields an integrated three-dimensional image of cerebral blood vessels and CT view of tumor. This method allows the neurosurgeon to choose any electrode trajectory that looks convenient to him, without imminent danger of causing a hemorrhage. Besides offering more safety to stereotactic interventions, this integrated 3-D image also has other applications. First, it gives a better characterization of most focal mass lesions seen by CT. Second, it allows high dose focal irradiation to be effected in such a way as to avoid arteries and veins. Third, it provides useful information for planning the strategy of open surgery

  11. Blood vessels segmentation of hatching eggs based on fully convolutional networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Lei; Qiu, Ling; Wu, Jun; Xiao, Zhitao

    2018-04-01

    FCN, trained end-to-end, pixels-to-pixels, predict result of each pixel. It has been widely used for semantic segmentation. In order to realize the blood vessels segmentation of hatching eggs, a method based on FCN is proposed in this paper. The training datasets are composed of patches extracted from very few images to augment data. The network combines with lower layer and deconvolution to enables precise segmentation. The proposed method frees from the problem that training deep networks need large scale samples. Experimental results on hatching eggs demonstrate that this method can yield more accurate segmentation outputs than previous researches. It provides a convenient reference for fertility detection subsequently.

  12. Design and development of a blood vessel localization system using a Nir viewer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez R, A.; Plascencia C, L. E.; Cordova F, T.; Padilla R, N.

    2017-10-01

    In addition to the multiple applications of ionizing radiation in clinical diagnosis there is the possibility of using another part of the electromagnetic spectrum such as near infrared (Nir). This paper presents the design and construction of a Nir Biosensor in a range between 800 and 900 nm, which allows the visualization of blood vessels for the venepuncture procedure with the aim of reducing the trauma of venous access to patients of all ages. The possibility that the device is used in the location of venous ulcers as an alternative to veno grams obtained by X-rays is also explored. (Author)

  13. Importance of Calibration Method in Central Blood Pressure for Cardiac Structural Abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negishi, Kazuaki; Yang, Hong; Wang, Ying; Nolan, Mark T; Negishi, Tomoko; Pathan, Faraz; Marwick, Thomas H; Sharman, James E

    2016-09-01

    Central blood pressure (CBP) independently predicts cardiovascular risk, but calibration methods may affect accuracy of central systolic blood pressure (CSBP). Standard central systolic blood pressure (Stan-CSBP) from peripheral waveforms is usually derived with calibration using brachial SBP and diastolic BP (DBP). However, calibration using oscillometric mean arterial pressure (MAP) and DBP (MAP-CSBP) is purported to provide more accurate representation of true invasive CSBP. This study sought to determine which derived CSBP could more accurately discriminate cardiac structural abnormalities. A total of 349 community-based patients with risk factors (71±5years, 161 males) had CSBP measured by brachial oscillometry (Mobil-O-Graph, IEM GmbH, Stolberg, Germany) using 2 calibration methods: MAP-CSBP and Stan-CSBP. Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) and left atrial dilatation (LAD) were measured based on standard guidelines. MAP-CSBP was higher than Stan-CSBP (149±20 vs. 128±15mm Hg, P curve analyses, MAP-CSBP significantly better discriminated LVH compared with Stan-CSBP (area under the curve (AUC) 0.66 vs. 0.59, P = 0.0063) and brachial SBP (0.62, P = 0.027). Continuous net reclassification improvement (NRI) (P AUC 0.63 vs. 0.56, P = 0.005) and conventional brachial SBP (0.58, P = 0.006), whereas Stan-CSBP provided no better discrimination than conventional brachial BP (P = 0.09). CSBP is calibration dependent and when oscillometric MAP and DBP are used, the derived CSBP is a better discriminator for cardiac structural abnormalities. © American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd 2016. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. A three-temperature model of selective photothermolysis for laser treatment of port wine stain containing large malformed blood vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, D.; Wang, G.X.; He, Y.L.; Wu, W.J.; Chen, B.

    2014-01-01

    As congenital vascular malformations, port wine stain (PWS) is composed of ectatic venular capillary blood vessels buried within healthy dermis. In clinic, pulsed dye laser (PDL) in visible band (e.g. 585 nm) together with cryogen spray cooling (CSC) have become the golden standard for treatment of PWS. However, due to the limited energy deposition of the PDL in blood, large blood vessels are likely to survive from the laser irradiation. As a result, complete clearance of the lesions is rarely achieved. Assuming the local thermal non-equilibrium in skin tissue during the laser surgery, a three-temperature model is proposed to treat the PWS tissue as a porous media composed of a non-absorbing dermal matrix buried with the blood as well as the large malformed blood vessels. Three energy equations are constructed and solved coupling for the temperature of the blood in average-sized PWS vessels, non-absorbing dermal tissues and large malformed blood vessels, respectively. Subsequently, the thermal responses of human skin to visible (585 nm) and near-infrared (1064 nm) laser irradiations with various pulse durations in conjunction with cryogen spray cooling are investigated by the new model, and Arrhenius integral is used to analyze the thermal damage. The simulations show that the short pulse duration of 1.5 ms results in a higher selective heating of blood over epidermis, which will lead to a desired clinic outcome than the longer pulse duration. Due to a much deeper light penetration depth, laser irradiation with 1064 nm in wavelength is superior to that with 585 nm in treating patients with cutaneous hyper-vascular malformation. Complete coagulations are predicted in large-sized and deeply extending blood vessels by 1064 nm laser. - Highlights: •A three-temperature model is proposed for the laser treatment of port wine stain (PWS). •Average sized and large malformed blood vessels in porous medium (tissue) are considered. •Thermal responses of PWS to

  15. A numerical analysis on the curved bileaflet Mechanical Heart Valve (MHV) : leaflet motion and blood flow in an elastic blood vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bang, Jin Seok; Kim, Chang Nyung; Choi, Choeng Ryul

    2005-01-01

    In blood flow passing through the Mechanical Heart Valve (MHV) and elastic blood vessel, hemolysis and platelet activation causing thrombus formation can be seen owing to the shear stress in the blood. Also, fracture and deformation of leaflets can be observed depending on the shape and material properties of the leaflets which is opened and closed in a cycle. Hence, comprehensive study is needed on the hemodynamics which is associated with the motion of leaflet and elastic blood vessel in terms of fluid-structure interaction. In this paper, a numerical analysis has been performed for a three-dimensional pulsatile blood flow associated with the elastic blood vessel and curved bileaflet for multiple cycles in light of fluid-structure interaction. From this analysis fluttering phenomenon and rebound of the leaflet have been observed and recirculation and regurgitation have been found in the flow fields of the blood. Also, the pressure distribution and the radial displacement of the elastic blood vessel have been obtained. The motion of the leaflet and flow fields of the blood have shown similar tendency compared with the previous experiments carried out in other studies. The present study can contribute to the design methodology for the curved bileaflet mechanical heart valve. Furthermore, the proposed fluid-structure interaction method will be effectively used in various fields where the interaction between fluid flow and structure are involved

  16. 3-D segmentation of retinal blood vessels in spectral-domain OCT volumes of the optic nerve head

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyungmoo; Abràmoff, Michael D.; Niemeijer, Meindert; Garvin, Mona K.; Sonka, Milan

    2010-03-01

    Segmentation of retinal blood vessels can provide important information for detecting and tracking retinal vascular diseases including diabetic retinopathy, arterial hypertension, arteriosclerosis and retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). Many studies on 2-D segmentation of retinal blood vessels from a variety of medical images have been performed. However, 3-D segmentation of retinal blood vessels from spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) volumes, which is capable of providing geometrically accurate vessel models, to the best of our knowledge, has not been previously studied. The purpose of this study is to develop and evaluate a method that can automatically detect 3-D retinal blood vessels from spectral-domain OCT scans centered on the optic nerve head (ONH). The proposed method utilized a fast multiscale 3-D graph search to segment retinal surfaces as well as a triangular mesh-based 3-D graph search to detect retinal blood vessels. An experiment on 30 ONH-centered OCT scans (15 right eye scans and 15 left eye scans) from 15 subjects was performed, and the mean unsigned error in 3-D of the computer segmentations compared with the independent standard obtained from a retinal specialist was 3.4 +/- 2.5 voxels (0.10 +/- 0.07 mm).

  17. Limitations of quantitative photoacoustic measurements of blood oxygenation in small vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivaramakrishnan, Mathangi; Maslov, Konstantin; Zhang, Hao F; Stoica, George; Wang, Lihong V

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the feasibility of obtaining accurate quantitative information, such as local blood oxygenation level (sO 2 ), with a spatial resolution of about 50 μm from spectral photoacoustic (PA) measurements. The optical wavelength dependence of the peak values of the PA signals is utilized to obtain the local blood oxygenation level. In our in vitro experimental models, the PA signal amplitude is found to be linearly proportional to the blood optical absorption coefficient when using ultrasonic transducers with central frequencies high enough such that the ultrasonic wavelengths are shorter than the light penetration depth into the blood vessels. For an optical wavelength in the 578-596 nm region, with a transducer central frequency that is above 25 MHz, the sensitivity and accuracy of sO 2 inversion is shown to be better than 4%. The effect of the transducer focal position on the accuracy of quantifying blood oxygenation is found to be negligible. In vivo oxygenation measurements of rat skin microvasculature yield results consistent with those from in vitro studies, although factors specific to in vivo measurements, such as the spectral dependence of tissue optical attenuation, dramatically affect the accuracy of sO 2 quantification in vivo

  18. Modeling the color perception of port wine stains and its relation to the depth of laser coagulated blood vessels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lakmaker, O.; Pickering, J. W.; van Gemert, M. J.

    1993-01-01

    To find the maximal depth of an ecstatic vessel in the dermis that contributes to the abnormal color of a port wine stain (PWS), "normal" and "laser treated PWS skin" are modeled, respectively, as a two-layer plane parallel geometry consisting of an epidermis and a dermis, and as a three-layer

  19. Analysis of trends and prospects regarding stents for human blood vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeong Hee; Kim, Eung Do; Jun, Eun Jung; Yoo, Hyoung Sun; Lee, Joon Woo

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide technology trends and information regarding market and prospects in stents used for human blood vessels in Korea and the world.A stent is a medical device in the form of a cylindrical metal net used to normalize flow when blood or other bodily fluids such as biliary fluids are obstructed in blood vessels, gastrointestinal tracts, etc. by inserting the stent into a narrowed or clogged area. Stents are classified into vascular and non-vascular stents. The coronary artery stent is avascular stent that is used for coronary atherosclerosis.The demand is increasing for stents to treat diseases such as those affecting the heart and blood vessels of elderly and middle-aged patients. Due to the current shift in the demographic structure caused by an aging society, the prospect for stents seems to be very bright.The use of a stent designed to prevent acute vascular occlusion and restenosis, which is a side effect of conventional balloon angioplasty, has rapidly become popular because it can prevent acute complications and improve clinical outcomes. Since the initial release of this stent, there have been significant developments in its design, the most notable of which has been the introduction of drug-eluting stents (DES). Bioresorbable scaffolds (BRS) have the potential to introduce a paradigm shift in interventional cardiology, a true anatomical and functional "vascular restoration" instead of an artificial stiff tube encased by a persistent metallic foreign body. Data for this research were gathered from primary and secondary sources as well as the databases of the Korea Institute of Science Technology Information (KISTI) located in Seoul, Korea like KISTI Market Report. The sources used for primary research included the databases available from the Korea Institute of Science Technology Information, past industry research services/studies, economic and demographic data, and trade and industry journals. Secondary research was used

  20. A kinematic study of pulsation in the dorsal blood vessel of the blackworm, Lumbriculus variegatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kameko Halfmann

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aquatic oligochaete Lumbriculus variegatus has a segmented, dorsal blood vessel (DBV that acts as a peristaltic pump to move blood through the animal's closed circulatory system. We conducted a kinematic study using videography and computational modeling as a first step toward understanding the control of DBV pulsation. Results suggested that pulse rates were highest in the posterior segments, while interpulse intervals and intersegmental delays were longest in the midbody segments. Differences in the interpulse interval distributions across regions suggest that some peristaltic waves initiated in the posterior segments do not propagate all the way to the anterior segments. A simple model consisting of a chain of excitable neuromuscular units replicated these kinetics. This model may be useful in future research aimed at understanding the modulatory effect of biogenic amines on peristalsis of the DBV. Moreover, research into the mechanisms of peristalsis of the DBV may lead to insights into disorders of peristalsis in human and veterinary medicine

  1. Blood Pressure Control in Aging Predicts Cerebral Atrophy Related to Small-Vessel White Matter Lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle C. Kern

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral small-vessel damage manifests as white matter hyperintensities and cerebral atrophy on brain MRI and is associated with aging, cognitive decline and dementia. We sought to examine the interrelationship of these imaging biomarkers and the influence of hypertension in older individuals. We used a multivariate spatial covariance neuroimaging technique to localize the effects of white matter lesion load on regional gray matter volume and assessed the role of blood pressure control, age and education on this relationship. Using a case-control design matching for age, gender, and educational attainment we selected 64 participants with normal blood pressure, controlled hypertension or uncontrolled hypertension from the Northern Manhattan Study cohort. We applied gray matter voxel-based morphometry with the scaled subprofile model to (1 identify regional covariance patterns of gray matter volume differences associated with white matter lesion load, (2 compare this relationship across blood pressure groups, and (3 relate it to cognitive performance. In this group of participants aged 60–86 years, we identified a pattern of reduced gray matter volume associated with white matter lesion load in bilateral temporal-parietal regions with relative preservation of volume in the basal forebrain, thalami and cingulate cortex. This pattern was expressed most in the uncontrolled hypertension group and least in the normotensives, but was also more evident in older and more educated individuals. Expression of this pattern was associated with worse performance in executive function and memory. In summary, white matter lesions from small-vessel disease are associated with a regional pattern of gray matter atrophy that is mitigated by blood pressure control, exacerbated by aging, and associated with cognitive performance.

  2. Imaging transient blood vessel fusion events in zebrafish by correlative volume electron microscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah E J Armer

    Full Text Available The study of biological processes has become increasingly reliant on obtaining high-resolution spatial and temporal data through imaging techniques. As researchers demand molecular resolution of cellular events in the context of whole organisms, correlation of non-invasive live-organism imaging with electron microscopy in complex three-dimensional samples becomes critical. The developing blood vessels of vertebrates form a highly complex network which cannot be imaged at high resolution using traditional methods. Here we show that the point of fusion between growing blood vessels of transgenic zebrafish, identified in live confocal microscopy, can subsequently be traced through the structure of the organism using Focused Ion Beam/Scanning Electron Microscopy (FIB/SEM and Serial Block Face/Scanning Electron Microscopy (SBF/SEM. The resulting data give unprecedented microanatomical detail of the zebrafish and, for the first time, allow visualization of the ultrastructure of a time-limited biological event within the context of a whole organism.

  3. Automatic blood vessel based-liver segmentation using the portal phase abdominal CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maklad, Ahmed S.; Matsuhiro, Mikio; Suzuki, Hidenobu; Kawata, Yoshiki; Niki, Noboru; Shimada, Mitsuo; Iinuma, Gen

    2018-02-01

    Liver segmentation is the basis for computer-based planning of hepatic surgical interventions. In diagnosis and analysis of hepatic diseases and surgery planning, automatic segmentation of liver has high importance. Blood vessel (BV) has showed high performance at liver segmentation. In our previous work, we developed a semi-automatic method that segments the liver through the portal phase abdominal CT images in two stages. First stage was interactive segmentation of abdominal blood vessels (ABVs) and subsequent classification into hepatic (HBVs) and non-hepatic (non-HBVs). This stage had 5 interactions that include selective threshold for bone segmentation, selecting two seed points for kidneys segmentation, selection of inferior vena cava (IVC) entrance for starting ABVs segmentation, identification of the portal vein (PV) entrance to the liver and the IVC-exit for classifying HBVs from other ABVs (non-HBVs). Second stage is automatic segmentation of the liver based on segmented ABVs as described in [4]. For full automation of our method we developed a method [5] that segments ABVs automatically tackling the first three interactions. In this paper, we propose full automation of classifying ABVs into HBVs and non- HBVs and consequently full automation of liver segmentation that we proposed in [4]. Results illustrate that the method is effective at segmentation of the liver through the portal abdominal CT images.

  4. An Original Approach for Quantification of Blood Vessels on the Whole Tumour Section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nga Tran Kim

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Relative abundance of tumour angiogenesis has been shown to be of clinical relevance in cancers of various locations such as the ovary. Nevertheless, several problems are encountered when quantifying tumour microvessels: (i as many other tumour markers, vascularity pattern is often heterogeneous within the tumour mass and even within the same histological section. As a consequence, an adequate acquisition method must be developed for accurate field sampling. (ii Manual microvessel counting is long, tedious and subject to poor reproducibility. Introduction in routine practice requires a fast, reproducible and reliable automatic image processing. In this study we present an original procedure combining a slide scanner image acquisition and a fully automatic image analysis sequence. The slide scanner offers the advantage of recording an image of the whole histological section for subsequent automatic blood vessel detection and hot spot area location. Microvessel density and surface fraction were measured for the whole section as well as within hot spots. Different immunostaining methods were tested in order to optimise the procedure. Moreover, the method proposed was submitted to a quality control procedure, with reference to interactive identification of microvessels at scanner level. This experiment showed that 93 to 97% of blood vessels were detected, according to the staining protocol used. Colour figures can be viewed on http://www.esacp.org/acp/2003/25‐2/kim.htm.

  5. Quantitative phase imaging characterization of tumor-associated blood vessel formation on a chip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Peng; Huang, Jing; Moses, Marsha A.

    2018-02-01

    Angiogenesis, the formation of new blood vessels from existing ones, is a biological process that has an essential role in solid tumor growth, development, and progression. Recent advances in Lab-on-a-Chip technology has created an opportunity for scientists to observe endothelial cell (EC) behaviors during the dynamic process of angiogenesis using a simple and economical in vitro platform that recapitulates in vivo blood vessel formation. Here, we use quantitative phase imaging (QPI) microscopy to continuously and non-invasively characterize the dynamic process of tumor cell-induced angiogenic sprout formation on a microfluidic chip. The live tumor cell-induced angiogenic sprouts are generated by multicellular endothelial sprouting into 3 dimensional (3D) Matrigel using human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). By using QPI, we quantitatively measure a panel of cellular morphological and behavioral parameters of each individual EC participating in this sprouting. In this proof-of-principle study, we demonstrate that QPI is a powerful tool that can provide real-time quantitative analysis of biological processes in in vitro 3D biomimetic devices, which, in turn, can improve our understanding of the biology underlying functional tissue engineering.

  6. Unique identification code for medical fundus images using blood vessel pattern for tele-ophthalmology applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Anushikha; Dutta, Malay Kishore; Sharma, Dilip Kumar

    2016-10-01

    Identification of fundus images during transmission and storage in database for tele-ophthalmology applications is an important issue in modern era. The proposed work presents a novel accurate method for generation of unique identification code for identification of fundus images for tele-ophthalmology applications and storage in databases. Unlike existing methods of steganography and watermarking, this method does not tamper the medical image as nothing is embedded in this approach and there is no loss of medical information. Strategic combination of unique blood vessel pattern and patient ID is considered for generation of unique identification code for the digital fundus images. Segmented blood vessel pattern near the optic disc is strategically combined with patient ID for generation of a unique identification code for the image. The proposed method of medical image identification is tested on the publically available DRIVE and MESSIDOR database of fundus image and results are encouraging. Experimental results indicate the uniqueness of identification code and lossless recovery of patient identity from unique identification code for integrity verification of fundus images. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A composite chitosan-gelatin bi-layered, biomimetic macroporous scaffold for blood vessel tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badhe, Ravindra V; Bijukumar, Divya; Chejara, Dharmesh R; Mabrouk, Mostafa; Choonara, Yahya E; Kumar, Pradeep; du Toit, Lisa C; Kondiah, Pierre P D; Pillay, Viness

    2017-02-10

    A composite chitosan-gelatin macroporous hydrogel-based scaffold with bi-layered tubular architecture was engineered by solvent casting-co-particulate leaching. The scaffold constituted an inner macroporous layer concealed by a non-porous outer layer mimicking the 3D matrix of blood vessels with cellular adhesion and proliferation. The scaffold was evaluated for its morphological, physicochemical, physicomechanical and biodurability properties employing SEM, FTIR, DSC, XRD, porositometry, rheology and texture analysis. The fluid uptake and biodegradation in the presence of lysozymes was also investigated. Cellular attachment and proliferation was analysed using human dermal fibroblasts (HDF-a) seeded onto the scaffold and evaluated by MTT assay, SEM, and confocal microscopy. Results demonstrated that the scaffold had a desirable tensile strength=95.81±11kPa, elongation at break 112.5±13%, porosity 82% and pores between 100 and 230μm, 50% in vitro biodegradation at day 16 and proliferated fibroblasts over 20 days. These results demonstrate that scaffold may be an excellent tubular archetype for blood vessel tissue engineering. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Feasibility evaluation of 3D photoacoustic imaging of blood vessel structure using multiple wavelengths with a handheld probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchimoto, Yo; Namita, Takeshi; Kondo, Kengo; Yamakawa, Makoto; Shiina, Tsuyoshi

    2018-02-01

    Photoacoustic imaging is anticipated for use in portraying blood vessel structures (e.g. neovascularization in inflamed regions). To reduce invasiveness and enhance ease handling, we developed a handheld photoacoustic imaging system using multiple wavelengths. The usefulness of the proposed system was investigated in phantom experiments and in vivo measurements. A silicon tube was embedded into chicken breast meat to simulate the blood vessel. The tube was filled with ovine blood. Then laser light was guided to the phantom surface by an optical fiber bundle close to the linear ultrasound probe. Photoacoustic images were obtained at 750-950 nm wavelengths. Strong photoacoustic signals from the boundary between blood and silicon tube are observed in these images. The shape of photoacoustic spectrum at the boundary resembles that of the HbO2 absorption spectrum at 750-920 nm. In photoacoustic images, similarity between photoacoustic spectrum and HbO2 absorption spectrum was evaluated by calculating the normalized correlation coefficient. Results show high correlation in regions of strong photoacoustic signals in photoacoustic images. These analyses demonstrate the feasibility of portraying blood vessel structures under practical conditions. To evaluate the feasibility of three-dimensional vascular imaging, in vivo experiments were conducted using three wavelengths. A right hand and ultrasound probe were set in degassed water. By scanning a probe, cross-sectional ultrasound and photoacoustic images were obtained at each location. Then, all ultrasound or photoacoustic images were piled up respectively. Then three-dimensional images were constructed. Resultant images portrayed blood vessel-like structures three-dimensionally. Furthermore, to distinguish blood vessels from other tissues (e.g. skin), distinguishing images of them were constructed by comparing photoacoustic signal intensity among three wavelengths. The resultant image portrayed blood vessels as

  9. Modification method to reduce the impact of blood vessel on noncontact discrimination of human blood based on ;M+N; theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Linna; Ding, Hongyan; Lin, Ling; Wang, Yimin; Guo, Xin

    2018-01-01

    Noncontact discriminating human blood is significantly crucial for import-export ports and inspection and quarantine departments. We had already demonstrated that visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy combining PLS-DA method can successfully realize noncontact human blood discrimination. However, the circulated blood vessels may be produced with different materials. The use of various kinds of blood tubes may have a negative effect on the discrimination, based on ;M+N; theory (Li et al., 2016). In this research, we explored the impact of different material of blood vessels, such as glass tube and plastic tube, on the prediction ability of the discrimination model. Furthermore, we searched for the modification method to reduce the influence from the blood tubes. Our work indicated that generalized diffuse reflectance method can greatly improve the discrimination accuracy. This research can greatly facilitate the application of noncontact discrimination method based on visible and near-infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy.

  10. Neutrophil-Mediated Delivery of Therapeutic Nanoparticles across Blood Vessel Barrier for Treatment of Inflammation and Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Dafeng; Gao, Jin; Wang, Zhenjia

    2015-12-22

    Endothelial cells form a monolayer in lumen of blood vessels presenting a great barrier for delivery of therapeutic nanoparticles (NPs) into extravascular tissues where most diseases occur, such as inflammation disorders and infection. Here, we report a strategy for delivering therapeutic NPs across this blood vessel barrier by nanoparticle in situ hitchhiking activated neutrophils. Using intravital microscopy of TNF-α-induced inflammation of mouse cremaster venules and a mouse model of acute lung inflammation, we demonstrated that intravenously (iv) infused NPs made from denatured bovine serum albumin (BSA) were specifically internalized by activated neutrophils, and subsequently, the neutrophils containing NPs migrated across blood vessels into inflammatory tissues. When neutrophils were depleted using anti-Gr-1 in a mouse, the transport of albumin NPs across blood vessel walls was robustly abolished. Furthermore, it was found that albumin nanoparticle internalization did not affect neutrophil mobility and functions. Administration of drug-loaded albumin NPs markedly mitigated the lung inflammation induced by LPS (lipopolysaccharide) or infection by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. These results demonstrate the use of an albumin nanoparticle platform for in situ targeting of activated neutrophils for delivery of therapeutics across the blood vessel barriers into diseased sites. This study demonstrates our ability to hijack neutrophils to deliver nanoparticles to targeted diseased sites.

  11. Relationship of Hypertension, Blood Pressure, and Blood Pressure Control With White Matter Abnormalities in the Women’s Health Initiative Memory Study (WHIMS)—MRI Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Kuller, Lewis H.; Margolis, Karen L.; Gaussoin, Sarah A.; Bryan, Nick R.; Kerwin, Diana; Limacher, Marian; Wassertheil-Smoller, Sylvia; Williamson, Jeff; Robinson, Jennifer G.

    2010-01-01

    This paper evaluates the relationship of blood pressure (BP) levels at Women’s Health Initiative (WHI) baseline, treatment of hypertension, and white matter abnormalities among women in conjugated equine estrogen (CEE) and medroxyprogesterone acetate and CEE-alone arms. The WHI Memory Study—Magnetic Resonance Imaging (WHIMS-MRI) trial scanned 1424 participants. BP levels at baseline were significantly positively related to abnormal white matter lesion (WML) volumes. Participants treated for h...

  12. Distinct mechanisms of relaxation to bioactive components from chamomile species in porcine isolated blood vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, R.E.; Allen, S.; Chang, A.P.Y.; Henderson, H.; Hobson, G.C.; Karania, B.; Morgan, K.N.; Pek, A.S.Y.; Raghvani, K.; Shee, C.Y.; Shikotra, J.; Street, E.; Abbas, Z.; Ellis, K.; Heer, J.K.; Alexander, S.P.H.

    2013-01-01

    German chamomile (Matricaria recutita L.), a widely-used herbal medicine, has been reported to have a wide range of biological effects, including smooth muscle relaxation. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of representative compounds from chamomile (apigenin, luteolin, (−)-α-bisabolol, farnesene, umbelliferone; 3–30 μM) on vascular tone using porcine coronary and splenic arteries mounted for isometric tension recording in isolated tissue baths and precontracted with the thromboxane-mimetic U46619. Apigenin, luteolin, and (−)-α-bisabolol produced slow, concentration-dependent relaxations in both the coronary and splenic arteries that were not blocked by inhibition of nitric oxide synthase or potassium channels. Removal of extracellular calcium inhibited the relaxations to all three compounds, and these compounds also inhibited calcium re-addition-evoked contractions, indicating that the relaxation response may be mediated through inhibition of calcium influx. Apigenin and luteolin, but not (−)-α-bisabolol, enhanced the relaxation to the nitric oxide donor sodium nitroprusside, indicating that apigenin and luteolin may act to regulate cyclic GMP levels. Umbelliferone produced a rapid, transient relaxation in the splenic artery, but not the coronary artery, that was inhibited by L-NAME and removal of the endothelium, suggesting an influence on nitric oxide production. Farnesene, at concentrations up to 30 μM, was without effect in either blood vessel. In conclusion, hydroxylated compounds (apigenin, luteolin and (−)-α-bisabolol) found in chamomile all caused a slow relaxation of isolated blood vessels through an effect on calcium influx. Umbelliferone, on the other hand, produced a rapid, transient relaxation dependent upon release of nitric oxide from the endothelium. - Highlights: • Apigenin, luteolin, and (-)-α-bisabolol are present in chamomile. • They produced slow, concentration-dependent relaxations in arteries. • These

  13. Chronic hydrocephalus-induced hypoxia: increased expression of VEGFR-2+ and blood vessel density in hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dombrowski, S M; Deshpande, A; Dingwall, C; Leichliter, A; Leibson, Z; Luciano, M G

    2008-03-18

    Chronic hydrocephalus (CH) is a neurological disease characterized by increased cerebrospinal fluid volume and pressure that is often associated with impaired cognitive function. By and large, CH is a complex and heterogeneous cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) disorder where the exact site of brain insult is uncertain. Several mechanisms including neural compression, fiber stretch, and local or global hypoxia have been implicated in the underlying pathophysiology of CH. Specifically, the hippocampus, which plays a significant role in memory processing and is in direct contact with expanding CSF ventricles, may be involved. Using our model of chronic hydrocephalus, we quantified the density of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR-2(+)) neurons, glial, endothelial cells, and blood vessels in hippocampal regions CA1, CA2-3, dentate gyrus and hilus using immunohistochemical and stereological methods. Density and %VEGFR-2(+) cell populations were estimated for CH animals (2-3 weeks vs. 12-16 weeks) and surgical controls (SC). Overall, we found approximately six- to eightfold increase in the cellular density of VEGFR-2(+) and more than double blood vessel density (BVd) in the hippocampus of CH compared with SC. There were no significant regional differences in VEGFR-2(+) cellular and BVd expression in the CH group. VEGFR-2(+) and BVds were significantly related to changes in CSF volume (Pblood vessel expression was related to focal compression alone or in combination with global ischemia/hypoxia conditions as previously described. These findings suggest that VEGFR-2 may play an adaptive role in angiogenesis after CH

  14. Distinct mechanisms of relaxation to bioactive components from chamomile species in porcine isolated blood vessels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, R.E., E-mail: Richard.roberts@nottingham.ac.uk; Allen, S.; Chang, A.P.Y.; Henderson, H.; Hobson, G.C.; Karania, B.; Morgan, K.N.; Pek, A.S.Y.; Raghvani, K.; Shee, C.Y.; Shikotra, J.; Street, E.; Abbas, Z.; Ellis, K.; Heer, J.K.; Alexander, S.P.H., E-mail: steve.alexander@nottingham.ac.uk

    2013-11-01

    German chamomile (Matricaria recutita L.), a widely-used herbal medicine, has been reported to have a wide range of biological effects, including smooth muscle relaxation. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of representative compounds from chamomile (apigenin, luteolin, (−)-α-bisabolol, farnesene, umbelliferone; 3–30 μM) on vascular tone using porcine coronary and splenic arteries mounted for isometric tension recording in isolated tissue baths and precontracted with the thromboxane-mimetic U46619. Apigenin, luteolin, and (−)-α-bisabolol produced slow, concentration-dependent relaxations in both the coronary and splenic arteries that were not blocked by inhibition of nitric oxide synthase or potassium channels. Removal of extracellular calcium inhibited the relaxations to all three compounds, and these compounds also inhibited calcium re-addition-evoked contractions, indicating that the relaxation response may be mediated through inhibition of calcium influx. Apigenin and luteolin, but not (−)-α-bisabolol, enhanced the relaxation to the nitric oxide donor sodium nitroprusside, indicating that apigenin and luteolin may act to regulate cyclic GMP levels. Umbelliferone produced a rapid, transient relaxation in the splenic artery, but not the coronary artery, that was inhibited by L-NAME and removal of the endothelium, suggesting an influence on nitric oxide production. Farnesene, at concentrations up to 30 μM, was without effect in either blood vessel. In conclusion, hydroxylated compounds (apigenin, luteolin and (−)-α-bisabolol) found in chamomile all caused a slow relaxation of isolated blood vessels through an effect on calcium influx. Umbelliferone, on the other hand, produced a rapid, transient relaxation dependent upon release of nitric oxide from the endothelium. - Highlights: • Apigenin, luteolin, and (-)-α-bisabolol are present in chamomile. • They produced slow, concentration-dependent relaxations in arteries. • These

  15. Multi-detector spiral CT study of the relationships between pulmonary ground-glass nodules and blood vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Feng; Li, Ming; Ge, Xiaojun; Ren, Qingguo; Hua, Yanqing; Zheng, Xiangpeng; Chen, Yan; Lv, Fangzhen

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the relationships between pulmonary ground-glass nodules (GGN) and blood vessels and their diagnostic values in differentiating GGNs. Multi-detector spiral CT imaging of 108 GGNs was retrospectively reviewed. The spatial relationships between GGNs and supplying blood vessels were categorized into four types: I, vessels passing by GGNs; II, intact vessels passing through GGNs; III, distorted, dilated or tortuous vessels seen within GGNs; IV, more complicated vasculature other than described above. Relationship types were correlated to pathologic and/or clinical findings of GGNs. Of 108 GGNs, 10 were benign, 24 preinvasive nodules and 74 adenocarcinomas that were pathologically proven. Types I, II, III and IV vascular relationships were observed in 9, 58, 21 and 20 GGNs, respectively. Type II relationship was the dominating relationship for each GGN group, but significant differences were shown among them. Correlation analysis showed strong correlation between invasive adenocarcinoma and type III and IV relationships. Subgroup analysis indicated that type III was more commonly seen in IAC with comparison to type IV more likely seen in MIA. Different GGNs have different relationships with vessels. Understanding and recognising characteristic GGN-vessel relationships may help identify which GGNs are more likely to be malignant. (orig.)

  16. Disrupting established tumor blood vessels: an emerging therapeutic strategy for cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeage, Mark J; Baguley, Bruce C

    2010-04-15

    The unique characteristics of tumor vasculature represent an attractive target that may be exploited by vascular-targeting anticancer agents. A promising strategy involves the selective disruption of established tumor blood vessels by tumor-vascular disrupting agents (tumor-VDAs), which exhibit antivascular activity, resulting in inhibition of tumor blood flow and extensive necrosis within the tumor core. The tumor-VDA class can be subdivided into flavonoid compounds, which are related to flavone acetic acid, and tubulin-binding compounds. ASA404, of the flavonoid class, is the most advanced tumor-VDA in clinical development and has been evaluated preclinically and in several phase 1 and phase 2 studies. Preclinical studies have demonstrated the selective apoptosis of tumor endothelial cells and the inhibition of tumor blood flow. Synergistic activity was observed with ASA404 and with several chemotherapeutic agents, particularly taxanes. In clinical trials, compared with chemotherapy alone, ASA404 was tolerated well and produced improved activity in patients with nonsmall cell lung cancer when combined with paclitaxel and carboplatin. Phase 3 clinical trials are ongoing. Selectively targeting established tumor vasculature with tumor-VDAs represents a promising and innovative approach to improving the efficacy of standard anticancer therapies. (c) 2010 American Cancer Society.

  17. 3-D trajectory model for MDT using micro-spheres implanted within large blood vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choomphon-anomakhun, Natthaphon; Natenapit, Mayuree

    2016-09-01

    Implant assisted magnetic drug targeting (IA-MDT) using ferromagnetic spherical targets implanted within large blood vessels and subjected to a uniform externally applied magnetic field (H0) has been investigated and reported for the first time. The capture areas (As) of magnetic drug carrier particles (MDCPs) were determined from the analysis of particle trajectories simulated from equations of motion. Then, the effects of various parameters, such as types of ferromagnetic materials in the targets and MDCPs, blood flow rates, mass fraction of the ferromagnetic material in the MDCPs, average radii of MDCPs (Rp) and the strength of H0 on the As were obtained. Furthermore, the effects of saturation magnetization of the ferromagnetic materials in the MDCPs and within the targets on the As were analyzed. After this, the suitable strengths of H0 and Rp for IA-MDT designs were reported. Dimensionless As, ranging from 2 to 7, was obtained with Rp ranging from 500 to 2500 nm, μ0H0 less than 0.8 T and a blood flow rate of 0.1 m s-1. The target-MDCP materials considered are iron-iron, iron-magnetite and SS409-magnetite, respectively.

  18. Low level arsenic promotes progressive inflammatory angiogenesis and liver blood vessel remodeling in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Straub, Adam C.; Stolz, Donna B.; Vin, Harina; Ross, Mark A.; Soucy, Nicole V.; Klei, Linda R.; Barchowsky, Aaron

    2007-01-01

    The vascular effects of arsenic in drinking water are global health concerns contributing to human disease worldwide. Arsenic targets the endothelial cells lining blood vessels, and endothelial cell activation or dysfunction may underlie the pathogenesis of both arsenic-induced vascular diseases and arsenic-enhanced tumorigenesis. The purpose of the current studies was to demonstrate that exposing mice to drinking water containing environmentally relevant levels of arsenic promoted endothelial cell dysfunction and pathologic vascular remodeling. Increased angiogenesis, neovascularization, and inflammatory cell infiltration were observed in Matrigel plugs implanted in C57BL/6 mice following 5-week exposures to 5-500 ppb arsenic [Soucy, N.V., Mayka, D., Klei, L.R., Nemec, A.A., Bauer, J.A., Barchowsky, A., 2005. Neovascularization and angiogenic gene expression following chronic arsenic exposure in mice. Cardiovasc.Toxicol 5, 29-42]. Therefore, functional in vivo effects of arsenic on endothelial cell function and vessel remodeling in an endogenous vascular bed were investigated in the liver. Liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSEC) became progressively defenestrated and underwent capillarization to decrease vessel porosity following exposure to 250 ppb arsenic for 2 weeks. Sinusoidal expression of PECAM-1 and laminin-1 proteins, a hallmark of capillarization, was also increased by 2 weeks of exposure. LSEC caveolin-1 protein and caveolae expression were induced after 2 weeks of exposure indicating a compensatory change. Likewise, CD45/CD68-positive inflammatory cells did not accumulate in the livers until after LSEC porosity was decreased, indicating that inflammation is a consequence and not a cause of the arsenic-induced LSEC phenotype. The data demonstrate that the liver vasculature is an early target of pathogenic arsenic effects and that the mouse liver vasculature is a sensitive model for investigating vascular health effects of arsenic

  19. Retinal blood vessel segmentation in high resolution fundus photographs using automated feature parameter estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlando, José Ignacio; Fracchia, Marcos; del Río, Valeria; del Fresno, Mariana

    2017-11-01

    Several ophthalmological and systemic diseases are manifested through pathological changes in the properties and the distribution of the retinal blood vessels. The characterization of such alterations requires the segmentation of the vasculature, which is a tedious and time-consuming task that is infeasible to be performed manually. Numerous attempts have been made to propose automated methods for segmenting the retinal vasculature from fundus photographs, although their application in real clinical scenarios is usually limited by their ability to deal with images taken at different resolutions. This is likely due to the large number of parameters that have to be properly calibrated according to each image scale. In this paper we propose to apply a novel strategy for automated feature parameter estimation, combined with a vessel segmentation method based on fully connected conditional random fields. The estimation model is learned by linear regression from structural properties of the images and known optimal configurations, that were previously obtained for low resolution data sets. Our experiments in high resolution images show that this approach is able to estimate appropriate configurations that are suitable for performing the segmentation task without requiring to re-engineer parameters. Furthermore, our combined approach reported state of the art performance on the benchmark data set HRF, as measured in terms of the F1-score and the Matthews correlation coefficient.

  20. [Telescopic adhesive anastomosis of small blood vessel applied in formation of arteriovenous fistula for hemodialysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, G; Leng, Y; Rong, G

    1997-03-01

    The formation of an arteriovenous fistual for dialysis by routine interrupted sutures anastomosing the vein and artery is difficult to perform and time-consuming. A new method, telescopic adhesive anastomosis was studied and applied in 10 hemodialysis patients, who were in need of an arteriovenous fistula. The external diameter of the vessels anastomosed was 2.40 +/- 0.20 mm (radial artery) or 2.40 +/- 0.35 mm (cephalic vein). After thorough debridement of the vascular ends, the arterial end was put in the venous lumen. In order to fix the telescopic vessels, two stitches were applied 180 degrees apart from each other and tied. Each stitch was inserted from vein (penetrating the whole wall) to artery (just through the adventitia and partial thickness of the media vasorum). The distance from the stitch to the edge of the vein was 0.5 mm, and that of the artery was approximated to the external diameter of the vessle. The medical adhesive was then applied for sealing the anastomotic adventitia. Ten seconds were given for the solidification of the adhesive. The patients were followed up for 8 months. The patency rate was 100%, and the rate of blood flow was more than 300 ml/min (measured by ultrasonography). It was shown that this method could be managed easily and quickly, and the so-formed fistula would fulfill the need of hemodialysis.

  1. Streaming flow from ultrasound contrast agents by acoustic waves in a blood vessel model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Eunjin; Chung, Sang Kug; Rhee, Kyehan

    2015-09-01

    To elucidate the effects of streaming flow on ultrasound contrast agent (UCA)-assisted drug delivery, streaming velocity fields from sonicated UCA microbubbles were measured using particle image velocimetry (PIV) in a blood vessel model. At the beginning of ultrasound sonication, the UCA bubbles formed clusters and translated in the direction of the ultrasound field. Bubble cluster formation and translation were faster with 2.25MHz sonication, a frequency close to the resonance frequency of the UCA. Translation of bubble clusters induced streaming jet flow that impinged on the vessel wall, forming symmetric vortices. The maximum streaming velocity was about 60mm/s at 2.25MHz and decreased to 15mm/s at 1.0MHz for the same acoustic pressure amplitude. The effect of the ultrasound frequency on wall shear stress was more noticeable. Maximum wall shear stress decreased from 0.84 to 0.1Pa as the ultrasound frequency decreased from 2.25 to 1.0MHz. The maximum spatial gradient of the wall shear stress also decreased from 1.0 to 0.1Pa/mm. This study showed that streaming flow was induced by bubble cluster formation and translation and was stronger upon sonication by an acoustic wave with a frequency near the UCA resonance frequency. Therefore, the secondary radiant force, which is much stronger at the resonance frequency, should play an important role in UCA-assisted drug delivery. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Dependence of light scattering profile in tissue on blood vessel diameter and distribution: a computer simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duadi, Hamootal; Fixler, Dror; Popovtzer, Rachela

    2013-11-01

    Most methods for measuring light-tissue interactions focus on the volume reflectance while very few measure the transmission. We investigate both diffusion reflection and diffuse transmission at all exit angles to receive the full scattering profile. We also investigate the influence of blood vessel diameter on the scattering profile of a circular tissue. The photon propagation path at a wavelength of 850 nm is calculated from the absorption and scattering constants via Monte Carlo simulation. Several simulations are performed where a different vessel diameter and location were chosen but the blood volume was kept constant. The fraction of photons exiting the tissue at several central angles is presented for each vessel diameter. The main result is that there is a central angle that below which the photon transmission decreased for lower vessel diameters while above this angle the opposite occurred. We find this central angle to be 135 deg for a two-dimensional 10-mm diameter circular tissue cross-section containing blood vessels. These findings can be useful for monitoring blood perfusion and oxygen delivery in the ear lobe and pinched tissues. © 2013 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE)

  3. Comparison of the number of gingival blood vessels between type 2 diabetes mellitus and chronic periodontitis patients: An immunohistological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gautami Subhadra Penmetsa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The relationship between diabetes and periodontitis has been studied for more than 50 years and is generally agreed that the periodontal disease is more prevalent in diabetic patients compared to nondiabetics. Vascular changes like increased thickness of basement membrane in small vessels has been reported in diabetic patients, but the quantity of blood vessels in gingiva of diabetic patients has not been discussed much. The aim of this study was to compare the number of blood vessels in gingiva between chronic periodontitis (CP patients, CP with diabetes (type 2, and normal healthy gingiva. Materials and Methods: The study included 75 patients, divided into three groups of 25 patients each-Group I with healthy periodontium (HP, Group II with CP, and Group III with CP with diabetes mellitus (CPDM.Gingival biopsies were obtained from the subjects undergoing crown lengthening procedure for Group I, and in patients with CP and in CPDM biopsies were collected from teeth undergoing extraction. Sections were prepared for immune histochemical staining with CD34. Results: Difference was observed in the average number of blood vessels when compared between HP, CP, and CPDM groups. Statistical significant difference was observed when the HP and CP groups and HP and CPDM groups were compared. Conclusion: The results of the study indicated that the number of blood vessels in gingival connective tissue is significantly higher in CP and CPDM patients.

  4. Lattice Boltzmann simulation of behaviour of particles moving in blood vessels under the rolling massage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou-Hui, Yi; Cai-Feng, Wang; Xiao-Feng, Yang; Hua-Bing, Li

    2009-01-01

    The rolling massage is one of the most important manipulations in Chinese massage, which is expected to eliminate many diseases. Here, the effect of the rolling massage on a pair of particles moving in blood vessels under rolling massage manipulation is studied by the lattice Boltzmann simulation. The simulated results show that the motion of each particle is considerably modified by the rolling massage, and it depends on the relative rolling velocity, the rolling depth, and the distance between particle position and rolling position. Both particles' translational average velocities increase almost linearly as the rolling velocity increases, and obey the same law. The increment of the average relative angular velocity for the leading particle is smaller than that of the trailing one. The result is helpful for understanding the mechanism of the massage and to further develop the rolling techniques. (classical areas of phenomenology)

  5. Ultrastructural analysis of small blood vessels in skin biopsies in CADASIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lačković Vesna

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL is an inherited small- and medium-artery disease of the brain caused by mutation of the Notch3 gene. Very often, this disease is misdiagnosed. We examined skin biopsies in two members of the first discovered Serbian family affected by CADASIL. Electron microscopy showed that skin blood vessels of both patients contain numerous deposits of granular osmiophilic material (GOM around vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs. We observed degeneration of VSMCs, reorganization of their cytoskeleton and dense bodies, disruption of myoendothelial contacts, and apoptosis. Our results suggest that the presence of GOM in small skin arteries represents a specific marker in diagnosis of CADASIL.

  6. Wrong theories on the origin of blood vessels: Polybus and De Natura Hominis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoja, Mohammadali M; Tubbs, R Shane; Loukas, Marios; Ardalan, Mohammad R

    2008-06-06

    Polybus of Cos (approximately 400 B.C.) was the son-in-law and the successor of Hippocrates. He is credited with founding the school of Dogmatism, and writing "The Nature of Man" which was important in advancing the theory of the four body humors (humoralism). Some earlier scholars negated Polybus' role as an independent medical figure. However, Corpus Aristotelicum quoted him as having a unique theory regarding the body vasculature which stated that this system was composed of four pairs of blood vessels originating from the head and that these supplied the whole body. In an interpretation of this theory, we opined that numerological mysticism might have been the common motive for both Hippocrates' humoralism and Polybus' theory of the vasculature. A discussion on this issue is presented.

  7. Blood vessel-based liver segmentation through the portal phase of a CT dataset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maklad, Ahmed S.; Matsuhiro, Mikio; Suzuki, Hidenobu; Kawata, Yoshiki; Niki, Noboru; Moriyama, Noriyuki; Utsunomiya, Toru; Shimada, Mitsuo

    2013-02-01

    Blood vessels are dispersed throughout the human body organs and carry unique information for each person. This information can be used to delineate organ boundaries. The proposed method relies on abdominal blood vessels (ABV) to segment the liver considering the potential presence of tumors through the portal phase of a CT dataset. ABV are extracted and classified into hepatic (HBV) and nonhepatic (non-HBV) with a small number of interactions. HBV and non-HBV are used to guide an automatic segmentation of the liver. HBV are used to individually segment the core region of the liver. This region and non-HBV are used to construct a boundary surface between the liver and other organs to separate them. The core region is classified based on extracted posterior distributions of its histogram into low intensity tumor (LIT) and non-LIT core regions. Non-LIT case includes normal part of liver, HBV, and high intensity tumors if exist. Each core region is extended based on its corresponding posterior distribution. Extension is completed when it reaches either a variation in intensity or the constructed boundary surface. The method was applied to 80 datasets (30 Medical Image Computing and Computer Assisted Intervention (MICCAI) and 50 non-MICCAI data) including 60 datasets with tumors. Our results for the MICCAI-test data were evaluated by sliver07 [1] with an overall score of 79.7, which ranks seventh best on the site (December 2013). This approach seems a promising method for extraction of liver volumetry of various shapes and sizes and low intensity hepatic tumors.

  8. Tumor blood vessel "normalization" improves the therapeutic efficacy of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) in experimental oral cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. W. Nigg

    2012-01-01

    We previously demonstrated the efficacy of BNCT mediated by boronophenylalanine (BPA) to treat tumors in a hamster cheek pouch model of oral cancer with no normal tissue radiotoxicity and moderate, albeit reversible, mucositis in precancerous tissue around treated tumors. It is known that boron targeting of the largest possible proportion of tumor cells contributes to the success of BNCT and that tumor blood vessel normalization improves drug delivery to the tumor. Within this context, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of blood vessel normalization on the therapeutic efficacy and potential radiotoxicity of BNCT in the hamster cheek pouch model of oral cancer.

  9. Tumor blood vessel 'normalization' improves the therapeutic efficacy of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) in experimental oral cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nigg, D.W.

    2012-01-01

    We previously demonstrated the efficacy of BNCT mediated by boronophenylalanine (BPA) to treat tumors in a hamster cheek pouch model of oral cancer with no normal tissue radiotoxicity and moderate, albeit reversible, mucositis in precancerous tissue around treated tumors. It is known that boron targeting of the largest possible proportion of tumor cells contributes to the success of BNCT and that tumor blood vessel normalization improves drug delivery to the tumor. Within this context, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of blood vessel normalization on the therapeutic efficacy and potential radiotoxicity of BNCT in the hamster cheek pouch model of oral cancer.

  10. Abnormalities in ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in hypertensive patients with diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorostidi, Manuel; de la Sierra, Alejandro; González-Albarrán, Olga; Segura, Julián; de la Cruz, Juan J; Vinyoles, Ernest; Llisterri, José L; Aranda, Pedro; Ruilope, Luis M; Banegas, José R

    2011-11-01

    Our aim was to assess the ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) characteristics or patterns in hypertensive patients with diabetes compared with non-diabetic hypertensives. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of a 68,045 patient database from the Spanish Society of Hypertension ABPM Registry, a nation-wide network of >1200 primary-care physicians performing ABPM under standardized conditions in daily practice. We identified 12,600 (18.5%) hypertensive patients with diabetes. When compared with patients without diabetes, diabetic hypertensives exhibited higher systolic blood pressure (BP) levels in every ABPM period (daytime 135.4 vs. 131.8, and nighttime 126.0 vs. 121.0 mm Hg, P<0.001 for both) despite they were receiving more antihypertensive drugs (mean number 1.71 vs. 1.23, P<0.001). Consequently, diabetic patients suffered from lack of control of BP more frequently than non-diabetic subjects particularly during the night (65.5% vs. 57.4%, P<0.001). Prevalence of a non-dipping BP profile (64.2% vs. 51.6%, P<0.001) was higher in diabetic patients. In the other hand, prevalence of 'white-coat' hypertension in diabetic patients was 33.0%. We conclude that there was a remarkably high prevalence of alterations in ABPM in patients with diabetes. Abnormalities in systolic BP, particularly during the night, and in circadian BP pattern could be linked with the excess of BP-related cardiovascular risk of diabetes. A wider use of ABPM in diabetic patients should be considered.

  11. Cerebral blood flow and metabolic abnormalities in Alzheimer's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuda, Hiroshi [National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Kodaira, Tokyo (Japan). National Center Hospital for Mental, Nervous, and Muscular Disorders

    2001-04-01

    In this review I summarize observations of PET and SPECT studies about cerebral blood flow and metabolic abnormalities in Alzheimer's disease (AD). In very early AD flow or metabolism reduces first in the posterior cingulate gyrus and precuneus. This reduction may arise from functional deafferentation caused by primary neural degeneration in the remote area of the entorhinal cortex that is the first to be pathologically affected in AD. Then medial temporal structures and parietotemporal association cortex show flow or metabolic reduction as disease processes. The reason why flow or metabolism in medial temporal structures shows delay in starting to reduce in spite of the earliest pathological affection remains to be elucidated. It is likely that anterior cingulate gyrus is functionally involved, since attention is the first non-memory domain to be affected, before deficits in language and visuospatial functions. However few reports have described involvement in the anterior cingulate gyrus. Relationship between cerebral blood flow or metabolism and apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype has been investigated. Especially, the APOE{epsilon}4 allele has been reported to increase risk and to lower onset age as a function of the inherited dose of the {epsilon}4 allele. Reduction of flow or metabolism in the posterior cingulate gyrus and precuneus has been reported even in presymptomatic nondemented subjects who were cognitively normal and had at least a single {epsilon}4 allele. On the contrary the relation of {epsilon}4 allele to the progression rate of AD has been controversial from neuroimaging approaches. PET and SPECT imaging has become to be quite useful for assessing therapeutical effects of newly introduced treatment for AD. Recent investigations observed significant regional flow increase after donepezil hydrochloride treatment. Most of these observations have been made by applying computer assisted analysis of three-dimensional stereotactic surface projection

  12. The Behaviors of Ferro-Magnetic Nano-Particles In and Around Blood Vessels under Applied Magnetic Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nacev, A.; Beni, C.; Bruno, O.; Shapiro, B.

    2010-01-01

    In magnetic drug delivery, therapeutic magnetizable particles are typically injected into the blood stream and magnets are then used to concentrate them to disease locations. The behavior of such particles in-vivo is complex and is governed by blood convection, diffusion (in blood and in tissue), extravasation, and the applied magnetic fields. Using physical first-principles and a sophisticated vessel-membrane-tissue (VMT) numerical solver, we comprehensively analyze in detail the behavior of magnetic particles in blood vessels and surrounding tissue. For any blood vessel (of any size, depth, and blood velocity) and tissue properties, particle size and applied magnetic fields, we consider a Krogh tissue cylinder geometry and solve for the resulting spatial distribution of particles. We find that there are three prototypical behaviors (blood velocity dominated, magnetic force dominated, and boundary-layer formation) and that the type of behavior observed is uniquely determined by three non-dimensional numbers (the magnetic-Richardson number, mass Péclet number, and Renkin reduced diffusion coefficient). Plots and equations are provided to easily read out which behavior is found under which circumstances (Figures 5, 6, 7, and 8). We compare our results to previously published in-vitro and in-vivo magnetic drug delivery experiments. Not only do we find excellent agreement between our predictions and prior experimental observations, but we are also able to qualitatively and quantitatively explain behavior that was previously not understood. PMID:21278859

  13. Regional cerebral blood flow abnormalities in late-life depression. Relation to refractoriness and chronification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awata, Shuichi; Konno, Michiko; Sato, Mitsumoto; Ito, Hiroshi; Ono, Shuichi; Kawashima, Ryuta; Fukuda, Hiroshi

    1998-01-01

    We examined patterns of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) abnormalities in 18 patients with major depressive disorder in late life using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and 99m Tc-hexamethyl-propylenamine oxime ( 99m Tc-HMPAO). Compared with 13 age-matched controls, relative rCBF was significantly decreased bilaterally in the anterior cingulate gyrus, the prefrontal cortex, the temporal cortex, the parietal cortex, the hippocampus and the caudate nucleus. However, it was not correlated with the severity of depression or global cognitive dysfunction. In 10 patients with a prolonged depressive episode or prolonged residual symptoms (the refractory subgroup), robust and extensive decreases in rCBF were found compared with controls and the rCBF decreased significantly in the anterior cingulate gyrus and the prefrontal cortex compared with that in the non-refractory subgroup. In the non-reflactory subgroup, rCBF decreased significantly in the caudate nucleus and tended to decrease in the anterior cingulate gyrus compared with controls. These findings indicate that dysfunction of the limbic system, the cerebral association cortex and the caudate nucleus may be implicated in late-life depression and that robust and extensive hypoperfusion, especially in the anterior cingulate and the prefrontal regions, may relate to refractoriness or chronification of depression. (author). 60 refs

  14. Regional cerebral blood flow abnormalities in late-life depression. Relation to refractoriness and chronification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Awata, Shuichi; Konno, Michiko; Sato, Mitsumoto [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). School of Medicine; Ito, Hiroshi; Ono, Shuichi; Kawashima, Ryuta; Fukuda, Hiroshi

    1998-02-01

    We examined patterns of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) abnormalities in 18 patients with major depressive disorder in late life using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and {sup 99m}Tc-hexamethyl-propylenamine oxime ({sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO). Compared with 13 age-matched controls, relative rCBF was significantly decreased bilaterally in the anterior cingulate gyrus, the prefrontal cortex, the temporal cortex, the parietal cortex, the hippocampus and the caudate nucleus. However, it was not correlated with the severity of depression or global cognitive dysfunction. In 10 patients with a prolonged depressive episode or prolonged residual symptoms (the refractory subgroup), robust and extensive decreases in rCBF were found compared with controls and the rCBF decreased significantly in the anterior cingulate gyrus and the prefrontal cortex compared with that in the non-refractory subgroup. In the non-reflactory subgroup, rCBF decreased significantly in the caudate nucleus and tended to decrease in the anterior cingulate gyrus compared with controls. These findings indicate that dysfunction of the limbic system, the cerebral association cortex and the caudate nucleus may be implicated in late-life depression and that robust and extensive hypoperfusion, especially in the anterior cingulate and the prefrontal regions, may relate to refractoriness or chronification of depression. (author). 60 refs.

  15. Characterization of Imidazoline Receptors in Blood Vessels for the Development of Antihypertensive Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei-Fen Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been indicated that activation of peripheral imidazoline I2-receptor (I-2R may reduce the blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs. Also, guanidinium derivatives show the ability to activate imidazoline receptors. Thus, it is of special interest to characterize the I-2R using guanidinium derivatives in blood vessels for development of antihypertensive agent(s. Six guanidinium derivatives including agmatine, amiloride, aminoguanidine, allantoin, canavanine, and metformin were applied in this study. Western blot analysis was used for detecting the expression of imidazoline receptor in tissues of Wistar rats. The isometric tension of aortic rings isolated from male rats was also estimated. The expression of imidazoline receptor on rat aorta was identified. However, guanidinium derivatives for detection of aortic relaxation were not observed except agmatine and amiloride which induced a marked relaxation in isolated aortic rings precontracted with phenylephrine or KCl. Both relaxations induced by agmatine and amiloride were attenuated by glibenclamide at concentration enough to block ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP channels. Meanwhile, only agmatine-induced relaxation was abolished by BU224, a selective antagonist of imidazoline I2-receptors. Taken together, we suggest that agmatine can induce vascular relaxation through activation of peripheral imidazoline I2-receptor to open KATP channels. Thus, agmatine-like compound has the potential to develop as a new therapeutic agent for hypertension in the future.

  16. Ultrasound sonication with microbubbles disrupts blood vessels and enhances tumor treatments of anticancer nanodrug

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin CY

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Chung-Yin Lin1*, Hsiao-Ching Tseng1*, Heng-Ruei Shiu1, Ming-Fang Wu2, Cheng-Ying Chou3, Win-Li Lin1,41Institute of Biomedical Engineering, 2Laboratory Animal Center, 3Department of Bio-Industrial Mechatronics Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan; 4Division of Medical Engineering Research, National Health Research Institutes, Miaoli, Taiwan*These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: Ultrasound (US sonication with microbubbles (MBs has the potential to disrupt blood vessels and enhance the delivery of drugs into the sonicated tissues. In this study, mouse ear tumors were employed to investigate the therapeutic effects of US, MBs, and pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (PLD on tumors. Tumors started to receive treatments when they grew up to about 15 mm3 (early stage with injection of PLD 10 mg/kg, or up to 50 mm3 (medium stage with PLD 6 (or 4 mg/kg. Experiments included the control, PLD alone, PLD + MBs + US, US alone, and MBs + US groups. The procedure for the PLD + MBs + US group was that PLD was injected first, MB (SonoVue injection followed, and then US was immediately sonicated on the tumor. The results showed that: (1 US sonication with MBs was always able to produce a further hindrance to tumor growth for both early and medium-stage tumors; (2 for the medium-stage tumors, 6 mg/kg PLD alone was able to inhibit their growth, while it did not work for 4 mg/kg PLD alone; (3 with the application of MBs + US, 4 mg/kg PLD was able to inhibit the growth of medium-stage tumors; (4 for early stage tumors after the first treatment with a high dose of PLD alone (10 mg/kg, the tumor size still increased for several days and then decreased (a biphasic pattern; (5 MBs + US alone was able to hinder the growth of early stage tumors, but unable to hinder that of medium stage tumors. The results of histological examinations and blood perfusion measurements indicated that the application of MBs + US disrupts the tumor blood

  17. Vascular targeting of LIGHT normalizes blood vessels in primary brain cancer and induces intratumoural high endothelial venules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Bo; Jabouille, Arnaud; Steri, Veronica; Johansson-Percival, Anna; Michael, Iacovos P; Kotamraju, Venkata Ramana; Junckerstorff, Reimar; Nowak, Anna K; Hamzah, Juliana; Lee, Gabriel; Bergers, Gabriele; Ganss, Ruth

    2018-06-01

    High-grade brain cancer such as glioblastoma (GBM) remains an incurable disease. A common feature of GBM is the angiogenic vasculature, which can be targeted with selected peptides for payload delivery. We assessed the ability of micelle-tagged, vascular homing peptides RGR, CGKRK and NGR to specifically bind to blood vessels in syngeneic orthotopic GBM models. By using the peptide CGKRK to deliver the tumour necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily member LIGHT (also known as TNF superfamily member 14; TNFSF14) to angiogenic tumour vessels, we have generated a reagent that normalizes the brain cancer vasculature by inducing pericyte contractility and re-establishing endothelial barrier integrity. LIGHT-mediated vascular remodelling also activates endothelia and induces intratumoural high endothelial venules (HEVs), which are specialized blood vessels for lymphocyte infiltration. Combining CGKRK-LIGHT with anti-vascular endothelial growth factor and checkpoint blockade amplified HEV frequency and T-cell accumulation in GBM, which is often sparsely infiltrated by immune effector cells, and reduced tumour burden. Furthermore, CGKRK and RGR peptides strongly bound to blood vessels in freshly resected human GBM, demonstrating shared peptide-binding activities in mouse and human primary brain tumour vessels. Thus, peptide-mediated LIGHT targeting is a highly translatable approach in primary brain cancer to reduce vascular leakiness and enhance immunotherapy. Copyright © 2018 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2018 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Transcatheter arterial embolization of abnormal vessels as a treatment for lateral epicondylitis refractory to conservative treatment: a pilot study with a 2-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamoto, Wataru; Okuno, Yuji; Matsumura, Noboru; Kaneko, Takao; Ikegami, Hiroyasu

    2017-08-01

    Abnormal vessels and accompanying nerves are possible sources of pain with lateral epicondylitis. The purpose of this study was to describe the safety and efficacy of transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) for lateral epicondylitis resistant to conservative treatment. This prospective study was conducted in 24 patients with lateral epicondylitis resistant to conservative treatments for more than 3 months, with a symptom duration longer than 6 months, and with moderate to severe pain who were treated with TAE between March 2013 and October 2014. Two patients were lost to follow-up, and the remaining 22 patients were followed up for 2 years after TAE. Abnormal vessels were identified in all of the patients. No major adverse events were observed. The Quick Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand scores at baseline significantly decreased at 1, 3, 6, and 24 months after treatment (50.8 vs 23.4, 8.3, 5.3, and 2.7, respectively; all P lateral epicondylitis that fails to improve with conservative treatments. Copyright © 2017 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Did antepartum hypoxic insult caused by fetal vessel thrombosis influence the procalcitonin level in umbilical blood? A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Masatoki; Yamauchi, Aya; Yamashita, Rie; Sato, Yuichiro; Kodama, Yuki; Sameshima, Hiroshi

    2015-11-01

    We report a case of marked elevation of the procalcitonin level in umbilical blood and neonatal blood at birth. The mother did not perceive fetal motion. Antepartum fetal heart rate monitoring showed a loss of variability and absence of acceleration. No fetal breathing movement, fetal movement, or fetal tone were observed by ultrasonography. The female neonate was delivered by cesarean section at 25 weeks of gestation, with birthweight 774 g. The umbilical arterial pH value at birth was 7.29. Mild elevation in interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α in umbilical blood were observed. Cytochrome c showed a high level in umbilical and neonatal blood at birth. Placental histopathology revealed multiple fetal vessel thrombosis in the large stem villi and chorionic vessels. The neonate showed no infectious signs throughout the neonatal period. Computed tomography at 3 months of age revealed atrophy in the cerebrum and cerebellum. At 1 year after birth, the infant showed spastic quadriplegia. In this case, antepartum asphyxia due to fetal vessel thrombosis may have influenced the elevation of procalcitonin level in umbilical blood and neonatal blood at birth. © 2015 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  20. Chest and spine radiography abnormality in blunt chest trauma correlated with major vessel injury in an unselected patient population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, G.; Kadir, S.; Encarnacion, C.

    1989-01-01

    To assess the true incidence of major vessel injury, the authors retrospectively reviewed all arch aortograms obtained for blunt chest trauma (BCT) during a 24-month period beginning December 1986. Aortograms were correlated with preangiographic chest radiographic and operative findings. The goals of this review were to examine the usefulness of commonly employed screening criteria for aortography and determine whether thoracic spine fractures imply a decreased likelihood of aortic injury. One hundred twenty aortograms were obtained during this period. The incidence of aortic laceration was 6.7%, and 7.5% had brachiocerebral vascular injury. Only 51% of chest radiographs were suggestive of vascular injury. Two patients with subtle radiographic findings had aortic laceration. One patient with a burst fracture of T-4 had aortic laceration. The results of this review indicate the incidence of great vessel injury is as high as that of injury to the aorta itself and that the presence of spine fractures does not exclude vascular injury

  1. Antibody-linked drug destroys tumor cells and tumor blood vessels in many types of cancer | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    A team led by Brad St. Croix, Ph.D., Senior Associate Scientist, Mouse Cancer Genetics Program, has developed an antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) that destroys both tumor cells and the blood vessels that nourish them. The drug significantly shrank breast tumors, colon tumors and several other types of cancer and prolonged survival. Learn more...  

  2. Does Physical Fitness Buffer the Relationship between Psychosocial Stress, Retinal Vessel Diameters, and Blood Pressure among Primary Schoolchildren?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endes, Katharina; Herrmann, Christian; Colledge, Flora; Brand, Serge; Donath, Lars; Faude, Oliver; Pühse, Uwe; Hanssen, Henner; Zahner, Lukas

    2016-01-01

    Background. Strong evidence exists showing that psychosocial stress plays an important part in the development of cardiovascular diseases. Because physical inactivity is associated with less favourable retinal vessel diameter and blood pressure profiles, this study explores whether physical fitness is able to buffer the negative effects of psychosocial stress on retinal vessel diameters and blood pressure in young children. Methods. 325 primary schoolchildren (51% girls, Mage = 7.28 years) took part in this cross-sectional research project. Retinal arteriolar diameters, retinal venular diameters, arteriolar to venular ratio, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure were assessed in all children. Interactions terms between physical fitness (performance in the 20 m shuttle run test) and four indicators of psychosocial stress (parental reports of critical life events, family, peer and school stress) were tested in a series of hierarchical regression analyses. Results. Critical life events and family, peer, and school-related stress were only weakly associated with retinal vessel diameters and blood pressure. No support was found for a stress-buffering effect of physical fitness. Conclusion. More research is needed with different age groups to find out if and from what age physical fitness can protect against arteriolar vessel narrowing and the occurrence of other cardiovascular disease risk factors. PMID:27795958

  3. The effect of transluminal stent-graft placement on blood flow of abdominal branch vessels in type B aortic dissection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Lianjun; Yang Jian; Yu Feicheng; Sun Lizhong; Zhu Junming; Zhang Yan; Jiang Shiliang

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of TSGP on blood flow of abdominal branch vessels of Type B dissection. Methods: Thirty-five patients with type B aortic dissection underwent TSGP. The blood flow of abdominal branch vessels was analyzed via EBCT, MRI, and DSA before and after procedure. Results: A total of 140 important vessels from abdominal aorta in 35 patients, including celiac artery, SMA, right and left renal arteries were analyzed via EBCT, MRI, and DSA. 58 branches were affected by dissection, of which 14 (10% ) were dynamic impairment; and 44 (31.4%) were static impairment. After TSGP, the blood flow of impaired branches all showed improvement at different degrees, no post-operative ischemic complications occurred. Conclusion: TSGP could improve the blood flow immediately not only the dynamic but also the static ischemia of abdominal aorta branch vessels caused by type B aortic dissection. Further study is still need to observe the mid-term and long-term effect of TSGP. (authors)

  4. Tests of the geometrical description of blood vessels in a thermal model using counter-current geometries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, G. M.; Kotte, A. N.; Crezee, J.; Lagendijk, J. J.

    1997-01-01

    We have developed a thermal model, for use in hyperthermia treatment planning, in which blood vessels are described as geometrical objects; 3D curves with associated diameters. For the calculation of the heat exchange with the tissue an analytic result is used. To arrive at this result some

  5. Blood vessels in subcaruncular and intercaruncular bovine endometriun possess oxytocin receptors (ORT) and express otr mRNA during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuchs, Anna-Ritta; Balvers, Marga; Ivell, Richard

    2002-01-01

    is taking place; marked changes were observed with advancing pregnancy. The epithelial cells of the trophoblast were strongly stained for ir OTR and OTR mRNA, as reported last year, but the fetal connective tissue and blood vessels within the trophoblast did not show any stain for ir OTR or OTR m...... placentation because episodic secretion of OT occurs throughout bovine pregnancy...

  6. A new resorbable device for ligation of blood vessels - A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borg Niklas

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During surgery, controlled haemostasis to prevent blood loss is vital for a successful outcome. It can be difficult to ligate vessels located deep in the abdomen. A device that is easy to use and enables secure ligatures could be beneficial. Cable ties made of nylon have been used for ligation but the non-resorbable material caused tissue reactions. The objective of this study was to use a resorbable material to construct a device with a self-locking mechanism and to test its mechanical strength and ligation efficiency. Methods The device was manufactured by injection moulding of polydioxanone, a resorbable polymer used for suture materials. Polydioxanone with inherent viscosities of 1.9 dL/g and 1.3 dL/g were tested. The device consisted of a perforated flexible band which could be pulled through a case with a locking mechanism. After a first version of the device had been tested, some improvements were made. The locking case was downsized, corners were rounded off, the band was made thicker and the mould was redesigned to produce longer devices. Tensile tests were performed with the second version. The first version of the device was used to ligate the ovarian pedicle in a euthanized dog and to test echogenicity of the device with ultrasound. Compression of vessels of the ovarian pedicle was examined by histology. Both versions of the device were tested for haemostasis of and tissue grip on renal arteries in six anaesthetised pigs. Results The tensile strength of the flexible band of the devices with inherent viscosity of 1.9 dL/g was 50.1 ± 5.5 N (range 35.2-62.9 N, n = 11 and the devices with inherent viscosity of 1.3 dL/g had a tensile strength of 39.8 ± 8.1 N (range 18.6-54.2 N, n = 11. Injection moulding of the polymer with lower inherent viscosity resulted in a longer flow distance. Both versions of the device had an effective tissue grip and complete haemostasis of renal arteries was verified. The device attached

  7. [Aetiology and pathogenesis of damages to blood vessels in drug addicts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultanaliev, T A; Tursynbaev, S E; Ivakin, V M

    2007-01-01

    The article deals with the problems concerning aetiology and pathogenesis of damages to blood vessels in patients practicing parenteral administration of surrogates of narcotic substances. In order to clinically and experimentally study the pattern of morphological alterations in the area of narcotic substances administration and to work out an appropriate classification of the forms and stages of development of the pathological process, the authors analysed the clinical course of vascular lesions and complications thereof in a total of 244 drug abusers having parenterally administered surrogates of narcotic substances and undergoing treatment at the Department of Vascular Surgery of the Municipal Clinical Hospital of the city of Almaty. Additionally, experimental studies were carried out on 16 rabbits with the induced model of parenteral administration of surrogates of narcotic substances, thus making it possible to study the degree of their effect and to confirm the theory of a chemical impact of the homemade drugs on the vascular wall. The findings of the carried out studies enabled us to single out the following clinical stages of vascular lesions: stage I - the initial stage of cicatricial-and-ulcerous lesions formation, stage II - formation of cutaneous-and-vascular fistulas, stage III - the stage of complications characterized by development of health-hazardous vascular lesions, i. e., arterial and venous thromboses of the major vessels, as well as arrosive bleedings. It was noted that more than 50% of patients were admitted to the clinic presenting with the third stage of vascular lesions. The experimental part of the study included 64 experiments on 16 rabbits (one experiment per each paw of the animal). The laboratory animals were subdivided into three groups. The first experimental group consisted of the rabbits with a mechanically inflicted injury to the vessels. The second and third experimental groups were composed of the rabbits having received

  8. Rapid sealing of porcine renal blood vessels, ex vivo, using a high power, 1470-nm laser, and laparoscopic prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Luke A.; Hutchens, Thomas C.; Larson, Eric R.; Gonzalez, David A.; Chang, Chun-Hung; Nau, William H.; Fried, Nathaniel M.

    2017-05-01

    Energy-based, radiofrequency (RF) and ultrasonic (US) devices currently provide rapid sealing of blood vessels during laparoscopic procedures. We are exploring infrared lasers as an alternate energy modality for vessel sealing, capable of generating less collateral thermal damage. Previous studies demonstrated feasibility of sealing vessels in an in vivo porcine model using a 1470-nm laser. However, the initial prototype was designed for testing in open surgery and featured tissue clasping and light delivery mechanisms incompatible with laparoscopic surgery. In this study, a laparoscopic prototype similar to devices currently in surgical use was developed, and performance tests were conducted on porcine renal blood vessels, ex vivo. The 5-mm outer-diameter laparoscopic prototype featured a traditional Maryland jaw configuration that enables tissue manipulation and blunt dissection. Laser energy was delivered through a 550-μm-core-diameter optical fiber with side-delivery from the lower jaw and beam dimensions of 18-mm length×1.2-mm width. The 1470-nm diode laser delivered 68 W with 3-s activation time, consistent with vessel seal times associated with RF and US-based devices. A total of 69 fresh porcine renal vessels with mean diameter of 3.3±1.7 mm were tested, ex vivo. Vessels smaller than 5-mm diameter were consistently sealed (48/51) with burst pressures greater than malignant hypertension blood pressure (180 mmHg), averaging 1038±474 mmHg. Vessels larger than 5 mm were not consistently sealed (6/18), yielding burst pressures of only 174±221 mmHg. Seal width, thermal damage zone, and thermal spread averaged 1.7±0.8, 3.4±0.7, and 1.0±0.4 mm, respectively. Results demonstrated that the 5-mm optical laparoscopic prototype consistently sealed vessels less than 5-mm diameter with low thermal spread. Further in vivo studies are planned to test the performance across a variety of vessels and tissues.

  9. Evidence of Flicker-Induced Functional Hyperaemia in the Smallest Vessels of the Human Retinal Blood Supply.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelina Duan

    Full Text Available Regional changes in blood flow are initiated within neural tissue to help fuel local differences in neural activity. Classically, this response was thought to arise only in larger arterioles and venules. However, recently, it has been proposed that a the smallest vessels of the circulation make a comparable contribution, and b the response should be localised intermittently along such vessels, due to the known distribution of contractile mural cells. To assess these hypotheses in human neural tissue in vivo, we imaged the retinal microvasculature (diameters 3-28 μm non-invasively, using adaptive optics, before and after delivery of focal (360 μm patches of flickering visible light. Our results demonstrated a definite average response in 35% of all vessel segments analysed. In these responding vessels, the magnitude of proportional dilation (mean ± SEM for pre-capillary arterioles 13 ± 5%, capillaries 31 ± 8%, and post-capillary venules 10 ± 3% is generally far greater than the magnitudes we and others have measured in the larger retinal vessels, supporting proposition a above. The dilations observed in venules were unexpected based on previous animal work, and may be attributed either to differences in stimulus or species. Response heterogeneity across the network was high; responses were also heterogeneous along individual vessels (45% of vessel segments showed demonstrable locality in their response. These observations support proposition b above. We also observed a definite average constriction across 7% of vessel segments (mean ± SEM constriction for capillaries -16 ± 3.2%, and post-capillary venules -18 ± 12%, which paints a picture of dynamic redistribution of flow throughout the smallest vessel networks in the retina in response to local, stimulus-driven metabolic demand.

  10. X-ray PIV measurement of blood flow in deep vessels of a rat: An in vivo feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hanwook; Yeom, Eunseop; Lee, Sang Joon

    2016-01-18

    X-ray PIV measurement is a noninvasive approach to measure opaque blood flows. However, it is not easy to measure real pulsatile blood flows in the blood vessels located at deep position of the body, because the surrounding tissues significantly attenuate the contrast of X-ray images. This study investigated the effect of surrounding tissues on X-ray beam attenuation by measuring the velocity fields of blood flows in deep vessels of a live rat. The decrease in image contrast was minimized by employing biocompatible CO2 microbubbles as tracer particles. The maximum measurable velocity of blood flows in the abdominal aorta of a rat model was found through comparative examination between the PIV measurement accuracy and the level of image contrast according to the input flow rate. Furthermore, the feasibility of using X-ray PIV to accurately measure in vivo blood flows was demonstrated by determining the velocity field of blood flows in the inferior vena cava of a rat. This study may serve as a reference in conducting in vivo X-ray PIV measurements of pulsatile blood flows in animal disease models and investigating hemodynamic characteristics and circulatory vascular diseases.

  11. Factors Contributing to Massive Blood Loss on Peripartum Hysterectomy for Abnormally Invasive Placenta: Who Bleeds More?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hironori Takahashi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. To identify factors that determine blood loss during peripartum hysterectomy for abnormally invasive placenta (AIP-hysterectomy. Methods. We reviewed all of the medical charts of 11,919 deliveries in a single tertiary perinatal center. We examined characteristics of AIP-hysterectomy patients, with a single experienced obstetrician attending all AIP-hysterectomies and using the same technique. Results. AIP-hysterectomy was performed in 18 patients (0.15%: 18/11,919. Of the 18, 14 (78% had a prior cesarean section (CS history and the other 4 (22% were primiparous women. Planned AIP-hysterectomy was performed in 12/18 (67%, with the remaining 6 (33% undergoing emergent AIP-hysterectomy. Of the 6, 4 (4/6: 67% patients were primiparous women. An intra-arterial balloon was inserted in 9/18 (50%. Women with the following three factors significantly bled less in AIP-hysterectomy than its counterpart: the employment of an intra-arterial balloon (4,448±1,948 versus 8,861±3,988 mL, planned hysterectomy (5,003±2,057 versus 9,957±4,485 mL, and prior CS (5,706±2,727 versus 9,975±5,532 mL. Patients with prior CS (− bled more: this may be because these patients tended to undergo emergent surgery or attempted placental separation. Conclusion. Patients with intra-arterial balloon catheter insertion bled less on AIP-hysterectomy. Massive bleeding occurred in emergent AIP-hysterectomy without prior CS.

  12. Abnormal regional cerebral blood flow in systemic lupus erythematosus patients with psychiatric symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oda, Kenji; Matsushima, Eisuke; Okubo, Yoshiro; Ohta, Katsuya; Murata, Yuji; Koike, Ryuji; Miyasaka, Nobuyuki; Kato, Motoichiro

    2005-07-01

    Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) studies have demonstrated decreased regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients. However, no study has done voxel-based analysis using statistical parametric mapping (SPM) that can evaluate rCBF objectively, and the relationship between rCBF and psychiatric symptoms has not been well investigated. Using L,L-ethyl cysteinate dimer (99mTc ECD) SPECT and SPM, we aimed to clarify the association of rCBF changes with psychiatric symptoms in SLE patients whose magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed no morphological abnormalities. Twenty SLE patients and 19 healthy volunteers underwent 99mTc ECD SPECT. Data were collected from August 2000 to March 2003. SLE was diagnosed according to American College of Rheumatology criteria, and psychiatric symptoms were diagnosed according to ICD-10 criteria. On the basis of the modified Carbotte, Denburg, and Denburg method, the patients were classified into 3 groups: a group with major psychiatric symptoms (hallucinosis, delusional disorder, and mood disorder), a group with minor psychiatric symptoms (anxiety disorder, dissociative disorder, and emotionally labile disorder), and a group without psychiatric symptoms. Gross organic lesions were ruled out by brain MRI. Group comparisons of rCBF were performed with analysis using SPM99. SLE patients without MRI lesions showed decreased rCBF in the posterior cingulate gyrus and thalamus. The reduction in rCBF was overt in patients with major psychiatric symptoms. Our study indicated that SLE patients may have dysfunction in the posterior cingulate gyrus and thalamus and that this may be associated with the severity of psychiatric symptoms.

  13. Abnormal expression of blood group-related antigens in uterine endometrial cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukazaki, K; Sakayori, M; Arai, H; Yamaoka, K; Kurihara, S; Nozawa, S

    1991-08-01

    The expression of A, B, and H group antigens, Lewis group antigens (Lewis(a), Lewis(b), Lewis(x), and Lewis(y)), and Lc4 and nLc4 antigens, the precursor antigens of both groups, was examined immunohistochemically with monoclonal antibodies in 9 normal endometria, 6 endometrial hyperplasias, and 31 endometrial cancers. 1) A, B and/or H antigens were detected in endometrial cancers at an incidence of 51.6%, while no distinct localization of these antigens was observed in normal endometria. H antigen, the precursor of A and B antigens, was particularly frequently detected in endometrial cancers. 2) An increased rate of expression of Lewis group antigens, particularly Lewis(b) antigen, was observed in endometrial cancers compared with its expression in normal endometria. 3) Lc4 and nLc4 antigens were detected in endometrial cancers at rates of 41.9% and 38.7%, respectively, these expressions being increased compared with those in normal endometria. 4) These results suggest that a highly abnormal expression of blood group-related antigens in endometrial cancers occurs not only at the level of A, B, and H antigens and Lewis group antigens, but also at the level of their precursor Lc4 and nLc4 antigens. 5) Lewis(a), Lewis(b), and Lc4 antigens, built on the type-1 chain, are more specific to endometrial cancers than their respective positional isomers, Lewis(x), Lewis(y), and nLc4 antigens, built on the type-2 chain.

  14. Rapid sealing and cutting of porcine blood vessels, ex vivo, using a high-power, 1470-nm diode laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giglio, Nicholas C; Hutchens, Thomas C; Perkins, William C; Latimer, Cassandra; Ward, Arlen; Nau, William H; Fried, Nathaniel M

    2014-03-01

    Suture ligation with subsequent cutting of blood vessels to maintain hemostasis during surgery is time consuming and skill intensive. Energy-based electrosurgical and ultrasonic devices are often used to replace sutures and mechanical clips to provide rapid hemostasis and decrease surgery time. Some of these devices may create undesirably large collateral zones of thermal damage and tissue necrosis, or require separate mechanical blades for cutting. Infrared lasers are currently being explored as alternative energy sources for vessel sealing applications. In a previous study, a 1470-nm laser was used to seal vessels 1 to 6 mm in diameter in 5 s, yielding burst pressures of ∼500  mmHg. The purpose of this study was to provide vessel sealing times comparable with current energy-based devices, incorporate transection of sealed vessels, and demonstrate high vessel burst pressures to provide a safety margin for future clinical use. A 110-W, 1470-nm laser beam was transmitted through a fiber and beam shaping optics, producing a 90-W linear beam 3.0 by 9.5 mm for sealing (400  W/cm2), and 1.1 by 9.6 mm for cutting (1080  W/cm2). A two-step process sealed and then transected ex vivo porcine renal vessels (1.5 to 8.5 mm diameter) in a bench top setup. Seal and cut times were 1.0 s each. A burst pressure system measured seal strength, and histologic measurements of lateral thermal spread were also recorded. All blood vessels tested (n=55 seal samples) were sealed and cut, with total irradiation times of 2.0 s and mean burst pressures of 1305±783  mmHg. Additional unburst vessels were processed for histological analysis, showing a lateral thermal spread of 0.94±0.48  mm (n=14 seal samples). This study demonstrated that an optical-based system is capable of precisely sealing and cutting a wide range of porcine renal vessel sizes and, with further development, may provide an alternative to radiofrequency- and ultrasonic-based vessel sealing devices.

  15. Fibre optic confocal imaging (FOCI) of keratinocytes, blood vessels and nerves in hairless mouse skin in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    BUSSAU, L. J.; VO, L. T.; DELANEY, P. M.; PAPWORTH, G. D.; BARKLA, D. H.; KING, R. G.

    1998-01-01

    Fibre optic confocal imaging (FOCI) enabled subsurface fluorescence microscopy of the skin of hairless mice in vivo. Application of acridine orange enabled imaging of the layers of the epidermis. The corneocytes of the stratum corneum, the keratinocytes in the basal layers and redundant hair follicles were visualised at depths greater than 100 μm. Cellular and nuclear membranes of keratinocytes of the skin were visualised by the use of acridine orange and DIOC5(3). Imaging of the skin after injection of FITC-dextran revealed an extensive network of blood vessels with a size range up to 20 μm. Blood cells could be seen moving through dermal vessels and the blood circulation through the dermal vascular bed was video-taped. The fluorescent dye 4-di-2-ASP showed the presence of nerves fibres around the hair follicles and subsurface blood vessels. Comparison was made between images obtained in vivo using FOCI and in vitro scanning electron microscopy and conventional histology. FOCI offers the potential to study dynamic events in vivo, such as blood flow, skin growth, nerve regeneration and many pathological processes, in ways which have not previously been possible. PMID:9643419

  16. Numerical modeling of the pulse wave propagation in large blood vessels based on liquid and wall interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rup, K; Dróżdż, A

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to develop a non-linear, one-dimensional model of pulse wave propagation in the arterial cardiovascular system. The model includes partial differential equations resulting from the balance of mass and momentum for the fluid-filled area and the balance equation for the area of the wall and vessels. The considered mathematical model of pulse wave propagation in the thoracic aorta section takes into account the viscous dissipation of fluid energy, realistic values of parameters describing the physicochemical properties of blood and vessel wall. Boundary and initial conditions contain the appropriate information obtained from in vivo measurements. As a result of the numerical solution of the mass and momentum balance equations for the blood and the equilibrium equation for the arterial wall area, time- dependent deformation, respective velocity profiles and blood pressure were determined.

  17. Delayed astrocytic contact with cerebral blood vessels in FGF-2 deficient mice does not compromise permeability properties at the developing blood-brain barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Norman R; Dziegielewska, Katarzyna M; Unsicker, Klaus; Ek, C Joakim

    2016-11-01

    The brain functions within a specialized environment tightly controlled by brain barrier mechanisms. Understanding the regulation of barrier formation is important for understanding brain development and may also lead to finding new ways to deliver pharmacotherapies to the brain; access of many potentially promising drugs is severely hindered by these barrier mechanisms. The cellular composition of the neurovascular unit of the blood-brain barrier proper and their effects on regulation of its function are beginning to be understood. One hallmark of the neurovascular unit in the adult is the astroglial foot processes that tightly surround cerebral blood vessels. However their role in barrier formation is still unclear. In this study we examined barrier function in newborn, juvenile and adult mice lacking fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2), which has been shown to result in altered astroglial differentiation during development. We show that during development of FGF-2 deficient mice the astroglial contacts with cerebral blood vessels are delayed compared with wild-type animals. However, this delay did not result in changes to the permeability properties of the blood brain barrier as assessed by exclusion of either small or larger sized molecules at this interface. In addition cerebral vessels were positive for tight-junction proteins and we observed no difference in the ultrastructure of the tight-junctions. The results indicate that the direct contact of astroglia processes to cerebral blood vessels is not necessary for either the formation of the tight-junctions or for basic permeability properties and function of the blood-brain barrier. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol 76: 1201-1212, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Thermal Expansion of Vitrified Blood Vessels Permeated with DP6 and Synthetic Ice Modulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, David P.; Taylor, Michael J.; Jimenez-Rios, Jorge L.; Rabin, Yoed

    2014-01-01

    This study provides thermal expansion data for blood vessels permeated with the cryoprotective cocktail DP6, when combined with selected synthetic ice modulators (SIMs): 12% polyethylene glycol 400, 6% 1,3-cyclohexanediol, and 6% 2,3-butanediol. The general classification of SIMs includes molecules that modulate ice nucleation and growth, or possess properties of stabilizing the amorphous state, by virtue of their chemical structure and at concentrations that are not explained on a purely colligative basis. The current study is part of an ongoing effort to characterize thermo-mechanical effects on structural integrity of cryopreserved materials, where thermal expansion is the driving mechanism to thermo-mechanical stress. This study focuses on the lower part of the cryogenic temperature range, where the cryoprotective agent (CPA) behaves as a solid for all practical applications. By combining results obtained in the current study with literature data on the thermal expansion in the upper part of the cryogenic temperature range, unified thermal expansion curves are presented. PMID:24769313

  19. Knockdown of Zebrafish Blood Vessel Epicardial Substance Results in Incomplete Retinal Lamination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Ching Wu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cell polarity during eye development determines the normal retinal lamination and differentiation of photoreceptor cells in the retina. In vertebrates, blood vessel epicardial substance (Bves is known to play an important role in the formation and maintenance of the tight junctions essential for epithelial cell polarity. In the current study, we generated a transgenic zebrafish Bves (zbves promoter-EGFP zebrafish line to investigate the expression pattern of Bves in the retina and to study the role of zbves in retinal lamination. Immunostaining with different specific antibodies from retinal cells and transmission electron microscopy were used to identify the morphological defects in normal and Bves knockdown zebrafish. In normal zebrafish, Bves is located at the apical junctions of embryonic retinal neuroepithelia during retinogenesis; later, it is strongly expressed around inner plexiform layer (IPL and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE. In contrast, a loss of normal retinal lamination and cellular polarity was found with undifferentiated photoreceptor cells in Bves knockdown zebrafish. Herein, our results indicated that disruption of Bves will result in a loss of normal retinal lamination.

  20. Infrared tomography for diagnostic imaging of port wine stain blood vessels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodman, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-11-15

    The objective of this work is the development of Infrared Tomography (IRT) for detecting and characterizing subsurface chromophores in human skin. Characterization of cutaneous chromophores is crucial for advances in the laser treatment of pigmented lesions (e.g., port wine stain birthmarks and tatoos). Infrared tomography (IRT) uses a fast infrared focal plane array (IR-FPA) to detect temperature rises in a substrate induced by pulsed radiation. A pulsed laser is used to produce transient heating of an object. The temperature rise, due to the optical absorption of the pulsed laser light, creates an increase in infrared emission which is measured by the IR-FPA. Although the application of IRT to image subsurface cracks due to metal fatigue is a topic of great interest in the aircraft industry, the application to image subsurface chromophores in biological materials is novel. We present an image recovery method based on a constrained conjugate gradient algorithm that has obtained the first ever high quality images of port wine blood vessels.

  1. MODIFICATION OF THE NUSS PROCEDURE-PREVENTION OF INJURIES OF THE HEART AND MAJOR BLOOD VESSELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirko Žganjer

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The Nuss procedure is a widely accepted technique for correcting pectus excavatum. Unfortunately, fatal complications such as cardiac perforation and injury of the great blood vessels have been noticed in a few patients.We modified original Nuss technique to be simpler and lessdangerous.Methods: We modified Nuss procedure with the sternal elevation to improve sternal depression. Modified Nuss procedure was carried out by applying metal lifter raise sterum until the patient starts to raise from the operating table. The space behind sternum is now wider, and surgeryhas become safer with less probability of injuries intrathoracic organs. We compared 46 patients operated by the original Nuss method (taking into account the data from the literature on complications of the original method on a large series of patients with 54 patients operated by a modified Nuss method.Results: Before lifting the sternum depth of the deformity was between 2.9 and 6.2 cm (mean 5.4 cm, and the increase were between 1.5 and 4.0 cm (mean 2.8 cm. The difference of 2.6 cm is large enough, and the width of introducer and bars are about 3 mm for securely passed along the chest.Conclusions: A modified method of treating pectus excavatum is safer, better and with fewer complications than the original method of Nuss.

  2. Insulin-like Growth Factor 1 (IGF-1) Stabilizes Nascent Blood Vessels*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobo, Sarah Melissa P.; Kazlauskas, Andrius

    2015-01-01

    Here we report that VEGF-A and IGF-1 differ in their ability to stabilize newly formed blood vessels and endothelial cell tubes. Although VEGF-A failed to support an enduring vascular response, IGF-1 stabilized neovessels generated from primary endothelial cells derived from various vascular beds and mouse retinal explants. In these experimental systems, destabilization/regression was driven by lysophosphatidic acid (LPA). Because previous studies have established that Erk antagonizes LPA-mediated regression, we considered whether Erk was an essential component of IGF-dependent stabilization. Indeed, IGF-1 lost its ability to stabilize neovessels when the Erk pathway was inhibited pharmacologically. Furthermore, stabilization was associated with prolonged Erk activity. In the presence of IGF-1, Erk activity persisted longer than in the presence of VEGF or LPA alone. These studies reveal that VEGF and IGF-1 can have distinct inputs in the angiogenic process. In contrast to VEGF, IGF-1 stabilizes neovessels, which is dependent on Erk activity and associated with prolonged activation. PMID:25564613

  3. Effects of angiopoietin-1 on inflammatory injury in endothelial progenitor cells and blood vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi-Qing; Song, Jing-Jin; Han, Xiao; Liu, Yi-Ye; Wang, Xi-Huang; Li, Zhi-Ming; Tzeng, Chi-Meng

    2014-01-01

    Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) and angiopoietin-1 (Ang-1) play important roles in vasculogenesis and angiogenesis, respectively. Thus, targeting both aspects of cardiovascular tissue regeneration may offer promising therapeutic options for cardiovascular disorders. To this end, we constructed a lentiviral vector (pNL) with the Ang-1 gene and transfected EPCs with it (Ang-1-EPCs) to investigate vasculogenesis in both cellular and animal models. Compared to controls, intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1) increased significantly in both untreated EPCs and in the pNL vector group. After Ang-1 transcription, ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 decreased considerably in those treatment groups. Ang-1-modified EPCs alleviated inflammatory responses induced by tumor-necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in vitro. Moreover, Ang-1-EPC implantation inhibited neointimal hyperplasia after balloon catheter injury in rats, dramatically diminishing the intimal-media (I/M) ratio and decreasing the neointimal area. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen expression in the Ang-1-EPC group was lower than the EPC non-treatment group as well, suggesting that Ang-1-EPC improved cell survival during inflammation and promoted endothelialization in damaged blood vessels.

  4. Changes in peripapillary blood vessel density in Graves' orbitopathy after orbital decompression surgery as measured by optical coherence tomography angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Kyle T; Bullock, John R; Drumright, Ryan T; Olsen, Matthew J; Penman, Alan D

    2018-03-08

    The purpose is to evaluate the utility of optical coherence tomography (OCT) angiography in the evaluation of Graves' orbitopathy (GO) and response to orbital decompression in patients with and without dysthyroid optic neuropathy (DON). This was a single-center, prospective case series in a cohort of 12 patients (24 orbits) with GO and ±DON, (6 orbits) who underwent bilateral orbital decompression. All patients underwent pre- and postoperative OCT angiography of the peripapillary area. Vessel density indices were calculated in a 4.5 mm × 4.5 mm ellipsoid centered on the optic disk using split-spectrum amplitude decorrelation angiography algorithm, producing the vessel density measurements. Mean change in vessel density indices was compared between pre- and postoperative sessions and between patients with and without DON. Patient 1, a 34-year-old male with GO and unilateral DON OD, showed a significant reduction in blood vessel density indices oculus dexter (OD) (DON eye) after decompression while a more modest reduction was found oculus sinister (OS) with the greatest change noted intrapapillary. Patient 2, a 50-year-old male with DON OU, showed worsening neuropathy following decompression OD that was confirmed by angiographic density indices. Patient 3, a 55-year-female with DON, showed a reduction in blood vessel density OD and increased density OS. Patients without DON showed overall less impressive changes in indices as compared to those with DON. Using OCT angiography, response to surgical treatment in GO orbits, more so in orbits with DON, can be demonstrated and quantified using vessel density indices with reproducibility.

  5. Nonparenchymal cells cultivated from explants of fibrotic liver resemble endothelial and smooth muscle cells from blood vessel walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voss, B.; Rauterberg, J.; Pott, G.; Brehmer, U.; Allam, S.; Lehmann, R.; von Bassewitz, D.B.

    1982-01-01

    Tissue specimens from human fibrotic liver obtained by needle biopsy were cultured. Two cell types emerged from the tissue explants. From their morphology and biosynthetic products they resembled smooth muscle cells and endothelial cells from blood vessel walls. In the endothelial cells, factor VIII-associated protein was demonstrated by indirect immunofluorescence. Synthesis of collagen types I and III, basement membrane collagen types IV and V, and fibronectin by both cell types was observed by immunofluorescence microscopy. Homogeneous cultures of smooth muscle cells were observed in subcultures. After incubation with [ 14 C]glycine, collagen was isolated and characterized by CM cellulose chromatography, and consisted mainly of types I and III. These data suggest involvement of mesenchymal cells in hepatic fibrosis; they presumably originate from blood vessel or sinusoidal walls

  6. Cannulation and continuous cross-sectional area measurement of small blood vessels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VanBavel, E.; Mooij, T.; Giezeman, M. J.; Spaan, J. A.

    1990-01-01

    Techniques have been developed for the study of isolated small arteries. To pressurize and perfuse segments of these vessels, a cannula with a low resistance to flow was developed. This cannula consisted of two concentric micropipettes. The end of a vessel segment was sucked into the inner pipette

  7. About a mechanism of the influence of shear stress for viscosity of the blood in vessels of small diameter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Лев Николаевич Катюхин

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available It is proposed a physiological and experimentally confirmed explanation of Fåhraeus-Lindqvist-effect in capillaries using the profile analyses of osmotic deformability of red blood cells. It was shown the dose-dependent change of the erythrocytes deformability in the stage of isotropic spheres after forming artificial water pores (nystatin and occlusion (PbCl2 of available pores. The Sigma-effect reducing of hematocrit and viscosity in a shear flow of blood through the vessels of a small diameter was conditioned by the interchange of liquid phase between the erythrocyte and the plasma.

  8. Modeling the Role of the Glymphatic Pathway and Cerebral Blood Vessel Properties in Alzheimer’s Disease Pathogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyrtsos, Christina Rose; Baras, John S.

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia in the elderly, affecting over 10% population over the age of 65 years. Clinically, AD is described by the symptom set of short term memory loss and cognitive decline, changes in mentation and behavior, and eventually long-term memory deficit as the disease progresses. On imaging studies, significant atrophy with subsequent increase in ventricular volume have been observed. Pathology on post-mortem brain specimens demonstrates the classic findings of increased beta amyloid (Aβ) deposition and the presence of neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) within affected neurons. Neuroinflammation, dysregulation of blood-brain barrier transport and clearance, deposition of Aβ in cerebral blood vessels, vascular risk factors such as atherosclerosis and diabetes, and the presence of the apolipoprotein E4 allele have all been identified as playing possible roles in AD pathogenesis. Recent research has demonstrated the importance of the glymphatic system in the clearance of Aβ from the brain via the perivascular space surrounding cerebral blood vessels. Given the variety of hypotheses that have been proposed for AD pathogenesis, an interconnected, multilayer model offers a unique opportunity to combine these ideas into a single unifying model. Results of this model demonstrate the importance of vessel stiffness and heart rate in maintaining adequate clearance of Aβ from the brain. PMID:26448331

  9. A computational study for investigating acoustic streaming and tissue heating during high intensity focused ultrasound through blood vessel with an obstacle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parvin, Salma; Sultana, Aysha

    2017-06-01

    The influence of High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) on the obstacle through blood vessel is studied numerically. A three-dimensional acoustics-thermal-fluid coupling model is employed to compute the temperature field around the obstacle through blood vessel. The model construction is based on the linear Westervelt and conjugate heat transfer equations for the obstacle through blood vessel. The system of equations is solved using Finite Element Method (FEM). We found from this three-dimensional numerical study that the rate of heat transfer is increasing from the obstacle and both the convective cooling and acoustic streaming can considerably change the temperature field.

  10. Detection of haemoglobins with abnormal oxygen affinity by single blood gas analysis and 2,3-diphosphoglycerate measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrini, G; Morabito, A; Samaja, M

    2000-10-01

    The aim is to determine if a single measurement of blood 2,3-diphosphoglycerate combined with gas analysis (pH, PCO2, PO2 and saturation) can identify the cause of an altered blood-oxygen affinity: the presence of an abnormal haemoglobin or a red cell disorder. The population (n=94) was divided into healthy controls (A, n=14), carriers of red cell disorders (B, n=72) and carriers of high oxygen affinity haemoglobins (C, n=8). Those variables were measured both in samples equilibrated at selected PCO2 and PO2 and in venous blood. In the univariable approach applied to equilibrated samples, we correctly identified C subjects in 93.6% or 96.8% of the cases depending on the selected variable, the standard P50 (PO2 at which 50% of haemoglobin is oxygenated) or a composite variable calculated from the above measurements. After introducing the haemoglobin concentration as a further discriminating variable, the A and B subjects were correctly identified in 91.9% or 94.2% of the cases, respectively. These figures become 93.0% or 86.1%, and 93.7% or 94.9% of the cases when using direct readings from venous blood, thereby avoiding the blood equilibration step. This test is feasible also in blood samples stored at 4 degrees C for 48 h, or at room temperature for 8 h.

  11. Relationship of Hypertension, Blood Pressure, and Blood Pressure Control With White Matter Abnormalities in the Women’s Health Initiative Memory Study (WHIMS)—MRI Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuller, Lewis H.; Margolis, Karen L.; Gaussoin, Sarah A.; Bryan, Nick R.; Kerwin, Diana; Limacher, Marian; Wassertheil-Smoller, Sylvia; Williamson, Jeff; Robinson, Jennifer G.

    2010-01-01

    This paper evaluates the relationship of blood pressure (BP) levels at Women’s Health Initiative (WHI) baseline, treatment of hypertension, and white matter abnormalities among women in conjugated equine estrogen (CEE) and medroxyprogesterone acetate and CEE-alone arms. The WHI Memory Study—Magnetic Resonance Imaging (WHIMS-MRI) trial scanned 1424 participants. BP levels at baseline were significantly positively related to abnormal white matter lesion (WML) volumes. Participants treated for hypertension but who had BP ≥140/90 mm Hg had the greatest amount of WML volumes. Women with untreated BP ≥140/90 mm Hg had intermediate WML volumes. Abnormal WML volumes were related to hypertension in most areas of the brain and were greater in the frontal lobe than in the occipital, parietal, or temporal lobes. Level of BP at baseline was strongly related to amount of WML volumes. The results of the study reinforce the relationship of hypertension and BP control and white matter abnormalities in the brain. The evidence to date supports tight control of BP levels, especially beginning at younger and middle age as a possible and perhaps only way to prevent dementia. PMID:20433539

  12. Abnormal albuminuria and blood pressure rise in incipient diabetic nephropathy induced by exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Cramer

    1984-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of light to moderate dynamic work (450 kpm/min followed by 600 kpm/min during 20 min each) on the blood pressure and renal protein handling in insulin-dependent diabetic patients with incipient nephropathy (D3) (elevated baseline albumin excretion...... diastolic blood pressure was elevated [92.1 mm Hg +/- 6.0 (mean +/- SD)] compared to D2 (80.9 mm Hg +/- 4.8, 2P = 0.003%) and C (79.5 mm Hg +/- 12.4, 2P = 1.2%). Baseline systolic blood pressure was not significantly different in the three groups, but systolic blood pressure was more elevated at 600 kpm...... blood pressure and maximal exercise induced albumin excretion was demonstrable in D3.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)...

  13. Corpus luteum blood flow in normal and abnormal early pregnancy: evaluation and analysis with transvaginal color and pulsed doppler sonography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Xiaoyi; Lin Meifang; Zheng Meirong; Liang Xiaoxian; Liu Jianfeng

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Detecting and assessment the corpus luteum blood flow in normal and abnormal early pregnancy. Methods: Using transvaginal color and pulse Doppler sonography, we detected 215 pregnant women including 150 normal intrauterine pregnancies, 25 abortion, 29 ectopic pregnancies, and then recorded corpus luteum blood flow feature and the blood flow indexes (Vmax, RI and PI). Results: 1) Corpus luteum was successfully identified in 148 cases out of 150 of normal early pregnancies, 25 cases out of 26 of threatened abortion; 22 cases out of 29 of ectopic pregnancy. 2) Three groups shared the same feature of Color Doppler imaging: a circumferential rim around the entire corpus luteum. 3) The flow index revealed mean PVS, RI and PI had no statistical difference in normal and abnormal early pregnancy; The mean PVS was lower in ectopic pregnancy than in normal pregnancy (P<0.05), while PI and PR had no characteristic in ectopic pregnancy group compared with the indexes obtained in normal pregnancy group. Conclusion: The corpus luteum can be precisely identified in most pregnancy using transvaginal color Doppler and manifests a characterized rim Doppler imaging. PVS may help in differentiating the ectopic pregnancy from normal early pregnancy. (authors)

  14. 3-D MDT with spherical targets by bilinear interpolation for determining blood velocity profiles including the vessel wall effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choomphon-anomakhun, Natthaphon; Natenapit, Mayuree

    2018-02-01

    A numerical simulation of three-dimensional (3-D) implant assisted-magnetic drug targeting (IA-MDT) using ferromagnetic spherical targets, including the effect from the vessel wall on the blood flow, is presented. The targets were implanted within arterioles and subjected to an externally uniform applied magnetic field in order to increase the effectiveness of targeting magnetic drug carrier particles (MDCPs). The capture area (As) of the MDCPs was determined by inspection of the particle trajectories simulated from the particle equations of motion. The blood flow velocities at any particle position around the target were obtained by applying bilinear interpolation to the numerical blood velocity data. The effects on As of the type of ferromagnetic materials in the targets and MDCPs, average blood flow rates, mass fraction of the ferromagnetic material in the MDCPs, average radii of MDCPs (Rp) and the externally applied magnetic field strength (μ0H0) were evaluated. Furthermore, the appropriate μ0H0 and Rp for the IA-MDT design is suggested. In the case of the SS409 target and magnetite MDCPs, dimensionless capture areas ranging from 4.1- to 12.4 and corresponding to particle capture efficiencies of 31-94% were obtained with Rp ranging from 100- to 500 nm, weight fraction of 80%, μ0H0 of 0.6 T and an average blood flow rate of 0.01 ms-1. In addition, the more general 3-D modelling of IA-MDT in this work is applicable to IA-MDT using spherical targets implanted within blood vessels for both laminar and potential blood flows including the wall effect.

  15. Does the disruption of horizontal anterior ciliary vessels affect the blood-aqueous barrier function?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Meihua; Yang, Mei; Xie, Renyi; Zhao, Zhimin; Huang, Xingxing

    2017-12-01

    To investigate the significance of the anterior ciliary vessels (ACVs) preservation during the conventional horizontal strabismus surgery. Patients (≥ 8 years) with horizontal strabismus were randomly allocated into group 1 (with ACV preservation) and group 2 (without ACV preservation). The surgical eyes in group 1 were further divided into group A (one rectus muscle operated) and group B (two rectus muscles operated). Similarly, eyes in group 2 were divided into group C (one rectus muscle operated) and group D (two rectus muscles operated). The success rate of ACV preservation was calculated. The anterior chamber flare measurements of each eye by laser flare photometry were recorded on the day prior to and after operation. The flare values between groups and between pre- and post-operation in each group were compared by one-way analysis of variance and a paired t-test respectively. In groups A and B, the success rate of ACV preservation was 82% (27/33) and 70% (28/40)respectively, and the flare values between pre- and post-operation showed no significant differences(4.378 ± 1.527, 4.544 ± 1.452, P = 0.526; 4.625 ± 1.090, 4.989 ± 1.468, P = 0.101 respectively). However, the postoperative values were significantly increased in group C and group D(4.661 ± 1.031, 5.039 ± 1.310, P = 0.025; 4.933 ± 1.691, 5.502 ± 1.430, P = 0.000 respectively). The postoperative flare readings of group D were significantly higher than group B, while group A and group C had no significant variation. ACV preservation probably has clinical significance in reducing the undesirable influence on the blood-aqueous barrier.

  16. Effect Of Ionized Radiation On Blood Vessels And Neural Celle On Workers In Cardiac Catheterization Units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elgazzar, E.M.S.

    2015-01-01

    The catheterization laboratory is generally considered an area where exposure to radiation is particularly high. Factors such as the configuration of the of the x-ray equipment, the number of cases per day, contribute to this relatively high level of exposure, which is amongst the highest in the hospital (Butler et al., 2006). Meanwhile, Systematic reviews of the published epidemiological literature and cardiovascular diseases or reviews of studies of populations medically, occupationally or environmentally exposed to relatively low-dose radiation concluded that there is a significant association (although with substantial heterogeneity) between radiation exposure and circulatory disease, either cardiovascular or cerebra-vascular. Vascular injury is a well recognized cause of late radiation therapy morbidity and this manifests as atherosclerosis in large vessels (Nagababu et al., 2009). Since the brain is among the most critical dose-limiting organs in radiotherapy, mainly due to the development of cognitive dysfunction following white matter disruption. The neuro-vascular unit is also vulnerable to radiation effects, and cerebra-vascular atherosclerotic damage is now considered proven (Raber, 2004). Circulating EPCs (endothelial progenitor cells) has been shown to be isolated from bone marrow or circulating mononuclear cells that express a variety of endothelial surface markers. EPCs incorporate into sites of revascularization and home to sites of endothelial denudation. Initial clinical studies demonstrated that risk factors for atherosclerosis are associated with reduced levels of circulating EPCs and that the functional integrity of the endothelium correlates with the activities of EPCs (Losordo and Dimmeler 2004). Since oxidative processes are essential one of the main mechanisms associated with radiation induced hazardous effects and early ageing is an effect associated with radiation exposure, accordingly it can be suggested that low-dose irradiation

  17. Evaluation of Mast Cell and Blood Vessel Density in Inflammatory Periapical Lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safoura Seifi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Radicular cystsand periapical granulomas are the most common periapical inflammatory lesions. However, the role of cellular immunity and microvessels in their pathogenesis remains unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the mast cell density (MCD, mircovessel density (MVD and investigating the correlation between their densities with each other in the above mentioned lesions.Materials & Methods: In this descriptive cross-sectional study, 40 paraffin blocks of mentioned lesions were selected from achieves of School of Dentistry, Babol University of Medical Sciences. Three sections were prepared from each block and stained by hematoxylin-eosin, toluidine blue, and immunohistochemically for CD34 to determine the score of inflammation, presence of mast cells and degranulatedmast cells (DMCs, and MVD, respectively. The correlation between MCD and either inflammatory infiltrate or MVD was evaluated. Data analyzed by t student, Mann-Whitney and Spearman test.Results: Mast cells were present in all periapical inflammatory lesions; 15.4±14.8 for MCD, 7.2±6.1 for DMCs, and the ratio of DMCs to total number of MCs was 0.354±0.166 and 14.8+4.44 for blood vessel density in radicular cyst and 8.52±6.75, 2.91±2.1, 0.196±0.194 and 13±8.02 in periapical granulomas, respectively. There was a positive correlation between MCD and MVD in radicular cyst (P=0.03, r=0.341, but not in periapical granulomas (P=0.6, r=0.124. MCD and MVD increased with the score of inflammation in radicular cyst (P=0.001, r=0.7 and periapical granuloma (P=0.012, r=0.54.Conclusion: Mast cells and microvessels play a role in pathogenesis of periapical inflammatory lesions. In this study, the density of mast cells and DMCs in radicular cyst was higher than periapical granulomas, but no difference was observed regarding MVD in periapical inflammatory lesions. It seems that the relationship between MCD and MVD is different based on the clinical stage of periapical

  18. Ultrastructure of Pericystic or Intracystic Blood Vessels in Epidermoid Cysts-A Transmission Electron Microscopy Study: Laboratory Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xiao-Hui; Ma, Jun; Zeng, Chun; Sun, Yi-Lin; Lin, Song

    2017-07-01

    Recently, we reported a tendency toward spontaneous hemorrhage in both the preoperative and postoperative periods in patients with intracranial epidermoid cyst (EC). According to our experience, this tendency for spontaneous hemorrhage was partly caused by the pathologic blood vessels adjacent to the EC. This study was designed to testify this hypothesis. Twenty-three removable pericystic or intracystic blood vessels from 17 patients with EC were collected during surgery and were then examined by transmission electron microscopy. The microvascular structure in gliomas was chosen as the control. Under electron microscopy, variant pathologic changes of vessels were found in all patients with EC. In the tunicae intima, we found vacuolization, apoptosis, necrosis, and intralumenal protrusion of endothelial cells, as well as swollen basement and highly flexed and discontinued elastic plate. In the tunicae media, vacuolization and swollen mitochondria were found in muscular cells. In the tunicae adventitia, extravascular erythrocytes, edema or apoptosis of pericytes, collagen predominance, and inflammatory cell infiltration and destruction were found. Neuron denature and necrosis were found in the peripheral brain tissue. In the microvascular structure of 5 glioma specimens, we found enlargement and hyperplasia of endothelial cells, swollen basement membrane, swollen pericytes, and astrocytic hyperplasia and neuron denature in adjacent brain tissues. Our findings provide strong evidence for the hypothesis that intracystic or pericystic vascular degeneration or destruction accounts for the spontaneous hemorrhage tendency before and after surgical resection of ECs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Spatial distribution of diffuse, primitive, and classic amyloid-beta deposits and blood vessels in the upper laminae of the frontal cortex in Alzheimer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, R A; Cairns, N J; Lantos, P L

    1998-12-01

    The spatial distribution of the diffuse, primitive, and classic amyloid-beta deposits was studied in the upper laminae of the superior frontal gyrus in cases of sporadic Alzheimer disease (AD). Amyloid-beta-stained tissue was counterstained with collagen IV to determine whether the spatial distribution of the amyloid-beta deposits along the cortex was related to blood vessels. In all patients, amyloid-beta deposits and blood vessels were aggregated into distinct clusters and in many patients, the clusters were distributed with a regular periodicity along the cortex. The clusters of diffuse and primitive deposits did not coincide with the clusters of blood vessels in most patients. However, the clusters of classic amyloid-beta deposits coincided with those of the large diameter (>10 microm) blood vessels in all patients and with clusters of small-diameter (upper cortical laminae.

  20. Development of a system for measuring wall shear stress in blood vessels using magnetic resonance imaging and computational fluid dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Keita; Nagao, Taisuke; Okada, Kouji; Miyazaki, Shohei; Yang, Xiaomei; Yamazaki, Youichi; Murase, Kenya

    2008-01-01

    We developed a system for measuring the wall shear stress (WSS) in blood vessels using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The time-dependent velocity at the center of the blood vessel was measured by phase-contrast MRI and was approximated by finite Fourier series, which was used for generating the velocity profile at the inlet for the boundary condition to the CFD method. To validate the CFD method, we compared the WSS obtained by the CFD method with the theoretical value in a straight cylinder with various radii for both steady and pulsatile flows. We also investigated the dependence of the WSS on the inlet velocity profile incorporated into the CFD method. For steady flow, there was a good agreement between the WSS obtained by the CFD method and the theoretical value. For pulsatile flow, there was a relatively good agreement between them when the radius of the cylinder was 2.5 mm and the inlet velocity profile was given by the Womersley solution for fully developed pulsatile flow in a straight circular cylinder. When the radius of the cylinder was 5 mm and/or the inlet velocity profile was assumed to be parabolic, large differences were observed between them, suggesting that the assumption of fully developed flow does not hold true in these cases. In human studies, the vortex due to the secondary blood flow in the carotid arterial sinus was clearly observed. The WSS in the bifurcation was the highest, while that in the carotid arterial sinus was the smallest. In conclusion, the system presented here appears to be useful for measuring the WSS in blood vessels and for analyzing the cause and/or extent of atherosclerosis, and our results suggest that the inlet velocity profile should be carefully considered. (author)

  1. Subsurface thermal behaviour of tissue mimics embedded with large blood vessels during plasmonic photo-thermal therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Anup; Narasimhan, Arunn; Das, Sarit K; Sengupta, Soujit; Pradeep, Thalappil

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand the subsurface thermal behaviour of a tissue phantom embedded with large blood vessels (LBVs) when exposed to near-infrared (NIR) radiation. The effect of the addition of nanoparticles to irradiated tissue on the thermal sink behaviour of LBVs was also studied. Experiments were performed on a tissue phantom embedded with a simulated blood vessel of 2.2 mm outer diameter (OD)/1.6 mm inner diameter (ID) with a blood flow rate of 10 mL/min. Type I collagen from bovine tendon and agar gel were used as tissue. Two different nanoparticles, gold mesoflowers (AuMS) and graphene nanostructures, were synthesised and characterised. Energy equations incorporating a laser source term based on multiple scattering theories were solved using finite element-based commercial software. The rise in temperature upon NIR irradiation was seen to vary according to the position of the blood vessel and presence of nanoparticles. While the maximum rise in temperature was about 10 °C for bare tissue, it was 19 °C for tissue embedded with gold nanostructures and 38 °C for graphene-embedded tissues. The axial temperature distribution predicted by computational simulation matched the experimental observations. A different subsurface temperature distribution has been obtained for different tissue vascular network models. The position of LBVs must be known in order to achieve optimal tissue necrosis. The simulation described here helps in predicting subsurface temperature distributions within tissues during plasmonic photo-thermal therapy so that the risks of damage and complications associated with in vivo experiments and therapy may be avoided.

  2. In-vivo imaging of blood flow in human retinal vessels using color Doppler optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdanfar, Siavash; Rollins, Andrew M.; Izatt, Joseph A.

    1999-04-01

    Quantification of retinal blood flow may lead to a better understanding of the progression and treatment of several ocular disorders, including diabetic retinopathy, age- related macular degeneration, and glaucoma. Current techniques, such as fluorescein angiography and laser Doppler velocimetry are limited, failing to provide sufficient information to the clinician. Color Doppler optical coherence tomography (CDOCT) is a novel technique using coherent heterodyne detection for simultaneous cross- sectional imaging of tissue microstructure and blood flow. This technique is capable of high spatial and velocity resolution imaging in highly scattering media. We implemented CDOCT for retinal blood flow mapping in human subjects. No dilation of the pupil was necessary. CDOCT is demonstrated for determining bidirectional flow in sub- 100micrometers diameter vessels in the retina. Additionally, we calculated Doppler broadening using the variance of depth- resolved spectra to identify regions with large velocity gradients within the Xenopus heart. This technique may be useful in quantifying local tissue perfusion in highly vascular retinal tissue.

  3. The blood-tendon barrier: identification and characterisation of a novel tissue barrier in tendon blood vessels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Lehner

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Tissue barriers function as “gate keepers” between different compartments (usually blood and tissue and are formed by specialised membrane-associated proteins, localising to the apicolateral plasma membrane domain of epithelial and endothelial cells. By sealing the paracellular space, the free diffusion of solutes and molecules across epithelia and endothelia is impeded. Thereby, tissue barriers contribute to the establishment and maintenance of a distinct internal and external environment, which is crucial during organ development and allows maintenance of an organ-specific homeostatic milieu. So far, various epithelial and endothelial tissue barriers have been described, including the blood-brain barrier, the blood-retina barrier, the blood-testis barrier, the blood-placenta barrier, and the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF-brain barrier, which are vital for physiological function and any disturbance of these barriers can result in severe organ damage or even death. Here, we describe the identification of a novel barrier, located in the vascular bed of tendons, which we term the blood-tendon barrier (BTB. By using immunohistochemistry, transmission electron microscopy, and tracer studies we demonstrate the presence of a functional endothelial barrier within tendons restricting the passage of large blood-borne molecules into the surrounding tendon tissue. We further provide in vitro evidence that the BTB potentially contributes to the creation of a distinct internal tissue environment impacting upon the proliferation and differentiation of tendon-resident cells, effects which might be fundamental for the onset of tendon pathologies.

  4. Dissociation between vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 and blood vessel density in the caudate nucleus after chronic hydrocephalus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Abhishek; Dombrowski, Stephen M; Leichliter, Anna; Krajcir, Natalie; Zingales, Nicholas; Inoue, Masahiro; Schenk, Soren; Fukamachi, Kiyotaka; Luciano, Mark G

    2009-11-01

    Chronic hydrocephalus (CH) is characterized by the presence of ventricular enlargement, decreased cerebral blood flow (CBF), and brain tissue oxygen delivery. Although the underlying pathophysiological role of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is not clear, ischemic-hypoxic events in CH are known to trigger its release. Previously, we have shown increased VEGF receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) and blood vessel density (BVd) in the hippocampus after CH. We investigated changes in neuronal and glial VEGFR-2 density and BVd in the caudate nucleus in an experimental model of CH. Animals with CH were divided into short term (ST, 2 to 4 weeks) and long term (LT, 12 to 16 weeks) and were compared with surgical controls (SCs, 12 to 16 weeks). The cellular and BVds were estimated using immunohistochemical and stereological counting methods. Overall, percentage (%)VEGFR-2 neurons were approximately two times greater in CH (ST, LT) than in SC. By comparison, glial cell %VEGFR-2 was greater by 10% to 17% in ST and 4% to 11% lower in LT compared with that in SC. Blood vessel density was significantly lower in CH than in SC in the superficial caudate. Changes in cerebrospinal fluid ventricular volume and pressure, as well as in CBF did not correlate with either VEGFR-2 or BVd. These observed findings suggest that destructive forces may outweigh angiogenic forces and possibly show a disassociation between VEGFR-2 and BV expressions.

  5. Study of blood flow inside the stenosis vessel under the effect of solenoid magnetic field using ferrohydrodynamics principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badfar, Homayoun; Motlagh, Saber Yekani; Sharifi, Abbas

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, biomagnetic blood flow in the stenosis vessel under the effect of the solenoid magnetic field is studied using the ferrohydrodynamics (FHD) model. The parabolic profile is considered at an inlet of the axisymmetric stenosis vessel. Blood is modeled as electrically non-conducting, Newtonian and homogeneous fluid. Finite volume and the SIMPLE (Semi-Implicit Method for Pressure Linked Equations) algorithm are utilized to discretize governing equations. The investigation is studied at different magnetic numbers ( MnF=164, 328, 1640 and 3280) and the number of the coil loops (three, five and nine loops). Results indicate an increase in heat transfer, wall shear stress and energy loss (pressure drop) with an increment in the magnetic number (ratio of Kelvin force to dynamic pressure force), arising from the FHD, and the number of solenoid loops. Furthermore, the flow pattern is affected by the magnetic field, and the temperature of blood can be decreased up to 1.48 {}°C under the effect of the solenoid magnetic field with nine loops and reference magnetic field ( B0) of 2 tesla.

  6. Effect of antiprogesterone RU486 on VEGF expression and blood vessel remodeling on ovarian follicles before ovulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annunziata Mauro

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The success of ovarian follicle growth and ovulation is strictly related to the development of an adequate blood vessel network required to sustain the proliferative and endocrine functions of the follicular cells. Even if the Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF drives angiogenesis before ovulation, the local role exerted by Progesterone (P₄ remains to be clarified, in particular when its concentration rapidly increases before ovulation. AIM: This in vivo study was designed to clarify the effect promoted by a P₄ receptor antagonist, RU486, on VEGF expression and follicular angiogenesis before ovulation, in particular, during the transition from pre to periovulatory follicles induced by human Chorionic Gonadotropins (hCG administration. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Preovulatory follicle growth and ovulation were pharmacologically induced in prepubertal gilts by combining equine Chorionic Gonadotropins (eCG and hCG used in the presence or absence of RU486. The effects on VEGF expression were analyzed using biochemical and immunohistochemical studies, either on granulosa or on theca layers of follicles isolated few hours before ovulation. This angiogenic factor was also correlated to follicular morphology and to blood vessels architecture. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: VEGF production, blood vessel network and follicle remodeling were impaired by RU486 treatment, even if the cause-effect correlation remains to be clarified. The P₄ antagonist strongly down-regulated theca VEGF expression, thus, preventing most of the angiogenic follicle response induced by hCG. RU486-treated follicles displayed a reduced vascular area, a lower rate of endothelial cell proliferation and a reduced recruitment of perivascular mural cells. These data provide important insights on the biological role of RU486 and, indirectly, on steroid hormones during periovulatory follicular phase. In addition, an in vivo model is proposed to evaluate how periovulatory

  7. Blood vessel endothelium-directed tumor cell streaming in breast tumors requires the HGF/C-Met signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, E; Xue, A; Wang, Y; Rougerie, P; Sharma, V P; Eddy, R; Cox, D; Condeelis, J

    2017-05-11

    During metastasis to distant sites, tumor cells migrate to blood vessels. In vivo, breast tumor cells utilize a specialized mode of migration known as streaming, where a linear assembly of tumor cells migrate directionally towards blood vessels on fibronectin-collagen I-containing extracellular matrix (ECM) fibers in response to chemotactic signals. We have successfully reconstructed tumor cell streaming in vitro by co-plating tumors cells, macrophages and endothelial cells on 2.5 μm thick ECM-coated micro-patterned substrates. We found that tumor cells and macrophages, when plated together on the micro-patterned substrates, do not demonstrate sustained directional migration in only one direction (sustained directionality) but show random bi-directional walking. Sustained directionality of tumor cells as seen in vivo was established in vitro when beads coated with human umbilical vein endothelial cells were placed at one end of the micro-patterned 'ECM fibers' within the assay. We demonstrated that these endothelial cells supply the hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) required for the chemotactic gradient responsible for sustained directionality. Using this in vitro reconstituted streaming system, we found that directional streaming is dependent on, and most effectively blocked, by inhibiting the HGF/C-Met signaling pathway between endothelial cells and tumor cells. Key observations made with the in vitro reconstituted system implicating C-Met signaling were confirmed in vivo in mammary tumors using the in vivo invasion assay and intravital multiphoton imaging of tumor cell streaming. These results establish HGF/C-Met as a central organizing signal in blood vessel-directed tumor cell migration in vivo and highlight a promising role for C-Met inhibitors in blocking tumor cell streaming and metastasis in vivo, and for use in human trials.

  8. Morphological evaluation of the cerebral blood vessels in the late gestation fetal sheep following hypoxia in utero.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baburamani, Ana A; Lo, Camden; Castillo-Melendez, Margie; Walker, David W

    2013-01-01

    Hypoxia can significantly contribute to the development of permanent brain injury in the term neonate; however the response of cerebral blood vessels is not well understood. This study aimed to quantitatively measure vascular density and morphology using laminin immunohistochemistry as a marker of blood vessels, and determine the effects of a single, severe bout of hypoxia (umbilical cord occlusion, UCO) late in gestation on the developing cerebrovasculature in fetal sheep. At 124-126 days gestation singleton fetal sheep underwent surgery for implantation of catheters and placement of an inflatable cuff around the umbilical cord. A 10 min UCO or sham UCO (n=5) occurred at 132 days gestation. Fetal brains were collected at 24 h (n=5) or 48 h (n=4) after UCO for vascular density and morphology analysis of laminin immunohistochemistry. 48 h following a single, brief bout of severe hypoxia late in gestation decreased vascular density was seen in the caudate nucleus and no changes in vascular morphology occurred. However closer analysis revealed a significant shift in the frequency of smaller (≤10 μm) to larger (≤100 μm) perimeter blood vessels in periventricular and subcortical white matter. Close examination of the frequency distribution of vascular perimeter highlights that alterations in vascular morphology persist in the near term fetal brain for up to 48 h following a brief (10 min) hypoxia in white but not gray matter. These findings suggest that the near term brain may still be vulnerable to white matter injury following in utero hypoxia. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Micropatterned coculture of vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cells on layered electrospun fibrous mats toward blood vessel engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huinan; Liu, Yaowen; Lu, Jinfu; Wei, Jiaojun; Li, Xiaohong

    2015-06-01

    A major challenge in vascular engineering is the establishment of proper microenvironment to guide the spatial organization, growth, and extracellular matrix (ECM) productions of cells found in blood vessels. In the current study, micropatterned fibrous mats with distinct ridges and grooves of different width were created to load smooth muscle cells (SMCs), which were assembled by stacking on vascular endothelial cell (EC)-loaded flat fibrous mats to mimic the in vivo-like organized structure of blood vessels. SMCs were mainly distributed in the ridges, and aligned fibers in the patterned regions led to the formation of elongated cell bodies, intense actin filaments, and expressions of collagen I and α-smooth muscle actin in a parallel direction with fibers. ECs spread over the flat fibrous mats and expressed collagen IV and laminin with a cobblestone-like feature. A z-stack scanning of fluorescently stained fibrous mats indicated that SMCs effectively infiltrated into fibrous scaffolds at the depth of around 200 μm. Compared with SMCs cultured alone, the coculture with ECs enhanced the proliferation, infiltration, and cytoskeleton elongation of SMCs on patterned fibrous mats. Although the coculture of SMCs made no significant difference in the EC growth, the coculture system on patterned fibrous scaffolds promoted ECM productions of both ECs and SMCs. Thus, this patterned fibrous configuration not only offers a promising technology in the design of tissue engineering scaffolds to construct blood vessels with durable mechanical properties, but also provides a platform for patterned coculture to investigate cell-matrix and cell-cell interactions in highly organized tissues. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. A wave propagation model of blood flow in large vessels using an approximate velocity profile function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bessems, D.; Rutten, M.C.M.; Vosse, van de F.N.

    2007-01-01

    Lumped-parameter models (zero-dimensional) and wave-propagation models (one-dimensional) for pressure and flow in large vessels, as well as fully three-dimensional fluid–structure interaction models for pressure and velocity, can contribute valuably to answering physiological and patho-physiological

  11. Abnormal albuminuria and blood pressure rise in incipient diabetic nephropathy induced by exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Cramer

    1984-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of light to moderate dynamic work (450 kpm/min followed by 600 kpm/min during 20 min each) on the blood pressure and renal protein handling in insulin-dependent diabetic patients with incipient nephropathy (D3) (elevated baseline albumin excretion...

  12. Detection of Hepatitis C virus RNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of patients with abnormal alanine transaminase in Ahvaz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Makvandi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Hepatitis C virus (HCV is an important agent for chronic and acute hepatitis. Occult hepatitis C remains a major health problem worldwide. Patients with chronic occult HCV may progress to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The aim of this study was to determine prevalence of occult hepatitis C by IS-PCR-ISH (in situ PCR in situ hybridisation in the patients with abnormal ALT. Materials and Methods: The blood samples were taken from 53 patients including 17 females (32.1% and 36 (67.9% males who had abnormal alanine transaminase (ALT for more than 1 year. The mean ALT and aspartate transaminase (AST level were 41.02 ± 9.3 and 24.17 ± 7.3, respectively. The patients′ age were between 4 and 70-years old with mean age 38 ± 13. All the patients were negative for HCV antibody, HCV RNA and HBs Ag. The peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC were separated with ficoll gradient from each blood sample, then the cells were fixed on slides by cold acetone and followed by IS-PCR-ISH for HCV RNA detection. Results: Seventeen (32% patients including 6 (11.3% females and 11 (20.7% males showed positive results for HCV RNA by in situ-PCR in situ hybridisation. Ten (18.8% positive cases were between 20 and 40-years old and 6 (11.3% positive patients were between 40 and 60 years old. Ten (19.6% patients who were positive for IS-PCR-ISH also had positive anti-HBc IgG and 7 (13.2% patients were negative for HBc-IgG. Conclusion: In the present study high rate of 32% occult hepatitis C were found among the patients with elevated ALT.

  13. Abnormalities in plasma and red blood cell fatty acid profiles of patients with colorectal cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    Bar??, L.; Hermoso, J. C.; N????ez, M. C.; Jim??nez-Rios, J. A.; Gil, A.

    1998-01-01

    We evaluated total plasma fatty acid concentrations and percentages, and the fatty acid profiles for the different plasma lipid fractions and red blood cell lipids, in 17 patients with untreated colorectal cancer and 12 age-matched controls with no malignant diseases, from the same geographical area. Cancer patients had significantly lower total plasma concentrations of saturated, monounsaturated and essential fatty acids and their polyunsaturated derivatives than healthy controls; when the v...

  14. Melodic algorithms for pulse oximetry to allow audible discrimination of abnormal systolic blood pressures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chima, Ranjit S; Ortega, Rafael; Connor, Christopher W

    2014-12-01

    An anesthesiologist must remain vigilant of the patient's clinical status, incorporating many independent physiological measurements. Oxygen saturation and heart rate are represented by continuous audible tones generated by the pulse oximeter, a mandated monitoring device. Other important clinical parameters--notably blood pressure--lack any audible representation beyond arbitrarily-configured threshold alarms. Attempts to introduce further continuous audible tones have apparently foundered; the complexity and interaction of these tones have exceeded the ability of clinicians to interpret them. Instead, we manipulate the tonal and rhythmic structure of the accepted pulse oximeter tone pattern melodically. Three melodic algorithms were developed to apply tonal and rhythmic variations to the continuous pulse oximeter tone, dependent on the systolic blood pressure. The algorithms distort the original audible pattern minimally, to facilitate comprehension of both the underlying pattern and the applied variations. A panel of anesthesia practitioners (attending anesthesiologists, residents and nurse anesthetists) assessed these algorithms in characterizing perturbations in cardiopulmonary status. Twelve scenarios, incorporating combinations of oxygen desaturation, bradycardia, tachycardia, hypotension and hypertension, were tested. A rhythmic variation in which additional auditory information was conveyed only at halftime intervals, with every other "beat" of the pulse oximeter, was strongly favored. The respondents also strongly favored the use of musical chords over single tones. Given three algorithms of tones embedded in the pulse oximeter signal, anesthesiologists preferred a melodic tone to signal a significant change in blood pressure.

  15. Changes in the brain and blood vessels in elderly patients in computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heller, H.

    1979-01-01

    Computed tomography allows the recognition of intracranial calcification by making calcium deposits in the vessel wall visible early-on. The demonstration of occlusion of vessels which supply the brain is also possible. This modality will undoubtedly take on a practical significance in the near future with the introduction of so-called 'multiplane reconstruction'. This will make it possible, by means of the appropriate software, to effect a 90 0 transposition of information, thereby simulating a three dimensional image. In spite of this, there has been until now and will continue to be in the future ample demand for angiography. Because of its practically non-invasive nature, however, computed tomography is a valuable diagnostic aid not just in the brain. (orig.) [de

  16. Vasoactive receptors in abdominal blood vessels of the dogfish shark, Squalus acanthias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, D H

    2001-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that the ventral aorta of the dogfish shark, Squalus acanthias, responds to a variety of cell-signaling agents. To investigate the generality of vasoactive receptors in the shark vasculature, in particular a conductance artery (anterior mesenteric) and vein (posterior intestinal), I measured the effect of acetylcholine, endothelin, nitric oxide, natriuretic peptides, and prostaglandins on tension in isolated rings from these vessels. Both vessels responded to these agents, and responses to receptor-specific ligands for endothelin and natriuretic peptide receptors suggest that B-type endothelin receptors are expressed in both vessels and that the artery expresses both A- and B-type natriuretic peptide receptors; however, the vein (like the ventral aorta) expresses only the B-type natriuretic peptide receptor. My data suggest that a suite of signaling systems is ubiquitous in both arteries and veins in at least this elasmobranch species. Their role in hemodynamics and osmoregulation (perfusion of gill and rectal gland) remains to be determined.

  17. Fast magnetic reconstruction of the portal vein with allogeneic blood vessels in canines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shan-Pei; Yan, Xiao-Peng; Xue, Fei; Dong, Ding-Hui; Zhang, Xu-Feng; Ma, Feng; Wang, Hao-Hua; Lv, Yi

    2015-06-01

    The resection and reconstruction of large vessels, including the portal vein, are frequently needed in tumor resection. Warm ischemia before reconstruction might have deleterious effects on the function of some vital organs and therefore, how to reconstruct the vessels quickly after resection is extremely important. The present study was to introduce a new type of magnetic compression anastomosis (MCA) device to establish a quick non-suture anastomosis of the portal vein after resection in canines. The new MCA device consists of a pair of titanium alloy and neodymium-ferrum-boron magnet (Ti-NdFeB) composite rings. The NdFeB magnetic ring as a core of the device was hermetically sealed inside the biomedical titanium alloy case. Twelve canines were divided into two groups: a MCA group in which the end-to-end anastomoses was made with a new device after resection in the portal vein and a traditional manual suture (TMS) group consisted of 6 canines. The anastomosis time, anastomotic patency and quality were investigated at week 24 postoperatively. The portal vein was reconstructed successfully in all of the animals and they all survived. The duration of portal vein anastomosis was significantly shorter in the MCA group than in the TMS group (8.16+/-1.25 vs 36.24+/-2.17 min, PNdFeB composite MCA device was applicable in reconstruction of large vessels after resection. This device was easy to use and the anastomosis was functionally better than the traditional sutured anastomosis.

  18. Automated detection of kinks from blood vessels for optic cup segmentation in retinal images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, D. W. K.; Liu, J.; Lim, J. H.; Li, H.; Wong, T. Y.

    2009-02-01

    The accurate localization of the optic cup in retinal images is important to assess the cup to disc ratio (CDR) for glaucoma screening and management. Glaucoma is physiologically assessed by the increased excavation of the optic cup within the optic nerve head, also known as the optic disc. The CDR is thus an important indicator of risk and severity of glaucoma. In this paper, we propose a method of determining the cup boundary using non-stereographic retinal images by the automatic detection of a morphological feature within the optic disc known as kinks. Kinks are defined as the bendings of small vessels as they traverse from the disc to the cup, providing physiological validation for the cup boundary. To detect kinks, localized patches are first generated from a preliminary cup boundary obtained via level set. Features obtained using edge detection and wavelet transform are combined using a statistical approach rule to identify likely vessel edges. The kinks are then obtained automatically by analyzing the detected vessel edges for angular changes, and these kinks are subsequently used to obtain the cup boundary. A set of retinal images from the Singapore Eye Research Institute was obtained to assess the performance of the method, with each image being clinically graded for the CDR. From experiments, when kinks were used, the error on the CDR was reduced to less than 0.1 CDR units relative to the clinical CDR, which is within the intra-observer variability of 0.2 CDR units.

  19. Evaluation of Mechanical Properties and Medical Applications of Polycaprolactone Small Diameter Artificial Blood Vessels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahnazsadat Mirbagheri

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Increasing the cardiovascular diseases and decreasing the possibility of autograft surgery are important factors that cause the choice of artificial vascular graft as an alternative treatment method. In this regard, producing artificial grafts similar to natural vessels is an important purpose that has long been followed as a gold standard by many researchers worldwide. In addition, mechanical properties including strength, long patency, bio-compatibility and hydrophobicity are necessary properties to achieve ideal vascular grafts. Hence there are various factors such as polymer type and preparation methods, which contribute to suitable mechanical properties. The electrospinning as an optimized method on one side and biocompatible, degradable and semicrystalline polycaprolactone (PCL on the other side are used for their acceptable mechanical properties to manufacture synthetic vessels. In this study, PCL vascular grafts have been reviewed and a wide range of parameters affecting the improvement of mechanical properties and their performance have been described along with clinical applications. Therefore, by investigating and comparing single and composite PCL vascular grafts, we achieved acceptable results in the field of cell growth and adhesion as well as implanting grafts in animals such as rat and rabbit. By reviewing other studies, it was revealed that synthetic composite vessels made of PCL and natural polymers such as collagen and chitosan and synthetic polymers such as polyurethane (PU for long patency and acceptable cell adhesion have shown good clinical results.

  20. Chronic mild hypoxia promotes profound vascular remodeling in spinal cord blood vessels, preferentially in white matter, via an α5β1 integrin-mediated mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halder, Sebok K; Kant, Ravi; Milner, Richard

    2018-05-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) leads to rapid destruction of neuronal tissue, resulting in devastating motor and sensory deficits. This is exacerbated by damage to spinal cord blood vessels and loss of vascular integrity. Thus, approaches that protect existing blood vessels or stimulate the growth of new blood vessels might present a novel approach to minimize loss or promote regeneration of spinal cord tissue following SCI. In light of the remarkable power of chronic mild hypoxia (CMH) to stimulate vascular remodeling in the brain, the goal of this study was to examine how CMH (8% O 2 for up to 7 days) affects blood vessel remodeling in the spinal cord. We found that CMH promoted the following: (1) endothelial proliferation and increased vascularity as a result of angiogenesis and arteriogenesis, (2) increased vascular expression of the angiogenic extracellular matrix protein fibronectin as well as concomitant increases in endothelial expression of the fibronectin receptor α5β1 integrin, (3) strongly upregulated endothelial expression of the tight junction proteins claudin-5, ZO-1 and occludin and (4) astrocyte activation. Of note, the vascular remodeling changes induced by CMH were more extensive in white matter. Interestingly, hypoxic-induced vascular remodeling in spinal cord blood vessels was markedly attenuated in mice lacking endothelial α5 integrin expression (α5-EC-KO mice). Taken together, these studies demonstrate the considerable remodeling potential of spinal cord blood vessels and highlight an important angiogenic role for the α5β1 integrin in promoting endothelial proliferation. They also imply that stimulation of the α5β1 integrin or controlled use of mild hypoxia might provide new approaches for promoting angiogenesis and improving vascular integrity in spinal cord blood vessels.

  1. Mutation of p107 exacerbates the consequences of Rb loss in embryonic tissues and causes cardiac and blood vessel defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Seth D; West, Julie C; Danielian, Paul S; Caron, Alicia M; Stone, James R; Lees, Jacqueline A

    2009-09-01

    The retinoblastoma tumor-suppressor protein, pRb, is a member of the pocket protein family that includes p107 and p130. These proteins have well-defined roles in regulating entry into and exit from the cell cycle and also have cell cycle-independent roles in facilitating differentiation. Here we investigate the overlap between pocket protein's function during embryonic development by using conditional mutant alleles to generate Rb;p107 double-mutant embryos (DKOs) that develop in the absence of placental defects. These DKOs die between e13.5 and e14.5, much earlier than either the conditional Rb or the germline p107 single mutants, which survive to birth or are largely viable, respectively. Analyses of the e13.5 DKOs shows that p107 mutation exacerbates the phenotypes resulting from pRb loss in the central nervous system and lens, but not in the peripheral nervous system. In addition, these embryos exhibit novel phenotypes, including increased proliferation of blood vessel endothelial cells, and heart defects, including double-outlet right ventricle (DORV). The DORV is caused, at least in part, by a defect in blood vessel endothelial cells and/or heart mesenchymal cells. These findings demonstrate novel, overlapping functions for pRb and p107 in numerous murine tissues.

  2. Gain-of-function somatic mutations contribute to inflammation and blood vessel damage that lead to Alzheimer dementia: a hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchesi, Vincent T

    2016-02-01

    Amyloid deposits are a characteristic feature of advanced Alzheimer dementia (AD), but whether they initiate the disease or are a consequence of it remains an unsettled question. To explore an alternative pathogenic mechanism, I propose that the triggering events that begin the pathogenic cascade are not amyloid deposits but damaged blood vessels caused by inflammatory reactions that lead to ischemia, amyloid accumulation, axonal degeneration, synaptic loss, and eventually irreversible neuronal cell death. Inflammation and blood vessel damage are well recognized complications of AD, but what causes them and why the cerebral microvasculature is affected have never been adequately addressed. Because heritable autosomal dominant mutations of NLRP3, APP, TREX1, NOTCH3, and Col4A1 are known to provoke inflammatory reactions and damage the brain in a wide variety of diseases, I propose that one or more low abundant, gain-of-function somatic mutations of the same 5 gene families damage the microvasculature of the brain that leads to dementia. This implies that the pathogenic triggers that lead to AD are derived not from external invaders or amyloid but from oxidative damage of our own genes. © FASEB.

  3. Erythropoietin-enhanced endothelial progenitor cell recruitment in peripheral blood and renal vessels during experimental acute kidney injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakiroglu, Figen; Enders-Comberg, Sora Maria; Pagel, Horst; Rohwedel, Jürgen; Lehnert, Hendrik; Kramer, Jan

    2016-03-01

    Beneficial effects of erythropoietin (EPO) have been reported in acute kidney injury (AKI) when administered prior to induction of AKI. We studied the effects of EPO administration on renal function shortly after ischemic AKI. For this purpose, rats were subjected to renal ischemia for 30 min and EPO was administered at a concentration of 500 U/kg either i.v. as a single shot directly after ischemia or with an additional i.p. dose until 3 days after surgery. The results were compared with AKI rats without EPO application and a sham-operated group. Renal function was assessed by measurement of serum biochemical markers, histological grading, and using an isolated perfused kidney (IPK) model. Furthermore, we performed flow cytometry to analyze the concentration of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) in the peripheral blood and renal vessels. Following EPO application, there was only a statistically non-significant tendency of serum creatinine and urea to improve, particularly after daily EPO application. Renal vascular resistance and the renal perfusion rate were not significantly altered. In the histological analysis, acute tubular necrosis was only marginally ameliorated following EPO administration. In summary, we could not demonstrate a significant improvement in renal function when EPO was applied after AKI. Interestingly, however, EPO treatment resulted in a highly significant increase in CD133- and CD34-positive EPC both in the peripheral blood and renal vessels. © 2015 International Federation for Cell Biology.

  4. Treatment of radiation exposure and regeneration medicine. Regeneration treatment of blood vessels by transplantation of autologous marrow monocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagai, Kazuhiro; Kamihira, Shimeru; Matsumaru, Ichiro; Fukushima, Takuya; Yamaguchi, Hakuichiro; Miyazaki, Yasushi; Yamachika, Shiro; Eishi, Kiyoyuki; Tomonaga, Masao

    2007-01-01

    Described are usefulness and future view of regenerative medicine in the treatment of radiation exposure as exemplified by the vascular regeneration by autologous marrow cell transplantation. Vascular endothelial cells (VEC), possessing a high ability to divide, are known sensitive to radiation, which gives damage of blood vessel to alter its permeability leading to apoptosis of VEC, organ/tissue injuries and final damages in the cerebral blood vessels, central nervous system and skin, the acute radiation syndrome (ARS). Authors present successful cases of patients with chronic limb ischemia in the Therapeutic Angiogenesis using Cell Transplantation Trial (TACT), to whom the treatment is conducted with transplantation of autologous marrow monocyte fraction containing endothelial progenitor cells that differentiate to VEC. As well, they touch on a case of the patient encountered in a nuclear accident, mentioning that VEC are found partly derived from the donor after heamatopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Efficacy of HSCT in a literature is reviewed and commented to be an only limited one in 31 patients of various radiation accidents. However, treatment of ARS where stem cells are target, with regenerative medicine will become more useful in future, as basic and clinical researches will provide requisite findings. (T.I.)

  5. Phase contrast MR imaging measurements of blood flow in healthy human cerebral vessel segments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacDonald, Matthew Ethan; Frayne, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Phase contrast (PC) magnetic resonance imaging was used to obtain velocity measurements in 30 healthy subjects to provide an assessment of hemodynamic parameters in cerebral vessels. We expect a lower coefficient-of-variation (COV) of the volume flow rate (VFR) compared to peak velocity (v_p_e_a_k) measurements and the COV to increase in smaller caliber arteries compared to large arteries.PC velocity maps were processed to calculate v_p_e_a_k and VFR in 26 vessel segments. The mean, standard deviation and COV, of v_p_e_a_k and VFR in each segment were calculated. A bootstrap-style analysis was used to determine the minimum number of subjects required to accurately represent the population. Significance of v_p_e_a_k and VFR asymmetry was assessed in 10 vessel pairs.The bootstrap analysis suggested that averaging more than 20 subjects would give consistent results. When averaged over the subjects, v_p_e_a_k and VFR ranged from 5.2 ± 7.1 cm s"−"1, 0.41 ± 0.58 ml s"−"1 (in the anterior communicating artery; mean ± standard deviation) to 73 ± 23 cm s"−"1, 7.6 ± 1.7 ml s"−"1 (in the left internal carotid artery), respectively. A tendency for VFR to be higher in the left hemisphere was observed in 88.8% of artery pairs, while the VFR in the right transverse sinus was larger. The VFR COV was larger than v_p_e_a_k COV in 57.7% of segments, while smaller vessels had higher COV.Significance and potential impact: VFR COV was not generally higher than v_p_e_a_k COV. COV was higher in smaller vessels as expected. These summarized values provide a base against which v_p_e_a_k and VFR in various disease states can be compared. (paper)

  6. Blood vessel formation during tail regeneration in the leopard gecko (Eublepharis macularius): The blastema is not avascular.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Samantha L; Peacock, Hanna M; Vickaryous, Matthew K

    2017-03-01

    Unique among amniotes, many lizards are able to self-detach (autotomize) their tail and then regenerate a replacement. Tail regeneration involves the formation of a blastema, an accumulation of proliferating cells at the site of autotomy. Over time, cells of the blastema give rise to most of the tissues in the replacement tail. In non-amniotes capable of regenerating (such as urodeles and some teleost fish), the blastema is reported to be essentially avascular until tissue differentiation takes place. For tail regenerating lizards less is known. Here, we investigate neovascularization during tail regeneration in the leopard gecko (Eublepharis macularius). We demonstrate that the gecko tail blastema is not an avascular structure. Beginning with the onset of regenerative outgrowth, structurally mature (mural cell supported) blood vessels are found within the blastema. Although the pattern of blood vessel distribution in the regenerate tail differs from that of the original, a hierarchical network is established, with vessels of varying luminal diameters and wall thicknesses. Using immunostaining, we determine that blastema outgrowth and tissue differentiation is characterized by a dynamic interplay between the pro-angiogenic protein vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and the anti-angiogenic protein thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1). VEGF-expression is initially widespread, but diminishes as tissues differentiate. In contrast, TSP-1 expression is initially restricted but becomes more abundant as VEGF-expression wanes. We predict that variation in the neovascular response observed between different regeneration-competent species likely relates to the volume of the blastema. J. Morphol. 278:380-389, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. The influence of surrogate blood vessels on the impact response of a physical model of the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parnaik, Yednesh; Beillas, Philippe; Demetropoulos, Constantine K; Hardy, Warren N; Yang, King H; King, Albert I

    2004-11-01

    Cerebral blood vessels are an integral part of the brain and may play a role in the response of the brain to impact. The purpose of this study was to quantify the effects of surrogate vessels on the deformation patterns of a physical model of the brain under various impact conditions. Silicone gel and tubing were used as surrogates for brain tissue and blood vessels, respectively. Two aluminum cylinders representing a coronal section of the brain were constructed. One cylinder was filled with silicone gel only, and the other was filled with silicone gel and silicone tubing arranged in the radial direction in the peripheral region. An array of markers was embedded in the gel in both cylinders to facilitate strain calculation via high-speed video analysis. Both cylinders were simultaneously subjected to a combination of linear and angular acceleration using a two-segment pendulum. Marker motion was tracked, and maximum shear strain (MSS) and maximum principal strain (MPS) were calculated using markers clustered in groups of three. Four test series were conducted. Peak angular acceleration varied from 2,600 to 26,000 rad/s2, and peak angular speed varied from 17 to 29 rad/s. For a given impact condition, the test-to-test variation of these values was less than 5.5%. For all clusters, the peak MSS and peak MPS for both physical models were less than 26% and 32%, respectively. For 90% of the cluster locations, the absolute value of the difference in peak MSS and peak MPS between the physical models was 4% and 6%, respectively. In the physical model with tubing, strain tended to decrease in the periphery (near to the tubing), while it tended to increase toward the center (away from the tubing). Strain amplitudes were found to be sensitive to the peak angular speeds. In general, this study suggests that the vasculature could influence the deformation response of the brain.

  8. Magnetic resonance imaging and peripheral blood abnormalities in experimental allergic encephalomyelitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rose, L.M.; Alvord, E.C. Jr.; Richards, T.L.

    1989-01-01

    Experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) was induced in twelve cynomologous macaques (Macaca fascicularis) by sensitization to autologous myelin basic protein (BP) in complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA). The white blood cell (WBC) count, absolute number of lymphocytes and absolute numbers of CD4 + and CD8 + T-cell subsets were measured weekly. Using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), the animals were monitored twice weekly for the development of central nervous system (CNS) lesions. Conventional spin-warp imaging was performed using a General Electric CSI-II NMR imager/spectrometer (2 Tesla magnet). CNS lesions were detected by MRI in all of the animals sensitized to myelin BP. Longitudinal analysis of their peripheral blood leukocytes revealed a progressive leukocytosis and lymphopenia, which always preceded the onset of clinical signs and almost always also preceded the formation of detectable CNS lesions. These results suggest that frequent analysis of T-cell subsets may provide a more accurate means of predicting episodes of disease activity than clinical or MRI evaluation

  9. C-reactive protein and chitinase 3-like protein 1 as biomarkers of spatial redistribution of retinal blood vessels on digital retinal photography in patients with diabetic retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cekić, Sonja; Cvetković, Tatjana; Jovanović, Ivan; Jovanović, Predrag; Pesić, Milica; Stanković Babić, Gordana; Milenković, Svetislav; Risimić, Dijana

    2014-08-20

    The aim of the study was to investigate the correlation between the levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) and chitinase 3-like protein 1 (YKL-40) in blood samples with morpohometric parameters of retinal blood vessels in patients with diabetic retinopathy. Blood laboratory examination of 90 patients included the measurement of glycemia, HbA1C, total cholesterol, LDL-C, HDL-C, triglycerides and CRP. Levels of YKL-40 were detected and measured in serum by ELISA (Micro VueYKL-40 EIA Kit, Quidel Corporation, San Diego, USA). YKL-40 correlated positively with diameter and negatively with number of retinal blood vessels. The average number of the blood vessels per retinal zone was significantly higher in the group of patients with mild non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy than in the group with severe form in the optic disc and all five retinal zones. The average outer diameter of the evaluated retinal zones and optic disc vessels was significantly higher in the group with severe compared to the group with mild diabetic retinopathy. Morphological analysis of the retinal vessels on digital fundus photography and correlation with YKL-40 may be valuable for the follow-up of diabetic retinopathy.

  10. Different Effects of Implanting Sensory Nerve or Blood Vessel on the Vascularization, Neurotization, and Osteogenesis of Tissue-Engineered Bone In Vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jun-jun; Mu, Tian-wang; Qin, Jun-jun; Bi, Long; Pei, Guo-xian

    2014-01-01

    To compare the different effects of implanting sensory nerve tracts or blood vessel on the osteogenesis, vascularization, and neurotization of the tissue-engineered bone in vivo, we constructed the tissue engineered bone and implanted the sensory nerve tracts (group SN), blood vessel (group VB), or nothing (group Blank) to the side channel of the bone graft to repair the femur defect in the rabbit. Better osteogenesis was observed in groups SN and VB than in group Blank, and no significant difference was found between groups SN and VB at 4, 8, and 12 weeks postoperatively. The neuropeptides expression and the number of new blood vessels in the bone tissues were increased at 8 weeks and then decreased at 12 weeks in all groups and were highest in group VB and lowest in group Blank at all three time points. We conclude that implanting either blood vessel or sensory nerve tract into the tissue-engineered bone can significantly enhance both the vascularization and neurotization simultaneously to get a better osteogenesis effect than TEB alone, and the method of implanting blood vessel has a little better effect of vascularization and neurotization but almost the same osteogenesis effect as implanting sensory nerve. PMID:25101279

  11. Office blood pressure, ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, and echocardiographic abnormalities in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: role of obesity and androgen excess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luque-Ramírez, Manuel; Martí, David; Fernández-Durán, Elena; Alpañés, Macarena; Álvarez-Blasco, Francisco; Escobar-Morreale, Héctor F

    2014-03-01

    Whether or not blood pressure (BP) and heart function of women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) are altered remains unclear, albeit subtle abnormalities in the regulation of BP observed in these women might suggest a mild masculinization of their cardiovascular system. To study the influence of obesity and androgen excess on BP and echocardiographic profiles of women with the syndrome, we conducted a cross-sectional case-control study comparing office and ambulatory BP monitoring, as well as echocardiographic assessments, in 63 premenopausal women with the classic phenotype, 33 nonhyperandrogenic women with regular menses, and 25 young men. Forty-nine subjects were lean and 72 had weight excess (body mass index ≥25 kg/m(2)). Participants had no previous history of hypertension and were nonsmokers. Men showed the highest BP readings, and the lowest readings were observed in control women, whereas women with PCOS had intermediate values. Undiagnosed hypertension was more common in subjects with weight excess irrespective of sex and hyperandrogenism. Women with PCOS and weight excess showed frequencies of previously undiagnosed hypertension that were similar to those of men with weight excess and higher than those observed in nonhyperandrogenic women. Lastly, male sex, weight excess and hypertension, the latter in men as well as in women with PCOS, increased left ventricular wall thickness. In summary, our results show that patients with classic PCOS and weight excess frequently have undiagnosed BP abnormalities, leading to target organ damage.

  12. C - reactive protein and chitinase 3-like protein 1 as biomarkers of spatial redistribution of retinal blood vessels on digital retinal photography in patients with diabetic retinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Predrag Cekic

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investegate the correlation between the levels of CRP and YKL-40 in blood samples with morphometric parameters of retinal blood vessels in patients with diabetic retinopathy.Blood laboratory examination of 90 patients included the measurement of glycemia, HbA1C, total cholesterol, LDL-C, HDL-C, triglycerides and CRP. Levels of YKL-40 were detected and measured in serum by ELISA (Micro VueYKL-40 EIA Kit, Quidel Corporation, San Diego, USA.Morphmetric analysis was performed with ImageJ software (http://rsbweb.nih.gov/ij/ for digital retinal photography. We measured the number, diameter of retinal blood vessels in five different parts concentric to the optic disc. Differences between the morphometric parameters and the blood test analysis results were evaluated using the Student’s t – test. One Way ANOVA was used to establish the significance of differences.CRP and YKL-40 levels were moderately higher in the group of patients with severe diabetic retinopathy. Levels of YKL-40 correlated positively with diameter and negatively with number of retinal blood vessels. The average number of the blood vessels per retinal zone was significantly higher in the group of patients with mild non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy than in the group with severe form in the optic disc and all five retinal zones. The average outer diameter of the evaluated retinal zones and optic disc vessels was significantly higher in the group with severe compared to the group with mild diabetic retinopathy.Morphological analysis of the retinal vessels on digital fundus photography and correlation with YKL-40 may be valuable for the follow-up of diabetic retinopathy.

  13. Depression and anxiety are associated with abnormal nocturnal blood pressure fall in hypertensive patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunbul, Murat; Sunbul, Esra Aydin; Kosker, Selcen Dogru; Durmus, Erdal; Kivrak, Tarik; Ileri, Cigdem; Oguz, Mustafa; Sari, Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that depression and anxiety were independent risk factors for hypertension. Non-dipper hypertension is associated with higher cardiovascular mortality. The aim of this study was to evaluate the anxiety and depression scores in patients with dipper and non-dipper hypertension. The study sample consisted of 153 hypertensive patients. All patients underwent 24-h blood pressure monitoring. Patients were classified into two groups according to their dipper or non-dipper hypertension status. We evaluated results of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale between groups. Seventy-eight patients (38 male, mean age: 51.6 ± 12.5 years) had dipper hypertension while 75 patients (27 male, mean age: 55.4 ± 14.1 years) had non-dipper hypertension (p = 0.141, 0.072, respectively). Clinical characteristics were similar for both groups. Patients with non-dipper hypertension had significantly higher depression and anxiety scores compared to patients with dipper hypertension. Dipper and non-dipper status significantly correlated with anxiety (p: 0.025, r: 0.181) and depression score (p: 0.001, r: 0.255). In univariate analysis, smoking, alcohol usage, presence of diabetes, hyperlipidemia, anxiety score >8 and depression score >7 were predictors of dipper versus non-dipper status. In multivariate logistic regression analyses only depression score >7 was independent predictor of dipper versus non-dipper status (odds ratio: 2.74, confidence intervals: 1.41-5.37). A depression score of 7 or higher predicted non-dipper status with a sensitivity of 62.7% and specificity of 62.8%. Non-dipper patients have significantly higher anxiety and depression scores compared to dipper patients. Evaluation of anxiety and depression in patients with hypertension might help to detect non-dipper group and hence guide for better management.

  14. Melatonin secretion is impaired in women with preeclampsia and an abnormal circadian blood pressure rhythm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchlariotou, Sofia; Liakopoulos, Vassilios; Giannopoulou, Myrto; Arampatzis, Spyridon; Eleftheriadis, Theodoros; Mertens, Peter R; Zintzaras, Elias; Messinis, Ioannis E; Stefanidis, Ioannis

    2014-08-01

    Non-dipping circadian blood pressure (BP) is a common finding in preeclampsia, accompanied by adverse outcomes. Melatonin plays pivotal role in biological circadian rhythms. This study investigated the relationship between melatonin secretion and circadian BP rhythm in preeclampsia. Cases were women with preeclampsia treated between January 2006 and June 2007 in the University Hospital of Larissa. Volunteers with normal pregnancy, matched for chronological and gestational age, served as controls. Twenty-four hour ambulatory BP monitoring was applied. Serum melatonin and urine 6-sulfatoxymelatonin levels were determined in day and night time samples by enzyme-linked immunoassays. Measurements were repeated 2 months after delivery. Thirty-one women with preeclampsia and 20 controls were included. Twenty-one of the 31 women with preeclampsia were non-dippers. Compared to normal pregnancy, in preeclampsia there were significantly lower night time melatonin (48.4 ± 24.7 vs. 85.4 ± 26.9 pg/mL, pcircadian BP rhythm status ascribed this finding exclusively to non-dippers (pcircadian BP and melatonin secretion rhythm reappeared. In contrast, in cases with retained non-dipping status (n=10) melatonin secretion rhythm remained impaired: daytime versus night time melatonin (33.5 ± 13.0 vs. 28.0 ± 13.8 pg/mL, p=0.386). Urinary 6-sulfatoxymelatonin levels were, overall, similar to serum melatonin. Circadian BP and melatonin secretion rhythm follow parallel course in preeclampsia, both during pregnancy and, at least 2 months after delivery. Our findings may be not sufficient to implicate a putative therapeutic effect of melatonin, however, they clearly emphasize that its involvement in the pathogenesis of a non-dipping BP in preeclampsia needs intensive further investigation.

  15. Distribution of Vascular Patterns in Different Subtypes of Renal Cell Carcinoma. A Morphometric Study in Two Distinct Types of Blood Vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Saurí, Amparo; García-Bustos, V; Granero, E; Cuesta, S; Sales, M A; Marcos, V; Llombart-Bosch, A

    2017-07-01

    To analyze the presence of mature and immature vessels as a prognostic factor in patients with renal cell carcinoma and propose a classification of renal cancer tumor blood vessels according to morphometric parameters. Tissue samples were obtained from 121 renal cell carcinoma patients who underwent radical nephrectomy. Staining with CD31 and CD34 was used to differentiate between immature (CD31+) and mature (CD34+) blood vessels. We quantified the microvascular density, microvascular area and different morphometric parameters: maximum diameter, minimum diameter, major axis, minor axis, perimeter, radius ratio and roundness. We found that the microvascular density was higher in CD31+ than CD34+ vessels, but CD34+ vessels were larger than CD31+ vessels, as well as being strongly correlated with the ISUP tumor grade. We also identified four vascular patterns: pseudoacinar, fascicular, reticular and diffuse. Pseudoacinar and fascicular patterns were more frequent in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (37.62 and 35.64% respectively), followed by reticular pattern (21.78%), while in chromophobe tumors the reticular pattern predominated (90%). The isolated pattern was present in all papillary tumors (100%). In healthy renal tissue, the pseudoacinar and isolated patterns were differentially found in the renal cortex and medulla respectively. We defined four distinct vascular patterns significantly related with the ISUP tumor grade in renal cell carcinomas. Further studies in larger series are needed in order to validate these results. Analysis of both mature and immature vessels (CD34+ and CD31+) provides additional information when evaluating microvascular density.

  16. Synthesis and characterization of Gadolinium-Lectin conjugates as selective blood-vessel contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pashkunova-Martic, I.

    2004-11-01

    Molecular imaging without use of ionizing radiation has recently been developed for both magnetic resonance and ultrasound imaging (MRI, US) and is expected to play a major future role in diagnosis and monitoring of tumours. In MRI, targeted nanoparticle contrast media (CM) with high relaxivities are required in order to obtain adequate signal-to-noise ratios, due to the low number of target sites. The size, charge and chemical constitution of the targeted nanoparticle CM are expected to influence nanoparticle interactions with cells and tissue elements significantly, and hence the targeting, the accumulation and dwell time at the targeted site, and the type and rate of clearance of the nanoparticles. The work reported here aims to characterise and optimise these parameters in mouse and human models, using nanoparticles targeted to a major carbohydrate determinant of the endothelial cell surface which is present in all blood vessels. Specific binding to the endothelium was demonstrated in both living and chemically fixed human vessels and in mice. Long-standing spin-echo and FLASH-3D images were obtained in the vasculature of living mice, in strong contrast to the rapid renal clearance of gadolinium-DTPA chelates which are widely used in the clinic. Nanoparticle size was found to be a major determinant of the biological response, and our data indicate that an optimal nanoparticle size lies between 50-100 nm diameter. We expect that hyperpermeable vessels present in tumours will permit targeting of optimised nanoparticles to the tumour cells, permitting MRI monitoring of the tumour. (author)

  17. Blood-Vessel Mimicking Structures by Stereolithographic Fabrication of Small Porous Tubes Using Cytocompatible Polyacrylate Elastomers, Biofunctionalization and Endothelialization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgit Huber

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Blood vessel reconstruction is still an elusive goal for the development of in vitro models as well as artificial vascular grafts. In this study, we used a novel photo-curable cytocompatible polyacrylate material (PA for freeform generation of synthetic vessels. We applied stereolithography for the fabrication of arbitrary 3D tubular structures with total dimensions in the centimeter range, 300 µm wall thickness, inner diameters of 1 to 2 mm and defined pores with a constant diameter of approximately 100 µm or 200 µm. We established a rinsing protocol to remove remaining cytotoxic substances from the photo-cured PA and applied thio-modified heparin and RGDC-peptides to functionalize the PA surface for enhanced endothelial cell adhesion. A rotating seeding procedure was introduced to ensure homogenous endothelial monolayer formation at the inner luminal tube wall. We showed that endothelial cells stayed viable and adherent and aligned along the medium flow under fluid-flow conditions comparable to native capillaries. The combined technology approach comprising of freeform additive manufacturing (AM, biomimetic design, cytocompatible materials which are applicable to AM, and biofunctionalization of AM constructs has been introduced as BioRap® technology by the authors.

  18. Quantitative ex-vivo micro-computed tomographic imaging of blood vessels and necrotic regions within tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downey, Charlene M; Singla, Arvind K; Villemaire, Michelle L; Buie, Helen R; Boyd, Steven K; Jirik, Frank R

    2012-01-01

    Techniques for visualizing and quantifying the microvasculature of tumors are essential not only for studying angiogenic processes but also for monitoring the effects of anti-angiogenic treatments. Given the relatively limited information that can be gleaned from conventional 2-D histological analyses, there has been considerable interest in methods that enable the 3-D assessment of the vasculature. To this end, we employed a polymerizing intravascular contrast medium (Microfil) and micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) in combination with a maximal spheres direct 3-D analysis method to visualize and quantify ex-vivo vessel structural features, and to define regions of hypoperfusion within tumors that would be indicative of necrosis. Employing these techniques we quantified the effects of a vascular disrupting agent on the tumor vasculature. The methods described herein for quantifying whole tumor vascularity represent a significant advance in the 3-D study of tumor angiogenesis and evaluation of novel therapeutics, and will also find potential application in other fields where quantification of blood vessel structure and necrosis are important outcome parameters.

  19. Synergistic actions of blocking angiopoietin-2 and tumor necrosis factor-α in suppressing remodeling of blood vessels and lymphatics in airway inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Catherine T K; Laidlaw, Grace; Morehouse, Christopher A; Naiman, Brian; Brohawn, Philip; Mustelin, Tomas; Connor, Jane R; McDonald, Donald M

    2015-11-01

    Remodeling of blood vessels and lymphatics are prominent features of sustained inflammation. Angiopoietin-2 (Ang2)/Tie2 receptor signaling and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF)/TNF receptor signaling are known to contribute to these changes in airway inflammation after Mycoplasma pulmonis infection in mice. We determined whether Ang2 and TNF are both essential for the remodeling on blood vessels and lymphatics, and thereby influence the actions of one another. Their respective contributions to the initial stage of vascular remodeling and sprouting lymphangiogenesis were examined by comparing the effects of function-blocking antibodies to Ang2 or TNF, given individually or together during the first week after infection. As indices of efficacy, vascular enlargement, endothelial leakiness, venular marker expression, pericyte changes, and lymphatic vessel sprouting were assessed. Inhibition of Ang2 or TNF alone reduced the remodeling of blood vessels and lymphatics, but inhibition of both together completely prevented these changes. Genome-wide analysis of changes in gene expression revealed synergistic actions of the antibody combination over a broad range of genes and signaling pathways involved in inflammatory responses. These findings demonstrate that Ang2 and TNF are essential and synergistic drivers of remodeling of blood vessels and lymphatics during the initial stage of inflammation after infection. Inhibition of Ang2 and TNF together results in widespread suppression of the inflammatory response. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Combination probe for optically assisted ultrasonic velocity-change imaging aimed at detecting unstable blood vessel plaque

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanigawa, Shohei; Mano, Kazune; Wada, Kenji; Matsunaka, Toshiyuki; Horinaka, Hiromichi

    2016-04-01

    Blood vessel plaque with a large lipid core is at risk of becoming thrombus and is likely to induce acute heart disease. To prevent this, it is necessary to determine not only the plaque's size but also its chemical composition. We, therefore, made the prototype of a combination probe to diagnose carotid artery plaque. It is used to differentiate propagation characteristics between light spectra and ultrasonic images. By propagating light and ultrasound along a common direction, it is possible to effectively warm the diagnosis domain. Moreover, the probe is thought to be compact and be easy to use for diagnosing human carotid artery plaque. We applied the combination probe to a carotid artery phantom with a lipid area and obtained an image of the ultrasonic velocity change in the fatty area.

  1. Careful treatment planning enables safe ablation of liver tumors adjacent to major blood vessels by percutaneous irreversible electroporation (IRE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kos, Bor; Voigt, Peter; Miklavcic, Damijan; Moche, Michael

    2015-09-01

    Irreversible electroporation (IRE) is a tissue ablation method, which relies on the phenomenon of electroporation. When cells are exposed to a sufficiently electric field, the plasma membrane is disrupted and cells undergo an apoptotic or necrotic cell death. Although heating effects are known IRE is considered as non-thermal ablation technique and is currently applied to treat tumors in locations where thermal ablation techniques are contraindicated. The manufacturer of the only commercially available pulse generator for IRE recommends a voltage-to-distance ratio of 1500 to 1700 V/cm for treating tumors in the liver. However, major blood vessels can influence the electric field distribution. We present a method for treatment planning of IRE which takes the influence of blood vessels on the electric field into account; this is illustrated on a treatment of 48-year-old patient with a metastasis near the remaining hepatic vein after a right side hemi-hepatectomy. Output of the numerical treatment planning method shows that a 19.9 cm3 irreversible electroporation lesion was generated and the whole tumor was covered with at least 900 V/cm. This compares well with the volume of the hypodense lesion seen in contrast enhanced CT images taken after the IRE treatment. A significant temperature raise occurs near the electrodes. However, the hepatic vein remains open after the treatment without evidence of tumor recurrence after 6 months. Treatment planning using accurate computer models was recognized as important for electrochemotherapy and irreversible electroporation. An important finding of this study was, that the surface of the electrodes heat up significantly. Therefore the clinical user should generally avoid placing the electrodes less than 4 mm away from risk structures when following recommendations of the manufacturer.

  2. Endothelial mineralocorticoid receptor ablation does not alter blood pressure, kidney function or renal vessel contractility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Sidsel B.; Finsen, Stine; Marcussen, Niels

    2018-01-01

    afferent arterioles. Urinary sodium excretion was determined by use of metabolic cages. EC-MR transgenics had markedly decreased MR expression in isolated aortic endothelial cells as compared to littermates (WT). Blood pressure and effective renal plasma flow at baseline and following AngII infusion...... vasculature and examined this by ablating the Nr3c2 gene in endothelial cells (EC-MR) in mice. Blood pressure, heart rate and PAH clearance were measured using indwelling catheters in conscious mice. The role of the MR in EC on contraction and relaxation was investigated in the renal artery and in perfused......Aldosterone blockade confers substantial cardiovascular and renal protection. The effects of aldosterone on mineralocorticoid receptors (MR) expressed in endothelial cells (EC) within the renal vasculature have not been delineated. We hypothesized that lack of MR in EC may be protective in renal...

  3. Effect of heat transfer on unsteady MHD flow of blood in a permeable vessel in the presence of non-uniform heat source

    OpenAIRE

    A. Sinha; J.C. Misra; G.C. Shit

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a theoretical analysis of blood flow and heat transfer in a permeable vessel in the presence of an external magnetic field. The unsteadiness in the coupled flow and temperature fields is considered to be caused due to the time-dependent stretching velocity and the surface temperature of the vessel. The non-uniform heat source/sink effect on blood flow and heat transfer is taken into account. This study is of potential value in the clinical treatment of cardiovascular disor...

  4. A dynamic model of neurovascular coupling: implications for blood vessel dilation and constriction

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Y.; Pan, Y.; Harris, S.; Billings, S.A.; Coca, D.; Berwick, J.; Jones, M.; Kennerley, A.; Johnston, D.; Martin, C.; Devonshire, I.M.; Mayhew, J.

    2010-01-01

    Neurovascular coupling in response to stimulation of the rat barrel cortex was investigated using concurrent multichannel electrophysiology and laser Doppler flowmetry. The data were used to build a linear dynamic model relating neural activity to blood flow. Local field potential time series were subject to current source density analysis, and the time series of a layer IV sink of the barrel cortex was used as the input to the model. The model output was the time series of the changes in reg...

  5. MAPK and pro-inflammatory mediators in the walls of brain blood vessels following cerebral ischemia

    OpenAIRE

    Maddahi, Aida

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Stroke is a serious neurological disease which may lead to death and severe disability [1, 2]. There are two major types of stroke: ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke. Both are associated with disruption of blood flow to a part of the brain with rapid depletion of cellular energy and oxygen, resulting in ionic disturbances and eventually neuronal cell death [3]. The pathologic process that develops after stroke is divided into acute (within hours), sub-acute (hours to days), ...

  6. Mechanism of /sup 67/Ga uptake by an experimental abscess. Permeability of plasma from blood vessel in abscess

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    Nitta, Kazuo; Ogawa, Hiroshi; Ando, Atsushi; Ando, Itsuko; Hiraki, Tatsunosuke; Hisada, Kinichi

    1985-06-01

    In the previous paper, we reported that /sup 67/Ga was accumulated in abscess and uptake rate of /sup 67/Ga in abscess increased with time after the injection of /sup 67/Ga-citrate. The present study was undertaken to elucidate the influence of blood flow on the accumulation of /sup 67/Ga in abscess. Five days after subcutaneous injection of 0.2 ml of turpentine to the rats, /sup 131/I-human serum albumin (HSA) was injected intravenously to the rats. At an appropriate time after the injection (10 min to 6 days), uptake rates of /sup 131/I-HSA in abscess and normal tissues were measured. Similarly, /sup 51/Cr-red blood cells (RBC) were injected intravenously to the above rats and the uptake rates of /sup 51/Cr-RBC were also measured. One, three, and 24 hours after injection of /sup 131/I-HSA, the uptake rates of /sup 131/I-HSA in abscess were 1.32 %dose/g, 1.84 %dose/g, and 0.82 %dose/g, respectively. However, the uptake rates of /sup 51/Cr-RBC in abscess was very small, and the value was 0.14 %dose/g at 24 hours after the injection. In the case of abscess, blood in the tissue fluid was very little, but the permeability of /sup 131/I-HSA from the blood vessel in the tissue was much larger than that of normal tissues. From these facts, it was deduced that the accelerated permeability caused the abscess accumulation of /sup 67/Ga.

  7. An agent-based model of the response to angioplasty and bare-metal stent deployment in an atherosclerotic blood vessel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia E Curtin

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: While animal models are widely used to investigate the development of restenosis in blood vessels following an intervention, computational models offer another means for investigating this phenomenon. A computational model of the response of a treated vessel would allow investigators to assess the effects of altering certain vessel- and stent-related variables. The authors aimed to develop a novel computational model of restenosis development following an angioplasty and bare-metal stent implantation in an atherosclerotic vessel using agent-based modeling techniques. The presented model is intended to demonstrate the body's response to the intervention and to explore how different vessel geometries or stent arrangements may affect restenosis development. METHODS: The model was created on a two-dimensional grid space. It utilizes the post-procedural vessel lumen diameter and stent information as its input parameters. The simulation starting point of the model is an atherosclerotic vessel after an angioplasty and stent implantation procedure. The model subsequently generates the final lumen diameter, percent change in lumen cross-sectional area, time to lumen diameter stabilization, and local concentrations of inflammatory cytokines upon simulation completion. Simulation results were directly compared with the results from serial imaging studies and cytokine levels studies in atherosclerotic patients from the relevant literature. RESULTS: The final lumen diameter results were all within one standard deviation of the mean lumen diameters reported in the comparison studies. The overlapping-stent simulations yielded results that matched published trends. The cytokine levels remained within the range of physiological levels throughout the simulations. CONCLUSION: We developed a novel computational model that successfully simulated the development of restenosis in a blood vessel following an angioplasty and bare-metal stent deployment based on

  8. Processing of MRI images weighted in TOF for blood vessels analysis: 3-D reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez D, J.; Cordova F, T. [Universidad de Guanajuato, Campus Leon, Departamento de Ingenieria Fisica, Loma del Bosque No. 103, Lomas del Campestre, 37150 Leon, Guanajuato (Mexico); Cruz A, I., E-mail: hernandezdj.gto@gmail.com [CONACYT, Centro de Investigacion en Matematicas, A. C., Jalisco s/n, Col. Valenciana, 36000 Guanajuato, Gto. (Mexico)

    2015-10-15

    This paper presents a novel presents an approach based on differences of intensities for the identification of vascular structures in medical images from MRI studies of type time of flight method (TOF). The plating method hypothesis gave high intensities belonging to the vascular system image type TOF can be segmented by thresholding of the histogram. The enhanced vascular structures is performed using the filter Vesselness, upon completion of a decision based on fuzzy thresholding minimizes error in the selection of vascular structures. It will give a brief introduction to the vascular system problems and how the images have helped diagnosis, is summarized the physical history of the different imaging modalities and the evolution of digital images with computers. Segmentation and 3-D reconstruction became image type time of flight; these images are typically used in medical diagnosis of cerebrovascular diseases. The proposed method has less error in segmentation and reconstruction of volumes related to the vascular system, clear images and less noise compared with edge detection methods. (Author)

  9. Processing of MRI images weighted in TOF for blood vessels analysis: 3-D reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez D, J.; Cordova F, T.; Cruz A, I.

    2015-10-01

    This paper presents a novel presents an approach based on differences of intensities for the identification of vascular structures in medical images from MRI studies of type time of flight method (TOF). The plating method hypothesis gave high intensities belonging to the vascular system image type TOF can be segmented by thresholding of the histogram. The enhanced vascular structures is performed using the filter Vesselness, upon completion of a decision based on fuzzy thresholding minimizes error in the selection of vascular structures. It will give a brief introduction to the vascular system problems and how the images have helped diagnosis, is summarized the physical history of the different imaging modalities and the evolution of digital images with computers. Segmentation and 3-D reconstruction became image type time of flight; these images are typically used in medical diagnosis of cerebrovascular diseases. The proposed method has less error in segmentation and reconstruction of volumes related to the vascular system, clear images and less noise compared with edge detection methods. (Author)

  10. Describable ability of blood vessels in head and neck by intravenous digital subtraction angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minakuchi, Kazuo; Takada, Keiji; Nakamura, Kenji

    1989-01-01

    Ninety-four patients with various symptoms of the head and neck were studied by intravenous digital subtraction angiography (IV-DSA). Abnormal findings were obesrved in 12 patients; one with aneurysm in the left internal carotid artery, and 11 with obstruction in the right middle cerebral artery (2), the right internal carotid artery (one), the left subclavian artery (one), the right vertebral artery (6), and the left vertebral artery (one). Motion artifacts were observed in 2 patients. The vertebral arteries were bilaterally equal in size in 42%, and the left vertebral artery was bigger than the right one in 38%. The superior sagittal dural sinus was clearly imaged in 94%. The incidence of excellent images was higher in the right sided than the left sided vein -- 85% vs 50% for the transverse dural sinus, 84% vs 54% for the sigmoid dural sinus, and 88% vs 57% for the jugular vein. Sites of excellent images were all of the dural sinuses and veins (37 cases), confined to the right side (37), confined to the left side (8), and undefined (12). (N.K.)

  11. ICG-assisted blood vessel detection during stereotactic neurosurgery: simulation study on excitation power limitations due to thermal effects in human brain tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rühm, Adrian; Göbel, Werner; Sroka, Ronald; Stepp, Herbert

    2014-09-01

    Intraoperative blood vessel detection based on intraluminal indocyanin-green (ICG) would allow to minimize the risk of blood vessel perforation during stereotactic brain tumor biopsy. For a fiber-based approach compatible with clinical conditions, the maximum tolerable excitation light power was derived from simulations of the thermal heat load on the tissue. Using the simulation software LITCIT, the temperature distribution in human brain tissue was calculated as a function of time for realistic single-fiber probes (0.72mm active diameter, numerical aperture 0.35, optional focusing to 0.29mm diameter) and for the optimum ICG excitation wavelength of 785nm. The asymptotic maximum temperature in the simulated tissue region was derived for different radiant fluxes at the distal fiber end. Worst case values were assumed for all other parameters. In addition to homogeneous (normal and tumor) brain tissue with homogeneous blood perfusion, models with localized extra blood vessels incorporated ahead of the distal fiber end were investigated. If one demands that destruction of normal brain tissue must be excluded by limiting the tissue heating to 42°C, then the radiant flux at the distal fiber end must be limited to 33mW with and 43mW without focusing. When considering extra blood vessels of 0.1mm diameter incorporated into homogeneously perfused brain tissue, the tolerable radiant flux is reduced to 22mW with and 32mW without focusing. The threshold value according to legal laser safety regulations for human skin tissue is 28.5mW. For the envisaged modality of blood vessel detection, light power limits for an application-relevant fiber configuration were determined and found to be roughly consistent with present legal regulations for skin tissue. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. The relationship between red blood cell distribution width and blood pressure abnormal dipping in patients with essential hypertension: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Dan; Guo, Qi; Gao, Ya; Han, Jin; Yan, Bin; Peng, Liyuan; Song, Anqi; Zhou, Fuling; Wang, Gang

    2016-02-23

    To investigate whether red blood cell distribution width (RDW) is associated with the blood pressure (BP) reverse-dipper pattern in patients with hypertension. Cross-sectional study. Single centre. Patients with essential hypertension were included in our study (n=708). The exclusion criteria included age 90 years, incomplete clinical data, night workers, diagnosis of secondary hypertension, under antihypertensive treatment, intolerance for the 24 h ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM) and BP reading success rate hypertension among different circadian BP pattern groups was analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA). Multinomial logistic regression was applied to explore the associations of RDW and other relevant variables with ABPM results. There was significantly increased RDW in reverse dippers (13.52 ± 1.05) than dippers (13.25 ± 0.85) of hypertension (p=0.012). Moreover, multinomial logistic regression analysis showed that RDW (OR 1.325, 95% CI 1.037 to 1.692, p=0.024) and diabetes mellitus (OR 2.286, 95% CI 1.380 to 3.788, p=0.001) were significantly different when comparing the reverse-dipper BP pattern with the dipper pattern. However, there was no difference of RDW between the non-dipper pattern and the reverse-dipper pattern (OR 1.036, 95% CI 0.867 to 1.238, p=0.693). In addition to this, RDW was negatively correlated with the decline rate of nocturnal systolic BP (r=-0.113; p=0.003) and diastolic BP (r=-0.101; p=0.007). Our results suggested that RDW might associate with the abnormal dipper BP patterns of either reverse dipping or non-dipping homogeneously examined with 24 h ABPM. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  13. Hemodynamics in stenotic vessels of small diameter under steady state conditions: Effect of viscoelasticity and migration of red blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimakopoulos, Yannis; Kelesidis, George; Tsouka, Sophia; Georgiou, Georgios C; Tsamopoulos, John

    2015-01-01

    In microcirculation, the non-Newtonian behavior of blood and the complexity of the microvessel network are responsible for the high flow resistance and the large reduction of the blood pressure. Red blood cell aggregation along with inward radial migration are two significant mechanisms determining the former. Yet, their impact on hemodynamics in non-straight vessels is not well understood. In this study, the steady state blood flow in stenotic rigid vessels is examined, employing a sophisticated non-homogeneous constitutive law. The effect of red blood cells migration on the hydrodynamics is quantified and the constitutive model's accuracy is evaluated. A numerical algorithm based on the two-dimensional mixed finite element method and the EVSS/SUPG technique for a stable discretization of the mass and momentum conservation equations in addition to the constitutive model is employed. The numerical simulations show that a cell-depleted layer develops along the vessel wall with an almost constant thickness for slow flow conditions. This causes the reduction of the drag force and the increase of the pressure gradient as the constriction ratio decreases. Viscoelastic effects in blood flow were found to be responsible for steeper decreases of tube and discharge hematocrits as decreasing function of constriction ratio.

  14. Treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma adjacent to large blood vessels using 1.5T MRI-guided percutaneous radiofrequency ablation combined with iodine-125 radioactive seed implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Zheng-Yu, E-mail: linsinlan@yahoo.com.cn [The Department of Radiology, First Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University, 20 Chazhong Road, Fuzhou 350005 (China); Chen, Jin, E-mail: snow8968851@163.com [The Department of Radiology, First Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University, 20 Chazhong Road, Fuzhou 350005 (China); Deng, Xiu-Fen, E-mail: dxf197286@yahoo.com.cn [The Department of Radiology, First Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University, 20 Chazhong Road, Fuzhou 350005 (China)

    2012-11-15

    Objective: The objective is to study the technology associated with and feasibility of the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) adjacent to large blood vessels using 1.5T MRI-guided radiofrequency ablation combined with iodine-125 (I-125) radioactive seed implantation. Methods: Sixteen patients with a total of 24 HCC lesions (average maximum diameter: 2.35 {+-} 1.03 cm) were pathologically confirmed by biopsy or clinically diagnosed received 1.5T MRI-guided percutaneous radiofrequency ablation (RFA) treatment. Each patient had one lesion adjacent to large blood vessels ({>=}3 mm); after the ablation, I-125 radioactive seeds were implanted in the portions of the lesions that were adjacent to the blood vessels. Results: All the ablations and I-125 radioactive seed implantations were successful; a total of 118 seeds were implanted. The ablated lesions exhibited hypointense signals on the T2WI sequence with a thin rim of hyperintense signals; they also exhibited significant hyperintense signals on the T1WI sequence with clear boundaries. The average follow-up period was 11.1 {+-} 6.2 months. There were 23 complete responses and one partial response in the 24 lesions. The alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) levels of the patients significantly decreased. Conclusion: The 1.5T MRI-guided RFA combined with I-125 radioactive seed implantation for the treatment of HCC adjacent to large blood vessels is an effective technology.

  15. Remote non-invasive stereoscopic imaging of blood vessels: first in-vivo results of a new multispectral contrast enhancement technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieringa, F.P.; Mastik, F.; Cate, F.J. ten; Neumann, H.A.M.; Steen, A.F.W. van der

    2006-01-01

    We describe a contactless optical technique selectively enhancing superficial blood vessels below variously pigmented intact human skin by combining images in different spectral bands. Two CMOS-cameras, with apochromatic lenses and dual-band LED-arrays, simultaneously streamed Left (L) and Right (R)

  16. Porous hybrid structures based on P(DLLA-co-TMC) and collagen for tissue engineering of small-diameter blood vessels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buttafoco, L.; Boks, Niels P.; Engbers-Buijtenhuijs, P.; Grijpma, Dirk W.; Poot, Andreas A.; Dijkstra, Pieter J.; Vermes, I.; Feijen, Jan

    2006-01-01

    Poly (D,L-lactide)-7co-(1,3-trimethylene carbonate) [P(DLLA-co-TMC)] (83 mol % DLLA) was used to produce matrices suitable for tissue engineering of small-diameter blood vessels. The copolymer was processed into tubular structures with a porosity of 98% by melt spinning and fiber winding, thus

  17. The genetic basis for altered blood vessel function in disease: large artery stiffening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Agrotis

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Alex AgrotisThe Cell Biology Laboratory, Baker Heart Research Institute, Melbourne, Victoria, AustraliaAbstract: The progressive stiffening of the large arteries in humans that occurs during aging constitutes a potential risk factor for increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, and is accompanied by an elevation in systolic blood pressure and pulse pressure. While the underlying basis for these changes remains to be fully elucidated, factors that are able to influence the structure and composition of the extracellular matrix and the way it interacts with arterial smooth muscle cells could profoundly affect the properties of the large arteries. Thus, while age and sex represent important factors contributing to large artery stiffening, the variation in growth-stimulating factors and those that modulate extracellular production and homeostasis are also being increasingly recognized to play a key role in the process. Therefore, elucidating the contribution that genetic variation makes to large artery stiffening could ultimately provide the basis for clinical strategies designed to regulate the process for therapeutic benefit.Keywords: arterial stiffness, genes, polymorphism, extracellular matrix proteins

  18. Targeting Therapy Resistant Tumor Vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-01

    Morris LS. Hysterectomy vs. resectoscopic endometrial ablation for the control of abnormal uterine bleeding . A cost-comparative study. J Reprod Med 1994;39...after the antibody treatment contain a pericyte coat, vessel architecture is normal, the diameter of the vessels is smaller (dilated, abnormal vessels...involvement of proteases from inflammatory mast cells and functionally abnormal (Carmeliet and Jain, 2000; Pasqualini (Coussens et al., 1999) and other bone

  19. Reducing the data: Analysis of the role of vascular geometry on blood flow patterns in curved vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alastruey, Jordi; Siggers, Jennifer H.; Peiffer, Véronique; Doorly, Denis J.; Sherwin, Spencer J.

    2012-03-01

    Three-dimensional simulations of blood flow usually produce such large quantities of data that they are unlikely to be of clinical use unless methods are available to simplify our understanding of the flow dynamics. We present a new method to investigate the mechanisms by which vascular curvature and torsion affect blood flow, and we apply it to the steady-state flow in single bends, helices, double bends, and a rabbit thoracic aorta based on image data. By calculating forces and accelerations in an orthogonal coordinate system following the centreline of each vessel, we obtain the inertial forces (centrifugal, Coriolis, and torsional) explicitly, which directly depend on vascular curvature and torsion. We then analyse the individual roles of the inertial, pressure gradient, and viscous forces on the patterns of primary and secondary velocities, vortical structures, and wall stresses in each cross section. We also consider cross-sectional averages of the in-plane components of these forces, which can be thought of as reducing the dynamics of secondary flows onto the vessel centreline. At Reynolds numbers between 50 and 500, secondary motions in the directions of the local normals and binormals behave as two underdamped oscillators. These oscillate around the fully developed state and are coupled by torsional forces that break the symmetry of the flow. Secondary flows are driven by the centrifugal and torsional forces, and these are counterbalanced by the in-plane pressure gradients generated by the wall reaction. The viscous force primarily opposes the pressure gradient, rather than the inertial forces. In the axial direction, and depending on the secondary motion, the curvature-dependent Coriolis force can either enhance or oppose the bulk of the axial flow, and this shapes the velocity profile. For bends with little or no torsion, the Coriolis force tends to restore flow axisymmetry. The maximum circumferential and axial wall shear stresses along the centreline

  20. Quantitative kinetic analysis of blood vessels in the outer membranes of chronic subdural hematomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Kentaro; Adachi, Keiji; Cho, Kajin; Ishimaru, Sumio; Maeda, Minoru

    1998-01-01

    Dynamic biologic modeling was used to calculate the transfer rate constant for gadolinium-diethylenetriaminepenta-acetic acid (Gd-DTPA) and capillary permeability in the outer membrane of chronic subdural hematomas and effusions. Following intravenous Gd-DTPA injection, Gd concentrations in the subdural fluid and in timed arterial blood samples were measured by ion-coupled plasma emission spectrometry in 53 chronic subdural hematomas and 18 chronic subdural effusions. The capillary surface area in outer membrane was assessed morphometrically. Transfer rate constants for subdural hematomas and subdural effusions were 12.4±1.0 and 20.6±1.7 (x 10 -4 )min -1 , respectively. Capillary permeabilities for subdural hematomas and subdural effusions were 16±1.2 and 19±3.7 ml·min -1 (mm 2 /mm 3 ) -1 , respectively. The capillary surface areas for subdural hematomas and subdural effusions were 48±3 and 77±10 mm 2 /mm 3 , respectively. The high degree of infiltration of Gd into subdural effusions reflects the high capillary surface area in the outer membrane rather than greater permeability of individual capillaries. The value of transfer rate constant was correlated inversely with the duration of the chronic subdural fluid collection. Immature outer membrane has a high transfer rate constant which allows extravasation of plasma components into the subdural space, resulting in increasing volume of the subdural effusion. Delayed magnetic resonance imaging following Gd administration may be clinically useful for estimating the age of chronic subdural fluid accumulations. (author)

  1. The effects of Anadara granosa shell-Stichopus hermanni on bFGF expressions and blood vessel counts in the bone defect healing process of Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rima Parwati Sari

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bone damage can be caused by various factors with treatment usually involving graft materials being applied to the defective area. Moreover, in the bone defect healing process, blood vessels are also considered to be an important energy source for cell proliferation. One of the angiogenic factors playing an important role in blood vessel formation is basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF. Furthermore, synthesized hydroxyapatite derived from Anadara granosa (AG shells constitutes one of the potential materials for use in bone graft. The gold sea cucumber genus Stichopus hermanni (SH possesses the ability to stimulate endothelial progenitor cells inducing bFGF. Purpose: This study aims to investigate the effects of AG shells and SH on bFGF expressions and blood vessel counts within the bone healing process. Methods: Twenty four male Wistar rats were divided into three groups, namely: a control group (C, a treatment group was administered with blood cockle shell (AG, and a treatment group with blood cockle shell and golden sea cucumber (AG+SH. Defects were made on their femurs measuring half the diameter of a circular, no. 018. bur These rats were subsequently sacrificed on day 7 after surgery. The expressions of bFGF were measured by means of IHC technique, while the number of blood vessels was quantified using HE technique. The resulting data was subjected to statistical analysis using an Anova test followed by an LSD test (p < 0.05. Results: The one-way Anova test results combined with those of an LSD test showed there to be significant differences in bFGF expressions and blood vessel counts between the control group (K and the treatment group (AG as well as between the treatment group (AG and the treatment group (AG+SH. Conclusions: A combination of Anadara granosa shell and Stichopus hermanni can increase the expression of bFGF and the number of blood vessels on day 7 during the bone healing process in Wistar rats.

  2. COMPARISON OF REAL-TIME MICROVASCULAR ABNORMALITIES IN PEDIATRIC AND ADULT SICKLE CELL ANEMIA PATIENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Anthony T.W.; Miller, Joshua W.; Craig, Sarah M.; To, Patricia L.; Lin, Xin; Samarron, Sandra L.; Chen, Peter C.Y.; Zwerdling, Theodore; Wun, Ted; Li, Chin-Shang; Green, Ralph

    2010-01-01

    The conjunctival microcirculation in 14 pediatric and 8 adult sickle cell anemia (SCA) patients was studied using computer-assisted intravital microscopy. The bulbar conjunctiva in SCA patients in both age groups exhibited a blanched/avascular appearance characterized by decreased vascularity. SCA patients from both age groups had many of the same abnormal morphometric {vessel diameter, vessel distribution, morphometry (shape), tortuosity, arteriole:venule (A:V) ratio, and hemosiderin deposits} and dynamic {vessel sludging/sludged flow, boxcar blood (trickled) flow and abnormal flow velocity} abnormalities. A severity index (SI) was computed to quantify the degree of vasculopathy for comparison between groups. The severity of vasculopathy differed significantly between the pediatric and adult patients (SI: 4.2 ± 1.8 vs 6.6 ± 2.4; p=0.028), indicative of a lesser degree of overall severity in the pediatric patients. Specific abnormalities that were less prominent in the pediatric patients included abnormal vessel morphometry and tortuosity. Sludged flow, abnormal vessel distribution, abnormal A:V ratio, and boxcar flow, appeared in high prevalence in both age groups. The results indicate that SCA microvascular abnormalities develop in childhood and the severity of vasculopathy likely progresses with age. Intervention and effective treatment/management modalities should target pediatric patients to ameliorate, slow down or prevent progressive microvascular deterioration. PMID:20872552

  3. Placental Growth Factor Contributes to Micro-Vascular Abnormalization and Blood-Retinal Barrier Breakdown in Diabetic Retinopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalczuk, Laura; Touchard, Elodie; Omri, Samy; Jonet, Laurent; Klein, Christophe; Valamanes, Fatemeh; Berdugo, Marianne; Bigey, Pascal; Massin, Pascale; Jeanny, Jean-Claude; Behar-Cohen, Francine

    2011-01-01

    Objective There are controversies regarding the pro-angiogenic activity of placental growth factor (PGF) in diabetic retinopathy (DR). For a better understanding of its role on the retina, we have evaluated the effect of a sustained PGF over-expression in rat ocular media, using ciliary muscle electrotransfer (ET) of a plasmid encoding rat PGF-1 (pVAX2-rPGF-1). Materials and Methods pVAX2-rPGF-1 ET in the ciliary muscle (200 V/cm) was achieved in non diabetic and diabetic rat eyes. Control eyes received saline or naked plasmid ET. Clinical follow up was carried out over three months using slit lamp examination and fluorescein angiography. After the control of rPGF-1 expression, PGF-induced effects on retinal vasculature and on the blood-external barrier were evaluated respectively by lectin and occludin staining on flat-mounts. Ocular structures were visualized through histological analysis. Results After fifteen days of rPGF-1 over-expression in normal eyes, tortuous and dilated capillaries were observed. At one month, microaneurysms and moderate vascular sprouts were detected in mid retinal periphery in vivo and on retinal flat-mounts. At later stages, retinal pigmented epithelial cells demonstrated morphological abnormalities and junction ruptures. In diabetic retinas, PGF expression rose between 2 and 5 months, and, one month after ET, rPGF-1 over-expression induced glial activation and proliferation. Conclusion This is the first demonstration that sustained intraocular PGF production induces vascular and retinal changes similar to those observed in the early stages of diabetic retinopathy. PGF and its receptor Flt-1 may therefore be looked upon as a potential regulatory target at this stage of the disease. PMID:21408222

  4. 3D-black-blood 3T-MRI for the diagnosis of thoracic large vessel vasculitis: A feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Treitl, Karla Maria; Saam, Tobias [Institute for Clinical Radiology, LMU Munich, Munich (Germany); German Center for Cardiovascular Disease Research (DZHK e.V.), Munich (Germany); Maurus, Stefan; Sommer, Nora Narvina; Coppenrath, Eva; Treitl, Marcus [Institute for Clinical Radiology, LMU Munich, Munich (Germany); Kooijman-Kurfuerst, Hendrik [Philips Healthcare, Hamburg (Germany); Czihal, Michael; Hoffmann, Ulrich [LMU Munich, Division of Vascular Medicine, Medical Clinic and Policlinic IV, Munich (Germany); Dechant, Claudia; Schulze-Koops, Hendrik [LMU Munich, Division of Rheumatology and Clinical Immunology, Medical Clinic and Policlinic IV, Munich (Germany)

    2017-05-15

    To evaluate the feasibility of T1w-3D black-blood turbo spin echo (TSE) sequence with variable flip angles for the diagnosis of thoracic large vessel vasculitis (LVV). Thirty-five patients with LVV, diagnosed according to the current standard of reference, and 35 controls were imaged at 3.0T using 1.2 x 1.3 x 2.0 mm{sup 3} fat-suppressed, T1w-3D, modified Volumetric Isotropic TSE Acquisition (mVISTA) pre- and post-contrast. Applying a navigator and peripheral pulse unit triggering (PPU), the total scan time was 10-12 min. Thoracic aorta and subclavian and pulmonary arteries were evaluated for image quality (IQ), flow artefact intensity, diagnostic confidence, concentric wall thickening and contrast enhancement (CWT, CCE) using a 4-point scale. IQ was good in all examinations (3.25 ± 0.72) and good to excellent in 342 of 408 evaluated segments (83.8 %), while 84.1 % showed no or minor flow artefacts. The interobserver reproducibility for the identification of CCE and CWT was 0.969 and 0.971 (p < 0.001) with an average diagnostic confidence of 3.47 ± 0.64. CCE and CWT were strongly correlated (Cohen's k = 0.87; P < 0.001) and significantly more frequent in the LVV-group (52.8 % vs. 1.0 %; 59.8 % vs. 2.4 %; P < 0.001). Navigated fat-suppressed T1w-3D black-blood MRI with PPU-triggering allows diagnosis of thoracic LVV. (orig.)

  5. The significance of abnormal systolic blood pressure response during supine ergometer exercise and postexercise in ischemic heart disease, studied by exercise radionuclide ventriculography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajisaka, Ryuichi; Watanabe, Shigeyuki; Masuoka, Takeshi

    1989-01-01

    Abnormal response to blood pressure (BP) during exercise and postexercise was examined in 169 patients with ischemic heart disease. The patients underwent supine ergometer exercise gated equilibrium radionuclide ventriculography and coronary arteriography. When BP during exercise did not increase by at least 11 mmHg or initially increased but later decreased by more than 10 mmHg, the BP response was defined as abnormal during exercise. A postexercise BP increase of more than 10 mmHg above the peak exercise BP was defined as abnormal during postexercise. Fifteen-one patients (30%) were classified as abnormal (group 1) and the other 118 as normal (group 2). Abnormal BP response fell into three types: (1a) exercise hypotension (n=11), (1b) postexercise hypertension (n=30), and (1c) exercise hypotension with postexercise hypertension (n=10). Both average exercise duration and peak heart rate were significantly lower in groups 1a, 1b, and 1c than group 2. Exercise ST-segment depression was more noticeable in groups 1b and 1c than group 2. However, there was no significant difference in the severitiy of exercise ST-segment depression between groups 1a and 2. A decline in ejection fraction occurred more frequently in groups 1b and 1c than group 2. Patients in groups 1a, 1b, and 1c had more extensive coronary artery disease than did patients in group 2. Medically managed patients having an abnormal BP response had a poorer prognosis than those with a normal BP response. An abnormal BP response during both supine exercise and postexercise was infrequent. The abnormal BP during exercise may be usually associated with impaired exercise tolerance and severe coronary artery disease; and that during postexercise may be closely associated with myocardial ischemia and global left ventricular dysfunction. Postexercise hypertension may be of the same value as exercise hypotension in predicting poor prognosis. (Namekawa, K)

  6. Abnormal resting state corticolimbic blood flow in depressed unmedicated patients with major depression: a (15)O-H(2)O PET study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monkul, E Serap; Silva, Leandro A P; Narayana, Shalini; Peluso, Marco A M; Zamarripa, Frank; Nery, Fabiano G; Najt, Pablo; Li, John; Lancaster, Jack L; Fox, Peter T; Lafer, Beny; Soares, Jair C

    2012-02-01

    We investigated the differences in the resting state corticolimbic blood flow between 20 unmedicated depressed patients and 21 healthy comparisons. Resting state cerebral blood flow (CBF) was measured with H(2)(15)O PET. Anatomical MRI scans were performed on an Elscint 1.9 T Prestige system for PET-MRI coregistration. Significant changes in cerebral blood flow indicating neural activity were detected using an ROI-free image subtraction strategy. In addition, the resting blood flow in patients was correlated with the severity of depression as measured by HAM-D scores. Depressed patients showed decreases in blood flow in right anterior cingulate (Brodmann areas 24 and 32) and increased blood flow in left and right posterior cingulate (Brodmann areas 23, 29, 30), left parahippocampal gyrus (Brodmann area 36), and right caudate compared with healthy volunteers. The severity of depression was inversely correlated with the left middle and inferior frontal gyri (Brodmann areas 9 and 47) and right medial frontal gyrus (Brodmann area 10) and right anterior cingulate (Brodmann areas 24, 32) blood flow, and directly correlated with the right thalamus blood flow. These findings support previous reports of abnormalities in the resting state blood flow in the limbic-frontal structures in depressed patients compared to healthy volunteers. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. A method for increasing the homogeneity of the temperature distribution during magnetic fluid hyperthermia with a Fe-Cr-Nb-B alloy in the presence of blood vessels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Yundong [College of Physics and Information Engineering, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350116 (China); Flesch, Rodolfo C.C. [Departamento de Automação e Sistemas, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 88040-900 Florianópolis, SC (Brazil); Jin, Tao, E-mail: jintly@fzu.edu.cn [College of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350116 (China)

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • The effects of blood vessels on temperature field distribution are investigated. • The critical thermal energy of hyperthermia is computed by the Finite Element Analysis. • A treatment method is proposed by using the MNPs with low Curie temperature. • The cooling effects due to the blood flow can be controlled. - Abstract: Magnetic hyperthermia ablates tumor cells by absorbing the thermal energy from magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) under an external alternating magnetic field. The blood vessels (BVs) within tumor region can generally reduce treatment effectiveness due to the cooling effect of blood flow. This paper aims to investigate the cooling effect of BVs on the temperature field of malignant tumor regions using a complex geometric model and numerical simulation. For deriving the model, the Navier-Stokes equation for blood flow is combined with Pennes bio-heat transfer equation for human tissue. The effects on treatment temperature caused by two different BV distributions inside a mammary tumor are analyzed through numerical simulation under different conditions of flow rate considering a Fe-Cr-Nb-B alloy, which has low Curie temperature ranging from 42 °C to 45 °C. Numerical results show that the multi-vessel system has more obvious cooling effects than the single vessel one on the temperature field distribution for hyperthermia. Besides, simulation results show that the temperature field within tumor area can also be influenced by the velocity and diameter of BVs. To minimize the cooling effect, this article proposes a treatment method based on the increase of the thermal energy provided to MNPs associated with the adoption of low Curie temperature particles recently reported in literature. Results demonstrate that this approach noticeably improves the uniformity of the temperature field, and shortens the treatment time in a Fe-Cr-Nb-B system, thus reducing the side effects to the patient.

  8. Dilated thin-walled blood and lymphatic vessels in human endometrium: a potential role for VEGF-D in progestin-induced break-through bleeding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline F Donoghue

    Full Text Available Progestins provide safe, effective and cheap options for contraception as well as the treatment of a variety of gynaecological disorders. Episodes of irregular endometrial bleeding or breakthrough bleeding (BTB are a major unwanted side effect of progestin treatment, such that BTB is the leading cause for discontinued use of an otherwise effective and popular medication. The cellular mechanisms leading to BTB are poorly understood. In this study, we make the novel finding that the large, dilated, thin walled vessels characteristic of human progestin-treated endometrium include both blood and lymphatic vessels. Increased blood and lymphatic vessel diameter are features of VEGF-D action in other tissues and we show by immunolocalisation and Western blotting that stromal cell decidualisation results in a significant increase in VEGF-D protein production, particularly of the proteolytically processed 21 kD form. Using a NOD/scid mouse model with xenografted human endometrium we were able to show that progestin treatment causes decidualisation, VEGF-D production and endometrial vessel dilation. Our results lead to a novel hypothesis to explain BTB, with stromal cell decidualisation rather than progestin treatment per se being the proposed causative event, and VEGF-D being the proposed effector agent.

  9. Application of optical coherence tomography for in vivo monitoring of the meningeal lymphatic vessels during opening of blood-brain barrier: mechanisms of brain clearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semyachkina-Glushkovskaya, Oxana; Abdurashitov, Arkady; Dubrovsky, Alexander; Bragin, Denis; Bragina, Olga; Shushunova, Nataliya; Maslyakova, Galina; Navolokin, Nikita; Bucharskaya, Alla; Tuchin, Valery; Kurths, Juergen; Shirokov, Alexander

    2017-12-01

    The meningeal lymphatic vessels were discovered 2 years ago as the drainage system involved in the mechanisms underlying the clearance of waste products from the brain. The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a gatekeeper that strongly controls the movement of different molecules from the blood into the brain. We know the scenarios during the opening of the BBB, but there is extremely limited information on how the brain clears the substances that cross the BBB. Here, using the model of sound-induced opening of the BBB, we clearly show how the brain clears dextran after it crosses the BBB via the meningeal lymphatic vessels. We first demonstrate successful application of optical coherence tomography (OCT) for imaging of the lymphatic vessels in the meninges after opening of the BBB, which might be a new useful strategy for noninvasive analysis of lymphatic drainage in daily clinical practice. Also, we give information about the depth and size of the meningeal lymphatic vessels in mice. These new fundamental data with the applied focus on the OCT shed light on the mechanisms of brain clearance and the role of lymphatic drainage in these processes that could serve as an informative platform for a development of therapy and diagnostics of diseases associated with injuries of the BBB such as stroke, brain trauma, glioma, depression, or Alzheimer disease.

  10. Short-Term Blood Pressure Variability Relates to the Presence of Subclinical Brain Small Vessel Disease in Primary Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filomena, Josefina; Riba-Llena, Iolanda; Vinyoles, Ernest; Tovar, José L; Mundet, Xavier; Castañé, Xavier; Vilar, Andrea; López-Rueda, Antonio; Jiménez-Baladó, Joan; Cartanyà, Anna; Montaner, Joan; Delgado, Pilar

    2015-09-01

    Blood pressure (BP) variability is associated with stroke risk, but less is known about subclinical cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD). We aimed to determine whether CSVD relates to short-term BP variability independently of BP levels and also, whether they improve CSVD discrimination beyond clinical variables and office BP levels. This was a cohort study on asymptomatic hypertensives who underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging and 24-hour ambulatory BP monitoring. Office and average 24-hour, daytime and nighttime BP levels, and several metrics of BP variability (SD, weighted SD, coefficient of variation, and average real variability [ARV]) were calculated. Definition of CSVD was based on the presence of lacunar infarcts and white matter hyperintensity grades. Multivariate analysis and integrated discrimination improvement were performed to assess whether BP variability and levels were independently associated with CSVD and improved its discrimination. Four hundred eighty-seven individuals participated (median age, 64; 47% women). CSVD was identified in 18.9%, related to age, male sex, diabetes mellitus, use of treatment, ambulatory BP monitoring-defined BP levels, and ARV of systolic BP at any period. The highest prevalence (33.7%) was found in subjects with both 24-hour BP levels and ARV elevated. BP levels at any period and ARV (24 hours and nocturnal) emerged as independent predictors of CSVD, and discrimination was incrementally improved although not to a clinically significant extent (integrated discrimination improvement, 5.31%, 5.17% to 5.4%). Ambulatory BP monitoring-defined BP levels and ARV of systolic BP relate to subclinical CSVD in hypertensive individuals. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  11. Accelerated whole brain intracranial vessel wall imaging using black blood fast spin echo with compressed sensing (CS-SPACE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chengcheng; Tian, Bing; Chen, Luguang; Eisenmenger, Laura; Raithel, Esther; Forman, Christoph; Ahn, Sinyeob; Laub, Gerhard; Liu, Qi; Lu, Jianping; Liu, Jing; Hess, Christopher; Saloner, David

    2018-06-01

    Develop and optimize an accelerated, high-resolution (0.5 mm isotropic) 3D black blood MRI technique to reduce scan time for whole-brain intracranial vessel wall imaging. A 3D accelerated T 1 -weighted fast-spin-echo prototype sequence using compressed sensing (CS-SPACE) was developed at 3T. Both the acquisition [echo train length (ETL), under-sampling factor] and reconstruction parameters (regularization parameter, number of iterations) were first optimized in 5 healthy volunteers. Ten patients with a variety of intracranial vascular disease presentations (aneurysm, atherosclerosis, dissection, vasculitis) were imaged with SPACE and optimized CS-SPACE, pre and post Gd contrast. Lumen/wall area, wall-to-lumen contrast ratio (CR), enhancement ratio (ER), sharpness, and qualitative scores (1-4) by two radiologists were recorded. The optimized CS-SPACE protocol has ETL 60, 20% k-space under-sampling, 0.002 regularization factor with 20 iterations. In patient studies, CS-SPACE and conventional SPACE had comparable image scores both pre- (3.35 ± 0.85 vs. 3.54 ± 0.65, p = 0.13) and post-contrast (3.72 ± 0.58 vs. 3.53 ± 0.57, p = 0.15), but the CS-SPACE acquisition was 37% faster (6:48 vs. 10:50). CS-SPACE agreed with SPACE for lumen/wall area, ER measurements and sharpness, but marginally reduced the CR. In the evaluation of intracranial vascular disease, CS-SPACE provides a substantial reduction in scan time compared to conventional T 1 -weighted SPACE while maintaining good image quality.

  12. E-selectin mediates stem cell adhesion and formation of blood vessels in a murine model of infantile hemangioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smadja, David M; Mulliken, John B; Bischoff, Joyce

    2012-12-01

    Hemangioma stem cells (HemSCs) are multipotent cells isolated from infantile hemangioma (IH), which form hemangioma-like lesions when injected subcutaneously into immune-deficient mice. In this murine model, HemSCs are the primary target of corticosteroid, a mainstay therapy for problematic IH. The relationship between HemSCs and endothelial cells that reside in IH is not clearly understood. Adhesive interactions might be critical for the preferential accumulation of HemSCs and/or endothelial cells in the tumor. Therefore, we studied the interactions between HemSCs and endothelial cells (HemECs) isolated from IH surgical specimens. We found that HemECs isolated from proliferating phase IH, but not involuting phase, constitutively express E-selectin, a cell adhesion molecule not present in quiescent endothelial cells. E-selectin was further increased when HemECs were exposed to vascular endothelial growth factor-A or tumor necrosis factor-α. In vitro, HemSC migration and adhesion was enhanced by recombinant E-selectin but not P-selectin; both processes were neutralized by E-selectin-blocking antibodies. E-selectin-positive HemECs also stimulated migration and adhesion of HemSCs. In vivo, neutralizing antibodies to E-selectin strongly inhibited formation of blood vessels when HemSCs and HemECs were co-implanted in Matrigel. These data suggest that endothelial E-selectin could be a major ligand for HemSCs and thereby promote cellular interactions and vasculogenesis in IH. We propose that constitutively expressed E-selectin on endothelial cells in the proliferating phase is one mediator of the stem cell tropism in IH. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Nanobubbles Form at Active Hydrophobic Spots on the Luminal Aspect of Blood Vessels: Consequences for Decompression Illness in Diving and Possible Implications for Autoimmune Disease—An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ran Arieli

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Decompression illness (DCI occurs following a reduction in ambient pressure. Decompression bubbles can expand and develop only from pre-existing gas micronuclei. The different hypotheses hitherto proposed regarding the nucleation and stabilization of gas micronuclei have never been validated. It is known that nanobubbles form spontaneously when a smooth hydrophobic surface is submerged in water containing dissolved gas. These nanobubbles may be the long sought-after gas micronuclei underlying decompression bubbles and DCI. We exposed hydrophobic and hydrophilic silicon wafers under water to hyperbaric pressure. After decompression, bubbles appeared on the hydrophobic but not the hydrophilic wafers. In a further series of experiments, we placed large ovine blood vessels in a cooled high pressure chamber at 1,000 kPa for about 20 h. Bubbles evolved at definite spots in all the types of blood vessels. These bubble-producing spots stained positive for lipids, and were henceforth termed “active hydrophobic spots” (AHS. The lung surfactant dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC, was found both in the plasma of the sheep and at the AHS. Bubbles detached from the blood vessel in pulsatile flow after reaching a mean diameter of ~1.0 mm. Bubble expansion was bi-phasic—a slow initiation phase which peaked 45 min after decompression, followed by fast diffusion-controlled growth. Many features of decompression from diving correlate with this finding of AHS on the blood vessels. (1 Variability between bubblers and non-bubblers. (2 An age-related effect and adaptation. (3 The increased risk of DCI on a second dive. (4 Symptoms of neurologic decompression sickness. (5 Preconditioning before a dive. (6 A bi-phasic mechanism of bubble expansion. (7 Increased bubble formation with depth. (8 Endothelial injury. (9 The presence of endothelial microparticles. Finally, constant contact between nanobubbles and plasma may result in distortion of proteins and their

  14. Analytical prediction of the heat transfer from a blood vessel near the skin surface when cooled by a symmetrical cooling strip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chato, J. C.; Shitzer, A.

    1971-01-01

    An analytical method was developed to estimate the amount of heat extracted from an artery running close to the skin surface which is cooled in a symmetrical fashion by a cooling strip. The results indicate that the optimum width of a cooling strip is approximately three times the depth to the centerline of the artery. The heat extracted from an artery with such a strip is about 0.9 w/m-C which is too small to affect significantly the temperature of the blood flow through a main blood vessel, such as the carotid artery. The method is applicable to veins as well.

  15. Effects of High-sugar and High-fat Diet on Fat Deposition and Blood Vessel Wall on Sprague Dawley Rats Liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Citra Setiawan Hoei

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available People nowadays tend to consume more fast food and sweetened beverages. These foods usually contain high amount sugar and fat that have effects on the body including liver.This study was conducted to explore the effects of extensive intake of sugar and fat on blood glucose and  cholesterol level as well as changes in liver. Research was conducted with experimental method using 20 Sprague Dawley rats which were divided into 4 groups; 2 controls and 2 treatments. Rats were given 5 ml sugar or lard alternatively every 2 consecutive days for 1-month and 2-month respectively. Data was retrieved include blood glucose and cholesterol level, fatty liver percentage and blood vessel thickening after intervention through HE staining. The results showed that both 1-month and 2-month intervention group has significant increase in blood glucose and cholesterol level. However, the enhancement of fatty liver percentage and number of thickened blood vessels (p<0.05 were only foundsignificant (p<0.05 in 1-month intervention group.  We concluded that high intake of sugar and fat within 1-monthintervention have significant effects on the rat body including liver. Nevertheless, it was not found significant in 2-months intervention. Further studies are still needed to analyze this incongruent result.Key words: high-sugar diet, high-fat diet, fatty liver, atherosclerosis 

  16. Cerebral blood flow abnormalities induced by transient hypothyroidism after thyroidectomy. Analysis by Tc-99m-HMPAO and SPM96

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagamachi, Shigeki; Jinnouchi, Seishi; Nishii, Ryuichi; Ishida, Yasushi; Fujita, Seigo; Futami, Shigemi; Kodama, Takao; Tamura, Shozo; Kawai, Keiichi

    2004-01-01

    The current study is an investigation of alterations in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) distribution in patients with transient hypothyroidism after thyroidectomy. In addition, the effects of thyroxine treatment on rCBF changes were studied. Noninvasive rCBF measurements using 99m Tc-HMPAO SPECT were performed on 24 post-thyroidectomy patients who were in a hypothyroidic state. The measurements were conducted before 131 I therapy and after thyroid hormone (thyroxine) replacement. We used adjusted rCBF images (normalization of global CBF for each subject to 50 ml/100 g/min with proportional scaling) to compare these data with age-matched normal control groups (n=15) using statistical parametric mapping (SPM) 96. We also compared the absolute rCBF value of hypothyroidic patients with those of normal control groups. In addition, the association between rCBF alteration and the severity of depression was also analyzed. Finally, the effect of thyroid hormone replacement on rCBF was investigated individually using the Jack-knife test, in which patient data were compared with those from healthy volunteers. According to the result of this test, all cases were categorized into three subgroups, namely, improved, unchanged group and normal. To prove the reversibility of rCBF alteration after thyroid hormone replacement, a group comparison test between the normal controls and the improved group was done before and after thyroid hormone replacement. Similarly a group comparison test between the unchanged group and normal controls was also performed. In the hypothyroidic condition, there was a significant decrease in the posterior part of the bilateral parietal lobes and in part of the bilateral occipital lobes, including the cuneus. These decreased rCBF areas extended to the bilateral prefrontal cortices as deterioration became more profound. On individual analysis, 16 of 24 patients (66.7%) demonstrated rCBF reduction, while 8 patient did not show significant rCBF change

  17. Abnormal intraluminal signal within the pulmonary arteries on MR imaging: Differentiation between slow blood flow and thrombus using an ECG-gated; multiphasic: Spin-echo technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, R.D.; Higgins, C.B.

    1986-01-01

    The authors evaluated abnormal MR imaging signal patterns in the pulmonary arteries of 22 patients with pulmonary hypertension (n = 13), pulmonary embolus (n = 4), or both (n = 5). Using multiphasic (five or six phases; 19 patients) or standard (three patients with pulmonary embolus) ECG-gated, double spin-echo techniques, they were able to differentiate between causes of such abnormal signal patterns. The pattern of slow blood flow (abnormal signal in systole with fluctuating distribution during cardiac cycle, and intensity increasing visually from first to second echo) was noted in 89% of patients with pulmonary hypertension alone or in combination with pulmonary embolism, and was characteristic of high systolic pulmonary pressures (12 of 12 patients with pressure > 80 mm Hg, vs. 3 of 5 patients with pressure 55 mm Hg vs. 5 of 7 patients with pressures <55 mm Hg). This pattern was differentiated from that of thrombus (persistent signal with fixed distribution during cardiac cycle, and little to no visible intensity change from first to second echo), which was noted in six of seven proved embolus cases. Thus, gated multiphase MR imaging shows potential for the noninvasive visualization of pulmonary embolus and the differentiation of this entity from the slow blood flow of pulmonary hypertension

  18. Engineering blood vessels through micropatterned co-culture of vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cells on bilayered electrospun fibrous mats with pDNA inoculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yaowen; Lu, Jinfu; Li, Huinan; Wei, Jiaojun; Li, Xiaohong

    2015-01-01

    Although engineered blood vessels have seen important advances during recent years, proper mechanical strength and vasoactivity remain unsolved problems. In the current study, micropatterned fibrous mats were created to load smooth muscle cells (SMC), and a co-culture with endothelial cells (EC) was established through overlaying on an EC-loaded flat fibrous mat to mimic the layered structure of a blood vessel. A preferential distribution of SMC was determined in the patterned regions throughout the fibrous scaffolds, and aligned fibers in the patterned regions provided topological cues to guide the orientation of SMC with intense actin filaments and extracellular matrix (ECM) production in a circumferential direction. Plasmid DNA encoding basic fibroblast growth factors and vascular endothelial growth factor were integrated into electrospun fibers as biological cues to promote SMC infiltration into fibrous mats, and the viability and ECM production of both EC and SMC. The layered fibrous mats with loaded EC and SMC were wrapped into a cylinder, and engineered vessels were obtained with compact EC and SMC layers after co-culture for 3 months. Randomly oriented ECM productions of EC formed a continuous endothelium covering the entire lumenal surface, and a high alignment of ECM was shown in the circumferential direction of SMC layers. The tensile strength, strain at failure and suture retention strength were higher than those of the human femoral artery, and the burst pressure and radial compliance were in the same range as the human saphenous vein, indicating potential as blood vessel substitutes for transplantation in vivo. Thus, the establishment of topographical cues and biochemical signals in fibrous scaffolds demonstrates advantages in modulating cellular behavior and organization found in complex multicellular tissues. Copyright © 2014 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Relationship between long-term exposure to low-level arsenic in drinking water and the prevalence of abnormal blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chuanwu; Mao, Guangyun; He, Suxia; Yang, Zuopeng; Yang, Wei; Zhang, Xiaojing; Qiu, Wenting; Ta, Na; Cao, Li; Yang, Hui; Guo, Xiaojuan

    2013-11-15

    Arsenic increases the risk and incidence of cardiovascular disease. To explore the impact of long-term exposure to low-level arsenic in drinking water on blood pressure including pulse pressure (PP) and mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), a cross-sectional study was conducted in 2010 in which the blood pressure of 405 villagers was measured, who had been drinking water with an inorganic arsenic content 30-50 years of arsenic exposure and a 2.95-fold (95%CI: 1.31-6.67) increase in the group with >50 years exposure. Furthermore, the odds ratio for prevalence of abnormal PP and MAP were 1.06 (95%CI: 0.24-4.66) and 0.87 (95%CI: 0.36-2.14) in the group with >30-50 years of exposure, and were 2.46 (95%CI: 0.87-6.97) and 3.75 (95%CI: 1.61-8.71) for the group with >50 years exposure, compared to the group with arsenic exposure ≤ 30 years respectively. Significant trends for Hypertension (p<0.0001), PP (p<0.0001) and MAP (p=0.0016) were found. The prevalence of hypertension and abnormal PP as well as MAP is marked among a low-level arsenic exposure population, and significantly increases with the duration of arsenic exposure. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Improvements in the Quantitative Assessment of Cerebral Blood Volume and Flow with the Removal of Vessel Voxels from MR Perfusion Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Mu Huo Teng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To improve the quantitative assessment of cerebral blood volume (CBV and flow (CBF in the brain voxels from MR perfusion images. Materials and Methods. Normal brain parenchyma was automatically segmented with the time-to-peak criteria after cerebrospinal fluid removal and preliminary vessel voxel removal. Two scaling factors were calculated by comparing the relative CBV and CBF of the segmented normal brain parenchyma with the absolute values in the literature. Using the scaling factors, the relative values were converted to the absolute CBV and CBF. Voxels with either CBV > 8 mL/100 g or CBF > 100 mL/100 g/min were characterized as vessel voxels and were excluded from the quantitative measurements. Results. The segmented brain parenchyma with normal perfusion was consistent with the angiographic findings for each patient. We confirmed the necessity of dual thresholds including CBF and CBV for proper removal of vessel voxels. The scaling factors were 0.208 ± 0.041 for CBV, and 0.168 ± 0.037, 0.172 ± 0.037 for CBF calculated using standard and circulant singular value decomposition techniques, respectively. Conclusion. The automatic scaling and vessel removal techniques provide an alternative method for obtaining improved quantitative assessment of CBV and CBF in patients with thromboembolic cerebral arterial disease.

  1. Effect of heat transfer on unsteady MHD flow of blood in a permeable vessel in the presence of non-uniform heat source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sinha

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a theoretical analysis of blood flow and heat transfer in a permeable vessel in the presence of an external magnetic field. The unsteadiness in the coupled flow and temperature fields is considered to be caused due to the time-dependent stretching velocity and the surface temperature of the vessel. The non-uniform heat source/sink effect on blood flow and heat transfer is taken into account. This study is of potential value in the clinical treatment of cardiovascular disorders accompanied by accelerated circulation. The problem is treated mathematically by reducing it to a system of coupled nonlinear differential equations, which have been solved by using similarity transformation and boundary layer approximation. The resulting nonlinear coupled ordinary differential equations are solved numerically by using an implicit finite difference scheme. Computational results are obtained for the velocity, temperature, the skin-friction coefficient and the rate of heat transfer in the vessel. The estimated results are compared with another analytical study reported earlier in scientific literatures. The present study reveals that the heat transfer rate is enhanced as the value of the unsteadiness parameter increases, but it reduces as the space-dependence parameter for heat source/sink increases.

  2. Correlations Between the Density of Tryptase Positive Mast Cells (DMCT and that of New Blood Vessels (CD105+ in Patients with Gastric Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micu Gianina Viorica

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Mast cells proteases, tryptase and chymase are directly involved in the growth and progression of solid tumors due to their important role in tumor angiogenesis. We examined the density of tryptase positive mast cells and the mean density of new blood vessels in gastric malignant tumors of patients with and without Helicobacter pylori infection, using immunohistochemical staining for tryptase (for mast cells and CD 105 (for new vessels. Tryptase and CD 105 expression was detected in gastrectomy specimens. In this study, mast cell density correlates with angiogenesis and the growth and progression of gastric cancer. It also shows that the participation of Helicobacter pylori infection in the growth and progress of gastric neoplasia is due to an increase of peritumoral angiogenesis, with subsequent local and distant tumor spread and perivascular growth, but without perineural and nodal involvement.

  3. Abnormal blood-brain barrier permeability in normal appearing white matter in multiple sclerosis investigated by MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cramer, Stig Præstekær; Simonsen, Helle Juhl; Frederiksen, Jette Lautrup Battistini

    2013-01-01

    To investigate whether blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability is disrupted in normal appearing white matter in MS patients, when compared to healthy controls and whether it is correlated with MS clinical characteristics.......To investigate whether blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability is disrupted in normal appearing white matter in MS patients, when compared to healthy controls and whether it is correlated with MS clinical characteristics....

  4. Abnormalities in the cellular phase of blood fibrinolytic activity in systemic lupus erythematosus and in venous thromboembolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moroz, L.A.; MacLean, L.D.; Langleben, D.

    1986-01-01

    Fibrinolytic activities of whole blood and plasma were determined by 125 I-fibrin radiometric assay in 16 normal subjects, and in 11 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), 14 with progressive systemic sclerosis (PSS), 23 with venous thromboembolic disease, and 20 patients awaiting elective surgery. Mean whole blood and plasma activities for patients with PSS, and for those awaiting elective surgery, were similar to normal values, as was the mean plasma activity in patients with SLE. However, mean whole blood activity in SLE was significantly decreased compared with normals (p less than 0.05), with mean plasma activity accounting for 44% of mean whole blood activity (compared with 17% in normal subjects), representing a 67% decrease in mean calculated cellular phase activity in SLE, when compared with normals. Since the numbers of cells (neutrophils, monocytes) possibly involved in cellular activity were not decreased, the findings suggest a functional defect in fibrinolytic activity of one or more blood cell types in SLE. An additional finding was the participation of the cellular phase as well as the well-known plasma phase of blood in the fibrinolytic response to thromboembolism

  5. Pulmonary abnormalities in mitral valve disease. Comparison between pulmonary wedge pressure, regional pulmonary blood flow and chest films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, L H; Andersen, Jr, P E [Odense Univ. (Denmark)

    1978-01-01

    Chest films, right sided heart catheterization, and measurement of the regional lung perfusion, using /sup 133/Xe, were carried out 31 times on patients with mitral valve disease. A relationship was found between the radiologic evaluation in 3 grades, and the values of pulmonary wedge pressure and the apical and basal perfusion. Changes in flow distribution as reflected in altered appearance of the vessels and the presence of interstitial edema were found to be the most sensitive factors in the evaluation of pulmonary wedge pressure. Chest radiography was thus found suitable for the evaluation of pulmonary wedge pressure in mitral valve disease.

  6. Pregnancy Complications: Umbilical Cord Abnormalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Umbilical cord abnormalities Umbilical cord abnormalities Now playing: E-mail to a friend Please fill in all fields. ... blood supply) to the baby. The two arteries transport waste from the baby to the placenta (where ...

  7. A method for increasing the homogeneity of the temperature distribution during magnetic fluid hyperthermia with a Fe-Cr-Nb-B alloy in the presence of blood vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yundong; Flesch, Rodolfo C. C.; Jin, Tao

    2017-06-01

    Magnetic hyperthermia ablates tumor cells by absorbing the thermal energy from magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) under an external alternating magnetic field. The blood vessels (BVs) within tumor region can generally reduce treatment effectiveness due to the cooling effect of blood flow. This paper aims to investigate the cooling effect of BVs on the temperature field of malignant tumor regions using a complex geometric model and numerical simulation. For deriving the model, the Navier-Stokes equation for blood flow is combined with Pennes bio-heat transfer equation for human tissue. The effects on treatment temperature caused by two different BV distributions inside a mammary tumor are analyzed through numerical simulation under different conditions of flow rate considering a Fe-Cr-Nb-B alloy, which has low Curie temperature ranging from 42 °C to 45 °C. Numerical results show that the multi-vessel system has more obvious cooling effects than the single vessel one on the temperature field distribution for hyperthermia. Besides, simulation results show that the temperature field within tumor area can also be influenced by the velocity and diameter of BVs. To minimize the cooling effect, this article proposes a treatment method based on the increase of the thermal energy provided to MNPs associated with the adoption of low Curie temperature particles recently reported in literature. Results demonstrate that this approach noticeably improves the uniformity of the temperature field, and shortens the treatment time in a Fe-Cr-Nb-B system, thus reducing the side effects to the patient.

  8. Modification of a Kowa RC-2 fundus camera for self-photography without the use of mydriatics. [for blood vessel monitoring during space flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philpott, D. E.; Harrison, G.; Turnbill, C.; Bailey, P. F.

    1979-01-01

    Research on retinal circulation during space flight required the development of a simple technique to provide self monitoring of blood vessel changes in the fundus without the use of mydriatics. A Kowa RC-2 fundus camera was modified for self-photography by the use of a bite plate for positioning and cross hairs for focusing the subject's retina relative to the film plane. Dilation of the pupils without the use of mydriatics was accomplished by dark-adaption of the subject. Pictures were obtained without pupil constriction by the use of a high speed strobe light. This method also has applications for clinical medicine.

  9. Design and development of a blood vessel localization system using a Nir viewer; Diseno y desarrollo de un sistema de localizacion de vasos sanguineos mediante Visor NIR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez R, A.; Plascencia C, L. E.; Cordova F, T.; Padilla R, N., E-mail: angelicahr@fisica.ugto.mx [Universidad de Guanajuato, 37150 Leon, Guanajuato (Mexico)

    2017-10-15

    In addition to the multiple applications of ionizing radiation in clinical diagnosis there is the possibility of using another part of the electromagnetic spectrum such as near infrared (Nir). This paper presents the design and construction of a Nir Biosensor in a range between 800 and 900 nm, which allows the visualization of blood vessels for the venepuncture procedure with the aim of reducing the trauma of venous access to patients of all ages. The possibility that the device is used in the location of venous ulcers as an alternative to veno grams obtained by X-rays is also explored. (Author)

  10. Vessel Operating Units (Vessels)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains data for vessels that are greater than five net tons and have a current US Coast Guard documentation number. Beginning in1979, the NMFS...

  11. Fe3O4@ZnO core-shell nanocomposites for efficient and repetitive removal of low density lipoprotein in plasma and on blood vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Xiao; Lu, Juan; Yue, Danyang; Fan, Yijuan; Yi, Caixia; Wang, Xiaoying; Zhang, Mengxue; Pan, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Low density lipoprotein (LDL)-apheresis therapy, which directly removes LDL from plasma by LDL-adsorbents in vitro is found to be clinically effective and safe to lower the LDL content in blood to prevent cardiovascular disease. Thus, developing excellent LDL adsorbents are becoming more and more attractive. Herein, functional Fe 3 O 4 @ZnO core–shell nanocomposites have been synthesized by a facile and eco-friendly two-step method. Not only do they possess high LDL adsorption (in PBS/plasma as well as on blood vessels) and favorable magnetic targeting ability but they can also be reused conveniently, which offer the Fe 3 O 4 @ZnO core–shell nanocomposites significant potential in the removal of LDL in vitro and in vivo. (paper)

  12. Coamplification of human acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase genes in blood cells: Correlation with various leukemias and abnormal megakaryocytopoiesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapidot-Lifson, Y.; Prody, C.A.; Ginzberg, D.; Meytes, D.; Zakut, H.; Soreq, H.

    1989-01-01

    To study the yet unknown role of the ubiquitous family of cholinesterases (ChoEases) in developing blood cells, the recently isolated cDNAs encoding human acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase were used in blot hybridization with peripheral blood DNA from various leukemic patients. Hybridization signals and modified restriction patterns were observed with both cDNA probes in 4 of the 16 leukemia DNA preparations examined. These reflected the amplification of the corresponding AcCho-Ease and BtChoEase genes (ACHE and CHE) and alteration in their structure. Parallel analysis of 30 control samples revealed nonpolymorphic, much weaker hybridization signals for each of the probes. In view of previous reports on the effect of acetylcholine analogs and ChoEase inhibitors in the induction of megakaryocytopoiesis and production of platelets in the mouse. The authors further searched for such phenomena in nonleukemic patients with platelet production disorders. Amplifications of both ACHE and CHE genes were found in 2 of the 4 patients so far examined. Pronounced coamplification of these two related but distinct genes in correlation with pathological production of blood cells suggests a functional role for members of the ChoEase family in megakaryocytopoiesis and raises the question whether the coamplification of these genes could be casually involved in the etiology of hemocytopoietic disorders

  13. Blood metabolomics analysis identifies abnormalities in the citric acid cycle, urea cycle, and amino acid metabolism in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimi, Noriko; Futamura, Takashi; Kakumoto, Keiji; Salehi, Alireza M; Sellgren, Carl M; Holmén-Larsson, Jessica; Jakobsson, Joel; Pålsson, Erik; Landén, Mikael; Hashimoto, Kenji

    2016-06-01

    Bipolar disorder (BD) is a severe and debilitating psychiatric disorder. However, the precise biological basis remains unknown, hampering the search for novel biomarkers. We performed a metabolomics analysis to discover novel peripheral biomarkers for BD. We quantified serum levels of 116 metabolites in mood-stabilized male BD patients (n = 54) and age-matched male healthy controls (n = 39). After multivariate logistic regression, serum levels of pyruvate, N-acetylglutamic acid, α-ketoglutarate, and arginine were significantly higher in BD patients than in healthy controls. Conversely, serum levels of β-alanine, and serine were significantly lower in BD patients than in healthy controls. Chronic (4-weeks) administration of lithium or valproic acid to adult male rats did not alter serum levels of pyruvate, N-acetylglutamic acid, β-alanine, serine, or arginine, but lithium administration significantly increased serum levels of α-ketoglutarate. The metabolomics analysis demonstrated altered serum levels of pyruvate, N-acetylglutamic acid, β-alanine, serine, and arginine in BD patients. The present findings suggest that abnormalities in the citric acid cycle, urea cycle, and amino acid metabolism play a role in the pathogenesis of BD.

  14. Evaluation of RGD-targeted albumin carriers for specific delivery of auristatin E to tumor blood vessels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Temming, Kai; Meyer, Damon L.; Zabinski, Roger; Dijkers, Eli C. F.; Poelstra, Klaas; Molema, Grietje; Kok, Robbert J.

    2006-01-01

    Induction of apoptosis in endothelial cells is considered an attractive strategy to therapeutically interfere with a solid tumor's blood supply. In the present paper, we constructed cytotoxic conjugates that specifically target angiogenic endothelial cells, thus preventing typical side effects of

  15. Acute effects of sulfur dioxide on the circulation of animals as well as on the contractility of isolated blood vessels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laszt, L; Schaad, R

    1974-01-01

    In support of earlier work on exhaust gases experiments were carried out to determine the acute effects of sulphur dioxide on the circulation of the cat and dog. Inhalation of SO/sub 2/ during 30 min at concentrations of up to 1000 ppm caused no circulatory reaction. Such a reaction first appeared after infusion of larger quantities of SO/sub 2/. The action of sulphur dioxide on systemic and pulmonar circulation is different. A difference was also observed for the contractility of the corresponding isolated vessels.

  16. The use of antioxidative stress enzymes, lipid peroxidation, and red blood cell abnormalities as biomarkers of stress in Periphthalmus papilio of the polluted coastal Lagos lagoon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nnamdi, Amaeze H; Olumide, Adebesin A; Adeladun, Adepegba E; Oyenike, Kolapo; Rosemary, Egonmwan I

    2015-03-01

    We assessed the mudskipper, Periphthalmus papilio inhabiting the coast line of the Lagos lagoon, Gulf of Guinea, to determine suitable biomarkers of stress due to its current status as a polluted water body. The gill and liver samples showed evidence of some activities of antioxidative stress enzymes including catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione-s-transferase, reduced glutahthione, as well as some detectable levels of lipid peroxidation product. The stress status of the fishes was also elucidated by nuclear abnormalities especially micronucleus formation and the presence of numerous vacuolated red blood cells. Given the current need for more sensitive bioindicators in monitoring pollution in this lagoon, we hereby present these inherent responses in P. papilio as a suitable candidate for incorporation into the current repertoire for ecotoxicological investigations in polluted water bodies of the Gulf of Guinea coastline.

  17. MR vascular fingerprinting: A new approach to compute cerebral blood volume, mean vessel radius, and oxygenation maps in the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christen, T; Pannetier, N A; Ni, W W; Qiu, D; Moseley, M E; Schuff, N; Zaharchuk, G

    2014-04-01

    In the present study, we describe a fingerprinting approach to analyze the time evolution of the MR signal and retrieve quantitative information about the microvascular network. We used a Gradient Echo Sampling of the Free Induction Decay and Spin Echo (GESFIDE) sequence and defined a fingerprint as the ratio of signals acquired pre- and post-injection of an iron-based contrast agent. We then simulated the same experiment with an advanced numerical tool that takes a virtual voxel containing blood vessels as input, then computes microscopic magnetic fields and water diffusion effects, and eventually derives the expected MR signal evolution. The parameter inputs of the simulations (cerebral blood volume [CBV], mean vessel radius [R], and blood oxygen saturation [SO2]) were varied to obtain a dictionary of all possible signal evolutions. The best fit between the observed fingerprint and the dictionary was then determined by using least square minimization. This approach was evaluated in 5 normal subjects and the results were compared to those obtained by using more conventional MR methods, steady-state contrast imaging for CBV and R and a global measure of oxygenation obtained from the superior sagittal sinus for SO2. The fingerprinting method enabled the creation of high-resolution parametric maps of the microvascular network showing expected contrast and fine details. Numerical values in gray matter (CBV=3.1±0.7%, R=12.6±2.4μm, SO2=59.5±4.7%) are consistent with literature reports and correlated with conventional MR approaches. SO2 values in white matter (53.0±4.0%) were slightly lower than expected. Numerous improvements can easily be made and the method should be useful to study brain pathologies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. High expression of insulin receptor on tumour-associated blood vessels in invasive bladder cancer predicts poor overall and progression-free survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roudnicky, Filip; Dieterich, Lothar C; Poyet, Cedric; Buser, Lorenz; Wild, Peter; Tang, Dave; Camenzind, Peter; Ho, Chien Hsien; Otto, Vivianne I; Detmar, Michael

    2017-06-01

    Bladder cancer is a frequently recurring disease with a very poor prognosis once progressed to invasive stages, and tumour-associated blood vessels play a crucial role in this process. In order to identify novel biomarkers associated with progression, we isolated blood vascular endothelial cells (BECs) from human invasive bladder cancers and matched normal bladder tissue, and found that tumour-associated BECs greatly up-regulated the expression of insulin receptor (INSR). High expression of INSR on BECs of invasive bladder cancers was significantly associated with shorter progression-free and overall survival. Furthermore, increased expression of the INSR ligand IGF-2 in invasive bladder cancers was associated with reduced overall survival. INSR may therefore represent a novel biomarker to predict cancer progression. Mechanistically, we observed pronounced hypoxia in human bladder cancer tissue, and found a positive correlation between the expression of the hypoxia marker gene GLUT1 and vascular INSR expression, indicating that hypoxia drives INSR expression in tumour-associated blood vessels. In line with this, exposure of cultured BECs and human bladder cancer cell lines to hypoxia led to increased expression of INSR and IGF-2, respectively, and IGF-2 increased BEC migration through the activation of INSR in vitro. Taken together, we identified vascular INSR expression as a potential biomarker for progression in bladder cancer. Furthermore, our data suggest that IGF-2/INSR mediated paracrine crosstalk between bladder cancer cells and endothelial cells is functionally involved in tumour angiogenesis and may thus represent a new therapeutic target. Copyright © 2017 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. The Nordic Obstetric Surveillance Study: a study of complete uterine rupture, abnormally invasive placenta, peripartum hysterectomy, and severe blood loss at delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colmorn, Lotte B; Petersen, Kathrine B; Jakobsson, Maija; Lindqvist, Pelle G; Klungsoyr, Kari; Källen, Karin; Bjarnadottir, Ragnheidur I; Tapper, Anna-Maija; Børdahl, Per E; Gottvall, Karin; Thurn, Lars; Gissler, Mika; Krebs, Lone; Langhoff-Roos, Jens

    2015-07-01

    To assess the rates and characteristics of women with complete uterine rupture, abnormally invasive placenta, peripartum hysterectomy, and severe blood loss at delivery in the Nordic countries. Prospective, Nordic collaboration. The Nordic Obstetric Surveillance Study (NOSS) collected cases of severe obstetric complications in the Nordic countries from April 2009 to August 2012. Cases were reported by clinicians at the Nordic maternity units and retrieved from medical birth registers, hospital discharge registers, and transfusion databases by using International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision codes on diagnoses and the Nordic Medico-Statistical Committee Classification of Surgical Procedure codes. Rates of the studied complications and possible risk factors among parturients in the Nordic countries. The studied complications were reported in 1019 instances among 605 362 deliveries during the study period. The reported rate of severe blood loss at delivery was 11.6/10 000 deliveries, complete uterine rupture was 5.6/10 000 deliveries, abnormally invasive placenta was 4.6/10 000 deliveries, and peripartum hysterectomy was 3.5/10 000 deliveries. Of the women, 25% had two or more complications. Women with complications were more often >35 years old, overweight, with a higher parity, and a history of cesarean delivery compared with the total population. The studied obstetric complications are rare. Uniform definitions and valid reporting are essential for international comparisons. The main risk factors include previous cesarean section. The detailed information collected in the NOSS database provides a basis for epidemiologic studies, audits, and educational activities. © 2015 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  20. A Study on the Pre-and Post-irradiation Effect of Blood Vessels in the Experimentally Induced Tongue Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Tae; Park, Tae Won [Dept. of Oral Radiology, College of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1990-02-15

    The author observed the changes of vasculature of pre-and post-irradiation on DMBA induced rat tongue cancer. The study was performed by using vascular corrosion resin casting, and scanning electron microscopy. The results were as follows. 1. The capillaries runned parallely and formed bundles and, sometimes, plexus. The endothelial cells were arranged regularly and small pores were observed. 2. In irradiated normal tongue the capillaries were curved slightly and formed plexus on initial day of post-irradiation. On third day the capillaries and capillary pores were dilated and the endothelial cell arrangement was irregular. The effects of irradiation were gradually increased from initial to the 3rd day, though it was decreased after 7th day. 3. The vasculature of DMBA induced tongue cancer group were very irregular, and large avascular lesions were formed according to the cancer necrosis or tumor cell nest and the vasculature was narrowed and paralleled around the avascular lesion by compression of cancer cell nest. The vascular wall was roughened and dilated, forming club shaped or varix. 4. The vessels were curved and formed reticular network in irradiated DMBA induced tongue carinoma group. The free end of newly formed capillaries had regular width, and also irregular club shaped or aneurysmal dilation were observed. The vascular structures were destroyed and vessels were fused in tumor necrosis lesion. The radiation effects were marked on the first and third day of irradiation and the effects were decreased after seventh day and showed capillary regeneration.

  1. Level of cytogenetic damage and morphological abnormalities in peripheral blood erythrocytes of fish from the Techa river

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tryapitsina, G. [Urals Research Center for Radiation Medicine - URCRM, Chelyabinsk State University (Russian Federation); Shaposhnikova, I. [Urals Research Center for Radiation Medicine - URCRM (Russian Federation); Rudolfsen, G. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority - NRPA, and University of Tromsoe (Norway); Obvintseva, N.; Pryakhin, E. [Urals Research Center for Radiation Medicine (Russian Federation); Akleyev, A. [Urals Research Center for Radiation Medicine and Chelyabinsk State University (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    Low-level radioactive waste had been releasing to the Techa River from 1949 to 1956. Now it is a suitable water system to study the potential effect of chronic low level exposure of radiation. During that period over 76 million m{sup 3} of waste water was released into the river with total activity of 1.1 *10{sup 17} Bq. In 2012 we examined the erythrocytes in peripheral blood of fish (roach, perch, pike), inhabiting different part of the Techa River (Russia, Chelyabinsk region). Sampling was conducted twice a year (in May during spawning, and in August during feeding) at three stations with various levels of radioactive contamination: Station RT1 in the upper reach of the Techa River, station RT2 in the middle reach and station RT3 in the lower reach of the river. Determination of radionuclide concentrations in water, bottom sediments and fish was performed. An average above-background content of {sup 90}Sr in the body of fish inhabiting the Techa River is given in the table. Fish from the nearby Miass River was used as a control group. Blood was taken from the tail vein of live fish for the preparation of smears for determination of cytogenetic damage levels. 3,000 erythrocytes were analyzed for each fish on microscope Axioskop 50 (Carl Zeiss). Regression analyses found out significant dependency of the frequency of erythrocytes with micronuclei in blood on the burden of {sup 90}Sr in the body of roach in the summer period (F{sub 1,32}=4.6; p=0.04). The given data do not allow excluding the genotoxic influence of radiation on fish. Another important effect is an increase in the frequency of erythrocytes with cell division pathology: with an increase of the burden of {sup 90}Sr in the body, an increase in the frequency of amitoses and the sum of division pathologies are noted in the body. Regression analyses indicated a significant dependency of these parameters on the burden of {sup 90}Sr in the body of fish (for the frequency of amitoses F{sub 1,199}=6.3, p=0

  2. Role of arginase in vessel wall remodeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William eDurante

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Arginase metabolizes the semi-essential amino acid L-arginine to L-ornithine and urea. There are two distinct isoforms of arginase, arginase I and II, which are encoded by separate genes and display differences in tissue distribution, subcellular localization, and molecular regulation. Blood vessels express both arginase I and II but their distribution appears to be cell-, vessel-, and species-specific. Both isoforms of arginase are induced by numerous pathologic stimuli and contribute to vascular cell dysfunction and vessel wall remodeling in several diseases. Clinical and experimental studies have documented increases in the expression and/or activity of arginase I or II in blood vessels following arterial injury and in pulmonary and arterial hypertension, aging, and atherosclerosis. Significantly, pharmacological inhibition or genetic ablation of arginase in animals ameliorates abnormalities in vascular cells and normalizes blood vessel architecture and function in all of these pathological states. The detrimental effect of arginase in vascular remodeling is attributable to its ability to stimulate vascular smooth muscle cell and endothelial cell proliferation, and collagen deposition by promoting the synthesis of polyamines and L-proline, respectively. In addition, arginase adversely impacts arterial remodeling by directing macrophages towards an inflammatory phenotype. Moreover, the proliferative, fibrotic, and inflammatory actions of arginase in the vasculature are further amplified by its capacity to inhibit nitric oxide synthesis by competing with nitric oxide synthase for substrate, L-arginine. Pharmacologic or molecular approaches targeting specific isoforms of arginase represent a promising strategy in treating obstructive fibroproliferative vascular disease.

  3. Transient electro-magneto-hydrodynamic two-phase blood flow and thermal transport through a capillary vessel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirza, I A; Abdulhameed, M; Vieru, D; Shafie, S

    2016-12-01

    Therapies with magnetic/electromagnetic field are employed to relieve pains or, to accelerate flow of blood-particles, particularly during the surgery. In this paper, a theoretical study of the blood flow along with particles suspension through capillary was made by the electro-magneto-hydrodynamic approach. Analytical solutions to the non-dimensional blood velocity and non-dimensional particles velocity are obtained by means of the Laplace transform with respect to the time variable and the finite Hankel transform with respect to the radial coordinate. The study of thermally transfer characteristics is based on the energy equation for two-phase thermal transport of blood and particles suspension with viscous dissipation, the volumetric heat generation due to Joule heating effect and electromagnetic couple effect. The solution of the nonlinear heat transfer problem is derived by using the velocity field and the integral transform method. The influence of dimensionless system parameters like the electrokinetic width, the Hartman number, Prandtl number, the coefficient of heat generation due to Joule heating and Eckert number on the velocity and temperature fields was studied using the Mathcad software. Results are presented by graphical illustrations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Follow-up study of abnormal biological indicators and gene expression in the peripheral blood of three accidentally exposed persons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chi Cuiping; Wang Haiyan; Wei Jinping; Guo Jianping; Li Shufang; Tian Rong; Guo Fengling; Liu Huifang

    2013-01-01

    In order to identify biomarkers for early diagnosis and/or for therapeutic targets in the delayed health effects of ionizing radiation, we analyzed the subgroups of lymphocytes, serum protein levels and gene expression profiles in the peripheral blood of three 60 Co γ-ray accidentally exposed persons during the three years after irradiation. Flow cytometry analyses and agarose gel electrophoresis were applied to investigate the subgroups of lymphocytes and the composition of serum proteins, respectively. Gene expression profiling was obtained using a whole genome gene expression chip assay. Both the percentage of CD4+ T lymphocytes and the ratio of Th to Ts were reduced compared with the normal control values. The percentage of albumin decreased whereas beta globulin increased. There were 285 up-regulated and 446 down-regulated genes in irradiated samples relative to the control samples. The expression of KDR, CEACAM8 and OSM was validated by RT-PCR. The majority of the differentially expressed genes encode proteins associated with the immune response, inflammation, oncogenesis, cell structure, oxidative stress, neuro-hormone regulation, reproduction, susceptibility to psychiatric disorders, or transcriptional regulation. We have identified a number of promising novel candidates that have potential for serving as biomarkers for delayed damage. Furthermore, the changes in the immunological indicator CD4+ T cells, and the ratio of CD4+ T to CD8+ T cells may be biomarkers for the prediction of delayed damage by ionizing radiation. The findings of our study are useful for forming a comprehensive understanding of the mechanisms underlying the delayed effects of ionizing radiation. (author)

  5. An automated and robust image processing algorithm for glaucoma diagnosis from fundus images using novel blood vessel tracking and bend point detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M, Soorya; Issac, Ashish; Dutta, Malay Kishore

    2018-02-01

    Glaucoma is an ocular disease which can cause irreversible blindness. The disease is currently identified using specialized equipment operated by optometrists manually. The proposed work aims to provide an efficient imaging solution which can help in automating the process of Glaucoma diagnosis using computer vision techniques from digital fundus images. The proposed method segments the optic disc using a geometrical feature based strategic framework which improves the detection accuracy and makes the algorithm invariant to illumination and noise. Corner thresholding and point contour joining based novel methods are proposed to construct smooth contours of Optic Disc. Based on a clinical approach as used by ophthalmologist, the proposed algorithm tracks blood vessels inside the disc region and identifies the points at which first vessel bend from the optic disc boundary and connects them to obtain the contours of Optic Cup. The proposed method has been compared with the ground truth marked by the medical experts and the similarity parameters, used to determine the performance of the proposed method, have yield a high similarity of segmentation. The proposed method has achieved a macro-averaged f-score of 0.9485 and accuracy of 97.01% in correctly classifying fundus images. The proposed method is clinically significant and can be used for Glaucoma screening over a large population which will work in a real time. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of the tumor-vasculature-disrupting agent verubulin and two heteroaryl analogues on cancer cells, endothelial cells, and blood vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahal, Katharina; Resch, Marcus; Ficner, Ralf; Schobert, Rainer; Biersack, Bernhard; Mueller, Thomas

    2014-04-01

    Two analogues of the discontinued tumor vascular-disrupting agent verubulin (Azixa®, MPC-6827, 1) featuring benzo-1,4-dioxan-6-yl (compound 5 a) and N-methylindol-5-yl (compound 10) residues instead of the para-anisyl group on the 4-(methylamino)-2-methylquinazoline pharmacophore, were prepared and found to exceed the antitumor efficacy of the lead compound. They were antiproliferative with single-digit nanomolar IC50 values against a panel of nine tumor cell lines, while not affecting nonmalignant fibroblasts. Indole 10 surpassed verubulin in seven tumor cell lines including colon, breast, ovarian, and germ cell cancer cell lines. In line with docking studies indicating that compound 10 may bind the colchicine binding site of tubulin more tightly (Ebind =-9.8 kcal mol(-1) ) than verubulin (Ebind =-8.3 kcal mol(-1) ), 10 suppressed the formation of vessel-like tubes in endothelial cells and destroyed the blood vessels in the chorioallantoic membrane of fertilized chicken eggs at nanomolar concentrations. When applied to nude mice bearing a highly vascularized 1411HP germ cell xenograft tumor, compound 10 displayed pronounced vascular-disrupting effects that led to hemorrhages and extensive central necrosis in the tumor. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Relationship between cerebral angiography, Doppler ultrasound velocimetry in the major cervical vessels and cerebral blood flow as determined by cerebrography using xenon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seebach, H.M.

    1987-01-01

    Retrospective analysis of patient data gave evidence to prove that the findings revealed in the major cervical vessels by means of the Doppler ultrasound technique and angiography were largely consistent (in 82-90.8% of cases); the Doppler flow values recorded for advanced stenoses, by contrast with those obtained in stenoses of a minor degree were always characterised by a distinctive pattern; unless the patient examined showed acute ischemia, stenoses of the two carotid arteries or the vertebral artery had no perceptible influence on the rCBF values; the most valuable information as to the quality of cerebral blood flow was provided by the parameters of the Doppler ultrasound technique; reduced rCBF and Doppler flow values confirmed the preliminary diagnosis in cases of suspected generalised arteriosclerosis. (TRV) [de

  8. Placental gene-expression profiles of intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy reveal involvement of multiple molecular pathways in blood vessel formation and inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, QiaoLing; Pan, YouDong; Zhang, YouHua; Zhang, HaiLong; Zheng, YaJuan; Lu, Ling; Wang, JunLei; Duan, Tao; Chen, JianFeng

    2014-07-07

    Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) is a pregnancy-associated liver disease with potentially deleterious consequences for the fetus, particularly when maternal serum bile-acid concentration >40 μM. However, the etiology and pathogenesis of ICP remain elusive. To reveal the underlying molecular mechanisms for the association of maternal serum bile-acid level and fetal outcome in ICP patients, DNA microarray was applied to characterize the whole-genome expression profiles of placentas from healthy women and women diagnosed with ICP. Thirty pregnant women recruited in this study were categorized evenly into three groups: healthy group; mild ICP, with serum bile-acid concentration ranging from 10-40 μM; and severe ICP, with bile-acid concentration >40 μM. Gene Ontology analysis in combination with construction of gene-interaction and gene co-expression networks were applied to identify the core regulatory genes associated with ICP pathogenesis, which were further validated by quantitative real-time PCR and histological staining. The core regulatory genes were mainly involved in immune response, VEGF signaling pathway and G-protein-coupled receptor signaling, implying essential roles of immune response, vasculogenesis and angiogenesis in ICP pathogenesis. This implication was supported by the observed aggregated immune-cell infiltration and deficient blood vessel formation in ICP placentas. Our study provides a system-level insight into the placental gene-expression profiles of women with mild or severe ICP, and reveals multiple molecular pathways in immune response and blood vessel formation that might contribute to ICP pathogenesis.

  9. Correlation between expressions of hypoxia -inducible factor (HIF-1α, blood vessels density, cell proliferation, and apoptosis intensity in canine fibromas and fibrosarcomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madej Janusz A.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to demonstrate the expression of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF-1α in soft tissue mesenchymal tumours (fibroma and fibrosarcoma in dogs. An attempt was made to correlate the obtained results with density of blood vessels (expression of von Willebrand Factor, vWF, expression of Ki-67 proliferation antigen, and with intensity of apoptosis in studied tumours. The study was performed on paraffin sections of 15 fibromas and 40 fibrosarcomas sampled from 55 female dogs aged 6 to 16 years. Immunohistochemical staining against HIF-1α, vWF, and Ki-67 was performed. Apoptosis was detected with the use of TUNEL reaction. A significantly higher HIF-1α expression was noted in fibrosarcomas in comparison to fibromas (P < 0.0001. HIF-1α expression in fibromas manifested strong positive correlation with tumour vascularity (r = 0.67, P = 0.007. Moreover, HIF-1α expression in fibrosarcomas manifested a moderate positive correlation with tumour malignancy grade (r = 0.44, P = 0.004, tumour vascularity (r = 0.52, P < 0.001, Ki-67 antigen expression (r = 0.42; P = 0.007, and TUNELpositive cells (r = 0.37, P = 0.017. Expression of HIF-1α was detected in 86.7% of fibroma type tumours and in 100% of fibrosarcomas. In all studied tumours expression of HIF-1α manifested positive correlation with the density of blood vessels, and in fibrosarcomas it correlated also with malignancy grade, intensity of Ki-67 expression, and with intensity of apoptosis in tumour cells.

  10. Blood pressure regulation and resting heart rate abnormalities in adolescent girls with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachurzok-Buczynska, Agnieszka; Szydlowski, Leslaw; Gawlik, Aneta; Wilk, Krzysztof; Malecka-Tendera, Ewa

    2011-12-01

    To assess the risk of cardiovascular disease on the basis of biochemical, echocardiographic, and 24-hour blood pressure (BP) monitoring parameters in adolescent girls with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Cross-sectional study. Academic and research institution. Thirty-four obese and nonobese girls with PCOS were evaluated and compared with body mass index-matched girls with regular menses. None. Androgens, gonadotropins, lipids, and fasting and oral glucose tolerance test-stimulated glucose and insulin concentrations were measured. Echocardiographic assessment and 24-hour BP monitoring were done. Compared with obese controls, obese girls with PCOS had significantly higher 24-hour mean BP, day mean BP, day diastolic BP, and diastolic BP nighttime dip (75.5 ± 4.5 mm Hg vs. 71.7 ± 3.7 mm Hg; 78.2 ± 5.0 mm Hg vs. 73.6 ± 4.0 mm Hg; 67.6 ± 4.9 mm Hg vs. 63.7 ± 3.7 mm Hg; and 20.2% ± 5.2% vs. 15.0% ± 6.6%, respectively). Obese girls with PCOS had significantly higher night heart rate than obese controls (60.4 ± 5.6 beats per minute vs. 61.7 ± 4.8 beats per minute). Left ventricle end-diastolic (4.6 ± 0.3 cm vs. 4.2 ± 0.2 cm) and end-systolic diameter (3.0 ± 0.3 cm vs. 2.7 ± 0.2 cm) were also significantly higher in nonobese girls with PCOS than in nonobese controls; however, all values were still within the accepted range of normal limits. Higher night heart rate in obese girls with PCOS and higher day BP but preserved diastolic nocturnal dip in nonobese girls with PCOS may be regarded as early cardiovascular disease risk factors. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Orthogonal Views of Coronary Vessels: A Method for Imaging the Delivery of Blood Cardioplegia Using Transesophageal Echocardiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maracaja Neto, Luiz F; Modak, Raj; Schonberger, Robert B

    2017-04-01

    Coronary blood flow can be disrupted during cardiac interventions such as mitral valve surgeries, left atrial appendage ligation, transcatheter aortic valve implantation, and aortic procedures involving reimplantation of coronary buttons. Although difficult to accomplish, coronary imaging using transesophageal echocardiography can be performed by the use of orthogonal imaging with the ability for real-time tilt for angle adjustment. The technique described herein allows imaging of the right coronary artery, left main coronary artery bifurcation, left anterior descending, and circumflex coronary arteries. The imaging is facilitated by acquisition during the delivery of blood cardioplegia. Coronary sinus and great cardiac vein imaging also can be obtained during the delivery of retrograde cardioplegia. Although further studies are needed, this imaging technique may prove useful in procedures where coronary flow disruption is suspected or as an additional parameter to confirm delivery of cardioplegia.

  12. Use of a Connected Glucose Meter and Certified Diabetes Educator Coaching to Decrease the Likelihood of Abnormal Blood Glucose Excursions: The Livongo for Diabetes Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downing, Janelle; Bollyky, Jenna; Schneider, Jennifer

    2017-07-11

    The Livongo for Diabetes Program offers members (1) a cellular technology-enabled, two-way messaging device that measures blood glucose (BG), centrally stores the glucose data, and delivers messages back to the individual in real time; (2) unlimited BG test strips; and (3) access to a diabetes coaching team for questions, goal setting, and automated support for abnormal glucose excursions. The program is sponsored by at-risk self-insured employers, health plans and provider organizations where it is free to members with diabetes or it is available directly to the person with diabetes where they cover the cost. The objective of our study was to evaluate BG data from 4544 individuals with diabetes who were enrolled in the Livongo program from October 2014 through December 2015. Members used the Livongo glucose meter to measure their BG levels an average of 1.8 times per day. We estimated the probability of having a day with a BG reading outside of the normal range (70-180 mg/dL, or 3.9-10.0 mmol/L) in months 2 to 12 compared with month 1 of the program, using individual fixed effects to control for individual characteristics. Livongo members experienced an average 18.4% decrease in the likelihood of having a day with hypoglycemia (BG 180 mg/dL) in months 2-12 compared with month 1 as the baseline. The biggest impact was seen on hyperglycemia for nonusers of insulin. We do not know all of the contributing factors such as medication or other treatment changes during the study period. These findings suggest that access to a connected glucose meter and certified diabetes educator coaching is associated with a decrease in the likelihood of abnormal glucose excursions, which can lead to diabetes-related health care savings. ©Janelle Downing, Jenna Bollyky, Jennifer Schneider. Originally published in the Journal of Medical Internet Research (http://www.jmir.org), 11.07.2017.

  13. Relationship between cerebral blood flow and later cognitive decline in hypertensive patients with cerebral small vessel disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitagawa, Kazuo; Oku, Naohiko; Yagita, Yoshiki; Sakaguchi, Manabu; Sakoda, Saburo; Kimura, Yasuyuku; Hatazawa, Jun

    2009-01-01

    Vascular risk factors are thought to be important for dementia. However, there is little evidence for a prospective association between cerebral blood flow and the risk of cognitive decline. Twenty-seven cognitively intact hypertensive patients aged 55 years and older with lacunar infarction or white matter lesions in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) underwent positron emission tomography (PET) to measure cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebral vascular reactivity (CVR). Cognitive function was assessed at baseline and 3 years later with the mini-mental state examination (MMSE). Patients whose MMSE score fell by more than three points were classified as having cognitive decline. Six patients showed cognitive decline. Baseline CBF in these patients was significantly lower than that of the 21 patients without cognitive decline (31.2±2.4 vs. 42.6±5.9 ml per 100 gmin -1 , respectively; P<0.001). A moderate linear association was found between CBF and change in MMSE score over a 3-year period (r=0.59, P=0.001), not between CBF and baseline MMSE score. In contrast, no association between CVR and later cognitive decline was found. This study suggests that cerebral hypoperfusion is associated with later cognitive decline. (author)

  14. Using non-linear analogue of Nyquist diagrams for analysis of the equation describing the hemodynamics in blood vessels near pathologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherevko, A. A.; Bord, E. E.; Khe, A. K.; Panarin, V. A.; Orlov, K. J.; Chupakhin, A. P.

    2016-06-01

    This article considers method of describing the behaviour of hemodynamic parameters near vascular pathologies. We study the influence of arterial aneurysms and arteriovenous malformations on the vascular system. The proposed method involves using generalized model of Van der Pol-Duffing to find out the characteristic behaviour of blood flow parameters. These parameters are blood velocity and pressure in the vessel. The velocity and pressure are obtained during the neurosurgery measurements. It is noted that substituting velocity on the right side of the equation gives good pressure approximation. Thus, the model reproduces clinical data well enough. In regard to the right side of the equation, it means external impact on the system. The harmonic functions with various frequencies and amplitudes are substituted on the right side of the equation to investigate its properties. Besides, variation of the right side parameters provides additional information about pressure. Non-linear analogue of Nyquist diagrams is used to find out how the properties of solution depend on the parameter values. We have analysed 60 cases with aneurysms and 14 cases with arteriovenous malformations. It is shown that the diagrams are divided into classes. Also, the classes are replaced by another one in the definite order with increasing of the right side amplitude.

  15. Functional and pharmacological consequences of the distribution of voltage-gated calcium channels in the renal blood vessels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, P B L

    2013-01-01

    Calcium channel blockers are widely used to treat hypertension because they inhibit voltage-gated calcium channels that mediate transmembrane calcium influx in, for example, vascular smooth muscle and cardiomyocytes. The calcium channel family consists of several subfamilies, of which the L......-type is usually associated with vascular contractility. However, the L-, T- and P-/Q-types of calcium channels are present in the renal vasculature and are differentially involved in controlling vascular contractility, thereby contributing to regulation of kidney function and blood pressure. In the preglomerular...... vascular bed, all the three channel families are present. However, the T-type channel is the only channel in cortical efferent arterioles which is in contrast to the juxtamedullary efferent arteriole, and that leads to diverse functional effects of L- and T-type channel inhibition. Furthermore...

  16. Anormalidades de fluxo sangüíneo cerebral em indivíduos dependentes de cocaína Cerebral blood flow abnormalities in cocaine dependent subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Nicastri

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Nos últimos anos, tem havido relatos de anormalidades do fluxo sanguíneo cerebral em indivíduos com o abuso de cocaína, detectadas por meio de tomografia computadorizada por emissão de fóton único (SPECT. Esse padrão anormal de perfusão cerebral tem sido associado a prejuízos cognitivos mas não a alterações observáveis por meio de exames de neuroimagem estrutural. Um problema envolvendo a maioria dos trabalhos publicados sobre esse tema é a inclusão de um grande número de usuários de heroína nas amostras estudadas. Essa outra droga também parece afetar o padrão de perfusão cerebral, particularmente durante estados de abstinência. MÉTODOS: Quatorze pacientes dependentes de cocaína (nenhum com uso de opióides e 14 voluntários normais (grupo controle foram submetidos a exames de SPECT com dímero de etil-cisteína marcado com tecnécio-99m. A análise dos exames de SPECT foi realizada por meio de análise visual qualitativa das imagens obtidas (procedimento padrão na prática clínica, realizada por um radiologista não informado sobre o diagnóstico dos indivíduos avaliados. RESULTADOS: A análise visual revelou um padrão sugestivo de irregularidades do fluxo sangüíneo cerebral em nove pacientes, mas em apenas dois controles (p = 0,018; teste exato de Fisher bicaudal. CONCLUSÕES: Anormalidades de circulação cerebral podem ter relação com prejuízos cognitivos relatados em populações de dependentes de cocaína. Embora déficits de perfusão cerebral associados ao uso de cocaína possam ser irreversíveis, têm surgido relatos na literatura de tratamentos para essas anormalidades de fluxo sangüíneo. Alterações de fluxo sangüíneo cerebral associadas à dependência de cocaína ocorrem mesmo na ausência de abuso ou dependência de opióides.INTRODUCTION: In the last years, there have been reports of abnormalities in brain blood flow of cocaine abusers, detected by single photon computed

  17. Research vessels

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, P.S.

    The role of the research vessels as a tool for marine research and exploration is very important. Technical requirements of a suitable vessel and the laboratories needed on board are discussed. The history and the research work carried out...

  18. Cerebral ischemia produced by four-vessel occlusion in the rat: a quantitative evaluation of cerebral blood flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furlow, T.W. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Cerebral ischemia was produced in the rat by simultaneous occlusion of the vertebral and carotid arteries according to the method of Pulsinelli and Brierley (Stroke 10: 267, 1979). Local cerebral blood flow (CBF) was determined by polarographic and autoradiographic techniques. Hydrogen-clearance measurements showed that mean CBF fell in four monitored regions of the hemispheres to between 0.11 and 0.18 ml/g/min, being least in deep rostal gray, intermediate in superficial gray, and greatest in deep caudal gray. However, individual animals had local CBF in excess of 0.20 and even 0.30 ml/g/min, and no animal showed zero CBF. When animals were rendered hypotensive (MABP of 50 Torr) during vascular occlusion, mean CBF ranged between 0.03 and 0.10 ml/g/min in the same regional order. With hypotension, total arrest of flow occurred. Autoradiographic data confirmed the above findings and indicated adequate CBF to the lower brainstem. During vascular occlusion, sufficient CBF may be present ot sustain cerebral tissue as in animals with a well developed spinal circulation or an inadvertently patent vertebral artery

  19. Evaluation of RGD-targeted albumin carriers for specific delivery of auristatin E to tumor blood vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temming, Kai; Meyer, Damon L; Zabinski, Roger; Dijkers, Eli C F; Poelstra, Klaas; Molema, Grietje; Kok, Robbert J

    2006-01-01

    Induction of apoptosis in endothelial cells is considered an attractive strategy to therapeutically interfere with a solid tumor's blood supply. In the present paper, we constructed cytotoxic conjugates that specifically target angiogenic endothelial cells, thus preventing typical side effects of apoptosis-inducing drugs. For this purpose, we conjugated the potent antimitotic agent monomethyl-auristatin-E (MMAE) via a lysosomal cleavable linker to human serum albumin (HSA) and further equipped this drug-albumin conjugate with cyclic c(RGDfK) peptides for multivalent interaction with alphavbeta3-integrin. The RGD-peptides were conjugated via either an extended poly(ethylene glycol) linker or a short alkyl linker. The resulting drug-targeting conjugates RGDPEG-MMAE-HSA and RGD-MMAE-HSA demonstrated high binding affinity and specificity for alphavbeta3-integrin expressing human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). Both types of conjugates were internalized by endothelial cells and killed the target cells at low nM concentrations. Furthermore, we observed RGD-dependent binding of the conjugates to C26 carcinoma. Upon i.v. administration to C26-tumor bearing mice, both drug-targeting conjugates displayed excellent tumor homing properties. Our results demonstrate that RGD-modified albumins are suitable carriers for cell selective intracellular delivery of cytotoxic compounds, and further studies will be conducted to assess the antivascular and tumor inhibitory potential of RGDPEG-MMAE-HSA and RGD-MMAE-HSA.

  20. Vitamin K2 Ameliorates Damage of Blood Vessels by Glucocorticoid: a Potential Mechanism for Its Protective Effects in Glucocorticoid-induced Osteonecrosis of the Femoral Head in a Rat Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuelei; Yin, Junhui; Ding, Hao; Zhang, Changqing; Gao, You-Shui

    2016-01-01

    Glucocorticoid has been reported to decrease blood vessel number and harm the blood supply in the femoral head, which is recognized to be an important mechanism of glucocorticoid-induced osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH). To prevent glucocorticoid-induced ONFH, medication that promotes both bone formation and angiogenesis would be ideal. Vitamin K2 has been revealed to play an important role in bone metabolism; however, few studies have focused on the effect of Vitamin K2 on new vascular formation. Thus, this study aimed to investigate whether Vitamin K2 promoted new blood vessel formation in the presence of glucocorticoids, both in vitro and in vivo. The effect of Vitamin K2 on viability, migration, in vitro tube formation, and VEGF, vWF, CD31, KDR, Flt and PDGFB in EAhy926 incubated with or without dexamethasone were elucidated. VEGF, TGF-β and BMP-2, angiogenesis-related proteins secreted by osteoblasts, were also detected in the osteoblast-like cell line of MG63. In addition, blood vessels of the femoral head in rats administered with or without methylprednisolone and Vitamin K2 were evaluated using angiography and CD31 staining. In vitro studies showed that Vitamin K2 significantly protected endothelial cells from dexamethasone-induced apoptosis, promoted endothelial cell migration and in vitro tube formation. Angiogenesis-related proteins both in EAhy926 and MG63 were also upregulated by Vitamin K2 when cotreated with dexamethasone. In vivo studies showed enhanced blood vessel volume and CD31-positive staining cells in rats cotreated with VK2 and methylprednisolone compared to rats treated with methylprednisolone only. Collectively, Vitamin K2 has the ability to promote angiogenesis in vitro and to ameliorate vessels of the femoral head in glucocorticoid-treated rats in vivo, indicating that Vitamin K2 is a promising drug that may be used to prevent steroid-induced ONFH.

  1. Quantifying the abnormal hemodynamics of sickle cell anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Huan; Karniadakis, George

    2012-02-01

    Sickle red blood cells (SS-RBC) exhibit heterogeneous morphologies and abnormal hemodynamics in deoxygenated states. A multi-scale model for SS-RBC is developed based on the Dissipative Particle Dynamics (DPD) method. Different cell morphologies (sickle, granular, elongated shapes) typically observed in deoxygenated states are constructed and quantified by the Asphericity and Elliptical shape factors. The hemodynamics of SS-RBC suspensions is studied in both shear and pipe flow systems. The flow resistance obtained from both systems exhibits a larger value than the healthy blood flow due to the abnormal cell properties. Moreover, SS-RBCs exhibit abnormal adhesive interactions with both the vessel endothelium cells and the leukocytes. The effect of the abnormal adhesive interactions on the hemodynamics of sickle blood is investigated using the current model. It is found that both the SS-RBC - endothelium and the SS-RBC - leukocytes interactions, can potentially trigger the vicious ``sickling and entrapment'' cycles, resulting in vaso-occlusion phenomena widely observed in micro-circulation experiments.

  2. Functional and pharmacological consequences of the distribution of voltage-gated calcium channels in the renal blood vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, P B L

    2013-04-01

    Calcium channel blockers are widely used to treat hypertension because they inhibit voltage-gated calcium channels that mediate transmembrane calcium influx in, for example, vascular smooth muscle and cardiomyocytes. The calcium channel family consists of several subfamilies, of which the L-type is usually associated with vascular contractility. However, the L-, T- and P-/Q-types of calcium channels are present in the renal vasculature and are differentially involved in controlling vascular contractility, thereby contributing to regulation of kidney function and blood pressure. In the preglomerular vascular bed, all the three channel families are present. However, the T-type channel is the only channel in cortical efferent arterioles which is in contrast to the juxtamedullary efferent arteriole, and that leads to diverse functional effects of L- and T-type channel inhibition. Furthermore, by different mechanisms, T-type channels may contribute to both constriction and dilation of the arterioles. Finally, P-/Q-type channels are involved in the regulation of human intrarenal arterial contractility. The calcium blockers used in the clinic affect not only L-type but also P-/Q- and T-type channels. Therefore, the distinct effect obtained by inhibiting a given subtype or set of channels under experimental settings should be considered when choosing a calcium blocker for treatment. T-type channels seem to be crucial for regulating the GFR and the filtration fraction. Use of blockers is expected to lead to preferential efferent vasodilation, reduction of glomerular pressure and proteinuria. Therefore, renovascular T-type channels might provide novel therapeutic targets, and may have superior renoprotective effects compared to conventional calcium blockers. Acta Physiologica © 2013 Scandinavian Physiological Society.

  3. Phantom with pulsatile arteries to investigate the influence of blood vessel depth on pulse oximeter signal strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuban, Norbert; Niwayama, Masatsugu; Santha, Hunor

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a three-layer head phantom with artificial pulsating arteries at five different depths (1.2 mm, 3.7 mm, 6.8 mm, 9.6 mm and 11.8 mm). The structure enables formation of spatially and temporally varying tissue properties similar to those of living tissues. In our experiment, pressure pulses were generated in the arteries by an electronically controlled pump. The physical and optical parameters of the layers and the liquid in the artificial arteries were similar to those of real tissues and blood. The amplitude of the pulsating component of the light returning from the phantom tissues was measured at each artery depth mentioned above. The build-up of the in-house-developed pulse oximeter used for performing the measurements and the physical layout of the measuring head are described. The radiant flux generated by the LED on the measuring head was measured to be 1.8 mW at 910 nm. The backscattered radiant flux was measured, and found to be 0.46 nW (0.26 ppm), 0.55 nW (0.31 ppm), and 0.18 nW (0.10 ppm) for the 1.2 mm, 3.7 mm and 6.8 mm arteries, respectively. In the case of the 9.6 mm and 11.8 mm arteries, useful measurement data were not obtained owing to weak signals. We simulated the phantom with the arteries at the above-mentioned five depths and at two additional ones (2.5 mm and 5.3 mm in depth) using the Monte Carlo method. The measurement results were verified by the simulation results. We concluded that in case of 11 mm source-detector separation the arteries at a depth of about 2.5 mm generate the strongest pulse oximeter signal level in a tissue system comprising three layers of thicknesses: 1.5 mm (skin), 5.0 mm (skull), and >50 mm (brain).

  4. Phantom with Pulsatile Arteries to Investigate the Influence of Blood Vessel Depth on Pulse Oximeter Signal Strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hunor Santha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a three-layer head phantom with artificial pulsating arteries at five different depths (1.2 mm, 3.7 mm, 6.8 mm, 9.6 mm and 11.8 mm. The structure enables formation of spatially and temporally varying tissue properties similar to those of living tissues. In our experiment, pressure pulses were generated in the arteries by an electronically controlled pump. The physical and optical parameters of the layers and the liquid in the artificial arteries were similar to those of real tissues and blood. The amplitude of the pulsating component of the light returning from the phantom tissues was measured at each artery depth mentioned above. The build-up of the in-house-developed pulse oximeter used for performing the measurements and the physical layout of the measuring head are described. The radiant flux generated by the LED on the measuring head was measured to be 1.8 mW at 910 nm. The backscattered radiant flux was measured, and found to be 0.46 nW (0.26 ppm, 0.55 nW (0.31 ppm, and 0.18 nW (0.10 ppm for the 1.2 mm, 3.7 mm and 6.8 mm arteries, respectively. In the case of the 9.6 mm and 11.8 mm arteries, useful measurement data were not obtained owing to weak signals. We simulated the phantom with the arteries at the above-mentioned five depths and at two additional ones (2.5 mm and 5.3 mm in depth using the Monte Carlo method. The measurement results were verified by the simulation results. We concluded that in case of 11 mm source-detector separation the arteries at a depth of about 2.5 mm generate the strongest pulse oximeter signal level in a tissue system comprising three layers of thicknesses: 1.5 mm (skin, 5.0 mm (skull, and > 50 mm (brain.

  5. A Review of Algorithms for Retinal Vessel Segmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monserrate Intriago Pazmiño

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a review of algorithms for extracting blood vessels network from retinal images. Since retina is a complex and delicate ocular structure, a huge effort in computer vision is devoted to study blood vessels network for helping the diagnosis of pathologies like diabetic retinopathy, hypertension retinopathy, retinopathy of prematurity or glaucoma. To carry out this process many works for normal and abnormal images have been proposed recently. These methods include combinations of algorithms like Gaussian and Gabor filters, histogram equalization, clustering, binarization, motion contrast, matched filters, combined corner/edge detectors, multi-scale line operators, neural networks, ants, genetic algorithms, morphological operators. To apply these algorithms pre-processing tasks are needed. Most of these algorithms have been tested on publicly retinal databases. We have include a table summarizing algorithms and results of their assessment.

  6. Chronic kidney disease, 24-h blood pressure and small vessel diseases are independently associated with cognitive impairment in lacunar infarct patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Yasumasa; Ohara, Tomoyuki; Nagakane, Yoshinari; Tanaka, Eijiro; Morii, Fukiko; Koizumi, Takashi; Akiguchi, Ichiro

    2011-01-01

    Although the relationships between chronic kidney disease (CKD) and cognitive impairment (CI) have been highlighted, the etiology of CI in CKD remains uncertain. Subjects comprised 224 consecutive patients with symptomatic lacunar infarction who underwent magnetic resonance imaging and ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM). Diurnal blood pressure (BP) patterns were categorized into three groups: dippers, non-dippers and risers. Lacunar infarcts (LIs), including both symptomatic and silent and diffuse white matter lesions (WMLs), were graded into three grades according to their degree. The results of kidney function were evaluated using estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), categorized into three groups: stage 1, >60; stage 2, 30-60; and stage 3, -1 per 1.73 m 2 . There were 44 patients with CI. Confluent WMLs, including WML 2 and WML 3, were found in 36 patients (81.8%), and multiple lacunae including LI 2 and LI 3 were found in 30 patients (68.1%) with CI. Age >75 years (odds ratio (OR), 5.5; P -1 per 1.73 m 2 (OR, 2.9; P -1 per 1.73 m 2 (OR, 23.8; P 75 years (OR, 4.1; P -1 per 1.73 m 2 (OR, 3.7; P -1 per 1.73 m 2 (OR, 8.7; P<0.05) were independently associated with WML grade 3. Extensive small vessel diseases, CKD and non-dipping status were independently associated with CI. CKD appears to mainly contribute to vascular CI, whereas possibilities of overlapping with other mechanisms such as degenerative CI cannot be excluded. Strict night time BP control and renoprotective treatment may be warranted to prevent CI. (author)

  7. 'Infantile convulsions' in the early nineteenth century. Abnormal brain blood flow and leeches, teething and gums' scarification and food and purgatives: the historical contribution of John Clarke (1760-1815).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brigo, Francesco; Lattanzi, Simona; Trinka, Eugen; Nardone, Raffaele; Bragazzi, Nicola Luigi; Ruggieri, Martino; Vecchio, Ignazio; Martini, Mariano

    2018-03-20

    In this article, we discuss on the role of the British physician and midwifery practitioner John Clarke (1760-1815) in the characterisation of the various types of seizures and epilepsy and related phenomena ('convulsions') occurring in children. In his unfinished work Commentaries on Some of the Most Important Diseases of Children (1815), Clarke discussed the pathophysiology of convulsions and was the first to describe, 12 years before the French neurologist Louis Francois Bravais (1801-1843) and more than 30 years before the Irish-born physician Robert Bentley Todd (1809-1860), the postictal paresis. He believed that convulsions originated from changes in pressure within the ventricles as a consequence of abnormal blood flow to the cerebral vessels. In keeping with the theories of his time (e.g. Baumes 1789, 1805; Brachet 1824), Clarke believed that teething was a major cause of 'infantile convulsions'. His proposed remedies ranged from scarification of the gums to ammonia, application of leeches, cold water, and purgatives. The use of antispasmodics, quite popular at the time, was instead questioned. In his Practical Observations on the Convulsions of Infants (1826), the London practitioner and midwifery John North (1790-1873) deeply criticised Clarke's view that convulsions arise inevitably as a consequence of organic brain lesions. North inferred that the results of autopsies of children who had died of convulsions revealed no brain damages, and claimed that cerebral irritation could also occur as the effect of distant lesions. Other Clarke's contemporaries (e.g. Jean Baptiste Timothée Baumes-1756-1828) inferred that all convulsions reflected a hereditary diathesis, which rendered children (especially those with softer and limper nervous and muscular tissues!) extremely sensitive to all sorts of provocation that could trigger convulsions, including bad digestion (more pronounced at the time of teething), loud noise, and bright light. Although almost every

  8. Colesterolemia, trigliceridemia e excesso de peso em escolares de Santa Maria, RS, Brasil Blood lipids abnormalities and overweight prevalence in students of Santa Maria, RS, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Cruz Lunardi

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: O nível de colesterol na infância é um preditor do nível de colesterol na vida adulta. As consequências do colesterol elevado, somadas a outros fatores de risco constituem problema mundial de saúde pública. OBJETIVO: Estimar a prevalência de hipercolesterolemia, hipertrigliceridemia e excesso de peso em estudantes do município de Santa Maria-RS. Métodos: Estudo transversal com 374 crianças de 10 a 12 anos de idade, de escolas das redes pública e privada, realizado no segundo semestre de 2005 na cidade de Santa Maria-RS. Foram determinados os níveis de colesterol total, triglicerídeos e estado nutricional. RESULTADOS: As prevalências de hipercolesterolemia, hipertrigliceridemia e excesso de peso encontradas foram de 4,7%, 8,9% e 20,7%, respectivamente. Não houve diferença significante entre sexo e rede pública e privada. As crianças com excesso de peso apresentaram maior prevalência de alterações lipídicas. CONCLUSÕES: A prevalência de alterações lipídicas pode ser considerada baixa, mas a prevalência de excesso de peso dos estudantes de Santa Maria mostrou-se relativamente alta, alertando à importância de políticas públicas e à necessidade de assistência pediátrica nessa faixa etária, visando o seu diagnóstico precoce e, principalmente, o aconselhamento nutricional e incentivo à prática esportiva, uma vez que as dislipidemias e o excesso de peso têm sido apontados como fatores de risco para as doenças cardiovasculares.INTRODUCTION: Cholesterol level in childhood is a predictor of cholesterol level in adult life. The consequences of high cholesterol levels summed to other risk factors constitute a worldwide public health problem. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of blood lipid abnormalities and overweight among school students of the city of Santa Maria, RS, Brazil. Methods: A cross-sectional study with 374 children, aged between 10 and 12 years, from public and private schools of the

  9. The Sustained Delivery of Resveratrol or a Defined Grape Powder Inhibits New Blood Vessel Formation in a Mouse Model of Choroidal Neovascularization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mozhgan Rezaie Kanavi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine whether resveratrol or a defined, reconstituted grape powder can attenuate the formation of new blood vessels in a mouse model of choroidal neovascularization (CNV. To accomplish this objective, C57BL/6J mice were randomized into control or treatment groups which received either resveratrol or grape powder by daily oral gavage, resveratrol or grape powder delivered ad libitum through the drinking water, or resveratrol by slow release via implanted osmotic pumps. A laser was used to rupture Bruch’s membrane to induce CNV which was then detected in sclerochoroidal eyecups stained with antibodies against intercellular adhesion molecule-2. CNV area was measured using fluorescence microscopy and Image J software. Ad libitum delivery of both resveratrol and grape powder was shown to significantly reduce the extent of CNV by 68% and 57%, respectively. Parallel experiments conducted in vitro demonstrated that resveratrol activates p53 and inactivates Akt/protein kinase B in choroidal endothelial cells, contributing to its anti-proliferative and anti-migratory properties. In addition resveratrol was shown to inhibit the formation of endothelial cell networks, augmenting its overall anti-angiogenic effects. The non-toxic nature of resveratrol makes it an especially attractive candidate for the prevention and/or treatment of CNV.

  10. Gingival crevicular fluid tissue/blood vessel-type plasminogen activator and plasminogen activator inhibitor-2 levels in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: effects of nonsurgical periodontal therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurgan, Ş; Önder, C; Balcı, N; Fentoğlu, Ö; Eser, F; Balseven, M; Serdar, M A; Tatakis, D N; Günhan, M

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of nonsurgical periodontal therapy on clinical parameters and gingival crevicular fluid levels of tissue/blood vessel-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) and plasminogen activator inhibitor-2 (PAI-2) in patients with periodontitis, with or without rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Fifteen patients with RA and chronic periodontitis (RA-P), 15 systemically healthy patients with chronic periodontitis (H-P) and 15 periodontally and systemically healthy volunteers (C) were included in the study. Plaque index, gingival index, probing pocket depth, clinical attachment level, bleeding on probing, gingival crevicular fluid t-PA and PAI-2 levels, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, serum C-reactive protein and disease activity score were evaluated at baseline and 3 mo after mechanical nonsurgical periodontal therapy. All periodontal clinical parameters were significantly higher in the RA-P and H-P groups compared with the C group (p periodontitis groups (p periodontitis and RA, nonsurgical periodontal therapy reduced the pretreatment gingival crevicular fluid t-PA levels, which were significantly correlated with gingival crevicular fluid PAI-2 levels. The significantly higher t-PA and PAI-2 gingival crevicular fluid levels in periodontal patients, regardless of systemic status, suggest that the plasminogen activating system plays a role in the disease process of periodontitis. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Transformations for a generalized variable-coefficient Korteweg-de Vries model from blood vessels, Bose-Einstein condensates, rods and positons with symbolic computation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Bo; Wei Guangmei; Zhang Chunyi; Shan Wenrui; Gao Yitian

    2006-01-01

    The variable-coefficient Korteweg-de Vries (KdV)-typed models, although often hard to be studied, are of current interest in describing various real situations. Under investigation hereby is a large class of the generalized variable-coefficient KdV models with external-force and perturbed/dissipative terms. Recent examples of this class include those in blood vessels and circulatory system, arterial dynamics, trapped Bose-Einstein condensates related to matter waves and nonlinear atom optics, Bose gas of impenetrable bosons with longitudinal confinement, rods of compressible hyperelastic material and semiconductor heterostructures with positonic phenomena. In this Letter, based on symbolic computation, four transformations are proposed from this class either to the cylindrical or standard KdV equation when the respective constraint holds. The constraints have nothing to do with the external-force term. Under those transformations, such analytic solutions as those with the Airy, Hermit and Jacobian elliptic functions can be obtained, including the solitonic profiles. The roles for the perturbed and external-force terms to play are observed and discussed. Investigations on this class can be performed through the properties of solutions of cylindrical and standard KdV equations

  12. VEGF-B is dispensable for blood vessel growth but critical for their survival, and VEGF-B targeting inhibits pathological angiogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fan; Tang, Zhongshu; Hou, Xu; Lennartsson, Johan; Li, Yang; Koch, Alexander W.; Scotney, Pierre; Lee, Chunsik; Arjunan, Pachiappan; Dong, Lijin; Kumar, Anil; Rissanen, Tuomas T.; Wang, Bin; Nagai, Nobuo; Fons, Pierre; Fariss, Robert; Zhang, Yongqing; Wawrousek, Eric; Tansey, Ginger; Raber, James; Fong, Guo-Hua; Ding, Hao; Greenberg, David A.; Becker, Kevin G.; Herbert, Jean-Marc; Nash, Andrew; Yla-Herttuala, Seppo; Cao, Yihai; Watts, Ryan J.; Li, Xuri

    2009-01-01

    VEGF-B, a homolog of VEGF discovered a long time ago, has not been considered an important target in antiangiogenic therapy. Instead, it has received little attention from the field. In this study, using different animal models and multiple types of vascular cells, we revealed that although VEGF-B is dispensable for blood vessel growth, it is critical for their survival. Importantly, the survival effect of VEGF-B is not only on vascular endothelial cells, but also on pericytes, smooth muscle cells, and vascular stem/progenitor cells. In vivo, VEGF-B targeting inhibited both choroidal and retinal neovascularization. Mechanistically, we found that the vascular survival effect of VEGF-B is achieved by regulating the expression of many vascular prosurvival genes via both NP-1 and VEGFR-1. Our work thus indicates that the function of VEGF-B in the vascular system is to act as a “survival,” rather than an “angiogenic” factor and that VEGF-B inhibition may offer new therapeutic opportunities to treat neovascular diseases. PMID:19369214

  13. The Sustained Delivery of Resveratrol or a Defined Grape Powder Inhibits New Blood Vessel Formation in a Mouse Model of Choroidal Neovascularization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanavi, Mozhgan Rezaie; Darjatmoko, Soesiawati; Wang, Shoujian; Azari, Amir A.; Farnoodian, Mitra; Kenealey, Jason D.; van Ginkel, Paul R.; Albert, Daniel M.; Sheibani, Nader; Polans, Arthur S.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether resveratrol or a defined, reconstituted grape powder can attenuate the formation of new blood vessels in a mouse model of choroidal neovascularization (CNV). To accomplish this objective, C57BL/6J mice were randomized into control or treatment groups which received either resveratrol or grape powder by daily oral gavage, resveratrol or grape powder delivered ad libitum through the drinking water, or resveratrol by slow release via implanted osmotic pumps. A laser was used to rupture Bruch’s membrane to induce CNV which was then detected in sclerochoroidal eyecups stained with antibodies against intercellular adhesion molecule-2. CNV area was measured using fluorescence microscopy and Image J software. Ad libitum delivery of both resveratrol and grape powder was shown to significantly reduce the extent of CNV by 68% and 57%, respectively. Parallel experiments conducted in vitro demonstrated that resveratrol activates p53 and inactivates Akt/protein kinase B in choroidal endothelial cells, contributing to its anti-proliferative and anti-migratory properties. In addition resveratrol was shown to inhibit the formation of endothelial cell networks, augmenting its overall anti-angiogenic effects. The non-toxic nature of resveratrol makes it an especially attractive candidate for the prevention and/or treatment of CNV. PMID:25361423

  14. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Blood Clots Blood Clotting and Pregnancy Clots and Travel DVT Myths vs. Facts Blood Disorder Fact Sheets ... that occurs when a DVT breaks off and travels to the blood vessels of the lungs. DVT ...

  15. Publisher Correction: Eternal blood vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindson, Jordan

    2018-05-01

    This article was originally published with an incorrect reference for the original article. The reference has been amended. Please see the correct reference below. Qiu, Y. et al. Microvasculature-on-a-chip for the long-term study of endothelial barrier dysfunction and microvascular obstruction in disease. Nat. Biomed. Eng. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41551-018-0224-z (2018)

  16. Effects of special brain area regional cerebral blood flow abnormal perfusion on learning and memory function and its molecular mechanism in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    s To study the effect of special brain area regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) abnormal perfusion on learning and memory function and its molecular mechanism,64 adult male healthy Spragne-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into two groups,the false operation group (control group) and the operation group (model group).After surgical operation,the operation group undertook bilateral common carotid artery permanent ligation,while the other group did not.Learning and memory function were measured by Y-maze at 4 h,8 h,24 h and 3 d after surgical operation,respectively.The rCBF of the right frontal lobe and hippocampus was also detected by the PerifluxPF model laser Doppler flowmetry,and the expressions of c-fos or c-jun or Bcl-2 and Bax were also measured by immune histochemistry S-P method accordingly.Results showed that the rCBF of the right frontal lobe and hippocampus in the operation group was significantly lower than that in the false operation group (P < 0.05).The learning indexes,error number (EN),day of reach standard and total reaction time (TRT) in the operation group,were significantly higher than that in the false operation group (P< 0.05).However,the initiative evasion rate in the operation group was significantly lower than that in the false operation group.The study also found that the rCBF was relatively more,the indexes (EN,the day of reach standard and TRT) relatively fewer,but the initiative evasion rate and the memory keeping rate were relatively more.The positive expression and the average absorbency of Fos and Jun in the operation group were significantly higher than that in the false operation group (P< 0.05).Furthermore,Bax and Bcl-2 positive cells were all increased over time in the operation group,and the expression ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 in the operation group was significantly higher than that in the false operation group (P<0.01).In conclusion,rCBF decrease can impair the learning and memory function in rats,which may be related to

  17. Blood pressure regulation V: in vivo mechanical properties of precapillary vessels as affected by long-term pressure loading and unloading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiken, Ola; Mekjavic, Igor B; Kölegård, Roger

    2014-03-01

    Recent studies are reviewed, concerning the in vivo wall stiffness of arteries and arterioles in healthy humans, and how these properties adapt to iterative increments or sustained reductions in local intravascular pressure. A novel technique was used, by which arterial and arteriolar stiffness was determined as changes in arterial diameter and flow, respectively, during graded increments in distending pressure in the blood vessels of an arm or a leg. Pressure-induced increases in diameter and flow were smaller in the lower leg than in the arm, indicating greater stiffness in the arteries/arterioles of the leg. A 5-week period of intermittent intravascular pressure elevations in one arm reduced pressure distension and pressure-induced flow in the brachial artery by about 50%. Conversely, prolonged reduction of arterial/arteriolar pressure in the lower body by 5 weeks of sustained horizontal bedrest, induced threefold increases of the pressure-distension and pressure-flow responses in a tibial artery. Thus, the wall stiffness of arteries and arterioles are plastic properties that readily adapt to changes in the prevailing local intravascular pressure. The discussion concerns mechanisms underlying changes in local arterial/arteriolar stiffness as well as whether stiffness is altered by changes in myogenic tone and/or wall structure. As regards implications, regulation of local arterial/arteriolar stiffness may facilitate control of arterial pressure in erect posture and conditions of exaggerated intravascular pressure gradients. That increased intravascular pressure leads to increased arteriolar wall stiffness also supports the notion that local pressure loading may constitute a prime mover in the development of vascular changes in hypertension.

  18. Construction of an Aptamer-SiRNA Chimera-Modified Tissue-Engineered Blood Vessel for Cell-Type-Specific Capture and Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen; Zeng, Wen; Sun, Jiansen; Yang, Mingcan; Li, Li; Zhou, Jingting; Wu, Yangxiao; Sun, Jun; Liu, Ge; Tang, Rui; Tan, Ju; Zhu, Chuhong

    2015-06-23

    The application of tissue-engineered blood vessels (TEBVs) is the main developmental direction of vascular replacement therapy. Due to few and/or dysfunctional endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), it is difficult to successfully construct EPC capture TEBVs in diabetes. RNA has a potential application in cell protection and diabetes treatment, but poor specificity and low efficiency of RNA transfection in vivo limit the application of RNA. On the basis of an acellular vascular matrix, we propose an aptamer-siRNA chimera-modified TEBV that can maintain a satisfactory patency in diabetes. This TEBV consists of two parts, CD133-adenosine kinase (ADK) chimeras and a TEBV scaffold. Our results showed that CD133-ADK chimeras could selectively capture the CD133-positive cells in vivo, and then captured cells can internalize the bound chimeras to achieve RNA self-transfection. Subsequently, CD133-ADK chimeras were cut into ADK siRNA by a dicer, resulting in depletion of ADK. An ADK-deficient cell may act as a bioreactor that sustainably releases adenosine. To reduce nonspecific RNA transfection, we increased the proportion of HAuCl4 during the material preparation, through which the transfection capacity of polyethylenimine (PEI)/polyethylene glycol (PEG)-capped gold nanoparticles (PEI/PEG-AuNPs) was significantly decreased and the ability of TEBV to resist tensile and liquid shear stress was greatly enhanced. PEG and 2'-O-methyl modification was used to enhance the in vivo stability of RNA chimeras. At day 30 postgrafting, the patency rate of CD133-ADK chimera-modified TEBVs reached 90% in diabetic rats and good endothelialization was observed.

  19. Vessel Segmentation in Retinal Images Using Multi-scale Line Operator and K-Means Clustering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saffarzadeh, Vahid Mohammadi; Osareh, Alireza; Shadgar, Bita

    2014-04-01

    Detecting blood vessels is a vital task in retinal image analysis. The task is more challenging with the presence of bright and dark lesions in retinal images. Here, a method is proposed to detect vessels in both normal and abnormal retinal fundus images based on their linear features. First, the negative impact of bright lesions is reduced by using K-means segmentation in a perceptive space. Then, a multi-scale line operator is utilized to detect vessels while ignoring some of the dark lesions, which have intensity structures different from the line-shaped vessels in the retina. The proposed algorithm is tested on two publicly available STARE and DRIVE databases. The performance of the method is measured by calculating the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve and the segmentation accuracy. The proposed method achieves 0.9483 and 0.9387 localization accuracy against STARE and DRIVE respectively.

  20. Gold nanoparticles administration induces disarray of heart muscle, hemorrhagic, chronic inflammatory cells infiltrated by small lymphocytes, cytoplasmic vacuolization and congested and dilated blood vessels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelhalim Mohamed Anwar K

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite significant research efforts on cancer therapy, diagnostics and imaging, many challenges remain unsolved. There are many unknown details regarding the interaction of nanoparticles (NPs and biological systems. The structure and properties of gold nanoparticles (GNPs make them useful for a wide array of biological applications. However, for the application of GNPs in therapy and drug delivery, knowledge regarding their bioaccumulation and associated local or systemic toxicity is necessary. Information on the biological fate of NPs, including distribution, accumulation, metabolism, and organ specific toxicity is still minimal. Studies specifically dealing with the toxicity of NPs are rare. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of intraperitoneal administration of GNPs on histological alterations of the heart tissue of rats in an attempt to identify and understand the toxicity and the potential role of GNPs as a therapeutic and diagnostic tool. Methods A total of 40 healthy male Wistar-Kyoto rats received 50 μl infusions of 10, 20 and 50 nm GNPs for 3 or 7 days. Animals were randomly divided into groups: 6 GNP-treated rats groups and one control group (NG. Groups 1, 2 and 3 received infusions of 50 μl GNPs of size 10 nm (3 or 7 days, 20 nm (3 or 7 days and 50 nm (3 or 7 days, respectively. Results In comparison with the respective control rats, exposure to GNPs doses produced heart muscle disarray with a few scattered chronic inflammatory cells infiltrated by small lymphocytes, foci of hemorrhage with extravasation of red blood cells, some scattered cytoplasmic vacuolization and congested and dilated blood vessels. None of the above alterations were observed in the heart muscle of any member of the control group. Conclusions The alterations induced by intraperitoneal administration of GNPs were size-dependent, with smaller ones inducing greater affects, and were also related to the time exposure to

  1. An automated vessel segmentation of retinal images using multiscale vesselness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben Abdallah, M.; Malek, J.; Tourki, R.; Krissian, K.

    2011-01-01

    The ocular fundus image can provide information on pathological changes caused by local ocular diseases and early signs of certain systemic diseases, such as diabetes and hypertension. Automated analysis and interpretation of fundus images has become a necessary and important diagnostic procedure in ophthalmology. The extraction of blood vessels from retinal images is an important and challenging task in medical analysis and diagnosis. In this paper, we introduce an implementation of the anisotropic diffusion which allows reducing the noise and better preserving small structures like vessels in 2D images. A vessel detection filter, based on a multi-scale vesselness function, is then applied to enhance vascular structures.

  2. Non-invasive assessment of vessel morphology and function in tumors by magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiessling, Fabian; Jugold, Manfred; Woenne, Eva C.; Brix, Gunnar

    2007-01-01

    The switch to an angiogenic phenotype is an important precondition for tumor growth, invasion and spread. Since newly formed vessels are characterized by structural, functional and molecular abnormalities, they offer promising targets for tumor diagnosis and therapy. Previous studies indicate that MRI is valuable to assess vessel morphology and function. It can be used to distinguish between benign and malignant lesions and to improve delineation of proliferating areas within heterogeneous tumors. In addition, tracer kinetic analysis of contrast-enhanced image series allows the estimation of well-defined physiological parameters such as blood volume, blood flow and vessel permeability. Frequently, changes of these parameters during cytostatic, anti-angiogenic and radiation therapy precede tumor volume reduction. Moreover, target-specific MRI techniques can be used to elucidate the expression of angiogenic markers at the molecular level. This review summarizes strategies for non-invasive characterization of tumor vascularization by functional and molecular MRI, hereby introducing representative preclinical and clinical applications. (orig.)

  3. Congenital Abnormalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tube defects. However, there is also a genetic influence to this type of congenital anomaly. Unknown Causes The vast majority of congenital abnormalities have no known cause. This is particularly troubling for parents who plan to have more children, because there is no way to predict if ...

  4. Abnormal Resting State Corticolimbic Blood Flow in Depressed Unmedicated Patients With Major Depression: A 15O-H2O PET Study

    OpenAIRE

    Monkul, E. Serap; Silva, Leandro A.P.; Narayana, Shalini; Peluso, Marco A.M.; Zamarripa, Frank; Nery, Fabiano G.; Najt, Pablo; Li, John; Lancaster, Jack L.; Fox, Peter T.; Lafer, Beny; Soares, Jair C.

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the differences in the resting state corticolimbic blood flow between 20 unmedicated depressed patients and 21 healthy comparisons. Resting state cerebral blood flow (CBF) was measured with H215O PET. Anatomical MRI scans were performed on an Elscint 1.9 T Prestige system for PET-MRI coregistration. Significant changes in cerebral blood flow indicating neural activity were detected using an ROI-free image subtraction strategy. In addition, the resting blood flow in patients wa...

  5. Randomized controlled trial to evaluate the effect of canola oil on blood vessel function in peripheral arterial disease: rationale and design of the Canola-PAD Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enns JE

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Jennifer E Enns,1,2 Peter Zahradka,1–3 Randolph P Guzman,4,5 Alanna Baldwin,1 Brendon Foot,1 Carla G Taylor1–31Canadian Centre for Agri-Food Research in Health and Medicine, St Boniface Research Centre, Winnipeg, Canada; 2Department of Physiology, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada; 3Department of Human Nutritional Sciences, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada; 4IH Asper Clinical Research Institute, St Boniface Hospital, Winnipeg, Canada; 5Section of Vascular Surgery, Department of Surgery, St Boniface Hospital, Winnipeg, CanadaBackground: Individuals with peripheral arterial disease (PAD are at high risk for cardiac events due to atherosclerosis. Dietary fatty acid composition has been shown to modulate blood vessel properties, but whether a diet enriched in conventional canola oil can improve clinical endpoints in PAD is not known.Purpose: To describe the rationale and design of a clinical trial testing the effect of canola oil consumption on vascular function and cardiovascular risk factors in an 8-week dietary intervention in individuals with PAD.Methods: The Canola-PAD Study was a single center, prospective, double-blind, randomized controlled trial in 50 patients over 40 years old with PAD. Participants were randomized into two groups and consumed food items containing either conventional canola oil (25 g/day or an oil mixture representing the Western diet (25 g/day for 8 weeks as part of their usual diet. The primary outcome was vascular function (ankle-brachial index, arterial stiffness, endothelial dysfunction, walking capacity, and cognitive function. Secondary measurements included anthropometrics, serum lipid profile and fatty acid composition, markers of inflammation and glycemic control, and serum metabolite profile.Discussion: The Canola-PAD Study uses an innovative and noninvasive approach to evaluate the effect of canola oil on clinically relevant outcomes in individuals with PAD, including

  6. Primo vessel inside a lymph vessel emerging from a cancer tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sungwoo; Ryu, Yeonhee; Cha, Jinmyung; Lee, Jin-Kyu; Soh, Kwang-Sup; Kim, Sungchul; Lim, Jaekwan

    2012-10-01

    Primo vessels were observed inside the lymph vessels near the caudal vena cava of a rabbit and a rat and in the thoracic lymph duct of a mouse. In the current work we found a primo vessel inside the lymph vessel that came out from the tumor tissue of a mouse. A cancer model of a nude mouse was made with human lung cancer cell line NCI-H460. We injected fluorescent nanoparticles into the xenografted tumor tissue and studied their flow in blood, lymph, and primo vessels. Fluorescent nanoparticles flowed through the blood vessels quickly in few minutes, and but slowly in the lymph vessels. The bright fluorescent signals of nanoparticles disappeared within one hour in the blood vessels but remained much longer up to several hours in the case of lymph vessels. We found an exceptional case of lymph vessels that remained bright with fluorescence up to 24 hours. After detailed examination we found that the bright fluorescence was due to a putative primo vessel inside the lymph vessel. This rare observation is consistent with Bong-Han Kim's claim on the presence of a primo vascular system in lymph vessels. It provides a significant suggestion on the cancer metastasis through primo vessels and lymph vessels. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a reduced production of red blood cells, including: Iron deficiency anemia. Iron deficiency anemia is the most common type of anemia and ... inflammatory bowel disease are especially likely to have iron deficiency anemia. Anemia due to chronic disease. People with chronic ...

  8. Poly(ethylmethacrylate-co-diethylaminoethyl acrylate) coating improves endothelial re-population, bio-mechanical and anti-thrombogenic properties of decellularized carotid arteries for blood vessel replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Ruiz, Elena; Venkateswaran, Seshasailam; Perán, Macarena; Jiménez, Gema; Pernagallo, Salvatore; Díaz-Mochón, Juan J; Tura-Ceide, Olga; Arrebola, Francisco; Melchor, Juan; Soto, Juan; Rus, Guillermo; Real, Pedro J; Diaz-Ricart, María; Conde-González, Antonio; Bradley, Mark; Marchal, Juan A

    2017-03-24

    Decellularized vascular scaffolds are promising materials for vessel replacements. However, despite the natural origin of decellularized vessels, issues such as biomechanical incompatibility, immunogenicity risks and the hazards of thrombus formation, still need to be addressed. In this study, we coated decellularized vessels obtained from porcine carotid arteries with poly (ethylmethacrylate-co-diethylaminoethylacrylate) (8g7) with the purpose of improving endothelial coverage and minimizing platelet attachment while enhancing the mechanical properties of the decellularized vascular scaffolds. The polymer facilitated binding of endothelial cells (ECs) with high affinity and also induced endothelial cell capillary tube formation. In addition, platelets showed reduced adhesion on the polymer under flow conditions. Moreover, the coating of the decellularized arteries improved biomechanical properties by increasing its tensile strength and load. In addition, after 5 days in culture, ECs seeded on the luminal surface of 8g7-coated decellularized arteries showed good regeneration of the endothelium. Overall, this study shows that polymer coating of decellularized vessels provides a new strategy to improve re-endothelialization of vascular grafts, maintaining or enhancing mechanical properties while reducing the risk of thrombogenesis. These results could have potential applications in improving tissue-engineered vascular grafts for cardiovascular therapies with small caliber vessels.

  9. Microscopical and elemental FESEM and Phenom ProX-SEM-EDS analysis of osteocyte- and blood vessel-like microstructures obtained from fossil vertebrates of the Eocene Messel Pit, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadena, Edwin

    2016-01-01

    The Eocene (∾48 Ma) Messel Pit in Germany is a UNESCO World Heritage Site because of its exceptionally preserved fossils, including vertebrates, invertebrates, and plants. Messel fossil vertebrates are typically characterized by their articulated state, and in some cases the skin, hair, feathers, scales and stomach contents are also preserved. Despite the exceptional macroscopic preservation of Messel fossil vertebrates, the microstructural aspect of these fossils has been poorly explored. In particular, soft tissue structures such as hair or feathers have not been chemically analyzed, nor have bone microstructures. I report here the preservation and recovery of osteocyte-like and blood vessel-like microstructures from the bone of Messel Pit specimens, including the turtles Allaeochelys crassesculpta and Neochelys franzeni, the crocodile Diplocynodon darwini, and the pangolin Eomanis krebsi. I used a Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM) and a Phenom ProX desktop scanning electron microscope (LOT-QuantumDesign) equipped with a thermionic CeB6 source and a high sensitivity multi-mode backscatter electron (BSE) for microscopical and elemental characterization of these bone microstructures. Osteocyte-like and blood vessel-like microstructures are constituted by a thin layer (∾50 nm thickness), external and internal mottled texture with slightly marked striations. Circular to linear marks are common on the external surface of the osteocyte-like microstructures and are interpreted as microbial troughs. Iron (Fe) is the most abundant element found in the osteocyte-like and blood vessel-like microstructures, but not in the bone matrix or collagen fibril-like microstructures. The occurrence of well-preserved soft-tissue elements (at least their physical form) establishes a promising background for future studies on preservation of biomolecules (proteins or DNA) in Messel Pit fossils.

  10. Microscopical and elemental FESEM and Phenom ProX-SEM-EDS analysis of osteocyte- and blood vessel-like microstructures obtained from fossil vertebrates of the Eocene Messel Pit, Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin Cadena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Eocene (∾48 Ma Messel Pit in Germany is a UNESCO World Heritage Site because of its exceptionally preserved fossils, including vertebrates, invertebrates, and plants. Messel fossil vertebrates are typically characterized by their articulated state, and in some cases the skin, hair, feathers, scales and stomach contents are also preserved. Despite the exceptional macroscopic preservation of Messel fossil vertebrates, the microstructural aspect of these fossils has been poorly explored. In particular, soft tissue structures such as hair or feathers have not been chemically analyzed, nor have bone microstructures. I report here the preservation and recovery of osteocyte-like and blood vessel-like microstructures from the bone of Messel Pit specimens, including the turtles Allaeochelys crassesculpta and Neochelys franzeni, the crocodile Diplocynodon darwini, and the pangolin Eomanis krebsi. I used a Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM and a Phenom ProX desktop scanning electron microscope (LOT-QuantumDesign equipped with a thermionic CeB6 source and a high sensitivity multi-mode backscatter electron (BSE for microscopical and elemental characterization of these bone microstructures. Osteocyte-like and blood vessel-like microstructures are constituted by a thin layer (∾50 nm thickness, external and internal mottled texture with slightly marked striations. Circular to linear marks are common on the external surface of the osteocyte-like microstructures and are interpreted as microbial troughs. Iron (Fe is the most abundant element found in the osteocyte-like and blood vessel-like microstructures, but not in the bone matrix or collagen fibril-like microstructures. The occurrence of well-preserved soft-tissue elements (at least their physical form establishes a promising background for future studies on preservation of biomolecules (proteins or DNA in Messel Pit fossils.

  11. The effects of 595- and 1,064-nm lasers on rooster comb blood vessels using dual-wavelength and multipulse techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guang; Sun, Jianfang; Shao, Xuebao; Sang, Honggui; Zhou, Zhanchao

    2011-10-01

    After laser irradiation, hemoglobin can transform into methemoglobin and coagulum, which have high absorptivity of near-infrared light. Sequential irradiation with 595 nm and 1,064 nm may be more effective than single wavelength to decrease residual vessel number in rooster combs. Six protocols (single pulse with 595 nm, double pulse with 595 nm, single pulse with 1,064 nm, double pulse with 1,064 nm, sequential irradiation with 595 nm and 1,064 nm (multiplex), and a blank control group) were used to compare the effects of sequential and single-wavelength irradiation on reducing residual vessel number, as well as the epidermal side effects, in the rooster comb. Different treatment techniques were applied to the same comb, at the same time. The treated areas of the epidermis and the residual vessels were observed using an optical microscope. All five techniques were effective in decreasing the number of residual vessels in the comb, and the side effects on the epidermis were similar for all. Considering the selectivity of the 595-nm laser and the rich melanin in the human epidermis, the dual-wavelength laser has a distinct advantage in treating vascular lesions. The authors have indicated no significant interest with commercial supporters. © 2011 by the American Society for Dermatologic Surgery, Inc.

  12. Determination of adrenomedullin and endothelin in cord blood and their expressions in umbilical cord vessel of patients with pregnancy-induced hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruan Lihong; Zhu Fengquan; Wang Xing; Pan Yu

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the role of adrenomedullin (ADM) and endothelin-1 (ET-1) in the pathogenesis of pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH). Methods: The plasma concentrations of ADM in human umbilical vein of PIH patients (n=30) and normal late trimester pregnancy women (n=12) were measured by radioimmunoassay. The expressions of ADM and ET-1 in umbilical cord vessel of PIH patients (n=40) and normal late trimester pregnancy women (n=12) were detected by immunohistochemistry (SABC). Results: 1) The plasma concentration of ADM in human umbilical vein of PIH patients was significantly higher than that of normal late trimester pregnancy women (P 0.05). 2) The expression of ADM was found in endothelium and smooth muscle cell of umbilical cord vessel, and it increased with the serious degree of PIH. The expression of ET-1 was only found in endothelium of umbilical cord vessel, and it decreased with the serious degree of PIH. Conclusion: The changes of ADM and ET-1 in umbilical cord plasma and vessel may related to regulation of fetoplacental circulation in PIH

  13. Development of a dynamic in vitro model of a stented blood vessel to evaluate the effects of stent strut material selection and surface coating on smooth muscle cell response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winn, Bradley Huegh

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of mortality in The United States and Europe, accounting for approximately half of all deaths. The most common form of cardiovascular disease is atherosclerosis, which is characterized by the formation of fatty atheromatous plaques that can grow to occlude the vessel lumen, thus causing ischemia distal to the occlusion. This is commonly treated using balloon angioplasty, which is usually done in conjunction with the deployment of a stent. Stent deployment helps hold the vessel open following the local injury caused by balloon inflation and prevents elastic recoil and subsequent negative remodeling. Stenting has been shown to significantly reduce restenosis rates from approximately 20-50% without a stent to about 10-30% with stent deployment. However, restenosis still remains the main cause of long-term stent failure. In basic terms, a balloon angioplasty procedure is a forceful displacement of an atherosclerotic lesion serving to widen the vessel lumen to increase blood flow. This procedure causes stretching of the vessel wall, tears in the atherosclerotic plaques, and general damage to the vessel in turn signaling a complex cascade of thrombosis, inflammation, intimal thickening, and vascular remodeling. Stent deployment also further complicates the immunological response by triggering a foreign body response from the implantation of a biomaterial into the body. When performing an angioplasty procedure, particularly in conjunction with stent deployment, a certain degree of vascular injury is inevitable. However, the initial injury can be further complicated by the body's local reaction to the implanted biomaterial, the severity of which can ultimately dictate the degree of restenosis and subsequently affect procedural success. The proliferative response of VSMCs to the various afore mentioned stimuli results in the formation of often copious amounts of neointimal tissue, generally known as intimal hyperplasia. The

  14. Blood Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of your immune system, which fights infections and diseases. Abnormal white blood cell levels may be a sign ... fall outside the normal range for many reasons. Abnormal results might be a sign of a disorder or disease. Other factors—such as diet, menstrual ...

  15. Containment vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zbirohowski-Koscia, K.F.; Roberts, A.C.

    1980-01-01

    A concrete containment vessel for nuclear reactors is disclosed that is spherical and that has prestressing tendons disposed in first, second and third sets, the tendons of each set being all substantially concentric and centred around a respective one of the three orthogonal axes of the sphere; the tendons of the first set being anchored at each end at a first anchor rib running around a circumference of the vessel, the tendons of the second set being anchored at each end at a second anchor rib running around a circumference of the sphere and disposed at 90 0 to the first rib, and the tendons of the third set being anchored some to the first rib and the remainder to the second rib. (author)

  16. In 6- to 8-year-old children, hair cortisol is associated with body mass index and somatic complaints, but not with stress, health-related quality of life, blood pressure, retinal vessel diameters, and cardiorespiratory fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Markus; Endes, Katharina; Brand, Serge; Herrmann, Christian; Colledge, Flora; Donath, Lars; Faude, Oliver; Pühse, Uwe; Hanssen, Henner; Zahner, Lukas

    2017-02-01

    Hair cortisol measurement has become an increasingly accepted approach in endocrinology and biopsychology. However, while in adult research hair cortisol has been proposed as a relevant biomarker for chronic stress (and its adverse consequences), studies with children are scarce. Therefore, the goal of the present exploratory study was to examine the associations between hair cortisol concentrations (HCCs), stress, and a series of health-related outcomes in a sample of Swiss first grade schoolchildren. The sample consisted of 318 children (53% girls, M age =7.26, SD=0.35). Hair strands were taken near the scalp from a posterior vertex position, and HCCs were tested for the first 3-cm hair segment. Parents provided information about their children's age, gender, parental education, children's stress (recent critical life events, daily hassles), health-related quality of life, and psychosomatic complaints. Body composition, blood pressure, retinal vessel diameters, and cardiorespiratory fitness were measured with established methods. In multiple regression analyses, higher HCCs were weakly associated with increased BMI in girls (β=0.22, pstress, health-related quality of life, blood pressure, retinal vessel diameters, and cardiorespiratory fitness. Although small significant relationships were found between HCCs, BMI and somatic complaints, the findings of this exploratory study challenge the view that HCCs can be used as a reliable biomarker of recent critical life events, daily hassles, health-related quality of life, and cardiovascular health indicators in non-clinical young children. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A novel vascular-targeting peptide for gastric cancer delivers low-dose TNFα to normalize the blood vessels and improve the anti-cancer efficiency of 5-fluorouracil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Lan; Li, Zhi Jie; Li, Long Fei; Shen, Jing; Zhang, Lin; Li, Ming Xing; Xiao, Zhan Gang; Wang, Jian Hao; Cho, Chi Hin

    2017-11-01

    Various vascular-targeted agents fused with tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) have been shown to improve drug absorption into tumor tissues and enhance tumor vascular function. TCP-1 is a peptide selected through in vivo phage library biopanning against a mouse orthotopic colorectal cancer model and is a promising agent for drug delivery. This study further investigated the targeting ability of TCP-1 phage and peptide to blood vessels in an orthotopic gastric cancer model in mice and assessed the synergistic anti-cancer effect of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) with subnanogram TNFα targeted delivered by TCP-1 peptide. In vivo phage targeting assay and in vivo colocalization analysis were carried out to test the targeting ability of TCP-1 phage/peptide. A targeted therapy for improvement of the therapeutic efficacy of 5-FU and vascular function was performed through administration of TCP-1/TNFα fusion protein in this model. TCP-1 phage exhibited strong homing ability to the orthotopic gastric cancer after phage injection. Immunohistochemical staining suggested that and TCP-1 phage/TCP-1 peptide could colocalize with tumor vascular endothelial cells. TCP-1/TNFα combined with 5-FU was found to synergistically inhibit tumor growth, induce apoptosis and reduce cell proliferation without evident toxicity. Simultaneously, subnanogram TCP-1/TNFα treatment normalized tumor blood vessels. Targeted delivery of low-dose TNFα by TCP-1 peptide can potentially modulate the vascular function of gastric cancer and increase the drug delivery of chemotherapeutic drugs. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Association of maternal and umbilical cord blood leptin concentrations and abnormal color Doppler indices of umbilical artery with fetal growth restriction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elahe Zareaan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fetal growth restriction (FGR is a condition with heterogeneous pathophysiology which characterized by fetal weight less than the tenth percentile for gestational age. Several factors have impact on maternal, placental and fetal due to growth restriction. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between levels of leptin in the cord, and serum leptin of mothers also abnormal color Doppler indices of umbilical artery with fetal growth restriction. Materials and Methods: This is a cross sectional study conducted in Isfahan, Iran, 2015-2016. We recruited 40 women with singleton pregnancies complicated by fetal growth restriction (Group I and 40 pregnant women with normal fetal growth (Group II with matched age. Maternal serum and umbilical artery leptin levels were determined with Enzyme-Linked immunosorben method. Also, color Doppler ultrasound of umbilical artery was performed. Results: Mean maternal and fetal leptin levels were lower in the FGR group compared to the normal group (36.58±(20.99 and 7.42 ±(4.08vs. 47.32±(22.50 and 30.49±(14.50 respectively. Also, mean fetal leptin level was lower in the group with abnormal color Doppler sonographic indices compared to the normal group (7. 40 ±(4.10vs 27.06±(15.80, respectively. Conclusion: This study indicated that maternal and fetal leptin levels are correlated with FGR originating from damaged placental function; also fetal leptin level can indicate changes in color Doppler sonographic indices.

  19. Comparison of L-lysine aescinat and Kontrikal blood flow and morphology of the vessel in the brain is awake rabbits general vibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Belyakova

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Chronic experiments on conscious rabbits with needle-shaped platinum electrodes implanted into the brain cortex, thalamus and hypothalamus were made. The modeling of wide-frequency vibration causes slowing down of cerebral blood flow. L-lysine aescinat prevents changing of blood flow in hypothalamus, causes growth into the brain cortex and not significant lowering in thalamus. Contrykal provides absolute growth of a blood circulation in all structures that were studied. In acute experiments on conscious rabbits wide-frequency vibration causes spasm arterioles and dilation of veins. According to histologic dates L-lysine aescinat prevents changes in the bloodstream better than Contrykal.

  20. Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) detected in abnormally high concentrations in postmortem blood and urine from two persons found dead inside a car containing a gasoline spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karinen, Ritva; Vindenes, Vigdis; Morild, Inge; Johnsen, Lene; Le Nygaard, Ilah; Christophersen, Asbjørg S

    2013-09-01

    Two deep frozen persons, a female and a male, were found dead in a car. There had been an explosive fire inside the car which had extinguished itself. On the floor inside the car were large pools of liquid which smelled of gasoline. The autopsy findings and routine toxicological analyses could not explain the cause of death. Carboxyhemoglobin levels in the blood samples were gasoline as a fuel oxygenate. Gasoline poisoning is likely to be the cause of the death in these two cases, and MTBE can be a suitable marker of gasoline exposure, when other volatile components have vaporized. © 2013 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  1. Racial Differences in Abnormal Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring Measures: Results From the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Cora E.; Diaz, Keith M.; Carson, April P.; Kim, Yongin; Calhoun, David; Yano, Yuichiro; Viera, Anthony J.; Shimbo, Daichi

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Several ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) measures have been associated with increased cardiovascular disease risk independent of clinic blood pressure (BP). African Americans have higher clinic BP compared with Whites but few data are available on racial differences in ABPM measures. METHODS We compared ABPM measures between African American (n = 178) and White (n = 103) participants at the Year 5 Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study visit. BP was measured during a study visit and the second and third measurements were averaged. ABPM was conducted over the following 24 hours. RESULTS Mean ± SD age of participants was 29.8±3.8 years and 30.8±3.5 years for African Americans and Whites, respectively. Mean daytime systolic BP (SBP) was 3.90 (SD 1.18) mm Hg higher among African Americans compared with Whites (P ABPM was higher among African Americans compared with Whites. CONCLUSIONS These data suggest racial differences in several ABPM measures exist. PMID:25376639

  2. Isosorbide 5 mononitrate administration increases nitric oxide blood levels and reduces proteinuria in IgA glomerulonephritis patients with abnormal urinary endothelin/cyclic GMP ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roccatello, D; Mengozzi, G; Ferro, M; Cesano, G; Polloni, R; Mosso, R; Bonetti, G; Inconis, T; Paradisi, L; Sena, L M

    1995-09-01

    An endothelin urinary hyperexcretion, which is not counterbalanced by an adequate increase in cGMP biosynthesis, was previously detected in some patients with IgA Nephropathy (IgAN). Since this imbalance might potentiate local ET1-mediated hemodynamics effects, 9 IgAN patients with an increased (> or = 0.1) urinary ET1/cGMP ratio (group 1) and 5 IgAN patients with comparable renal function and reduced ET1/cGMP ratio (group 2) were given standard doses of isosorbide 5 mononitrate (as a nitric oxide source). Blood nitric oxide (NO) levels, as detected by electron paramagnetic resonance, significantly increased after isosorbide administration (p effective renal plasma flow (p counterbalancing effects of nitric oxide on endothelin-mediated mesangial contraction.

  3. Image-Based Computational Fluid Dynamics in Blood Vessel Models: Toward Developing a Prognostic Tool to Assess Cardiovascular Function Changes in Prolonged Space Flights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatzimavroudis, George P.; Spirka, Thomas A.; Setser, Randolph M.; Myers, Jerry G.

    2004-01-01

    One of NASA's objectives is to be able to perform a complete, pre-flight, evaluation of cardiovascular changes in astronauts scheduled for prolonged space missions. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has shown promise as a method for estimating cardiovascular function during reduced gravity conditions. For this purpose, MRI can provide geometrical information, to reconstruct vessel geometries, and measure all spatial velocity components, providing location specific boundary conditions. The objective of this study was to investigate the reliability of MRI-based model reconstruction and measured boundary conditions for CFD simulations. An aortic arch model and a carotid bifurcation model were scanned in a 1.5T Siemens MRI scanner. Axial MRI acquisitions provided images for geometry reconstruction (slice thickness 3 and 5 mm; pixel size 1x1 and 0.5x0.5 square millimeters). Velocity acquisitions provided measured inlet boundary conditions and localized three-directional steady-flow velocity data (0.7-3.0 L/min). The vessel walls were isolated using NIH provided software (ImageJ) and lofted to form the geometric surface. Constructed and idealized geometries were imported into a commercial CFD code for meshing and simulation. Contour and vector plots of the velocity showed identical features between the MRI velocity data, the MRI-based CFD data, and the idealized-geometry CFD data, with less than 10% differences in the local velocity values. CFD results on models reconstructed from different MRI resolution settings showed insignificant differences (less than 5%). This study illustrated, quantitatively, that reliable CFD simulations can be performed with MRI reconstructed models and gives evidence that a future, subject-specific, computational evaluation of the cardiovascular system alteration during space travel is feasible.

  4. Anatomically corrected transposition of great vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanitskij, A.V.; Sarkisova, T.N.

    1989-01-01

    The paper is concerned with the description of rare congenital heart disease: anatomically corrected malposition of major vessels in a 9-mos 24 day old girl. The diagnosis of this disease was shown on the results of angiocardiography, concomitant congenital heart diseases were descibed. This abnormality is characterized by common atrioventricular and ventriculovascular joints and inversion position of the major vessels, it is always attended by congenital heart diseases. Surgical intervention is aimed at the elimination of concomitant heart dieseases

  5. Quantitative profile of lipid classes in blood by normal phase chromatography with evaporative light scattering detector: application in the detection of lipid class abnormalities in liver cirrhosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamorro, Laura; García-Cano, Ana; Busto, Rebeca; Martínez-González, Javier; Albillos, Agustín; Lasunción, Miguel Ángel; Pastor, Oscar

    2013-06-05

    The lack of analytical methods specific for each lipid class, particularly for phospholipids and sphyngolipids, makes necessary their separation by preparative techniques before quantification. LC-MS would be the election method but for daily work in the clinical laboratory this is not feasible for different reasons, both economic and time consuming. In the present work, we have optimized an HPLC method to quantify lipid classes in plasma and erythrocytes and applied it to samples from patients with cirrhosis. Lipid classes were analyzed by normal phase liquid chromatography with evaporative light scattering detection. We employed a quaternary solvent system to separate twelve lipid classes in 15 min. Interday, intraday and recovery for quantification of lipid classes in plasma were excellent with our methodology. The total plasma lipid content of cirrhotic patients vs control subjects was decreased with diminished CE (81±33 vs 160±17 mg/dL) and PC (37±16 vs 60±19 mg/dL). The composition of erythrocytes showed a decrease in acidic phospholipids: PE, PI and PS. Present methodology provides a reliable quantification of lipid classes in blood. The lipid profile of cirrhotics showed alterations in the PC/PE plasma ratio and in the phospholipid content of erythrocytes, which might reflect alterations in hepatocyte and erythrocyte membrane integrity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Structural Echocardiographic Abnormalities Seen in HIV/AIDS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-06-28

    Jun 28, 2017 ... apparently healthy HIV‑negative blood donors at the. UITH blood bank, students, ..... For example, the virus causes inflammatory reaction in the coronary vessels, .... of adverse cardiovascular outcomes like atrial fibrillation.[43].

  7. Hemorheological abnormalities in human arterial hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Presti, Rosalia; Hopps, Eugenia; Caimi, Gregorio

    2014-05-01

    Blood rheology is impaired in hypertensive patients. The alteration involves blood and plasma viscosity, and the erythrocyte behaviour is often abnormal. The hemorheological pattern appears to be related to some pathophysiological mechanisms of hypertension and to organ damage, in particular left ventricular hypertrophy and myocardial ischemia. Abnormalities have been observed in erythrocyte membrane fluidity, explored by fluorescence spectroscopy and electron spin resonance. This may be relevant for red cell flow in microvessels and oxygen delivery to tissues. Although blood viscosity is not a direct target of antihypertensive therapy, the rheological properties of blood play a role in the pathophysiology of arterial hypertension and its vascular complications.

  8. Automatic detection method of blood vessel for color retina fundus images%彩色视网膜眼底图像血管自动检测方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄文博; 王珂; 燕杨

    2017-01-01

    为了给视网膜图像配准、光照校正及视网膜内部病理学检测等问题提供有效依据,本文提出一种有效检测及识别彩色视网膜眼底图像血管的全自动方法.针对视网膜可见血管呈长条型管状、局部具有较好直线型结构的形态特点,本文采取适用于条状结构的组合移位滤波响应模型进行特征提取.针对血管和血管末端特征的不同,分别配置对称和非对称的两种滤波模型进行跟踪,利用组合移位滤波模型(对称和非对称)获取到的响应及G通道像素灰度值共同构建特征向量库,采用AdaBoost分类器对各个像素点进行分类判定.基于国际公共数据库DRIVE与STARE的实验结果表明,该方法针对两个标准数据库的分割结果(DRIVE: Accuracy=0.948 9,Sensitivity=0.765 7,Specificity=0.980 9;STARE: Accuracy=0.956 7,Sensitivity=0.771 7,Specificity=0.976 6)均优于已有方法,适用于彩色视网膜眼底图像的计算机辅助定量分析,可作为临床借鉴.%In order to provide effective foundation for retinal image registration, illumination adjustment and pathological detection of retina interior and other problems, a fully automatic method of detecting and recognizing blood vessel for color retina fundus images effectively was proposed.Aimed at the state with elongated tubular shape and preferably linear structure in local part of visible blood vessel, combinatorial shifted filter response model that is applicable to strip structure was used for feature extraction.Taking different features of blood vessel and the end of blood vessel into consideration, two types of filtering modes with symmetry and dissymmetry were configured for tracking, feature vector library was established by response acquired from combinatorial shifting filter response model (symmetry and dissymmetry) and G channel pixel value together and each pixel was classified and determined by AdaBoost classifier.The experimental result based on

  9. Monitoring Your Blood Sugar Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and NutritionHealth Insurance: Understanding What It CoversHigh Homocysteine Level: How It Affects Your Blood VesselsUnderstanding Your Medical ... Health Resources Healthcare Management Monitoring Your Blood Sugar Level Monitoring Your Blood Sugar Level Share Print What ...

  10. Device for diagnoising abnormalities of equipments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakano, Hiroshi.

    1986-01-01

    Purpose: To measure the collision energy easily and at high accuracy by applying impact shocks at known collision energy from a simulated acoustic wave generator and using the generated acoustic signal as reference data. Constitution: A plurality of acoustic detectors are attached to the surface of a nuclear reactor pressure vessel. These acoustic detectors are connected respectively to an abnormality diagnosis device for equipments. Then, when metal obstacles collide against the inner surface of the reactor pressure vessel, acoustic signals generated upon collision are detected by the acoustic detectors and acoustic information thus obtained from the acoustic detectors determines the colliding position of the metal obstacles by means of the abnormality diagnosis device and then the collision energy is measured. In this case, by applying impact shocks at known collision energy near the colliding position of metal obstacles determined by the abnormality diagnosis device, collision energy can be determined at a higher accuracy. (Kawakami, Y.)

  11. Silole-Based Red Fluorescent Organic Dots for Bright Two-Photon Fluorescence In vitro Cell and In vivo Blood Vessel Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bin; Feng, Guangxue; He, Bairong; Goh, Chiching; Xu, Shidang; Ramos-Ortiz, Gabriel; Aparicio-Ixta, Laura; Zhou, Jian; Ng, Laiguan; Zhao, Zujin; Liu, Bin; Tang, Ben Zhong

    2016-02-10

    Robust luminescent dyes with efficient two-photon fluorescence are highly desirable for biological imaging applications, but those suitable for organic dots fabrication are still rare because of aggregation-caused quenching. In this work, a red fluorescent silole, 2,5-bis[5-(dimesitylboranyl)thiophen-2-yl]-1-methyl-1,3,4-triphenylsilole ((MesB)2 DTTPS), is synthesized and characterized. (MesB)2 DTTPS exhibits enhanced fluorescence efficiency in nanoaggregates, indicative of aggregation-enhanced emission (AEE). The organic dots fabricated by encapsulating (MesB)2 DTTPS within lipid-PEG show red fluorescence peaking at 598 nm and a high fluorescence quantum yield of 32%. Upon excitation at 820 nm, the dots show a large two-photon absorption cross section of 3.43 × 10(5) GM, which yields a two-photon action cross section of 1.09 × 10(5) GM. These (MesB)2 DTTPS dots show good biocompatibility and are successfully applied to one-photon and two-photon fluorescence imaging of MCF-7 cells and two-photon in vivo visualization of the blood vascular of mouse muscle in a high-contrast and noninvasive manner. Moreover, the 3D blood vasculature located at the mouse ear skin with a depth of over 100 μm can also be visualized clearly, providing the spatiotemporal information about the whole blood vascular network. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Optimizing {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT imaging of vessel wall inflammation: the impact of {sup 18}F-FDG circulation time, injected dose, uptake parameters, and fasting blood glucose levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bucerius, Jan [Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, Translational and Molecular Imaging Institute, One Gustave L. Levy Place, P.O. Box 1234, New York, NY (United States); Mount Sinai School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Maastricht University Medical Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Maastricht (Netherlands); Maastricht University Medical Center, Cardiovascular Research Institute Maastricht (CARIM), Maastricht (Netherlands); University Hospital, RWTH Aachen, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Aachen (Germany); Mani, Venkatesh; Fayad, Zahi A. [Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, Translational and Molecular Imaging Institute, One Gustave L. Levy Place, P.O. Box 1234, New York, NY (United States); Mount Sinai School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Mount Sinai School of Medicine, Department of Cardiology, Zena and Michael A. Weiner Cardiovascular Institute and Marie-Josee and Henry R. Kravis Cardiovascular Health Center, New York, NY (United States); Moncrieff, Colin [Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, Translational and Molecular Imaging Institute, One Gustave L. Levy Place, P.O. Box 1234, New York, NY (United States); Mount Sinai School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Machac, Josef [Mount Sinai School of Medicine, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Fuster, Valentin [Mount Sinai School of Medicine, Department of Cardiology, Zena and Michael A. Weiner Cardiovascular Institute and Marie-Josee and Henry R. Kravis Cardiovascular Health Center, New York, NY (United States); The Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Cardiovasculares (CNIC), Madrid (Spain); Farkouh, Michael E. [Mount Sinai School of Medicine, Department of Cardiology, Zena and Michael A. Weiner Cardiovascular Institute and Marie-Josee and Henry R. Kravis Cardiovascular Health Center, New York, NY (United States); Mount Sinai School of Medicine, Cardiovascular Imaging Clinical Trials Unit, New York, NY (United States); Tawakol, Ahmed [Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard University, Cardiac MR PET CT Program, Boston, MA (United States); Rudd, James H.F. [Cambridge University, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2014-02-15

    {sup 18}F-FDG PET is increasingly used for imaging of vessel wall inflammation. However, limited data are available on the impact of methodological variables, i.e. prescan fasting glucose, FDG circulation time and injected FDG dose, and of different FDG uptake parameters, in vascular FDG PET imaging. Included in the study were 195 patients who underwent vascular FDG PET/CT of the aorta and the carotids. Arterial standardized uptake values ({sub mean}SUV{sub max}), target-to-background ratios ({sub mean}TBR{sub max}) and FDG blood-pool activity in the superior vena cava (SVC) and the jugular veins (JV) were quantified. Vascular FDG uptake values classified according to the tertiles of prescan fasting glucose levels, the FDG circulation time, and the injected FDG dose were compared using ANOVA. Multivariate regression analyses were performed to identify the potential impact of all variables described on the arterial and blood-pool FDG uptake. Tertile analyses revealed FDG circulation times of about 2.5 h and prescan glucose levels of less than 7.0 mmol/l, showing a favorable relationship between arterial and blood-pool FDG uptake. FDG circulation times showed negative associations with aortic{sub mean}SUV{sub max} values as well as SVC and JV FDG blood-pool activity, but positive correlations with aortic and carotid{sub mean}TBR{sub max} values. Prescan glucose levels were negatively associated with aortic and carotid{sub mean}TBR{sub max} and carotid{sub mean}SUV{sub max} values, but were positively correlated with SVC blood-pool uptake. The injected FDG dose failed to show any significant association with vascular FDG uptake. FDG circulation times and prescan blood glucose levels significantly affect FDG uptake in the aortic and carotid walls and may bias the results of image interpretation in patients undergoing vascular FDG PET/CT. The injected FDG dose was less critical. Therefore, circulation times of about 2.5 h and prescan glucose levels less than 7.0 mmol

  13. Vessel Operator System

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Operator cards are required for any operator of a charter/party boat and or a commercial vessel (including carrier and processor vessels) issued a vessel permit from...

  14. What is cerebral small vessel disease?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onodera, Osamu

    2011-01-01

    An accumulating amount of evidence suggests that the white matter hyperintensities on T 2 weighted brain magnetic resonance imaging predict an increased risk of dementia and gait disturbance. This state has been proposed as cerebral small vessel disease, including leukoaraiosis, Binswanger's disease, lacunar stroke and cerebral microbleeds. However, the concept of cerebral small vessel disease is still obscure. To understand the cerebral small vessel disease, the precise structure and function of cerebral small vessels must be clarified. Cerebral small vessels include several different arteries which have different anatomical structures and functions. Important functions of the cerebral small vessels are blood-brain barrier and perivasucular drainage of interstitial fluid from the brain parenchyma. Cerebral capillaries and glial endfeet, take an important role for these functions. However, the previous pathological investigations on cerebral small vessels have focused on larger arteries than capillaries. Therefore little is known about the pathology of capillaries in small vessel disease. The recent discoveries of genes which cause the cerebral small vessel disease indicate that the cerebral small vessel diseases are caused by a distinct molecular mechanism. One of the pathological findings in hereditary cerebral small vessel disease is the loss of smooth muscle cells, which is an also well-recognized finding in sporadic cerebral small vessel disease. Since pericytes have similar character with the smooth muscle cells, the pericytes should be investigated in these disorders. In addition, the loss of smooth muscle cells may result in dysfunction of drainage of interstitial fluid from capillaries. The precise correlation between the loss of smooth muscle cells and white matter disease is still unknown. However, the function that is specific to cerebral small vessel may be associated with the pathogenesis of cerebral small vessel disease. (author)

  15. Abnormal cardiovascular response to exercise in hypertension: contribution of neural factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Jere H

    2017-06-01

    During both dynamic (e.g., endurance) and static (e.g., strength) exercise there are exaggerated cardiovascular responses in hypertension. This includes greater increases in blood pressure, heart rate, and efferent sympathetic nerve activity than in normal controls. Two of the known neural factors that contribute to this abnormal cardiovascular response are the exercise pressor reflex (EPR) and functional sympatholysis. The EPR originates in contracting skeletal muscle and reflexly increases sympathetic efferent nerve activity to the heart and blood vessels as well as decreases parasympathetic efferent nerve activity to the heart. These changes in autonomic nerve activity cause an increase in blood pressure, heart rate, left ventricular contractility, and vasoconstriction in the arterial tree. However, arterial vessels in the contracting skeletal muscle have a markedly diminished vasoconstrictor response. The markedly diminished vasoconstriction in contracting skeletal muscle has been termed functional sympatholysis. It has been shown in hypertension that there is an enhanced EPR, including both its mechanoreflex and metaboreflex components, and an impaired functional sympatholysis. These conditions set up a positive feedback or vicious cycle situation that causes a progressively greater decrease in the blood flow to the exercising muscle. Thus these two neural mechanisms contribute significantly to the abnormal cardiovascular response to exercise in hypertension. In addition, exercise training in hypertension decreases the enhanced EPR, including both mechanoreflex and metaboreflex function, and improves the impaired functional sympatholysis. These two changes, caused by exercise training, improve the muscle blood flow to exercising muscle and cause a more normal cardiovascular response to exercise in hypertension. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  16. Effect of insulin resistance on intracellular signal transduction of vessels in diabetic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cen Rongguang; Wei Shaoying; Mo Xingju

    2003-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between the insulin resistance (IR) and the intracellular signal transduction of vessels, changes in fasting blood glucose (FBG), fasting insulin (FINS), triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), inositol triphosphate (IP 3 ), protein kinase C(PKC) and intracellular total calcium concentration in 31 diabetic patients were compared with those of 39 normal controls. The levels of FBG, FINS, TG and TC in diabetic patients were significantly higher than those of normal controls (P 3 and PKC in diabetic patients were significantly lower than those of normal controls (P<0.01). The results suggest that there is a causal relation between insulin resistance and abnormalities of cellular calcium metabolism and intracellular signal transduction of vessels

  17. Performance improvements of the BNC tubes from unique double-silicone-tube bioreactors by introducing chitosan and heparin for application as small-diameter artificial blood vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xue; Tang, Jingyu; Bao, Luhan; Chen, Lin; Hong, Feng F

    2017-12-15

    In order to improve property of bacterial nano-cellulose (BNC) to achieve the requirements of clinical application as small caliber vascular grafts, chitosan (CH) was deposited into the fibril network of the BNC tubes fabricated in unique Double-Silicone-Tube bioreactors. Heparin (Hep) was then chemically grafted into the BNC-based tubes using EDC/NHS crosslinking to improve performance of anticoagulation and endothelialization. Physicochemical and mechanical property, blood compatibility, and cytocompatibility were compared before and after compositing. The results indicated that strength at break was increased but burst pressure decreased slightly after compositing. Performance of the BNC tubes was improved remarkably after introducing chitosan and heparin. The EDC/NHS crosslinking catalyzed both amide bonds and ester bonds formation in the BNC/CH-Hep composites. Three-dimensional surface structure and roughness were firstly obtained and discussed in relation to the hemocompatibility of BNC-based tubes. This work demonstrates the heparinized BNC-based tubes have great potential in application as small-diameter vascular prosthesis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A fast analysis method for non-invasive imaging of blood flow in individual cerebral arteries using vessel-encoded arterial spin labelling angiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappell, Michael A.; Okell, Thomas W.; Payne, Stephen J.; Jezzard, Peter; Woolrich, Mark W.

    2012-01-01

    Arterial spin labelling (ASL) MRI offers a non-invasive means to create blood-borne contrast in vivo for dynamic angiographic imaging. By spatial modulation of the ASL process it is possible to uniquely label individual arteries over a series of measurements, allowing each to be separately identified in the resulting angiographic images. This separation requires appropriate analysis for which a general Bayesian framework has previously been proposed. Here this framework is adapted for clinical dynamic angiographic imaging. This specifically addresses the issues of computational speed of the algorithm and the robustness required to deal with real patient data. An algorithm is proposed that can incorporate planning information about the arteries being imaged whilst adapting for subsequent patient movement. A fast maximum a posteriori solution is adopted and shown to be only marginally less accurate than Monte Carlo sampling under simulation. The final algorithm is demonstrated on in vivo data with analysis on a time scale of the order of 10 min, from both a healthy control and a patient with a vertebro-basilar occlusion. PMID:22322066

  19. Torpedo maculopathy: A primary choroidal capillary abnormality?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohan Chawla

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A 26-year-old healthy male patient's fundus revealed findings consistent with torpedo maculopathy. Swept-source optical coherence tomography (OCT showed a dome-shaped elevation of the retina at the level of ellipsoid zone. On OCT angiography segmented at the level of the choriocapillaris, a cluster of convoluted fine vessels was seen, and further, deeper scans of the larger choroidal vessels showed a slower flow. From these observations along with the embryological correlation of choriocapillaris development, a possibility of an abnormality preventing proper fenestration of the choriocapillaris along the horizontal raphe being responsible for this anomaly is suggested.

  20. Urine - abnormal color

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003139.htm Urine - abnormal color To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The usual color of urine is straw-yellow. Abnormally colored urine ...

  1. Tooth - abnormal colors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003065.htm Tooth - abnormal colors To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Abnormal tooth color is any color other than white to yellowish- ...

  2. Abnormal uterine bleeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anovulatory bleeding; Abnormal uterine bleeding - hormonal; Polymenorrhea - dysfunctional uterine bleeding ... ACOG committee opinion no. 557: Management of acute abnormal uterine bleeding in nonpregnant reproductive-aged women. Reaffirmed 2015. www. ...

  3. Modelling the impact of blood flow on the temperature distribution in the human eye and the orbit: fixed heat transfer coefficients versus the Pennes bioheat model versus discrete blood vessels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flyckt, V M M; Raaymakers, B W; Lagendijk, J J W [Department of Radiotherapy, University Medical Center Utrecht, Heidelberglaan 100, 3584 CX Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2006-10-07

    Prediction of the temperature distribution in the eye depends on how the impact of the blood flow is taken into account. Three methods will be compared: a simplified eye anatomy that applies a single heat transfer coefficient to describe all heat transport mechanisms between the sclera and the body core, a detailed eye anatomy in which the blood flow is accounted for either by the bioheat approach, or by including the discrete vasculature in the eye and the orbit. The comparison is done both for rabbit and human anatomies, normo-thermally and when exposed to homogeneous power densities. The first simplified model predicts much higher temperatures than the latter two. It was shown that the eye is very hard to heat when taking physiological perfusion correctly into account. It was concluded that the heat transfer coefficient describing the heat transport from the sclera to the body core reported in the literature for the first simplified model is too low. The bioheat approach is appropriate for a first-order approximation of the temperature distribution in the eye when exposed to a homogeneous power density, but the discrete vasculature down to 0.2 mm in diameter needs to be taken into account when the heterogeneity of the temperature distribution at a mm scale is of interest.

  4. Modelling the impact of blood flow on the temperature distribution in the human eye and the orbit: fixed heat transfer coefficients versus the Pennes bioheat model versus discrete blood vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flyckt, V M M; Raaymakers, B W; Lagendijk, J J W

    2006-01-01

    Prediction of the temperature distribution in the eye depends on how the impact of the blood flow is taken into account. Three methods will be compared: a simplified eye anatomy that applies a single heat transfer coefficient to describe all heat transport mechanisms between the sclera and the body core, a detailed eye anatomy in which the blood flow is accounted for either by the bioheat approach, or by including the discrete vasculature in the eye and the orbit. The comparison is done both for rabbit and human anatomies, normo-thermally and when exposed to homogeneous power densities. The first simplified model predicts much higher temperatures than the latter two. It was shown that the eye is very hard to heat when taking physiological perfusion correctly into account. It was concluded that the heat transfer coefficient describing the heat transport from the sclera to the body core reported in the literature for the first simplified model is too low. The bioheat approach is appropriate for a first-order approximation of the temperature distribution in the eye when exposed to a homogeneous power density, but the discrete vasculature down to 0.2 mm in diameter needs to be taken into account when the heterogeneity of the temperature distribution at a mm scale is of interest

  5. Automated detection and classification of major retinal vessels for determination of diameter ratio of arteries and veins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muramatsu, Chisako; Hatanaka, Yuji; Iwase, Tatsuhiko; Hara, Takeshi; Fujita, Hiroshi

    2010-03-01

    Abnormalities of retinal vasculatures can indicate health conditions in the body, such as the high blood pressure and diabetes. Providing automatically determined width ratio of arteries and veins (A/V ratio) on retinal fundus images may help physicians in the diagnosis of hypertensive retinopathy, which may cause blindness. The purpose of this study was to detect major retinal vessels and classify them into arteries and veins for the determination of A/V ratio. Images used in this study were obtained from DRIVE database, which consists of 20 cases each for training and testing vessel detection algorithms. Starting with the reference standard of vasculature segmentation provided in the database, major arteries and veins each in the upper and lower temporal regions were manually selected for establishing the gold standard. We applied the black top-hat transformation and double-ring filter to detect retinal blood vessels. From the extracted vessels, large vessels extending from the optic disc to temporal regions were selected as target vessels for calculation of A/V ratio. Image features were extracted from the vessel segments from quarter-disc to one disc diameter from the edge of optic discs. The target segments in the training cases were classified into arteries and veins by using the linear discriminant analysis, and the selected parameters were applied to those in the test cases. Out of 40 pairs, 30 pairs (75%) of arteries and veins in the 20 test cases were correctly classified. The result can be used for the automated calculation of A/V ratio.

  6. Multiple shell pressure vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wedellsborg, B.W.

    1988-01-01

    A method is described of fabricating a pressure vessel comprising the steps of: attaching a first inner pressure vessel having means defining inlet and outlet openings to a top flange, placing a second inner pressure vessel, having means defining inlet and outlet opening, concentric with and spaced about the first inner pressure vessel and attaching the second inner pressure vessel to the top flange, placing an outer pressure vessel, having inlet and outlet openings, concentric with and spaced apart about the second inner pressure vessel and attaching the outer pressure vessel to the top flange, attaching a generally cylindrical inner inlet conduit and a generally cylindrical inner outlet conduit respectively to the inlet and outlet openings in the first inner pressure vessel, attaching a generally cylindrical outer inlet conduit and a generally cylindrical outer outlet conduit respectively to the inlet and outlet opening in the second inner pressure vessel, heating the assembled pressure vessel to a temperature above the melting point of a material selected from the group, lead, tin, antimony, bismuth, potassium, sodium, boron and mixtures thereof, filling the space between the first inner pressure vessel and the second inner pressure vessel with material selected from the group, filling the space between the second inner pressure vessel and the outer pressure vessel with material selected from the group, and pressurizing the material filling the spaces between the pressure vessels to a predetermined pressure, the step comprising: pressurizing the spaces to a pressure whereby the wall of the first inner pressure vessel is maintained in compression during steady state operation of the pressure vessel

  7. Diagnosis of regional cerebral blood flow abnormalities using SPECT: agreement between individualized statistical parametric maps and visual inspection by nuclear medicine physicians with different levels of expertise in nuclear neurology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, Euclides Timoteo da, E-mail: euclidestimoteo@uol.com.b [Fundacao Pio XII, Barretos, SP (Brazil). Hospital de Cancer. Dept. de Medicina Nuclear; Buchpiguel, Carlos Alberto [Hospital do Coracao, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Medicina Nuclear; Nitrini, Ricardo [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Neurologia; Tazima, Sergio [Hospital Alemao Oswaldo Cruz (HAOC), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Medicina Nuclear; Peres, Stela Verzinhase [Fundacao Pio XII, Barretos, SP (Brazil). Hospital de Cancer; Busatto Filho, Geraldo [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Div. de Medicina Nuclear

    2009-07-01

    Introduction: visual analysis is widely used to interpret regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) SPECT images in clinical practice despite its limitations. Automated methods are employed to investigate between-group rCBF differences in research studies but have rarely been explored in individual analyses. Objectives: to compare visual inspection by nuclear physicians with the automated statistical parametric mapping program using a SPECT dataset of patients with neurological disorders and normal control images. Methods: using statistical parametric mapping, 14 SPECT images from patients with various neurological disorders were compared individually with a databank of 32 normal images using a statisti