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Sample records for abnormal albumin excretion

  1. Urinary albumin excretion is associated with renal functional abnormalities in a nondiabetic population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pinto-Sietsma, SJ; Janssen, WMT; Hillege, HL; Navis, G; De Zeeuw, D; De Jong, PE

    2000-01-01

    Microalbuminuria (MA) is an important early sign of diabetic nephropathy. Hyperfiltration and impaired filtration in relation to albuminuria has been well investigated in diabetic subjects. This study tested the hypothesis that an increased urinary albumin excretion (UAE) is associated with renal

  2. Circadian variation of urinary albumin excretion in pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douma, C. E.; van der Post, J. A.; van Acker, B. A.; Boer, K.; Koopman, M. G.

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The hypothesis was tested that circadian variations in urinary albumin excretion of pregnant women in the third trimester of normal pregnancy are different from nonpregnant individuals. DESIGN: Circadian variability in urinary albumin excretion was studied both in pregnant women and in

  3. Sodium intake affects urinary albumin excretion especially in overweight subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhave, J C; Hillege, H L; Burgerhof, J G M; Janssen, W M T; Gansevoort, R T; Navis, G J; de Zeeuw, D; de Jong, P E; Postma, Maarten

    2004-01-01

    Objectives. To examine the relationship between sodium intake and urinary albumin excretion, being an established risk marker for later cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Design. Cross-sectional cohort study using linear regression analysis. Setting: University hospital outpatient clinic.

  4. Current issues in measurement and reporting of urinary albumin excretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, W Greg; Bruns, David E; Hortin, Glen L; Sandberg, Sverre; Aakre, Kristin M; McQueen, Matthew J; Itoh, Yoshihisa; Lieske, John C; Seccombe, David W; Jones, Graham; Bunk, David M; Curhan, Gary C; Narva, Andrew S

    2009-01-01

    Urinary excretion of albumin indicates kidney damage and is recognized as a risk factor for progression of kidney disease and cardiovascular disease. The role of urinary albumin measurements has focused attention on the clinical need for accurate and clearly reported results. The National Kidney Disease Education Program and the IFCC convened a conference to assess the current state of preanalytical, analytical, and postanalytical issues affecting urine albumin measurements and to identify areas needing improvement. The chemistry of albumin in urine is incompletely understood. Current guidelines recommend the use of the albumin/creatinine ratio (ACR) as a surrogate for the error-prone collection of timed urine samples. Although ACR results are affected by patient preparation and time of day of sample collection, neither is standardized. Considerable intermethod differences have been reported for both albumin and creatinine measurement, but trueness is unknown because there are no reference measurement procedures for albumin and no reference materials for either analyte in urine. The recommended reference intervals for the ACR do not take into account the large intergroup differences in creatinine excretion (e.g., related to differences in age, sex, and ethnicity) nor the continuous increase in risk related to albumin excretion. Clinical needs have been identified for standardization of (a) urine collection methods, (b) urine albumin and creatinine measurements based on a complete reference system, (c) reporting of test results, and (d) reference intervals for the ACR.

  5. Urine Albumin-Creatinine Ratio Versus Albumin Excretion for Albuminuria Staging : A Prospective Longitudinal Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vart, Priya; Scheven, Lieneke; Lambers Heerspink, Hiddo J; de Jong, Paul E; de Zeeuw, Dick; Gansevoort, Ron T

    Background: New guidelines advocate the use of albumin-creatinine ratio (ACR) in a urine sample instead of 24-hour urinary albumin excretion (UAE) for staging albuminuria. Concern has been expressed that this may result in misclassification for reasons including interindividual differences in

  6. Urinary albumin excretion. An independent predictor of ischemic heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borch-Johnsen, K; Feldt-Rasmussen, B; Strandgaard, S

    1999-01-01

    Cross-sectional studies suggest that an increased urinary albumin excretion rate is associated with cardiovascular disease, dyslipidemia, and hypertension. The purpose of this study was to analyze prospectively whether the urinary albumin-to -creatinine (A/C) ratio can independently predict...... ischemic heart disease (IHD) in a population-based cohort. In 1983, urinary albumin and creatinine levels were measured, along with the conventional atherosclerotic risk factors, in 2085 consecutive participants without IHD, renal disease, urinary tract infection, or diabetes mellitus. The participants......, 1.3 to 3.9, P=0.002), and the 10-year disease-free survival decreased from 97% to 91% (P

  7. Renal albumin excretion: twin studies identify influences of heredity, environment, and adrenergic pathway polymorphism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rao, Fangwen; Wessel, Jennifer; Wen, Gen

    2007-01-01

    hydroxylase, chromogranin A, and sorting nexin 13. Dopamine D1 receptor polymorphism showed pleiotropic effects on both albumin and dopamine excretion. These studies establish new roles for heredity and environment in albumin excretion. Urinary excretions of albumin and catecholamines are highly heritable...

  8. Impaired aerobic work capacity in insulin dependent diabetics with increased urinary albumin excretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, T; Richter, Erik; Feldt-Rasmussen, Bo

    1988-01-01

    urinary albumin excretion (less than 30 mg/24 h), group 2 comprised 10 with incipient diabetic nephropathy (urinary albumin excretion 30-300 mg/24 h, and group 3 comprised 10 with clinical diabetic nephropathy (urinary albumin excretion greater than 300 mg/24 h). Ten non-diabetic subjects matched for sex...... were not explained by differences in metabolic control or the degree of autonomic neuropathy. Thus the insulin dependent diabetics with only slightly increased urinary albumin excretion had an appreciably impaired aerobic work capacity which could not be explained by autonomic neuropathy...

  9. Effect of low-dose heparin on urinary albumin excretion in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Myrup, B.; Hansen, P.M.; Jensen, T.; Kofoed-Enevoldsen, A.; Feldt-Rasmussen, B.; Gram, J.; Kluft, C.; Jespersen, J.; Deckert, T.

    1995-01-01

    We investigated the effect of heparin on urinary albumin excretion in patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. 39 patients with persistent urinary albumin excretion of 30-300 mg/24 h were randomly treated for 3 months with subcutaneous injections twice daily of isotonic saline, 5000 IU

  10. Effect of low-dose heparin on urinary albumin excretion in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Myrup, B; Hansen, P M; Jensen, T

    1995-01-01

    We investigated the effect of heparin on urinary albumin excretion in patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. 39 patients with persistent urinary albumin excretion of 30-300 mg/24 h were randomly treated for 3 months with subcutaneous injections twice daily of isotonic saline, 5000 IU...

  11. Normal urinary albumin excretion in recently diagnosed type 1 diabetic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, B; Jensen, T; Feldt-Rasmussen, B

    1989-01-01

    of diabetes. Urinary albumin excretion (median and 95% confidence interval) was similar in the diabetic patients and normal control subjects (8 (6-11) vs 8 (6-11) mg 24-h-1, NS). Four diabetic patients had urinary albumin excretion in the microalbuminuric range of 30-300 mg 24-h-1. There was no significant...... difference between the two groups in urinary excretion of retinol binding protein. The distribution among the individuals of both urinary proteins was positively skewed and similar in the two groups. In conclusion, no significant differences in the urinary excretion of albumin and retinol binding protein...... were found between recently diagnosed Type 1 diabetic patients and normal subjects....

  12. Urine Albumin-Creatinine Ratio Versus Albumin Excretion for Albuminuria Staging: A Prospective Longitudinal Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vart, Priya; Scheven, Lieneke; Lambers Heerspink, Hiddo J; de Jong, Paul E; de Zeeuw, Dick; Gansevoort, Ron T

    2016-01-01

    New guidelines advocate the use of albumin-creatinine ratio (ACR) in a urine sample instead of 24-hour urinary albumin excretion (UAE) for staging albuminuria. Concern has been expressed that this may result in misclassification for reasons including interindividual differences in urinary creatinine excretion. Prospective longitudinal cohort study. We examined 7,623 participants of the PREVEND and RENAAL studies for reclassified when using ACR instead of 24-hour UAE, the characteristics of reclassified participants, and their outcomes. Albuminuria was categorized into 3 ACR and UAE categories: 300mg/g or mg/24 h, respectively. Baseline ACR and 24-hour UAE. Cardiovascular (CV) morbidity and mortality and all-cause mortality. When using ACR in the early morning void instead of 24-hour UAE, 88% of participants were classified in corresponding albuminuria categories. 307 (4.0%) participants were reclassified to a higher, and 603 (7.9%), to a lower category. Participants who were reclassified to a higher ACR category in general had a worse CV risk profile compared with nonreclassified participants, whereas the reverse was true for participants reclassified to a lower ACR category. Similarly, Cox proportional hazards regression analyses showed that reclassification to a higher ACR category was associated with a tendency for increased risk for CV morbidity and mortality and all-cause mortality, whereas reclassification to a lower ACR category was associated with a tendency for lower risk. Net reclassification improvement, adjusted for age, sex, and duration of follow-up, was 0.107 (P=0.002) for CV events and 0.089 (P<0.001) for all-cause mortality. Early morning void urine collection instead of spot urine collection. Our results indicate that there is high agreement between early morning void ACR and 24-hour UAE categories. Reclassification is therefore limited, but when present, is generally indicative of the presence of CV risk factors and prognosis. Copyright © 2016

  13. Low urinary albumin excretion in astronauts during space missions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cirillo, Massimo; De Santo, Natale G; Heer, Martina

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Physiological changes occur in man during space missions also at the renal level. Proteinuria was hypothesized for space missions but research data are missing. METHODS: Urinary albumin, as an index of proteinuria, and other variables were analyzed in 4 astronauts during space missions......-two 24-hour urine collections were obtained in space (n per astronaut = 1-14) and on the ground (n per astronaut = 2-12). Urinary albumin was measured by radioimmunoassay. For each astronaut, mean of data in space and on the ground was defined as individual average. RESULTS: The individual averages of 24...... h urinary albumin were lower in space than on the ground in all astronauts; the difference was significant (mean +/- SD, space and on the ground = 3.41 +/- 0.56 and 4.70 +/- 1.20 mg/24 h, p = 0.017). Dietary protein intake and 24-hour urinary urea were not significantly different between space...

  14. Cohort study of predictive value of urinary albumin excretion for atherosclerotic vascular disease in patients with insulin dependent diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deckert, T; Yokoyama, H; Mathiesen, E

    1996-01-01

    atherosclerotic vascular disease during follow up of 2457 person year. Elevated urinary albumin excretion was significantly predictive of atherosclerotic vascular disease (hazard ratio 1.06 (95% confidence interval 1.02 to 1.18) per 5 mg increase in 24 hour urinary albumin excretion, P = 0.002). Predictive effect...

  15. Biliary albumin excretion induced by bile salts in rats is a pathological phenomenon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohta, M.; Kitani, K.; Kanai, S.

    1989-01-01

    The bile to plasma 125I-albumin concentration ratio (B/P ratio) was examined before and during various bile salt infusions in male Wistar rats that had previously received iv injection of 125I-albumin. Endogenous rat albumin and IgG concentrations in the bile were also determined by a single radial immunodiffusion method. Taurocholate (TC) infusion (1.0 mumol/min/100 g body wt) significantly increased the bile flow rate in the first hr but the flow began to decline in the second hr. The B/P ratio as well as rat albumin (and IgG) excretion into the bile significantly increased as early as 15 min after the start of TC infusion, and the increase became more pronounced in the second hr, when the bile flow began to decrease. Infusion of taurochenodeoxycholate (TCDC, 0.4 mumol/min/100 g) caused a reduction in bile flow 15 min after the start of infusion but the B/P ratio increased 40 times at its peak compared with the basal value before the bile salt infusion. Simultaneous infusion of tauroursodeoxycholate (TUDC, 0.6 mumol/min/100 g) and TCDC not only abolished the cholestasis induced by TCDC but maintained stable choleresis as long as for 2 hr. During this choleretic period, the B/P ration never exceeded the basal value. The choleresis induced by either taurodehydrocholate (TDHC) or bucolome was not accompanied by enhanced albumin excretion. In rats given TDHC infusion, albumin excretion started to increase only after the bile flow began to decline following the initial choleretic period. The enhanced excretion of albumin induced by TC and TCDC is therefore suggested to be caused not by the choleresis per se but by a possible concomitant increase in the communication between sinusoids and bile canaliculi, which eventually leads to cholestasis

  16. Endothelial haemostatic factors are associated with progression of urinary albumin excretion in clinically healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, P; Feldt-Rasmussen, B; Jensen, G

    1999-01-01

    A slightly elevated urinary albumin excretion rate (UAER), above 5-10 microgram/min, is a predictor of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Endothelial dysfunction is an important early feature of atherosclerosis. The plasma concentration of von Willebrand factor (vWF), a potential marker of e...

  17. Urinary albumin excretion and the renin-angiotensin system in cardiovascular risk management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van de Wal, R. M. A.; Voors, A. A.; Gansevoort, R. T.

    2006-01-01

    Microalbuminuria has been shown to be a strong predictor of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in diabetic and hypertensive patients, but also in the general population. Moreover, several reports suggest that reduction of urinary albumin excretion (UAE) is associated with improvement of

  18. Urinary albumin and beta 2-microglobulin excretion rates in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parving, H H; Sørensen, S F; Mogensen, C E

    1980-01-01

    prednisone, 5-20 mg/day. None of the patients had proteinuria as judged by the "Albustix" test, and all had normal serum creatinine. The daily urinary albumin and beta 2-microglobulin excretion rates were nearly the same as those previously found by us in 27 adult control subjects with a mean age of 44 years...

  19. The impact of hormonal contraceptives on blood pressure, urinary albumin excretion and glomerular filtration rate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atthobari, Jarir; Gansevoort, Ron T.; Visser, Sipke T.; de Jong, Paul E.; de Jong-van den Berg, Lolkje T. W.

    Aim In short-term studies, hormonal contraceptives (HC) have been suggested to induce a rise in blood pressure (BP) and urinary albumin excretion (UAE), while the effect of HC in renal function (GFR) is still under debate. Data on long-term and withdrawal effects of HC use on these outcomes are,

  20. Lower serum albumin level is associated with higher fractional excretion of creatinine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horio, Masaru; Imai, Enyu; Yasuda, Yoshinari; Watanabe, Tsuyoshi; Matsuo, Seiichi

    2014-06-01

    Creatinine clearance (Ccr) overestimates glomerular filtration rate (GFR) due to the tubular secretion of creatinine. It is known that fractional excretion of creatinine (FE-Cr) increases with decreasing GFR. Association of serum albumin level with the tubular secretion of creatinine was also reported previously. Alteration of FE-Cr may affect the performance of GFR estimating equations based on serum creatinine. Therefore, we analyzed the factors influencing FE-Cr and compared the performance of GFR equations in subjects stratified by serum albumin levels. Seven hundred and fifty-seven Japanese subjects were included. GFR was measured by inulin renal clearance. GFR and Ccr were measured simultaneously. FE-Cr was calculated as the ratio of Ccr to GFR. Multivariate analysis was performed to evaluate the factors influencing FE-Cr. Age, gender, GFR, body mass index (BMI), body weight, height and serum albumin level were analyzed as the parameters. Estimated GFR was calculated by Japanese GFR equations based on serum creatinine (Eq-cr), serum cystatin C (Eq-cys) and 5 variables including serum albumin (Eq-5var). FE-Cr in subjects with serum albumin serum albumin serum albumin ≥4.0 g/dl. Multivariate analysis showed that GFR (p serum albumin level (p = 0.004) were independent parameters affecting FE-Cr. Biases of Eq-cr, Eq-cys and Eq-5var in subjects with serum albumin serum albumin ≥4.0 g/dl were 6.4 ± 18.8, 2.0 ± 18.1 and 3.0 ± 18.3 ml/min/1.73 m(2), respectively. Eq-cr significantly underestimated GFR compared with Eq-cys or Eq-5var. GFR and serum albumin level were independent parameters affecting FE-Cr. Alteration of FE-Cr according to the serum albumin levels may be one of the reasons of the bias of GFR equation based on serum creatinine.

  1. Urinary albumin excretion in hospitalized patients with acute myocardial infarction. Prevalence of microalbuminuria and correlation to left ventricle wall thickness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taskiran, M; Feldt-Rasmussen, B; Jensen, G B

    1998-01-01

    was independent of blood pressure, body weight, smoking, diabetes mellitus, renal disease, and thrombolytic treatment. There was a positive correlation between urinary albumin excretion and thickness of the left ventricle wall (R = 0.28; p = 0.001) which was independent of blood pressure. Follow-up examination......Microalbuminuria, a subclinical rise in the urinary albumin excretion, is a risk indicator of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to measure the urinary albumin excretion in patients with acute myocardial infarction, and to correlate this with known atherosclerotic...

  2. Urinary albumin excretion and 24-hour blood pressure as predictors of pre-eclampsia in Type I diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekbom, P; Damm, P; Nøgaard, K

    2000-01-01

    To evaluate the value of 24-h blood pressure monitoring compared to office blood pressure and urinary albumin excretion in predicting pre-eclampsia in Type I (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus.......To evaluate the value of 24-h blood pressure monitoring compared to office blood pressure and urinary albumin excretion in predicting pre-eclampsia in Type I (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus....

  3. Treatment with acarbose, an alpha-glucosidase inhibitor, reduces increased albumin excretion in streptozotocin-diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, M P; Vasselli, J R; Neuman, R G; Witt, J

    1995-10-01

    1. We examined the effect of the alpha-glucosidase inhibitor acarbose on urinary albumin excretion (UAE) in streptozotocin diabetic rats. 2. Treatment with acarbose for 8 weeks after induction of diabetes prevented the significant increase in UAE observed in untreated diabetic rats relative to nondiabetic controls. 3. Acarbose significantly reduced integrated glycemia, which correlated with albumin excretion rates, and exerts a salutary effect on diabetic renal dysfunction.

  4. Ambulatory blood pressure and urinary albumin excretion in clinically healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Peter Vilhelm; Jensen, J S; Borch-Johnsen, K

    1998-01-01

    UAER. Because 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure is a superior predictor of hypertensive target organ involvement, we aimed to investigate blood pressure profile in clinically healthy subjects with elevated UAER. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring was performed with a portable recorder in 27 subjects...... loss of albumin could not be solely related to the higher blood pressure. In conclusion, apparently healthy subjects with elevated UAER had slightly but significantly higher 24-hour systolic and diastolic blood pressure levels in addition to increased blood pressure loads but normal circadian variation......A slightly elevated urinary albumin excretion rate (UAER) is a predictor of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. The mechanism is unknown, but moderate office blood pressure elevation has been demonstrated as part of a clustering of known atherosclerotic risk factors in subjects with elevated...

  5. Impaired aerobic work capacity in insulin dependent diabetics with increased urinary albumin excretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, T; Richter, Erik; Feldt-Rasmussen, Bo

    1988-01-01

    To assess whether decreased aerobic work capacity was associated with albuminuria in insulin dependent diabetics aerobic capacity was measured in three groups of 10 patients matched for age, sex, duration of diabetes, and degree of physical activity. Group 1 comprised 10 patients with normal...... were not explained by differences in metabolic control or the degree of autonomic neuropathy. Thus the insulin dependent diabetics with only slightly increased urinary albumin excretion had an appreciably impaired aerobic work capacity which could not be explained by autonomic neuropathy...

  6. Synergistic interaction between prolonged increased glycemic exposure and mildly increased urinary albumin excretion on diabetic retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Shinje; Yoo, Hyung-Joon; Ahn, You-Hern; Kim, Gheun-Ho; Yu, Jae Myung; Park, Joon-Sung

    2018-01-01

    The association of mild increase in urinary albumin excretion with diabetic retinopathy (DR) in clinical studies is controversial. The aim of this study is to clarify the interaction between increased glycemic exposure and mild increase in urinary albumin excretion on risk of DR.Data were collected from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) from 2005 to 2012. Overall, data from 953 participants without microalbuminuria (477 men and 476 women) were assessed. Logistic regression analysis was constructed to evaluate the association between DR and related clinical parameters, including urinary albumin-creatinine ratio (UACR, mg/g creatinine). The biological interaction of glycemic status and UACR on DR was evaluated by 3 indices: RERI, the relative excess risk due to the interaction; AP, the attributable proportion due to the interaction; and S, the additive interaction index of synergy.We found that UACR, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), and diabetic duration were deeply associated with increased risk of DR (UACR, odds ratio [OR] = 1.04, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.02-1.07; HbA1c, OR = 1.16, 95% CI = 1.04-1.30; diabetic duration, OR = 1.06, 95% CI = 1.04-1.07). Furthermore, our interaction analysis demonstrated that synergistic interaction between HbA1c and UACR on development of DR was prominent in participants with diabetic duration of ≥10 years (adjusted RERI = 0.92, 95% CI = 0.10-1.74; adjusted AP = 0.29, 95% CI = -0.82-1.41; adjusted S = 1.76, 95% CI = 1.27-2.25), but not subjects with shorter diabetic duration.These findings imply that there is the interaction between prolonged hyperglycemic exposure and increased urinary albumin excretion may exert additive synergistic effect on vascular endothelial dysfunction in the eye, even before the appearance of overt diabetic nephropathy. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Urinary albumin, protein excretion and circadian blood pressure in patients with fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afsar, Baris; Burucu, Rukuye

    2013-09-01

    Recent evidence suggests that patients with fibromyalgia (FM) have increased oxidative stress, inflammation, endothelial dysfunction and autonomic dysfunction. These factors are also shown to be responsible for increased urinary albumin and protein excretion and deranged circadian blood pressure (BP). However, no study has examined the 24-h urinary albumin excretion (UAE), 24-h urinary protein excretion (UPE) and 24-h ambulatory BP measurements in FM patients. The sociodemographic, laboratory parameters, depressive symptoms, sleep problems and 24-h ambulatory BPs were measured for all patients. Diagnosis of FM was based on the criteria for the classification of FM by the American College of Rheumatology. After diagnosis of FM, these patients underwent to complete the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ). In total, 30 patients with FM and 61 patients without FM were included. Among FM patients, the average number of tender points was 13.1 ± 1.57 and the mean FIQ score was 57.9 ± 8.86. The number of tender points did not show any correlation with office and ambulatory BPs. There were also no correlations between the number of tender points, UPE and UAE. The stepwise linear regression did not show any relation between UPE and FM. However, 24-h UAE was independently correlated with office systolic BP (P 0.008) and the presence of FM (P 0.045). The logistic regression analysis revealed no association between FM and non-dipping status. We suggest that circadian blood pressure and UPE are not independently associated with FM. However, UAE was related with the presence of FM. Studies are needed to confirm our findings and to highlight pathophysiologic mechanisms.

  8. Association between urinary albumin excretion and intraocular pressure in type 2 diabetic patients without renal impairment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin A Choi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To assess the relationship between urinary albumin excretion and intraocular pressure (IOP in type 2 diabetes patients without renal impairment. METHODS: We explored the effects of albuminuria on high IOP in 402 non-glaucomatous type 2 diabetes without renal impairment who participated in the 2011 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to assess the relationship between log-transformed albumin/creatinine ratio (ACR tertiles and an IOP of ≥ 18 mmHg after adjusting for age, gender, hypertension, body mass index, triglycerides, area of residence, and education level. RESULTS: Subjects with a high IOP ≥ 18 mmHg were more likely to be current smokers (P = 0.038, heavy drinkers (P = 0.006, and to have high systolic blood pressure (P = 0.016, triglycerides (P = 0.008, and a higher log-transformed ACR (P = 0.022.In multivariate regression analysis, ACR tertile was associated with the prevalence of high IOP significantly (P = 0.022. The associations between ACR tertiles and high IOP were significant in overweight patients and those with abdominal obesity (P = 0.003 and 0.003, respectively. In contrast, there were no associations in the subgroup of patients who were not overweight and those without abdominal obesity (P = 0.291 and 0.561, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Urinary albumin excretion is associated with high IOP in the type 2 diabetes population without renal insufficiency. The effect of the albuminuria on IOP was evident in a subgroup of patients with components of metabolic syndrome.

  9. Effect of candesartan on microalbuminuria and albumin excretion rate in diabetes: three randomized trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bilous, Rudy; Chaturvedi, Nish; Sjølie, Anne Katrin

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Microalbuminuria in diabetes is strongly predictive of nephropathy, end-stage renal disease, and premature cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Effective preventive therapies are therefore a clinical priority. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the angiotensin-receptor blocker...... candesartan compared with placebo affects microalbuminuria incidence or rate of change in albuminuria in type 1 and type 2 diabetes. DESIGN: 3 randomized trials of the DIRECT (Diabetic Retinopathy Candesartan Trials) Program. SETTING: 309 secondary care centers. PATIENTS: 3326 and 1905 patients with type 1...... and type 2 diabetes, respectively. Most were normotensive, and all had normoalbuminuria (median urinary albumin excretion rate, 5.0 microg/min). INTERVENTION: Candesartan, 16 mg/d increasing to 32 mg/d, versus placebo. Assignment was done centrally using an interactive voice-response system. Patients...

  10. Elevated urinary albumin excretion is not linked to the angiotensin I-converting enzyme gene polymorphism in clinically healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, P; Jensen, J S; Borch-Johnsen, K

    2000-01-01

    An elevated urinary albumin excretion (UAE) in non-diabetic subjects without renal or cardiovascular disease has been shown to be predictive of ischaemic heart disease. An insertion (I)/deletion (D) polymorphism in the angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) gene has been identified and the D allel...

  11. Urinary albumin excretion in hospitalized patients with acute myocardial infarction. Prevalence of microalbuminuria and correlation to left ventricle wall thickness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taskiran, M; Feldt-Rasmussen, B; Jensen, G B

    1998-01-01

    was independent of blood pressure, body weight, smoking, diabetes mellitus, renal disease, and thrombolytic treatment. There was a positive correlation between urinary albumin excretion and thickness of the left ventricle wall (R = 0.28; p = 0.001) which was independent of blood pressure. Follow-up examination...

  12. Kidney volume in type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetic patients with normal or increased urinary albumin excretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldt-Rasmussen, B; Hegedüs, L; Mathiesen, E R

    1991-01-01

    than 0.05). In a multiple linear regression with HbA1c, urinary albumin excretion, age, diabetes duration and mean blood pressure as independent variables, variations in HbA1c could account for 33% of the variations in kidney volume (n = 47, r = 0.57, p less than 0.01). The other variables played...

  13. Measuring morbidity associated with urinary schistosomiasis: assessing levels of excreted urine albumin and urinary tract pathologies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José C Sousa-Figueiredo

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Urinary schistosomiasis is responsible for a variety of debilitating conditions; foremost perhaps are urinary tract pathologies (UTPs. Although portable ultrasonography can be used to detect UTPs visually, there is still a need for rapid morbidity assessment (henceforth referred to as RaMA tools that can be deployed in the field during implementation, monitoring and evaluation of control programmes. We therefore aimed to determine associations between excreted urine-albumin, as measured using a HemoCue photometer, and UTPs, as detected by ultrasonography, in children and adults from an urinary schistosomiasis endemic area in Zanzibar.In a survey of 140 school-children of both sexes (aged 9 to 15 yr and 47 adult males (> or =16 yr on the island of Unguja, the prevalence of egg-patent urinary schistosomiasis was 36.4% (CI(95 28.5-45.0% and 46.8% (CI(95 32.1-61.9% (P = 0.14, and that of UTPs was 39.4% (CI(95 31.0-48.3% and 64.4% (CI(95 48.8-78.1% (P = 0.006, respectively. In school-children, raised urine-albumin concentrations (>40 mg/L were associated, albeit non-significantly, with prevalence of infection (OR = 3.1, P = 0.070, but more specifically and significantly with the prevalence of micro-haematuria (OR = 76.7, P<0.0001. In adults, elevated urine-albumin excretion was associated with UTPs, particularly lesions of the bladder wall (OR = 8.4, P = 0.013. Albuminuria showed promising diagnostic performance, especially in school-aged children with sensitivity of 63.3% and specificity of 83.1% at detecting lower UTPs, i.e. bladder-wall lesions (ultrasonography as 'gold standard'.This study indicates that albuminuria assays could be used as a RaMA tool for monitoring UTP prevalence during control programmes, as well as a tool for selecting those with more chronic bladder-wall lesions without resorting to ultrasonography.

  14. Fractional excretions of albumin and IgG are the best predictors of progression in primary glomerulonephritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuarrie, Emily P; Shakerdi, Loai; Jardine, Alan G; Fox, Jonathan G; Mackinnon, Bruce

    2011-05-01

    Proteinuria is the most sensitive predictor of development of progressive renal insufficiency, with increasing focus on the composition of proteinuria, particularly high molecular weight proteins such as immunoglobulin G (IgG) (molecular weight 150 kDa). Differing methods of assessing excretion of proteinuria molecules have limited interpretation of results. We aimed to assess the utility of available indices of IgG, total proteinuria and albumin excretions as predictors of chronic kidney disease (CKD) progression in patients with primary glomerulonephritis. We recruited 97 patients with primary glomerulonephritis and measured 24-h urinary protein excretion, 24-h urinary albumin excretion, selectivity index, albumin:creatinine ratio, urinary IgG:creatinine ratio, fractional excretion of albumin (FE Alb) and fractional excretion of IgG (FE IgG) at baseline. The composite endpoint was developing stage 5 CKD, requiring RRT or death. Receiver operating characteristics curve analysis was used to assess the value of each measure in predicting outcome. From this analysis, high- and low-risk patient groups according to each measure were established. These were then tested using Kaplan-Meier and Cox survival analysis. During a median follow-up of 7.07 years, 23 patients developed the primary endpoint. FE IgG and FE Alb were the most sensitive predictive tests. The hazard ratios (HR) of developing the primary endpoint using FE IgG [HR 37.1 (95% CI 8.6-158.8)] and FE Alb [HR 35.2 (95% CI 8.2-150.8)] cut-offs were double those using the other measures. FE IgG and FE Alb are superior to conventional measures of proteinuria in predicting outcome in patients with primary glomerulonephritis, possibly because they are more accurate indicators of impairment of glomerular permselectivity. FE Alb should be used, in conjunction with other measures of proteinuria, in future studies of prediction of CKD progression.

  15. Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor therapy in children with Alport syndrome: effect on urinary albumin, TGF-β, and nitrite excretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kashtan Clifford E

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors are routinely prescribed to patients with chronic kidney disease because of their known renoprotective effects. We evaluated the effect of short-term therapy with the angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor, enalapril, in early Alport syndrome, defined as disease duration less than 10 years and a normal glomerular filtration rate. Methods 11 children with early Alport syndrome were investigated. Two consecutive early morning urine specimens were collected at the start of the study for measurement of urinary creatinine, total protein, albumin, TGF-β, and nitrite excretion. Patients were treated with enalapril, ≅ 0.2 mg/kg/day, once a day for 14 days. Two early morning urine specimens were collected on days 13 and 14 of enalapril treatment and two weeks later for measurement of urinary creatinine, total protein, albumin, TGF-β, and nitrite excretion. Results Prior to treatment, urinary excretion of transforming growth factor-β and nitrite, the major metabolite of nitric oxide, was within normal limits in all patients. Administration of enalapril for 2 weeks did not alter urinary albumin, transforming growth factor-β, or nitrite excretion. Conclusion These findings suggest that early Alport syndrome represents a disease involving exclusively intrinsic glomerular barrier dysfunction. At this stage of the illness, there is no evidence of angiotensin II-mediated proteinuria or increased production of transforming growth factor-β and, therefore, routine treatment with an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor may not be warranted.

  16. Measuring morbidity associated with urinary schistosomiasis: assessing levels of excreted urine albumin and urinary tract pathologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa-Figueiredo, José C; Basáñez, María-Gloria; Khamis, I Simba; Garba, Amadou; Rollinson, David; Stothard, J Russell

    2009-10-06

    Urinary schistosomiasis is responsible for a variety of debilitating conditions; foremost perhaps are urinary tract pathologies (UTPs). Although portable ultrasonography can be used to detect UTPs visually, there is still a need for rapid morbidity assessment (henceforth referred to as RaMA) tools that can be deployed in the field during implementation, monitoring and evaluation of control programmes. We therefore aimed to determine associations between excreted urine-albumin, as measured using a HemoCue photometer, and UTPs, as detected by ultrasonography, in children and adults from an urinary schistosomiasis endemic area in Zanzibar. In a survey of 140 school-children of both sexes (aged 9 to 15 yr) and 47 adult males (> or =16 yr) on the island of Unguja, the prevalence of egg-patent urinary schistosomiasis was 36.4% (CI(95) 28.5-45.0%) and 46.8% (CI(95) 32.1-61.9%) (P = 0.14), and that of UTPs was 39.4% (CI(95) 31.0-48.3%) and 64.4% (CI(95) 48.8-78.1%) (P = 0.006), respectively. In school-children, raised urine-albumin concentrations (>40 mg/L) were associated, albeit non-significantly, with prevalence of infection (OR = 3.1, P = 0.070), but more specifically and significantly with the prevalence of micro-haematuria (OR = 76.7, Palbumin excretion was associated with UTPs, particularly lesions of the bladder wall (OR = 8.4, P = 0.013). Albuminuria showed promising diagnostic performance, especially in school-aged children with sensitivity of 63.3% and specificity of 83.1% at detecting lower UTPs, i.e. bladder-wall lesions (ultrasonography as 'gold standard'). This study indicates that albuminuria assays could be used as a RaMA tool for monitoring UTP prevalence during control programmes, as well as a tool for selecting those with more chronic bladder-wall lesions without resorting to ultrasonography.

  17. Urinary albumin excretion and history of acute myocardial infarction in a cross-sectional population study of 2,613 individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, J S; Borch-Johnsen, K; Feldt-Rasmussen, B

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Preliminary studies have suggested that microalbuminuria--a slightly increased urinary excretion of albumin--is a risk factor for atherosclerosis. The aim of this study was to examine whether an association exists between urinary excretion of albumin and a history of acute myocardial...... measurement of urinary albumin excretion rate, acquisition of information regarding previous acute myocardial infarction (verified by the Danish Hospital Register) and tobacco and alcohol consumption, 12-lead resting electrocardiogram, and measurement of blood pressure, body mass index, waist:hip ratio......, plasma concentrations of total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol and fibrinogen, serum albumin concentration and glomerular filtration rate. RESULTS: Among the participants, 3.6% presented with a history of acute myocardial infarction. There was a positive association between urinary albumin excretion rate...

  18. Association of Periodontitis With Urinary Albumin Excretion in Korean Adults With Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Kyungdo; Nam, Ga Eun; Kim, Do Hoon; Park, Jun-Beom; Ko, Youngkyung; Roh, Yong Kyun; Cho, Kyung Hwan; Park, Yong Gyu

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Albuminuria and periodontitis are both commonly associated with systemic inflammation. However, the association between urinary albumin excretion (UAE) and periodontitis in patients with type 2 diabetes has not been fully investigated. This study aimed to investigate the association between UAE and periodontitis in Korean adults with type 2 diabetes. This study performed a cross-sectional analysis and used hierarchical multivariable logistic regression analysis models. Data from the 2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were analyzed. A total of 547 patients, with type 2 diabetes without renal impairment, were included in this study. UAE was assessed using the urinary albumin to creatinine ratio (UACR). A community periodontal index greater than or equal to code 3 was used to define periodontitis. The risk of periodontitis tended to increase as UACR increased even after adjustment for potential confounders (P for trend in the odds ratios = 0.05 in model 1; 0.02 in model 2; and 0.01 in model 3). In a subgroup analysis, the prevalence of periodontitis was significantly higher in the patients with albuminuria (UACR >30 mg/g) than in those without albuminuria among patients younger than 65 years (P = 0.03), those with newly diagnosed diabetes (P = 0.04), or those without obesity (P = .04). UAE was positively associated with the risk of periodontitis in Korean adults with type 2 diabetes. In the patients who were younger, were newly diagnosed with diabetes, or had normal body mass index, individuals with albuminuria were more likely to have a higher prevalence of periodontitis. Early identification of periodontitis may be helpful in Korean diabetic adults with increased UAE. PMID:26496329

  19. Bone mineral metabolism parameters and urinary albumin excretion in a representative US population sample.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Ellam

    Full Text Available Even within accepted normal ranges, higher serum phosphorus, dietary phosphorus density, parathyroid hormone (PTH and alkaline phosphatase (ALP are independent predictors of cardiovascular mortality. Lower serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OHD also predicts adverse cardiovascular outcomes. We hypothesized that vascular dysfunction accompanying subtle disturbances of these bone metabolism parameters would result in associations with increased low grade albuminuria.We examined participants in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys 1999-2010 (N = 19,383 with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR ≥60 ml/min/1.73 m² and without severe albuminuria (urine albumin:creatinine ratio (ACR <300 mg/g. Albuminuria was quantified as ACR and fractional albumin excretion (FE(alb.Increasing quintiles of dietary phosphorus density, serum phosphorus and ALP were not associated with higher ACR or FE(alb. The lowest versus highest quintile of 25(OHD was associated with greater albuminuria, but not after adjustment for other covariates including cardiovascular risk factors. An association between the highest versus lowest quintile of bone-specific ALP and greater ACR persisted after covariate adjustment, but was not accompanied by an independent association with FE(alb. Increasing quintiles of PTH demonstrated associations with both higher ACR and FE(alb that were not abolished by adjusting for covariates including age, gender, race, body mass index, diabetes, blood pressure, history of cardiovascular disease, smoking, eGFR, 25(OHD, season of measurement, lipids, hemoglobin and C-reactive protein. Adjusted increases in ACR and FE(alb associated with the highest versus lowest quintile of PTH were 19% (95% confidence interval 7-28% p<0.001 and 17% (8-31% p = 0.001 respectively.In this population, of the bone mineral parameters associated with cardiovascular outcomes, only PTH is independently associated with ACR and FE(alb.

  20. Albumin excretion rate is not affected by asymptomatic urinary tract infection: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Cristina; Simó, Rafael

    2004-07-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate whether asymptomatic urinary tract infection (UTI) significantly influences the level of albumin excretion rate (AER) in diabetic patients. We screened prospectively for UTI and AER in 765 type 2 diabetic subjects. AER was determined before and after antimicrobial therapy in those patients in whom an asymptomatic UTI was diagnosed (n = 59). To interpret the clinical significance of AER changes, the coefficient of biological variation (CVb) of the AER (CVb-AER) was assessed in a control group of type 2 diabetic patients without UTI (n = 56). AER did not change after antimicrobial treatment either in the whole group of patients with UTI (pre: 13.8 microg/min [0.1-195] vs. post: 8.5 microg/min [0.1-185]; P = 0.1) or in those patients in whom the infection was eradicated (pre: 11.7 microg/min [0.1-195] vs. post: 7.1 microg/min [0.1-185]; NS). The CVb-AER was 64% in the control group and was inversely correlated with AER (r = -0.44; P = 0.001). The decrease of AER after antimicrobial therapy (55%) did not exceed the biological variation of AER (64%). Finally, UTI did not significantly influence the classification of diabetic patients as normo- or microalbuminuric. Asymptomatic UTI does not increase AER in type 2 diabetic patients. Therefore, our results suggest that testing for UTI is not necessary when AER is measured in diabetic patients.

  1. Comparison of urinary albumin-creatinine ratio and albumin excretion rate in the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial/Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younes, Naji; Cleary, Patricia A; Steffes, Michael W; de Boer, Ian H; Molitch, Mark E; Rutledge, Brandy N; Lachin, John M; Dahms, William

    2010-07-01

    The objective of this study was to compare random urine albumin-creatinine ratio (ACR) with timed urine albumin excretion rate (AER) in patients with type 1 diabetes. A total of 1186 participants in the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial/Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications (DCCT/EDIC) Study provided spot urine specimens concurrent with 4-hour timed urine collections. ACR and AER were compared using Bland-Altman plots, cross-classification of albuminuria status and its change over time, and within-person variability. Despite moderate correlation (r=0.62), ACR levels (mg/g) were lower than AER levels (mg/24 hr). This difference was greatest for men. Gender-specific estimated AER (eAER) values were empirically derived from ACR. Comparing the eAER with measured AER, agreement of prevalent microalbuminuria and macroalbuminuria classification was fair to moderate, and classification of change in albuminuria status over time was different. Intraclass correlations were 0.697 for ACR and 0.803 for AER. Effects of DCCT intensive versus conventional diabetes therapy on urine albumin excretion or classification of albuminuria were similar using the eAER versus measured AER, as were the effects of the previous glycosylated hemoglobin. Systematic differences exist between urine ACR and AER, related to gender and other determinants of muscle mass. Use of ACR (or eAER) versus AER yields differences in classification of prevalent albuminuria states and changes in albuminuria states over time. These findings support the use of consistent ascertainment methods over time and further efforts to standardize and optimally interpret measurement of urine albumin excretion.

  2. Kidney volume in type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetic patients with normal or increased urinary albumin excretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldt-Rasmussen, B; Hegedüs, L; Mathiesen, E R

    1991-01-01

    than 0.05). In a multiple linear regression with HbA1c, urinary albumin excretion, age, diabetes duration and mean blood pressure as independent variables, variations in HbA1c could account for 33% of the variations in kidney volume (n = 47, r = 0.57, p less than 0.01). The other variables played.......70, p less than 0.01); metabolic control and function were also correlated (n = 34, r = 0.62, p less than 0.01). The urinary albumin excretion accounted for only 6% of the variation of the kidney volume (NS). In nine patients with microalbuminuria the kidney volume could be reduced during 2 years...

  3. Cohort study of predictive value of urinary albumin excretion for atherosclerotic vascular disease in patients with insulin dependent diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deckert, T; Yokoyama, H; Mathiesen, E

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine whether slightly elevated urinary albumin excretion precedes development of atherosclerotic vascular disease in patients with insulin dependent diabetes independently of conventional atherogenic risk factors and of diabetic nephropathy. DESIGN: Cohort study with 11 year follow...... up. SETTING: Diabetes centre in Denmark. SUBJECTS: 259 patients aged 19-51 with insulin dependent diabetes of 6-34 years' duration and without atherosclerotic vascular disease or diabetic nephropathy at baseline. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Baseline variables: urinary albumin excretion, blood pressure...... was independent of age; sex; blood pressure; smoking; serum concentrations of total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, sialic acid, and von Willebrand factor; level of haemoglobin A(lc); insulin dose, duration of diabetes, and diabetic nephropathy (hazard ratio 1.04 (1.01 to 1.08) per 5 mg...

  4. Association of a reduction in central obesity and phosphorus intake with changes in urinary albumin excretion: the PREMIER study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Alex; Batch, Bryan C; McGuire, Heather L; Vollmer, William M; Svetkey, Laura P; Tyson, Crystal C; Sanguankeo, Anawin; Anderson, Cheryl; Houston, Jessica; Appel, Lawrence J

    2013-11-01

    Excess adiposity and dietary factors may be important determinants of urinary albumin excretion (UAE). Observational analysis of PREMIER, a randomized trial designed to lower blood pressure using behavioral interventions (counseling on weight loss, healthy diet, and exercise). 481 participants with normal kidney function who provided adequate 24-hour urine collections at baseline and 6 months. Change in waist circumference; 24-hour urine sodium, potassium, and phosphorus excretion; and protein intake estimated from urea nitrogen. The primary outcome was change in log-transformed 24-hour UAE over 6 months. After 6 months, the proportion of individuals with UAE ≥10 mg/d decreased from 18.7% to 12.7% (P phosphorus (-27.7 ± 314.1 mg/d), and protein intake (-1.7 ± 19.4 g/d) were observed. After adjustment for relevant covariates, the following variables were associated significantly with reduction in ln(UAE) in separate models: decrease in waist circumference (P = 0.001), decrease in 24-hour urine phosphorus excretion (P urine phosphorus excretion (P = 0.03), but not change in protein intake (P = 0.5), remained associated significantly with reduction in ln(UAE). These associations remained significant even after adjustment for changes in blood pressure and insulin resistance. Baseline UAE and metabolic syndrome modified the relationship of waist circumference with ln(UAE); specifically, individuals with higher UAE and baseline metabolic syndrome experienced greater reductions in ln(UAE) from decreases in waist circumference. Observational study with potential for confounding. In adults with normal kidney function, decreases in waist circumference and 24-hour urine phosphorus excretion are associated with reductions in UAE. These findings support the rationale for clinical trials to determine whether reducing dietary phosphorus intake or waist circumference could prevent chronic kidney disease or slow its progression. Copyright © 2013 National Kidney Foundation, Inc

  5. Elevated albumin excretion and retinal changes in children with type 1 diabetes are related to long-term poor blood glucose control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, K; Storm, Birgit Kjærside; Graae, M

    1989-01-01

    All diabetic children (n = 113) under 19 years old and with more than 2 years of diabetes attending the Steno Memorial Hospital in 1987 were studied. Normal urinary albumin excretion (less than 30 mg 24 h-1) was found in 96 patients (85%), 15 had microalbuminuria (30-300 mg 24 h-1) (13%), and 2...... patients were proteinuric (greater than 300 mg 24 h-1) (2%). Retinal morphology was evaluated by colour fundus photography. Background retinopathy was more frequent in the group with elevated albumin excretion (71%) than in a matched normoalbuminuric group (20%, 2p less than 0.001). Long-term blood glucose...

  6. Epicardial, pericardial and total cardiac fat and cardiovascular disease in type 2 diabetic patients with elevated urinary albumin excretion rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Regitse H.; Von Scholten, Bernt J.; Hansen, Christian S.

    2017-01-01

    of 200 patients with type 2 diabetes and elevated urinary albumin excretion rate (UAER). Methods Cardiac adipose tissue was measured from baseline echocardiography. The composite endpoint comprised incident cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality. Coronary artery calcium, carotid intima media......Background We evaluated the association of cardiac adipose tissue including epicardial adipose tissue and pericardial adipose tissue with incident cardiovascular disease and mortality, coronary artery calcium, carotid intima media thickness and inflammatory markers. Design A prospective study...... thickness and inflammatory markers were measured at baseline. Cardiac adipose tissue was investigated as continuous and binary variable. Analyses were performed unadjusted (model 1), and adjusted for age, sex (model 2), body mass index, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, smoking, glycated haemoglobin...

  7. LONG-TERM EFFECTS OF LINOLEIC-ACID-ENRICHED DIET ON ALBUMINURIA AND LIPID-LEVELS IN TYPE-1 (INSULIN-DEPENDENT) DIABETIC-PATIENTS WITH ELEVATED URINARY ALBUMIN EXCRETION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DULLAART, RPF; BEUSEKAMP, BJ; MEIJER, S; HOOGENBERG, K; VANDOORMAAL, JJ; SLUITER, WJ

    We conducted a 2-year prospective randomised study to investigate the effects of a linoleic-acid-enriched diet on albuminuria and lipid levels in Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetic patients with elevated urinary albumin excretion (overnight urinary albumin excretion rate between 10 and

  8. Impact of low-dose acetylsalicylic acid on kidney function in type 2 diabetic patients with elevated urinary albumin excretion rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaede, Peter; Hansen, Henrik Post; Parving, Hans-Henrik

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Low-dose treatment with acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) is widely recommended to type 2 diabetic patients as primary prevention against cardiovascular disease. High-dose treatment with cyclooxygenase inhibitors reduces urinary albumin excretion rate (AER) in type 1 diabetic patients...

  9. Elevated NT-proBNP and coronary calcium score in relation to coronary artery disease in asymptomatic type 2 diabetic patients with elevated urinary albumin excretion rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinhard, Henrik; Hansen, Peter R; Persson, Frederik

    2011-01-01

    Elevated plasma N-terminal (NT)-proBNP levels and coronary calcium score (CCS) not only predicts myocardial ischaemia and coronary artery stenosis but also adverse cardiovascular events and mortality in type 2 diabetic patients with an increased urinary albumin excretion rate (UAER), whereas low...

  10. Urinary albumin excretion in a population based sample of 1011 middle aged non-diabetic subjects. The Copenhagen City Heart Study Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, J S; Feldt-Rasmussen, B; Borch-Johnsen, K

    1993-01-01

    Increased urinary albumin excretion rate (UAER) especially in the range of 20-200 micrograms min-1, termed microalbuminuria, has been proposed as a risk marker and predictor for cardiovascular disease in non-diabetic subjects. Thus it would be of importance to describe the distribution of UAER...

  11. Impact of low-dose acetylsalicylic acid on kidney function in type 2 diabetic patients with elevated urinary albumin excretion rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaede, Peter; Hansen, Henrik Post; Parving, Hans-Henrik

    2003-01-01

    Low-dose treatment with acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) is widely recommended to type 2 diabetic patients as primary prevention against cardiovascular disease. High-dose treatment with cyclooxygenase inhibitors reduces urinary albumin excretion rate (AER) in type 1 diabetic patients with micro- or mac...

  12. Autonomic neuropathy in nondiabetic offspring of type 2 diabetic subjects is associated with urinary albumin excretion rate and 24-h ambulatory blood pressure: the Fredericia Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Anne-Catherine; Vestbo, Else; Frøland, Anders

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the impact of parental type 2 diabetes on the autonomic nervous system and to determine whether autonomic neuropathy is present and associated with changes in 24-h ambulatory blood pressure (AMBP) and urinary albumin excretion rate (UAER) in nondiabetic subjec...

  13. The angiotensin II receptor antagonist telmisartan reduces urinary albumin excretion in patients with isolated systolic hypertension: results of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogt, Liffert; Navis, Gerjan; Koester, Juergen; Manolis, Athanasios J.; Reid, John L.; de Zeeuw, Dick

    2005-01-01

    Objective To examine the effect of telmisartan or hydrochlorothiazide on the control of urinary albumin excretion (UAE) in patients with isolated systolic hypertension (ISH) unselected for albuminuria in a pre-planned substudy of a large, multicentre, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized

  14. The angiotensin II receptor antagonist telmisartan reduces urinary albumin excretion in patients with isolated systolic hypertension: results of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogt, Liffert; Navis, Gerjan; Köster, Jürgen; Manolis, Athanasios J.; Reid, John L.; de Zeeuw, Dick

    2005-01-01

    To examine the effect of telmisartan or hydrochlorothiazide on the control of urinary albumin excretion (UAE) in patients with isolated systolic hypertension (ISH) unselected for albuminuria in a pre-planned substudy of a large, multicentre, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized study. The

  15. Impact of low-dose acetylsalicylic acid on kidney function in type 2 diabetic patients with elevated urinary albumin excretion rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaede, Peter; Hansen, Henrik Post; Parving, Hans-Henrik

    2003-01-01

    Low-dose treatment with acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) is widely recommended to type 2 diabetic patients as primary prevention against cardiovascular disease. High-dose treatment with cyclooxygenase inhibitors reduces urinary albumin excretion rate (AER) in type 1 diabetic patients with micro...

  16. Total protein, albumin and low-molecular-weight protein excretion in HIV-positive patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campbell Lucy J

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic kidney disease is common in HIV positive patients and renal tubular dysfunction has been reported in those receiving combination antiretroviral therapy (cART. Tenofovir (TFV in particular has been linked to severe renal tubular disease as well as proximal tubular dysfunction. Markedly elevated urinary concentrations of retinal-binding protein (RBP have been reported in patients with severe renal tubular disease, and low-molecular-weight proteins (LMWP such as RBP may be useful in clinical practice to assess renal tubular function in patients receiving TFV. We analysed 3 LMWP as well as protein and albumin in the urine of a sample of HIV positive patients. Methods In a cross-sectional fashion, total protein, albumin, RBP, cystatin C, and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL were quantified in random urine samples of 317 HIV positive outpatients and expressed as the ratio-to-creatinine (RBPCR, CCR and NGALCR. Exposure to cART was categorised as none, cART without TFV, and cART containing TFV and a non-nucleoside reverse-transcriptase-inhibitor (TFV/NNRTI or TFV and a protease-inhibitor (TFV/PI. Results Proteinuria was present in 10.4 % and microalbuminuria in 16.7 % of patients. Albumin accounted for approximately 10 % of total urinary protein. RBPCR was within the reference range in 95 % of patients while NGALCR was elevated in 67 % of patients. No overall differences in urine protein, albumin, and LMWP levels were observed among patients stratified by cART exposure, although a greater proportion of patients exposed to TFV/PI had RBPCR >38.8 μg/mmol (343 μg/g (p = 0.003. In multivariate analyses, black ethnicity (OR 0.43, 95 % CI 0.24, 0.77 and eGFR 2 (OR 3.54, 95 % CI 1.61, 7.80 were independently associated with upper quartile (UQ RBPCR. RBPCR correlated well to CCR (r2 = 0.71, but not to NGALCR, PCR or ACR. Conclusions In HIV positive patients, proteinuria was predominantly of

  17. Urinary excretion of alpha-GST and albumin in rheumatoid arthritis patients treated with methotrexate or other DMARDs alone or in combination with NSAIDs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, K B; Ellingsen, T; Bech, J N

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of methotrexate (MTX) and other disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs) alone or in combination with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) on the urinary excretion of alpha-glutathione S-transferase (alpha-GST) and albumin in rheumatoid arthritis......, and none had proteinuria using urine dipstick methods. CONCLUSION: DMARD-treated RA patients with normal serum creatinine had no detectable renal injuries assessed by the urinary excretions of alpha-GST and albumin....... (RA) patients. METHODS: Nineteen RA patients starting treatment with MTX were followed for 1 year with measurements of urinary alpha-GST, urinary albumin, and urinary and plasma creatinine at the start of treatment, and after 16, 28, and 52 weeks. A larger group of RA patients (n = 72) undergoing long......-term treatment with different DMARDs was compared with 79 healthy controls regarding urinary alpha-GST and albumin. alpha-GST was quantified by an enzyme immunoassay. Urine albumin was measured turbidimetrically. RESULTS: The urine-alpha-GST/urine-creatinine ratio and the urine-albumin/urine-creatinine ratio did...

  18. Is it time to change the definition of normal urinary albumin excretion?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wachtell, K.; Olsen, M.H.

    2008-01-01

    at baseline and had normoalbuminuria by conventional definitions. The study showed that quartiles of albuminuria beyond the lowest quartile were increasingly predictive of subsequent hypertensive disease, even at levels well below what is conventionally considered to be the normal range. This commentary......This Practice Point commentary discusses a recent study by Forman et al. that examined the association between baseline urinary albumin:creatinine ratio and the risk of developing hypertension among 2,179 women in the first and second Nurses' Health Studies who did not have hypertension or diabetes...... highlights the importance of evaluating albuminuria as an indicator of target organ damage and a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Patients without hypertension, diabetes or other cardiovascular diseases who have albuminuria should be considered at risk of cardiovascular disease and should undergo...

  19. Early elevation of albumin excretion rate is associated with poor gluten-free diet adherence in young people with coeliac disease and diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham-Short, A; C Donaghue, K; Ambler, G; K Chan, A; Hing, S; Cusumano, J; E Craig, M

    2014-02-01

    There are conflicting data on microvascular complications in coexisting Type 1 diabetes and coeliac disease. We compared complications rates in youth with or without coeliac disease and examined the association between gluten-free diet adherence and complications. This was a comparative study of adolescents (2510 without coeliac disease, 129 with coeliac disease); 60 (47%) did not adhere to a gluten-free diet--defined as elevated anti-tissue transglutaminase or endomysial immunoglobulin A titres. Retinopathy was detected using 7-field fundal photography and albumin excretion rate by timed overnight urine collections, with early elevation defined as albumin excretion rate ≥ 7.5 μg/min. Logistic regression was used to examine the association between complications and explanatory variables, including coeliac disease vs. no coeliac disease, gluten-free diet adherence vs. non-adherence, diabetes duration and HbA1c . Median age at last assessment was 16.5 years. Those with coeliac disease vs. those without were younger at diabetes diagnosis (7.1 vs. 8.6 years, P coeliac disease vs. those without (67 vs. 70 mmol/mol, 8.3 vs. 8.6%, P = 0.04) and adherence to a gluten-free diet vs. non-adherence (66 vs. 72 mmol/mol, 8.2 vs. 8.7%, P = 0.003). There were no differences in complication rates between those with coeliac disease vs. those without (retinopathy 22 vs. 23%, elevated albumin excretion rate 31 vs. 28%). Non-adherence to a gluten-free diet was associated with elevated albumin excretion rate (40 vs. 23%, P = 0.04). In multivariable logistic regression, elevated albumin excretion rate was associated with non-adherence to a gluten-free diet (odds ratio 2.37, 95% CI 1.04-5.40, P = 0.04) and diabetes duration (odds ratio 1.13, 95% CI 1.02-1.25, P = 0.03), but not HbA1c . While glycaemic control is better in patients with coeliac disease, non-adherence to a gluten-free diet is associated with elevated albumin excretion rate. The possible protection of a gluten-free diet

  20. Retinal arteriolar caliber and urine albumin excretion: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awua-Larbi, Stella; Wong, Tien Y; Cotch, Mary Frances; Durazo-Arvizu, Ramon; Jacobs, David R; Klein, Barbara E K; Klein, Ronald; Lima, Joao; Liu, Kiang; Kramer, Holly

    2011-11-01

    Changes in retinal microvascular caliber, which occur prior to onset of retinopathy, may indicate presence of kidney damage. This study examined the association between retinal arteriolar [central retinal artery equivalent (CRAE)] and venular caliber [central retinal venule equivalent (CRVE)] and presence of albuminuria (micro- or macroalbuminuria) among participants of the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA), a cohort of adults aged 45-84 years without baseline clinical cardiovascular disease. During the second MESA exam, digital fundus photography was completed in 5897 participants who provided spot urine specimens. Albuminuria was defined by spot urine albumin/creatinine ratios ≥ 30 mg/g. Multivariable adjusted odds of albuminuria by quintiles of CRAE and CRVE were determined using logistic regression. Analyses were repeated after stratifying by presence of type 2 diabetes. Albuminuria was noted in 11.5% (n = 675) and included 584 subjects with microalbuminuria and 91 with macroalbuminuria. A significant U-shaped pattern was seen with higher prevalence of albuminuria across quintile extremes in CRAE (15.7, 8.8 and 10.6% in CRAE Quintiles 1, 3 and 5, respectively; P <0.0001). After adjustment for covariates, both narrower CRAE [odds ratios (OR) 1.55; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.17-2.04, Quintile 1 versus 3) and wider CRAE (OR 1.44; 95% CI 1.07-1.93, Quintile 5 versus 3) were significantly associated with albuminuria. Associations appeared substantially stronger in adults with than without type 2 diabetes but the interaction term for diabetes and CRAE on presence of albuminuria did not meet statistical significance (P = 0.3). No association was noted between CRVE quintiles and albuminuria. Albuminuria is associated with narrower and wider arteriolar caliber. Future studies should determine whether variation in arteriolar caliber predicts incident albuminuria and whether associations are mediated by hypertension and diabetes. Such information could

  1. Bone Mineral Metabolism Parameters and Urinary Albumin Excretion in a Representative US Population Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellam, Timothy; Fotheringham, James; Wilkie, Martin E.; Francis, Sheila E.; Chico, Timothy J. A.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Hypothesis Even within accepted normal ranges, higher serum phosphorus, dietary phosphorus density, parathyroid hormone (PTH) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) are independent predictors of cardiovascular mortality. Lower serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D) also predicts adverse cardiovascular outcomes. We hypothesized that vascular dysfunction accompanying subtle disturbances of these bone metabolism parameters would result in associations with increased low grade albuminuria. Study Population and Measures We examined participants in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys 1999–2010 (N = 19,383) with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) ≥60 ml/min/1.73 m2 and without severe albuminuria (urine albumin:creatinine ratio (ACR) phosphorus density, serum phosphorus and ALP were not associated with higher ACR or FEalb. The lowest versus highest quintile of 25(OH)D was associated with greater albuminuria, but not after adjustment for other covariates including cardiovascular risk factors. An association between the highest versus lowest quintile of bone-specific ALP and greater ACR persisted after covariate adjustment, but was not accompanied by an independent association with FEalb. Increasing quintiles of PTH demonstrated associations with both higher ACR and FEalb that were not abolished by adjusting for covariates including age, gender, race, body mass index, diabetes, blood pressure, history of cardiovascular disease, smoking, eGFR, 25(OH)D, season of measurement, lipids, hemoglobin and C-reactive protein. Adjusted increases in ACR and FEalb associated with the highest versus lowest quintile of PTH were 19% (95% confidence interval 7–28% p<0.001) and 17% (8–31% p = 0.001) respectively. Conclusion In this population, of the bone mineral parameters associated with cardiovascular outcomes, only PTH is independently associated with ACR and FEalb. PMID:24505486

  2. Bone mineral metabolism parameters and urinary albumin excretion in a representative US population sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellam, Timothy; Fotheringham, James; Wilkie, Martin E; Francis, Sheila E; Chico, Timothy J A

    2014-01-01

    Even within accepted normal ranges, higher serum phosphorus, dietary phosphorus density, parathyroid hormone (PTH) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) are independent predictors of cardiovascular mortality. Lower serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D) also predicts adverse cardiovascular outcomes. We hypothesized that vascular dysfunction accompanying subtle disturbances of these bone metabolism parameters would result in associations with increased low grade albuminuria. We examined participants in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys 1999-2010 (N = 19,383) with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) ≥60 ml/min/1.73 m² and without severe albuminuria (urine albumin:creatinine ratio (ACR) phosphorus density, serum phosphorus and ALP were not associated with higher ACR or FE(alb). The lowest versus highest quintile of 25(OH)D was associated with greater albuminuria, but not after adjustment for other covariates including cardiovascular risk factors. An association between the highest versus lowest quintile of bone-specific ALP and greater ACR persisted after covariate adjustment, but was not accompanied by an independent association with FE(alb). Increasing quintiles of PTH demonstrated associations with both higher ACR and FE(alb) that were not abolished by adjusting for covariates including age, gender, race, body mass index, diabetes, blood pressure, history of cardiovascular disease, smoking, eGFR, 25(OH)D, season of measurement, lipids, hemoglobin and C-reactive protein. Adjusted increases in ACR and FE(alb) associated with the highest versus lowest quintile of PTH were 19% (95% confidence interval 7-28% p<0.001) and 17% (8-31% p = 0.001) respectively. In this population, of the bone mineral parameters associated with cardiovascular outcomes, only PTH is independently associated with ACR and FE(alb).

  3. Association between urinary albumin excretion and both central and peripheral blood pressure in subjects with insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveras, Anna; García-Ortiz, Luis; Segura, Julián; Banegas, José R; Martell-Claros, Nieves; Vigil, Luis; Suarez, Carmen; Gomez-Marcos, Manuel Á; Abad-Cardiel, María; Vazquez, Susana; de la Cruz, Juan J; Franklin, Stanley S; Ruilope, Luis M; de la Sierra, Alejandro

    2013-01-01

    Central blood pressure (cBP) predicts cardiovascular events. Regarding subclinical organ damage, the relationship between urinary albumin excretion (UAE) and cBP is rather unknown. We aimed to determine whether cBP is related to UAE, and if this relationship is stronger than that observed with peripheral blood pressure (pBP). Three hundred and twenty-four hypertensives (61% men, aged 65 ± 10 years) with insulin-resistance (77% diabetics; 23% nondiabetics with metabolic syndrome) were studied. Office pBP and cBP (radial applanation tonometry) were determined. UAE (albumin/creatinine) was averaged from three first-morning-void urine samples. Differences between patients with/without microalbuminuria, and the relationship between UAE and both pBP and cBP were analyzed. The strength of such relationship (cBP vs. pBP) was compared using a noninferiority test. Microalbuminuria was detected in 25% of all patients. After age-adjustment and sex-adjustment, both central and peripheral SBP and pulse pressure (PP) (mmHg) were higher in microalbuminurics than in normoalbuminurics [central SBP (cSBP): 130 ± 20 vs. 124 ± 19; peripheral (pSBP): 147 ± 22 vs. 139 ± 20; central pulse pressure (cPP): 52 ± 15 vs. 47 ± 14; peripheral pulse pressure (pPP): 67 ± 16 vs. 62 ± 16, P < 0.05 for all]. Partial correlation coefficients (age-adjusted and sex-adjusted) between blood pressure (BP) and UAE were 0.175 for cSBP, 0.143 for pSBP, 0.124 for cPP (P < 0.05 for all), and 0.092 for pPP (P = 0.117). Neither cBP nor pBP were superior to each other in their association with UAE or with microalbuminuria. Comparisons between cBP and pBP by means of noninferiority tests revealed no differences in the magnitude of correlation coefficients (P = 0.265 for SBP; P = 0.212 for PP), or differences in means between patients with/without microalbuminuria (P = 0.327 for SBP; P = 0.054 for PP). Although cBP is related with UAE, this

  4. Prevalence of positive urinary dipstick analysis (leucocyte esterase, nitrite, haemoglobin, or glucose) in a population of 3645 adult subjects--consequence for measurement of urinary albumin excretion rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, P; Jensen, J S; Borch-Johnsen, K

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess prevalence of positive urinary dipstick analysis for leucocyte esterase, nitrite, haemoglobin, or glucose in the general population and measure the urinary albumin excretion rate (UAER) in subjects with or without a positive dipstick analysis. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study...... of 3645 subjects. SETTING: An unselected urban population study. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Prevalence data of positive dipstick analyses and UAER values. RESULTS: Prevalence data of a positive dipstick analysis were 12%, 4%, 3% and 6%, respectively, for leucocyte esterase, nitrite, haemoglobin, and glucose...

  5. Urinary Albumin Excretion Reflects Cardiovascular Risk in Postmenopausal Women without Diabetes: The 2011 to 2013 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee Jung Ahn

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe objective of the current study was to determine whether there was an association between urinary albumin excretion and cardiovascular disease (CVD risk by estimating the Framingham Risk Score (FRS in postmenopausal women without diabetes.MethodsThis study was based on data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, which was conducted by the Korean Ministry of Health and Welfare in 2011 to 2013. Data on 2,316 postmenopausal women from a total of 24,594 participants was included in the analysis.ResultsThe mean FRS was significantly different in each of the urinary albumin to creatinine ratio (UACR subgroups, and it increased with UACR. The FRS was 12.69±0.12 in the optimal group, 14.30±0.19 in the intermediate normal group, 14.62±0.26 in the high normal group, and 15.86±0.36 in the microalbuminuria group. After fully adjusting for potential confounding factors, high normal levels and microalbuminuria were significantly associated with the highest tertile of FRS ([odds ratio (OR, 1.642; 95% confidence interval (CI, 1.124 to 2.400] and [OR, 3.385; 95% CI, 2.088 to 5.488], respectively compared with the optimal subgroup. High normal levels and microalbuminuria were also significantly associated with a ≥10% 10-year risk of CVD ([OR, 1.853; 95% CI, 1.122 to 3.060] and [OR, 2.831; 95% CI, 1.327 to 6.037], respectively after adjusting for potential confounding covariates.ConclusionUrinary albumin excretion reflects CVD risk in postmenopausal women without diabetes, and high normal levels and microalbuminuria were independently associated with a higher risk of CVD.

  6. Association between the extent of urinary albumin excretion and glycaemic variability indices measured by continuous glucose monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, S-M; Kim, T-H; Oh, S; Baek, J; Joung, J Y; Park, S-M; Cho, Y Y; Sohn, S Y; Hur, K Y; Lee, M-S; Lee, M-K; Kim, J H

    2015-02-01

    The contribution of glycaemic variability to the microvascular complication of diabetes has not been established. We examined whether there is an independent association between indices of glycaemic variability in continuous glucose monitoring and extent of albuminuria. A total of 173 patients with Type 2 diabetes (without insulin therapy, n = 96; with insulin therapy, n = 77) who had unexplained large fluctuations in blood glucose values underwent three-day continuous glucose monitoring. We used a multinomial logistic regression model to determine whether the indices of glycaemic variability independently affected the odds of having a spot urine albumin/creatinine ratio of 30-299 mg/g and ≥ 300 mg/g. Higher standard deviation (P = 0.002), mean of daily differences (P = 0.023) and mean amplitude of glycaemic excursion (P = 0.043) significantly increased the odds of having a urine albumin/creatinine ratio of ≥ 300 mg/g. In multivariable analysis, only higher standard deviation, but not mean amplitude of glycaemic excursion and mean of daily differences, independently increased the odds of having a urine albumin/creatinine ratio of ≥ 300 mg/g (P = 0.025). Coefficient of variation (sd/mean) was not associated with the odds of having a urine albumin/creatinine ratio of 30-299 or ≥ 300 mg/g. The independent association between standard deviation and the extent of albuminuria was lost when the measures were normalized by mean glucose level. At least in terms of relative measures of glycaemic variability, we failed to demonstrate an independent association between glycaemic variability and albuminuria extent in patients with inadequately controlled Type 2 diabetes. © 2014 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2014 Diabetes UK.

  7. Association between sleep duration and urinary albumin excretion in patients with type 2 diabetes: the Fukuoka diabetes registry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiaki Ohkuma

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Few studies have so far investigated the impact of sleep duration on chronic kidney disease in diabetic patients. The objective of the present study was to examine the relationship between sleep duration and albuminuria in type 2 diabetic patients. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A total of 4,870 Japanese type 2 diabetic patients ≥20 years of age were divided into six groups according to self-reported sleep duration: less than 4.5 hours, 4.5-5.4 hours, 5.5-6.4 hours, 6.5-7.4 hours, 7.5-8.4 hours and more than 8.5 hours. The association between sleep duration and urinary albumin-creatinine ratio (UACR was examined cross-sectionally. RESULTS: Both short and long sleep durations were significantly associated with higher UACR levels and higher proportions of patients with albuminuria (≥30 mg/g and macroalbuminuria (≥300 mg/g compared with a sleep duration of 6.5-7.4 hours (P for quadratic trend <0.001. A U-shaped association between sleep duration and UACR remained significant even after adjustment for potential confounders, including age, sex, duration of diabetes, current smoking habits, former smoking habits, current drinking habits, regular exercise habits, total energy intake, total protein intake, hypnotic use and estimated glomerular filtration rate. Furthermore, the association remained substantially unchanged after additional adjustment for body mass index, hemoglobin A1c, systolic blood pressure, renin-angiotensin system inhibitor use and depressive symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that sleep duration has a U-shaped association with the UACR levels in type 2 diabetic patients, independent of potential confounders.

  8. Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion is more effective than multiple daily insulin injections in preventing albumin excretion rate increase in Type 1 diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepore, G; Bruttomesso, D; Bonomo, M; Dodesini, A R; Costa, S; Meneghini, E; Corsi, A; Nosari, I; Trevisan, R

    2009-06-01

    To compare the effect of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) and multiple daily insulin injections (MDI) on albumin excretion rate (AER) in Type 1 diabetic patients. In a 3-year multicentre retrospective observational study, 110 Type 1 diabetic patients treated with CSII were compared with 110 patients treated with MDI matched at baseline for age, sex, diabetes duration and HbA(1c). At entry, 90 patients in each group had normal AER and 20 persistent microalbuminuria. AER, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), HbA(1c,) lipids and blood pressure were assessed. HbA(1c) was lower in the CSII than in the MDI group (8.1 +/- 0.9 vs. 8.4 +/- 1.3%; P AER [median (95% confidence interval)], similar at baseline [6.0 microg/min (9, 21) in the CSII group vs. 4.4 (8, 16) in the MDI group, NS] was significantly lower in the patients treated with CSII both at year 2 and at year 3 of follow-up [4.7 microg/min (6, 12) vs. 6.4 (13, 29), P therapy may be useful in decreasing the progressive increase in AER in Type 1 diabetic patients.

  9. Modest Salt Reduction Lowers Blood Pressure and Albumin Excretion in Impaired Glucose Tolerance and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Randomized Double-Blind Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suckling, Rebecca J; He, Feng J; Markandu, Nirmala D; MacGregor, Graham A

    2016-06-01

    The role of salt restriction in patients with impaired glucose tolerance and diabetes mellitus is controversial, with a lack of well controlled, longer term, modest salt reduction trials in this group of patients, in spite of the marked increase in cardiovascular risk. We carried out a 12-week randomized double-blind, crossover trial of salt restriction with salt or placebo tablets, each for 6 weeks, in 46 individuals with diet-controlled type 2 diabetes mellitus or impaired glucose tolerance and untreated normal or high normal blood pressure (BP). From salt to placebo, 24-hour urinary sodium was reduced by 49±9 mmol (2.9 g salt). This reduction in salt intake led to fall in clinic BP from 136/81±2/1 mm Hg to 131/80±2/1 mm Hg, (systolic BP; Pdiabetes mellitus with normal or mildly raised BP. The reduction in urinary albumin excretion may carry additional benefits in reducing cardiovascular disease above the effects on BP. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  10. Urinary albumin in space missions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cirillo, Massimo; De Santo, Natale G; Heer, Martina

    2002-01-01

    Proteinuria was hypothesized for space mission but research data are missing. Urinary albumin, as index of proteinuria, was analyzed in frozen urine samples collected by astronauts during space missions onboard MIR station and on ground (control). Urinary albumin was measured by a double antibody...... radioimmunoassay. On average, 24h urinary albumin was 27.4% lower in space than on ground; the difference was statistically significant. Low urinary albumin excretion could be another effect of exposure to weightlessness (microgravity)....

  11. Influence of C-Reactive Protein and Urinary Protein Excretion on Prediction of Graft Failure and Mortality by Serum Albumin in Renal Transplant Recipients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ree, Rutger M.; Gross, Sascha; Zelle, Dorien M.; van der Heide, Jaap J. Homan; Schouten, Jan P.; van Son, Willem J.; Gans, Reinold O. B.; Bakker, Stephan J. L.

    2010-01-01

    Background. Hypoalbuminemia is an established predictor of poor outcome in renal transplant recipients (RTR). It is considered to reflect inflammation, poor nutritional status, or proteinuria. We explored the roles of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and urinary protein excretion in

  12. U-shaped association between sleep duration and urinary albumin excretion in Korean adults: 2011-2014 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Hee Yu

    Full Text Available Although sleep duration has been extensively studied in metabolic diseases, few studies have investigated the impact of sleep duration on chronic kidney disease. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between sleep duration and albuminuria in the general population. Among 24,948 adults who participated in the 2011-2014 KNHANES, a total of 19,994 subjects were included in this analysis. Subjects were categorized into the following five groups according to self-reported sleep duration: less than 5 h, 6 h, 7 h, 8 h, and more than 9 h. The association between sleep duration and urinary albumin-creatinine ratio (UACR was examined cross-sectionally. Subjects with both short and long sleep durations were significantly associated with higher UACR levels and higher proportions of patients with microalbuminuria (30-299 mg/g and macroalbuminuria (≥300 mg/g compared to those with a sleep duration of 7 hours. The U-shaped association between sleep duration and UACR remained significant even after adjustment for potential confounders, including age, sex, body mass index, smoking, alcohol, education, income, exercise, estimated glomerular filtration rate, diabetes mellitus, hypertension and hypercholesterolemia. The U-shaped association is more evident in the subgroup aged 65 or older, or in female subjects. Our findings suggest that both short and long sleep durations have a U-shaped association with UACR levels in the general population, independent of potential confounders.

  13. Detecting microalbuminuria by urinary albumin/creatinine concentration ratio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, J S; Clausen, P; Borch-Johnsen, K

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Microalbuminuria, i.e. a subclinical increase of the albumin excretion rate in urine, may be a novel atherosclerotic risk factor. This study aimed to test whether microalbuminuria can be identified by measurement of urinary albumin concentration or urinary albumin/creatinine concentra......BACKGROUND: Microalbuminuria, i.e. a subclinical increase of the albumin excretion rate in urine, may be a novel atherosclerotic risk factor. This study aimed to test whether microalbuminuria can be identified by measurement of urinary albumin concentration or urinary albumin....../creatinine concentration ratio, instead of the usual measurement of the albumin excretion rate in a timed urine collection. METHODS: All 2579 subjects analysed were screened in a population based epidemiological study. Participants with diabetes mellitus, renal disease, haematuria, or urinary tract infection were...... not included. Urinary albumin (Ualb) and creatinine (Ucreat) concentrations were measured in an overnight collected sample by enzyme-linked immunosorbent and colorimetric assays, respectively. Urinary albumin excretion rate (UAER) and urinary albumin/creatinine concentration ratio (Ualb/Ucreat) were calculated...

  14. Velocidad de la onda de pulso y la excreción urinaria de albumina en pacientes hipertensos tratados con Perindopril Pulse wave velocity and urinary albumin excretion in hypertensive patients treated with perindopril

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. E. Tobilli

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available La presión arterial sistólica, la presión arterial diastólica y la excreción urinaria de albúmina (EUA han sido reconocidas como predictores de riesgo cardiovascular. Además, los trastornos de la compliance arterial (CA evaluados mediante la velocidad de la onda de pulso elevada (VOP están estrechamente relacionados con los cambios de la presión arterial y correlacionados con la mortalidad cardiovascular y la presencia de ateroesclerosis. El objetivo primario de este estudio ha sido determinar la relación entre la VOP y la EUA en un grupo de pacientes no fumadores con hipertensión esencial y secundariamente evaluar los cambios producidos por un inhibidor de la enzima convertidora de angiotensina (perindopril sobre estas dos variables. En el estudio participaron setenta pacientes (33 hombres y 37 mujeres hipertensos no fumadores, sin tratamiento previo, de 50 ± 7 años (entre 35-69. La VOP de todos los pacientes fue estudiada por medio de un dispositivo computarizado (Complior en el período basal y a los seis meses de tratamiento con perindopril. También se determinó la EUA por el método de inmunodifusión radial al inicio del tratamiento y luego de seis meses de tratamiento con perindopril (4.6 ± 1.4 mg/día. Al finalizar el estudio se observó una reducción significativa de la presión arterial sistólica (PAS (160.2 ± 10.6 vs. 131.9 ± 7.1 mmHg, pSystolic and diastolic blood pressures and urinary albumin excretion (UAE have been recognized as predictors for cardiovascular risk. Furthermore, arterial compliance (AC disorders assessed by increased aortic pulse wave velocity (PWV are closely related to changes in blood pressure and strongly correlated with cardiovascular mortality and presence or extent of atherosclerosis. Our purpose in the present study was to determine a relationship between AC using PWV and UAE in a group of non-smoking patients with essential hypertension, and the level of interaction of ACE inhibition on

  15. Imaging diagnosis of protein-losing enteropathy by 99mTc-labeled serum albumin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashiwagi, Toru; Fukui, Hiroyuki; Jyokou, Takeshi

    1990-01-01

    Abdominal scintigraphy with intravenous injection of 99m Tc-labeled serum albumin was performed in 6 patients with protein-losing enteropathy (PLE) and 3 patients with nongastrointestinal tract disorders. In 3 out of 6 patients with PLE, abnormal radioactivity was observed in the ileum region 3 hours after injection, and thereafter clear colon image was obtained. In the remaining 3 patients, the colon was visualized 24 hours after injection. On the other hand, in all patients with nongastrointestinal tract disorders, no abnormal radioactivity was observed in the abdomen until 24 hours after injection. These results indicate that gastrointestinal protein loss could be demonstrated by scintigraphy with intravenously administered 99m Tc-labeled serum albumin. In one healthy subject, 99m Tc-labeled serum albumin was administered orally and abdominal scintigraphy was performed. Gastrointestinal tract image was only observed and no other image was demonstrated until 24 hours after oral administration. This result suggests that 99m Tc excreted into the gastrointestinal tract is not reabsorbed. Therefore, abdominal scintigraphy with 99m Tc-labeled serum albumin appears to be a simple and useful method for diagnosis of PLE. (author)

  16. Absorption and excretion tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berberich, R.

    1988-01-01

    The absorption and excretion of radiopharmaceuticals is still of interest in diagnostic investigations of nuclear medicine. In this paper the most common methods of measuring absorption and excretion are described. The performance of the different tests and their standard values are discussed. More over the basic possibilities of measuring absorption and excretion including the needed measurement equipments are presented. (orig.) [de

  17. Diabetic kidney disease in FVB/NJ Akita mice: temporal pattern of kidney injury and urinary nephrin excretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jae-Hyung; Paik, Seung-Yeol; Mao, Lan; Eisner, William; Flannery, Patrick J; Wang, Liming; Tang, Yuping; Mattocks, Natalie; Hadjadj, Samy; Goujon, Jean-Michel; Ruiz, Phillip; Gurley, Susan B; Spurney, Robert F

    2012-01-01

    Akita mice are a genetic model of type 1 diabetes. In the present studies, we investigated the phenotype of Akita mice on the FVB/NJ background and examined urinary nephrin excretion as a marker of kidney injury. Male Akita mice were compared with non-diabetic controls for functional and structural characteristics of renal and cardiac disease. Podocyte number and apoptosis as well as urinary nephrin excretion were determined in both groups. Male FVB/NJ Akita mice developed sustained hyperglycemia and albuminuria by 4 and 8 weeks of age, respectively. These abnormalities were accompanied by a significant increase in systolic blood pressure in 10-week old Akita mice, which was associated with functional, structural and molecular characteristics of cardiac hypertrophy. By 20 weeks of age, Akita mice developed a 10-fold increase in albuminuria, renal and glomerular hypertrophy and a decrease in the number of podocytes. Mild-to-moderate glomerular mesangial expansion was observed in Akita mice at 30 weeks of age. In 4-week old Akita mice, the onset of hyperglycemia was accompanied by increased podocyte apoptosis and enhanced excretion of nephrin in urine before the development of albuminuria. Urinary nephrin excretion was also significantly increased in albuminuric Akita mice at 16 and 20 weeks of age and correlated with the albumin excretion rate. These data suggest that: 1. FVB/NJ Akita mice have phenotypic characteristics that may be useful for studying the mechanisms of kidney and cardiac injury in diabetes, and 2. Enhanced urinary nephrin excretion is associated with kidney injury in FVB/NJ Akita mice and is detectable early in the disease process.

  18. Urinary adiponectin excretion rises with increasing albuminuria in type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jorsal, Anders; Petersen, Emilie Hein; Tarnow, Lise

    2013-01-01

    AIM: Urinary adiponectin (u-adiponectin) excretion has been suggested to reflect early glomerular damage. Inspired by this, we studied the levels of u-adiponectin in type 1 diabetic patients with different levels of urinary albumin excretion (UAE). METHODS: U-adiponectin was analysed by ELISA in ...

  19. Mitochondrial oxidative stress activates COX-2/mPGES-1/PGE2 cascade induced by albumin in renal proximal tubular cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Yibo; Wang, Chenhu; Wu, Chunfeng; Ding, Dan; Zhao, Fei; Hu, Caiyu; Gong, Wei; Ding, Guixia; Zhang, Yue; Chen, Lihong; Yang, Guangrui; Zhu, Chunhua; Zhang, Aihua; Jia, Zhanjun; Huang, Songming

    2018-02-06

    COX-2/mPGES-1/PGE2 cascade is of importance in the pathogenesis of kidney injury. Meanwhile, recent studies documented a detrimental role of mitochondrial oxidative stress in kidney diseases. The present study was undertaken to investigate the role of mitochondrial oxidative stress in albumin-induced activation of COX-2/mPGES-1/PGE2 cascade in renal proximal tubular cells. Following albumin overload in mice, we observed a significant increase of oxidative stress and mitochondrial abnormality determined by transmission electron microscope, which was attenuated by the administration of MnTBAP, a mitochondrial SOD2 mimic. More interestingly, albumin overload-induced upregulation of COX-2 and mPGES-1 at mRNA and protein levels was largely abolished by MnTBAP treatment in mice. Meanwhile, urinary PGE2 excretion was also blocked by MnTBAP treatment. Furthermore, mouse proximal tubule epithelial cells (mPTCs) were treated with albumin. Similarly, COX-2/mPGES-1/PGE2 cascade was significantly activated by albumin in dose- and time-dependent manners, which was abolished by MnTBAP treatment in parallel with a blockade of oxidative stress. Collectively, the findings from current study demonstrated that mitochondrial oxidative stress could activate COX-2/mPGES-1/PGE2 cascade in proximal tubular cells under the proteinuria condition. Mitochondrial oxidative stress/COX-2/mPGES-1/PGE2 could serve as the important targets for the treatment of proteinuria-associated kidney injury.

  20. Transcapillary escape rate of albumin in hypertensive patients with type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, K; Jensen, T; Feldt-Rasmussen, B

    1993-01-01

    . The systemic blood pressure and the transcapillary escape rate of albumin were measured in the following groups after 4 weeks without antihypertensive treatment: Group 1--eleven healthy control subjects. Group 2--ten Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetic patients with incipient nephropathy (urinary albumin...... excretion rate: 30-300 mg/24 h) and normal blood pressure. Group 3--eleven non-diabetic patients with essential hypertension. Group 4--nine Type 1 diabetic patients with hypertension but normal urinary albumin excretion (Type 1 diabetic patients with nephropathy (urinary......Diabetic patients with elevated urinary albumin excretion rate (incipient or clinical nephropathy) also have an increased transcapillary escape rate of albumin. This study was designed to clarify whether this is caused by a general vascular dysfunction or by elevated systemic blood pressure...

  1. Nickel Dermatitis - Nickel Excretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Menné, T.; Thorboe, A.

    1976-01-01

    Nickel excretion in urine in four females -sensitive to nickel with an intermittent dyshidrotic eruption was measured with flameless atomic absorption. Excretion of nickel was found to be increased in association with outbreaks of vesicles. The results support the idea that the chronic condition...... was maintained by ingestion of nickel in food....

  2. Current issues in measurement and report of urinary albumin excretion

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, W. Greg; Bruns, David E.; Hortin, Glen L.; Sandberg, Sverre; Aakre, Kristin M.; McQueen, Matthew J.; Itoh, Yoshihisa; Lieske, John C.; Seccombe, David W.; Jones, Graham; Bunk, David M.; Curhan, Gary C.; Narva, Andrew S.

    2010-01-01

    ANTECEDENTES: A excreção urinária de albumina indica lesão nos rins e é reconhecida como fator de risco para a progressão das doenças renal e cardiovascular. A dosagem da albumina urinária chama a atenção sobre a necessidade clínica de relatos de resultados precisos e claramente descritos. O National Kidney Disease Education Program e a Federação Internacional de Química Clínica e Medicina Laboratorial (IFCC) reuniram-se para avaliar o estado atual das questões pré-analíticas, analíticas e pó...

  3. Tc-99m MAG3 excretion in urine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudolph, O.; Marcus, V.; Herbst, S.; De Klerk, F.; Rubow, S.M.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Introduction: The calculation of the urinary excretory index of patients has been an integral part of the diuresis renography done with Tc-99m DTPA (Pentetate) at Tygerberg Hospital. The value of twenty percent was accepted as normal. Since most renograms are now done with Tc-99m MAG3, normal values of urinary excretion of Tc-99m MAG3 should be available, but nothing was found in the literature. Objectives: 1. To determine whether renography reports can be used to predict normal values of MAG3 excretion in urine during diuresis renography 2. To investigate if there is a relationship between the age of the patient and the urinary excretory index 3. To compare excretory index in patients who had both DTPA and MAG3 studies. Methods: Renography reports and excretion values of diuresis renograms performed during a 15-month period were retrospectively reviewed. According to renogram reports, the patients were classified as normal or abnormal. Where possible, plasma creatinine values were obtained for patients In the normal group. MAG3 excretion values were studied in relation to age, creatinine values and DTPA excretion in those patients who had studies with both agents. Average values and ranges were compared for MAG3 excretion of the normal and abnormal groups. Statistical methods included linear regression and student's t test. Results: One hundred patients data were reviewed; age range 3 to 90 years. The MAG3 normal group included 36 patients. Plasma creatinine values were obtained for 14 patients. There was no correlation between MAG3 excretion and age (r=0.1). Average MAG3 excretion for cases reported as normal was 62.6 + 19.6% and for abnormal studies 51.0 + 21.6%. As plasma creatinine increased, MAG3 excretion decreased (correlation coefficient 0.77). Six patients had studies with both DTPA and MAG3. In this limited group, the correlation coefficient between DTPA excretion and MAG3 excretion was 0.67. Conclusion: This retrospective study demonstrates

  4. Albumin-mediated delivery of siRNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bienk, Konrad

    2015-01-01

    in autoimmune disorders, neurodegenerative disorders and cancer by specific gene silencing. The effective delivery of the therapeutic to target cells and tissues is currently a great challenge for successful siRNA therapy. In the bloodstream, free siRNA is rapidly cleared by renal excretion or degraded by serum...... been used to create a range of albumin variants with FcRn affinity both lower and higher than that of wild-type albumin. The aim of this project is to develop a siRNA carrier system utilizing albumin as a natural delivery vehicle. Cholesteryl functionalized siRNA was designed to facilitate binding...... formulation with albumin. Furthermore, the experiments revealed a preferential accumulation of the 2- cholesteryl siRNA in the liver after 6 hours. The finding of accumulation in the liver was utilized in vivo to illustrate liver specific Factor VII silencing of ~30%, mediated only by albumin as a delivery...

  5. Fractional excretion of sodium

    Science.gov (United States)

    FE sodium; FENa ... a lab. There, they are examined for salt (sodium) and creatinine levels. Creatinine is a chemical waste ... Chernecky CC, Berger BJ. Excretion fraction of filtered sodium-blood and urine. In: Chernecky CC, Berger BJ, ...

  6. Studies on the pathogenesis in iron deficiency anemia Part 1. Urinary iron excretion in iron deficiency anemia patients and rats in various iron states

    OpenAIRE

    中西,徳彦

    1991-01-01

    In the "iron excretion test" , urinary iron excretion after injection of saccharated iron oxide has been reported to be accelerated in relapsing idiopathic iron deficiency anemia. To determine the relevance of urinary iron excretion to clinical factors other than iron metabolism, 15 clinical parameters were evaluated. The serum creatinine level was positively and the serum albumin level was negatively correlated with urinary iron excretion, showing coefficients of r=0.97,-0.86 respectively, a...

  7. Pre-symptomatic increase in urine-orosomucoid excretion in pre-eclamptic women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kronborg, Camilla S; Allen, Jim; Vittinghus, Erik

    2007-01-01

    ELISA. RESULTS: Orosomucoid/creatinin excretion ratio was significantly higher early in pre-eclamptic pregnancies (from the 20th week of pregnancy, p=0.0053) compared with healthy pregnancies, the difference increased throughout pregnancy. Albumin/creatinin ratio increased subsequent to the increase...... by standard methods, and in urine by sandwich ELISA. RESULTS: Orosomucoid/creatinin excretion ratio was significantly higher early in pre-eclamptic pregnancies (from the 20th week of pregnancy, p=0.0053) compared with healthy pregnancies, the difference increased throughout pregnancy. Albumin/creatinin ratio...... pregnancy. Orosomucoid and albumin in plasma were analysed by standard methods, and in urine by sandwich ELISA. RESULTS: Orosomucoid/creatinin excretion ratio was significantly higher early in pre-eclamptic pregnancies (from the 20th week of pregnancy, p=0.0053) compared with healthy pregnancies...

  8. Increased urinary orosomucoid excretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, M S; Iversen, K; Larsen, C T

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In a previous study, urinary orosomucoid excretion rate (UOER) independently predicted cardiovascular mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes. The aim of the present study was to determine whether increased UOER is associated with cardiovascular risk factors such as inflammation...

  9. Control of potassium excretion: a Paleolithic perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halperin, Mitchell L; Cheema-Dhadli, Surinder; Lin, Shih-Hua; Kamel, Kamel S

    2006-07-01

    Regulation of potassium (K) excretion was examined in an experimental setting that reflects the dietary conditions for humans in Paleolithic times (high, episodic intake of K with organic anions; low intake of NaCl), because this is when major control mechanisms were likely to have developed. The major control of K secretion in this setting is to regulate the number of luminal K channels in the cortical collecting duct. Following a KCl load, the K concentration in the medullary interstitial compartment rose; the likely source of this medullary K was its absorption by the H/K-ATPase in the inner medullary collecting duct. As a result of the higher medullary K concentration, the absorption of Na and Cl was inhibited in the loop of Henle, and this led to an increased distal delivery of a sufficient quantity of Na to raise K excretion markedly, while avoiding a large natriuresis. In addition, because K in the diet was accompanied by 'future' bicarbonate, a role for bicarbonate in the control of K secretion via 'selecting' whether aldosterone would be a NaCl-conserving or a kaliuretic hormone is discussed. This way of examining the control of K excretion provides new insights into clinical disorders with an abnormal plasma K concentration secondary to altered K excretion, and also into the pathophysiology of calcium-containing kidney stones.

  10. Insulin Pump Therapy Is Associated with Lower Rates of Retinopathy and Peripheral Nerve Abnormality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bedowra Zabeen

    Full Text Available To compare rates of microvascular complications in adolescents with type 1 diabetes treated with continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII versus multiple daily injections (MDI.Prospective cohort of 989 patients (aged 12-20 years; diabetes duration >5 years treated with CSII or MDI for >12 months. Microvascular complications were assessed from 2000-14: early retinopathy (seven-field fundal photography, peripheral nerve function (thermal and vibration threshold testing, autonomic nerve abnormality (heart rate variability analysis of electrocardiogram recordings and albuminuria (albumin creatinine ratio/timed overnight albumin excretion. Generalized estimating equations (GEE were used to examine the relationship between treatment and complications rates, adjusting for socio-economic status (SES and known risk factors including HbA1c and diabetes duration.Comparing CSII with MDI: HbA1C was 8.6% [70mmol/mol] vs. 8.7% [72 mmol/mol] (p = 0.7, retinopathy 17% vs. 22% (p = 0.06; microalbuminuria 1% vs. 4% (p = 0.07, peripheral nerve abnormality 27% vs. 33% (p = 0.108 and autonomic nerve abnormality 24% vs. 28% (p = 0.401. In multivariable GEE, CSII use was associated with lower rates of retinopathy (OR 0.66, 95% CI 0.45-0.95, p = 0.029 and peripheral nerve abnormality (OR 0.63, 95% CI 0.42-0.95, p = 0.026, but not albuminuria (OR 0.46, 95% CI 0.10-2.17, p = 0.33. SES was not associated with any of the complication outcomes.In adolescents, CSII use is associated with lower rates of retinopathy and peripheral nerve abnormality, suggesting an apparent benefit of CSII over MDI independent of glycemic control or SES.

  11. Comparison of endogenous and radiolabeled bile acid excretion in patients with idiopathic chronic diarrhea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiller, L.R.; Bilhartz, L.E.; Santa Ana, C.A.

    1990-01-01

    Fecal recovery of radioactivity after ingestion of a bolus of radiolabeled bile acid is abnormally high in most patients with idiopathic chronic diarrhea. To evaluate the significance of this malabsorption, concurrent fecal excretion of both exogenous radiolabeled bile acid and endogenous (unlabeled) bile acid were measured in patients with idiopathic chronic diarrhea. Subjects received a 2.5-microCi oral dose of taurocholic acid labeled with 14C in the 24th position of the steroid moiety. Endogenous bile acid excretion was measured by a hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase assay on a concurrent 72-h stool collection. Both radiolabeled and endogenous bile acid excretion were abnormally high in most patients with chronic diarrhea compared with normal subjects, even when equivoluminous diarrhea was induced in normal subjects by ingestion of osmotically active solutions. The correlation between radiolabeled and endogenous bile acid excretion was good. However, neither radiolabeled nor endogenous bile acid excretion was as abnormal as is typically seen in patients with ileal resection, and none of these diarrhea patients responded to treatment with cholestyramine with stool weights less than 200 g. These results suggest (a) that this radiolabeled bile acid excretion test accurately reflects excess endogenous bile acid excretion; (b) that excess endogenous bile acid excretion is not caused by diarrhea per se; (c) that spontaneously occurring idiopathic chronic diarrhea is often associated with increased endogenous bile acid excretion; and (d) that bile acid malabsorption is not likely to be the primary cause of diarrhea in most of these patients

  12. Urinary Angiotensinogen and Renin Excretion are Associated with Chronic Kidney Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annett Juretzko

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Several studies sought to identify new biomarkers for chronic kidney disease (CKD. As the renal renin-angiotensin system is activated in CKD, urinary angiotensinogen or renin excretion may be suitable candidates. We tested whether urinary angiotensinogen or renin excretion is elevated in CKD and whether these parameters are associated with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR. We further tested whether urinary angiotensinogen or renin excretion may convey additional information beyond that provided by albuminuria. Methods: We measured urinary and plasma angiotensinogen, renin, albumin and creatinine in 177 CKD patients from the Greifswald Approach to Individualized Medicine project and in 283 healthy controls from the Study of Health in Pomerania. The urinary excretion of specific proteins is given as protein-to-creatinine ratio. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC curves, spearman correlation coefficients and linear regression models were calculated. Results: Urinary angiotensinogen [2,511 (196-31,909 vs. 18.6 (8.3-44.0 pmol/g, *P<0.01] and renin excretion [0.311 (0.135-1.155 vs. 0.069 (0.045-0.148 pmol/g, *P<0.01] were significantly higher in CKD patients than in healthy controls. The area under the ROC curve was significantly larger when urinary angiotensinogen, renin and albumin excretion were combined than with urinary albumin excretion alone. Urinary angiotensinogen (ß-coefficient -2.405, standard error 0.117, P<0.01 and renin excretion (ß-coefficient -0.793, standard error 0.061, P<0.01 were inversely associated with eGFR. Adjustment for albuminuria, age, sex, systolic blood pressure and body mass index did not significantly affect the results. Conclusion: Urinary angiotensinogen and renin excretion are elevated in CKD patients. Both parameters are negatively associated with eGFR and these associations are independent of urinary albumin excretion. In CKD patients urinary angiotensinogen and renin excretion may

  13. Albuminuria and overall capillary permeability of albumin in acute altitude hypoxia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, J M; Olsen, Niels Vidiendal; Feldt-Rasmussen, B

    1994-01-01

    The mechanism of proteinuria at high altitude is unclear. Renal function and urinary excretion rate of albumin (Ualb) at rest and during submaximal exercise and transcapillary escape rate of 125I-labeled albumin (TERalb) were investigated in 12 normal volunteers at sea level and after rapid and p....... The elevated TERalb suggests an overall increase in capillary permeability, including the glomerular endothelium, as the critical factor in high-altitude induced albuminuria....

  14. Relation of albumin/creatinine ratio to C-reactive protein and to the metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messerli, Adrian W; Seshadri, Niranjan; Pearce, Gregory L; Sachar, Ravish; Hoogwerf, Byron J; Sprecher, Dennis L

    2003-09-01

    We hypothesized that the association of high sensitivity C-reactive protein (CRP) with urinary albumin excretion (UAE) is predominately mediated through its correlation with the metabolic syndrome. Serum CRP and urine albumin:creatinine ratios (ACR) from 720 preventive cardiology patients were analyzed to estimate age- and gender-adjusted relative risk of high CRP and metabolic syndrome for high ACR. These data demonstrate that CRP independently predicts the presence of UAE, a marker of endothelial dysfunction.

  15. Intake and excretion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchiyama, Masafumi

    1979-01-01

    Of radioiodine metabolism in man, the relations between intake, thyroidal uptake and excretion are explained. The internal radiation dose to the thyroid for public population is mainly given through the intake of contaminated food in all the ages. In the gestation, the fetus is exposed most to radioiodine immediately before delivery and the dose is estimated to amount a few times higher than the maternal thyroid. Importance of both the cow's milk and the breast milk as the sources of contaminant, is emphasized. Babyhood for 6 months after delivery, in this age are estiperiod as to the thyroidal exposure by radioiodine because the dose in his age are estimated to be over 30 times for 131 I and about 9 times for 129 I as compared with that to the adult. Because of its long-term residence in the environment, 129 I is incorporated into cereals, leafy vegetables and meat besides milk. However, the critical age is still in the babyhood for 6 months after birth. Radioiodine given in a form of sodium iodide is actually completely absorbed in the intestines. However, the thyroidal uptake rate and the biological half-life are depresesed by administration of inorganic iodide. Radioiodine given in the form of sodium iodide is actually completely absorbed in the intestines. However, the thyroids uptake rate and the biological half-life are depressed by administration of inorganic iodide. Radioiodine both in the protein-binding fraction and in the total fraction of metabolised cow's milk, reaches the thyroid in the same manner as that given in a form of inorganic iodide. While, rats given radioiodine incorporated into seaweed, excreted tremendous amount of the nuclide into feces which resulted in very low uptake of the nuclide by the thyroid. To estimate population dose from radioiodine, the absorption rate of radioiodine may be one of the most important parameters. (author)

  16. Acidosis and Urinary Calcium Excretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alexander, R Todd; Cordat, Emmanuelle; Chambrey, Régine

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic acidosis is associated with increased urinary calcium excretion and related sequelae, including nephrocalcinosis and nephrolithiasis. The increased urinary calcium excretion induced by metabolic acidosis predominantly results from increased mobilization of calcium out of bone...... in the renal tubule and then discuss why not all gene defects that cause renal tubular acidosis are associated with hypercalciuria and nephrocalcinosis....

  17. Selective renal vasoconstriction, exaggerated natriuresis and excretion rates of exosomic proteins in essential hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damkjaer, M.; Jensen, Pia Hønnerup; Schwämmle, Veit

    2014-01-01

    AimIn essential hypertension (EH), the regulation of renal sodium excretion is aberrant. We hypothesized that in mild EH, (i) abnormal dynamics of plasma renin concentration (PRC) and atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) are responsible for the exaggerated natriuresis, and (ii) exosomic protein...... patterns reflect the renal tubular abnormality involved in the dysregulation of sodium excretion. MethodsAfter 2-week drug washout and 4-day diet, systemic and renal hemodynamics, cardio-renal hormones, glomerular filtration and renal excretion were studied in male patients during saline loading (SL...

  18. Increased urine IgM excretion predicts cardiovascular events in patients with type 1 diabetes nephropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torffvit Ole

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetic nephropathy, a major complication of diabetes, is characterized by progressive renal injury and increased cardiovascular mortality. An increased urinary albumin excretion due dysfunction of the glomerular barrier is an early sign of diabetic nephropathy. An increased urinary excretion of higher molecular weight proteins such as IgM appears with progression of glomerular injury. We aim here to study the prognostic significance of urine IgM excretion in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (type 1 diabetic nephropathy. Methods This is an observational study of 139 patients with type1 diabetes mellitus (79 males and 60 females under routine care at the diabetic outpatient clinic at the Lund University Hospital. The median follow-up time was 18 years (1 to 22 years. Urine albumin and urine IgM concentration were measured at time of recruitment. Results Overall 32 (14 male and 18 female patients died in a cardiovascular event and 20 (11 male and 9 female patients reached end-stage renal disease. Univariate analysis indicated that patient survival and renal survival were inversely associated with urine albumin excretion (RR = 2.9 and 5.8, respectively and urine IgM excretion (RR = 4.6 and 5.7, respectively. Stratified analysis demonstrated that in patients with different degrees of albuminuria, the cardiovascular mortality rate and the incidence of end-stage renal disease was approximately three times higher in patients with increased urine IgM excretion. Conclusion An increase in urinary IgM excretion in patients with type 1 diabetes is associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular mortality and renal failure, regardless of the degree of albuminuria.

  19. Congenital Abnormalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stages Ages and Stages Prenatal Baby (0-12 mos.) Toddler 1-3yrs. Preschool 3-5yrs Grade School ... Categories of Congenital Abnormalities Chromosome Abnormalities Chromosomes are structures that carry genetic material inherited from one generation ...

  20. Meiotic abnormalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 19, describes meiotic abnormalities. These include nondisjunction of autosomes and sex chromosomes, genetic and environmental causes of nondisjunction, misdivision of the centromere, chromosomally abnormal human sperm, male infertility, parental age, and origin of diploid gametes. 57 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Walking abnormalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... include: Arthritis of the leg or foot joints Conversion disorder (a mental disorder) Foot problems (such as a ... injuries. For an abnormal gait that occurs with conversion disorder, counseling and support from family members are strongly ...

  2. Thyroid albumin originates from blood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vijlder, J. J.; Veenboer, G. J.; van Dijk, J. E.

    1992-01-01

    Iodoalbumin has been found in the goiter of Dutch goats with a thyroglobulin synthesis defect. Immunohistochemical studies showed that in the goiter the percentage of follicles containing albumin was higher than that in normal thyroid glands. In the albumin-containing follicles of normal and

  3. DETERMINATION OF SERUM ALBUMIN WITH ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The reaction of tribromoarsenazo(TB-ASA) with serum albumin in the presence of emulgent OP was studied by spectrophotometry. In a Britton-Robinson buffer solution at pH 2.9, tribromoarsenazo and bovine serum albumin can immediately form a red compound in the presence of emulgent OP with a maximum absorption ...

  4. Midodrine versus albumin in the prevention of paracentesis-induced circulatory dysfunction in cirrhotics: a randomized pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Virendra; Dheerendra, Prashant C; Singh, Baljinder; Nain, Chander K; Chawla, Divya; Sharma, Navneet; Bhalla, Ashish; Mahi, Sushil K

    2008-06-01

    Intravenous albumin has been used to prevent paracentesis-induced circulatory dysfunction (PICD) in cirrhotics; however, its use is costly and controversial. Splanchnic arterial vasodilatation is primarily responsible for PICD. There are no reports of use of midodrine in the prevention of PICD. In this pilot study, we evaluated midodrine and albumin in the prevention of PICD. Forty patients with cirrhosis underwent therapeutic paracentesis with midodrine or albumin in a randomized controlled trial at a tertiary center. Effective arterial blood volume was assessed by plasma renin activity. Plasma renin activity at baseline and at 6 days after paracentesis did not differ in the two groups (43.18 +/- 10.73 to 45.90 +/- 8.59 ng/mL/h, P= 0.273 in the albumin group and 44.44 +/- 8.44 to 41.39 +/- 10.21 ng/mL/h, P= 0.115 in the midodrine group). Two patients had an increase in plasma renin activity of more than 50% from baseline in the albumin group, and none in the midodrine group. A significant increase in 24-h urine volume and urine sodium excretion was noted in the midodrine group. Midodrine therapy was cheaper than albumin therapy. The study suggests that midodrine may be as effective as albumin in preventing PICD in cirrhotics, but at a fraction of the cost, and can be administered orally. Midodrine also resulted in an increase in 24-h urine volume and sodium excretion.

  5. Comparison of different measures of urinary protein excretion for prediction of renal events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lambers Heerspink, Hiddo J; Gansevoort, Ron T; Brenner, Barry M

    2010-01-01

    ratio (ACR) from a first-morning void in predicting renal events. The primary outcome measure was the time to a doubling of serum creatinine or end-stage renal disease. During follow-up, 202 events occurred. The hazard ratios for the risk of a renal outcome (95% CIs) associated with 1-SD increment...... of Endpoints in Non Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus with the Angiotensin II Antagonist Losartan (RENAAL) trial to compare the ability of urinary protein excretion (UPE) and urinary albumin excretion (UAE) from a 24-hour urine collection and urinary albumin concentration (UAC) and the albumin:creatinine...... in the log-transformed measures were 3.16 (2.60 to 3.86) for UAE, 3.02 (2.53 to 3.62) for UPE, 3.23 (2.67 to 3.91) for UAC, and 4.36 (3.50 to 5.45) for ACR. The area under the ROC curve was significantly higher for ACR compared with the other measures. In conclusion, measurement of the albumin:creatinine...

  6. Comparison of different measures of urinary protein excretion for prediction of renal events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lambers Heerspink, Hiddo J; Gansevoort, Ron T; Brenner, Barry M

    2010-01-01

    of Endpoints in Non Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus with the Angiotensin II Antagonist Losartan (RENAAL) trial to compare the ability of urinary protein excretion (UPE) and urinary albumin excretion (UAE) from a 24-hour urine collection and urinary albumin concentration (UAC) and the albumin:creatinine...... ratio (ACR) from a first-morning void in predicting renal events. The primary outcome measure was the time to a doubling of serum creatinine or end-stage renal disease. During follow-up, 202 events occurred. The hazard ratios for the risk of a renal outcome (95% CIs) associated with 1-SD increment...... in the log-transformed measures were 3.16 (2.60 to 3.86) for UAE, 3.02 (2.53 to 3.62) for UPE, 3.23 (2.67 to 3.91) for UAC, and 4.36 (3.50 to 5.45) for ACR. The area under the ROC curve was significantly higher for ACR compared with the other measures. In conclusion, measurement of the albumin:creatinine...

  7. Increased urinary zinc excretion after thermal injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boosalis, M G; Solem, L D; Cerra, F B; Konstantinides, F; Ahrenholz, D H; McCall, J T; McClain, C J

    1991-12-01

    Urinary zinc excretion normally plays a minor role in zinc homeostasis; however, urinary zinc excretion is markedly elevated after trauma or surgery, and mechanism(s) for this zinc loss are poorly defined. In this study we evaluated multiple potential mechanisms for increased urinary zinc excretion in patients with thermal injury. We documented that patients with severe thermal injury had markedly elevated urinary zinc excretion. Above 20% total body surface area burn, however, the severity of thermal injury did not correlate with urinary zinc excretion. Serum zinc concentrations were depressed on initial evaluation and gradually increased during the hospital course, whereas peak urinary zinc excretion occurred 2 to 5 weeks after injury. Thus the depression in serum zinc concentration did not temporally relate to the observed pattern of hyperzincuria. Increased urinary zinc excretion also did not temporally relate to urinary excretion of the amino acids cysteine and histidine (both of which tightly bind zinc) nor to urinary 3-methylhistidine excretion, a marker of muscle breakdown. Urinary amylase excretion, a marker of renal tubular dysfunction, did follow the pattern of urinary zinc loss to some extent, although this correlation was not perfect. Increased oral intake of zinc via zinc supplements resulted in significantly increased urinary zinc excretion. Patients receiving total parenteral nutrition (TPN) did not have significantly increased urinary zinc excretion when compared with people receiving their total nutrient intake by mouth.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. Evaluation of the Impact of Alveolar Nitrogen Excretion on Indices Derived from Multiple Breath Nitrogen Washout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Niklas; Nielsen, Jorgen G.; Horsley, Alex R.

    2013-01-01

    Background A large body of evidence has now accumulated describing the advantages of multiple breath washout tests over conventional spirometry in cystic fibrosis (CF). Although the majority of studies have used exogenous sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) as the tracer gas this has also led to an increased interest in nitrogen washout tests, despite the differences between these methods. The impact of body nitrogen excreted across the alveoli has previously been ignored. Methods A two-compartment lung model was developed that included ventilation heterogeneity and dead space (DS) effects, but also incorporated experimental data on nitrogen excretion. The model was used to assess the impact of nitrogen excretion on washout progress and accuracy of functional residual capacity (FRC) and lung clearance index (LCI) measurements. Results Excreted nitrogen had a small effect on accuracy of FRC (1.8%) in the healthy adult model. The error in LCI calculated with true FRC was greater (6.3%), and excreted nitrogen contributed 21% of the total nitrogen concentration at the end of the washout. Increasing DS and ventilation heterogeneity both caused further increase in measurement error. LCI was increased by 6–13% in a CF child model, and excreted nitrogen increased the end of washout nitrogen concentration by 24–49%. Conclusions Excreted nitrogen appears to have complex but clinically significant effects on washout progress, particularly in the presence of abnormal gas mixing. This may explain much of the previously described differences in washout outcomes between SF6 and nitrogen. PMID:24039916

  9. Evaluation of the impact of alveolar nitrogen excretion on indices derived from multiple breath nitrogen washout.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niklas Nielsen

    Full Text Available A large body of evidence has now accumulated describing the advantages of multiple breath washout tests over conventional spirometry in cystic fibrosis (CF. Although the majority of studies have used exogenous sulphur hexafluoride (SF6 as the tracer gas this has also led to an increased interest in nitrogen washout tests, despite the differences between these methods. The impact of body nitrogen excreted across the alveoli has previously been ignored.A two-compartment lung model was developed that included ventilation heterogeneity and dead space (DS effects, but also incorporated experimental data on nitrogen excretion. The model was used to assess the impact of nitrogen excretion on washout progress and accuracy of functional residual capacity (FRC and lung clearance index (LCI measurements.Excreted nitrogen had a small effect on accuracy of FRC (1.8% in the healthy adult model. The error in LCI calculated with true FRC was greater (6.3%, and excreted nitrogen contributed 21% of the total nitrogen concentration at the end of the washout. Increasing DS and ventilation heterogeneity both caused further increase in measurement error. LCI was increased by 6-13% in a CF child model, and excreted nitrogen increased the end of washout nitrogen concentration by 24-49%.Excreted nitrogen appears to have complex but clinically significant effects on washout progress, particularly in the presence of abnormal gas mixing. This may explain much of the previously described differences in washout outcomes between SF6 and nitrogen.

  10. DIETARY PROTEIN INTAKE IS INDEPENDENTLY ASSOCIATED WITH THE URINARY EXCRETION OF PHOSPHATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Dobronravov

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Decrease of urinary phosphate (P excretion and P retention triggers activation of phosphotonins and subsequent development of secondary hyperparathyroidism in progressing of chronic kidney disease (CKD. The main source of P is dietary protein. No large studies are presented to-date to evaluate the relationship between dietary protein intake and parameters of P metabolism in CKD patients. This was a goal of the cross-sectional cohort study .11315 CKD patients were entered (males 43%. Median (10th-90th percentile of age and estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR were 46 (24-69 and 64 (24-104. The analyzed data were: age, gender, body mass index (BMI serum albumin, creatinine, calcium and phosphate; 24-h urine creatinine, phosphate (P,proteinuria (DP. Estimated parameters includes: eGFR, fractional P excretion (FEP, 24-h P excretion (24-h UP, and P clearance (CP. Dietary protein intake (DPI was based on 24-h urinary urea excretion. No significant differences in serum phosphate were found in groups with various DPI. FEP, 24-h UP and CP were significantly higher in higher DPI range. DPI was positively associated with 24-h UP (β=0,287, p<0.000001 in multivariate model adjusted for age, gender, DP, eGFR, serum P, FEP, BMI, and Ca. Thus, DPI is considered to be the independent factor influencing urinary P excretion and hence contributing to progression of mineral and bone disease in renal dysfunction.

  11. Albumin-based drug delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Maja Thim; Kuhlmann, Matthias; Hvam, Michael Lykke

    2016-01-01

    The effectiveness of a drug is dependent on accumulation at the site of action at therapeutic levels, however, challenges such as rapid renal clearance, degradation or non-specific accumulation requires drug delivery enabling technologies. Albumin is a natural transport protein with multiple ligand...... binding sites, cellular receptor engagement, and a long circulatory half-life due to interaction with the recycling neonatal Fc receptor. Exploitation of these properties promotes albumin as an attractive candidate for half-life extension and targeted intracellular delivery of drugs attached by covalent...... conjugation, genetic fusions, association or ligand-mediated association. This review will give an overview of albumin-based products with focus on the natural biological properties and molecular interactions that can be harnessed for the design of a next-generation drug delivery platform....

  12. Abnormal albuminuria and blood pressure rise in incipient diabetic nephropathy induced by exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Cramer

    1984-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of light to moderate dynamic work (450 kpm/min followed by 600 kpm/min during 20 min each) on the blood pressure and renal protein handling in insulin-dependent diabetic patients with incipient nephropathy (D3) (elevated baseline albumin excretion...... but without clinical proteinuria). Fifteen male diabetic patients (D3) with a mean age of 26.5 +/- 4.8 years (SD) and a diabetes duration of 15.6 +/- 3.4 years (SD), 11 comparable diabetic patients with normal urinary albumin excretion (D2), and ten non-diabetic subjects (C) were studied. In D3 baseline....../min in D3 (193.0 mm Hg +/- 23.0) compared to D2 (170.5 +/- 17.3, 2P = 1.2%) and C (157.5 mm Hg +/- 20.9, 2P = 0.07%). Baseline albumin excretion in D3 was 82.6 micrograms/min X/ divided by 2.5 (geometric mean X/ divided by tolerance factor) and during exercise the maximal albumin excretion rose to 195...

  13. Influence of raising albumin concentration on renin release in isolated perfused rat kidneys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fray, John C. S.; Karuza, Anthony S.

    1980-01-01

    1. Experiments were conducted in isolated perfused rat kidneys to determine the effect of raising perfusate albumin concentration on renin release. 2. Raising albumin concentration in the perfusion fluid from 20 g/l. to 60 g/l. (high albumin concentration) increased renin release and renal perfusate flow rate. The effect was reversible. 3. Ureteral occlusion did not prevent the rise in renin release and renal perfusate flow induced by high albumin concentration. 4. Propranolol (0·28 mM) did not block the renin release stimulated by high albumin concentration, but it inhibited the release stimulated by isoprenaline (2·43 μM). 5. Clonidine (10 μM) and oxymetazoline (10 μM) constricted the renal vasculature and stimulated renin release during high perfusate albumin concentration providing perfusion pressure was kept constant. 6. Low renal perfusion pressure (50 mmHg) and isoprenaline (2·43 μM) stimulated renin release in perfusion experiments with both 20 and 60 g/l., but the rate of renin release was substantially greater with 60 g/l. 7. On the other hand, perfusion fluid deprived of calcium induced a greater increase in renin release in kidneys perfused with 20 g/l. than in those with 60 g/l. 8. We conclude that high albumin concentration stimulates renin release in isolated perfused rat kidneys by a mechanism which does not involve the renal nerve, direct renal vasodilation or sodium excretion. High albumin concentration may increase the sensitivity of the kidney to acute stimulation by a mechanism involving calcium. PMID:6991668

  14. Cardiovascular risk factors are differently associated with urinary albumin excretion in men and women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhave, JC; Hillege, HL; Burgerhof, JGM; Navis, G; De Zeeuw, D; De Jong, PE

    Cardiovascular morbidity and mortality is not equally distributed among genders, men being more affected than women. It is not clear whether this. is only related to a higher prevalence of the cardiovascular risk factors or to a similar prevalence of the risk factors as in women but a greater

  15. Elevated urinary albumin excretion is associated with impaired arterial dilatory capacity in clinically healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, P; Jensen, J S; Jensen, G

    2001-01-01

    (endothelium-dependent, flow-associated dilation) and to nitroglycerin (endothelium-independent, nitroglycerin-induced dilation). Plasma concentrations of the endothelial markers nitrate/nitrite, thrombomodulin, and von Willebrand factor antigen were also measured. Both flow-associated and nitroglycerin...

  16. Genome-wide association study of urinary albumin excretion rate in patients with type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandholm, Niina; Forsblom, Carol; Mäkinen, Ville-Petteri

    2014-01-01

    : The discovery phase genome-wide association study (GWAS) included 1,925 patients with type 1 diabetes and with data on 24 h AER. AER was analysed as a continuous trait and the analysis was stratified by the use of antihypertensive medication. Signals with a p value ... gene were strongly associated with albuminuria (p surrounding genetic region in 48 Finnish and 48...... UK individuals supported the possibility that population-specific rare variants contribute to the synthetic association observed at the common variants in GLRA3. The strongest replication (p = 0.026) was obtained for rs2410601 between the PSD3 and SH2D4A genes. Pathway analysis highlighted natural...

  17. Effect of candesartan on microalbuminuria and albumin excretion rate in diabetes: three randomized trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bilous, Rudy; Chaturvedi, Nish; Sjølie, Anne Katrin

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Microalbuminuria in diabetes is strongly predictive of nephropathy, end-stage renal disease, and premature cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Effective preventive therapies are therefore a clinical priority. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the angiotensin-receptor blocker candesa...

  18. Impaired left-ventricular function in insulin-dependent diabetic patients with increased urinary albumin excretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelbaek, H; Jensen, T; Feldt-Rasmussen, B

    1991-01-01

    in group II (p less than 0.05). Stroke volume was also lower in group II and III than in controls (p less than 0.05), but not so in group I. These differences could not be explained by differences in metabolic control, blood pressure, blood volume status, degree of autonomic neuropathy or frequency...

  19. Albumin metabolism in health and disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirsch, R.E.; Saunders, S.J.; Brock, J.F.

    1979-01-01

    Studies performed at the University of Cape Town on the metabolism of albumin have been reviewed. The control of albumin metabolism in protein energy malnutrition, in acute exposure to alcohol and after partial hepatectomy in the rat is discussed

  20. 21 CFR 640.80 - Albumin (Human).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Albumin (Human). 640.80 Section 640.80 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Albumin (Human) § 640.80 Albumin (Human). (a) Proper...

  1. Niacin metabolite excretion in alcoholic pellagra and AIDS patients with and without diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Jacqueline Pontes; da Cunha, Daniel Ferreira; Filho, Dalmo Correia; Silva-Vergara, Mario León; dos Santos, Vitorino Modesto; da Costa, José Carlos; Etchebehere, Renata Margarida; Gonçalves, Jussara; de Carvalho da Cunha, Selma Freire; Jordão, Alceu A; Chiarello, Paula Garcia; Vannucchi, Helio

    2004-09-01

    Malnourished patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) can develop pellagra-like manifestations such as dermatitis, diarrhea, and dementia; therefore, we tested the hypothesis that patients with AIDS and diarrhea would have niacin depletion. This study compared 24-h urine excretion of N1-methyl-nicotinamide (N1MN) among patients with pellagra and patients with AIDS who did and did not have diarrhea. Three groups were studied: G1 (patients with AIDS and diarrhea, n = 5); G2 (patients with AIDS and no diarrhea, n = 7), and G3 (patients with alcoholic pellagra and without the human immunodeficiency virus, n = 8). Diarrhea was defined as the production of at least three liquid stools per day over 3 to 5 d. Studies included mucosal intestinal biopsy, malabsorption tests, detection of parasites in stool, and serum albumin measurements. Semiquantitative food-frequency questionnaire, anthropometry, and daily urinary N1MN excretion were also determined. Groups were matched in relation to age, sex, presence of parasites in stool, and intestinal absorption results. G1 had normal intestinal examination by light microscopy and no parasites in stools. G2 group showed lower levels of serum albumin (2.6 +/- 0.3 g/dL) when compared with G1 (3.4 +/- 0.3 g/dL) and G3 (3.1 +/- 0.7 g/dL). Except for patients with pellagra, groups met their energy requirements. Patients in G3 (0.013, 0.01-0.081 mg/dL) and G1 (0.062, 0.001-0.33 mg/dL) excreted smaller amounts of N1MN in urine than did those in G2 (0.63, 0.02-2.9 mg/dL). Patients with AIDS and diarrhea excreted less N1MN in urine than did those without diarrhea. These patients may have an impaired niacin nutritional status, possibly associated with increased metabolic needs.

  2. Flocculation of diatomite by methylated egg albumin

    OpenAIRE

    Seki, Hideshi; Suzuki, Akira

    2003-01-01

    A common and inexpensive protein, egg albumin, was applied to the solid-liquid separation or flocculation of diatomite. Egg albumin was methylated in a 0.1 M HCl methyl alcohol solution at room temperature. About 90% of the carboxylic groups of egg albumin could be methylated within 24 h. The adsorption of egg albumin to diatomite at pH6.8 was remarkably enhanced by methylation. The adsorption constant of methylated egg albumin to diatomite at 30°C was about 100-fold larger than that of nativ...

  3. Iodine excretion in school children in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lone B; Kirkegaard-Klitbo, Ditte Marie; Laurberg, Peter

    2016-01-01

    objective of this study was to assess iodine excretion in children living in Copenhagen to establish whether a moderate increase in iodine fortification would lead to excess iodine intake in this group. METHODS: Children in first and fifth grade were recruited through schools in Copenhagen. In total, 244......INTRODUCTION: Studies of dietary habits show a high iodine intake in children in Denmark. Iodine excretion in children has not previously been assessed. Iodine excretion in adults is below the recommended threshold, and it is therefore being discussed to increase the fortification level. The main...... according to grade. The UIC was higher in children than in adults from the same area. CONCLUSIONS: The iodine excretion among schoolchildren in Copenhagen, an area with a relatively high iodine content in tap water, was within the recommended range as assessed by the UIC. An increased iodine fortification...

  4. Iodine excretion in school children in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lone B.; Kirkegaard-Klitbo, Ditte Marie; Laurberg, Peter

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Studies of dietary habits show a high iodine intake in children in Denmark. Iodine excretion in children has not previously been assessed. Iodine excretion in adults is below the recommended threshold, and it is therefore being discussed to increase the fortification level. The main...... according to grade. The UIC was higher in children than in adults from the same area. CONCLUSIONS: The iodine excretion among schoolchildren in Copenhagen, an area with a relatively high iodine content in tap water, was within the recommended range as assessed by the UIC. An increased iodine fortification...... objective of this study was to assess iodine excretion in children living in Copenhagen to establish whether a moderate increase in iodine fortification would lead to excess iodine intake in this group. METHODS: Children in first and fifth grade were recruited through schools in Copenhagen. In total, 244...

  5. Renal acid excretion in the domestic fowl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, S; Skadhauge, E

    1983-05-01

    1. In order to assess the role of uricotelism in net renal acid excretion, blood and ureteral urine samples were collected from five hens fed a commercial poultry feed (Diet A) and five hens fed a protein-rich, Na-poor feed (Diet B). All samples were analysed for pH, PCO2, ammonium, phosphate, uric acid and urates (UA + U) and inulin. 2. On Diet A, average pH in venous blood was 7.42, while urinary pH (pHu) ranged from 4.74 to 7.25. At average pHu (6.10), uric acid accounted for 52% of total acid excreted, H2PO4 for 20% and NH4 for 28%. Net acid excretion in ureteral urine was 345 muequiv h-1 kg body weight-1, or 5-10 times that observed in ureotelic vertebrates (amphibians and mammals). 3. The relative contributions of these urinary buffers to net renal acid excretion changed with pHu. Significant negative correlations exist between pHu and both total phosphate and ammonium excretion rates (P less than 0.001). Excretion rates of (UA + U) showed a positive correlation (P less than 0.05) with pHu. 4. Feeding on Diet B revealed the homeostatic power of the avian kidney. Blood pH and PCO2 were not changed relative to values in hens fed the control diet while striking increases in excretion rates of all urinary buffers (except HCO3) were observed. Average pHu fell to 5.12, and the average net renal acid excretion rate doubled.

  6. Asymptomatic deer excrete infectious prions in feces

    OpenAIRE

    Tamg?ney, G?ltekin; Miller, Michael W.; Wolfe, Lisa L.; Sirochman, Tracey M.; Glidden, David V.; Palmer, Christina; Lemus, Azucena; DeArmond, Stephen J.; Prusiner, Stanley B.

    2009-01-01

    Infectious prion diseases 1 ? scrapie of sheep 2 and chronic wasting disease (CWD) of several species in the deer family 3,4 ? are transmitted naturally within affected host populations. Although several possible sources of contagion have been identified in excretions and secretions from symptomatic animals 5?8 , the biological importance of these sources in sustaining epidemics remains unclear. Here we show that asymptomatic CWD-infected mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) excrete CWD prions in ...

  7. Asymptomatic deer excrete infectious prions in faeces

    OpenAIRE

    Tamgüney, G; Miller, MW; Wolfe, LL; Sirochman, TM; Glidden, DV; Palmer, C; Lemus, A; Dearmond, SJ; Prusiner, SB

    2009-01-01

    Infectious prion diseasesĝ€"scrapie of sheep and chronic wasting disease (CWD) of several species in the deer familyĝ€" are transmitted naturally within affected host populations. Although several possible sources of contagion have been identified in excretions and secretions from symptomatic animals, the biological importance of these sources in sustaining epidemics remains unclear. Here we show that asymptomatic CWD-infected mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) excrete CWD prions in their faeces...

  8. Flocculation of diatomite by methylated egg albumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seki, Hideshi; Suzuki, Akira

    2003-07-01

    A common and inexpensive protein, egg albumin, was applied to the solid-liquid separation or flocculation of diatomite. Egg albumin was methylated in a 0.05 M HCl methyl alcohol solution at room temperature. About 90% of the carboxylic groups of egg albumin could be methylated within 24 h. The adsorption of egg albumin onto diatomite at pH 6.8 was remarkably enhanced by methylation. The adsorption constant of methylated egg albumin to diatomite at 30 degrees C was about 100-fold larger than that of native egg albumin; however, the adsorption constant of methylated egg albumin decreased to about 1/100 with temperature decreasing from 30 to 6 degrees C. The saturated adsorption amount of egg albumin was also increased by the methylation. The flocculating ability of methylated egg albumin was examined with a diatomite suspension at 6 and 30 degrees C in the pH range from pH 2 to 11. The diatomite suspension was effectively flocculated by the addition of small amounts of methylated egg albumin (only 0.5-1 wt% against diatomite) over a wide pH range from pH 3 to 10.

  9. Abnormal Head Position

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Frequently Asked Questions Español Condiciones Chinese Conditions Abnormal Head Position En Español Read in Chinese What is an abnormal head posture? An abnormal or compensatory head posture occurs ...

  10. Effect of Albumin on the Biliary Clearance of Compounds in Sandwich-Cultured Rat Hepatocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Wolf, Kristina K.; Brouwer, Kenneth R.; Pollack, Gary M.; Brouwer, Kim L.R.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effects of bovine serum albumin (BSA) and essentially fatty acid-free BSA (BSA-FAF) on the biliary clearance of compounds in sandwich-cultured rat hepatocytes. Unbound fraction (fu), biliary excretion index (BEI), and unbound intrinsic biliary clearance (intrinsic Cl’biliary) were determined for digoxin, pravastatin, and taurocholate in the absence or presence of BSA or BSA-FAF. BSA had little effect on the BEI or intrinsic Cl’biliary of th...

  11. Penatalaksanaan perdarahan saluran cerna bagian atas dengan nutrisi enteral dini terhadap kadar albumin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virgianti Nur Faridah

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding generally were decreased nutritional status that hypoalbuminemia because of increased albumin excretion from hemorrhage and patients fasted indefinitely until the bleeding stops. Enteral nutrition in patients with bleeding should be given to prevent malnutrition and reduce mortality. Objective: To identify the differences in levels of albumin serum in the early enteral nutrition without waiting for the results of gastric lavage is clear (without fasting and after 2-3 times the clear gastric lavage (fasted. Method: The study used pre-experimental research design by static group comparison design. The study was conducted in RS Aisyiyah Bojonegoro in March to June 2015. The sample was 30 patients divided into 2 groups by Random Allocation, there was the treatment group I that fasted (15 patients, and treatment group II without fasted (15 patients. Analysis of data using Wilcoxon test Signed Ranks Test. Results: The research found that there were differences in the provision of early enteral nutrition to albumin. Results showed that albumin level in patients who fasted lower than that without fasted. Results Statistics by Wilcoxon Signed Rank test with a 0.05 significance level values obtained 0,046, its means that H1 was accepted. Conclusion: Patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding can be given early enteral nutrition without waiting for the results gastric lavage clear rinse.

  12. Determination of the binding properties of the uremic toxin phenylacetic acid to human serum albumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saldanha, Juliana F; Yi, Dan; Stockler-Pinto, Milena B; Soula, Hédi A; Chambert, Stéphane; Fouque, Denis; Mafra, Denise; Soulage, Christophe O

    2016-06-01

    Uremic toxins are compounds normally excreted in urine that accumulate in patients with chronic kidney disease as a result of decreased renal clearance. Phenylacetic acid (PAA) has been identified as a new protein bound uremic toxin. The purpose of this study was to investigate in vitro the interaction between PAA and human serum albumin (HSA) at physiological and pathological concentrations. We used ultrafiltration to show that there is a single high-affinity binding site for PAA on HSA, with a binding constant on the order of 3.4 × 10(4) M(-1) and a maximal stoichiometry of 1.61 mol per mole. The PAA, at the concentration reported in end-stage renal patients, was 26% bound to albumin. Fluorescent probe competition experiments demonstrated that PAA did not bind to Sudlow's site I (in subdomain IIA) and only weakly bind to Sudlow's site II (in subdomain IIIA). The PAA showed no competition with other protein-bound uremic toxins such as p-cresyl-sulfate or indoxyl sulfate for binding to serum albumin. Our results provide evidence that human serum albumin can act as carrier protein for phenylacetic acid. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and Société Française de Biochimie et Biologie Moléculaire (SFBBM). All rights reserved.

  13. Differential receptor targeting of liver cells using 99mTc-neoglycosylated human serum albumins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sungeun; Jeong, Jae Min; Hong, Mee Kyung; Jang, Ja-June; Lee, Jaetae; Lee, Dong Soo; Chung, June-Key; Lee, Myung Chul

    2008-01-01

    Neolactosyl human serum albumin (LSA) targets asialoglycoprotein receptor and shows high liver uptake due to accumulation in hepatocytes. Although neomannosyl human serum albumin (MSA) also shows high liver uptake, it has been reported to be taken up by Kupffer cells and endothelial cells. We compared the biological properties of LSA and MSA. 99mTc-LSA and 99mTc-MSA biodistribution in mice were investigated after intravenous injection. In vivo localization of rhodaminisothiocyanate (RITC)-LSA and fluoresceineisothiocyanate (FITC)-MSA were investigated in mouse liver. Excretion routes of 99mTc-LSA and 99mTc-MSA metabolites were examined. Both 99mTc-LSA and 99mTc-MSA showed high liver uptakes. RITC-LSA was taken up by hepatocytes whereas FITC-MSA was taken up by Kupffer cells and endothelial cells. 99mTc-MSA showed higher spleen and kidney uptakes than 99mTc-LSA. 99mTc-LSA metabolites excreted in urine and feces accounted for 44.4 and 50.0% of 99mTc-LSA injected, respectively, while 99mTc-MSA metabolites accounted for 51.5 and 10.3%, respectively. In conclusion, LSA is specifically taken up by hepatcytes while MSA by Kupffer cells and endothelial cells. After taken up by the liver, LSA is metabolized by the hepatocytes and then excreted through both the hepatobiliary tract and kidney, whereas MSA is metabolized by Kupffer cells and endoghelial cells and then excreted mainly through the kidney.

  14. Biliary excretion of phenolphthalein sulfate in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Sano, Naoyo; Takikawa, Hajime

    2003-08-01

    Glucuronide and glutathione conjugates have been reported to be substrates of multidrug resistance protein 2 (Mrp2), whereas sulfates of nonbile acid organic anions have never been reported as substrates of Mrp2. To further examine the substrate specificity of Mrp2, we examined the effects of bile acid sulfates on the biliary excretion of phenolphthalein sulfate in rats. The biliary excretion of phenolphthalein sulfate was markedly delayed in Eisai hyperbilirubinemic rats, an Mrp2-deficient strain, and was markedly inhibited by taurolithocholate-3-sulfate. The biliary excretion of leukotriene C(4) metabolites and sulfobromophthalein was inhibited by phenolphthalein sulfate infusion to some extent. These findings suggest that phenolphthalein sulfate is a unique sulfated nonbile acid organic anion which is a substrate of Mrp2. Copyright 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel

  15. Intestinal excretion of metals by rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaefer, S.G.

    1979-01-01

    The excretion of 65 Zn, sup(115m)Cd, 203 Hg, 207 Bi, 210 Pb, 60 Co, 64 Cu, 85 Sr and 86 Rb in the perfused sections of the intestinal tract in vivo was investigated by the pendular perfusion method. After intravenous administration the excretion of metals was investigated in the jejunum, in the colon and in some experiments also in the ileum. The fluid net movement in the jejunum and colon was measured in dependency on the energy spectrum of the applied metal isotope by means of 14 C or 3 H-polyethylene glycol 2000. (orig./MG) [de

  16. Reappraising the role of albumin for resuscitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finfer, Simon

    2013-08-01

    Fluid resuscitation is a common intervention in acute medical practice. The optimum fluid for resuscitation remains hotly debated and it is likely to vary from one clinical situation to another. Human albumin solutions have been available since the 1940s, but their use varies greatly around the world. This review examines the current evidence for and against the use of albumin as a resuscitation fluid. Fluid resuscitation with albumin has been compared to resuscitation with saline in large high-quality trials in adult ICU patients and in African children. Within overall equivalent effects, albumin may offer a slight mortality benefit in adult ICU patients with severe sepsis whilst increasing mortality in patients with traumatic brain injury. There are no recent high-quality trials comparing albumin to synthetic colloid solutions. In African children with febrile illness and compensated shock, the effects of bolus resuscitation with albumin and saline are similar, but both increase mortality compared to treatment that avoids fluid boluses. Fluid resuscitation with albumin is well tolerated and produces similar results to resuscitation with saline. Albumin should be avoided in patients with traumatic brain injury; possible benefits in adults with severe sepsis remain to be confirmed.

  17. Low-dose probenecid selectively inhibits urinary excretion of phenolsulfonphthalein in rats without affecting biliary excretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Yong-Jun; Lee, Joo Hyun; Oh, Ju-Hee; Lee, Young-Joo

    2013-06-01

    Renal organic anion transport systems play an important role in the excretion of anionic drugs and toxic compounds. Probenecid has been used as a potent inhibitor of urinary and biliary excretion of anionic compounds mediated by transporters such as organic anion transporters and multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (Mrp2). The purpose of this study was to optimize the dose of probenecid required for selective inhibition of urinary excretion of anionic compounds in rats, without inhibition of biliary excretion. Phenolsulfonphthalein (PSP), a model anionic compound that is excreted in urine and bile, was intravenously administered to rats after intraperitoneal injection of different doses of probenecid (0, 0.2, 2, 10, 100, 200 and 400 mg kg(-1) ). Treatment with 100, 200 or 400 mg kg(-1) probenecid decreased both renal clearance (CLr ) and biliary clearance (CLb ) of PSP, whereas 0.2 mg kg(-1) probenecid did not have any effect. Probenecid administered at doses of 2 and 10 mg kg(-1) decreased only CLr . The median effective doses of probenecid for inhibiting CLr and CLb were 0.925 and 23.9 mg kg(-1) , respectively. These data suggest that a low dose of probenecid selectively inhibits urinary excretion of PSP that may be mediated by organic anion transporters, without affecting biliary excretion that may be mediated by Mrp2. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Albumin Blood Test: MedlinePlus Lab Test Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/labtests/albuminbloodtest.html Albumin Blood Test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. What is an Albumin Blood Test? An albumin blood test measures the amount of ...

  19. Drug binding properties of neonatal albumin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodersen, R; Honoré, B

    1989-01-01

    Neonatal and adult albumin was isolated by gel chromatography on Sephacryl S-300, from adult and umbilical cord serum, respectively. Binding of monoacetyl-diamino-diphenyl sulfone, warfarin, sulfamethizole, and diazepam was studied by means of equilibrium dialysis and the binding data were analyzed...... by the method of several acceptable fitted curves. It was found that the binding affinity to neonatal albumin is less than to adult albumin for monoacetyl-diamino-diphenyl sulfone and warfarin. Sulfamethizole binding to the neonatal protein is similarly reduced when more than one molecule of the drug is bound...... per albumin molecule, and binding of the first sulfamethizole molecule is possibly reduced as well. Diazepam binds with equal affinity to the fetal and adult proteins. Among the two main albumin drug-binding functions, for warfarin and diazepam, the former is thus compromised in the newborn infant...

  20. Urinary growth hormone excretion in acromegaly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Main, K M; Lindholm, J; Vandeweghe, M

    1993-01-01

    The biochemical assessment of disease activity in acromegaly still presents a problem, especially in treated patients with mild clinical symptoms. We therefore examined the diagnostic value of the measurement of urinary growth hormone (GH) excretion in seventy unselected patients with acromegaly...

  1. Asymptomatic deer excrete infectious prions in faeces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamgüney, Gültekin; Miller, Michael W; Wolfe, Lisa L; Sirochman, Tracey M; Glidden, David V; Palmer, Christina; Lemus, Azucena; DeArmond, Stephen J; Prusiner, Stanley B

    2009-09-24

    Infectious prion diseases-scrapie of sheep and chronic wasting disease (CWD) of several species in the deer family-are transmitted naturally within affected host populations. Although several possible sources of contagion have been identified in excretions and secretions from symptomatic animals, the biological importance of these sources in sustaining epidemics remains unclear. Here we show that asymptomatic CWD-infected mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) excrete CWD prions in their faeces long before they develop clinical signs of prion disease. Intracerebral inoculation of irradiated deer faeces into transgenic mice overexpressing cervid prion protein (PrP) revealed infectivity in 14 of 15 faecal samples collected from five deer at 7-11 months before the onset of neurological disease. Although prion concentrations in deer faeces were considerably lower than in brain tissue from the same deer collected at the end of the disease, the estimated total infectious dose excreted in faeces by an infected deer over the disease course may approximate the total contained in a brain. Prolonged faecal prion excretion by infected deer provides a plausible natural mechanism that might explain the high incidence and efficient horizontal transmission of CWD within deer herds, as well as prion transmission among other susceptible cervids.

  2. Asymptomatic deer excrete infectious prions in feces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamgüney, Gültekin; Miller, Michael W.; Wolfe, Lisa L.; Sirochman, Tracey M.; Glidden, David V.; Palmer, Christina; Lemus, Azucena; DeArmond, Stephen J.; Prusiner, Stanley B.

    2011-01-01

    Infectious prion diseases 1 – scrapie of sheep 2 and chronic wasting disease (CWD) of several species in the deer family 3,4 – are transmitted naturally within affected host populations. Although several possible sources of contagion have been identified in excretions and secretions from symptomatic animals 5–8, the biological importance of these sources in sustaining epidemics remains unclear. Here we show that asymptomatic CWD-infected mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) excrete CWD prions in their feces long before they develop clinical signs of prion disease. Intracerebral (i.c.) inoculation of irradiated deer feces into transgenic (Tg) mice overexpressing cervid PrP revealed infectivity in 14 of 15 fecal samples collected from 5 deer at 7–11 months before the onset of neurological disease. Although prion concentrations in deer feces were considerably lower than in brain tissue from the same deer collected at the disease terminus, the estimated total infectious dose excreted in feces by an infected deer over the disease course may approximate the total contained in brain tissue. Prolonged fecal prion excretion by infected deer provides a plausible natural mechanism that might explain the high incidence and efficient horizontal transmission of CWD within deer herds 3,4,9, as well as prion transmission between susceptible deer species. PMID:19741608

  3. Power Functions Relating Excretion to Body Burden

    CERN Document Server

    Sanders, S M J

    2003-01-01

    Formulae necessary to relate the quantity of radionuclides excreted to that assimilated in exposures that are acute and those that are multiple or continuous are derived from power function relationships. Particular attention is given to providing equations having variables for which the bioassayer can easily derive numerical values. This paper presents this data.

  4. Excreted steroids in vertebrate social communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Wayne I; Meeks, Julian P

    2018-03-08

    Steroids play vital roles in animal physiology across species, and the production of specific steroids is associated with particular internal biological functions. The internal functions of steroids are, in most cases, quite clear. However, an important feature of many steroids -- their chemical stability -- allows these molecules to play secondary, external roles as chemical messengers after their excretion via urine, feces, or other shed substances. The presence of steroids in animal excretions has long been appreciated, but their capacity to serve as chemosignals has not received as much attention. In theory, the blend of steroids excreted by an animal contains a readout of its own biological state. Initial mechanistic evidence for external steroid chemosensation arose from studies of many species of fish. In sea lampreys and ray-finned fishes bile salts were identified as potent olfactory cues and later found to serve as pheromones. Recently, we and others have discovered that neurons in amphibian and mammalian olfactory systems are also highly sensitive to excreted glucocorticoids, sex steroids, and bile acids, and some of these molecules have been confirmed as mammalian pheromones. Steroid chemosensation in olfactory systems, unlike steroid detection in most tissues, is performed by plasma membrane receptors, but the details remain largely unclear. In this review, we present a broad view of steroid detection by vertebrate olfactory systems, focusing on recent research in fishes, amphibians, and mammals. We review confirmed and hypothesized mechanisms of steroid chemosensation in each group and discuss potential impacts on vertebrate social communication. Copyright © 2018 the authors.

  5. Transcapillary escape rate and relative metabolic clearance of glycated and non-glycated albumin in type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bent-Hansen, L; Feldt-Rasmussen, B; Kverneland, A

    1987-01-01

    The transcapillary escape rate and relative plasma disappearance of glycated and non-glycated albumin were measured in 25 male Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetic patients using a double tracer technique. The patients were divided into three groups on the basis of their urinary albumin excretion......: group 1, normal albumin excretion (less than 30 mg/24 h) (n = 8); group 2, microalbuminuria (30-300 mg/24 h) (n = 9); and group 3, clinical nephropathy (greater than 300 mg/24 h) (n = 8). Six male age-matched non-diabetic persons served as control subjects. The transcapillary escape rate of glycated...... albumin was similar in group 1 and control subjects (4.7 +/- 2.1 versus 5.1 +/- 1.7%), but significantly increased in group 2 (7.0 +/- 1.7%, p less than 0.05) and in group 3 (7.9 +/- 3.1%, p less than 0.05). The transcapillary escape rate of glycated albumin was slightly lower than that of non...

  6. Renal metabolism and urinary excretion of platelet-activating factor in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noris, M.; Perico, N.; Macconi, D.; Nanni, V.; Dadan, J.; Peterlongo, F.; Remuzzi, G.

    1990-01-01

    The origin of platelet-activating factor (PAF) in the urine remains ill defined. The present study documents that [3H]PAF (3.5 mu Ci) injected into the renal artery of isolated control rat kidney preparations perfused at constant pressure with a cell-free medium containing 1% bovine serum albumin (BSA) was excreted in negligible amounts (0.034%) in the urine, whereas 6% was retained by the kidney. When kidneys were perfused with a BSA-free medium, 0.029 and 71% of the total radioactivity added to the perfusate was recovered in the urine and in the renal tissue, respectively. [3H]PAF urine excretion in proteinuric kidneys from adriamycin-treated rats was still negligible (0.015%). Analysis of the renal tissue-retained radioactivity in control and proteinuric kidneys perfused with 1% BSA indicated metabolism into long chain acyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphorylcholine species, lyso-PAF, glycerols, and intact PAF. Thin layer chromatography analysis of [3H]glycerol fraction in these renal extracts showed two major components comigrating with 1-O-alkylglycerol and 1-O-alkyl-2-fatty acylglycerol. Isolated proximal tubules, but not glomeruli from nephrotic rats exposed to increasing concentrations of BSA (0-4%), had a higher PAF uptake than control tubules for BSA concentrations ranging from 0 to 0.1%. Our findings in the isolated perfused kidneys indicate that, in normal conditions, circulating PAF is excreted in the urine in negligible amounts and that the altered glomerular permeability to proteins does not affect this excretion rate. Moreover, analysis of renal tissue radioactivity documented that the renal metabolism of PAF is comparable in control and nephrotic kidneys

  7. Abnormal intestinal permeability in primary biliary cirrhosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feld, Jordan J; Meddings, Jonathan; Heathcote, E Jenny

    2006-09-01

    Antimitochondrial antibodies (AMAs) found in patients with primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) cross-react with bacterial proteins and hence molecular mimicry has been proposed as a mechanism for AMA development. Alterations in gastrointestinal permeability would provide a potential route for increased exposure of gut flora to the immune system. In this study we aimed to compare the measured gastrointestinal permeability in patients with PBC to that in patients with liver disease (hepatitis C) and healthy control populations. Subjects drank a mixture of sucrose, lactulose, and mannitol dissolved in water. Eight-hour urinary excretion of the sugars was measured to assess intestinal permeability. Antiendomysial antibody testing was performed to exclude subclinical celiac disease. Eighty-six patients with PBC were evaluated and compared to 69 hepatitis C patients and 155 healthy controls. The mean urinary excretion of sucrose in the PBC patients (133.89 +/- 72.56 mg) was significantly higher than that in hepatitis C patients (101.07+/-63.35) or healthy controls (89.46+/-41.76) (P=0.0001), suggesting abnormal gastric or proximal small intestinal permeability. Sucrose excretion was not increased among patients with hepatitis C compared to healthy controls. The ratio of lactulose:mannitol excretion, reflecting small bowel permeability, was also elevated in the PBC group (0.017+/-0.012) compared to healthy controls (0.012+/-0.007) (P=0.0001) but was equal to that found among patients with hepatitis C (0.016+/-0.011) (P=NS). We conclude that the permeability of both the stomach and the small bowel is increased in patients with PBC, however, it is unclear if it is a cause, consequence, or manifestation of the disease.

  8. Tooth - abnormal colors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003065.htm Tooth - abnormal colors To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Abnormal tooth color is any color other than white to yellowish- ...

  9. Urine - abnormal color

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003139.htm Urine - abnormal color To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The usual color of urine is straw-yellow. Abnormally colored urine ...

  10. Abnormal uterine bleeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anovulatory bleeding; Abnormal uterine bleeding - hormonal; Polymenorrhea - dysfunctional uterine bleeding ... ACOG committee opinion no. 557: Management of acute abnormal uterine bleeding in nonpregnant reproductive-aged women. Reaffirmed 2015. ACOG. ...

  11. Utilização da relação albumina/creatinina no diagnóstico de microalbuminúria Diagnostic value of the albumin/creatinine ratio in detecting microalbuminuria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Virgínia Bottini

    2005-04-01

    regression (least square method was used to evaluate the correlation between both methods. The accuracy of the albumin to creatinine ratio (ACR was assessed considering the decision level of 30mg/g. RESULTS: 33 patients had abnormal urinary albumin excretion (UAE > 20µg/min. There was a significant correlation between UAE and ACR (r = 0.902, p < 0.05. The ACR accuracy was 90%, with sensitivity of 88% and specificity of 90%. CONCLUSION: This study shows the diagnostic value of the albumin/creatinine ratio in detecting microalbuminuria.

  12. Intestinal Farnesoid X Receptor Controls Transintestinal Cholesterol Excretion in Mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, Jan Freark; Schonewille, Marleen; Boesjes, Marije; Wolters, Henk; Bloks, Vincent W.; Bos, Trijnie; van Dijk, Theo H.; Jurdzinski, Angelika; Boverhof, Renze; Wolters, Justina C.; Kuivenhoven, Jan A.; van Deursen, Jan M.; Oude Elferink, Ronald P. J.; Moschetta, Antonio; Kremoser, Claus; Verkade, Henkjan J.; Kuipers, Folkert; Groen, Albert K.

    2017-01-01

    The role of the intestine in the maintenance of cholesterol homeostasis increasingly is recognized. Fecal excretion of cholesterol is the last step in the atheroprotective reverse cholesterol transport pathway, to which biliary and transintestinal cholesterol excretion (TICE) contribute. The

  13. Method for obtaining more precise measures of excreted organic carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    A new method for concentrating and measuring excreted organic carbon by lyophilization and scintillation counting is efficient, improves measurable radioactivity, and increases precision for estimates of organic carbon excreted by phytoplankton and macrophytes

  14. The use of albumin in the complications of cirrhosis: evidence and future perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Tovoli

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The therapeutic use of albumin in cirrhosis dates back to the 50s, when hypoalbuminemia was thought to play a crucial role in the pathophysiology of ascites. Today, while its efficacy in the treatment of ascites is still under investigation, it has been proved that albumin is able to improve patient outcome and survival in some specific complications of cirrhosis, such as the prevention of post-paracentesis circulatory dysfunction and the treatment of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis and hepatorenal syndrome. Beside its oncotic power, albumin carries other biological properties, the so called non-oncotic properties, including transportation and detoxification of several molecules, free radical scavenging, modulation of vascular permeability, activity on the immune system and on the haemostatic balance. Some experimental evidences indicate that not only albumin concentration but also its function is reduced in patients with cirrhosis. However, the clinical implications of such functional abnormalities is still unclear. We here present the available evidence on the use of albumin in cirrhosis and future perspectives.http://dx.doi.org/10.7175/rhc.v4i3.659

  15. Effects of hypothyroidism on vascular /sup 125/I-albumin permeation and blood flow in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tilton, R.G.; Pugliese, G.; Chang, K.; Speedy, A.; Province, M.A.; Kilo, C.; Williamson, J.R.

    1989-05-01

    Effects of hypothyroidism on vascular 125I-albumin permeation and on blood flow were assessed in multiple tissues of male Sprague-Dawley rats rendered hypothyroid by dietary supplementation with 0.5% (wt/wt) 2-thiouracil or by thyroidectomy. In both thiouracil-treated and thyroidectomized rats, body weights, kidney weight, arterial blood pressure, and pulse rate were decreased significantly v age-matched controls. After 10 to 12 weeks of thiouracil treatment, 125I-albumin permeation was increased significantly in the kidney, aorta, eye (anterior uvea, choroid, retina), skin, and new granulation tissue, remained unchanged in brain, sciatic nerve, and heart, and was decreased in forelimb skeletal muscle. A similar pattern was observed in thyroidectomized rats, except that increases in 125I-albumin permeation for all tissues were smaller than those observed in thiouracil-treated rats, and 125I-albumin permeation in retina did not differ from controls. In both thiouracil-treated and thyroidectomized rats, changes in blood flow (assessed with 15-microns, 85Sr-labeled microspheres) relative to the decrease in arterial blood pressure were indicative of a decrease in regional vascular resistance except in the choroid and in the kidney, in which vascular resistance was increased significantly. Glomerular filtration rate was decreased, but filtration fraction and urinary excretion of albumin remained unchanged by thiouracil treatment and thyroidectomy. These results indicate that vascular hemodynamics and endothelial cell barrier functional integrity are modulated in many different tissues by the thyroid. In view of the correspondence of hypothyroid- and diabetes-induced vascular permeability changes, these results raise the possibility that altered thyroid function in diabetes may play a role in the pathogenesis of diabetic vascular disease.

  16. Drug binding properties of neonatal albumin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodersen, R; Honoré, B

    1989-01-01

    Neonatal and adult albumin was isolated by gel chromatography on Sephacryl S-300, from adult and umbilical cord serum, respectively. Binding of monoacetyl-diamino-diphenyl sulfone, warfarin, sulfamethizole, and diazepam was studied by means of equilibrium dialysis and the binding data were analyzed...... by the method of several acceptable fitted curves. It was found that the binding affinity to neonatal albumin is less than to adult albumin for monoacetyl-diamino-diphenyl sulfone and warfarin. Sulfamethizole binding to the neonatal protein is similarly reduced when more than one molecule of the drug is bound...

  17. Site-selective conjugation of an anticoagulant aptamer to recombinant albumins and maintenance of neonatal Fc receptor binding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmøkel, Julie; Voldum, Anders; Tsakiridou, Georgia; Kuhlmann, Matthias; Cameron, Jason; Sørensen, Esben S.; Wengel, Jesper; Howard, Kenneth A.

    2017-05-01

    Aptamers are an attractive molecular medicine that offers high target specificity. Nucleic acid-based aptamers, however, are prone to nuclease degradation and rapid renal excretion that require blood circulatory half-life extension enabling technologies. The long circulatory half-life, predominately facilitated by engagement with the cellular recycling neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn), and ligand transport properties of albumin promote it as an attractive candidate to improve the pharmacokinetic profile of aptamers. This study investigates the effect of Cys34 site-selective covalent attachment of a factor IXa anticoagulant aptamer on aptamer functionality and human FcRn (hFcRn) engagement using recombinant human albumin (rHA) of either a wild type (WT) or an engineered human FcRn high binding variant (HB). Albumin-aptamer conjugates, connected covalently through a heterobifunctional succinimidyl 4-(N-maleimidomethyl)cyclohexane-1-carboxylate linker, were successfully prepared and purified by high performance liquid chromatography as confirmed by gel electrophoresis band-shift analysis and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight. Minimal reduction (∼25%) in activity of WT-linked aptamer to that of aptamer alone was found using an anticoagulant activity assay measuring temporal levels of activated partial thrombin. Covalent albumin-aptamer conjugation, however, substantially compromized binding to hFcRn, to 10% affinity of that of non-conjugated WT, determined by biolayer interferometry. Binding could be rescued by aptamer conjugation to recombinant albumin engineered for higher FcRn affinity (HB) that exhibited an 8-fold affinity compared to WT alone. This work describes a novel albumin-based aptamer delivery system whose hFcRn binding can be increased using a HB engineered albumin.

  18. Urinary growth hormone excretion in 657 healthy children and adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Main, K; Philips, M; Jørgensen, M

    1991-01-01

    -GH excretion (pg/h) was significantly higher in females than in males (p less than 0.01). In Tanner stages 1-4, u-GH excretion during the day was lower than that at night, whereas the opposite was true in late puberty and in adult women. The interindividual variation of u-GH excretion within the same Tanner...

  19. Excretion of polyamines by children with Beckwith's syndrome.

    OpenAIRE

    Barlow, G B

    1980-01-01

    The urinary excretion of the polyamines--putrescine, spermidine, and spermine--was measured in 7 children with Beckwith's syndrome. Putrescine excretion was raised and spermidine excretion reduced. The raised putrescine and the low spermidine ratios were highly significant. These results are consistent with a disturbance in a metabolic pathway under growth hormone-like regulation.

  20. Albumin synthesis in protein energy malnutrition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duggan, C.; Hardy, S.; Kleinman, R.E.; Lembcke, J.; Young, V.E.

    1994-01-01

    The dietary treatment of protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) has been designed on an empirical basis, with outcomes for successful management including body weight gain and resolution of apathy. We propose using the measurements of protein synthesis as a more objective measure of renourishment. We will therefore randomize a group of malnourished children (weigh-for-height Z score 13 C-leucine and serial measurements of 13 C-enrichment of albumin. Isotope infusions will be performed on days one and three, following a standard three hour fast. Since albumin synthesis is reduced under the influence of cytokines which mediate the inflammatory response, results will be stratified according to the presence or absence of clinically apparent infections. We hypothesize that the provision of added dietary protein will optimize albumin synthesis rates in PEM as well as attenuate the reduction in albumin synthesis seen in the presence of infections. (author). 20 refs

  1. Albumin-stabilized fluorescent silver nanodots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sych, Tomash; Polyanichko, Alexander; Kononov, Alexei

    2017-07-01

    Ligand-stabilized Ag nanoclusters (NCs) possess many attractive features including high fluorescence quantum yield, large absorption cross-section, good photostability, large Stokes shift and two-photon absorption cross sections. While plenty of fluorescent clusters have been synthesized on various polymer templates, only a few studies have been reported on the fluorescent Ag clusters on peptides and proteins. We study silver NCs synthesized on different protein matrices, including bovine serum albumin, human serum albumin, egg albumin, equine serum albumin, and lysozyme. Our results show that red-emitting Ag NCs can effectively be stabilized by the disulfide bonds in proteins and that the looser structure of the denatured protein favors formation of the clusters.

  2. Excretion rates of uranium in urine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischbach, G.

    1998-01-01

    Summarising the results obtained at RB Hanau, the following statements are made: For determination of the contribution of uranium excreted in urine emanating from intake through the diet, a carefully planned measuring programme should be performed with individuals whose examination delivered reliable evidence that they have not been exposed before. The measuring methods of the participating laboratories are to be monitored for comparability and reproducibility of results, for corrections to be made if necessary. In order to eliminate or flatten individual fluctuations in excretion, urine samples collected over two or more subsequent days should be used for monitoring. The highest detection limit to be required for the programme should be at least 1 mBq for one daily sample. (orig./CB) [de

  3. Utilizing Estimated Creatinine Excretion to Improve the Performance of Spot Urine Samples for the Determination of Proteinuria in Kidney Transplant Recipients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Ke Wang

    Full Text Available Agreement between spot and 24-hour urine protein measurements is poor in kidney transplant recipients. We investigated whether using formulae to estimate creatinine excretion rate (eCER, rather than assuming a standard creatinine excretion rate, would improve the estimation of proteinuria from spot urine samples in kidney transplant recipients.We measured 24 hour urine protein and albumin and spot albumin:creatinine (ACR and spot protein:creatinine (PCR in 181 Kidney transplant recipients." We utilized 6 different published formulae (Fotheringham, CKD-EPI, Cockcroft-Gault, Walser, Goldwasser and Rule to estimate eCER and from it calculated estimated albumin and protein excretion rate (eAER and ePER. Bias, precision and accuracy (within 15%, 30% and 50% of ACR, PCR, eAER, ePER were compared to 24-hour urine protein and albumin.ACR and PCR significantly underestimated 24-hour albumin and protein excretion (ACR Bias (IQR, -5.9 mg/day; p< 0.01; PCR Bias, (IQR, -35.2 mg/day; p<0.01. None of the formulae used to calculate eAER or ePER had a bias that was significantly different from the 24-hour collection (eAER and ePER bias: Fotheringham -0.3 and 7.2, CKD-EPI 0.3 and 13.5, Cockcroft-Gault -3.2 and -13.9, Walser -1.7 and 3.1, Goldwasser -1.3 and -0.5, Rule -0.6 and 4.2 mg/day respectively. The accuracy for ACR and PCR were lower (within 30% being 38% and 43% respectively than the corresponding values estimated by utilizing eCER (for eAER 46% to 49% and ePER 46-54%.Utilizing estimated creatinine excretion to calculate eAER and ePER improves the estimation of 24-hour albuminuria/proteinuria with spot urine samples in kidney transplant recipients.

  4. Urine alkalization facilitates uric acid excretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyama Issei

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increase in the incidence of hyperuricemia associated with gout as well as hypertension, renal diseases and cardiovascular diseases has been a public health concern. We examined the possibility of facilitated excretion of uric acid by change in urine pH by managing food materials. Methods Within the framework of the Japanese government's health promotion program, we made recipes which consist of protein-rich and less vegetable-fruit food materials for H+-load (acid diet and others composed of less protein but vegetable-fruit rich food materials (alkali diet. Healthy female students were enrolled in this consecutive 5-day study for each test. From whole-day collected urine, total volume, pH, organic acid, creatinine, uric acid and all cations (Na+,K+,Ca2+,Mg2+,NH4+ and anions (Cl-,SO42-,PO4- necessary for the estimation of acid-base balance were measured. Results Urine pH reached a steady state 3 days after switching from ordinary daily diets to specified regimens. The amount of acid generated ([SO42-] +organic acid-gut alkai were linearly related with those of the excretion of acid (titratable acidity+ [NH4+] - [HCO3-], indicating that H+ in urine is generated by the metabolic degradation of food materials. Uric acid and excreted urine pH retained a linear relationship, where uric acid excretion increased from 302 mg/day at pH 5.9 to 413 mg/day at pH 6.5, despite the fact that the alkali diet contained a smaller purine load than the acid diet. Conclusion We conclude that alkalization of urine by eating nutritionally well-designed food is effective for removing uric acid from the body.

  5. Urine alkalization facilitates uric acid excretion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Increase in the incidence of hyperuricemia associated with gout as well as hypertension, renal diseases and cardiovascular diseases has been a public health concern. We examined the possibility of facilitated excretion of uric acid by change in urine pH by managing food materials. Methods Within the framework of the Japanese government's health promotion program, we made recipes which consist of protein-rich and less vegetable-fruit food materials for H+-load (acid diet) and others composed of less protein but vegetable-fruit rich food materials (alkali diet). Healthy female students were enrolled in this consecutive 5-day study for each test. From whole-day collected urine, total volume, pH, organic acid, creatinine, uric acid and all cations (Na+,K+,Ca2+,Mg2+,NH4+) and anions (Cl-,SO42-,PO4-) necessary for the estimation of acid-base balance were measured. Results Urine pH reached a steady state 3 days after switching from ordinary daily diets to specified regimens. The amount of acid generated ([SO42-] +organic acid-gut alkai) were linearly related with those of the excretion of acid (titratable acidity+ [NH4+] - [HCO3-]), indicating that H+ in urine is generated by the metabolic degradation of food materials. Uric acid and excreted urine pH retained a linear relationship, where uric acid excretion increased from 302 mg/day at pH 5.9 to 413 mg/day at pH 6.5, despite the fact that the alkali diet contained a smaller purine load than the acid diet. Conclusion We conclude that alkalization of urine by eating nutritionally well-designed food is effective for removing uric acid from the body. PMID:20955624

  6. Contributions to the study of albumins from thyroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Netto, M.

    1975-01-01

    72 human thyroid were analysed from which 27 corresponded to normal tissue, 30 to nodular goiters(21 'cold' nodules and 9 'hot' nodules), 10 to adenocarcinomas, 3 to ganglionar metastasis of thyroidal adenocarcinoma and 2 to Hashimoto's thyroiditis. The concentration of total albumin and serumalbumin were determined in these tissues thus permitting the estimation of thyralbumin concentration. The results obtained showed a significantly higher concentration of thyralbumin as compared to serumalbumin in all tissue samples. A significant correlation between the content of blood in the thyroid extracts and its concentration of thyralbumin was also found. The hypothesis that thyralbumin was produced in the gland was therefore accepted. Furthermore, the thyralbumin content of abnormal tissues was always higher than that found in normal thyroids [pt

  7. Nocturnal excretion of 6-sulphatoxymelatonin in children and adolescents with autistic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tordjman, Sylvie; Anderson, George M; Pichard, Nadège; Charbuy, Henriette; Touitou, Yvan

    2005-01-15

    Many studies in autistic disorder report sleep problems and altered circadian rhythms, suggesting abnormalities in melatonin physiology. Additionally, melatonin, a pineal gland hormone produced from serotonin, is of special interest in autistic disorder given reported alterations in central and peripheral serotonin neurobiology. Nocturnal urinary excretion of 6-sulphatoxymelatonin was measured by radioimmunoassay in groups of children and adolescents with autistic disorder (n = 49) and normal control individuals (n = 88) matched on age, sex, and Tanner stage of puberty. Nocturnal 6-sulphatoxymelatonin excretion rate was significantly and substantially lower in patients with autism than in normal controls (mean +/- SEM, .75 +/- .11 vs. 1.80 +/- .17 microg/hr, p =.0001), and was significantly negatively correlated with severity of autistic impairments in verbal communication and play (p autistic disorder, and to determine the utility of melatonin administration in individuals with autism.

  8. Preparation and characterization of microspheres of albumin-heparin conjugates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwon, Glen S.; Bae, You Han; Kim, Sung Wan; Cremers, Harry; Cremers, H.F.M.; Feijen, Jan

    1991-01-01

    Albumin-heparin microspheres have been prepared as a new drug carrier. A soluble albumin-heparin conjugate was synthesized by forming amide bonds between human serum albumin and heparin. After purification the albumin-heparin conjugate was crosslinked in a water-in-oil emulsion to form

  9. Albumin nanostructures as advanced drug delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Mahdi; Bahrami, Sajad; Ravari, Soodeh Baghaee; Zangabad, Parham Sahandi; Mirshekari, Hamed; Bozorgomid, Mahnaz; Shahreza, Somayeh; Sori, Masume; Hamblin, Michael R

    2016-11-01

    One of the biggest impacts that the nanotechnology has made on medicine and biology, has been in the area of drug delivery systems (DDSs). Many drugs suffer from serious problems concerning insolubility, instability in biological environments, poor uptake into cells and tissues, sub-optimal selectivity for targets and unwanted side effects. Nanocarriers can be designed as DDSs to overcome many of these drawbacks. One of the most versatile building blocks to prepare these nanocarriers is the ubiquitous, readily available and inexpensive protein, serum albumin. Areas covered: This review covers the use of different types of albumin (human, bovine, rat, and chicken egg) to prepare nanoparticle and microparticle-based structures to bind drugs. Various methods have been used to modify the albumin structure. A range of targeting ligands can be attached to the albumin that can be recognized by specific cell receptors that are expressed on target cells or tissues. Expert opinion: The particular advantages of albumin used in DDSs include ready availability, ease of chemical modification, good biocompatibility, and low immunogenicity. The regulatory approvals that have been received for several albumin-based therapeutic agents suggest that this approach will continue to be successfully explored.

  10. Urinary NO3 excretion and renal failure in indinavir-treated patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Eira

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Treatment with indinavir (IDV, a protease inhibitor, is frequently associated with renal abnormalities. We determined the incidence of renal failure (creatinine clearance <80 mL min-1 1.73 (m²-1 in HIV patients treated with highly active antiretroviral therapy, including IDV, and investigated the possible mechanisms and risk factors of IDV nephrotoxicity. Thirty-six patients receiving IDV were followed for 3 years. All were assessed for age, body weight, duration of infection, duration of IDV treatment, sulfur-derivative use, total cholesterol, triglycerides, magnesium, sodium, potassium, creatinine, and urinalysis. We also determined renal function in terms of creatinine clearance, urine osmolality and fractional excretion of sodium, potassium, and water. Urinary nitrate (NO3 excretion was measured in 18 IDV-treated patients and compared with that of 8 patients treated with efavirenz, a drug without renal side effects. Sterile leukocyturia occurred in 80.5% of the IDV-treated patients. Creatinine clearance <80 mL min-1 1.73 (m²-1 was observed in 22 patients (61% and was associated with low body weight and the use of sulfur-derivatives. These patients also had lower osmolality, lower urine volume and a higher fractional excretion of water compared to the normal renal function group. Urinary NO3 excretion was significantly lower in IDV-treated patients (809 ± 181 µM NO3-/mg creatinine than in efavirenz-treated patients (2247 ± 648 µM NO3-/mg creatinine, P < 0.01. The lower NO3 excretion suggests that IDV decreases nitric oxide production.

  11. Appraisal of the 14C-glycocholate acid test with special reference to the measurement of faecal 14C excretion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scarpello, J.H.B.; Sladen, G.E.

    1977-01-01

    The 14 C-glycocholate test, including the measurement of marker corrected faecal 14 C, has been assessed in the following groups of subjects: normal controls (18), patients with diarrhoea not attributable to altered bile acid metabolism (21), patients with diverticula of the small intestine (12), patients with previous resection of ileum and often proximal colon (34), and established ileostomists (10). Patients with diverticular disease had increased breath 14 CO 2 excretion, but normal faecal excretion of 14 C, and this test was more frequently abnormal than the Schilling test. Ileostomists excreted increased amounts of faecal 14 C, even when the ileum was intact and apparently normal. The pattern after resection was complex. Breath 14 C output was normal if the ileal resection was less than 25 cm in length, although some of these patients had increased faecal 14 C excretion if, in addition, at least 15 cm of proximal colon had been resected or by-passed. Longer ileal resections were associated with increased breath and/or faecal 14 C excretion, depending in part on the length of colon resected or by-passed and the 24 hour faecal volume. Fewer than half these patients had both increased breath and faecal excretion of isotope and faecal 14 C alone was occasionally normal with an ileal resection of 50 cm or more. The 14 C-glycocholate test was more frequently abnormal than the Schilling test in this group. The use of faecal marker correction had only a minor impact on the results. These data suggest that, in patients with ileal resection, faecal 14 C, like faecal weight, is determined by the extent of colonic resection as well as by the amount of ileum resected. (author)

  12. The impact of change in albumin assay on reference intervals, prevalence of 'hypoalbuminaemia' and albumin prescriptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coley-Grant, Deon; Herbert, Mike; Cornes, Michael P; Barlow, Ian M; Ford, Clare; Gama, Rousseau

    2016-01-01

    We studied the impact on reference intervals, classification of patients with hypoalbuminaemia and albumin infusion prescriptions on changing from a bromocresol green (BCG) to a bromocresol purple (BCP) serum albumin assay. Passing-Bablok regression analysis and Bland-Altman plot were used to compare Abbott BCP and Roche BCG methods. Linear regression analysis was used to compare in-house and an external laboratory Abbott BCP serum albumin results. Reference intervals for Abbott BCP serum albumin were derived in two different laboratories using pathology data from adult patients in primary care. Prescriptions for 20% albumin infusions were compared one year before and one year after changing the albumin method. Abbott BCP assay had a negative bias of approximately 6 g/L compared with Roche BCG method.There was good agreement (y = 1.04 x - 1.03; R(2 )= 0.9933) between in-house and external laboratory Abbott BCP results. Reference intervals for the serum albumin Abbott BCP assay were 31-45 g/L, different to those recommended by Pathology Harmony and the manufacturers (35-50 g/L). Following the change in method there was a large increase in the number of patients classified as hypoalbuminaemic using Pathology Harmony references intervals (32%) but not when retrospectively compared to locally derived reference intervals (16%) compared with the previous year (12%). The method change was associated with a 44.6% increase in albumin prescriptions. This equated to an annual increase in expenditure of £35,234. We suggest that serum albumin reference intervals be method specific to prevent misclassification of albumin status in patients. Change in albumin methodology may have significant impact on hospital resources. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. The role of albumin conformation in the binding of diazepam to human serum albumin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilting, J.; Hart, B.J. 't; Gier, J.J. de

    2006-01-01

    The effect of hydrogen, chloride and calcium ions on the binding of diazepare to human serum albumin has been studied by circular dichroism and equilibrium dialysis. In all cases the molar ellipticity of the diazepam-albumin complex increases with pH over the pH range 5 to 9. Under these

  14. Renal energy excretion of horses depends on renal hippuric acid and nitrogen excretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hipp, B; Südekum, K-H; Zeyner, A; Goren, G; Kienzle, E

    2018-02-01

    The prediction of renal energy excretion is crucial in a metabolizable energy system for horses. Phenolic acids from forage cell walls may affect renal energy losses by increasing hippuric acid excretion. Therefore, the relationships were investigated between renal energy, nitrogen (N) and hippuric acid excretion of four adult ponies (230-384 kg body weight (BW)) consuming diets based on fresh grass, grass silage, grass cobs (heat-dried, finely chopped, pressed grass), alfalfa hay, straw, extruded straw and soybean meal. Feed intake was measured; urine and faeces were quantitatively collected for three days. Feed was analysed for crude nutrients, gross energy, amino acids and neutral-detergent-insoluble crude protein (CP); faeces were analysed for crude nutrients and cross energy; urine was analysed for N, hippuric acid, creatinine and gross energy. Renal energy excretion (y; kJ/kg BW 0.75 ) correlated with renal N excretion (x 1 ; g/kg BW 0.75 ) and renal hippuric acid excretion (x 2 ; g/kg BW 0.75 ): y = 14.4 + 30.2x 1 +20.7x 2 (r = .95; n = 30; p energy losses per gram CP intake: (i) protein supplements (e.g., soybean meal): 4.2-4.9 kJ/g CP intake (ii) alfalfa hay, grains, dried sugar beet pulp: 6.4 kJ/g CP intake, (iii) hay, preserved grass products, straw: 5.2-12.3 kJ/g CP intake (mean 8) and (iv) fresh grass. For group (iii) a negative relationship was observed between renal energy losses per gram of CP and the content of CP or neutral-detergent-insoluble CP in dry matter. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  15. Effects of immunizing gilts against zearalenone on height of vaginal epithelium and urinary excretion of zearalenone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDougald, O A; Thulin, A J; Weldon, W C; Pestka, J J; Fogwell, R L

    1990-11-01

    Two experiments were conducted to develop a vaginal epithelium bioassay for zearalenone (Z) and to determine whether immunization against Z would prevent Z mycotoxicosis. Eleven gilts were ovariectomized and allotted by weight to dietary doses of 50, 150 or 350 micrograms Z/kg BW daily for 3 d. All doses of Z increased height of the vaginal epithelium. Height of the vaginal epithelium in gilts fed 150 or 350 micrograms Z/kg BW increased more than that in gilts fed 50 micrograms Z/kg BW. Twenty-four gilts then were ovariectomized and allotted to be immunized or not immunized. A Z-bovine serum albumin conjugate was injected into gilts to achieve immunization. Ten weeks after initial immunization, antibodies to Z were detected after a 1:10(7) dilution at greater than .1 absorbance units using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and gilts were allotted by weight to diets with no Z or 150 micrograms Z/kg BW daily for 3 d. Immunization alone had no effect on height of vaginal epithelium, but after 3 and 10 d, immunized gilts fed Z had higher vaginal epithelium than did nonimmunized gilts fed Z. Immunized gilts excreted a larger percentage of ingested Z than nonimmunized gilts did. Therefore, immunizing gilts against Z potentiated both the estrogenic effects of Z and urinary excretion of Z equivalents.

  16. Nickel Excretion in Urine after Oral Administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Menne, T.; Mikkelsen, H. I.; Solgaard, Per Bent

    1978-01-01

    In recent years the importance of internal exposure to nickel in patients with recurrent hand eczema and nickel allergy has become evident. The present study was performed in order to investigate the value of urinary nickel determinations as an index of oral nickel intake. After oral administration...... of 5.6 mg nickel (as the sulfate), increased nickel excretion was found over the following 2-3 days. We conclude that consecutive urinary nickel determinations are able to disclose variations in oral intake of nickel....

  17. Excretion of Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol in Sweat

    OpenAIRE

    Huestis, Marilyn A.; Scheidweiler, Karl B.; Saito, Takeshi; Fortner, Neil; Abraham, Tsadik; Gustafson, Richard A.; Smith, Michael L.

    2007-01-01

    Sweat testing is a noninvasive technique for monitoring drug exposure over a 7-day period in treatment, criminal justice, and employment settings. We evaluated Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) excretion in 11 daily cannabis users after cessation of drug use. PharmChek® sweat patches worn for 7 days were analyzed for THC by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The limit of quantification (LOQ) for the method was 0.4 ng THC/patch. Sweat patches worn the first week of continuously monitore...

  18. Defining Abnormally Low Tenders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ølykke, Grith Skovgaard; Nyström, Johan

    2017-01-01

    The concept of an abnormally low tender is not defined in EU public procurement law. This article takes an interdisciplinary law and economics approach to examine a dataset consisting of Swedish and Danish judgments and verdicts concerning the concept of an abnormally low tender. The purpose...

  19. The effect of ACTH upon faecal glucocorticoid excretion in the koala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Nicole; Gillett, Amber; McAlpine, Clive; Seabrook, Leonie; Baxter, Greg; Lunney, Daniel; Bradley, Adrian

    2013-10-01

    Environmental changes result in physiological responses of organisms, which can adversely affect population dynamics and reduce resistance to disease. These changes are expressed in chronic levels of stress. The measurement of glucocorticoid (GC) concentrations in faeces is a non-invasive method for monitoring stress in wildlife. The metabolism and excretion of steroids differ significantly between species and, as a consequence, non-invasive methods must be physiologically validated for each species. Koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) are declining in numbers through much of their range. The role of chronic stress in koala populations has not been identified. Prior to the assessment of faecal GC concentrations in wild koala populations, the excretion timing and concentrations of GCs need to be determined. In this study, we assessed a method for identifying and measuring the concentrations of GC metabolites in faecal pellets of captive koalas following ACTH treatment. The results show that an elevation of plasma cortisol concentrations, using sustained release of ACTH, results in elevated concentrations of faecal cortisol/cortisol metabolites. Taking into account the excretion time lag, an increase in faecal cortisol metabolite concentrations corresponds to the release of GCs from the adrenal cortex as early as 36 h before faecal pellet collection. The calculations of steroid partitioning of plasma cortisol showed that the ACTH-stimulated values were significantly different from the control values for the concentrations of free, corticosteroid-binding globulin-bound and albumin-bound cortisol. This study validates the use of faecal cortisol analysis to assess the activity of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical axis in freshly collected koala faecal pellets and indicates that the method should be suitable to assess the adrenocortical status of koalas in wild populations.

  20. Site-selective conjugation of an anticoagulant aptamer to recombinant albumins and maintenance of neonatal Fc receptor binding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmøkel, Julie; Voldum, Anders; Tsakiridou, Georgia

    2017-01-01

    -life, predominately facilitated by engagement with the cellular recycling neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn), and ligand transport properties of albumin promote it as an attractive candidate to improve the pharmacokinetic profile of aptamers. This study investigates the effect of Cys34 site-selective covalent attachment......Aptamers are an attractive molecular medicine that offers high target specificity. Nucleic acid-based aptamers, however, are prone to nuclease degradation and rapid renal excretion that require blood circulatory half-life extension enabling technologies. The long circulatory half...

  1. Polymerized soluble venom--human serum albumin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patterson, R.; Suszko, I.M.; Grammer, L.C.

    1985-03-01

    Extensive previous studies have demonstrated that attempts to produce polymers of Hymenoptera venoms for human immunotherapy resulted in insoluble precipitates that could be injected with safety but with very limited immunogenicity in allergic patients. We now report soluble polymers prepared by conjugating bee venom with human serum albumin with glutaraldehyde. The bee venom-albumin polymer (BVAP) preparation was fractionated on Sephacryl S-300 to have a molecular weight range higher than catalase. /sup 125/I-labeled bee venom phospholipase A was almost completely incorporated into BVAP. Rabbit antibody responses to bee venom and bee venom phospholipase A were induced by BVAP. Human antisera against bee venom were absorbed by BVAP. No new antigenic determinants on BVAP were present as evidenced by absorption of antisera against BVAP by bee venom and albumin. BVAP has potential immunotherapeutic value in patients with anaphylactic sensitivity to bee venom.

  2. Polymerized soluble venom--human serum albumin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, R.; Suszko, I.M.; Grammer, L.C.

    1985-01-01

    Extensive previous studies have demonstrated that attempts to produce polymers of Hymenoptera venoms for human immunotherapy resulted in insoluble precipitates that could be injected with safety but with very limited immunogenicity in allergic patients. We now report soluble polymers prepared by conjugating bee venom with human serum albumin with glutaraldehyde. The bee venom-albumin polymer (BVAP) preparation was fractionated on Sephacryl S-300 to have a molecular weight range higher than catalase. 125 I-labeled bee venom phospholipase A was almost completely incorporated into BVAP. Rabbit antibody responses to bee venom and bee venom phospholipase A were induced by BVAP. Human antisera against bee venom were absorbed by BVAP. No new antigenic determinants on BVAP were present as evidenced by absorption of antisera against BVAP by bee venom and albumin. BVAP has potential immunotherapeutic value in patients with anaphylactic sensitivity to bee venom

  3. Urinary excretion of beta 2-glycoprotein-1 (apolipoprotein H) and other markers of tubular malfunction in "non-tubular" renal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, F V; Lapsley, M; Sansom, P A; Cohen, S L

    1992-07-01

    To determine whether urinary beta 2-glycoprotein-1 assays can provide improved discrimination between chronic renal diseases which are primarily of tubular or glomerular origin. Urinary beta 2-glycoprotein-1, retinol-binding protein, alpha 1-microglobulin, beta 2-microglobulin, N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosa-minidase and albumin were measured in 51 patients with primary glomerular disease, 23 with obstructive nephropathy, and 15 with polycystic kidney disease, and expressed per mmol of creatinine. Plasma beta 2-glycoprotein-1 was assayed in 52 patients and plasma creatinine in all 89. The findings were compared between the diagnostic groups and with previously published data relating to primary tubular disorders. All 31 patients with plasma creatinine greater than 200 mumol/l excreted increased amounts of beta 2-glycoprotein-1, retinol-binding protein, and alpha 1-microglobulin, and 29 had increased N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase; the quantities were generally similar to those found in comparable patients with primary tubular pathology. Among 58 with plasma creatinine concentrations under 200 mumol/l, increases in beta 2-glycoprotein-1, retinol-binding protein, and alpha 1-microglobulin excretion were less common and much smaller, especially in those with obstructive nephropathy and polycystic disease. The ratios of the excretion of albumin to the other proteins provided the clearest discrimination between the patients with glomerular or tubular malfunction, but an area of overlap was present which embraced those with obstructive nephropathy and polycystic disease. Increased excretion of beta 2-glycoprotein-1 due to a raised plasma concentration or diminution of tubular reabsorption, or both, is common in all the forms of renal disease investigated, and both plasma creatinine and urinary albumin must be taken into account when interpreting results. Ratios of urinary albumin: beta 2-glycoprotein-1 greater than 1000 are highly suggestive of primary glomerular disease and

  4. Bioengineered kidney tubules efficiently excrete uremic toxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, J; Fedecostante, M; Wilmer, M J; Peters, J G; Kreuser, U M; van den Broek, P H; Mensink, R A; Boltje, T J; Stamatialis, D; Wetzels, J F; van den Heuvel, L P; Hoenderop, J G; Masereeuw, R

    2016-05-31

    The development of a biotechnological platform for the removal of waste products (e.g. uremic toxins), often bound to proteins in plasma, is a prerequisite to improve current treatment modalities for patients suffering from end stage renal disease (ESRD). Here, we present a newly designed bioengineered renal tubule capable of active uremic toxin secretion through the concerted action of essential renal transporters, viz. organic anion transporter-1 (OAT1), breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) and multidrug resistance protein-4 (MRP4). Three-dimensional cell monolayer formation of human conditionally immortalized proximal tubule epithelial cells (ciPTEC) on biofunctionalized hollow fibers with maintained barrier function was demonstrated. Using a tailor made flow system, the secretory clearance of human serum albumin-bound uremic toxins, indoxyl sulfate and kynurenic acid, as well as albumin reabsorption across the renal tubule was confirmed. These functional bioengineered renal tubules are promising entities in renal replacement therapies and regenerative medicine, as well as in drug development programs.

  5. Aluminium and nickel in human albumin solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard, Bente; Sandberg, E

    1989-01-01

    Five different brands of commercially available human albumin solutions for infusion were analysed for their aluminium and nickel contents by atomic absorption spectrometry. The aluminium concentrations ranged from 12 micrograms/l to 1109 micrograms/l and the nickel concentrations ranged from 17...... of a batch of albumin solution, filtration was shown to contribute to contamination, although the largest increase in aluminium as well as nickel concentrations appeared during the bulk concentrating process. To avoid health risks to certain patients, regulations should be established requiring aluminium...

  6. Plant abnormality diagnosis device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saeki, Akira.

    1992-01-01

    The device of the present invention diagnose an abnormal event occurred in a large-scaled plant, such as a nuclear power plant. The device comprises the following four functions. (1) Abnormality candidates are estimated based on an intelligence base storing characteristics established between the characteristics/functions and physical amounts of the plant components, and detected abnormality and measured values. Among the candidates, one which coincidents with the measured value such as an actual process amount is judged as a first cause. (2) In addition, a real time plant behavior is estimated based on parameters determining a plant operation mode. The candidate for the abnormality cause is estimated by the comparison between the result of the estimation and the measured value such as a process amount. (3) Characteristics established between the characteristics/functions and the physical amount of the plant components are structured stepwise thereby identifying the first abnormality cause. (4) Inactuated or failed portions of the components for restoring the abnormality to normal state are identified based on the intelligence base simultaneously with the estimation for the first abnormality cause. (I.S.)

  7. Biliary excretion of intravenous (/sup 14/C) omeprazole in humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lind, T.; Andersson, T.; Skanberg, I.O.; Olbe, L.

    1987-11-01

    We have studied the biliary excretion of (/sup 14/C) omeprazole in humans. The study was performed in eight healthy subjects and the technique used was based on multiple marker dilution principles with double-lumen tubes placed in both the stomach and intestine. The results obtained show a 16% biliary excretion of (/sup 14/C) omeprazole. These data suggest a minimal spillover of omeprazole from the gastric mucosa into the gastric lumen in humans. The results also agree with previous data of the fecal recovery of radiolabeled omeprazole that suggest that the fecal excretion of intravenous omeprazole in humans is entirely accounted for by biliary excretion.

  8. Biliary excretion of intravenous [14C] omeprazole in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lind, T.; Andersson, T.; Skanberg, I.O.; Olbe, L.

    1987-01-01

    We have studied the biliary excretion of [ 14 C] omeprazole in humans. The study was performed in eight healthy subjects and the technique used was based on multiple marker dilution principles with double-lumen tubes placed in both the stomach and intestine. The results obtained show a 16% biliary excretion of [ 14 C] omeprazole. These data suggest a minimal spillover of omeprazole from the gastric mucosa into the gastric lumen in humans. The results also agree with previous data of the fecal recovery of radiolabeled omeprazole that suggest that the fecal excretion of intravenous omeprazole in humans is entirely accounted for by biliary excretion

  9. A study on the effect of the internal exposure to {sup 210}Po on the excretion of urinary proteins in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadi, Baki; Li, Chunsheng; Ko, Raymond; Daka, Joseph [Health Canada, National Internal Radiation Assessment Section, Radiation Protection Bureau, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Yusuf, Hamdi [Carleton University, Department of Chemistry, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Wyatt, Heather; Surette, Joel; Priest, Nick [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Canadian Nuclear Laboratories, Chalk River, ON (Canada); Hamada, Nobuyuki [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI), Nuclear Technology Research Laboratory, Radiation Safety Research Center, Komae, Tokyo (Japan)

    2016-05-15

    This study was designed to assess the feasibility of a noninvasive urine specimen for the detection of proteins as indicators of internal exposure to ionizing radiation. Three groups of rats (five in each group) were intravenously injected with 1601 ± 376, 10,846 ± 591 and 48,467 ± 2812 Bq of {sup 210}Po in citrate form. A sham-exposed control group of five rats was intravenously injected with sterile physiological saline. Daily urine samples were collected over 4 days following injection. Purification and pre-concentration of urinary proteins were carried out by ultrafiltration using a 3000 Da molecular weight cutoff membrane filter. The concentration of common urinary proteins, namely albumin, alpha-1-acid glycoprotein, immunoglobulins IgA and IgG, was measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Urinary excretion of albumin decreased dose-dependently (p < 0.05) 96 h post-injection relative to the control group. In contrast, no statistically significant effects were observed for other proteins tested. The dose-dependent decrease in urinary excretion of albumin observed in this study underscores the need for further research, which may lead to the discovery of new biomarkers that would reflect the changes in the primary target organs for deposition of {sup 210}Po. (orig.)

  10. Chromosomal Abnormalities in ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of fragile X syndrome, velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS, and other cytogenetic abnormalities among 100 children (64 boys with combined type ADHD and normal intelligence was assessed at the NIMH and Georgetown University Medical Center.

  11. "Jeopardy" in Abnormal Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keutzer, Carolin S.

    1993-01-01

    Describes the use of the board game, Jeopardy, in a college level abnormal psychology course. Finds increased student interaction and improved application of information. Reports generally favorable student evaluation of the technique. (CFR)

  12. Chromosomal abnormalities and autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farida El-Baz

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Chromosomal abnormalities were not detected in the studied autistic children, and so the relation between the genetics and autism still needs further work up with different study methods and techniques.

  13. Bidirectional peritoneal transport of albumin in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joffe, P; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl

    1995-01-01

    The present study was undertaken in order to assess bidirectional peritoneal kinetics of albumin after simultaneous i.v. and i.p. injection of radioiodinated albumin tracers (125I-RISA and 131I-RISA) in eight clinically stable uraemic patients undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis...... (CAPD). The plasma volume, intravascular albumin mass (IVM), and overall extravasation rate of albumin were not significantly different from that found in healthy controls. Albumin flux from the plasma into the peritoneal cavity was 3.71 +/- 0.82 (SD) mumol/h, which was only 3% of the overall...... extravasation rate (137 +/- 52 mumol/h). Albumin flux from the peritoneal cavity into the plasma was substantially lower (0.22 +/- 0.07 mumol/h, P albumin from plasma over 4 h was 14 +/- 3.2 mumol, which was significantly lower than the intraperitoneal albumin...

  14. Interaction of amphiphilic drugs with human and bovine serum albumins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Abbul Bashar; Khan, Javed Masood; Ali, Mohd Sajid; Khan, Rizwan Hasan; Kabir-Ud-Din

    2012-11-01

    To know the interaction of amphiphilic drugs nortriptyline hydrochloride (NOT) and promazine hydrochloride (PMZ) with serum albumins (i.e., human serum albumin (HSA) and bovine serum albumin (BSA)), techniques of UV-visible, fluorescence, and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopies are used. The binding affinity is more in case of PMZ with both the serum albumins. The quenching rate constant (k(q)) values suggest a static quenching process for all the drug-serum albumin interactions. The UV-visible results show that the change in protein conformation of PMZ-serum albumin interactions are more prominent as compared to NOT-serum albumin interactions. The CD results also explain the conformational changes in the serum albumins on binding with the drugs. The increment in %α-helical structure is slightly more for drug-BSA complexes as compared to drug-HSA complexes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Aggregation and fibrillation of bovine serum albumin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, NK; Jespersen, SK; Thomassen, LV

    2007-01-01

    The all-alpha helix multi-domain protein bovine serum albumin (BSA) aggregates at elevated temperatures. Here we show that these thermal aggregates have amyloid properties. They bind the fibril-specific dyes Thioflavin T and Congo Red, show elongated although somewhat worm-like morphology...

  16. [Current role of albumin in critical care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre Puig, P; Orallo Morán, M A; Pereira Matalobos, D; Prieto Requeijo, P

    2014-11-01

    The use of colloids in fluid therapy has been, and still continues to be a controversial topic, particularly when referring to the critical patient. The choice of the fluid that needs to be administered depends on several factors, many of which are theoretical, and continue being an object of debate. The interest in the clinical use of the albumin has emerged again, immediately after recent publications in the search of the most suitable colloid. It is the most abundant protein in the plasma, being responsible for 80% of the oncotic pressure. It regulates the balance between the intra- and extra-vascular volumes. Recent multicenter studies question the supposed lack of safety that was previously assigned to it. Furthermore, in vitro studies demonstrate other important actions besides oncotic, for example neutralization of free radicals, and exogenous (drugs) and endogenous substances (bile pigments, cholesterol). Being aware of these secondary properties of albumin, and evaluating the pathophysiology of the critical patient (in particular, sepsis), to maintain plasma albumin levels within the normal range, could be of great importance. Based on the most recent publications, the aim of this review is to briefly analyze the pathophysiology of albumin, as well as to discuss its possible indications in the critical patient. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Fibrinogen adsorption on blocked surface of albumin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmberg, Maria; Hou, Xiaolin

    2011-01-01

    biological samples, including protein solutions. It is based on the assumption that proteins adsorbs as a monolayer on surfaces and that proteins do not adsorb on top of each other. By labelling albumin and fibrinogen with two different radioactive iodine isotopes that emit gamma radiation with different...

  18. Binding of anandamide to bovine serum albumin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bojesen, I.N.; Hansen, Harald S.

    2003-01-01

    The endocannabinoid anandamide is of lipid nature and may thus bind to albumin in the vascular system, as do fatty acids. The knowledge of the free water-phase concentration of anandamide is essential for the investigations of its transfer from the binding protein to cellular membranes, because a...... in aqueous compartments. - Bojesen, I. N., and H. S. Hansen. Binding of anandamide to bovine serum albumin.......The endocannabinoid anandamide is of lipid nature and may thus bind to albumin in the vascular system, as do fatty acids. The knowledge of the free water-phase concentration of anandamide is essential for the investigations of its transfer from the binding protein to cellular membranes, because...... a water-phase shuttle of monomers mediates such transfers. We have used our method based upon the use of albumin-filled red cell ghosts as a dispersed biological "reference binder" to measure the water-phase concentrations of anandamide. These concentrations were measured in buffer (pH 7.3) in equilibrium...

  19. ADSORPTION OF BOVINE SERUM ALBUMIN ONTO ACTIVATED ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT. In this study, the adsorption of bovine serum albumin was studied using the activated carbon prepared from Elaeagnus stone with chemical activation. Elaeagnus stone activated carbon was characterized using the point of zero charge, Fourier transform infrared spectra, Brunauer-Emmet-Teller method, ...

  20. Lymphatic albumin clearance from psoriatic skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staberg, B.; Klemp, P.; Aasted, M.; Worm, A.M.; Lund, P.

    1983-01-01

    In nine patients with untreated psoriasis vulgaris, human serum albumin labelled with 125 I or 131 I was injected intradermally in symmetrically located involved and uninvolved skin. The activity of the depots was followed by external detection, and the arrival of labelled albumin in plasma was monitored. In involved psoriatic skin the local mean half-time (T1/2) for tracer disappearance was 20.8 +/- 8.2 (S.D.) hr and in clinically normal skin, 29.1 +/- 9.6 (S.D.) hr. The difference was significant (p less than 0.002). Accordingly, the tracer from involved skin reached higher plasma levels than the tracer from uninvolved skin. However, under slight lymphatic stasis the appearance rate of radiolabelled albumin in plasma from both tissues was minimal during 1 to 2 hours after the injection, indicating that a local direct transvascular drainage of plasma albumin from the interstitium of diseased and normal skin was negligible. We conclude that the previously demonstrated increased extravasation of plasma proteins in involved psoriatic skin is compensated by an increased lymphatic drainage of plasma proteins, and not by an increased local transvascular return

  1. Abnormal sound detection device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Izumi; Matsui, Yuji.

    1995-01-01

    Only components synchronized with rotation of pumps are sampled from detected acoustic sounds, to judge the presence or absence of abnormality based on the magnitude of the synchronized components. A synchronized component sampling means can remove resonance sounds and other acoustic sounds generated at a synchronously with the rotation based on the knowledge that generated acoustic components in a normal state are a sort of resonance sounds and are not precisely synchronized with the number of rotation. On the other hand, abnormal sounds of a rotating body are often caused by compulsory force accompanying the rotation as a generation source, and the abnormal sounds can be detected by extracting only the rotation-synchronized components. Since components of normal acoustic sounds generated at present are discriminated from the detected sounds, reduction of the abnormal sounds due to a signal processing can be avoided and, as a result, abnormal sound detection sensitivity can be improved. Further, since it is adapted to discriminate the occurrence of the abnormal sound from the actually detected sounds, the other frequency components which are forecast but not generated actually are not removed, so that it is further effective for the improvement of detection sensitivity. (N.H.)

  2. Urinary calcium excretion in essential hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, E W; Morris, C D; McCarron, D A

    1992-10-01

    Patients with essential hypertension have been reported to have higher levels of urinary calcium excretion (UCaV) than normotensive persons. We tested the hypothesis that the calciuria of hypertension is due to dietary factors and evaluated several alternate mechanisms. UCaV was studied in 15 patients with essential hypertension compared with 16 age- and gender-matched normotensive control subjects. For subjects taking self-selected, free-living diets, the difference in UCaV between normotensive (130 +/- 14 mg/day) and hypertensive subjects (201 +/- 37 mg/day) was not significant (p = 0.1). However, in a controlled diet with moderately restricted sodium intake (88 mEq), urinary calcium excretion was significantly higher (p = 0.02) in the hypertensive than in the normotensive group receiving 400 mg calcium (204 +/- 25 vs 132 +/- 13 mg/day) and 1400 mg calcium (272 +/- 31 vs 187 +/- 25 mg/day). Twenty-four-hour UCaV was directly and significantly correlated with blood pressure (r = 0.63 for standing systolic blood pressure; p UCaV (0.12 +/- 0.11 vs 0.12 +/- 0.07 mg per 100 ml glomerular filtration) and serum ionized calcium level (0.06 +/- 0.08 vs 0.06 +/- 0.02 mmol/L) in normotensive and hypertensive subjects, respectively, suggesting that there was no difference in intestinal calcium absorption between the groups. Fasting UCaV did not differ between the hypertensive (8.9 +/- 4.5 mg per 2 hours) and normotensive groups (10.9 +/- 11.5 mg per 2 hours).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. Ezetimibe Increases Endogenous Cholesterol Excretion in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiaobo; Racette, Susan B; Ma, Lina; Wallendorf, Michael; Ostlund, Richard E

    2017-05-01

    Ezetimibe improves cardiovascular outcomes when added to optimum statin treatment. It lowers low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and percent intestinal cholesterol absorption, but the exact cardioprotective mechanism is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that the dominant effect of ezetimibe is to increase the reverse transport of cholesterol from rapidly mixing endogenous cholesterol pool into the stool. In a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind parallel trial in 24 healthy subjects with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol 100 to 200 mg/dL, we measured cholesterol metabolism before and after a 6-week treatment period with ezetimibe 10 mg/d or placebo. Plasma cholesterol was labeled by intravenous infusion of cholesterol-d 7 in a lipid emulsion and dietary cholesterol with cholesterol-d 5 and sitostanol-d 4 solubilized in oil. Plasma and stool samples collected during a cholesterol- and phytosterol-controlled metabolic kitchen diet were analyzed by mass spectrometry. Ezetimibe reduced intestinal cholesterol absorption efficiency 30±4.3% (SE, P <0.0001) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol 19.8±1.9% ( P =0.0001). Body cholesterol pool size was unchanged, but fecal endogenous cholesterol excretion increased 66.6±12.2% ( P <0.0001) and percent cholesterol excretion from body pools into the stool increased 74.7±14.3% ( P <0.0001), whereas plasma cholesterol turnover rose 26.2±3.6% ( P =0.0096). Fecal bile acids were unchanged. Ezetimibe increased the efficiency of reverse cholesterol transport from rapidly mixing plasma and tissue pools into the stool. Further work is needed to examine the potential relation of reverse cholesterol transport and whole body cholesterol metabolism to coronary events and the treatment of atherosclerosis. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01603758. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  4. The impact of anti hypertensive drug groups on urinary albumin excretion in a non-diabetic population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monster, TBM; Janssen, WMT; de Jong, PE; de Jong-van den Berg, LTW

    Aims Microalbuminuria (30-300 mg 24 h(-1)) is recognized to be independently associated with renal and cardiovascular risk. Antihypertensives may lower microalbuminuria. We questioned whether the use of different anti hypertensive drug classes in general practice influences microalbuminuria as

  5. Plasma concentrations of endothelial vasoactive substances in clinically healthy subjects. associations with urinary albumin excretion and ambulatory blood pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, P; Jensen, J S; Jensent, G

    2000-01-01

    controls with normoalbuminuria. Plasma concentration of ET-1 was measured using an ELISA method and plasma concentration of nitrate/nitrite using a photometric method. Twenty-four-hour blood pressure was measured using a portable recorder (TM-2421). No significant differences in the concentrations...... of nitrate/nitrite and ET-1 were found between the groups, e.g. 21 (10-105) vs. 18 (11 -152) (p=0.33) and 0.98 (0.58 1.95) vs. 1.10 (0.54 -1.50) (p = 0.27), respectively. However, plasma nitrate/nitrite was significantly positively correlated to systolic and diastolic blood pressure in subjects...... in clinically healthy subjects. However, nitrate/nitrite is positively correlated to BP only in subjects with normoalbuminuria, and ET-1 is positively correlated to BP only in subjects with elevated UAE....

  6. Composition comprising radioactive labeled-fibrinogen and albumin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charlton, J.C.; Gravett, D.L.

    1976-01-01

    The stability of fibrinogen is improved by mixing it with albumin, preferably at least 5 parts by weight of albumin per part by weight of fibrinogen. By this invention, iodinated ( 125 I) human fibrinogen can be stabilized with human serum albumin for use in the diagnosis of thrombi

  7. Serum albumin--a non-saturable carrier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodersen, R; Honoré, B; Larsen, F G

    1984-01-01

    The shape of binding isotherms for sixteen ligands to human serum albumin showed no signs of approaching saturation at high ligand concentrations. It is suggested that ligand binding to serum albumin is essentially different from saturable binding of substrates to enzymes, of oxygen to haemoglobin......, etc. Binding to serum albumin appears to be non-saturable. Udgivelsesdato: 1984-Feb...

  8. Improvement of the Shami goat semen quality by adding bovine serum albumin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.I. Azawi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study was aimed to improve the quality of Shami goat semen diluted with Tris diluent by adding bovine serum albumin. In the current study, six male goats were used. Semen was collected using artificial vagina of one ejaculate per week of every male included in this study. This study was performed during the breeding season from 1 \\ 10 \\ 2012 to 1 \\ 12 \\ 2012. In this study, two semen diluents were use first; Tris- fructose- egg yolk 2.5% and second Tris - fructose - 2.5% egg yolk with 1% of bovine serum albumin. Diluted semen samples were cooled gradually and stored at 5 ° C. Cooled diluted semen samples were examined every 24 h of storage to 144 h. These tests includes the proportion of live sperm and the percentage of secondary abnormalities of the sperm, the percentage of sperm acrosomal defects and percentage of progressive motility using a computer-aided sperm analysis. These results showed that the addition of bovine serum albumin with egg yolk to semen of male goats led to improved qualities of semen significantly (P<0.05 including the proportion of live sperm and the percentage of secondary abnormalities of the sperm, the percentage of sperm acrosomal defects and percentage of progressive motility. It could be concluded from the results of the current study, the possibility of storing goat semen for more than six days with alive sperm of more than 50% and the percentage of the progressive motility of more than 40% when adding bovine albumin serum to dilute goat semen at 1% level and this result has not reached by any previous study.

  9. Purine derivative excretion and microbial protein synthesis in sheep ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In a 3 x 3 Latin square design experiment, urinary excretions of purine derivatives (allantoin N, Uric acid N, Xanthine + Hypoxanthine N) were measured and used to estimate microbial N yield in 9 sheep fed roughage- based diet supplemented with 0, 150 and 300g DM grass silage respectively. Daily urinary excretions of ...

  10. Excretal Near Infrared Reflectance Spectrometry to monitor the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Feeding systems in which young ostriches feed on pasture but have access to concentrates provide better welfare than confined systems but are sustainable only if nutrition is carefully controlled. This study was conducted to evaluate the potential of "excretal NIRS", a methodology that associates excretal spectral ...

  11. Relationship between ionized calcium and serum albumin level in children with idiopathic nephrotic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viiola Irene Winata

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Nephrotic syndrome (NS patients frequently have abnormalities in calcium metabolism that manifest as hypocalcemia and reduced intestinal absorption of calcium. Hypocalcemia is initially attributed to hypoalbuminemia but it may also relate to a low level of ionized calcium. The ionized calcium level depends on the severity and duration of proteinuria. Objective To assess the rel ationship between ionized calcium and serum albumin level in idiopathic NS children. Methods An analytical study with cross-sectional design was applied to NS and healthy children between 1-14 years old in the Child Health Department of Hasan Sadikin Hospital, Bandung from December 2009 to April 2010. Ionized calcium was examined by Ca2 + analyzer AVL 980 with ion-selective electrodes (ISE methods. Results A total of34 subjects were recruited, consist of 17 NS and 17 healthy children. The mean ionized calcium and serum albumin level in NS children was 4.56 (SD 0.23 mg/dLand 1.45 (SD 0.24 g/dL, respectively. Statistical difference between ionized calcium level in NS and in healthy children was significant (P<0.05. Pearson correlation test between ionized calcium and serum albumin was significant (P<0.05 with correlation coefficient (r 0.53. We found the following equation to estimate ionized calcium (y based on the serum albumin level (x: y=3.84+0.49x. Conclusion There is a moderately positive linear relationship between ionized calcium and serum albumin level in NS children.

  12. Plasma proteins production and excretion in diabetic nephropathy in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diabetic nephropathy is the leading cause of chronic renal disease and a major cause of cardiovascular mortality in both developed and developing countries. In type II diabetes patients with normoalbuminuria, fibrinogen production is increased, whereas that of albumin is normal. It is not known whether hepatic albumin ...

  13. [Pitfalls in measuring urinary proteins: age-related changes in urinary creatinine excretion that affect the urine protein/creatinine ratio].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuno, Tomoji; Hisada, Yukimasa; Nishimura, Yasuyuki

    2011-02-01

    Knowing the amount of protein excreted in the urine is important in determining the severity and activity of renal diseases. In general, screening tests have been carried out using the urine dipstick. However, there are limitations in determining the amount of urinary protein excretion using qualitative tests for protein in spot urine samples due to the concentration and dilution of urine. Therefore, when using spot urine samples, it is helpful to calculate the urine protein/creatinine ratio (P/C) by simultaneous measurement of urinary creatinine for determining daily protein excretion. We examined P/C measurements using the dipstick method in 22,718 subjects who visited our hospital for health examinations. The results showed positive rates for qualitative urinary protein (1 + and more) of 4.2% for males and 2.7% for females. Also positive rates for P/C (150 mg/g.cre and more) were found of 7.7% for males and 10.2% for females. The results showed a reversal of positive rates for males and females compared with the results of qualitative urinary protein. In addition, P/C showed a higher positive rate in 70 years old or older both for males and females. The distribution of urinary creatinine levels simultaneously measured by dipstick method showed that the percentage of diluted urine with urinary creatinine level less than 50 mg/dL was 6.8% for males and 18.3% for females overall. Females showed a higher rate and the percentage tended to increase with age both for males and females. From these results, it was suggested that changes in urinary creatinine excretion with age that affect the P/C ratio are large. We then measured the albumin excretion rate in the 24-hour urine as well as examined the correlation between the urinary creatinine concentration and albumin index with regard to age and sex in 1,280 diabetic patients. The results showed that daily urinary creatinine excretion overall in males, overall in females, in males over 80 years old and in females over

  14. Bidirectional peritoneal transport of albumin in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joffe, P; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl

    1995-01-01

    The present study was undertaken in order to assess bidirectional peritoneal kinetics of albumin after simultaneous i.v. and i.p. injection of radioiodinated albumin tracers (125I-RISA and 131I-RISA) in eight clinically stable uraemic patients undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis...... mass at the end of the dialysis (54 +/- 19 mumol, P peritoneal...... (CAPD). The plasma volume, intravascular albumin mass (IVM), and overall extravasation rate of albumin were not significantly different from that found in healthy controls. Albumin flux from the plasma into the peritoneal cavity was 3.71 +/- 0.82 (SD) mumol/h, which was only 3% of the overall...

  15. Urinary sodium and potassium excretion, mortality, and cardiovascular events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Martin; Mente, Andrew; Rangarajan, Sumathy; McQueen, Matthew J; Wang, Xingyu; Liu, Lisheng; Yan, Hou; Lee, Shun Fu; Mony, Prem; Devanath, Anitha; Rosengren, Annika; Lopez-Jaramillo, Patricio; Diaz, Rafael; Avezum, Alvaro; Lanas, Fernando; Yusoff, Khalid; Iqbal, Romaina; Ilow, Rafal; Mohammadifard, Noushin; Gulec, Sadi; Yusufali, Afzal Hussein; Kruger, Lanthe; Yusuf, Rita; Chifamba, Jephat; Kabali, Conrad; Dagenais, Gilles; Lear, Scott A; Teo, Koon; Yusuf, Salim

    2014-08-14

    The optimal range of sodium intake for cardiovascular health is controversial. We obtained morning fasting urine samples from 101,945 persons in 17 countries and estimated 24-hour sodium and potassium excretion (used as a surrogate for intake). We examined the association between estimated urinary sodium and potassium excretion and the composite outcome of death and major cardiovascular events. The mean estimated sodium and potassium excretion was 4.93 g per day and 2.12 g per day, respectively. With a mean follow-up of 3.7 years, the composite outcome occurred in 3317 participants (3.3%). As compared with an estimated sodium excretion of 4.00 to 5.99 g per day (reference range), a higher estimated sodium excretion (≥ 7.00 g per day) was associated with an increased risk of the composite outcome (odds ratio, 1.15; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02 to 1.30), as well as increased risks of death and major cardiovascular events considered separately. The association between a high estimated sodium excretion and the composite outcome was strongest among participants with hypertension (P=0.02 for interaction), with an increased risk at an estimated sodium excretion of 6.00 g or more per day. As compared with the reference range, an estimated sodium excretion that was below 3.00 g per day was also associated with an increased risk of the composite outcome (odds ratio, 1.27; 95% CI, 1.12 to 1.44). As compared with an estimated potassium excretion that was less than 1.50 g per day, higher potassium excretion was associated with a reduced risk of the composite outcome. In this study in which sodium intake was estimated on the basis of measured urinary excretion, an estimated sodium intake between 3 g per day and 6 g per day was associated with a lower risk of death and cardiovascular events than was either a higher or lower estimated level of intake. As compared with an estimated potassium excretion that was less than 1.50 g per day, higher potassium excretion was

  16. New horizon in dialysis depuration: Characterization of a polysulfone membrane able to break the 'albumin wall'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuoghi, A; Caiazzo, M; Monari, E; Bellei, E; Bergamini, S; Sereni, L; Aucella, F; Loschiavo, C; Atti, M; Tomasi, A

    2015-05-01

    The uremic syndrome is attributed to the progressive retention of a large number of toxins, which under normal conditions are excreted by the healthy kidneys. Standard dialytic membranes do not purify middle-high molecular weight toxins. Haemodiafiltration with endogenous reinfusion coupled with a highly permeable membrane could break the limit of the 'albumin wall' improving the dialytic depuration without loss of important nutrients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of a new polysulfone membrane, Synclear 0.2, to remove uremic molecules. Surface Enhanced Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight was employed to evaluate the proteomic profile of ultrafiltrate and Electrospray Ionization-Quadruple-ToF coupled with on-chip elution was used for proteins identification. A high and specific permeability for middle-high molecular weight molecules was revealed by mass spectrometry for the investigated membrane. The identified proteins are mostly uremic toxins: their relative abundance, estimated in the ultrafiltrate by exponentially modified protein abundance index, showed a high purification efficiency of the new membrane when compared with conventional ones. In conclusion, Synclear 0.2, used as convective membrane in hemodiafiltration with endogenous reinfusion treatment, permits to break the 'albumin wall', clearing middle-high molecular weight uremic toxins, improving the dialytic treatment purification efficiency. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  17. Fluorescent holograms with albumin-acrylamide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordóñez-Padilla, M. J.; Olivares-Pérez, A.; Fuentes-Tapia, I.

    2014-02-01

    We describe fluorescent holograms were made with photosensitive films of albumin (protein) quail, used as modified matrices. Albumin is mixed with acrylamide and eosin Y. Therefore, prepare a photosensitive emulsion and solid hydrated with the ability to phase transmission holograms and volume (VPH). Eosin Y is a fluorescent agent that acts as a photo-sensitizing dye which stimulates the polymerization of acrylamide. To record the interference pattern produced by two waves superimposed on the modified matrix, we use a He-Cd laser. To reconstruct the diffraction pattern is observed with He- Ne laser, λ = 632.8nm, the material is self-developing properties. Measure the diffraction efficiency of the diffracted orders (η[-1, +1]) as a function of exposure energy. We work with various thicknesses and measure the variation of the refractive index using the coupled wave theory of Kogelnik, the holographic gratings meet Bragg condition.

  18. Single Pass Albumin Dialysis in Hepatorenal Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahman Ebadur

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatorenal syndrome (HRS is the most appalling complication of acute or chronic liver disease with 90% mortality rate. Single pass albumin dialysis (SPAD can be considered as a noble liver support technique in HRS. Here, we present a case of a young healthy patient who developed hyperacute fulminant liver failure that progressed to HRS. The patient was offered SPAD as a bridge to liver transplantation, however, it resulted in an excellent recovery.

  19. (PCG) Protein Crystal Growth Human Serum Albumin

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    (PCG) Protein Crystal Growth Human Serum Albumin. Contributes to many transport and regulatory processes and has multifunctional binding properties which range from various metals, to fatty acids, hormones, and a wide spectrum of therapeutic drugs. The most abundant protein of the circulatory system. It binds and transports an incredible variety of biological and pharmaceutical ligands throughout the blood stream. Principal Investigator on STS-26 was Larry DeLucas.

  20. On the structural formation of albumin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzoverya, M. E.; Shishpor, I. V.; Shcherbak, Yu. P.

    2017-09-01

    A microstructural analysis of the human serum albumin (HSA) samples dehydrated on a glass substrate from solutions with different concentrations of protein has been performed. The structuring effect of salt (NaCl) on the variations in the morphology of HSA interfaces has been shown experimentally. The substantiation of some structural effects has been given by taking into consideration the supramolecular organization and the polyelectrolyte nature of the protein molecule.

  1. Albumin synthesis in protein energy malnutrition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duggan, C.; Hardy, S.; Kleinman, R.E.; Harvard Medical School, Children's Hospital, Boston, MA; Lembcke, J.; Young, V.R.

    1996-01-01

    Assessment of protein nutritional status during re-feeding children with protein energy malnutrition (PEM) can be difficult. We hypothesized that the fractional synthesis rate (FSR) of albumin, as measured by stable isotope technology, would serve as an objective measure of changes in protein status, and that increased amounts of dietary protein (15% of calories vs 10%) would lead to higher FSR. Eight (5 M, 3 F) Peruvian children (mean age 15.5 months) with PEM (mean wt/ht Z score = -2.47) were studied twice during the first week of admission by the flooding dose technique. An intravenous dose of 13 C-leucine (57 mg/kg, 99 atom%) was given and serial blood samples were drawn in intervals up to 90 minutes in order to measure isotopic enrichment of serum albumin. Mean FSR for the day one infusion was 6.11% (range 3.07 - 15.37%) (n = 8). Mean FSR for the follow-up infusion was 7.67% (range 3.63 - 12.37%) (n = 5), and FSR was no different between the two dietary groups. FSR on day one was inversely related to age (r = -0.62), and one patient with Shigella dysentery had the highest FSR (15.9%). We conclude that FSR of albumin can be measured successfully in children with PEM using the flooding dose technique, and that assessment of albumin FSR holds promise to help determine protein requirements and status during recovery from PEM. (author). 14 refs, 6 figs, 3 tabs

  2. Nitrofurantoin and congenital abnormalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czeizel, A.E.; Rockenbauer, M.; Sørensen, Henrik Toft

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To study human teratogenic potential of oral nitrofurantoin treatment during pregnancy. Materials and Methods: Pair analysis of cases with congenital abnormalities and matched population controls in the population-based dataset of the Hungarian Case-Control Surveillance of Congenital...

  3. CT of pleural abnormalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, W.R.

    1995-01-01

    Briefly discussed were CT diagnosis of pleural thickening, CT technique for examining the pleura or pleuro-pulmonary disease, diagnosis of pleural collections, diagnosis of pleural fluid abnormalities in patients with pneumonia, pleural neoplasms, malignant (diffuse) mesothelioma, metastases, local fibrous tumor of the pleura (benign mesothelioma) (21 refs.)

  4. Chromosomal abnormalities and autism

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Farida El-Baz

    2015-06-19

    Jun 19, 2015 ... ORIGINAL ARTICLE. Chromosomal abnormalities and autism. Farida El-Baz a. , Mohamed Saad Zaghloul a. , Ezzat El Sobky a. ,. Reham M Elhossiny a,. *, Heba Salah a. , Neveen Ezy Abdelaziz b a Pediatric Department, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt b Children with Special ...

  5. Delayed excretion of 3-methylhistidine in goats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, D.L.; Barnes, D.M.; Calvert, C.C.

    1987-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of 3-methylhistidine (3MH) as an index of muscle protein degradation in dairy goats. The criterion for validation was the rapid and quantitative excretion of radiolabeled 3MH. Three adult dry does and four bucks were confined to metabolism cages and injected with 5 ml of L-3-(/sup 14/C)methylhistidine dihydrochloride (4 microCi/mL) diluted in normal saline. The does' urine was collected from catheters and the bucks' urine from stainless steel separators protected with fecal collection bags. The daily urine samples were analyzed for labeled amino acid. Urinary recovery of radioactivity from all does was less than 33% after 3 d and was proceeding at less than 5% d. After 9 d, total recovery was less than 50% of total dose for the does. Elimination rates were slightly higher and more variable for the yearling bucks (25-63% after 4 d). On the basis of these data, 3MH does not appear to be a valid index of muscle protein degradation in either male or female dairy goats.

  6. 99mTc-albumin can replace 125I-albumin to determine plasma volume repeatedly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonfils, Peter K; Damgaard, Morten; Stokholm, Knud H

    2012-01-01

    with iodine-labeled human serum albumin ((125)I-HSA). MATERIALS AND METHODS: In 15 healthy volunteers, simultaneous plasma volume measurements with (99m)Tc-HSA and (125)I-HSA were performed after ½ hour in the supine position. Blood samples were obtained 10, 15, 20, and 30 minutes after the injection...... for accurate retropolation from the plasma counts to time zero to correct for leakage of the isotopes from the circulation. RESULTS: The mean difference (bias) between plasma volume measured with (125)I-albumin and (99m)Tc-albumin was 8 ml (0.1 ml/kg) with limits of agreement (bias ±1.96 SD) ranging from -181....... It needs to be emphasized however, that repeated blood sampling for 1/2 hour after injection of the tracer is required to correct for the disappearance of (99m)Tc and (99m)Tc-HSA from the circulation....

  7. Anion exchange fractionation of serum proteins versus albumin elimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahab, Ziad J; Iczkowski, Kenneth A; Sang, Qing-Xiang Amy

    2007-09-01

    Elimination of albumin, constituting more than 50% of total serum proteins, allows increased protein loads on immobilized pH gradient (IPG) gels and better visualization of low-abundance proteins; however, it may result in the loss of albumin-bound low-abundance proteins. In this study, we report the prefractionation of serum proteins by batch anion exchange chromatography into three fractions: one containing proteins with isoelectric points (pI values) higher than the pI of albumin, a second fraction containing proteins with pI values in the same range as the pI of albumin, and a third fraction containing proteins with pI values lower than the pI of albumin. This procedure uses common instrumentation, is carried out under denaturing conditions, and takes less than 30min. We also report the loss of a clinically established prostate cancer serum biomarker, prostate-specific antigen (PSA), after albumin is eliminated using two commercially available albumin elimination kits: one that uses Cibacron Blue F3GA, which achieves albumin depletion through dye-ligand binding, and one that uses specific albumin antibody. The loss of PSA secondary to albumin elimination exceeded that after batch anion exchange serum sample prefractionation.

  8. Excretion of Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol in sweat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huestis, Marilyn A; Scheidweiler, Karl B; Saito, Takeshi; Fortner, Neil; Abraham, Tsadik; Gustafson, Richard A; Smith, Michael L

    2008-01-30

    Sweat testing is a noninvasive technique for monitoring drug exposure over a 7-day period in treatment, criminal justice, and employment settings. We evaluated Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) excretion in 11 daily cannabis users after cessation of drug use. PharmChek sweat patches worn for 7 days were analyzed for THC by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The limit of quantification (LOQ) for the method was 0.4 ng THC/patch. Sweat patches worn the first week of continuously monitored abstinence had THC above the United States Substance Abuse Mental Health Services Administration's proposed cutoff concentration for federal workplace testing of 1 ng THC/patch. Mean+/-S.E.M. THC concentrations were 3.85+/-0.86 ng THC/patch. Eight of 11 subjects had negative patches the second week and one produced THC positive patches for 4 weeks of monitored abstinence. We also tested daily and weekly sweat patches from seven subjects who were administered oral doses of up to 14.8 mg THC/day for five consecutive days. In this oral THC administration study, no daily or weekly patches had THC above the LOQ; concurrent plasma THC concentrations were all less than 6.1 microg/L. In conclusion, using proposed federal cutoff concentrations, most daily cannabis users will have a positive sweat patch in the first week after ceasing drug use and a negative patch after subsequent weeks, although patches may remain positive for 4 weeks or more. Oral ingestion of up to 14.8 mg THC daily does not produce a THC positive sweat patch test.

  9. Excretion of Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol in Sweat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huestis, Marilyn A.; Scheidweiler, Karl B.; Saito, Takeshi; Fortner, Neil; Abraham, Tsadik; Gustafson, Richard A.; Smith, Michael L.

    2008-01-01

    Sweat testing is a noninvasive technique for monitoring drug exposure over a 7-day period in treatment, criminal justice, and employment settings. We evaluated Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) excretion in 11 daily cannabis users after cessation of drug use. PharmChek® sweat patches worn for 7 days were analyzed for THC by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The limit of quantification (LOQ) for the method was 0.4 ng THC/patch. Sweat patches worn the first week of continuously monitored abstinence had THC above the United States Substance Abuse Mental Health Services Administration’s proposed cutoff concentration for federal workplace testing of 1 ng THC/patch. Mean ± S.E.M. THC concentrations were 3.85 ± 0.86 ng THC/patch. Eight of 11 subjects had negative patches the second week and one produced THC positive patches for four weeks of monitored abstinence. We also tested daily and weekly sweat patches from 7 subjects who were administered oral doses of up to 14.8 mg THC/day for five consecutive days. In this oral THC administration study, no daily or weekly patches had THC above the LOQ; concurrent plasma THC concentrations were all less than 6.1 μg/L. In conclusion, using proposed federal cutoff concentrations, most daily cannabis users will have a positive sweat patch in the first week after ceasing drug use and a negative patch after subsequent weeks, although patches may remain positive for four weeks or more. Oral ingestion of up to 14.8 mg THC daily does not produce a THC positive sweat patch test. PMID:17481836

  10. Neurological abnormalities predict disability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poggesi, Anna; Gouw, Alida; van der Flier, Wiesje

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the role of neurological abnormalities and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) lesions in predicting global functional decline in a cohort of initially independent-living elderly subjects. The Leukoaraiosis And DISability (LADIS) Study, involving 11 European centres, was primarily aimed...... at evaluating age-related white matter changes (ARWMC) as an independent predictor of the transition to disability (according to Instrumental Activities of Daily Living scale) or death in independent elderly subjects that were followed up for 3 years. At baseline, a standardized neurological examination.......0 years, 45 % males), 327 (51.7 %) presented at the initial visit with ≥1 neurological abnormality and 242 (38 %) reached the main study outcome. Cox regression analyses, adjusting for MRI features and other determinants of functional decline, showed that the baseline presence of any neurological...

  11. Dietary intake and urinary excretion of lignans in Finnish men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nurmi, Tarja; Mursu, Jaakko; Peñalvo, José L

    2010-01-01

    /d, of which lariciresinol and pinoresinol covered 78 %. Almost half (47 %) of the intake of lignans was explained by the intake of rye products, berries, coffee, tea and roots. The urinary excretion of plant lignans corresponded to 17 % and enterolignans to 92 % of the intake of lignans. The urinary excretion...... of plant lignans was explained 14 % by the intake of rye products and intake of coffee, and consequently 3-7 % by the intake of water-insoluble fibre. The urinary excretion of enterolactone was explained 11 % by the intake of vegetables and rye products, 14 % by the intake of water-soluble fibre and only 4......Intake of lignans has been assessed in different study populations, but so far none of the studies has compared the daily intake of lignans and the urinary excretion of plant and enterolignans. We assessed the intake of lariciresinol, pinoresinol, secoisolariciresinol and matairesinol in 100...

  12. Dietary intake and urinary excretion of lignans in Finnish men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nurmi, Tarja; Mursu, Jaakko; Peñalvo, José L

    2010-01-01

    /d, of which lariciresinol and pinoresinol covered 78 %. Almost half (47 %) of the intake of lignans was explained by the intake of rye products, berries, coffee, tea and roots. The urinary excretion of plant lignans corresponded to 17 % and enterolignans to 92 % of the intake of lignans. The urinary excretion...... of plant lignans was explained 14 % by the intake of rye products and intake of coffee, and consequently 3-7 % by the intake of water-insoluble fibre. The urinary excretion of enterolactone was explained 11 % by the intake of vegetables and rye products, 14 % by the intake of water-soluble fibre and only 4...... % by the intake of lariciresinol. Although the assessed intake of lignans corresponded well with the urinary excretion of lignans, the enterolactone production in the human body depended more on the dietary sources of lignans than the absolute intake of lignans....

  13. Equations to Estimate Creatinine Excretion Rate : The CKD Epidemiology Collaboration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ix, Joachim H.; Wassel, Christina L.; Stevens, Lesley A.; Beck, Gerald J.; Froissart, Marc; Navis, Gerjan; Rodby, Roger; Torres, Vicente E.; Zhang, Yaping (Lucy); Greene, Tom; Levey, Andrew S.

    Background and objectives Creatinine excretion rate (CER) indicates timed urine collection accuracy. Although equations to estimate CER exist, their bias and precision are untested and none simultaneously include age, sex, race, and weight. Design, setting, participants, & measurements Participants

  14. Biliary excretion of phenolphthalein glucuronide in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogasawara, T; Takikawa, H

    2001-06-01

    To examine the substrate specificity of an ATP-dependent organic anion transporter, the multidrug resistance protein 2, we examined the effects of various bile acid conjugates and organic anions on the biliary excretion of phenolphthalein glucuronide, a hydrophilic glucuronide conjugate, in rats. Biliary phenolphthalein glucuronide excretion was markedly inhibited by taurolithocholate-3-sulfate and ursodeoxycholate-3-O-glucuronide. In contrast, ursodeoxycholate-3,7-disulfate and pravastatin only slightly inhibited and cefpiramide did not inhibit biliary phenolphthalein glucuronide excretion. Biliary excretion of sulfobromophthalein, leukotriene C(4) and pravastatin was inhibited by phenolphthalein glucuronide infusion to some extent. These findings suggest that phenolphthalein glucuronide is a relatively low affinity substrate for the multidrug resistance protein 2.

  15. Effect of urine urea nitrogen and protein intake adjusted by using the estimated urine creatinine excretion rate on the antiproteinuric effect of angiotensin II type I receptor blockers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Ho Jun; Kim, Dong Ki; Park, Jung Hwan; Shin, Sung Joon; Lee, Sang Ho; Choi, Bum Soon; Kim, Suhnggwon; Lim, Chun Soo

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the role of protein intake on proteinuria in chronic kidney disease (CKD), as it is presently not conclusive. This is a subanalysis of data from an open-label, case-controlled, randomized clinical trial on education about low-salt diets (NCT01552954). We estimated the urine excretion rate of parameters in a day, adjusted by using the equation for estimating urine creatinine excretion, and analyzed the effect of urine urea nitrogen (UUN), as well as estimating protein intake on the level of albuminuria in hypertensive patients with chronic kidney disease. Among 174 participants from whom complete 24-h urine specimens were collected, the estimates from the Tanaka equation resulted in the highest accuracy for the urinary excretion rate of creatinine, sodium, albumin, and UUN. Among 227 participants, the baseline value of estimated urine albumin excretion (eUalb) was positively correlated with the estimated UUN (eUUN) or protein intake according to eUUN (P = 0.012 and P = 0.038, respectively). We were able to calculate the ratios of eUalb and eUUN in 221 participants and grouped them according to the ratio of eUUN during 16-wk trial period. The proportion of patients that achieved a decrement of eUalb ≥25% during 16 wk with an angiotensin II type I receptor blocker (ARB) medication was 80% (24 of 30) in group 1, with eUUN ratio ≤-25%; 82.2% (111 of 135) in group 2, with eUUN ratio between -25% and 25%; and 66.1% (37 and 56) in group 3, with eUUN ratio ≥25% (P = 0.048). The probability of a decrease in albuminuria with ARB treatment was lower in patients with an increase of eUUN or protein intake during the 16 wk of ARB treatment, as observed in multiple logistic regression analysis as well. The estimated urine urea excretion rate showed a positive association with the level of albuminuria in hypertensive patients with chronic kidney disease. The increase of eUUN excretion ameliorated the antiproteinuric effect of ARB

  16. Nocturnal urinary melatonin excretion and plasma cortisol levels in children and adolescents after a single oral dose of dexamethasone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, U; Theintz, G; Rivest, R W; Sizonenko, P C

    1986-08-01

    In the present study, the possible relationship between melatonin secretion as reflected by nocturnal melatonin excretion (2000 h-0800 h) and the pituitary-adrenocortical axis was investigated. Nocturnal urinary melatonin excretion and plasma cortisol levels were determined in 41 children with weight problems before and after a single oral dose of dexamethasone. A first group of 15 individuals with normal cortisol cycle (12.2 +/- 1.4 at 0800 h and 3.1 +/- 0.5 micrograms/100 ml at 1700 h), and levels below 1.0 microgram/100 ml after dexamethasone, showed a highly significant increase in melatonin excretion during the night following dexamethasone treatment (63.5 +/- 5.5 ng/12 h vs 33.6 +/- 3.0 for the control night, P less than 0.001). This increase was observed from prepuberty to young adulthood (pubertal stages PI-PV). In a second group of 16 subjects with mean cortisol levels similar at 0800 h and 1700 h (10.7 +/- 1.3 and 9.3 +/- 1.5 micrograms/100 ml respectively), but with a normal cortisol suppression after dexamethasone administration, nocturnal melatonin excretion increased from 21.2 +/- 2.1 to 33.4 +/- 3.0 ng/12 h (P less than 0.01). A significant increase was found in prepubertal children (PI) whereas no change was observed at the end of pubertal development (stages PIV-PV). A third group of 10 patients with both low amplitude cortisol cycles (16.2 +/- 2.5 and 10.8 +/- 2.4 micrograms/100 ml) and abnormal cortisol suppression after dexamethasone administration (9.1 +/- 2.4 micrograms/100 ml), showed no increase in melatonin excretion (24.2 +/- 2.7 and 24.9 +/- 3.7 ng/12 h).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. Equipment abnormality monitoring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ando, Yasumasa

    1991-01-01

    When an operator hears sounds in a plantsite, the operator compares normal sounds of equipment which he previously heard and remembered with sounds he actually hears, to judge if they are normal or abnormal. According to the method, there is a worry that abnormal conditions can not be appropriately judged in a case where the number of objective equipments is increased and in a case that the sounds are changed gradually slightly. Then, the device of the present invention comprises a plurality of monitors for monitoring the operation sound of equipments, a recording/reproducing device for recording and reproducing the signals, a selection device for selecting the reproducing signals among the recorded signals, an acoustic device for converting the signals to sounds, a switching device for switching the signals to be transmitted to the acoustic device between to signals of the monitor and the recording/reproducing signals. The abnormality of the equipments can be determined easily by comparing the sounds representing the operation conditions of equipments for controlling the plant operation and the sounds recorded in their normal conditions. (N.H.)

  18. Palmitate binding to serum albumin, measured by rate of dialysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodersen, R; Honoré, B; Andersen, S

    1988-01-01

    with binding of the unsaturated acids is less pronounced. Chloride ions compete with binding of palmitate. Reserve albumin concentration in serum samples from 33 male adults was 420 +/- 59 microM (mean +/- SD), and in 33 females, 351 +/- 50 microM. Umbilical cord sera from ten newborn infants averaged 172......, using pure albumin solutions, we obtained the reserve albumin concentration for binding of palmitate, previously defined as the concentration of a pure standard albumin which binds the labelled ligand as tightly as it is bound in the sample. Two techniques were developed, one for 1-ml sample volumes......, another for 25 microliter. Reserve albumin for binding of palmitate, measured in pure albumin solutions, decreased equally on addition of palmitate and stearate, slightly less with oleate and still less with linoleate, indicating that palmitate and stearate are bound competitively while interaction...

  19. Egg on their faces. The story of human albumin solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Ian; Bunn, Frances

    2002-03-01

    In 1998, the Cochrane Injuries Group published the results of a systematic review of human albumin administration in critically ill patients. The results showed that the risk of death in patients receiving albumin was 14%, and the risk of death in patients not receiving albumin was 8%, suggesting that for every 17 critically ill patients treated with albumin there is one extra death. The results were widely reported in the television and print media throughout the world and stimulated an immediate response from the drug regulatory agencies, the plasma products industry, and the medical profession. Despite vigorous attempts by the plasma products industry to limit the effect of the systematic review on albumin sales, the use of albumin declined steeply, showing that evidence from systematic reviews can have an important effect on clinical care.

  20. Serum Albumin Binding and Esterase Activity: Mechanistic Interactions with Organophosphates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay V. Goncharov

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The albumin molecule, in contrast to many other plasma proteins, is not covered with a carbohydrate moiety and can bind and transport various molecules of endogenous and exogenous origin. The enzymatic activity of albumin, the existence of which many scientists perceive skeptically, is much less studied. In toxicology, understanding the mechanistic interactions of organophosphates with albumin is a special problem, and its solution could help in the development of new types of antidotes. In the present work, the history of the issue is briefly examined, then our in silico data on the interaction of human serum albumin with soman, as well as comparative in silico data of human and bovine serum albumin activities in relation to paraoxon, are presented. Information is given on the substrate specificity of albumin and we consider the possibility of its affiliation to certain classes in the nomenclature of enzymes.

  1. Albumin adsorption onto surfaces of urine collection and analysis containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Mary K; Caudill, Samuel P; Koch, David D; Ritchie, James; Hortin, Glen; Eckfeldt, John H; Sandberg, Sverre; Williams, Desmond; Myers, Gary; Miller, W Greg

    2014-04-20

    Adsorption of albumin onto urine collection and analysis containers may cause falsely low concentrations. We added (125)I-labeled human serum albumin to urine and to phosphate buffered solutions, incubated them with 22 plastic container materials and measured adsorption by liquid scintillation counting. Adsorption of urine albumin (UA) at 5-6 mg/l was containers, and to instrument sample cups and showed <1% change in concentration at 5 mg/l and <0.5% change at 20 mg/l or higher concentrations. Adsorption of albumin from phosphate buffered solutions (2-28%) was larger than that from urine. Albumin adsorption differed among urine samples and plastic materials, but the total influence of adsorption was <1% for all materials and urine samples tested. Adsorption of albumin from phosphate buffered solutions was larger than that from urine and could be a limitation for preparations used as calibrators. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Extraction and characterization of chickpea (Cicer arietinum) albumin and globulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, L H; Hung, T V; Bennett, L

    2008-06-01

    Albumin and globulin fractions of 1 Desi and 2 Kabuli varieties of chickpeas (Cicer arietinum) were extracted with water and salt solutions (K(2)SO(4) and NaCl). The extractable yields and particularly the albumin-globulin ratio varied greatly with the extraction medium and chickpea variety. Depending on the procedure employed, albumin could be extracted as a major fraction of chickpea proteins. Higher levels of essential amino acids and sulfur containing amino acids were found in albumins than in globulins of all chickpeas investigated. The common structural characteristics of both Kabuli and Desi chickpea albumins and globulins were clearly identified by densitometric profiles of their sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel patterns. Albumins contained subunits with higher molecular weights than those of globulins. The in vitro digestibility of the chickpea proteins by papain, pepsin, chymotrypsin, and trypsin indicated that globulins were more susceptible to proteolytic hydrolysis.

  3. Relation of Urinary Calcium and Magnesium Excretion to Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesteloot†, Hugo; Tzoulaki, Ioanna; Brown, Ian J.; Chan, Queenie; Wijeyesekera, Anisha; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Zhao, Liancheng; Dyer, Alan R.; Unwin, Robert J.; Stamler, Jeremiah; Elliott, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Data indicate an inverse association between dietary calcium and magnesium intakes and blood pressure (BP); however, much less is known about associations between urinary calcium and magnesium excretion and BP in general populations. The authors assessed the relation of BP to 24-hour excretion of calcium and magnesium in 2 cross-sectional studies. The International Study of Macro- and Micro-Nutrients and Blood Pressure (INTERMAP) comprised 4,679 persons aged 40–59 years from 17 population samples in China, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States, and the International Cooperative Study on Salt, Other Factors, and Blood Pressure (INTERSALT) comprised 10,067 persons aged 20–59 years from 52 samples around the world. Timed 24-hour urine collections, BP measurements, and nutrient data from four 24-hour dietary recalls (INTERMAP) were collected. In multiple linear regression analyses, urinary calcium excretion was directly associated with BP. After adjustment for multiple confounders (including weight, height, alcohol intake, calcium intake, urinary sodium level, and urinary potassium intake), systolic BP was 1.9 mm Hg higher per each 4.1 mmol per 24 hours (2 standard deviations) of higher urinary calcium excretion (associations were smaller for diastolic BP) in INTERMAP. Qualitatively similar associations were observed in INTERSALT analyses. Associations between magnesium excretion and BP were small and nonsignificant for most of the models examined. The present data suggest that altered calcium homoeostasis, as exhibited by increased calcium excretion, is associated with higher BP levels. PMID:21624957

  4. Aluminium and nickel in human albumin solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard, Bente; Sandberg, E

    1989-01-01

    Five different brands of commercially available human albumin solutions for infusion were analysed for their aluminium and nickel contents by atomic absorption spectrometry. The aluminium concentrations ranged from 12 micrograms/l to 1109 micrograms/l and the nickel concentrations ranged from 17...... micrograms/l to 77 micrograms/l. Examination of the aluminium and nickel contents of the constituents for the production of one brand showed too low levels to explain the final contamination of the product. By following the aluminium and nickel concentrations of the same brand during the production...

  5. Experimental investigation of the serum albumin fascia microstructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzoverya, M. E.; Shcherbak, Yu. P.; Shishpor, I. V.

    2012-09-01

    The results of theoretical and experimental investigation of biological liquids are reported. Structural effects observed in fascias are considered with account of the molecular features of albumin and the concept of supramolecular organization of polymers. It is revealed that the morphology of human serum albumin fascias depends on the concentration and quality of the solvent. It is shown that the water-salt fascias of albumin are more structured than water solutions with the same concentration.

  6. Excretion of DTPA from human body and the effect of DTPA on the excretion of 241Am in urine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia Guogang; Lu Ying; Bai Guang; Yu Yaoxian

    1988-01-01

    The excretion of DTPA in urine was studied after intramuscular injection or inhalation as an aerosol. For two administration of DTPA, the excretion fraction of DTPA in urine can be described by sum of two exponent functions. For intramuscular injection, the fast removal part is about 97% of all the activity administered with a half-life of 88 minutes; the slow removal part is about 3% with a half-life of 292 minutes; the excretion rate of DTPA within 24 hours is about 99%. For inhalation of DTPA, the fast removal part is about 81% with a half-life of 92 minutes; the slow removal part is about 19% with a half-life of 624 minutes. The therapeutic effect of DTPA on 241 Am is good, the average excretion of 241 Am in urine after treatment is 18 times more than that before treatment

  7. Feeling Abnormal: Simulation of Deviancy in Abnormal and Exceptionality Courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernald, Charles D.

    1980-01-01

    Describes activity in which student in abnormal psychology and psychology of exceptional children classes personally experience being judged abnormal. The experience allows the students to remember relevant research, become sensitized to the feelings of individuals classified as deviant, and use caution in classifying individuals as abnormal.…

  8. Abnormal glucose tolerance and lipid abnormalities in Indian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Discussion. Regardless of varying diagnostic classification, abnormal glucose tolerance is a well-documented risk factor. 16 Abnormalities in. Because ofthe small number offemale MI survivors, the effect of obesity and abnormal glucose tolerance on lipid levels was studied in the male patients only. There was no significant.

  9. Interaction of indomethacin with adult human albumin and neonatal serum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Honoré, B; Brodersen, R; Robertson, A

    1983-01-01

    The binding of indomethacin to albumin was investigated at 37 degrees C, pH 7.4. The first stoichiometric binding constant is 2.5 X 10(5) M-1. Indomethacin utilizes both the bilirubin and diazepam binding functions equally. The effect on bilirubin binding to albumin is negligible at therapeutic...... indomethacin blood levels. Oleic acid does not affect indomethacin binding until the oleate/albumin molar ratio exceeds 2. A method for measuring the reserve albumin equivalent for binding indomethacin is described. Measurement of this reserve binding equivalent in 33 neonatal serum samples shows...

  10. Smartphone based point-of-care detector of urine albumin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cmiel, Vratislav; Svoboda, Ondrej; Koscova, Pavlina; Provaznik, Ivo

    2016-03-01

    Albumin plays an important role in human body. Its changed level in urine may indicate serious kidney disorders. We present a new point-of-care solution for sensitive detection of urine albumin - the miniature optical adapter for iPhone with in-built optical filters and a sample slot. The adapter exploits smart-phone flash to generate excitation light and camera to measure the level of emitted light. Albumin Blue 580 is used as albumin reagent. The proposed light-weight adapter can be produced at low cost using a 3D printer. Thus, the miniaturized detector is easy to use out of lab.

  11. Distribution and degradation of albumin in extensive skin disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Worm, Anne-Marie; Taaning, E; Rossing, N

    1981-01-01

    The distribution and degradation of albumin were determined in twelve patients with extensive skin disease and in ten control subjects by measuring the metabolic turnover and transcapillary escape of 132 I-labelled albumin. The ratio of intravascular to total mass of albumin was normal. Thus...... the observed hypoalbuminaemia and the low intravascular mass reflect a reduced mass of total body albumin. The rate of synthesis was normal, but the transcapillary escape rate reflecting the microvascular leakiness to macromolecules, and the fractional disappearance rate were significantly higher...

  12. Studies on kinetics of albumin in uraemic patients on chronic haemodialysis: evidence of interstitial albumin wash-down

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hildebrandt, P; Jensen, H A; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl

    1983-01-01

    Albumin-kinetic studies were performed in nine uraemic patients without oedema on chronic haemodialysis and in seven normal controls in order to determine microvascular leakiness and thereby, during steady state, lymph drainage of albumin. Transvascular escape rate of albumin [TERalb i.......e. the fraction of intravascular mass (IVMalb) passing into, or returning from, the extravascular space per unit time] and the distribution ratio (DRalb) between IVMalb and total albumin mass were determined from intravenously injected radioiodinated serum albumin. Before haemodialysis, TERalb was significantly...... with respect to controls (mean 0 X 44, range 0 X 42-0 X 48, P less than 0 X 01), and the extravascular mass of albumin was significantly decreased (mean 27 X 9 mumol kg-1, range 14.1 - 41.2 v. mean 35.9, range 27.1 - 43.8, P less than 0.05). We interpret the results as to indicate increased transvascular...

  13. Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Articles Directories Videos Resources Contact Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities Home » Article Categories » Exercise and Fitness Font Size: A A A A Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities Next Page The manner of how a ...

  14. Plasma-to-ascitic fluid transport rate of albumin in patients with decompensated cirrhosis. Relation to intraperitoneal albumin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl; Ring-Larsen, H; Lassen, N A

    1983-01-01

    Albumin-kinetics and haemodynamic studies were performed in 20 patients with decompensated liver cirrhosis in order to improve the knowledge on genesis and perpetuation of hepatic ascites, especially with respect to determinants of intraperitoneal protein. A positive relationship was found between...... the plasma-to-peritoneal transport rate of albumin (index of 'lymph-imbalance') and the mass of intraperitoneal albumin (rlog = 0.82, P less than 0.001), indicating a significant role of 'lymph-imbalance' to sequestration of protein in the peritoneal cavity. Ascitic fluid albumin concentration...

  15. [Penile congenital abnormalities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boillot, B; Teklali, Y; Moog, R; Droupy, S

    2013-07-01

    Congenital abnormalities of the penis are usually diagnosed at birth and pose aesthetic and functional problems sometimes requiring surgical management. A literature review was conducted on Medline considering the articles listed until January 2012. Hypospadias is the most common malformation (1 in 250 boys. Familial forms: 7%). The causes remain hypothetical but the doubling of the incidence in 30 years could be linked to fetal exposure to endocrine disruptors "estrogen-like" used in the food industry in particular. Surgical treatment is usually intended to improve the aesthetic appearance but sometimes, in case of significant curvature or posterior meatus, necessary for normal sexual life and fertility. Other malformations (epispades, buried penis, transpositions, twists and preputial abnormalities) as well as management for functional or aesthetic consequences of these malformations in adulthood require complex surgical care in a specialized environment. The improvement of surgical techniques and pediatric anesthesia allows an early and effective specialized surgical approach of penile malformations. Management of sequelae in adulthood must be discussed and requires experience of surgical techniques on pediatric and adult penis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Diagnosis of Protein Losing Enteropathy in connective Tissue Diseases with 99mTc-human Serum Albumin(Hsa)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Won, Kyoung Sook; Oh, Yeong Seok; Bang, Shin Ho; Park, Won

    1993-01-01

    Anterior abdominal scintigraphy after intravenous injection of 99m Tc-human serum albumin ( 99m Tc-HSA 20 mCi) was done in 16 patients with connective tissue diseases and 15 healthy control patients. Patients with proteinuria or hepatopathy were excluded. 1) 7(44%) patients among 16 connective tissue disease patients without the apparent evidence of external protein loss showed abnormal intestinal accumulation of albumin. 6 patients with positive albumin scintigraphy showed hypoalbuminaemia. 2) There was no false positive scintigraphic finding in control group. 3) The serum albumin level in connective tissue disease patients (3.1 ± 0.6 g/dl, n=16) was lower than control patients(3.9 ± 0.3 g/dl, n=15) (p 99m Tc-HSA scan(2.8 ± 0.6 g/dl, n=7) than the connective tissue disease patients with negative scan(3.3 ± 0.3 g/dl, n=9) (p 99m Tc-HSA scan also must be validated by more extended study and comparison with the quantitative study such as stool α -1 antitrypsin measurement. There must be a reevaluation of PLE in various diseases especially in connective tissue diseases with easy, fast, economical, and noninvasive method.

  17. Estimation of the systemic burden of plutonium from urinary excretion data and a multi-exponential model for excretion in comparison with autopsy data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, S.R.; Nestor, C.W.

    1985-01-01

    The authors have adapted other's method for computing the systemic burden from urinary excretion data to use a multi-exponential model (2) for excretion, rather than Langham's power function. The mathematical basis of Synder's method is the representation of the systemic burden as the convolution integral of the observed urinary excretion data with the inverse Laplace transform of the excretion function; in the case of urinary excretion of plutonium, the power function has a Laplace transform, but for other elements (notably uranium) it does not. If the method is to be used for other radioisotopes, the excretion function must have a Laplace transform, and for this reason we have used a multi-exponential form of the excretion function. They have written a computer program to calculate estimates of the systemic burden and the integrated intake from urinary excretion data, and have compared the results with two cases for which autopsy data are available, as presented in this paper

  18. Quantitative studies of human urinary excretion of uropontin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, W; Shiraga, H; Chalko, C; Goldfarb, S; Krishna, G G; Hoyer, J R

    1998-01-01

    Uropontin is the urinary form of osteopontin, an aspartic acid-rich phosphorylated glycoprotein. Uropontin has been previously shown to be a potent inhibitor of the nucleation, growth and aggregation of calcium oxalate crystals and the binding of these crystals to renal epithelial cells. Quantitative data defining the excretion of this protein are necessary to determine its role in urinary stone formation. In the present studies, we determined uropontin excretion rates of normal humans. Urine samples were obtained under conditions of known dietary intake from young adult human volunteers with no history, radiographic or laboratory evidence of renal disease. Urinary concentrations of uropontin were measured by a sensitive ELISA employing an affinity purified polyclonal antiserum to uropontin. Thirteen normal subjects ingested a constant diet providing 1 gram of calcium, 1 gram of phosphorus, 150 mEq of sodium and 1 gram of protein per kilogram of body wt per day during an eight day study period. The relationship of urinary volume to uropontin excretion was assessed by varying fluid intake on the last four days of the study to change the mean urine volume/24 hr by > 500 ml. Urine collected in six hour aliquots for eight days was analyzed for uropontin by ELISA, and for calcium, and creatinine. Daily uropontin excretion of 13 individual subjects was 3805 +/- 1805 micrograms/24 hr (mean +/- 1 SD). The mean urinary levels (1.9 micrograms/ml) detected in the present study are sufficient for inhibition of crystallization; our previous studies have demonstrated that the nucleation, growth and aggregation of calcium oxalate crystals and their binding to renal cells in vitro are inhibited by this concentration of purified uropontin. In contrast to the regular pattern of diurnal variation of calcium excretion seen in most subjects, uropontin excretion showed no regularity of diurnal variation and was not directly related to either calcium or creatinine excretion or changes in

  19. Magnesium excretion and hypomagnesemia in pediatric renal transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uslu Gökceoğlu, Arife; Comak, Elif; Dogan, Cagla Serpil; Koyun, Mustafa; Akbas, Halide; Akman, Sema

    2014-08-01

    We investigated magnesium excretion and rate of hypomagnesemia in pediatric renal transplant recipients. The medical records of 114 pediatric renal transplant recipients were retrospectively evaluated. After exclusion of 23 patients, 91 patients were included in the study. We recorded serum magnesium levels at the time of measurement of urine magnesium wasting. Mean serum magnesium levels were 1.73 ± 0.22 mg/dL and 38 of the patients (41%) had hypomagnesemia. There was a negative correlation between serum magnesium levels and estimated glomerular filtration rate and serum tacrolimus trough level (r=-0.215, p=0.040 and r=-0.409, p=0.000, respectively). Also, there was a statistically significant positive correlation between serum magnesium levels and transplantation duration (r=0.249, p=0.017). Mean fractional magnesium excretion was 5.9 ± 3.7% and 59 patients (65%) had high magnesium excretion. There was a significant negative correlation between fractional magnesium excretion and estimated glomerular filtration rate (r=-0.432, p=0.001). There was a significant positive correlation between fractional magnesium excretion and serum creatinine (r=0.379 p=0.003). Patients with higher tacrolimus trough blood levels, lower glomerular filtration rate and at early posttransplant period had risk of hypomagnesemia.

  20. Albumin Is Recycled from the Primary Urine by Tubular Transcytosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenten, Verena; Menzel, Sylvia; Kunter, Uta; Sicking, Eva-Maria; van Roeyen, Claudia R. C.; Sanden, Silja K.; Kaldenbach, Michaela; Boor, Peter; Fuss, Astrid; Uhlig, Sandra; Lanzmich, Regina; Willemsen, Brigith; Dijkman, Henry; Grepl, Martin; Wild, Klemens; Kriz, Wilhelm; Smeets, Bart; Floege, Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    Under physiologic conditions, significant amounts of plasma protein pass the renal filter and are reabsorbed by proximal tubular cells, but it is not clear whether the endocytosed protein, particularly albumin, is degraded in lysosomes or returned to the circulatory system intact. To resolve this question, a transgenic mouse with podocyte-specific expression of doxycycline-inducible tagged murine albumin was developed. To assess potential glomerular backfiltration, two types of albumin with different charges were expressed. On administration of doxycycline, podocytes expressed either of the two types of transgenic albumin, which were secreted into the primary filtrate and reabsorbed by proximal tubular cells, resulting in serum accumulation. Renal transplantation experiments confirmed that extrarenal transcription of transgenic albumin was unlikely to account for these results. Genetic deletion of the neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn), which rescues albumin and IgG from lysosomal degradation, abolished transcytosis of both types of transgenic albumin and IgG in proximal tubular cells. In summary, we provide evidence of a transcytosis within the kidney tubular system that protects albumin and IgG from lysosomal degradation, allowing these proteins to be recycled intact. PMID:23970123

  1. Structural changes during the unfolding of Bovine serum albumin in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The native form of serum albumin is the most important soluble protein in the body plasma. In order to investigate the structural changes of Bovine serum albumin (BSA) during its unfolding in the presence of urea, a small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) study was performed. The scattering curves of dilute solutions of BSA ...

  2. Possibilities of Using Combined Optical and AFM Investigations of Albumin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzoverya, M. E.; Shishpor, I. V.; Shcherbak, Yu. P.

    2018-02-01

    The results of a complex study of 10% aqueous solution of human serum albumin using methods of optical and atomic force microscopy have been presented. The fine structure of main structures of albumin facies (vitreous matrix and concretions) has been revealed and some observed structural effects have been interpreted from the viewpoint of polymer materials science.

  3. Structural changes during the unfolding of Bovine serum albumin in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    400Da [9]. Low-angle X-ray scattering [10] and neutron scattering [11] also in- dicated serum albumin to be a prolate ellipsoid. However, studies using 1H NMR indicated that a prolate structure was unlikely; rather a heart-shaped structure was proposed [12]. The shape of albumin reveals a heart-shaped molecule that can.

  4. Fraction V of bovine albumin improves the adherence and survival ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fraction V of bovine albumin improves the adherence and survival of adult rat cerebral cortex neurons in primary culture. ... Because the attack of anoxia and mechanical/chemical force in the course of the single neuron separated from the brain, the adult neocortex neurons may be edema. Since albumin can reduce edema ...

  5. The relative role of serum albumin and urinary creatinine as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Their weight, Body mass index, serum albumin and 24-hour urinary creatinine were determined before treatment, at the end of the 1st, 2nd, 4th and 6th month of treatment. Using ANOVA, the mean values of the weight, BIM and serum albumin were analysed with further analysis paired student T- test of the pre-treatment ...

  6. Single Pass Albumin Dialysis-A Dose-Finding Study to Define Optimal Albumin Concentration and Dialysate Flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmuck, Rosa Bianca; Nawrot, Gesa-Henrike; Fikatas, Panagiotis; Reutzel-Selke, Anja; Pratschke, Johann; Sauer, Igor Maximilian

    2017-02-01

    Several artificial liver support concepts have been evaluated both in vitro and clinically. Single pass albumin dialysis (SPAD) has shown to be one of the most simple approaches for removing albumin-bound toxins and water-soluble substances. Being faced with acute liver failure (ALF) in everyday practice encouraged our attempt to define the optimal conditions for SPAD more precisely in a standardized experimental setup. Albumin concentration was adjusted to either 1%, 2%, 3%, or 4%, while the flow rate of the dialysate was kept constant at a speed of 700 mL/h. The flow rate of the dialysate was altered between 350, 500, 700, and 1000 mL/h, whereas the albumin concentration was continuously kept at 3%. This study revealed that the detoxification of albumin-bound substances could be improved by increasing the concentration of albumin in the dialysate with an optimum at 3%. A further increase of the albumin concentration to 4% did not lead to a significant increase in detoxification. Furthermore, we observed a gradual increase of the detoxification efficiency for albumin-bound substances, from 350 mL/h to 700 mL/h (for bilirubin) or 1000 mL/h (for bile acids) of dialysate flow. Water-soluble toxins (ammonia, creatinine, urea, uric acid) were removed almost completely, regardless of albumin concentration or flow rate. In conclusion, this study confirmed that SPAD is effective in eliminating albumin-bound as well as water-soluble toxins using a simulation of ALF. Furthermore, this project was successful in evaluating the most effective combination of albumin concentration (3%) and dialysate flow (700 mL/h-1000 mL/h) in SPAD for the first time. © 2016 International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. A Rare Stapes Abnormality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hala Kanona

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to increase awareness of rare presentations, diagnostic difficulties alongside management of conductive hearing loss and ossicular abnormalities. We report the case of a 13-year-old female reporting progressive left-sided hearing loss and high resolution computed tomography was initially reported as normal. Exploratory tympanotomy revealed an absent stapedius tendon and lack of connection between the stapes superstructure and footplate. The footplate was fixed. Stapedotomy and stapes prosthesis insertion resulted in closure of the air-bone gap by 50 dB. A review of world literature was performed using MedLine. Middle ear ossicular discontinuity can result in significant conductive hearing loss. This can be managed effectively with surgery to help restore hearing. However, some patients may not be suitable or decline surgical intervention and can be managed safely conservatively.

  8. Reference intervals for the P-Albumin bromocresol purple method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Peter Astrup

    2017-10-01

    Correct reference intervals are an important part of test results. As establishing own reference intervals is a very expensive task, the NORIP reference intervals are often transferred for use in Nordic laboratories. The NORIP reference interval on P-Albumin was here compared to current results for laboratories using the bromocresol purple (BCP) method for P-Albumin. External quality control reports were used to investigate the change in levels between the BCP and BCG methods on P-Albumin. An algorithm was built for extracting and isolating the laboratory's healthy subject population. The algorithm was used to extract test results from the laboratory information system. Parametric and non-parametric statistical methods were used to evaluate the P-Albumin test result populations. The indirect method used here clearly shows that the NORIP reference intervals for P-Albumin are not fit for the current bromocresol purple methods. The method was also used to suggest new reference interval limits.

  9. Photodynamically generated bovine serum albumin radicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silvester, J A; Timmins, G S; Davies, Michael Jonathan

    1998-01-01

    Porphyrin-sensitized photoxidation of bovine serum albumin (BSA) results in oxidation of the protein at (at least) two different, specific sites: the Cys-34 residue giving rise to a thiyl radical (RS.); and one or both of the tryptophan residues (Trp-134 and Trp-214) resulting in the formation...... of tertiary carbon-centred radicals and disruption of the tryptophan ring system. In the case of porphyrins such as hematoporphyrin, which bind at specific sites on BSA, these species appear to arise via long-range transfer of damage within the protein structure, as the binding site is some distance from...... the ultimate site of radical formation. This transfer of damage is shown to depend on a number of factors including the conformation of the protein, the presence of blocking groups and pH. Alteration of the protein conformation results in radical formation at additional (or alternative) sites, as does blocking...

  10. A novel adjuvant: polymerised serum albumin beads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dewar, J.B.

    1985-09-01

    There is an ongoing need to develop new vaccine formulations. To complement accumulating knowledge on the structure of antigens and their interaction with cells of the immune system, new vaccine vehicles to optimise the immunogenic potential of the antigen must be developed. Associated with this adjuvanticity, should be minimal adverse side effects. This study was initiated to develop a vaccine vehicle, consisting of covalently cross-linked serum albumin beads, themselves non-immunogenic, containing virus. Following inoculation, in vivo proteolysis of the beads would allow a gradual release of antigen for sustained immunostimulation. This system might have application in virus vaccine programmes to improve low immunogenic vaccines, to allow optimal delivery of the recently derived synthetic virus subunit peptides as well as for inactivated virus vaccine preparations. 35 S-methionine labelled Blue Tongue Virus was used in this study

  11. Urinary excretion of uric acid is negatively associated with albuminuria in patients with chronic kidney disease: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fengqin; Guo, Hui; Zou, Jianan; Chen, Weijun; Lu, Yijun; Zhang, Xiaoli; Fu, Chensheng; Xiao, Jing; Ye, Zhibin

    2018-04-24

    Increasing evidence has shown that albuminuria is related to serum uric acid. Little is known about whether this association may be interrelated via renal handling of uric acid. Therefore, we aim to study urinary uric acid excretion and its association with albuminuria in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). A cross-sectional study of 200 Chinese CKD patients recruited from department of nephrology of Huadong hospital was conducted. Levels of 24 h urinary excretion of uric acid (24-h Uur), fractional excretion of uric acid (FEur) and uric acid clearance rate (Cur) according to gender, CKD stages, hypertension and albuminuria status were compared by a multivariate analysis. Pearson and Spearman correlation and multiple regression analyses were used to study the correlation of 24-h Uur, FEur and Cur with urinary albumin to creatinine ratio (UACR). The multivariate analysis showed that 24-h Uur and Cur were lower and FEur was higher in the hypertension group, stage 3-5 CKD and macro-albuminuria group (UACR> 30 mg/mmol) than those in the normotensive group, stage 1 CKD group and the normo-albuminuria group (UACRuric acid is negatively associated with albuminuria in patients with CKD. This phenomenon may help to explain the association between albuminuria and serum uric acid.

  12. Hepatocyte transporters related to the uptake and excretion of Gd-EOB-DTPA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitao, Azusa; Zen, Yoh; Gabata, Toshifumi

    2010-01-01

    Gadolinium-ethoxybenzyl-diethylene-triamine-pentaacetic acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA, Primovist) is a recently developed hepatobiliary-specific contrast material for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Gd-EOB-DTPA is taken up by hepatocytes and then excreted into the bile ducts in normal liver. Hepatic focal lesions with abnormal hepatobiliary function can be definitely depicted compared to background liver on the hepatobiliary phase of Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MR imaging (EOB-MRI). The enhancement ratio on EOB-MRI would reflect the balance of the uptake and excretion function of the lesions. In a rat experimental study, the hepatic uptake transporter of Gd-EOB-DTPA was confirmed to be an organic anion transporting polypeptide 1 (Oatp1), and the export transporter was multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (Mrp2). The substrates transported by rat oatp1 can be taken up by human OATP1B1, OATP1B3 and OATP2B1, which are expressed on the sinusoidal side of hepatocytes. The substrates of rat Mrp2 can be exported by MRP2 on the canalicular side and MRP1/MRP3 on the sinusoidal side of human hepatocytes. Those transporters carry many kinds of intrinsic or extrinsic molecules, for example bilirubin glucuronides, bile acids, hormones and several drugs. Some of these transporters should be involved in the uptake and excretion of Gd-EOB-DTPA in human normal hepatocytes and tumor cells. During the hepatobiliary phase of EOB-MRI, most hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) classically show a low enhancement ratio, but a high enhancement ratio is shown in several percent of lesions. We analyzed the expression of uptake and excretion transporters (OATPs and MRPs) in HCCs correlated with the signal intensity on the hepatobiliary phase of EOB-MRI. As a result, the expressions of uptake transporter OATP1B3 and sinusoidal excretion transporter MRP3 significantly increased in hyperintense HCCs compared to hypointense HCCs. Therefore, we thought OATP1B3 and MRP3 (not canalicular transporter MRP2) are the

  13. Water metabolism and modification of tritium excretion in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichimasa, Y.; Akita, Y.

    1982-01-01

    1. The intake and excretion of tritium were studied in rats exposed to tritiated water vapor. The metabolism of tritium was also investigated in rats given single administrations of tritiated water and in rats given daily administrations (per os or i.p.). The results were essentially in accord with those reported previously. 2. Amounts of drinking water consumed and urine excreted by rats drinking water with 0.15% saccharin were 1.5 to 2 times higher than in rats drinking tap water. The tritium activity in various tissues of rats drinking water with 0.15% saccharin decreased to about half of that of rats drinking tap water. A similar tendency was observed also in rats drinking beer. The diuretic agent sodium acetazolamide also enhanced the urinary excretion of tritium. (author)

  14. The estimation of phytoplankton production and excretion by carbon-14

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, R.E.H.

    1982-01-01

    Phytoplankton growth and excretion rates as usually estimated from C-14 kinetics are biased, according to a simple model of carbon exchange. True growth rates are progressively overestimated as they decrease, but the error is relatively small (less than 2-fold at 0.1 per day) if carbon loss rates in nature resemble those observed in phytoplankton cultures. True excretion rates are badly underestimated (2 to 10-fold) over the same range of growth rates. Any heterogeneity of the phytoplankton cell carbon pool will reduce these errors, so estimated growth rates are likely to be quite close to true and the kinetics of assimilation and release unlikely to explain, or to further inflate, apparent discrepancies between C-14 and other production estimates. By contrast, kinetics of tracer appearance in dissolved organic carbon are frequently consistent with the model, and indicate that serious underestimation of excretion rate can be a common occurrence. (Auth.)

  15. Antioxidant flavonoids bind human serum albumin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanakis, C. D.; Tarantilis, P. A.; Polissiou, M. G.; Diamantoglou, S.; Tajmir-Riahi, H. A.

    2006-10-01

    Human serum albumin (HSA) is a principal extracellular protein with a high concentration in blood plasma and carrier for many drugs to different molecular targets. Flavonoids are powerful antioxidants and prevent DNA damage. The antioxidative protections are related to their binding modes to DNA duplex and complexation with free radicals in vivo. However, flavonoids are known to inhibit the activities of several enzymes such as calcium phospholipid-dependent protein kinase, tyrosine protein kinase from rat lung, phosphorylase kinase, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and DNA topoisomerases that exhibit the importance of flavonoid-protein interaction. This study was designed to examine the interaction of human serum albumin (HSA) with quercetin (que), kaempferol (kae) and delphinidin (del) in aqueous solution at physiological conditions, using constant protein concentration of 0.25 mM (final) and various drug contents of 1 μM-1 mM. FTIR and UV-vis spectroscopic methods were used to determine the polyphenolic binding mode, the binding constant and the effects of flavonoid complexation on protein secondary structure. The spectroscopic results showed that flavonoids are located along the polypeptide chains through H-bonding interactions with overall affinity constant of Kque = 1.4 × 10 4 M -1, Kkae = 2.6 × 10 5 M -1 and Kdel = 4.71 × 10 5 M -1. The protein secondary structure showed no alterations at low pigment concentration (1 μM), whereas at high flavonoid content (1 mM), major reduction of α-helix from 55% (free HSA) to 42-46% and increase of β-sheet from 15% (free HSA) to 17-19% and β-anti from 7% (free HSA) to 10-20% occurred in the flavonoid-HSA adducts. The major reduction of HSA α-helix is indicative of a partial protein unfolding upon flavonoid interaction.

  16. Human serum albumin and oxidative stress in preeclamptic women and the mechanism of albumin for stress reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroyuki Kinoshita

    2017-08-01

    Significance: Serum albumin relates to oxidative stress inversely, but to the endothelial function positively, in pregnant women. Human serum albumin appears to reduce oxidative stress via NADPH oxidase inhibition in the human vascular smooth muscle, indicating that the serum level may be a critical determinant of vascular oxidative stress in some human diseases.

  17. Association of urinary sodium and potassium excretion with blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mente, Andrew; O'Donnell, Martin J; Rangarajan, Sumathy; McQueen, Matthew J; Poirier, Paul; Wielgosz, Andreas; Morrison, Howard; Li, Wei; Wang, Xingyu; Di, Chen; Mony, Prem; Devanath, Anitha; Rosengren, Annika; Oguz, Aytekin; Zatonska, Katarzyna; Yusufali, Afzal Hussein; Lopez-Jaramillo, Patricio; Avezum, Alvaro; Ismail, Noorhassim; Lanas, Fernando; Puoane, Thandi; Diaz, Rafael; Kelishadi, Roya; Iqbal, Romaina; Yusuf, Rita; Chifamba, Jephat; Khatib, Rasha; Teo, Koon; Yusuf, Salim

    2014-08-14

    Higher levels of sodium intake are reported to be associated with higher blood pressure. Whether this relationship varies according to levels of sodium or potassium intake and in different populations is unknown. We studied 102,216 adults from 18 countries. Estimates of 24-hour sodium and potassium excretion were made from a single fasting morning urine specimen and were used as surrogates for intake. We assessed the relationship between electrolyte excretion and blood pressure, as measured with an automated device. Regression analyses showed increments of 2.11 mm Hg in systolic blood pressure and 0.78 mm Hg in diastolic blood pressure for each 1-g increment in estimated sodium excretion. The slope of this association was steeper with higher sodium intake (an increment of 2.58 mm Hg in systolic blood pressure per gram for sodium excretion >5 g per day, 1.74 mm Hg per gram for 3 to 5 g per day, and 0.74 mm Hg per gram for 55 years of age, 2.43 mm Hg per gram at 45 to 55 years of age, and 1.96 mm Hg per gram at <45 years of age; P<0.001 for interaction). Potassium excretion was inversely associated with systolic blood pressure, with a steeper slope of association for persons with hypertension than for those without it (P<0.001) and a steeper slope with increased age (P<0.001). In this study, the association of estimated intake of sodium and potassium, as determined from measurements of excretion of these cations, with blood pressure was nonlinear and was most pronounced in persons consuming high-sodium diets, persons with hypertension, and older persons. (Funded by the Heart and Stroke Foundation of Ontario and others.).

  18. Utilization of Chicken Excretions as Compost Manure in Bolu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cihat Kütük

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Turkish agricultural soils are insufficient with regard to organic matter content. Likewise, organic matter amounts in agricultural areas of Bolu are low. The benefits of organic matter to physical, chemical and biologic properties of soils are known for very long time. On the other hand, huge amount of chicken excretions are produced in Turkey with increased chicken production recently, and this result in substantial health and environmental problems. Amount of chicken excretions are estimated about 10 000 000 tons in Turkey. In Bolu, these amounts of chicken excretions are 300 000 tons per year. The most appropriate way to solve this question is to transform chicken excretions to organic manure and apply to agricultural fields. Composting is basic process for transforming of chicken excretions to organic manure. Composting is the aerobic decomposition of organic materials in the thermophilic temperature range of 40-65 °C. There are two essential methods in composting. One of them is traditional method taking much time and producing low grade manure. Another is rapid composting method taking less time and producing high grade manure under more controlled conditions. Rapid composting methods which are more acceptable as commercially in the world are windrow, rectangular agitated beds and rotating drum, respectively Selection of appropriate method is depending on composting material, environmental and economical conditions. Chicken excretions occurring large amounts in Bolu must be transformed to organic manure by means of a suitable composting method and used in agriculture. Because, chicken manure is an important resource for sustainable agriculture in Turkey and it should be evaluated.

  19. Cerebral Salt-Wasting Syndrome: Diagnosis by Urine Sodium Excretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arieff, Allen I; Gabbai, Ramin; Goldfine, Ira D

    2017-10-01

    Cerebral salt-wasting syndrome (CSWS) was initially described over 60 years ago in hyponatremic patients with a cerebral lesion. However, the diagnostic criteria for CSWS have not been fully established. Thus, when hyponatremia is observed in patients with CSWS, they may be misdiagnosed as having the syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH). Thus, it is critical to differentiate between these 2 conditions because their treatments are diametrically opposed. We carried out a retrospective study of 45 patients with CSWS and compared them to 60 normonatremic control patients, and 28 patients with SIADH. All patients had their 24-hour urine volumes and sodium (Na) excretion measured. In patients with CSWS, urinary Na excretion was 394 ± 369mmol/24 hours and urinary volume was 2,603 ± 996mL/24 hours; both values significantly greater than in controls (P < 0.01). By contrast, in patients with SIADH, the urine Na excretion was only 51 ± 25mmol/24 hours and urine volume was 745 ± 298mL/24 hours; values significantly lower than in patients with CSWS (P < 0.01). CSWS was diagnosed in patients with cerebral lesion who had (1) symptomatic hyponatremia, (2) urine Na excretion 2 standard deviations above controls and (3) increased urine volume. Patients with SIADH also had symptomatic hyponatremia but, in contrast to patients with CSWS, they had decreased Na excretion and urine volume. Thus urine Na excretion and volume are very important for diagnosing the cause of hyponatremia in patients with cerebral lesions. Copyright © 2017 Southern Society for Clinical Investigation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The Investigation of the Interaction between Lomefloxacin and Human Serume Albumin by Specteroscopic Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. S. Goldouzian

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Mechanism of the binding of lomefloxacin (LMF with human serum albumin has been studied at physiological pH (7.4 using fluorescence spectroscopic technique. LMF is a third-generation fluoroquinolone antibiotic that exhibits striking potency against a broad spectrum of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria through inhibition of DNA gyrase. Lomefloxacin is a drug that is excreted in urine and has very variable systemic absorption. Human serum albumin (HSA is the most important and abundant constituent of blood plasma and serves as a protein storage component. Recently, the three-dimensional structure of HSA was determined through X-ray crystallographic measurement. Fluorescence studies showed that (LMF has an ability to quench the intrinsic fluorescence of HSA through a static quenching  procedure  according to the Stern–Volmer equation .LMF showed two types of binding sites, the first having a very high affinity (1/72 ×107M-1 and a secondary binding site with an affinity two orders lower than the primary site. The number of binding sites for complex: HSA-LMF at 280 nm was calculated 1and0.5. The microenvironment of tryptophan and tyrosin residues and more hydrophobic of fluorophores microenvironment were changed and disturbed by the blue shift in maximum wavelength and decreased in fluorescence intensity in the presence of lomefloxacin revealed  decreased polarity of the fluorophores. The binding site for LMF is in a hydrophobic pocket in the sub-domain II A of HSA.

  1. Fecal bile acid excretion and messenger RNA expression levels of ileal transporters in high risk gallstone patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miquel Juan

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cholesterol gallstone disease (GS is highly prevalent among Hispanics and American Indians. In GS, the pool of bile acids (BA is decreased, suggesting that BA absorption is impaired. In Caucasian GS patients, mRNA levels for ileal BA transporters are decreased. We aimed to determine fecal BA excretion rates, mRNA levels for ileal BA transporter genes and of regulatory genes of BA synthesis in Hispanic GS patients. Results Excretion of fecal BA was measured in seven GS females and in ten GS-free individuals, all with a body mass index 2O3 (300 mg/day for 10 days, and fecal specimens were collected on the last 3 days. Chromium was measured by a colorimetric method, and BA was quantitated by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy. Intake of calories, nutrients, fiber and cholesterol were similar in the GS and GS-free subjects. Mean BA excretion levels were 520 ± 80 mg/day for the GS-free group, and 461 ± 105 mg/day for the GS group. Messenger RNA expression levels were determined by RT-PCR on biopsy samples obtained from ileum during diagnostic colonoscopy (14 GS-free controls and 16 GS patients and from liver during surgery performed at 8 and 10 AM (12 GS and 10 GS-free patients operated on for gastrointestinal malignancies, all with a body mass index Conclusion Hispanics with GS have fecal BA excretion rates and mRNA levels of genes for ileal BA transporters that are similar to GS-free subjects. However, mRNA expression levels of Cyp7A1 are increased in GS, indicating that regulation of BA synthesis is abnormal in Hispanics with GS.

  2. Lack of plasma albumin impairs intravascular lipolysis and explains the associated free fatty acids deficiency and hypertriglyceridemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira Helena CF

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Abnormalities in lipid metabolism and transport are hallmarks in analbuminemic Nagase rats (NAR and humans. Triglyceridemia is nearly 3- to 5-fold higher in female NAR than in control Sprague-Dawley rats (SDR. Also, NAR present with a severe plasma free fatty acid (FFA deficit. There are conflicting results regarding the mechanisms underlying NAR hypertriglyceridemia. Objective We aimed at investigating whether liver lipogenesis and triglyceride secretion rates into the plasma contribute to the hypertriglyceridemia in NAR. We also studied whether heparin or albumin administration would release the hypothesized lipolysis inhibition in NAR. Methods The incorporation of tritiated water into lipids and the linear accumulation rate of plasma triglycerides after Triton WR1339 injection were the measures of liver lipogenesis and triglyceride secretion rates. Results Lipogenesis (596 ± 40 vs. 929 ± 124 μmol 3H2O/g/h and triglyceride (4.25 ± 1.00 vs. 7.04 ± 1.68 mg/dL/min secretion rates were slower (P ≤ 0.05 in fasted NAR than in control SDR. The injection of either heparin or albumin elicited an increase in NAR plasma FFA levels over time. FFA levels reached control levels 90 min after the albumin administration, increasing from 0.36 ± 0.05 to 1.34 ± 0.16 mEq/L (P ≤ 0.05. These results indicate that the lack of plasma albumin inhibits intravascular lipolysis and causes the FFA deficit observed in NAR. Conclusion NAR hepatic triglyceride synthesis and output do not contribute to NAR hypertriglyceridemia. We propose that the lack of albumin diminishes intravascular lipolysis which reduces the plasma triglyceride removal rate and explain both NAR hypertriglyceridemia and FFA deficiency.

  3. Binding and Anticancer Properties of Plumbagin with Human Serum Albumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gou, Yi; Zhang, Yao; Qi, Jinxu; Kong, Linlin; Zhou, Zuping; Liang, Shichu; Yang, Feng; Liang, Hong

    2015-09-01

    Plumbagin has received extensive attention as a promising anticancer drug. Therefore, we investigated the binding and anticancer properties of plumbagin with human serum albumin. Fluorescence results demonstrated that plumbagin interacts with human serum albumin, although its binding affinity may be affected to various extents by different compounds. The human serum albumin-plumbagin complex structure revealed that plumbagin binds to the hydrophobic cavity in the IIA subdomain of human serum albumin through hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic interactions. The plumbagin-human serum albumin complex enhances cytotoxicity by 2- to 3-fold particularly in cancer cells but has no effect on normal cells in vitro. Compared with the unbound drug, the human serum albumin-plumbagin complex promotes HeLa cell apoptosis and has a stronger capacity for cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase of HeLa cells. In conclusion, this study contributes to the rational design and development of plumbagin-based drugs and a drug-human serum albumin delivery system. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  4. Albumin grafting on biomaterial surfaces using gamma-irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamath, K.R.

    1993-01-01

    Surface modification has been used extensively in various fields to introduce desirable surface properties without affecting the bulk properties of the material. In the area of biomaterials, the approach of surface modification offers an effective alternative to the synthesis of new biomaterials. The specific objective of this study was to modify different biomaterial surfaces by albumin grafting to improve their blood compatibility. The modified surfaces were characterized for surface-induced platelet activation and thrombus formation. This behavior was correlated with the conditions used for grafting. In particular, albumin was functionalized to introduce pendant double bonds into the molecule. The functionalized albumin was covalently attached to various surfaces, such as dimethyldichlorosilane-coated glass, polypropylene, polycarbonate, poly(vinyl chloride), and polyethylene by gamma-irradiation. Platelet adhesion and activation on these surfaces was examined using video microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The extent of grafting was found to be dependent on the albumin concentration used for adsorption and the gamma-irradiation time. Release of the grafted albumin during exposure to blood was minimal. The albumin-grafted fibers maintained their thromboresistant properties even after storage at elevated temperatures for prolonged time periods. Finally, the approach was used to graft albumin on the PLEXUS Adult Hollow Fiber Oxygenators (Shiley). The blood compatibility of the grafted oxygenators improved significantly when compared to controls.

  5. Regulation of direct transintestinal cholesterol excretion in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Velde, Astrid E.; Vrins, Carlos L. J.; van den Oever, Karin; Seemann, Ingar; Elferink, Ronald P. J. Oude; van Eck, Miranda; Kuipers, Folkert; Groen, Albert K.

    2008-01-01

    Biliary secretion is generally considered to be an obligate step in the pathway of excess cholesterol excretion from the body. We have recently shown that an alternative route exists. Direct transintestinal cholesterol efflux ( TICE) contributes significantly to cholesterol removal in mice. Our aim

  6. Felinine excretion in domestic cat breeds: a preliminary investigation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagen - Plantinga, Esther; Hendriks, Wouter; Bosch, Guido

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine possible differences in felinine excretion between domesticated cat breeds. For this purpose, urine was collected from a total of 83 privately owned entire male cats from eight different breeds in the Netherlands during the period of November 2010 till November

  7. Urinary sodium excretion and determinates among adults in Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Abstract. Background: There is strong and consistent evidence indicating high salt intake is one of the risk factors for non- communicable diseases (NCDs). The global target is to reduce population salt intake by 30% by 2025. This study was conducted with the aim of determining the level of urinary sodium excretion and ...

  8. The effect of disulfiram on excretion of catecholamine alcoholic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    forms the basis for its use in the treatment of alcoholism. In addition, disulfiram inhibits dopamine-B-hydroxylase (DBH) through a copper-chelating action 2. Since DBH catalyses the conversion of dopamine to noradrenaline, we decided to investi- gate the urinary excretion of catecholamine metabolites in a group of recently ...

  9. Urinary sodium excretion and determinates among adults in Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Urinary sodium excretion and determinates among adults in Ethiopia: Findings from National STEPS survey. Feyissa Challa, Yewondwossen Tadesse, Kissi Mudie, Girum Taye, Terefe Gelibo, Alemayehu Bekele, Meron Sileshi, Tigist Getahun, Zeleke Geto, Abenezer Ayalkebet, Bikila Nagasa, Habtamu Teklie, Tefera ...

  10. Campylobacter infections in fattening pigs; excretion pattern and genetic diversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijtens, M.J.B.M.; Reinders, R.D.; Urlings, H.A.P.; Plas, van der J.

    1999-01-01

    The excretion of campylobacter by eight individually housed fattening pigs was monitored during 15 weeks. Rectal faeces samples were collected six times from these pigs and twice from their mothers (seven sows). Campylobacter was cultured from these samples on Preston medium. In some pigs, samples

  11. Zooplankton as a compound mineralising and synthesizing system: Phosphorus excretion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gulati, R.D.; Martinez, C.P.; Siewertsen, K.

    1995-01-01

    Data on phosphate excretion rates of zooplankton are based on measurements using the pelagic crustacean zoo-plankton of Lake Vechten and laboratory-cultured Daphnia galeata. In case of Daphnia sp we measured the effects of feeding on P-rich algae and P-poor algae (Scenedesmus) as food on the

  12. Campylobacter infections in fattening pigs; Excretion pattern and genetic diversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijtens, M.J.B.M.; Reinders, R.D.; Urlings, H.A.P.; Plas, J. van der

    1999-01-01

    The excretion of campylobacter by eight individually housed fattening pigs was monitored during 15 weeks. Rectal faeces samples were collected six times from these pigs and twice from their mothers (seven sows). Campylobacter was cultured from these samples on Preston medium. In some pigs, samples

  13. Molecular regulation of copper excretion in the liver

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijmenga, C; Klomp, LWJ

    Cu is an essential nutrient that is required for a broad range of cellular and molecular processes. Mammals have efficient systems to control Cu homeostasis that operate at the level of controlling uptake, distribution, sequestration and excretion of Cu. The study of diseases associated with

  14. Effects of Cigarette Smoking on Urinary Testosterone Excretion in Men

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of Cigarette Smoking on Urinary Testosterone Excretion in Men. LA Olayaki, EO Edeoja, OR Jimoh, OK Ghazal, A Olawepo, AG Jimoh, SA Biliaminu. Abstract. Cigarette smoking is a major public health problem that is associated with high morbidity and mortality. This study was designed to investigate the relationship ...

  15. Protein excretion in urine during Schistosoma haematobium infection

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An epidemiological survey of protein excretion in the urine of people living in Schstosoma haematobium endemic area around Atavu stream in Amagunze, Enugu State, Nigeria was conducted between 1994 and 1995. A verification of the endemicity of the diseases revealed differences in prevalence rate ranged from 46.66 ...

  16. Enhanced excretion of radioactive iodine from the thyroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bondarchuk, A.K.

    1990-01-01

    It is pointed out that administration of stable iodine (Lugol solution) accelerates excretion of radioactive iodine from the thyroid. Owing to the fact, all the patients subjected to thyroid scanning with 131 I or those who suffered as a result of NPP accident like the Chernobyl one, should take iodine preparations in conventional treatment-and-prophylactic doses for 3-4 weeks

  17. Atomic structure and chemistry of human serum albumin

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiao M.; Carter, Daniel C.

    1992-01-01

    The three-dimensional structure of human serum albumin has been determined crystallographically to a resolution of 2.8 A. It comprises three homologous domains that assemble to form a heart-shaped molecule. Each domain is a product of two subdomains that possess common structural motifs. The principal regions of ligand binding to human serum albumin are located in hydrophobic cavities in subdomains IIA and ILIA, which exhibit similar chemistry. The structure explains numerous physical phenomena and should provide insight into future pharmacokinetic and genetically engineered therapeutic applications of serum albumin.

  18. Adsorption of egg albumin onto methylated yeast biomass

    OpenAIRE

    Seki, Hideshi; Suzuki, Akira; Maruyama, Hideo

    2004-01-01

    A new biosorbent, methylated yeast (MeYE), was prepared for the adsorptive separation of proteins from aqueous solutions. Yeast was methylated in a 0.1 M HCl methyl alcohol solution at room temperature. About 80% of the carboxylic groups of yeast could be methylated within 9 h. The adsorption of egg albumin to MeYE was studied to evaluate the protein adsorption ability of MeYE. At near neutral pH, egg albumin was scarcely adsorbed to unmethylated yeast and the adsorption amount of egg albumin...

  19. Age-adjusted glycated albumin accurately reflects blood glucose in patients with neonatal diabetes mellitus: comparison with calculated glycated albumin determined by past blood glucose concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Shigeru; Furuya, Akiko; Oshima, Miho; Amamiya, Satoshi; Nakao, Atsushi; Wada, Keiko; Okuhara, Koji; Hayano, Satoshi; Imamoto, Aya; Matsuo, Kumihiro; Tanahashi, Yusuke; Azuma, Hiroshi; Koga, Masafumi

    2016-01-01

    Glycated albumin is a useful glycaemic control indicator for neonatal diabetes mellitus. However, glycated albumin concentrations in infants are lower than those in adults and increase in an age-dependent manner. Based on our investigation of non-diabetic subjects, we proposed the possibility that the reference range for adults may be used regardless of age, provided that age-adjusted glycated albumin is employed. In the present study, we evaluate the usefulness of age-adjusted glycated albumin in neonatal diabetes mellitus patients. Six neonatal diabetes mellitus patients (four patients with permanent neonatal diabetes mellitus and two patients with transient neonatal diabetes mellitus) were included. Measured glycated albumin or age-adjusted glycated albumin was compared to calculated glycated albumin, which was determined using calculation formulae we had reported based on past blood glucose over the 50 days before measurement of glycated albumin. Measured glycated albumin was significantly lower than calculated glycated albumin (20.5 ± 4.9% versus 28.2 ± 6.1%; p diabetes mellitus in remission were lower than the reference range for adults, whereas age-adjusted glycated albumin concentrations were within the reference range for adults. We demonstrated that age-adjusted glycated albumin concentrations were consistent with calculated glycated albumin. Age-adjusted glycated albumin is therefore a useful glycaemic control indicator for neonatal diabetes mellitus patients. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. [Protein losing enteropathy (PLE) detected by Tc99m-labelled human serum albumin abdominal scintigraphy--case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubalewska-Hoła, Alicja; Sowa-Staszczak, Anna; Szczerbiński, Tomasz; Lis, Grzegorz; Huszno, Bohdan; Szybiński, Zbigniew

    2003-01-01

    Protein losing enteropathy (PLE) is a gastrointestinal disorder that is associated with excessive loss of plasma protein into the gut resulting from abnormal mucosal permeability. The disease is usually caused by inflammation. The loss of protein in PLE is a nonselective process affecting albumin, globulin and transferrin. Abdominal scintigraphy with human serum albumin marked by Tc99m seems to be an easy and sensitive method for diagnosing PLE. An 4-year-old girl was presented to an outside Pediatric Department due to hypoproteinemia and recurrent pneumonia which had caused several prior hospitalizations. The laboratory tests revealed hypoproteinemia, hypoalbuminemia, low level of IgG, sideropenia, and a decreased level of T lymphocytes. The loss of protein into the gut was confirmed by fecal clearance of alfa-1 antitrypsin. Only nonspecific inflammation was detected by biopsy of the small intestine. These clinical and laboratory findings, quickly decreasing IgG and albumin levels in spite of i.v. supplementation and the lack of proteinuria permitted PLE diagnosis. The abdominal scintigraphy was planned to assess and localise protein losing through GIT and for strategy of possible surgical treatment. Abdominal dynamic scintigraphy was performed immediately after the injection of 300 MBq Tc99m human albumin. 90 images were taken within 180 minutes. Delayed abdominal images were obtained 6 and 24 hours after the tracer injection. Anterior abdominal scintigraphy showed pathological activity of Tc99m-albumin in small bowel in the upper left segment of the abdomen in the 40th minute after injection. Extensive accumulation of albumin was seen in the 160th minute. Delayed images, after 3 and 6 hours, revealed translocation of the tracer into the lower right abdominal segment. The further passage and tracer concentration was detected in ascendant and transverse colon. Based on the laboratory tests and scintigraphic images the girl was suspected to have segmental

  1. Impairment of renal sodium excretion in tropical residents - phenomenological analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, S. K.; Aryee, P. A.; Amuasi, J.; Hesse, I. F. A.; Affram, R. K.

    There is evidence of impaired renal sodium excretion in salt-sensitive African Blacks. A decreased rate of renal sodium chloride (NaCl) excretion, low plasma renin activity and a tendency to elevated blood pressure are the hallmarks of salt sensitivity. Recent evidence indicates that increased proximal and distal tubular fluid reabsorption in some tropical residents may explain the impaired sodium excretion in these people. In this study of a cohort population, we speculated that subjects selected from that population might be salt-sensitive. We therefore measured the sodium balance in 10 normotensive male subjects over 10 consecutive days, after they had ingested a normal or a high amount of sodium, as NaCl (salt) in their diet. We quantified their renal sodium excretion rate by phenomenological analysis of their sodium balance data. We also measured plasma renin activity for 7 consecutive days in a separate group of 6 male and 4 female subjects in order to assess the state of their renin/angiotensin system. We selected all our subjects from a cohort population of 269 subjects randomly selected from a community known to have a high prevalence of primary hypertension. Our data on two separate groups of subjects from the same cohort population revealed delayed renal sodium excretion with t1/2 of about 5 days, compared to published data for normal individuals with t1/2 of less than 24 h. Also, plasma renin activity levels were low. Hence, our subjects are salt-sensitive. Quantification of their renal impairment is important for various reasons: it heightens one's appreciation of the problem of salt retention in African Blacks who are salt-sensitive and it also underlines the importance of the need for further research into the benefits of dietary salt restriction for reducing cardiovascular mortality in African populations, as has been done in some Western countries.

  2. Absorption, tissue distribution, excretion, and metabolism of clothianidin in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokota, Tokunori; Mikata, Kazuki; Nagasaki, Hiromi; Ohta, Kazunari

    2003-11-19

    Absorption, distribution, excretion, and metabolism of clothianidin [(E)-1-(2-chloro-1,3-thiazol-5-ylmethyl)-3-methyl-2-nitroguanidine] were investigated after a single oral administration of [nitroimino-(14)C]- or [thiazolyl-2-(14)C]clothianidin to male and female rats at a dose of 5 mg/kg of body weight (bw) (low dose) or 250 mg/kg of bw (high dose). The maximum concentration of carbon-14 in blood occurred 2 h after administration of the low oral dose for both labeled clothianidins, and then the concentration of carbon-14 in blood decreased with a half-life of 2.9-4.0 h. The orally administered carbon-14 was rapidly and extensively distributed to all tissues and organs within 2 h after administration, especially to the kidney and liver, but was rapidly and almost completely eliminated from all tissues and organs with no evidence of accumulation. The orally administered carbon-14 was almost completely excreted into urine and feces within 2 days after administration, and approximately 90% of the administered dose was excreted via urine. The major compound in excreta was clothianidin, accounting for >60% of the administered dose. The major metabolic reactions of clothianidin in rats were oxidative demethylation to form N-(2-chlorothiazol-5-ylmethyl)-N'-nitroguanidine and the cleavage of the carbon-nitrogen bond between the thiazolylmethyl moiety and the nitroguanidine moiety. The part of the molecule containing the nitroguanidine moiety was transformed mainly to N-methyl-N'-nitroguanidine, whereas the thiazol moiety was further metabolized to 2-(methylthio)thiazole-5-carboxylic acid. With the exception of the transiently delayed excretion of carbon-14 at the high-dose level, the rates of biokinetics, excretion, distribution, and metabolism of clothianidin were not markedly influenced by dose level and sex.

  3. Serum albumin level predicts initial intravenous immunoglobulin treatment failure in Kawasaki disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Ho-Chang; Liang, Chi-Di; Wang, Chih-Lu; Yu, Hong-Ren; Hwang, Kao-Pin; Yang, Kuender D

    2010-10-01

    Kawasaki disease (KD) is a systemic vasculitis primarily affecting children who are initial IVIG treatment. This study was conducted to investigate the risk factors for initial IVIG treatment failure in KD. Children who met KD diagnosis criteria and were admitted for IVIG treatment were retrospectively enrolled for analysis. Patients were divided into IVIG-responsive and IVIG-resistant groups. Initial laboratory data before IVIG treatment were collected for analysis. A total of 131 patients were enrolled during the study period. At 48 h after completion of initial IVIG treatment, 20 patients (15.3%) had an elevated body temperature. Univariate analysis showed that patients who had initial findings of high neutrophil count, abnormal liver function, low serum albumin level (≤2.9 g/dL) and pericardial effusion were at risk for IVIG treatment failure. Multivariate analysis with a logistic regression procedure showed that serum albumin level was considered the independent predicting factor of IVIG resistance in patients with KD (p = 0.006, OR = 40, 95% CI: 52.8-562). There was no significant correlation between age, gender, fever duration before IVIG treatment, haemoglobin level, total leucocyte and platelet counts, C-reactive protein level, or sterile pyuria and initial IVIG treatment failure. The specificity and sensitivity for prediction of IVIG treatment failure in this study were 96% and 34%, respectively. Pre-IVIG treatment serum albumin levels are a useful predictor of IVIG resistance in patients with KD. © 2010 The Author(s)/Journal Compilation © 2010 Foundation Acta Paediatrica.

  4. Terlipressin plus albumin versus midodrine and octreotide plus albumin in the treatment of hepatorenal syndrome: A randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallin, Marta; Kamath, Patrick S; Merli, Manuela; Fasolato, Silvano; Toniutto, Pierluigi; Salerno, Francesco; Bernardi, Mauro; Romanelli, Roberto Giulio; Colletta, Cosimo; Salinas, Freddy; Di Giacomo, Antonio; Ridola, Lorenzo; Fornasiere, Ezio; Caraceni, Paolo; Morando, Filippo; Piano, Salvatore; Gatta, Angelo; Angeli, Paolo

    2015-08-01

    Hepatorenal syndrome (HRS), a serious complication of cirrhosis, is associated with high mortality without treatment. Terlipressin with albumin is effective in the reversal of HRS. Where terlipressin is not available, as in the United States, midodrine and octreotide with albumin are used as an alternative treatment of HRS. The aim was to compare the effectiveness of terlipressin plus albumin versus midodrine and octreotide plus albumin in the treatment of HRS in a randomized controlled trial. Twenty-seven patients were randomized to receive terlipressin with albumin (TERLI group) and 22 to receive midodrine and octreotide plus albumin (MID/OCT group). The TERLI group received terlipressin by intravenous infusion, initially 3 mg/24 hours, progressively increased to 12 mg/24 hours if there was no response. The MID/OCT group received midodrine orally at an initial dose of 7.5 mg thrice daily, with the dose increased to a maximum of 12.5 mg thrice daily, together with octreotide subcutaneously: initial dose 100 μg thrice daily and up to 200 μg thrice daily. Both groups received albumin intravenously 1 g/kg of body weight on day 1 and 20-40 g/day thereafter. There was a significantly higher rate of recovery of renal function in the TERLI group (19/27, 70.4%) compared to the MID/OCT group (6/21, 28.6%), P = 0.01. Improvement in renal function and lower baseline Model for End-Stage Liver Disease score were associated with better survival. Terlipressin plus albumin is significantly more effective than midodrine and octreotide plus albumin in improving renal function in patients with HRS. © 2015 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  5. Age-related changes in the endocytosis of heat-denatured colloidal albumin by rat Kupffer cells in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brouwer, A.; Barelds, R.J.; Knook, D.L.

    1981-01-01

    In this study, two major functions of rat liver Kupffer cells, viz., endocytosis and catabolism, were determined in relation to age to investigate the cellular basis of the age-related changes in the functional capacity of the RES. Rat liver Kupffer cells were isolated, purified and placed into maintenance culture for 24 hours. The cells were then incubated with 125 I-labelled heat-denatured colloidal albumin (CA 125 I), a clinically used RES test substance. The kinetics of endocytosis and the catabolism of CA 125 I by Kupffer cells obtained from female BN/BiRij rats of various ages were compared. After incubation of cultured Kupffer cells with various concentrations of CA 125 I, no differences were observed in the uptake of CA 125 I by cells from rats of different ages. The capacities of Kupffer cells from young and old rats to degrade and excrete ingested CA 125 I are compared. Although Kupffer cells from old rats appear to be slightly more effective in the degradation and excretion of CA 125 I during the first half hour of postincubation, no significant differences between the two age groups were observed. (Auth.)

  6. Abnormal pressure in hydrocarbon environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, B.E.; Spencer, C.W.

    1998-01-01

    Abnormal pressures, pressures above or below hydrostatic pressures, occur on all continents in a wide range of geological conditions. According to a survey of published literature on abnormal pressures, compaction disequilibrium and hydrocarbon generation are the two most commonly cited causes of abnormally high pressure in petroleum provinces. In young (Tertiary) deltaic sequences, compaction disequilibrium is the dominant cause of abnormal pressure. In older (pre-Tertiary) lithified rocks, hydrocarbon generation, aquathermal expansion, and tectonics are most often cited as the causes of abnormal pressure. The association of abnormal pressures with hydrocarbon accumulations is statistically significant. Within abnormally pressured reservoirs, empirical evidence indicates that the bulk of economically recoverable oil and gas occurs in reservoirs with pressure gradients less than 0.75 psi/ft (17.4 kPa/m) and there is very little production potential from reservoirs that exceed 0.85 psi/ft (19.6 kPa/m). Abnormally pressured rocks are also commonly associated with unconventional gas accumulations where the pressuring phase is gas of either a thermal or microbial origin. In underpressured, thermally mature rocks, the affected reservoirs have most often experienced a significant cooling history and probably evolved from an originally overpressured system.

  7. Albumin (BSA) adsorption onto graphite stepped surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio-Pereda, Pamela; Vilhena, J. G.; Takeuchi, Noboru; Serena, Pedro A.; Pérez, Rubén

    2017-06-01

    Nanomaterials are good candidates for the design of novel components with biomedical applications. For example, nano-patterned substrates may be used to immobilize protein molecules in order to integrate them in biosensing units. Here, we perform long MD simulations (up to 200 ns) using an explicit solvent and physiological ion concentrations to characterize the adsorption of bovine serum albumin (BSA) onto a nano-patterned graphite substrate. We have studied the effect of the orientation and step size on the protein adsorption and final conformation. Our results show that the protein is stable, with small changes in the protein secondary structure that are confined to the contact area and reveal the influence of nano-structuring on the spontaneous adsorption, protein-surface binding energies, and protein mobility. Although van der Waals (vdW) interactions play a dominant role, our simulations reveal the important role played by the hydrophobic lipid-binding sites of the BSA molecule in the adsorption process. The complex structure of these sites, that incorporate residues with different hydrophobic character, and their flexibility are crucial to understand the influence of the ion concentration and protein orientation in the different steps of the adsorption process. Our study provides useful information for the molecular engineering of components that require the immobilization of biomolecules and the preservation of their biological activity.

  8. Human serum albumin binding of certain antimalarials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marković, Olivera S.; Cvijetić, Ilija N.; Zlatović, Mario V.; Opsenica, Igor M.; Konstantinović, Jelena M.; Terzić Jovanović, Nataša V.; Šolaja, Bogdan A.; Verbić, Tatjana Ž.

    2018-03-01

    Interactions between eight in-house synthesized aminoquinolines, along with well-known chloroquine, and human serum albumin (HSA) have been studied by fluorescence spectroscopy. The synthesized aminoquinolines, despite being structurally diverse, were found to be very potent antimalarials. Fluorescence measurements indicate that three compounds having additional thiophene or benzothiophene substructure bind more strongly to HSA than other studied compounds. Competitive binding experiments indicate that these three compounds bind significantly stronger to warfarin compared to diazepam binding site. Fluorescence quenching at three temperatures (20, 25, and 37 °C) was analyzed using classical Stern-Volmer equation, and a static quenching mechanism was proposed. The enthalpy and entropy changes upon sulphur-containing compound-HSA interactions were calculated using Van't Hoff equation. Positive values of enthalpy and entropy changes indicate that non-specific, hydrophobic interactions are the main contributors to HSA-compound interaction. Molecular docking and calculated lipophilicity descriptors indicate the same, pointing out that the increased lipophilicity of sulphur-containing compounds might be a reason for their better binding to HSA. Obtained results might contribute to design of novel derivatives with improved pharmacokinetic properties and drug efficacy.

  9. KADAR ALBUMIN SERUM DAN FAAL GINJAL ANAK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydia Kosnadi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Serum albumin concentration (Sa is one of the determinants of single nephron glomerular filtration rate. Hypoalbuminemia is frequently encountered in our country due to protein calory malnutrition, liver function disorders and others. The renal function or glomerular filtration rate (GFR measurement in children suffering from renal diseases would be able to provide information regarding the extent of the renal damage. The aim of this study was to know the interaction between Sa and GFR in children. GFR was measured by standard inulin clearance (Cin and conventional endogenous creatinine clearance (Ccr in 112 children hospitalized with renal diseases. Standard renal function status test, namely IKA-1984 was utilized for the renal function measurement. Result of this study showed a positive correlation between : Sa, Cin and Ccr in pediatric patients with decreased renal function : Cin = 5,23 + 12,14 Sa (r = 0,50; p = 0,007; n = 26 and Cr = 7,10 + 14,47 Sa (r = 0,53; p = 0,005; n = 26, so that the lower Sa level, usually will indicate the lower renal function and the more severe the renal failure.

  10. Vertebral uptake of Tc-99m macroaggregated albumin (MAA) with SPECT/CT occurring in superior vena cava obstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karls, Shawn; Hassoun, Hani; Derbekyan, Vilma [Dept. of Nuclear Madicine, Royal Victoria Hospital, Montreal (Canada)

    2016-09-15

    A 67-year-old male presented with dyspnea for which lung scintigraphy was ordered to rule out pulmonary embolus. Planar images demonstrated abnormal midline uptake of Tc-99m macroaggregated albumin, which SPECT/CT localized to several thoracic vertebrae. Thoracic vertebral uptake on perfusion lung scintigraphy was previously described on planar imaging. Radionuclide venography and contrast-enhanced CT subsequently demonstrated superior vena cava (SVC) obstruction with collateralization through the azygous/hemiazygous system and vertebral venous plexus. SPECT/CT differentiated residual esophageal/tracheal ventilation activity, a clinically insignificant finding, from vertebral uptake indicative of SVC obstruction, a potentially life-threatening condition.

  11. On the possible involvement of bovine serum albumin precursor in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    biotin affinity chromatography and mass finger printing analysis technique, herein we report the identification of a 70 kDa size protein (bovine serum albumin precursor, BSAP) which binds strongly with lipoplexes and may play role in lipofection ...

  12. 99M-technetium labeled macroaggregated human serum albumin pharmaceutical

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winchell, Harry S.; Barak, Morton; Van Fleet, III, Parmer

    1977-05-17

    A reagent comprising macroaggregated human serum albumin having dispersed therein particles of stannous tin and a method for instantly making a labeled pharmaceutical therefrom, are disclosed. The labeled pharmaceutical is utilized in organ imaging.

  13. Albumin-mediated delivery of siRNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bienk, Konrad

    2015-01-01

    nucleases. Development of protective carriers for active transport of siRNA is a promising strategy to utilize the potential of siRNA therapeutics. Synthetic carriers have been used but are recognized as foreign and susceptible to capture by the mononuclear phagocytic system and invoking an immune response...... towards albumin. The binding affinity was shown to be dependent on position and number of modifications, and experiments suggested Fatty Acid site 5 as the binding site for the cholesteryl siRNA. In vitro experiments showed reduced serum degradation, increased stability of albumin/siRNA complexes for up...... to 72 hours in serum and reduced TNFα response towards albumin/siRNA complexes compared to naked siRNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). It was also demonstrated that albumin can help efficient annealing of highly hydrophobic siRNA. Furthermore, it was shown that, by preferentially...

  14. CORRELATION OF SPOT URINE ALBUMIN AND 12-HOUR URINE PROTEIN WITH 24-HOUR URINE PROTEIN IN PRE-ECLAMPSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Vinayachandran

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Pre-eclampsia is defined as the development of new-onset hypertension in the second half of pregnancy often accompanied by new-onset proteinuria with other signs and symptoms. Proteinuria is defined by the excretion of 300 mg or more of protein in a 24-hour urine collection. To avoid time consumed in collection of 24-hour urine specimens, efforts have been made to develop faster methods to determine concentration of urine protein. Preliminary studies have suggested that 12-hour urine protein collection maybe adequate for evaluation of pre-eclampsia with advantage of early diagnosis and treatment of pre-eclampsia as well as potential for early hospital discharge and increased compliance with specimen collection. The aim of the study is to evaluate and correlate spot urine albumin and 12-hour urine protein with 24-hour urine protein in pre-eclampsia. MATERIALS AND METHODS A diagnostic evaluation study- a 24-hour urine protein, 12-hour urine protein and spot urine albumin results are analysed. Correlation of 12-hour urine protein and spot urine albumin with 24-hour urine protein is analysed using SPSS software. The strength of correlation was measured by Pearson’s correlation coefficient (r. Student’s t-test and Chi-square tests were used to compare patients with and without 24-hour urine protein ≥300 mg. Probability value of 165 mg with 24-hour urine protein ≥300 mg suggest that this test has role in the evaluation of women with suspected pre-eclampsia and could be substituted for 24-hour urine protein as a simple, faster and cheaper method.

  15. Diagnostic efficacy of random albumin creatinine ratio for detection of micro and macro-albuminuria in type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasanato, Rana M

    2016-03-01

    To compare a less cumbersome random albumin creatinine ratio (RACR) with 24-hour urinary albumin excretion (UAE) for detection of renal damage in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). This retrospective study performed between March 2013 and June 2014 at the Department of Pathology, King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia included 122 patients (mean age 54 ± 15, 104 females and 18 males) with T2DM. Urine albumin levels of less than 30 mg/g was considered normal, from 30-300 mg/g considered as micro-albuminuria, and over 300 mg/g considered as macro-albuminuria. Concordance between the 2 assays was observed in 114 (93.4%) samples. The sensitivity of RACR assay was 100%, specificity was 91.3% with a positive predictive value (PPV) of 95%, and a negative predictive value (NPV) of 100% in micro-albuminuria range. For macro-albuminuria, RACR had a sensitivity of 100%, specificity of 94.1% with PPV of 94% and NPV of 100%. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves analysis cut-off values of 40 mg/g-300 mg/g for micro- and greater than 300 mg/g for macro-albuminuria revealed 100% sensitivity, 97.5% specificity, 95% PPV, and 100% NPV for micro-albuminuria, and 100% sensitivity, 94% specificity, 76% PPV, and 100% NPP for macro-albuminuria. The area under the curve for micro-albuminuria was 100% and 98.2% for macro-albuminuria. Performance of RACR was comparable to 24 hour UAE assay particularly in excluding renal damage in T2DM.

  16. Effects of oral contraceptives on total serum proteins, albumin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In view of the finding of this study, it is suggested that the biochemical profile of long-term oral contraceptive users be assessed periodically. Résumé Sérum protéine totale, albumine, globuline, le rapport albumine/globuline et le niveau du cholestérol tous étaient determines chez 25 clients, en utilisant contraceptives oraux ...

  17. Albumin-drug interaction and its clinical implication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamasaki, Keishi; Chuang, Victor Tuan Giam; Maruyama, Toru; Otagiri, Masaki

    2013-12-01

    Human serum albumin acts as a reservoir and transport protein for endogenous (e.g. fatty acids or bilirubin) and exogenous compounds (e.g. drugs or nutrients) in the blood. The binding of a drug to albumin is a major determinant of its pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profile. The present review discusses recent findings regarding the nature of drug binding sites, drug-albumin binding in certain diseased states or in the presence of coadministered drugs, and the potential of utilizing albumin-drug interactions in clinical applications. Drug-albumin interactions appear to predominantly occur at one or two specific binding sites. The nature of these drug binding sites has been fundamentally investigated as to location, size, charge, hydrophobicity or changes that can occur under conditions such as the content of the endogenous substances in question. Such findings can be useful tools for the analysis of drug-drug interactions or protein binding in diseased states. A change in protein binding is not always a problem in terms of drug therapy, but it can be used to enhance the efficacy of therapeutic agents or to enhance the accumulation of radiopharmaceuticals to targets for diagnostic purposes. Furthermore, several extracorporeal dialysis procedures using albumin-containing dialysates have proven to be an effective tool for removing endogenous toxins or overdosed drugs from patients. Recent findings related to albumin-drug interactions as described in this review are useful for providing safer and efficient therapies and diagnoses in clinical settings. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Serum Albumin. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Evaluation of use of human albumin in critically ill dogs: 73 cases (2003-2006).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trow, Amy V; Rozanski, Elizabeth A; Delaforcade, Armelle M; Chan, Daniel L

    2008-08-15

    To evaluate the use of human albumin in critically ill dogs. Design-Retrospective case series. 73 client-owned hospitalized dogs. Medical records of dogs that received human albumin were reviewed to assess effects of the use of human albumin on serum albumin concentration, colloid osmotic pressure, and total protein concentration; determine the relationships between these variables and outcome; and assess its safety. Data for signalment, diagnoses, physiologic variables, dosage, amount of crystalloid fluid administered prior to human albumin administration, complications, and outcome were reviewed. Additionally, pre- and postadministration values for serum albumin, colloid osmotic pressure, and total protein were recorded. Administration of human albumin resulted in significant changes in serum albumin, colloid osmotic pressure, and total protein. The serum albumin, total protein, degree of improvement in serum albumin, colloid osmotic pressure, and dosage of human albumin were significantly greater in survivors. Seventeen of 73 (23%) dogs had at least 1 complication that could be potentially associated with the administration of human albumin that occurred during or immediately following administration of human albumin. Three of 73 (4%) dogs had severe delayed complications. Administration of human albumin significantly increased serum albumin, and total protein concentrations and colloid osmotic pressure, especially in survivors. Because of the high mortality rate of the study population and other confounding factors, it was uncertain whether complications were associated with the underlying disease or with human albumin administration. Acute and delayed complications may have been under-recognized.

  19. 2B.07: DIASTOLIC BLOOD PRESSURE MODIFIES THE ASSOCIATION OF URIC ACID WITH ALBUMIN/CREATININE RATIO IN PRE-METABOLIC SYNDROME.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajcoviechova, A; Cifkova, R; Wohlfahrt, P; Bruthans, J; Tremblay, J; Hamet, P

    2015-06-01

    Serum uric acid (UA) has been associated with metabolic syndrome (MetS) and urine albumin/creatinine ratio (ACR). We questioned whether UA and ACR are associated in pre-metabolic individuals, and whether this association is modified by any component variable of the metabolic syndrome. In a cross-sectional survey of a representative Czech population (n = 3612) aged 25-64 years, urinary albumin and creatinine excretion were determined in an early morning spot urine sample and ACR was calculated. Components of MetS were defined using the joint statement of IDF, NHBLI, AHA, WHF, IAS, and IASO. Individuals presenting with 1 or 2 components were defined as pre-metabolic. Individuals with urinary albumin excretion bellow the detection limit of 1 mg (n = 594), diabetes treated with glucose lowering medication (n = 122), current use of inhibitors of xanthine oxidase (n = 95) and incomplete data (n = 135) were excluded from this analysis. This resulted in 2666 individuals in total. Six hundred and sixty-five (25%) individuals presented without any component of MetS, and 1248 (46.8%) individuals with 1 or 2 components. In individuals free of any component of MetS, there was no association between UA and ln-ACR. In pre-metabolic individuals, UA significantly correlated with ln-ACR in men (n = 639; standardized beta (SB) 0.091; p = 0.022) and in women (n = 609; SB 0.122; p = 0.003). After multivariate adjustment, UA was independently associated with ln-ACR (SB 0.058; p = 0.004), age (SB -0.247; p creatinine ratio in individuals with pre-metabolic syndrome. This association appears to be largely modified by diastolic blood pressure.

  20. Adsorption of albumin on prosthetic materials: implication for tribological behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serro, A P; Gispert, M P; Martins, M C L; Brogueira, P; Colaço, R; Saramago, B

    2006-09-01

    The orthopedic prosthesis used to substitute damaged natural joints are lubricated by a pseudosynovial fluid that contains biological macromolecules with potential boundary lubrication properties. Proteins are some of those macromolecules whose role in the lubrication process is not yet completely understood. In a previous work, we investigated the influence of the presence of albumin, the major synovial protein, upon the tribological behavior of three of the most used pairs of artificial joint materials: ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) against counterfaces of alumina, CoCrMo alloy, and 316L stainless steel. Albumin was found to cause a significant decrease in the friction coefficient when the counterfaces were metallic because transfer of UHMWPE was avoided, but this effect was much weaker in the case of alumina. The objective of the present work was to look for an explanation for these differences in tribological behavior in terms of albumin adsorption. With this goal, studies on adsorption of bovine serum albumin (BSA) on the counterface materials, from a biological model fluid (Hanks' balanced salt solution), were carried out using radiolabeled albumin ((125)I-BSA), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and atomic force microscopy. The conclusion from all techniques is that the driving force for albumin adsorption is higher on the metals than on alumina. These results confirm that the greater the amount of protein adsorbed on the counterface, the more efficient is the protection against the transfer of polymeric film to the counterface.

  1. Mineralisation of two phosphate ceramics in HBSS: role of albumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, P A A P; Serro, A P; Saramago, B J; Fernandes, A C; Magalhães, M C F; Correia, R N

    2003-02-01

    The role of albumin in the mineralisation process of commercial hydroxyapatite (HAp) and synthesised biphasic (HAp-tricalcium phosphate) ceramics in a bufferless simulated inorganic plasma (HBSS) was investigated by conventional in vitro tests and static and dynamic wettability measurements. Albumin was either pre-adsorbed or solubilised in HBSS. It was found that calcium complexation by albumin plays a key role in early mineralisation kinetics, so that mineralisation is favoured when albumin is pre-adsorbed and hindered when it is dissolved in HBSS. In the biphasic ceramic this picture is complicated by the fact that albumin, in solution, seems to promote the dissolution of tricalcium phosphate, and simultaneously compete for calcium with the ceramic. It also appears that albumin has a stabilising effect of octacalcium phosphate present in deposits on commercial HAp. The same effect may be present in the case of the biphasic ceramic, at earlier mineralisation times, when octacalcium phosphate appears as a precursor of HAp. Octacalcium phosphate formation on commercial apatite is accompanied by carbonate substitution in phosphate positions.

  2. Adsorption of egg albumin onto methylated yeast biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seki, Hideshi; Suzuki, Akira; Maruyama, Hideo

    2004-02-15

    A new biosorbent, methylated yeast (MeYE), was prepared for the adsorptive separation of proteins from aqueous solutions. Yeast was methylated in a 0.1 M HCl methyl alcohol solution at room temperature. About 80% of the carboxylic groups of yeast could be methylated within 9 h. The adsorption of egg albumin onto MeYE was studied to evaluate the protein adsorption ability of MeYE. At near neutral pH, egg albumin was scarcely adsorbed onto unmethylated yeast and the adsorbed amount of egg albumin increased with increasing methylation degree. The amount of egg albumin adsorbed onto MeYE increased with increasing pH from 4 to 7 and steeply decreased above pH 7. The Langmuir isotherm was applied to determine the apparent adsorption constant and the saturated adsorbed amount of egg albumin on MeYE. Both the apparent adsorption constant and the saturated adsorbed amount increased with the degree of methylation. The saturated adsorbed amount of egg albumin onto MeYE having methylation degree 77% was 8.41 x 10(-6) mol g(-1) or 0.378 gg(-1) at near neutral pH.

  3. Measurement of lung fluid volumes and albumin exclusion in sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pou, N.A.; Roselli, R.J.; Parker, R.E.; Clanton, J.A.; Harris, T.R.

    1989-01-01

    A radioactive tracer technique was used to determine interstitial diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) and albumin distribution volume in sheep lungs. 125 I- and/or 131 I-labeled albumin were injected intravenously and allowed to equilibrate for 24 h. 99m Tc-labeled DTPA and 51 Cr-labeled erythrocytes were injected and allowed to equilibrate (2 h and 15 min, respectively) before a lethal dose of thiamylal sodium. Two biopsies (1-3 g) were taken from each lung and the remaining tissue was homogenized for wet-to-dry lung weight and volume calculations. Estimates of distribution volumes from whole lung homogenized samples were statistically smaller than biopsy samples for extravascular water, interstitial 99m Tc-DTPA, and interstitial albumin. The mean fraction of the interstitium (Fe), which excludes albumin, was 0.68 +/- 0.04 for whole lung samples compared with 0.62 +/- 0.03 for biopsy samples. Hematocrit may explain the consistent difference. To make the Fe for biopsy samples match that for homogenized samples, a mean hematocrit, which was 82% of large vessel hematocrit, was required. Excluded volume fraction for exogenous sheep albumin was compared with that of exogenous human albumin in two sheep, and no difference was found at 24 h

  4. Determination of bioequivalence of lomefloxacin tablets using urinary excretion data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Shailesh A; Rathod, Ishwarsinh S; Savale, Shrinivas S; Patel, Dharmesh B

    2002-11-07

    The present study describes development of a sensitive and simple HPTLC method for estimation of lomefloxacin (LMF) in human urine. The drug was extracted using chloroform after adjusting the pH of urine to 7.0. Chloroform extract was spotted on silica gel 60 F(254) TLC plate and was developed in a mixture of n-butanol-methanol-ethyl acetate-6 M ammonia (4:2:3:2, v/v/v/v) as the mobile phase and scanned at 290 nm. The peak for LMF resolved at R(F) of 0.40+/-0.02. The method was validated in terms of linearity (50-600 microgram/ml), precision, specificity and accuracy. The limit of detection and limit of quantification for LMF in urine were found to be 20 and 50 microgram/ml, respectively. The average recovery of LMF from urine was 91.93%. The proposed method was applied to generate urinary excretion data for LMF after administration of two market LMF tablet formulations (400 mg, Formulation R and Formulation T) to six healthy human volunteers in a two-treatment, open, crossover design. Various pharmacokinetic parameters like peak excretion rate ((dAU/dt)(max)), time for peak excretion rate (t(max)), AUC(0-48), AUC(0- infinity ), cumulative amount and % cumulative amount of LMF excreted, elimination half-life (t(1/2)), terminal elimination rate constant (k(el)) and overall elimination rate constant (K), were calculated for both the formulations. The average cumulative amounts of LMF excreted in urine after administration of Formulation R and Formulation T were found to be 321.60 mg (80.40% of dose) and 296.51 mg (74.13% of dose), respectively. The urinary excretion profiles of LMF upto 48 h for both the formulations were found to be similar. Statistical comparison (90% confidence intervals of ratio) of various pharmacokinetic parameters of Formulation T with that of Formulation R revealed that Formulation T is bioequivalent with Formulation R.

  5. Urinary excretion of arsenicals following daily intake of various seafoods during a two weeks intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molin, M.; Ulven, S.M.; Dahl, L.

    2014-01-01

    The excretion pattern of arsenic (As) species after seafood intake varies widely depending on species ingested and individual handling. We have previously reported the 72h urinary excretion of arsenicals following a single dose of seafood. Here, we report the excretion patterns in the same 37...

  6. Changes in urinary taurine and hypotaurine excretion after two-thirds hepatectomy in the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand, H. S.; Jörning, G. G.; Chamuleau, R. A.

    1998-01-01

    This study followed the time course of urinary taurine and hypotaurine excretion after two-thirds hepatectomy in rats. The excretion of both taurine and hypotaurine was elevated during 18 h following the hepatectomy, with maximal excretion during the first 6 h. Twelve and 24 h after partial

  7. Fluorescence lifetime measurements of native and glycated human serum albumin and bovine serum albumin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Narahari V.; Joshi, Virgina O. d.; Contreras, Silvia; Gil, Herminia; Medina, Honorio; Siemiarczuk, Aleksander

    1999-05-01

    Nonenzymatic glycation, also known as Maillard reaction, plays an important role in the secondary complications of the diabetic pathology and aging, therefore, human serum albumin (HSA) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) were glycated by a conventional method in our laboratory using glucose as the glycating agent. Fluorescence lifetime measurements were carried out with a laser strobe fluorometer equipped with a nitrogen/dye laser and a frequency doubler as a pulsed excitation source. The samples were excited at 295 nm and the emission spectra were recorded at 345 nm. The obtained decay curves were tried for double and triple exponential functions. It has been found that the shorter lifetime increases for glycated proteins as compared with that of the native ones. For example, in the case of glycated BSA the lifetime increased from 1.36 ns to 2.30 ns. Similarly, for HSA, the lifetime increases from 1.58 ns to 2.26 ns. Meanwhile, the longer lifetime changed very slightly for both proteins (from 6.52 ns to 6.72 ns). The increase in the lifetime can be associated with the environmental effect; originated from the attachment of glucose to some lysine residues. A good example is Trp 214 which is in the cage of Lys 225, Lys 212, Lys 233, Lys 205, Lys 500, Lys 199 and Lys 195. If fluorescence lifetime technique is calibrated and properly used it could be employed for assessing glycation of proteins.

  8. Novel Transgenic Mouse Model for Studying Human Serum Albumin as A Biomarker of Carcinogenic Exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Sheng, Jonathan; Wang, Yi; Turesky, Robert J.; Kluetzman, Kerri; Zhang, Qing-Yu; Ding, Xinxin

    2016-01-01

    Albumin is a commonly used serum protein for studying human exposure to xenobiotic compounds, including therapeutics and environmental pollutants. Often, the reactivity of albumin with xenobiotic compounds is studied ex vivo with human albumin or plasma/serum samples. Some studies have characterized the reactivity of albumin with chemicals in rodent models; however, differences between the orthologous peptide sequences of human and rodent albumins can result in formation of different types of...

  9. Urinary excretion of purine derivatives in Yerli Kara cattle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cetinkaya, N.; Guecues, A. I.; Oezcan, H.; Ulutuerk, S.; Yaman, S.

    2000-01-01

    The urinary excretion of purine derivatives (PD) was measured in four Yerli Kara bulls in two experiments, a fasting experiment lasting for 7 days and the other , where animals were given a diet containing 30% wheat straw and 70% compounded feed at four levels of intake (40,60,80 and 95% of voluntary feed intake). In the second experiment, which was carried out according to a 4x4 Latin Square design, four animals receiving 60 and 95% levels of intake were also given a single injection of 8- ''1''4C - uric acid via a jugular catheter. In Addition to the above two experiments the activity of xanthine oxidase and uricase in plasma, liver and intestinal mucosa obtained from Yerli Kara cattle was also determined.In the first experiment,fasting PD excretion averaged 0.691 (±0.053) mmol/kgW''0''.''7''5/d. Glomerular filtration rate GFR), tubular load and net re-absorption of allantoin between pre fasting and fasting were statistically significant (P<0.05). In the second experiment the recovery of injected 8 - ''1''4C - uric acid as total PD was 72.5 and 89.9% for 60 and 95% feeding levels, respectively. The average recovery was 81%. Plasma kinetics measured by 8 - ''1''4C - uric acid indicated that the total compartment pool size was 214.0 (±43.8) and 250.3 L (±29.5) for 60 and 95% feeding levels, respectively. GFR, tubular load and net re-absorption of uric acid and allantoin were not affected by feed intake. The allantoin : PD molar ratios changed between 0.78 to 0.93 for the four levels feed intake. There were significant correlations between PD excretion (expressed as mmol/d and μmol/kg W''0''.''7''5/d) and DDMI (kg/d and kg/kg W''0''.''7''5/d) and DOMI (kg/d)(r=0.99, P<0.01). The rate of PD excretion as a linear function of feed intake was 16.4 mmol/kg W''0''.''7''5 DDMI, 19.8 mmol/kg DDMI and 22.7 mmol/kg DOMI. Xanthine oxidase and uricase activities were; 1.34 (±0.72) and .44 (±0.05) and 0.13 (±0.03) and 0.08 (±0.03) unit/g fresh tissue in liver and

  10. Uric acid excretion predicts increased aggression in urban adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrug, Sylvie; Mrug, Michal

    2016-09-01

    Elevated levels of uric acid have been linked with impulsive and disinhibited behavior in clinical and community populations of adults, but no studies have examined uric acid in relation to adolescent aggression. This study examined the prospective role of uric acid in aggressive behavior among urban, low income adolescents, and whether this relationship varies by gender. A total of 84 adolescents (M age 13.36years; 50% male; 95% African American) self-reported on their physical aggression at baseline and 1.5years later. At baseline, the youth also completed a 12-h (overnight) urine collection at home which was used to measure uric acid excretion. After adjusting for baseline aggression and age, greater uric acid excretion predicted more frequent aggressive behavior at follow up, with no significant gender differences. The results suggest that lowering uric acid levels may help reduce youth aggression. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Study about excretion of 210 Po in urine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonseca Azeredo, A.M.G. da.

    1988-01-01

    The urine of mines's workers are analysed to detect the presence of 210 Po. The results was compared with the workers and with a control population. Cigarettes samples was analysed two and confirmed the 210 presence. The control population individuals were divided in smokers and non smokers and them urine was investigated the influence of the smoke in the 210 Po excretion. (L.M.J.)

  12. The daily water, sodium and potassium excretion in urine of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The daily water, sodium and potassium excretion in urine of. Ghanaian children aged 5 to 12 years. *E. 0. Badoe, W. Appeadu-Mensah, Afua Hesse and S. 0. Maddy. Depart111ent r~f S11rge1y and Chemical Pathology, 1 University r!f' Ghana. Medical School, Accra, Ghana. Summary. Aim: The aim of the study was to ...

  13. Genome-Wide Identification and Comparative Analysis of Albumin Family in Vertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shugang Li

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Albumins are the most well-known globular proteins, and the most typical representatives are the serum albumins. However, less attention was paid to the albumin family, except for the human and bovine serum albumin. To characterize the features of albumin family, we have mined all the putative albumin proteins from the available genome sequences. The results showed that albumin is widely distributed in vertebrates, but not present in the bacteria and archaea. The phylogenetic analysis of vertebrate albumin family implied an evolutionary relationship between members of serum albumin, α-fetoprotein, vitamin D–binding protein, and afamin. Meanwhile, a new member from the albumin family was found, namely, extracellular matrix protein 1. The structural analysis revealed that the motifs for forming the internal disulfide bonds are highly conserved in the albumin family, despite the low overall sequence identity across the family. The domain arrangement of albumin proteins indicated that most of vertebrate albumins contain 3 characteristic domains, arising from 2 evolutionary patterns. And a significant trend has been observed that the albumin proteins in higher vertebrate species tend to possess more characteristic domains. This study has provided the fundamental information required for achieving a better understanding of the albumin distribution, phylogenetic relationship, characteristic motif, structure, and new insights into the evolutionary pattern.

  14. Relationship between urinary sodium excretion and pioglitazone-induced edema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Akinobu; Osonoi, Takeshi; Terauchi, Yasuo

    2010-10-19

    To investigate the factors contributing to pioglitazone-induced edema, we analyzed sodium excretion and several clinical parameters before and after administration of pioglitazone. We analyzed these parameters before and after 8 weeks of administration of pioglitazone to female subjects with type 2 diabetes. When we evaluated whether a significant correlation was found between salt excretion and blood pressure, six patients showed such correlation and 20 patients did not. After 8 weeks of pioglitazone administration, five patients had developed edema, and, surprisingly, such correlation was not found in all five subjects. Salt excretion after administration of pioglitazone was significantly lower in subjects who developed edema and those who showed the correlation, and the hematocrit was significantly lower after administration in the subjects who showed the correlation, but not in the edema group. Pioglitazone-induced edema would be caused not only by fluid retention, but also by other factors, such as vascular permeability. (J Diabetes Invest, doi: 10.1111/ j.2040-1124.2010.00046.x, 2010).

  15. Effect of probenecid on the biliary excretion of belotecan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namkoong, Eun-Mi; Kim, In-Wha; Kim, Dae-Duk; Chung, Suk-Jae; Shim, Chang-Koo

    2007-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of probenecid, an inhibitor of the MRP2/ ABCC transporter, on the pharmacokinetics and transport of belotecan (7-[2-(N-isopropylamino)ethyl]-(20S)-camptothecin). The effect of probenecid on the pharmacokinetics of belotecan was studied in rats. When belotecan was injected as a bolus dose of 5 mg/kg after probenecid was infused at a rate of 42.8 mg/2 mL/h/kg, the cumulative biliary excretion amounts and biliary clearance (CL(b)) of belotecan decreased (28.29 +/- 2.83 versus 19.96 +/- 1.45% of dose and 161.01 +/- 26.95 versus 92.66 +/- 1.45 mL/min/kg), whereas the systemic pharmacokinetics did not change. This indicates that the MRP2 transporter is involved in the biliary excretion of belotecan. The involvement of MRP2 in the secretory transport was further characterized using Caco-2 cell monolayers expressing MRP2. The apparent permeability across Caco-2 cell monolayers from basolateral to apical was 2.3 times greater than that from the apical to the basolateral side at the 50 microM belotecan. In addition, probenecid significantly decreased the basolateral-to-apical transport of belotecan (52.9%). These results indicate that MRP2 is involved in the secretory transport of belotecan in biliary excretion.

  16. Biliary excretion of iron and ferritin in idiopathic hemochromatosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hultcrantz, R.; Angelin, B.; Bjoern-Rasmussen, E.E.; Ewerth, S.; Einarsson, K.

    1989-01-01

    The role of biliary excretion of iron and ferritin in iron overload was studied and evaluated. Ten patients with idiopathic hemochromatosis and two groups of controls (14 gallstone patients and 16 healthy subjects) were included. Liver tissue (obtained by percutaneous or operative biopsy) was investigated with light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy in combination with x-ray microanalysis. Fasting bile samples were obtained through duodenal aspiration or at cholecystectomy. Iron was determined in liver tissue and bile using atomic absorption spectroscopy, and ferritin was determined in serum and bile with a radioimmunoassay technique. All patients with hemochromatosis had iron-positive staining as seen in light microscopy. Electron microscopy showed iron-containing proteins in the lysosomes and cytosol of liver parenchymal cells, and this observation was supported by x-ray microanalysis. Hepatic iron concentration was increased about eightfold in the patients with hemochromatosis (p less than 0.001). Biliary iron concentration, expressed per millimole of bile acid, was increased about twofold (p less than 0.05) and biliary ferritin concentration about fivefold (p less than 0.001) in hemochromatosis. Four of the patients with hemochromatosis were reexamined after completed treatment with venesection; this resulted in normalized biliary concentrations of iron and ferritin. We conclude that biliary secretion of ferritin occurs in humans and that both iron and ferritin excretion are enhanced in hepatic iron overload. The apparently limited capacity of biliary iron excretion may be of importance for the hepatic iron accumulation in hemochromatosis

  17. Concentration and daily excretion of uranium in urine of Japanese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolmachev, Sergei; Kuwabara, Jun; Noguchi, Hiroshi

    2006-08-01

    A study was undertaken to investigate uranium concentrations in urine samples for unexposed Japanese individuals and to evaluate uranium daily excretion. Uranium concentrations were measured with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry after microwave-assisted digestion and online separation using the UTEVA extraction chromatographic resin. The concentrations ranged from 0.8 to 35.6 ng of uranium per liter of urine (median 4.5 ng L(-1)). Urinary uranium was normalized relative to the creatinine concentration in order to compensate for the degree of urine dilution. Creatinine-normalized values ranged from 1.2 to 17.8 ng of uranium per gram of creatinine (median 7.4 ng g(-1) creatinine). These results corresponded to the lower end of urinary uranium reported for unexposed populations. The level of daily excreted uranium was calculated as 6.45 ng d(-1) (median value) using ICRP recommended values for 24-h creatinine excretion. These data along with literature data on uranium dietary intake for Japanese populations were used to estimate the uranium gastrointestinal absorption fraction (f(1)). The median f(1) value was calculated to be 0.007. Statistical analysis was done to investigate statistical differences and relationships between the studied variables.

  18. Saccharomyces cerevisiae proteinase A excretion and wine making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Lulu; Chen, Yefu; Du, Yongjing; Wang, Xibin; Guo, Xuewu; Dong, Jian; Xiao, Dongguang

    2017-11-09

    Proteinase A (PrA), the major protease in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, plays an essential role in zymogen activation, sporulation, and other physiological processes in vivo. The extracellular secretion of PrA often occurs during alcoholic fermentation, especially in the later stages when the yeast cells are under stress conditions, and affects the quality and safety of fermented products. Thus, the mechanism underlying PrA excretion must be explored to improve the quality and safety of fermented products. This paper briefly introduces the structure and physiological function of PrA. Two transport routes of PrA, namely, the Golgi-to-vacuole pathway and the constitutive Golgi-to-plasma membrane pathway, are also discussed. Moreover, the research history and developments on the mechanism of extracellular PrA secretion are described. In addition, it is briefly discussed that calcium homeostasis plays an important role in the secretory pathway of proteins, implying that the regulation of PrA delivery to the plasma membrane requires the involvement of calcium ion. Finally, this review focuses on the effects of PrA excretion on wine making (including Chinese rice wine, grape wine, and beer brewage) and presents strategies to control PrA excretion.

  19. Quetiapine reduces nocturnal urinary cortisol excretion in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohrs, Stefan; Pohlmann, Kathrin; Guan, Zhenghua; Jordan, Wolfgang; Meier, Andreas; Huether, Gerald; Rüther, Eckart; Rodenbeck, Andrea

    2004-07-01

    Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis dysfunction is a frequent finding in psychiatric disorders, including psychotic depression and schizophrenia. Conflicting results exist concerning the influence of antipsychotics on the HPA-axis. Therefore, this double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized cross-over study investigated the effect of quetiapine on nocturnal urinary cortisol and melatonin excretion in 13 healthy male subjects under conditions of undisturbed and experimentally disturbed sleep. Volunteers were studied 3 times for 3 consecutive nights (N0, adaptation; N1, standard sleep conditions; N2, acoustic stress) 4 days apart. Placebo, quetiapine 25 mg or quetiapine 100 mg was administered orally 1 h before bedtime on nights 1 and 2. Urine produced during the 8-h bedtime period was collected for later determination of cortisol and melatonin concentrations by standard radioimmunoassays. MANOVA showed a significant effect for N1 vs. N2 with elevated total amount of cortisol ( pmelatonin ( pcortisol excretion in comparison to placebo. No interaction effect of stress condition was observed. There was no effect of quetiapine on melatonin levels. The significant reduction of nocturnal cortisol excretion following quetiapine reflects a decreased activity of the HPA-axis in healthy subjects. This finding may be an important aspect in quetiapine's mode of action in different patient populations.

  20. Serum Albumin Levels and Economic Status in Japanese Older Adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asami Ota

    Full Text Available Low serum albumin levels are associated with aging and medical conditions such as cancer, liver dysfunction, inflammation, and malnutrition and might be an independent predictor of long-term mortality in healthy older populations. We tested the hypothesis that economic status is associated with serum albumin levels and explained by nutritional and health status in Japanese older adults.We performed a cross-sectional analysis using data from the Japan Gerontological Evaluation study (JAGES. The study participants were 6528 functionally independent residents (3189 men and 3339 women aged ≥65 years living in four municipalities in Aichi prefecture. We used household income as an indicator of economic status. Multiple linear regression was used to compare serum albumin levels in relation to household income, which was classified as low, middle, and high. Additionally, mediation by nutritional and health-related factors was analyzed in multivariable models.With the middle-income group as reference, participants with low incomes had a significantly lower serum albumin level, even after adjustment for sex, age, residential area, education, marital status, and household structure. The estimated mean difference was -0.17 g/L (95% confidence interval, -0.33 to -0.01 g/L. The relation between serum albumin level and low income became statistically insignificant when "body mass index", "consumption of meat or fish", "self-rated health", "presence of medical conditions", "hyperlipidemia", or "respiratory disease "was included in the model.Serum albumin levels were lower in Japanese older adults with low economic status. The decrease in albumin levels appears to be mediated by nutrition and health-related factors with low household incomes. Future studies are needed to reveal the existence of other pathways.

  1. Serum Albumin Levels and Economic Status in Japanese Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ota, Asami; Kondo, Naoki; Murayama, Nobuko; Tanabe, Naohito; Shobugawa, Yugo; Kondo, Katsunori

    2016-01-01

    Low serum albumin levels are associated with aging and medical conditions such as cancer, liver dysfunction, inflammation, and malnutrition and might be an independent predictor of long-term mortality in healthy older populations. We tested the hypothesis that economic status is associated with serum albumin levels and explained by nutritional and health status in Japanese older adults. We performed a cross-sectional analysis using data from the Japan Gerontological Evaluation study (JAGES). The study participants were 6528 functionally independent residents (3189 men and 3339 women) aged ≥65 years living in four municipalities in Aichi prefecture. We used household income as an indicator of economic status. Multiple linear regression was used to compare serum albumin levels in relation to household income, which was classified as low, middle, and high. Additionally, mediation by nutritional and health-related factors was analyzed in multivariable models. With the middle-income group as reference, participants with low incomes had a significantly lower serum albumin level, even after adjustment for sex, age, residential area, education, marital status, and household structure. The estimated mean difference was -0.17 g/L (95% confidence interval, -0.33 to -0.01 g/L). The relation between serum albumin level and low income became statistically insignificant when "body mass index", "consumption of meat or fish", "self-rated health", "presence of medical conditions", "hyperlipidemia", or "respiratory disease "was included in the model. Serum albumin levels were lower in Japanese older adults with low economic status. The decrease in albumin levels appears to be mediated by nutrition and health-related factors with low household incomes. Future studies are needed to reveal the existence of other pathways.

  2. Somatosensory abnormalities in knee OA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wylde, Vikki; Palmer, Shea; Learmonth, Ian D; Dieppe, Paul

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study was to use quantitative sensory testing (QST) to explore the range and prevalence of somatosensory abnormalities demonstrated by patients with advanced knee OA. One hundred and seven knee OA patients and 50 age- and sex-matched healthy participants attended a 1-h QST session. Testing was performed on the medial side of the knee and the pain-free forearm. Light-touch thresholds were assessed using von Frey filaments, pressure pain thresholds using a digital pressure algometer, and thermal sensation and pain thresholds using a Thermotest MSA. Significant differences in median threshold values from knee OA patients and healthy participants were identified using Mann-Whitney U-tests. The z-score transformations were used to determine the prevalence of the different somatosensory abnormalities in knee OA patients. Testing identified 70% of knee OA patients as having at least one somatosensory abnormality. Comparison of median threshold values between knee OA patients and healthy participants revealed that patients had localized thermal and tactile hypoaesthesia and pressure hyperalgesia at the osteoarthritic knee. Tactile hypoaesthesia and pressure hyperalgesia were also present at the pain-free forearm. The most prevalent somatosensory abnormalities were tactile hypoaesthesia and pressure hyperalgesia, evident in between 20 and 34% of patients. This study found that OA patients demonstrate an array of somatosensory abnormalities, of which the most prevalent were tactile hypoaesthesia and pressure hyperalgesia. Further research is now needed to establish the clinical implications of these somatosensory abnormalities.

  3. Quantitative determination of albumin in microlitre amounts of rat serum: With a short note on serum albumin levels in ageing rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuw-Israel, F.R. de; Arp-Neefjes, J.M.; Hollander, C.F.

    1967-01-01

    A simple dye binding method for determining rat serum albumin, which employs the anionic dye 2-(4′-hydroxybenzneeazo) benzoic acid (HBABA) is described. Albumin in 5μ1 of serum is determined colorimetrically. Purified rat albumin is used as a primary standard and rat serum as a reference sample.

  4. Using egg albumin foam to extinguish fires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hytham A. Alsaati

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Oil, coal and chemical fires are often difficult to put out using water. In certain hydrocarbon fires, protein foam can extinguish fires better than water by keeping air (oxygen away from the flames and by ''blowing'' the flame away from its fuel source. Egg albumin is a relatively inexpensive protein and is representative of foaming proteins, which are candidates for use as fire suppression agents. This paper begins to deal with the effect of the foam bulk pH, foam protein concentration and generating air flow rate into the foam on the fire extinguishing time in laboratory experiments. A Bunsen burner was used to generate a small, controlled laboratory fire within a plastic container, which represented a point source in a partially open room in the experiments. The Bunsen burner represents a gaseous hydrocarbon fire, which can be difficult to extinguish. Both a low pH foam and one made with a high air flow rate favor a reduction in time required to put out the Bunsen burner flame.Chamas produzidas por óleo, carvão e produtos químicos (incêndios provocados são difíceis de ser extinguidos com água. Algumas chamas de hidrocarbonetos podem ser extinguidas por espumas protéicas melhor do que a manutenção de ar (oxigênio fora do alcance das chamas ou pelo sopramento da chama para longe da sua fonte. Albumina de ovo é uma proteína relativamente barata e é representativa dentre as proteínas usadas como espuma para a (supressão extinção de agentes causadores de incêndio. Este artigo trata do estudo do efeito do pH e concentração da espuma protéica, além da geração de ar no interior da espuma, sobre o tempo de extinção de incêndio em experimentos laboratoriais. Nos experimentos um bico de Bunsen foi usado para gerar uma pequena chama, controlada em um container de plástico, representando uma fonte pontual em um ambiente parcialmente aberto. A chama do bico de Bunsen representa uma chama gasosa de hidrocarbonetos, que são dif

  5. Quantitative aspects of phosphorus absorption and excretion in horses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bueno, Ives Claudio da Silva; Abdalla, Adibe Luiz; Vitti, Dorinha Miriam Silber Schmidt [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Nutricao Animal]. E-mails: icsbueno@cena.usp.br; abdalla@cena.usp.br; dovitti@cena.usp.br; Furtado, Carlos Eduardo [Universidade Estadual de Maringa, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Zootecnia]. E-mail: cefurtado@uem.br

    2007-07-01

    Phosphorus (P) is one of the most polluting nutrients because of high husbandry concentrations in restricted areas. The present study compiles data from previous studies dealing with true digestibility of different P levels in diets for horses. Database consisted of results from two experiments carried out at the Centre for Nuclear Energy in Agriculture (CENA/USP), using horses fed different levels of P (n=28). True absorption of phosphorus was determined by isotopic dilution technique, using {sup 32}P as tracer. All parameters (P{sub ING}: ingested P; P{sub ABS}: absorbed P; P{sub FECTOT}: total faecal P excretion; P{sub FECENDO}: endogenous faecal P; P{sub URI}: total urinary excretion; and P{sub RET}: retained P) were normalized according to body weight (BW) and linear and quadratic regressions between P{sub ING} and the other parameters were tested. No quadratic effect was observed. P{sub ING} ranged from 41 to 264 mg/kg BW. Faecal P excretion was affected by intake, analysing by total (P{sub FECTOT} = 0.888 (S.E. 0.058) P{sub ING} - 29.40 (S.E. 8.14) (P<0.0001; RMSE=20.37; R{sup 2}=0.90) or by endogenous fraction (P{sub FECENDO} = 0.095 (S.E. 0.029) P{sub ING} + 12.10 (S.E. 4.16) (P=0.0034; RMSE=10.41; {sup R}2=0.29). Urinary P excretion was not affected by intake (P=0.35), although ranging from 0.06 to 59.20 mg/kg BW. The same occurred for P{sub RET} (P=0.25) ranging from -13.69 to 88.78 mg/kg BW. P absorption also was affect by P intake (P{sub ABS} = 0.195 (S.E. 0.060) P{sub ING} + 42.19 (S.E. 8.45) (P=0.0031; RMSE=21.15; R{sup 2}=0.29). The present study showed that only a small part of ingested P was absorbed, i.e. most of ingested P was excreted via faeces, contributing for environmental pollution. (author)

  6. Pharmacokinetics, tissue distribution, and excretion of zinc oxide nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baek M

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Miri Baek,1,* Hae-Eun Chung,1,* Jin Yu,1,* Jung-A Lee,1 Tae-Hyun Kim,2 Jae-Min Oh,2 Won-Jae Lee,3 Seung-Min Paek,3 Jong Kwon Lee,4 Jayoung Jeong, 4 Jin-Ho Choy,5 Soo-Jin Choi1 1Department of Food Science and Technology, Seoul Women's University, Seoul, 2Department of Chemistry and Medical Chemistry, College of Science and Technology, Yonsei University, Wonju, Gangwondo; 3Department of Chemistry and Green-Nano Materials Research Center, Kyungpook National University, Taegu, 4Toxicological Research Division, National Institute of Food and Drug Safety Evaluation, Chungchungbuk-do, 5Center for Intelligent Nano-Bio Materials, Department of Bioinspired Science and Department of Chemistry and Nano Science, Ewha Womans University, Seoul, Republic of Korea*These authors contributed equally to this workBackground: This study explored the pharmacokinetics, tissue distribution, and excretion profile of zinc oxide (ZnO nanoparticles with respect to their particle size in rats.Methods: Two ZnO nanoparticles of different size (20 nm and 70 nm were orally administered to male and female rats, respectively. The area under the plasma concentration-time curve, tissue distribution, excretion, and the fate of the nanoparticles in organs were analyzed.Results: The plasma zinc concentration of both sizes of ZnO nanoparticles increased during the 24 hours after administration in a dose-dependent manner. They were mainly distributed to organs such as the liver, lung, and kidney within 72 hours without any significant difference being found according to particle size or rat gender. Elimination kinetics showed that a small amount of ZnO nanoparticles was excreted via the urine, while most of nanoparticles were excreted via the feces. Transmission electron microscopy and x-ray absorption spectroscopy studies in the tissues showed no noticeable ZnO nanoparticles, while new Zn-S bonds were observed in tissues.Conclusion: ZnO nanoparticles of different size were not easily

  7. EVALUATION OF SERUM ALBUMIN LEVELS IN ACUTE MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shilpa

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : Acute myocardial infarction (AMI is one of the major causes of mortality and morbidity in the world. Serum albumin levels are inversely related with age, smoking, blood pressure and obesity. It is not clear whether low serum albumin level is a nonspecific , prognostic variable, a marker of subclinical disease, or whether it is a part of causal mechanism leading to death due to cardiovascular disease. Some studies have reported an inverse association between serum albumin and cardiovascular mortality but oth ers have not . 1 The association between serum albumin and cardiovascular mortality remains controversial. This study was done to evaluate the serum albumin levels in patients with ST segment elevation Myocardial infarction (STEMI over a period of three days from the date of admission and whether the changes had any relationship with the prognosis of the patient. AIM: to associate changes in serum albumin levels in AMI patients over a period of three days i.e., day zero - at the time of admission, day+1 - the following day(12 to 30hrs after collecting first sample, day +2(32 to 54 hrs after collecting first sample with the clinical prognosis of the patient. SETTINGS AND DESIGN : Prospective follow up study in patents admitted with AMI in a tertiary care hospital. METHODS: 30 pati ents admitted with STEMI were included in the study and serum albumin levels were estimated in them on admission and for two days thereafter. Statistical analysis used. The data was analysed using SPSS 15.0, STATA 8.0, MEDLAC 9.0.1, And SYSTAT 11 softwares. Repeated measures analysis of variance and student t test was used to find the significance in changes of serum albumin levels and prognosis of the patient on different days. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: This study found that there was fall in serum albumin le vels in patients with AMI in the course of three days compared with the day of admission and it was significantly associated with bad prognosis.

  8. Targeting Albumin Binding Function as a Therapy Goal in Liver Failure: Development of a Novel Adsorbent for Albumin Dialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominik, Adrian; Stange, Jan; Baumann, Anja K; Pfensig, Claudia; Suraj, Matthias; Ibrahim, Badr; Eggert, Martin

    2017-12-20

    Liver failure results in impaired hepatic detoxification combined with diminished albumin synthesis and is associated with secondary organ failure. The accumulation of liver toxins has shown to saturate albumin binding sites. This was previously demonstrated by an in vitro test for albumin binding capacity (ABiC) that has shown to inversely correlate with the established MELD (Model for End-Stage Liver Disease) score. In this study, we introduced a new adsorbent material for albumin dialysis treatments that improves albumin binding capacity. The new charcoal adsorbent was developed by an evolutionary test schedule. Batch testing of charcoals was performed as steady-state experiments. The charcoal reflecting the highest increase in albumin binding capacity was then introduced to kinetic models: Perfusion tests were designed to evaluate adsorption capacity and kinetics for liver failure marker toxins. A dynamic recirculation model for liver failure was used for upscaling and comparison against conventional MARS adsorbents as the gold standard in an albumin dialysis setting. Batch tests revealed that powdered activated Hepalbin charcoal displayed the highest ABiC score. Hepalbin charcoal also demonstrated higher adsorptive capacity and kinetics for liver failure marker toxins as determined by perfusion tests. These findings translated to tests of upscaled adsorbents in a dynamic model for liver failure: upscaled Hepalbin adsorbent removes bile acids, direct bilirubin and indirect bilirubin significantly better than MARS adsorbents and significantly increases ABiC. The novel adsorbent Hepalbin offers a significant improvement over both MARS adsorbents concerning liver failure marker toxin removal and ABiC improvement. © 2017 International Society for Apheresis, Japanese Society for Apheresis, and Japanese Society for Dialysis Therapy.

  9. Liposome encapsulated albumin-paclitaxel nanoparticle for enhanced antitumor efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruttala, Hima Bindu; Ko, Young Tag

    2015-03-01

    Albumin nanoparticles have been explored as a promising delivery system for various therapeutic agents. One limitation of such formulations is their poor colloidal stability in vivo. Present study aimed at enhancing the chemotherapeutic potential of paclitaxel by improving the colloidal stability and pharmacokinetic properties of albumin-paclitaxel nanoparticles (APNs) such as Abraxane®. This was accomplished by encapsulating the preformed APNs into PEGylated liposomal bilayer by thin-film hydration/extrusion technique. The resulting liposome-encapsulated albumin-paclitaxel hybrid nanoparticles (L-APNs) were nanosized (~200 nm) with uniform spherical dimensions. The successful incorporation of albumin-paclitaxel nanoparticle (NP) in liposome was confirmed by size exclusion chromatography analysis. Such hybrid NP showed an excellent colloidal stability even at 100-fold dilutions, overcoming the critical drawback associated with simple albumin-paclitaxel NP system. L-APNs further showed higher cytotoxic activity towards B16F10 and MCF-7 cells than APN; this effect was characterized by arrest at the G2/M phase and a higher prevalence of apoptotic subG1 cells. Finally, pharmacokinetic and biodistribution studies in tumor mice demonstrated that L-APNs showed a significantly enhanced plasma half-life, and preferential accumulation in the tumor. Taken together, the data indicate that L-APNs can be promising therapeutic vehicles for enhanced delivery of PTX to tumor sites.

  10. Interaction of mycotoxin zearalenone with human serum albumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poór, Miklós; Kunsági-Máté, Sándor; Bálint, Mónika; Hetényi, Csaba; Gerner, Zsófia; Lemli, Beáta

    2017-05-01

    Zearalenone (ZEN) is a mycotoxin produced mainly by Fusarium species. Fungal contamination of cereals and plants can result in the formation of ZEN, leading to its presence in different foods, animal feeds, and drinks. Because ZEN is an endocrine disruptor, it causes reproductive disorders in farm animals and hyperoestrogenic syndromes in humans. Despite toxicokinetic properties of ZEN were studied in more species, we have no information regarding the interaction of ZEN with serum albumin. Since albumin commonly plays an important role in the toxicokinetics of different toxins, interaction of ZEN with albumin has of high biological importance. Therefore the interaction of ZEN with human serum albumin (HSA) was investigated using spectroscopic methods, ultrafiltration, and molecular modeling studies. Fluorescence spectroscopic studies demonstrate that ZEN forms complex with HSA. Binding constant (K) of ZEN-HSA complex was quantified with fluorescence quenching technique. The determined binding constant (logK=5.1) reflects the strong interaction of ZEN with albumin suggesting the potential biological importance of ZEN-HSA complex formation. Based on the results of the investigations with site markers as well as docking studies, ZEN occupies a non-conventional binding site on HSA. Considering the above listed observations, we should keep in mind this interaction if we would like to precisely understand the toxicokinetic behavior of ZEN. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Ghrelin binding to serum albumin and its biological impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lufrano, Daniela; Trejo, Sebastián A; Llovera, Ramiro E; Salgueiro, Mariano; Fernandez, Gimena; Martínez Damonte, Valentina; González Flecha, F Luis; Raingo, Jesica; Ermácora, Mario R; Perelló, Mario

    2016-11-15

    Ghrelin is an octanoylated peptide hormone that plays a key role in the regulation of the body weight and glucose homeostasis. In plasma, ghrelin circulates bound to larger proteins whose identities are partially established. Here, we used size exclusion chromatography, mass spectrometry and isothermal titration microcalorimetry to show that ghrelin interacts with serum albumin. Furthermore, we found that such interaction displays an estimated dissociation constant (KD) in the micromolar range and involves albumin fatty-acid binding sites as well as the octanoyl moiety of ghrelin. Notably, albumin-ghrelin interaction reduces the spontaneous deacylation of the hormone. Both in vitro experiments-assessing ghrelin ability to inhibit calcium channels-and in vivo studies-evaluating ghrelin orexigenic effects-indicate that the binding to albumin affects the bioactivity of the hormone. In conclusion, our results suggest that ghrelin binds to serum albumin and that this interaction impacts on the biological activity of the hormone. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Quantification of osmotic water transport in vivo using fluorescent albumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morelle, Johann; Sow, Amadou; Vertommen, Didier; Jamar, François; Rippe, Bengt; Devuyst, Olivier

    2014-10-15

    Osmotic water transport across the peritoneal membrane is applied during peritoneal dialysis to remove the excess water accumulated in patients with end-stage renal disease. The discovery of aquaporin water channels and the generation of transgenic animals have stressed the need for novel and accurate methods to unravel molecular mechanisms of water permeability in vivo. Here, we describe the use of fluorescently labeled albumin as a reliable indicator of osmotic water transport across the peritoneal membrane in a well-established mouse model of peritoneal dialysis. After detailed evaluation of intraperitoneal tracer mass kinetics, the technique was validated against direct volumetry, considered as the gold standard. The pH-insensitive dye Alexa Fluor 555-albumin was applied to quantify osmotic water transport across the mouse peritoneal membrane resulting from modulating dialysate osmolality and genetic silencing of the water channel aquaporin-1 (AQP1). Quantification of osmotic water transport using Alexa Fluor 555-albumin closely correlated with direct volumetry and with estimations based on radioiodinated ((125)I) serum albumin (RISA). The low intraperitoneal pressure probably accounts for the negligible disappearance of the tracer from the peritoneal cavity in this model. Taken together, these data demonstrate the appropriateness of pH-insensitive Alexa Fluor 555-albumin as a practical and reliable intraperitoneal volume tracer to quantify osmotic water transport in vivo. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  13. Prediction of cardiovascular events, diabetic nephropathy, and mortality by albumin concentration in a spot urine sample in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viana, Luciana Verçoza; Gross, Jorge Luiz; Camargo, Joiza Lins; Zelmanovitz, Themis; da Costa Rocha, Enio P C; Azevedo, Mirela Jobim

    2012-01-01

    To analyze in a random urine spot the predictive value of urinary albumin concentration (UAC) for cardiovascular events, diabetic nephropathy (DN), and death in patients with type 2 diabetes. In this cohort, urinary albumin (immunoturbidimetry) was measured as 24-h urinary albumin excretion (UAE) and, in a random spot urine, as UAC and albumin:creatinine ratio (ACR). Primary outcomes were: 1) cardiovascular events, 2) DN defined as a composite outcome [macroalbuminuria and/or decreased glomerular filtration rate (GFR) type 2 diabetic patients, aged 59.9 ± 9.9 years, were followed for 6.1 ± 2.7 years. UAC ≥14.4 mg/l, as determined by ROC curve, predicted DN and prediction for this and other outcomes were compared with traditional microalbuminuria cutoffs for ACR and UAE. The outcomes frequency was: cardiovascular events = 26.4%, DN = 31.7% (23.5% decreased GFR; 13.6% macroalbuminuria) and death = 8.50%. In Cox analyses, UAC ≥14 mg/l increased the risk (hazard ratio, HR) for cardiovascular events 3.25 times (95% CI 1.43-7.38; P = 0.005), 4.30 for DN composite outcome (95% CI 2.22-8.32; P cardiovascular events, 4.67 (95% CI 2.34-9.34; P cardiovascular events, 6.76 (95% CI 3.32-13.77; P cardiovascular events, diabetic nephropathy, and mortality just as well as ACR. UAC may be used to assess cardiovascular and renal risks in patients with type 2 diabetes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Biliary excretion of foreign compounds. Biphenyl, stilboestrol and phenolphthalein in the rat: molecular weight, polarity and metabolism as factors in biliary excretion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millburn, P.; Smith, R. L.; Williams, R. T.

    1967-01-01

    1. The extent of biliary excretion of biphenyl, tetralin, stilboestrol and phenolphthalein was studied in the rat. 2. Biphenyl and its 4-hydroxy and 4,4′-dihydroxy derivatives are extensively excreted in the bile as glucuronides in amounts increasing in order of molecular weight. 3. Stilboestrol and its glucuronide are excreted almost quantitatively in the bile mainly as the monoglucuronide, as are also phenolphthalein and its glucuronide. 4. Tetralin is excreted to the extent of about 13% of the dose, mainly as ac-tetralyl glucuronides. 5. The results and those of Abou-El-Makarem, Millburn, Smith & Williams (1967) are discussed and it is concluded that the extent of biliary excretion of foreign compounds in rats depends on their molecular weight and their possessing a strongly polar anionic group. There appears to be a minimum value of this molecular weight below which little biliary excretion (i.e. not more than 5–10% of the dose) occurs. There is some latitude in the choice of this molecular weight, which is about 325±50. The necessary molecular weight and polar group can be acquired by metabolism. Above this minimum value biliary excretion increases with molecular weight. It is suggested that the mechanism of the biliary excretion of foreign compounds may be similar to that of conjugated bile acids, which are highly polar and whose molecular weights exceed 400. PMID:16742556

  15. Magnetic dye-affinity beads for human serum albumin purification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odabası, Mehmet

    2011-01-01

    Cibacron Blue F3GA was covalently attached onto magnetic poly(vinyl alcohol) (mPVAL) beads (100-150 μm in diameter) for human serum albumin (HSA) adsorption from human plasma. Despite low nonspecific adsorption of HSA on mPVAL beads, Cibacron Blue F3GA attachment significantly increased the HSA adsorption. The maximum HSA adsorption was observed at pH 5.0. Higher HSA adsorption was observed from human plasma. Desorption of HSA from mPVAL beads was achieved by medium containing 1.0 M KSCN at pH 8.0. To test the efficiency of albumin adsorption from human serum, before and after albumin adsorption was demonstrated with sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analyses. HSA molecules could be reversibly adsorbed and desorbed 10 times with the magnetic beads without noticeable loss in their HSA adsorption capacity.

  16. Adherence of platelets to in situ albumin-binding surfaces under flow conditions: role of surface-adsorbed albumin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guha Thakurta, Sanjukta; Miller, Robert; Subramanian, Anuradha

    2012-01-01

    Surfaces that preferentially bind human serum albumin (HSA) were generated by grafting albumin-binding linear peptide (LP1) onto silicon surfaces. The research aim was to evaluate the adsorption pattern of proteins and the adhesion of platelets from platelet-poor plasma and platelet-rich plasma, respectively, by albumin-binding surfaces under physiological shear rate (96 and 319 s −1 ) conditions. Bound proteins were quantified using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. A ratio of ∼1000:100:1 of adsorbed HSA, human immunoglobulin (HIgG) and human fibrinogen (HFib) was noted, respectively, on LP1-functionalized surfaces, and a ratio of ∼5:2:1 of the same was noted on control surfaces, as confirmed by ELISAs. The surface-adsorbed von Willebrand factor was undetectable by sensitive ELISAs. The amount of adhered platelets correlated with the ratio of adsorbed HSA/HFib. Platelet morphology was more rounded on LP1-functionalized surfaces when compared to control surfaces. The platelet adhesion response on albumin-binding surfaces can be explained by the reduction in the co-adsorption of other plasma proteins in a surface environment where there is an excess of albumin molecules, coupled with restrictions in the conformational transitions of other surface-adsorbed proteins into hemostatically active forms. (paper)

  17. Adherence of platelets to in situ albumin-binding surfaces under flow conditions: role of surface-adsorbed albumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guha Thakurta, Sanjukta; Miller, Robert; Subramanian, Anuradha

    2012-08-01

    Surfaces that preferentially bind human serum albumin (HSA) were generated by grafting albumin-binding linear peptide (LP1) onto silicon surfaces. The research aim was to evaluate the adsorption pattern of proteins and the adhesion of platelets from platelet-poor plasma and platelet-rich plasma, respectively, by albumin-binding surfaces under physiological shear rate (96 and 319 s(-1)) conditions. Bound proteins were quantified using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. A ratio of ∼1000:100:1 of adsorbed HSA, human immunoglobulin (HIgG) and human fibrinogen (HFib) was noted, respectively, on LP1-functionalized surfaces, and a ratio of ∼5:2:1 of the same was noted on control surfaces, as confirmed by ELISAs. The surface-adsorbed von Willebrand factor was undetectable by sensitive ELISAs. The amount of adhered platelets correlated with the ratio of adsorbed HSA/HFib. Platelet morphology was more rounded on LP1-functionalized surfaces when compared to control surfaces. The platelet adhesion response on albumin-binding surfaces can be explained by the reduction in the co-adsorption of other plasma proteins in a surface environment where there is an excess of albumin molecules, coupled with restrictions in the conformational transitions of other surface-adsorbed proteins into hemostatically active forms.

  18. Engineering bispecificity into a single albumin-binding domain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Nilvebrant

    Full Text Available Bispecific antibodies as well as non-immunoglobulin based bispecific affinity proteins are considered to have a very high potential in future biotherapeutic applications. In this study, we report on a novel approach for generation of extremely small bispecific proteins comprised of only a single structural domain. Binding to tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α was engineered into an albumin-binding domain while still retaining the original affinity for albumin, resulting in a bispecific protein composed of merely 46 amino acids. By diversification of the non albumin-binding side of the three-helix bundle domain, followed by display of the resulting library on phage particles, bispecific single-domain proteins were isolated using selections with TNF-α as target. Moreover, based on the obtained sequences from the phage selection, a second-generation library was designed in order to further increase the affinity of the bispecific candidates. Staphylococcal surface display was employed for the affinity maturation, enabling efficient isolation of improved binders as well as multiparameter-based sortings with both TNF-α and albumin as targets in the same selection cycle. Isolated variants were sequenced and the binding to albumin and TNF-α was analyzed. This analysis revealed an affinity for TNF-α below 5 nM for the strongest binders. From the multiparameter sorting that simultaneously targeted TNF-α and albumin, several bispecific candidates were isolated with high affinity to both antigens, suggesting that cell display in combination with fluorescence activated cell sorting is a suitable technology for engineering of bispecificity. To our knowledge, the new binders represent the smallest engineered bispecific proteins reported so far. Possibilities and challenges as well as potential future applications of this novel strategy are discussed.

  19. Neuroimaging abnormalities in Griscelli's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarper, Nazan; Akansel, Guer; Aydogan, Metin; Gedikbasi, Demet; Babaoglu, Kadir; Goekalp, Ayse Sevim

    2002-01-01

    Griscelli's disease is a rare autosomal recessive immunodeficiency syndrome. We report a 7-1/2-month-old white girl who presented with this syndrome, but initially without neurological abnormalities. Initial CT of the brain was normal. Despite haematological remission with chemotherapy, she developed neurological symptoms, progressing to coma. At this time, CT showed areas of coarse calcification in the globi pallidi, left parietal white matter and left brachium pontis. Hypodense areas were present in the genu and posterior limb of the internal capsule on the right side, as well as posterior aspects of both thalami, together with minimal generalised atrophy. MRI revealed areas of increased T2 signal and a focal area of abnormal enhancement in the subcortical white matter. Griscelli's disease should be added to the list of acquired neuroimaging abnormalities in infants. (orig.)

  20. [Immunohistochemical study on the mechanism of excretion of methamphetamine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajitani, A; Kaiho, M; Mori, A; Okada, Y; Mukaida, M; Ishiyama, I

    1989-06-01

    Many methods of analysis are available to the forensic toxicologist for determining the amount of methamphetamine within human tissues, but few have the potential of histochemistry for enabling the precise site of excretion of methamphetamine to be defined. We have established a method for the demonstration of methamphetamine by immunohistochemistry, and applied this method for showing morphologically the disposition of methamphetamine. The following cells in the tissues of methamphetamine-intoxicated mice gave a strong positive reaction of the localization, which was thought to be the histological evidence of excretion of this drug: epithelial cells of the distal part of the renal tubule and of the collecting tubule, transitional epithelial cells of the bladder, liver parenchymal cells, epithelial cells of the striated duct of the salivary gland, parietal cells of the gastric gland, part of epithelial cells of the distal portion of the large intestine, secretory cells and part of epithelial cells of the ductal portion of the sweat gland, alveolar cells of the mammary gland, secretory cells of the sebaceous gland and hair medulla and cortex. These results indicated passive diffusion of methamphetamine across membranes of the cells of the distal tubule and collecting tubule of the kidney, of the bladder and of the striated duct of the salivary gland. In the parietal cells of the gastric gland, part of epithelial cells of the distal portion of the large intestine and secretory cells of the sweat gland, methamphetamine was thought to be stored and subsequently released. In the mammary gland, methamphetamine was found to be combined with casein and excreted by exocytosis. Accumulation of methamphetamine in the hair was supposed to be chiefly due to the penetration of this drug derived from tissue fluid and sebum.

  1. Sup(123)I excretion in breast milk - additional data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawes, S.C. (Queen' s Medical Centre, Nottingham (United Kingdom))

    1992-07-01

    A woman with a suspected sublingual thyroid was referred for thyroid imaging with {sup 123}I-sodium iodide. On attending it was ascertained that she was currently breastfeeding her 3-month-old baby. Reference to the available literature showed little information regarding the excretion of {sup 123}I-sodium iodide in human breast milk apart from one single case. It was felt therefore that this would be an ideal opportunity to collect some useful data. Originally the presence of impurities in the radiopharmaceutical administered had been discounted as being of little significance. However, after consideration, a review of the contribution of any impurity was undertaken. (author).

  2. Urinary excretion of MPTP and its primary metabolites in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lau, Y.S.; Crampton, J.M.; Wilson, J.A.

    1988-01-01

    Mice were injected with single doses of MPTP containing one ..mu..Ci of (/sup 3/H)methyl-MPTP. Approximately 42% of the total injected (/sup 3/H) was detected in the urine within 3 hours after drug administration. The early urine samples were analyzed using high pressure liquid chromatography. MPTP N-oxide was identified as a major metabolite, with trace amounts of MPP/sup +/ and MPTP also detected. The urinary volume and excretion of MPTP metabolites were inhibited by pretreating the animals with probenecid. The results indicate that large amounts of injected MPTP are rapidly metabolized in the periphery by liver enzymes to form MPTP N-oxide.

  3. Relation of urinary calcium and magnesium excretion to blood pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kesteloot, Hugo; Tzoulaki, Ioanna; Brown, Ian J

    2011-01-01

    on Salt, Other Factors, and Blood Pressure (INTERSALT) comprised 10,067 persons aged 20-59 years from 52 samples around the world. Timed 24-hour urine collections, BP measurements, and nutrient data from four 24-hour dietary recalls (INTERMAP) were collected. In multiple linear regression analyses......, urinary calcium excretion was directly associated with BP. After adjustment for multiple confounders (including weight, height, alcohol intake, calcium intake, urinary sodium level, and urinary potassium intake), systolic BP was 1.9 mm Hg higher per each 4.1 mmol per 24 hours (2 standard deviations...

  4. Urine features used to survey nitrogen excretion in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Gasco

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to estimate liquid and faecal nitrogen (N excretion from rabbit herds using 2 clinical analyses of urine samples (urinary urea, UU and creatininury, CU combined with the daily nitrogen intake (DNI and metabolic weight of growing and lactating rabbit does. In the framework of 6 experiments, 81 growing rabbits, divided into 17 groups, weighing from 1.8 to 2.8 kg, and 18 multiparous lactating does, divided into 2 groups, were reared in metabolic cages. Five experimental groups of growing rabbits and one of lactating does received diets with lower crude protein content (from –8 to –19% less. The urine was collected (4-d and 1-d collection period for the growing rabbits and lactating does, respectively and the daily weight (DUW: on av. 188±66 g/d, urinary urea (UU: 1012±463 mg/dL and creatininury concentrations (CU: 46±25 mg/dL were recorded. Lactating does showed higher DNI (+127%; P<0.001, which was excreted more in the faeces (DFN: +141%; P<0.001 than in the urine (DUN: +35%; P=0.36, compared to the growing rabbits on a daily per-capita basis. Consequently, the faecal-N to urine N ratio was higher for the does compared to growing rabbits (F/U: +93%; P<0.001. The percentage of retained N (PRN for the lactating does and growing rabbits was not different (50.8 vs. 56.6%; P=0.31. Forward regression models were used to predict the daily nitrogen excretion. Successful r-square fit results were obtained (P<0.005 for the per-capita daily quantity of urinary N (DUN: R2=0.79 and faecal N (DFN: 0.93, mainly depending on DNI. The individual DNI was accurately fitted (R2=0.994; standard error=0.03, considering the 2 model estimates of the DUN and of the DFN, the metabolic weight and the type of animal. Relativising the N excreta as a percentage of the DNI, or as a ratio of the faecal –to urinary–N, led to less stable results of the regression models. The daily N intake, combined with the collection of urine

  5. Triorchidism: A Rare Genitourinary Abnormality

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    During early adulthood it will be carried out by palpation, ultrasonography, semen analysis, serum testosterone and follicle stimulating hormone levels and during late adulthood follow up will be done by ultrasonography for malignancy every 2 years. CONCLUSION. Polyorchidism is a rare genitourinary abnormality and its.

  6. Chromosomal abnormalities associated with omphalocele.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chih-Ping

    2007-03-01

    Fetuses with omphalocele have an increased risk for chromosomal abnormalities. The risk varies with maternal age, gestational age at diagnosis, association with umbilical cord cysts, complexity of associated anomalies, and the contents of omphalocele. There is considerable evidence that genetics contributes to the etiology of omphalocele. This article provides an overview of chromosomal abnormalities associated with omphalocele and a comprehensive review of associated full aneuploidy such as trisomy 18, trisomy 13, triploidy, trisomy 21, 45,X, 47,XXY, and 47,XXX, partial aneuploidy such as dup (3q), dup (11p), inv (11), dup (1q), del (1q), dup (4q), dup (5p), dup (6q), del (9p), dup (15q), dup(17q), Pallister-Killian syndrome with mosaic tetrasomy 12p and Miller-Dieker lissencephaly syndrome with deletion of 17p13.3, and uniparental disomy (UPD) such as UPD 11 and UPD 14. Omphalocele is a prominent marker for chromosomal abnormalities. Perinatal identification of omphalocele should alert chromosomal abnormalities and familial unbalanced translocations, and prompt thorough cytogenetic investigations and genetic counseling.

  7. Chromosomal Abnormalities Associated With Omphalocele

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Ping Chen

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Fetuses with omphalocele have an increased risk for chromosomal abnormalities. The risk varies with maternal age, gestational age at diagnosis, association with umbilical cord cysts, complexity of associated anomalies, and the contents of omphalocele. There is considerable evidence that genetics contributes to the etiology of omphalocele. This article provides an overview of chromosomal abnormalities associated with omphalocele and a comprehensive review of associated full aneuploidy such as trisomy 18, trisomy 13, triploidy, trisomy 21, 45,X, 47,XXY, and 47,XXX, partial aneuploidy such as dup(3q, dup(11p, inv(11, dup(1q, del(1q, dup(4q, dup(5p, dup(6q, del(9p, dup(15q, dup(17q, Pallister-Killian syndrome with mosaic tetrasomy 12p and Miller-Dieker lissencephaly syndrome with deletion of 17p13.3, and uniparental disomy (UPD such as UPD 11 and UPD 14. Omphalocele is a prominent marker for chromosomal abnormalities. Perinatal identification of omphalocele should alert chromosomal abnormalities and familial unbalanced translocations, and prompt thorough cytogenetic investigations and genetic counseling.

  8. Admission haematological abnormalities and postoperative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admission haematological abnormalities and postoperative outcomes in neonates with acute surgical conditions in Alexandria, Egypt. HL Wella, SMM Farahat. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals ...

  9. Metabolism, Excretion and Mass Balance of Solithromycin in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLauchlin, Christopher; Schneider, Stephen E; Keedy, Kara; Fernandes, Prabhavathi; Jamieson, Brian D

    2018-03-05

    Solithromycin, a novel macrolide and the first fluoroketolide, is being developed as a therapy for community-acquired bacterial pneumonia, with a distinct mechanism that provides activity against macrolide-resistant bacteria. The pharmacokinetics, metabolism, and excretion of solithromycin, were studied in healthy male subjects after oral administration of a single 800 mg (∼100 μCi) dose of [ 14 C]solithromycin. Solithromycin was well tolerated and absorption from the solution occurred with a median time to peak concentration of 4.0 hours. Solithromycin and the total radioactivity had similar profiles with no long-lived metabolites. The whole blood total radioactivity was approximately 75% of plasma total radioactivity. Recovery was essentially complete (mean 90.6%), with 76.5% and 14.1% of the dose recovered in feces and urine, respectively. Unchanged solithromycin (CEM-101) was the predominant circulating radioactive component in plasma (77% of the total radioactivity AUC) with two minor plasma metabolites, CEM-214 and CEM-122 ( N -acetyl CEM-101), each accounting for approximately 5% of the total radioactivity. Urinary excretion was predominantly as parent. Solithromycin was primarily eliminated in the feces after extensive metabolism via a complex metabolic pathway with CEM-262 as the major constituent (27.36% of administered dose). Overall oxidative pathways, presumably carried out mostly by CYP3A4, represented the majority of the metabolism with N -acetylation present to a lesser extent. No disproportionate human metabolites were observed. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology.

  10. Oxalic acid excretion after intravenous ascorbic acid administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robitaille, Line; Mamer, Orval A.; Miller, Wilson H.; Levine, Mark; Assouline, Sarit; Melnychuk, David; Rousseau, Caroline; Hoffer, L. John

    2012-01-01

    Ascorbic acid is frequently administered intravenously by alternative health practitioners and, occasionally, by mainstream physicians. Intravenous administration can greatly increase the amount of ascorbic acid that reaches the circulation, potentially increasing the risk of oxalate crystallization in the urinary space. To investigate this possibility, we developed gas chromatography mass spectrometry methodology and sampling and storage procedures for oxalic acid analysis without interference from ascorbic acid and measured urinary oxalic acid excretion in people administered intravenous ascorbic acid in doses ranging from 0.2 to 1.5 g/kg body weight. In vitro oxidation of ascorbic acid to oxalic acid did not occur when urine samples were brought immediately to pH less than 2 and stored at –30°C within 6 hours. Even very high ascorbic acid concentrations did not interfere with the analysis when oxalic acid extraction was carried out at pH 1. As measured during and over the 6 hours after ascorbic acid infusions, urinary oxalic acid excretion increased with increasing doses, reaching approximately 80 mg at a dose of approximately 100 g. We conclude that, when studied using correct procedures for sample handling, storage, and analysis, less than 0.5% of a very large intravenous dose of ascorbic acid is recovered as urinary oxalic acid in people with normal renal function. PMID:19154961

  11. Magnesium, calcium, and trace elements excretion in 24-h urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Długaszek, Maria; Kaszczuk, Mirosława; Mularczyk-Oliwa, Monika

    2011-07-01

    Urine is a clinical specimen often used in medical diagnostics for monitoring of elements concentrations and kidneys function. We determined the contents of magnesium (Mg), calcium (Ca), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), lead (Pb), and cadmium (Cd) in 74 samples of 24-h urine (from 46 women and 28 men). The measurements were realized by the atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) with atomization in the flame (FAAS) and in the graphite furnace (GFAAS). The received results were the subject of statistical analysis including the sex and age of volunteers. Moreover, correlations between the elements and the relationships between age and amounts of excreted elements with urine were tested. We found the statistically significant higher content of Zn in men's urine than in women(')s one. Moreover, both adult women and men (>18 years) excreted much more Ca in urine in comparison to young subjects. Only in case of Pb the significant positive correlation between its amount in 24-h urine of all donors and age was stated. The correlation analysis has shown the significant positive relationships between Ca-Mg, Ca-Fe, Mg-Fe, Cu-Fe, Cu-Cd, Fe-Cd, and Pb-Cd in total samples of urine. Basing on our results, we concluded that the gender and age of donors may impact on the elemental status of 24-h urine.

  12. High Salt Diet Affects Renal Sodium Excretion and ERRα Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dan; Wang, Yang; Liu, Fu-Qiang; Yuan, Zu-Yi; Mu, Jian-Jun

    2016-04-01

    Kidneys regulate the balance of water and sodium and therefore are related to blood pressure. It is unclear whether estrogen-related receptor α (ERRα), an orphan nuclear receptor and transcription factor highly expressed in kidneys, affects the reabsorption of water and sodium. The aim of this study was to determine whether changes in the expressions of ERRα, Na⁺/K⁺-ATPase and epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) proteins affected the reabsorption of water and sodium in kidneys of Dahl salt-sensitive (DS) rats. SS.13BN rats, 98% homologous to the DS rats, were used as a normotensive control group. The 24 h urinary sodium excretion of the DS and SS.13BN rats increased after the 6-week high salt diet intervention, while sodium excretion was increased in DS rats with daidzein (agonist of ERRα) treatment. ERRα expression was decreased, while β- and γ-ENaC mRNA expressions were increased upon high sodium diet treatment in the DS rats. In the chromatin immunoprecipitation (CHIP) assay, positive PCR signals were obtained in samples treated with anti-ERRα antibody. The transcriptional activity of ERRα was decreased upon high salt diet intervention. ERRα reduced the expressions of β- and γ-ENaC by binding to the ENaC promoter, thereby increased Na+ reabsorption. Therefore, ERRα might be one of the factors causing salt-sensitive hypertension.

  13. Late excretion of 231Pa and its decay products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holtzman, R.B.; Ilcewicz, F.H.

    1978-01-01

    Excretion rates of members of the naturally-occurring actinium series (4n + 3) were determined for a 69-year-old man who had acquired 231 Pa(T/sub 1/2/ = 32500 yr) about 45 years prior to this investigation. The body contents determined by whole body counting were approximately 71 nCi of 231 Pa, 51 nCi each of 22 yr 227 Ac and 18.2 day 227 Th, and 39 nCi of 11.4 day 223 Ra. All urinary and fecal samples were collected, as were representative daily diets during the 10 days the subject was maintained on a metabolic ward. The samples were wet ashed with nitric acid. After separation the 231 Pa and 227 Th were electrodeposited on stainless steel and alpha counted. The 223 Ra was coprecipitated with BaSO 4 , mounted, and alpha counted. Actinium-227 was determined from the 227 Th daughter after a long growth period. The excretion rates varied quite dramatically over the 10-day study

  14. Measurements of neonatal bilirubin and albumin concentrations: a need for improvement and quality control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Imhoff, D.E. van; Dijk, P.H.; Weykamp, C.W.; Cobbaert, C.M.; Hulzebos, C.V.; Liem, K.D.; et al.,

    2011-01-01

    Accurate and precise bilirubin and albumin measurements are essential for proper management of jaundiced neonates. Data hereon are lacking for Dutch laboratories. We aimed to determine variability of measurements of bilirubin and albumin concentrations typical for (preterm) neonates. Aqueous, human

  15. Measurements of neonatal bilirubin and albumin concentrations : a need for improvement and quality control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Imhoff, Deirdre E.; Dijk, Peter H.; Weykamp, Cas W.; Cobbaert, Christa M.; Hulzebos, Christian V.

    Accurate and precise bilirubin and albumin measurements are essential for proper management of jaundiced neonates. Data hereon are lacking for Dutch laboratories. We aimed to determine variability of measurements of bilirubin and albumin concentrations typical for (preterm) neonates. Aqueous, human

  16. Sucrose/bovine serum albumin mediated biomimetic crystallization ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    to animal phyla, algae, and in mollusk shells. 5. It has been found that supersaturation is critical in determining the calcium carbonate polymorph pre- ... in figure 1c: s (spherical), r (rhomboidal), f (filamentous). pure. The bovine serum albumin were extra pure. (more than 99%), and purchased from Sigma Chemi- cals.

  17. 21 CFR 862.1035 - Albumin test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Albumin test system. 862.1035 Section 862.1035 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862...

  18. The proteomic analysis of barley albumins and globulins

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Laštovičková, Markéta; Bobálová, Janette

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 102, č. 15 (2008), s709-s711 ISSN 1803-2389. [Meeting on Chemistry and Life /4./. Brno, 09.09.2008-11.09.2008] R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0570 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : barley * albumins * globulins Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation

  19. Serum total protein, albumin and globulin levels in Trypanosoma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of orally administered Scoparia dulcis on Trypanosoma brucei-induced changes in serum total protein, albumin and globulin were investigated in rabbits over a period of twenty eight days. Results obtained show that infection resulted in hyperproteinaemia, hyperglobulinaemia and hypoalbuminaemia. However ...

  20. Evaluation of prognostic value of albumin and iron in symptomatic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background & objectives: This study was designed to assess the prognostic value of albumin and iron in symptomatic HIV subjects on ART with or without malaria infection. Methods: 150 participants (male, n=65, female, n=85) aged between 17 and 70 years were recruited for the study at the HIV clinic of Nnamdi Azikiwe ...

  1. Physico-chemical properties of South American iguanid albumins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, P J

    1980-12-15

    Except for a markedly reduced anodal electrophoretic mobility, the serum of the Galapagos marine iguana was physico-chemically identical to that of terrestrial iguanids. Reduction in albumin net charge may have facilitated the adaptation of this species to a semi-aquatic environment.

  2. Bovine Serum Albumin Metal Complexes for Mimic of SOD

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    consequence, it can be considered as a bio-functional mimic of enzyme SOD and has a promising application prospect in antioxidant drug field. Keywords. Bovine serum albumin; biopolymer metal complexes; superoxide; free radical; scavenging activity. 1. Introduction. Reactive oxygen species (ROS), natural byproducts.

  3. Isolation of bovine serum albumin from whey using affinity chromatography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besselink, T.; Janssen, A.E.M.; Boom, R.M.

    2015-01-01

    The adsorption of bovine serum albumin (BSA) to a chromatography resin with immobilised llama antibody fragments as affinity ligands was investigated. The maximum adsorption capacity of the affinity resin was 21.6 mg mL-1 with a Langmuir equilibrium constant of 20.4 mg mg-1. Using packed bed

  4. Microdetermination of human serum albumin by differential pulse ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A simple and highly sensitive electrochemical method for the determination of human serum albumin (HSA) using differential pulse voltammetry (DPV), based on a silver electrode modified with a self-assembled monolayer of L-cysteine, was developed. L-cysteine can be modified onto a silver electrode by covalent bonding ...

  5. Albumin: Creatinine Ratio during long term Diabetes Mellitus in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Albumin: Creatinine Ratio during long term Diabetes Mellitus in the Assessment of early Nephropathy in Sudanese Population. ... Further studies with 24 hour urine sample are recommended for assessment of Microalbuminuria in long term Diabetic patients, provided that the patients are on a normal diet with regular ...

  6. Effects of Vitamin C Treatment on Serum Protein, Albumin, Beta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... albumin and gamma globulin in the trypanosome-infected treated rats. It was concluded that consumption of the Vitamin C ameliorated the pathological changes in serum protein and body weight of T. brucei – infected rats. Keywords: Trypanosoma brucei, Rattus norvegicus, Ascorbic acid, Body weight, Serum protein ...

  7. Heterogeneity in the seed globulin and albumin fractions from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Successful fractionation of albumin, globulin and vicilin fractions from dry seeds of African yam bean (Sphenostylis stenocarpa) was achieved using established procedures for preparation of legume seed proteins. The resulting polypeptides were separated by native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis under both reducing ...

  8. Plasma Levels of Total Proteins, Albumin, Globulin and Plasma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plasma levels of total protein, albumin and globulin were estimated in 25 HIV positive subjects and 25 age and sex-matched controls. Test subjects were recruited from the Haematology day Clinic and Medical wards of the. OAUTHC, lle-Ife. The controls were equally obtained from staff and students within the OAUTHC, ...

  9. [Comparison of bioactive aldehydes modifying action on human albumin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krysiuk, I P; Knaub, A Ia; Shandrenko, S H

    2014-01-01

    Protein's postsynthetic modifications are a cause and a consequence of many diseases. Endogenous aldehydes are one of the main factors of these modifications formation. The human albumin's modification under some aldehydes influence in in vitro experiment has been investigated. Human albumin (20 mM) was incubated with following aldehydes: ribose, glyoxal, methylglyoxal and formaldehyde (20 mM each) and their combinations in 0.1 M Na-phosphate buffer (pH 7.4) with 0.02% sodium azide at 37 degrees C in the dark for up to 30 days. We have determined the fluorescent properties of the samples, the content of protein's carbonyl groups and the redistribution of protein's molecular weight. The following ratings of aldehydes from the lowest to the highest effect have been obtained. Fluorescent albumin adducts formation: formaldehyde, methylglyoxal, ribose, glyoxal; carbonylation of the protein: ribose, formaldehyde, glyoxal, methylglyoxal; polymerization of albumin--the formation of intermolecular crosslinks: ribose, methylglyoxal, glyoxal, formaldehyde. The results indicate that these aldehydes have different capability for protein's modifications. For example, formaldehyde, having the lowest ability to form fluorescent adducts, shows the highest ability to form protein's intermolecular crosslinks. Therefore, methods and parameters in order to evaluate the protein postsynthetic modification intensity have to be chosen correctly according to carbonyl stress peculiarity in order to evaluate the protein's postsynthetic modification intensity.

  10. Remineralization of demineralized albumin-calcium phosphate coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Y.; Liu, Y.; Hunziker, E.B.; Layrolle, P.; van Blitterswijk, Clemens; Calvert, P.D.; de Groot, K.

    2003-01-01

    Calcium phosphate and bovine serum albumin were coprecipitated (under physiological conditions of temperature and pH) upon the surfaces of titanium-alloy samples, which thereby became coated with a dense, proteinaceous mineral layer 30-50 µm in thickness. Dissolution of the inorganic phase by

  11. Bovine Serum Albumin Metal Complexes for Mimic of SOD

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Proteins are well-known for efficiency and selecti- vity that few other natural or artificial molecules can match,24,25 whether in catalysis or molecular recogni- tion. Owing to 35 cysteine residues, human serum albu- min (HSA) is facile to be combined with metal ions. The serum albumin is readily available, non-antigenic.

  12. Bioactive albumin-based carriers for tumour chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahzad, Yasser; Khan, Ikram Ullah; Hussain, Talib; Alamgeer; Serra, Christophe A; Rizvi, Syed A A; Gerber, Minja; du Plessis, Jeanetta

    2014-01-01

    Proteins are posed as the natural counterpart of the synthetic polymers for the development of drug delivery systems and few of them, have been regarded safe for drug delivery purposes by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Serum albumin is the most abundant protein in human blood. Interest in the exploration of pharmaceutical applications of albumin-based drug delivery carriers, especially for the delivery of chemotherapeutic agents, has increased in recent years. Albumin has several advantages over synthetic polymers, as it is biocompatible, biodegradable, has low cytotoxicity and has an excellent binding capacity with various drugs. Micro- and nano-carriers not only protect active pharmaceutical ingredients against degradation, but also offer a prolonged release of drugs in a controlled fashion. Since existing tumour chemotherapeutic agents neither target tumour cells, nor are they specific to tumour cells, a slow release of drugs from carriers would be beneficial in targeting carcinogenic cells intracellularly. This article aims at providing an overview of pharmaceutical applications of albumin as a drug delivery carrier in tumour chemotherapy.

  13. Interaction of Tannin with Bovine Serum Albumin by Fluorescence Spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Dong-Il, Kim; Son-Ae, Choe; Kye-Ryong, Sin

    2016-01-01

    Interaction between tannin and bovine serum albumin (BSA) was examined by the fluorescent quenching. The process of elimination between BSA and tannin was the one of a stationary state, and the coupling coefficient was one. The working strength between the tannin and the beef serum was hydrophobic one.

  14. Extracorporeal circuits and autoregulation: effect of albumin coating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borgdorff, P.; Kok, W. E.; van den Bos, G. C.

    1992-01-01

    Autoregulation of muscle blood flow often is difficult to demonstrate when extracorporeal perfusion is used. This could be caused by contact of blood and foreign material. Accordingly, we tested whether autoregulation is preserved when the system is coated with albumin. Polyurethane tubing between

  15. Albumin-heparin microspheres as carriers for cytostatic agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cremers, Harry; Feijen, Jan; Kwon, G.; Bae, Y.H.; Kim, S.W.; Noteborn, H.P.J.M.; Mcvie, J.G.

    1990-01-01

    Much work has been done on adriamycin-loaded albumin microspheres (Alb-MS) for chemoembolization [1–4], the rationale being that site-specific drug delivery may increase the therapeutic efficacy of the drug. Alb-Ms are being investigated because of their biocompatibility and because the degradation

  16. The clearance of albumin microspheres from an intramuscular injection site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, S.N.; Davis, S.S.; Frier, M.; Hardy, J.G.; Wilson, C.G.

    1982-01-01

    Human serum albumin microspheres of three different diameters were radiolabelled with indium-111, and a suspension injected into rabbit thigh muscle. Clearance from the intramuscular site was monitored for 2 weeks using gamma scintigraphy. The clearance rates were compared with the injection site clearance of non-biodegradable polystyrene microspheres. (U.K.)

  17. Effect of Temperature on Tolbutamide Binding to Glycated Serum Albumin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Szkudlarek

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Glycation process occurs in protein and becomes more pronounced in diabetes when an increased amount of reducing sugar is present in bloodstream. Glycation of protein may cause conformational changes resulting in the alterations of its binding properties even though they occur at a distance from the binding sites. The changes in protein properties could be related to several pathological consequences such as diabetic and nondiabetic cardiovascular diseases, cataract, renal dysfunction and Alzheimer’s disease. The experiment was designed to test the impact of glycation process on sulfonylurea drug tolbutamide-albumin binding under physiological (T = 309 K and inflammatory (T = 311 K and T = 313 K states using fluorescence and UV-VIS spectroscopies. It was found in fluorescence analysis experiments that the modification of serum albumin in tryptophanyl and tyrosyl residues environment may affect the tolbutamide (TB binding to albumin in subdomain IIA and/or IIIA (Sudlow’s site I and/or II, and also in subdomains IB and IIB. We estimated the binding of tolbutamide to albumin described by a mixed nature of interaction (specific and nonspecific. The association constants Ka (L∙mol−1 for tolbutamide at its high affinity sites on non-glycated albumin were in the range of 1.98–7.88 × 104 L∙mol−1 (λex = 275 nm, 1.20–1.64 × 104 L∙mol−1 (λex = 295 nm and decreased to 1.24–0.42 × 104 L∙mol−1 at λex = 275 nm (T = 309 K and T = 311 K and increased to 2.79 × 104 L∙mol−1 at λex = 275 nm (T = 313 K and to 4.43–6.61 × 104 L∙mol−1 at λex = 295 nm due to the glycation process. Temperature dependence suggests the important role of van der Waals forces and hydrogen bonding in hydrophobic interactions between tolbutamide and both glycated and non-glycated albumin. We concluded that the changes in the environment of TB binding of albumin in subdomain IIA and/or IIIA as well as in subdomains IB and IIB influence on

  18. Lack of effect of fish oil supplementation on coagulation and transcapillary escape rate of albumin in insulin-dependent diabetic patients with diabetic nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Myrup, B.; Rossing, P.; Jensen, T.

    2001-01-01

    Objective: We studied the effect of a diet supplementation with fish oil in insulin-dependent diabetic patients with nephropathy in order to evaluate whether abnormal transcapillary escape rate of albumin and procoagulant activity in these patients could be modified. Methods: A double...... rate of albumin and activity could not be modified during diet supplementation with fish oil in insulin-dependent diabetic patients with nephropathy.......-blind, randomized, controlled study was carried out at a tertiary referral centre. The subjects were 29 insulin-dependent diabetic patients with nephropathy. One year of fish oil supplementation (4.6 g n-3 fatty acids/day) was compared with placebo (olive oil). The main outcome measures were N-3 fatty acid...

  19. Protein Intakes and Serum Albumin Levels in a Japanese General Population: NIPPON DATA90

    OpenAIRE

    Watanabe, Makoto; Higashiyama, Aya; Kokubo, Yoshihiro; Ono, Yuu; Okayama, Akira; Okamura, Tomonori

    2010-01-01

    Background It is well-known that albumin is synthesized in the liver; serum albumin is a major component of serum proteins. However, it has not been well elucidated how dietary protein intakes are associated with serum albumin levels in general populations without extreme malnutrition. We cross-sectionally investigated in the representative Japanese the association between dietary protein intake and serum albumin levels. Methods A total of 7715 subjects (3220 men and 4495 women, aged 30 years...

  20. Urinary prostaglandin E and vasopressin excretion in essential fatty acid-deficient rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Harald S.; Jensen, B.

    1983-01-01

    excretion of prostaglandin E (PGE), immunoreactive arginine vasopressin (iA VP), and kallikrein were determined. PGE was quantitated with a radioimmunoassay having 4.9% cross-reactivity with prostaglandin E (PGE). After 4 weeks on the diet, water consumption and urinary iAVP excretion increased....... Increased water consumption and increased urinary iAVP excretion seem to be early symptoms (after 4 weeks) of EFA deficiency, whereas decreased urine output and decreased urinary PGE excretion occur much later (after 10 weeks). Two energy% linolenate supplementation to a fat-free diet did not change...

  1. Effect of tolvaptan on renal water and sodium excretion and blood pressure during nitric oxide inhibition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Therwani, Safa Al; Rosenbæk, Jeppe Bakkestrøm; Mose, Frank Holden

    2017-01-01

    during 60 min. We measured urine output (UO), free water clearance (CH2O), fractional excretion of sodium (FENa), urinary aquaporin-2 channels (u-AQP2) and epithelial sodium channels (u-ENaCγ), plasma vasopressin (p-AVP) and central blood pressure (cBP). RESULTS: During baseline, FENa was unchanged....... CONCLUSIONS: During baseline, fractional excretion of sodium was unchanged. During tolvaptan with NO-inhibition, renal water excretion was reduced dose dependently, and renal sodium excretion was reduced unrelated to the dose, partly via an AVP dependent mechanism. Thus, tolvaptan antagonized the reduction...

  2. Urinary excretion of retinol in patients with multiple myeloma: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavrilov, Vladimir; Yermiahu, Tikva; Gorodischer, Rafael

    2003-11-01

    Urinary excretion of vitamin A was studied in patients with multiple myeloma (MM). Eight of the 12 patients studied excreted retinol in urine; only one of them had elevated serum creatinine (115-150 micromol/L). There was a highly significant correlation between urinary retinol and serum creatinine (P urine protein (P excretion may be an early manifestation of renal dysfunction in MM patients. The effect of urinary retinol excretion on vitamin A homeostasis in MM deserves further study. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. Effect of change in diet on excretion of plutonium-239 from organism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanova, N.P.

    1987-01-01

    To check supposition on milk effect on plutonium-239 excretion from organism the portable water for rats, contained in individual metabolic cages permitting separate excretion analysis, was replaced by milk. Some days later milk was excluded from diet. 24-hourly rate of radionuclide with feces and urine excretion from organism was determined. On the basis of preliminary data analysis it is supposed that interaction of some milk components with biocomponents of blood and deposition organ tissues violate 239 Pu steady equilibrium distribution in organism, affecting its metabolism through the intermediary of blood system. It results in increased plutonium excretion

  4. Correlation between dietary nitrogen, level of plasma urea and urea excretion in urine of buffalo calves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verma, D.N.; Singh, U.B.

    1978-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted with 6 male buffalo calves of Murrah breed, aged 1.5 years, to determine whether blood urea nitrogen and urea excretion in urine were associated with protein intake. The animals were fed different amounts of crude protein in their diet. The levels of urea-N in the blood, excretion of 14 C from urea and urea-N in the urine were estimated. Close relationships were observed between nitrogen intake, blood urea nitrogen and urea excretion in the urine. The observations indicated that blood urea-N and urea excretion in urine could be quantitated with the protein intake. (author)

  5. Research on urinary excretion of purine derivatives in ruminants: Past, present and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, X.B.; Orskov, E.R.

    2004-01-01

    Research on urinary excretion of purine derivatives (PD), namely allantoin, uric acid, xanthine and hypoxanthine, in ruminants have been carried out with an objective to use the excretion of these purine metabolites as a parameter to estimate the intestinal flow of microbial protein. This paper reviews the published literature, from the first paper in 1931 to the current date. The current status of understanding in some key topics is discussed. The topics include: endogenous excretion, modelling the response of PD excretion to purine absorption, calculation of microbial N supply from PD excretion, use of spot urine measurement, possible use of plasma or milk PD as an alterative index, and applications in ruminant nutrition research. This review also covers the current understanding of PD excretion in different animal species, including sheep, cattle, goats, buffaloes, llamas, camels, yak and deer. Progress in analytical methods for the determination of purine derivatives is also discussed. Finally, areas of future research are highlighted. The paper stresses the need for more studies on metabolism of PD in the tissue, the kinetics of PD in the blood and physiological processes of renal excretion, so as to understand better the mechanism that accounts for the between-species and within species variation in PD excretion. Development of simpler and more rapid methods for defining the endogenous excretion and purine input-output relationship is also an area for future work. (author)

  6. Pulsatile urea excretion in the ureagenic toadfish Opsanus beta: an analysis of rates and routes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood; Hopkins; Hogstrand; Walsh

    1995-01-01

    This study focused on the rates and routes of urea-N and ammonia-N excretion in the ureagenic toadfish and on the possibility that urea-N excretion occurs in pulses. Experimental approaches included the following: confinement in small individual containers with automated hourly sampling of water to follow temporal excretion patterns; divided chambers to separate excretion from the anterior and posterior parts of the fish; collection of urine and rectal fluid via chronic indwelling catheters; and gavage with [14C]-labelled polyethylene glycol 4000 to detect regurgitation of gastrointestinal fluids. When a standardized 'crowding' pre-treatment was employed to induce ureotelic behaviour, the fish exhibited significant elevations in the activity of glutamine synthetase in liver, kidney and gills, elevated plasma and bile urea-N levels, but unchanged ammonia-N and urea-N levels in most other body fluids. Unencumbered ureotelic fish confined in small containers excreted 82 % of their waste-N as urea-N and 18 % as ammonia-N; almost all (94 %) of this urea-N excretion occurred in a single pulse of less than 3 h duration about once every 24 h. This daily pulse did not occur by regurgitation of gut fluids, by excretion through prominent pores behind the pectoral fins or by discharge of rectal fluid or urine. Intestinal and urinary excretion accounted for less than 10 % of whole-body urea-N excretion and a negligible fraction of ammonia-N excretion. Pulsatile urea-N excretion occurred at the head end across the gills and/or body surface. Ammonia-N excretion, which was not pulsatile, also occurred largely through the head end. However, once the toadfish had been placed in divided chambers, urea-N excretion became continuous rather than pulsatile, and ammonia-N excretion increased greatly. A severe stress response was indicated by high levels of plasma cortisol, and the skin, which lacks scales, became a significant route of both ammonia-N and urea-N excretion. We speculate

  7. Urinary excretion of fatty acid-binding protein 4 is associated with albuminuria and renal dysfunction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke Okazaki

    Full Text Available Fatty acid-binding protein 4 (FABP4/A-FABP/aP2 is expressed in not only adipocytes and macrophages but also peritubular capillaries in the normal kidney. We recently demonstrated that ectopic expression of FABP4, but not FABP1 known as liver FABP (L-FABP, in the glomerulus is associated with progression of proteinuria and renal dysfunction. However, urinary excretion of FABP4 has not been investigated.Subjects who participated in the Tanno-Sobetsu Study, a study with a population-based cohort design, in 2011 (n = 392, male/female: 166/226 were enrolled. Urinary FABP4 (U-FABP4 and urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR were measured. Change in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR was followed up one year later.In 93 (23.7% of the 392 subjects, U-FABP4 level was below the sensitivity of the assay. Subjects with undetectable U-FABP4 were younger and had lower UACR and higher eGFR levels than subjects with measurable U-FABP4. U-FABP4 level was positively correlated with age, systolic blood pressure and levels of serum FABP4 (S-FABP4, triglycerides, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c, urinary FABP1 (U-FABP1 and UACR (r = 0.360, p<0.001. Age, S-FABP4, U-FABP1 and UACR were independent predictors of U-FABP4. On the other hand, systolic blood pressure, HbA1c and U-FABP4 were independently correlated with UACR. Reduction in eGFR after one year was significantly larger in a group with the highest tertile of baseline U-FABP4 than a group with the lowest tertile.Urinary FABP4 level is independently correlated with level of albuminuria and possibly predicts yearly decline of eGFR. U-FABP4 would be a novel biomarker of glomerular damage.

  8. A hybrid intelligent system for diagnosing microalbuminuria in type 2 diabetes patients without having to measure urinary albumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marateb, Hamid R; Mansourian, Marjan; Faghihimani, Elham; Amini, Masoud; Farina, Dario

    2014-02-01

    Microalbuminuria (MA) is an independent predictor of cardiovascular and renal disease, development of overt nephropathy, and cardiovascular mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes. Detecting MA is an important screening tool to identify people with high risk of cardiovascular and kidney disease. The gold standard to detect MA is measuring 24-h urine albumin excretion. A new method for MA diagnosis is presented in this manuscript which uses clinical parameters usually monitored in type 2 diabetic patients without the need of an additional measurement of urinary albumin. We designed an expert-based fuzzy MA classifier in which rule induction was performed by particle swarm optimization. A variety of classifiers was tested. Additionally, multiple logistic regression was used for statistical feature extraction. The significant features were age, diabetic duration, body mass index and HbA1C (the average level of blood sugar over the previous 3 months, which is routinely checked every 3 months for diabetic patients). The resulting classifier was tested on a sample size of 200 patients with type 2 diabetes in a cross-sectional study. The performance of the proposed classifier was assessed using (repeated) holdout and 10-fold cross-validation. The minimum sensitivity, specificity, precision and accuracy of the proposed fuzzy classifier system with feature extraction were 95%, 85%, 84% and 92%, respectively. The proposed hybrid intelligent system outperformed other tested classifiers and showed "almost perfect agreement" with the gold standard. This algorithm is a promising new tool for screening MA in type-2 diabetic patients. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Investigation of interactions between dendrimer-coated magnetite nanoparticles and bovine serum albumin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Bifeng; Gao Feng; Ao Limei

    2005-01-01

    We investigated the interactions between dendrimer-coated magnetite nanoparticles (MNPs) and the protein serum albumin. The investigation was based on the fluorescence quenching of tryptophan residue of serum albumin after binding with the dendrimer-coated magnetite nanoparticles. The extent of the interactions between bovine serum albumin and dendrimer-coated MNPs strongly depends on their surface groups and pH value

  10. Pharmacokinetics and anti-HIV-1 efficacy of negatively charged human serum albumins in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, M E; Swart, P J; Schutten, Martin; Smit, C; Proost, J H; Osterhaus, A D; Meijer, D K

    Negatively charged albumins (NCAs, with the prototypes succinylated human serum albumin (Suc-HSA) and aconitylated human serum albumin (Aco-HSA)), modified proteins with a potent anti-human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (anti-HIV-1) activity in vitro, were studied for their pharmacokinetic behaviour

  11. Studies on kinetics of albumin in uraemic patients on chronic haemodialysis: evidence of interstitial albumin wash-down

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hildebrandt, P; Jensen, H A; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl

    1983-01-01

    filtration of albumin in microcirculatory beds with permeable capillaries (splanchnic organs), in between the haemodialysis treatment, and filtration of protein-poor fluid in areas with 'tight' capillaries (skeletal muscle, cutis) resulting in interstitial space protein depletion here. As the patients were...

  12. Echocardiographic abnormalities in hypertensive patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodulfo Garcia, Maikel; Tornes Perez, Victor Manuel; Castellanos Tardo, Juan Ramon

    2012-01-01

    A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out in 120 hypertensive patients with a course of 5 or more years, who went to the emergency room of 'Saturnino Lora' Provincial Teaching Hospital from November 2010 to November 2011 in order to determine the presence or absence of echocardiographic abnormalities typical of hypertension. Of these, 78,3 % was affected, most of whom reported not to continue with regular previous medical treatment, and 21,7 % had not these abnormalities. Age group of 50-60 years, males and blacks prevailed in the case material. The most significant echocardiographic findings were left ventricular hypertrophy and heart failure with ejection fraction of left ventricle preserved

  13. Glial abnormalities in mood disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öngür, Dost; Bechtholt, Anita J; Carlezon, William A; Cohen, Bruce M

    2014-01-01

    Multiple lines of evidence indicate that mood disorders are associated with abnormalities in the brain's cellular composition, especially in glial cells. Considered inert support cells in the past, glial cells are now known to be important for brain function. Treatments for mood disorders enhance glial cell proliferation, and experimental stimulation of cell growth has antidepressant effects in animal models of mood disorders. These findings suggest that the proliferation and survival of glial cells may be important in the pathogenesis of mood disorders and may be possible targets for the development of new treatments. In this article we review the evidence for glial abnormalities in mood disorders, and we discuss glial cell biology and evidence from postmortem studies of mood disorders. The goal is not to carry out a comprehensive review but to selectively discuss existing evidence in support of an argument for the role of glial cells in mood disorders.

  14. Abnormal Metabolite in Alcoholic Subjects,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    0.01 0.12 81 A.A. 51 M 0 ɘ.01 0.09 Schizophrenia 85a W.G. 67 M 0 ɘ.01 0.21 Proteins & Ketones in Urine b 0 ɘ.01 0.11 86a W.H. 67 M 0 ɘ.01 0.15 b 0...AD-AS 90 TOTTS GAP MEDICAL RESEARCH LABS INC BANGOR PA F/G 6/5 ABNORMAL METABOLITE IN ALCOHOLIC SUBJECTS, U) 1982 R L BEECH, M E FELVER, M R...LAKSCHMANAN NOOBIN 70 C 0233 UNJCLASSIFIED NL I ,I/ ABNORMAL METABOLITE IN ALCOHOLIC SUBJECTS Richard L . Veech, Michael E. Felver, M.R. Lakschmanan, Stewart

  15. Computed tomography abnormalities in hanging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bianco, F.; Floris, R.

    1987-01-01

    The CT pattern of bilateral and symmetrical round low density areas in the globi pallidi has been observed in a young man who attempted suicide by hanging. These CT abnormalities are similar to those described in other conditions such as carbon monoxide, hydrogen sulfide, cyanide and methanol poisoning, hypoglycaemia, drowning and acute global central nervous system hypoperfusion.The findings appear to be correlated with acute cerebral hypoxia. (orig.)

  16. GLIAL ABNORMALITIES IN MOOD DISORDERS

    OpenAIRE

    Öngür, Dost; Bechtholt, Anita J.; Carlezon, William A.; Cohen, Bruce M.

    2014-01-01

    Multiple lines of evidence indicate that mood disorders are associated with abnormalities in the brain's cellular composition, especially in glial cells. Considered inert support cells in the past, glial cells are now known to be important for brain function. Treatments for mood disorders enhance glial cell proliferation, and experimental stimulation of cell growth has antidepressant effects in animal models of mood disorders. These findings suggest that the proliferation and survival of glia...

  17. Mastoid abnormalities in Down syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glass, R.B.J.; Yousefzadeh, D.K.; Roizen, N.J.

    1989-01-01

    Hearing loss and otitis media are commonly associated with Down syndrome. Hypoplasia of the mastoids is seen in many affected children and sclerosis of mastoid bones is not uncommon in Down syndrome. Awareness and early recognition of mastoid abnormality may lead to appropriate and timely therapy, thereby preserving the child's hearing or compensating for hearing loss; factors which are important for learning and maximum development. (orig.)

  18. Mastoid abnormalities in Down syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glass, R.B.J.; Yousefzadeh, D.K.; Roizen, N.J.

    1989-06-01

    Hearing loss and otitis media are commonly associated with Down syndrome. Hypoplasia of the mastoids is seen in many affected children and sclerosis of mastoid bones is not uncommon in Down syndrome. Awareness and early recognition of mastoid abnormality may lead to appropriate and timely therapy, thereby preserving the child's hearing or compensating for hearing loss; factors which are important for learning and maximum development.

  19. Levels of Inflammatory Cytokines in Type 2 Diabetes Patients with Different Urinary Albumin Excretion Rates and Their Correlation with Clinical Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fen-qin Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the pathogenetic mechanism of DN has not been elucidated, an inflammatory mechanism has been suggested as a potential contributor. This study was designed to explore the relationship between low-grade inflammation and renal microangiopathy in T2DM. A total of 261 diabetic subjects were divided into three groups according to UAE: a normal albuminuria group, a microalbuminuria group, and a macroalbuminuria group. A control group was also chosen. Levels of hs-CRP, TNF-α, uMCP-1, SAA, SCr, BUN, serum lipid, blood pressure, and HbA1c were measured in all subjects. Compared with the normal controls, levels of hs-CRP, TNF-α, uMCP-1, and SAA in T2DM patients were significantly higher. They were also elevated in the normal albuminuria group, P<0.05. Compared with the normal albuminuria group, levels of these inflammatory cytokines were significantly higher in the microalbuminuria and macroalbuminuria group, P<0.01. The macroalbuminuria group also showed higher levels than the microalbuminuria group, P<0.01. Also they were positively correlated with UAE, SBP, DBP, LDL-C, and TC. We noted no significance correlated with course, TG, or HDL-C. Only TNF-α; was positively correlated with HbA1c. This study revealed the importance of these inflammatory cytokines in DN pathogenesis. Further studies are needed to fully establish the potential of these cytokines as additional biomarkers for the development of DN.

  20. Abnormal uterine bleeding in perimenopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, S R; Lumsden, M A

    2017-10-01

    Abnormal uterine bleeding is one of the commonest presenting complaints encountered in a gynecologist's office or primary-care setting. The wider availability of diagnostic tools has allowed prompt diagnosis and treatment of an increasing number of menstrual disorders in an office setting. This White Paper reviews the advantages and disadvantages of transvaginal ultrasound, blind endometrial sampling and diagnostic hysteroscopy. Once a proper diagnosis has been established, appropriate therapy may be embarked upon. Fortunately, only a minority of such patients will have premalignant or malignant disease. When bleeding is sufficient to cause severe anemia or even hypovolemia, prompt intervention is called for. In most of the cases, however, the abnormal uterine bleeding will be disquieting to the patient and significantly affect her 'quality of life'. Sometimes, reassurance and expectant management will be sufficient in such patients. Overall, however, in cases of benign disease, some intervention will be required. The use of oral contraceptive pills especially those with a short hormone-free interval, the insertion of the levonorgestrel intrauterine system, the incorporation of newer medical therapies including antifibrinolytic drugs and selective progesterone receptor modulators and minimally invasive treatments have made outpatient therapy increasingly effective. For others, operative hysteroscopy and endometrial ablation are proven therapeutic tools to provide both long- and short-term relief of abnormal uterine bleeding, thus avoiding, or deferring, hysterectomy.

  1. Prevalence of isolated non-albumin proteinuria in the US population tested for both, urine total protein and urine albumin: An unexpected discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayev, Alexander; Zebelman, Arthur M; Sharp, Thomas M; Samantha Flynn; Bernstein, Richard K

    2017-04-01

    Isolated non-albumin proteinuria (NAP) is a condition when urine total protein concentrations are elevated without elevation of urine albumin. The prevalence of NAP in the US population tested for both, urine total protein and albumin was assessed in this study. The database of a US nationwide laboratory network was queried for test results when random urine albumin was ordered together with urine total protein and also when timed 24-hour urine albumin was ordered together with urine total protein. The total prevalence of NAP in the US population tested for both, urine total protein and albumin was calculated for patient groups having normal and low-normal urine albumin (random and timed) with elevated and severely increased urine total protein (random and timed). Also, the prevalence of NAP was calculated for patients with normal urine albumin to assess the probability of missing proteinuria if only urine albumin is measured. The prevalence of NAP in the random samples group was 10.1% (15.2% for females and 4.7% for males). Among patients with normal random albumin, there were 20.0% (27.3% of females and 10.7% of males) patients with NAP. The prevalence of NAP in the timed samples group was 24.6% (29.8% for females and 18.5% for males). Among patients with normal timed urine albumin, there were 36.2% (40.0% of females and 30.8% of males) patients with NAP. There was a strong positive association with female gender and NAP in most patients groups. Testing for only urine (micro)albumin can miss up to 40% of females and 30.8% of males with gross proteinuria. Copyright © 2016 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Marine, freshwater and aerially acclimated mangrove rivulus (Kryptolebias marmoratus) use different strategies for cutaneous ammonia excretion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Christopher A.; Wilson, Jonathan M.

    2013-01-01

    Rhesus (Rh) glycoproteins are ammonia gas (NH3) channels known to be involved in ammonia transport in animals. Because of the different osmoregulatory and ionoregulatory challenges faced by teleost fishes in marine and freshwater (FW) environments, we hypothesized that ammonia excretion strategies would differ between environments. Also, we hypothesized that cutaneous NH3 volatilization in air-acclimated fish is facilitated by base secretion. To test these hypotheses, we used the skin of the euryhaline amphibious mangrove rivulus (Kryptolebias marmoratus). The skin excretes ammonia and expresses Rh glycoproteins. Serosal-to-mucosal cutaneous ammonia flux was saturable (0–16 mmol/l ammonia, Km of 6.42 mmol/l). In FW, ammonia excretion increased in response to low mucosal pH but decreased with pharmacological inhibition of Na+/H+ exchangers (NHE) and H+ ATPase. Conversely, in brackish water (BW), lowering the mucosal pH significantly decreased ammonia excretion. Inhibitors of NHE also decreased ammonia excretion in BW fish. Immunofluorescence microscopy demonstrated that both the Rh isoform, Rhcg1, and NHE3 proteins colocalized in Na+/K+ ATPase expressing mitochondrion-rich cells in the gills, kidney, and skin. We propose that the mechanisms of cutaneous ammonia excretion in FW K. marmoratus are consistent with the model for branchial ammonia excretion in FW teleost fish. NH4+ excretion appeared to play a stronger role in BW. NH4+ excretion in BW may be facilitated by apical NHE and/or diffuse through paracellular pathways. In aerially acclimated fish, inhibition of NHE and H+ ATPase, but not the Cl−/HCO3− exchanger, significantly affected cutaneous surface pH, suggesting that direct base excretion is not critical for NH3 volatilization. Overall, K. marmoratus use different strategies for excreting ammonia in three different environments, FW, BW, and air, and Rh glycoproteins and NHE are integral to all. PMID:23389109

  3. Prediction of nitrogen excretion by beef cattle: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldrip, H M; Todd, R W; Cole, N A

    2013-09-01

    Reliable estimates of N excretion in the urine and feces of beef cattle are essential for developing cost-effective and environmentally sound nutrient management plans. A meta-analysis dataset was compiled that included data for starting live BW, DMI, N intake, dietary CP and RDP concentrations, urine N excretion, and feces N excretion. The data were taken from 12 individual feeding trials that included N balance data, and represented a total of 47 different dietary treatments and 255 animals. Correlation analysis was used to determine the animal and dietary parameters that were most closely related to N excretion in urine and feces by beef cattle. A multivariate mixed modeling approach was used to develop empirical equations to predict excretion of urine N, feces N, and the partitioning of total N excretion between urine and feces, as a function of N intake and the concentration of dietary CP. Univariate, regression, and mean difference comparisons indicated 46 to 95% agreement between observed and predicted values for the developed equations. Evaluation of the equations with an independent dataset taken from 6 studies, and 2 random subsets of the meta-analysis dataset showed moderate agreement (P < 0.05, r(2) = 0.34 to 0.86) for urine N excretion as a function of both N intake and %CP, and the partitioning of total N excretion into urine as a function of %CP. There was less agreement between predictions and observations for feces N excretion as a function of %CP (r(2) = 0.003 to 0.14) than N intake (r(2) = 0.52 to 0.75), indicating that %CP is not a good predictor of fecal N excretion. The empirical equations provide a simple tool that, if used with caution, could predict N excretion characteristics for a wide range of dietary and animal characteristics and could improve ammonia emissions estimates by process-based models.

  4. Renal type a intercalated cells contain albumin in organelles with aldosterone-regulated abundance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Buus Jensen

    Full Text Available Albumin has been identified in preparations of renal distal tubules and collecting ducts by mass spectrometry. This study aimed to establish whether albumin was a contaminant in those studies or actually present in the tubular cells, and if so, identify the albumin containing cells and commence exploration of the origin of the intracellular albumin. In addition to the expected proximal tubular albumin immunoreactivity, albumin was localized to mouse renal type-A intercalated cells and cells in the interstitium by three anti-albumin antibodies. Albumin did not colocalize with markers for early endosomes (EEA1, late endosomes/lysosomes (cathepsin D or recycling endosomes (Rab11. Immuno-gold electron microscopy confirmed the presence of albumin-containing large spherical membrane associated bodies in the basal parts of intercalated cells. Message for albumin was detected in mouse renal cortex as well as in a wide variety of other tissues by RT-PCR, but was absent from isolated connecting tubules and cortical collecting ducts. Wild type I MDCK cells showed robust uptake of fluorescein-albumin from the basolateral side but not from the apical side when grown on permeable support. Only a subset of cells with low peanut agglutinin binding took up albumin. Albumin-aldosterone conjugates were also internalized from the basolateral side by MDCK cells. Aldosterone administration for 24 and 48 hours decreased albumin abundance in connecting tubules and cortical collecting ducts from mouse kidneys. We suggest that albumin is produced within the renal interstitium and taken up from the basolateral side by type-A intercalated cells by clathrin and dynamin independent pathways and speculate that the protein might act as a carrier of less water-soluble substances across the renal interstitium from the capillaries to the tubular cells.

  5. Preparation of S-sulfo albumin film and its cell adhesive property

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazoe, Hironori; Yamauchi, Kiyoshi; Tanabe, Toshizumi

    2009-01-01

    Recently, large-scale production of the pharmaceutical grade recombinant human serum albumin was achieved, and several clinical trials have proved its safety and efficacy. Albumin is thought to be a candidate for a safe biopolymer sources for application to biomaterials. In this study, we treated albumin with sodium sulfite and sodium tetrathionate to give S-sulfo albumin, which was found to loose native albumin structure by CD spectra analysis and dye-binding assay. A water-insoluble S-sulfo albumin films were prepared by drying S-sulfo albumin solution and subsequent reformation of disulfide bonds by the oxidation with iodine. Ultimate strength, ultimate elongation and Young's modulus of S-sulfo albumin film prepared at room temperature were 3.3 ± 0.4 MPa, 30.8 ± 3.2% and 40.8 ± 3.3 MPa before oxidative treatment and changed to 13.8 ± 4.2 MPa, 5.6 ± 2.8% and 401.7 ± 15.3 MPa after oxidative treatment. When the film was prepared at 60 deg. C, similar tendency was observed. Thus, the disulfide bonds formation between albumin molecules by oxidative treatment converted the film stronger and stiffer. Cell adhesion and proliferation on the films were evaluated using mouse L929 fibroblast cells. Cell adhesion largely depended on the albumin structure; that is, cells did not attach to native albumin coated surfaces, while cell adhesion and proliferation occurred on the S-sulfo albumin films which lost their native albumin structure. Eighty percent of seeded cells were adhered on S-sulfo albumin films and proliferated well in a similar manner to those on the conventional culture dish. Our results indicate that S-sulfo albumin is a favorable cell culture substrate.

  6. Excretion of ciprofloxacin in sweat and multiresistant Staphylococcus epidermidis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høiby, N; Jarløv, J O; Kemp, M

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus epidermidis develops resistance to ciprofloxacin rapidly. That this antibiotic is excreted in apocrine and eccrine sweat of healthy individuals might be the reason for the development of such resistance. We assessed whether S epidermidis isolated from the axilla and nasal...... flora of healthy people could develop resistance to ciprofloxacin after a 1-week course of this antibiotic. METHODS: The concentration of ciprofloxacin in sweat was measured in seven volunteers after oral administration of 750 mg ciprofloxacin twice daily for 7 days, and the development of resistance...... in S epidermidis from axilla and nostrils was monitored during and 2 months after the treatment. Genotyping of S epidermidis was done by restriction fragment length polymorphism. FINDINGS: The mean concentration of ciprofloxacin in sweat increased during the 7 days of treatment-from 2.2 micrograms/mL 2...

  7. Amphetamine enantiomer excretion profile following administration of Adderall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cody, John T; Valtier, Sandra; Nelson, Stephen L

    2003-10-01

    Amphetamine remains a widely abused drug throughout the world. It is also used therapeutically for weight loss, narcolepsy, and attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity (ADHD). ADHD has grown dramatically recently both in terms of diagnosis and treatment. Increasingly, older individuals are diagnosed and treated for ADHD, and treatment often continues into adulthood. Of the available treatments for ADHD, Adderall is widely prescribed. Despite its widespread use, there are no published data regarding the expected amphetamine excretion profile following its use. This is problematic because, in this case, medical review officers (MRO) and forensic toxicologists are asked to assess results in terms of use pursuant to valid medical prescription without specific data on which to base a sound decision. To address this situation, a study to determine the concentration and enantiomer composition of amphetamine excretion following administration of Adderall was undertaken. Adderall (20 mg) was administered to five healthy subjects with all subsequent ad lib urine samples (total urine void) collected for seven days. Adderall is a 3:1 mixture of d- and l-enantiomers of amphetamine salts. Peak amphetamine concentrations ranged from 2645 to 5948 ng/mL. Samples containing > or = 500 ng/mL of amphetamine (the administrative cutoff for a positive result by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry) were seen up to 47:30 h post dose. The number of samples that contained amphetamine concentrations of > or = 500 ng/mL ranged among individuals from 7 to 13. As anticipated, analysis showed the d-enantiomer to be in excess of the l-enantiomer, with the proportion of l-enantiomer increasing over time. Because of the mixture of enantiomers, not all samples that contained > or = 500 ng/mL of amphetamine were positive when tested by immunoassay. The drug concentration profiles were quite variable within and between subjects because of dilution and fluctuations in pH of the samples. These

  8. Ammonia production, excretion, toxicity, and defense in fish: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Y K Ip

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Many fishes are ammonotelic but some species can detoxify ammonia to glutamine or urea. Certain fish species can accumulate high levels of ammonia in the brain or defense against ammonia toxicity by enhancing the effectiveness of ammonia excretion through active NH4+ transport, manipulation of ambient pH, or reduction in ammonia permeability through the branchial and cutaneous epithelia. Recent reports on ammonia toxicity in mammalian brain reveal the importance of permeation of ammonia through the blood-brain barrier and passages of ammonia and water through transporters in the plasmalemma of brain cells. Additionally, brain ammonia toxicity could be related to the passage of glutamine through the mitochondrial membranes into the mitochondrial matrix. On the other hand, recent reports on ammonia excretion in fish confirm the involvement of Rhesus glycoproteins in the branchial and cutaneous epithelia. Therefore, this review focuses on both the earlier literature and the up-to-date information on the problems and mechanisms concerning the permeation of ammonia, as NH3, NH4+ or proton-neutral nitrogenous compounds, across mitochondrial membranes, the blood-brain barrier, the plasmalemma of neurons, and the branchial and cutaneous epithelia of fish. It also addresses how certain fishes with high ammonia tolerance defend against ammonia toxicity through the regulation of the permeation of ammonia and related nitrogenous compounds through various types of membranes. It is hoped that this review would revive the interests in investigations on the passage of ammonia through the mitochondrial membranes and the blood-brain barrier of ammonotelic fishes and fishes with high brain ammonia-tolerance, respectively.

  9. LOW FRACTIONAL EXCRETION OF UREA IN HYPOTHYROIDISM INDUCED HYPONATREMIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Algranati L

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN:El hipotiroidismo puede causar alteraciones del metabolismo del agua, los electrolitos, la hemodinamia e histología renales, siendo la hiponatremia y la reducción del filtrado glomerular sus consecuencias más significativas, pero poco prevalentes. Todos estos cambios son corregibles con el suministro de hormona tiroidea exógena.La excreción fraccional de urea (EFU es un índice útil en la evaluación de la hiponatremia, pero no se ha descripto aun el valor que este índice alcanza en la hiponatremia inducida por hipotiroidismo. En el presente reporte mostramos que la EFU y excreción fraccional de sodio (EFNa fueron baja (EFU: 29% y alta (EFNa: 2.2% respectivamente en un paciente que padecía hipotiroideo severo. El tratamiento con hormona tiroidea normalizó el valor de ambos índices.ABSTRACTHypothyroidism can cause disturbance of renal hemodinamics, kidney histology, water and electrolyte metabolism, being hyponatremia and glomerular filtration reduction their low prevalent but most significant consequences. All these changes are largely corrected by substitution of exogenous thyroid hormone.Fractional excretion of urea (FEU is a useful index in the evaluation of hyponatremia. However, it was not still reported in the literature the FEU value in hyponatremia induced by hypothyroidism. Because of that we presented a case report showing that the value of FEU and fractional excretion of sodium (FENa were low (FEU: 29% and high (FENa: 2.2 % respectively in a severe hypothyroid patient. Treatment based on thyroid hormone normalized both indeces.

  10. Buoyancy-activated cell sorting using targeted biotinylated albumin microbubbles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Ren Liou

    Full Text Available Cell analysis often requires the isolation of certain cell types. Various isolation methods have been applied to cell sorting, including fluorescence-activated cell sorting and magnetic-activated cell sorting. However, these conventional approaches involve exerting mechanical forces on the cells, thus risking cell damage. In this study we applied a novel isolation method called buoyancy-activated cell sorting, which involves using biotinylated albumin microbubbles (biotin-MBs conjugated with antibodies (i.e., targeted biotin-MBs. Albumin MBs are widely used as contrast agents in ultrasound imaging due to their good biocompatibility and stability. For conjugating antibodies, biotin is conjugated onto the albumin MB shell via covalent bonds and the biotinylated antibodies are conjugated using an avidin-biotin system. The albumin microbubbles had a mean diameter of 2 μm with a polydispersity index of 0.16. For cell separation, the MDA-MB-231 cells are incubated with the targeted biotin-MBs conjugated with anti-CD44 for 10 min, centrifuged at 10 g for 1 min, and then allowed 1 hour at 4 °C for separation. The results indicate that targeted biotin-MBs conjugated with anti-CD44 antibodies can be used to separate MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells; more than 90% of the cells were collected in the MB layer when the ratio of the MBs to cells was higher than 70:1. Furthermore, we found that the separating efficiency was higher for targeted biotin-MBs than for targeted avidin-incorporated albumin MBs (avidin-MBs, which is the most common way to make targeted albumin MBs. We also demonstrated that the recovery rate of targeted biotin-MBs was up to 88% and the sorting purity was higher than 84% for a a heterogenous cell population containing MDA-MB-231 cells (CD44(+ and MDA-MB-453 cells (CD44-, which are classified as basal-like breast cancer cells and luminal breast cancer cells, respectively. Knowing that the CD44(+ is a commonly used cancer

  11. A study on urinary protein excretion as an index of physical exertion Part 2: Changes in the excretion of urinary protein during and after Kendo exercise

    OpenAIRE

    泉,武寛

    1982-01-01

    In the present study, the author selected Kendo among many sports because of the lack of information on the health administration of the Kendo athlete, in spite of the increase in this sport. The present study is specifically concerned with the changes in the excretion of urinary protein as an index of physical exertion during and after Kendo exercise. (1) The longer the duration of exercise was, the more urinary protein that was excreted. The increase was logarithmic against the duration. (2...

  12. Effects of Tranilast on the Urinary Excretion of Kynurenic and Quinolinic Acid under Conditions of L Tryptophan Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rowland R. Noakes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The pathogenesis of morphea and other cutaneous sclerosing disorders remain poorly understood. Although they are considered to be autoimmune disorders, abnormal tryptophan metabolism may be involved. Current therapy is directed to supressing the autoimmune response. Demonstration of a therapeutic response to manipulation of the kynurenine pathway would both support a role for abnormal tryptophan metabolism and offer additional targets for therapy. Tranilast is a 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid derivative known to target the kynurenine pathway. The aim of this study was to see if tranilast lowered the urinary excretion of the kynurenine metabolites kynurenic and quinolinic acid under condition of L tryptophan loading in a volunteer. Mean baseline value for kynurenic acid and quinolinic acid were 1.1 and 2.1 mmol/mol creatinine, respectively. This rose to 5.6 and 3.8 mmol/mol creatinine respectively under conditions of L tryptophan loading 2 grams daily. Adding 1 g of tranilast daily lowered the values to 2.0 and 2.9 mmol/mol creatinine, respectively. These data suggest that tranilast acts as a competitive inhibitor of either indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase (IDO, tryptophan 2, 3 di-oxygenase (TDO or both. As it involved only 1 subject, the results may not be representative of the larger population and must be considered preliminary.

  13. 5C.07: A METHOD TO ESTIMATE 24-HOUR SODIUM EXCRETION THROUGH SPOT URINE SAMPLES AND ITS APPLICATION VALUE FOR TARGET-ORGAN DAMAGE ASSESSMENT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H; Zhao, L; Xi, Y; Sun, N

    2015-06-01

    24-h urine sodium excretion is considered the most reliable method to evaluate the salt intakes. However, this method is cumbersome. So we want to develop formulas to estimate 24-h urinary sodium excretion using spot urinary samples in Chinese hypertensive population and explore the application value of this method in salt intake assessment and target organ damage. 1. We enrolled 510 cases of hospitalized patients with hypertension, 2/3 of them were arranged randomly to formula group to develop a new formula and the remainings were used to test the performance of the formula. All participants were instructed to collect a 24-h urine sample, a second morning voiding urine sample (SMU), and a post-meridiem urine sample in the late afternoon or early evening, prior to the evening meal (PMU). All samples were sent to measure sodium and creatinine concentration.2. We compared the differences of office blood pressure, 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure and left ventricular hypertrophy, vascular stiffness and urine protein among groups of different sodium intake. 24hour sodium excretion formulas was obtained using SMU and PMU respectively, which have good cosistency. The difference between the estimated and measured values in sodium excretion is 12.66mmol/day (SMU) and 9.41mmol/day (PM), to be equal to 0.7 g (SMU) and 0.6 g (PM) salt intake. Comparing with Kawasaki and Tanaka method, the new formula shows the lower degree of deviation, and higher accuracy and precision. Blood pressure of high urinary sodium group is higher than that in low urinary sodium group (P < 0.05). Left ventricular hypertrophy and urinary albumin/creatinine aggravated with the salt intake increase, this has eliminated the influence of other factors. All of morphologies of the relationship between ambulatory arterial stiffness index, pulse wave velocity and carotid intima-media thickness with quartiles of sodium intake resembled a J-shaped curve. In Chinese hypertensive population, the

  14. Binding thermodynamics of Diclofenac and Naproxen with human and bovine serum albumins: A calorimetric and spectroscopic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bou-Abdallah, Fadi; Sprague, Samuel E.; Smith, Britannia M.; Giffune, Thomas R.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The binding affinity of Diclofenac and Naproxen to BSA and HSA is on the order of 10 4 –10 6 M −1 . • Two Diclofenac molecules bind per BSA or HSA but only 0.75 and 3 Naproxen molecules bind to BSA and HSA, respectively. • Drugs binding to BSA is only enthalpically favored and both enthalpically and entropically favored for HSA. • Fluorescence quenching data suggest dynamic collisions and the formation of ground-state protein-drug complexes. • DSC data show multiple sequential unfolding events and strong drug stabilization effects. - Abstract: Serum albumins are ubiquitous proteins able to bind a variety of exogenous and endogenous ligands including hydrophobic pharmaceuticals. Most drugs bind to two very active binding regions located within sub-domains IIA and IIIA of the protein, also known as Sudlow’s sites. The drug binding mode of serum albumin provides important pharmacological information and influences drug solubility, efficacy, biological distribution, and excretion. Here, the binding thermodynamics of Diclofenac and Naproxen, two non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) to bovine and human serum albumins (BSA and HSA, respectively) were studied by isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), fluorescence spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The ITC data show that the binding affinity (K) of Diclofenac to BSA and HSA is on the order of 10 4 M −1 with a binding stoichiometry (n) of 2 drug molecules per protein. Naproxen binding to the two proteins exhibits a different profile with K and n values on the order of 10 6 M −1 and 0.75 for BSA, and 10 5 M −1 and 3 for HSA, respectively. The binding of the two drugs to HSA is found to be both enthalpically and entropically favored suggesting the formation of hydrogen bonds and van der Waals hydrophobic effects. Binding of the two drugs to BSA is only enthalpically favored with an unfavorable entropy term. Significant enthalpy–entropy compensation

  15. Increased urinary orosomucoid excretion predicts preeclampsia in pregnant women with pregestational type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, MS; Hesse, D; Ekbom, P

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated the urinary orosomucoid excretion (UOE) as a biomarker of preeclampsia and preterm delivery in pregnant women with type 1 diabetes.......We evaluated the urinary orosomucoid excretion (UOE) as a biomarker of preeclampsia and preterm delivery in pregnant women with type 1 diabetes....

  16. Hydrochlorothiazide-induced 131I excretion facilitated by salt and water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyer, K.H. Jr.; Fehr, D.M.; Gelarden, R.T.; White, W.J.; Lang, C.M.; Vesell, E.S.

    1981-01-01

    Salt intake is restricted under clinical conditions for which thiazide diuretics are customarily used. Dietary iodide intake offsets any effect of thiazide on iodide loss. However, our correlation coefficients relating Na+ to Cl- to I- excretion indicate that as thiazide administration or sodium chloride intake increases renal Na+ and Cl- excretion, I- reabsorption by the nephron coordinately decreases. Increased sodium chloride and water intake by the dog doubled I-excretion rates. Hydrochlorothiazide increased the sodium chloride and water enhanced I-excretion rate as much as eight-fold. Without added NaCl, hydrochlorothiazide increased the excretion rate of 131I by three- to eightfold, acutely. Within five to seven days after 131I oral administration, hydrochlorothiazide (1 or 2 mg/kg twice daily) doubled the rate of 131I disappearance from plasma, reduced the fecal output of 131I, and increased its rate of renal excretion. When hydrochlorothiazide was administered, as much 131I was excreted in the first 24 hours as occurred in 48 hours when sodium chloride and water were given without hydrochlorothiazide. Thiazide administration in customary clinical dosage twice a day with substantial sodium chloride and water for the first two days after exposure to 131I, should therefore facilitate the safe excretion of 131I. This accelerated removal of 131I might be enhanced even more if thyroid uptake of 131I is blocked by administration of potassium iodide, as judged by the greater 131I recovery from thyroidectomized dogs

  17. Dietary strategies to reducing N excretion from cattle: implications for methane emissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, J.; Oenema, O.; Bannink, A.

    2011-01-01

    Ruminants turn human inedible into human edible products, but at a cost of excretion of various pollutants. Implications of dietary measures for cattle to reduce faecal and urinary nitrogen losses on methane emissions are reviewed. Reducing the dietary protein content decreases nitrogen excretion in

  18. The longer-term effects of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery on sodium excretion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Celik, Funda; Ahdi, Mohamed; Meesters, Eelco W.; van de Laar, Arnold; Brandjes, Dees P. M.; Gerdes, Victor E. A.

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is an independent risk factor for hypertension and chronic kidney disease. During the first months after bariatric surgery, an improvement of sodium excretion has been described. The aim of this work was to study the influence of bariatric surgery on sodium excretion at more than a year

  19. Urinary acidification and urinary excretion of calcium and citrate in women with bilateral medullary sponge kidney

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osther, P J; Mathiasen, Helle; Hansen, A B

    1994-01-01

    .6) (p acidosis during ammonium chloride...... loading and urinary excretion of calcium (r = 0.71, p = 0.02), and a negative correlation between the degree of acidosis during ammonium chloride loading and urinary citrate excretion (r = 0.87, p = 0.001). The results suggest that defective urinary acidification might play an important role...

  20. Factors contributing to the variation in feline urinary oxalate excretion rate.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijcker, Judith; Hagen - Plantinga, Esther; Everts, Henk; Queau, Yann; Biourge, Vincent; Hendriks, Wouter

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to identify factors (season, animal, and diet) contributing to the variation in urinary oxalate (Uox) excretion rate, Uox concentration, and urine volume in healthy adult cats. A data set (1,940 observations) containing information on Uox excretion rate of 65 cats fed 252 diets

  1. Urinary excretion of Tamm-Horsfall protein and epidermal growth factor in chronic nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torffvit, O; Jørgensen, P E; Kamper, A L

    1998-01-01

    Tamm-Horsfall protein (THP) and epidermal growth factor (EGF) are both synthesized by tubular cells in the distal part of the nephron and excreted with the urine. The present study examines the urinary excretion rates of the two peptides in relation to functional tubular markers in patients...

  2. Hydrochlorothiazide-induced /sup 131/I excretion facilitated by salt and water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beyer, K.H. Jr.; Fehr, D.M.; Gelarden, R.T.; White, W.J.; Lang, C.M.; Vesell, E.S.

    Salt intake is restricted under clinical conditions for which thiazide diuretics are customarily used. Dietary iodide intake offsets any effect of thiazide on iodide loss. However, our correlation coefficients relating Na+ to Cl- to I- excretion indicate that as thiazide administration or sodium chloride intake increases renal Na+ and Cl- excretion, I- reabsorption by the nephron coordinately decreases. Increased sodium chloride and water intake by the dog doubled I-excretion rates. Hydrochlorothiazide increased the sodium chloride and water enhanced I-excretion rate as much as eight-fold. Without added NaCl, hydrochlorothiazide increased the excretion rate of 131I by three- to eightfold, acutely. Within five to seven days after 131I oral administration, hydrochlorothiazide (1 or 2 mg/kg twice daily) doubled the rate of 131I disappearance from plasma, reduced the fecal output of 131I, and increased its rate of renal excretion. When hydrochlorothiazide was administered, as much 131I was excreted in the first 24 hours as occurred in 48 hours when sodium chloride and water were given without hydrochlorothiazide. Thiazide administration in customary clinical dosage twice a day with substantial sodium chloride and water for the first two days after exposure to 131I, should therefore facilitate the safe excretion of 131I. This accelerated removal of 131I might be enhanced even more if thyroid uptake of 131I is blocked by administration of potassium iodide, as judged by the greater 131I recovery from thyroidectomized dogs.

  3. Influence of spironolactone on the excretion of 203Hg2+ in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cikrt, M.; Tichy, M.

    1975-01-01

    The effect of spironolactone (SPL) on 203 Hg 2+ excretion was studied in rats with a special emphasis in biliary excretion. No correlation was found between the number of doses of SPL pretreatment (1-5 doses of 5 mg/100 g body weight) and the biliary excretion of 203 Hg 2+ within 6 hours after intravenous administration of 120 μg Hg 2+ per rat. After the SPL pretreatment there was a significantly increased mercury stool excretion 24 hours after intravenous administration. Concurrent oral administration of SH-groups containing sorbent had no effect on mercury stool excretion. Repeated administration of 203 Hg 2+ (5 hours after the first dose) induced significantly increased biliary excretion of mercury in rats pretreated with SPL. On the other hand, repeated administration of SPL (4 hours after intravenous administration of mercury) did not influence the biliary excretion of mercury. The results indicate that the effect of SPL on biliary excretion of mercury could be limited by the level of ''mercury available'' in the organism and might be determined by a direct interaction of mercury molecule with the molecule of SPL

  4. Impaired Albumin Uptake and Processing Promote Albuminuria in OVE26 Diabetic Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Y S; Zheng, S; Kralik, P M; Benz, F W; Epstein, P N

    2016-01-01

    The importance of proximal tubules dysfunction to diabetic albuminuria is uncertain. OVE26 mice have the most severe albuminuria of all diabetic mouse models but it is not known if impaired tubule uptake and processing are contributing factors. In the current study fluorescent albumin was used to follow the fate of albumin in OVE26 and normal mice. Compared to normal urine, OVE26 urine contained at least 23 times more intact fluorescent albumin but only 3-fold more 70 kD fluorescent dextran. This indicated that a function other than size selective glomerular sieving contributed to OVE26 albuminuria. Imaging of albumin was similar in normal and diabetic tubules for 3 hrs after injection. However 3 days after injection a subset of OVE26 tubules retained strong albumin fluorescence, which was never observed in normal mice. OVE26 tubules with prolonged retention of injected albumin lost the capacity to take up albumin and there was a significant correlation between tubules unable to eliminate fluorescent albumin and total albuminuria. TUNEL staining revealed a 76-fold increase in cell death in OVE26 tubules that retained fluorescent albumin. These results indicate that failure to process and dispose of internalized albumin leads to impaired albumin uptake, increased albuminuria, and tubule cell apoptosis.

  5. Potential Role of Amino Acid/Protein Nutrition and Exercise in Serum Albumin Redox State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuaki Wada

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Albumin is the major protein in the serum of mammals. It is synthesized exclusively in the liver, before being secreted into the circulation. Similar to skeletal muscle protein, albumin synthesis is stimulated by dietary amino acids and proteins as well as exercise. Albumin has three isoforms based on the redox states of the free cysteine residue at position 34. The redox state of serum albumin has long been extensively investigated in terms of oxidative stress-related chronic diseases, with the redox state of serum albumin having been regarded as a marker of systemic oxidative stress. However, according to recent animal studies, the redox state of serum albumin is modulated by albumin turnover and may also reflect amino acid/protein nutritional status. Furthermore, as the redox state of serum albumin is modulated by exercise training, measuring the pre- and post-exercise redox states of serum albumin in athletes may be useful in assessing amino acid/protein nutritional status and exercise-induced oxidative stress, which are closely associated with skeletal muscle adaptive responses. This article extensively reviews serum albumin and the redox state of albumin in the context of amino acid/protein nutritional status and exercise training.

  6. Aortic lipid and 125I-albumin accumulation in streptozotocin-diabetic guinea pigs: prevention by insulin treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlosser, M.J.; Bannon, A.W.; Verlangieri, A.J.

    1986-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus, a major risk factor of atherosclerosis, is associated with the aortic accumulation of macromolecules. The authors have examined this relationship in the streptozotocin (STZ)-diabetic guinea pig, a species (like man) unable to synthesize ascorbic acid and susceptible to atherosclerosis. Male Dunkin-Hartley guinea pigs received STZ (150 mg/kg, i.c.) or vehicle (control). After 5 days, insulin (10 U/kg/day) was given to half the STZ animals (STZ-INS0 while the remaining half (STZ-SAL) and controls received saline. 25 days later, animals were given 125 I-albumin (100 μCi/kg, i.a.). Activity was determined in plasma at 5 (C/sub p5), 15 and 30 minutes, and in the upper thoracic aorta after 30 minutes. Histopathological changes were evaluated in the lower aorta. Aortic albumin permeability defined as cpm/cm 2 /sec, cpm/cm 2 /sec/C/sub p5/, or cpm/C/sub p5//g tissue was significantly elevated in the STZ-SAL group compared to both STZ-INS and control groups; these latter two groups were not significantly different from each other. Oil-Red-O positive material (lipid) occurred at multifocal areas within the intima of the STZ-SAL animals only. This study demonstrates (1) an abnormal increase in aortic permeability to albumin, (2) histological evidence of early atherosclerotic lesions, and (3) that insulin treatment can prevent these angiopathies in this STZ-diabetic animal model

  7. Cellular Specificity of the Blood-CSF Barrier for Albumin Transfer across the Choroid Plexus Epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liddelow, Shane A; Dzięgielewska, Katarzyna M; Møllgård, Kjeld

    2014-01-01

    of transfer of endogenous (mouse) and exogenous (human) albumins, in situ Proximity Ligation Assay (in situ PLA), and qRT-PCR experiments to examine the cellular mechanism mediating protein transfer across the blood-CSF interface. We report that at all developmental stages mouse albumin and SPARC gave...... rarely identifiable within choroid plexus cells and only at older ages. Concentrations of both endogenous mouse albumin and exogenous (intraperitoneally injected) human albumin were estimated in plasma and CSF and expressed as CSF/plasma concentration ratios. Human albumin was not transferred through...... positive signals with in situ PLAs in plasma, CSF and within individual plexus cells suggesting a possible molecular interaction. In contrast, in situ PLA experiments in brain sections from mice injected with human albumin showed positive signals for human albumin in the vascular compartment that were only...

  8. Does serum albumin and creatinine predict survival of inpatient palliative care patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aung, Aye; Alqudihy, Shukri; Rybicki, Lisa; Platt, Alexandra; Davis, Mellar P

    2014-12-01

    Low creatinine and albumin are found among the chronically ill patients. This study retrospectively reviewed albumin and creatinine levels for survival in patients upon admission. Records of patients admitted over 2 months were reviewed. Recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) identified cutpoints in albumin and creatinine that predicted survival. Kaplan-Meier survival, Cox proportional hazards, and stepwise Cox analyses identified prognostic factors. Of 83 patients, 81 were assessable. Variables for worse survival were albumin creatinine >0.93 mg/dL, and male gender. Albumin by continuous, median, RPA, and tertiles was significant; creatinine by RPA. Hazard ratio for albumin >3.1 was 0.28 (P creatinine >0.91 mg/dL was 1.8 (P = .046). Albumin and creatinine are prognostically important. © The Author(s) 2013.

  9. Isolation and characterization of a specific receptor for human albumin on a group L Streptococcus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lämmler, C

    1988-08-01

    Certain group L streptococci demonstrate surface receptors for human albumin. Binding of 125I-albumin to group L streptococci could be inhibited by unlabelled albumin preparations from humans, dogs, mice and bovines, but not by albumin from rabbits. The albumin-binding proteins (ABP) could be solubilized from the streptococcal surface by hot acid treatment of the bacteria and isolated by affinity chromatography on human-albumin sepharose. ABP and specific antisera produced against ABP inhibited 125I-albumin binding to group L streptococci. The molecular weight of ABP determined by SDS-PAGE and Western blotting, was approximately 48,000 Dalton. ABP preparations of group G streptococci isolated from bovines and humans demonstrated cross reactivity with antiserum produced against group L streptococcal ABP.

  10. Tamoxifen and curcumin binding to serum albumin. Spectroscopic study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciążek-Jurczyk, M.; Maliszewska, M.; Pożycka, J.; Równicka-Zubik, J.; Góra, A.; Sułkowska, A.

    2013-07-01

    Tamoxifen (TMX) is widely used for the breast cancer treatment and is known as chemopreventive agent. Curcumin (CUR) is natural phenolic compound with broad spectrum of biological activity e.g. anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antiviral, antifungal and chemopreventive. Combination of tamoxifen and curcumin could be more effective with lower toxicity than each agent alone in use for the treatment or chemoprevention of breast cancer. Binding of drugs to serum albumin is an important factor, which determines toxicity and therapeutic dosage of the drugs. When two drugs are administered together the competition between them for the binding site on albumin can result in a decrease in bound fraction and an increase in the concentration of free biologically active fraction of drug.

  11. Novel lipid hybrid albumin nanoparticle greatly lowered toxicity of pirarubicin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jing; Zhang, Xuanmiao; Li, Mei; Wu, Wenqi; Sun, Xun; Zhang, Ling; Gong, Tao

    2013-10-07

    Pirarubicin (THP) is an effective anthracycline for the treatment of solid tumor. However, its potential side effects are prominent and clinical use is restricted. We aimed to develop a novel pirarubicin-oleic acid complex albumin nanoparticle (THP-OA-AN) in order to reduce the toxicity of THP. Oleic acid, human serum albumin (HSA), and egg yolk lecithin E80 was used to prepare THP-OA-AN. Prepared THP-OA-AN was characterized and animal experiments were conducted to assess its tumor suppression effect, distribution, and toxicity. Comparison between THP and THP-OA-AN showed that, with retained antitumor efficiency, the toxicity of THP-OA-AN is significantly reduced regarding bone marrow suppression, cardiotoxicity, renal toxicity, and gastrointestinal toxicity. This study developed a safe and effective formulation of THP, which has greater potential for clinic use in the tumor therapy.

  12. Diagnostic agents containing albumin and methods for making same

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saklad, E.L.; Layne, W.W.

    1981-01-01

    This patent specification outlines a method for providing a diagnostic agent for use in radiological testing, comprising the production of an admixture of a source of radionuclide ion (sup(99m)Tc), a reducing agent (source of stannous ions at a pH below 7) and a stabilized, defatted human albumin being sufficiently purified for an aqueous solution not to become cloudy for at least an hour at a pH of 4 or below. Other aspects of the patent provide for a method of producing a radiodiagnostic kit of the above components, packaged in a sealed sterile non-pyrogenic container, and also a method of concentrating sup(99m)Tc in vivo in a target mammalian tissue, by intravenous administration of a mixture of sup(99m)Tc, a reducing agent, and delipidized serum albumin. (U.K.)

  13. Molecular basis of indomethacin-human serum albumin interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trivedi, V D; Vorum, H; Honoré, B

    1999-01-01

    Studies on the strength and extent of binding of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug indomethacin to human serum albumin (HSA) have provided conflicting results. In the present work, the serum-binding of indomethacin was studied in 55 mM sodium phosphate buffer (pH 7.0) at 28 degrees C......, by using a fluorescence quench titration technique. The interaction of indomethacin with human serum albumin has been studied as a function of temperature, ionic strength and pH. The results suggest that electrostatic interaction plays a major role in the binding. The possible role of lysine residues...... in this interaction was studied by modifying exposed and buried lysine residues of HSA with potassium cyanate and studying indomethacin binding with the modified HSA. The data suggest that the interaction takes place via a salt bridge formation between the carboxylate group of indomethacin and a buried lysine residue...

  14. Albumin-gold-glutathione is a probable auranofin metabolite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, C.F. III; Coffer, M.; Isab, A.A.

    1989-01-01

    The newly licensed gold drug, auranofin ((2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-β-1-D-gluco-pyranosato-S-)triethylphoshine-gold(I)) crosses cell membranes and enters cells which are inaccessible to parenteral gold drugs. In vivo, the triethylphosphine ligand and gold of auranofin, but not the thio-sugar moiety, accumulate in and subsequently efflux from red blood cells (RBCs). Extracellular albumin increases in the extent of gold efflux and acts as a gold binding site. The rate of efflux is first-order in RBC gold concentration. Studies using RBCs in which labelled [ 14 C]-glutathione is generated in situ incorporation of [ 14 C]- glycine demonstrate that glutathione also effluxes from the RBCs and forms a gold-glutathione-albumin complex. This may be the immunopharmacologically active complex

  15. Albumin Suppresses Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma Proliferation and the Cell Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shunsuke Nojiri

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Many investigations have revealed that a low recurrence rate of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is associated with high serum albumin levels in patients; therefore, high levels of serum albumin are a major indicator of a favorable prognosis. However, the mechanism inhibiting the proliferation of HCC has not yet been elucidated, so we investigated the effect of serum albumin on HCC cell proliferation. Hep3B was cultured in MEM with no serum or containing 5 g/dL human albumin. As control samples, Prionex was added to generate the same osmotic pressure as albumin. After 24-h incubation, the expressions of α-fetoprotein (AFP, p53, p21, and p57 were evaluated with real-time PCR using total RNA extracted from the liver. Protein expressions and the phosphorylation of Rb (retinoblastoma were determined by Western blot analysis using total protein extracted from the liver. For flow cytometric analysis of the cell cycle, FACS analysis was performed. The percentages of cell cycle distribution were evaluated by PI staining, and all samples were analyzed employing FACScalibur (BD with appropriate software (ModFit LT; BD. The cell proliferation assay was performed by counting cells with using a Scepter handy automated cell counter (Millipore. The mRNA levels of AFP relative to Alb(−: Alb(−, Alb(+, and Prionex, were 1, 0.7 ± 0.2 (p < 0.001 for Alb(−, and 1 ± 0.3, respectively. The mRNA levels of p21 were 1, 1.58 ± 0.4 (p = 0.007 for Alb(− and p = 0.004 for Prionex, and 0.8 ± 0.2, respectively. The mRNA levels of p57 were 1, 4.4 ± 1.4 (p = 0.002 for Alb(− and Prionex, and 1.0 ± 0.1, respectively. The protein expression levels of Rb were similar in all culture media. The phosphorylation of P807/811 and P780 of Rb protein was reduced in Alb(+. More cells in the G0/G1 phase and fewer cells in S and G2/M phases were obtained in Alb(+ than in Alb(− (G0/G1: 60.9%, 67.7%, 61.5%; G2/M: 16.5%, 13.1%, 15.6%; S: 22.6%, 19.2%, 23.0%, Alb(−, Alb

  16. Urinary excretion of epidermal growth factor in living human kidney donors and their recipients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, P E; Kamper, A L; Munck, O

    1995-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) is a growth-promoting peptide that is synthesized in the distal tubules of the kidney and excreted in urine. EGF has been suggested to play a role in the repair after renal tissue damage, as well as in compensatory growth of the remaining kidney after uninephrectomy....... The present study examined the urinary EGF excretion after uninephrectomy and transplantation among relatives. The urinary EGF excretion rate and the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) were followed for 26-54 days in 16 healthy kidney donors and nine recipients. After uninephrectomy the median urinary EGF...... excretion rate in the donors was not 50% of the pre-operative value, but around 65% (95% confidence limits of the median on the fifth post-operative day: 59-72%). This suggests that there is a compensatory increase in the EGF excretion rate from the remaining kidney of around 30% after uninephrectomy...

  17. Excretion of Different Forms of Zinc by the prawn Palaemon serratus (Pennant)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Small, L.F.; Keckes, S.; Fowler, S.W.

    1976-01-01

    Freshly collected speciments of Palaemon serratus from the upper Adriatic Sea were used to determine excretion rates of zinc in ''zinc-free'' water by anodic stripping polarographic techniques. Weight-specific excretion of total zinc varied reciprocally with body weight apparently in a log-log relationship. Weight-specific excretion of ionic-particulate zinc appeared greatest in short term (1-3 hr) experiments, while weight specific excretion of complexed zinc appeared greatest in longer term (4-5 hr) experiments; however, we cannot exclude the possibility that ionic-particulate zinc and dissolved organic compounds were excreted separately and subsequently combined in the water to yield zinc complex. (author)

  18. Excretion of different forms of zinc by the prawn Palaemon serratus (Pennant)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Small, L.F.; Keckes, S.; Fowler, S.W.

    1974-01-01

    Freshly collected specimens of Palaemon serratus from the upper Adriatic Sea were used to determine excretion rates of zinc in zinc-free water by anodic stripping polarographic techniques. Weight-specific excretion of total zinc varied reciprocally with body weight, apparently in a log--log relationship. Weight-specific excretion of ionic-particulate zinc appeared greatest in short term (1 to 3 hr) experiments, while weight-specific excretion of complexed zinc appeared greatest in longer term (4 to 5 hr) experiments; however, we cannot exclude the possibility that ionic-particulate zinc and dissolved organic compounds were excreted separately and subsequently combined in the water to yield zinc complex. (auth)

  19. Interplay of biopharmaceutics, biopharmaceutics drug disposition and salivary excretion classification systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idkaidek, Nasir M

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this commentary is to investigate the interplay of Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS), Biopharmaceutics Drug Disposition Classification System (BDDCS) and Salivary Excretion Classification System (SECS). BCS first classified drugs based on permeability and solubility for the purpose of predicting oral drug absorption. Then BDDCS linked permeability with hepatic metabolism and classified drugs based on metabolism and solubility for the purpose of predicting oral drug disposition. On the other hand, SECS classified drugs based on permeability and protein binding for the purpose of predicting the salivary excretion of drugs. The role of metabolism, rather than permeability, on salivary excretion is investigated and the results are not in agreement with BDDCS. The proposed Salivary Excretion Classification System (SECS) can be used as a guide for drug salivary excretion based on permeability (not metabolism) and protein binding.

  20. Asymmetric [14C]albumin transport across bullfrog alveolar epithelium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, K.J.; LeBon, T.R.; Shinbane, J.S.; Crandall, E.D.

    1985-01-01

    Bullfrog lungs were prepared as planar sheets and bathed with Ringer solution in Ussing chambers. In the presence of a constant electrical gradient (20, 0, or -20 mV) across the tissue, 14 C-labeled bovine serum albumin or inulin was instilled into the upstream reservoir and the rate of appearance of the tracer in the downstream reservoir was monitored. Two lungs from the same animal were used to determine any directional difference in tracer fluxes. An apparent permeability coefficient was estimated from a relationship between normalized downstream radioactivities and time. Results showed that the apparent permeability of albumin in the alveolar to pleural direction across the alveolar epithelial barrier is 2.3 X 10(-7) cm/s, significantly greater (P less than 0.0005) than that in the pleural to alveolar direction (5.3 X 10(-8) cm/s) when the tissue was short circuited. Permeability of inulin, on the other hand, did not show any directional dependence and averaged 3.1 X 10(-8) cm/s in both directions. There was no effect on radiotracer fluxes permeabilities of different electrical gradients across the tissue. Gel electrophoretograms and corresponding radiochromatograms suggest that the large and asymmetric isotope fluxes are not primarily due to digestion or degradation of labeled molecules. Inulin appears to traverse the alveolar epithelial barrier by simple diffusion through hydrated paracellular pathways. On the other hand, [ 14 C]albumin crosses the alveolar epithelium more rapidly than would be expected by simple diffusion. These asymmetric and large tracer fluxes suggest that a specialized mechanism is present in alveolar epithelium that may be capable of helping to remove albumin from the alveolar space

  1. Multienzyme degradation of host serum albumin in ticks

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sojka, Daniel; Pytelková, Jana; Perner, Jan; Horn, Martin; Konvičková, Jitka; Schrenková, Jana; Mareš, Michael; Kopáček, Petr

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 4 (2016), s. 604-613 ISSN 1877-959X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-11043S; GA ČR GA14-33693S; GA MŠk LO1302 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 ; RVO:61388963 Keywords : albumin digestion * tick * proteolysis * gut Subject RIV: ED - Physiology; CE - Biochemistry (UOCHB-X) Impact factor: 3.230, year: 2016

  2. Abnormal thermography in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonio-Rubio, I; Madrid-Navarro, C J; Salazar-López, E; Pérez-Navarro, M J; Sáez-Zea, C; Gómez-Milán, E; Mínguez-Castellanos, A; Escamilla-Sevilla, F

    2015-08-01

    An autonomic denervation and abnormal vasomotor reflex in the skin have been described in Parkinson's disease (PD) and might be evaluable using thermography with cold stress test. A cross-sectional pilot study was undertaken in 35 adults: 15 patients with PD and abnormal [(123)I]-metaiodobenzylguanidine cardiac scintigraphy and 20 healthy controls. Baseline thermography of both hands was obtained before immersing one in cold water (3 ± 1 °C) for 2 min. Continuous thermography was performed in: non-immersed hand (right or with lesser motor involvement) during immersion of the contralateral hand and for 6 min afterward; and contralateral immersed hand for 6 min post-immersion. The region of interest was the dorsal skin of the third finger, distal phalanx. PD patients showed a lower mean baseline hand temperature (p = 0.037) and greater thermal difference between dorsum of wrist and third finger (p = 0.036) and between hands (p = 0.0001) versus controls, regardless of the motor laterality. Both tests evidenced an adequate capacity to differentiate between groups: in the non-immersed hand, the PD patients did not show the normal cooling pattern or final thermal overshoot observed in controls (F = 5.29; p = 0.001), and there was an AUC of 0.897 (95%CI 0.796-0.998) for this cooling; in the immersed hand, thermal recovery at 6 min post-immersion was lesser in patients (29 ± 17% vs. 55 ± 28%, p = 0.002), with an AUC of 0.810 (95%CI 0.662-0.958). PD patients reveal abnormal skin thermal responses in thermography with cold stress test, suggesting cutaneous autonomic dysfunction. This simple technique may be useful to evaluate autonomic dysfunction in PD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Abnormal Cervical Cancer Screening Test Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lesion? • What are the different types of abnormal Pap test results? • What testing is needed after an abnormal ... that could lead to cancer. Screening includes the Pap test and, for some women, testing for a virus ...

  4. Absorptive-mediated endocytosis of cationized albumin and a beta-endorphin-cationized albumin chimeric peptide by isolated brain capillaries. Model system of blood-brain barrier transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumagai, A.K.; Eisenberg, J.B.; Pardridge, W.M.

    1987-11-05

    Cationized albumin (pI greater than 8), unlike native albumin (pI approximately 4), enters cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) rapidly from blood. This suggests that a specific uptake mechanism for cationized albumin may exist at the brain capillary wall, i.e. the blood-brain barrier. Isolated bovine brain capillaries rapidly bound cationized (/sup 3/H)albumin and approximately 70% of the bound radioactivity was resistant to mild acid wash, which is assumed to represent internalized peptide. Binding was saturable and a Scatchard plot gave a maximal binding capacity (Ro) = 5.5 +/- 0.7 micrograms/mgp (79 +/- 10 pmol/mgp), and a half-saturation constant (KD) = 55 +/- 8 micrograms/ml (0.8 +/- 0.1 microM). The binding of cationized (/sup 3/H)albumin (pI = 8.5-9) was inhibited by protamine, protamine sulfate, and polylysine (molecular weight = 70,000) with a Ki of approximately 3 micrograms/ml for all three proteins. The use of cationized albumin in directed delivery of peptides through the blood-brain barrier was examined by coupling (/sup 3/H)beta-endorphin to unlabeled cationized albumin (pI = 8.5-9) using the bifunctional reagent, N-succinimidyl 3-(2-pyridyldithio)proprionate. The (/sup 3/H)beta-endorphin-cationized albumin chimeric peptide was rapidly bound and endocytosed by isolated bovine brain capillaries, and this was inhibited by unlabeled cationized albumin but not by unconjugated beta-endorphin or native bovine albumin. Cationized albumin provides a new tool for studying absorptive-mediated endocytosis at the brain capillary and may also provide a vehicle for directed drug delivery through the blood-brain barrier.

  5. Multicenter evaluation of an enzymatic method for glycated albumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paleari, Renata; Bonetti, Graziella; Callà, Cinzia; Carta, Mariarosa; Ceriotti, Ferruccio; Di Gaetano, Nicola; Ferri, Marilisa; Guerra, Elena; Lavalle, Gabriella; Cascio, Claudia Lo; Martino, Francesca Gabriela; Montagnana, Martina; Moretti, Marco; Santini, Gabriele; Scribano, Donata; Testa, Roberto; Vero, Anna; Mosca, Andrea

    2017-06-01

    The use of glycated albumin (GA) has been proposed as an additional glycemic control marker particularly useful in intermediate-term monitoring and in situation when HbA 1c test is not reliable. We have performed the first multicenter evaluation of the analytical performance of the enzymatic method quantILab Glycated Albumin assay implemented on the most widely used clinical chemistry analyzers (i.e. Abbott Architect C8000, Beckman Coulter AU 480 and 680, Roche Cobas C6000, Siemens ADVIA 2400 and 2400 XPT). The repeatability of the GA measurement (expressed as CV, %) implemented in the participating centers ranged between 0.9% and 1.2%. The within-laboratory CVs ranged between 1.2% and 1.6%. A good alignment between laboratories was found, with correlation coefficients from 0.996 to 0.998. Linearity was confirmed in the range from 7.6 to 84.7%. The new enzymatic method for glycated albumin evaluated by our investigation is suitable for clinical use. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Targeted albumin-based nanoparticles for delivery of amphipathic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Rongzuo; Fisher, Michael; Juliano, R L

    2011-05-18

    We report the preparation and physical and biological characterization of human serum albumin-based micelles of approximately 30 nm diameter for the delivery of amphipathic drugs, represented by doxorubicin. The micelles were surface conjugated with cyclic RGD peptides to guide selective delivery to cells expressing the α(v)β(3) integrin. Multiple poly(ethylene glycol)s (PEGs) with molecular weight of 3400 Da were used to form a hydrophilic outer layer, with the inner core formed by albumin conjugated with doxorubicin via disulfide bonds. Additional doxorubicin was physically adsorbed into this core to attain a high drug loading capacity, where each albumin was associated with about 50 doxorubicin molecules. The formed micelles were stable in serum but continuously released doxorubicin when incubated with free thiols at concentrations mimicking the intracellular environment. When incubated with human melanoma cells (M21+) that express the α(v)β(3) integrin, higher uptake and longer retention of doxorubicin was observed with the RGD-targeted micelles than in the case of untargeted control micelles or free doxorubicin. Consequently, the RGD-targeted micelles manifested cytotoxicity at lower doses of drug than control micelles or free drug.

  7. Molecularly imprinted composite cryogel for albumin depletion from human serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andaç, Müge; Baydemir, Gözde; Yavuz, Handan; Denizli, Adil

    2012-11-01

    A new composite protein-imprinted macroporous cryogel was prepared for depletion of albumin from human serum prior to use in proteom applications. Polyhydroxyethyl-methacylate-based molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) composite cryogel was prepared with high gel fraction yields up to 83%, and its morphology and porosity were characterized by Fourier transform infrared, scanning electron microscopy, swelling studies, flow dynamics, and surface area measurements. Selective binding experiments were performed in the presence of competitive proteins human transferrin (HTR) and myoglobin (MYB). MIP composite cryogel exhibited a high binding capacity and selectivity for human serum albumin (HSA) in the presence of HTR and MYB. The competitive adsorption amount for HSA in MIP composite cryogel is 722.1 mg/dL in the presence of competitive proteins (HTR and MYB). MIP composite cryogel column was successfully applied in the fast protein liquid chromatography system for selective depletion of albumin in human serum. The depletion ratio was highly increased by embedding beads into cryogel (85%). Finally, MIP composite cryogel can be reused many times with no apparent decrease in HSA adsorption capacity. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Comparison of bioactive aldehydes modifying action on human albumin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. P. Krysiuk

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Protein’s postsynthetic modifications are a cause and a consequence of many diseases. Endogenous aldehydes are one of the main factors of these modifications formation. The human albumin’s modification under some aldehydes influence in in vitro experiment has been investigated. Human albumin (20 mM was incubated with following aldehydes: ribose, glyoxal, methylglyoxal and formaldehyde (20 mM each and their combinations in 0.1 M Na-phosphate buffer (pH 7.4 with 0.02% sodium azide at 37 °C in the dark for up to 30 days. We have determined the fluorescent properties of the samples, the content of protein’s carbonyl groups and the redistribution of protein’s molecular weight. The following ratings of aldehydes from the lowest to the highest effect have been obtained. Fluo­rescent albumin adducts formation: formaldehyde, methylglyoxal, ribose, glyoxal; carbonylation of the protein: ribose, formaldehyde, glyoxal, methyl­glyoxal; polymerization of albumin – the formation of intermolecular crosslinks: ribose, methylglyoxal, glyoxal, formaldehyde. The results indicate that these aldehydes have different capability for protein’s modifications. For example, formaldehyde, having the lowest ability to form fluorescent adducts, shows the highest ability to form protein’s intermolecular crosslinks. Therefore, methods and parame­ters in order to evaluate the protein postsynthetic modification intensity have to be chosen correctly according to carbonyl stress peculiarity in order to evaluate the protein’s postsynthetic modification intensity.

  9. Microvascular albumin permeability in isolated perfused lung: effects of EDTA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kern, D.F.; Malik, A.B.

    1985-01-01

    The authors examined the effects of decreases in perfusate concentrations of calcium and magnesium on the pulmonary vascular permeability in the isolated perfused rabbit lung. The albumin permeability-surface area product (PS) and the albumin reflection coefficient (sigma) were determined in the same lung using 125 I- and 131 I-labeled albumin tracers. Decreases in vascular Ca 2+ and Mg 2+ concentrations were induced by adding ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) to the perfusate. Decreases in the concentration of these cations resulted in an increase in the PS from a control value of 1.18 +/- 0.13 X 10(-3) to 7.69 +/- 0. 75 X 10(-3) cm3 X min-1 X g wet lung wt-1 and a decrease in the sigma from 0.96 +/- 0.01 to 0.74 +/- 0.02. The decrease in sigma suggests an increase in the calculated equivalent pore radius from 44 to 63 A. The results indicate that Ca 2+ and Mg 2+ play a role in the maintenance of normal pulmonary vascular permeability to proteins

  10. Investigation of the binding affinity in vitamin B12-Bovine serum albumin system using various spectroscopic methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarska-Bialokoz, Magdalena

    2017-09-01

    The binding affinity between vitamin B12 (VitB12) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) has been investigated in aqueous solution at pH = 7.4, employing UV-vis absorption and steady-state, synchronous and three-dimensional fluorescence spectra techniques. Representative effects noted for BSA intrinsic fluorescence resulting from the interactions with VitB12 confirm the formation of π-π stacked non-covalent and non-fluorescent complexes in the system VitB12-BSA. All the determined parameters, the binding, fluorescence quenching and bimolecular quenching rate constants (of the order of 104 L mol- 1, 103 L mol- 1 and 1011 L mol- 1 s- 1, respectively), as well as Förster resonance energy transfer parameters validate the mechanism of static quenching. The interaction with VitB12 induces folding of the polypeptide chains around Trp residues of BSA, resulting in a more hydrophobic surrounding. Presented outcomes suggest that the addition of VitB12 can lead to the more organized BSA conformation and its more folded tertiary structure, what could influence the physiological functions of bovine serum albumin, notably in case of its overuse or abnormal metabolism.

  11. MR imaging of abnormal synovial processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinn, S.F.; Sanchez, R.; Murray, W.T.; Silbiger, M.L.; Ogden, J.; Cochran, C.

    1987-01-01

    MR imaging can directly image abnormal synovium. The authors reviewed over 50 cases with abnormal synovial processes. The abnormalities include Baker cysts, semimembranous bursitis, chronic shoulder bursitis, peroneal tendon ganglion cyst, periarticular abscesses, thickened synovium from rheumatoid and septic arthritis, and synovial hypertrophy secondary to Legg-Calve-Perthes disease. MR imaging has proved invaluable in identifying abnormal synovium, defining the extent and, to a limited degree, characterizing its makeup

  12. The Effect of Grape Seed Proanthocyanidin Extract (GSPE on Urinary Sodium Excretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulsum Ozkan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: While various hormones and mediators reduce the urinary excretion of Na, other mediators such as nitric oxide (NO increase Na excretion. Grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE is a molecule that has an antioxidant effect by increasing NO levels. Our study was intended to evaluate the effect of GSPE on Na excretion. Material and Method: Fourteen rats were divided into control and GSPE groups. The control group was given 1 cm3 milk by gavage for one week, while the GSPE group was given 100 mg/kg GSPE. Seventh-day urines were collected from rats monitored over 24 h in a metabolic cage. Urinary Na excretion at the end of 24 h was investigated and the experiment concluded. Results: There was no difference between the control and GSPE groups in terms of weight, solid and liquid food intake and urine volumes. 24-hour urinary Na excretion was higher in the GSPE group (1.43±0.30 g/day compared to the control group (1.37±0.29 g/day, although the difference was not statistically significant. Na excretion was positively correlated with solid food intake (p=0.029, r=0.583  and urine volume (p<0.001, r=0.806. Discussion: Our study shows, for the first time in the literature, that GSPE increases  urinary Na excretion in healthy rats,  though not to a statistically significant extent, and that solid food intake and urine volume affect Na excretion. We think that it will be useful for the effect of GSPE on urinary Na excretion in hypertensive rats with impaired Na excretion and balance to be evaluated in future studies.

  13. Sexual differences in the excretion of organic and inorganic mercury by methyl mercury-treated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, D.J.; Fisher, H.L.; Sumler, M.R.; Mushak, P.; Hall, L.L.

    1987-01-01

    Adult male and female Long Evans rats received 1 mumole of methyl ( 203 Hg) mercuric chloride per kilogram sc. Whole-body retention of mercury and excretion of organic and inorganic mercury in urine and feces were monitored for 98 days after dosing. Females cleared mercury from the body more rapidly than did males. The major route of mercury excretion was feces. By 98 days after dosing, cumulative mercury excretion in feces accounted for about 51% of the dose in males and about 54% of the dose in females. For both sexes, about 33% of the dose was excreted in feces as inorganic mercury. Cumulative excretion of organic mercury in feces accounted for about 18 and 21% of the dose in males and females, respectively. Urinary excretion of mercury was quantitatively a smaller route for mercury clearance but important sexual differences in loss by this route were found. Over the 98-day experimental period, males excreted in urine about 3.2% of the dose and females excreted 7.5%. Cumulative organic Hg excretion in urine accounted for 1.8% of the dose in males and 5.3% of the dose in females. These sexual differences in urinary and fecal excretion of organic and inorganic mercury following methyl mercury treatment were consistent with previous reports of sexual differences in mercury distribution and retention in methyl mercury-treated rats, particularly sexual differences in organic mercury uptake and retention in the kidney. Relationships between body burdens of organic or inorganic Hg and output of these forms of Hg in urine and feces were also found to be influenced by the interval after MeHg treatment and by sex. Relationship between concentration of Hg in liver and feces and in kidney and urine differed for organic and inorganic Hg and depended upon sexual status and interval after MeHg treatment

  14. Uptake and excretion of 110mAg by Mud carp Cirrhina molitorella

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Shunhua; Zhong Chuangguang

    2004-01-01

    Accumulation, excretion and tissue distribution of 110m Ag from both labeled food and water pathways in juvenile mud carp Cirrhina molitorella were investigated. Results indicated that the excretion rate of 110m Ag uptaken from artificial food pathway was very fast. 24 hours after feeding, the radioactivity of the fish decreased rapidly to 2.62% of the initial one and maintained the similar level afterwards in the 7 days excretion experiment. On the 7th day of excretion, the fish were dissected to separate the organs and tissues. The distribution of 110m Ag in the fish was uneven. Radioactivity of 110m Ag in the organs and tissues was in the order as liver>intestine>gall bladder>eye>gill>remainder>muscle. The radioactivity in liver, intestine and gall bladder were 48.14%, 18/43% and 15.43% of the total radioactivity of the fish, respectively. The accumulation of waterborne 110m Ag by mud carp showed that 110m Ag was easy to be uptaken by the fish. the concentration factors at 8th hour and 13th day were 23.8 and 208.6 respectively. Excretion of 110m Ag uptaken from water pathway was slower than that from food pathway. The radioactivity decreased to 20.1% and 16.7% on 15th and 28th day, respectively. The excretion procedure was composed of fast excretion phase (0-2d) and slow excretion phase (2-28d). The half-life of 110m Ag in mud carp in the slow excretion phase was 22d during the slow excretion phase. The distribution of 110m Ag in organs and tissues was mainly in viscera, which accounted for about 80% of the total radioactivity of the fish

  15. Comparison of associations of urine protein-creatinine ratio versus albumin-creatinine ratio with complications of CKD: a cross-sectional analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Herrick; Hsu, Chi-Yuan; Vittinghoff, Eric; Lin, Feng; Bansal, Nisha

    2013-12-01

    Urine albumin-creatinine ratio (ACR) and protein-creatinine ratio (PCR) are important markers of kidney damage and are used for prognosis in persons with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Despite how commonly these measurements are done in clinical practice, relatively few studies have directly compared the performance of these 2 measures with regard to associations with clinical outcomes, which may inform clinicians about which measure of urinary protein excretion is best. We studied the association of ACR and PCR with common complications of CKD. Cross-sectional study. 3,481 participants with CKD in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) Study. ACR and PCR. We examined the association between ACR and PCR with measures of common CKD complications: serum hemoglobin, bicarbonate, parathyroid hormone, phosphorus, potassium, and albumin. Restricted cubic spline analyses adjusted for estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR; calculated by the MDRD [Modification of Diet in Renal Disease] Study equation) were performed to study the continuous association with our predictors with each outcome. Mean eGFR was 43±13 (SD)mL/min/1.73 m2 and median values for PCR and ACR were 140 and 46 mg/g, respectively. In continuous analyses adjusted for eGFR, higher ACRs and PCRs were similar and both were associated with lower serum hemoglobin, bicarbonate, and albumin levels and higher parathyroid hormone, phosphorus, and potassium levels. Across all outcomes, the associations of ACR and PCR were similar, with only small absolute differences in the outcome measure. Similar associations were seen in patients with diabetes mellitus. Participants largely had moderate CKD with low values for ACR and PCR, so results may not be generalizable to all CKD populations. In persons with CKD, ACR and PCR are relatively similar in their associations with common complications of CKD. Thus, routine measurement of PCR may provide similar information as ACR in managing immediate complications of CKD

  16. Albumin-bound fatty acids induce mitochondrial oxidant stress and impair antioxidant responses in proximal tubular cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ishola, D. A.; Post, J. A.; van Timmeren, M. M.; Bakker, S. J. L.; Goldschmeding, R.; Koomans, H. A.; Braam, B.; Joles, J. A.

    Albumin induces oxidative stress and cytokine production in proximal tubular cells (PTECs). Albumin-bound fatty acids (FAs) enhance tubulopathic effects of albumin in vivo. We proposed that FA aggravation of albumin-induced oxidative stress in PTECs might be involved. We hypothesized that

  17. Some human albumine metabolism aspects, gathered with the utilization of 131I-albumine in normal female individuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cossermelli, W.; Papaleo Netto, M.; Carvalho, N.

    1974-01-01

    14 female individuals underwent a study of some aspects of the 131 I human albumine metabolism, by following-up the decreasing plasmatic radioactivity rate of this substance. The outcome of this study led to the following conclusions: the distribution hal-life presented an average and confidence interval of 15,40 +- -+ 2,16 hours; renovation half-life showed a median and confidence interval of 11,17 +- -+ 2,10 days; the renovation ratio presented an average and confidence interval of 6,80 +- -+ 1,31% days -1 . The conclusions hereabove allowed the authors to discuss the performance of these parameters upon the evaluation of the albumine synthesis and catabolism [pt

  18. Abnormal visuomotor processing in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siân E. Robson

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Subtle disturbances of visual and motor function are known features of schizophrenia and can greatly impact quality of life; however, few studies investigate these abnormalities using simple visuomotor stimuli. In healthy people, electrophysiological data show that beta band oscillations in sensorimotor cortex decrease during movement execution (event-related beta desynchronisation (ERBD, then increase above baseline for a short time after the movement (post-movement beta rebound (PMBR; whilst in visual cortex, gamma oscillations are increased throughout stimulus presentation. In this study, we used a self-paced visuomotor paradigm and magnetoencephalography (MEG to contrast these responses in patients with schizophrenia and control volunteers. We found significant reductions in the peak-to-peak change in amplitude from ERBD to PMBR in schizophrenia compared with controls. This effect was strongest in patients who made fewer movements, whereas beta was not modulated by movement in controls. There was no significant difference in the amplitude of visual gamma between patients and controls. These data demonstrate that clear abnormalities in basic sensorimotor processing in schizophrenia can be observed using a very simple MEG paradigm.

  19. Operator training for the abnormal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marzec, R.J.

    1977-01-01

    Training of nuclear power plant control room operators, on actions to be taken for an abnormal event, has classically been limited to discussion, on-shift and/or during requalification training classes, of symptoms, logical thought processes, systems analysis, and operator experience. The prerequisites for these discussions are a common technical vocabulary, and a minimum basic comprehension of nuclear power plant fundamentals, plant component theory of operation, system configuration, system control philosophy and operating procedures. Nuclear power plant control room operators are not the only personnel who are or should be involved in these discussions. The shift supervisors, operations management, and auxiliary equipment operators require continuing training in abnormal operations, as well. More in-depth training is necessary for shift supervisors and control room operators. The availability of vendor simulators has improved the effectiveness of training efforts for these individuals to some extent by displaying typical situations and plant performance characteristics and by providing a degree of ''hands on'' experience. The evolution of in-depth training with these simulators is reviewed

  20. Single photon emission computed tomography and albumin colloid imaging of the liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croft, B.Y.; Teates, C.D.; Honeyman, J.C.

    1984-01-01

    A single photon emission computed tomography (ECT) system using the GE 400T Anger camera with 37 PM tubes and the SPETS software has been installed in our clinical laboratory. It has been used in the study of liver imaging with Tc-99m albumin colloid and other agents. The object of the study is to define what improvement in liver diagnosis might be made using ECT. Patients were injected with 3-4 mCi (ca 120 MBq) of colloid; five standard liver-spleen views and a 64-image ECT study were acquired. The ECT images were acquired either in a circle of the radius of the longer transverse axis of the patient or in an ellipse to match the patient contour. Studies were corrected for the attenuation of the Tc-99m gamma rays by tissue. A series of normal and abnormal patients have been studied and the data analyzed. The significant change in the technique of ECT imaging is the elliptical motion of the camera head which allows a better approximation of the patient contour and improves the spatial resolution of the images. (orig.)

  1. Significance of normal range urinary albumin to creatinine ratio in Chinese subjects with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jing; Zhang, Jin-ping; Xie, Ling-ting; He, Yi-fan; Lv, Yan-yu; Jiang, Hong; Xing, Xiao-Yan

    2015-12-01

    This study was aimed to investigate clinical features of Chinese metabolic syndrome (MS) subjects with normal urinary albumin to creatinine ratio (UACR) and to estimate independent correlation factor for UACR. Data were drawn from a cross-sectional survey in participants having MS. The patients with different grade of albuminuria were divided into 4 groups according to the value of UACR (30 mg/g). All underwent biochemical tests. Bioelectrical impedance body fat content, islet β-cell function and insulin sensitivity were measured. Multivariable linear regression models were applied to further determine association between UACR and clinical factors with adjustment. Systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), mean arterial pressure (MAP), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), TG, fat mass, fat content and homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) were significantly higher in the group with UACR at 10-20 mg/g than those in the group with UACA lower than 10 mg/g (P<0.05). Multivariable linear regression showed that TG, HbA1c, waist-hip ratio (WHR) and SBP were independently associated with UACR. The patients with normal UACR had abnormal levels of MS components. The factors independently associated with UACR were TG, HbA1c, WHR and SBP.

  2. Effect of Patiromer on Urinary Ion Excretion in Healthy Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegel, David M.; Gross, Coleman; Benton, Wade W.; Fogli, Jeanene; Hill Gallant, Kathleen M.; Du Mond, Charles; Block, Geoffrey A.; Weir, Matthew R.; Pitt, Bertram

    2016-01-01

    Background and objectives Patiromer is a nonabsorbed potassium-binding polymer that uses calcium as the counterexchange ion. The calcium released with potassium binding has the potential to be absorbed or bind phosphate. Because binding is not specific for potassium, patiromer can bind other cations. Here, we evaluate the effect of patiromer on urine ion excretion in healthy adults, which reflects gastrointestinal ion absorption. Design, setting, participants, & measurements We analyzed the effect of patiromer on urine potassium, sodium, magnesium, calcium, and phosphate in two studies. Healthy adults on controlled diets in a clinical research unit were given patiromer up to 50.4 g/d divided three times a day for 8 days (dose-finding study) or 25.2 g/d in a crossover design as daily or divided (two or three times a day) doses for 18 days (dosing regimen study). On the basis of 24-hour collections, urinary ion excretion during the baseline period (days 5–11) was compared with that during the treatment period (days 13–19; dose-finding study), and the last 4 days of each period were compared across regimens (dosing regimen study). Results In the dose-finding study, patiromer induced a dose-dependent decrease in urine potassium, urine magnesium, and urine sodium (Purine potassium (mean±SD) by 1140±316 mg/d, urine magnesium by 45±1 mg/d, and urine sodium by 225±145 mg/d. Urine calcium increased in a dose-dependent manner, and urine phosphate decreased in parallel (both Purine calcium by 73±23 mg/d and decreased urine phosphate by 64±40 mg/d. Urine potassium, urine sodium, and urine magnesium were unaffected by dosing regimen, whereas the increase in urine calcium was significantly lower with daily compared with three times a day dosing (P=0.01). Urine phosphate also decreased less with daily compared with two or three times a day dosing (Purine potassium, urine sodium, urine magnesium, and urine phosphate, while modestly increasing urine calcium. Compared with

  3. SLC39A14 deficiency alters manganese homeostasis and excretion resulting in brain manganese accumulation and motor deficits in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkitkasemwong, Supak; Akinyode, Adenike; Paulus, Elizabeth; Weiskirchen, Ralf; Hojyo, Shintaro; Fukada, Toshiyuki; Giraldo, Genesys; Schrier, Jessica; Garcia, Armin; Janus, Christopher; Giasson, Benoit; Knutson, Mitchell D

    2018-02-20

    Solute carrier family 39, member 14 (SLC39A14) is a transmembrane transporter that can mediate the cellular uptake of zinc, iron, and manganese (Mn). Studies of Slc39a14 knockout ( Slc39a14 -/- ) mice have documented that SLC39A14 is required for systemic growth, hepatic zinc uptake during inflammation, and iron loading of the liver in iron overload. The normal physiological roles of SLC39A14, however, remain incompletely characterized. Here, we report that Slc39a14 -/- mice spontaneously display dramatic alterations in tissue Mn concentrations, suggesting that Mn is a main physiological substrate for SLC39A14. Specifically, Slc39a14 -/- mice have abnormally low Mn levels in the liver coupled with markedly elevated Mn concentrations in blood and most other organs, especially the brain and bone. Radiotracer studies using 54 Mn reveal that Slc39a14 -/- mice have impaired Mn uptake by the liver and pancreas and reduced gastrointestinal Mn excretion. In the brain of Slc39a14 -/- mice, Mn accumulated in the pons and basal ganglia, including the globus pallidus, a region susceptible to Mn-related neurotoxicity. Brain Mn accumulation in Slc39a14 -/- mice was associated with locomotor impairments, as assessed by various behavioral tests. Although a low-Mn diet started at weaning was able to reverse brain Mn accumulation in Slc39a14 -/- mice, it did not correct their motor deficits. We conclude that SLC39A14 is essential for efficient Mn uptake by the liver and pancreas, and its deficiency results in impaired Mn excretion and accumulation of the metal in other tissues. The inability of Mn depletion to correct the motor deficits in Slc39a14 -/- mice suggests that the motor impairments represent lasting effects of early-life Mn exposure.

  4. Non-enzymatic glucosylation induced neo-epitopes on human serum albumin: A concentration based study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Km Neelofar

    Full Text Available Hyperglycaemia induced non enzymatic glycation is accelerated in diabetic patients and aggressively involved in diabetes progression. Human serum albumin (HSA is the most abundant protein in blood circulation. In hyperglycaemia, it undergoes fast glycation and results in the impairment of structure. Our previous study has demonstrated structural alterations in Amadori-albumin modified with different glucose concentrations from physiological to pathophysiological range. Here, we focused on immunological characterization of Amadori-albumin. Immunogenicity of Amadori-albumin was analysed by direct binding and competitive ELISA. Amadori-albumin was found to be highly immunogenic (expect albumin modified with 5mM and induced high titre antibodies depending upon the extent of modification. Very high titre antibodies were obtained with albumin modified with 75mM glucose as compared to native albumin. Anti-Amadori-albumin-IgG from rabbit sera exhibited increased recognition of Amadori-albumin than native albumin in competitive immunoassay. Alteration induced in albumin after glucosylation has made it highly immunogenic. Induced antibodies were quite specific for respective immunogens but showed cross-reaction with other Amadori/native proteins. It suggests that glucosylation has generated highly immunogenic epitopes on albumin. Formation of high molecular weight immune complex with retarded mobility further supports specificity of anti-Amadori-albumin-IgG towards Amadori-albumin. It may be concluded that due to early glycation, an array of modification occurred in HSA structure. Such gross structural changes might favour polymerization of most of the native epitopes into potent immunogenic neo-epitopes, but some original epitopes were still active and has contributed in the immunogenicity. It could be concluded that induction of anti-Amadori-albumin antibodies may be due to protection of glucose modified albumin from protiolytic breakdown. We assumed

  5. Non-enzymatic glucosylation induced neo-epitopes on human serum albumin: A concentration based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neelofar, Km; Arif, Zarina; Ahmad, Jamal; Alam, Khursheed

    2017-01-01

    Hyperglycaemia induced non enzymatic glycation is accelerated in diabetic patients and aggressively involved in diabetes progression. Human serum albumin (HSA) is the most abundant protein in blood circulation. In hyperglycaemia, it undergoes fast glycation and results in the impairment of structure. Our previous study has demonstrated structural alterations in Amadori-albumin modified with different glucose concentrations from physiological to pathophysiological range. Here, we focused on immunological characterization of Amadori-albumin. Immunogenicity of Amadori-albumin was analysed by direct binding and competitive ELISA. Amadori-albumin was found to be highly immunogenic (expect albumin modified with 5mM) and induced high titre antibodies depending upon the extent of modification. Very high titre antibodies were obtained with albumin modified with 75mM glucose as compared to native albumin. Anti-Amadori-albumin-IgG from rabbit sera exhibited increased recognition of Amadori-albumin than native albumin in competitive immunoassay. Alteration induced in albumin after glucosylation has made it highly immunogenic. Induced antibodies were quite specific for respective immunogens but showed cross-reaction with other Amadori/native proteins. It suggests that glucosylation has generated highly immunogenic epitopes on albumin. Formation of high molecular weight immune complex with retarded mobility further supports specificity of anti-Amadori-albumin-IgG towards Amadori-albumin. It may be concluded that due to early glycation, an array of modification occurred in HSA structure. Such gross structural changes might favour polymerization of most of the native epitopes into potent immunogenic neo-epitopes, but some original epitopes were still active and has contributed in the immunogenicity. It could be concluded that induction of anti-Amadori-albumin antibodies may be due to protection of glucose modified albumin from protiolytic breakdown. We assumed that this type of

  6. Abnormal Event Detection Using Local Sparse Representation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Huamin; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2014-01-01

    We propose to detect abnormal events via a sparse subspace clustering algorithm. Unlike most existing approaches, which search for optimized normal bases and detect abnormality based on least square error or reconstruction error from the learned normal patterns, we propose an abnormality...... measurement based on the difference between the normal space and local space. Specifically, we provide a reasonable normal bases through repeated K spectral clustering. Then for each testing feature we first use temporal neighbors to form a local space. An abnormal event is found if any abnormal feature...

  7. Effect of gestational age and blood glucose on C-peptide excretion rate and clearance in neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salis, Emma R; Soelbeck, Mikkel K; Reith, David M; Wheeler, Benjamin J; Broadbent, Roland S; Medlicott, Natalie J

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to measure urinary C-peptide concentrations, and then calculate C-peptide clearance (Cl), and excretion rate (UER) in neonates. In addition, the effect of gestational age (GA) and blood glucose levels (BGL) on C-peptide UER were investigated. Insulin concentrations in plasma and C-peptide concentrations were measured in plasma and urine, in 20 neonates. Chemiluminescent immunoassays were used for insulin and C-peptide measurements, with urine diluted to 40% with bovine serum albumin 1% in phosphate buffered saline. Urine volume and time of collection were recorded and used to calculate UER and Cl. The mean Cl of C-peptide was 0.309 ± 0.329 mL/min/kg, and UER was 0.0329 ± 0.0342 pmol/min/kg. Correlations between Cl or UER and GA were not significant (P > 0.05). No significant correlation was shown between Cl or UER and BGL (P > 0.05). Both Cl and UER were highly variable in neonates, but were not correlated with GA. Additionally, BGL did not appear to affect C-peptide UER and Cl. As GA and BGL did not appear to affect Cl and UER, urinary C-peptide may provide a non-invasive method of measuring insulin production in neonates. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2015 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  8. Novel Transgenic Mouse Model for Studying Human Serum Albumin as a Biomarker of Carcinogenic Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Jonathan; Wang, Yi; Turesky, Robert J; Kluetzman, Kerri; Zhang, Qing-Yu; Ding, Xinxin

    2016-05-16

    Albumin is a commonly used serum protein for studying human exposure to xenobiotic compounds, including therapeutics and environmental pollutants. Often, the reactivity of albumin with xenobiotic compounds is studied ex vivo with human albumin or plasma/serum samples. Some studies have characterized the reactivity of albumin with chemicals in rodent models; however, differences between the orthologous peptide sequences of human and rodent albumins can result in the formation of different types of chemical-protein adducts with different interaction sites or peptide sequences. Our goal is to generate a human albumin transgenic mouse model that can be used to establish human protein biomarkers of exposure to hazardous xenobiotics for human risk assessment via animal studies. We have developed a human albumin transgenic mouse model and characterized the genotype and phenotype of the transgenic mice. The presence of the human albumin gene in the genome of the model mouse was confirmed by genomic PCR analysis, whereas liver-specific expression of the transgenic human albumin mRNA was validated by RT-PCR analysis. Further immunoblot and mass spectrometry analyses indicated that the transgenic human albumin protein is a full-length, mature protein, which is less abundant than the endogenous mouse albumin that coexists in the serum of the transgenic mouse. The transgenic protein was able to form ex vivo adducts with a genotoxic metabolite of 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine, a procarcinogenic heterocyclic aromatic amine formed in cooked meat. This novel human albumin transgenic mouse model will facilitate the development and validation of albumin-carcinogen adducts as biomarkers of xenobiotic exposure and/or toxicity in humans.

  9. Cellular specificity of the blood-CSF barrier for albumin transfer across the choroid plexus epithelium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shane A Liddelow

    Full Text Available To maintain the precise internal milieu of the mammalian central nervous system, well-controlled transfer of molecules from periphery into brain is required. Recently the soluble and cell-surface albumin-binding glycoprotein SPARC (secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine has been implicated in albumin transport into developing brain, however the exact mechanism remains unknown. We postulate that SPARC is a docking site for albumin, mediating its uptake and transfer by choroid plexus epithelial cells from blood into cerebrospinal fluid (CSF. We used in vivo physiological measurements of transfer of endogenous (mouse and exogenous (human albumins, in situ Proximity Ligation Assay (in situ PLA, and qRT-PCR experiments to examine the cellular mechanism mediating protein transfer across the blood-CSF interface. We report that at all developmental stages mouse albumin and SPARC gave positive signals with in situ PLAs in plasma, CSF and within individual plexus cells suggesting a possible molecular interaction. In contrast, in situ PLA experiments in brain sections from mice injected with human albumin showed positive signals for human albumin in the vascular compartment that were only rarely identifiable within choroid plexus cells and only at older ages. Concentrations of both endogenous mouse albumin and exogenous (intraperitoneally injected human albumin were estimated in plasma and CSF and expressed as CSF/plasma concentration ratios. Human albumin was not transferred through the mouse blood-CSF barrier to the same extent as endogenous mouse albumin, confirming results from in situ PLA. During postnatal development Sparc gene expression was higher in early postnatal ages than in the adult and changed in response to altered levels of albumin in blood plasma in a differential and developmentally regulated manner. Here we propose a possible cellular route and mechanism by which albumin is transferred from blood into CSF across a sub

  10. Variation of 210Po daily urinary excretion for male subjects at environmental level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoelgye, Z.; Hyza, M.; Mihalik, J.; Rulik, P.; Skrkal, J.

    2015-01-01

    210 Po was determined in 24-h urine of seven healthy males from Prague, Czech Republic, for ten consecutive days. The results show that for each volunteer, the urinary excretion of 210 Po changed only little from day to day in the studied time period. For two volunteers, the difference in the daily excreted 210 Po activity for two consecutive days was not significant, given the 95 % confidence interval (two sigma) of the activity measurements. The same is valid for the excretion data of the other volunteers, except for some days where the differences were slightly higher. The range of daily urinary excretion of 210 Po of each volunteer in the studied time period was quite narrow. Among the volunteers, the maximum daily urinary excretion value of 210 Po was at most about a factor of 2.5 higher than the lowest excretion value. An attempt to explain the observed small inter-individual variability of 210 Po excretion in daily urine is made. (orig.)

  11. The influence of some thiols on biliary excretion of methyl mercury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Refsvik, T.

    1983-01-01

    N-Acetylpenicillamine and thiola increased biliary excretion of methyl mercury and sulfhydryl right after administration. Cysteine increased excretion of methyl mercury in bile after a temporary decrease following administration. During the interval of decreased mercury excretion biliary excretion of cysteine passed through a maximum. This indicates the existence of a common factor of the excretory systems for cysteine and methyl mercury and illustrates that cysteine cannot carry methyl mercury from liver to bile. Relatively large proportions of unchanged thiola and N-acetylpenicillamine were excreted in bile. Bile collected after administration of one of these compounds, in addition to thiola or N-acetylpenicillamine, contained other methyl mercury carrying components not present in control bile. From the experiments undertaken it cannot be stated whether these components play any role in the increased excretion of methyl mercury in bile caused by thiola and N-acetylpenicillamine. The mechanisms of increased biliary excretion of methyl mercury following administration of N-acetylpenicillamine, thiola and cysteine are discussed. (author)

  12. Organic acid excretion in Penicillium ochrochloron increases with ambient pH

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    Pamela eVrabl

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite being of high biotechnological relevance, many aspects of organic acid excretion in filamentous fungi like the influence of ambient pH are still insufficiently understood. While the excretion of an individual organic acid may peak at a certain pH value, the few available studies investigating a broader range of organic acids indicate that total organic acid excretion rises with increasing external pH.We hypothesized that this phenomenon might be a general response of filamentous fungi to increased ambient pH. If this is the case, the observation should be widely independent of the organism, growth conditions or experimental design and might therefore be a crucial key point in understanding the function and mechanisms of organic acid excretion in filamentous fungi.In this study we explored this hypothesis using ammonium limited chemostat cultivations (pH 2-7, and ammonium or phosphate limited bioreactor batch cultivations (pH 5 and 7. Two strains of Penicillium ochrochloron were investigated differing in the spectrum of excreted organic acids.Confirming our hypothesis, the main result demonstrated that organic acid excretion in P. ochrochloron was enhanced at high external pH levels compared to low pH levels independent of the tested strain, nutrient limitation and cultivation method. We discuss these findings against the background of three hypotheses explaining organic acid excretion in filamentous fungi, i.e. overflow metabolism, charge balance and aggressive acidification hypothesis.

  13. Day-to-day and within-day variation in urinary iodine excretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lone Banke; Ovesen, L.; Christiansen, E.

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To examine the day-to-day and within-day variation in urinary iodine excretion and the day-to-day variation in iodine intake. Design: Collection of consecutive 24-h urine samples and casual urine samples over 24 h. Setting: The study population consisted of highly motivated subjects from...... was collected into separate containers. In both studies dietary records were kept. Main outcome measures: Twenty-four-hour urinary iodine excretion, 24-h urinary iodine excretion estimated as I/Cr*24 h Cr and as a concentration in casual urine samples. Results: Study 1: Both iodine excreted in 24-h urine...... and iodine intake varied from day-to-day. Iodine excretion correlated with iodine intake (r = 0.46, P = 0.01). Iodine intake (mean 89 +/- 6.5 mu g/d) was not significantly different from iodine excretion (mean 95 +/- 5.3 mu g/d). Study 2. Twenty-four hour iodine excretion estimated as I/Cr*24 h Cr from...

  14. Gastrointestinal osmoreceptors and renal sodium excretion in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, L J; Skram, Thomas Ulrik; Bestle, M H

    2000-01-01

    The hypothesis that natriuresis can be induced by stimulation of gastrointestinal osmoreceptors was tested in eight supine subjects on constant sodium intake (150 mmol NaCl/day). A sodium load equivalent to the amount contained in 10% of measured extracellular volume was administered...... by a nasogastric tube as isotonic or hypertonic saline (850 mM). In additional experiments, salt loading was replaced by oral water loading (3.5% of total body water). Plasma sodium concentration increased after hypertonic saline (+3.1 +/- 0.7 mM), decreased after water loading (-3.8 +/- 0.8 mM), and remained...... unchanged after isotonic saline. Oncotic pressure decreased by 9.4 +/- 1.2, 3.7 +/- 1.2, and 10.7 +/- 1.3%, respectively. Isotonic saline induced an increase in renal sodium excretion (104 +/- 15 to 406 +/- 39 micromol/min) that was larger than seen with hypertonic saline (85 +/- 15 to 325 +/- 39 micromol...

  15. Equations to estimate creatinine excretion rate: the CKD epidemiology collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ix, Joachim H; Wassel, Christina L; Stevens, Lesley A; Beck, Gerald J; Froissart, Marc; Navis, Gerjan; Rodby, Roger; Torres, Vicente E; Zhang, Yaping Lucy; Greene, Tom; Levey, Andrew S

    2011-01-01

    Creatinine excretion rate (CER) indicates timed urine collection accuracy. Although equations to estimate CER exist, their bias and precision are untested and none simultaneously include age, sex, race, and weight. Participants (n = 2466) from three kidney disease trials were randomly allocated into equation development (2/3) and internal validation (1/3) data sets. CER served as the dependent variable in linear regression to develop new equations. Their stability was assessed within the internal validation data set. Among 987 individuals from three additional studies the equations were externally validated and compared with existing equations. Mean age was 46 years, 42% were women, and 9% were black. Age, sex, race, weight, and serum phosphorus improved model fit. Two equations were developed, with or without serum phosphorus. In external validation, the new equations showed little bias (mean difference [measured - estimated CER] -0.7% [95% confidence interval -2.5% to 1.0%] and 0.3% [95% confidence interval -2.6% to 3.1%], respectively) and moderate precision (estimated CER within 30% of measured CER among 79% [76% to 81%] and 81% [77% to 85%], respectively). Corresponding numbers within 15% were 51% [48% to 54%] and 54% [50% to 59%]). Compared with existing equations, the new equations had similar accuracy but showed less bias in individuals with high measured CER. CER can be estimated with commonly available variables with little bias and moderate precision, which may facilitate assessment of accuracy of timed urine collections.

  16. Excretion of faecal viruses during the first year of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harbour, J; Shipp, A P; Waller, D K; Higgins, P G

    1980-01-01

    Four hundred faecal samples, collected at approximately weekly intervals during the first year of life from nine babies, were examined for the presence of viruses. Only nine (2.3%) samples contained a virus detectable by electron microscopy, and on all but one occasion only one type of virus was present and that in small numbers. Thirty (7.5%) of the specimens contained an enterovirus other than poliovirus, and these represetned 10 infections in four of the children. All three types of poliovirus, probably vaccine derived, were excreted by each child, and one or more types were present in 87 (21.8%) of the samples. There was no evidence to suggest that any of the illnesses suffered by the children had been caused by faecal viruses. Infection with these viruses was uncommon in the first three months of life but more than 40% of faecal samples obtained from children between the ages of 3 months and 1 year contained a faecal virus. PMID:6253530

  17. [Production, absorption and excretion of phenols in intestinal obstruction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamoto, M

    1986-11-01

    In intestinal obstruction, phenols were produced in the distended loop proximal to obstruction by enteric bacteria. Clinically, in 17 cases of non-strangulated intestinal obstruction, phenols were detected in 15 cases and mean concentration of phenols was 4.2 +/- 9.7 micro g/ml(mean +/- 1 SD). In the fraction of phenols, p-cresol was detected in 15 cases and mean concentration was 3.8 +/- 7.7 and phenol was detected in 4 cases and mean concentration was 0.5 +/- 2.6. Phenols were decreased as clinical improvement of intestinal obstruction. Enteric bacteria in enteric juice ranged from 10(4) to 10(10)/ml and its change paralleled to phenols concentration. Mean urinary concentration of phenols in intestinal obstruction was increased to 297 +/- 415 mg/day compared to control (less than 50 mg/day). Its change also paralleled to phenols concentration in enteric juice. Closed ileal loop was made in dogs and phenols were infused in the loop. Phenols were increased in the portal vein 5 min after the infusion and in the femoral vein 60 min after the infusion. Phenols, which was thought to be toxic to the host, were proved to be produced in the distended intestine and excreted from the kidney.

  18. EFFECT OF CASEIN-BASED SEMISYNTHETIC FOOD ON RENAL ACID EXCRETION AND ACID-BASE STATE OF BLOOD IN DOGS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ZIJLSTRA, WG; LANGBROEK, AJM; KRAAN, J; RISPENS, P; NIJMEIJER, A

    1995-01-01

    Urinary acid excretion and blood acid-base stare were determined in dogs fed a casein-based semi-synthetic food (SSF), to which different amounts of salts had been added, in comparison with feeding normal dog food. Net acid excretion (NAE) and inorganic acid excretion (IAE) increased during SSF

  19. Albumin-based or albumin-linked calibrators cause a positive bias in serum proteins assayed by the biuret method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chromý, Vratislav; Sváchová, Lenka; Novosád, Lukás; Jarkovský, Jirí; Sedlák, Pavel; Horák, Petr; Dobrovolná, Hana; Hlavácová, Barbora

    2009-01-01

    Assay of total serum protein by the biuret method calibrated with albumin standards according to the reference method provides results with a positive bias approximately 3%-5% exceeding the total error of 3.4% allowable for total protein in serum analysis made by analysers using two-part reagents and short-term procedures. We used two types of two-part biuret reagents utilised in a short-term measurement in analysers with albumin or serum calibrators, in which protein was attested by the Kjeldahl method. Tests with potentially interfering substances proved that serum blanking used in a short-term biuret procedure is not capable of sufficiently eliminating effects of serum interferents. A short-term blanking is evidently capable of suppressing only an absorbance caused by serum-present coloured and turbid interferents, but its capacity to transform them (oxidise, hydrolyse, saponify, etc.) to some other not-interfering substances is very low compared with a long-term blanking. Lipids and bilirubin are responsible for significant positive bias of total protein in normal serum samples (approximately 3%) and even a greater positive offset in lipaemic and icteric sera (approximately 5%). We verified that interference tests based on a normal serum spiked with endogenous lipids and bilirubin give quite false and misleading results in the biuret reaction. A pure albumin, not depending on its bovine/human origin, gives absorbance responding only to its copper complexes with protein with a biuret regent, while its absorbance with a serum also includes the absorbance of interferents present in serum. The simplest way to improve current short-term biuret procedures is the use of a human serum calibrator with total protein attested by the Kjeldahl method. A serum calibrator, behaving analogously to serum samples, compensates for a positive bias in most normal sera. Reagents with a greater concentration of active biuret components (copper and alkali, reference method included

  20. Abnormal Returns and Contrarian Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Dall'Agnol

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available We test the hypothesis that strategies which are long on portfolios of looser stocks and short on portfolios of winner stocks generate abnormal returns in Brazil. This type of evidence for the US stock market was interpreted by The Bondt and Thaler (1985 as reflecting systematic evaluation mistakes caused by investors overreaction to news related to the firm performance. We found evidence of contrarian strategies profitability for horizons from 3 months to 3 years in a sample of stock returns from BOVESPA and SOMA from 1986 to 2000. The strategies are more profitable for shorter horizons. Therefore, there was no trace of the momentum effect found by Jagadeesh and Titman (1993 for the same horizons with US data. There are remaing unexplained positive returns for contrarian strategies after accounting for risk, size, and liquidity. We also found that the strategy profitability is reduced after the Real Plan, which suggests that the Brazilian stock market became more efficient after inflation stabilization.