Sample records for ablation icpmc-ms zircon

  1. Accurate Hf isotope determinations of complex zircons using the "laser ablation split stream" method

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Christopher M Fisher; Jeffery D Vervoort; S Andrew DuFrane


      The "laser ablation split stream" (LASS) technique is a powerful tool for mineral-scale isotope analyses and in particular, for concurrent determination of age and Hf isotope composition of zircon...

  2. Determinations of rare earth element abundance and U-Pb age of zircons using multispot laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. (United States)

    Yokoyama, Takaomi D; Suzuki, Toshihiro; Kon, Yoshiaki; Hirata, Takafumi


    We have developed a new calibration technique for multielement determination and U-Pb dating of zircon samples using laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) coupled with galvanometric optics. With the galvanometric optics, laser ablation of two or more sample materials could be achieved in very short time intervals (~10 ms). The resulting sample aerosols released from different ablation pits or different solid samples were mixed and homogenized within the sample cell and then transported into the ICP ion source. Multiple spot laser ablation enables spiking of analytes or internal standard elements directly into the solid samples, and therefore the standard addition calibration method can be applied for the determination of trace elements in solid samples. In this study, we have measured the rare earth element (REE) abundances of two zircon samples (Nancy 91500 and Prešovice) based on the standard addition technique, using a direct spiking of analytes through a multispot laser ablation of the glass standard material (NIST SRM612). The resulting REE abundance data show good agreement with previously reported values within analytical uncertainties achieved in this study (10% for most elements). Our experiments demonstrated that nonspectroscopic interferences on 14 REEs could be significantly reduced by the standard addition technique employed here. Another advantage of galvanometric devices is the accumulation of sample aerosol released from multiple spots. In this study we have measured the U-Pb age of a zircon sample (LMR) using an accumulation of sample aerosols released from 10 separate ablation pits of low diameters (~8 μm). The resulting (238)U-(206)Pb age data for the LMR zircons was 369 ± 64 Ma, which is in good agreement with previously reported age data (367.6 ± 1.5 Ma). (1) The data obtained here clearly demonstrate that the multiple spot laser ablation-ICPMS technique can become a powerful approach for elemental and isotopic

  3. Laser Ablation Split Stream (LASS) U-Pb & Lu-Hf Isotope Analysis of Detrital Zircons from the Old Red Sandstone, NW Svalbard: Implications for Northern Caledonian Paleogeography (United States)

    Beranek, L. P.; Gee, D. G.; Fisher, C. M.


    The Svalbard archipelago consists of three Caledonian provinces that were assembled by thrusting and transcurrent faulting during the Silurian and Devonian in a location directly northeast of the Greenland Caledonides. Syn- to post-orogenic alluvial strata, referred to as the Old Red Sandstones, filled pull-apart basins adjacent to the transcurrent faults and comprise cover assemblages that help constrain the timing of the Caledonian orogeny. To further investigate the tectonic history and paleogeography of the Raudfjorden-Liefdefjorden-Woodfjorden area of Spitsbergen, NW Svalbard, we analyzed rock samples of the Old Red Sandstones and underlying Precambrian basement complexes for detrital zircon analysis. Laboratory studies of the Old Red Sandstones include the novel Laser Ablation Split Stream (LASS) technique, which allows for simultaneous U-Pb & Lu-Hf isotope analysis of zircon crystals. Lower Devonian Red Bay Group strata contain a range of early Neoproterozoic to Neoarchean detrital zircons with prominent age peaks c. 960, 1050, 1370, 1450, 1650, and 2700 Ma; subordinate Ordovician (c. 460-490 Ma) and Cryogenian (c. 650 Ma) detrital zircons occur in a subset of the samples. Underlying Precambrian metasedimentary rocks are composed of similar earliest Neoproterozoic to Neoarchean age populations, which argues for much of the Red Bay Group to be derived from local basement rocks during thrusting and other faulting. The U-Pb ages and Hf isotope compositions of Paleozoic to Neoarchean detrital zircons are consistent with Arctic crustal evolution, and support the hypothesis that northwestern and northeastern provinces of the Svalbard Caledonides are extruded fragments of the northeast Greenland allochthons. The new Hf isotope results further allow paleogeographic and stratigraphic comparisons with rock assemblages proximal to the North Atlantic Caledonides during the Silurian-Devonian, including the Pearya terrane of Ellesmere Island, Alexander terrane of NW

  4. Endometrial ablation (United States)

    Hysteroscopy - endometrial ablation; Laser thermal ablation; Endometrial ablation - radiofrequency; Endometrial ablation - thermal balloon ablation; Rollerball ablation; Hydrothermal ablation; Novasure ...

  5. Data Reduction of Laser Ablation Split-Stream (LASS) Analyses Using Newly Developed Features Within Iolite: With Applications to Lu-Hf + U-Pb in Detrital Zircon and Sm-Nd +U-Pb in Igneous Monazite (United States)

    Fisher, Christopher M.; Paton, Chad; Pearson, D. Graham; Sarkar, Chiranjeeb; Luo, Yan; Tersmette, Daniel B.; Chacko, Thomas


    A robust platform to view and integrate multiple data sets collected simultaneously is required to realize the utility and potential of the Laser Ablation Split-Stream (LASS) method. This capability, until now, has been unavailable and practitioners have had to laboriously process each data set separately, making it challenging to take full advantage of the benefits of LASS. We describe a new program for handling multiple mass spectrometric data sets collected simultaneously, designed specifically for the LASS technique, by which a laser aerosol is been split into two or more separate "streams" to be measured on separate mass spectrometers. New features within Iolite ( enable the capability of loading, synchronizing, viewing, and reducing two or more data sets acquired simultaneously, as multiple DRSs (data reduction schemes) can be run concurrently. While this version of Iolite accommodates any combination of simultaneously collected mass spectrometer data, we demonstrate the utility using case studies where U-Pb and Lu-Hf isotope composition of zircon, and U-Pb and Sm-Nd isotope composition of monazite were analyzed simultaneously, in crystals showing complex isotopic zonation. These studies demonstrate the importance of being able to view and integrate simultaneously acquired data sets, especially for samples with complicated zoning and decoupled isotope systematics, in order to extract accurate and geologically meaningful isotopic and compositional data. This contribution provides instructions and examples for handling simultaneously collected laser ablation data. An instructional video is also provided. The updated Iolite software will help to fully develop the applications of both LASS and multi-instrument mass spectrometric measurement capabilities.

  6. A trio of laser ablation in concert with two ICP-MSs: Simultaneous, pulse-by-pulse determination of U-Pb discordant ages and a single spot Hf isotope ratio analysis in complex zircons from petrographic thin sections

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Darren L. Tollstrup; Lie-Wen Xie; Josh B. Wimpenny; Emily Chin; Cin-Ty Lee; Qing-Zhu Yin


      We have developed a technique for the simultaneous in situ determination of U-Pb ages and Hf isotope ratios from a single spot in complex, discordant zircons by combining both a single-collector...

  7. Li diffusion in zircon (United States)

    Cherniak, D. J.; Watson, E. B.


    Diffusion of Li under anhydrous conditions at 1 atm and under fluid-present elevated pressure (1.0-1.2 GPa) conditions has been measured in natural zircon. The source of diffusant for 1-atm experiments was ground natural spodumene, which was sealed under vacuum in silica glass capsules with polished slabs of zircon. An experiment using a Dy-bearing source was also conducted to evaluate possible rate-limiting effects on Li diffusion of slow-diffusing REE+3 that might provide charge balance. Diffusion experiments performed in the presence of H2O-CO2 fluid were run in a piston-cylinder apparatus, using a source consisting of a powdered mixture of spodumene, quartz and zircon with oxalic acid added to produce H2O-CO2 fluid. Nuclear reaction analysis (NRA) with the resonant nuclear reaction 7Li(p,γ)8Be was used to measure diffusion profiles for the experiments. The following Arrhenius parameters were obtained for Li diffusion normal to the c-axis over the temperature range 703-1.151°C at 1 atm for experiments run with the spodumene source: D_{text{Li}} = 7.17 × 10^{ - 7} { exp }( - 275 ± 11 {text{kJmol}}^{ - 1} /{text{RT}}){text{m}}2 {text{s}}^{ - 1}. Diffusivities are similar for transport parallel to the c-axis, indicating little anisotropy for Li diffusion in zircon. Similar Li diffusivities were also found for experiments run under fluid-present conditions and for the experiment run with the Dy-bearing source. Li diffusion is considerably faster than diffusion of other cations in zircon, with a smaller activation energy for diffusion. Although Li diffusion in zircon is comparatively rapid, zircons will be moderately retentive of Li signatures at mid-crustal metamorphic temperatures, but they are unlikely to retain this information for geologically significant times under high-grade metamorphism.

  8. U-Pb Dating of Unabraded Detrital Zircon Metamorphic Rims in the Nanaimo Basin, British Columbia (United States)

    Boivin, M. P.; Guest, B.; Matthews, W.


    Thin metamorphic rims on detrital zircons from the Nanaimo Basin in SW British Columbia offer a unique opportunity to further constrain the source of these zircons, helping to resolve the long standing Baja BC controversy. Here we present an analytical approach for dating thin zircon rims and use it to show that zircons from the Nanaimo Basin are most likely derived from metamorphic rocks in southern California. Conventional in-situ laser ablation sample preparation typically requires mounting and polishing zircon grains to expose their core. However, in order to date these thin metamorphic zircon rims a depth-profiling approach on unabraded grains was employed. Zircon grains from the Upper Cretaceous Geoffrey, Spray, and Gabriola formations of the Nanaimo Group exposed on Denman and Hornby Islands (British Columbia) were sorted into five groups based on morphology. The zircons were then mounted on tape along with several grains of a well-characterised zircon reference material to validate the uncertainty of the method. The zircons were then imaged using a Zygo Zescope optical profilometer in order to correct for grain-to-grain variations in elevation relative to mounting medium and ensure consistent laser focus. Backscatter electron images (BSE) were used to further characterised the grains and optimize the location of laser ablation targets. Zircons were ablated using a Resonetics 193 nm excimer laser and uranium and lead isotopic ratios were measured using an Agilent 7700 quadrupole mass spectrometer. A low frequency laser repetition rate extended the data collection period on relatively thin zircon rims. Our results show that metamorphic zircon growth occurred in two main phases at 100 Ma and 77 Ma suggesting two sources of detrital zircons with differing metamorphic histories were present in the catchment area. The timing of metamorphism of the source area for the Nanaimo basin is inconsistent with derivation from sources in the Rocky Mountains (Lemhi sub

  9. Empirical constraints on the effects of radiation damage on helium diffusion in zircon (United States)

    Anderson, Alyssa J.; Hodges, Kip V.; van Soest, Matthijs C.


    In this study, we empirically evaluate the impact of radiation damage on zircon (U-Th)/He closure temperatures for a suite of zircon crystals from the slowly cooled McClure Mountain syenite of south-central Colorado, USA. We present new zircon, titanite, and apatite conventional (U-Th)/He dates, zircon laser ablation (U-Th)/He and U-Pb dates, and zircon Raman spectra for crystals from the syenite. Titanite and apatite (U-Th)/He dates range from 447 to 523 Ma and 88.0 to 138.9 Ma, respectively, and display no clear correlation between (U-Th)/He date and effective uranium concentration. Conventional zircon (U-Th)/He dates range from 230.3 to 474 Ma, while laser ablation zircon (U-Th)/He dates show even greater dispersion, ranging from 5.31 to 520 Ma. Dates from both zircon (U-Th)/He datasets decrease with increasing alpha dose, indicating that most of the dispersion can be attributed to radiation damage. Alpha dose values for the dated zircon crystals range from effectively zero to 2.15 × 1019 α /g, spanning the complete damage spectrum. We use an independently constrained thermal model to empirically assign a closure temperature to each dated zircon grain. If we assume that this thermal model is robust, the zircon radiation damage accumulation and annealing model of Guenthner et al. (2013) does not accurately predict closure temperatures for many of the analyzed zircon crystals. Raman maps of the zircons dated by laser ablation document complex radiation damage zoning, sometimes revealing crystalline zones in grains with alpha dose values suggestive of amorphous material. Such zoning likely resulted in heterogeneous intra-crystalline helium diffusion and may help explain some of the discrepancies between our empirical findings and the Guenthner et al. (2013) model predictions. Because U-Th zoning is a common feature in zircon, radiation damage zoning is likely to be a concern for most ancient, slowly cooled zircon (U-Th)/He datasets. Whenever possible, multiple

  10. Gondwana to Pangea: a detrital zircons tale from NW Iberia (United States)

    Pastor-Galán, Daniel; Gutiérrez-Alonso, Gabriel; Brendan Murphy, J.; Fernández-Suárez, Javier; Hofmann, Mandy; Linnemann, Ulf


    The Cantabrian Zone of NW Iberia preserves a voluminous, almost continuous, sedimentary sequence that ranges from Neoproterozoic to Early Permian in age. Its tectonic setting is controversial and recent hypotheses include (i) passive margin deposition along the northern margin of Gondwana or (ii) an active continental margin or (iii) a drifting ribbon continent. In this paper we present detrital zircon U-Pb laser ablation age data from 13 samples from the Cantabrian Zone sequence ranging from Early Silurian to Early Permian in depositional age, which, together with previously published detrital zircon ages from Ediacaran-Ordovician strata, allow a comprehensive analysis of changing provenance through time. Laser ablation U-Pb geochronological analysis of detrital zircons in thirteen samples of the Cantabrian Zone of the NW Iberian Variscan belt reveal that this portion of Iberia was part of the northern passive-margin of Gondwana from the Ordovician to Late Devonian, until the onset of collision between Gondwana and Laurentia. Zircon populations in these samples show important similarities with zircons found in coeval detrital rocks from central North Africa. Additionally, the populations found in NW Iberia are coherent with a Saharan source. We suggest that NW Iberia was situated from Ordovician to Late Devonian along the Gondwana northern passive margin close to the paleoposition of central North Africa and Saharan craton. Additionally, the Carboniferous-Permian samples studied record the provenance changes produced during the Variscan collision and basement exhumation, the Cantabrian orocline formation and the subsequent detachment of the lithospheric mantle. The provenance changes reflect major topographic variations due to the afore mentioned processes during Late Devonian to Early Permian times. Detrital zircon studies are a useful tool that can complement regional syntheses in deducing paleogeographic locations, the occurrence of major tectonic events such

  11. Cardiac ablation procedures (United States)

    Catheter ablation; Radiofrequency catheter ablation; Cryoablation - cardiac ablation; AV nodal reentrant tachycardia - cardiac ablation; AVNRT - cardiac ablation; Wolff-Parkinson-White Syndrome - cardiac ablation; Atrial fibrillation - cardiac ablation; Atrial flutter - ...

  12. U-Pb dating by zircon dissolution method using chemical abrasion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takehara, Lucy, E-mail: [Servico Geologico do Brasil (CPRM), Brasilia, DF (Brazil); Chemale Junior, Farid [Universidade de Brasilia (UnB), Brasilia, DF (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias. Lab. de Geocronologia; Hartmann, Leo A. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias; Dussin, Ivo A.; Kawashita, Koji [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP, (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisa Geocronologicas


    Chemical abrasion was carried out on zircons grains of the Temora II standard for U-Pb dating prior to analyses using in situ Laser Ablation-Multi Collector Ion Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (LA-ICPMS) followed by the Isotope Dissolution Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometer (ID-TIMS) method. The proposed methodology was herein applied in order to reduce primarily the effects of secondary Pb loss, the presence of common lead and/or silicate impurities. Nine Temora II zircon grains were analyzed by the laser ablation method yielding an age of 418.3 +- 4.3 Ma. Zircon grains of a same population were separated for chemical abrasion before dissolution and mass spectrometry analyses. Six fractions of them were separated for isotope dissolution using {sup 235}U-{sup 205}Pb mixed spike after we have checked and assured the laboratory conditions of low blank values for total Pb of less than 2 pg/g. The obtained U-Pb zircon age by the ID-TIMS method was 415.7 +- 1.8 Ma (error 0.43 %) based on four successful determinations. The results are consistent with the published ages for the Temora diorite (Temora I - 416.75 +- 1.3 Ma; Temora II - 416.78 +- 0.33 Ma) and established as 416 +- 0.33 Ma. The technique is thus recommended for high precision U-Pb zircon analyses (error < 1 %), mainly for high resolution stratigraphic studies of Phanerozoic sequences. (author)

  13. Crustal growth history of the Korean Peninsula: Constraints from detrital zircon ages in modern river sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taejin Choi


    Full Text Available U-Pb analyses were carried out on detrital zircon grains from major river-mouth sediments draining South Korea to infer provenance characteristics and the crustal growth history of the southern Korean Peninsula, using a laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (LA-ICP-MS. The Korean Peninsula is located in the East Asian continental margin and mainly comprises three Precambrian massifs and two metamorphic belts in between them. We obtained 515 concordant to slightly discordant zircon ages ranging from ca. 3566 to ca. 48 Ma. Regardless of river-mouth location, predominance of Mesozoic (249–79 Ma and Paleoproterozoic (2491–1691 Ma ages with subordinate Archean ages indicates that the zircon ages reflect present exposures of plutonic/metamorphic rocks in the drainage basins of the South Korean rivers and the crustal growth of the southern Korean Peninsula was focused in these two periods. Comparison of detrital zircon-age data between the North and South Korean river sediments reveals that the Paleoproterozoic zircon age distributions of both regions are nearly identical, while the Neoproterozoic–Paleozoic ages exist and the Mesozoic ages are dominant in southern Korean Peninsula. This result suggests that Precambrian terrains in Korea record the similar pre-Mesozoic magmatic history and that the influence of Mesozoic magmatism was mainly focused in South Korea.

  14. Detrital zircon geochronology and provenance of the Chubut Group in the northeast of Patagonia, Argentina (United States)

    Navarro, Edgardo L.; Astini, Ricardo A.; Belousova, Elena; Guler, M. Verónica; Gehrels, George


    The Chubut Group constitutes the most widespread sedimentary unit in NE Patagonia, characterized by variable-energy fluvial deposits. U-Pb analysis of detrital zircons from two sections of the Chubut Group constraint the age of the oldest sedimentary rocks in the northeast of the Somuncurá - Cañadón Asfalto Basin. In the Cañadón Williams area, at San Jorge section, 20 km NW of Telsen locality, dating of 56 detrital zircons from a medium to coarse sandstone indicated a maximum depositional age of 109 ± 1 Ma (n = 4). These sandstones were interpreted to represent shallow channels, associated with a lacustrine system. In the Telsen locality, a laser ablation analysis of 115 detrital zircons from a medium to coarse-grained sandstone, from fluvial channel facies, yielded a maximum depositional age of ca. 106 ± 1 Ma (n = 8). Both ages are consistent with volcanic events of the Barremian to Albian age in the central Patagonian Andes Region. Cathodoluminescence images of zircons from the San Jorge sample suggest an igneous origin, which is further supported by Th/U values above 0.5 in most of the grains. The distribution of the statistical modes of the main age populations of detrital zircons for the two samples [182, 185 and 189 Ma for Telsen sample (T2S) and 181 ± 1 Ma for San Jorge sample (SJS)] matches the age of the volcanic Marifil Formation. The rocks of the Marifil Formation of these ages are exposed NE to SE of the study area. The abundance of zircons of similar Jurassic ages (n = 52 for SJS and n = 105 for T2S) and the external morphology of the zircons in the sample SJS, implies a close proximity of the source area. Suggestion that the Marifil Formation was the main provenance source is also supported by northeast-southeasterly paleocurrents measured at the San Jorge and Telsen sections.

  15. Trace element chemistry of zircons from oceanic crust: A method for distinguishing detrital zircon provenance (United States)

    Grimes, Craig B.; John, Barbara E.; Kelemen, P.B.; Mazdab, F.K.; Wooden, J.L.; Cheadle, Michael J.; Hanghoj, K.; Schwartz, J.J.


    We present newly acquired trace element compositions for more than 300 zircon grains in 36 gabbros formed at the slow-spreading Mid-Atlantic and Southwest Indian Ridges. Rare earth element patterns for zircon from modern oceanic crust completely overlap with those for zircon crystallized in continental granitoids. However, plots of U versus Yb and U/Yb versus Hf or Y discriminate zircons crystallized in oceanic crust from continental zircon, and provide a relatively robust method for distinguishing zircons from these environments. Approximately 80% of the modern ocean crust zircons are distinct from the field defined by more than 1700 continental zircons from Archean and Phanerozoic samples. These discrimination diagrams provide a new tool for fingerprinting ocean crust zircons derived from reservoirs like that of modern mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB) in both modern and ancient detrital zircon populations. Hadean detrital zircons previously reported from the Acasta Gneiss, Canada, and the Narryer Gneiss terrane, Western Australia, plot in the continental granitoid field, supporting hypotheses that at least some Hadean detrital zircons crystallized in continental crust forming magmas and not from a reservoir like modern MORB. ?? 2007 The Geological Society of America.

  16. Nanogeochronology of discordant zircon measured by atom probe microscopy of Pb-enriched dislocation loops (United States)

    Peterman, Emily M.; Reddy, Steven M.; Saxey, David W.; Snoeyenbos, David R.; Rickard, William D. A.; Fougerouse, Denis; Kylander-Clark, Andrew R. C.


    Isotopic discordance is a common feature in zircon that can lead to an erroneous age determination, and it is attributed to the mobilization and escape of radiogenic Pb during its post-crystallization geological evolution. The degree of isotopic discordance measured at analytical scales of ~10 μm often differs among adjacent analysis locations, indicating heterogeneous distributions of Pb at shorter length scales. We use atom probe microscopy to establish the nature of these sites and the mechanisms by which they form. We show that the nanoscale distribution of Pb in a ~2.1 billion year old discordant zircon that was metamorphosed c. 150 million years ago is defined by two distinct Pb reservoirs. Despite overall Pb loss during peak metamorphic conditions, the atom probe data indicate that a component of radiogenic Pb was trapped in 10-nm dislocation loops that formed during the annealing of radiation damage associated with the metamorphic event. A second Pb component, found outside the dislocation loops, represents homogeneous accumulation of radiogenic Pb in the zircon matrix after metamorphism. The 207Pb/206Pb ratios measured from eight dislocation loops are equivalent within uncertainty and yield an age consistent with the original crystallization age of the zircon, as determined by laser ablation spot analysis. Our results provide a specific mechanism for the trapping and retention of radiogenic Pb during metamorphism and confirm that isotopic discordance in this zircon is characterized by discrete nanoscale reservoirs of Pb that record different isotopic compositions and yield age data consistent with distinct geological events. These data may provide a framework for interpreting discordance in zircon as the heterogeneous distribution of discrete radiogenic Pb populations, each yielding geologically meaningful ages. PMID:27617295

  17. New experimental constraints for Hadean zircon source melts from Ce and Eu anomalies in zircon (United States)

    Trail, D.; Watson, E. B.; Tailby, N.


    A common feature of zircon rare earth element profiles is that they often have enriched chondrite normalized Ce abundances relative to bracketing rare earth elements (REEs) La and Pr. The magnitude of a zircon Ce anomaly is generally attributed to an increase in Ce4+/Ce3+ of the crystallizing medium (Ce4+ is more compatible than Ce3+ in zircon), which is associated with more oxidizing environments. Zircons may also have depleted chondrite normalized Eu abundances relative to Sm and Gd. A negative Eu anomaly may be indicative of more reducing conditions (Eu2+ is incompatible in zircon) or depletion of Eu in the melt from plagioclase prior to or during zircon crystallization. We report experimental data from zircons crystallized in hydrous peralkaline, metaluminous, and peraluminous melts (800-1300oC; 10 kbar) with the oxygen fugacity buffered from ~IW to HM+1 in order to constrain magnitude of zircon Ce and Eu anomalies. Zircon Ce anomalies increase in magnitude with higher oxygen fugacities and lower crystallization temperatures; Eu anomalies are more negative at ~IW vs. NNO for the same temperature and melt composition. Our experiments also show that with the oxygen fugacity buffered at NNO, zircons may have both positive Ce anomalies and negative Eu anomalies. Thus, Eu2+ and Ce4+ may co-exist in terrestrial melts; furthermore, melt depletion of Eu by plagioclase fractionation prior to (or during) zircon crystallization may not be a requisite for the presence of zircon Eu anomalies in (Hadean) zircons. The magnitude of the anomalies is also a function of the melt composition; peraluminous melts yield the largest positive Ce (or negative Eu) anomalies at a given oxygen fugacity and temperature. Extrapolation of our preliminary empirical calibration to the crystallization temperatures of the Jack Hills Hadean zircons (~700oC) suggests the magnitude of Ce anomalies in approximately half of the Hadean zircons cannot be produced in metaluminous or peralkaline melts

  18. U–Pb zircon and biostratigraphic data of high‐pressure/ low‐temperature metamorphic rocks of the Talea Ori : tracking the Paleotethys suture in central Crete, Greece

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zulauf, G.; Dörr, W.; Krahl, J.; Lahaye, Y.; Chatzaras, V.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/374329249; Xypolias, P.


    Inherited deformation microfabrics of detrital quartz grains and U–Pb (Laser ablation (LA)-ICPMS and ID TIMS) ages of detrital zircons separated from the Phyllite–Quartzite Unit s.l. of the Talea Ori, central Crete, suggest strikingly different source rocks. Albite gneiss of the lower Rogdia Beds

  19. Ti-in-Zircon Thermometer: Preliminary Results (United States)

    Fu, B.; Cavosie, A. J.; Clechenko, C. C.; Fournelle, J.; Kita, N. T.; Lackey, J.; Page, F.; Wilde, S. A.; Valley, J. W.


    The titanium in zircon thermometer has been applied to 167 zircons from diverse rock types. These rocks include metamorphosed anorthosite and gabbro (1.15 Ga, intrusion age), and unmetamorphosed granitic pegmatite (0.9 Ga) from the Adirondack Highlands; metaluminous and peraluminous granites (114-90 Ma) of the Sierra Nevada Batholith; megacrysts from kimberlite pipes in southern Africa, Brazil, and Siberia; and detrital zircons (4.4-3.9 Ga) of metaconglomerate from Jack Hills, Western Australia. Titanium concentration in zircon was analysed using a CAMECA IMS-1280 ion microprobe (see Page et al., this volume). Spot analyses were correlated to U-Pb SHRIMP pits especially for Adirondack and Jack Hills zircons. The majority of zircons have Ti-content less than 10 ppm. Variability, in excess of analytical precision, within individual zircons is observed in about one-third of crystals. In general, there is no systematic change in Ti from core to rim (identified by cathodoluminescence) of zircons, or with regard to age, U content, Th/U ratio, or U-Pb age concordance for these non-metamict grains. The average temperatures for zircon crystallization in different rock suites using the experimental/empirical calibration of Watson and Harrison (W&H, 2005, Science 308:841), assuming the presence of rutile and quartz, are estimated to be: anorthosite 735±41°C (1SD, n=24; Ti = 10±5 ppm); metagabbro 714±31°C (n=19; Ti = 8±4 ppm); Adirondack pegmatite 500±16°C (n=5; Ti = 0.3±0.1 ppm); metaluminous and peraluminous granites from Sierra Nevada 681±67°C (n=53; Ti = 6±5 ppm) and 613±75°C (n=68; Ti = 3±3 ppm); kimberlite megacrysts 740±64°C (n=169; Ti = 14±13 ppm) (Page et al., this volume); and detrital zircons from Jack Hills metaconglomerate 718±63°C (n=64; Ti = 10±9 ppm). Most of the host rocks contain ilmenite or titanite suggesting that α(TiO2)>0.5, but rutile activity is unknown for megacrysts and detrital zircons. Pegmatite contains no Ti-rich minerals

  20. Seeing is believing: Visualization of He distribution in zircon and implications for thermal history reconstruction on single crystals. (United States)

    Danišík, Martin; McInnes, Brent I A; Kirkland, Christopher L; McDonald, Brad J; Evans, Noreen J; Becker, Thomas


    Zircon (U-Th)/He thermochronometry is an established radiometric dating technique used to place temporal constraints on a range of thermally sensitive geological events, such as crustal exhumation, volcanism, meteorite impact, and ore genesis. Isotopic, crystallographic, and/or mineralogical heterogeneities within analyzed grains can result in dispersed or anomalous (U-Th)/He ages. Understanding the effect of these grain-scale phenomena on the distribution of He in analyzed minerals should lead to improvements in data interpretation. We combine laser ablation microsampling and noble gas and trace element mass spectrometry to provide the first two-dimensional, grain-scale zircon He "maps" and quantify intragrain He distribution. These maps illustrate the complexity of intracrystalline He distribution in natural zircon and, combined with a correlated quantification of parent nuclide (U and Th) distribution, provide an opportunity to assess a number of crystal chemistry processes that can generate anomalous zircon (U-Th)/He ages. The technique provides new insights into fluid inclusions as potential traps of radiogenic He and confirms the effect of heterogeneity in parent-daughter isotope abundances and metamictization on (U-Th)/He systematics. Finally, we present a new inversion method where the He, U, and Th mapping data can be used to constrain the high- and low-temperature history of a single zircon crystal.

  1. Simulation of radiation damage in zircon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, W.J.; Maupin, G.D.


    Radiation damage in natural zircon minerals due to alpha decay over geologic time has been simulated in laboratory studies extending over 5.5 years using Pu-doped synthetic zircon. These studies confirm for the first time that laboratory testing of actinide-doped materials can accurately predict the radiation-damage behavior of radioactive waste forms over geologic time and also provide new insights into interpretation of radiation damage in natural minerals.

  2. Simulation of radiation damage in zircon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, W.J.; Maupin, G.D.


    Radiation damage in natural zircon minerals due to alpha decay has been simulated in laboratory studies using Pu-doped synthetic zircon. These studies confirm that laboratory testing of actinide-doped materials can accurately predict the radiation-damage behavior of radioactive waste forms over geologic time, and also provide new insights into interpretation of radiation damage in natural minerals. 15 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Proterozoic to Mesozoic evolution of North-West Africa and Peri-Gondwana microplates: Detrital zircon ages from Morocco and Canada (United States)

    Marzoli, Andrea; Davies, Joshua H. F. L.; Youbi, Nasrrddine; Merle, Renaud; Dal Corso, Jacopo; Dunkley, Daniel J.; Fioretti, Anna Maria; Bellieni, Giuliano; Medina, Fida; Wotzlaw, Jörn-Frederik; McHone, Greg; Font, Eric; Bensalah, Mohamed Khalil


    The complex history of assemblage and disruption of continental plates surrounding the Atlantic Ocean is in part recorded by the distribution of detrital zircon ages entrained in continental sedimentary strata from Morocco (Central High Atlas and Argana basins) and Canada (Grand Manan Island, New Brunswick). Here we investigate detrital zircon from the latest Triassic (ca. 202 Ma) sedimentary strata directly underlying lava flows of the Central Atlantic magmatic province or interlayered within them. SHRIMP (Sensitive High-Resolution Ion MicroProbe) and LA-ICP-MS (Laser Ablation-Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry) U-Pb ages for zircon range from Paleozoic to Archean with a dominant Neoproterozoic peak, and significant amounts of ca. 2 Ga zircon. These ages suggest a prevailing West African (Gondwanan) provenance at all sampling sites. Notably, the Paleoproterozoic zircon population is particularly abundant in central Morocco, north of the High Atlas chain, suggesting the presence of Eburnean-aged rocks in this part of the country, which is consistent with recent geochronologic data from outcropping rocks. Minor amounts of late Mesoproterozoic and early Neoproterozoic zircon ages (ca. 1.1-0.9 Ga) in Moroccan samples are more difficult to interpret. A provenance from Avalonia or Amazonia, as proposed by previous studies is not supported by the age distributions observed here. An involvement of more distal source regions, possibly located in north-eastern Africa (Arabian Nubian Shield) would instead be possible. Paleozoic zircon ages are abundant in the Canadian sample, pointing to a significant contribution from Hercynian aged source rocks. Such a signal is nearly absent in the Moroccan samples, suggesting that zircon-bearing Hercynian granitic rocks of the Moroccan Meseta block were not yet outcropping at ca. 200 Ma. The only Moroccan samples that yield Paleozoic zircon ages are those interlayered within the CAMP lavas, suggesting an increased dismantling

  4. Resolving arc processes through detrital zircon U-Pb geochronology and geochemistry: a case study from the southern California Mesozoic convergent margin (United States)

    Johnston, S. M.; Kylander-Clark, A. R.


    Detrital zircon geochronology has been widely exploited to establish temporal characteristics in sedimentary source terranes. Detrital zircon geochemistry, however, has been largely overlooked given results from continentally derived igneous zircon that show subtle intersample variation in trace-element concentrations, and which make correlation between detrital zircon and their host terrane difficult. Nevertheless, recent studies suggest systematically variable geochemistry in McCoy Mountain detrital zircons derived from the southern California Mesozoic arc, and our preliminary data from the Peninsular Ranges batholith indicates strong correlations between whole-rock and zircon geochemistry. Here, we present coupled U-Pb geochronology and geochemistry measured by laser ablation split stream ICPMS on detrital zircons from Nacimiento block forearc sediments in Central California to characterize temporal and geochemical trends in the adjacent Mesozoic arc terrane. 1098 grains of Mesozoic age analyzed from 22 samples in the Nacimiento block define three periods of high magmatic flux in the Permian (270-250 Ma), Jurassic (170-140 Ma), and late Cretaceous (115-90 Ma). Zircon from the Permian arc is the least abundant of the three magmatic pulses, although they consistently display elevated Yb/Gd and U/Yb. Jurassic zircons display consistently low U/Yb, variably elevated Yb/Gd, abruptly higher Th/U and LREE from 155-145, and abruptly lower REE concentrations from 145-140 Ma. Zircon from the Cretaceous arc displays gradually increasing U/Yb, Th/U and LREE, with abruptly decreasing Yb/Gd at 95 Ma. The geochemical trends observed in the Nacimiento block detrital zircons of Cretaceous age are strikingly similar to temporal changes in geochemistry known from Cretaceous arc rocks of the Mojave and Peninsular Ranges, and strongly suggest a southern California provenance for Nacimiento block sediments. Furthermore, the similarity of geochemical trends between Cretaceous detrital

  5. Coeval Formation of Zircon Megacrysts and Host Magmas in the Eifel Volcanic Field (Germany) Based on High Spatial Resolution Petrochronology (United States)

    Schmitt, Axel; Klitzke, Malte; Gerdes, Axel; Ludwig, Thomas; Schäfer, Christof


    Zircon megacrysts (approx. 0.5-6 mm in diameter) from the Quaternary West and East Eifel volcanic fields, Germany, occur as euhedral crystals in porous K-spar rich plutonic ejecta clasts, and as partially resorbed xenocrysts in tephrite lava. Their relation to the host volcanic rocks has remained contentious because the dominantly basanitic to phonolitic magma compositions in the Eifel are typically zircon undersaturated. We carried out a detailed microanalytical study of zircon megacrysts from seven locations (Emmelberg and Rockeskyll in the West Eifel; Bellerberg, Laacher See, Mendig, Rieden, and Wehr in the East Eifel). Crystals were embedded in epoxy, sectioned to expose interiors through grinding with abrasives, diamond-polished, and mapped by optical microscopy, backscattered electron, and cathodoluminescence imaging. Subsequently, isotope-specific analysis using secondary ionization mass spectrometry (SIMS) and laser ablation inductively coupled mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) was carried out placing 100 correlated spots on 20 selected crystals. Concordant U-Th disequilibrium and U-Pb ages determined by SIMS are between ca. 430 ka (Rieden) and 170 ka (Mendig) and indicate that the megacryst zircons crystallized almost always briefly before eruption. A significant gap between zircon megacryst crystallization (ca. 230 ka) and eruption (ca. 45 ka) ages was only detected for the Emmelberg location. SIMS trace element abundances (e.g., rare earth elements) vary by orders-of-magnitude and correlate with domain boundaries visible in cathodoluminescence; trace element patterns match those reported for zircon from syenitic origins. Isotopic compositions are homogeneous within individual crystals, but show some heterogeneity between different crystals from the same locality. Average isotopic values (δ18O SMOW = +5.3±0.6 ‰ by SIMS; present-day ɛHf = +1.7±2.5 ‰ by LA-ICP-MS; 1 standard deviation), however, are consistent with source magmas being dominantly mantle

  6. Endobronchial ablative therapies. (United States)

    Seaman, Joseph C; Musani, Ali I


    Endobronchial ablative therapies are used to address a variety of malignant and benign airway lesions. By utilizing endobronchial ablative techniques patients with symptomatic airway lesions may receive significant symptom improvement, improved quality of life, and improved life expectancy. Endobronchial ablative therapies include laser, electrocautery, argon plasma coagulation, cryotherapy, brachytherapy, and photodynamic therapy. The choice to use one therapy versus another depends on technical and patient specific factors. This article reviews indications and contraindications for each therapy, discusses details related to each endobronchial ablative therapy, complications of endobronchial ablative therapies, and briefly discusses practical consideration with endobronchial ablative therapies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Geochemical fingerprints and pebbles zircon geochronology ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    (figures 2c and 3a). We selected gravel samples. (clast diameters >4 cm) from conglomerates with clasts composed of granitic gneiss and then selected zircon grains from granitic gneiss. ...... 4.3.2 Laiyang Group, Neoproterozoic granitic gneiss and Mesozoic intrusive rocks. The curved shape of the trace element plot for the.

  8. Geochemical fingerprints and pebbles zircon geochronology ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The zircon ages of the granitic gneiss material in the conglomerates at the base of the Laiyang Group are 790±8.4 Ma, close to the ages of the Neoproterozoic granitic gneiss in the Jiaonan Orogen (739–819 Ma), and very different from the ages of the Early Cretaceous intrusive rocks. Combiningwith paleocurrent directions ...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakabská Katarína


    Full Text Available Morphometrical analyse has been provided, using the method of [10] , on zircon from granite porphyry at Betliar. The result of this investigation indicate a comagmatic origin of Betliar and other granite bodies in the Gemericum. The source materila for at the granite magma formation originated by hybridization of crust-mantle rocks.

  10. Ablative skin resurfacing. (United States)

    Chwalek, Jennifer; Goldberg, David J


    Ablative skin resurfacing has remained the gold standard for treating photodamage and acne scars since the development of the first CO(2) lasers. CO(2) and Er:YAG lasers emit infrared light, which targets water resulting in tissue contraction and collagen formation. The first ablative laser systems created significant thermal damage resulting in unacceptably high rates of scarring and prolonged healing. Newer devices, such as high-energy pulsed lasers and fractional ablative lasers, are capable of achieving significant improvements with fewer side effects and shorter recovery times. While ablative resurfacing has become safer, careful patient selection is still important to avoid post-treatment scarring, dyspigmentation, and infections. Clinicians utilizing ablative devices need to be aware of possible side effects in order to maximize results and patient satisfaction. This chapter reviews the background of ablative lasers including the types of ablative lasers, mechanism of action, indications for ablative resurfacing, and possible side effects. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Modeling of Carbochlorination of Zircon in Fluidized Bed Reactor (United States)

    Jazini, M. H.; Ghoreishi, S. M.; Dadkhah, A. A.


    The chlorination of zircon is an integral part of the overall process for the production of zirconium. A two-phase hydrodynamic-type model was used to simulate the fluidized bed zircon carbochlorination reactor. In the plug-plug (P-P) model, the flow of gas in both dense and bubble phases was considered as a plug flow compared with the plug-mixed (P-M) model in which the flow in dense phase was assumed to be mixed. The zircon conversion obtained by model was compared with experimental measurements for model validation. The results of the P-M model indicated a stronger correlation with experimental data. Using the validated model, the effects of the zircon inlet size distribution, reactor temperature, inlet gas concentration, chlorine conversion velocity, and converted zircon were investigated. The results demonstrated that higher reactor temperature, smaller zircon size, and higher inlet gas velocity and concentration enhanced the chlorination rate.

  12. Thermoluminescence of zircon: a kinetic model

    CERN Document Server

    Turkin, A A; Vainshtein, D I; Hartog, H W D


    The mineral zircon, ZrSiO sub 4 , belongs to a class of promising materials for geochronometry by means of thermoluminescence (TL) dating. The development of a reliable and reproducible method for TL dating with zircon requires detailed knowledge of the processes taking place during exposure to ionizing radiation, long-term storage, annealing at moderate temperatures and heating at a constant rate (TL measurements). To understand these processes one needs a kinetic model of TL. This paper is devoted to the construction of such a model. The goal is to study the qualitative behaviour of the system and to determine the parameters and processes controlling TL phenomena of zircon. The model considers the following processes: (i) Filling of electron and hole traps at the excitation stage as a function of the dose rate and the dose for both (low dose rate) natural and (high dose rate) laboratory irradiation. (ii) Time dependence of TL fading in samples irradiated under laboratory conditions. (iii) Short time anneali...

  13. Detrital zircons of deep-sea sediments of the Arctic ocean - key to the understanding of High Polar Arctic tectonics (United States)

    Shokalsky, S.; Morozov, A.; Petrov, O.; Belyatsky, B.; Rekant, P.; Shevchenko, S.; Sergeev, S.


    appreciably different for Polar sample (200-450 Ma) and Geophysicists Spur (200, 300, 400-600 Ma). It is known, that formation of modern deep-sea sediments takes place mainly due to fluvial discharge (ca 90%), erosion of oceanic bedrocks and coastal beaches. Wind-borne component and extraterraneous dust are not significant (<1%). Transportation of continental material by icebergs (ice-rafted debris) is added to these sources in polar areas. Well-known Permian-Triassic sandstones of Arctic coast (including polar islands) are defined by the presence of Grenvillian age zircons - Canadian Arctic, Alaska, Greenland (Miller et al., 2006), while Jurassic-Cretaceous sandstones of the South Anjui Zone, Chukotka and New Siberian Islands of Russian Arctic (Miller et al., 2008) have clastic zircon with ages very similar to the obtained by us for deep-sea sediments. We suppose that modern deep-sea sediments were formed either due to ablation of these sandstones with distal transportation of detritus (highly unlikely), or due to weathering of similar rock of oceanic highs of Lomonosov Ridge. The last is more realistic because the similarity of the Lomonosov Ridge and north-east continental Arctic is proved by geophysical data (Jokat et al., 1992).

  14. Comment on "Zircon U-Th-Pb dating using LA-ICP-MS: Simultaneous U-Pb and U-Th dating on 0.1 Ma Toya Tephra, Japan" by Hisatoshi Ito (United States)

    Guillong, M.; Schmitt, A. K.; Bachmann, O.


    Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) of eight zircon reference materials and synthetic zircon-hafnon end-members indicate that corrections for abundance sensitivity and molecular zirconium sesquioxide ions (Zr2O3+) are critical for reliable determination of 230Th abundances in zircon. Other polyatomic interferences in the mass range 223-233 amu are insignificant. When corrected for abundance sensitivity and interferences, activity ratios of (230Th)/(238U) for the zircon reference materials we used average 1.001 ± 0.010 (1σ error; mean square of weighted deviates MSWD = 1.45; n = 8). This includes the 91500 and Plešovice zircons, which were deemed unsuitable for calibration of (230Th)/(238U) by Ito (2014). Uranium series zircon ages generated by LA-ICP-MS without mitigating (e.g., by high mass resolution) or correcting for abundance sensitivity and molecular interferences on 230Th such as those presented by Ito (2014) are potentially unreliable.

  15. Detrital zircon provenance from three turbidite depocenters of the Middle-Upper Triassic Songpan-Ganzi complex, central China: Record of collisional tectonics, erosional exhumation, and sediment production (United States)

    Weislogel, A.L.; Graham, S.A.; Chang, E.Z.; Wooden, J.L.; Gehrels, G.E.


    To test the idea that the voluminous upper Middle to Upper Triassic turbidite strata in the Songpan-Ganzi complex of central China archive a detrital record of Dabie ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) terrane unroofing, we report 2080 single detrital U-Pb zircon ages by sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe-reverse geometry (SHRIMP-RG) and laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) analysis from 29 eastern Songpan-Ganzi complex sandstone samples. Low (Paleozoic and bimodally distributed Precambrian zircon populations, which, together with south-to southeast-directed paleocurrent data, indicate derivation from the retro-side of the Qinling-Dabie (Q-D) collisional orogen wedge. In the central depocenter, the dominantly Paleozoic detrital zircon signature and south-to southwest-oriented paleocurrent indicators reflect a profusion of Paleozoic zircon grains. These data are interpreted to reflect an influx of material derived from erosion of Paleozoic supra-UHP rocks of the Dabie terrane in the eastern Qinling-Dabie orogen, which we speculate may have been enhanced by development of a monsoonal climate. This suggests that erosional unroofing played a significant role in the initial phase of UHP exhumation and likely influenced the petrotectonic and structural evolution of the Qinling-Dabie orogen, as evidenced by compressed Triassic isotherms/grads reported in the Huwan shear zone that bounds the Dabie terrane to the north. The central depocenter deposits reflect a later influx of bimodally distributed Precambrian zircon, signifying either a decrease in the influx of Paleozoic zircon grains due to stalled UHP exhumation and/or dilution of the same influx of Paleozoic zircons by spilling of Precambrian zircon from the northeastern depocenter into the central depocenter basin, perhaps due to infilling and bypass of sediment from the northern depocenter or due to initial collapse and constriction of the eastern Songpan-Ganzi complex basin. The

  16. Ablative Thermal Protection System Fundamentals (United States)

    Beck, Robin A. S.


    This is the presentation for a short course on the fundamentals of ablative thermal protection systems. It covers the definition of ablation, description of ablative materials, how they work, how to analyze them and how to model them.

  17. Laser ablation principles and applications

    CERN Document Server


    Laser Ablation provides a broad picture of the current understanding of laser ablation and its many applications, from the views of key contributors to the field. Discussed are in detail the electronic processes in laser ablation of semiconductors and insulators, the post-ionization of laser-desorbed biomolecules, Fourier-transform mass spectroscopy, the interaction of laser radiation with organic polymers, laser ablation and optical surface damage, laser desorption/ablation with laser detection, and laser ablation of superconducting thin films.

  18. High temperature behaviour of a zircon ceramic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carbonneau, X.; Olagnon, C.; Fantozzi, G. [INSA, Villeurbanne (France). GEMMPM; Hamidouche, M. [Lab. Science des Materiaux, Univ. de Setif (Algeria); Torrecillas, R. [Inst. Nacional del Carbon, Oviedo (Spain)


    The high temperature properties of a sintered zircon material has been tested up to 1200 C. A significant creep rate is observed, mainly attributed to the presence of glassy phase. The sub-critical crack growth measured in double torsion showed that above 1000 C, the crack velocity is reduced either by stress relaxation or by crack healing. The thermal shock analysis under a heat exchange coefficient of 600 W/m{sup 2}/K showed a regular decrease rather that a sudden fall off of properties. (orig.) 3 refs.

  19. Silica–calcium zirconate nanocomposite, studying its thermal and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Silica–calcium zirconate nanocomposite was prepared in a two-step procedure. First, nanocalcium zirconate was synthesized by the modified sol–gel method; then, silica was added to the prepared sol and the resulting product was calcined at 700–1000° C. Dilatometric measurements were performed to determine the ...

  20. Natural radioactivity and radon specific exhalation rate of zircon sands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Righi, S.; Verita, S.; Bruzzi, L. [Bologna Univ., Centro Interdipartimentale di Ricerca per le Scienze Ambientali and Dipt. di Fisica, Ravenna (Italy); Albertazzi, A. [Italian Ceramic Center, Bologna (Italy)


    The study focuses on the radon emanation from zircon sands and their derivatives, which are widely used in many sectors of industry. In particular, the results obtained by experimental measurements on samples of zircon sands and zircon flours commonly used in Italian ceramic industries are reported. Zircon sands contain a significant concentration of natural radioactivity because Th and U may substitute zirconium in the zircon crystal lattice. The relevant routes of exposure of workers to T.E.N.O.R.M. from zircon materials are external radiation and internal exposure, either by inhalation of aerosols in dusty working conditions or by inhalation of radon in workplaces. The main objective of this investigation is to provide experimental data able to better calculate the internal exposure of workers due to radon inhalation. Zircon samples were surveyed for natural radioactivity, radon specific exhalation rate and emanation fraction. Measurements of radioactivity concentration were carried out using {gamma}-spectrometry. Methods used for determining radon consisted in determining the {sup 222}Rn activity accumulated in a vessel after a given accumulation build-up time. The average activity concentrations of {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th in samples result about 2600 and 550 Bq kg-1, respectively; these concentrations are significantly higher than the world average noticed in soils, rocks and Earth crust. The {sup 222}Rn specific exhalation rates result very low probably due to the low porosity of the material and the consequent difficulty for radon to be released from the zircon crystal lattice. (author)

  1. Zircon Geochemistry of Granitic Rocks from Ong Valley and Moraine Canyon in the Central Transantarctic Mountains, Antarctica (United States)

    Liu, J.; Morgan, D. J.; Claiborne, L. L.; Padilla, A. J.; Edwards, K. L.; Putkonen, J.; Bibby, T.; Cribb, J. W.


    A number of granitic rocks exposed throughout the Central Transantarctic Mountains (CTAM) are thought to have been generated during and following the Ross Orogeny (late Cambrian to early Ordovician). Understanding the origin of these rocks can help improve our understanding of the tectonic events responsible for the suturing of Gondwana. In this study, we use zircon as a tool to investigate the magmatic origins and evolution of CTAM granites. Zircon has a low solubility in almost all melt and fluid compositions, is stable and resistant to alteration at Earth's surface, and is physically durable during transport. These features enable it to survive many crustal processes during which most other minerals are destroyed, thus preserving an important geochemical record of its crystallizing environments. We collected granitic samples from two sites in the CTAM: Ong Valley (157.5°E, 83.25°S), where the Hope Granite is exposed intruded into pre-Cambrian gneisses, and Moraine Canyon (157.55°W, 86.1°S), where bedrock exposure is dominated by a silicic porphyry of the Wyatt Formation. Our zircon U-Pb data, collected in-situ by laser ablation (LA) ICP-MS, suggests that the Hope Granite has a mean weighted crystallization age of 582 ± 23 Ma (2σ; n=26), older than the published age (510 ± 9 Ma, 1σ; whole-rock Rb-Sr isochrons; Faure & Mensing, 2010). The spread in individual zircon ages is consistent with previous estimates for the duration of intrusion (~20 Myr) of the Hope Granite. Published ages for Wyatt Fm rocks range from ~525 to ~800 Ma, but their origin is uncertain. We will analyze zircons from the Wyatt porphyry for U-Pb isotopes (by LA-ICP-MS) to better constrain its age. In addition, we will obtain trace element compositions of zircons from both intrusions to investigate their magmatic origins. This will allow us to explore potential geochemical connections between the intrusions, and may yield additional insight into the tectonic events involved in the Ross

  2. The pre-orogenic detrital zircon record of the Variscan orogeny: Preliminary results (United States)

    Stephan, Tobias; Kroner, Uwe


    To test plate-tectonic constellations in consideration of the long-term development of sedimentary transport paths, temporally and spatially highly resolved records of provenance analysis are mandatory. The interpretation of existing studies focus on small-scale areas within an orogen thereby neglecting the differing distribution of provenance data in the entire orogenic system. This study reviews a large data set of compiled geochronological data to document the development of pre-orogenic tectonic units on the example of the Variscan orogeny. Constrained by tectonic and geological models, the temporal distribution of U-Pb detrital zircon ages, used as a proxy for sedimentary provenance, shows that some minima and maxima of zircon abundance are nearly synchronous for thousands of kilometres along the orogeny. Age spectra of Precambrian to Lower Palaeozoic samples were constructed on the basis of 38729 U-Pb ages from 685 samples that were compiled from 102 publications. The age compilation combines thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS), laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer (LA-ICP-MS), sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe (SHRIMP), and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) analyses. The data was re-processed using a common age calculation and concordance filter to ensure comparability. The concordance of each zircon grain was calculated from 206Pb/238U and 207Pb/235U ages to guarantee that only concordant grains, i.e., with 3) is used for the maximum age of deposition. In addition to the location of >600 samples, the precise depositional ages result in a spatially and temporally high resolution. To avoid the different levels of analytical precision of the compiled TIMS, LA-ICP-MS, SHRIMP, and SIMS data, detrital zircon ages are plotted as kernel density estimates. Spatial and temporal distribution of the kernel density estimates, as well as further statistical techniques (e.g. multidimensional scaling) are used to discriminate

  3. Tracing the depositional history of Kalimantan diamonds by zircon provenance and diamond morphology studies (United States)

    Kueter, Nico; Soesilo, Joko; Fedortchouk, Yana; Nestola, Fabrizio; Belluco, Lorenzo; Troch, Juliana; Wälle, Markus; Guillong, Marcel; Von Quadt, Albrecht; Driesner, Thomas


    Diamonds in alluvial deposits in Southeast Asia are not accompanied by indicator minerals suggesting primary kimberlite or lamproite sources. The Meratus Mountains in Southeast Borneo (Province Kalimantan Selatan, Indonesia) provide the largest known deposit of these so-called ;headless; diamond deposits. Proposals for the origin of Kalimantan diamonds include the adjacent Meratus ophiolite complex, ultra-high pressure (UHP) metamorphic terranes, obducted subcontinental lithospheric mantle and undiscovered kimberlite-type sources. Here we report results from detailed sediment provenance analysis of diamond-bearing Quaternary river channel material and from representative outcrops of the oldest known formations within the Alino Group, including the diamond-bearing Campanian-Maastrichtian Manunggul Formation. Optical examination of surfaces of diamonds collected from artisanal miners in the Meratus area (247 stones) and in West Borneo (Sanggau Area, Province Kalimantan Barat; 85 stones) points toward a classical kimberlite-type source for the majority of these diamonds. Some of the diamonds host mineral inclusions suitable for deep single-crystal X-ray diffraction investigation. We determined the depth of formation of two olivines, one coesite and one peridotitic garnet inclusion. Pressure of formation estimates for the peridotitic garnet at independently derived temperatures of 930-1250 °C are between 4.8 and 6.0 GPa. Sediment provenance analysis includes petrography coupled to analyses of detrital garnet and glaucophane. The compositions of these key minerals do not indicate kimberlite-derived material. By analyzing almost 1400 zircons for trace element concentrations with laser ablation ICP-MS (LA-ICP-MS) we tested the mineral's potential as an alternative kimberlite indicator. The screening ultimately resulted in a small subset of ten zircons with a kimberlitic affinity. Subsequent U-Pb dating resulting in Cretaceous ages plus a detailed chemical reflection make

  4. Detrital zircons - the unique source of information on tectonics, paleogeography and denudation processes of East Antarctica (subglacial challenge) (United States)

    Belyatsky, Boris; Leitchenkov, German; Rodionov, Nickolay; Antonov, Anton; Sergeev, Sergey; Savva, Helen


    Vast (about 7 billions km2) almost wholly (98%) covered with ice continental mass of East Antarctica is the central fragment of ancient supercontinents of Rodinia and Gondwana. Any information on its geologic structure is of the greatest importance for solving the problems of formation and amalgamation of lithosphere of ancient continents, processes of intraplate activity, denudation and peneplanation of the earth crust and for geodynamic reconstruction. Geologic structure of central part of the East Antarctica is still absolutely unknown due to the thick (up to 4000 m) ice cover, which is the obstacle even for modern drilling technology to sample directly the underlying rocks. The main goal of the study has been to make an attempt in fill up the hiatus in geologic knowledge on the origin of subglacial continental crust of the Antarctica. We studied detrital zircons from sedimentary and metasedimentary rocks outcropped in Prince-Charles Mts (PCM, East Antarctica). Rock specimens were sampled from the Permian-Triassic sedimentary succession outcropped along the Beaver Lake coast (sandstones and siltstones) and from moraine of the Fisher Massive (metasandstone) and Meridith Massive (sandstone). A lump of zircons which are characterized by different grain morphology from well-rounded to poorly-rounded has been extracted from rock specimens for isotopic studies and dating. The age determinations of 302 zircons from 6 specimens were conducted using secondary ion-microprobe SHRIMP-II and laser-ablation ICP-MS. The age of zircons ranges from 500 to 3200 Ma. Isotopic analysis and probability distribution diagrams for zircon populations show heterogeneity of provenance. Zircons of 500 Ma old are proposed to come from the eastern flank of Lambert Glacier and/or from central Antarctica; 900-1100 Ma old - from Proterozoic Mobile Belt (central-northern PCM); while 2400-3200 Ma old - from granite-greenstone terrain (southern PCM). Additionally, 21 trace elements and isotopic

  5. Cast aluminum alloys containing dispersions of zircon particles (United States)

    Banerji, A.; Surappa, M. K.; Rohatgi, P. K.


    A process for preparing Al-alloy castings containing dispersions of zircon particles is described. Composites were prepared by stirring zircon particles (40 to 200 µm size) in commercially pure Al (99.5 pct)* and Al-11.8 pct Si melts and subsequently casting these melts in permanent molds. It was found to be necessary to alloy the above two melts with 3 pct Mg to disperse substantial amounts of zircon particles (25 to 30 pct). Further, it was possible to disperse up to 60 wt pct zircon by adding up to 5 pct Mg; however, the melts containing above 30 wt pct zircon showed insufficient fluidity for gravity diecasting and had to be pressure diecast. Microstructural studies of cast composites indicated the presence of a reaction zone at the periphery of zircon particles, and electron probe microanalysis showed concentrations of Mg and Si at the particle-matrix interface. Hardness, abrasive wear resistance, elastic modulus, 0.2 pct proof stress, and tensile strength of cast Al-3 pct Mg alloy were found to improve with the dispersions of zircon particles. Scanning electron micrographs of abraded and fractured surfaces did not show any evidence of particle pull-outs or voids at the particle matrix interface, indicating strong continuous bonding.

  6. Coordinated U-Pb geochronology, trace element, Ti-in-zircon thermometry and microstructural analysis of Apollo zircons (United States)

    Crow, Carolyn A.; McKeegan, Kevin D.; Moser, Desmond E.


    We present the results of a coordinated SIMS U-Pb, trace element, Ti-in-zircon thermometry, and microstructural study of 155 lunar zircons separated from Apollo 14, 15, and 17 breccia and soil samples that help resolve discrepancies between the zircon data, the lunar whole rock history and lunar magma ocean crystallization models. The majority of lunar grains are detrital fragments, some nearly 1 mm in length, of large parent crystals suggesting that they crystallized in highly enriched KREEP magmas. The zircon age distributions for all three landing sites exhibit an abundance of ages at ∼4.33 Ga, however they differ in that only Apollo 14 samples have a population of zircons with ages between 4.1 and 3.9 Ga. These younger grains comprise only 10% of all dated lunar zircons and are usually small and highly shocked making them more susceptible to Pb-loss. These observations suggest that the majority of zircons crystallized before 4.1 Ga and that KREEP magmatism had predominantly ceased by this time. We also observed that trace element analyses are easily affected by contributions from inclusions (typically injected impact melt) within SIMS analyses spots. After filtering for these effects, rare-earth element (REE) abundances of pristine zircon are consistent with one pattern characterized by a negative Eu anomaly and no positive Ce anomaly, implying that the zircons formed in a reducing environment. This inference is consistent with crystallization temperatures based on measured Ti concentrations and new estimates of oxide activities which imply temperatures ranging between 958 ± 57 and 1321 ± 100 °C, suggesting that zircon parent magmas were anhydrous. Together, the lunar zircon ages and trace elements are consistent with a ⩽300 My duration of KREEP magmatism under anhydrous, reducing conditions. We also report two granular texture zircons that contain baddeleyite cores, which both yield 207Pb-206Pb ages of 4.33 Ga. These grains are our best constraints on

  7. U-Pb zircon and biostratigraphic data of high-pressure/low-temperature metamorphic rocks of the Talea Ori: tracking the Paleotethys suture in central Crete, Greece (United States)

    Zulauf, G.; Dörr, W.; Krahl, J.; Lahaye, Y.; Chatzaras, V.; Xypolias, P.


    Inherited deformation microfabrics of detrital quartz grains and U-Pb (Laser ablation (LA)-ICPMS and ID TIMS) ages of detrital zircons separated from the Phyllite-Quartzite Unit s.l. of the Talea Ori, central Crete, suggest strikingly different source rocks. Albite gneiss of the lower Rogdia Beds includes Cambrian and Neoproterozoic rounded zircons with main U-Pb age peaks at 628 and 988 Ma. These and minor Paleoproterozoic and Archean peaks, together with the lack of Variscan-aged and Mesoproterozoic zircons, are similar to the age spectra obtained from the Phyllite-Quartzite Unit s.str. of the Peloponnesus and eastern Crete and from the Taurides. All of these zircons should be derived from the northeastern passive margin of Gondwana (Cimmeria). Metatuffites of the uppermost Rogdia Beds and metasandstone of Bali beach, on the other hand, include euhedral detrital zircons displaying a Variscan U-Pb age spectra at ca. 300 Ma with concordia ages at 291 ± 3, 300 ± 1 Ma (Rogdia) and 286 ± 3, 300 ± 3, 313 ± 2 Ma (Bali). Both types of metasediments and their zircons are similar to those of the pre-Alpine basement and overlying Tyros Beds of eastern Crete, revealing a provenance at the southern active margin of Laurasia. Thus, in central Crete the Paleotethys suture should be situated inside the Rogdia Beds. Magmatic zircons separated from a rhyolite boulder of the lower Achlada Beds yielded a concordant U-Pb zircon age at 242 ± 2 Ma placing a maximum age for the deposition of the (meta)conglomerate from which the boulder was collected. This age is compatible with an Olenekian-early Anisian age of the underlying Vasilikon marble suggested by new findings of the foraminifera Meandrospira aff. pusilla. Both the Achlada Beds and the Vasilikon marble can be attributed to the lower Tyros Beds of eastern Crete. The Alpine deformation led to a pervasive mylonitic foliation, which is affecting most of the studied rocks. This foliation results from D2 top

  8. Zircon U-Pb age of the Pescadero felsite: A late Cretaceous igneous event in the forearc, west-central California Coast Ranges (United States)

    Ernst, W.G.; Martens, U.C.; McLaughlin, R.J.; Clark, J.C.; Moore, Diane E.


    Weathered felsite is associated with the late Campanian-Maastrichtian Pigeon Point Formation near Pescadero, California. Poorly exposed, its age and correlation are uncertain. Is it part of the Pigeon Point section west of the San Gregorio-Hosgri fault? Does it rest on Nacimiento block basement? Is it dextrally offset from the Oligocene Cambria Felsite, ~185 km to the southeast? Why is a calc-alkaline hypabyssal igneous rock intrusive into the outboard accretionary prism? To address these questions, we analyzed 43 oscillatory-zoned zircon crystals from three incipiently recrystallized pumpellyite ?? prehnite ?? laumontite-bearing Pescadero felsite samples by sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe-reverse geometry (SHRIMPRG) and laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) techniques. Thirty-three zircons gave late Mesozoic U-Pb ages, with single-grain values ranging from 81 to 167 Ma; ten have pre-Mesozoic, chiefl y Proterozoic ages. A group of the four youngest Pescadero zircons yielded an apparent maximum igneous age of ca. 86-90 Ma. Refl ecting broad age scatter and presence of partly digested sandstone inclusions, we interpret the rest of the zircons (perhaps all) as xenocrysts. Twenty-three zircons were separated and analyzed from two samples of the similar Cambria Felsite, yielding a unimodal 27 Ma U-Pb age. Clearly, the origin of the Upper Oligocene Cambria Felsite is different from that of the Upper Cretaceous Pescadero felsite; these rocks are not correlated, and do not constrain displacement along the San Gregorio-Hosgri fault. Peak ages differ slightly, but relative probability curves for Mesozoic and pre-Mesozoic Pescadero zircons compare well, for example, with abundant U-Pb age data for detrital zircons from Franciscan metaclastic strata ~100 km to the east in the Diablo Range- San Francisco Bay area, San Joaquin Great Valley Group turbidites, Upper Cretaceous Nacimiento block Franciscan strata, and Upper Cretaceous

  9. Radiofrequency ablation in dermatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachdeva Silonie


    Full Text Available Radiofreqeuency ablation is a versatile dermatosurgical procedure used for surgical management of skin lesions by using various forms of alternating current at an ultra high frequency. The major modalities in radiofrequency are electrosection, electrocoagulation, electrodessication and fulguration. The use of radiofrequency ablation in dermatosurgical practice has gained importance in recent years as it can be used to treat most of the skin lesions with ease in less time with clean surgical field due to adequate hemostasis and with minimal side effects and complications. This article focuses on the major tissue effects and factors influencing radiofrequency ablation and its application for various dermatological conditions.

  10. A Raman spectroscopic study of zircons on micro-scale and Its significance in explaining the origin of zircons

    CERN Document Server

    Bao, Xuezhao; Lu, Songnian


    The magmatic and metamorphic zircons were investigated with Raman spectrum microprobe analysis. We found notable differences between these two kinds of zircons exhibited by the variation trend of Raman peak intensity from core to rim of a crystal. In magmatic zircons, the intensity and the ratio H/W of Raman spectrum peaks gradually decrease from core to rim of a crystal, which is produced by an increase in metamictization degree and suggests an increase in U and Th concentrations from core to rim. In metamorphic zircons, there are two kinds of crystals according to their Raman spectra: the first group of zircons exhibits a variation trend opposite to those of magmatic zircons, tending to increase in the Raman peak intensity and H/W value from core to rim of a crystal, which is produced by a decrease in metamictization degree and indicates a decrease of U and Th concentrations from core to rim of a crystal. The second group of zircons exhibits no change in Raman peak intensity and H/W value through a crystal....

  11. A Modern Analog to the Depositional Age Problem: Zircon and Apatite Fission Track and U-Pb Age Distributions by LA-ICP-MS (United States)

    Donelick, H. M.; Donelick, M. B.; Donelick, R. A.


    Sand from three river systems in North Idaho (Snake River near Lewiston, Clearwater River near Lewiston and the Salmon River near White Bird) and two regional ash fall events (Mt. Mazama and Mt. St. Helens) were collected for zircon U-Pb detrital age analysis. Up to 120 grains of zircon per sample were ablated using a Resonetics M-50 193 nm ArF Excimer laser ablation (LA) system and the Pb, Th, and U isotopic signals were quantified using an Agilent 7700x quadrupole inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer (ICP-MS). Isotopic signals for major, minor, and trace elements, including all REEs, were also monitored. The youngest zircon U-Pb ages from the river samples were approximately 44 Ma; Cenozoic Idaho Batholith and Precambrian Belt Supergroup ages were well represented. Significant common Pb contamination of the Clearwater River sample (e.g., placer native Cu was observed in the sample) precluded detailed analysis of the zircon U-Pb ages but no interpretable ages Mazama 7,700 years ago, and no doubt other events during the Quaternary. Work currently in progress seeks to address bias against near 0 Ma ages in the catchment areas due to: a) small, local ash fall grain sizes and b) overwhelming number of older grains relative to the ash fall grains. Data from Mt. St. Helens ash from several localities near the mountain (Toutle River and Maple Flats, WA) and several far from the mountain (Spokane, WA; Princeton, ID; Kalispell, MT) and Mt. Mazama ash fall deposits near Lewiston, ID and Spokane, WA will be presented to address these possibilities. Additionally, fission track and U-Pb ages from apatites collected from these river and ash fall samples will also be shown to help constrain the problem.

  12. Laser ablation of concrete.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savina, M.


    Laser ablation is effective both as an analytical tool and as a means of removing surface coatings. The elemental composition of surfaces can be determined by either mass spectrometry or atomic emission spectroscopy of the atomized effluent. Paint can be removed from aircraft without damage to the underlying aluminum substrate, and environmentally damaged buildings and sculptures can be restored by ablating away deposited grime. A recent application of laser ablation is the removal of radioactive contaminants from the surface and near-surface regions of concrete. We present the results of ablation tests on concrete samples using a high power pulsed Nd:YAG laser with fiber optic beam delivery. The laser-surface interaction was studied on various model systems consisting of Type I Portland cement with varying amounts of either fine silica or sand in an effort to understand the effect of substrate composition on ablation rates and mechanisms. A sample of non-contaminated concrete from a nuclear power plant was also studied. In addition, cement and concrete samples were doped with non-radioactive isotopes of elements representative of cooling waterspills, such as cesium and strontium, and analyzed by laser-resorption mass spectrometry to determine the contamination pathways. These samples were also ablated at high power to determine the efficiency with which surface contaminants are removed and captured. The results show that the neat cement matrix melts and vaporizes when little or no sand or aggregate is present. Surface flows of liquid material are readily apparent on the ablated surface and the captured aerosol takes the form of glassy beads up to a few tens of microns in diameter. The presence of sand and aggregate particles causes the material to disaggregate on ablation, with intact particles on the millimeter size scale leaving the surface. Laser resorption mass spectrometric analysis showed that cesium and potassium have similar chemical environments in the

  13. Extrusion and properties of lead zirconate titanate piezoelectric ceramics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cai, S.; Millar, C.E.; Pedersen, L.


    The purpose of this work was to develop a procedure for fabricating electroceramic actuators with good piezoelectric properties. The preparation of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) piezoelectric ceramic rods and tubes by extrusion processing is described. The microstructure of extrudates was investi......The purpose of this work was to develop a procedure for fabricating electroceramic actuators with good piezoelectric properties. The preparation of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) piezoelectric ceramic rods and tubes by extrusion processing is described. The microstructure of extrudates...

  14. CO2 fluid inclusions in Jack Hills zircons (United States)

    Menneken, Martina; Geisler, Thorsten; Nemchin, Alexander A.; Whitehouse, Martin J.; Wilde, Simon A.; Gasharova, Biliana; Pidgeon, Robert T.


    The discovery of Hadean to Paleoarchean zircons in a metaconglomerate from Jack Hills, Western Australia, has catalyzed intensive study of these zircons and their mineral inclusions, as they represent unique geochemical archives that can be used to unravel the geological evolution of early Earth. Here, we report the occurrence and physical properties of previously undetected CO2 inclusions that were identified in 3.36-3.47 Ga and 3.80-4.13 Ga zircon grains by confocal micro-Raman spectroscopy. Minimum P-T conditions of zircon formation were determined from the highest density of the inclusions, determined from the density-dependence of the Fermi diad splitting in the Raman spectrum and Ti-in-zircon thermometry. For both age periods, the CO2 densities and Ti-in-zircon temperatures correspond to high-grade metamorphic conditions (≥5 to ≥7 kbar/ 670 to 770 °C) that are typical of mid-crustal regional metamorphism throughout Earth's history. In addition, fully enclosed, highly disordered graphitic carbon inclusions were identified in two zircon grains from the older population that also contained CO2 inclusions. Transmission electron microscopy on one of these inclusions revealed that carbon forms a thin amorphous film on the inclusion wall, whereas the rest of the volume was probably occupied by CO2 prior to analysis. This indicates a close relationship between CO2 and the reduced carbon inclusions and, in particular that the carbon precipitated from a CO2-rich fluid, which is inconsistent with the recently proposed biogenic origin of carbon inclusions found in Hadean zircons from Jack Hills.

  15. Paleo-Pacific subduction-accretion: Evidence from Geochemical and U-Pb zircon dating of the Nadanhada accretionary complex, NE China (United States)

    Zhou, Jian-Bo; Cao, Jia-Lin; Wilde, Simon A.; Zhao, Guo-Chun; Zhang, Jin-Jiang; Wang, Bin


    The Nadanhada Terrane, located along the eastern margin of Eurasia, contains a typical accretionary complex related to paleo-Pacific plate subduction-accretion. The Yuejinshan Complex is the first stage accretion complex that consists of meta-clastic rocks and metamafic-ultramafic rocks, whereas the Raohe Complex forms the main parts of the terrane and consists of limestone, bedded chert, and mafic-ultramafic rocks embedded as olistolith blocks in a weakly sheared matrix of clastic meta-sedimentary rocks. Geochemical data indicate that the Yuejinshan metabasalts have normal mid-ocean ridge basalt (N-MORB) affinity, whereas the Raohe basaltic pillow lavas have an affinity to ocean island basalts (OIB). Sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe (SHRIMP) U-Pb zircon analyses of gabbro in the Raohe Complex yield a weighted mean 206Pb/238U zircon age of 216 ± 5 Ma, whereas two samples of granite intruded into the complex yield weighted mean 206Pb/238U zircon ages of 128 ± 2 and 129 ± 2 Ma. Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICPMS) U-Pb zircon analyses of basaltic pillow lava in the Raohe Complex define a weighted mean age of 167 ± 1 Ma. Two sandstone samples in the Raohe Complex record younger concordant zircon weighted mean ages of 167 ± 17 and 137 ± 3 Ma. These new data support the view that accretion of the Raohe Complex was between 170 and 137 Ma, and that final emplacement of the Raohe Complex took place at 137-130 Ma. The accretion of the Yuejinshan Complex probably occurred between the 210 and 180 Ma, suggesting that paleo-Pacific plate subduction was initiated in the Late Triassic to Early Jurassic.

  16. Deformation Behavior across the Zircon-Scheelite Phase Transition (United States)

    Yue, Binbin; Hong, Fang; Merkel, Sébastien; Tan, Dayong; Yan, Jinyuan; Chen, Bin; Mao, Ho-Kwang


    The pressure effects on plastic deformation and phase transformation mechanisms of materials are of great importance to both Earth science and technological applications. Zircon-type materials are abundant in both nature and the industrial field; however, there is still no in situ study of their deformation behavior. Here, by employing radial x-ray diffraction in a diamond anvil cell, we investigate the dislocation-induced texture evolution of zircon-type gadolinium vanadate (GdVO4 ) in situ under pressure and across its phase transitions to its high-pressure polymorphs. Zircon-type GdVO4 develops a (001) compression texture associated with dominant slip along ⟨100 ⟩{001 } starting from 5 GPa. This (001) texture transforms into a (110) texture during the zircon-scheelite phase transition. Our observation demonstrates a martensitic mechanism for the zircon-scheelite transformation. This work will help us understand the local deformation history in the upper mantle and transition zone and provides fundamental guidance on material design and processing for zircon-type materials.

  17. Creation of a continent recorded in zircon zoning (United States)

    Moser, D.E.; Bowman, J.R.; Wooden, J.; Valley, J.W.; Mazdab, F.; Kita, N.


    We have discovered a robust microcrystalline record of the early genesis of North American lithosphere preserved in the U-Pb age and oxygen isotope zoning of zircons from a lower crustal paragneiss in the Neoarchean Superior province. Detrital igneous zircon cores with ??18O values of 5.1???-7.1??? record creation of primitive to increasingly evolved crust from 2.85 ?? 0.02 Ga to 2.67 ?? 0.02 Ga. Sharp chemical unconformity between cores and higher ??18O (8.4???-10.4???) metamorphic overgrowths as old as 2.66 ?? 0.01 Ga dictates a rapid sequence of arc unroofing, burial of detrital zircons in hydrosphere-altered sediment, and transport to lower crust late in upper plate assembly. The period to 2.58 ?? 0.01 Ga included ???80 m.y. of high-temperature (???700-650 ??C), nearly continuous overgrowth events reflecting stages in maturation of the subjacent mantle root. Huronian continental rifting is recorded by the youngest zircon tip growth at 2512 ?? 8 Ma (??? 600 ??C) signaling magma intraplating and the onset of rigid plate behavior. This >150 m.y. microscopic isotope record in single crystals demonstrates the sluggish volume diffusion of U, Pb, and O in zircon throughout protracted regional metamorphism, and the consequent advances now possible in reconstructing planetary dynamics with zircon zoning. ?? 2008 The Geological Society of America.

  18. The Minerageny of Two Groups of Zircons from Plagioclase- Amphibolite of Mayuan Group in Northern Fujian

    CERN Document Server

    Bao, Xuezhao


    Zircon can crystallize in a wide range of physical and chemical conditions. At the same time, it has very high stability and durability. Therefore zircon can grow and survive in a variety of geological processes. In addition, the diffusivity of chemical compositions in its crystal is very low. Consequently, we can trace back the evolution history of the planetary materials containing zircon by zircon U-Th-Pb geochronology and geochemistry studies. However, this depends on our ability to decipher its genesis, namely magmatic or metamorphic origins. In this paper, magmatic and metamorphic zircons were found from plagioclase-amphibolite samples. Their geneses have been determined by zircon morphology, chemical composition zonations and geological field setting combined with their zircon U-Th-Pb ages. We have found obvious differences in micro-scale Raman spectra between these magmatic and metamorphic zircons. The magmatic zircons exhibit a high sloping background in their Raman spectra, but the metamorphic zirco...

  19. Ablative Thermal Protection Systems Fundamentals (United States)

    Beck, Robin A. S.


    This is a presentation of the fundamentals of ablative TPS materials for a short course at TFAWS 2017. It gives an overall description of what an ablator is, the equations that define it, and how to model it.

  20. Power Laser Ablation Symposia

    CERN Document Server

    Phipps, Claude


    Laser ablation describes the interaction of intense optical fields with matter, in which atoms are selectively driven off by thermal or nonthermal mechanisms. The field of laser ablation physics is advancing so rapidly that its principal results are seen only in specialized journals and conferences. This is the first book that combines the most recent results in this rapidly advancing field with authoritative treatment of laser ablation and its applications, including the physics of high-power laser-matter interaction. Many practical applications exist, ranging from inertial confinement fusion to propulsion of aerostats for pollution monitoring to laser ignition of hypersonic engines to laser cleaning nanoscale contaminants in high-volume computer hard drive manufacture to direct observation of the electronic or dissociative states in atoms and molecules, to studying the properties of materials during 200kbar shocks developed in 200fs. Selecting topics which are representative of such a broad field is difficu...

  1. Advanced Ablative TPS (United States)

    Gasch, Matthew J.


    Early NASA missions (Gemini, Apollo, Mars Viking) employed new ablative TPS that were tailored for the entry environment. After 40 years, heritage ablative TPS materials using Viking or Pathfinder era materials are at or near their performance limits and will be inadequate for future exploration missions. Significant advances in TPS materials technology are needed in order to enable any subsequent human exploration missions beyond Low Earth Orbit. This poster summarizes some recent progress at NASA in developing families of advanced rigid/conformable and flexible ablators that could potentially be used for thermal protection in planetary entry missions. In particular the effort focuses technologies required to land heavy (approx.40 metric ton) masses on Mars to facilitate future exploration plans.

  2. Chemical characteristics of zircon from A-type granites and comparison to zircon of S-type granites (United States)

    Breiter, Karel; Lamarão, Claudio Nery; Borges, Régis Munhoz Krás; Dall'Agnol, Roberto


    The trace element content in zircons from A-type granites and rhyolites was investigated by using back-scattered electron images and electron microprobe analyses. The studied Proterozoic (Wiborg batholith, Finland and Pará, Amazonas and Goiás states, Brazil) and Variscan (Krušné Hory/Erzgebirge, Czech Republic and Germany) plutons cover a wide range of rocks, from large rapakivi-textured geochemically primitive plutons to small intrusions of F-, Li-, Sn-, Nb-, Ta-, and U-enriched rare-metal granites. While zircon is one of the first crystallized minerals in less fractionated metaluminous and peraluminous granites, it is a late-crystallized phase in peralkaline granites and in evolved granites that may crystallize during the whole process of magma solidification. The early crystals are included in mica, quartz, and feldspar; the late grains are included in fluorite or cryolite or are interstitial. The zircon in hornblende-biotite and biotite granites from the non-mineralized plutons is poor in minor and trace elements; the zircon in moderately fractionated granite varieties is slightly enriched in Hf, Th, U, Y, and HREEs; whereas the zircon in highly fractionated ore-bearing granites may be strongly enriched in Hf (up to 10 wt.% HfO2), Th (up to 10 wt.% ThO2), U (up to 10 wt.% UO2), Y (up to 12 wt.% Y2O3), Sc (up to 3 wt.% Sc2O3), Nb (up to 5 wt.% Nb2O5), Ta (up to 1 wt.% Ta2O5), W (up to 3 wt.% WO3), F (up to 2.5 wt.% F), P (up to 11 wt.% P2O5), and As (up to 1 wt.% As2O5). Metamictized zircons may also be enriched in Bi, Ca, Fe, and Al. The increase in the Hf content coupled with the decrease in the Zr/Hf value in zircon is one of the most reliable indicators of granitic magma evolution. In the zircon of A-type granites, the Zr/Hf value decreases from 41-67 (porphyritic granite) to 16-19 (equigranular granite) in the Kymi stock, Finland, and from 49-52 (biotite granite) to 18-36 (leucogranite) in the Pedra Branca pluton, Brazil. In the in situ strongly

  3. Applications of biotite inclusion composition to zircon provenance determination (United States)

    Bell, Elizabeth A.; Boehnke, Patrick; Mark Harrison, T.


    Detrital zircons are the only confirmed surviving remnants of >4.03 Ga crust while younger detrital zircons provide a parallel record of more recent crustal evolution to that preserved in crystalline rocks. Zircons often preserve inclusions that may provide clues as to the origins of out-of-context grains in the sedimentary record. Previous studies have established that inclusions of biotite in magmatic zircon are compositionally well-matched to biotite in the source rock matrix, although a direct application to ancient detrital zircons has not been made. A number of studies have documented variations in the Fe, Mg, and Al contents of magmatic biotite from different source rocks and tectonic settings, suggesting that biotite inclusions may indeed serve as provenance indicators for detrital zircons. Consistent with earlier studies, we find that the FeO*/MgO ratio of magmatic biotite from continental arcs, collisional, and within-plate settings varies with relative oxidation state as well as whole-rock FeO*/MgO, while its Al2O3/(FeO* + MgO) varies with whole-rock A/CNK (molar Al/(2 ṡ Ca + Na + K)). Biotite from oxidized metaluminous and reduced S-type granitoids can be readily distinguished from each other using FeO*/MgO and Al2O3/(FeO* + MgO), while biotite from reduced I-type and oxidized peraluminous granites may in some cases be more ambiguous. Biotite from peralkaline and reduced A-type granites are also distinguishable from all other categories by Al2O3/(FeO* + MgO) and FeO*/MgO, respectively. Biotite inclusions in Hadean zircons from Jack Hills, Western Australia indicate a mixture of metaluminous and reduced S-type host rocks, while inclusions in 3.6-3.8 Ga detrital zircons from the Nuvvuagittuq Supracrustal Belt indicate more oxidized peraluminous magmas. These results highlight the diversity of felsic materials on the early Earth and suggest that biotite inclusions are applicable to zircon provenance throughout the sedimentary record.

  4. Advanced Rigid Ablative TPS (United States)

    Gasch, Matthew J.


    NASA Exploration Systems Mission Directorate s (ESMD) Entry, Descent, and Landing (EDL) Technology Development Project (TDP) and the NASA Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate s (ARMD) Hypersonics Project are developing new advanced rigid ablators in an effort to substantially increase reliability, decrease mass, and reduce life cycle cost of rigid aeroshell-based entry systems for multiple missions. Advanced Rigid Ablators combine ablation resistant top layers capable of high heat flux entry and enable high-speed EDL with insulating mass-efficient bottom that, insulate the structure and lower the areal weight. These materials may benefit Commercial Orbital Transportation Services (COTS) vendors and may potentially enable new NASA missions for higher velocity returns (e.g. asteroid, Mars). The materials have been thermally tested to 400-450 W/sq cm at the Laser Hardened Materials Evaluation Lab (LHMEL), Hypersonics Materials Evaluation Test System (HyMETS) and in arcjet facilities. Tested materials exhibit much lower backface temperatures and reduced recession over the baseline materials (PICA). Although the EDL project is ending in FY11, NASA in-house development of advanced ablators will continue with a focus on varying resin systems and fiber/resin interactions.

  5. Growth of Zircone on Nanoporous Alumina Using Molecular Layer Deposition (United States)

    Hall, Robert A.; George, Steven M.; Kim, Yeongae; Hwang, Woonbong; Samberg, Meghan E.; Monteiro-Riviere, Nancy A.; Narayan, Roger J.


    Molecular layer deposition (MLD) is a sequential and self-limiting process that may be used to create hybrid organic/inorganic thin films from organometallic precursors and organic alcohol precursors. In this study, films of a zirconium-containing hybrid organic/inorganic polymer known as zircone were grown on nanoporous alumina using MLD. Scanning electron microscopy data showed obliteration of the pores in zircone-coated nanoporous alumina. An in vitro cell viability study indicated that the growth of human epidermal keratinocytes was the greatest on zircone-coated nanoporous alumina than on uncoated nanoporous alumina. Our results suggest that MLD may be used to create biocompatible coatings for use in many types of medical devices.

  6. Provenance analysis and detrital zircon geochronology on the onshore Makran accretionary wedge, SE Iran: implication for the geodynamic setting (United States)

    Mohammadi, Ali; Burg, Jean-Pierre; Winkler, Wilfried; Ruh, Jonas


    The Makran, located in Southeast Iran and South Pakistan, is one of the largest accretionary wedges on Earth. In Iran it comprises turbiditic sediments ranging in age from Late Cretaceous to Holocene. We present a provenance analysis on sandstones, which is aimed at reconstructing the assemblages of source rocks and the tectonic setting from which the clastic material was derived. Sandstone samples collected from different units span the regional stratigraphy from Late Cretaceous to Miocene. Laser ablation ICP-MS resulted in ca 2800 new U-Pb ages of individual detrital zircons from 18 samples collected in onshore Makran. 101 detrital zircons from a Late Cretaceous fine grained sandstone range from 180 to 160 Ma (Middle Jurassic). 478 detrital zircons from mid- to late Eocene sandstones allow differentiating a NE and NW sector of the Makran Basin. Zircon grains in the NE basin belong to two populations peaking at 180 to 160 Ma (late Early to Middle Jurassic) and 50 to 40 Ma (Mid-Eocene), with the noticeable absence of Cretaceous grains. In the NW basin, detrital zircons are 120 to 40 Ma (late Early Cretaceous to Lutetian, Eocene). 587 detrital zircon grains from fine to medium grained Oligocene sandstones collected over the whole area also range from 120 to 40 Ma (late Early Cretaceous to Eocene, Lutetian). 1611 detrital zircons from early Miocene sandstones show again distinctly different ages in the eastern and western parts of the basin. They range from 120 to 40 Ma (late Early Cretaceous to Eocene) in the eastern and from 80 to 40 Ma (Late Cretaceous to Eocene) in the western basin. Hf isotopes analyses were performed on 120 zircon grains from 6 samples. Negative values (-2 to -15) in Middle Jurassic and late Early Cretaceous zircons indicate minor or no influence of mantle reservoirs which implies a rifting setting during crystallization of the zircons. Low negative to positive (-5 to +10) values in Late Cretaceous and Eocene zircons indicate mixed crustal and

  7. LA-ICP-MS dating of Archean Metamorphic Zircons From the Kapuskasing Structural Zone, Ontario: Evidence for the Geodynamic Origin and Evolution of the Abitibi-Opatica Terrane (United States)

    Benn, K.; Kamber, B.


    The Late Archean Abitibi greenstone belt, in SE Superior Province, is one of the largest contiguous greenstone belts on Earth. Geochronological data from upper crustal rocks indicate it was formed by volcanism and plutonism that spanned 2760 Ma through 2660 Ma. The classical model for the Abitibi belt is one of tectonic accretion and thrust stacking of magmatic arcs, and possibly plateau fragments, resulting in a thick crust, with a granulitic base. A Proterozoic uplift, the Kapuskasing structural zone, on the western side of the Abitibi belt, is believed to represent the lower to middle crust of the Abitibi. Previous U-Pb zircon dates from the Kapuskasing uplift correspond to a period of granitic plutonism at the end of the Abitibi magmatic history (ca. 2660 Ma), consistent with underthrusting and underplating, during and following tectonic collision. An alternative model for the Abitibi belt is that it represents part of a single, large oceanic plateau, modified by subduction and slab-window magmatism. The Abitibi greenstone belt and the Opatica gneiss belt, to the north, would then represent a single tectonic terrane, called the Abitibi-Opatica terrane. That model requires the existence of a thick crust prior to tectonic accretion, rather than thickening of crust as the result of collision. The plateau model can be tested by dating metamorphic minerals from lower to middle crustal rocks in the Kapuskasing uplift. We have used laser ablation (LA) -ICP-MS, to carry out "in-situ" dating of zircons from a mafic clinopyroxene- garnet granulite and from two hornblende-biotite-garnet metatonalites. Zircons in the rocks are less than 100 microns in size, mostly 40 microns or less. BSE and CL images of the zircons reveal that some are unzoned, some are patchwork zoned, and others are sector zoned. The crystals are devoid of oscillatory zoning and their morphologies are mainly anhedral to subhedral; they are interpreted to be of metamorphic in origin. That interpretation

  8. U-Pb dating of magmatic and xenocryst zircons from Mangakino ignimbrites and their correlation with detrital zircons from the Torlesse metasediments, Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand (United States)

    McCormack, Kenneth D.; Mary Gee, M. A.; McNaughton, Neal J.; Smith, Richard; Fletcher, Ian R.


    Mangakino ignimbrites are a sequence of voluminous eruptive units in the rhyolitic Mangakino Volcanic Centre (MVC) caldera complex, Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand. U-Pb dating of 113 zircons extracted from four Mangakino ignimbrites reveals magmatic and xenocrystic zircons. Magmatic zircon ages from three ignimbrites are slightly older than K/Ar and 40Ar/ 39Ar ages. Magmatic zircon age-spectra are tightly clustered and support a simple crystallisation history for these three ignimbrites. It is possible that the assimilation of zircon antecrysts leads to magmatic zircon spectra for the Ahuroa ignimbrite being ≥ 70 ka older than the 40Ar/ 39Ar age. Xenocrystic zircon age spectra correlate with spectra of detrital zircons from the underlying Mesozoic Torlesse metasediments. Our data are consistent with significant assimilation of metasediments and the incorporation of zircon prior to eruption. Systematic variations in the age spectra of xenocrystic zircons in successive Mangakino ignimbrites may be related to the structural development of the North Island, New Zealand.

  9. Molecular dynamics modelling of radiation damage in zircon (United States)

    Grechanovsky, A. E.


    Zircon (ZrSiO4) is among actinide-bearing phases which has been proposed as a crystalline confinement matrix for nuclear waste management, especially for weapon-grade plutonium and UO2 spent fuel in the USA. Zircon is also widely used in geochronology. But, with accumulating α-decay damage, zircon undergoes a radiation induced transition to an amorphous (or metamict) state. So, in the present work molecular dynamics simulations (MD simulations) of zircon structure have been performed to study radiation damage in zircon. In this technique, one simulates the propagation of an energetic particle in a system of atoms interacting via model potentials, by integrating the Newton equations of motion. Author has used version 3.09 of the DL_POLY molecular simulation package. Zircon structure containing 181944 atoms (19x19x21 unit cells) was equilibrated at 300 K for 10 ps, and one Zr atom (usually called the primary knock-on atom, PKA) was given a velocity corresponding to an implantation energy of about 20 keV. MD simulations were performed in the microcanonical ensemble that is under conditions of constant particle number, volume and energy. Results of the MD simulations show that the number of interstitials is equal to 840 atoms. This is very close (4000-5000 atoms for 70 keV recoil atom 234Th) to what is measured in the diffuse x-ray scattering and NMR experiments on amorphous metamict samples (damaged by natural irradiation) of geological age. It has been shown that the damaged structure contains several depleted regions with characteristic sized up to 2,5 nm after single event and up to 4,5 nm after three overlapping events. Furthermore, these events produce channels of depleted matter between the overlapping damaged regions. These channels provide a high-diffusivity path for radiogenic Pb (percolation effect). Loss of radiogenic Pb may result in to incorrect dating of rocks.

  10. Phase relations and conductivity of Sr-zirconates and La-zirconates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, F.W.; Vanderpuil, N.


    phase orthorhombic SrZrO3 and somewhat impure, tetragonal Sr2ZrO4 were observed, whereas the formation of ordered Ruddlesden-Popper phases, SrnZrn-1O3n-2, where n = 4 and 3, could not be verified. The conductivity of La2Zr2O7 was 3.7 X 10(-6) S/cm at 750-degrees-C and 3.8 x 10(-5) S/cm at 1000-degrees......-C. The conductivity of the Sr-zirconates increases with increasing Sr/Zr ratio. Samples with a nominal composition corresponding to Sr2ZrO4 have a conductivity of 7.5 x 10(-5) and 5.9 x 10(-4) S/cm at 750 and 1000-degrees-C, respectively. For all samples one observes low activation energies for ionic conduction (0...

  11. Syntesis of lanthanum zirconate hydrosols by the ion exchange method (United States)

    Bovina, E. A.; Tarasova, J. V.; Chibirova, F. Kh


    Ion exchange of LaCl3 and ZrOCl2 aqueous solutions with anion-exchanger AV-17-8 was used to synthesize finely dispersed hydrosol of amorphous lanthanum zirconate La2Zr2O7. Heat treatment of dried La2Zr2O7 hydrosols at 700°C and 1100°C resulted in the formation of powders with fluorite and pyrochlore type structures, respectively. Epitaxial La2Zr2O7 films were obtained on SrTiO3 (001) single crystals. The substrate has an influence on the lanthanum zirconate crystal orientation, as well as strong inhibitory effect on sintering processes.

  12. Simulation of optically-stimulated luminescence of zircon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turkin, A.A. [National Science Center, Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology, Kharkov (Ukraine); Vainshtein, D.I.; Hartog, H.W. den [University of Groningen (Netherlands)


    Mineral zircon, ZrSiO{sub 4}, belongs to a class of materials that can be used as a chronological tool in geology and archaeology for measurements of the natural radiation dose and the sample age by optical methods. The model of optically stimulated luminescence developed earlier is used to investigate the applicability of the single-aliquot regenerative-dose method (SAR) for dating with zircon. Various implementations of the SAR method are considered and practical recommendations are formulated. (copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  13. Constraints on the Timing and Style of Paleogene Extension in the Basin and Range from Apatite and Zircon Double Dating (United States)

    Canada, A.; Cassel, E. J.; Stockli, D. F.; Smith, M. E.; Jicha, B. R.; Singer, B. S.


    In the Paleogene hinterland of the Sevier orogenic belt, from eastern Nevada to western Utah, high-elevation intermontane basins record widespread accommodation and early-onset extension within the Basin and Range. Detrital zircon U-Pb-He double dating of siliciclastic sediments deposited across the width of the Cordilleran hinterland shows that early and middle Eocene sediments are predominantly multi-cycle and consistent with gradual erosional exhumation of the hinterland. During the middle Eocene and into the early Oligocene, volcanic glass hydration waters indicate that Copper Basin formed at an elevation of 3 km in northeastern Nevada. The basin contains a 1.5 km-thick sequence of fluvial, lacustrine, and volcanic rocks that accumulated on the footwall of the Copper Creek normal fault and conformably above Paleozoic sediments. Detrital zircon and apatite double dating of Paleogene sediments from Copper Basin enables comparison of sedimentary lag times at various phases of basin evolution. We interpret sedimentary lag times within a chronostratigraphic framework developed from 6 new single crystal sanidine 40Ar/39Ar ages for Copper Basin tuff beds. Fluvial sedimentology and detrital zircon U-Pb age populations indicate that proximal volcanic sources were the dominate source of detritus to Copper Basin until a Cretaceous back-arc pluton, the Coffeepot Stock, unroofed along the Copper Creek normal fault during the middle Eocene. Laser Ablation Split Stream-ICPMS U-Pb dating of detrital apatite from Copper Basin sediments corroborates derivation from the 109 Ma Coffeepot Stock. Double dating of zircon grains derived from the Coffeepot Stock shows moderate lag times of 25-50 Myr whereas apatite grains imply lag times of cooling along the Copper Creek normal fault, which continued through the early Oligocene, was likely triggered by the onset of proximal 45 Ma volcanism in the Northern Bull Run Caldera of northeastern Nevada. Rapid early-onset extension in this

  14. Developments in Laser-Ablation Split-Stream Petrochronology (United States)

    Kylander-Clark, Andrew R.


    One of the biggest challenges in assessing the timing and rates of petrogenesis and deformation is having the ability to match the age of a dated mineral to the conditions at which that mineral grew. This is especially challenging for high-temperature chonometers that can grow and remain stable over a wide range of pressures and temperatures. The development of the laser-ablation split-stream method has afforded the ability to rapidly aquire chemical and chronologic data that are directly linked; as such, timing and rates of processes are better constrained than before. Several examples are given within: 1) Zircon and monazite from a single, coesite-bearing sample from the Western Gneiss Region in western Norway record the entire 30+ Myr history of metamorphism during Caledonian orogenesis, from intial burial, through ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) conditions, and back to crustal levels. Early monazite ( 425 Ma) contains low concentrations of Sr and HREE, consistent with plagioclase and garnet stability during prograde metamorphism. 420-400 Ma ages from monazite (high Sr, increased Eu/Eu*, low HREE) and zircon (increased Eu/Eu*, low HREE) indicate the timing of HP conditions, and monazite with low Sr and high HREE indicates the breakdown of omphacite and garnet at 390 Ma. 2) Titanite is becoming more widely used as chronometer, primarly because laser ablation has made analysis more feasible. Nevertheless, dates produced from titanite can be difficult to interpret because titanite may alter more easily than zircon and monazite. LASS analyses of titanite, combined with X-ray maps and backscattered electron images provide insight into processes involved in growth, recrystallization and dissolution/reprecipitation, and allow us to better interpret ages and the geologic process that they represent. This study presents recrystallized titanite from metamorphic terranes as well as ocillatory-zoned titanite from igneous rocks, and suggests some possible processes that explain the

  15. Dielectric Strontium Zirconate Sprayed by a Plasma Torch.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ctibor, Pavel; Sedláček, J.; Janata, Marek


    Roč. 10, č. 4 (2017), s. 226-230 ISSN 2008-2134 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : Plasma spraying * Electrical properties * Strontium Zirconate * Insulators Subject RIV: JH - Ceramics , Fire-Resistant Materials and Glass

  16. Characterization and microstructure of porous lead zirconate titanate ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Porous lead zirconate titanate (PZT) ceramics are widely used because of their low acoustic impedance, high figure of merit and high hydrostatic sensitivity. In the present work, porous PZT ceramics were fabricated by incorporating polyethylene oxide (PEO) as pore-forming agent. Both PZT powder and PEO were mixed ...

  17. Creep and crack growth of zircon and mullite base materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carbonneau, X.; Olagnon, C.; Fantozzi, G. [INSA, Villeurbanne (France). GEMPPM


    The creep and crack propagation properties of mullite and zircon ceramics were compared. In the investigated temperature range, mullite presents a simple crack propagation of a unique macrocracks, although a change of mechanism is observed at 1200 C. The zircon material present a rather more complex crack propagation, with multicracking and branching, due to a significant crack healing. The creep behaviours also appeared as different for both materials. The mullite creep curves present only two stages, even when fracture occurs, while a tertiary regime is observed in the case of zircon. The results show that grain boundary sliding is the main deformation mechanism for the two different materials. In fact, they exhibit similar overall real behaviours with a different characteristic temperature. At low stress, the minimum creep rate can be considered as a stationary creep, but at a higher stress, generalised or localised damage interfere, leading to a higher apparent stationary creep exponent. Sub-critical crack growth and deformation act as parallel mechanisms for mullite, while the interaction is more complex in zircon where crack healing induce multi-cracking. (orig.) 9 refs.

  18. Zircon U–Pb geochronology and geochemistry of rhyolitic tuff ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The Lengshuikeng rhyolitic tuff, granite porphyry and syenogranite yielded zircon U–Pb ages of. 161, 155 and 138 Ma, respectively. The Lengshuikeng granite porphyries belong to calc-alkaline series and show fractionated I-type affinities. The rhyolitic tuffs show almost similar characteristics as the granite porphyries.

  19. A preliminary geochemical study of zircons and monazites from ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    On the basis of structural conformity of the felsic and basaltic dikes, K-Ar ages and trace element considerations, a previous study concluded that the felsic rocks are coeval with the Deccan Volcanics and originated by crustal anatexis. The felsic rocks contain two populations of zircons and monazites, one that crystallized ...

  20. Dielectrics of lead zirconate bonded with barium borate glass

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K SINGH and ARUNA INDURKAR. Department of Physics. Nagpur University, Nagpur 440 010, India. MS received 25 May 1987; revised it July 1988. Abstract. Dielectric constant variation with temperature and frequency is reported for barium-borate glass-bonded lead zirconate. Lowering of the relative permittivity of the.

  1. Evaluating the paleomagnetic potential of single zircon crystals using the Bishop Tuff

    CERN Document Server

    Fu, Roger R; Lima, Eduardo A; Kehayias, Pauli; Araujo, Jefferson F D F; Glenn, David R; Gelb, Jeff; Einsle, Joshua F; Bauer, Ann M; Harrison, Richard J; Ali, Guleed A H; Walsworth, Ronald L


    Zircon crystals offer a unique combination of suitability for high-precision radiometric dating and high resistance to alteration. Paleomagnetic experiments on ancient zircons may potentially constrain the earliest geodynamo, which holds broad implications for the early Earth interior and atmosphere. However, the ability of zircons to record accurately the geomagnetic field has not been fully demonstrated. Here we conduct thermal and room temperature alternating field (AF) paleointensity experiments on 767.1 thousand year old (ka) zircons from the Bishop Tuff, California. The rapid emplacement of these zircons in a well-characterized magnetic field provides a high-fidelity test of the zircons intrinsic paleomagnetic recording accuracy. Successful dual heating experiments on nine zircons measured using a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) microscope yield a mean paleointensity of 46.2 +/- 18.8 microtesla (1sigma), which agrees closely with high-precision results from Bishop Tuff whole rock (43...

  2. Field enhancement induced laser ablation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fiutowski, Jacek; Maibohm, Christian; Kjelstrup-Hansen, Jakob

    . The accompanying field enhancement substantially lowers the ablation threshold of the polymer film and thus creates local ablation spots and corresponding topographic modifications of the polymer film. Such modifications are quantified straightforwardly via scanning electron and atomic force microscopy. Thickness......Sub-diffraction spatially resolved, quantitative mapping of strongly localized field intensity enhancement on gold nanostructures via laser ablation of polymer thin films is reported. Illumination using a femtosecond laser scanning microscope excites surface plasmons in the nanostructures...

  3. Advanced Ablation Characterization and Modelling


    Gülhan, Ali


    Ablative thermal protection materials are a key technology for current and future space exploration missions. However, the mission feasibility is determined by the materials available, and the development of new materials is performed, essentially, by an iterative trial-and-error process. This is due to the absence of validated predictive models for ablative material behaviour. Models are tuned to bulk material properties from tests. In order to describe physical processes of the ablation cor...

  4. Pulsed laser ablation of copper (United States)

    Jordan, R.; Cole, D.; Lunney, J. G.; Mackay, K.; Givord, D.


    The laser ablation of copper with a 532 nm, 6 ns laser has been investigated in the regime normally used for pulsed laser deposition. The ablation depth per pulse and the flux and energy distribution of the ions in the plume were measured and compared to the deposition rate as measured by a quartz microbalance. These measurements were compared with an analytic model of ablation via a laser sustained plasma. It is shown that self-sputtering of the growing film is significant.

  5. Radiofrequency ablation of pulmonary tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crocetti, Laura, E-mail: l.crocetti@med.unipi.i [Division of Diagnostic Imaging and Intervention, Department of Liver Transplants, Hepatology and Infectious Diseases, Pisa University School of Medicine (Italy); Lencioni, Riccardo [Division of Diagnostic Imaging and Intervention, Department of Liver Transplants, Hepatology and Infectious Diseases, Pisa University School of Medicine (Italy)


    The development of image-guided percutaneous techniques for local tumor ablation has been one of the major advances in the treatment of solid tumors. Among these methods, radiofrequency (RF) ablation is currently established as the primary ablative modality at most institutions. RF ablation is accepted as the best therapeutic choice for patients with early-stage hepatocellular carcinoma when liver transplantation or surgical resection are not suitable options and is considered as a viable alternate to surgery for inoperable patients with limited hepatic metastatic disease, especially from colorectal cancer. Recently, RF ablation has been demonstrated to be a safe and valuable treatment option for patients with unresectable or medically inoperable lung malignancies. Resection should remain the standard therapy for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) but RF ablation may be better than conventional external-beam radiation for the treatment of the high-risk individual with NSCLC. Initial favourable outcomes encourage combining radiotherapy and RF ablation, especially for treating larger tumors. In the setting of colorectal cancer lung metastases, survival rates provided by RF ablation in selected patients, are substantially higher than those obtained with any chemotherapy regimens and provide indirect evidence that RF ablation therapy improves survival in patients with limited lung metastatic disease.

  6. Cryoballoon ablation versus radiofrequency ablation for atrial fibrillation. (United States)

    Reissmann, Bruno; Metzner, Andreas; Kuck, Karl-Heinz


    Catheter ablation (CA) provides the most effective treatment option for patients suffering from symptomatic atrial fibrillation (AF). The procedural cornerstone of all ablation strategies and for all entities of AF is the electrical isolation of the pulmonary veins (PV). CA with the use of radiofrequency (RF) in conjunction with a 3-dimensional electroanatomical mapping system is the most established ablation approach, but it demands a long learning curve and recurrences of AF are commonly the result of recovered PV conduction. As a consequence, novel ablation systems such as the Cryoballoon (CB) have been evolved aiming at facilitation and increased efficacy of pulmonary vein isolation (PVI). CB ablation is characterized by a short learning curve as well as short procedure times and demonstrated non-inferiority with regard to safety and efficacy when being directly compared to RF ablation for treatment of paroxysmal AF. However, RF ablation is first choice for treatment of persistent AF, in particular when expanded ablation strategies beyond PVI are intended in order to improve clinical outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. In-Situ Apatite Laser Ablation U-Th-Sm/He Dating, Methods and Challenges (United States)

    Pickering, J. E.; Matthews, W.; Guest, B.; Hamilton, B.; Sykes, C.


    In-situ, laser ablation U-Th-Sm/He dating is an emerging technique in thermochronology that has been proven as a means to date zircon and monzonite1-5. In-situ U-Th-Sm/He thermochronology eliminates many of the problems and inconveniences associated with traditional, whole grain methods, including; reducing bias in grain selection based on size, shape and clarity; allowing for the use of broken grains and grains with inclusions; avoiding bad neighbour effects; and eliminating safety hazards associated with dissolution. In-situ apatite laser ablation is challenging due to low concentrations of U and Th and thus a low abundance of radiogenic He. For apatite laser ablation to be effective the ultra-high-vacuum (UHV) line must have very low and consistent background levels of He. To reduce He background, samples are mounted in a UHV stable medium. Our mounting process uses a MicroHePP (Microscope Mounted Heated Platen Press) to press samples into FEP (fluorinated ethylene propylene) bonded to an aluminum backing plate. Samples are ablated using a Resonetics 193 nm excimer laser and liberated He is measured using a quadrupole mass spectrometer on the ASI Alphachron noble gas line; collectively this system is known as the Resochron. The ablated sites are imaged using a Zygo Zescope optical profilometer and ablated pit volume measured using PitVol, a custom MatLab algorithm developed to enable precise and unbiased measurement of the ablated pit geometry. We use the well-characterized Durango apatite to demonstrate the accuracy and precision of the method. He liberated from forty-two pits, having volumes between 1700 and 9000 um3, were measured using the Resochron. The ablated sites were imaged using a Zygo Zescope optical profilometer and ablated pit volume measured using PitVol. U, Th and Sm concentrations were measured by laser ablation and the U-Th-Sm/He age calculated by standard age equation. An age of 33.8±0.31 Ma was determined and compares well with conventional

  8. Good practice with endometrial ablation. (United States)

    Garry, R


    To provide clear guidelines for the safe and effective performance of endometrial ablation. Representatives of American, Australian, British, and Canadian hysteroscopists were brought together to produce a consensus document of good practice in endometrial ablation. The guidelines were produced after researching the literature, combining the extensive experience of the group, and debating the relevant issues. Endometrial ablation is a new procedure. Correct patient selection is essential in producing good results. Patients must be counseled carefully about the advantages, disadvantages, and potential complications of this approach to the management of menstrual disorders. The main indication for endometrial ablation is heavy menstrual loss in the absence of organic disease. Excessive uterine size, the presence of active pelvic infection, and evidence of malignant and premalignant endometrium are absolute contraindications. Ablation can be produced by electrosurgical resection, rollerball or rollerbarrel ablation and Nd-YAG laser ablation. Severe complications can occur, and techniques should be adopted to avoid uterine perforation, hemorrhage, and excessive fluid absorption. In skilled hands, endometrial ablation can be a safe and effective treatment for menorrhagia.

  9. Radiofrequency ablation of osteoid osteoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanderschueren, Geert Maria Joris Michael


    The main purpose of this thesis was to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of CT-guided radiofrequency ablation for the treatment of spinal and non-spinal osteoid osteomas. Furthermore, the technical requirements needed for safe radiofrequency ablation and the clinical outcome after radiofrequency

  10. Laboratory Simulations of Micrometeoroid Ablation (United States)

    Thomas, Evan Williamson

    Each day, several tons of meteoric material enters Earth's atmosphere, the majority of which consist of small dust particles (micrometeoroids) that completely ablate at high altitudes. The dust input has been suggested to play a role in a variety of phenomena including: layers of metal atoms and ions, nucleation of noctilucent clouds, effects on stratospheric aerosols and ozone chemistry, and the fertilization of the ocean with bio-available iron. Furthermore, a correct understanding of the dust input to the Earth provides constraints on inner solar system dust models. Various methods are used to measure the dust input to the Earth including satellite detectors, radar, lidar, rocket-borne detectors, ice core and deep-sea sediment analysis. However, the best way to interpret each of these measurements is uncertain, which leads to large uncertainties in the total dust input. To better understand the ablation process, and thereby reduce uncertainties in micrometeoroid ablation measurements, a facility has been developed to simulate the ablation of micrometeoroids in laboratory conditions. An electrostatic dust accelerator is used to accelerate iron particles to relevant meteoric velocities (10-70 km/s). The particles are then introduced into a chamber pressurized with a target gas, and they partially or completely ablate over a short distance. An array of diagnostics then measure, with timing and spatial resolution, the charge and light that is generated in the ablation process. In this thesis, we present results from the newly developed ablation facility. The ionization coefficient, an important parameter for interpreting meteor radar measurements, is measured for various target gases. Furthermore, experimental ablation measurements are compared to predictions from commonly used ablation models. In light of these measurements, implications to the broader context of meteor ablation are discussed.

  11. Syntesis of lanthanum zirconate hydrosols by the ion exchange method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bovina, E A; Tarasova, J V; Chibirova, F Kh, E-mail: [LLC ' Superconductor' , Varshavskoe shosse, 46, 115230, Moscow (Russian Federation)


    Ion exchange of LaCl{sub 3} and ZrOCl{sub 2} aqueous solutions with anion-exchanger AV-17-8 was used to synthesize finely dispersed hydrosol of amorphous lanthanum zirconate La{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7}. Heat treatment of dried La{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7} hydrosols at 700 deg. C and 1100 deg. C resulted in the formation of powders with fluorite and pyrochlore type structures, respectively. Epitaxial La{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7} films were obtained on SrTiO{sub 3} (001) single crystals. The substrate has an influence on the lanthanum zirconate crystal orientation, as well as strong inhibitory effect on sintering processes.

  12. The anatectic effect on the zircon Hf isotope composition of migmatites and associated granites (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Xiang; Gao, Peng; Zheng, Yong-Fei


    Zircon Hf isotope composition is widely used to trace the growth and evolution of continental crust. However, it is controversial whether the Hf isotope composition of magmatic zircons can faithfully reflect that of their sources, especially for S-type granites. In order to provide an insight into this issue, we have revisited the published Lu-Hf isotope data of zircons from well-studied migmatites and associated granites in the Sulu orogen and the Cathaysian terrane, respectively. The results show greatly elevated 176Hf/177Hf ratios (by more than 10ε units) for newly grown zircon domains compared to the relict zircon domains. This indicates considerable contributions from non-zircon Hf to anatectic melts during crustal anatexis and subsequent magmatism. Furthermore, this more radiogenic Hf isotope signature was not erased during magmatic processes such as crystal fractionation during melt ascent and emplacement. The budget of Hf isotopes in source rocks with respect to mineral Lu/Hf ratios suggests the involvement of Hf-bearing major minerals in anatectic reactions by dissolving Hf-bearing major minerals into the anatectic melts. The significant Hf isotope variations in some anatectic and magmatic zircon domains from the migmatites and granites suggest not only the source heterogeneity but also the variable non-zircon Hf contributions. As such, the Hf isotope compositions of anatectic and magmatic zircons are substantially dictated by the mass balance between the non-zircon Hf from anatectic reactions and the zircon-Hf from the dissolution of protolith zircons into the anatectic melts. They are primarily controlled by P-T conditions and mechanism of crustal anatexis, and the magmatic processes during melt evolution. The present study highlights the important contribution of non-zircon Hf to the anatectic and magmatic zircon domains. In this regard, the greatly elevated 176Hf/177Hf ratios for newly grown zircon domains in the migmatites and granites cannot reflect

  13. Zircon U-Pb dating of eclogite from the Qiangtang terrane, north-central Tibet: a case of metamorphic zircon with magmatic geochemical features (United States)

    Zhai, Qing-guo; Jahn, Bor-ming; Li, Xian-hua; Zhang, Ru-yuan; Li, Qiu-li; Yang, Ya-nan; Wang, Jun; Liu, Tong; Hu, Pei-yuan; Tang, Suo-han


    Zircon is probably the most important mineral used in the dating formation of high-pressure (HP) and ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) metamorphic rocks. The origin of zircon, i.e., magmatic or metamorphic, is commonly assessed by its external morphology, internal structure, mineral inclusions, Th/U ratios and trace element composition. In this study, we present an unusual case of metamorphic zircon from the Qiangtang eclogite, north-central Tibet. The zircon grains contain numerous eclogite-facies mineral inclusions, including omphacite, phengite, garnet and rutile; hence, they are clearly of metamorphic origin. However, they display features similar to common magmatic zircon, including euhedral crystal habit, high Th/U ratios and enriched heavy rare earth elements pattern. We suggest that these zircon grains formed from a different reservoir from that for garnet where no trace elements was present and trace element equilibrium between zircon and garnet was achieved. U-Pb dating of zircon gave an age of 232-237 Ma for the eclogite, and that of rutile yielded a slightly younger age of ca. 217 Ma. These ages are consistent with the reported Lu-Hf mineral isochron and phengite Ar-Ar ages. The zircon U-Pb and mineral Lu-Hf isochron ages are interpreted as the time of the peak eclogite-facies metamorphism, whereas the rutile U-Pb and phengite Ar-Ar ages represent the time of exhumation to the middle crust. Thus, the distinction between metamorphic and magmatic zircons cannot be made using only Th/U ratios and heavy REE compositions for HP-UHP metamorphic rocks of oceanic derivation.

  14. Petrology of Zircon-Bearing Diogenite Northwest Africa 10666 (United States)

    Tanner, T. B.; Jeffcoat, C. R.; Righter, M.; Berger, E. L.; Lapen, T. J.; Irving, A. J.; Kuehner, S. M.; Fujihara, G.


    The howardite, eucrite, and diogenite (HED) meteorites are a group of achondrites thought to be derived from the asteroid 4 Vesta, though there is active debate as to whether all diogenites are part of the HED suite. Petrologic investigation of the HED meteorite group provides a means of understanding early planetary differentiation processes and early evolution of planets in our solar system. Diogenites are predominantly coarse grained ortho-pyroxenites with some samples containing appreciable amounts of clinopyroxene, olivine, chromite, and plagioclase. Accessory metal, troilite, and apatite are common. Many diogenites are brecciated, however, there are few poorly to unbrecciated samples. Diogenites are important because they may represent the lower crust of 4 Vesta. Although Mg isotope data indicates that the sources of diogenites are ancient, their crystallization ages are difficult to constrain due to their protracted thermal histories. The limited chronologic data for diogenites also limits the ability to test petrogenetic connections with eucrites and even parent body. A reliable and high closure-temperature isotope system, such as U-Pb in zircon, is needed to address the timing of diogenite igneous crystallization. Description of the textures and mineralogy of diogenites are essential to their classification and understanding their formation, in particular, whether all phases are petrogenetically related. Here, we present detailed petrographic data from a rare zircon-bearing feldspathic diogenite, Northwest Africa (NWA) 10666 and provide textural evidence for igneous crystallization of the zircon.

  15. Zircon Supported Copper Catalysts for the Steam Reforming of Methanol (United States)

    Widiastri, M.; Fendy, Marsih, I. N.


    Steam reforming of methanol (SRM) is known as one of the most favorable catalytic processes for producing hydrogen. Current research on zirconia, ZrO2 supported copper catalyst revealed that CuO/ZrO2 as an active catalyst for the SRM. Zircon, ZrSiO4 is available from the by-product of tin mining. In the work presented here, the catalytic properties of CuO/ZrSiO4 with various copper oxide compositions ranging from 2.70% (catalyst I), 4.12% (catalyst II), and 7.12%-mass (catalyst III), synthesized by an incipient wetness impregnation technique, were investigated to methanol conversion, selectivity towards CO formation, and effect of ZnO addition (7.83%CuO/8.01%ZnO/ZrSiO4 = catalyst V). The catalytic activity was obtained using a fixed bed reactor and the zircon supported catalyst activity was compared to those of CuO/ZnO/Al2O3 catalyst (catalyst IV) and commercial Kujang LTSC catalyst. An X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) analysis was done to identify the abundant phases of the catalysts. The catalysts topography and particle diameter were measured with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and composition of the catalysts was measured by SEM-EDX, scanning electron microscope-energy dispersive using X-ray analysis. The results of this research provide information on the possibility of using zircon (ZrSiO4) as solid support for SRM catalysts.

  16. Effect of zircon on sintering, composition and microstructure of magnesia powders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng C.


    Full Text Available The effects of zircon on sintering, composition and microstructure of fused magnesia powders were studied by XRD, SEM and EDAX. With the increase of zircon content up to 6 wt%, the strength of sintered samples increased but the apparent porosity decreased. 6 wt% is an appropriate content of zircon to possess better properties of samples, and in this case the samples have a dense microstructure and lower content of glass phase. The presence of a liquid phase resulting from zircon addition is the main reason to improve sintering of magnesia powders.

  17. Is VF an Ablatable Rhythm? (United States)

    Cheniti, Ghassen; Hocini, Meleze; Martin, Ruairidh; Sacher, Frederic; Dubois, Remi; Haissaguerre, Michel; Jais, Pierre


    Ventricular fibrillation (VF) has traditionally been considered to be a disorganized arrhythmia not amenable to catheter ablation. However, a better understanding of the VF pathophysiology has allowed identification of targets for ablation. Ablation targeting the premature ventricular complexes which trigger VF was proven to be associated with high success rates and long-term freedom from VF recurrence. Recent mapping data has identified rotors, focal breakthroughs, and figure of eight re-entries as main drivers maintaining human VF. Most interestingly, the type and the spatiotemporal behavior of these drivers are reproducible between different VF episodes. In addition, drivers are usually clustered at the scar borders. This has ushered in a new era of ablation targeting the VF substrate and the drivers maintaining VF with promising results.

  18. Detrital zircon U-Pb ages of Middle Ordovician flysch sandstones in the western ordos margin: New constraints on their provenances, and tectonic implications (United States)

    Jin, Zhang; Jinyi, Li; Jianfeng, Liu; Qianwen, Feng


    The southwestern Ordos Margin is located between the Alax massif to the northwest, the North China Craton (NCC) to the east, and the North Qilian Orogenic Belt (NQOB, part of the Chinese Central Orogenic belt) to the southeast. Controversy surrounds the tectonic setting of the Western Ordos Margin in the Early Paleozoic; key questions are whether the Alax massif connected to the NCC in the Early Paleozoic, when exactly this event did happen, where the Lower Paleozoic sedimentary rocks along the southwestern Ordos had their provenances, and whether the so-called Helan aulacogen formed in the Ordovician. Laser-ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy U-Pb dating of detrital zircons in four samples from Middle Ordovician sandstones in the Xiaoluo Shan and Niushou Shan located in the Western Ordos yield a majority of 206Pb/ 238U ages between 800 and 1000 Ma, a smaller group yields 206Pb/ 238U ages between 500 and 600 Ma; there are a few zircons with other ages, including some older than 2400 Ma. The youngest 206Pb/ 238U ages of the four samples are similar and range from 533 ± 3 Ma to 556 ± 4 Ma. These zircon U-Pb ages combined with several lines of sedimentary evidence imply that the so-called Helan aulacogen did not exist in the Ordovician; a peripheral foreland basin related to the NQOB developed instead. The detritals mainly came from the Alax massif, the North Qilian Arc, and the Dunhuang massif; and the NCC can be excluded as an important provenance. This study also suggested that the Alax massif did not connect with the NCC before the Middle Ordovician, and that the Alax is similar to the Yangtze Craton or the Tarim Craton with a majority of intrusions in the range of 800-1000 Ma and containing Precambrian tillites, which are characteristics that differ from the NCC.

  19. Microstructural constraints on the mechanisms of the transformation to reidite in naturally shocked zircon (United States)

    Erickson, Timmons M.; Pearce, Mark A.; Reddy, Steven M.; Timms, Nicholas E.; Cavosie, Aaron J.; Bourdet, Julien; Rickard, William D. A.; Nemchin, Alexander A.


    Zircon (ZrSiO4) is used to study impact structures because it responds to shock loading and unloading in unique, crystallographically controlled manners. One such phenomenon is the transformation of zircon to the high-pressure polymorph, reidite. This study quantifies the geometric and crystallographic orientation relationships between these two phases using naturally shocked zircon grains. Reidite has been characterized in 32 shocked zircon grains (shocked to stages II and III) using a combination of electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) and focused ion beam cross-sectional imaging techniques. The zircon-bearing clasts were obtained from within suevite breccia from the Nördlingen 1973 borehole, close to the center of the 14.4 Ma Ries impact crater, in Bavaria, Germany. We have determined that multiple sets (up to 4) of reidite lamellae can form in a variety of non-rational habit planes within the parent zircon. However, EBSD mapping demonstrates that all occurrences of lamellar reidite have a consistent interphase misorientation relationship with the host zircon that is characterized by an approximate alignment of a {100}zircon with a {112}reidite and alignment of a {112}zircon with a conjugate {112}reidite. Given the tetragonal symmetry of zircon and reidite, we predict that there are eight possible variants of this interphase relationship for reidite transformation within a single zircon grain. Furthermore, laser Raman mapping of one reidite-bearing grain shows that moderate metamictization can inhibit reidite formation, thereby highlighting that the transformation is controlled by zircon crystallinity. In addition to lamellar reidite, submicrometer-scale granules of reidite were observed in one zircon. The majority of reidite granules have a topotaxial alignment that is similar to the lamellar reidite, with some additional orientation dispersion. We confirm that lamellar reidite likely forms via a deviatoric transformation mechanism in highly crystalline

  20. Geochemistry and zircon U-Pb ages and Hf isotopic composition of Permian alkali granitoids of the Phan Si Pan zone in northwestern Vietnam (United States)

    Hiếu, Phạm Trung; Chen, Fu-kun; Thủy, Nguyễn Thị Bích; Cu'ò'ng, Nguyễn Quốc; Li, Shuang-quing


    The late Permian granitoids exposed in the Phan Si Pan zone of northwestern Vietnam consist mainly of the Ye Yen Sun metaluminous granites and the Nam Xe-Tam Duong peralkaline granites. Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry U-Pb zircon analysis reveals that both the granite suites were emplaced from 253 Ma to 251 Ma. They have a distinctive A-type geochemistry of high 10,000 × Ga/Al ratios of 3.0-5.7 and are also characterized by elevated contents of high field strength elements, A/CNK values of 0.85-1.58, negative Eu-anomalies. Magmatic zircons from the granitoids exhibit positive initial ɛHf values ranging from 6.4 to 15.9 and yield single-stage depleted mantle Hf model ages of 257-663 Ma. This Hf isotopic feature implies significant contribution of juvenile mantle material to the magmas of the spatially and temporally associated Ye Yen Sun metaluminous and Nam Xe-Tam Duong peralkaline granites.

  1. Geology, zircon geochronology, and petrogenesis of Sabalan volcano (northwestern Iran) (United States)

    Ghalamghash, J.; Mousavi, S. Z.; Hassanzadeh, J.; Schmitt, A. K.


    Sabalan Volcano (NW Iran) is an isolated voluminous (4821 m elevation; > 800 km2) composite volcano that is located within the Arabia-Eurasia collision zone. Its edifice was assembled by recurrent eruptions of trachyandesite and dacite magma falling into a relatively restricted compositional range (56-67% SiO2) with high-K calc-alkaline and adakitic trace element (Sr/Y) signatures. Previous K-Ar dating suggested protracted eruptive activity between 5.6 and 1.4 Ma, and a two stage evolution which resulted in the construction of the Paleo- and Neo-Sabalan edifices, respectively. The presence of a topographic moat surrounding Neo-Sabalan and volcanic breccias with locally intense hydrothermal alteration are indicative of intermittent caldera collapse of the central part of Paleo-Sabalan. Volcanic debris-flow and debris-avalanche deposits indicate earlier episodes of volcanic edifice collapse during the Paleo-Sabalan stage. In the Neo-Sabalan stage, three dacitic domes extruded to form the summits of Sabalan (Soltan, Heram, and Kasra). Ignimbrites and minor pumice fall-out deposits are exposed in strongly dissected drainages that in part have breached the caldera depression. Lavas and pyroclastic rocks are varyingly porphyritic with Paleo-Sabalan rocks being trachyandesites carrying abundant phenocrysts (plagioclase + amphibole + pyroxene + biotite). The Neo-Sabalan rocks are slightly more evolved and include dacitic compositions with phenocrysts of plagioclase + amphibole ± alkali-feldspar ± quartz. All Sabalan rock types share a common accessory assemblage (oxides + apatite + zircon). High spatial resolution and sensitivity U-Pb geochronology using Secondary Ionization Mass Spectrometry yielded two clusters of zircon ages which range from 4.5 to 1.3 Ma and 545 to 149 ka, respectively (all ages are averages of multiple determinations per sample). U-Th zircon geochronology for selected Neo-Sabalan rocks agrees with the U-Pb ages, with the youngest zircon rims dating

  2. Timing and conditions of metamorphism and melt crystallization in Greater Himalayan rocks, eastern and central Bhutan: insight from U-Pb zircon and monazite geochronology and trace-element analyses (United States)

    Zeiger, K.; Gordon, S. M.; Long, S. P.; Kylander-Clark, A. R. C.; Agustsson, K.; Penfold, M.


    Within the eastern Himalaya in central and eastern Bhutan, Greater Himalayan (GH) rocks are interpreted to have been thickened by the Kakhtang thrust (KT). In order to understand the metamorphic and exhumation history of the GH and to evaluate the structural significance of the KT, zircon and monazite from twenty samples were analyzed by laser-ablation split-stream ICPMS. In eastern Bhutan, zircon and monazite from samples collected in the KT hanging wall revealed ca. 36-28 Ma metamorphism. Subsequently, the initiation of melt crystallization shows a trend with structural distance above the KT, with early melt crystallization (ca. 27 Ma) in the structurally highest samples and younger melt crystallization (ca. 16 Ma) for leucosomes within the KT zone. Melt crystallization was protracted and continued until ca. 14-13 Ma in both the KT hanging wall and the footwall. In comparison, in central Bhutan, two leucosomes revealed extended melt crystallization from ca. 31 to 19 Ma. The youngest zircon dates from samples exposed structurally above and below the KT are similar, indicating that the KT was not as significant of a structure as other fault systems to which it has been correlated. However, the younging trend in the initiation of melt crystallization with decreasing structural distance above the KT argues that progressive underplating of ductile material assisted in the initial emplacement of the GH unit in central and eastern Bhutan. The KT likely represents a minor shear zone that aided in this underplating process.

  3. Positron annihilation lifetime study of radiation-damaged natural zircons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, J. [Centre for Antimatter-Matter Studies, Research School of Physics and Engineering, The Australian National University, Canberra (Australia); Gaugliardo, P. [Centre for Antimatter-Matter Studies, School of Physics, University of Western Australia (Australia); Farnan, I.; Zhang, M. [Department of Earth Sciences, University of Cambridge (United Kingdom); Vance, E.R.; Davis, J.; Karatchevtseva, I.; Knott, R.B. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (Australia); Mudie, S. [The Australian Synchrotron, Victoria (Australia); Buckman, S.J. [Centre for Antimatter-Matter Studies, Research School of Physics and Engineering, The Australian National University, Canberra (Australia); Institute for Mathematical Sciences, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Sullivan, J.P., E-mail: [Centre for Antimatter-Matter Studies, Research School of Physics and Engineering, The Australian National University, Canberra (Australia)


    Zircons are a well-known candidate waste form for actinides and their radiation damage behaviour has been widely studied by a range of techniques. In this study, well-characterised natural single crystal zircons have been studied using Positron Annihilation Lifetime Spectroscopy (PALS). In some, but not all, of the crystals that had incurred at least half of the alpha-event damage of ∼10{sup 19} α/g required to render them structurally amorphous, PALS spectra displayed long lifetimes corresponding to voids of ∼0.5 nm in diameter. The long lifetimes corresponded to expectations from published Small-Angle X-ray Scattering data on similar samples. However, the non-observation by PALS of such voids in some of the heavily damaged samples may reflect large size variations among the voids such that no singular size can be distinguished or. Characterisation of a range of samples was also performed using scanning electron microscopy, optical absorption spectroscopy, Raman scattering and X-ray scattering/diffraction, with the degree of alpha damage being inferred mainly from the Raman technique and X-ray diffraction. The observed void diameters and intensities of the long lifetime components were changed somewhat by annealing at 700 °C; annealing at 1200 °C removed the voids entirely. The voids themselves may derive from He gas bubbles or voids created by the inclusion of small quantities of organic and hydrous matter, notwithstanding the observation that no voidage was evidenced by PALS in two samples containing hydrous and organic matter. - Highlights: • Study of a range of naturally occurring zircons damaged by alpha radiation. • Characterised using a range of techniques, including PALS spectroscopy. • Effects on hydrous material appear important, rather than direct radiation damage. • Annealing is shown to remove the observed voids.

  4. Microwave-assisted hydrothermal synthesis of lead zirconate fine powders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apinpus Rujiwatra


    Full Text Available A rapid synthesis of lead zirconate fine powders by microwave-assisted hydrothermal technique is reported. The influences of type of lead precursor, concentration of potassium hydroxide mineraliser, applied microwave power and irradiation time are described. The synthesised powders were characterised by powder X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopic microanalysis and light scattering technique. The merits of the microwave application in reducing reaction time and improving particle mono-dispersion and size uniformity as well as the drawbacks, viz. low purity of the desired phase and increasing demand of mineraliser, are discussed in relation to conventional heating method.

  5. Direct laser processing of bulk lead zirconate titanate ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernard, Sheldon A.; Balla, Vamsi Krishna; Bose, Susmita [W.M. Keck Biomedical Materials Research Laboratory, School of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164 (United States); Bandyopadhyay, Amit, E-mail: [W.M. Keck Biomedical Materials Research Laboratory, School of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164 (United States)


    Laser Engineered Net Shaping (LENS{sup TM}) has been used to fabricate dense, net shape melt-cast structures of lead zirconate titanate (PZT), in a single step, directly on a metallic substrate by complete melting and resolidification of PZT powders. From our results, it appears that reasonable dielectric properties can be obtained in LENS{sup TM} processed PZT structures without post-fabrication heat treatments. Our results also demonstrate potential application of LENS{sup TM} towards direct fabrication of PZT based embedded sensors and transducers on structural components.

  6. Pb–Pb zircon ages of Archaean metasediments and gneisses from ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Zircons from orthogneisses from the two parts also yielded similar ages. Imprints of younger events have been discerned in the ages of overgrowths on older zircon cores in samples collected throughout the craton. Our data show that the evolution of the southwestern part of eastern Dharwar craton involved a significant ...

  7. Interpreting U-Pb data from primary and secondary features in lunar zircon (United States)

    Grange, M. L.; Pidgeon, R. T.; Nemchin, A. A.; Timms, N. E.; Meyer, C.


    In this paper, we describe primary and secondary microstructures and textural characteristics found in lunar zircon and discuss the relationships between these features and the zircon U-Pb isotopic systems and the significance of these features for understanding lunar processes. Lunar zircons can be classified according to: (i) textural relationships between zircon and surrounding minerals in the host breccias, (ii) the internal microstructures of the zircon grains as identified by optical microscopy, cathodoluminescence (CL) imaging and electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) mapping and (iii) results of in situ ion microprobe analyses of the Th-U-Pb isotopic systems. Primary zircon can occur as part of a cogenetic mineral assemblage (lithic clast) or as an individual mineral clast and is unzoned, or has sector and/or oscillatory zoning. The age of primary zircon is obtained when multiple ion microprobe analyses across the polished surface of the grain give reproducible and essentially concordant data. A secondary set of microstructures, superimposed on primary zircon, include localised recrystallised domains, localised amorphous domains, crystal-plastic deformation, planar deformation features and fractures, and are associated with impact processes. The first two secondary microstructures often yield internally consistent and close to concordant U-Pb ages that we interpret as dating impact events. Others secondary microstructures such as planar deformation features, crystal-plastic deformation and micro-fractures can provide channels for Pb diffusion and result in partial resetting of the U-Pb isotopic systems.

  8. Pb–Pb zircon ages of Archaean metasediments and gneisses from ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    207Pb–206Pb ages of zircons in samples of metasediments as well as ortho- and para-gneisses from both the western and ... discerned in the ages of overgrowths on older zircon cores in samples collected throughout the craton. Our data show that ... ton and also examine the prevalent concepts on the tectonic evolution of ...

  9. Phase quantification of mullite-zirconia and zircon commercial powders using PAC and XRD techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rendtorff, Nicolas M.; Conconi, Maria S.; Aglietti, Esteban F. [Centro de Tecnologia de Recursos Minerales y Ceramica (CETMIC: CONICET-CIC) (Argentina); Chain, Cecilia Y.; Pasquevich, Alberto F. [Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Departamento de Fisica, IFLP, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas (Argentina); Rivas, Patricia C. [CONICET (Argentina); Martinez, Jorge A., E-mail:; Caracoche, Maria C. [Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Departamento de Fisica, IFLP, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas (Argentina)


    The short range technique of the Perturbed Angular Correlation (PAC) and x-ray diffraction (Rietveld) methods have been employed to determine the phase content in commercial mullite-zirconia and zircon raw materials that are ordinarily used to produce ceramic materials. The PAC technique, which probes zirconium-containing compounds at nanoscopic level, showed that zircon contains crystalline ZrSiO{sub 4} and an important amount of a structurally distorted zircon, which is also observed accompanying monoclinic zirconia in mullite-zirconia. This particular zircon phase was not detected by the long range x-ray diffraction-Rietveld technique. After an annealing treatment, important changes in crystalline contents of the powders allow confirming, by the x-ray diffraction-Rietveld method, the preexistence of this particular zircon phase. This fact must be taken into account when preparing multicomposites based on the present raw materials.

  10. Zircon and baddeleyite from the economic ultramafic-mafic Noril'sk-1 intrusion (Russia): Hf-isotope constraints on source composition (United States)

    Malitch, K. N.; Belousova, E. A.; Badanina, I. Yu.; Griffin, W. L.


    of the Noril'sk-1 intrusion, which served as the favorable factor for accumulation of ores of unique scales and concentrations, To test this hypothesis, in situ Hf-isotope data were collected on the dated spots within single zircon grains. The analysis used a New Wave LUV213 laser-ablation microprobe attached to a Nu plasma MC-ICP-MS at GEMOC (Griffin et al. 2002). Hf-isotope results grouped on the basis of lithology show notable differences. Zircons from the unmineralized 'layered rock sequence' (e.g., olivine-free gabbro, olivine-bearing gabbro and olivine gabbro) are characterized by the most 'radiogenic' initial 176Hf/177Hf and some of ɛHf values close to those of the Depleted Mantle. Irrespective of zircon population most radiogenic Hf-isotope compositions are typical for olivine-free gabbro (mean ɛHf 7.3 ± 1.1 for sample N1-4), olivine-bearing gabbro (9.2 ± 3.8, sample N1-5) and olivine gabbro (8.3 ± 2.0, sample N1-6). In contrast, zircons from the leucogabbro that encloses the low-sulphide horizon (N1-3), and plagiowehrlite (N1-7) and taxitic-textured rocks (N1-8 and N1-9) with disseminated sulphide ores have less radiogenic Hf-isotope values (e.g., mean ɛHf6.2 ± 1.4, 5.9 ± 2.3, 6.4 ± 1.2 and 4.9±1.4, respectively). The least radiogenic values (ɛHffrom -2.9 to +2.3, mean ɛHf = 0.1 ± 1.9) are recorded in gabbro-diorite from the upper part of intrusion. The baddeleyite from olivine-free gabbro has the narrowest range of ɛHf values (e.g. 6.8-8.4), with a mean of ɛHfof 7.6 ± 0.8, closely matching that of zircon (mean ɛHf= 7.3 ± 1.1). Zircons from the leucogabbro that hosts the low-sulphide horizon (N1-3), and ultramafic and taxitic-textured lithologies with disseminated sulphide ores (N1-7, N1-8 and N1-9) have less radiogenic ɛHf values than those in barren lithologies. The Hf-isotope data for zircons from ore-bearing rocks thus suggest that the Noril'sk magmas represent mixing between a juvenile source equivalent to the Depleted Mantle and a

  11. Fragmentation and ablation during entry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canavan, G.H.


    This note discusses objects that both fragment and ablate during entry, using the results of previous reports to describe the velocity, pressure, and fragmentation of entering objects. It shows that the mechanisms used there to describe the breakup of non-ablating objects during deceleration remain valid for most ablating objects. It treats coupled fragmentation and ablation during entry, building on earlier models that separately discuss the entry of objects that are hard, whose high heat of ablation permits little erosion, and those who are strong whose strength prevents fragmentation, which are discussed in ``Radiation from Hard Objects,`` ``Deceleration and Radiation of Strong, Hard, Asteroids During Atmospheric Impact,`` and ``Meteor Signature Interpretation.`` This note provides a more detailed treatment of the further breakup and separation of fragments during descent. It replaces the constraint on mass per unit area used earlier to determine the altitude and magnitude of peak power radiation with a detailed analytic solution of deceleration. Model predictions are shown to be in agreement with the key features of numerical calculations of deceleration. The model equations are solved for the altitudes of maximum radiation, which agree with numerical integrations. The model is inverted analytically to infer object size and speed from measurements of peak power and altitude to provide a complete model for the approximate inversion of meteor data.

  12. Zircons reveal magma fluxes in the Earth's crust. (United States)

    Caricchi, Luca; Simpson, Guy; Schaltegger, Urs


    Magma fluxes regulate the planetary thermal budget, the growth of continents and the frequency and magnitude of volcanic eruptions, and play a part in the genesis and size of magmatic ore deposits. However, because a large fraction of the magma produced on the Earth does not erupt at the surface, determinations of magma fluxes are rare and this compromises our ability to establish a link between global heat transfer and large-scale geological processes. Here we show that age distributions of zircons, a mineral often present in crustal magmatic rocks, in combination with thermal modelling, provide an accurate means of retrieving magma fluxes. The characteristics of zircon age populations vary significantly and systematically as a function of the flux and total volume of magma accumulated in the Earth's crust. Our approach produces results that are consistent with independent determinations of magma fluxes and volumes of magmatic systems. Analysis of existing age population data sets using our method suggests that porphyry-type deposits, plutons and large eruptions each require magma input over different timescales at different characteristic average fluxes. We anticipate that more extensive and complete magma flux data sets will serve to clarify the control that the global heat flux exerts on the frequency of geological events such as volcanic eruptions, and to determine the main factors controlling the distribution of resources on our planet.

  13. Synthesis, Characterization and Thermal Diffusivity of Holmium and Praseodymium Zirconates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stopyra M.


    Full Text Available A2B2O7 oxides with pyrochlore or defected fluorite structure are among the most promising candidates for insulation layer material in thermal barrier coatings. The present paper presents the procedure of synthesis of holmium zirconate Ho2Zr2O7 and praseodymium zirconate Pr2Zr2O7 via Polymerized-Complex Method (PCM. Thermal analysis of precursor revealed that after calcination at relatively low temperature (700°C fine-crystalline, single-phase material is obtained. Thermal diffusivity was measured in temperature range 25-200°C, Ho2Zr2O7 exhibits lower thermal diffusivity than Pr2Zr2O7. Additionally, PrHoZr2O7 was synthesized. The powder in as-calcined condition is single-phase, but during the sintering decomposition of solid solution took place and Ho-rich phase precipitated. This material exhibited the best insulating properties among the tested ones.

  14. Comparison of Zircon (Ti) Thermometry and Typology of the Cappadocian Ignimbrites (United States)

    Akin, Lutfiye; Aydar, Erkan; Schmitt, Axel K.; Çubukçu, H. Evren


    The typological study of zircons is a valuable, convenient, reliable and economical tool since this mineral is highly resistant to alteration and post-magmatic heating. The zircon morphology yields information on temperature and the chemistry of magma hence can be a perfect indicator of the origin of material (e.g., crustal, hybrid or mantle). Zircon typology method has been applied to 8 different ignimbrite successions (Kavak-9.3 Ma, Zelve-9.2 Ma, Sarimadentepe-8.4 Ma, Sofular-8.2 Ma, Cemilkoy-7.2 Ma, Tahar-6.1 Ma, Gordeles-6.4 Ma, Kizilkaya-5.2 Ma) of Miocene-Pliocene in Central Anatolian Volcanic Province. The growth of the pyramidal and prismal faces of zircon crystals, extracted from pumices of each ignimbrite, has been examined and plot onto typology diagram. The temperature index (I.T.), which depends on the relative change of the (110) and (100) prismal faces and alkaline index (I.A.), which depends on the change of the (211) and (301) pyramidal faces, are determined. Typological Evolution Trend (T.E.T) which is used for granitoid classification, is drawn based on estimated I.T. and I.A.. Furthermore, Ti-thermometry of zircons has been applied in order to estimate the emplacement temperatures of the magmatic rocks. For that purpose, Ti concentrations of zircons and host rocks are determined. Zircon evolution temperatures and zircon saturation temperatures are calculated according to Ferry and Watson (2007) and Watson and Harrison (1983). Obtained zircon geothermometry data have been correlated with the zircon typology data. Zircon evolution temperature estimated from zircon crystals are 741oC ( Tmin=-30oC and Tmax=16oC) for Kavak, 749oC (Tmin=-31oC and Tmax=33oC) for Zelve, 811oC (Tmin=-37oC and Tmax=53 oC) for Sarimadentepe, 807oC (Tmin=-24oC and Tmax=61oC) for Sofular, 739oC (Tmin=-58oC and Tmax=42oC) for Cemilkoy, 768oC for Tahar, 806oC (Tmin=-37oC and Tmax=29oC) for Gordeles, 805oC (Tmin=-35oC and Tmax=69oC) for Gordeles-B, 765oC (Tmin=-25oC and Tmax=48

  15. Musculoskeletal interventional radiology: radiofrequency ablation. (United States)

    Ward, Emily; Munk, Peter L; Rashid, Faisal; Torreggiani, William C


    Radiofrequency ablation is the use of low-voltage high-frequency electrical energy to heat and destroy abnormal tissues within the human body. It has gained increasing acceptance as both a primary and secondary form of treatment in the musculoskeletal system because of its excellent safety profile, ease of use, and technical success. In the musculoskeletal system, radiofrequency ablation may be used to treat a wide range of lesions that include primary lesions such as osteoid osteomas and a variety of metastases both within the osseous skeleton as well as those lying within the muscles and soft tissues. In this chapter, a background to the principles, physics, and indications of radiofrequency is presented as well as an in-depth description of radiofrequency ablation techniques that may be utilized in the musculoskeletal system.

  16. Laser ablation studies of nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg V. Mkrtychev


    Full Text Available The first experimental measurements of the threshold energy density values for the laser ablation of glass nanocomposites with nanodimensional coatings have been carried out under the action of the YAG–Nd laser power pulse radiation. The coatings in question were of different compositions and had been created by the sol–gel technology. The procedure for determining the laser ablation threshold energy density values was worked out on the base of the breakdown probability level of 0.5. The statistical processing of the measurement data over all the samples allowed obtaining the dependence of the ablation destruction threshold energy parameters on the coating physical and chemical properties such as the sample transmission in the visible region of the spectrum, coating thickness, the chemical composition of the film-forming solution, and on the pulse duration of laser radiation.

  17. Precise U/Pb zircons dates of bentonites in Upper Ordovician and Lower Silurian reference sections in North America and Britain. (United States)

    Suarez, S. E.; Brookfield, M. E.; Catlos, E. J.; Stockli, D. F.; Batchelor, R. A.


    The end of the Ordovician marks one of the greatest of the Earth's mass extinctions. One hypothesis explains this mass extinction as the result of a short-lived, major glaciation preceded by episodes of increased volcanism brought on by the Taconic orogeny. K-bentonites, weathered volcanic ash, provide evidence for increased volcanism. However, there is a lack of modern precise U-Pb dating of these ashes and some confusion in the biostratigraphy. The aim of this study is to obtain more precise U-Pb zircon ages from biostratigraphically constrained bentonites which will lead to better correlation of the Upper Ordovician and Lower Silurian relative time scales, as well as time the pulses of eruption. Zircon grains were extracted from the samples by heavy mineral separation and U-Pb dated using the Laser Ablation-Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometer at the University of Texas-Austin. We report here 3 precise U-Pb zircon ages from the Trenton Group, Ontario, Canada, and Dob's Linn, Scotland. The youngest age from the top of the Kirkfield Formation in Ontario is 448.0 +/- 18 Ma, which fits with existing late Ordovician stratigraphic ages. At Dob's Linn, Scotland, the site of the Ordovician/Silurian Global Boundary Stratigraphic Section and Point (GSSP), the youngest age for DL7, a bentonite 5 meters below the GSSP is 402.0 +/- 12.0 Ma, and for DL24L, a bentonite 8 meters above the GSSP is 358.2 +/- 7.9 Ma. These are Devonian ages in current timescales - the current age for the GSSP is 443.8 +/- 1.8 Ma, based on an U/Pb dates from a bentonite 1.6 meters above the GSSP at Dob's Linn. We are confident that our techniques rule out contamination and the most likely explanation is that the small zircons we analyzed either suffered Pb loss, or grew overgrowths during low grade hydrothermal metamorphism of the sediments during the intrusion of the Southern Upland Devonian granites during the Caledonian orogeny. These Devonian ages suggest that the 443.8 +/- 1.8 Ma age

  18. Radiofrequency Catheter Ablation of Parahisian Accessory Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korodi Szilamér


    Full Text Available Radiofrequency catheter ablation of parahisian accessory pathways in pre-excitation syndrome is a challenging task, due to the extremely high risk of complete atrioventricular block. In this brief report we describe the case of a 32 year-old man presenting a parahisian accessory pathway, who has been successfully treated by radiofrequency ablation. Radiofrequency catheter ablation using low-power radiofrequency current is considered to be the most appropiate method of ablation in adult patients.

  19. Femtosecond laser ablation of dentin (United States)

    Alves, S.; Oliveira, V.; Vilar, R.


    The surface morphology, structure and composition of human dentin treated with a femtosecond infrared laser (pulse duration 500 fs, wavelength 1030 nm, fluences ranging from 1 to 3 J cm-2) was studied by scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The average dentin ablation threshold under these conditions was 0.6 ± 0.2 J cm-2 and the ablation rate achieved in the range 1 to 2 µm/pulse for an average fluence of 3 J cm-2. The ablation surfaces present an irregular and rugged appearance, with no significant traces of melting, deformation, cracking or carbonization. The smear layer was entirely removed by the laser treatment. For fluences only slightly higher than the ablation threshold the morphology of the laser-treated surfaces was very similar to the dentin fracture surfaces and the dentinal tubules remained open. For higher fluences, the surface was more porous and the dentin structure was partially concealed by ablation debris and a few resolidified droplets. Independently on the laser processing parameters and laser processing method used no sub-superficial cracking was observed. The dentin constitution and chemical composition was not significantly modified by the laser treatment in the processing parameter range used. In particular, the organic matter is not preferentially removed from the surface and no traces of high temperature phosphates, such as the β-tricalcium phosphate, were observed. The achieved results are compatible with an electrostatic ablation mechanism. In conclusion, the high beam quality and short pulse duration of the ultrafast laser used should allow the accurate preparation of cavities, with negligible damage of the underlying material.

  20. Catheter ablation for paroxysmal atrial fibrillation: segmental pulmonary vein ostial ablation versus left atrial ablation. (United States)

    Oral, Hakan; Scharf, Christoph; Chugh, Aman; Hall, Burr; Cheung, Peter; Good, Eric; Veerareddy, Srikar; Pelosi, Frank; Morady, Fred


    Segmental ostial catheter ablation (SOCA) to isolate the pulmonary veins (PVs) and left atrial catheter ablation (LACA) to encircle the PVs both may eliminate paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (PAF). The relative efficacy of these 2 techniques has not been directly compared. Of 80 consecutive patients with symptomatic PAF (age, 52+/-10 years), 40 patients underwent PV isolation by SOCA and 40 patients underwent LACA to encircle the PVs. During SOCA, ostial PV potentials recorded with a ring catheter were targeted. LACA was performed by encircling the left- and right-sided PVs 1 to 2 cm from the ostia and was guided by an electroanatomic mapping system; ablation lines also were created in the mitral isthmus and posterior left atrium. The mean procedure and fluoroscopy times were 156+/-45 and 50+/-17 minutes for SOCA and 149+/-33 and 39+/-12 minutes for LACA, respectively. At 6 months, 67% of patients who underwent SOCA and 88% of patients who underwent LACA were free of symptomatic PAF when not taking antiarrhythmic drug therapy (P=0.02). Among the variables of age, sex, duration and frequency of PAF, ejection fraction, left atrial size, structural heart disease, and the ablation technique, only an increased left atrial size and the SOCA technique were independent predictors of recurrent PAF. The only complication was left atrial flutter in a patient who underwent LACA. In patients undergoing catheter ablation for PAF, LACA to encircle the PVs is more effective than SOCA.

  1. Ablation of Solid Hydrogen in a Plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, L. W.; Sillesen, Alfred Hegaard


    Several hydrogen pellet ablation models based on the formation of a shielding neutral cloud have been reported by different authors. The predicted ablation rates are shown to follow almost the same scaling law and this is used to explain the authors' ablation experiment....

  2. Surface Characteristics and Bioactivity of a Novel Natural HA/Zircon Nanocomposite Coated on Dental Implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Karamian


    Full Text Available The surface characteristics of implant which influence the speed and strength of osseointegration include surface chemistry, crystal structure and crystallinity, roughness, strain hardening, and presence of impurities. The aim of this study was to evaluate the bioactivity and roughness of a novel natural hydroxyapatite/zircon (NHA/zircon nanobiocomposite, coated on 316L stainless steel (SS soaked in simulated body fluid (SBF. NHA/zircon nanobiocomposite was fabricated with 0 wt.%, 5 wt.%, 10 wt.%, and 15 wt.% of zircon in NHA using ball mill for 20 minutes. The composite mixture was coated on 316L SS using plasma spray method. The results are estimated using the scanning electron microscopy (SEM observation to evaluate surface morphology, X-ray diffraction (XRD to analyze phase composition, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM technique to evaluate the shape and size of prepared NHA. Surfaces roughness tester was performed to characterize the coated nanocomposite samples. The maximum average Ra (14.54 μm was found in the NHA 10 wt.% of zircon coating. In addition, crystallinity (Xc was measured by XRD data, which indicated the minimum value (Xc = 41.1% for the sample containing 10 wt.% of zircon. Maximum bioactivity occurred in the sample containing 10 wt.% of zircon, which was due to two reasons: first, the maximum roughness and, second, the minimum crystallinity of nanobiocomposite coating.

  3. Modelling of optically stimulated luminescence of zircon: assessment of the suitability for dating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turkin, A A [National Science Centre, Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology, 1 Akademichna str., 61108 Kharkov (Ukraine); Vainshtein, D I [Solid State Physics Laboratory, University of Groningen, 4 Nijenborgh, 9747 AG Groningen (Netherlands); Hartog, H W den [Solid State Physics Laboratory, University of Groningen, 4 Nijenborgh, 9747 AG Groningen (Netherlands)


    The mineral zircon, ZrSiO{sub 4}, is a candidate material for optical dating because it exhibits luminescence after exposure to natural radioactivity. The kinetic model of zircon thermally stimulated luminescence proposed before has been modified and used to investigate optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) of zircon. The purpose is to explore what might be expected from zircon during real experiments because experimentally zircon OSL has not been studied systematically. Any luminescence dating method involves, as a necessary step, a laboratory irradiation at dose rates much higher than the dose rate of natural radioactivity. The model of zircon OSL predicts a significant and complicated dose rate and temperature effects. Our simulation results suggest that this problem may be solved by laboratory irradiation at elevated temperature followed by a preheat. Such a combined treatment allows one to reproduce the dose response expected from the naturally irradiated material (after the same preheat treatment). The shape of the theoretically calculated dose response curve reconstructed in this way exhibits a weak sensitivity to variation of laboratory irradiation temperature for ages younger than a few thousand years. This means that zircon OSL can probably be used successfully for dating of young samples.

  4. ;Inverted; zircon and apatite (U-Th)/He dates from the Front Range, Colorado: High-damage zircon as a low-temperature (<50 °C) thermochronometer (United States)

    Johnson, Joshua E.; Flowers, Rebecca M.; Baird, Graham B.; Mahan, Kevin H.


    Zircon (U-Th)/He (ZHe) data were acquired for 23 Proterozoic basement samples from an E-W transect through the Colorado Front Range to evaluate whether metamict zircons yield sensible (U-Th)/He data patterns and useful thermal history information. The 112 ZHe dates vary from 147 to 7 Ma, define positive and negative date-eU correlations, and are younger than titanite (U-Th)/He dates that range from 976 to 614 Ma. At moderate to high alpha dose of 1018-1019 α /g, zircons from the range core yield Laramide (52.5 ± 9.6 Ma) dates, whereas those within ∼15 km of the range front yield Miocene (21.6 ± 7.7 Ma) results. The He dates for the high alpha dose zircons are reproducible within each sample suite despite their visibly metamict character. The ∼20 Ma range front ZHe dates are younger than apatite (U-Th)/He (AHe) dates (66.5 ± 9.6 Ma) and published apatite fission-track data (65-45 Ma) for the same and nearby samples. Thermal history simulations can reproduce the first-order range front date-eU patterns and ZHe-AHe date inversion, but the high-damage zircons are more He retentive than predicted by the zircon damage He kinetic model. The ∼20 Ma ZHe dates may be explained by reheating from hydrothermal fluids along range front faults. The results demonstrate the promise of using He data for high-damage zircons to detect low-temperature (<50 °C) events within and below the temperature sensitivity of the AHe system.

  5. Ablative zone size created by radiofrequency ablation with and without chemoembolization in small hepatocellular carcinomas. (United States)

    Yamanaka, Takashi; Yamakado, Koichiro; Takaki, Haruyuki; Nakatsuka, Atsuhiro; Shiraki, Katsuya; Hasegawa, Hiroshi; Takei, Yoshiyuki; Takeda, Kan


    We retrospectively evaluated whether combined use of chemoembolization expands ablative zone sizes created by radiofrequency (RF) ablation in patients with small hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs). Fifty-seven patients treated with single RF ablation for solitary HCC measuring ≤2 cm were assessed. RF ablation alone was done in nine patients and in 48 patients following chemoembolization, with an interval of 0 days in 6, 1-14 days in 27, 15-28 days in 6, and ≥4 weeks in 9. Ablative zone sizes, disappearance of tumor enhancement, and creation of sufficient ablative margins (>5 mm) were evaluated on contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) images. Both mean long-axis (4.2-4.7 vs. 3.6 ± 0.4 cm, p ablation was done until 4 weeks after chemoembolization than with RF ablation alone. Tumor enhancement disappeared in all patients. Frequency of achieving sufficient ablative margins was significantly higher when RF ablation was done until 4 weeks after chemoembolization than with RF ablation alone (74.0-83.3 vs. 22.2 %, p Ablative zones created by RF ablation with chemoembolization become larger than RF ablation alone, leading to secure ablative margins.

  6. Peculiar Feldspar And Quartz Inclusions Within Zircons From Anorthosites, North Eastern Desert, Egypt (United States)

    Eliwa, H. A.; Dawoud, M. I.; Khalaf, I. M.; Negendank, J. F.; Itaya, T.


    Zircons from three anorthosite outcrops along Wadi Dib area, north Eastern Desert of Egypt contain abundant and conspicuous inclusions of quartz, feldspar, amphibole and apatite. These anorthosites, as (50-100m thick) layers, represent the top of mafic-ultramafic intrusions exhibiting rhythmic layering visible by reputation of melanocratic and leucocratic layers. Field and microscopic studies exhibit that these anorthosites were affected by the action of residual magmatic solutions associated with the late stage crystallization of the younger granites, which modified their mineralogical composition. They are composed totally of plagioclase with subordinate amount of clinoenstatite, augite, amphibole, biotite, K-feldspar, and quartz. Accessories are magnetite, ilmenite, apatite and zircon. The abundance and the mode of occurrence of K-feldspar, quartz, and biotite with apatite and zircon among the megacrysts suggest their formation is ascribed to the interaction with the residual solutions. The microprobe data exhibit difference between feldspar and amphiboles contained herein zircons and those as anorthosite mineral constituents. The genetic relationship between zircons and their inclusions suggests later growth of zircons than inclusions and most probably at the final stage of rock modification. Zircons are magmatic and found in the interstitial feldspar and quartz among plagioclase megacrysts in aggregates or as individual grains. The microscopic and SEM images investigation exhibit that most zircons are subhedral to euhedral equant and prismatic crystals. Most zircons have same range of crystal morphologies and internal growth structures with predominance of prism /{100/} and pyramid /{101/} and occasionally prism /{110/} and pyramid /{111/}. No evidences for poly-faceted grains, inherited cores or later overgrowths were detected. CL images distinguished zircons with visible core-rim structures and others with regular and continuous growth zones contained herein

  7. Annealing of natural metamict zircons: II high degree of radiation damage

    CERN Document Server

    Colombo, M


    In situ time-dependent high-temperature X-ray powder diffraction was used to study the amorphous to crystalline transition in natural zircons which are characterized by a high degree of radiation damage. It was possible to distinguish two stages of the annealing process: (i) the recovery of the heavily disturbed but still crystalline domains and (ii) the recrystallization of the amorphous regions. The first stage is very fast under the chosen experimental conditions and, at least apparently, is not thermally activated. The second stage is a diffusion-controlled process, whose products (zircon or zircon and zirconia phases) are strongly correlated to the annealing temperature.

  8. Strontium zirconate as silicon and aluminum scavenger in yttria stabilized zirconia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas; Hansen, Karin Vels; Chorkendorff, Ib


    Here we report on strontium zirconate as a getter for silicon dioxide and aluminum oxide in yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) single crystals for cleaning purposes. YSZ single crystals were covered with strontium zirconate powder and heat treated at 1450°C in water vapor. After treatment the YSZ...... by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) the interface region between bump and YSZ single crystal bulk was examined. EDS showed a homogeneous distribution of silicon and aluminum through the cross section of a bump. The results suggest strontium zirconate as a good getter for silicon and aluminum from bulk...

  9. A detrital zircon provenance study of the Lower Carboniferous sequences in the East Fife section of the Midland Valley of Scotland (United States)

    Murchie, Sean; Robinson, Ruth, ,, Dr; Lancaster, Penelope, ,, Dr


    Detrital zircons from the Lower Carboniferous clastic rocks of the Midland Valley of Scotland have been dated using U-Pb laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICPMS) to determine which source areas contributed sediment to the basin during its development, and to investigate whether provenance changed during deposition of these units. Specific provenance detection using U/Pb dating of zircons has never been attempted in these rocks, and there are uncertainties remaining about the regional paleogeographic setting for the Midland Valley. Four samples from the Dinantian Strathclyde Group have been analysed, and the units are locally known as the Fife Ness, Anstruther, Pittenweem, Sandy Craig, and Pathhead formations. The formations are composed of shallow marine, deltaic, fluvial and floodplain deposits and these predominantly siliciclastic sedimentary rocks are interbedded with thin fossiliferous carbonate bands. The samples are quartz arenitic, sub-arkosic and lithic arkosic medium-grained sandstones, predominantly from a fluvial origin. The British Geological Survey developed a lithostratigraphy which is the most used framework for the Strathclyde Group (Browne et al., 1997), but a different biostratigraphical framework based on palynology has been proposed by Owens et al. (2005). In addition to identifying provenance, the zircon age populations for each formation are compared to test which stratigraphic framework is correct. More broadly, the provenance data provides a way to improve the regional palaeogeographic setting for the Midland Valley. Zircon ages in the Strathclyde Group are dominated by Late Mesoproterozoic to Late Palaeoproterozoic (0.9 - 2.0 Ga) and Early Palaeozoic (350 - 450 Ma) ages which reflect Caledonide (Laurentian-Baltica margin including Scotland, Scandinavia, Greenland, Newfoundland), Grampian and internal Midland Valley source areas. Notable peaks occur at 400 Ma, 1.0 --1.1 Ga, 1.3 Ga, 1.6 - 1.7 Ga, and 2.7 Ga, and

  10. Investigation of excimer laser ablation of iron (United States)

    Jordan, R.; Lunney, J. G.


    The excimer ablation of iron at 248 nm has been investigated by measuring the ablation depth and average ion energy as a function of laser fluence. Measurements have also been made of the laser transmission through the ablated vapour above the target. The absolute spectral intensity of the emission from the ablation plasma has been measured in both the vacuum ultraviolet and the visible. All results were compared with a simple numerical model describing the main physical processes involved in laser ablation of metal targets.

  11. Modern Advances in Ablative TPS (United States)

    Venkatapathy, Ethiraj


    Topics covered include: Physics of Hypersonic Flow and TPS Considerations. Destinations, Missions and Requirements. State of the Art Thermal Protection Systems Capabilities. Modern Advances in Ablative TPS. Entry Systems Concepts. Flexible TPS for Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerators. Conformal TPS for Rigid Aeroshell. 3-D Woven TPS for Extreme Entry Environment. Multi-functional Carbon Fabric for Mechanically Deployable.

  12. Fractional ablative erbium YAG laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taudorf, Elisabeth H; Haak, Christina S; Erlendsson, Andrés M


    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Treatment of a variety of skin disorders with ablative fractional lasers (AFXL) is driving the development of portable AFXLs. This study measures micropore dimensions produced by a small 2,940 nm AFXL using a variety of stacked pulses, and determines a model correlating...

  13. Microwave ablation of lung tissue: impact of single-lung ventilation on ablation size. (United States)

    Santos, Ricardo S; Gan, Jianmin; Ohara, Carl J; Daly, Benedict; Ebright, Michael I; Desimone, Michael; Fernando, Hiran C


    Thermal ablation is increasingly used to treat pulmonary tumors in medically inoperable patients. Most procedures are performed with sedation in the radiology suite. Ideally, the ablation should encompass the entire tumor volume with a surrounding margin of necrosis; however, ablation may not be as effective in the normal aerated lung surrounding a denser tumor. Inducing atelectasis of the lung may potentially increase ablation volumes and increase local cancer control. This study examines the effect of single-lung ventilation on ablation size using a microwave system. Twenty microwave ablation procedures were performed in the lungs of 10 swine. Bilateral thoracotomy using a clamshell approach was used. In one lung, ablation was performed with continuous ventilation. In the contralateral lung, single-lung ventilation was achieved by clamping the bronchus before ablation. The ablated lobes were resected and sent for pathologic analysis. Routine and supravital staining was performed. The ablation zone was clearly demarcated on gross examination, and in all cases 100% ablation occurred, without skip areas of viability. The ablation zones were elliptical with the long axis parallel to the axis of the ablation probes (active tip, 3.7 cm). Ablation diameters and volume were compared between the ventilated and nonventilated lungs. Ablation volume was superior in nonventilated lungs (10.74 cm(3) versus 7.35 cm(3); p = 0.039) primarily because of differences in the short axis of the ablation zone. Microwave energy can effectively ablate normal pulmonary parenchyma without skip areas of viable tissue within the gross ablation field. The volume of necrosis is increased in nonventilated lungs, suggesting that ablation results can be improved in patients by using general anesthesia with single-lung ventilation. Future studies will be required to confirm this hypothesis. Copyright © 2010 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Radiation-induced disorder in compressed lanthanide zirconates. (United States)

    Park, Sulgiye; Tracy, Cameron L; Zhang, Fuxiang; Park, Changyong; Trautmann, Christina; Tkachev, Sergey N; Lang, Maik; Mao, Wendy L; Ewing, Rodney C


    The effects of swift heavy ion irradiation-induced disordering on the behavior of lanthanide zirconate compounds (Ln 2 Zr 2 O 7 where Ln = Sm, Er, or Nd) at high pressures are investigated. After irradiation with 2.2 GeV 197 Au ions, the initial ordered pyrochlore structure (Fd3[combining macron]m) transformed to a defect-fluorite structure (Fm3[combining macron]m) in Sm 2 Zr 2 O 7 and Nd 2 Zr 2 O 7 . For irradiated Er 2 Zr 2 O 7 , which has a defect-fluorite structure, ion irradiation induces local disordering by introducing Frenkel defects despite retention of the initial structure. When subjected to high pressures (>29 GPa) in the absence of irradiation, all of these compounds transform to a cotunnite-like (Pnma) phase, followed by sluggish amorphization with further compression. However, if these compounds are irradiated prior to compression, the high pressure cotunnite-like phase is not formed. Rather, they transform directly from their post-irradiation defect-fluorite structure to an amorphous structure upon compression (>25 GPa). Defects and disordering induced by swift heavy ion irradiation alter the transformation pathways by raising the energetic barriers for the transformation to the high pressure cotunnite-like phase, rendering it inaccessible. As a result, the high pressure stability field of the amorphous phase is expanded to lower pressures when irradiation is coupled with compression. The responses of materials in the lanthanide zirconate system to irradiation and compression, both individually and in tandem, are strongly influenced by the specific lanthanide composition, which governs the defect energetics at extreme conditions.

  15. Interstitial ablative techniques for hepatic tumours. (United States)

    Erce, C; Parks, R W


    Most patients with liver tumours are not suitable for surgery but interstitial ablative techniques may control disease progression and improve survival rates. A review was undertaken using Medline of all reported studies of cryoablation, radiofrequency ablation, microwave ablation, interstitial laser photocoagulation, high-intensity focused ultrasound and ethanol ablation of primary liver tumours and hepatic metastases. Although there are no randomized clinical trials, cryoablation, thermal ablation and ethanol ablation have all been shown to be associated with improved palliation in patients with primary and secondary liver cancer. The techniques can be undertaken safely with minimal morbidity and mortality. Although surgical resection remains the first line of treatment for selected patients with primary and secondary liver malignancies, interstitial ablative techniques are promising therapies for patients not suitable for hepatic resection or as an adjunct to liver surgery. Copyright 2003 British Journal of Surgery Society Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. [Catheter ablation in supraventricular tachycardia]. (United States)

    Pitschner, H F; Neuzner, J


    The first report about successful radio frequency ablation of a right-posterior-septal accessory pathway appeared in 1986. Since then, the technology of both guidable ablation catheters and radio frequency generators has been considerably improved in an initially clinical-experimental phase. At the same time, electrophysiologists were equally able to enlarge their knowledge in the field of signal characteristics of arrhythmogenic substrates. This included the discovery of action potentials of accessory pathways (preexcitation syndromes), the location of fast and slow AV node conduction (AV nodal reentrant tachycardia, AVNRT), the functional importance of the anatomical isthmus between the os of the coronary sinus, the tricuspid valve and the inferior caval vein (atrial flutter). Mapping techniques such as transient and concealed entrainment became, among others, significant tools in finding the best localization for radio frequency catheter ablation. Thus, technical development and the increased knowledge of clinical electrophysiologists resulted in firmly establishing the procedure of catheter ablation as the method of first choice in the curative treatment of supraventricular tachycardias in a potential collective of about 5 per mill of the normal population (without atrial fibrillation). Supraventricular tachycardias with a reentry mechanism in the broadest sense (> 95% of all pts. with SVT) and those with focal automaticity ( 90% versus uncommon type 90%). Atrial reentrant tachycardias are rather rare (with the exception of atrial fibrillation/flutter). The literature suggests medical therapy to be successful in about 60% of these patients. Those patients who are presently proposed to receive radio frequency catheter ablation usually continue to be symptomatic despite pharmacological therapy and/or have a potential risk for sudden cardiac death due to atrial fibrillation in WPW syndrome, or rate-dependent hemodynamic compromise secondary to cardiac disease

  17. Zircon from historic eruptions in Iceland: Reconstructing storage and evolution of silicic magmas (United States)

    Carley, T.L.; Miller, C.F.; Wooden, J.L.; Bindeman, I.N.; Barth, A.P.


    Zoning patterns, U-Th disequilibria ages, and elemental compositions of zircon from eruptions of Askja (1875 AD), Hekla (1158 AD), ??r??faj??kull (1362 AD) and Torfaj??kull (1477 AD, 871 AD, 3100 BP, 7500 BP) provide insights into the complex, extended, histories of silicic magmatic systems in Iceland. Zircon compositions, which are correlated with proximity to the main axial rift, are distinct from those of mid-ocean ridge environments and fall at the low-Hf edge of the range of continental zircon. Morphology, zoning patterns, compositions, and U-Th ages all indicate growth and storage in subvolcanic silicic mushes or recently solidified rock at temperatures above the solidus but lower than that of the erupting magma. The eruptive products were likely ascending magmas that entrained a zircon "cargo" that formed thousands to tens of thousands of years prior to the eruptions. ?? 2011 Springer-Verlag.

  18. Crystallographically controlled crystal-plastic deformation of zircon in shear zones (United States)

    Kovaleva, Elizaveta; Klötzli, Urs


    Plastically-deformed zircons from various types of strained natural metamorphic rocks have been investigated in-situ by electron backscatter diffraction analysis (EBSD), allowing crystallographic orientation mapping at high spatial resolution. Plastic deformation often forms under the control of grain-internal heterogeneities. At the crystal structure scale deformation is controlled by the physical anisotropy of the lattice. Three most common slip systems in zircon are [100]{010}, [010]{001} and [001]{010} (Leroux et. al., 1999; Reddy et. al., 2007). They are genetically connected with the main zircon crystallographic directions: [001] (c-axis), [100] and [010] (a and b axes). Atomic models show weak planes normal to these directions that preferably evolve to glide planes in the deforming crystal. The visualization of seismic (elastic) properties of zircon with the MATLAB toolbox MTEX shows a similar pattern. The slowest S-wave velocities are observed in directions parallel to [100], [010] and [001] crystallographic directions. The highest Young's modulus values lie in the same directions. In natural zircon grains, the common slip systems are preferably activated when zircon is hosted by rheologically comparatively weaker phases or a fine-grained matrix. In these cases zircon behaves as a rigid clast. During progressive deformation high deviatoric stresses together with high strain rates concentrate at crystal tips, as shown by numerical modeling. Softer host phases allow more degrees of freedom for zircon to be deformed according to its crystallographic and internal properties. These conclusions are supported by the misorientation axes density distribution maps, derived with MTEX. Deformed zircon hosted by a relatively soft phase (mostly biotite) develops a crystallographic preferred orientation (CPO), which has not been documented for zircon before. At the same time deformation of zircon hosted by a rheologically stronger matrix causes the activation of less

  19. Real-Time Salmonella Detection Using Lead Zirconate Titanate-Titanium Microcantilevers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McGovern, John-Paul; Shih, Wan Y; Shih, Wei-Heng; Sergi, Mauro; Chaiken, Irwin


    .... We have developed and investigated the use of a lead zirconate titanate - titanium (PZT-Ti) microcantilever for in situ detection of the common food- and water-born pathogen, Salmonella typhimurium...

  20. Provenance of zircon of the lowermost sedimentary cover, Estonia, East-European Craton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konsa, M.


    Full Text Available Bulk and accessory mineral composition of fresh and weathered crystalline rocks, and sedimentary deposits overlying the crystalline-sedimentary unconformity have been examined in core samples from 28 drill holes in Estonia. Before the Late Vendian to Early Cambrian regional subsidence and sedimentation, the region represented a flat plateau within the Svecofennian Domain. Palaeo-and Mesoproterozoic crystalline rocks, regardless their different initial mineral composition, subcrop under the Upper Vendian/Lower Cambrian sedimentary cover as usually intensely weathered rocks (saprolites composed of residual quartz, altered micas and prevailing clay minerals mainly of the kaolinite group. Thus, the bulk mineral composition of any basement crystalline rocks imparts no specific inherited rock-forming minerals into the covering sedimentary rocks. From the variety of accessory and opaque minerals of crystalline rocks, only zircon populations survived in saprolites. Crystalline rocks of different origin yield different zircons. Relationships between the zircon typology of the basement rocks having specific areas of distribution and the sedimentary rocks immediately overlying those crystalline rocks were the main subject of this study. The result is that siliciclastic sedimentary rocks covering weathered crystalline rocks only in places inherited zircons with typological features characteristic of specific basement areas. In northeastern Estonia, local lenses of the Oru Member (the earliest Upper Vendian sedimentary rocks in Estonia resembling the debris of weathered crystalline rocks yield accessory zircon which in a 1-2 m thick layer above the basement surface is similar to the zircons of the underlying weathering mantle of certain crystalline rocks. In the next unit, the Moldova Member, up to 43 m above the basement surface, a mixture of zircons resembling those of various local basement rocks has been found. Further upwards, in the Vendian and Lower

  1. Post-Hadean transitions in Jack Hills zircon provenance: A signal of the Late Heavy Bombardment? (United States)

    Bell, Elizabeth A.; Harrison, T. Mark


    Hadean Jack Hills (Western Australia) detrital zircons represent the best documented terrestrial resource with which to observe the pre-4 Ga Earth. The >4 Ga component of this semi-continuous 4.38 to 3.0 Ga zircon record has been investigated in detail for age, δ18O, Lu-Hf systematics, and Ti thermometry. The more abundant post-Hadean population is less well-characterized, but a previous study (Bell et al., 2011) suggests a more restricted range of δ18O source materials together with a ca. 4.0-3.6 Ga discontinuity in Lu-Hf evolution. These differences could reflect a transformation in the character of the older zircon source region or their sourcing from different terranes entirely. The relative scarcity of 4.0-3.6 Ga zircons corresponds to a discontinuity in Lu-Hf evolution after which 176Hf/177Hf in zircon reverts to more radiogenic values relative to the >4 Ga population. We present new oxygen isotope, titanium, and trace element results for 4.0-3.6 Ga Jack Hills zircons in a search for apparent transitions in petrological conditions. Post-3.8 Ga zircons show a marked decrease in the occurrence of heavy oxygen (>6.5‰), but remain close to the average of the Hadean distribution despite their restricted range. This may point to the decreased importance of sedimentary materials in post-3.8 Ga magmas. Ca. 3.9 Ga zircons fall into two categories: “Group I” displays temperatures and compositions similar to the Hadean zircons whereas “Group II” zircons have higher U and Hf, and lower (Th/U), Ce and P. Group II zircons also have anomalously low Ti, and are remarkably concordant in the U-Pb system. Group II's geochemical characteristics are consistent with formation by transgressive recrystallization (Hoskin and Black, 2000), in which non-essential structural constituents are purged during high-grade thermal metamorphism. The restricted age range of Group II occurrence (3.91-3.84) and its coincidence with the postulated intense bolide flux in the inner solar

  2. Glue septal ablation: A promising alternative to alcohol septal ablation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sercan Okutucu


    Full Text Available Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM is defined as myocardial hypertrophy in the absence of another cardiac or systemic disease capable of producing the magnitude of present hypertrophy. In about 70% of patients with HCM, there is left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT obstruction (LVOTO and this is known as obstructive type of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HOCM. Cases refractory to medical treatment have had two options either surgical septal myectomy or alcohol septal ablation (ASA to alleviate LVOT gradient. ASA may cause some life-threatening complications including conduction disturbances and complete heart block, hemodynamic compromise, ventricular arrhythmias, distant and massive myocardial necrosis. Glue septal ablation (GSA is a promising technique for the treatment of HOCM. Glue seems to be superior to alcohol due to some intrinsic advantageous properties of glue such as immediate polymerization which prevents the leak into the left anterior descending coronary artery and it is particularly useful in patients with collaterals to the right coronary artery in whom alcohol ablation is contraindicated. In our experience, GSA is effective and also a safe technique without significant complications. GSA decreases LVOT gradient immediately after the procedure and this reduction persists during 12 months of follow-up. It improves New York Heart Association functional capacity and decrease interventricular septal wall thickness. Further studies are needed in order to assess the long-term efficacy and safety of this technique.

  3. Zircon saturation in silicate melts: a new and improved model for aluminous and alkaline melts (United States)

    Gervasoni, Fernanda; Klemme, Stephan; Rocha-Júnior, Eduardo R. V.; Berndt, Jasper


    The importance of zircon in geochemical and geochronological studies, and its presence not only in aluminous but also in alkaline rocks, prompted us to think about a new zircon saturation model that can be applied in a wide range of compositions. Therefore, we performed zircon crystallization experiments in a range of compositions and at high temperatures, extending the original zircon saturation model proposed by Watson and Harrison (Earth Planet Sci Lett 64:295-304, 1983) and Boehnke et al. (Chem Geol 351:324-334, 2013). We used our new data and the data from previous studies in peraluminous melts, to describe the solubility of zircon in alkaline and aluminous melts. To this effect, we devised a new compositional parameter called G [ {( {3 \\cdot {{Al}}2 {{O}}3 + {{SiO}}2 )/({{Na}}2 {{O}} + {{K}}2 {{O}} + {{CaO}} + {{MgO}} + {{FeO}}} )} ] (molar proportions), which enables to describe the zircon saturation behaviour in a wide range of rock compositions. Furthermore, we propose a new zircon saturation model, which depends basically on temperature and melt composition, given by (with 1σ errors): ln [ {{Zr}} ] = ( {4.29 ± 0.34} ) - ( {1.35 ± 0.10} ) \\cdot ln G + ( {0.0056 ± 0.0002} ) \\cdot T( °C ) where [Zr] is the Zr concentration of the melt in µg/g, G is the new parameter representing melt composition and T is the temperature in degrees Celsius. The advantages of the new model are its straightforward use, with the G parameter being calculated directly from the molar proportions converted from electron microprobe measurements, the temperature calculated given in degrees Celsius and its applicability in a wider range of rocks compositions. Our results confirm the high zircon solubility in peralkaline rocks and its dependence on composition and temperature. Our new model may be applied in all intermediate to felsic melts from peraluminous to peralkaline compositions.

  4. Geochronological study of zircons from continental crust rocks in the Frido Unit (southern Apennines) (United States)

    Laurita, Salvatore; Prosser, Giacomo; Rizzo, Giovanna; Langone, Antonio; Tiepolo, Massimo; Laurita, Alessandro


    Zircon crystals have been separated from gneisses and metagranitoids of the Pollino area (southern Apennines) in order to unravel the origin of these crustal slices within the ophiolite-bearing Frido Unit. The morphology of the zircon has been investigated by SEM, and the internal structure was revealed by cathodoluminescence. Data obtained by U/Pb dating have been used to deduce the age and significance of the different crystallization stages of zircon, connected to the evolutionary stages of the continental crust (Late Paleozoic-Early Mesozoic). Zircons in gneisses are characterized by inherited cores of magmatic origin, bordered by metamorphic rims. Inherited zircons generally show Paleoproterozoic to Ordovician ages, indicating the provenance of the sedimentary protolith from different sources. The exclusive presence of Late Neoproterozoic zircon cores in leucocratic gneisses may suggest a different magmatic source possibly connected to Pan-African events. Late Carboniferous-Early Permian ages are found mainly in zircon rims of metamorphic origin. These are similar to the emplacement ages of protolith of the metagranites in the middle crust portion. Late Carboniferous-Early Permian metamorphism and magmatism testify the extensional collapse of the Hercynian belt, recorded in European, particularly, in the Corsica-Sardinia block and in Calabria. Late Permian-Triassic ages have been detected in zircon rims from gneisses and metagranitoids. These younger ages appear related to deformation and emplacement of albite-quartz veins in both lithologies, and are related to an extensional episode predating the Middle Triassic to Middle Jurassic rifting in the Tethyan domain, followed by Middle to Late Jurassic spreading.

  5. Structural Characterization of Natural and Processed Zircons with X-Rays and Nuclear Techniques


    Laura C. Damonte; Patricia C. Rivas; Pasquevich, Alberto F.; Fernanda Andreola; Federica Bondioli; Anna M. Ferrari; Laura Tositti; Giorgia Cinelli


    In ceramic industry, zircon sand is widely used in different applications because zirconia plays a role as common opacifying constituent. In particular, it is used as a basic component of glazes applied to ceramic tiles and sanitary ware as well as an opacifier in unglazed bulk porcelain stoneware. Natural zircon sands are the major source of zirconium minerals for industrial applications. In this paper, long, medium, and short range studies were conducted on zirconium minerals originated fro...

  6. Electron-beam-induced annealing of natural zircon: a Raman spectroscopic study (United States)

    Váczi, Tamás; Nasdala, Lutz


    The annealing of radiation damage in zircon by low-energy electron irradiation was explored systematically. Natural zircon samples spanning a wide range of self-irradiation damage were irradiated with the focused electron beam of an electron probe microanalyser. The effects of beam current and irradiation time were tested systematically, and the changes in zircon were measured using Raman spectroscopy. Our results confirm the damage-annealing effect of an accelerated electron beam. We demonstrate that non-thermal annealing occurs through electron-enhanced defect reactions and that the extent of the annealing is a function of both the irradiation time and the beam current. The complete annealing of radiation damage in zircon by an accelerated electron beam was not possible under the conditions of our experiments. Our results indicate that Raman band broadening in ion-irradiated zircon can possibly be explained through phonon confinement, as the estimated domain sizes of the crystalline volume amid recoil clusters decrease with increasing α dose. The results underlay the importance of doing Raman spectroscopy before electron-beam and ion-beam analysis. To avoid unwanted beam-induced annealing of damage in zircon during EPMA analysis, the electron energy transferred per volume unit of sample should be minimised, for instance by keeping the integrated charge low and/or by defocusing the electron beam.

  7. The first discovery of Hadean zircon in garnet granulites from the Sutam River (Aldan Shield) (United States)

    Glukhovskii, M. Z.; Kuz'min, M. I.; Bayanova, T. B.; Lyalina, L. M.; Makrygina, V. A.; Shcherbakova, T. F.


    For the first time in Russia, a Hadean zircon grain with an age of 3.94 Ga (ID-TIMS) has been discovered in high-aluminous garnet granulites of the Aldan Shield among the U-Pb zircons with an age from 1.92 Ga. In this connection, the problems of its parental source, the petrogenesis of granulites that captured this zircon, and the mechanism of occurrence of these deep rocks in the upper horizons of the crust have been solved. The comparison of the geochemistry of garnet granulites and the middle crust has shown that the granulites are enriched in the entire range of rare-earth elements (except for the Eu minimum), as well as in Al2O3, U, and Th and are depleted in the most mobile elements (Na, Ca, Sr). In the upper part of the allitic weathering zone of the middle crust, which formed under conditions of arid climate, this zircon grain was originated from the weathered granites from the middle crust. In the latter case, they were empleced discretely in the upper granite-gneiss crust under high pressure conditions (the rutile age is 1.83-1.82 Ga). The zircon with an age of 3.94 Ga is comparable to the Hadean zircons from orthogneisses of the Acasta region (Canadian Shield, 4.03-3.94 Ga).

  8. Structural Characterization of Natural and Processed Zircons with X-Rays and Nuclear Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura C. Damonte


    Full Text Available In ceramic industry, zircon sand is widely used in different applications because zirconia plays a role as common opacifying constituent. In particular, it is used as a basic component of glazes applied to ceramic tiles and sanitary ware as well as an opacifier in unglazed bulk porcelain stoneware. Natural zircon sands are the major source of zirconium minerals for industrial applications. In this paper, long, medium, and short range studies were conducted on zirconium minerals originated from Australia, South Africa, and United States of America using conventional and less conventional techniques (i.e., X-Ray Diffraction (XRD, Positron Annihilation Lifetime Spectroscopy (PALS, and Perturbed Angular Correlations (PAC in order to reveal the type and the extension of the regions that constitute the metamict state of zircon sands and the modifications therein produced as a consequence of the industrial milling process and the thermal treatment in the production line. Additionally, HPGe gamma-ray spectroscopy confirms the occurrence of significant levels of natural radioactivity responsible for metamictization in the investigated zircon samples. Results from XRD, PALS, and PAC analysis confirm that the metamict state of zircon is a dispersion of submicron disordered domains in a crystalline matrix of zircon.

  9. Laser Ablation for Medical Applications (United States)

    Hayashi, Ken-Ichi

    Medical applications of laser are measurement, laser surgery, in-situ monitoring, and processing of medical devices. In this paper, author briefly reviews the trends of medical applications, describes some new applications, and then discuss about the future trends and problems of medical applications. At present, the domestic market of laser equipment for medical applications is nearly 1/10 of that for industrial applications, which has registered significant growth continuously. Laser surgery as a minimum invasive surgery under arthroscope is expected to decrease the pain of patients. Precise processing such as cutting and welding is suitable for manufacturing medical devices. Pulsed laser deposition has been successfully applied to the thin film coating. The corneal refractive surgery by ArF excimer laser has been widely accepted for its highly safe operation. Laser ablation for retinal implant in the visual prosthesis is one of the promising applications of laser ablation in medicine. New applications with femtosecond laser are expected in the near future.

  10. Matrix-Matched Iron-Oxide Laser Ablation ICP-MS U–Pb Geochronology Using Mixed Solution Standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liam Courtney-Davies


    Full Text Available U–Pb dating of the common iron-oxide hematite (α-Fe2O3, using laser-ablation inductively-coupled-plasma mass-spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS, provides unparalleled insight into the timing and processes of mineral deposit formation. Until now, the full potential of this method has been negatively impacted by the lack of suitable matrix-matched standards. To achieve matrix-matching, we report an approach in which a U–Pb solution and ablated material from 99.99% synthetic hematite are simultaneously mixed in a nebulizer chamber and introduced to the ICP-MS. The standard solution contains fixed U- and Pb-isotope ratios, calibrated independently, and aspiration of the isotopically homogeneous solution negates the need for a matrix-matched, isotopically homogenous natural iron-oxide standard. An additional advantage of using the solution is that the individual U–Pb concentrations and isotope ratios can be adjusted to approximate that in the unknown, making the method efficient for dating hematite containing low (~10 ppm to high (>1 wt % U concentrations. The above-mentioned advantage to this solution method results in reliable datasets, with arguably-better accuracy in measuring U–Pb ratios than using GJ-1 Zircon as the primary standard, which cannot be employed for such low U concentrations. Statistical overlaps between 207Pb/206Pb weighted average ages (using GJ-1 Zircon and U–Pb upper intercept ages (using the U–Pb mixed solution method of two samples from iron-oxide copper-gold (IOCG deposits in South Australia demonstrate that, although fractionation associated with a non-matrix matched standard does occur when using GJ-1 Zircon as the primary standard, it does not impact the 207Pb/206Pb or upper intercept age. Thus, GJ-1 Zircon can be considered reliable for dating hematite using LA-ICP-MS. Downhole fractionation of 206Pb/238U is observed to occur in spot analyses of hematite. The use of rasters in future studies will hopefully minimize

  11. Attitudes Towards Catheter Ablation for Atrial Fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vadmann, Henrik; Pedersen, Susanne S; Nielsen, Jens Cosedis


    BACKGROUND: Catheter ablation for atrial fibrillation (AF) is an important but expensive procedure that is the subject of some debate. Physicians´ attitudes towards catheter ablation may influence promotion and patient acceptance. This is the first study to examine the attitudes of Danish...... cardiologists towards catheter ablation for AF, using a nationwide survey. METHODS AND RESULTS: We developed a purpose-designed questionnaire to evaluate attitudes towards catheter ablation for AF that was sent to all Danish cardiologists (n = 401; response n = 272 (67.8%)). There was no association between...... attitudes towards ablation and the experience or age of the cardiologist with respect to patients with recurrent AF episodes with a duration of 7 days and/or need for cardioversion. The majority (69%) expected a recurrence of AF after catheter ablation in more than 30% of the cases...

  12. Moderne Technologien in der Ablation des Vorhofflimmerns


    Haegeli, L; Duru, F.(The University of Iowa, Iowa City, USA); Lüscher, T.F.


    Catheter ablation for atrial fibrillation has become an accepted therapy. The arrhythmia affects around 6% of the population over the age of 65 years. Electrical isolation of the pulmonary veins from the left atrium is the central strategy in catheter ablation for paroxysmal atrial fibrillation. However, procedural outcomes and efficacy using sequential “point-by-point” radiofrequency lesion creation with a conventional ablation catheter are operator-dependent and time-consuming. Moreover, re...

  13. Major zircon megacryst suites of the Indo-Pacific lithospheric margin (ZIP) and their petrogenetic and regional implications (United States)

    Sutherland, Lin; Graham, Ian; Yaxley, Gregory; Armstrong, Richard; Giuliani, Gaston; Hoskin, Paul; Nechaev, Victor; Woodhead, Jon


    Zircon megacrysts (± gem corundum) appear in basalt fields of Indo-Pacific origin over a 12,000 km zone (ZIP) along West Pacific continental margins. Age-dating, trace element, oxygen and hafnium isotope studies on representative zircons (East Australia-Asia) indicate diverse magmatic sources. The U-Pb (249 to 1 Ma) and zircon fission track (ZFT) ages (65 to 1 Ma) suggest thermal annealing during later basalt transport, with slab subduction.

  14. Tracing source terranes using U-Pb-Hf isotopic analysis of detrital zircons: provenance of the Orhanlar Unit of the Palaeotethyan Karakaya subduction-accretion complex, NW Turkey (United States)

    Ustaömer, Timur; Ayda Ustaömer, Petek; Robertson, Alastair; Gerdes, Axel


    Sandstones of the Late Palaeozoic-Early Mesozoic Karakaya Complex are interpreted to have accumulated along an active continental margin related to northward subduction of Palaeotethys. The age of deposition and provenance of the sandstones are currently being determined using radiometric dating of detrital zircons, coupled with dating of potential source terranes. Our previous work shows that the U-Pb-Hf isotopic characteristics of the sandstones of all but one of the main tectonostratigraphic units of the Karakaya Complex are compatible with a provenance that was dominated by Triassic and Permo-Carboniferous magmatic arc-type rocks, together with a minor contribution from Lower to Mid-Devonian igneous rocks (Ustaömer et al. 2015). However, one of the tectono-stratigraphic units, the Orhanlar Unit, which occurs in a structurally high position, differs in sedimentary facies and composition from the other units of the Karakaya Complex. Here, we report new isotopic age data for the sandstones of the Orhanlar Unit and also from an extensive, associated tectonic slice of continental metamorphic rocks (part of the regional Sakarya Terrane). Our main aim is to assess the provenance of the Orhanlar Unit sandstones in relation to the tectonic development of the Karakaya Complex as a whole. The Orhanlar Unit is composed of shales, sandstone turbidites and debris-flow deposits, which include blocks of Devonian radiolarian chert and Carboniferous and Permian neritic limestones. The sandstones are dominated by rock fragments, principally volcanic and plutonic rocks of basic-to-intermediate composition, metamorphic rocks and chert, together with common quartz, feldspar and mica. This modal composition contrasts significantly with the dominantly arkosic composition of the other Karakaya Complex sandstones. The detrital zircons were dated by the U-Pb method, coupled with determination of Lu-Hf isotopic compositions using a laser ablation microprobe attached to a multicollector

  15. Ablative therapies for small renal tumors (United States)

    Tworkiewicz, Jakub; Siekiera, Jerzy; Drewa, Tomasz


    Ablative therapies of renal tumors are steadily gaining popularity in clinical practice due to the many benefits they offer to patients. Moreover, ablative procedures hold promise in the field of uro-oncology for the best compromise between low invasiveness, high efficacy and advantages in terms of procedural costs. Reported outcomes with ablative therapies for small renal tumors are excellent and without significant differences for surgical procedures based on nephron-sparing surgery. Nevertheless, these methods for treatment of small renal tumors should still be confined to carefully selected patients. This review discusses the currently used ablative techniques in urology. PMID:23788957

  16. Aromatic Thermosetting Copolyesters for Ablative TPS Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Better performing ablative thermal protection systems than currently available are needed to satisfy requirements of the most severe crew exploration vehicles, such...

  17. Ablative therapies for small renal tumors. (United States)

    Adamowicz, Jan; Tworkiewicz, Jakub; Siekiera, Jerzy; Drewa, Tomasz


    Ablative therapies of renal tumors are steadily gaining popularity in clinical practice due to the many benefits they offer to patients. Moreover, ablative procedures hold promise in the field of uro-oncology for the best compromise between low invasiveness, high efficacy and advantages in terms of procedural costs. Reported outcomes with ablative therapies for small renal tumors are excellent and without significant differences for surgical procedures based on nephron-sparing surgery. Nevertheless, these methods for treatment of small renal tumors should still be confined to carefully selected patients. This review discusses the currently used ablative techniques in urology.

  18. Cryoballoon Catheter Ablation in Atrial Fibrillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cevher Ozcan


    Full Text Available Pulmonary vein isolation with catheter ablation is an effective treatment in patients with symptomatic atrial fibrillation refractory or intolerant to antiarrhythmic medications. The cryoballoon catheter was recently approved for this procedure. In this paper, the basics of cryothermal energy ablation are reviewed including its ability of creating homogenous lesion formation, minimal destruction to surrounding vasculature, preserved tissue integrity, and lower risk of thrombus formation. Also summarized here are the publications describing the clinical experience with the cryoballoon catheter ablation in both paroxysmal and persistent atrial fibrillation, its safety and efficacy, and discussions on the technical aspect of the cryoballoon ablation procedure.

  19. Speed of sound estimation for thermal monitoring using an active ultrasound element during liver ablation therapy (Conference Presentation) (United States)

    Kim, Younsu; Audigier, Chloé; Dillow, Austin; Cheng, Alexis; Boctor, Emad M.


    Thermal monitoring for ablation therapy has high demands for preserving healthy tissues while removing malignant ones completely. Various methods have been investigated. However, exposure to radiation, cost-effectiveness, and inconvenience hinder the use of X-ray or MRI methods. Due to the non-invasiveness and real-time capabilities of ultrasound, it is widely used in intraoperative procedures. Ultrasound thermal monitoring methods have been developed for affordable monitoring in real-time. We propose a new method for thermal monitoring using an ultrasound element. By inserting a Lead-zirconate-titanate (PZT) element to generate the ultrasound signal in the liver tissues, the single travel time of flight is recorded from the PZT element to the ultrasound transducer. We detect the speed of sound change caused by the increase in temperature during ablation therapy. We performed an ex vivo experiment with liver tissues to verify the feasibility of our speed of sound estimation technique. The time of flight information is used in an optimization method to recover the speed of sound maps during the ablation, which are then converted into temperature maps. The result shows that the trend of temperature changes matches with the temperature measured at a single point. The estimation error can be decreased by using a proper curve linking the speed of sound to the temperature. The average error over time was less than 3 degrees Celsius for a bovine liver. The speed of sound estimation using a single PZT element can be used for thermal monitoring.

  20. Ce and Eu anomalies in zircon as proxies for the oxidation state of magmas (United States)

    Trail, Dustin; Bruce Watson, E.; Tailby, Nicholas D.


    Chondrite normalized rare earth element (REE) patterns of zircons generally have enriched Ce values relative to La and Pr, and depleted Eu values relative to Sm and Gd. High Ce contents in zircon may imply oxidizing conditions (Ce4+ is more compatible than Ce3+), whereas depleted Eu contents may imply reducing conditions (Eu2+ does not substitute into the zircon lattice). We report 41 experiments in which temperature, melt composition, and oxygen fugacity (fO2) were varied in order to explore the details of Ce and Eu incorporation into zircon. Crystals were synthesized in hydrous silicate melts at 10 kbar and 800-1300 °C. Synthetic rock mixes were doped with La + Ce + Pr (±P) or Sm + Eu + Gd and buffered at oxygen fugacities ranging from ∼IW (iron-wüstite) to >MH (magnetite-hematite); the run products were analyzed by electron microprobe to obtain crystal/melt partition coefficients. Cerium anomalies increase with higher oxygen fugacities and lower crystallization temperatures. In agreement with other experimental studies, peralkaline melts yield the largest zircon grains but show only modest Ce anomalies even at fO2s > MH. The same reason that zircons grown in peralkaline melts are easy to synthesize in the laboratory (these melts are capable of dissolving wt.% levels of Zr before zircon saturation due to high alkali content) makes the melt structure/composition atypical and not representative of most natural magmas. With this in mind, we synthesized zircons in a granitic melt with more modest alkali contents that require geologically plausible Zr contents for saturation. We obtained the following empirical relationship: ln Ce/CeD=(0.1156±0.0050)×ln(fO2)+13,860±708T/(K)-6.125±0.484 where (Ce/Ce∗)D is the Ce anomaly in zircon calculated from partition coefficients, and T is the zircon crystallization temperature in K. Europium anomalies from the same melt composition are more negative at lower oxygen fugacities, but with no resolvable temperature

  1. Raman spectra of impact zircons in the Jarva-varaka layered massif (the Monchegorsk ore region, the Kola Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaulina T. V.


    Full Text Available Zircon crystals from granophyre norites of the Jarva-varaka massif of the Monchegorsk ore region (the Kola Peninsula have been studied by means of back-scattered electron (BSE imaging and Raman spectroscopy. The Jarva-varaka massif according to geological and geochemical data has been compared with the Sudbury structure, for which an impact origin is assumed. Zircon study is stipulated by zircon ability to keep signs of shock metamorphism even under granulite-facies conditions, thus it can be used for identification of ancient impact structures. BSE images reveal complicated internal texture – darker central domains (cores and light rims without texture. Mineral inclusions in zircon are represented by sillimanite and plagioclase which indicates that the studied zircon grains were inherited from the host aluminous gneisses. Zircon crystals show variation of Raman spectra from the core of crystals with typical zircon Raman pattern to complete absence of spectral bands in the marginal parts and rims. Mineral inclusions in zircon rims also have no Raman spectra. Such patterns may be associated with the transformation of crystalline zircon (and mineral inclusions in it to diaplectic glass under the influence of shock metamorphism, core domains were screened by rims and thus preserved their structure. The received data suggest the participation of the meteorite impact in the formation of the Jarva-varaka massif that requires further investigation.

  2. Perioral Rejuvenation With Ablative Erbium Resurfacing. (United States)

    Cohen, Joel L


    Since the introduction of the scanning full-field erbium laser, misconceptions regarding ablative erbium resurfacing have resulted in its being largely overshadowed by ablative fractional resurfacing. This case report illustrates the appropriateness of full-field erbium ablation for perioral resurfacing. A patient with profoundly severe perioral photodamage etched-in lines underwent full-field ablative perioral resurfacing with an erbium laser (Contour TRL, Sciton Inc., Palo Alto, CA) that allows separate control of ablation and coagulation. The pre-procedure consultations included evaluation of the severity of etched-in lines, and discussion of patient goals, expectations, and appropriate treatment options, as well as a review of patient photos and post-treatment care required. The author generally avoids full-field erbium ablation in patients with Fitzpatrick type IV and above. For each of 2 treatment sessions (separated by approximately 4 months), the patient received (12 cc plain 2% lidodaine) sulcus blocks before undergoing 4 passes with the erbium laser at 150 μ ablation, no coagulation, and then some very focal 30 μ ablation to areas of residual lines still visualized through the pinpoint bleeding. Similarly, full-field ablative resurfacing can be very reliable for significant wrinkles and creping in the lower eyelid skin--where often a single treatment of 80 μ ablation, 50 μ coagulation can lead to a nice improvement. Standardized digital imaging revealed significant improvement in deeply etched rhytides without significant adverse events. For appropriately selected patients requiring perioral (or periorbital) rejuvenation, full-field ablative erbium resurfacing is safe, efficacious and merits consideration.

  3. What Next After Failed Septal Ventricular Tachycardia Ablation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Roten, MD


    Full Text Available Ablation of ventricular tachycardia (VT by conventional radiofrequency ablation can be impossible if the ventricular wall at the targeted ablation site is very thick, as for example the ventricular septum. We present a case of a patient with incessant, non-sustained slow VT originating from the septal part of the lower outflow tracts. Radiofrequency catheter ablation from both ventricles as well as from the anterior cardiac vein were not successful. Both high power radiofrequency ablation and bipolar radiofrequency ablation neither were successfull. Finally, ethanol ablation of the first septal perforator successfully terminated arrhythmia. We discuss the possibilities to overcome failed conventional radiofrequency VT ablation of a septal focus.

  4. Therapeutic efficacy of percutaneous radiofrequency ablation versus microwave ablation for hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Zhang

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the therapeutic efficacy of percutaneous radiofrequency (RF ablation versus microwave (MW ablation for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC measuring ≤ 5 cm in greatest diameter. From January 2006 to December 2006, 78 patients had undergone RF ablation whereas 77 had undergone MW ablation. Complete ablation (CA, local tumour progression (LTP and distant recurrence (DR were compared. The overall survival curves were calculated with the Kaplan-Meier technique and compared with the log-rank test. The CA rate was 83.4% (78/93 for RF ablation and 86.7%(91/105 for MW ablation. The LTP rate was 11.8% (11/93 for RF ablation and 10.5% (11/105 for MW ablation. DR was found in 51 (65.4% in the RF ablation and 62 (80.5% in the MW ablation. There was no significant difference in the 1-, 3-, and 5-year overall survival rates (P = 0.780 and the 1-, 3-, and 5-year disease-free survival rates (P = 0.123 between RF and MW ablation. At subgroup analyses, for patients with tumors ≤ 3.0 cm, there was no significant difference in the 1-, 3-, and 5-year overall survival rates (P = 0.067 and the corresponding disease-free survival rates(P = 0.849. For patients with tumor diameters of 3.1-5.0 cm, the 1-, 3-, and 5-year overall survival rates were 87.1%, 61.3%, and 40.1% for RF ablation and 85.4%, 36.6%, and 22% for MW ablation, with no significant difference (P = 0.068. The corresponding disease-free survival rates were 74.2%, 54.8%, and 45.2% for the RF ablation group and 53.3%, 26.8%, and 17.1% for the MW ablation group. The disease-free survival curve for the RF ablation group was significantly better than that for the MW ablation group (P = 0.018. RF ablation and MW ablation are both effective methods in treating hepatocellular carcinomas, with no significant differences in CA, LTP, DR, and overall survival.

  5. Late magmatic stage of the zoned Caleu pluton (Central Chile): insights from zircon crystallization conditions (United States)

    Molina, P. G.; Parada, M.; Gutierrez, F. J.; Chang-Qiang, M.; Jianwei, L.; Yuanyuan, L.


    The Caleu pluton consists of three N-S elongated lithological zones: Gabbro-Diorite Zone (GDZ), Tonalite Zone (TZ) and Granodiorite Zone (GZ); western, middle and eastern portions of the pluton, respectively. The zones are thought to be previously differentiated in a common, isotopically depleted (Sr-Nd), subjacent magma reservoir at a 4 kbar equivalent depth. The emplacement should have occurred at the climax of the Cretaceous rifting. We present preliminary results of U238/Pb206 zircon geochronology; zircon saturation, Tsat(Zrn), and crystallization temperatures (Ti-in-Zrn); as well as relative oxidation states at time of crystallization, based on: (i) the sluggish REE and HFSE subsolidus diffusivities in zircon; (ii) the behavior of Ti4+↔Si4+ and Ce4+↔Zr4+ isovalent replacement, in addition to a constrained TiO2 activity in almost all typical crustal rocks; and (iii) relative oxidation states at time of crystallization, respectively. The latter are obtained by interpolation of the partition coefficients of trivalent (REE) and tetravalent (HFSE) curves in Onuma diagrams for each zircon, and then estimating relative Ce(IV)/Ce(III) ratios. Results obtained from 4 samples (a total of 77 zircon grains) collected from the three mentioned lithological zones indicate U/Pb ages of approximately 99.5 ±1.5 Ma, 96.8 ±0.6 Ma, and 94.4 +2.2 -0.8 Ma; and Ti-in Zrn ranges of ca. 720-870°C, ca. 680-820°C and ca. 750-840°C, for the GDZ, TZ and GZ samples, respectively. On the other hand Tsat(Zrn) of ca. 750-780°C in the TZ, and ca. 830-890°C in the GZ, were obtained. As expected saturation temperatures are similar or higher than Ti-in-Zrn obtained in zircon grains of TZ and GZ, respectively. Cathodoluminiscence images in zircon suggest a magmatic origin, due to absence of complex zoning patterns and fairly well conserved morphologies. Exceptionally the GDZ sample zircons show evidence of inheritance, indicating a xenocrystic and/or antecrystic origin. A relative Ce

  6. Variation of crystallinity and stoichiometry in films of gallium oxide, gallium nitride and barium zirconate prepared by means of PLD; Variation von Kristallinitaet und Stoechiometrie in mittels PLD hergestellten Schichten aus Galliumoxid, Galliumnitrid und Bariumzirkonat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brendt, Jochen


    Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD) is an ablation technique for thin film preparation of many materials. The film properties can be well controlled by the process parameters. Therefore, in many cases a given material can be deposited with different properties by changing one or more process parameters. In this thesis thin films of gallium oxide, gallium nitride and barium zirconate were deposited with a large variation in structure and stoichiometry by means of Pulsed Laser Deposition. The characterization of the film crystallinity, phase purity and short range structural order was completed by means of X-ray diffraction and X-ray absorption spectroscopy. The stoichiometry was investigated using electron probe microanalysis. For analyzing the correlation between the structure and stoichiometry with the optical and electrical properties, optical absorption and electrical conductivity measurements were carried out. The investigation of all three material systems showed that very unique properties can be realized when combining an amorphous structure and a non-stoichiometric composition. For example, in amorphous and oxygen deficient gallium oxide an insulator-metal-transition can be induced by partial crystallization of the as prepared phase accomplished by annealing at about 400 C in argon atmosphere (as shown in literature). Furthermore, amorphous and highly non-stoichiometric barium zirconate has the ability to split water molecules to hydrogen and oxygen at room temperature. A detailed analysis of both phenomena has been performed by means of photoemission and transmission electron microscopy in the case of gallium oxide and via X-ray absorption spectroscopy and gas chromatography in the case of barium zirconate.

  7. U-Pb zircon and Re-Os molybdenite geochronology from La Caridad porphyry copper deposit: insights for the duration of magmatism and mineralization in the Nacozari District, Sonora, Mexico (United States)

    Valencia, V. A.; Ruiz, J.; Barra, F.; Geherls, G.; Ducea, M.; Titley, S. R.; Ochoa-Landin, L.


    Uranium-lead zircon (laser ablation multi-collector ICP-MS spot analysis) ages from La Caridad porphyry copper deposit in the Nacozari District, Northeastern Sonora, Mexico, suggest a short period of magmatism, between 55.5 and 52.6 Ma. Two U-Pb ages from the mineralized quartz monzonite unit, showing different textural characteristics, yielded indistinguishable crystallization ages (~54 Ma), and indicate that the intrusion responsible for the mineralization occurred as a single large complex unit, instead of multiple pulses of magmatism. Some zircons analyzed also show inherited ages in cores recording dates of 112-124 Ma, 141-166 Ma and 1.4 Ga. The Re-Os molybdenite ages from the potassic and phyllic hydrothermal alteration veins yielded identical ages within error, 53.6±0.3 Ma and 53.8±0.3 Ma, respectively (weighted average of 53.7±0.21 Ma), supporting a restricted period for the mineralization. The geochronological data thus indicate a short-lived magmatic and hydrothermal system. The inherited zircons of Precambrian and Late Jurassic-Mid Cretaceous age found in the intrusive rocks of La Caridad deposit, can be explained considering two possible scenarios within the tectonic/magmatic evolution of the area. The first scenario considers the presence of a Precambrian anorogenic granitic basement that is intruded by Mesozoic (Jurassic-Cretaceous) units present beneath the La Caridad deposit. The second scenario suggests that the Mesozoic Glance Conglomerate Formation of Arizona underlies the Paleocene volcanic-igneous pile in the La Caridad area.

  8. Zircon-Based Ceramic Coatings Formed by a New Multi-Chamber Gas-Dynamic Accelerator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Kovaleva


    Full Text Available In this work, dense zircon-based ceramic coatings were obtained from inexpensive zircon powder on a steel substrate by using a new multi-chamber gas-dynamic accelerator. The microstructure and phase composition of the coating were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, optical microscopy, and X-ray diffraction. The mechanical properties of the coatings were evaluated using microindentation, wear tests and bonding strength tests. The results showed that the obtained zircon-based ceramic coatings were continuous without cracks and bonded well with substrate without a sublayer. The zircon-based ceramic coatings consisted of c-ZrO2 (major phase, m-ZrO2 and SiO2. The zircon-based ceramic coatings had a porosity of 0.1%, hardness of 526 ± 65 HV0.2, and a fracture toughness of 2.5 ± 0.6 (МPа∙m1/2. The coatings showed the low specific wear rate and average erosion rate. The failure mode occurring in the tested coatings was cohesive.

  9. Research on the response improvement of optical actuation based on lead lanthanum zirconate titanate ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinjie Wang


    Full Text Available Lead lanthanum zirconate titanate actuators taken as one type of photo-deformable actuators have been widely applied for micro-driven systems and active vibration control of photostrictive laminated flexible structures. However, the slow response of photodeformation of single patch lead lanthanum zirconate titanate actuator greatly affects its application. In this article, the main factors for the slow response of the lead lanthanum zirconate titanate actuator are investigated using experimental method. The increasing temperature during light on state and the residual photovoltage and photodeformation during light off state are considered as dominant factors causing the slow response of the lead lanthanum zirconate titanate actuator. To gain a better driving capability of lead lanthanum zirconate titanate actuator, some effective solutions through weakening the effect of increasing temperature and eliminating residual photovoltage and photodeformation are proposed and experimentally validated in this article. Considering the effective solutions proposed in this article, a novel optical driving mechanism based on multi-patches combination is proposed.

  10. A short and long range study of mullite-zirconia-zircon composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rendtorff, Nicolas M.; Conconi, Maria S.; Aglietti, Esteban F. [Centro de Tecnologia de Recursos Minerales y Ceramica (CETMIC: CONICET-CIC) (Argentina); Chain, Cecilia Y.; Pasquevich, Alberto F. [Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Departamento de Fisica, IFLP, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas (Argentina); Rivas, Patricia C. [CONICET (Argentina); Martinez, Jorge A., E-mail:; Caracoche, Maria C. [Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Departamento de Fisica, IFLP, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas (Argentina)


    In the field of refractory materials, ceramics containing mullite-zirconia are the basis of those most used in the industry of glass and steel. It is known that the addition of zircon improves the behavior of the refractory used in service. Knowing that some mullite-zirconia composites properties as fracture strength and the elastic modulus E are associated with the material microstructure integrity, the eventual thermal decomposition of zircon into zirconia and silica could seriously alter the material elastic properties. In this paper the phase content of a series of mullite-zirconia-zircon (3Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}.2SiO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2}-ZrSiO{sub 4}) composites is determined at atomic level via perturbed angular correlations (PAC) and compared with that derived from the long range X-ray diffraction technique. PAC results on the as-prepared materials indicate that all nominal zircon is present and that it involves two types of nanoconfigurations, one of them describing aperiodic regions. The thermomechanical properties already reported for these materials could be related to the crystalline to aperiodic zircon concentrations ratio they exhibit.

  11. Records of magmatic change as preserved in zircon: examples from the Yellowstone Volcanic Field (United States)

    Rivera, T. A.


    Zircon crystals have been used as proxies for their host magmatic composition and as records of the evolution and differentiation of silicic magma systems through the use of integrated techniques such as cathodoluminescence imaging, LA-ICPMS trace element analysis, thermometry, and high-precision CA-IDTIMS U/Pb dating. This petrochronologic approach can aid in identifying crystal populations arising from discrete pulses of magmatism, reconstructing the growth histories of those populations, quantifying the chemical evolution of the host magma, and determining the timing and tempo of that chemical evolution. The Yellowstone Volcanic Field hosts both large and small volume silicic eruptions whose zircon records can provide insights to magmatic processes using a petrochronologic approach. Morphological and thermochemical trends preserved in zircon grains extracted from the three Yellowstone super-eruptions and a small volume precursory eruption indicate that magmatism in the volcanic field is punctuated, characterized by numerous pulses of melting, differentiation, and solidification occurring prior to eruption. U/Pb zircon dating constrains magma assembly to geologically short timescales, with populations of earlier solidified zircon incorporated into the nascent magma just prior to eruption. This requires punctuated intervals of high magmatic flux be superimposed on longer durations of a much lower background flux. Thus super-eruptions within the Yellowstone Volcanic Field result from rapid production and evolution of magma, and preceded by periods of smaller volume magma production that undergo similar differentiation processes over comparable timescales.

  12. Late accretion to the Moon recorded in zircon (U-Th)/He thermochronometry (United States)

    Kelly, Nigel M.; Flowers, Rebecca M.; Metcalf, James R.; Mojzsis, Stephen J.


    We conducted zircon (U-Th)/He (ZHe) analysis of lunar impact-melt breccia 14311 with the aim of leveraging radiation damage accumulated in zircon over extended intervals to detect low-temperature or short-lived impact events that have previously eluded traditional isotopic dating techniques. Our ZHe data record a coherent date vs. effective Uranium concentration (eU) trend characterized by >3500 Ma dates from low (≤75 ppm) eU zircon grains, and ca. 110 Ma dates for high (≥100 ppm) eU grains. A progression between these date populations is apparent for intermediate (75-100 ppm) eU grains. Thermal history modeling constrains permissible temperatures and cooling rates during and following impacts. Modeling shows that the data are most simply explained by impact events at ca. 3950 Ma and ca. 110 Ma, and limits allowable temperatures of heating events between 3950-110 Ma. Modeling of solar cycling thermal effects at the lunar surface precludes this as the explanation for the ca. 110 Ma ZHe dates. We propose a sample history characterized by zircon resetting during the ca. 3950 Ma Imbrium impact event, with subsequent heating during an impact at ca. 110 Ma that ejected the sample to the vicinity of its collection site. Our data show that zircon has the potential to retain 4He over immense timescales (≥3950 Myrs), thus providing a valuable new thermochronometer for probing the impact histories of lunar samples, and martian or asteroidal meteorites.

  13. Applications of laser ablation to microengineering (United States)

    Gower, Malcolm C.; Rizvi, Nadeem H.


    Applications of pulsed laser ablation to the manufacture of micro- electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) and micro-opto-electro-mechanical systems (MOEMS) devices are presented. Laser ablative processes used to manufacture a variety of microsystems technology (MST) components in the computer peripheral, sensing and biomedical industries are described together with a view of some future developments.

  14. Polyimide polymers provide improved ablative materials (United States)

    Burns, E. A.; Jones, J. F.; Lubowitz, H. R.


    Principle heat absorption of silica-reinforced plastic ablative materials occurs from the in-depth reaction of silica with carbon to form silicon monoxide and carbon monoxide. The higher the degree of completion of this reaction, the higher the capacity of the ablative material to absorb heat.

  15. High Heat Flux Block Ablator-in-Honeycomb Heat Shield Using Ablator/Aerogel-Filled Foam Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Ultramet and ARA Ablatives Laboratory previously developed and demonstrated advanced foam-reinforced carbon/phenolic ablators that offer substantially increased high...

  16. Plume dynamics and shielding by the ablation plume during Er:YAG laser ablation. (United States)

    Nahen, Kester; Vogel, Alfred


    Free-running Er:YAG lasers are used for precise tissue ablation in various clinical applications. The ablated material is ejected into the direction perpendicular to the tissue surface. We investigated the influence of shielding by the ablation plume on the energy deposition into an irradiated sample because it influences the ablation dynamics and the amount of material ablated. The investigations were performed using an Er:YAG laser with a pulse duration of 200 micros for the ablation of gelatin with different water contents, skin, and water. Laser flash photography combined with a dark field Schlieren technique was used to visualize gaseous and particulate ablation products, and to measure the distance traveled by the ablating laser beam through the ablation plume at various times after the beginning of the laser pulse. The temporal evolution of the transmission through the ablation plume was probed using a second free running Er:YAG laser beam directed parallel to the sample's surface. The ablation dynamics was found to consist of a vaporization phase followed by material ejection. The observation of droplet ejection during water ablation provided evidence that a phase explosion is the driving mechanism for material ejection. The laser light transmission was only slightly reduced by the vapor plume, but decreased by 25%-50% when the ejected material passed the probe beam. At radiant exposures approximately 10 times above the ablation threshold, the laser energy deposited into the sample amounted to only 61% of the incident energy for gelatin samples with 90% water content and to 86% for skin samples. For free-running Er:YAG laser pulses shielding must therefore be considered in modeling the ablation dynamics and determining the dosage for clinical applications.

  17. Reaction Sintering of Mexican Dolomite – Zircon Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez-Galicia, J. L.


    Full Text Available The present work has been conducted aiming to develop additional phase [Ca3SiO5, Ca2SiO4 and/or Ca3Mg(SiO42]-bonded magnesia refractory materials via reaction sintering of dolomite-zircon mixtures, employing a Mexican dolomite containing an excess of 3 wt% of CaCO3. The study was based on phase equilibrium data extracted from the quaternary system CaO – MgO – SiO2 – ZrO2, to put it more precisely, base on the projection from the MgO-apex of the liquidus surface of the primary crystallization volume of MgO onto the opposite face of the above mentioned quaternary system. The refractory materials designed within this system were obtained by attrition milling, followed by cold isostatic pressing and high temperature reaction sintering. All initial and produced materials were characterized by ICP-AES, XRF, XRD, SEM-EDX, DTA and TG analyses. The results obtained indicated that reaction sintering of dolomite-zircon mixtures is an interesting route to produce MgO-CaZrO3-additional phase refractory materials.

    El propósito de este trabajo ha sido obtener materiales refractarios de magnesia, aglomerados con una fase adicional [Ca3SiO5, Ca2SiO4 y/o Ca3Mg(SiO42], mediante la sinterización reactiva de mezclas de dolomita-circón, empleando para ello una dolomita mexicana que contiene un exceso de 3% en peso de CaCO3. El estudio se basa en la información relativa al equilibrio de fases del sistema CaO – MgO – SiO2 – ZrO2. En concreto se usa la proyección, desde el vértice del MgO, de la superficie de liquidus del volumen de cristalización primaria de este, hacia la cara opuesta de sistema cuaternario. Los materiales refractarios diseñados se han obtenido por molienda de atrición, seguida de un prensado isostático en frío y sinterización reactiva a alta temperatura. Todos los materiales, iniciales y finales, han sido caracterizados mediante ICPAES, FRX, DRX, MEB-EDX, ATD y TG. Los resultados obtenidos indican que la sinterizaci

  18. Laser systems for ablative fractional resurfacing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paasch, Uwe; Haedersdal, Merete


    Ablative fractional resurfacing (AFR) creates microscopic vertical ablated channels that are surrounded by a thin layer of coagulated tissue, constituting the microscopic treatment zones (MTZs). AFR induces epidermal and dermal remodeling, which raises new possibilities for the treatment of a var......Ablative fractional resurfacing (AFR) creates microscopic vertical ablated channels that are surrounded by a thin layer of coagulated tissue, constituting the microscopic treatment zones (MTZs). AFR induces epidermal and dermal remodeling, which raises new possibilities for the treatment...... ablative laser systems. Fractionated CO(2) (10,600-nm), erbium yttrium aluminum garnet, 2940-nm and yttrium scandium gallium garnet, 2790-nm lasers are available. In this article, we present an overview of AFR technology, devices and histopathology, and we summarize the current clinical possibilities...

  19. Piezoelectric lead zirconate titanate ceramic fiber/polymer composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waller, D.J.; Safari, P. (Dept. of Ceramic Engineering, Rutgers-State Univ. of New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ (US))


    This papers on piezoelectric lead zirconate titanate (PZT) ceramic fiber/polymer composite were fabricated by a novel technique referred to as relic processing. Basically, this involved impregnating a woven carbon-fiber template material with PZT precursor by soaking the template in a PZT stock solution. Careful heat treatment pyrolized the carbon, resulting in a PZT ceramic relic that retained the fibrous template form. After sintering, the densified relic was backfilled with polymer to form a composite. Optimized relic processing consisted of soaking activated carbon-fiber fabric twice in an intermediate concentration (405-mg PZT/(1-g solution)) alkoxide PZT solution and sintering at 1285{degrees}C for 2 h. A series of piezoelectric composites encompassing a wide range of dielectric and piezoelectric properties was prepared by varying the PZT-fiber orientation and polymer-matrix material. In PZT/Eccogel polymer composites with PZT fibers orientated parallel to the electrodes, K = 75, d{sub 33} = 145 pC/N, d{sub h} = 45 {plus minus} 5 pC/N, and d{sub h}g{sub h} = 3150 {times} 10{sup {minus}15} m{sup 2}/N were measured. Furthermore, in composites with a number of PZT fibers arranged perpendicular to the electroded surfaces, K = 190, d{sub 33} = 250 pC/N, d{sub h} = 65 {plus minus} 2 pC/N, and d{sub h}g{sub h} = 2600 {times} 10{sup {minus}15} m{sub 2}/N.

  20. Integrated Laser Ablation U/Pb and (U-Th)/He Dating of Detrital Accessory Minerals from the Naryani River, Central Nepal (United States)

    Horne, A.; Hodges, K. V.; Van Soest, M. C.


    The newly developed 'laser ablation double dating' (LADD) technique, an integrated laser microprobe U/Pb and (U-Th)/He dating method, could be an exceptionally valuable tool in detrital thermochronology for identifying sedimentary provenance and evaluating the exhumation history of a source region. A recent proof-of-concept study has used LADD to successfully date both zircon and titanite crystals from the well-characterized Fish Canyon tuff, but we also believe that another accessory mineral, rutile, could be amenable to dating via the LADD technique. To continue the development of the method, we present an application of LADD to detrital zircon, titanite, and rutile from a sample collected on the lower Naryani River of central Nepal. Preliminary analyses of the sample have yielded zircon U/Pb dates ranging from 31.4 to 2405 Ma; zircon (U-Th)/He from 1.8 to 15.4 Ma; titanite U/Pb between 18 and 110 Ma; titanite (U-Th)/He between 1 and 16 Ma; rutile U/Pb from 6 to 45 Ma; and rutile (U-Th)/He from 2 to 25 Ma. In addition to the initial data, we can use Ti-in-zircon, Zr-in-titanite, and Zr-in-rutile thermometers to determine the range of possible long-term cooling rates from grains with U/Pb ages younger than collision. Thus far our results from zircon analyses imply a cooling rate of approximately 15°C/Myr; titanite analyses imply between 10 and 67°C/Myr; and rutile between 9 and 267°C/Myr. This spread in potential cooling rates, especially in the order of magnitude differences of cooling rates calculated from the rutile grains, suggests that the hinterland source regions of the Naryani river experienced dramatically different exhumation histories during Himalayan orogenisis. Ongoing analyses will expand the dataset such that we can more adequately characterize the range of possibilities represented in the sample.

  1. Catheter ablation of epicardial ventricular tachycardia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takumi Yamada, MD, PhD


    Full Text Available Ventricular tachycardias (VTs can usually be treated by endocardial catheter ablation. However, some VTs can arise from the epicardial surface, and their substrate can be altered only by epicardial catheter ablation. There are two approaches to epicardial catheter ablation: transvenous and transthoracic. The transvenous approach through the coronary venous system (CVS has been commonly used because it is easily accessible. However, this approach may be limited by the distribution of the CVS and insufficient radiofrequency energy delivery. Transthoracic epicardial catheter ablation has been developed to overcome these limitations of the transvenous approach. It is a useful supplemental or even preferred strategy to eliminate epicardial VTs in the electrophysiology laboratory. This technique has been applied for scar-related VTs secondary to often non-ischemic cardiomyopathy and sometimes ischemic cardiomyopathy, and idiopathic VTs as the epicardial substrates of these VTs have become increasingly recognized. When endocardial ablation and epicardial ablation through the CVS are unsuccessful, transthoracic epicardial ablation should be the next option. Intrapericardial access is usually obtained through a subxiphoidal pericardial puncture. This approach might not be possible in patients with pericardial adhesions caused by prior cardiac surgery or pericarditis. In such cases, a hybrid procedure involving surgical access with a subxiphoid pericardial window and a limited anterior or lateral thoracotomy might be a feasible and safe method of performing an epicardial catheter ablation in the electrophysiology laboratory. Potential complications associated with this technique include bleeding and collateral damage to the coronary arteries and phrenic nerve. Although the risk of these complications is low, electrophysiologists who attempt epicardial catheter ablation should know the complications associated with this technique, how to minimize their

  2. In-situ chemical composition measurements with a laser ablation mass spectrometer for space research: Quantitative investigations of meteorites (United States)

    Neuland, M. B.; Frey, S.; Riedo, A.; Mezger, K.; Wiesendanger, R.; Tulej, M.; Wurz, P.


    We present a laser ablation/ionisation mass spectrometer (LMS). With this instrument we measured the quantitative chemical composition of Allende and Sayh al Uhaymir meteorites in-situ and with very high spatial resolution. From the main rock-forming elements, the mineralogy of the samples was inferred. Measurements of trace elements in SaU allowed dating analyses of the material and the calculation of the crystallisation temperature of the Zircon grains that were identified in the KREEP sample. The measurements on Allende made it possible to analyse the meteorite matrix in particular, beside the various chondrules embedded in the matrix. The LMS is suitable for being operated on a planetary lander or rover, where it would allow for high performance in-situ studies of rocks on the planetary surface.

  3. Study of nanoconfigurations in Zircon-Mullite composites using perturbed angular correlations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chain, Cecilia Y., E-mail:; Pasquevich, Alberto F. [Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Departamento de Fisica, IFLP, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas (Argentina); Rivas, Patricia C. [CONICET (Argentina); Martinez, Jorge A.; Caracoche, Maria C. [Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Departamento de Fisica, IFLP, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas (Argentina); Rendtorff, Nicolas M. [CONICET (Argentina); Conconi, Maria S. [Centro de Tecnologia de Recursos Minerales y Ceramica (CETMIC: CONICET-CIC) (Argentina); Aglietti, Esteban F. [CONICET (Argentina)


    It has been already published that, at nanoscopic level, zircon exhibits wide regions of aperiodic material not detected by the ordinary techniques used to analyse the obtained product in the production of ceramic materials. In this paper it is reported how the Perturbed Angular Correlations (PAC) technique has assisted the interpretation of a mismatch between experiment and theoretical estimation of a mechanical property in some zircon-mullite composites. In fact, it has been proved that the difference observed between the calculated and the experimental value of the elastic modulus in composites of the form (1-x) ZrSiO{sub 4} - x 3Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}.2SiO{sub 2} (with x = 15, 25, 35 and 45 wt.%) behaves very similarly as the relative amount of aperiodic zircon determined by PAC. This result allows to re-interpret the mullite role during the materials preparation.

  4. Lithium in low-temperature fluid-affected zircons. Paleoproterozoic weathering horizon (Karelia, the Baltic shield). (United States)

    Alfimova, Nadezhda; Klimova, Ekaterina; Matrenichev, Vjacheslav; Zinger, Tatjana


    Zircon is a mineral, which is widely used in geochronology. At the same time, low-temperature fluids had been shown to affect the inner structure, chemical and even isotopic composition of zircons (Geisler et al., 2007, Pidgeon et al., 2013). Here we report changes in the inner structure and chemical composition of zircon grains, preserved in Paleoproterozoic weathering horizon from Karelia craton (N. Ladoga region, Russia) in spite of greenschist metamorphism. Detailed zircon SEM and CL study revealed that zircons in weathered samples can be classified into two groups depending on their microstructural characteristics: 1- the zircons with an unusual and complex (breccia-like) structure with almost no relics of magmatic zonation. The inner structure of that grains is often composed of a mosaic of angular crystal pieces cemented with silicates or even other generation of zircon itself. Group 2- zircons with clearly seen relics of magmatic (oscillatory) zonation. Both groups have outer rims which are forming the facets of the grains. These two groups are also different in chemistry. Group 1 zircons contain more than 10 ppm of Ba and Sr, >1000 ppm U and Th/U there is ≤0.1, REE spectra show LREE/HREE > 0.5, positive Cean (enrichment of non-formula elements (Ca, Mg, Fe, Al) and water. Lithium varies broadly - from 33 to 136 ppm (av.value around 60 ppm). Group 2 zircons are characterized by Th/U >0.3, Ba and Sr are less than 10 ppm each, LREE/HREE+2.0, Euan ≤ +1.0, Li is from 19 to 73 ppm with average meaning 49 ppm. A separate geochemical group can be identified within "a-structural" grains (group 1) -parts of zircons and grains light-colored in SEM. These part of group 1 zircons demonstrate specific REE spectra - LREE/HREE < 0.1, ∑REE ≤750 ppm, thus being lower, then LREE part of spectra from grains with magmatic structure. These group also has the highest concentration of Li (up to 136 ppm with av. 88 ppm) and lowest Ba/Sr ratio of all measured points, thus

  5. Refined Proterozoic evolution of the Gawler Craton, South Australia, through U-Pb zircon geochronology (United States)

    Fanning, C.M.; Flint, R.B.; Parker, A.J.; Ludwig, K. R.; Blissett, A.H.


    Through the application of both conventional U-Pb zircon analyses and small-sample U-Pb isotopic analyses, the nature and timing of tectonic events leading to the formation of the Gawler Craton have been defined more precisely. Constraints on deposition of Early Proterozoic iron formation-bearing sediments have been narrowed down to the period 1960-1847 Ma. Deformed acid volcanics, including the economically important Moonta Porphyry, have zircon ages of ??? 1790 and 1740 Ma. The voluminous acid Gawler Range Volcanics and correlatives to the east were erupted over a short interval at 1592 ?? 2 Ma, and were intruded by anorogenic granites at ??? 1575 Ma. Small-sample zircon analyses proved to be an extremely valuable adjunct to conventional analyses, generally yielding more-concordant data which forced a curved discordia through an upper intercept slightly younger than from a conventional straight-line discordia. ?? 1988.

  6. Theoretical modeling of zircon's crystal morphology according to data of atomistic calculations (United States)

    Gromalova, Natalia; Nikishaeva, Nadezhda; Eremin, Nikolay


    Zircon is an essential mineral that is used in the U-Pb dating. Moreover, zircon is highly resistant to radioactive exposure. It is of great interest in solving both fundamental and applied problems associated with the isolation of high-level radioactive waste. There is significant progress in forecasting of the most energetically favorable crystal structures at the present time. Unfortunately, the theoretical forecast of crystal morphology at high technological level is under-explored nowadays, though the estimation of crystal equilibrium habit is extremely important in studying the physical and chemical properties of new materials. For the first time, the thesis about relation of the equilibrium shape of a crystal with its crystal structure was put forward in the works by O.Brave. According to it, the idealized habit is determined in the simplest case by a correspondence with the reticular densities Rhkl of individual faces. This approach, along with all subsequent corrections, does not take into account the nature of atoms and the specific features of the chemical bond in crystals. The atomistic calculations of crystal surfaces are commonly performed using the energetic characteristics of faces, namely, the surface energy (Esurf), which is a measure of the thermodynamic stability of the crystal face. The stable crystal faces are characterized by small positive values of Esurf. As we know from our previous research (Gromalova et al.,2015) one of the constitutive factors affecting the value of the surface energy in calculations is a choice of potentials model. In this regard, we studied several sets of parameters of atomistic interatomic potentials optimized previously. As the first test model («Zircon 1») were used sets of interatomic potentials of interaction Zr-O, Si-O and O-O in the form of Buckingham potentials. To improve playback properties of zircon additionally used Morse potential for a couple of Zr-Si, as well as the three-particle angular harmonic

  7. Age and compositional data of zircon from sepiolite drilling mud to identify contamination of ocean drilling samples (United States)

    Andrews, Graham D. M.; Schmitt, Axel K.; Busby, Cathy J.; Brown, Sarah R.; Blum, Peter; Harvey, Janet. C.


    Zircon extracted from drilled oceanic rocks is increasingly used to answer geologic questions related to igneous and sedimentary sequences. Recent zircon studies using samples obtained from marine drill cores revealed that drilling muds used in the coring process may contaminate the samples. The JOIDES Resolution Science Operator of the International Ocean Discovery Program has been using two types of clays, sepiolite and attapulgite, which both have salt water viscosifier properties able to create a gel-like slurry that carries drill cuttings out of the holes several hundred meters deep. The dominantly used drilling mud is sepiolite originating from southwestern Nevada, USA. This sepiolite contains abundant zircon crystals with U-Pb ages ranging from 1.89 to 2889 Ma and continental trace element, δ18O, and ɛHf isotopic compositions. A dominant population of 11-16 Ma zircons in sepiolite drilling mud makes identification of contamination in drilled Neogene successions particularly challenging. Interpretation of zircon analyses related to ocean drilling should be cautious of zircon ages in violation of independently constrained age models and that have age populations overlapping those in the sepiolite. Because individual geochronologic and geochemical characteristics lack absolute discriminatory power, it is recommended to comprehensively analyze all dated zircon crystals from cores exposed to drill mud for trace element, δ18O, and ɛHf isotopic compositions. Zircon analyzed in situ (i.e., in petrographic sections) are assumed to be trustworthy.

  8. Isotope U-Pb age on single zircon and REE distribution in rocks and zircon from paleoproterozoic Kandalaksha-Kolvitsa complex Baltic shield (United States)

    Steshenko, Ekaterina; Bayanova, Tamara; Drogobuzhskaya, Svetlana; Lyalina, Ludmila; Serov, Pavel; Chashchin, Viktor; Elizarov, Dmitriy


    Kandalaksha-Kolvitsa paleoproterozoic complex located in the N-E part of Baltic shield and consists of three zones. Marginal zone (mesocratic metanorite) lies at the base of the massif. Main zone is composed of leucocratic metagabbro. The upper zone is alteration of mataanorthosite and leucocratic metagabbro. All rocks were subjected to granulate and anorthositic metamorphism. Age of magmatic crystallization of the massif was determined for the first time, using the U-Pb isotope method for single zircon grains. Three fractions of single zircons from anorthosite of the Kandalaksha massif gave precise U-Pb age of 2435.5 ± 4.8 Ma. For the first time REE concentration (WR) was determined using a quadrupole mass spectrometer (Agilent 7500 ce ICP-MS) in the main varieties of rocks of the Kandalaksha-Kolvitsa paleoproterozoic complex. Anorthosite and leucocratic metagabbros (main zone) are characterized by a flat spectrum distribution of HREE, which were normalized by [1]. The REE pattern is characterized by significant positive anomalies of Eu ((Eu / Eu *)n = 3.72-3.91) in anorthosite and leucogabbros and 7.26 - in ortoamfibolitah. General content of individual elements that are common for this type of rocks: Cen = 5.82-8.54, Ybn = 1.54-1.58, which indicates that the process of crystallization of the rock occurred with predominant accumulation of plagioclase. According to geochemical and Nd-Sr isotopic data (ISr=0.702 - 0.706, ɛNd(T) = +1 - (-3)) Kandalaksha Kolvitsa complex, appear to have a general plume source with Paleoproterozoic layered intrusions of the Baltic Shield [2] Distribution of REE (ELAN-9000 ICP-MS) in zircon have a typical magmatic species: a positive Ce, negative Eu anomaly and HREE flat spectrum. Titanium content in zircons were measured for the calculation of their crystallization temperature with 8350C. These data are evidence of magmatic origin of zircon [3]. The scientific researches are supported by RFBR (projects № 15-35-20501, № 16

  9. Detrital zircons from the Hronicum Carboniferous-Permian sandstones (Western Carpathians, Slovakia): depositional age and provenance (United States)

    Vozárová, Anna; Larionov, Alexander; Šarinová, Katarína; Vďačný, Marek; Lepekhina, Elena; Vozár, Jozef; Lvov, Pavel


    For the assessment of depositional age and provenance of the Hronicum Unit Pennsylvanian to Permian siliciclastic sediments, SIMS (SHRIMP) U-Pb analyses have been carried out on detrital zircons. To constrain the presumed provenance of the Hronicum Unit sediments five samples have been taken from two lithostratigraphic units, the Nižná Boca and the Malužiná formations. The detrital-zircon age spectrum demonstrates two prominent populations, the first, Late Pennsylvanian-Early Cisuralian (288-309 Ma) and the second, Famennian—Tournaisian (345-371 Ma). The probability density age peak at 297 Ma permits to estimate the maximum sedimentation age of the Nižná Boca Fm. to younger than Asselian and the beginning of the Malužiná Formation sedimentation has been assessed at least in Sakmarian. The sedimentation persisted, with the exception of a short break in the Wordian/Capitanian, through the Lopingian. Smaller zircon age clusters range within 446-541 Ma, with a dominance of the Cambrian detrital zircons (491-541 Ma). The Precambrian time-span is dominated by the two groups of detrital zircons; Ediacaran in the range of 545-612 Ma and Paleoproterozoic-Neoarchean ranging from 1.8 to 2.8 Ga. The documented zircon ages reflect derivation of the Hronicum sediments from the Variscan Western Carpathian crystalline basement, the Late Devonian/Early Mississippian magmatic arc. These data support close relations of the presumed Hronicum basement with the Armorican terranes and derivation from the Cadomian Belt, associated with the West African Craton during Neoproterozoic and Cambrian time.

  10. Zircon U-Pb dating of Maherabad porphyry copper-gold prospect area: evidence for a late Eocene porphyry-related metallogenic epoch in east of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azadeh Malekzadeh Shafaroudi


    Full Text Available Eastern Iran has great potential for porphyry copper deposits, as a result of its past subduction zone tectonic setting that lead to extensive alkaline to calc-alkaline magmatic activity in Tertiary time. Maherabad is the first porphyry Cu-Au prospecting area which is discovered in eastern Iran. This is related to a succession o f monzonitic to dioritic porphyries stocks that were emplaced within volcanic rocks. Monzonitic porphyries have basic role in mineralization. Hydrothermal alteration zones are well developed including potassic, sericitic-potassic, quartz-sericite-carbonate-pyrite, quartz-carbonate-pyrite, silicified-propylitic, propylitic, carbonate and silicified zones. Mineralization occurs as Disseminated, stockwork and hydrothermal breccia. Based on early stage of exploration, Cu is between 179- 6830 ppm (ave. 3200 ppm and Au is up to 1000 ppb (ave. 570 ppb. This prospect is gold- rich porphyry copper deposit. Laser-ablation U-Pb dating of two samples from ore-related intrusive rocks indicate that these two monzonitic porphyries crystallized at 39.0 ± 0.8 Ma to 38.2 ± 0.8 Ma, within a short time span of less than ca. 1 Ma during the middle Eocene. This provides the first precise ages for metallogenic episode of porphyry-type mineralization. Also, the initial 87Sr/86Sr and (143Nd/144Ndi was recalculated to an age of 39 Ma. Initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios for monzonitic rocks are 0.7047-0.7048. The (143Nd/144Ndi isotope composition are 0.512694-0.512713. Initial ε Nd isotope values 1.45-1.81. Based on isotopic data the magma had originated beyond the continental crust. The study will be used for tectonic-magmatic setting and evolution of eastern Iran. Keywords: Lut block, Middle Eocene, Zircon, Geochronology, Laser ablation ICP-MS,

  11. Detrital zircon U-Pb geochronology of metasediments from southwestern Svalbard's Caledonian Province (United States)

    Kośmińska, Karolina; Schneider, David A.; Majka, Jarosław; Lorenz, Henning; Gee, David G.; Manecki, Maciej; Barnes, Chris


    We conducted SIMS U-Pb geochronology on detrital zircons from metasedimentary rocks of Svalbard's Southwestern Caledonian Province, including: Prins Karls Forland, Wedel Jarlsberg Land, and Sørkapp Land. Quartzite from the northernmost area, Prins Karls Forland, was collected from the amphibolite facies Pinkie Unit, which was thought to be Mesoproterozoic. Preliminary detrital zircon dating obtained for this unit yielded ages as young as early Neoproterozoic to late Mesoproterozoic (0.95-1.05 Ga), with dominant populations around 1.4 and 1.6 Ga. Samples from Wedel Jarlsberg Land were collected from the Eimfjellet, Deilegga and Sofiebogen groups, and except for one quartzite from the Gulliksenfjellet Formation (Eimfjellet Group), samples also possess ages as young as early Neoproterozoic to late Mesoproterozoic (0.9-1.1 Ga). Older zircon age signatures are dominated by Mesoproterozoic populations at ca. 1.3 Ga and 1.45-1.6 Ga, with older Paleoproterozoic ages also present. The Gulliksenfjellet Formation is characterized by 1.75-1.9 and 2.5-3.0 Ga detrital zircon ages; no detrital grains younger than 1.7 Ga are present. The samples from Sørkapp Land were collected from an unnamed complex, which is thought to be an equivalent of the Neoproterozoic Isbjørnhamna Group of Wedel Jarlsberg Land. Youngest detrital zircons of early Neoproterozoic to late Mesoproterozoic (ca. 0.95-1.1 Ga) age are abundant. The older populations are dominated by Mesoproterozoic to Paleoproterozoic zircon, with clusters at 1.3-1.35, 1.65, and 1.8 Ga. Single Archean grains were also identified. The detrital zircon age signatures for metasedimentary rocks from Sørkapp are similar to those identified within Wedel Jarlsberg Land. In summary, our data from the southwestern Svalbard's Caledonian Province indicate: a) an early Neoproterozic maximum sedimentation age for the units; and b) a distinct late Mesoproterozoic to early Neoproterozoic provenance. The exception is the Gulliksenfjellet

  12. Detrital zircon geochronology of pre- and syncollisional strata, Acadian orogen, Maine Appalachians (United States)

    Bradley, Dwight C.; O'Sullivan, Paul B.


    The Central Maine Basin is the largest expanse of deep-marine, Upper Ordovician to Devonian metasedimentary rocks in the New England Appalachians, and is a key to the tectonics of the Acadian Orogeny. Detrital zircon ages are reported from two groups of strata: (1) the Quimby, Rangeley, Perry Mountain and Smalls Falls Formations, which were derived from inboard, northwesterly sources and are supposedly older; and (2) the Madrid, Carrabassett and Littleton Formations, which were derived from outboard, easterly sources and are supposedly younger. Deep-water deposition prevailed throughout, with the provenance shift inferred to mark the onset of foredeep deposition and orogeny. The detrital zircon age distribution of a composite of the inboard-derived units shows maxima at 988 and 429 Ma; a composite from the outboard-derived units shows maxima at 1324, 1141, 957, 628, and 437 Ma. The inboard-derived units have a greater proportion of zircons between 450 and 400 Ma. Three samples from the inboard-derived group have youngest age maxima that are significantly younger than the nominal depositional ages. The outboard-derived group does not share this problem. These results are consistent with the hypothesised provenance shift, but they signal potential problems with the established stratigraphy, structure, and (or) regional mapping. Shallow-marine deposits of the Silurian to Devonian Ripogenus Formation, from northwest of the Central Maine Basin, yielded detrital zircons featuring a single age maximum at 441 Ma. These zircons were likely derived from a nearby magmatic arc now concealed by younger strata. Detrital zircons from the Tarratine Formation, part of the Acadian foreland-basin succession in this strike belt, shows age maxima at 1615, 980 and 429 Ma. These results are consistent with three episodes of zircon recycling beginning with the deposition of inboard-derived strata of the Central Maine Basin, which were shed from post-Taconic highlands located to the

  13. Temperature-controlled irrigated tip radiofrequency catheter ablation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, H H; Chen, X; Pietersen, Adrian


    INTRODUCTION: In patients with ventricular tachycardias due to structural heart disease, catheter ablation cures ... AND RESULTS: In vivo anesthetized pigs were ablated in the left ventricle. In vitro strips of porcine left ventricular myocardium were ablated in a tissue bath. Lesion volume was significantly larger after irrigated tip ablation both in vivo (544 +/- 218 vs 325 +/- 194 mm3, P

  14. Detrital zircon (U-Th)/He and fision track data of natural deep borehole samples and its geological significance (United States)

    Qiu, Nansheng; Cai, Change


    The zircon (U-Th)/He and fission track (FT) thermochronometry has been used as a thermal indicator to study thermal history of the deep sedimentary basin at high temperature. The closure temperature of helium and annealing temperature of FT are important parameters for the zircon (U-Th)/He thermochronometry. In this paper, the zircon He closure temperature and FT annealing temperature were studied by establishing the evolutionary pattern between zircon He and FT ages and zircon burial depth based on the data of natural borehole samples obtained from the Cenozoic strara in the Bohai Bay and Tarim basins, which have different thermal settings. The results show that the zircon He closure temperature of natural samples in the sedimentary basin is approcimately 195°C, higher than the temperature obtain from the thermal simulation experiments (183°C). The high He closure temperature resulted from long term radiation damage accumulation and sufficient grain radius. In addition, two zircon FT age profiles from different thermal background show that there exist different annealing temperatures. The ZFT annealing temperature is about 160°C in the deep borehole of Tarim basin with low thermal background. However, the ZFT annealing temperature is about 210°C in the deep borehole of the Bohai Bay basin with high thermal background. We also point out that effective uranium concentration and radiogenic 4He concentration have apparent influence on the zircon He and FT ages. This study is a revaluation of the conventional zircon He closure temperature and annealing temperature. Thus, properly understanding the ZHe/ZFT ages, closure /annealing temperatures, and their influence factors, ZHe/ZFT dating can provide the true explanation of the testing zircon He/FT ages, and has a great guiding significance in the studying of the evolution of source rocks and the process of hydrocarbon accumulation in the deep sedimentary basin.

  15. Thermal protection system ablation sensor (United States)

    Gorbunov, Sergey (Inventor); Martinez, Edward R. (Inventor); Scott, James B. (Inventor); Oishi, Tomomi (Inventor); Fu, Johnny (Inventor); Mach, Joseph G. (Inventor); Santos, Jose B. (Inventor)


    An isotherm sensor tracks space vehicle temperatures by a thermal protection system (TPS) material during vehicle re-entry as a function of time, and surface recession through calibration, calculation, analysis and exposed surface modeling. Sensor design includes: two resistive conductors, wound around a tube, with a first end of each conductor connected to a constant current source, and second ends electrically insulated from each other by a selected material that becomes an electrically conductive char at higher temperatures to thereby complete an electrical circuit. The sensor conductors become shorter as ablation proceeds and reduced resistance in the completed electrical circuit (proportional to conductor length) is continually monitored, using measured end-to-end voltage change or current in the circuit. Thermocouple and/or piezoelectric measurements provide consistency checks on local temperatures.

  16. IR laser ablation of dental enamel (United States)

    Fried, Daniel


    An overview of the basic mechanisms of IR laser ablation of dental enamel is presented. Enamel is a highly structured tissue consisting of an heterogeneous distribution of water, mineral, protein and lipid. Absorption bands of water and carbonated hydroxyapatite can be selectively targeted from 2.7 to 11-micrometer via several laser wavelengths. Mechanistic differences in the nature of ablation and the varying surface morphology produced can be explained by the microstructure of the tissue. Suggested criteria for the choice of the optimum laser parameters for clinical use, the influence of plasma shielding and the role of exogenous water on the mechanism of ablation are discussed.

  17. Diamond Ablators for Inertial Confinement Fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biener, J; Mirkarimi, P B; Tringe, J W; Baker, S L; Wang, Y M; Kucheyev, S O; Teslich, N E; Wu, K J; Hamza, A V; Wild, C; Woerner, E; Koidl, P; Bruehne, K; Fecht, H


    Diamond has a unique combination of physical properties for the inertial confinement fusion ablator application, such as appropriate optical properties, high atomic density, high yield strength, and high thermal conductivity. Here, we present a feasible concept to fabricate diamond ablator shells. The fabrication of diamond capsules is a multi-step process, which involves diamond chemical vapor deposition on silicon mandrels followed by polishing, microfabrication of holes, and removing of the silicon mandrel by an etch process. We also discuss the pros and cons of coarse-grained optical quality and nanocrystalline chemical vapor deposition diamond films for the ablator application.

  18. U-Pb age and genetic significance of heterogeneous zircon populations in rocks from the Favourable Lake area, Northwestern Ontario (United States)

    Corfu, F.; Ayres, L. D.


    The study evaluates the relationships between measured U-Pb ages and zircon characteristics of five morphologically, texturally, and isotopically complex zircon populations and compares the zircon development stages to the orogenic evolution of the Favourable Lake area. Two distinct zircon types from a hornblendite xenolith in a granitoid batholith of the Sachigo subprovince of the Superior Province yield U-Pb ages of 2729.0±6.8 Ma and 2714.8{-6.4/+7.4}Ma, which date specific metamorphic phases coinciding with major plutonic pulses in the batholith. Zircons from a metamorphosed felsic dike, crosscutting the hornblendite, consist of an old zircon component with a minimum age of 2788 Ma possibly reflecting igneous crystallization ≧ 2950 Ma ago, and a younger component with an inferred age of 2725±15 Ma, probably reflecting metamorphism during batholith emplacement. In the Berens River subprovince to the south, granodiorite forms both a late tectonic phase in a large batholith and a post-tectonic pluton intruded into the batholith, yet zircons from these granodiorites have identical ages of 2697.3±1.7 Ma and 2696.2±1.2 Ma, respectively. The late tectonic granodiorite also contains inherited zircons with a minimum age of 2767 Ma which are indirect evidence for the presence of old sialic crust in this subprovince. Zircons from a sheared monzonite near the boundary fault between the two subprovinces yield an upper intercept age of 2769{-26/+63}Ma, which we interpret as the intrusion age of the monzonite. This rock is older than most dated units in the surrounding batholiths and suggests that the boundary is a long-lived Archean structure. A lower intercept age of about 1750 Ma for zircons of the hornblendite is the result of chemical alteration of the zircons. This, and a similar lower intercept age shown by the sheared monzonite zircons, are thought to reflect increased fluid activity and possibly shearing during the Early Proterozoic Hudsonian orogeny which

  19. Femtosecond laser ablation of dentin and enamel: relationship between laser fluence and ablation efficiency. (United States)

    Chen, Hu; Liu, Jing; Li, Hong; Ge, Wenqi; Sun, Yuchun; Wang, Yong; Lü, Peijun


    The objective was to study the relationship between laser fluence and ablation efficiency of a femtosecond laser with a Gaussian-shaped pulse used to ablate dentin and enamel for prosthodontic tooth preparation. A diode-pumped thin-disk femtosecond laser with wavelength of 1025 nm and pulse width of 400 fs was used for the ablation of dentin and enamel. The laser spot was guided in a line on the dentin and enamel surfaces to form a groove-shaped ablation zone under a series of laser pulse energies. The width and volume of the ablated line were measured under a three-dimensional confocal microscope to calculate the ablation efficiency. Ablation efficiency for dentin reached a maximum value of 0.020 mm3∕J when the laser fluence was set at 6.51 J∕cm2. For enamel, the maximum ablation efficiency was 0.009 mm3∕J at a fluence of 7.59 J∕cm2.Ablation efficiency of the femtosecond laser on dentin and enamel is closely related to the laser fluence and may reach a maximum when the laser fluence is set to an appropriate value. © 2015 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE)

  20. Laser ablation in analytical chemistry - A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russo, Richard E.; Mao, Xianglei; Liu, Haichen; Gonzalez, Jhanis; Mao, Samuel S.


    Laser ablation is becoming a dominant technology for direct solid sampling in analytical chemistry. Laser ablation refers to the process in which an intense burst of energy delivered by a short laser pulse is used to sample (remove a portion of) a material. The advantages of laser ablation chemical analysis include direct characterization of solids, no chemical procedures for dissolution, reduced risk of contamination or sample loss, analysis of very small samples not separable for solution analysis, and determination of spatial distributions of elemental composition. This review describes recent research to understand and utilize laser ablation for direct solid sampling, with emphasis on sample introduction to an inductively coupled plasma (ICP). Current research related to contemporary experimental systems, calibration and optimization, and fractionation is discussed, with a summary of applications in several areas.

  1. Ablative Ceramic Foam Based TPS Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A novel composite material ablative TPS for planetary vehicles that can survive a dual heating exposure is proposed. NextGen's TPS concept is a bi-layer functional...

  2. Thoracoscopic sympathectomy ganglia ablation in the management ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thoracoscopic sympathectomy ganglia ablation in the management of palmer hyperhidrosis: A decade experience in a single institution. D Kravarusic, E Freud. Abstract. Background: Hyperhidrosis can cause significant professional and social handicaps. Surgery is the preferred treatment modality for hyperhidrosis.

  3. Pulmonary oligometastases : Metastasectomy or stereotactic ablative radiotherapy?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Widder, Joachim; Klinkenberg, Theo J.; Ubbels, Jan F.; Wiegman, Erwin M.; Groen, Harry J. M.; Langendijk, Johannes A.

    Background and purpose: Stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR; or stereotactic body radiotherapy, SBRT) emerges as treatment option for pulmonary oligometastatic disease (OMD), but there are no studies comparing SABR with pulmonary metastasectomy (PME). We analysed consecutive patients referred

  4. Thermal Ablation Modeling for Silicate Materials (United States)

    Chen, Yih-Kanq


    A general thermal ablation model for silicates is proposed. The model includes the mass losses through the balance between evaporation and condensation, and through the moving molten layer driven by surface shear force and pressure gradient. This model can be applied in the ablation simulation of the meteoroid and the glassy ablator for spacecraft Thermal Protection Systems. Time-dependent axisymmetric computations are performed by coupling the fluid dynamics code, Data-Parallel Line Relaxation program, with the material response code, Two-dimensional Implicit Thermal Ablation simulation program, to predict the mass lost rates and shape change. The predicted mass loss rates will be compared with available data for model validation, and parametric studies will also be performed for meteoroid earth entry conditions.

  5. Lightweight Ablating Insulation for Ramjet Combustion

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carter, Roy


    Parmax(trade name), a self reinforcing ultra-high performance polymer, was investigated as an ablative material in ramjet combustor applications, Phase I effort has demonstrated that Parmax(trade name...

  6. Simple spherical ablative-implosion model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, F.J.; Steele, J.T.; Larsen, J.T.


    A simple model of the ablative implosion of a high-aspect-ratio (shell radius to shell thickness ratio) spherical shell is described. The model is similar in spirit to Rosenbluth's snowplow model. The scaling of the implosion time was determined in terms of the ablation pressure and the shell parameters such as diameter, wall thickness, and shell density, and compared these to complete hydrodynamic code calculations. The energy transfer efficiency from ablation pressure to shell implosion kinetic energy was examined and found to be very efficient. It may be possible to attach a simple heat-transport calculation to our implosion model to describe the laser-driven ablation-implosion process. The model may be useful for determining other energy driven (e.g., ion beam) implosion scaling.

  7. Petrogenesis, zircon U–Pb age, and geochemistry of the A-type ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. Zircon U–Pb dating; Syn-collision; post-collision; syenite; Mogou; Qinling orogen ... Eu anomalies are positive for the medium- to coarse-grained syenite and weakly negative for the fine-grained quartz syenite. In addition, the syenites are enriched in large-ion lithophile elements (Ba, K, Sr, and Pb) but depleted ...

  8. Detrital zircon and apatite fission track data in the Liaoxi basins ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    vation events in the northern margin of the North. China Craton (figure 1a). In this paper, detrital zircon and apatite fission track (AFT and ZFT) ages of the sedimentary rocks from the Liaoxi basins are presented. The purposes of this study are: • to study the geothermal status of the basins to understand lithosphere evolution;.

  9. On the valency state of radiogenic lead in zircon and its consequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramers, J.; Frei, Robert; Newville, M.


    at this temperature, show age effects that should have been observed in SIMS dating. Further, in zircon evaporation as well as in leaching experiments, common Pb is generally released preferentially to radiogenic Pb. After removal of less radiogenic Pb, the evaporation record generally shows pure radiogenic Pb during...

  10. Dating of zircon from high-grade rocks: Which is the most reliable method?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfred Kröner


    Full Text Available Magmatic zircon in high-grade metamorphic rocks is often characterized by complex textures as revealed by cathodoluminenscence (CL that result from multiple episodes of recrystallization, overgrowth, Pb-loss and modifications through fluid-induced disturbances of the crystal structure and the original U-Th-Pb isotopic systematics. Many of these features can be recognized in 2-dimensional CL images, and isotopic analysis of such domains using a high resolution ion-microprobe with only shallow penetration of the zircon surface may be able to reconstruct much of the magmatic and complex post-magmatic history of such grains. In particular it is generally possible to find original magmatic domains yielding concordant ages. In contrast, destructive techniques such as LA-ICP-MS consume a large volume, leave a deep crater in the target grain, and often sample heterogeneous domains that are not visible and thus often yield discordant results which are difficult to interpret. We provide examples of complex magmatic zircon from a southern Indian granulite terrane where SHRIMP II and LA-ICP-MS analyses are compared. The SHRIMP data are shown to be more precise and reliable, and we caution against the use of LA-ICP-MS in deciphering the chronology of complex zircons from high-grade terranes.

  11. Petrogenesis, zircon U–Pb age, and geochemistry of the A-type ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    4Centre for Exploration Targeting, Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence for Core to Crust Fluid. Systems (CCFS), School .... Petrogenesis, zircon U–Pb age, and geochemistry of A-type Mogou syenite, Henan Province 587 were trondhjemite ...... destructive plate boundaries; In: Andesites (ed.) Thorpe. R S; John ...

  12. Demonstrating the potential of yttrium-doped barium zirconate electrolyte for high-performance fuel cells. (United States)

    Bae, Kiho; Jang, Dong Young; Choi, Hyung Jong; Kim, Donghwan; Hong, Jongsup; Kim, Byung-Kook; Lee, Jong-Ho; Son, Ji-Won; Shim, Joon Hyung


    In reducing the high operating temperatures (≥800 °C) of solid-oxide fuel cells, use of protonic ceramics as an alternative electrolyte material is attractive due to their high conductivity and low activation energy in a low-temperature regime (≤600 °C). Among many protonic ceramics, yttrium-doped barium zirconate has attracted attention due to its excellent chemical stability, which is the main issue in protonic-ceramic fuel cells. However, poor sinterability of yttrium-doped barium zirconate discourages its fabrication as a thin-film electrolyte and integration on porous anode supports, both of which are essential to achieve high performance. Here we fabricate a protonic-ceramic fuel cell using a thin-film-deposited yttrium-doped barium zirconate electrolyte with no impeding grain boundaries owing to the columnar structure tightly integrated with nanogranular cathode and nanoporous anode supports, which to the best of our knowledge exhibits a record high-power output of up to an order of magnitude higher than those of other reported barium zirconate-based fuel cells.

  13. Energy conversion with Zr-rich lead zirconate/titanate ceramics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duan, Ning; Cereceda, Noé; Noheda, Beatriz; Fernandez-del-Castillo, José Raúl; Gonzalo, Julio A.


    The conversion efficiency and power output to convert thermal energy to electrical energy by means of a ferroelectric–ferroelectric phase transition has been investigated. The material used was the ceramic mixed system lead zirconate/titanate (PZT) with a very Zr-enriched composition (Zr/Ti=97/3%).

  14. Diagnostics of laser ablated plasma plumes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amoruso, S.; Toftmann, B.; Schou, Jørgen


    The effect of an ambient gas on the expansion dynamics of laser ablated plasmas has been studied for two systems by exploiting different diagnostic techniques. First, the dynamics of a MgB2 laser produced plasma plume in an Ar atmosphere has been investigated by space-and time-resolved optical...... of the laser ablated plasma plume propagation in a background gas. (C) 2003 Elsevier B.V All rights reserved....


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ch. Madh


    Full Text Available Adenoma sebaceum, pathognomonic of tuberous sclerosis, are tiny angiofibromas which commonly occur over central part of face. Recurrence after treatment is common and hence a need for inexpensive, safe and efficient treatment is required. Radiofrequency ablation is a safe and an economical procedure and has been known to cause less scarring with good aesthetic results compared to other ablative methods such as electrocautery.

  16. The zircon evidence of temporally changing sediment transport—the NW Gondwana margin during Cambrian to Devonian time (Aoucert and Smara areas, Moroccan Sahara) (United States)

    Gärtner, Andreas; Youbi, Nasrrddine; Villeneuve, Michel; Sagawe, Anja; Hofmann, Mandy; Mahmoudi, Abdelkader; Boumehdi, Moulay Ahmed; Linnemann, Ulf


    Detrital zircon provenance studies are an established tool to develop palaeogeographic models, mostly based on zircon of siliciclastic rocks and isotope data. But zircon is more than just istopes and features well definable morphological characteristics. The latter may indicate single grain transport histories independent of the individual grade of concordance. This additional tool for palaeogeoraphic reconstructions was tested on zircon from siliciclastic and carbonate sedimentary rocks of Palaeozoic age from the Aoucert and Smara areas of the Souttoufides, while findings of zircon in limestone generally open new archives for sedimentary provenance analysis. The morphologies—length, width, roundness, grain surfaces—of 834 detrital zircons from sediments of allochthonous Cambrian, and (par-)autochthonous Ordovician, and Devonian units were studied, while 772 of them were analysed for their U-Th-Pb isotopes by LA-ICP-MS. Mesoproterozoic zircon contents of more than 10% in the Cambrian sediments exclude the West African Craton (WAC) as exclusive source area. Thus, at least one additional external source is suggested. This is likely the western Adrar Souttouf Massif with its significant Mesoproterozoic zircon inheritance, or comparable, yet unknown sources. Decreasing Mesoproterozoic zircon age populations in Ordovician sediments are thought to be linked to the rifting of the terranes in the course of the Rheic Ocean opening and a predominant supply of WAC detritus. The Devonian sediments likely contain reworked material from the Cambrian siliciclastics, which is shown by the zircon age distribution pattern and the zircon morphologies. Therefore, multiple shifts in the direction of sedimentary transport are indicated.

  17. U-Pb ages and Hf isotope compositions of zircons in plutonic rocks from the central Famatinian arc, Argentina (United States)

    Otamendi, Juan E.; Ducea, Mihai N.; Cristofolini, Eber A.; Tibaldi, Alina M.; Camilletti, Giuliano C.; Bergantz, George W.


    The Famatinian arc formed around the South Iapetus rim during the Ordovician, when oceanic lithosphere subducted beneath the West Gondwana margin. We present combined in situ U-Th-Pb and Lu-Hf isotope analyses for zircon to gain insights into the origin and evolution of Famatinian magmatism. Zircon crystals sampled from four intermediate and silicic plutonic rocks confirm previous observations showing that voluminous magmatism took place during a relatively short pulse between the Early and Middle Ordovician (472-465 Ma). The entire zircon population for the four plutonic rocks yields coherent εHf negative values and spreads over several ranges of initial εHf(t) units (-0.3 to -8.0). The range of εHf units in detrital zircons of Famatinian metasedimentary rocks reflects a prolonged history of the cratonic sources during the Proterozoic to the earliest Phanerozoic. Typical tonalites and granodiorites that contain zircons with evolved Hf isotopic compositions formed upon incorporating (meta)sedimentary materials into calc-alkaline metaluminous magmas. The evolved Hf isotope ratios of zircons in the subduction related plutonic rocks strongly reflect the Hf isotopic character of the metasedimentary contaminant, even though the linked differentiation and growth of the Famatinian arc crust was driven by ascending and evolving mantle magmas. Geochronology and Hf isotope systematics in plutonic zircons allow us understanding the petrogenesis of igneous series and the provenance of magma sources. However, these data could be inadequate for computing model ages and supporting models of crustal evolution.

  18. Effect of pressure on Zircon's (ZrSiO4) Raman active modes: a first-principles study (United States)

    Sheremetyeva, Natalya; Cherniak, Daniele; Watson, Bruce; Meunier, Vincent

    Zircon is a mineral commonly found in the Earth crust. Its remarkable properties have given rise to considerable attention. This includes possible inclusion of radioactive elements in natural samples, which allows for geochronological investigations. Subsequently, Zircon was proposed as possible host material for radioactive waste management. Internal radiation damage in zircon leads to the destruction of its crystal structure (an effect known as metamictization) which is subject to ongoing research. Recently, the effect of pressure and temperature on synthetic zircon has been analyzed experimentally using Raman spectroscopy which led to the calibration of zircon as a pressure sensor in diamond-anvil cell experiments. While there have been a number of theoretical studies, the effect of pressure on the Raman active modes of zircon has not been investigated theoretically. Here we present a first-principles pressure calibration of the Raman active modes in Zircon employing density-functional theory (DFT). We find excellent quantitative agreement of the slopes ∂ω / ∂P with the experimental ones and are able to rationalize the ω vs. P behavior based on the details of the vibrational modes.

  19. Laser Ablation for Small Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Maurizio Pacella


    Full Text Available Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is one of the most common malignancies worldwide and is increasingly detected at small size (<5 cm owing to surveillance programmes in high-risk patients. For these cases, curative therapies such as resection, liver transplantation, or percutaneous ablation have been proposed. When surgical options are precluded, image-guided tumor ablation is recommended as the most appropriate therapeutic choice in terms of tumor local control, safety, and improvement in survival. Laser ablation (LA represents one of currently available loco-ablative techniques: light is delivered via flexible quartz fibers of diameter from 300 to 600 μm inserted into tumor lesion through either fine needles (21g Chiba needles or large-bore catheters. The thermal destruction of tissue is achieved through conversion of absorbed light (usually infrared into heat. A range of different imaging modalities have been used to guide percutaneous laser ablation, but ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging are most widely employed, according to local experience and resource availability. Available clinical data suggest that LA is highly effective in terms of tumoricidal capability with an excellent safety profile; the best results in terms of long-term survival are obtained in early HCC so that LA can be proposed not only in unresectable cases but, not differently from radiofrequency ablation, also as the first-line treatment.

  20. Femtosecond Laser Ablation: Fundamentals and Applications (United States)

    Harilal, Sivanandan S.; Freeman, Justin R.; Diwakar, Prasoon K.; Hassanein, Ahmed

    Traditionally nanosecond laser pulses have been used for Laser-induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) for quantitative and qualitative analysis of the samples. Laser produced plasmas using nanosecond laser pulses have been studied extensively since 1960s. With the advent of short and ultrashort laser pulses, there has been a growing interest in the applications of femtosecond and picosecond lasers for analysis of materials using LIBS and LA-ICP-MS. The fundamentals of laser ablation process using ultrashort laser pulses are not still fully understood. Pulse duration of femtosecond laser pulse is shorter than electron-to-ion energy transfer time and heat conduction time in the sample lattice. This results in different laser ablation and heat dissipation mechanisms as compared to nanosecond laser ablation. In this chapter, the focus will be on understanding the basics of femtosecond laser ablation processes including laser target interaction, ablation efficiency, ablation threshold, laser plasma interactions, and plume hydrodynamics. Analytical figures of merit will be discussed in contrast to nanosecond LIBS.

  1. Shielding by the ablation plume during Er:YAG laser ablation (United States)

    Nahen, Kester; Vogel, Alfred


    Free running Er:YAG lasers are used for a precise tissue ablation in various clinical application as, for example, laser skin resurfacing. The ablated material is ejected from the tissue surface in the direction of the incident laser beam. We investigated the influence of the shielding by the ablation plume on the energy deposition into the irradiated sample because it influences the ablation dynamics and the amount of ablated material. The shielding was investigated for gelatin with different water content, skin and water. Laser flash photography combined with a dark field Schlieren technique was used to visualize the gaseous and liquid ablation products. The distance traveled by the ablating laser beam through the ablation plume was evaluated from the photographs for various times after the beginning of the laser pulse. The temporal evolution of the transmission through the ablation plume was probed using a second free running Er:YAG laser beam directed parallel to the sample surface. The ablation dynamics shows two phases: Vaporization and material ejection. The photographic observations give evidence for a phase explosion to be the driving mechanism for the material ejection. The photographic observations give evidence for a phase explosion to be the driving mechanism for the material ejection. The transmission is only slightly reduced by the vapor plume, but it decreases by 25-50% when the ejected material passes the probe beam. The laser energy deposited into the sample amounts to only 61% of the incident energy for gelatin samples with 90% water content and 86% for skin samples. The shielding must therefore be considered in modeling the ablation dynamics and determining the dosage for clinical applications.

  2. Geochemistry and U-Pb geochronology of detrital zircons in the Brujas beach sands, Campeche, Southwestern Gulf of Mexico, Mexico (United States)

    Tapia-Fernandez, Hector J.; Armstrong-Altrin, John S.; Selvaraj, Kandasamy


    This study investigated the bulk sediment geochemistry, U-Pb ages and rare earth element (REE) geochemistry of one hundred detrital zircons recovered from the Brujas beach sands in southwestern Gulf of Mexico to understand the provenance and age spectra. The bulk sediments are high in Zr and Hf contents (∼1400-3773 ppm and ∼33-90 ppm, respectively) suggested the abundance of resistant mineral zircon. The chondrite normalized REE patterns of the bulk sediments are less fractionated with enriched low REE (LREE; LaCN/SmCN = ∼491-693), depleted heavy REE (HREE; GdCN/YbCN = ∼44-69) and a negative Eu anomaly (Eu/Eu∗ = ∼0.44-0.67) suggested that the source rock is felsic type. The results of this study revealed highly varied contents of Th (∼4.2-321 ppm), U (∼20.7-1680 ppm), and Hf (∼6970-14,200 ppm) in detrital zircons compared to bulk sands. The total REE content (∼75 and 1600 ppm) and its chondrite-normalized pattern with positive Ce and negative Eu anomalies as well as low Th/U ratio of zircon grains indicated that they were dominantly of magmatic origin. U-Pb data of zircons indicated two age populations, with predominance of Permian-Triassic (∼216-286 Ma) and Neoproterozoic (∼551-996 Ma). The Permian-Triassic zircons were contributed by the granitoids and recycled metasedimentary rocks of the Chiapas Massif Complex. The major contribution of Neoproterozoic zircons was from the Chaucus, Oaxacan, and Chiapas Massif Complexes in Grenville Province, southern Mexico. U-Pb ages of zircons from the Brujas beach are consistent to the reported zircon ages from the drainage basins of Usumacinta, Coatzacoalcos, and Grijalva Rivers in southern Mexico, suggesting that the sediments delivered by the rivers to the beach area are vital in defining the provenance of placers.

  3. Zircon ion microprobe dating of high-grade rocks in Sri Lanka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroener, A.; Williams, I.S.; Compston, W.; Baur, N.; Vitanage, P.W.; Perera, L.R.K.


    The high-grade gneisses of Sri Lanka display spectacular in-situ granulitization phenomena similar to those observed in southern India and of current interest for evolutionary models of the lower continental crust. The absolute ages of these rocks are poorly constrained and so, using the SHRIMP ion microprobe, the authors have analyzed small spots on zircons from upper amphibolite to granulite grade quartzitic and pelitic metasediments. Detrital grains from a metaquartzite of the Highland Group preserve premetamorphic U-Pb ages of between 3.17 and 2.4 Ga and indicate derivation of the sediment from an unidentified Archean source terrain. The Pb-loss patterns of these zircons and the other samples suggest severe disturbance at ca 1100 Ma ago, which the authors attribute to high-grade regional metamorphism. Two pelitic gneisses contain detrital zircons with ages up to 2.04 Ga and also record an approx. = 1100 Ma event that is also apparent from metamorphic rims around old cores and new zircon growth. A granite intrusive into the Highland Group granulites records an emplacement age of 1000-1100 Ma as well as metamorphic disturbance some 550 Ma ago but also contains older, crustally derived xenocrysts. Zircons from a metaquartzite xenolith within the granitoid Vijayan Complex are not older than approx. 1100 Ma; therefore the Vijayan is neither Archean in age nor acted as basement to the Highland Group, as previously proposed. The authors suggest that the Vijayan Complex formed significantly later than the Highland Group and that the two units were brought into contact through post-1.1 Ga thrusting. Although the granulitization phenomena in India and Sri Lanka are similar, the granulite event in Sri Lanka is not Archean in age but took place in the late Proterozoic.

  4. Thermal Ablation of Colorectal Lung Metastases: Retrospective Comparison Among Laser-Induced Thermotherapy, Radiofrequency Ablation, and Microwave Ablation. (United States)

    Vogl, Thomas J; Eckert, Romina; Naguib, Nagy N N; Beeres, Martin; Gruber-Rouh, Tatjana; Nour-Eldin, Nour-Eldin A


    The purpose of this study is to retrospectively evaluate local tumor control, time to tumor progression, and survival rates among patients with lung metastatic colorectal cancer who have undergone ablation therapy performed using laser-induced thermotherapy (LITT), radiofrequency ablation (RFA), or microwave ablation (MWA). Data for this retrospective study were collected from 231 CT-guided ablation sessions performed for 109 patients (71 men and 38 women; mean [± SD] age, 68.6 ± 11.2 years; range, 34-94 years) from May 2000 to May 2014. Twenty-one patients underwent LITT (31 ablations), 41 patients underwent RFA (75 ablations), and 47 patients underwent MWA (125 ablations). CT scans were acquired 24 hours after each therapy session and at follow-up visits occurring at 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months after ablation. Survival rates were calculated from the time of the first ablation session, with the use of Kaplan-Meier and log-rank tests. Changes in the volume of the ablated lesions were measured using the Kruskal-Wallis method. Local tumor control was achieved in 17 of 25 lesions (68.0%) treated with LITT, 45 of 65 lesions (69.2%) treated with RFA, and 91 of 103 lesions (88.3%) treated with MWA. Statistically significant differences were noted when MWA was compared with LITT at 18 months after ablation (p = 0.01) and when MWA was compared with RFA at 6 months (p = 0.004) and 18 months (p = 0.01) after ablation. The overall median time to local tumor progression was 7.6 months. The median time to local tumor progression was 10.4 months for lesions treated with LITT, 7.2 months for lesions treated with RFA, and 7.5 months for lesions treated with MWA, with no statistically significant difference noted. New pulmonary metastases developed in 47.6% of patients treated with LITT, in 51.2% of patients treated with RFA, and in 53.2% of patients treated with MWA. According to the Kaplan-Meier test, median survival was 22.1 months for patients who underwent LITT, 24.2 months

  5. Interpretation of zircon coronae textures from metapelitic granulites of the Ivrea–Verbano Zone, northern Italy: two-stage decomposition of Fe–Ti oxides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Kovaleva


    Full Text Available In this study, we report the occurrence of zircon coronae textures in metapelitic granulites of the Ivrea–Verbano Zone. Unusual zircon textures are spatially associated with Fe–Ti oxides and occur as (1 vermicular-shaped aggregates 50–200 µm long and 5–20 µm thick and as (2 zircon coronae and fine-grained chains, hundreds of micrometers long and ≤ 1 µm thick, spatially associated with the larger zircon grains. Formation of such textures is a result of zircon precipitation during cooling after peak metamorphic conditions, which involved: (1 decomposition of Zr-rich ilmenite to Zr-bearing rutile, and formation of the vermicular-shaped zircon during retrograde metamorphism and hydration; and (2 recrystallization of Zr-bearing rutile to Zr-depleted rutile intergrown with quartz, and precipitation of the submicron-thick zircon coronae during further exhumation and cooling. We also observed hat-shaped grains that are composed of preexisting zircon overgrown by zircon coronae during stage (2. Formation of vermicular zircon (1 preceded ductile and brittle deformation of the host rock, as vermicular zircon is found both plastically and cataclastically deformed. Formation of thin zircon coronae (2 was coeval with, or immediately after, brittle deformation as coronae are found to fill fractures in the host rock. The latter is evidence of local, fluid-aided mobility of Zr. This study demonstrates that metamorphic zircon can nucleate and grow as a result of hydration reactions and mineral breakdown during cooling after granulite-facies metamorphism. Zircon coronae textures indicate metamorphic reactions in the host rock and establish the direction of the reaction front.

  6. Application of local ablative therapies for hepatocellular carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHU Xiaoli


    Full Text Available Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is a common malignant tumor in the world, and surgical resection and liver transplantation are two radical treatment modalities, but only 10%-20% of all patients can receive such treatments. In recent years, local therapies including radiofrequency ablation, microwave ablation, cryoablation, and the irreversible electroporation ablation which appeared recently have gradually become the alternative therapies for the patients who are unable to undergo surgery. In addition to local tumor growth control and improvement in survival outcomes, the ablation technology also helps to downgrade tumor for secondary resection. This article focuses on the research progress in radiofrequency ablation alone and in combination with other therapies in the treatment of HCC, compares radiofrequency ablation with other local ablative therapies, and briefly introduces the application of intelligent navigation technology in adjuvant ablation. With the development of medical imaging and progress in related fields, the ablation technology will be widely applied in clinical practice in the future.

  7. Contrasting Cu-Au and Sn-W Granite Metallogeny through the Zircon Geochemical and Isotopic Record (United States)

    Gardiner, Nicholas; Hawkesworth, Chris; Robb, Laurence; Whitehouse, Martin; Roberts, Nick; Kirkland, Chris


    Magmatic genesis and evolution - mediated by geodynamic setting - exert a primary control on the propensity of granites to be metal fertile. A revolution in our understanding of these petrogenetic processes has been made through a range of mineral-based tools, most notably the common accessory mineral zircon. There is consequently considerable interest in whether the geochemical and isotopic compositions of zircon can be applied to metallogenic problems. The paired magmatic belts of Myanmar have broadly contrasting metallogenic affinities (Sn-W versus Cu-Au), and are interpreted to have formed on the accretionary margin of the subducting Neo-Tethys Ocean. They therefore present the opportunity to geochemically compare and contrast the zircon compositions in two end-member types of granite-hosted mineral deposits generated in collisional settings. We present an integrated zircon isotope (U-Pb, Lu-Hf, O) and trace element dataset that fingerprint: (a) source; (b) redox conditions; and (c) degree of fractionation. These variables all impact on magma fertility, and our key question to address is whether they can be reliably traced and calibrated within the Myanmar zircon record. Granitoid-hosted zircons from the I-type copper arc have juvenile ɛHf (+7 to +12) and mantle-like δ18O (5.3 ‰), whereas zircons from the S-type tin belt have low ɛHf (-7 to -13) and heavier δ18O (6.2-7.7 ‰). Plotting Hf versus U/Yb reaffirms that the tin belt magmas contain greater crustal contributions than the copper arc rocks. Links between whole rock Rb/Sr and zircon Eu/Eu* highlights that the latter can be used to monitor magma fractionation in systems that crystallize plagioclase (low Sr/Y). Ce/Ce* and Eu/Eu* in zircon are thus sensitive to redox and fractionation respectively, and can be used to evaluate the sensitivity of zircons to the metallogenic affinity of their host rocks. Tin contents that exceed the solubility limit are required in order to make a magmatic

  8. Percutaneous Microwave Ablation of Renal Angiomyolipomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cristescu, Mircea, E-mail: [University of Wisconsin, Department of Radiology (United States); Abel, E. Jason, E-mail: [University of Wisconsin, Department of Urology (United States); Wells, Shane, E-mail:; Ziemlewicz, Timothy J., E-mail: [University of Wisconsin, Department of Radiology (United States); Hedican, Sean P., E-mail: [University of Wisconsin, Department of Urology (United States); Lubner, Megan G., E-mail:; Hinshaw, J. Louis, E-mail:; Brace, Christopher L., E-mail:; Lee, Fred T., E-mail: [University of Wisconsin, Department of Radiology (United States)


    PurposeTo evaluate the safety and efficacy of US-guided percutaneous microwave (MW) ablation in the treatment of renal angiomyolipoma (AML).Materials and MethodsFrom January 2011 to April 2014, seven patients (5 females and 2 males; mean age 51.4) with 11 renal AMLs (9 sporadic type and 2 tuberous sclerosis associated) with a mean size of 3.4 ± 0.7 cm (range 2.4–4.9 cm) were treated with high-powered, gas-cooled percutaneous MW ablation under US guidance. Tumoral diameter, volume, and CT/MR enhancement were measured on pre-treatment, immediate post-ablation, and delayed post-ablation imaging. Clinical symptoms and creatinine were assessed on follow-up visits.ResultsAll ablations were technically successful and no major complications were encountered. Mean ablation parameters were ablation power of 65 W (range 60–70 W), using 456 mL of hydrodissection fluid per patient, over 4.7 min (range 3–8 min). Immediate post-ablation imaging demonstrated mean tumor diameter and volume decreases of 1.8 % (3.4–3.3 cm) and 1.7 % (27.5–26.3 cm{sup 3}), respectively. Delayed imaging follow-up obtained at a mean interval of 23.1 months (median 17.6; range 9–47) demonstrated mean tumor diameter and volume decreases of 29 % (3.4–2.4 cm) and 47 % (27.5–12.1 cm{sup 3}), respectively. Tumoral enhancement decreased on immediate post-procedure and delayed imaging by CT/MR parameters, indicating decreased tumor vascularity. No patients required additional intervention and no patients experienced spontaneous bleeding post-ablation.ConclusionOur early experience with high-powered, gas-cooled percutaneous MW ablation demonstrates it to be a safe and effective modality to devascularize and decrease the size of renal AMLs.

  9. Remote magnetic catheter navigation versus conventional ablation in atrial fibrillation ablation: Fluoroscopy reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Chun Yih Lim


    Conclusions: In radiofrequency ablation of atrial fibrillation, RMN appears to significantly reduce fluoroscopy time compared with conventional MAN ablation, though at a cost of increased total procedural time, with comparable acute success rates and safety profile. A reduction in procedure and fluoroscopy times is possible with gaining experience.

  10. Quantification and controllability study of minimally invasive exothermic chemo-ablation therapy for tumor ablation. (United States)

    Liu, Ran; Huang, Yu; Liu, Jing


    The recently proposed exothermic chemical reaction based tumor hyperthermia method presented a new way of realizing truly minimally invasive treatment for tumor. This method utilizes heat generated from the reaction between acid and alkali solutions to allow for tumor ablation. Successful clinical implementation of this method requires a clearer understanding and quantification of the ablation area such that a more controllable operation can be made. A number of in-vitro and in-vivo experiments are designed to examine the features of thermal chemo-ablation therapy which include micro and macro characteristics of ablated tissue and temperature change during the ablation process. A Quantitative study on the relationship between velocity and ablation volume as well as a Graphical User Interface in Matlab for computerized ablation area analysis are also presented in this article. We present in here two instrument designs for thermal chemo-ablation and have completed the prototype design for the injection pump which has been tested and successfully applied in ex-vivo and vivo experiments.

  11. Radiofrequency thermal ablation of malignant hepatic tumors: post-ablation syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jung Bin; Rhim, Hyunchul; Kim, Yongsoo; Koh, Byung Hee; Cho, On Koo; Seo, Heung Suk; Lee, Seung Ro [College of Medicine, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    To evaluate post-ablation syndrome after radiofrequency thermal ablation of malignant hepatic tumors. Forty-two patients with primary (n=3D29) or secondary (n=3D13) hepatic tumors underwent radiofrequency thermal ablation. A total of 65 nodules ranging in size from 1.1 to 5.0 (mean, 3.1) cm were treated percutaneously using a 50W RF generator with 15G expandable needle electrodes. We retrospectively evaluated the spectrum of post-ablation syndrome including pain, fever ({>=}3D 38 deg C), nausea, vomiting, right shoulder pain, and chest discomfort according to frequency, intensity and duration, and the findings were correlated with tumor location and number of ablations. We also evaluated changes in pre-/post-ablation serum aminotransferase (ALT/AST) and prothrombin time, and correlated these findings with the number of ablations. Post-ablation syndrome was noted in 29 of 42 patients (69.0%), and most symptoms improved with conservative treatment. The most important of these were abdominal plan (n=3D20, 47.6%), fever (n=3D8, 19.0%), and nausea (n=3D7, 16.7%), and four of 42 (9.5%) patients complained of severe pain. The abdominal pain lasted from 3 hours to 5.5 days (mean; 20.4 hours), the fever from 6 hours to 5 days (mean; 63.0 hours). And the nausea from 1 hours to 4 days (mean; 21.0 hours). Other symptoms were right shoulder pain (n=3D6, 14.3%), chest discomfort (n=3D3, 7.1%), and headache (n=3D3, 7.1%). Seventeen of 20 patients (85%) with abdominal pain had subcapsular tumor of the liver. There was significant correlation between pain, location of the tumor, and a number of ablations. After ablation, ALT/AST was elevated more than two-fold in 52.6%/73.7% of patients, respectively but there was no significant correlation with the number of ablation. Post-ablation syndrome is a frequent and tolerable post-procedural process after radiofrequency thermal ablation. The spectrum of this syndrome provides a useful guideline for the post-ablation management. (author)

  12. Femtosecond ultraviolet laser ablation of silver and comparison with nanosecond ablation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Bo Toftmann; Doggett, B.; Budtz-Jørgensen, C.


    ablation are similar; both show a singly peaked time-of-flight distribution. The angular distribution of ion emission and the deposition are well described by the adiabatic and isentropic model of plume expansion, though distributions for femtosecond ablation are significantly narrower. In this laser......The ablation plume dynamics arising from ablation of silver with a 500 fs, 248 nm laser at ~2 J cm-2 has been studied using angle-resolved Langmuir ion probe and thin film deposition techniques. For the same laser fluence, the time-of-flight ion signals from femtosecond and nanosecond laser...... fluence regime, the energy efficiency of mass ablation is higher for femtosecond pulses than for nanosecond pulses, but the ion production efficiency is lower....

  13. Tissue temperatures and lesion size during irrigated tip catheter radiofrequency ablation: an in vitro comparison of temperature-controlled irrigated tip ablation, power-controlled irrigated tip ablation, and standard temperature-controlled ablation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, H H; Chen, X; Pietersen, A


    The limited success rate of radiofrequency catheter ablation in patients with ventricular tachycardias related to structural heart disease may be increased by enlarging the lesion size. Irrigated tip catheter ablation is a new method for enlarging the size of the lesion. It was introduced...... temperature-controlled ablation and power-controlled irrigated tip ablation. In vitro strips of porcine left ventricular myocardium were ablated. Temperature-controlled irrigated tip ablation at target temperatures 60 degrees C, 70 degrees C, and 80 degrees C with infusion of 1 mL saline/min were compared...

  14. Global microwave endometrial ablation for menorrhagia treatment (United States)

    Fallahi, Hojjatollah; Å ebek, Jan; Frattura, Eric; Schenck, Jessica; Prakash, Punit


    Thermal ablation is a dominant therapeutic option for minimally invasive treatment of menorrhagia. Compared to other energy modalities for ablation, microwaves offer the advantages of conformal energy delivery to tissue within short times. The objective of endometrial ablation is to destroy the endometrial lining of the uterine cavity, with the clinical goal of achieving reduction in bleeding. Previous efforts have demonstrated clinical use of microwaves for endometrial ablation. A considerable shortcoming of most systems is that they achieve ablation of the target by translating the applicator in a point-to-point fashion. Consequently, treatment outcome may be highly dependent on physician skill. Global endometrial ablation (GEA) not only eliminates this operator dependence and simplifies the procedure but also facilitates shorter and more reliable treatments. The objective of our study was to investigate antenna structures and microwave energy delivery parameters to achieve GEA. Another objective was to investigate a method for automatic and reliable determination of treatment end-point. A 3D-coupled FEM electromagnetic and heat transfer model with temperature and frequency dependent material properties was implemented to characterize microwave GEA. The unique triangular geometry of the uterus where lateral narrow walls extend from the cervix to the fundus forming a wide base and access afforded through an endocervical approach limit the overall diameter of the final device. We investigated microwave antenna designs in a deployed state inside the uterus. The impact of ablation duration on treatment outcome was investigated. Prototype applicators were fabricated and experimentally evaluated in ex vivo tissue to verify the simulation results and demonstrate proof-of-concept.

  15. Photoacoustic characterization of radiofrequency ablation lesions (United States)

    Bouchard, Richard; Dana, Nicholas; Di Biase, Luigi; Natale, Andrea; Emelianov, Stanislav


    Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) procedures are used to destroy abnormal electrical pathways in the heart that can cause cardiac arrhythmias. Current methods relying on fluoroscopy, echocardiography and electrical conduction mapping are unable to accurately assess ablation lesion size. In an effort to better visualize RFA lesions, photoacoustic (PA) and ultrasonic (US) imaging were utilized to obtain co-registered images of ablated porcine cardiac tissue. The left ventricular free wall of fresh (i.e., never frozen) porcine hearts was harvested within 24 hours of the animals' sacrifice. A THERMOCOOLR Ablation System (Biosense Webster, Inc.) operating at 40 W for 30-60 s was used to induce lesions through the endocardial and epicardial walls of the cardiac samples. Following lesion creation, the ablated tissue samples were placed in 25 °C saline to allow for multi-wavelength PA imaging. Samples were imaged with a VevoR 2100 ultrasound system (VisualSonics, Inc.) using a modified 20-MHz array that could provide laser irradiation to the sample from a pulsed tunable laser (Newport Corp.) to allow for co-registered photoacoustic-ultrasound (PAUS) imaging. PA imaging was conducted from 750-1064 nm, with a surface fluence of approximately 15 mJ/cm2 maintained during imaging. In this preliminary study with PA imaging, the ablated region could be well visualized on the surface of the sample, with contrasts of 6-10 dB achieved at 750 nm. Although imaging penetration depth is a concern, PA imaging shows promise in being able to reliably visualize RF ablation lesions.

  16. Predictors of recurrence following catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation using an irrigated-tip ablation catheter. (United States)

    Vasamreddy, Chandrasekhar R; Lickfett, Lars; Jayam, Vinod K; Nasir, Khurram; Bradley, David J; Eldadah, Zayd; Dickfeld, Timm; Berger, Ronald; Calkins, Hugh


    The aims of this study were to identify predictors of recurrence after catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation (AF) and to report the safety and efficacy of catheter ablation of AF using an irrigated-tip ablation catheter. Seventy-five consecutive patients (51 men [68%]; age 54 +/- 13 years) with symptomatic drug-refractory paroxysmal (42 patients), persistent (21 patients), or permanent (12 patients) AF underwent catheter ablation of AF using an irrigated-tip ablation catheter and a standard ablation strategy, which involved electrical isolation of all pulmonary veins (PVs) and creation of a cavotricuspid linear lesion. At 10.5 +/- 7.5 months of follow-up following a single (n = 75) or redo ablation procedure (n = 11), 39 (52%) of the 75 patients were free of AF, 10 were improved (13%), and 26 had experienced no benefit from the ablation procedure (35%). Seventy-six percent of patients with paroxysmal AF were free from recurrent AF. The most significant complications were two episodes of pericardial tamponade, mitral valve injury in one patient, two strokes, and complete but asymptomatic PV stenosis in one patient. Cox proportional hazards multivariate regression analysis identified the presence of persistent AF, permanent AF, and age >50 years prior to the ablation are the only independent predictors of AF recurrence after the first PV isolation procedure. Catheter ablation of AF using a strategy involving isolation of all PVs and creation of a linear lesion in the cavotricuspid isthmus using cooled radiofrequency energy is associated with moderate efficacy and an important risk for complications. The best results of this procedure are achieved in the subset of patients who are younger than 50 years and have only paroxysmal AF.

  17. U-Pb zircon geochronology and phase equilibria modelling of a mafic eclogite from the Sumdo complex of south-east Tibet: Insights into prograde zircon growth and the assembly of the Tibetan plateau (United States)

    Weller, O. M.; St-Onge, M. R.; Rayner, N.; Waters, D. J.; Searle, M. P.; Palin, R. M.


    The Sumdo complex is a Permian-Triassic eclogitic metamorphic belt in south-east Tibet, which marks the location of a suture zone that separates the northern and southern Lhasa terranes. An integrated geochronological and petrological study of a mafic eclogite from the complex has constrained its tectonometamorphic history and provides a case study of zircon growth in eclogite as a product of prograde dissolution-precipitation. In situ U-Pb geochronology indicates that the eclogite contains a single population of zircon with a crystallisation age of 273.6 ± 2.8 Ma. The morphology and chemistry of the zircon grains are consistent with growth by dissolution-precipitation of protolith magmatic zircon. The presence of zircon grains as inclusions in the cores of peak phases indicates that zircon dissolution-precipitation occurred during prograde metamorphism, and calculated pressure and temperature conditions over which mineral inclusions in zircon are stable suggest that the zircon most likely precipitated at 15.5-16.5 kbar and 500-560 °C. Subsequent peak metamorphism is calculated to have reached pressure-temperature conditions of 27 ± 1 kbar and 670 ± 50 °C. Previous studies, which have documented a range of peak metamorphic conditions from high- to ultrahigh-pressure at c. 266-230 Ma, indicate that the Sumdo complex is a composite belt that experienced protracted eclogite exhumation. The results of this study are consistent with this interpretation, and extend the age range of high-pressure metamorphism in the complex to over 40 Myr. Analysis of published pressure-temperature-time data indicates two systematic behaviours within this spread. First, peak metamorphic temperatures declined over time. Second, eclogite exhumation occurred in two discrete intervals: soon after formation, and during the demise of the subduction zone. The latter behaviour serves as a reminder that eclogite exhumation is the exception rather than the rule.

  18. Detrital zircon study of the Dezful Embayment in the central Zagros, southern Iran (United States)

    Hsieh, Hao Cheng; Chung, Sun Lin; Talebian, Morteza; Chen, Ling; Zarrinkoub, Mohammad H.; Lee, Hao Yang


    The Dezful Embayment of the Zagros Simply Folded Belt (ZFTB) in southern Iran is a foreland basin that formed as a flexural basin during the Miocene by the Zagros orogeny. This study reports a LA-ICPMS analysis of zircon U-Pb geochronology of 13 sedimentary rock samples from the Dezful Embayment, and five others from the Urumieh-Dokhtar magmatic arc (UDMA) and the Sanandaj-Sirjan zone (SSZ). In the northern and central parts of the Dezful Embayment, samples were collected from four principal sedimentary sequences including, from bottom to top, the Gachsaran Formation, Mishan Formation, Agha Jari Formation and Bakhtyari Formation. Our new zircon ages, together with published geochronological data from the UDMA and SSZ, can be used to better constrain the source provenance and tectonic implication of the Dezful Embayment related to the Arabia-Eurasia collision following the closure of Neo-Tethys. Samples of the UDMA and SSZ are characterized by abundant zircon ages of Eocene to Oligocene (55-25 Ma) and Jurassic (176-144 Ma), respectively. In the Dezful Embayment, detrital zircon age populations show significant variations. The age spectra of the northern Embayment show major peaks at the Precambrian (950-550 Ma), Late Carboniferous (323-299 Ma), Jurassic (176-144 Ma) and Eocene to Oligocene (55-25 Ma), with the last two age peaks suggesting an important source provenance from Eurasia, involving the SSZ and UDMA. By contrast, in the central Embayment, detrital zircons are dominated by Precambrian ages (2500 Ma, 1850 Ma, and 950-550 Ma), with rare Jurassic and Cenozoic ages. This suggests a different sedimentary source that we interpret to be the Arabian continent from the south. Moreover, gradual changes in the detrital zircon age spectra and thus in the source provenances are observed in different parts of the Dezful Embayment. The change in the northern Embayment occurred in the Agha Jari Formation, earlier than that in the central Embayment occurring between the

  19. What Hf isotopes in zircon tell us about crust-mantle evolution (United States)

    Iizuka, Tsuyoshi; Yamaguchi, Takao; Itano, Keita; Hibiya, Yuki; Suzuki, Kazue


    The 176Lu-176Hf radioactive decay system has been widely used to study planetary crust-mantle differentiation. Of considerable utility in this regard is zircon, a resistant mineral that can be precisely dated by the U-Pb chronometer and record its initial Hf isotope composition due to having low Lu/Hf. Here we review zircon U-Pb age and Hf isotopic data mainly obtained over the last two decades and discuss their contributions to our current understanding of crust-mantle evolution, with emphasis on the Lu-Hf isotope composition of the bulk silicate Earth (BSE), early differentiation of the silicate Earth, and the evolution of the continental crust over geologic history. Meteorite zircon encapsulates the most primitive Hf isotope composition of our solar system, which was used to identify chondritic meteorites best representative of the BSE (176Hf/177Hf = 0.282793 ± 0.000011; 176Lu/177Hf = 0.0338 ± 0.0001). Hadean-Eoarchean detrital zircons yield highly unradiogenic Hf isotope compositions relative to the BSE, providing evidence for the development of a geochemically enriched silicate reservoir as early as 4.5 Ga. By combining the Hf and O isotope systematics, we propose that the early enriched silicate reservoir has resided at depth within the Earth rather than near the surface and may represent a fractionated residuum of a magma ocean underlying the proto-crust, like urKREEP beneath the anorthositic crust on the Moon. Detrital zircons from world major rivers potentially provide the most robust Hf isotope record of the preserved granitoid crust on a continental scale, whereas mafic rocks with various emplacement ages offer an opportunity to trace the Hf isotope evolution of juvenile continental crust (from εHf[4.5 Ga] = 0 to εHf[present] = + 13). The river zircon data as compared to the juvenile crust composition highlight that the supercontinent cycle has controlled the evolution of the continental crust by regulating the rates of crustal generation and intra

  20. 1.8 Billion Years of Detrital Zircon Recycling Calibrates a Refractory Part of Earth's Sedimentary Cycle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Hadlari

    Full Text Available Detrital zircon studies are providing new insights on the evolution of sedimentary basins but the role of sedimentary recycling remains largely undefined. In a broad region of northwestern North America, this contribution traces the pathway of detrital zircon sand grains from Proterozoic sandstones through Phanerozoic strata and argues for multi-stage sedimentary recycling over more than a billion years. As a test of our hypothesis, integrated palynology and detrital zircon provenance provides clear evidence for erosion of Carboniferous strata in the northern Cordillera as a sediment source for Upper Cretaceous strata. Our results help to calibrate Earth's sedimentary cycle by showing that recycling dominates sedimentary provenance for the refractory mineral zircon.

  1. Comparison of the Three NIF Ablators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kritcher, A. L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Clark, D. S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Haan, S. W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Yi, S. A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Zylstra, A. B. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Ralph, J. E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Weber, C. R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)


    Indirect drive implosion experiments on NIF have now been performed using three different ablator materials: glow discharge polymer (GDP) or CH, high density carbon (HDC, which we also refer to as diamond), and sputtered beryllium (Be). It has been appreciated for some time that each of these materials has specific advantages and disadvantages as an ICF ablator.[1-4] In light of experiments conducted on NIF in the last few years, how do these ablators compare? Given current understanding, is any ablator more or less likely to reach ignition on NIF? Has the understanding of their respective strengths and weaknesses changed since NIF experiments began? How are those strengths and weaknesses highlighted by implosion designs currently being tested or planned for testing soon? This document aims to address these questions by combining modern simulation results with a survey of the current experimental data base. More particularly, this document is meant to fulfill an L2 Milestone for FY17 to “Document our understanding of the relative advantages and disadvantages of CH, HDC, and Be designs.” Note that this document does not aim to recommend a down-selection of the current three ablator choices. It is intended only to gather and document the current understanding of the differences between these ablators and thereby inform the choices made in planning future implosion experiments. This document has two themes: (i) We report on a reanalysis project in which post-shot simulations were done on a common basis for layered shots using each ablator. This included data from keyholes, 2D ConA, and so forth, from each campaign, leading up to the layered shots. (“Keyholes” are shots dedicated to measuring the shock timing in a NIF target, as described in Ref. 5. “2DConAs” are backlit implosions in which the symmetry of the implosion is measured between about half and full convergence, as described in Ref. 6.) This set of common-basis postshot simulations is compared to

  2. Comparison of the Three NIF Ablators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kritcher, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States; Clark, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States; Haan, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States; Yi, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States; Kritcher, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States; Clark, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States; Haan, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States; Yi, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States; Zylstra, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States; Ralph, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States; Weber, C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States


    Indirect drive implosion experiments on NIF have now been performed using three different ablator materials: glow discharge polymer (GDP) or CH, high density carbon (HDC, which we also refer to as diamond), and sputtered beryllium (Be). It has been appreciated for some time that each of these materials has specific advantages and disadvantages as an ICF ablator.[1-4] In light of experiments conducted on NIF in the last few years, how do these ablators compare? Given current understanding, is any ablator more or less likely to reach ignition on NIF? Has the understanding of their respective strengths and weaknesses changed since NIF experiments began? How are those strengths and weaknesses highlighted by implosion designs currently being tested or planned for testing soon? This document aims to address these questions by combining modern simulation results with a survey of the current experimental data base. More particularly, this document is meant to fulfill an L2 Milestone for FY17 to “Document our understanding of the relative advantages and disadvantages of CH, HDC, and Be designs.” Note that this document does not aim to recommend a down-selection of the current three ablator choices. It is intended only to gather and document the current understanding of the differences between these ablators and thereby inform the choices made in planning future implosion experiments. This document has two themes: (i) We report on a reanalysis project in which post-shot simulations were done on a common basis for layered shots using each ablator. This included data from keyholes, 2D ConA, and so forth, from each campaign, leading up to the layered shots. This set of common-basis postshot simulations is compared to the respective shots. Each was then scaled to a “full NIF” experiment that could be done using the respective ablators at full NIF power and/or energy, and these scaled-up designs were simulated in detail. (ii) The report also contains a general survey of

  3. Fracture in Phenolic Impregnated Carbon Ablator (United States)

    Agrawal, Parul; Chavez-Garcia, Jose; Pham, John


    This paper describes the development of a novel technique to understand the failure mechanisms inside thermal protection materials. The focus of this research is on the class of materials known as phenolic impregnated carbon ablators. It has successfully flown on the Stardust spacecraft and is the thermal protection system material chosen for the Mars Science Laboratory and SpaceX Dragon spacecraft. Although it has good thermal properties, structurally, it is a weak material. To understand failure mechanisms in carbon ablators, fracture tests were performed on FiberForm(Registered TradeMark) (precursor), virgin, and charred ablator materials. Several samples of these materials were tested to investigate failure mechanisms at a microstructural scale. Stress-strain data were obtained simultaneously to estimate the tensile strength and toughness. It was observed that cracks initiated and grew in the FiberForm when a critical stress limit was reached such that the carbon fibers separated from the binder. However, both for virgin and charred carbon ablators, crack initiation and growth occurred in the matrix (phenolic) phase. Both virgin and charred carbon ablators showed greater strength values compared with FiberForm samples, confirming that the presence of the porous matrix helps in absorbing the fracture energy.

  4. Percutaneous tumor ablation in medical radiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogl, T.J.; Mack, M.G. [University Hospital Frankfurt Univ. (Germany). Inst. for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology; Helmberger, T.K. [Klinikum Bogenhausen, Academic Teaching Hospital of the Technical Univ. Munich (Germany). Dept. for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Nuclear Medicine; Reiser, M.F. (eds.) [University Hospitals - Grosshadern and Innenstadt Munich Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Clinical Radiology


    Thermal ablation has become an integral part of oncology, especially in the field of interventional oncology. This very comprehensive book encompasses the different technologies employed in thermal ablation, its indications and the results achieved in various clinical conditions. The first part of the book clearly explains the basics of thermal ablative techniques such as laser-induced thermotherapy, radiofrequency ablation, microwave ablation, cryotherapy, and localized tumor therapy. The latest developments in the application of minimally invasive therapies in localized neoplastic disease are demonstrated. In the main part of the book, techniques of guiding the applicators to the target structures by use of different imaging tools such as ultrasound, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging are discussed. The results are presented for a variety of clinical indications, including liver and lung tumors and metastases and some rather rare conditions involving the kidney, the head and neck, the prostate, and soft tissue structures. A large number of acknowledged experts have contributed to the book, which benefits from a lucid structure and excellent images. (orig.)

  5. Fundamental studies of pulsed laser ablation

    CERN Document Server

    Claeyssens, F


    dopant) have resulted in a coherent view of the resulting plume, which exhibits a multi-component structure correlated with different regimes of ablation, which are attributed to ejection from ZnO and ablation from a Zn melt. OES measurements show that the emitting Zn component within the plume accelerates during expansion in vacuum - an observation attributable to the presence of hot, fast electrons in the plume. The same acceleration behaviour is observed in the case of Al atomic emissions resulting from ablation of an Al target in vacuum. Deposition conditions, substrate temperature and background gas pressure were all varied in a quest for optimally aligned, high quality ZnO thin films. Initial ab initio calculations were performed also, to aid in understanding the stability of these c-axis aligned films. The pulsed ultraviolet (lambda = 193, 248 nm) laser ablation of graphite, polycrystalline diamond and ZnO targets has been investigated. Characteristics of the resulting plumes of ablated material have b...

  6. Imaging in percutaneous ablation for atrial fibrillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maksimovic, Ruzica [Erasmus Medical Center, Department of Radiology, GD Rotterdam (Netherlands); Institute for Cardiovascular Diseases of the University Medical Center, Belgrade (Czechoslovakia); Dill, Thorsten [Kerckhoff-Heart Center, Department of Cardiology, Bad Nauheim (Germany); Ristic, Arsen D.; Seferovic, Petar M. [Institute for Cardiovascular Diseases of the University Medical Center, Belgrade (Czechoslovakia)


    Percutaneous ablation for electrical disconnection of the arrhythmogenic foci using various forms of energy has become a well-established technique for treating atrial fibrillation (AF). Success rate in preventing recurrence of AF episodes is high although associated with a significant incidence of pulmonary vein (PV) stenosis and other rare complications. Clinical workup of AF patients includes imaging before and after ablative treatment using different noninvasive and invasive techniques such as conventional angiography, transoesophageal and intracardiac echocardiography, computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which offer different information with variable diagnostic accuracy. Evaluation before percutaneous ablation involves assessment of PVs (PV pattern, branching pattern, orientation and ostial size) to facilitate position and size of catheters and reduce procedure time as well as examining the left atrium (presence of thrombi, dimensions and volumes). Imaging after the percutaneous ablation is important for assessment of overall success of the procedure and revealing potential complications. Therefore, imaging methods enable depiction of PVs and the anatomy of surrounding structures essential for preprocedural management and early detection of PV stenosis and other ablation-related procedures, as well as long-term follow-up of these patients. (orig.)

  7. Geochronology of the Voisey's Bay intrusion, Labrador, Canada, by precise U Pb dating of coexisting baddeleyite, zircon, and apatite (United States)

    Amelin, Yuri; Li, Chusi; Naldrett, A. J.


    The emplacement history of the Voisey's Bay troctolite intrusion, that hosts the major Ni-Cu-Co sulfide deposit of the same name, has been studied using precise U-Pb geochronology of baddeleyite, zircon and apatite. The baddeleyite U-Pb ages of multiple drill core samples of troctolite and gabbro indicate that all of the mafic rocks studied from different components of the Voisey's Bay intrusion: Eastern Deeps, Discovery Hill Zone and Reid Brook Zone, and from the adjacent Red Dog area, were emplaced at 1332.7±1.0 Ma. On the basis of combined geological and geochronological evidence, it is suggested that the Voisey's Bay Ni-Cu-Co deposit was formed during the same period. The zircons coexisting with the ca. 1333 Ma baddeleyite show a diversity of ages. The zircons from normal troctolite and some of the olivine gabbro samples are coeval with the baddeleyite, while zircon from the varied textured troctolite and feeder olivine gabbro are much younger at 1305.0±0.8 Ma. The identical ages of the younger zircon population and the Voisey's Bay syenite that cuts the mafic rocks indicate a link between zircon growth in the mafic rocks and contact metamorphism, related to the emplacement of the syenite. Various mechanisms of zircon growth were probably involved, including reaction of the 1333 Ma baddeleyite with a silica-enriched fluid with formation of a secondary polycrystalline zircon, and zircon crystallization from syenite micro-veins in the mafic rocks. The mean 207Pb/ 206Pb age of 1303.5±2.6 Ma of the Voisey's Bay apatites is similar to the age of the younger zircon population. The apatite age may either be a result of resetting the U-Pb system in response to the syenite intrusion, or may reflect the closure of the system during regional cooling and cessation of fluid circulation. The presence of xenocrystic zircon in a Discovery Hill Zone feeder olivine gabbro indicates that the Voisey's Bay magmas were contaminated with 1.90 Ga crustal rocks.

  8. Zircon-pyrochlore ores of Proterozoic Gremyakha-Vyrmes polyphase massif, Kola Peninsula: source and evolution (United States)

    Sorokhtina, Natalia; Belyatsky, Boris; Antonov, Anton; Kononkova, Natalia; Lepekhina, Elena; Kogarko, Lia


    The alkaline-ultrabasic Gremyakha-Vyrmes massif occurs within the Central Kola terrane in the northern part of the Fennoscandian Shield and consists of diverse rock complexes: basic-ultrabasic rocks, foidolites, alkaline metasomatic rocks and carbonatites, alkaline granites and granosyenites. Nb-Zr ore deposit is confined to alkaline metasomatic rocks developed over foidolites. The metasomatites are represented by albitites and aegirinites occur as submeridionally orientated zones extending up to 6-8 km and several hundred meters thickness. They are mainly composed of albite and aegirine, but amphibole, annite, microcline, fluorapatite, titanite, ilmenite, pyrochlore group minerals, zircon are present [Sorokhtina et al., 2016]. Carbonatites are developed sporadically and accessory zircon but not the pyrochlore is observed only in contact zones with albitites and aegerinites. In metasomatites, zircon and pyrochlore are main rare metal minerals, which are formed at the latest stages of crystallization. Ca-dominant fluorcalcio- and hydroxycalciopyrochlores are the most abundant, whereas U-dominant pyrochlore, oxyuranobetafite, zero-valent-dominant (Ba, Sr-dominant) pyrochlore, hydro- or kenopyrochlore are rare. The pyrochlore-group minerals form heterogeneous metacrystals containing inclusions of host rock minerals, calcite, ilmenite, zircon, sulfides, and graphite. While pyrochlore is replaced by Si-rich "pyrochlore" (SiO2 is up to 18 wt.%.), cation-deficient hydrated pyrochlore, Fe-Si-Nb, U-Si-Nb, and Al-Si-Nb phases along fracture zones and margins. The early generation zircon is represented by large heterogeneous metacrystals filled with inclusions of various host rock minerals, calcite, ilmenite, thorite, thorianite and sulfides, while the late zircons are empty of inclusions. Zircons are nearly stoichiometric in composition; but intermediate zones are enriched in Pb, Y and Th, and overgrowths are enriched Hf only. According to CL and ion-microprobe analysis

  9. Management of the Temporomandibular Joint after Ablative Surgery


    Bredell, Marius; Grätz, Klaus; Obwegeser, Joachim; Gujer, Astrid Kruse


    Management of the temporomandibular joint in ablative head and neck surgery is controversial with no standardized approach. The aim of the study was to establish risk-based guidelines for the management of the temporomandibular joint after ablative surgery.

  10. Alcohol septal ablation in patients with hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Morten K; Prinz, Christian; Horstkotte, Dieter


    The infarction induced by alcohol septal ablation (ASA) may predispose to arrhythmia and sudden cardiac death (SCD).......The infarction induced by alcohol septal ablation (ASA) may predispose to arrhythmia and sudden cardiac death (SCD)....

  11. Effective treatment of chronic radiation proctitis using radiofrequency ablation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chao Zhou; Adler, Desmond C; Becker, Laren; Yu Chen; Tsai, Tsung-Han; Figueiredo, Marisa; Schmitt, Joseph M; Fujimoto, James G; Mashimo, Hiroshi


    .... Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) has been successful for mucosal ablation in the esophagus. Here we report the efficacy of RFA with the BarRx Halo90 system in three patients with bleeding from chronic radiation proctitis...

  12. Bilateral cornual abscess after endometrial ablation following Essure sterilization.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, N.E.; Vleugels, M.P.; Kluivers, K.B.; Vierhout, M.E.


    Endometrial ablation is used extensively to treat dysfunctional bleeding. Since the introduction of Essure tubal sterilization, this permanent contraception method has been widely used. Both endometrial ablation and Essure sterilization are procedures reported to have only a few complications. We

  13. The elusive snowball earth: U-Pb zircon ages from the upper diamictite of the Gifberg Group, South Africa (United States)

    Naidoo, Thanusha; Zimmermann, Udo; Vervoort, Jeff; Tait, Jenny


    U-Pb dating of detrital zircons was undertaken in the matrix component of the Swartleikrans Bed (Bloupoort Formation, Gifberg Group), located in the Vredendal Outlier of western South Africa. Results from this study indicate detrital zircons were derived from both local and regional (or distal) sources. The deposit is reportedly Neoproterozoic in age, but convincing age constraints are absent. These meta-diamictitic rocks were interpreted as glacial and are correlated with other diamictites in SW Gondwana, in the wake of the snowball Earth hypothesis. While sedimentological data is interpreted as glacial, geochemical proxies (Mo, Cr, U/Th, Ce*, V) point to an oxygenated depositional environment. Thus, if the deposit was related to a snowball Earth glacial event, then deposition must have been distal to the ice sheets. Nearly 50% of the dated detrital zircons (n = 68) have crystallization ages that cannot be correlated with known sources in the locally exposed basement. These predominantly Mesoproterozoic grains were either derived from distal sources or are reworked from unknown, now eroded, sedimentary rocks. Only 14% of all concordant zircon have an Early Mesoproterozoic to Late Palaeoproterozoic age, and a single grain relates to an older Paleoproterozoic event. Results are similar to other glacial deposits in the region (further north, in Namibia). In total, sedimentological observations and detrital zircon age populations point to a large catchment area, characteristic of glacial events of regional significance. However, direct regional correlation is still not possible using maximum depositional ages indicated by detrital zircons.

  14. An in vitro evaluation of novel NHA/zircon plasma coating on 316L stainless steel dental implant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Karamian


    Full Text Available The surface characteristics of an implant that influence the speed and strength of osseointegration include crystal structure and bioactivity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the bioactivity of a novel natural hydroxyapatite/zircon (NHA/zircon nanobiocomposite coating on 316L stainless steel (SS dental implants soaking in simulated body fluid. A novel NHA/zircon nanobiocomposite was fabricated with 0 (control, 5, 10, and 15 wt% of zircon in NHA using ball mill for 1 h. The composite mixture was coated on SS implants using a plasma spray method. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM was used to evaluate surface morphology, and X-ray diffraction (XRD was used to analyze phase composition and crystallinity (Xc. Further, calcium ion release was measured to evaluate the coated nanobiocomposite samples. The prepared NHA/zircon coating had a nanoscale morphological structure with a mean crystallite size of 30–40 nm in diameter and a bone-like composition, which is similar to that of the biological apatite of a bone. For the prepared NHA powder, high bioactivity was observed owing to the formation of apatite crystals on its surface. Both minimum crystallinity (Xc=41.1% and maximum bioactivity occurred in the sample containing 10 wt% of zircon because of minimum Xc and maximum biodegradation of the coating sample.

  15. Kinetic depletion model for pellet ablation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuteev, Boris V. [State Technical Univ., St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)


    A kinetic model for depletion effect, which determines pellet ablation when the pellet passes a rational magnetic surface, is formulated. The model predicts a moderate decrease of the ablation rate compared with the earlier considered monoenergy versions [1, 2]. For typical T-10 conditions the ablation rate reduces by a reactor of 2.5 when the 1-mm pellet penetrates through the plasma center. A substantial deceleration of pellets -about 15% per centimeter of low shire rational q region; is predicted. Penetration for Low Field Side and High Field Side injections is considered taking into account modification of the electron distribution function by toroidal magnetic field. It is shown that Shafranov shift and toroidal effects yield the penetration length for HFS injection higher by a factor of 1.5. This fact should be taken into account when plasma-shielding effects on penetration are considered. (author)

  16. Advances in Imaging for Atrial Fibrillation Ablation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew D'Silva


    Full Text Available Over the last fifteen years, our understanding of the pathophysiology of atrial fibrillation (AF has paved the way for ablation to be utilized as an effective treatment option. With the aim of gaining more detailed anatomical representation, advances have been made using various imaging modalities, both before and during the ablation procedure, in planning and execution. Options have flourished from procedural fluoroscopy, electroanatomic mapping systems, preprocedural computed tomography (CT, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, ultrasound, and combinations of these technologies. Exciting work is underway in an effort to allow the electrophysiologist to assess scar formation in real time. One advantage would be to lessen the learning curve for what are very complex procedures. The hope of these developments is to improve the likelihood of a successful ablation procedure and to allow more patients access to this treatment.

  17. Image-Guided Spinal Ablation: A Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsoumakidou, Georgia, E-mail:; Koch, Guillaume, E-mail:; Caudrelier, Jean, E-mail:; Garnon, Julien, E-mail:; Cazzato, Roberto Luigi, E-mail:; Edalat, Faramarz, E-mail:; Gangi, Afshin, E-mail: [Strasbourg University Hospital (France)


    The image-guided thermal ablation procedures can be used to treat a variety of benign and malignant spinal tumours. Small size osteoid osteoma can be treated with laser or radiofrequency. Larger tumours (osteoblastoma, aneurysmal bone cyst and metastasis) can be addressed with radiofrequency or cryoablation. Results on the literature of spinal microwave ablation are scarce, and thus it should be used with caution. A distinct advantage of cryoablation is the ability to monitor the ice-ball by intermittent CT or MRI. The different thermal insulation, temperature and electrophysiological monitoring techniques should be applied. Cautious pre-procedural planning and intermittent intra-procedural monitoring of the ablation zone can help reduce neural complications. Tumour histology, patient clinical-functional status and life-expectancy should define the most efficient and least disabling treatment option.

  18. Deep Dive Topic: Choosing between ablators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurricane, O. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Thomas, C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Olson, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)


    Recent data on implosions using identical hohlraums and very similar laser drives underscores the conundrum of making a clear choice of one ablator over another. Table I shows a comparison of Be and CH in a nominal length, gold, 575 μm-diameter, 1.6 mg/cc He gas-fill hohlraum while Table II shows a comparison of undoped HDC and CH in a +700 length, gold, 575 μm diameter, 1.6 mg/cc He gas fill hohlraum. As can be seen in the tables, the net integrated fusion performance of these ablators is the same to within error bars. In the case of the undoped HDC and CH ablators, the hot spot shapes of the implosions were nearly indistinguishable for the experiments listed in Table II.

  19. Numerical Modeling of Ablation Heat Transfer (United States)

    Ewing, Mark E.; Laker, Travis S.; Walker, David T.


    A unique numerical method has been developed for solving one-dimensional ablation heat transfer problems. This paper provides a comprehensive description of the method, along with detailed derivations of the governing equations. This methodology supports solutions for traditional ablation modeling including such effects as heat transfer, material decomposition, pyrolysis gas permeation and heat exchange, and thermochemical surface erosion. The numerical scheme utilizes a control-volume approach with a variable grid to account for surface movement. This method directly supports implementation of nontraditional models such as material swelling and mechanical erosion, extending capabilities for modeling complex ablation phenomena. Verifications of the numerical implementation are provided using analytical solutions, code comparisons, and the method of manufactured solutions. These verifications are used to demonstrate solution accuracy and proper error convergence rates. A simple demonstration of a mechanical erosion (spallation) model is also provided to illustrate the unique capabilities of the method.

  20. Catheter Ablation of Fascicular Ventricular Tachycardia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hygriv B. Rao


    Full Text Available Fascicular ventricular tachycardia (VT is an idiopathic VT with right bundle branch block morphology and left-axis deviation occuring predominantly in young males. Fascicular tachycardia has been classified into three subtypes namely, left posterior fascicular VT, left anterior fascicular VT and upper septal fascicular VT. The mechanism of this tachycardia is believed to be localized reentry close to the fascicle of the left bundle branch. The reentrant circuit is composed of a verapamil sensitive zone, activated antegradely during tachycardia and the fast conduction Purkinje fibers activated retrogradely during tachycardia recorded as the pre Purkinje and the Purkinje potentials respectively. Catheter ablation is the preferred choice of therapy in patients with fascicular VT. Ablation is carried out during tachycardia, using conventional mapping techniques in majority of the patients, while three dimensional mapping and sinus rhythm ablation is reserved for patients with nonmappable tachycardia.

  1. Assessment of ablative margin by unenhanced magnetic resonance imaging after radiofrequency ablation for hepatocellular carcinoma. (United States)

    Koda, Masahiko; Tokunaga, Shiho; Miyoshi, Kennichi; Kishina, Manabu; Fujise, Yuki; Kato, Jun; Matono, Tomomitsu; Okamoto, Kinya; Murawaki, Yoshikazu; Kakite, Suguru


    The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) without a contrast agent to visualize the ablative margin after radiofrequency ablation (RFA) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), compared with enhanced CT. Twenty-five HCCs in 19 patients were treated by RFA. T1-weighted MRI was performed before and after RFA, and the signal intensities of the tumors and surrounding liver tissues were measured. Treatment efficacy was assessed based on three grades: margin (+), a continuous high-intensity rim around the index tumor; margin zero, a partially discontinuous high-intensity rim; margin (-), the tumor extends beyond the high-intensity rim. Twelve (86%) of fourteen low-intensity tumors on the pre-MRI were visualized as low-intensity tumors on post-MRI, and the ablative margins were visualized as high-intensity rims. Two (67%) of three high-intensity tumors on pre-MRI were visualized as higher-intensity tumors in the high-intensity ablative margin. Because the signal intensities of tumors and surrounding tissues in 14 tumors that were low- or high-intensity tumors on pre-MRI increased to the same extent, the tumors and ablative margin could be distinguished on post images. In 6 (75%) of the 8 iso-intensity tumors on pre-MRI, the ablative margin and tumor could also not be discriminated on post-MRI. The overall agreement between MRI and CT for the ablative margin was good (κ coefficient=0.716, p=0.00002). In 82% of low- or high-intensity tumors on pre-MRI, post-MRI without a contrast agent enabled visualization of the ablative margin as a high-intensity rim, and it was possible to evaluate the ablative margin earlier and easier than with enhanced CT. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Magnesia-zircon brick: Evolution of microstructure, properties and performance with increasing sintering temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao J.


    Full Text Available Depending on phase components and densification, Magnesia-Zircon brick varies in appearance from white to veined and then brown with increasing sintering temperature. Properties including bulk density, apparent porosity and hot modulus of rupture as well as performance embodied with creep resistance and refractoriness continue to improve with sustaining enhancement of sintering temperature. Exceptionally, cold crushing strength first increases then decreases with rising sintering temperature and a peak exists at 1550oC. Microstructural evolution suffers zircon decomposition companying by silica escape, forsterite formation, matrix solidification and zirconia coagulation, until a zirconia/forsterite composites belt tightly coating on magnesia aggregates. Excessive coagulation of zirconia caused by oversintering probably results in microcracks formation and defects enlargement thereby degrades cold crushing strength.

  3. Precise U-Pb Zircon Dating of the Syenite Phase from the Ditrau Alkaline Igneous Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pană Dinu


    Full Text Available The Ditrău igneous complex represents the largest alkaline intrusion in the Carpathian-Pannonian region consisting of a plethora of rock types formed by complicated magmatic and metasomatic processes. A detailed U-Pb zircon age study is currently underway and the results for the syenite intrusion phase is reported herein. The U-Pb zircon emplacement age of the syenite of 229.6 +1.7/-1.2 Ma documents the quasi-contemporaneous production and emplacement of the gabbro and syenite magmas. We suggest that the syenite and associated granite formed by crustal melting during the emplacement of the mantle derived gabbroic magma around 230 Ma. The thermal contact aureole produced by the Ditrău alkaline igneous complex constrains the main tectonism recorded by surrounding metamorphic lithotectonic assemblages to be pre-Ladinian.

  4. Investigation of zircon/zirconia ceramics doped with {sup 239}Pu and {sup 238}Pu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burakov, B.E.; Anderson, E.B.; Zamoryanskaya, M.V.; Nikolaeva, E.V.; Strykanova, E.E.; Yagovkina, M.A. [V.G. Khlopin Radium Institute, Saint Petersburg (Russian Federation)


    Several samples of crystalline double-phase ceramics based on zircon, (Zr,Pu)SiO{sub 4} and zirconia, (Zr,Pu)O{sub 2}, were synthesized by sintering in air, precursors containing approximately 5-6 and 10 wt% {sup 239}Pu, respectively. One sample doped with 5-6 wt% {sup 238-39-40}Pu was also obtained under the same conditions. All ceramic samples were studied by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) and MCC-1 leach test in deionized water at 90 C. Results indicate that even radiation damaged zircon/zirconia ceramics retain high chemical resistance and mechanical durability. (author)

  5. Subcellular analysis by laser ablation electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (United States)

    Vertes, Akos; Stolee, Jessica A; Shrestha, Bindesh


    In various embodiments, a method of laser ablation electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LAESI-MS) may generally comprise micro-dissecting a cell comprising at least one of a cell wall and a cell membrane to expose at least one subcellular component therein, ablating the at least one subcellular component by an infrared laser pulse to form an ablation plume, intercepting the ablation plume by an electrospray plume to form ions, and detecting the ions by mass spectrometry.

  6. Catheter Ablation of Tachyarrhythmias in Small Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew D. Blaufox


    Full Text Available An estimated 80,000-100,000 radiofrequency ablation (RFA procedures are performed in the United States each year.1 Approximately 1% of these are performed on pediatric patients at centers that contribute data to the Pediatric Radiofrequency Registry.2 Previous reports from this registry have demonstrated that RFA can safely and effectively be performed in pediatric patients.3,4 However, patients weighing less than 15 kg have been identified as being at greater risk for complications.3,4 Consequently, there has been great reluctance to perform RFA in small children such that children weighing less than 15 kg only represent approximately 6% of the pediatric RFA experience2 despite the fact that this age group carries the highest incidence of tachycardia, particularly supraventricular tachycardia (SVT.5 Factors other than the risk of complications contribute to the lower incidence of RFA in this group, including the natural history of the most common tachycardias (SVT, technical issues with RFA in small hearts, and the potential unknown long-term effects of RF applications in the maturing myocardium. Conversely, there are several reasons why ablation may be desirable in small children, including greater difficulties with medical management,6,7,8 the higher risk for hemodynamic compromise during tachycardia in infants with congenital heart disease (CHD, and the inability of these small children to effectively communicate their symptoms thereby making it more likely that their symptoms may go unnoticed until the children become more seriously ill. Before ultimately deciding that catheter ablation is indicated in small children, one must consider which tachycardias are likely to be ablated, the clinical presentation of these tachycardias, alternatives to ablation, the relative potential for success or complications, and modifications of the procedure that might reduce the risk of ablation in this group.

  7. Percutaneous epicardial ablation in ventricular arrhythmias. (United States)

    Galvão Santos, Pedro; Cavaco, Diogo; Adragão, Pedro; Scanavacca, Mauricio; Reis Santos, Katya; Belo Morgado, Francisco; Carmo, Pedro; Costa, Francisco; Bernardo, Ricardo; Nunes, Manuela; Abecasis, Miguel; Neves, José; Mendes, Miguel


    Reentrant circuits of ventricular tachycardia may involve not only the endocardium but also the epicardium. Epicardial ablation can be useful in these situations. The aim of this study was to assess efficacy, safety and complications in a series of consecutive patients who underwent ablation of ventricular tachycardia with epicardial mapping. The study included all patients undergoing ventricular tachycardia ablation with epicardial mapping from 2004 to 2012. Of a total of 95 ablations, an epicardial approach was attempted in nine patients, eight male, mean age 58±12 years. Endocardial mapping was performed in all patients previously or simultaneously. The etiology of the arrhythmia was non-ischemic in eight patients and ischemic in one. We compared the number of events in the six months prior to the epicardial procedure and six months after. Percutaneous epicardial access was achieved in eight patients. In one case it was not possible due to the presence of adhesions. In none of the patients was the procedure repeated and there were no major complications during hospitalization. In a mean follow-up of 3.5±1.2 years, one patient suffered stroke; there were no other medium-to-long-term complications and the number of ventricular tachycardia episodes was reduced in all patients after ablation. Epicardial radiofrequency ablation of ventricular tachycardia was effective in reducing morbidity in eight patients, with a low risk of complications in the short and medium-to-long term. Copyright © 2012 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  8. Ablative Rocket Deflector Testing and Computational Modeling (United States)

    Allgood, Daniel C.; Lott, Jeffrey W.; Raines, Nickey


    A deflector risk mitigation program was recently conducted at the NASA Stennis Space Center. The primary objective was to develop a database that characterizes the behavior of industry-grade refractory materials subjected to rocket plume impingement conditions commonly experienced on static test stands. The program consisted of short and long duration engine tests where the supersonic exhaust flow from the engine impinged on an ablative panel. Quasi time-dependent erosion depths and patterns generated by the plume impingement were recorded for a variety of different ablative materials. The erosion behavior was found to be highly dependent on the material s composition and corresponding thermal properties. For example, in the case of the HP CAST 93Z ablative material, the erosion rate actually decreased under continued thermal heating conditions due to the formation of a low thermal conductivity "crystallization" layer. The "crystallization" layer produced near the surface of the material provided an effective insulation from the hot rocket exhaust plume. To gain further insight into the complex interaction of the plume with the ablative deflector, computational fluid dynamic modeling was performed in parallel to the ablative panel testing. The results from the current study demonstrated that locally high heating occurred due to shock reflections. These localized regions of shock-induced heat flux resulted in non-uniform erosion of the ablative panels. In turn, it was observed that the non-uniform erosion exacerbated the localized shock heating causing eventual plume separation and reversed flow for long duration tests under certain conditions. Overall, the flow simulations compared very well with the available experimental data obtained during this project.

  9. Localized rejuvenation of a crystallizing pluton recorded in zircon from the Lassen Volcanic Center, southern Cascade Range, California (United States)

    Klemetti, E. W.; Clynne, M. A.; Ring, M.; Bertolett, E. M.


    The Lassen Volcanic Center (LVC) in northern California produced the only eruption in the Cascades other than Mount St. Helens over the past century with its activity in 1914-17. The LVC dates back to ~825 ka and has produced ~215 km3 of dominantly andesite to rhyodacite (with minor basaltic andesite and rhyolite) lava and tephra over that period with activity since 90 ka divided into the Twin Lakes (~90 to 0.01 ka) and Eagle Peak sequences (~66 to 1.1 ka). The Twin Lakes sequences has a higher proportion of basaltic input relative to the Eagle Peak sequence, however both sequence show extensive evidence of magma mixing and mingling. Examining the age spectra and composition of zircon from representative eruptions in the LVC can illuminate the petrologic conditions of the underlying magmatic system. We collected (via SHRIMP-RG) the first 238U-230Th model ages and trace-element compositions of zircon from one Twin Lakes sequence eruption (1915 dacite of Lassen Peak) and three Eagle Peak sequence eruptions (the rhyodacite of Chaos Crags, the 27 ka dacite of Lassen Peak and the 66 ka rhyodacite of Eagle Peak). Zircon age spectra from the rhyodacite of Chaos Crags and 1915 and 27 ka dacites of Lassen Peak (62 zircon analyses) are similar, with a range of 25 ka to secular equilibrium (~350 ka) with no crystals within error of their host eruption age. The dominant period of zircon crystallization falls between 190-90 ka. This is a period of volcanic quiescence in the LVC and this zircon bloom represents the crystallization of a proto-pluton following the end of the Bumpass Sequence (350-193 ka). Surface analyses of zircons from the analyzed eruptions range from 25 ka to 74 ka; none of which is within error of the eruption age of the host lava. This suggests that zircon crystallization effectively ended at ~25-30 ka. The host lavas, when erupted, were zircon undersaturated, so zircon preservation is likely due to inclusion in other phases. Overall, the zircon from these

  10. Chemical abrasion-SIMS (CA-SIMS) U-Pb dating of zircon from the late Eocene Caetano caldera, Nevada (United States)

    Watts, Kathryn E.; Coble, Matthew A.; Vazquez, Jorge A.; Henry, Christopher D.; Colgan, Joseph P.; John, David A.


    Zircon geochronology is a critical tool for establishing geologic ages and time scales of processes in the Earth's crust. However, for zircons compromised by open system behavior, achieving robust dates can be difficult. Chemical abrasion (CA) is a routine step prior to thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS) dating of zircon to remove radiation-damaged parts of grains that may have experienced open system behavior and loss of radiogenic Pb. While this technique has been shown to improve the accuracy and precision of TIMS dating, its application to high-spatial resolution dating methods, such as secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), is relatively uncommon. In our efforts to U-Pb date zircons from the late Eocene Caetano caldera by SIMS (SHRIMP-RG: sensitive high resolution ion microprobe, reverse geometry), some grains yielded anomalously young U-Pb ages that implicated Pb-loss and motivated us to investigate with a comparative CA and non-CA dating study. We present CA and non-CA 206Pb/238U ages and trace elements determined by SHRIMP-RG for zircons from three Caetano samples (Caetano Tuff, Redrock Canyon porphyry, and a silicic ring-fracture intrusion) and for R33 and TEMORA-2 reference zircons. We find that non-CA Caetano zircons have weighted mean or bimodal U-Pb ages that are 2–4% younger than CA zircons for the same samples. CA Caetano zircons have mean U-Pb ages that are 0.4–0.6 Myr older than the 40Ar/39Ar sanidine eruption age (34.00 ± 0.03 Ma; error-weighted mean, 2σ), whereas non-CA zircons have ages that are 0.7–1.3 Myr younger. U-Pb ages do not correlate with U (~ 100–800 ppm), Th (~ 50–300 ppm) or any other measured zircon trace elements (Y, Hf, REE), and CA and non-CA Caetano zircons define identical trace element ranges. No statistically significant difference in U-Pb age is observed for CA versus non-CA R33 or TEMORA-2 zircons. Optical profiler measurements of ion microprobe pits demonstrate consistent depths of ~ 1.6

  11. Lead zirconate titanate nanowire textile nanogenerator for wearable energy-harvesting and self-powered devices. (United States)

    Wu, Weiwei; Bai, Suo; Yuan, Miaomiao; Qin, Yong; Wang, Zhong Lin; Jing, Tao


    Wearable nanogenerators are of vital importance to portable energy-harvesting and personal electronics. Here we report a method to synthesize a lead zirconate titanate textile in which nanowires are parallel with each other and a procedure to make it into flexible and wearable nanogenerators. The nanogenerator can generate 6 V output voltage and 45 nA output current, which are large enough to power a liquid crystal display and a UV sensor.

  12. Strontium Zirconate TBC Sprayed by a High Feed-Rate Water-Stabilized Plasma Torch.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ctibor, Pavel; Nevrlá, Barbara; Čížek, Jan; Lukáč, František


    Roč. 26, č. 8 (2017), s. 1804-1809 ISSN 1059-9630 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR(CZ) TE02000011 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : adhesion * plasma spraying * strontium zirconate * thermal insulator Subject RIV: JK - Corrosion ; Surface Treatment of Materials Impact factor: 1.488, year: 2016

  13. Late Triassic uplift of southern Norway revealed by detrital zircons in the Norwegian-Danish Basin (United States)

    Olivarius, Mette; Nielsen, Lars H.; Weibel, Rikke; Kristensen, Lars; Thomsen, Tonny B.


    Zircon U/Pb geochronometry is used to identify the sediment source areas of the Upper Triassic to Lower Jurassic shallow marine to paralic Gassum Formation in the Norwegian-Danish Basin. The analyses of zircon grains from geographically and stratigraphically widely distributed cores take advantage of the detailed sequence stratigraphic framework existing for the succession. The zircon ages indicate that the sediment in the lower part of the Gassum Formation in the northern and central parts of the basin was supplied solely from the Telemarkia Terrane in the southern part of southern Norway. However, age signatures from other basement terranes were added during periods of transgression presumably as a result of longshore reworking. The sediment in the eastern part of the basin has a different provenance signature that reflects supply from various sources of which some or all seemingly include older sediments. The basinwide fluvial incision that occurred during a relative sea-level fall in the Rhaetian is interpreted to be related to uplift of southern Norway since a pronounced content of zircon grains with U/Pb ages of 1.65 Ga were introduced in the Norwegian-Danish Basin at the time. This age is dominant in the upper part of the Gassum Formation and is present in all studied younger sediments in the Norwegian-Danish Basin, whereas it is missing in older sediments in the basin. Rocks with corresponding ages are presently exposed in the Jotun Nappe Complex and the Western Gneiss Complex in the central and northern parts of southern Norway. Thus, major faulting activity must have occurred in southern Norway during the Late Triassic that made such rocks available for erosion with permanent southeastwards drainage.

  14. Production Technology of Lead Zirconate Titanate Type-4 Spherical Elements for Underwater Transducers


    M.P.S. Namboodiri; S. B. Ekbote; G. S. Dhami


    The paper describes the production technology evolved for the fabrication of 60 mm hollow spherical elements from lead zirconate titanate type-4 material, suitable for use in the manufacture of underwater omnidirectional transducers. It covers the characteristics of the starting powder, techniques of isostatic pressing, precision spherical machining, sintering to produce dielectrically sound, distortion-free hemispheres to the required physical dimensions, electroding, poling to achiev...

  15. High throughput solar cell ablation system (United States)

    Harley, Gabriel; Pass, Thomas; Cousins, Peter John; Viatella, John


    A solar cell is formed using a solar cell ablation system. The ablation system includes a single laser source and several laser scanners. The laser scanners include a master laser scanner, with the rest of the laser scanners being slaved to the master laser scanner. A laser beam from the laser source is split into several laser beams, with the laser beams being scanned onto corresponding wafers using the laser scanners in accordance with one or more patterns. The laser beams may be scanned on the wafers using the same or different power levels of the laser source.

  16. The Atrial Fibrillation Ablation Pilot Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arbelo, Elena; Brugada, Josep; Hindricks, Gerhard


    . A web-based case report form captured information on pre-procedural, procedural, and 1-year follow-up data. Between October 2010 and May 2011, 1410 patients were included and 1391 underwent an AFib ablation (98.7%). A total of 1300 patients (93.5%) completed a follow-up control 367 ± 42 days after...... the procedure. Arrhythmia documentation was done by an electrocardiogram in 76%, Holter-monitoring in 52%, transtelephonic monitoring in 8%, and/or implanted systems in 4.5%. Over 50% became asymptomatic. Twenty-one per cent were re-admitted due to post-ablation arrhythmias. Success without antiarrhythmic drugs...

  17. General Model for Multicomponent Ablation Thermochemistry (United States)

    Milos, Frank S.; Marschall, Jochen; Rasky, Daniel J. (Technical Monitor)


    A previous paper (AIAA 94-2042) presented equations and numerical procedures for modeling the thermochemical ablation and pyrolysis of thermal protection materials which contain multiple surface species. This work describes modifications and enhancements to the Multicomponent Ablation Thermochemistry (MAT) theory and code for application to the general case which includes surface area constraints, rate limited surface reactions, and non-thermochemical mass loss (failure). Detailed results and comparisons with data are presented for the Shuttle Orbiter reinforced carbon-carbon oxidation protection system which contains a mixture of sodium silicate (Na2SiO3), silica (SiO2), silicon carbide (SiC), and carbon (C).

  18. Testing of Advanced Conformal Ablative TPS (United States)

    Gasch, Matthew; Agrawal, Parul; Beck, Robin


    In support of the CA250 project, this paper details the results of a test campaign that was conducted at the Ames Arcjet Facility, wherein several novel low density thermal protection (TPS) materials were evaluated in an entry like environment. The motivation for these tests was to investigate whether novel conformal ablative TPS materials can perform under high heat flux and shear environment as a viable alternative to rigid ablators like PICA or Avcoat for missions like MSL and beyond. A conformable TPS over a rigid aeroshell has the potential to solve a number of challenges faced by traditional rigid TPS materials (such as tiled Phenolic Impregnated Carbon Ablator (PICA) system on MSL, and honeycomb-based Avcoat on the Orion Multi Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV)). The compliant (high strain to failure) nature of the conformable ablative materials will allow better integration of the TPS with the underlying aeroshell structure and enable monolithic-like configuration and larger segments to be used in fabrication.A novel SPRITE1 architecture, developed by the researchers at NASA Ames was used for arcjet testing. This small probe like configuration with 450 spherecone, enabled us to test the materials in a combination of high heat flux, pressure and shear environment. The heat flux near the nose were in the range of 500-1000 W/sq cm whereas in the flank section of the test article the magnitudes were about 50 of the nose, 250-500W/sq cm range. There were two candidate conformable materials under consideration for this test series. Both test materials are low density (0.28 g/cu cm) similar to Phenolic Impregnated Carbon Ablator (PICA) or Silicone Impregnated Refractory Ceramic Ablator (SIRCA) and are comprised of: A flexible carbon substrate (Carbon felt) infiltrated with an ablative resin system: phenolic (Conformal-PICA) or silicone (Conformal-SICA). The test demonstrated a successful performance of both the conformable ablators for heat flux conditions between 50

  19. Radiofrequency Ablation Complicated by Skin Burn (United States)

    Huffman, S.D.; Huffman, N.P.; Lewandowski, Robert J.; Brown, Daniel B.


    Radiofrequency (RF) ablation has been increasingly utilized as a minimally invasive treatment for primary and metastatic liver tumors, as well as tumors in the kidneys, bones, and adrenal glands. The development of high-current RF ablation has subsequently led to an increased risk of thermal skin injuries at the grounding pad site. The incidence of skin burns in recent studies ranges from 0.1–3.2% for severe skin burns (second-/third-degree), and from 5–33% for first-degree burns.1–3 PMID:22654258

  20. Pulsed laser ablation of LaSrCoO

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Span, E.A.F.; Roesthuis, Frank J.G.; Blank, David H.A.; Rogalla, Horst


    The ablation process of La0.5Sr0.5CoO3 by a spatial uniform 248 nm excimer laser beam has been characterized. Ablation rates, changes in the target surface morphology and composition have been studied as a function of the laser fluence. The dependence of the ablation rate on the laser fluence has

  1. Sensors measure surface ablation rate of reentry vehicle heat shield (United States)

    Russel, J. M., III


    Sensors measure surface erosion rate of ablating material in reentry vehicle heat shield. Each sensor, which is placed at precise depths in the heat shield is activated when the ablator surface erodes to the location of a sensing point. Sensor depth and activation time determine ablator surface erosion rate.

  2. Indications for Ablative Surgery in Extremity Musculoskeletal Tumours

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Surgical options for treatment of extremity musculoskeletal tumours include excision [limb sparing] surgery or amputation [limb ablation]. Ablative surgery is for advanced extremity musculoskeletal tumours when limb salvage surgery is not feasible. Objective: To determine the indications for ablative surgery in ...

  3. Determination of strontium and lanthanum zirconates in YPSZ-LSM mixtures for SOFC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cortes-Escobedo, Claudia Alicia [Centro de Investigacion e Innovacion Tecnologica del IPN, Cda. Cecati s/n, Col. Sta. Catarina, CP 02250, Azcapotzalco, D.F. (Mexico); Munoz-Saldana, Juan [Centro de Investigacion y Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Unidad Queretaro, pdo. Postal 1-798, 76001 Queretaro, Qro. (Mexico); Bolarin-Miro, Ana Maria; Sanchez-de Jesus, Felix [Centro de Investigaciones en Materiales y Metalurgia, Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Hidalgo, CU, Carr. Pachuca-Tulancingo Km. 4.5, Mineral de la Reforma, CP 42184, Hidalgo (Mexico)


    Mixtures of 3% yttria- and partially-stabilized zirconia with LSM{sub x} (strontium-doped lanthanum manganite, x = 0, 0.15 and 0.2) were prepared and heat treated at temperatures between 1000 and 1300 C to recreate the cathode-electrolyte interface interactions taking place during preparation and operation of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC). Such interactions include the formation of La{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7} and SrZrO{sub 3}, which are undesirable for SOFC. The effect of the manganese oxidation number on the mechanosynthesis of LSM during zirconate formation is also discussed. A quantitative analysis of zirconate formation by X-ray diffraction and Rietveld refinement was undertaken. Formation of lanthanum and strontium zirconates was completely avoided at temperatures as high as 1300 C by synthesizing lanthanum manganites from MnO{sub 2} doped with 15 at.% of Sr. Finally, in the presence of LSM, monoclinic phase content was diminished to less than 1.5 mol% after heat treatment at 1300 C. (author)

  4. Zircon U-Pb dating using LA-ICP-MS: Quaternary tephras in Yakushima Island, Japan (United States)

    Ito, Hisatoshi; Uesawa, Shimpei; Nanayama, Futoshi; Nakagawa, Shojiro


    Zircon U-Pb dating using LA-ICP-MS was applied to three Quaternary tephras in Yakushima Island, southern Japan: the Anbo Tephra, the Koseda pyroclastic flow deposit (Ksd), and the Kikai-Tozurahara (K-Tz) Tephra. The obtained U-Pb ages were 0.73 ± 0.04 Ma (error shown as 95% confidence level) for the Anbo, 0.63 ± 0.04 Ma for the Ksd, and 0.17 ± 0.05 Ma for the K-Tz. These ages are consistent with or slightly older than those reported previously, which demonstrates the applicability of the U-Pb method to date zircons as young as 0.1 Ma. The K-Tz contains 0.7-0.6 Ma zircons, assumed to be derived from the Anbo and Ksd tephras. Because the K-Tz was originated from the Kikai Caldera, 30 km north of Yakushima Island, both the Anbo and Ksd were likely also derived from the same caldera system. Therefore our data and interpretation will contribute to elucidate the magmatic history of the Kikai Caldera whose latest eruption devastated prehistoric human settlements of southern Kyushu, Japan, and provide an improved chronostratigraphic constraint for Japan.

  5. Zirconate Pyrochlore Frustrated Magnets: Crystal Growth by the Floating Zone Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Ciomaga Hatnean


    Full Text Available This article reviews recent achievements on the crystal growth of a new series of pyrochlore oxides—lanthanide zirconates, which are frustrated magnets with exotic magnetic properties. Oxides of the type A 2 B 2 O 7 (where A = Rare Earth, B = Ti, Mo have been successfully synthesised in single crystal form using the floating zone method. The main difficulty of employing this technique for the growth of rare earth zirconium oxides A 2 Zr 2 O 7 arises from the high melting point of these materials. This drawback has been recently overcome by the use of a high power Xenon arc lamp furnace for the growth of single crystals of Pr 2 Zr 2 O 7 . Subsequently, large, high quality single crystals of several members of the zirconate family of pyrochlore oxides A 2 Zr 2 O 7 (with A = La → Gd have been grown by the floating zone technique. In this work, the authors give an overview of the crystal growth of lanthanide zirconates. The optimum conditions used for the floating zone growth of A 2 Zr 2 O 7 crystals are reported. The characterisation of the crystal boules and their crystal quality is also presented.

  6. Laser-Assisted Atom Probe Tomography of Deformed Minerals: A Zircon Case Study. (United States)

    La Fontaine, Alexandre; Piazolo, Sandra; Trimby, Patrick; Yang, Limei; Cairney, Julie M


    The application of atom probe tomography to the study of minerals is a rapidly growing area. Picosecond-pulsed, ultraviolet laser (UV-355 nm) assisted atom probe tomography has been used to analyze trace element mobility within dislocations and low-angle boundaries in plastically deformed specimens of the nonconductive mineral zircon (ZrSiO4), a key material to date the earth's geological events. Here we discuss important experimental aspects inherent in the atom probe tomography investigation of this important mineral, providing insights into the challenges in atom probe tomography characterization of minerals as a whole. We studied the influence of atom probe tomography analysis parameters on features of the mass spectra, such as the thermal tail, as well as the overall data quality. Three zircon samples with different uranium and lead content were analyzed, and particular attention was paid to ion identification in the mass spectra and detection limits of the key trace elements, lead and uranium. We also discuss the correlative use of electron backscattered diffraction in a scanning electron microscope to map the deformation in the zircon grains, and the combined use of transmission Kikuchi diffraction and focused ion beam sample preparation to assist preparation of the final atom probe tip.

  7. Simulation of the effects of the dose rate and temperature on zircon thermoluminescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turkin, A A [National Science Centre Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology, 61108 Kharkov (Ukraine); Es, H J van [Solid State Physics Laboratory, University of Groningen, 4 Nijenborgh, NL-9747 AG Groningen (Netherlands); Vainshtein, D I [Solid State Physics Laboratory, University of Groningen, 4 Nijenborgh, NL-9747 AG Groningen (Netherlands); Hartog, H W den [Solid State Physics Laboratory, University of Groningen, 4 Nijenborgh, NL-9747 AG Groningen (Netherlands)


    After exposure to ionizing irradiation, mineral zircon exhibits thermoluminescence (TL), which can be used to calculate the irradiation dose and the age of natural samples. Different aspects of the dating procedure based on zircon TL, including laboratory added irradiation at room and elevated temperatures, fading and preheat processes, have been considered within the framework of the kinetic model developed by our group earlier. It is shown that dose rate effects arising due to the difference between natural and laboratory irradiation can be removed by a suitable preheat treatment of the laboratory irradiated samples prior to the TL measurements. We demonstrate that the TL behaviour of zircon which has been irradiated under natural conditions can be reproduced by means of laboratory irradiation at some elevated temperature. This opens a promising possibility of (i) getting rid of dose rate effects and anomalous fading and (ii) reconstructing the dose dependence of the total TL signal emitted by samples irradiated under natural conditions. The model has been checked by simulating the dating procedures used for our coastal dune sand samples from Ameland (NL), the age of which is known from historical records; the results agree well with the available experimental data. The results of this investigation demonstrate the utility of the kinetic model for planning dating experiments and for development of new and innovative TL dating methods.

  8. Lead zirconate (PbZrO3 embedded in natural rubber as electroactive elastomer composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuvat Sirivat


    Full Text Available Perovskite lead zirconate (PbZrO3 was synthesized in an orthorhombic form at a temperature below the Curie temperature, TC. The orthorhombic form is a noncentrosymmetric structure which is capable of spontaneous polarization. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectra and X-ray diffraction (XRD patterns confirm the successful synthesis of the lead zirconate; and scanning electron microscopy (SEM micrographs indicate that PbZrO3 particles are moderately dispersed in the natural rubber (NR matrix. Without an electrical field, the particles merely act as a ferroelectric filler, which can absorb and store additional stress. Under an electrical field, particle-induced dipole moments are generated, leading to interparticle interaction and a substantial increase in the storage modulus. At a small amount of lead zirconate particulates present in the natural rubber matrix, at a volume fraction of 0.007306, the electrical conductivity increases dramatically by nearly two orders of magnitude at the electrical frequency of 500 kHz.

  9. Zircon LA-ICPMS geochronology of the Cornubian Batholith, SW England (United States)

    Neace, Erika R.; Nance, R. Damian; Murphy, J. Brendan; Lancaster, Penelope J.; Shail, Robin K.


    Available Usbnd Pb age data for the Cornubian Batholith of SW England is based almost entirely on monazite and xenotime, and very little zircon Usbnd Pb age data has been published. As a result, no zircon inheritance data is available for the batholith, by which the nature of the unexposed basement of the Rhenohercynian Zone in SW England might be constrained. Zircon LA-ICPMS data for the Cornubian Batholith provides Concordia ages (Bodmin Moor granite: 316 ± 4 Ma, Carnmenellis granite: 313 ± 3 Ma, Dartmoor granite: ~ 310 Ma, St. Austell granite: 305 ± 5 Ma, and Land's End granite: 300 ± 5 Ma) that are consistently 20-30 Ma older than previously published emplacement ages for the batholith and unrealistic in terms of geologic relative age relationships with respect to the country rock. This discrepancy is likely as a consequence of minor pre-granitic Pb inheritance. Several of the batholith's granite plutons contain a component of late-Devonian inheritance that may record rift-related, lower crustal melting or arc-related magmatism associated with subduction of the Rheic Ocean. In addition, the older granites likely contain Mesoproterozoic inheritance, although the highly discordant nature of the Mesoproterozoic ages precludes their use in assigning an affinity to the Rhenohercynian basement in SW England.

  10. Zircons from a metasomatic alteration profile: block-matrix interaction in high-pressure rocks from Syros (Greece) (United States)

    Keasling, A.; Bröcker, M.


    On Syros (Cyclades, Greece), a mélange sequence was affected by low-temperature eclogite-facies metamorphism. Fluid-enhanced exchange processes between blocks and the ultramafic matrix are recorded by reaction rinds which formed during HP-metamorphism. Some blocks and their metasomatic rims are characterized by remarkably high modal amounts of zircon (tens to hundreds of grains on thin-section scale). The geological significance of Cretaceous U-Pb zircon ages (c. 75-80 Ma) reported for these rocks is controversial. Zircon growth was either related to metamorphic or magmatic processes. In order to provide further arguments for this debate, we have studied zircons from a metasomatic alteration profile which developed around a jadeitite block. Towards the serpentinite matrix, three zones (c. 5-30 cm in thickness) can be distinguished, which predominantly consist either of omphacite, glaucophane or actinolite- chlorite. Zircon is present in the jadeitite and all reaction rims, but not in the serpentinite. Using SEM, CL-imaging and LA-ICP-MS, we have systematically documented morphological and compositional characteristics of zircons from this alteration profile. In the jadeitite and omphacitite short-prismatic grains are more abundant than in the outer zones which contain a higher amount of long-prismatic grains. Trace element patterns of all zircons are very similar. However, the total abundance of these elements decreases from the center of the block towards the peripheral parts, with the exception of Hf and Ti concentrations which remain constant. In most cases, no significant differences between core and rim compositions were recognized within individual zones. A notable exception are some zircons from the jadeitite and omphacitite which are characterized by U- and Th-rich cores (complex cauliflower-like CL images). For the rims (broad oscillatory CL patterns) significantly lower concentrations of these elements were obtained. The Th/U ratio of zircons

  11. Cryospray ablation using pressurized CO2 for ablation of Barrett's esophagus with early neoplasia: early termination of a prospective series

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbeek, R.E.; Vleggaar, F.P.; Kate, F.J. ten; Baal, J.W. van; Siersema, P.D.


    BACKGROUND: Cryotherapy is a relatively novel ablation modality for the endoscopic ablation of Barrett's esophagus (BE). Data on the use of pressurized carbon dioxide (CO2) gas for cryoablation are scarce. STUDY AIM: To determine the efficacy and safety of cryospray ablation using pressurized CO2

  12. Improved 206Pb/238U microprobe geochronology by the monitoring of a trace-element-related matrix effect; SHRIMP, ID-TIMS, ELA-ICP-MS and oxygen isotope documentation for a series of zircon standards (United States)

    Black, L.P.; Kamo, S.L.; Allen, C.M.; Davis, D.W.; Aleinikoff, J.N.; Valley, J.W.; Mundil, R.; Campbell, I.H.; Korsch, R.J.; Williams, I.S.; Foudoulis, C.


    Precise isotope dilution-thermal ionisation mass spectrometry (ID-TIMS) documentation is given for two new Palaeozoic zircon standards (TEMORA 2 and R33). These data, in combination with results for previously documented standards (AS3, SL13, QGNG and TEMORA 1), provide the basis for a detailed investigation of inconsistencies in 206Pb/238U ages measured by microprobe. Although these ages are normally consistent between any two standards, their relative age offsets are often different from those established by ID-TIMS. This is true for both sensitive high-resolution ion-microprobe (SHRIMP) and excimer laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ELA-ICP-MS) dating, although the age offsets are in the opposite sense for the two techniques. Various factors have been investigated for possible correlations with age bias, in an attempt to resolve why the accuracy of the method is worse than the indicated precision. Crystallographic orientation, position on the grain-mount and oxygen isotopic composition are unrelated to the bias. There are, however, striking correlations between the 206Pb/238U age offsets and P, Sm and, most particularly, Nd abundances in the zircons. Although these are not believed to be the primary cause of this apparent matrix effect, they indicate that ionisation of 206Pb/238U is influenced, at least in part, by a combination of trace elements. Nd is sufficiently representative of the controlling trace elements that it provides a quantitative means of correcting for the microprobe age bias. This approach has the potential to reduce age biases associated with different techniques, different instrumentation and different standards within and between laboratories. Crown Copyright ?? 2004 Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. U-Pb zircon, geochemical and Sr-Nd-Hf isotopic constraints on the age and origin of Early Palaeozoic I-type granite from the Tengchong-Baoshan Block, Western Yunnan Province, SW China (United States)

    Liu, Shen; Hu, RuiZhong; Gao, Shan; Feng, CaiXia; Huang, Zhilong; Lai, Shaocong; Yuan, Honglin; Liu, Xiaoming; Coulson, Ian M.; Feng, Guangying; Wang, Tao; Qi, YouQiang


    Herein we present new U-Pb zircon ages, whole-rock geochemical data and Nd-Sr-Hf isotopic data for an Early Palaeozoic monzogranite batholith from the Tengchong-Baoshan Block, Western Yunnan Province, China. Mineralogical and geochemical features suggest that this granitoid is a high-K, calc-alkaline, I-type granite. SHRIMP and laser ablation ICP-MS (LA-ICP-MS) analysis of zircon yields ages of between 499 ± 5 Ma and 502 ± 5 Ma, for three samples from the batholith. The monzogranite is characterised by high initial 87Sr/ 86Sr (0.7132-0.7144), negative ɛNd( t) (-9.7 to -9.40) and ɛHf( t) (-10 to -13.1), and is interpreted to derive from remelting of pre-existing Palaeoproterozoic, high-K, metabasaltic rocks of the upper crust. The granitoid magma underwent extensive fractional crystallisation of biotite ± hornblende, ilmenite, titanite, K-feldspar and plagioclase during emplacement. The crystallisation temperature of the magma lies in the range 633-733 °C, however, there is no evidence to suggest crustal assimilation occurred during its ascent. Like the ˜500 Ma, I-type granite of this study, there occur numerous granitoid rocks of Early Palaeozoic age (490-470 Ma) in adjacent regions across the entire Tengchong-Baoshan Block ( Chen et al., 2004, 2005; Song et al., 2007). This episode of plutonism is coeval with the widespread granitoid magmatism found throughout the Indian Plate and the Himalayan Orogenic Belt that are both subordinate parts of the ancient, Gondwana supercontinent. We infer, therefore, that the Tengchong-Baoshan Block may also have formed part of Gondwana, and that it separated from this supercontinent along with other crustal blocks during the Late Palaeozoic. Moreover, based on the findings of this study, we document the occurrence of arc-related magmatism in the Tengchong-Baoshan Block during the late Palaeoproterozoic.

  14. A review of the safety aspects of radio frequency ablation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Bhaskaran


    Full Text Available In light of recent reports showing high incidence of silent cerebral infarcts and organized atrial arrhythmias following radiofrequency (RF atrial fibrillation (AF ablation, a review of its safety aspects is timely. Serious complications do occur during supraventricular tachycardia (SVT ablations and knowledge of their incidence is important when deciding whether to proceed with ablation. Evidence is emerging for the probable role of prophylactic ischemic scar ablation to prevent VT. This might increase the number of procedures performed. Here we look at the various complications of RF ablation and also the methods to minimize them. Electronic database was searched for relevant articles from 1990 to 2015. With better awareness and technological advancements in RF ablation the incidence of complications has improved considerably. In AF ablation it has decreased from 6% to less than 4% comprising of vascular complications, cardiac tamponade, stroke, phrenic nerve injury, pulmonary vein stenosis, atrio-esophageal fistula (AEF and death. Safety of SVT ablation has also improved with less than 1% incidence of AV node injury in AVNRT ablation. In VT ablation the incidence of major complications was 5–11%, up to 3.4%, up to 1.8% and 4.1–8.8% in patients with structural heart disease, without structural heart disease, prophylactic ablations and epicardial ablations respectively. Vascular and pericardial complications dominated endocardial and epicardial VT ablations respectively. Up to 3% mortality and similar rates of tamponade were reported in endocardial VT ablation. Recent reports about the high incidence of asymptomatic cerebral embolism during AF ablation are concerning, warranting more research into its etiology and prevention.

  15. Detrital zircon constraints and implications for the magmatic evolution and Cimmerian orogeny in Georgian Caucasus (United States)

    Lee, H. Y.; Chung, S. L.; Chang, Y. H.; Chiu, H. Y.; Javakhishvili, Z.


    We present U-Pb ages and Hf isotopic results of the detrital zircons obtained from the sedimentary rocks representative of the Jurassic to Miocene formations in Georgia or so-called Georgian Caucasus. Georgian Caucasus, covering parts of the area of Greater, Trans- and Lesser Caucasus, is located in the most northern Caucasus-Iran-Anatolia (CIA) region elevated by the collision of Arabia with Eurasia. Here several significant magmatic episodes are exhibited in the Phanerozoic including (1) a major one from 500 to 420 Ma, (2) a major one at 320 Ma, (3) minor ones at 220 and 170 Ma, (4) a major one from 110 to 90 Ma and (5) a major one at 45 Ma. The Hf isotopes, furthermore, show large variation of the compositions in the former two stages of 500 to 420 Ma and 320 Ma, and mainly positive-dominant values since 220 Ma. This scenario could be better to correlate with that from the magmatic zircons of the igneous rocks in central and south Georgian Caucasus, NE Turkey and NW Iran. It displays the multi-stage magmatism at 320, 220, 90 and 45 Ma along with abundant inherited zircons from 700 to 480 Ma, and shows the similar Hf isotopic features as those of the detrital zircons. These data strongly suggest that the detrital zircons might come from the erosion of igneous successions in Georgian Caucasus. This infers injection of the juvenile Arabian-Nubian Shield (ANS) crust into the relict old crust from the Cambrian to Silurian, and the existence of a juvenile crust all over Georgian Caucasus since the Carboniferous, representing the extensively growth of the continental crust during the Phanerozoic. It is notable that the Carboniferous episode ( 320 Ma) was possibly caused by the remelting of the old ANS-derived ribbon continents and represented as the timing of the Neo-Tethys opening and Cimmerian orogeny. Therefore, the results in this study could be well applicable to the distinctly magmatic events related to the Gondwana separation, opening and closure of the Paleo

  16. Cretaceous crust beneath SW Borneo: U-Pb dating of zircons from metamorphic and granitic rocks (United States)

    Davies, L.; Hall, R.; Armstrong, R.


    Metamorphic basement rocks from SW Borneo are undated but have been suggested to be Palaeozoic. This study shows they record low pressure 'Buchan-type' metamorphism and U-Pb SHRIMP dating of zircons indicates a mid-Cretaceous (volcaniclastic) protolith. SW Borneo is the southeast promontory of Sundaland, the continental core of SE Asia. It has no sedimentary cover and the exposed basement has been widely assumed to be a crustal fragment from the Indochina-China margin. Metamorphic rocks of the Pinoh Group in Kalimantan (Indonesian Borneo) are intruded by granitoid rocks of Jurassic-Cretaceous age, based on K-Ar dating, suggesting emplacement mainly between 130 and 80 Ma. The Pinoh metamorphic rocks have been described as a suite of pelitic schists, slates, phyllites, and hornfelses, and have not been dated, although they have been correlated with rocks elsewhere in Borneo of supposed Palaeozoic age. Pelitic schists contain biotite, chlorite, cordierite, andalusite, quartz, plagioclase and in some cases high-Mn almandine-rich garnet. Many have a shear fabric associated with biotite and fibrolite intergrowth. Contact metamorphism due to intrusion of the granitoid rocks produced hornfelses with abundant andalusite and cordierite porphyroblasts. Granitoids range from alkali-granite to tonalite and contain abundant hornblende and biotite, with rare white mica. Zircons from granitoid rocks exhibit sector- and concentric- zoning; some have xenocrystic cores mantled by magmatic zircon. There are four important age populations at c. 112, 98, 84 and 84 Ma broadly confirming earlier dating studies. There is a single granite body with a Jurassic age (186 ± 2.3 Ma). Zircons from pelitic metamorphic rocks are typically euhedral, with no evidence of rounding or resorbing of grains; a few preserve volcanic textures. They record older ages than those from igneous rocks; U-Pb ages are Cretaceous with a major population between 134 and 110 Ma. A single sample contains Proterozoic

  17. Solubility of manganotantalite, zircon and hafnon in highly fluxed peralkaline to peraluminous pegmatitic melts (United States)

    van Lichtervelde, Marieke; Holtz, Francois; Hanchar, John M.


    The behavior of tantalum and zirconium in pegmatitic systems has been investigated through the determination of Ta and Zr solubilities at manganotantalite and zircon saturation from dissolution and crystallization experiments in hydrous, Li-, F-, P- and B-bearing pegmatitic melts. The pegmatitic melts are synthetic and enriched in flux elements: 0.7-1.3 wt% Li2O, 2-5.5 wt% F, 2.8-4 wt% P2O5 and 0-2.8 wt% B2O3, and their aluminum saturation index ranges from peralkaline to peraluminous (ASILi = Al/[Na + K + Li] = 0.8 to 1.3) with various K/Na ratios. Dissolution and crystallization experiments were conducted at temperatures varying between 700 and 1,150°C, at 200 MPa and nearly water-saturated conditions. For dissolution experiments, pure synthetic, end member manganotantalite and zircon were used in order to avoid problems with slow solid-state kinetics, but additional experiments using natural manganotantalite and zircon of relatively pure composition (i.e., close to end member composition) displayed similar solubility results. Zircon and manganotantalite solubilities considerably increase from peraluminous to peralkaline compositions, and are more sensitive to changes in temperature or ASI of the melt than to flux content. A model relating the enthalpy of dissolution of manganotantalite to the ASILi of the melt is proposed: ∆ H diss (kJ/mol) = 304 × ASILi - 176 in the peralkaline field, and ∆ H diss (kJ/mol) = -111 × ASILi + 245 in the peraluminous field. The solubility data reveal a small but detectable competitivity between Zr and Ta in the melt, i.e., lower amounts of Zr are incorporated in a Ta-bearing melt compared to a Ta-free melt under the same conditions. A similar behavior is observed for Hf and Ta. The competitivity between Zr (or Hf) and Ta increases from peraluminous to peralkaline compositions, and suggests that Ta is preferentially bonded to non-bridging oxygens (NBOs) with Al as first-neighbors, whereas Zr is preferentially bonded to NBOs

  18. Quantifying Volcanic Stresses from Residual Stress Preserved in Magnetite and Zircon (United States)

    Leonhardi, T. C.; Befus, K.; Manga, M.; Stan, C. V.; Tamura, N.


    Stresses active in volcanic systems are intimately linked with the processes driving magma chamber evolution and volcanic eruptions. These processes are difficult to quantify directly. Instead, insights come from a combination of modeling, geophysical observations, petrology and geochemistry. To directly quantify the forces and stresses associated with volcanic systems (such as chamber over-pressure) we need to develop techniques that provide new insights into volcanic processes. Here we quantified volcanic stresses in crystals from two units erupted from Yellowstone caldera. We used the Laue x-ray microdiffraction technique to measure preserved elastic lattice strain and the equivalent stress required to produce the strain. We analyzed zircon and magnetite crystals from pumice clasts in the pyroclastic fall deposit from the Tuff of Bluff Point and a flow front sample of the effusive Summit Lake lava flow. Analyses were performed using the x-ray microdiffraction beamline (12.3.2) at the Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. Zircon preserved residual stress values in the range of 290-430 MPa for both units. Magnetite from the Tuff of Bluff Point preserves stress values of 310-370 MPa, whereas Summit Lake magnetite preserved values of 210-280 MPa. These values are greater that the estimates for lithostatic pressure in the final shallow storage chamber. If the values do represent the minerals' formation depth, then this indicates magnetite and zircon formed early in the magmatic system at greater depth. If true, residual stress in zircon and magnetite may be used as a crystallization geobarometer. Alternatively, if these values did not result from storage depth, they could reflect other processes in the chamber and conduit (such as fragmentation and thermal quenching). The observed differences in magnetite values suggest a change in the storage depth and/or volcanic stresses active in eruptions of the two deposits. For zircon, recoil damage and trace

  19. Resolution, the key to unlocking granite petrogenesis using zircon U-Pb - Lu-Hf studies (United States)

    Tapster, Simon; Horstwood, Matthew; Roberts, Nick M. W.; Deady, Eimear; Shail, Robin


    Coarse-scale understanding of crustal evolution and source contributions to igneous systems has been drastically enhanced by coupled zircon U-Pb and Lu-Hf data sets. These are now common place and potentially offer advantages over whole-rock analyses by resolving heterogeneous source components in the complex crystal cargos of single hand-samples. However, the application of coupled zircon U-Pb and Lu-Hf studies to address detailed petrogenetic questions faces a crisis of resolution - On the one hand, micro-beam analytical techniques have high spatial resolution, capable of interrogating crystals with complex growth histories. Yet, the >1-2% temporal resolution of these techniques places a fundamental limitation on their utility for developing petrogenetic models. This limitation in data interpretation arises from timescales of crystal recycling or changes in source evolution that are often shorter than the U-Pb analytical precision. Conversely, high-precision CA-ID-TIMS U-Pb analysis of single whole zircons and solution MC-ICP-MS Lu-Hf isotopes of column washes (Hf masses equating to ca. 10-50 ng) have much greater temporal resolution (bridging the gap in resolving power between in-situ and isotope dilution coupled zircon U-Pb - Lu-Hf studies. We demonstrate the potential of this approach to unravel intra- and inter-sample heterogeneity and address models for granite genesis using a new regional data set for 21 samples encompassing all major granite types within the Early Permian Cornubian Batholith (SW England). The data provide a refined chronological framework for magma source evolution over 20 Myrs of crust-mantle melt extraction and upper crustal batholith construction. The resulting petrogenetic model will also be evaluated through the lens of low- temporal resolution commonly employed in granitic zircon U-Pb - Lu-Hf studies in order to highlight the enhanced insights into geological processes gained though our approach. The current limitations to data

  20. Selective zircon accumulation in a new benthic foraminifer, Psammophaga zirconia, sp. nov. (United States)

    Sabbatini, Anna; Negri, Alessandra; Bartolini, Annachiara; Morigi, Caterina; Boudouma, Omar; Dinelli, Enrico; Florindo, Fabio; Galeazzi, Roberta; Holzmann, Maria; Lurcock, Pontus C.; Massaccesi, Luca; Pawlowski, Jan W.; Rocchi, Sergio


    Benthic foraminifera are single-celled eukaryotes that make a protective organic, agglutinated or calcareous test. Some agglutinated, single-chambered taxa, including Psammophaga Arnold, 1982, retain mineral particles in their cytoplasm, but the selective mechanism of accumulation is not clear. Here, we report the ability of a foraminiferal species to select and accumulate zircons and other heavy minerals in their cytoplasm. In particular, the use of Scanning Electron Microscope coupled with an Energy Dispersive X-ray microanalysis system (SEM-EDS) enabled a representative overview of the mineral diversity and showed that the analysed Psammophaga zirconia sp. nov. individuals contained dominantly crystals of zircon (51%), titanium oxides (27%), and ilmenite (11%) along with minor magnetite and other minerals. The studied specimens occur in the shallow central Adriatic Sea where the sediment has a content of zircon below 1% and of other heavy minerals below 4%. For that reason, we suggest that: (i) P. zirconia may be able to chemically select minerals, specifically zircon and rutile; (ii) the chemical mechanism allowing the selection is based on electrostatic interaction, and it could work also for agglutinated foraminifera. In particular, this aptitude for high preferential uptake and differential ingestion or retention of zircon is reported here for the first time, together with the selection of other heavy minerals already described in members of the genus Psammophaga. They are generally counted among early foraminifera, constructing a morphologically simple test with a single chamber. Our molecular phylogenetic study confirms that P. zirconia is a new species, genetically distinctive from other Psammophaga, and occurs in the Adriatic as well as in the Black Sea. Finally, the presence of eukaryotic soft-walled monothalamous microfossils, capable of building a fine aluminosilicate case, in the Precambrian geological record, makes them useful as a valuable record

  1. Oxygen fugacity and porphyry mineralization: A zircon perspective of Dexing porphyry Cu deposit, China (United States)

    Zhang, Chan-chan; Sun, Wei-dong; Wang, Jin-tuan; Zhang, Li-peng; Sun, Sai-jun; Wu, Kai


    Oxygen fugacity (fO2) is a key factor that controls the formation of porphyry Cu deposits. Porphyry Cu deposits are typically oxidized, but when and how porphyry magmas gain their high oxygen fugacity signatures, and how oxygen fugacity controls porphyry mineralization, remains obscure. To trace the origin of the high oxygen fugacity in porphyry Cu deposits, we determined trace element compositions and U-Pb ages of magmatic and inherited zircon from Dexing porphyry Cu deposit, calculated Ce4+/Ce3+ of zircons and estimated the oxygen fugacity of their parental magmas. The Ce4+/Ce3+ ratios of Middle Jurassic (∼170 Ma) magmatic zircons are high (550 on average), whereas the Ce4+/Ce3+ ratios of inherited zircons (200-880 Ma) are much lower (263 on average). The relationship suggests that the Dexing porphyry magma was highly oxidized when the Jurassic magmatic zircons crystallized (estimated fO2: ΔFMQ + 0.7 (±1.3) - ΔFMQ + 1.9 (±1.3)), which cannot be attributed to partial melting of the Neoproterozoic arc crust (estimated fO2: ΔFMQ - 2.4 (±1.1) - ΔFMQ + 0.7 (±1.2)) as proposed previously. Instead, the high fO2 (ΔFMQ + 1.5) of these magmas is a primary feature of the latest magmatism. Sulfate rather than sulfide is the dominant species at fO2 > ΔFMQ + 1.5. In general, the behavior of Cu and other chalcophile elements is controlled by sulfide, while the sulfur speciation is controlled by oxygen fugacity. Previous modeling results show that partial melting of mantle peridotite under high oxygen fugacity (even at >ΔFMQ + 1.5) cannot form Cu-rich magmas, which plausibly explains the lack of porphyry Cu deposits in normal arc rocks. This is because mantle peridotite has low Cu and S contents. Our modeling shows that partial melting of subducted oceanic crust, under oxygen fugacities higher than ΔFMQ + 1.5, is favorable for producing primary magmas with Cu contents sufficiently high for porphyry mineralization, which plausibly explains the close relationship

  2. Ablation zone visualization enhancement by periodic contrast-enhancement computed tomography during microwave ablation. (United States)

    Wu, Po-Hung; Borden, Zachary; Brace, Christopher L


    Intra-procedural contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CECT) has been proposed to monitor the growth of thermal ablations. The primary challenge with multiple CT acquisitions is reducing radiation dose while maintaining sufficient image quality. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of applying local highly constrained backprojection reconstruction (HYPR-LR) on periodic CECT images acquired with low-dose protocols, and to determine whether the ablations visible on CT were commensurate to gross pathology. Low-dose (CTDIvol≤1.49mGy), temporal CECT volumes were acquired during microwave ablation on normal porcine liver. HYPR processing was performed on each volume after image registration. Ablation signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) were collected to evaluate the degree of enhancement of image quality and ablation zone visualization. Ablation zones were manually segmented on HYPR and non-HYPR images and compared spatially using Dice's coefficient. The dimensions of ablation zones were also compared to gross pathology by correlation and dimensional differences. The SNR and CNR of ablation zones were increased after HYPR processing. The manually segmented ablation zone was highly similar to gross pathology with a Dice coefficient of 0.81 ± 0.03, while the low-dose CECT had a smaller Dice coefficient of 0.72 ± 0.05. Both HYPR and low-dose CECT had high correlation to gross pathology (0.99 and 0.94, respectively), but the variance of measurements were lower after HYPR processing compared to unprocessed images. The relative difference in area, length of long axis, and length of short axis for HYPR image were 13.1 ± 5.6%, 9.7 ± 4.2%, and 15.2 ± 2.8%, which were lower than those for low-dose CECT at 37.5 ± 6.0%, 17.7 ± 2.8%, and 28.9 ± 5.4%. HYPR processing applied to periodic CECT images can enhance ablation zone visualization. HYPR processing may potentially enable CECT in real-time ablation monitoring under strict

  3. Ultrasound-guided percutaneous thermal ablation of hepatocellular carcinoma using microwave and radiofrequency ablation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, H.-X.; Xie, X.-Y.; Lu, M.-D. E-mail:; Chen, J.-W.; Yin, X.-Y.; Xu, Z.-F.; Liu, G.-J


    AIM: To investigate the therapeutic efficacy of thermal ablation for treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) using microwave and radiofrequency (RF) energy application. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 190 nodules in 97 patients (84 male, 13 female; mean age 53.4 years, range 24-74 years) with HCC were treated with microwave or RF ablation in the last 4 years. The applicators were introduced into the tumours under conscious analgesic sedation by intravenous administration of fentanyl citrate and droperidol and local anaesthesia in both thermal ablation procedures. The patients were then followed up with contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) to evaluate treatment response. Survival was analysed using the Kaplan-Meier method. RESULTS: Complete ablation was obtained in 92.6% (176/190) nodules. The complete ablation rates were 94.6% (106/112) in microwave ablation and 89.7% (70/78) in RF ablation. The complete ablation rates in tumours{<=}2.0, 2.1-3.9 and {>=}4.0 cm were 93.1, 93.8 and 86.4%, respectively. Local recurrence was found in 9.5% nodules and the rates in tumours{<=}2.0, 2.1-3.9 and {>=}4.0 cm in diameter were 3.4, 9.9 and 31.8%, respectively. In the follow-up period, 7.1% nodules ablated by microwave and 12.8% by RF presented local recurrence. The 1, 2 and 3-year distant recurrence-free survivals were 47.2, 34.9 and 31.0%, respectively. Estimated mean survival was 32 months, and 1, 2 and 3-year cumulative survivals were 75.6, 58.5, and 50.0%, respectively. One and 2 years survivals of Child-Pugh class A, B and C patients were 83.8 and 70.4%, 78.2 and 53.2%, 36.3 and 27.3%, respectively. CONCLUSION: Thermal ablation therapy by means of microwave and RF energy application is an effective and safe therapeutic technique for hepatocellular carcinoma. Large tumours can be completely ablated, but have a significantly higher risk of local recurrence at follow-up.

  4. Geochemistry and Temperatures Recorded by Zircon During the Final Stages of the Youngest Toba Tuff Magma Chamber, Sumatra, Indonesia (United States)

    Gaither, T.; Reid, M. R.; Vazquez, J. A.


    The ~74 ka eruption of the Youngest Toba Tuff (YTT) in Sumatra, Indonesia, was one of the largest single volcanic eruptions in geologic history, on par with other voluminous silicic eruptions such as the Huckleberry Ridge Tuff of Yellowstone and the Bishop Tuff of Long Valley, California. We are exploring how zircon and other accessory mineral phases record compositional and thermal changes that occurred in the YTT magma, and the important clues these crystal scale records hold for magma chamber dynamics and processes that lead up to supervolcano eruptions. In this study, we report trace element (REE, U, Th, Ti, and Hf) characteristics, Ti-in-zircon crystallization temperatures, and apparent REE partition coefficients obtained for YTT zircon rims. Twenty-nine zircons from pumices with a compositional range of 70-76 wt% SiO2 were analyzed on the UCLA Cameca ims 1270 ion microprobe. The grains were mounted so that only the outermost ~1.5 microns of the crystals were analyzed. Median Zr/Hf ratios of 34 to 38 characterize zircons from the pumices; the high silica rhyolite grains have lower Zr/Hf. Chondrite-normalized REE patterns are strongly LREE-depleted. Positive Ce anomalies are large (Ce/Ce* ranges up to 88) and Eu/Eu* varies by a factor of four (0.05 to 0.21). Eu/Eu*, Nd/Yb, and Th/U decrease with decreasing Zr/Hf, showing that the variation in zircon rim compositions may be related by co-precipitation of feldspar and allanite along with zircon. Titanium contents also decrease with decreasing Zr/Hf, suggesting that the chemical differences could be related to temperature changes. REE partition coefficients calculated from zircon rim compositions and pumice glass compositions give a good fit to a lattice strain model. They are also quite similar to the partition coefficients of Sano et al. (2002) which have been shown to be successful at reproducing melt compositions in other settings. Temperatures of crystallization calculated using the Ti-in-zircon

  5. Aluminum X-ray mass-ablation rate measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.L. Kline


    Full Text Available Measurements of the mass ablation rate of aluminum (Al have been completed at the Omega Laser Facility. These measurements show that the mass-ablation rate of Al is higher than plastic (CH, comparable to high density carbon (HDC, and lower than beryllium. The mass-ablation rate is consistent with predictions using a 1D Lagrangian code, Helios. The results suggest Al capsules have a reasonable ablation pressure even with a higher albedo than beryllium or carbon ablators and further investigation into the viability of Al capsules for ignition should be pursued.

  6. Ablation Resistant Zirconium and Hafnium Ceramics (United States)

    Bull, Jeffrey (Inventor); White, Michael J. (Inventor); Kaufman, Larry (Inventor)


    High temperature ablation resistant ceramic composites have been made. These ceramics are composites of zirconium diboride and zirconium carbide with silicon carbide, hafnium diboride and hafnium carbide with silicon carbide and ceramic composites which contain mixed diborides and/or carbides of zirconium and hafnium. along with silicon carbide.

  7. Combining Electrolysis and Electroporation for Tissue Ablation. (United States)

    Phillips, Mary; Rubinsky, Liel; Meir, Arie; Raju, Narayan; Rubinsky, Boris


    Electrolytic ablation is a method that operates by delivering low magnitude direct current to the target region over long periods of time, generating electrolytic products that destroy cells. This study was designed to explore the hypothesis stating that electrolytic ablation can be made more effective when the electrolysis-producing electric charges are delivered using electric pulses with field strength typical in reversible electroporation protocols. (For brevity we will refer to tissue ablation protocols that combine electroporation and electrolysis as E(2).) The mechanistic explanation of this hypothesis is related to the idea that products of electrolysis generated by E(2) protocols can gain access to the interior of the cell through the electroporation permeabilized cell membrane and therefore cause more effective cell death than from the exterior of an intact cell. The goal of this study is to provide a first-order examination of this hypothesis by comparing the charge dosage required to cause a comparable level of damage to a rat liver, in vivo, when using either conventional electrolysis or E(2) approaches. Our results show that E(2) protocols produce tissue damage that is consistent with electrolytic ablation. Furthermore, E(2) protocols cause damage comparable to that produced by conventional electrolytic protocols while delivering orders of magnitude less charge to the target tissue over much shorter periods of time. © The Author(s) 2014.

  8. Bending diamonds by femtosecond laser ablation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balling, Peter; Esberg, Jakob; Kirsebom, Kim


    We present a new method based on femtosecond laser ablation for the fabrication of statically bent diamond crystals. Using this method, curvature radii of 1 m can easily be achieved, and the curvature obtained is very uniform. Since diamond is extremely tolerant to high radiation doses, partly due...

  9. [Management of ablative therapies in prostate cancer]. (United States)

    Barret, E; Sanchez-Salas, R; Galiano, M; Cathala, N; Mombet, A; Prapotnich, D; Rozet, F; Gangi, A; Lang, H; Cathelineau, X


    To describe the specific modalities of ablative therapies management in prostate cancer. A review of the scientific literature was performed in Medline database ( and Embase ( using different associations of keywords. Publications obtained were selected based on methodology, language and relevance. After selection, 61 articles were analysed. Development of innovations such as ablative therapies in prostate cancer induces specific modalities in their management, during pre-, per- and post-procedure. More than for classical and well-known treatments, the decision to propose an ablative therapy requires analysis and consensus of medical staff and patient's agreement. Patient's specificities and economical aspects must also be considered. Procedures and follow-up must be realized by referents actors. Indication, procedure and follow-up of ablative therapies in prostate cancer require specific modalities. They must be respected in order to optimize the results and to obtain a precise and objective evaluation for defining future indications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Informed Consent For Ablative Operations: Environmental Peculiarities

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Consenting for ablative surgery in our environment is very difficult. The fact that the concept of informed consent is based on patient's autonomy makes it even more frustrating in this environment. BODY: In this paper we have presented five patients in whom obtaining consent was particularly frustrating for ...

  11. Burn, freeze, or photo-ablate?: comparative symptom profile in Barrett's dysplasia patients undergoing endoscopic ablation (United States)

    Gill, Kanwar Rupinder S.; Gross, Seth A.; Greenwald, Bruce D.; Hemminger, Lois L.; Wolfsen, Herbert C.


    Background: There are few data available comparing endoscopic ablation methods for Barrett's esophagus with high-grade dysplasia (BE-HGD). Objective: To determine differences in symptoms and complications associated with endoscopic ablation. Design: Prospective observational study. Setting: Two tertiary care centers in USA. Patients: Consecutive patients with BE-HGD Interventions: In this pilot study, symptoms profile data were collected for BE-HGD patients among 3 endoscopic ablation methods: porfimer sodium photodynamic therapy, radiofrequency ablation and low-pressure liquid nitrogen spray cryotherapy. Main Outcome Measurements: Symptom profiles and complications from the procedures were assessed 1-8 weeks after treatment. Results: Ten BE-HGD patients were treated with each ablation modality (30 patients total; 25 men, median age: 69 years (range 53-81). All procedures were performed in the clinic setting and none required subsequent hospitalization. The most common symptoms among all therapies were chest pain, dysphagia and odynophagia. More patients (n=8) in the porfimer sodium photodynamic therapy group reported weight loss compared to radio-frequency ablactation (n=2) and cryotherapy (n=0). Four patients in the porfimer sodium photodynamic therapy group developed phototoxicity requiring medical treatment. Strictures, each requiring a single dilation, were found in radiofrequency ablactation (n=1) and porfimer sodium photodynamic therapy (n=2) patients. Limitations: Small sample size, non-randomized study. Conclusions: These three endoscopic therapies are associated with different types and severity of post-ablation symptoms and complications.

  12. Provenance and age delimitation of Quadrilátero Ferrífero sandstones based on zircon U Pb isotopes (United States)

    Hartmann, Léo A.; Endo, Issamu; Suita, Marcos Tadeu F.; Santos, João Orestes S.; Frantz, José Carlos; Carneiro, Maurício A.; McNaughton, Neal J.; Barley, Mark E.


    The Quadrilátero Ferrífero has some of the largest iron and gold deposits in the world and is a major geotectonic unit of the São Francisco Craton in Brazil. U-Pb zircon SHRIMP geochronology of six detrital sedimentary and metasedimentary rocks (114 zircon crystals, 118 spot analyses) has improved the understanding of the sedimentary processes and provenance ages of both rocks and the associated iron formation. The age of deposition of the iron formation is constrained between 2.58 and 2.42 Ga. The presence of an old Paleoarchean crust is dated in detrital zircon crystals, including the oldest zircon in South America (3809±3 Ma). Only high-Th/U, magmatic zircon crystals are present in the dated sedimentary rocks, and these indicate that the crust of the region was formed mostly during the Jequié cycle (six age peaks between 3055 and 2635 Ma). This time span of ˜420 m.y. is similar to the duration of a long-lived Wilson cycle. Most of the Rio das Velhas Basin was filled during approximately 30 m.y. between 2746 and 2717 Ma, though volcanism probably started earlier. The youngest detrital zircon age from the Minas Supergroup indicates that the intracratonic basin fill, including the iron formation, was deposited after 2580 Ma. Therefore, the crust was cratonized shortly after the intrusion of minor granitic bodies at around 2.62-2.58 Ga. A large gap in orogenic activity is indicated by the absence of zircon ages of 2580-2182 Ma.

  13. Localized rejuvenation of a crystal mush recorded in zircon temporal and compositional variation at the Lassen Volcanic Center, northern California.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik W Klemetti

    Full Text Available Zircon ages and trace element compositions from recent silicic eruptions in the Lassen Volcanic Center (LVC allow for an evaluation of the timing and conditions of rejuvenation (reheating and mobilization of crystals within the LVC magmatic system. The LVC is the southernmost active Cascade volcano and, prior to the 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens, was the site of the only eruption in the Cascade arc during the last century. The three most recent silicic eruptions from the LVC were very small to moderate-sized lava flows and domes of dacite (1915 and 27 ka eruptions of Lassen Peak and rhyodacite (1.1 ka eruption of Chaos Crags. These eruptions produced mixed and mingled lavas that contain a diverse crystal cargo, including zircon. 238U-230Th model ages from interior and surface analyses of zircon reveal ages from ∼17 ka to secular equilibrium (>350 ka, with most zircon crystallizing during a period between ∼60-200 ka. These data support a model for localized rejuvenation of crystal mush beneath the LVC. This crystal mush evidently is the remnant of magmatism that ended ∼190 ka. Most zircon are thought to have been captured from "cold storage" in the crystal mush (670-725°C, Hf >10,000 ppm, Eu/Eu* 0.25-0.4 locally remobilized by intrusion of mafic magma. A smaller population of zircon (>730°C, Hf 0.4 grew in, and are captured from, rejuvenation zones. These data suggest the dominant method to produce eruptible melt within the LVC is small-scale, local rejuvenation of the crystal mush accompanied by magma mixing and mingling. Based on zircon stability, the time required to heat, erupt and then cool to background conditions is relatively short, lasting a maximum of 10 s-1000 s years. Rejuvenation events in the LVC are ephemeral and permit eruption within an otherwise waning and cooling magmatic body.

  14. Silicon-Class Ablators for NIC Ignition Capsules (United States)

    Ho, Darwin; Salmonson, Jay; Haan, Steve


    We present design studies using silicon-class ablators (i.e., Si, SiC, SiB6, and SiB14) for NIC ignition capsules. These types of ablators have several advantages in that they: (a) require no internal dopant layers and are robust to M-band radiation; (b) have smooth outer surfaces; (c) have stable fuel-ablator interface; and (d) have good 1-D performance. The major disadvantage for some of the ablators in this class is the relatively smaller ablation stabilization. Consequently, the ablator is more susceptible to breakup caused by RT instabilities. However, smoother outer surfaces on this class of ablators can reduce the effect of RT instabilities. 2-D simulations of SiC ablators show ignition failure despite smooth surfaces and good 1-D performance. But SiB6 and SiB14 ablators exhibit promising behaviors. SiB6 (SiB14) ablators have high 1-D ignition margin and high peak core hydrodynamic pressure 880 (900) Gbar. The ablation scale length for SiB6 is longer than that for SiC and for SiB14 is comparable to that of plastic. Therefore, we expect acceptable performance for SiB6 and less RT growth for SiB14. 2-D simulations are now in progress.

  15. Mechanisms and timescales of generating eruptible rhyolitic magmas at Yellowstone caldera from zircon and sanidine geochronology and geochemistry (United States)

    Stelten, Mark; Cooper, Kari M.; Vazquez, Jorge A.; Calvert, Andrew T.; Glessner, Justin G


    We constrain the physical nature of the magma reservoir and the mechanisms of rhyolite generation at Yellowstone caldera via detailed characterization of zircon and sanidine crystals hosted in three rhyolites erupted during the (ca. 170 – 70 ka) Central Plateau Member eruptive episode – the most recent post-caldera magmatism at Yellowstone. We present 238U-230Th crystallization ages and trace-element compositions of the interiors and surfaces (i.e., unpolished rims) of individual zircon crystals from each rhyolite. We compare these zircon data to 238U- 230Th crystallization ages of bulk sanidine separates coupled with chemical and isotopic data from single sanidine crystals. Zircon age and trace-element data demonstrate that the magma reservoir that sourced the Central Plateau Member rhyolites was long-lived (150 – 250 kyr) and genetically related to the preceding episode of magmatism, which occurred ca. 256 ka. The interiors of most zircons in each rhyolite were inherited from unerupted material related to older stages of Central Plateau Member magmatism or the preceding late Upper Basin Member magmatism (i.e., are antecrysts). Conversely, most zircon surfaces crystallized near the time of eruption from their host liquids (i.e., are autocrystic). The repeated recycling of zircon interiors from older stages of magmatism demonstrates that sequentially erupted Central Plateau Member rhyolites are genetically related. Sanidine separates from each rhyolite yield 238U-230Th crystallization ages at or near the eruption age of their host magmas, coeval with the coexisting zircon surfaces, but are younger than the coexisting zircon interiors. Chemical and isotopic data from single sanidine crystals demonstrate that the sanidines in each rhyolite are in equilibrium with their host melts, which considered along with their near-eruption crystallization ages suggests that nearly all CPM sanidines are autocrystic. The paucity of antecrystic sanidine crystals relative to

  16. Protoliths of enigmatic Archaean gneisses established from zircon inclusion studies: Case study of the Caozhuang quartzite, E. Hebei, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allen P. Nutman


    Full Text Available A diverse suite of Archaean gneisses at Huangbaiyu village in the North China Craton, includes rare fuchsite-bearing (Cr-muscovite siliceous rocks – known as the Caozhuang quartzite. The Caozhuang quartzite is strongly deformed and locally mylonitic, with silica penetration and pegmatite veining common. It contains abundant 3880–3600 Ma and some Palaeoarchaean zircons. Because of its siliceous nature, the presence of fuchsite and its complex zircon age distribution, it has until now been accepted as a (mature quartzite. However, the Caozhuang quartzite sample studied here is feldspathic. The shape and cathodoluminescence petrography of the Caozhuang quartzite zircons show they resemble those found in immature detrital sedimentary rocks of local provenance or in Eoarchaean polyphase orthogneisses, and not those in mature quartzites. The Caozhuang quartzite intra-zircon mineral inclusions are dominated by quartz, with lesser biotite, apatite (7% and alkali-feldspar, and most inclusions are morphologically simple. A Neoarchaean orthogneiss from near Huangbaiyu displays morphologically simple inclusions with much more apatite (73%, as is typical for fresh calc-alkaline granitoids elsewhere. Zircons were also examined from a mature conglomerate quartzite clast and an immature feldspathic sandstone of the overlying weakly metamorphosed Mesoproterozoic Changcheng System. These zircons have oscillatory zoning, showing they were sourced from igneous rocks. The quartzite clast zircons contain only rare apatite inclusions (<1%, with domains with apatite habit now occupied by intergrowths of muscovite + quartz ± Fe-oxides ± baddeleyite. We interpret that these were once voids after apatite inclusions that had dissolved during Mesoproterozoic weathering, which were then filled with clays ± silica and then weakly metamorphosed. Zircons in the immature feldspathic sandstone show a greater amount of preserved apatite (11%, but with petrographic

  17. Sources and assembly of diverse rhyolitic magmas in a hotspot environment inferred from microanalysis of zircon isotopes (United States)

    Colon, D.; Bindeman, I. N.; Christiansen, E. H.; Stern, R. A.; Wotzlaw, J. F.


    We present new, extremely diverse O and Hf isotope measurements from zircons from four rhyolitic tuffs from the Bruneau-Jarbidge center and one tuff and three lavas from the Kimberly drill core in the Twin Falls center on the Yellowstone hotspot track. O isotopes were measured in zircon cores and rims by SIMS, Hf isotopes were measured in nearby spots by LA-ICP-MS, and U-Pb ages were also measured via ICP-MS to eliminate inherited grains. We found considerable inter- and intra-crystal diversity in both O and Hf isotopes in all eruptive units. Zircon δ18O values range from -2.4‰ to 4.7‰ among the Bruneau-Jarbidge tuffs, and range from -1.3‰ to 4.9‰ in the Kimberly rhyolites. Similar variations in ɛHf values were found, ranging from -13 to 0 at Bruneau Jarbidge, and from -24 to +7 at Kimberly. Intra-grain variability was similarly extreme, with core-rim differences of up to 5.7‰ in δ18O and 14 ɛHf units at Bruneau-Jarbidge and Twin Falls, respectively. In some of the studied eruptive units, most notably Cougar Point Tuff V from Bruneau-Jarbidge, zircon cores are significantly more diverse in both δ18O and ɛhf than the rims, suggesting that the eruption of the final magma was preceded by a batch assembly process that was followed by overgrowth of zircon rims which reflect the final melt composition. This final homogenized composition matches δ18O inferred from major phenocrysts. The zircon cores, therefore, provide a unique opportunity to infer the sources of the crust and mantle-derived melts that contributed to the final erupted rhyolite. At both volcanic centers, the oldest studied rhyolite, including a newly-discovered 14.8 Ma old unit underlying the Cougar Point Tuff sequence, has zircons with the most diverse ɛHf values, and contains the only very low-ɛHf­ zircons in the case of Twin Falls. This suggests evolution of the magma bodies over time, becoming diluted by continued mixing and input of mantle-derived melts. Additionally, there is a

  18. Femtosecond laser ablation on dental hard tissues—Analysis of ablated profile near an interface using local effective intensity (United States)

    Dutra-Correa, M.; Nicolodelli, G.; Rodrigues, J. R.; Kurachi, C.; Bagnato, V. S.


    This study evaluated the process of ablation produced by a Ti:Sapphire femtosecond laser under different average powers taking place at the enamel/dentin interface. Based on the geometry of ablated microcavities the effective intensity for ablation was obtained. This study shows the validity for the local effective intensity analysis and allows a quantification of the variation in the ablation geometry taking place at the interface of two naturally different materials. It shows that the variation of the diameter of the ablated region as a function of the cavity depth comes essentially from a mechanism of effective intensity attenuation, as a result of a series of complex effects. Additionally, our data are sufficient to predict that a discontinuity on the ablation profile will occur on the interface between two biological media: enamel-dentin, showing a suddenly jump on the ablated cavity dimensions.

  19. Sample-scale zircon geochemical and geochronological heterogeneities as indicators of residual liquid infiltration events in the incrementally assembled Caleu Pluton, Central Chile (United States)

    Molina, P. G.; Parada, M. A.; Gutiérrez, F. J.; Ma, C.; Li, J.; Liu, Y.


    The Upper Cretaceous metaluminous Caleu Pluton is emplaced at a depth equivalent of 2kbar and consists of four lithological zones: the Gabbro-Dioritic Zone (GDZ), the Quartz-Monzodioritic Zone (QMDZ), the Granodioritic Zone (GZ) and the Monzogranitic Zone (MGZ). The zones would have been fed from a deeper magma reservoir emplaced at a 4 kbar. U238/Pb206 LA-ICP-MS geochronology of zircon grains of the four lithological zones (82 analyzed spots, 4 samples) indicates a maximum zircon crystallization range of ca. 106-91 Ma for the pluton as a whole. The U-Pb zircon age distribution of the four samples shows three inflection points at about 101, 99 and 96 Ma, separating four zircon crystallization events with the following weighted average ages and 2σ confidence intervals: 103.×1.6 Ma (n=4), 100.3×0.68 Ma (n=14), 97.49×0.49 Ma (n=25) and 94.66×0.44 Ma (n=30). The GDZ sample records the first three events, the GZ and QMDZ samples record the last three events while the MGZ only have zircons formed during the last two events. It is interesting to note that the youngest event of zircon formation coincide with the Ar/Ar cooling ages (95-93 Ma) previously obtained in hornblende, biotite and plagioclase of the four lithological zones, as a consequence of a rapid pluton exhumation. Temperatures of zircon crystallization (Ti-in-Zrn) obtained in each sample are variable and roughly lower than the zircon saturation temperatures. Most of the Ti-in-Zrn temperatures indicate late-stage crystallization conditions, consistent with the calculated melt composition from which zircons would have crystallized and the observed coexistence of zircons with quartz-orthoclase symplectites, hornblende and interstitial anhedral biotite. There are variable and overlapped total incompatible element concentrations in zircons of the four lithological zones regardless its age and Ti-in-Zrn temperatures, indicating that the melts from which zircon crystallized at different moments, were equivalent

  20. The provenance and internal structure of the Cycladic Blueschist Unit revealed by detrital zircon geochronology, Western Cyclades, Greece (United States)

    Seman, S.; Stockli, D. F.; Soukis, K.


    This study presents detrital zircon U-Pb analyses of 23 samples of the Cycladic Blueschist Unit (CBU) from Kea, Kythnos, and Serifos islands, as well as the Lavrion Peninsula of SE Attica. The maximum depositional ages (MDA) and age distributions of detrital zircon U-Pb dates are used to correlate metasediments between the islands considered herein and infer their provenance. Two distinct detrital zircon U-Pb age distributions are found in CBU metasediments: "Proterozoic," comprised of >40% Neoproterozoic zircons with Triassic-Early Jurassic maximum depositional ages and "Paleozoic," containing >30% Paleozoic zircons and yielding Late Jurassic-Cretaceous MDAs. Proterozoic affinity metasediments are rift margin deposits derived from the northern Gondwanan margin. Paleozoic metasediments are flysch sediments most probably sourced from the Internal Hellenides. This metamorphosed flysch forms a distinct marker horizon found in a similar structural position in Lavrion, Kythnos, and Serifos. Based on lithologic correlation, sediment provenance, and MDA estimates, the CBU of Kythnos is correlative to the Lavrion Schists of Attica. On the islands of Serifos and Kythnos and within the Lavrion Schists only young-on-old relationships exist between rocks based on MDA estimates.

  1. Characteristics of zircons from volcanic ash-derived tonsteins in Late Permian coal fields of eastern Yunnan, China (United States)

    Zhou, Y.; Ren, Y.; Tang, D.; Bohor, B.


    Kaolinitic tonsteins of altered synsedimentary volcanic ash-fall origin are well developed in the Late Permian coal-bearing formations of eastern Yunnan Province. Because of their unique origin, wide lateral extent, relatively constant thickness and sharp contacts with enclosing strata, great importance has been attached to these isochronous petrographic markers. In order to compare tonsteins with co-existing, non-cineritic claystones and characterize the individuality of tonsteins from different horizons for coal bed correlation, a semi-quantitative method was developed that is based on statistical analyses of the concentration and morphology of zircons and their spatial distribution patterns. This zircon-based analytical method also serves as a means for reconstructing volcanic ash-fall dispersal patterns. The results demonstrate that zircons from claystones of two different origins (i.e., tonstein and non-cineritic claystone) differ greatly in their relative abundances, crystal morphologies and spatial distribution patterns. Tonsteins from the same area but from different horizons are characterized by their own unique statistical patterns in terms of zircon concentration values and morphologic parameters (crystal length, width and the ratio of these values), thus facilitating stratigraphic correlation. Zircons from the same tonstein horizon also show continuous variation in these statistical patterns as a function of areal distribution, making it possible to identify the main path and direction in which the volcanic source materials were transported by prevailing winds. ?? 1994.

  2. In vivo percutaneous microwave ablation in kidneys: Correlation with ex vivo data and ablation work. (United States)

    Marcelin, C; Leiner, J; Nasri, S; Petitpierre, F; Le Bras, Y; Yacoub, M; Grenier, N; Bernhard, J C; Cornelis, F


    To compare diameters of in vivo microwave ablation (MWA) performed in swine kidneys with ex vivo diameters, and to correlate with ablation work (AW), a new metric reflecting total energy delivered. Eighteen in vivo MWA were performed in 6 swine kidneys successively using one or two antennas (MicroThermX®). Ablation consisted in delivering power (45-120W) for 5-15minutes. Ex vivo diameters were provided by the vendors and obtained on bovine liver tissue. AW was defined as the sum of (power)*(time)*(number of antennas) for all phases of an ablation (in kJoules). Kidneys were removed laparoscopically immediately after ablation. After sacrifice, ablations zones were evaluated macroscopically, and maximum diameters of the zones were recorded. Wilcoxon sum rank test and Pearson's correlation were used for comparisons. For a single antenna (n=12), the in vivo diameters ranged from 12 to 35mm, and 15-49mm for 2 antennas (n=6). The in vivo diameters remained shorter than ex vivo diameters by 8.6%±30.1 on 1 antenna and 11.7%±26.5 on 2 antennas (P=0.31 and 0.44, respectively). AW ranged from 13.5 to 108kJ. Diameters increased linearly with AW both with 1 and 2 antennas, but only moderate correlations were observed (r=0.43 [95% confidence interval: -0.19; 0.81], P=0.16; and 0.57 [-0.44; 0.95], P=0.24, respectively). Although diameters after in vivo renal MWA increased linearly with AW, the moderate correlation and wide standard deviations observed may justify a careful imaging monitoring during treatment delivery and settings adaptation, if needed, for optimal ablation. Copyright © 2017 Editions françaises de radiologie. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Physiological compensation in unilateral eyestalk ablated crayfish, Cherax quadricarinatus. (United States)

    Meade, M; Watts, S


    The eyestalks of crustaceans contain neurosecretory cells involved in the regulation of molting. In crayfish, bilateral ablation results in increased molting frequency and weight gain whereas unilateral ablation typically has no effect on molting frequency and weight gain. The effects of unilateral ablation were examined in juvenile Australian freshwater crayfish, Cherax quadricarinatus. As observed for other crayfish species, molting frequency and weight gain of unilateral ablated crayfish were not significantly different from control (intact) crayfish. Survival of unilateral ablated crayfish, however, was reduced compared to controls and was likely due to stress associated with the surgical procedure itself. Using radiolabeling techniques, protein synthesis was determined for neural tissues from the remaining eyestalk of ablated crayfish and compared to protein synthesis of neural tissues from eyestalks of control, non-ablated crayfish. Protein synthesis of ablated crayfish neural tissues was significantly higher (ca. 45%) than protein synthesis of control neural tissues. Electrophoretic analysis (SDS-PAGE and autoradiography) further demonstrated that protein synthesis increased linearly for all proteins in the remaining eyestalk of ablated crayfish. Together, these results suggest that a compensatory response occurred in unilateral ablated crayfish allowing normal physiological functions, particularly those involved in regulating growth cycles, to be maintained. J. Exp. Zool. 289:184-189, 2001. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Percutaneous thermal ablation of renal neoplasms; Perkutane Thermoablation von Nierentumoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tacke, J. [Inst. fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie/Neuroradiologie, Klinikum Passau (Germany); Mahnken, A.H.; Guenther, R.W. [Klinik fuer Radiologische Diagnostik, Universitaetsklinikum Aachen (Germany)


    Due to modern examination techniques such as multidetector computed tomography and high-field magnetic resonance imaging, the detection rate of renal neoplasms is continually increasing. Even though tumors exceeding 4 cm in diameter rarely metastasize, all renal lesions that are possible neoplasms should be treated. Traditional treatment techniques include radical nephrectomy or nephron-sparing resection, which are increasingly performed laparoscopically. Modern thermal ablation techniques such as hyperthermal techniques like radiofrequency ablation RFA, laser induced thermal ablation LITT, focused ultrasound FUS and microwave therapy MW, as well as hypothermal techniques (cryotherapy) may be a useful treatment option for patients who are unfit for or refuse surgical resection. Cryotherapy is the oldest and best known thermal ablation technique and can be performed laparoscopically or percutaneously. Since subzero temperatures have no antistyptic effect, additional maneuvers must be performed to control bleeding. Percutaneous cryotherapy of renal tumors is a new and interesting method, but experience with it is still limited. Radiofrequency ablation is the most frequently used method. Modern probe design allows volumes between 2 and 5 cm in diameter to be ablated. Due to hyperthermal tract ablation, the procedure is deemed to be safe and has a low complication rate. Although there are no randomized comparative studies to open resection, the preliminary results for renal RFA are promising and show RFA to be superior to other thermal ablation techniques. Clinical success rates are over 90% for both, cryo- and radiofrequency ablation. Whereas laser induced thermal therapy is established in hepatic ablation, experience is minimal with respect to renal application. For lesions of more than 2 cm in diameter, additional cooling catheters are required. MR thermometry offers temperature control during ablation. Microwave ablation is characterized by small ablation volumes

  5. Endometrial ablation: first- vs. second-generation techniques. (United States)

    Angioni, Stefano; Pontis, Alessandro; Nappi, Luigi; Sedda, Federica; Sorrentino, Felice; Litta, Pietro; Haimovich, Sergio; Melis, Gian B


    Endometrial ablation is a procedure that surgically destroys (ablates) the lining of the uterus (endometrium). The goal of endometrial ablation is to reduce menstrual flow. In some women, menstrual flow may stop completely. In some cases, endometrial ablation may be an alternative to hysterectomy. There are several techniques used to perform endometrial ablation, including electrical or electrocautery ablation, in which an electric current travels through a wire loop or rollerball is applied to the endometrial lining to cauterize the tissue; hydrothermal ablation, in which heated fluid is pumped into the uterus and destroys the endometrial lining via high temperatures; balloon therapy ablation, in which a balloon at the end of a catheter is inserted into the uterus and filled with fluid, which is then heated to the point that the endometrial tissues are eroded away; radiofrequency ablation in which a triangular mesh electrode is expanded to fill the uterine cavity, at which point the electrode delivers an electrical current and destroys the endometrial lining; cryoablation (freezing), in which a probe uses extremely low temperatures to freeze and destroy the endometrial tissues; and microwave ablation, in which microwave energy is delivered through a slender probe inserted into the uterus and destroys the endometrial lining. The purpose of this systematic review was to evaluate the feasibility, safety, and efficacy of endometrial ablation performed with first- and second-generation techniques. A literature search in PubMed from January 2000 to September 2015 was performed using the keywords endometrial ablation, menorrhagia, and heavy menstrual bleeding. Results were restricted to systematic reviews, randomized control trials (RCT)/controlled clinical trials, and observational studies written in English from January 2000 to September 2015. There is no evidence that either broad category is more effective than the other in reducing HMB, and there is no evidence that

  6. Mass-spectrometric mining of Hadean zircons by automated SHRIMP multi-collector and single-collector U/Pb zircon age dating: The first 100,000 grains (United States)

    Holden, Peter; Lanc, Peter; Ireland, Trevor R.; Harrison, T. Mark; Foster, John J.; Bruce, Zane


    The identification and retrieval of a large population of ancient zircons (>4 Ga; Hadean) is of utmost priority if models of the early evolution of Earth are to be rigorously tested. We have developed a rapid and accurate U-Pb zircon age determination protocol utilizing a fully automated multi-collector ion microprobe, the ANU SHRIMP II, to screen and date these zircons. Unattended data acquisition relies on the calibration of a digitized sample map to the Sensitive High Resolution Ion MicroProbe (SHRIMP) sample-stage co-ordinate system. High precision positioning of individual grains can be produced through optical image processing of a specified mount location. The focal position of the mount can be optimized through a correlation between secondary-ion steering and the spot position on the target. For the Hadean zircon project, sample mounts are photographed and sample locations (normally grain centers) are determined off-line. The sample is loaded, reference points calibrated, and the target positions are then visited sequentially. In SHRIMP II multiple-collector mode, zircons are initially screened (ca. 5 s data acquisition) through their 204Pb corrected 207Pb/206Pb ratio; suitable candidates are then analyzed in a longer routine to obtain better measurement statistics, U/Pb, and concentration data. In SHRIMP I and SHRIMP RG, we have incorporated the automated analysis protocol to single-collector measurements. These routines have been used to analyze over 100,000 zircons from the Jack Hills quartzite. Of these, ca. 7%, have an age greater than 3.8 Ga, the oldest grain being 4372 +/- 6 Ma (2[sigma]), and this age is part of a group of analyses around 4350 Ma which we interpret as the age when continental crust first began to coalesce in this region. In multi-collector mode, the analytical time taken for a single mount with 400 zircons is approximately 6 h; whereas in single-collector mode, the analytical time is ca. 17 h. With this productivity, we can produce

  7. Optimal approach for complete liver tumor ablation using radiofrequency ablation: a simulation study. (United States)

    Givehchi, Sogol; Wong, Yin How; Yeong, Chai Hong; Abdullah, Basri Johan Jeet


    To investigate the effect of radiofrequency ablation (RFA) electrode trajectory on complete tumor ablation using computational simulation. The RFA of a spherical tumor of 2.0 cm diameter along with 0.5 cm clinical safety margin was simulated using Finite Element Analysis software. A total of 86 points inside one-eighth of the tumor volume along the axial, sagittal and coronal planes were selected as the target sites for electrode-tip placement. The angle of the electrode insertion in both craniocaudal and orbital planes ranged from -90° to +90° with 30° increment. The RFA electrode was simulated to pass through the target site at different angles in combination of both craniocaudal and orbital planes before being advanced to the edge of the tumor. Complete tumor ablation was observed whenever the electrode-tip penetrated through the epicenter of the tumor regardless of the angles of electrode insertion in both craniocaudal and orbital planes. Complete tumor ablation can also be achieved by placing the electrode-tip at several optimal sites and angles. Identification of the tumor epicenter on the central slice of the axial images is essential to enhance the success rate of complete tumor ablation during RFA procedures.

  8. Chemical characterisation of zircon-cadmium sulfoselenide ceramic pigments; Caracterizacion quimica de pigmentos ceramicos a base de sulfoseleniuro de cadmio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gazulla Barreda, M. F.; Rodrigo Edo, M.; Blasco Roca, E.; Orduna Cordero, M.


    The present paper addresses the development of a methodology that allows the complete chemical characterisation of zircon cadmium sulfoselenide ceramic pigments including minor and major elements. To develop the methodology, five zircon-cadmium sulfoselenide pigments with different hues were selected, studying the different measurement process steps, from sample preparation to the optimisation of the measurement of the different components of the pigments by spectroscopic techniques (WD-XRF and elemental analysis by combustion and IR detection). The chemical characterisation method developed was validated with synthetic standards prepared from the mixture of certified reference materials and pure oxides because no certified referenced materials of this type of pigments were commercially available. The developed method can be used for a complete chemical characterization of zircon-cadmium sulfoselenide ceramic pigments with a very low uncertainty for all the elements analysed. (Author)


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Zamani Foroshani


    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the effect of fluorine and chlorine ions on the formation of mullite during the reaction sintering of mechanically activated zircon-alumina powder mixture. The results showed that mechanical activation of zirconalumina powder mixture for 20 h led to grain refinement and partial amorphization. In the presence of fluorine and chlorine ions, complete formation of mullite in the mechanically activated sample occurred after 2 h of reaction sintering at 1300oC and 1400oC, respectively. In the sample lacking fluorine and chlorine ions, mullitization was not completed even after 2 h of reaction sintering at 1400oC. It was concluded that presence of fluorine and chlorine ions enhance the dissociation of zircon and formation of mullite during the reaction sintering of mechanically activated zircon-alumina mixture.

  10. Cenozoic foreland basins of Central Andes: a preliminary provenance U-Pb zircon analysis of sedimentary sequences of Calchaqui Valley

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Alisson Lopes; Hauser, Natalia; Pimentel, Marcio Martins; Matteini, Massimo, E-mail: [Universidade de Brasilia (UnB), DF (Brazil). Laboratorio de Geocronologia; Galli, Claudia Ines [Faculdad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional de Jujuy (Argentina); Coira, Beatriz [CIT Jujuy, CONICET. Instituto de Geologia y Mineria (Argentina); Alonso, Ricardo; Barrientos, Andrea [Instituto CEGA, CONICET. Universidad Nacional de Salta (Argentina)


    The Eocene of northwestern Argentina records complex basin and structural evolution, including continental sedimentation of the post-rift Salta Basin and the beginning of the Andean uplift and foreland system evolution. This illuminates a significant period of evolutionary history of this and surrounding basins in northwestern Argentina. U-Pb zircon analyses by LA-ICP-MS for three formations representing post-rift to foreland stages allowed interpretation about provenance terrains. The Lumbrera Formation, representing the post-rift stage, shows bimodal sources with a main zircon population around 462 Ma, and a second population around 1023 Ma. The Los Colorados and Angastaco Formations representing the sedimentation in a foreland basin, show a unimodal source around 490 Ma, and 517 Ma respectively. Zircons younger than 50 Ma were not identified during this study. (author)

  11. Nozzle designs with pitch precursor ablatives (United States)

    Blevins, H. R.; Bedard, R. J.


    Recent developments in carbon phenolic ablatives for solid rocket motor nozzles have yielded a pitch precursor carbon fiber offering significant raw material availability and cost saving advantages as compared to conventional rayon precursor material. This paper discusses the results of an experimental program conducted to assess the thermal performance and characterize the thermal properties of pitch precursor carbon phenolic ablatives. The end result of this program is the complete thermal characterization of pitch fabric, pitch mat, hybrid pitch/rayon fabric and pitch mat molding compound. With these properties determined an analytic capability now exists for predicting the thermal performance of these materials in rocket nozzle liner applications. Further planned efforts to verify material performance and analytical prediction procedures through actual rocket motor firings are also discussed.

  12. Line-Driven Ablation of Circumstellar Disks (United States)

    Kee, Nathaniel Dylan; Owocki, Stan; Kuiper, Rolf; Sundqvist, Jon


    Mass is a key parameter in understanding the evolution and eventual fate of hot, luminous stars. Mass loss through a wind driven by UV-scattering forces is already known to reduce the mass of such stars by 10-10 - 10-4 M⊙/yr over the course of their lifetimes. However, high-mass stars already drive such strong winds while they are still in their accretion epoch. Therefore, stellar UV-scattering forces will efficiently ablate material off the surface of their circumstellar disks, perhaps even shutting off the final accretion through the last several stellar radii and onto a massive protostar. By using a three-dimensional UV-scattering prescription, we here quantify the role of radiative ablation in controlling the disk's accretion rate onto forming high-mass stars. Particular emphasis is given to the potential impact of this process on the stellar upper mass limit.

  13. Advanced Rigid Ablative Thermal Protection Systems (United States)

    Feldman, J. D.; Gasch, M. J.; Poteet, C. C.; Szalai, Christine


    With the gradual increase in robotic rover sophistication and the desire for humans to explore the solar system, the need for reentry systems to deliver large payloads into planetary atmospheres is looming. Heritage ablative Thermal Protection Systems (TPS) using Viking or Pathfinder era materials are at or near their performance limits and will be inadequate for many future missions. Significant advances in TPS materials technology are needed in order to enable susequent human exploration missions. This paper summarizes some recent progress at NASA in developing families of advanced rigid ablative TPS that could be used for thermal protection in planetary entry missions. In particular, the effort focuses on technologies required to land heavy masses on Mars to facilitate exploration.

  14. 3D Multifunctional Ablative Thermal Protection System (United States)

    Feldman, Jay; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj; Wilkinson, Curt; Mercer, Ken


    NASA is developing the Orion spacecraft to carry astronauts farther into the solar system than ever before, with human exploration of Mars as its ultimate goal. One of the technologies required to enable this advanced, Apollo-shaped capsule is a 3-dimensional quartz fiber composite for the vehicle's compression pad. During its mission, the compression pad serves first as a structural component and later as an ablative heat shield, partially consumed on Earth re-entry. This presentation will summarize the development of a new 3D quartz cyanate ester composite material, 3-Dimensional Multifunctional Ablative Thermal Protection System (3D-MAT), designed to meet the mission requirements for the Orion compression pad. Manufacturing development, aerothermal (arc-jet) testing, structural performance, and the overall status of material development for the 2018 EM-1 flight test will be discussed.

  15. Sepsis-Induced Osteoblast Ablation Causes Immunodeficiency. (United States)

    Terashima, Asuka; Okamoto, Kazuo; Nakashima, Tomoki; Akira, Shizuo; Ikuta, Koichi; Takayanagi, Hiroshi


    Sepsis is a host inflammatory response to severe infection associated with high mortality that is caused by lymphopenia-associated immunodeficiency. However, it is unknown how lymphopenia persists after the accelerated lymphocyte apoptosis subsides. Here we show that sepsis rapidly ablated osteoblasts, which reduced the number of common lymphoid progenitors (CLPs). Osteoblast ablation or inducible deletion of interleukin-7 (IL-7) in osteoblasts recapitulated the lymphopenic phenotype together with a lower CLP number without affecting hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). Pharmacological activation of osteoblasts improved sepsis-induced lymphopenia. This study demonstrates a reciprocal interaction between the immune and bone systems, in which acute inflammation induces a defect in bone cells resulting in lymphopenia-associated immunodeficiency, indicating that bone cells comprise a therapeutic target in certain life-threatening immune reactions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Hepatocellular carcinoma treatment: ablation and arterial embolization. (United States)

    Bilbao, J I; Páramo, M; Madrid, J M; Benito, A


    Percutaneous and endovascular techniques take an important role in the therapeutic management of patients with hepatocarcinoma. Different techniques of percutaneous ablation, especially indicated in tumors up to 2cm diameter offer, at least, similar results to surgical resection. Taking advantage of double hepatic vascularization and exclusive tumor nutrition by the artery, several endovascular techniques of treating the tumor have been developed. Intra-arterial administration of embolizing particles, alone or charged with drug (chemoembolization), will produce ischemia and consequent necrosis with excellent results in selected patients. Certain types of particles may exclusively be carriers of a therapeutic agent when they incorporate a radioisotope that facilitates the direct intratumoral selective irradiation (radioembolization). This technique has demonstrated its efficacy in lesions not susceptible to be treated with other methods and should be considered, together with ablation and chemoembolization, in the therapeutic algorithms of hepatocarcinoma. Copyright © 2017 SERAM. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Chemical homogeneity effects on the nonlinear dielectric response of lead zirconate titanate thin films (United States)

    Ihlefeld, Jon F.; Shelton, Christopher T.


    Rayleigh analysis has been used to investigate dielectric nonlinearity in polycrystalline lead zirconate titanate thin films that possess a chemically homogeneous B-site and those with titanium/zirconium gradients through the film thickness. Chemically homogeneous films possess greater irreversible and reversible contributions and greater ratios of irreversible to reversible contributions to dielectric nonlinearity than chemically heterogeneous films. These measurements demonstrate that the ferroelectric performance improvements observed in chemically homogeneous Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 thin films, with compositions near the morphotropic phase boundary, are associated with enhanced extrinsic contributions owing to improved domain wall mobility.

  18. Ferroelectric response from lead zirconate titanate thin films prepared directly on low-resistivity copper substrates (United States)

    Losego, Mark D.; Jimison, Leslie H.; Ihlefeld, Jon F.; Maria, Jon-Paul


    We demonstrate films of the well-known ferroelectric lead zirconate titanate (PZT) prepared directly on copper foils by chemical solution deposition (CSD). The films exhibit saturating polarization hysteresis, remanent polarization values of 26μC/cm2, and permittivities of 800; these properties are comparable to those achieved using semiconductor-grade substrates. The preparation methodology is founded upon an understanding of solution chemistry as opposed to conventional gas-phase / condensed-phase equilibrium approaches. By adopting this technique, base-metal compatibility can be achieved using much lower temperatures, and a broader set of devices can be prepared offering intimate contact with high conductivity, easily patternable, or ferromagnetic metals.

  19. The formation of Luoboling porphyry Cu-Mo deposit: Constraints from zircon and apatite (United States)

    Li, Cong-ying; Hao, Xi-luo; Liu, Ji-qiang; Ling, Ming-xing; Ding, Xing; Zhang, Hong; Sun, Wei-dong


    The Luobuling porphyry Cu-Mo deposit belongs to the Late Cretaceous Zijinshan Cu-Au-Mo mineralization field in southeastern China. Due to intensive hydrothermal alteration and weathering, it is very difficult to collect fresh whole rock samples for geochemical and isotopic studies in Luobuling. Zircon and apatite are accessory minerals that are resistant to hydrothermal alterations. In this study, we compared the trace element and isotope compositions of zircon and apatite from ore-bearing and barren samples to understand the formation of the Luoboling Cu-Mo deposit. Zircon U-Pb LA-ICP-MS dating shows that the Luoboling porphyries formed at 100 Ma (100.3 ± 1.2 Ma, 100.6 ± 1.5 Ma and 98.6 ± 1.2 Ma), which belongs to the late stage mineralization of the Zijinshan mineralization field. Zhongliao porphyritic granodiorite has the same age as the deposit (99.5 ± 1.6 Ma). The age of barren Sifang granodiorite is slightly older (109.7 ± 0.8 Ma). All these zircon grains have high Ce4+/Ce3+ ratios, indicating high oxygen fugacities. The ore-bearing samples show variable εHf(t) of - 7.3 to 0.2, suggesting either heterogeneous sources or mixing of two different magmas. Interestingly, the Hf isotope composition of barren samples is systematically higher (εHf(t) of - 3.6 to 5.5), implying a lower contribution of crustal materials. The OH mole percent of apatite grains from barren samples (LBL22-03 and SF09-05) is 0.5, which is higher than that of apatite from the ore-bearing samples (LBL20-01 LBL20-02 and LBL22-02), indicating lower F, Cl contents or higher water contents in the magma. In apatite from the ore-bearing samples, Sr is high, indicating the absence of plagioclase crystallization. In contrast, barren samples have varied and lower Sr, indicating that apatite crystallization was accompanied by plagioclase. These patterns were controlled by water contents because the crystallization of plagioclase is suppressed by high water contents in magmas. It also suggests

  20. Stability of Zircon U-Pb Systematics in a Greenschist-Grade Mylonite: An Example from the Rockfish Valley Fault Zone, Central Virginia, USA

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    David M. Wayne; A. Krishna Sinha


    ... (with alternating U-Hf-rich and U-Hf-poor bands), and contain numerous radial microcracks. Zircons from the RVFZ mylonite are unzoned, fragmented, show no internal microfractures, and have low U and Hf concentrations relative to the PRCS zircons...

  1. Stability of zircon U-Pb systematics in a greenschist-grade mylonite: An example from the Rockfish Valley Fault Zone, central Virginia, USA

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wayne, D.M; Sinha, A.K. (Virginia Tech, Blacksburg


    ... (with alternating U-Hf-rich and U-Hf-poor bands), and contain numerous radial microcracks. Zircons from the RVFZ mylonite are unzoned, fragmented, show no internal microfractures, and have low U and Hf concentrations relative to the PRCS zircons...

  2. Synthesis, microstructural and mechanical properties of ex situ zircon particles (ZrSiO4 reinforced Metal Matrix Composites (MMCs: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satish Kumar Thandalam


    This review article details the current development on the synthesis, microstructure and mechanical properties of zircon reinforced MMCs, with specific attention on the abrasive wear behavior of the composites. This review also summarizes the work done by various research groups on zircon reinforced MMCs in achieving higher hardness and wear resistance in these composites.

  3. Design calculations for NIF convergent ablator experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olson R.E.


    Full Text Available The NIF convergent ablation tuning effort is underway. In the early experiments, we have discovered that the design code simulations over-predict the capsule implosion velocity and shock flash ρr, but under-predict the hohlraum x-ray flux measurements. The apparent inconsistency between the x-ray flux and radiography data implies that there are important unexplained aspects of the hohlraum and/or capsule behavior.

  4. Ablation of steel by microsecond pulse trains (United States)

    Windeler, Matthew Karl Ross

    Laser micromachining is an important material processing technique used in industry and medicine to produce parts with high precision. Control of the material removal process is imperative to obtain the desired part with minimal thermal damage to the surrounding material. Longer pulsed lasers, with pulse durations of milli- and microseconds, are used primarily for laser through-cutting and welding. In this work, a two-pulse sequence using microsecond pulse durations is demonstrated to achieve consistent material removal during percussion drilling when the delay between the pulses is properly defined. The light-matter interaction moves from a regime of surface morphology changes to melt and vapour ejection. Inline coherent imaging (ICI), a broadband, spatially-coherent imaging technique, is used to monitor the ablation process. The pulse parameter space is explored and the key regimes are determined. Material removal is observed when the pulse delay is on the order of the pulse duration. ICI is also used to directly observe the ablation process. Melt dynamics are characterized by monitoring surface changes during and after laser processing at several positions in and around the interaction region. Ablation is enhanced when the melt has time to flow back into the hole before the interaction with the second pulse begins. A phenomenological model is developed to understand the relationship between material removal and pulse delay. Based on melt refilling the interaction region, described by logistic growth, and heat loss, described by exponential decay, the model is fit to several datasets. The fit parameters reflect the pulse energies and durations used in the ablation experiments. For pulse durations of 50 us with pulse energies of 7.32 mJ +/- 0.09 mJ, the logisitic growth component of the model reaches half maximum after 8.3 mus +/- 1.1 us and the exponential decays with a rate of 64 mus +/- 15 us. The phenomenological model offers an interpretation of the material

  5. Design Calculations For NIF Convergent Ablator Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, R E; Hicks, D G; Meezan, N B; Callahan, D A; Landen, O L; Jones, O S; Langer, S H; Kline, J L; Wilson, D C; Rinderknecht, H; Zylstra, A; Petrasso, R D


    The NIF convergent ablation tuning effort is underway. In the early experiments, we have discovered that the design code simulations over-predict the capsule implosion velocity and shock flash rhor, but under-predict the hohlraum x-ray flux measurements. The apparent inconsistency between the x-ray flux and radiography data implies that there are important unexplained aspects of the hohlraum and/or capsule behavior.

  6. Support for High Power Laser Ablation 2010 (United States)


    Spaces from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sport , Science and Technology, Japan. 27 [24] An Analytical Model of Ablation in Gas Flow Leonid...Targets at 0.1-10 TW/cm2 John L. Remo Dept. of Astronomy and Dept. of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Harvard University, 20 Oxford St. and Harvard...modeling of planetary cores and high velocity impact. [43] Laser and Z-pinch Simulation of High Energy Density Planetary Interactions John L. Remo

  7. Lymphangioma circumscriptum treated with radiofrequency ablation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silonie Sachdeva


    Full Text Available Lymphangioma circumscriptum (LC, a hamartomatous lymphatic malformation, is a therapeutic challenge for the dermatologist. Various modalities like surgical excision, lasers, and sclerotherapy have been used in the past to treat this notorious skin condition. We report the efficacy of a radiofrequency ablation in a patient with LC. The treatment efficacy of radiofrequency was satisfactory in our patient with no recurrence during 1 year follow-up period. The radiofrequency technique is a safe and economic treatment for management of LC.

  8. Feasibility of endometrial assessment after thermal ablation. (United States)

    Ahonkallio, Sari J; Liakka, Annikki K; Martikainen, Hannu K; Santala, Markku J


    To evaluate the feasibility of endometrial assessment after endometrial thermal ablation. Prospective observational study. A total of 57 women (age 47-52 years), who had undergone endometrial thermal ablation as a treatment for heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB) 3-10 years (mean 6 years) earlier, were examined with transvaginal ultrasound and saline sonohysterography. Endometrial samples were collected with a Pipelle device. Visualisation of endometrium, access to uterine cavity, change in cavity length, success in outpatient endometrial sampling and success in sonohysterography were evaluated. Endometrial thickness was 4.5mm in amenorrhoeic women (n=17), 5.6mm in eumenorrhoeic women (n=37) and 6.6mm in hypermenorrhoeic women (n=3). An endometrial sample was successfully taken in 44 (77%) women, and in 13 (23%) women endometrial sample taking failed. The length of the uterine cavity compared to the length measured before endometrial thermal ablation was 0.5-5 cm (mean 2 cm) shorter in 34 women, unchanged in four women and longer in five women. The uterine cavity distended regularly in only nine (16%) women. In 14 (25%) women the cavity distended irregularly or only partly, and in 24 (42%) women the uterine cavity did not distend at all, but appeared as a narrow tube. In 10 (18%) women the sonohysterography catheter did not enter the uterine cavity at all. Endometrial assessment is compromised after previous endometrial thermal ablation. Both endometrial sampling and sonohysterography fail quite often, causing problems in diagnosis of abnormal bleeding. Intrauterine adhesions may also decrease the reliability of the endometrial sampling.

  9. Characterization of in vivo ablation zones following percutaneous microwave ablation of the liver with two commercially available devices: are manufacturer published reference values useful? (United States)

    Winokur, Ronald S; Du, Jerry Y; Pua, Bradley B; Talenfeld, Adam D; Sista, Akhilesh K; Schiffman, Marc A; Trost, David W; Madoff, David C


    To analyze in vivo ablation properties of microwave ablation antennae in tumor-bearing human livers by performing retrospective analysis of ablation zones following treatment with two microwave ablation systems. Percutaneous microwave ablations performed in the liver between February 2011 and February 2013 with use of the AMICA and Certus PR ablation antennae were included. Immediate postablation computed tomography images were evaluated retrospectively for ablation length, diameter, and volume. Ablation length, diameter, and volume indices were calculated and compared between in vivo results and references provided from each device manufacturer. The two microwave antenna models were then also compared versus each other. Twenty-five ablations were performed in 20 patients with the AMICA antenna, and 11 ablations were performed in eight patients with the Certus PR antenna. The AMICA and Certus PR antennae showed significant differences in ablation length (P = .013 and P = .009), diameter (P = .001 and P = .009), and volume (P = .003 and P = .009). The AMICA ablation indices were significantly higher than the Certus PR ablation indices in length (P = .026) and volume (P = .002), but there was no significant difference in ablation diameter indices (P = .110). In vivo ablation indices of human tumors are significantly smaller than reference ex vivo ablation indices, and there are significant differences in ablation indices and sphericity between devices. Copyright © 2014 SIR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Petrogenesis and zircon U-Pb dating of skarnified pyroxene-bearing dioritic rocks in Bisheh area, south of Birjand, eastern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malihe Nakhaei


    Full Text Available Introduction The study area is located 196 km south of Birjand in eastern border of the Lut block Berberian and King, 1981 in eastern Iran between 59°05′35" and 59°09′12" E longitude and 31°42′29" and 31°44′13" N latitude. The magmatic activity in the Lut block began in the middle Jurassic such as Kalateh Ahani, Shah Kuh and Surkh Kuh granitoids that are among the oldest rocks exposed within the Lut block (Esmaeily et al., 2005; Tarkian et al., 1983; Moradi Noghondar et al., 2011-2012. Eastern Iran, and particularly the Lut block, has great potential for different types of mineralization as skarnification in Bisheh area which has been studied in this paper. The goal of this study is to highlight the geochronology, geochemistry of major and trace elements, Rb-Sr, Sm-Nd isotopes for skarnified pyroxene-bearing diorites. Materials and methods Major element compositions of thirteen samples were determined by wavelength-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (XRF spectrometry, using fused discs and the Phillips PW 1410 XRF spectrometer at Ferdowsi University, Mashhad, Iran. These samples were analysed for trace elements using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS in the Acme Analytical Laboratories, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. Zircon grains were separated from pyroxene diorite porphyrys using heavy liquid and magnetic techniques at the Institute of Earth Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan. Zircon U-Pb dating was performed by laser ablation-inductively-coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS, using an Agilent 7500 s machine and a New Wave UP213 laser ablation system, equipped at the Dr Shen-Su Sun memorial laboratory in the Department of Geosciences, National Taiwan University, Taiwan. Strontium and Nd isotopic analyses were performed on a six-collector Finnigan MAT 261 thermal-ionization mass spectrometer at the University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado, United States. 87Sr/86Sr ratios were determined using four

  11. A search for thermal excursions from ancient extraterrestrial impacts using Hadean zircon Ti-U-Th-Pb depth profiles. (United States)

    Abbott, Sunshine S; Harrison, T Mark; Schmitt, Axel K; Mojzsis, Stephen J


    Few terrestrial localities preserve more than a trace lithic record prior to ca. 3.8 Ga greatly limiting our understanding of the first 700 Ma of Earth history, a period inferred to have included a spike in the bolide flux to the inner solar system at ca. 3.85-3.95 Ga (the Late Heavy Bombardment, LHB). An accessible record of this era may be found in Hadean detrital zircons from the Jack Hills, Western Australia, in the form of μm-scale epitaxial overgrowths. By comparing crystallization temperatures of pre-3.8 Ga zircon overgrowths to the archive of zircon temperature spectra, it should, in principle, be possible to identify a distinctive impact signature. We have developed Ti-U-Th-Pb ion microprobe depth profiling to obtain age and temperature information within these zircon overgrowths and undertaken a feasibility study of its possible use in identifying impact events. Of eight grains profiled in this fashion, four have overgrowths of LHB-era age. Age vs. temperature profiles reveal a period between ca. 3.85-3.95 Ga (i.e., LHB era) characterized by significantly higher temperatures (approximately 840-875 °C) than do older or younger zircons or zircon domains (approximately 630-750 °C). However, temperatures approaching 900 °C can result in Pb isotopic exchange rendering interpretation of these profiles nonunique. Coupled age-temperature depth profiling shows promise in this role, and the preliminary data we report could represent the first terrestrial evidence for impact-related heating during the LHB.

  12. Trace element features of hydrothermal and inherited igneous zircon grains in mantle wedge environment: A case study from the Myanmar jadeitite (United States)

    Lei, Weiyan; Shi, Guanghai; Santosh, M.; Ng, Yinok; Liu, Yingxin; Wang, Jing; Xie, Gen; Ju, Yan


    Jadeitites are considered to crystallise in ultramafic rocks in the subduction channel presumably from the overlying mantle wedge, and therefore zircons from these rocks provide important insights into mantle wedge processes. Here we investigate hydrothermal zircon (Group II) formed within a subduction zone and compare these with the igneous zircon cores (Group I) from the Myanmar jadeitite. Previous U-Pb studies reported ages of Groups I and II zircons as 163 Ma, and 147 Ma respectively, and both show isotope signature of the depleted mantle. Group I zircons have much higher total concentrations of rare earth elements (REEs) (500-1945 ppm) than those of Group II zircon (112-307 ppm), and contains relatively higher abundance of Y, Nb, Ta, Ti, Th and U with higher (Sm/La)N ratios (25.3-501) and Ce-anomalies (8.04-140) but lower (Yb/Gd)N ratios (9.76-57.0) than those of the Group II ((Sm/La)N ratios = 2.12-32.2, Ce-anomalies = 1.63-19.6, (Yb/Gd)N ratios = 44.8-142). Hf concentrations are broadly similar in both Groups. The Group I zircons are considered to be magmatic and crystallised from H2O-rich basaltic melt at relatively high pressure in the mantle wedge, whereas the Group II zircon overgrowth took place through recrystallisation and precipitation with distinct dissolution of the Group I zircons. Variation in the concentration of trace elements in zircons from Groups I to II in the mantle wedge is related to an intra-oceanic subduction system in the presence of Na-rich hydrothermal fluids under high-pressure and low-temperature. The Ti-in-zircon thermometer yield a mean crystallisation temperature of 742 ± 141 °C for Group I zircons, whereas the Group II zircons yield 339 ± 33 °C. The two groups of zircons also provide insights into the probable protolith involved in formation of the Myanmar jadeitite.

  13. A tubular electrode for radiofrequency ablation therapy

    KAUST Repository

    Antunes, Carlos Lemos Lemos Lemos


    Purpose – Due to its good mechanical and biocompatibility characteristics, nitinol SEMS is a popular endoprothesis used for relieving stricture problems in hollow organs due to carcinomas. Besides its mechanical application, SEMS can be regarded as well as potential electrode for performing RF ablation therapy on the tumor. The purpose of this work is to perform numerical and experimental analyses in order to characterize the lesion volume induced in biological tissue using this kind of tubular electrode. Design/methodology/approach – Data concerning electrical conductivity and dimension of the damaged tissue after RF ablation procedure were obtained from ex vivo samples. Next, numerical models using 3D finite element method were obtained reassembling the conditions considered at experimentation setup and results were compared. Findings – Numerical and experimental results show that a regular volume of damaged tissue can be obtained considering this type of electrode. Also, results obtained from numerical simulation are close to those obtained by experimentation. Originality/value – SEMSs, commonly used as devices to minimize obstruction problems due to the growth of tumors, may still be considered as an active electrode for RF ablation procedures. A method considering this observation is presented in this paper. Also, numerical simulation can be regarded in this case as a tool for determining the lesion volume.

  14. Immuno-thermal ablations - boosting the anticancer immune response. (United States)

    Slovak, Ryan; Ludwig, Johannes M; Gettinger, Scott N; Herbst, Roy S; Kim, Hyun S


    The use of immunomodulation to treat malignancies has seen a recent explosion in interest. The therapeutic appeal of these treatments is far reaching, and many new applications continue to evolve. In particular, immune modulating drugs have the potential to enhance the systemic anticancer immune effects induced by locoregional thermal ablation. The immune responses induced by ablation monotherapy are well documented, but independently they tend to be incapable of evoking a robust antitumor response. By adding immunomodulators to traditional ablative techniques, several researchers have sought to amplify the induced immune response and trigger systemic antitumor activity. This paper summarizes the work done in animal models to investigate the immune effects induced by the combination of ablative therapy and immunomodulation. Combination therapy with radiofrequency ablation, cryoablation, and microwave ablation are all reviewed, and special attention has been paid to the addition of checkpoint blockades.

  15. Transient Newton rings in dielectrics upon fs laser ablation

    CERN Document Server

    Garcia-Lechuga, Mario; Hernandez-Rueda, Javier; Solis, Javier


    We report the appearance of transient Newton rings in dielectrics (sapphire and lead-oxide glass) during ablation with single fs laser pulses. Employing femtosecond microscopy with 800 nm excitation and 400 nm illumination, we observe a characteristic ring pattern that dynamically changes for increasing delay times between pump and probe pulse. Such transient Newton rings have been previously observed in metals and semiconductors at fluences above the ablation threshold and were related to optical interference of the probe beam reflected at the front surface of the ablating layer and at the interface of the non-ablating substrate. Yet, it had been generally assumed that this phenomenon cannot be (and has not been) observed in dielectrics due to the different ablation mechanism and optical properties of dielectrics. The fact that we are able to observe them has important consequences for the comprehension of the ablation mechanisms in dielectrics and provides a new method for investigating these mechanisms in ...

  16. Ablative CO2 lasers for skin tightening: traditional versus fractional. (United States)

    Ortiz, Arisa E; Goldman, Mitchel P; Fitzpatrick, Richard E


    With patients more resistant to invasive treatments and those that result in significant downtime, there has been a rise in using lasers to improve skin laxity and induce tissue tightening as an alternative to surgery. Traditional and fractional ablative resurfacing induces skin tightening through precise dermal heating and a wound-healing effect. The purpose of this review was to discuss the mechanism of action of using ablative lasers to induce skin tightening and compare traditional versus fractional technologies. A review of the literature was performed. The authors discuss traditional and fractional ablative lasers for achieving skin tightening. Neocollagenesis and dermal remodeling seen after ablative resurfacing contributes to the clinical improvement seen in tissue tightening. Fractional photothermolysis may enhance tissue tightening effects of ablative lasers because of its ability to ablate deeper into the reticular dermis without significant risk for scarring.

  17. On the longevity of silicic magma based on multi-isotope investigation of zircons and modeling their survivals destinies (United States)

    Bindeman, I. N.; Wotzlaw, J. F.; Melnik, O. E.


    Large volumes of crystal poor, near-liquidus rhyolites are erupted worldwide as tuffs and lavas in rift and hot spots more common previously on early earth, creating temporally very high magma production rates. In this contribution we combine results of IDTIMS dating of zircons with numerical modeling of zircon crystallization. New investigation of zircons in major Yellowstone tuffs: Huckleberry Ridge (Members A,B,C), Mesa Falls, and Lava Creek (A,B) tuffs was done by a combination of in situ measurements of oxygen isotopes followed by ID-TIMS U-Pb dating, Hf isotopes and trace elemental investigation of single crystals. We discover that nearly all zircons are of eruption age, but display significant isotope (O,Hf) diversity and often show decoupled O and Hf isotope systematics. This record rapid (~103yrs) double or triple remelting and sequestration from diverse Archean crust and hydrothermally altered shallow-crustal rocks from previous eruptive cycles, followed by effective mixing of co-existing magma reservoirs with diverse zircons prior to eruptions. Similar results characterize other studied Snake River Plain rhyolites in pre-Yellowstone Heise complex. These results collectively suggest that zircons crystallize after reheating above saturation rejuvenation in isotopically-diverse areas of the crust in the magma plumbing system. Modeling of zircon and quartz dissolution and crystallization trajectories outline conditions of survival (inheritance) vs complete dissolution on conductive timescales, and when combined with a phase diagram, magma T-t paths can be computed. Zircon rejuvenation requires hot, >770-800°C peak temperatures lasting 10-102yrs. We speculate that near liquidus hot and dry Yellowstone rhyolites are kept alive in a multi-batch state by a series of interconnected pods and sills that can rapidly get thermomechanically assembled into large, shallow and eruptable supervolcanoic magma bodies. We suggest that overpressure and roof dynamics and

  18. New zircon (U-Th)/He and U/Pb eruption age for the Rockland tephra, western USA (United States)

    Coble, Matthew A.; Burgess, Seth; Klemetti, Erik W.


    Eruption ages of a number of prominent Quaternary volcanic deposits remain inaccurately and/or imprecisely constrained, despite their importance as regional stratigraphic markers in paleo-environment reconstruction and as evidence of climate-altering eruptions. Accurately dating volcanic deposits presents challenging analytical considerations, including poor radiogenic yield, scarcity of datable minerals, and contamination of crystal populations by magma, eruption, and transport processes. One prominent example is the Rockland tephra, which erupted from the Lassen Volcanic Center in the southern Cascade arc. Despite a range in published eruption ages from 0.40 to 0.63 Ma, the Rockland tephra is extensively used as a marker bed across the western United States. To more accurately and precisely constrain the age of the Rockland tephra-producing eruption, we report U/Pb crystallization dates from the outermost ∼2 μm of zircon crystal faces (surfaces) using secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). Our new weighted mean 238U/206Pb age for Rockland tephra zircon surfaces is 0.598 ± 0.013 Ma (2σ) and MSWD = 1.11 (mean square weighted deviation). As an independent test of the accuracy of this age, we obtained new (U-Th)/He dates from individual zircon grains from the Rockland tephra, which yielded a weighted mean age of 0.599 ± 0.012 Ma (2σ, MSWD = 5.13). We also obtained a (U-Th)/He age of 0.628 ± 0.014 Ma (MSWD = 1.19) for the Lava Creek Tuff member B, which was analyzed as a secondary standard to test the accuracy of the (U-Th)/He technique for Quaternary tephras, and to evaluate assumptions made in the model-age calculation. Concordance of new U/Pb and (U-Th)/He zircon ages reinforces the accuracy of our preferred Rockland tephra eruption age, and confirms that zircon surface dates sample zircon growth up to the time of eruption. We demonstrate the broad applicability of coupled U/Pb zircon-surface and single-grain zircon (U-Th)/He geochronology to

  19. Significance of zircon U-Pb ages from the Pescadero felsite, west-central California coast ranges (United States)

    McLaughlin, Robert J.; Moore, Diane E.; ,; Martens, UWE C.; Clark, J.C.


    Weathered felsite is associated with the late Campanian–Maastrichtian Pigeon Point Formation near Pescadero, California. Poorly exposed, its age and correlation are uncertain. Is it part of the Pigeon Point section west of the San Gregorio–Hosgri fault? Does it rest on Nacimiento block basement? Is it dextrally offset from the Oligocene Cambria Felsite, ∼185 km to the southeast? Why is a calc-alkaline hypabyssal igneous rock intrusive into the outboard accretionary prism? To address these questions, we analyzed 43 oscillatory-zoned zircon crystals from three incipiently recrystallized pumpellyite ± prehnite ± laumontite-bearing Pescadero felsite samples by sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe–reverse geometry (SHRIMP-RG) and laser ablation–inductively coupled plasma–mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) techniques. Thirty-three zircons gave late Mesozoic U-Pb ages, with single-grain values ranging from 81 to 167 Ma; ten have pre-Mesozoic, chiefly Proterozoic ages. A group of the four youngest Pescadero zircons yielded an apparent maximum igneous age of ca. 86–90 Ma. Reflecting broad age scatter and presence of partly digested sandstone inclusions, we interpret the rest of the zircons (perhaps all) as xenocrysts. Twenty-three zircons were separated and analyzed from two samples of the similar Cambria Felsite, yielding a unimodal 27 Ma U-Pb age. Clearly, the origin of the Upper Oligocene Cambria Felsite is different from that of the Upper Cretaceous Pescadero felsite; these rocks are not correlated, and do not constrain displacement along the San Gregorio–Hosgri fault. Peak ages differ slightly, but relative probability curves for Mesozoic and pre-Mesozoic Pescadero zircons compare well, for example, with abundant U-Pb age data for detrital zircons from Franciscan metaclastic strata ∼100 km to the east in the Diablo Range–San Francisco Bay area, San Joaquin Great Valley Group turbidites, Upper Cretaceous Nacimiento block Franciscan strata, and Upper

  20. New zircon (U-Th)/He and U/Pb eruption age for the Rockland tephra, western USA (United States)

    Coble, Matthew A.; Burgess, Seth D.; Klemetti, Erik W.


    Eruption ages of a number of prominent Quaternary volcanic deposits remain inaccurately and/or imprecisely constrained, despite their importance as regional stratigraphic markers in paleo-environment reconstruction and as evidence of climate-altering eruptions. Accurately dating volcanic deposits presents challenging analytical considerations, including poor radiogenic yield, scarcity of datable minerals, and contamination of crystal populations by magma, eruption, and transport processes. One prominent example is the Rockland tephra, which erupted from the Lassen Volcanic Center in the southern Cascade arc. Despite a range in published eruption ages from 0.40 to 0.63 Ma, the Rockland tephra is extensively used as a marker bed across the western United States. To more accurately and precisely constrain the age of the Rockland tephra-producing eruption, we report U/Pb crystallization dates from the outermost ∼2 μm of zircon crystal faces (surfaces) using secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). Our new weighted mean 238U/206Pb age for Rockland tephra zircon surfaces is 0.598 ± 0.013 Ma (2σ) and MSWD = 1.11 (mean square weighted deviation). As an independent test of the accuracy of this age, we obtained new (U-Th)/He dates from individual zircon grains from the Rockland tephra, which yielded a weighted mean age of 0.599 ± 0.012 Ma (2σ, MSWD = 5.13). We also obtained a (U-Th)/He age of 0.628 ± 0.014 Ma (MSWD = 1.19) for the Lava Creek Tuff member B, which was analyzed as a secondary standard to test the accuracy of the (U-Th)/He technique for Quaternary tephras, and to evaluate assumptions made in the model-age calculation. Concordance of new U/Pb and (U-Th)/He zircon ages reinforces the accuracy of our preferred Rockland tephra eruption age, and confirms that zircon surface dates sample zircon growth up to the time of eruption. We demonstrate the broad applicability of coupled U/Pb zircon-surface and single-grain zircon (U-Th)/He geochronology to accurate

  1. Convergent ablation measurements of plastic ablators in gas-filled rugby hohlraums on OMEGA (United States)

    Casner, A.; Jalinaud, T.; Masse, L.; Galmiche, D.


    Indirect-drive implosions experiments were conducted on the Omega Laser Facility to test the performance of uniformly doped plastic ablators for Inertial Confinement Fusion. The first convergent ablation measurements in gas-filled rugby hohlraums are reported. Ignition relevant limb velocities in the range from 150 to 300 μm .n s-1 have been reached by varying the laser drive energy and the initial capsule aspect ratio. The measured capsule trajectory and implosion velocity are in good agreement with 2D integrated simulations and a zero-dimensional modeling of the implosions. We demonstrate experimentally the scaling law for the maximum implosion velocity predicted by the improved rocket model [Y. Saillard, Nucl. Fusion 46, 1017 (2006)] in the high-ablation regime case.

  2. Innovative techniques for image-guided ablation of benign thyroid nodules: Combined ethanol and radiofrequency ablation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hye Sun; Baek, Jung Hwan; Choi, Young Jun; Lee, Jeong Hyun [Dept. of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    In the treatment of benign thyroid nodules, ethanol ablation (EA), and radiofrequency ablation (RFA) have been suggested for cystic and solid thyroid nodules, respectively. Although combining these ablation techniques may be effective, no guidelines for or reviews of the combination have been published. Currently, there are three ways of combining EA and RFA: additional RFA is effective for treatment of incompletely resolved symptoms and solid residual portions of a thyroid nodule after EA. Additional EA can be performed for the residual unablated solid portion of a nodule after RFA if it is adjacent to critical structures (e.g., trachea, esophagus, and recurrent laryngeal nerve). In the concomitant procedure, ethanol is injected to control venous oozing after aspiration of cystic fluid prior to RFA of the remaining solid nodule.

  3. Local Ablative Strategies for Ductal Pancreatic Cancer (Radiofrequency Ablation, Irreversible Electroporation): A Review (United States)

    Paiella, Salvatore; Salvia, Roberto; Ramera, Marco; Girelli, Roberto; Frigerio, Isabella; Giardino, Alessandro; Allegrini, Valentina; Bassi, Claudio


    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) has still a dismal prognosis. Locally advanced pancreatic cancer (LAPC) accounts for the 40% of the new diagnoses. Current treatment options are based on chemo- and radiotherapy regimens. Local ablative techniques seem to be the future therapeutic option for stage-III patients with PDAC. Radiofrequency Ablation (RFA) and Irreversible Electroporation (IRE) are actually the most emerging local ablative techniques used on LAPC. Initial clinical studies on the use of these techniques have already demonstrated encouraging results in terms of safety and feasibility. Unfortunately, few studies on their efficacy are currently available. Even though some reports on the overall survival are encouraging, randomized studies are still required to corroborate these findings. This study provides an up-to-date overview and a thematic summary of the current available evidence on the application of RFA and IRE on PDAC, together with a comparison of the two procedures. PMID:26981115

  4. Ablative and mechanical properties of quartz phenolic composites


    Maria L. Gregori; Edson A. Barros; Gilberto P. Filho; Luiz Cláudio Pardini; Sonia F. Costa


    Abstract. Quartz phenolic composites have been applied to thermal protection systems (TPSs) for reentry vehicles since the late fifties due to their excellent ablative resistance and mechanical performance. TPSs must withstand the aggressive reentry environment, such as atomic oxygen, when submitted to very high temperatures (> 1000° C) and heat flux. The ablative performance of composites is influenced by both base materiais and environmental parameters during the ablation process. For TPS s...

  5. Epicardial Brugada syndrome ablation unmasking inferior J waves. (United States)

    Lee, Adam; Kohler, Heidi; Wright, Daniel; Haqqani, Haris M


    Patients with Brugada syndrome are at risk of life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias. Epicardial substrate ablation for Brugada syndrome has been described as a means of controlling these arrhythmias and recent reports describe elimination of the Brugada phenotype with ablation. We describe a unique case in which a patient developed inferior J waves with an early repolarization-type electrocardiogram following successful epicardial infundibular substrate ablation (which eliminated the Brugada syndrome electrocardiogram on ajmaline challenge). We discuss the likely underlying pathophysiology responsible for this phenomenon, its relationship to the anatomic obstacles encountered during epicardial ablation, and the implications for long-term arrhythmic risk. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Recent Advances in Tumor Ablation for Hepatocellular Carcinoma. (United States)

    Kang, Tae Wook; Rhim, Hyunchul


    Image-guided tumor ablation for early stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is an accepted non-surgical treatment that provides excellent local tumor control and favorable survival benefit. This review summarizes the recent advances in tumor ablation for HCC. Diagnostic imaging and molecular biology of HCC has recently undergone marked improvements. Second-generation ultrasonography (US) contrast agents, new computed tomography (CT) techniques, and liver-specific contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have enabled the early detection of smaller and inconspicuous HCC lesions. Various imaging-guidance tools that incorporate imaging-fusion between real-time US and CT/MRI, that are now common for percutaneous tumor ablation, have increased operator confidence in the accurate targeting of technically difficult tumors. In addition to radiofrequency ablation (RFA), various therapeutic modalities including microwave ablation, irreversible electroporation, and high-intensity focused ultrasound ablation have attracted attention as alternative energy sources for effective locoregional treatment of HCC. In addition, combined treatment with RFA and chemoembolization or molecular agents may be able to overcome the limitation of advanced or large tumors. Finally, understanding of the biological mechanisms and advances in therapy associated with tumor ablation will be important for successful tumor control. All these advances in tumor ablation for HCC will result in significant improvement in the prognosis of HCC patients. In this review, we primarily focus on recent advances in molecular tumor biology, diagnosis, imaging-guidance tools, and therapeutic modalities, and refer to the current status and future perspectives for tumor ablation for HCC.

  7. CT-guided radiofrequency tumor ablation in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Botsa, Evanthia [National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, First Pediatric Clinic, Agia Sofia Children' s Hospital, Athens (Greece); Poulou, Loukia S.; Koundouraki, Antonia; Thanos, Loukas [Sotiria General Hospital for Chest Diseases, Department of Medical Imaging and Interventional Radiology, Athens (Greece); Koutsogiannis, Ioannis [General Military Hospital NIMTS, Department of Medical Imaging, Athens (Greece); Ziakas, Panayiotis D. [Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University Rhode Island Hospital, Division of Infectious Diseases, Providence, RI (United States); Alexopoulou, Efthimia [Attikon University Hospital, Second Department of Radiology, Athens University School of Medicine, Athens (Greece)


    Image-guided radiofrequency ablation is a well-accepted technique of interventional oncology in adults. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of CT-guided radiofrequency ablation as a minimally invasive treatment for metastatic neoplasms in children. A total of 15 radiofrequency ablation sessions were performed in 12 children and young adults (median age 9.5; range 5-18 years) with metastatic malignancies. Seven children and young adults had secondary hepatic lesions, three had pulmonary and two had bone lesions. Radiofrequency ablation was performed under conscious sedation. The median lesion size was 1.7 cm (range 1.3-2.8 cm). The median time for ablation was 8 min (range 7-10 min). Radiofrequency procedures were technically successful in all tumors. Postablation imaging immediately after, and 1 month and 3 months after radiofrequency ablation showed total necrosis in all patients. At 6-month follow-up, three patients (all with lesion size >2 cm) had local recurrence and underwent a second radiofrequency ablation session. At 2-year follow-up no patient had recurrence of the treated tumor. Post-ablation syndrome occurred in four children. No major complication occurred. CT-guided radiofrequency tumor ablation was safe and efficient for palliative treatment in our cohort of patients. (orig.)

  8. Anterior ablatives of the gerund in the Mozarabic Chronicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Mikulová


    Full Text Available In the Mozarabic Chronicle of 754, there are ablatives of the gerund that can be interpreted as anterior to the main predicate. Aspectual characteristics and context are considered to be the main factors for the previous interpretation. The use of the anterior ablative of the gerund gives evidence of the approximation between the present participle and the ablative of the gerund in Late Latin. The anterior ablative of the gerund, however, does not seem to be frequently used in contemporary texts.

  9. Development of laser ablation plasma by anisotropic self-radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ohnishi Naofumi


    Full Text Available We have proposed a method for reproducing an accurate solution of low-density ablation plasma by properly treating anisotropic radiation. Monte-Carlo method is employed for estimating Eddington tensor with limited number of photon samples in each fluid time step. Radiation field from ablation plasma is significantly affected by the anisotropic Eddington tensor. Electron temperature around the ablation surface changes with the radiation field and is responsible for the observed emission. An accurate prediction of the light emission from the laser ablation plasma requires a careful estimation of the anisotropic radiation field.

  10. Catheter Ablation for Ventricular Tachycardia in Patients with Nonischemic Cardiomyopathy. (United States)

    Thompson, Nathaniel; Frontera, Antonio; Takigawa, Masateru; Cheniti, Ghassen; Massoullie, Gregoire; Cochet, Hubert; Denis, Arnaud; Chaumeil, Arnaud; Derval, Nicolas; Hocini, Meleze; Haissaguerre, Michel; Jais, Pierre; Sacher, Frederic


    Although catheter ablation has been successful in reducing the recurrence of ventricular tachycardia in patients with ischemic disease, outcomes in patients with nonischemic cardiomyopathy (NICM) have not met with the same results. Success is predicated on a methodical approach to diagnosis of disease type and identification of critical substrate, and the ablation strategies used. Cardiac MRI with delayed enhancement is able to identify areas of substrate involvement, particularly in situations when conventional catheter mapping is not able to do so. Radiofrequency needle, irrigated bipolar radiofrequency, and transcoronary alcohol ablation are effective and alternative techniques to endocardial and epicardial ablation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Timing of Crystallisation of the Lunar Magma Ocean Constrained by the Oldest Zircon (United States)

    Nemchin, A.; Timms, N.; Pidgeon, R.; Geisler, T.; Reddy, S.; Meyer, C.


    The presently favoured concept for the early evolution of the Moon involves consolidation of debris from a giant impact of a Mars sized body with Earth forming a primitive Moon with a thick global layer of melt referred to as the Lunar Magma Ocean1 . It is widely accepted that many significant features observed on the Moon today are the result of crystallisation of this magma ocean. However, controversy exists over the precise timing and duration of the crystallisation process. Resolution of this problem depends on the establishment of precise and robust key crystallisation time points. We report a 4417 6 Myr old zircon in lunar breccia sample 72215,195, which provides a precisely determined younger limit for the solidification of the Lunar Magma Ocean. A model based on these data, together with the age of the Moon forming giant impact, defines an exponential time frame for crystallisation and suggests formation of anorthositic crust after about 80-85% of the magma ocean was solidified. In combination with other zircon ages the 4417 +/- 6 Myr age also suggests that the very small (less than a few per cent) residual portion of the magma ocean continued to solidify during the following 300-500 m.y.

  12. Oxidation state of uranium in metamict and annealed zircon: near-infrared spectroscopic quantitative analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang Ming; Ewing, R C


    Radiation and thermally induced changes in the oxidation state of uranium in metamict zircon have been systematically analysed, for the first time, using polarized near-infrared spectroscopy. The results showed that in damaged zircon U ions in crystalline domains exhibited relatively sharp, anisotropic signals from tetravalent and pentavalent U ions in crystalline domains (U sub c sub r sub y sub s sub t sub a sub l sup 4 sup + and U sub c sub r sub y sub s sub t sub a sub l sup 5 sup +). The linewidths and peak positions of the 4834 cm sup - sup 1 band (U sub c sub r sub y sub s sub t sub a sub l sup 4 sup + , E || c) and the 6668 cm sup - sup 1 band (U sub c sub r sub y sub s sub t sub a sub l sup 5 sup + , E perp. c) are a non-linear function of the self-radiation dose. They reach nearly constant values at doses greater than approx 3.5 x 10 sup 1 sup 8 alpha-events g sup - sup 1. Quantitative analysis of U sub c sub r sub y sub s sub t sub a sub l sup 4 sup + and U sub c sub r sub y sub s sub t sub a sub l...

  13. Atmosphere-ocean-lithosphere interactions during the Great Oxidation Event: insights from zircon δ18O (United States)

    Spencer, C. J.; Partin, C. A.; Kirkland, C.; Shiels, C.; Raub, T. D.; Kinny, P.


    The Great Oxidation Event (GOE) records a precipitous atmospheric oxygen rise, perhaps by as much as three to four orders of magnitude within a few million years. The timescale of the GOE is primarily constrained by the rapid loss of mass-independently fractionated sulfur isotopes. The drastic surface changes associated with the GOE are reflected by the appearance of marine sulfate and manganese deposits, as well as increased redox-sensitive trace metal abundances in banded iron formations and shale. Each of these manifestations is recorded at the atmosphere-lithosphere or atmosphere-ocean interface. However, how the GOE affected the lithosphere beyond the atmosphere interface has received little attention to date. We present zircon δ18O data from Paleoproterozoic sedimentary successions in Western Australia and Canada that display a step-change from the isotopically distinct reservoir with high δ18O that was incorporated into subduction zone magmas. One likely candidate is marine sulfate evaporite deposits, which appear with the GOE. The incorporation of this enriched δ18O reservoir would have facilitated the step change seen in the zircon δ18O record. This signal may also be present to a much lower degree associated with the "whiffs" of atmospheric oxygen prior to the GOE.

  14. Estimating the formation age distribution of continental crust by unmixing zircon ages (United States)

    Korenaga, Jun


    Continental crust provides first-order control on Earth's surface environment, enabling the presence of stable dry landmasses surrounded by deep oceans. The evolution of continental crust is important for atmospheric evolution, because continental crust is an essential component of deep carbon cycle and is likely to have played a critical role in the oxygenation of the atmosphere. Geochemical information stored in the mineral zircon, known for its resilience to diagenesis and metamorphism, has been central to ongoing debates on the genesis and evolution of continental crust. However, correction for crustal reworking, which is the most critical step when estimating original formation ages, has been incorrectly formulated, undermining the significance of previous estimates. Here I suggest a simple yet promising approach for reworking correction using the global compilation of zircon data. The present-day distribution of crustal formation age estimated by the new "unmixing" method serves as the lower bound to the true crustal growth, and large deviations from growth models based on mantle depletion imply the important role of crustal recycling through the Earth history.

  15. Effect of rheological properties of zircon-alumina suspensions on density of green casts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garrido L.B.


    Full Text Available Rheological properties of aqueous suspensions (48 vol% of zircon-alumina mixtures containing different amounts of polyelectrolyte as dispersant were studied. Slip casting in a plaster mold and pressure filtration at 8 MPa experiments were performed to correlate the rheological properties of the suspensions with the relative density of green casts. Flow curves fitted satisfactorily to the Casson model. The Casson viscosity values remained nearly constant whereas Casson yield stress parameter decreased to a minimum and then increased with increasing the amount of dispersant added. The influence of particle size distribution (PSD of the powder mixtures on Casson yield stress parameter and on the minimum viscosity was also examined. Green densities increased as yield stress Casson parameter decreased. The mixture of alumina and zircon as fine and coarse powders produced bimodal PSD which maximized the green density of the compacts. Some weakly flocculated suspensions having low apparent viscosity and small yield stress produced casts with relatively high densification. This is attributed to a slight higher viscosity at low shear rates of these suspensions in which settling of particles and /or segregation of components can not occur.

  16. State of the ablation nation: a review of ablative therapies for cure in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma. (United States)

    Salati, Umer; Barry, Aisling; Chou, Frank Y; Ma, Roy; Liu, David M


    Primary liver cancer, mainly hepatocellular carcinoma, is one of the most common malignancies worldwide. Surgical management, either resection or transplantation, is considered definitive treatment, however, less than 20% of patients are ultimately candidates. Thermal ablation modalities such as radiofrequency ablation and microwave ablation have evolved such that these modalities have been applied with curative intent. Moreover, thermal ablation has demonstrated efficacy in treating early-stage tumors and can be offered as first-line treatment in patients with uncomplicated disease. Attributing to refinements in technology and techniques, recent studies evaluating stereotactic ablative body radiotherapy have shown promising results, while irreversible electroporation, an emerging modality, may further expand the role of ablative therapy in treating potentially resectable hepatocellular carcinoma.

  17. Junctional rhythm occurring during AV nodal reentrant tachycardia ablation, is it different among Egyptians?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman M. Abdel Moteleb


    Conclusion: Junctional rhythm is a sensitive predictor of successful ablation. The pattern of JR is a useful predictor of successful ablation. Egyptian population has distinctive patterns of JR during AVNRT ablation.

  18. Effect of Change in Portal Vein Flow Rates on Hepatic Ablations Created with a Bipolar Radiofrequency Ablation Device. (United States)

    Dodd, Gerald D; Lanctot, Anthony C; Lind, Kimberly E


    Purpose To investigate the effect of change in portal vein flow rates on the size and shape of ablations created by a bipolar radiofrequency (RF) ablation device. Materials and Methods This study was exempt from institutional animal care and use committee review. An in vitro bovine liver model perfused with autologous blood via the portal vein at three flow rates (60, 80, 100 mL/min per 100 g of liver) was used. Four ablations, two bipolar and two monopolar (control probe), were made in each of five livers perfused at each flow rate. Short- and long-axis diameters were measured from gross specimens, and volume and sphericity index were calculated for each ablation. A general linear mixed model accounting for correlation within the liver was used to evaluate the effects of flow on ablations. Analyses were performed by using software. Results There was no significant difference in the size or shape of ablations created by the bipolar device at the different flow rates (P > .05 for all outcomes). The monopolar device demonstrated the expected inverse association between ablation size and change in flow (P flow rates does not have a statistically significant effect on the size or shape of ablations created by the bipolar RF ablation device tested. (©) RSNA, 2016.

  19. Mechanism study of skin tissue ablation by nanosecond laser pulses (United States)

    Fang, Qiyin

    Understanding the fundamental mechanisms in laser tissue ablation is essential to improve clinical laser applications by reducing collateral damage and laser pulse energy requirement. The motive of this dissertation is to study skin tissue ablation by nanosecond laser pulses in a wide spectral region from near-infrared to ultraviolet for a clear understanding of the mechanism that can be used to improve future design of the pulsed lasers for dermatology and plastic surgery. Multiple laser and optical configurations have been constructed to generate 9 to 12ns laser pulses with similar profiles at 1064. 532, 266 and 213nm for this study of skin tissue ablation. Through measurements of ablation depth as a function cf laser pulse energy, the 589nm spectral line in the secondary radiation from ablated skin tissue samples was identified as the signature of the occurrence of ablation. Subsequently, this spectral signature has been used to investigate the probabilistic process of the ablation near the threshold at the four wavelengths. Measurements of the ablation probability were conducted as a function of the electrical field strength of the laser pulse and the ablation thresholds in a wide spectral range from 1064nm to 213nm were determined. Histology analysis and an optical transmission method were applied in assessing of the ablation depth per pulse to study the ablation process at irradiance levels higher than threshold. Because more than 70% of the wet weight of the skin tissue is water, optical breakdown and backscattering in water was also investigated along with a nonlinear refraction index measurement using a z-scan technique. Preliminary studies on ablation of a gelatin based tissue phantom are also reported. The current theoretical models describing ablation of soft tissue ablation by short laser pulses were critically reviewed. Since none of the existing models was found capable of explaining the experimental results, a new plasma-mediated model was developed

  20. Non-surgical ablative therapies for inoperable benign insulinoma. (United States)

    Mele, C; Brunani, A; Damascelli, B; Tichà, V; Castello, L; Aimaretti, G; Scacchi, M; Marzullo, P


    Benign insulinoma is the most common functioning neuroendocrine tumor of the pancreas. The gold-standard therapeutic approach for insulinoma is surgery, which allows for tumor removal, histology and immunochemical analyses. If surgery is not feasible, minimally invasive ablative procedures performed by interventional radiology can lead to partial or complete remission of hormone hypersecretion and tumor control in insulinoma patients. We performed a review of existing literature on non-chemotherapeutic/radioactive ablative techniques employed for the treatment of benign, otherwise inoperable, pancreatic insulinoma. For this purpose, feasibility, effectiveness and safety of ablative treatments for pancreatic insulinoma were reviewed from literature data published from 1982 to date. A total of 44 insulinoma cases treated with non-surgical ablative techniques were desumed, and divided as follows: 7 cases of tumor embolization, 26 ethanol ablations, 7 radiofrequency ablations, 2 high intensity focused ultrasound ablation, 1 irreversible electroporation and 1 percutaneous microwave ablation. Most cases involved single insulinoma, predominantly located in the pancreas head and body. In the majority of patients, ablation was chosen instead of surgery due to severe comorbidities. After an average follow-up of 16 months, the overall success rate of non-surgical ablative treatments of insulinoma was 84%, the recurrence/persistence rate was 16%, and transient adverse events were noted in 23% of cases. Adverse events were usually self-limiting and medically manageable. Non-surgical ablation is a feasible, safe and repeatable procedure in patients with pancreatic insulinoma, who are not candidate to surgery or refuse it. Partial or complete control of symptoms and tumor growth is experienced by the majority of patients.

  1. Research of cornea section's shape ablated by 193-nm ArF laser spots (United States)

    Zhu, Zhiqiang; Yu, Yinshan; Deng, Guoqing


    The ablation theory of cornea and biology effect by 193-nm ArF excimer laser are introduced. The ablation tracks model is put forward to make laser spots scan around cornea by many steps and many areas to change cornea curvature. The corneal average ablation curve is calculated by software so as to explain the feasibility of the ablation tracks model. By analyzing the actual ablation shapes of many arbitrary cornea sections, the optimal ablation method for deciding the random position of every laser spot in every ablation track is obtained. Experiments combining the ablation model with the device testify the energy stability of laser spots and the accuracy of rectifying anisometropia.

  2. Fs-laser ablation of teeth is temperature limited and provides information about the ablated components. (United States)

    de Menezes, Rebeca Ferraz; Harvey, Catherine Malinda; de Martínez Gerbi, Marleny Elizabeth Márquez; Smith, Zachary J; Smith, Dan; Ivaldi, Juan C; Phillips, Alton; Chan, James W; Wachsmann-Hogiu, Sebastian


    The goal of this work is to investigate the thermal effects of femtosecond laser (fs-laser) ablation for the removal of carious dental tissue. Additional studies identify different tooth tissues through femtosecond laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (fsLIBS) for the development of a feedback loop that could be utilized during ablation in a clinical setting. Scanning Election Microscope (SEM) images reveal that minimal morphological damages are incurred at repetition rates below the carbonization threshold of each tooth tissue. Thermal studies measure the temperature distribution and temperature decay during laser ablation and after laser cessation, and demonstrate that repetition rates at or below 10kHz with a laser fluence of 40 J/cm(2) would inflict minimal thermal damage on the surrounding nerve tissues and provide acceptable clinical removal rates. Spectral analysis of the different tooth tissues is also conducted and differences between the visible wavelength fsLIBS spectra are evident, though more robust classification studies are needed for clinical translation. These results have initiated a set of precautionary recommendations that would enable the clinician to utilize femtosecond laser ablation for the removal of carious lesions while ensuring that the solidity and utility of the tooth remain intact. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Resin-Impregnated Carbon Ablator: A New Ablative Material for Hyperbolic Entry Speeds (United States)

    Esper, Jaime; Lengowski, Michael


    Ablative materials are required to protect a space vehicle from the extreme temperatures encountered during the most demanding (hyperbolic) atmospheric entry velocities, either for probes launched toward other celestial bodies, or coming back to Earth from deep space missions. To that effect, the resin-impregnated carbon ablator (RICA) is a high-temperature carbon/phenolic ablative thermal protection system (TPS) material designed to use modern and commercially viable components in its manufacture. Heritage carbon/phenolic ablators intended for this use rely on materials that are no longer in production (i.e., Galileo, Pioneer Venus); hence the development of alternatives such as RICA is necessary for future NASA planetary entry and Earth re-entry missions. RICA s capabilities were initially measured in air for Earth re-entry applications, where it was exposed to a heat flux of 14 MW/sq m for 22 seconds. Methane tests were also carried out for potential application in Saturn s moon Titan, with a nominal heat flux of 1.4 MW/sq m for up to 478 seconds. Three slightly different material formulations were manufactured and subsequently tested at the Plasma Wind Tunnel of the University of Stuttgart in Germany (PWK1) in the summer and fall of 2010. The TPS integrity was well preserved in most cases, and results show great promise.

  4. Source to sink zircon grain shape: Constraints on selective preservation and significance for Western Australian Proterozoic basin provenance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Markwitz


    Calculations of the proportions of source material in sedimentary rocks relative to the proportions of source material in the overall catchment area (erosion parameter ‘K’ calculated based on age spectra produced values typical for mature river systems, with K = 6 for the Yilgarn-Capricorn and K = 5.5 for the Musgrave-Amadeus source-sink system. For the Yilgarn-Capricorn system, we also calculated ‘K’ based on Minor Axis, to determine whether grain width can be linked to age populations. Results of the shape-based K of 5.3 suggest a similarity between age-based and shape-based ‘K’ values, demonstrating that zircon grain width may be a useful discriminator of provenance. Contrary to commonly applied qualitative shape classifications, we found no consistent correlations between shape descriptors of magmatic zircons and the composition of their host rock. While metamict zircons were preferentially removed during transport, the similarities in grain shape and age distribution of magmatic and detrital populations suggest that hydraulic sorting did not have a significant effect. We conclude that transport of zircon grains from magmatic source to sedimentary sink affects their width less than their length.

  5. Latest Pleistocene crustal cannibalization at Baekdusan (Changbaishan) as traced by oxygen isotopes of zircon from the Millennium Eruption (United States)

    Cheong, Albert Chang-sik; Sohn, Young Kwan; Jeong, Youn-Joong; Jo, Hui Je; Park, Kye-Hun; Lee, Youn Soo; Li, Xian-Hua


    The silicic volcanism of Baekdusan (Changbaishan), which is on the border between North Korea and China, was initiated in the Late Pleistocene and culminated in the 10th century with a powerful (volcanic explosivity index = 7) commendite-trachyte eruption commonly referred to as the ;Millennium Eruption.; This study presents oxygen isotope data of zircon in trachydacitic pumices ejected during the Millennium Eruption, together with whole-rock geochemical and Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic data that manifest once again the A-type and EM1 affinities of the Millennium Eruption magma. The zircon crystals, dated by previous studies at ca. 12-9 ka, show a moderate inter-grain variation in δ18O from 3.69‰ to 5.03‰. These values are consistently lower than the normal mantle range, and interpreted to have resulted from the digestion of meteoric-hydrothermally altered intracaldera rocks in the shallow magma chamber beneath Baekdusan just prior to the crystallization of the zircons, rather than from derivation from low-δ18O sources deep in the mantle. The whole-rock geochemical/isotopic considerations suggest that the magma mainly self-cannibalized the earlier erupted volcanic carapace around the magma chamber. This study highlights the usefulness of zircon oxygen isotopes for characterizing past volcanic activity that has now been commonly eroded away and implies that the generation of Yellowstone-type low-δ18O magma is not a rare phenomenon in large-volume silicic eruptions.

  6. An Early Proterozoic U-Pb zircon age from an Eskolabreen Formation gneiss in southern Ny Friesland, Spitsbergen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balashov, Y.A.; Larionov, A.N.; Gannibal, L.F.; Sirotkin, A.N.; Tebenkov, A.M.; Ryungenen, G.I.; Ohta, Y. (Kola Science Centre, Russian Acadamy of Sciences, Apatity (Russian Federation))


    A preliminary U/Pb zircon age determination has been carried out on a grey gneiss of the Eskolabreen Formation, the lowest observable lithostratigraphic unit of Precambrian metamorphic rocks in southern Ny Friesland, NE Spitsbergen. The obtained age, appr. 2,400 Ma, is considered to be a metamorphic age and suggests and Early Proterozoic tectonothermal event. 25 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Chronological constraints on tectonic evolution of the Chinese Tianshan Orogen through detrital zircons from modern and paleo-river sands (United States)

    Ren, Rong; Guan, Shuwei; Han, Baofu


    The Chinese Tianshan Orogen marked the prolonged, complicated interactions between the southwestern Paleo-Asian Ocean and surrounding blocks. Massive new and previous detrital zircon U-Pb chronological data from modern and paleo-river sands (more than 7000 ages from 102 samples) were compiled to constrain its tectonic evolution. The Chinese Tianshan Orogen is characterized by predominant Paleozoic and minor Mesozoic and Precambrian detrital zircon ages that show multimodal characteristic. The oldest Phanerozoic zircon population (peak at 475 Ma) results from subduction and closure of the Early Paleozoic Terskey Ocean. But the absence of this peak in Chinese North and southern South Tianshan suggests that the subductions of the North and South Tianshan oceans may not initiate until Late Ordovician, with subsequent 460-390 Ma and 360-320 Ma arc magmatism. Similar to magmatic suite in classic collisional orogens, the youngest massive 320-270 Ma magmatism is supposed to be post-collisional. The North and South Tianshan oceans therefore probably had their closure to form the Chinese Tianshan Orogen during Late Carboniferous. The weak Mesozoic intra-plate magmatism further argues against a Late Permian-Triassic Tianshan Orogen for the lack of extensive syn- and post-collisional magmatism. Moreover, the diverse Precambrian detrital zircon age patterns indicate that the surrounding blocks have distinct tectonic evolution and short-term amalgamation during the Neoproterozoic.

  8. U-Pb zircon in situ dating with LA-MC-ICP-MS using a mixed detector configuration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chemale Junior, Farid, E-mail: [Universidade de Brasilia (UnB), DF (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias; Kawashita, Koji; Dussin, Ivo A. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas Geocronologicas; Avila, Janaina N. [Australian National University, Canberra, (Australia). Research School of Earth Sciences; Justino, Dayvisson; Bertotti, Anelise [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Curso de Pos-Graduacao em Geociencias


    The LA-MC-ICP-MS method applied to U-Pb in situ dating is still rapidly evolving due to improvements in both lasers and ICP-MS. To test the validity and reproducibility of the method, 5 different zircon samples, including the standard Temora-2, ranging in age between 2.2 Ga and 246 Ma, were dated using both LA-MC-ICP-MS and SHRIMP. The selected zircons were dated by SHRIMP and, after gentle polishing, the laser spot was driven to the same site or on the same zircon phase with a 213 nm laser microprobe coupled to a multi-collector mixed system. The data were collected with a routine spot size of 25 {mu}m and, in some cases, of 15 and 40 {mu}m. A careful cross-calibration using a diluted U-Th-Pb solution to calculate the Faraday reading to counting rate conversion factors and the highly suitable GJ-1 standard zircon for external calibrations were of paramount importance for obtaining reliable results. All age results were concordant within the experimental errors. The assigned age errors using the LA-MC-ICP-MS technique were, in most cases, higher than those obtained by SHRIMP, but if we are not faced with a high resolution stratigraphy, the laser technique has certain advantages. (author)

  9. Electrochemical characterization of praseodymia doped zircon. Catalytic effect on the electrochemical reduction of molecular oxygen in polar organic solvents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domenech, Antonio, E-mail: [Departament de Quimica Analitica, Universitat de Valencia, Dr. Moliner, 50, 46100 Burjassot, Valencia (Spain); Montoya, Noemi; Alarcon, Javier [Departament de Quimica Inorganica, Universitat de Valencia, Dr. Moliner, 50, 46100 Burjassot, Valencia (Spain)


    Highlights: > Electrochemical characterization of Pr centers in praseodymia-doped zircon. > Study of the catalytic effect on the reduction of peroxide radical anion in nonaqueous solvents. > Assessment of non-uniform distribution of Pr centers in the zircon grains. - Abstract: The voltammetry of microparticles and scanning electrochemical microscopy methodologies are applied to characterize praseodymium centers in praseodymia-doped zircon (Pr{sub x}Zr{sub (1-y)}Si{sub (1-z)}O{sub 4}; y + z = x; 0.02 < x < 0.10) specimens prepared via sol-gel synthetic routes. In contact with aqueous electrolytes, two overlapping Pr-centered cathodic processes, attributable to the Pr (IV) to Pr (III) reduction of Pr centers in different sites are obtained. In water-containing, air-saturated acetone and DMSO solutions as solvent, Pr{sub x}Zr{sub (1-y)}Si{sub (1-z)}O{sub 4} materials produce a significant catalytic effect on the electrochemical reduction of peroxide radical anion electrochemically generated. These electrochemical features denote that most of the Pr centers are originally in its 4+ oxidation state in the parent Pr{sub x}Zr{sub (1-y)}Si{sub (1-z)}O{sub 4} specimens. The variation of the catalytic performance of such specimens with potential scan rate, water concentration and Pr loading suggests that Pr is not uniformly distributed within the zircon grains, being concentrated in the outer region of such grains.

  10. effect of post-precipitation treatment on the pore-structure stability of sol-gel derived lanthanum zirconate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nair, Jalajakumari; Kumar, K.N.P.; Nair, P.; van Ommen, J.G.; Ross, J.R.H.; Ross, Julian R.H.; Burggraaf, Anthonie J.; Burggraaf, Anthonie


    The importance of post-precipitation treatments (pore-fluid exchange and its removal) on the evolution of the texture of coprecipitated lanthanum zirconate has been investigated. The nature of the pore fluid and the type of fluid-removal (drying) process have shown a profound effect on the aggregate

  11. Analysis of the state of poling of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) particles in a Zn-ionomer composite

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    James, N.K.; Comyn, T.; Hall, D.; Daniel, L.; Kleppe, A.; Zwaag, S. van der; Groen, W.A.


    The poling behaviour of tetragonal lead zirconate titanate (PZT) piezoelectric ceramic particles in a weakly conductive ionomer polymer matrix is investigated using high energy synchrotron X-ray diffraction analysis. The poling efficiency, crystallographic texture and lattice strain of the PZT

  12. Pre-Variscan evolution of the Western Tatra Mountains: new insights from U-Pb zircon dating (United States)

    Burda, Jolanta; Klötzli, Urs


    In situ LA-MC-ICP-MS U-Pb zircon geochronology combined with cathodoluminescence imaging were carried out to determine protolith and metamorphic ages of orthogneisses from the Western Tatra Mountains (Central Western Carpathians). The metamorphic complex is subdivided into two units (the Lower Unit and the Upper Unit). Orthogneisses of the Lower Unit are mostly banded, fine- to medium-grained rocks while in the Upper Unit varieties with augen structures predominate. Orthogneisses show a dynamically recrystallised mineral assemblage of Qz + Pl + Bt ± Grt with accessory zircon and apatite. They are peraluminous (ASI = 1.20-1.27) and interpreted to belong to a high-K calc-alkaline suite of a VAG-type tectonic setting. LA-MC-ICP-MS U-Pb zircon data from samples from both units, from crystals with oscillatory zoning and Th/U > 0.1, yield similar concordia ages of ca. 534 Ma. This is interpreted to reflect the magmatic crystallization age of igneous precursors. These oldest meta-magmatics so far dated in the Western Tatra Mountains could be linked to the fragmentation of the northern margin of Gondwana. In zircons from a gneiss from the Upper Unit, cores with well-developed oscillatory zoning are surrounded by weakly luminescent, low contrast rims (Th/U grade metamorphic event, connected with the formation of crustal-scale nappe structures and collision-related magmatism.

  13. Mineral inclusions in placer zircon from the Ohře (Eger) Graben: New data on „strontiopyrochlore“

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Seifert, W.; Förster, H.-J.; Rhede, D.; Tietz, O.; Ulrych, Jaromír


    Roč. 92, 1/2 (2012), s. 39-53 ISSN 0930-0708 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA205/09/1170 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : Eger Graben * zircon * "strontiopyrochlore" Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 1.681, year: 2012

  14. Thermal Performance of Ablative/ Ceramic Composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana STEFAN


    Full Text Available A hybrid thermal protection system for atmospheric earth re-entry based on ablative materials on top of ceramic matrix composites is investigated for the protection of the metallic structure in oxidative and high temperature environment of the space vehicles. The paper focuses on the joints of ablative material (carbon fiber based CALCARB® or cork based NORCOAT TM and Ceramic Matrix Composite (CMC material (carbon fibers embedded in silicon carbide matrix, Cf/SiC, SICARBON TM or C/C-SiC using commercial high temperature inorganic adhesives. To study the thermal performance of the bonded materials the joints were tested under thermal shock at the QTS facility. For carrying out the test, the sample is mounted into a holder and transferred from outside the oven at room temperature, inside the oven at the set testing temperature (1100°C, at a heating rate that was determined during the calibration stage. The dwell time at the test temperature is up to 2 min at 1100ºC at an increasing rate of temperature up to ~ 9,5°C/s. Evaluating the atmospheric re-entry real conditions we found that the most suited cooling method is the natural cooling in air environment as the materials re-entering the Earth atmosphere are subjected to similar conditions. The average weigh loss was calculated for all the samples from one set, without differentiating the adhesive used as the weight loss is due to the ablative material consumption that is the same in all the samples and is up to 2%. The thermal shock test proves that, thermally, all joints behaved similarly, the two parts withstanding the test successfully and the assembly maintaining its integrity.

  15. Zircon U-Pb SHRIMP Ages From Eastern Ghats Belt, India and Their Implication on the Indo-Antarctic Correlation (United States)

    Bose, S.; Dunkley, D. J.; Arima, M.


    We analyze zircon using U-Pb SHRIMP method to constrain the timing of important thermal events in the Eastern Ghats Belt (EGB) which shows a comparable geological history with the Precambrian rocks of east Antarctica. Zircon grains show contrasting morphological and chemical characters depending on the rock types and locality. Zircon from UHT aluminous granulites from the central part show detrital (c. 1820 Ma) and igneous cores (c. 1760 Ma) occasionally surrounded by oscillatory-zoned mantle (c. 1650 Ma). Thick metamorphic rim (U-rich) over detrital core is and simple concentric zoned zircon grains show well-grouped concordant age of c. 950 Ma. This event is correlated with the Rayner structural event (980-930 Ma) strengthening the fact that the Eastern Ghats-Rayner Complex evolved as a composite orogen during Meso- Neoproterozoic time. The c. 1650 Ma event possibly suggests the timing of UHT metamorphism and anatexis. Absence of Pan-African ages (550-500 Ma) in all of these samples suggests thermal input was not strong enough to cause zircon growth during this event. Zircon grains from leptynite from the southern part shows well-grouped concordant age of c. 1760 Ma with partial resetting at c. 1690 Ma due to UHT metamorphism. The c. 950 Ma event was unseen by rocks of this area. Rocks of the northern part bear distinct geochronological signatures. Zircon grains in the HT/UHT aluminous granulites are sector zoned, cloudy homogeneous metamorphic grains with nearly concordant age of c. 780 Ma. Few metamorphic grains show c. 520 Ma age which possibly is responsible for partial modification and recrystallization of the c. 780 Ma grains. Our data suggest that the northern part of Eastern Ghats is exotic in origin and was possibly amalgamated to the rest of the Eastern Ghats during the Neoproterozoic-Phanerozoic time. The immediate counterpart of this segment is not properly known, but Prydz Bay area of east Antarctica shows a comparable evolutionary history. The

  16. Zircon Lu-Hf systematics and the evolution of the Archean crust in the southern Superior Province, Canada (United States)

    Smith, P.E.; Tatsumoto, M.; Farquhar, R.M.


    A combined Lu-Hf and U-Th-Pb isotopic study was made of 25 zircons and 2 whole rocks from the late Archean crust (2,888-2,668 Ma) in the southern Superior Province, Canada. The relative abundances of U, Th, Lu and Hf in zircons from the low grade Michipicoten and Gamitagama greenstone belts show variable patterns which in part reflect the bulk compositional differences of their parent rocks. Zircons from the high grade lower crustal regions adjacent to these belts (Kapuskasing Structural Zone) are distinguished from the low grade zircons by their strong depletions of Lu and Hf. The low Hf contents imply that the growth of metamorphic zircon involves a significant fractionation of the Zr/Hf ratio. Initial Hf isotope ratios for Hf in zircons from the low grade rocks are correlated with silica enrichment of their host rocks. eHf varies from +9.2 to -1.3 and data from similar rock types exhibit correlations of eHf with time. Whole rock basalt analyses yield eHf values of +8.7 and +11.3 suggesting their derivation from a depleted mantle. The basalt data fall on an evolution trend which implies that differentiation from a chondritic mantle occurred at 3,100-2,900 Ma. Low eHf values (-1.3 to +1.4) for rhyolites and granites are consistent with a derivation involving remelting of old crust similar to a 2,888 Ma granite with eHF of +0.5. Significantly higher values (+1.4 to +3.9) are found in zircons from 2,748-2,682 Ma dacites and tonalites suggesting that their parent rocks had higher Lu/Hf ratios. This may indicate that their parent rocks were mafic. However, there is some evidence that the possible lower crustal source reservoirs of these rocks may have undergone processes early in their histories which increased their Lu/ Hf ratios. This would give rise to the higher eHf values observed in their derivatives. ?? 1987 Springer-Verlag.

  17. Heavy Isotope Composition of Oxygen in Zircon from Soil Sample 14163: Lunar Perspective of an Early Ocean on the Earth (United States)

    Nemchin, A. A.; Whitehouse, M. J.; Pidgeon, R. T.; Meyer, C.


    Thirty oxygen analyses of a large (sub-millimetre) zircon grain from the lunar soil sample 14163 have been determined using CAMECA 1270 ion microprobe. The sample 14163 was returned form the Fra Mauro region by Apollo 14 mission. Zircon grain of 0.6-0.8 mm in size extracted from the sample was imaged using CL detector fitted to the Philips Electron Microscope in order to reveal internal structure. Oxygen isotopes have been analysed during two sessions. The first set of data was collected using the original mount where the grain was set in the resin attached to the glass slide. This resulted in the two complications: (i) standard zircon has to be analysed from the separate mount and (ii) the lunar zircon grain was rased in the holder compared to the standard. In order to investigate, if the elevated oxygen compositions observed during this session could have resulted from this difference in geometric configuration during the standard and sample analyses, the lunar zircon was extracted from the original mount, remounted with the standard chip in the new resin disk and reanalysed during the second session. All analyses made during the first session show delta O-18 values heavier than 6.0%. The second set of data has a wider spread of delta O-18 values with some values as low as 5.6%. Nevertheless, a half of observed delta O-18 values in this set is also higher than 6.0%. Slightly lighter oxygen compositions observed during the second session indicate possible dependence of measured delta O-18 values on the geometry of analysed samples. Presence of zircons with similar heavy oxygen isotope compositions on the Moon, which neither had liquid water or felic crust similar to that on the Earth nor ever developed regime similar to plate tectonics, suggests that other mechanisms can be responsible for elevated delta O-18 values in zircons. This implies that there is no support for the presence of an ocean on the surface of the early Earth and as the ocean appears to be an

  18. Solar cell contact formation using laser ablation (United States)

    Harley, Gabriel; Smith, David; Cousins, Peter


    The formation of solar cell contacts using a laser is described. A method of fabricating a back-contact solar cell includes forming a poly-crystalline material layer above a single-crystalline substrate. The method also includes forming a dielectric material stack above the poly-crystalline material layer. The method also includes forming, by laser ablation, a plurality of contacts holes in the dielectric material stack, each of the contact holes exposing a portion of the poly-crystalline material layer; and forming conductive contacts in the plurality of contact holes.

  19. Late-onset endometrial ablation failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morris Wortman


    While the short term safety and efficacy of these devices has been reported in numerous clinical trials we only recently are becoming aware of the high incidence of late-onset endometrial ablation failures (LOEAFs associated with these procedures. Currently, about a quarter of women who undergo a GEA procedure will eventually require a hysterectomy while an unknown number have less than satisfactory results. In order to reduce these suboptimal outcomes physicians must better understand the etiology and risk factors that predispose a patient toward the development of LOEAF as well as current knowledge of patient and procedure selection for EA as well as treatment options for these delayed complications.

  20. Reduce proton energy spread by target ablation

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Shuan; Chen, Jiaer; Yan, Xueqing


    It's shown that, with strong target ablation monoenergetic protons along the laser direction is available during the laser aluminum foil interaction, which is different from the classic TNSA theory. When the laser pre-pulse is too strong that the whole target is vaporized, the energetic electrons generated in the gas preplasma will play an important role for the ion acceleration because the sheath field will not be available. These electrons beam, which is highly directional, will setup triangle envelope acceleration field along the laser direction at the target rear, reducing the ion energy spread.

  1. Ablative Material Testing at Lewis Rocket Lab (United States)


    The increasing demand for a low-cost, reliable way to launch commercial payloads to low- Earth orbit has led to the need for inexpensive, expendable propulsion systems for new launch vehicles. This, in turn, has renewed interest in less complex, uncooled rocket engines that have combustion chambers and exhaust nozzles fabricated from ablative materials. A number of aerospace propulsion system manufacturers have utilized NASA Lewis Research Center's test facilities with a high degree of success to evaluate candidate materials for application to new propulsion devices.

  2. Influence of ablative margin on local tumor progression and survival in patients with HCC ≤4 cm after laser ablation. (United States)

    Francica, Giampiero; Petrolati, Alesssandra; Di Stasio, Enrico; Pacella, Sara; Stasi, Roberto; Pacella, Claudio Maurizio


    Ablation of the normal hepatic parenchyma surrounding the tumor (ablative margin [AM]) is necessary to prevent local tumor progression. To assess the prognostic value of the ablative margin in patients with HCC ≤4 cm treated with US-guided laser ablation. A cohort of 116 patients (53 women and 63 men, age range 42-82 years) with 132 HCC nodules ≤4 cm completely ablated by US-guided laser ablation was retrospectively analyzed. Rates of local tumor progression were compared using different ablative margin cut-offs (≥2.5, 5.0, 7.5, and 10.0 mm). Survival probability curves were obtained with the Kaplan-Meier method. The mean period of follow-up was 42 months (range 3-114 months). Local tumor progression was identified in 24 out of 132 lesions (18%), with an average time to progression of 24 months (range 6-36 months). A significant difference in local tumor progression was observed only if the ablative margin was ≥7.5 mm (7% vs. 23%, P = 0.020). Survival curves of patients with or without an ablative margin ≥7.5 mm were not different (P = 0.665; mean survival time 43.8 ± 3.1 and 46.8 ± 6.1 for an AM ablative margin ≥7.5 mm turned out to be useful in preventing local tumor progression but did not affect long-term survival in patients with HCC ≤4 cm treated with laser ablation.

  3. Fluoroless Catheter Ablation of Cardiac Arrhythmias: A 5-Year Experience. (United States)

    Razminia, Mansour; Willoughby, Michael Cameron; Demo, Hany; Keshmiri, Hesam; Wang, Theodore; D'Silva, Oliver J; Zheutlin, Terry A; Jibawi, Hakeem; Okhumale, Paul; Kehoe, Richard F


    Catheter ablations have been traditionally performed with the use of fluoroscopic guidance, which exposes the patient and staff to the inherent risks of radiation. We have developed techniques to eliminate the use of fluoroscopy during cardiac ablations and have been performing completely fluoroless catheter ablations on our patients for over 5 years. We present a retrospective analysis of the safety, efficacy, and feasibility data from 500 consecutive patients who underwent nonfluoroscopic catheter ablation, targeting a total of 639 arrhythmias, including atrioventricular reciprocating tachycardia (AVRT), atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia (AVNRT), atrial tachycardia (AT), atrial fibrillation (AF), premature ventricular contractions (PVCs), and ventricular tachycardia (VT). We perform fluoroless ablations using intracardiac electrograms, electroanatomic mapping, and for most cases intracardiac echocardiography. Our experience includes exclusively endocardial cardiac ablations. The mean follow-up was 20.5 months. Recurrence rate for AVRT was 6.5%, for AVNRT 2.5%, for macro-reentrant AT 6.4%, for focal AT 5.4%, for AF 22.6%, for PVC 6.7%, and for VT 21.4%. Major complications occurred in five patients (1.0%); minor complications occurred in three patients (0.6%). No deaths occurred. Fluoroscopy was used in one instance, for 0.3 minutes, to confirm venous access. Completely fluoroless catheter ablations may be routinely performed for all endocardial ablations without compromising safety, efficacy, or procedural duration. © 2017 The Authors. Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Low vulnerability of the right phrenic nerve to electroporation ablation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Driel, Vincent J. H. M.; Neven, KGEJ; van Wessel, Harri; Vink, Aryan; Doevendans, Pieter A. F. M.; Wittkampf, Fred H. M.

    BACKGROUND Circular electroporation ablation is a novel ablation modality for electrical pulmonary vein isolation. With a single 200-3 application, deep circular myocardial lesions can be created. However, the acute and chronic effects of this energy source on phrenic nerve (PN) function are

  5. Optical aberrations induced by subclinical decentrations of the ablation pattern (United States)

    Mrochen, Michael; Kaemmerer, Maik; Riedel, Peter; Mierdel, Peter; Krinke, Hans-Eberhard; Seiler, Theo


    Purpose: The aim of this work was to study the effect of currently used ablation profiles along with eccentric ablations on the increase of higher order aberrations observed after PRK. Material and Methods: The optical aberrations of 10 eyes were tested before and after PRK. Refractive surgery was performed using a ArF-excimer laser system. In all cases, the ablation zone was 6 mm or larger. The spherical equivalent of the correction was ranging from -2.5 D to -6.0 D. The measured wavefront error was compared to numerical simulations done with the reduced eye model and currently used ablation profiles as well as compared with experimental results obtained from ablation on PMMA balls. Results: The aberration measurements result in a considerable change of the spherical- and coma-like wavefront errors. This result was in good correlation with the numerical simulations and the experimental results. Furthermore, it has been derived that the major contribution on the induced higher order aberrations are a result of the small decentration (less than 1.0 mm) of the ablation zone. Conclusions: Higher order spherical- and coma-like aberrations after PRK are mainly determined by the decentration of the ablation zone during laser refractive surgery. However, future laser systems should use efficient eye-tracking systems and aspherical ablation profiles to overcome this problem.

  6. Transonic ablation flow regimes of high-Z pellets

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Hyoungkeun; Parks, Paul


    In this letter, we report results of numerical studies of the ablation of argon and neon pellets in tokamaks and compare them with theoretical predictions and studies of deuterium pellets. Results demonstrate the influence of atomic physics processes on the pellet ablation process.

  7. Cold ablation driven by localized forces in alkali halides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hada, Masaki; Zhang, Dongfang; Pichugin, Kostyantyn; Hirscht, Julian; Kochman, Micha A.; Hayes, Stuart A.; Manz, Stephanie; Gengler, Regis Y. N.; Wann, Derek A.; Seki, Toshio; Moriena, Gustavo; Morrison, Carole A.; Matsuo, Jiro; Sciaini, German; Miller, R. J. Dwayne


    Laser ablation has been widely used for a variety of applications. Since the mechanisms for ablation are strongly dependent on the photoexcitation level, so called cold material processing has relied on the use of high-peak-power laser fluences for which nonthermal processes become dominant; often

  8. Ablation dynamics in coiled wire-array Z-pinches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, G. N.; Lebedev, S. V.; Suzuki-Vidal, F.; Swadling, G.; Chittenden, J. P.; Bland, S. N.; Harvey-Thompson, A. [Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College, London SW7 2BW (United Kingdom); Knapp, P. F.; Blesener, I. C.; McBride, R. D.; Chalenski, D. A.; Blesener, K. S.; Greenly, J. B.; Pikuz, S. A.; Shelkovenko, T. A.; Hammer, D. A.; Kusse, B. R. [Laboratory of Plasma Studies, Cornell University, 439 Rhodes Hall, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States)


    Experiments to study the ablation dynamics of coiled wire arrays were performed on the MAGPIE generator (1 MA, 240 ns) at Imperial College, and on the COBRA generator at Cornell University's Laboratory of Plasma Studies (1 MA, 100 ns). The MAGPIE generator was used to drive coiled wires in an inverse array configuration to study the distribution of ablated plasma. Using interferometry to study the plasma distribution during the ablation phase, absolute quantitative measurements of electron line density demonstrated very high density contrasts between coiled ablation streams and inter-stream regions many millimetres from the wire. The measured density contrasts for a coiled array were many times greater than that observed for a conventional array with straight wires, indicating that a much greater axial modulation of the ablated plasma may be responsible for the unique implosion dynamics of coiled arrays. Experiments on the COBRA generator were used to study the complex redirection of plasma around a coiled wire that gives rise to the ablation structure exhibited by coiled arrays. Observations of this complex 3D plasma structure were used to validate the current model of coiled array ablation dynamics [Hall et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 065003 (2008)], demonstrating irrefutably that plasma flow from the wires behaves as predicted. Coiled wires were observed to ablate and implode in the same manner on both machines, indicating that current rise time should not be an issue for the scaling of coiled arrays to larger machines with fast current rise times.

  9. A New Ablative Heat Shield Sensor Suite Project (United States)

    Bose, Deepak


    A new sensor suite is developed to measure performance of ablative thermal protection systems used in planetary entry vehicles for robotic and human exploration. The new sensor suite measures ablation of the thermal protection system under extreme heating encountered during planetary entry. The sensor technology is compatible with a variety of thermal protection materials, and is applicable over a wide range of entry conditions.

  10. Endometrial adenocarcinoma after endometrial ablation. A case report


    Areia, AL; Branco, M; Frutuoso, C; Oliveira, CF


    The authors present a case of endometrial adenocarcinoma after endometrial ablation, emphasizing the importance of close surveillance of these patients, patient selection and education. Even patients with none of the risk factors for endometrial cancer or contraindications to endometrial ablation should be checked carefully.

  11. Radiofrequency ablation as initial therapy in paroxysmal atrial fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walfridsson, H; Walfridsson, U; Nielsen, J Cosedis


    AIMS: The Medical ANtiarrhythmic Treatment or Radiofrequency Ablation in Paroxysmal Atrial Fibrillation (MANTRA-PAF) trial assessed the long-term efficacy of an initial strategy of radiofrequency ablation (RFA) vs. antiarrhythmic drug therapy (AAD) as first-line treatment for patients with PAF...

  12. Radiofrequency ablation as initial therapy in paroxysmal atrial fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cosedis Nielsen, Jens; Johannessen, Arne; Raatikainen, Pekka


    There are limited data comparing radiofrequency catheter ablation with antiarrhythmic drug therapy as first-line treatment in patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation.......There are limited data comparing radiofrequency catheter ablation with antiarrhythmic drug therapy as first-line treatment in patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation....

  13. Percutaneous Image-Guided Ablation of Breast Tumors: An Overview


    Sag, Alan A.; Maybody, Majid; Comstock, Christopher; Solomon, Stephen B.


    Percutaneous non-surgical image-guided ablation is emerging as an adjunct or alternative to surgery in the management of benign and malignant breast tumors. This review covers the current state of the literature regarding percutaneous image-guided ablation modalities, clinical factors regarding patient selection, and future directions for research.

  14. Percutaneous image-guided ablation of breast tumors: an overview. (United States)

    Sag, Alan A; Maybody, Majid; Comstock, Christopher; Solomon, Stephen B


    Percutaneous non-surgical image-guided ablation is emerging as an adjunct or alternative to surgery in the management of benign and malignant breast tumors. This review covers the current state of the literature regarding percutaneous image-guided ablation modalities, clinical factors regarding patient selection, and future directions for research.

  15. Records of Sedimentation and Palaeofluid Events in Detrital Zircon U-Th-Pb Ages From Northern Greeland. (United States)

    Morris, G. A.; Pease, V.; Kirkland, C. L.


    The Neoproterozoic (1.0 Ga to 550 Ma) is an important interval of dramatic change in the global environment. Several fragments of Neoproterozoic crust occur in the circum-Artic region and are thought to have been dispersed during the break-up of Rodinia/Pannotia. The correlation between these fragments and the models for their dispersion however remains controversial. We present U-Th-Pb detrital zircon age profiles from turbidite trough sediments (the Cambrian Polkorridoren and Vølvedal, and the Silurian Sydgletscher groups) of Northern Greenland and use the results to assess the source(s) of these sediments. These results allow us to test possible correlation(s) with dispersed circum-Arctic Neoproterozoic fragments. U-Th-Pb zircon ages from the two younger units (Vølvedal and Sydgletscher groups) show a significant number of discordant analyses. These are routinely ignored in detrital zircon studies, but when plotted on a standard inverse Concordia diagram define a pattern of radiogenic Pb-loss which occurred at ca. 400 Ma. Indeed, one zircon from the Sydgletcher Group yields a re-set pseudo-concordant age of 407 ± 13 Ma. Partial or total resetting of zircon U-Pb systematics at low temperatures (<200°C) is well- documented, particularly in U rich grains. The stratigraphically confined nature of the reset units, coupled with the presence of quartz/calcite veining, suggests that, rather than regional metamorphism, a major palaeofluid event at approx. 400 Ma was responsible for this resetting. We propose that this fluid event was driven by uplift of the Caledonian Orogen to the east.

  16. Provenance and drainage system of the Early Cretaceous volcanic detritus in the Himalaya as constrained by detrital zircon geochronology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiu-Mian Hu


    Full Text Available The age range of the major intra-plate volcanic event that affected the northern Indian margin in the Early Cretaceous is here defined precisely by detrital zircon geochronology. U–Pb ages of Early Cretaceous detrital zircons found in the Cretaceous to the Paleocene sandstones cluster mainly between 142 Ma and 123 Ma in the northern Tethys Himalayan unit, and between 140 Ma and 116 Ma in the southern Tethys Himalayan unit. The youngest and oldest detrital zircons within this group indicate that volcanism in the source areas started in the latest Jurassic and ended by the early Albian. Stratigraphic data indicate that volcaniclastic sedimentation began significantly earlier in southern Tibet (Tithonian than in Nepal (Valanginian, and considerably later in Spiti and Zanskar (Aptian/Albian to the west. This apparent westward migration of magmatism was explained with progressive westward propagation of extensional/transtensional tectonic activity and development of fractures cutting deeply across the Indian continental margin crust. However, detrital zircon geochronology provides no indication of heterochroneity in magmatic activity in the source areas from east to west, and thus lends little support to such a scenario. Westward migration of volcaniclastic sedimentation may thus reflect instead the westward progradation of major drainage systems supplying volcanic detritus sourced from the same volcanic centers in the east. Development of multiple radial drainage away from the domal surface uplift associated with magmatic upwelling, as observed for most large igneous provinces around the world, may also explain why U–Pb ages of detrital zircons tend to cluster around 133–132 Ma (the age of the Comei igneous province in Tethys Himalayan units, but around 118–117 Ma (the age of the Rajmahal igneous province in Lesser Himalayan units.

  17. Current Situation Development of Lightweight Ablation Materials for Thermal Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XUE Hua- fei


    Full Text Available In view of demand of lighter thermal protection system for our national space vehicle,recent development of investigation and practical application of lightweight thermal protection ablation materials are summarized systematically at home and abroad,in which the silicon or resin reinforced with honeycomb structural reinforcement and resin impregnated fibrous substrate ablators are included,focuses On silicone resin reinforced with glass,silica or carbon fiber/phenolic honeycomb as well as silicon,phenolic and Silicone Impregnated Reusable tendency Ceramic Ablator(SIRCA and Phenolic Impregnated Carbon Ablator( in the future of aboard lightweight ablators is proposed,which can PICA,finally the development directly borrow or simply draw inspiration for our country in this field.

  18. Chemothermal Therapy for Localized Heating and Ablation of Tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong-Shan Deng


    Full Text Available Chemothermal therapy is a new hyperthermia treatment on tumor using heat released from exothermic chemical reaction between the injected reactants and the diseased tissues. With the highly minimally invasive feature and localized heating performance, this method is expected to overcome the ubiquitous shortcomings encountered by many existing hyperthermia approaches in ablating irregular tumor. This review provides a relatively comprehensive review on the latest advancements and state of the art in chemothermal therapy. The basic principles and features of two typical chemothermal ablation strategies (acid-base neutralization-reaction-enabled thermal ablation and alkali-metal-enabled thermal/chemical ablation are illustrated. The prospects and possible challenges facing chemothermal ablation are analyzed. The chemothermal therapy is expected to open many clinical possibilities for precise tumor treatment in a minimally invasive way.

  19. Substrate Based Ablation of Ventricular Tachycardia Through An Epicardial Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aman Makhija


    Full Text Available Ventricular tachycardia (VT occurring late after myocardial infarction is often due to reentry circuit in the peri-infarct zone. The circuit is usually located in the sub-endocardium, though subepicardial substrates are known. Activation mapping during VT to identify target regions for ablation can be difficult if VT is non inducible or poorly tolerated. In the latter, a substrate based approach of mapping during sinus rhythm in conjunction with pace mapping helps to define the reentry circuit and select target sites for ablation in majority of patients with hemodynamically unstable VT. Percutaneous epicardial catheter ablation has been attempted as an approach where ablation by a conventional endocardial access has been unsuccessful. We report a case of post myocardial infarction scar VT which could be successfully ablated with a substrate based approach from the epicardial aspect.

  20. Locally ablative therapies for primary and metastatic liver cancer. (United States)

    Li, David; Kang, Josephine; Madoff, David C


    Locally ablative therapies have an increasing role in the effective multidisciplinary approach towards the treatment of both primary and metastatic liver tumors. In patients who are not considered surgical candidates and have low volume disease, these therapies have now become established into consensus practice guidelines. A large range of therapeutic options exist including percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI), radiofrequency ablation (RFA), microwave ablation (MWA), cryoablation, percutaneous laser ablation (PLA), irreversible electroporation (IRE), stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) and high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU); each having benefits and drawbacks. The greatest body of evidence supporting clinical utility in the liver currently exists for RFA, with PEI having fallen out of favor. MWA, IRE, SBRT and HIFU are relatively nascent technologies, and outcomes data supporting their use is promising. Future directions of ablative therapies include tandem approaches to improve efficacy in the treatment of liver tumors.

  1. Cardiac Radiofrequency Ablation: A Clinical Update for Nurses. (United States)

    Shoulders, Bridget; Mauriello, Jillian; Shellman, Tamika; Follett, Corrinne


    The field of electrophysiology (EP) has rapidly evolved from a focus on diagnostic procedures to an emphasis on interventions. Many cardiac arrhythmias traditionally treated with antiarrhythmic agents, cardioversion, or cardiac surgery are now routinely cured with cardiac ablation. To optimally manage the care of cardiac ablation patients, it is essential that nurses have an understanding of the EP procedures and related nursing implications. There are extensive evidence-based resources available in the medical literature; however, there are limited publications geared toward nurses caring for cardiac ablation patients.This article provides an overview of EP diagnostic and cardiac radio-frequency ablation procedures for select atrial and ventricular tachyarrhythmias. Evidence-based nursing practices related to postprocedure care will be addressed. The objective of this article is to increase nurses' knowledge of common cardiac ablation procedures and the nursing management of the patient postprocedure.

  2. Pulsed laser ablation of solids basics, theory and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Stafe, Mihai; Puscas, Niculae N


    The book introduces ‘the state of the art' of pulsed laser ablation and its applications. It is based on recent theoretical and experimental studies. The book reaches from the basics to advanced topics of pulsed laser ablation. Theoretical and experimental fundamental phenomena involved in pulsed laser ablation are discussed with respect to material properties, laser wavelength, fluence and intensity regime of the light absorbed linearly or non-linearly in the target material. The energy absorbed by the electrons leads to atom/molecule excitation, ionization and/or direct chemical bond breaking and is also transferred to the lattice leading to material heating and phase transitions. Experimental  non-invasive optical methods for analyzing these phenomena in real time are described. Theoretical models for pulsed laser ablation and phase transitions induced by laser beams and laser-vapour/plasma interaction during the plume expansion above the target are also presented. Calculations of the ablation speed and...

  3. Rare earth element selenochemistry of immiscible liquids and zircon at Apollo 14 - An ion probe study of evolved rocks on the moon (United States)

    Snyder, Gregory A.; Taylor, Lawrence A.; Crozaz, Ghislaine


    Results are presented of trace-element analyses of three lunar zircons. The major-element and REE compositions were determined using electron microprobes, and a correction was made for zircon for Zr-Si-O molecular interferences in the La to Pr mass region. The three zircons were found to exhibit similar REE abundances and patterns. Results of the analyses confirm earlier studies (Hess et al., 1975; Watson, 1976; Neal and Taylor, 1989) on the partitioning behavior of trace elements in immiscible liquid-liquid pairs. The results also support the postulated importance of silicate liquid immiscibility in the differentiation of the upper mantle and crust of the moon.

  4. Ablation of Myocardial Tissue With Nanosecond Pulsed Electric Fields.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Xie

    Full Text Available Ablation of cardiac tissue is an essential tool for the treatment of arrhythmias, particularly of atrial fibrillation, atrial flutter, and ventricular tachycardia. Current ablation technologies suffer from substantial recurrence rates, thermal side effects, and long procedure times. We demonstrate that ablation with nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEFs can potentially overcome these limitations.We used optical mapping to monitor electrical activity in Langendorff-perfused New Zealand rabbit hearts (n = 12. We repeatedly inserted two shock electrodes, spaced 2-4 mm apart, into the ventricles (through the entire wall and applied nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEF (5-20 kV/cm, 350 ns duration, at varying pulse numbers and frequencies to create linear lesions of 12-18 mm length. Hearts were stained either with tetrazolium chloride (TTC or propidium iodide (PI to determine the extent of ablation. Some stained lesions were sectioned to obtain the three-dimensional geometry of the ablated volume.In all animals (12/12, we were able to create nonconducting lesions with less than 2 seconds of nsPEF application per site and minimal heating (< 0.2°C of the tissue. The geometry of the ablated volume was smoother and more uniform throughout the wall than typical for RF ablation. The width of the lesions could be controlled up to 6 mm via the electrode spacing and the shock parameters.Ablation with nsPEFs is a promising alternative to radiofrequency (RF ablation of AF. It may dramatically reduce procedure times and produce more consistent lesion thickness than RF ablation.

  5. Three Achilles’ heels of alcohol septal ablation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. G. Kashtanov


    Full Text Available This manuscript looks at basic limitations of alcohol septal ablation in obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. They include high-grade atrioventricular blockages, residual obstructions of the left ventricular outflow tract and the so-called proarrhythmic effects of alcohol septal ablation procedure. All these weaknesses are reviewed in the context of incidence, etiology, and prevention.Received 25 February 2017. Accepted 10 April 2017.Funding: The study did not have sponsorship.Conflict of interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest.Author contributionsConception and study design: M.G. Kashtanov.Data collection and analysis: M.G. Kashtanov.Drafting the article: M.G. Kashtanov, E.M. Idov.Final approval of the version to be published: M.G. Kashtanov, S.D. Chernyshev, L.V. Kardapoltsev, S.V. Berdnikov, E.M. Idov.Full text of the article is in the online version of this paper at

  6. Arcjet Testing of Advanced Conformal Ablative TPS (United States)

    Gasch, Matthew; Beck, Robin; Agrawal, Parul


    A conformable TPS over a rigid aeroshell has the potential to solve a number of challenges faced by traditional rigid TPS materials (such as tiled Phenolic Impregnated Carbon Ablator (PICA) system on MSL. The compliant (high strain to failure) nature of the conformable ablative materials will allow integration of the TPS with the underlying aeroshell structure much easier and enable monolithic-like configuration and larger segments (or parts) to be used. In May of 2013 the CA250 project executed an arcjet test series in the Ames IHF facility to evaluate a phenolic-based conformal system (named Conformal-PICA) over a range of test conditions from 40-400Wcm2. The test series consisted of four runs in the 13-inch diameter nozzle. Test models were based on SPRITE configuration (a 55-deg sphere cone), as it was able to provide a combination of required heat flux, pressure and shear within a single entry. The preliminary in-depth TC data acquired during that test series allowed a mid-fidelity thermal response model for conformal-PICA to be created while testing of seam models began to address TPS attachment and joining of multiple segments for future fabrication of large-scale aeroshells. Discussed in this paper are the results.

  7. CT Guided Laser Ablation of Osteoid Osteoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manohar Kachare


    Full Text Available To present our experience of Computed Tomography (CT guided laser ablation of radiologically proven osteoid osteoma in the inter trochantric region of the femur. A19 year old female presented with severe pain in left upper thigh region since 6-7 months, which was exaggerated during nights and was relived on taking oral Non Steroid Anti Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs. On CT scan hypodense lesion with surrounding dense sclerosis noted in intertrochanteric region in left femur. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI revealed small focal predominantly cortical, oval lytic lesion in the intertrochanteric region which appeared hypointense on T1 Weighted Image (T1WI and hyperintense on T2 Weighted Image (T2WI and Short Tau Inversion Recovery (STIR image. Diffuse extensive sclerosis and hyperostosis of bone was noted surrounding the lesion appearing hypointense on T1W and T2W images. Under local anesthesia the laser fibre was inserted in the nidus under CT guidance through bone biopsy needle and 1800 joules energy delivered in the lesion continuous mode. Complete relief of pain noted after 24 hours after the treatment. CT guided LASER ablation is a safe, simple and effective method of treatment for osteoid osteoma.

  8. Strategy and Outcome of Catheter Ablation for Persistent Atrial Fibrillation - Impact of Progress in the Mapping and Ablation Technologies. (United States)

    Okamatsu, Hideharu; Okumura, Ken


    Pulmonary vein (PV) antrum isolation (PVAI) is effective in treating paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (AF) but is less so for persistent AF. A recent randomized study on the ablation strategies for persistent AF demonstrated that 2 common atrial substrate modifications, creation of linear lesions in the left atrium and ablation of complex fractionated electrogram sites, in addition to PVAI did not improve the outcome compared with stand-alone PVAI, suggesting the necessity of a more individualized, selective approach to persistent AF. There are emerging technologies, including high-resolution mapping with the use of multi-electrode catheter and auto mapping system and contact force (CF) guide ablation; the former allows rapid and accurate confirmation of the completeness of PVAI, and the latter enhances the achievement of durable ablation lesions more securely. Ablation for fibrotic area(s) has been proposed as a new approach for substrate modification, and high-resolution mapping is useful to define the area with low-voltage electrograms, a surrogate marker for atrial fibrosis. Ablation for non-PV triggers in addition to PVAI improves the outcome of persistent AF. Further, durable isolation of the left atrial posterior wall may reduce AF recurrence. These ablation strategies with concomitant use of the emerging technologies are strongly expected to enhance the effectiveness of catheter ablation for persistent AF.

  9. Assessment of ablative margin by MRI with ferucarbotran in radiofrequency ablation for liver cancer: comparison with enhanced CT. (United States)

    Tokunaga, S; Koda, M; Matono, T; Sugihara, T; Nagahara, T; Ueki, M; Murawaki, Y; Kakite, S; Yamashita, E


    Our aim was to determine whether ablated liver parenchyma surrounding a tumour can be assessed by MRI with ferucarbotran administered prior to radiofrequency ablation (RFA) compared with enhanced CT. 55 hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) in 42 patients and 5 metastatic liver cancers in 3 patients were treated by RFA after ferucarbotran administration. We then performed T(2)* weighted MRI after 1 week and enhanced CT after 1 month. T(2)* weighted MRI demonstrated the ablated parenchyma as a low-intensity rim around the high intensity of the ablated tumour in these cases. The assessment was allocated to one of three grades: margin (+), high-intensity area with continuous low-intensity rim; margin zero, high-intensity area with discontinuous low-intensity rim; and margin (-), high-intensity area extending beyond the low-intensity rim. Margin (+), margin zero and margin (-) were found in 17, 35 and 5 nodules, respectively. All 17 nodules with margin (+) and 13 of those with margin zero were assessed as having sufficient ablative margins on CT. The remaining 22 nodules with margin zero had insufficient margins on CT. The overall agreement between MRI and CT for the diagnosis of the ablative margin was moderate (κ = 0.507, p ablative margin to be visualised as a low-intensity rim, and also enables the evaluation of the ablative margin to be made earlier and more easily than with enhanced CT.

  10. Liquid metal bath as conformable soft electrodes for target tissue ablation in radio-frequency ablation therapy. (United States)

    Sun, Xuyang; He, Zhi-Zhu; Deng, Zhong-Shan; Zhou, Yi-Xin; Liu, Jing


    Radio-frequency ablation has been an important physical method for tumor hyperthermia therapy. The conventional rigid electrode boards are often uncomfortable and inconvenient for performing surgery on irregular tumors, especially for those tumors near the joints, such as ankles, knee-joints or other facets like finger joints. We proposed and demonstrated a highly conformable tumor ablation strategy through introducing liquid metal bath as conformable soft electrodes. Different heights of liquid metal bath electrodes were adopted to perform radio-frequency ablation on targeted tissues. Temperature and ablation area were measured to compare the ablation effect with plate metal electrodes. The recorded temperature around the ablation electrode was almost twice as high as that with the plate electrode and the effective ablated area was 2-3 fold larger in all the mimicking situations of bone tumors, span-shaped or round-shaped tumors. Another unique feature of the liquid metal electrode therapy is that the incidence of heat injury was reduced, which is a severe accident that can occur during the treatment of irregular tumors with plate metal boards. The present method suggests a new way of using soft liquid metal bath electrodes for targeted minimally invasive tumor ablation in future clinical practice.

  11. Multi-scale modeling of phase explosion in high fluence nanosecond laser ablation and clarification of ablation depth prediction criterion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Yunfeng; Shin, Yung C., E-mail:


    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • ns laser ablation of aluminum and copper with phase explosion is investigated. • Melt ejection behavior is successfully predicted through a HD/MD/SPH model. • 0.9T{sub c} does not always work for all materials for ablation depth prediction. • 0.75–0.8T{sub c} works better for copper in predicting ablation depth. - Abstract: When phase explosion occurs, accurate prediction of the ablation behavior in the high energy nanosecond laser ablation process still remains a difficult challenge. In this paper, nanosecond laser ablation of aluminum and copper with phase explosion is investigated through a multi-scale model and experimental verification. The melt ejection behavior during phase explosion is successfully predicted by combined molecular dynamics (MD) and smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) simulations and validated against the experiments. The commonly adopted 0.9T{sub c} (critical temperature) criterion for phase explosion boundary is also assessed with the prediction of the ablation depth for both aluminum and copper, and it is found that the 0.9T{sub c} criterion does not always work. The multi-scale model developed in this work is shown to have better capability in predicting the ablation behavior when phase explosion is involved.

  12. Clinical effects of non-ablative and ablative fractional lasers on various hair disorders: a case series of 17 patients. (United States)

    Cho, Suhyun; Choi, Min Ju; Zheng, Zhenlong; Goo, Boncheol; Kim, Do-Young; Cho, Sung Bin


    Both ablative and non-ablative fractional lasers have been applied to various uncommon hair disorders. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the clinical effects of fractional laser therapy on the course of primary follicular and perifollicular pathologies and subsequent hair regrowth. A retrospective review of 17 patients with uncommon hair disorders - including ophiasis, autosomal recessive woolly hair/hypotrichosis, various secondary cicatricial alopecias, pubic hypotrichosis, frontal fibrosing alopecia, and perifolliculitis abscedens et suffodiens - was conducted. All patients had been treated with non-ablative and/or ablative fractional laser therapies. The mean clinical improvement score in these 17 patients was 2.2, while the mean patient satisfaction score was 2.5. Of the 17 subjects, 12 (70.6%) demonstrated a clinical response to non-ablative and/or ablative fractional laser treatments, including individuals with ophiasis, autosomal recessive woolly hair/hypotrichosis, secondary cicatricial alopecia (scleroderma and pressure-induced alopecia), frontal fibrosing alopecia, and perifolliculitis abscedens et suffodiens. Conversely, patients with long-standing ophiasis, surgical scar-induced secondary cicatricial alopecia, and pubic hypotrichosis did not respond to fractional laser therapy. Our findings demonstrate that the use of non-ablative and/or ablative fractional lasers promoted hair growth in certain cases of uncommon hair disorders without any remarkable side effects.

  13. Reactions of calcium orthosilicate and barium zirconate with oxides and sulfates of various elements (United States)

    Zaplatynsky, I.


    Calcium orthosilicate and barium zirconate were evaluated as the insulation layer of thermal barrier coatings for air cooled gas turbine components. Their reactions with various oxides and sulfates were studied at 1100 C and 1300 C for times ranging up to 400 and 200 hours, respectively. These oxides and sulfates represent potential impurities or additives in gas turbine fuels and in turbine combustion air, as well as elements of potential bond coat alloys. The phase compositions of the reaction products were determined by X-ray diffraction analysis. BaZrO3 and 2CaO-SiO2 both reacted with P2O5, V2O5, Cr2O3, Al2O3, and SiO2. In addition, 2CaO-SiO2 reacted with Na2O, BaO, MgO, and CoO and BaZrO3 reacted with Fe2O3.

  14. Research on output signal of piezoelectric lead zirconate titanate detector using Monte Carlo method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takechi, Seiji, E-mail: [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka City University, Osaka 558-8585 (Japan); Mitsuhashi, Tomoaki; Miura, Yoshinori [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka City University, Osaka 558-8585 (Japan); Miyachi, Takashi; Kobayashi, Masanori; Okudaira, Osamu [Planetary Exploration Research Center, Chiba Institute of Technology, Narashino, Chiba 275-0016 (Japan); Shibata, Hiromi [The Institute of Scientific and Industrial Research, Osaka University, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); Fujii, Masayuki [Famscience Co., Ltd., Tsukubamirai, Ibaraki 300-2435 (Japan); Okada, Nagaya [Honda Electronics Co., Ltd., Toyohashi, Aichi 441-3193 (Japan); Murakami, Takeshi; Uchihori, Yukio [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan)


    The response of a radiation detector fabricated from piezoelectric lead zirconate titanate (PZT) was studied. The response signal due to a single 400 MeV/n xenon (Xe) ion was assumed to have a simple form that was composed of two variables, the amplitude and time constant. These variables were estimated by comparing two output waveforms obtained from a computer simulation and an experiment on Xe beam irradiation. Their values appeared to be dependent on the beam intensity. - Highlights: • The performance of PZT detector was studied by irradiation of a 400 MeV/n Xe beam. • Monte Carlo simulation was used to examine the formation process of the output. • The response signal due to a single Xe ion was assumed to have a simple form. • The form was composed of two variables, the amplitude and time constant. • These variables appeared to be dependent on the beam intensity.

  15. Occupational exposure to natural radioactivity in a zircon sand milling plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballesteros, Luisa [Laboratorio de Radioactividad Ambiental, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Apartado 22012, E-46071 Valencia (Spain)], E-mail:; Zarza, Isidoro [Laboratorio de Radioactividad Ambiental, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Apartado 22012, E-46071 Valencia (Spain)], E-mail:; Ortiz, Josefina [Laboratorio de Radioactividad Ambiental, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Apartado 22012, E-46071 Valencia (Spain)], E-mail:; Serradell, Vicente [Laboratorio de Radioactividad Ambiental, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Apartado 22012, E-46071 Valencia (Spain)], E-mail:


    Raw zirconium sand is one of the substances (naturally occurring radioactive material, NORM) which is widely used in the ceramic industry. This sand contains varying concentrations of natural radionuclides: mostly U-238 but also Th-232 and U-235, together with their daughters, and therefore may need to be regulated by Directive 96/29/EURATOM. This paper describes the method used to perform the radiological study on a zircon sand milling plant and presents the results obtained. Internal and external doses were evaluated using radioactivity readings from sand, airborne dust, intermediate materials and end products. The results on total effective dose show the need for this type of industry to be carefully controlled, since values near to 1 mSv were obtained.

  16. Magnetoelectric effect of polymer electrolyte composites with Terfenol-D and lead zirconate titanate inclusions (United States)

    Chau, K. H.; Wong, Y. W.; Shin, F. G.


    The magnetoelectric effects of three-phase composites in 0-0-3 connectivity were investigated. The composites consist of particulate Terfenol-D and lead zirconate titanate blended in different polymer matrices. The magnetoelectric coefficient αq, which is the charge density change in response to a change in the applied magnetic field, of the samples was measured under short circuit condition. The results show that the αq of the samples with an electrolytic polymer matrix is larger than that of the samples with an insulating matrix, while samples with an ion-doped electrolytic polymer matrix exhibit the largest αq. These results conform with the expectation that higher matrix conductivity has an effect of enhancing the magnetoelectric signals.

  17. Preparation of Lanthanum Zirconate Coatings by the Solution Precursor Plasma Spray (United States)

    Wang, W. Z.; Coyle, T.; Zhao, D.


    Solution precursor plasma spray (SPPS) can synthesize powders and deposit the coatings synchronously. The lanthanum zirconate coatings are deposited by SPPS in the present study, and the dense coating can be obtained through changing the precursor solution. The addition of urea can change the heat exchange process for some precursor mixtures. However, almost no effect can be found on the microstructure of powder and coating by the addition of urea. The extra heat energy caused by the addition of urea is so small, as compared with the heat input by the present plasma jet, so that the heating effect can be ignored. The porosity of coatings increase when the LaCl3·7H2O instead of La(NO3)3·6H2O reacts with Zr(CH3CO2)4.

  18. A zircon vs titanite geochronometres by SHRIMP IIe as a tool in multistage magmatic intrusion problems (United States)

    Wiszniewska, Janina; Krzemińska, Ewa


    Most of crystalline basement area of NE Poland is represented by late Svecofennian (1.84-1.80 Ga) orogenic granitoids and supracrustal succession. These early rock assemblages were intruded by plutons of the Mezoproterozoic AMCG suite, which occupies most of W-E trending belt of the so called Mazury Complex. This suite is dominated by A-type granitoids of rapakivi-like texture. The subsequent important components are gabbro-norite, anorthosite and locally mangerite and charnockite rock variations. Anorthosite occurs at three autonomic massifs Sejny, Suwałki(SAM) and Ketrzyn. The basic geochronological investigation was carried out previously using mainly the U-Pb-Th system of zircon and monazite geochronometers. The AMCG suite yielded ages mainly in the range between 1548 to 1500 Ma. The isotopic work also reveals sporadic ages recorded on titanite (1526±11 Ma), considered as the crystallization age of the titanites under subsolidus conditions (Dörr et al.,2002). The geochemical and isotopic whole rock investigation suggests that formation of the AMCG suite was a complex process with multiple magma batches sequentially differentiating, and probably undergoing mixing and crustal assimilation. In this study, we report sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe (SHRIMP) U-Pb zircon and titanite single grain age data from upper part of drill section (Krasnopol 6, depth 1003m) located within easternmost vicinity of the SAM. Both of mineral phases have been selected from the contact between A-type granitoid with Pb-Pb TIMS age of 1525±5 Ma (op cit) and mafic chilled margin interpreted as next magma input. Dating of 20 single zircons from the contact zone yielded concordia ages of 1510±10 Ma for most of grains defined as emplacement age with inheritance at 1850±10 Ma. It evidenced a younger dose of the melt on the top of plutonic body and some input of older crustal material, detected also by whole rock isotopic signatures. Single titanite grains from the same zone

  19. Putting zircon surface geochronology and geochemistry in textural context using 3D Xray tomography: Probing the magmatic history of Mount St. Helens (United States)

    Claiborne, L. L.; Wooden, J. L.; Miller, C. F.; Gualda, G. A.; Clynne, M. A.; Flanagan, D. M.


    Zircon U-Series and U-Pb geochronology from 25 samples spanning the eruptive history of Mount St. Helens volcano (MSH) reveal complex and wide-ranging age populations, suggesting that some magmas intruded beneath MSH are stored for up to a few 100 kyr before being rejuvenated, recycled into younger hot magmas, and erupted (Claiborne et al., 2010). The compositions of these zircons record thermal and chemical transitions in the magmatic system independent of the eruptive behavior. An apparent paucity of eruption-age zircon precluded assessment of near-eruption magmatic conditions and suggested that zircon was undersaturated in all magmas just prior to eruption or that zircons were not cognate to the erupted magmas. However, this could be an artifact of traditional SHRIMP methods that use a 15 to 40 micron ion beam to analyze interiors of polished grains and therefore cannot access micrometer-scale outer rims that may represent final growth. To address these possibilities, we analyzed the outermost rims of zircon from 6 of the 25 eruptive units by pressing grains into indium and analyzing their surfaces. In 3 samples, zircon growth within error of or less than the previously estimated eruption age was identified. In 3 samples, the surface ages and chemistry were similar to the older zircon interiors. Each sample exhibited variation in surface ages and compositions among grains, including some surface ages more than 10 kyr older than eruption. This variation within samples indicates that the zircon in an erupted magma experienced different conditions prior to eruption, a conclusion also supported by the varied external morphology and grain size within individual samples (rounded vs. euhedral, glass-covered vs. clean). In order to determine the source of these variations in surface composition and age, it was necessary to place the zircons in textural context. Since zircons are scarce in MSH rocks and rarely visible in thin section, we used differential absorption x

  20. SHRIMP U-Pb zircon dating of Pedras Grandes Suite, southern Santa Catarina State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa R. Jelinek


    Full Text Available Two major magmatic pulses of the granitic Florianópolis Batholith in Santa Catarina State, southern Brazil, occurred between 613±5Ma and 595±5 Ma, during the Neoproterozoic Brasiliano Cycle. These ages were obtained by U-Pb isotopic determinations with the sensitive high mass-resolution ion microprobe on igneous zircons from Pedras Grandes Suite in Santa Catarina State. Euhedral zircons remained unaltered close to a fluorite vein deposited at 180?C or more. These ages suggest a northern limit for the Pedras Grandes Suite, explaining the spatial relationship between the fluorite veins and the source rock.Dois dos principais pulsos da atividade granítica no Batólito Florianópolis em Santa Catarina ocorreram entre 613 ±5 Ma e 595 ±5 Ma, durante o Neoproterozóico do Ciclo Brasiliano. Estas idades foram obtidas a partir dedeterminações isotópicas U-Pb em cristais de zircão da Suite Pedras Grandes por "Sensitive high-resolution íon microprobe" - SHRIMP II. Os cristais de zircão permaneceram inalterados mesmo mediante condições hidrotermais com temperaturas iguais e, até mesmo, superiores a 180ºC. Estas idades sugerem a delimitação norte do Maciço Pedras Grandes, explicando a relação espacial existente entre os filões de fluorita e a rocha fonte destas mineralizações.

  1. Percutaneous Renal Tumor Ablation: Radiation Exposure During Cryoablation and Radiofrequency Ablation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McEachen, James C., E-mail: [Mayo Clinic, Division of Preventive, Occupational, and Aerospace Medicine (United States); Leng, Shuai; Atwell, Thomas D. [Mayo Clinic, Department of Radiology (United States); Tollefson, Matthew K. [Mayo Clinic, Department of Urology (United States); Friese, Jeremy L. [Mayo Clinic, Department of Radiology (United States); Wang, Zhen; Murad, M. Hassan [Mayo Clinic, Division of Preventive, Occupational, and Aerospace Medicine (United States); Schmit, Grant D. [Mayo Clinic, Department of Radiology (United States)


    IntroductionOnce reserved solely for non-surgical cases, percutaneous ablation is becoming an increasingly popular treatment option for a wider array of patients with small renal masses and the radiation risk needs to be better defined as this transition continues.Materials and MethodsRetrospective review of our renal tumor ablation database revealed 425 patients who underwent percutaneous ablation for treatment of 455 renal tumors over a 5-year time period. Imparted radiation dose information was reviewed for each procedure and converted to effective patient dose and skin dose using established techniques. Statistical analysis was performed with each ablative technique.ResultsFor the 331 cryoablation procedures, the mean DLP was 6987 mGycm (SD = 2861) resulting in a mean effective dose of 104.7 mSv (SD = 43.5) and the mean CTDI{sub vol} was 558 mGy (SD = 439) resulting in a mean skin dose of 563.2 mGy (SD = 344.1). For the 124 RFA procedures, the mean DLP was 3485 mGycm (SD = 1630) resulting in a mean effective dose of 50.3 mSv (SD = 24.0) and the mean CTDI{sub vol} was 232 mGy (SD = 149) resulting in a mean skin dose of 233.2 mGy (SD = 117.4). The difference in patient radiation exposure between the two renal ablation techniques was statistically significant (p < 0.001).ConclusionBoth cryoablation and RFA imparted an average skin dose that was well below the 2 Gy deterministic threshold for appreciable sequela. Renal tumor cryoablation resulted in a mean skin and effective radiation dose more than twice that for RFA. The radiation exposure for both renal tumor ablation techniques was at the high end of the medical imaging radiation dose spectrum.

  2. Detrital zircon geochronology of lower to mid-crustal rocks associated with a microplate-continent collision, NW Argentina (United States)

    Austin, L. J.; Roeske, S.; Garber, J. M.; Wimpenny, J.; Yin, Q.


    New LA-ICPMS U-Pb detrital zircon data give insight into the age and origin of complexly deformed metaigneous and metasedimentary rocks in an ancient collision zone, and help clarify the structural relationships of lower to mid-crustal structural packages in the Sierra de Pie de Palo, northwest Argentina. The Pie de Palo range contains complexly deformed Precambrian crystalline rocks that have experienced single- or multi-phase metamorphism, the latest of which is associated with convergence and collision of the Precordillera microplate with the Famatina arc of Gondwana. The two main metamorphic events occurred at ~1070 Ma and ~470 Ma, based on isotopic ages from several samples. The regional extent of both events, and thus the geometry of the collisional system, is not well defined. West-vergent shear zones separate two Precambrian basement complexes, the Pie de Palo Complex and Central Complex, from the Caucete Group, a suite of intensely deformed, medium grade Cambrian quartzite and marble. Detrital zircons from the hanging wall of the ductile Duraznos shear zone within the Pie de Palo range constrain the timing of cessation of Precambrian deformation and reflect no significant regional metamorphism between 1070 Ma and 470 Ma. Garnets with one clear phase of growth in the hanging wall are juxtaposed with two-phase garnets in the footwall. ~25% of the detrital zircon grains analyzed from the immediate hanging wall are younger than 1050 Ma, precluding the existence of the hanging wall package and the Duraznos shear zone in the 1070 Ma event. Detrital zircon ages also constrain the geometry of the Las Pirquitas Thrust, and support the interpretation of a structural window within the Pie de Palo Complex into the younger Caucete Group. Age distribution peaks correspond to previous detrital zircon analyses of Caucete Group metasediments. The presence of a window into Caucete Group rocks amidst the Pie de Palo Complex implies a very low-angle thrust and a thin thrust

  3. Crustal formation in the Nanling Range, South China Block: Hf isotope evidence of zircons from Phanerozoic granitoids (United States)

    Shu, Xu-Jie; Wang, Xiao-Lei; Sun, Tao; Chen, Wei-Feng; Shen, Wei-Zhou


    Granitic rocks are the principle agent of crustal differentiation, therefore their origins yield important information on crustal formation and reworking. An extensive survey of zircon Hf isotopes from granitic rocks in a large region can provide a profile of crustal characteristics that may be further linked to previous crustal evolution. In this study, we measured U-Pb ages and Hf isotope compositions of zircon grains extracted from twenty-five Jurassic, five Triassic and two Ordovician granitic plutons from the Nanling Range, South China Block (SCB). Combined with the published Lu-Hf isotopic data for the granitic rocks in the studied and adjacent areas, three domains with different crustal formation histories have been identified in the southern part of the SCB: eastern side, middle part and western side. The eastern side extends to the coastal area of the SCB, with dominant Hf crustal model ages (TDM2) in zircons falling within the range of 2.2-1.6 Ga. The middle part is partly coincided with the low-Nd model age belt proposed by Chen and Jahn (1998), with zircon Hf TDM2 ranging from 1.6 to 1.0 Ga. The western side covers the westernmost Nanling Range and the western end of the Jiangnan orogen, in which the granitoids have zircon Hf TDM2 model ages spanning 2.2-1.8 Ga. The Paleo- to Meso-Proterozoic model ages of the Phanerozoic granitoids in the Nanling Range imply a long-term crustal reworking. Zircons from the western and eastern sides have an average ɛHf(155 Ma) at around -10, about 4 epsilon units lower than the middle part (ɛHf(155 Ma) = -6). Hf TDM2 histogram from the western Nanling Range is similar to that of the Neoproterozoic granitoids in northern Guangxi Province to the west but much lower to the granites in the middle part to the east. The eastern side has a broader range of Hf model ages in zircons, with the main peak low to ca 1.6 Ga, suggesting the reworking of Mesoproterozoic crust. However, granitoids in the middle part have zircon Hf TDM2

  4. An ion microprobe study of individual zircon phenocrysts from voluminous post-caldera rhyolites of the Yellowstone caldera (United States)

    Watts, K. E.; Bindeman, I. N.; Schmitt, A. K.


    Following the formation of the Yellowstone caldera from the 640 ka supereruption of the Lava Creek Tuff (LCT), a voluminous episode of post-caldera volcanism filled the caldera with >600 km3 of low-δ18O rhyolite. Such low-δ18O signatures require remelting of 100s of km3 of hydrothermally altered (18O-depleted) rock in the shallow crust. We present a high resolution oxygen isotope and geochronology (U-Th and U-Pb) study of individual zircon crystals from seven of these voluminous post-caldera rhyolites in order to elucidate their genesis. Oxygen isotope and geochronology analyses of zircon were performed with an ion microprobe that enabled us to doubly fingerprint 25-30 µm diameter spots. Host groundmass glasses and coexisting quartz were analyzed in bulk for oxygen isotopes by laser fluorination. We find that zircons from the youngest (200-80 ka) post-caldera rhyolites have oxygen isotopic compositions that are in equilibrium with low-δ18O host groundmass glasses and quartz and are unzoned in oxygen and U-Th age. This finding is in contrast to prior work on older (500-250 ka) post-caldera rhyolites, which exhibit isotopic disequilibria and age zoning, including the presence of clearly inherited zircon cores. Average U-Th crystallization ages and δ18O zircon values for Pitchstone Plateau flow (81±7 ka, 2.8±0.2‰), West Yellowstone flow (118±8 ka, 2.8±0.1‰), Elephant Back flow (175±22 ka, 2.7±0.2‰) and Tuff of Bluff Point (176±20 ka, 2.7±0.1‰) are overlapping or nearly overlapping in age and identical in oxygen isotope composition within uncertainty (2 SE). New U-Pb geochronology and oxygen isotope data for the North Biscuit Basin flow establish that it has an age (188±33 ka) and δ18O signature (2.8±0.2‰) that is distinctive of the youngest post-caldera rhyolites. Conversely, the South Biscuit Basin flow has a heterogeneous zircon population with ages that range from 550-250 ka. In this unit, older and larger (200-400 µm) zircons have more

  5. Insufficient ablative margin determined by early computed tomography may predict the recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma after radiofrequency ablation. (United States)

    Teng, Wei; Liu, Ka-Wai; Lin, Chen-Chun; Jeng, Wen-Juei; Chen, Wei-Ting; Sheen, I-Shyan; Lin, Chun-Yen; Lin, Shi-Ming


    Tumor recurrence in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients after radiofrequency ablation (RFA) remains common; some studies have reported that insufficient ablative margin after RFA might contribute to HCC recurrence. The aim of this study was to investigate whether insufficient ablative safety margins determined by early computed tomography (CT) predicts HCC recurrence after RFA. This retrospective study recruited patients with a single HCC lesion after RFA in our department between May 2013 and March 2014. Early follow-up CT was performed within 7 days after RFA. An adequate ablative margin assessed by follow-up CT was defined as (maximum post-RFA CT radius)(3)/(maximum pre-RFA CT radius + 5 mm)(3)> 1. All patients in whom complete ablation was achieved underwent a CT scan every 3 months for early detection of HCC recurrence. In total, 72 patients (48 male, mean age 69.4 years) were analyzed. Of these, eight patients had local tumor progression, four had intra-hepatic distant recurrence, and two had extra-hepatic metastasis. Insufficient ablative margin, defined as an ablative volume with a safety margin of less than 5 mm, was an important predictor of local tumor progression (LTP) (p = 0.015) and overall recurrence (p = 0.012). The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of an insufficient ablative margin for predicting LTP and overall recurrence were 36.4%, 97.2%, 50.0%, and 87.9%, and 46.2%, 89.7%, 42.9%, and 87.9%, respectively. An ablative volume with an ablative margin of less than 5 mm is associated with higher rates of both LTP and overall recurrence in HCC after RFA.

  6. Transarterial ablation of hepatocellular carcinoma. Status and developments; Transvaskulaere Ablation des hepatozellulaeren Karzinoms. Ist Chemotherapie alles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radeleff, B.A.; Stampfl, U.; Sommer, C.M.; Bellemann, N.; Kauczor, H.U. [Universitaetsklinikum Heidelberg, Abt. Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Radiologische Klinik, Heidelberg (Germany); Hoffmann, K. [Universitaetsklinikum Heidelberg, Abt. fuer Allgemein-, Viszeral- und Transplantationschirurgie, Chirurgische Klinik, Heidelberg (Germany); Ganten, T.; Ehehalt, R. [Universitaetsklinikum Heidelberg, Medizinische Klinik IV, Gastroenterologie, Infektionskrankheiten, Vergiftungen, Heidelberg (Germany)


    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fifth most common cancer worldwide and represents the main cause of death among European patients with liver cirrhosis. Only 30-40% of patients diagnosed with HCC are candidates for curative treatment options (e.g. surgical resection, liver transplantation or ablation). The remaining majority of patients must undergo local regional and palliative therapies. Transvascular ablation of HCC takes advantage of the fact that the hypervascularized HCC receives most of its blood supply from the hepatic artery. In this context transvascular ablation describes different therapy regimens which can be assigned to four groups: cTACE (conventional transarterial chemoembolization), bland embolization (transarterial embolization TAE), DEB-TACE (TACE with drug-eluting beads, DEB) and SIRT (selective internal radiation therapy, radioembolization). Conventional TACE is the most common type of transvascular ablation and represents a combination of intra-arterial chemotherapy and embolization with occlusion of the arterial blood supply. However, there is no standardized regimen with respect to the chemotherapeutic drug, the embolic agent, the usage of lipiodol and the interval between the TACE procedures. Even the exact course of a cTACE procedure (order of chemotherapy or embolization) is not standardized. It remains unclear whether or not intra-arterial chemotherapy is definitely required as bland embolization using very small, tightly calibrated spherical particles (without intra-arterial administration of a chemotherapeutic drug) shows tumor necrosis comparable to cTACE. For DEB-TACE microparticles loaded with a chemotherapeutic drug combine the advantages of cTACE and bland embolization. Thereby, a continuing chemotherapeutic effect within the tumor might cause a further increase in intratumoral cytotoxicity and at the same time a decrease in systemic toxicity. (orig.) [German] Das hepatozellulaere Karzinom (HCC) ist weltweit betrachtet das

  7. Pain perception description after advanced surface ablation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sobas EM


    Full Text Available Eva M Sobas,1,2 Sebastián Videla,3,4 Amanda Vázquez,1 Itziar Fernández,1,5 Miguel J Maldonado,1 José-Carlos Pastor1,6,7 1Instituto Universitario de Oftalmobiología Aplicada (IOBA, Universidad de Valladolid, Valladolid, Spain; 2Facultad de Enfermería, Universidad de Valladolid, Valladolid Spain; 3Laboratorios Dr. Esteve S.A., Barcelona, Spain; 4Department of Experimental and Health Sciences, Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud y de la Vida, Universidad Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona, Spain; 5Networking Research Center on Bioengineering, Biomaterials and Nanomedicine (CIBER-BBN, Valladolid, Spain; 6Department of Ophthalmology, Hospital Clínico Universitario, Valladolid, Spain; 7Department of Surgery, Ophthalmology, Otorhinolaryngology and Physiotherapy, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Valladolid, Valladolid, Spain Purpose: The objective of this study was to characterize the evolution of ocular pain after advanced surface ablation (ASA to improve strategies in postoperative pain management.Methods: This was a multicenter, prospective, descriptive, cohort study. The inclusion criteria were healthy individuals ≥18 years old receiving bilateral alcohol-assisted surface ablation with epithelial removal. Pain intensity was evaluated with the visual analog scale (VAS and the numeric pain rating scale before and after surgery. Comorbidities (photophobia, burning, tearing, and foreign body sensation and Hospital Anxiety and Depression (HAD questionnaire were evaluated before and at 6 hours after surgery. Postoperative treatments included cold patch, topical cold antibiotics, topical steroids, and benzodiazepines.Results: Thirty-two consecutive patients having similar profiles of postoperative pain evolution were included. At 0.5 hour after ASA, the pain score by VAS was 37±20 mm, and the maximum pain, 61±31 mm, occurred at 24 hours. Afterward, it decreased progressively until 72 hours after surgery (19±20 mm. Most patients (81% scored >60 mm, and

  8. Laser Mediated Cell Ablation During Post-Implantation Mouse Development (United States)

    Angelo, Jesse R.; Tremblay, Kimberly D.


    Background Laser mediated cell ablation is a powerful tool that has been used to understand cell fate in a variety of externally developing organisms but has not been used during mammalian post-implantation development. Results We describe a method pairing laser ablation with murine embryo culture and establish parameters that can be used to precisely ablate cells in the selected field with minimal disruption to adjacent cells or the underlying cell matrix. Ablation of a large domain of endoderm, followed by ~1 day of culture results in a phenotypically normal embryo and gut tube, indicating that laser ablation is compatible with normal development. We next focused on one of the three precursor populations that have been shown to produce the liver bud. Ablations of a single progenitor domain results in a unilateral delay in the liver bud while the contralateral side is unaffected. Conclusions We demonstrate that laser ablation is a specific and useful technique for studying cell fate in the mouse embryo. This method represents a powerful advance in developmental studies in the mouse and can be used to provide information on the specification of organs, differentiation, cell migration and vital tissue interactions during development. PMID:23873840

  9. Actual role of radiofrequency ablation of liver metastases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Philippe L. [Eberhard-Karls-University of Tuebingen, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Tuebingen (Germany)


    The liver is, second only to lymph nodes, the most common site for metastatic disease irrespective of the primary tumour. More than 50% of all patients with malignant diseases will develop liver metastases with a significant morbidity and mortality. Although the surgical resection leads to an improved survival in patients with colorectal metastases, only approximately 20% of patients are eligible for surgery. Thermal ablation and especially radiofrequency ablation emerge as an important additional therapy modality for the treatment of liver metastases. RF ablation shows a benefit in life expectancy and may lead in a selected patient group to cure. Percutaneous RF ablation appears safer (versus cryotherapy), easier (versus laser), and more effective (versus ethanol instillation and transarterial chemoembolisation) compared with other minimally invasive procedures. RF ablation can be performed by a percutaneous, laparoscopical or laparotomic approach, and may be potentially combined with chemotherapy and surgery. At present ideal candidates have tumours with a maximum diameter less than 3.5 cm. An untreatable primary tumour or a systemic disease represents contraindications for performing local therapies. Permanent technical improvements of thermal ablation devices and a better integration of thermal ablation in the overall patient care may lead to prognosis improvement in patients with liver metastases. (orig.)

  10. Ablation for atrial fibrillation: an evidence-based analysis. (United States)


    To review the effectiveness, safety, and costing of ablation methods to manage atrial fibrillation (AF). The ablation methods reviewed were catheter ablation and surgical ablation. Atrial fibrillation is characterized by an irregular, usually rapid, heart rate that limits the ability of the atria to pump blood effectively to the ventricles. Atrial fibrillation can be a primary diagnosis or it may be associated with other diseases, such as high blood pressure, abnormal heart muscle function, chronic lung diseases, and coronary heart disease. The most common symptom of AF is palpitations. Symptoms caused by decreased blood flow include dizziness, fatigue, and shortness of breath. Some patients with AF do not experience any symptoms. According to United States data, the incidence of AF increases with age, with a prevalence of 1 per 200 people aged between 50 and 60 years, and 1 per 10 people aged over 80 years. In 2004, the Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences (ICES) estimated that the rate of hospitalization for AF in Canada was 582.7 per 100,000 population. They also reported that of the patients discharged alive, 2.7% were readmitted within 1 year for stroke. One United States prevalence study of AF indicated that the overall prevalence of AF was 0.95%. When the results of this study were extrapolated to the population of Ontario, the prevalence of AF in Ontario is 98,758 for residents aged over 20 years. Currently, the first-line therapy for AF is medical therapy with antiarrhythmic drugs (AADs). There are several AADs available, because there is no one AAD that is effective for all patients. The AADs have critical adverse effects that can aggravate existing arrhythmias. The drug selection process frequently involves trial and error until the patient's symptoms subside. Ablation has been frequently described as a "cure" for AF, compared with drug therapy, which controls AF but does not cure it. Ablation involves directing an energy source at cardiac tissue

  11. Wavelength scaling of silicon laser ablation in picosecond regime (United States)

    Sikora, A.; Grojo, D.; Sentis, M.


    Single pulse laser ablation of silicon has been investigated at 343, 515, and 1030 nm using a laser pulse duration of 50 ps. In this large spectral range, ablation thresholds of silicon vary from 0.01 to 0.83 J/cm2, confirming a strong dependence on the wavelength. By solving the free-carrier density rate equation at threshold conditions, we show that band-to-band linear absorption dominates energy deposition at 343 and 515 nm, whereas at 1030 nm, the energy leading to ablation is primarily absorbed by the generated free-carriers. This allows us to determine the relevant criteria to derive a simple model predicting the wavelength dependence of the ablation threshold in this regime. We obtain an excellent agreement between experimental measurements and calculations by simply considering an averaged energy density required in the absorption depth for surface ablation and accounting for the laser-induced variations of the important thermophysical parameters. On the basis of this analysis, we discuss the optimal wavelength and fluence conditions for maximum removal rate, ablation efficiency, and accuracy. Despite the difference in mechanisms at the different wavelengths, we find that the maximal efficiency remains at around 7 times the ablation threshold fluence for all investigated wavelengths. This work provides guidelines for high-quality and efficient micromachining of silicon in the scarcely explored picosecond regime, while new picosecond sources offer numerous advantages for real throughput industrial applications.

  12. Ablation-cooled material removal with ultrafast bursts of pulses (United States)

    Kerse, Can; Kalaycıoğlu, Hamit; Elahi, Parviz; Çetin, Barbaros; Kesim, Denizhan K.; Akçaalan, Önder; Yavaş, Seydi; Aşık, Mehmet D.; Öktem, Bülent; Hoogland, Heinar; Holzwarth, Ronald; Ilday, Fatih Ömer


    The use of femtosecond laser pulses allows precise and thermal-damage-free removal of material (ablation) with wide-ranging scientific, medical and industrial applications. However, its potential is limited by the low speeds at which material can be removed and the complexity of the associated laser technology. The complexity of the laser design arises from the need to overcome the high pulse energy threshold for efficient ablation. However, the use of more powerful lasers to increase the ablation rate results in unwanted effects such as shielding, saturation and collateral damage from heat accumulation at higher laser powers. Here we circumvent this limitation by exploiting ablation cooling, in analogy to a technique routinely used in aerospace engineering. We apply ultrafast successions (bursts) of laser pulses to ablate the target material before the residual heat deposited by previous pulses diffuses away from the processing region. Proof-of-principle experiments on various substrates demonstrate that extremely high repetition rates, which make ablation cooling possible, reduce the laser pulse energies needed for ablation and increase the efficiency of the removal process by an order of magnitude over previously used laser parameters. We also demonstrate the removal of brain tissue at two cubic millimetres per minute and dentine at three cubic millimetres per minute without any thermal damage to the bulk.

  13. Midinfrared ablation of dentin with the Vanderbilt FEL (United States)

    Harris, David M.; Reinisch, Lou; Edwards, Glenn S.; Yessik, Michael J.; Ashrafi, Shahid; Santos-Sacchi, Joseph


    Absorption spectra of 0.1 - 0.2 mm thick, dehydrated sections of human teeth were measured in the transmission mode with a Bruker FT-IR spectrometer from 2.5 - 20 micrometers . Absorption peaks for amide I, II and III, carbonate and phosphate were identified. Craters were ablated in dentin and enamel using a tunable FEL at 6.45 micrometers at various fluences. Pulse duration: 3 microsecond(s) ; spot size (Gaussian, FWHM): 300 micrometers ; repetition rate: 10 Hz. Crater depth and width were measured from digitized optical images. Ablation rates were computed from crater depth and volume data. Selected specimens were examined with scanning electron microscopy to determine ablation surface characteristics. Depth of thermal damage and dentinal tubule morphology were estimated from SEM examination of fractures through ablation sites. Functions describing crater depth vs. number of pulses (quadratic function) were not the same as crater volume vs. number of pulses (linear function). Crater depth decreases with successive pulses, concurrently, the crater width increases. Thus, each pulse removes approximately a constant volume. Material was observed to flow through the dentinal tubules during and after ablation. Patent tubules on crater walls and floor were observed with SEM. Ablation rates in dentin were approximately 3X those in enamel at 6.45 micrometers . Ablation rates and surface characteristics varied across wavelengths from 5.8 to 8.0 micrometers .

  14. A thermoelastic deformation model of tissue contraction during thermal ablation. (United States)

    Park, Chang Sub; Liu, Cong; Hall, Sheldon K; Payne, Stephen J


    Thermal ablation is an energy-based ablation technique widely used during minimally invasive cancer treatment. Simulations are used to predict the dead tissue post therapy. However, one difficulty with the simulations is accurately predicting the ablation zone in post-procedural images due to the contraction of tissue as a result of exposure to elevated temperatures. A mathematical model of the thermoelastic deformation for an elastic isotropic material was coupled with a three state thermal denaturation model to determine the contraction of tissue during thermal ablation. A finite difference method was considered to quantify the tissue contraction for a typical temperature distribution during thermal ablation. The simulations show that tissue displacement during thermal ablation was not bound to the tissue heated regions only. Both tissue expansion and contraction were observed at the different stages of the heating process. Tissue contraction of up to 42% was obtained with an applicator temperature of 90 °C. A recovery of around 2% was observed with heating removed as a result of unfolded state proteins returning back to its native state. Poisson's ratio and the applicator temperature have both been shown to affect the tissue displacement significantly. The maximum tissue contraction was found to increase with both increasing Poisson's ratio and temperature. The model presented here will allow predictions of thermal ablation to be corrected for tissue contraction, which is an important effect, during comparison with post-procedural images, thus improving the accuracy of mathematical simulations for treatment planning.

  15. The enigmatic Gula Complex of the central Norwegian Caledonides: new constraints on age and origin from zircon dating and geochemistry (United States)

    Gasser, Deta; Grenne, Tor; Eivind Augland, Lars


    Reconstructing the closure of the Iapetus Ocean is a major task in order to understand the evolution of the Caledonian orogeny in space and time. Major questions remain regarding the timing of formation, closure and accretion of oceanic basins as well as the age and origin of continental fragments caught and incorporated into these oceanic domains during closure. One of the largest, yet least constrained in terms of age and setting, of these continent-derived units is the Gula Complex, which is juxtaposed with Iapetus-derived oceanic units within the Trondheim Nappe Complex of the central Norwegian Caledonides. The Gula Complex consists of metamorphosed siliciclastic rocks with subordinate ribbon-chert, black schist and volcanic rocks of mainly mafic composition. In this contribution we present new geochemical data from volcanic rocks, U-Pb TIMS zircon ages from metavolcanites and dykes, and U-Pb LA-ICP-MS detrital zircon age spectra from metasedimentary rocks. A basaltic andesite with an earliest Neoproterozoic zircon age was apparently associated with a brief volcanic interval represented by laterally extensive, MORB- to within plate-type rift-related basalts. Nearby metapsammites have maximum ages also consistent with deposition in the early Neoproterozoic. By contrast, detrital zircon spectra in other metapsammites indicate that parts of the Gula Complex were deposited in Cambro-Silurian times. Prominent latest Neoproterozoic and Cambrian detrital zircons (660-610, 530-490 Ma) reflect a source region atypical for both Laurentia and Baltica. Basaltic units with a back-arc type geochemical signature are tentatively thought to have formed within this time span. An intermediate dyke yielding Middle Ordovician zircons is possibly related to the back-arc basin type volcanism, indicating at least one magmatic pulse prior to the widespread Mid-Silurian trondhjemitic to dioritic magmatism well known from the Gula Complex. Our new data demonstrate that the Gula Complex

  16. Petrological and zircon evidence for the Early Cretaceous granulite-facies metamorphism in the Dabie orogen, China (United States)

    Gao, Xiao-Ying; Zhang, Qiang-Qiang; Zheng, Yong-Fei; Chen, Yi-Xiang


    An integrated study of petrology, mineralogy, geochemistry, and geochronology was carried out for contemporaneous mafic granulite and diorite from the Dabie orogen. The results provide evidence for granulite-facies reworking of the ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) metamorphic rock in the collisional orogen. Most zircons from the granulite are new growth, and their U-Pb ages are clearly categorized into two groups at 122-127 Ma and 188 ± 2 Ma. Although these two groups of zircons show similarly steep HREE patterns and variably negative Eu anomalies, the younger group has much higher U, Th and REE contents and Th/U ratios, much lower εHf(t) values than the older group. This suggests their growth is associated with different types of dehydration reactions. The older zircon domains contain mineral inclusions of garnet + clinopyroxene ± quartz, indicating their growth through metamorphic reactions at high pressures. In contrast, the young zircon domains only contain a few quartz inclusions and the garnet-clinopyroxene-plagioclase-quartz barometry yields pressures of 4.9 to 12.5 kb. In addition, the clinopyroxene-garnet Fe-Mg exchange thermometry gives temperatures of 738-951 °C. Therefore, the young zircon domains would have grown through peritectic reaction at low to medium pressures. The younger granulite-facies metamorphic age is in agreement not only with the adjacent diorite at 125 ± 1 Ma in this study but also the voluminous emplacement of coeval mafic and felsic magmas in the Dabie orogen. Mineral separates from both mafic granulite and its adjacent diorite show uniformly lower δ18O values than normal mantle, similar to those for UHP eclogite-facies metaigneous rocks in the Dabie orogen. In combination with major-trace elements and zircon Lu-Hf isotope compositions, it is inferred that the protolith of mafic granulites shares with the source rock of diorites, both being a kind of mafic metasomatites at the slab-mantle interface in the continental subduction channel

  17. Evolution of the Yunkai Terrane, South China: Evidence from SHRIMP zircon U-Pb dating, geochemistry and Nd isotope (United States)

    Wan, Yusheng; Liu, Dunyi; Wilde, Simon A.; Cao, Jianjin; Chen, Bin; Dong, Chunyan; Song, Biao; Du, Lilin


    The Yunkai Terrane is one of the most important pre-Devonian areas of metamorphosed supracrustal and granitic basement rocks in the Cathaysia Block of South China. The supracrustal rocks are mainly schist, slate and phyllite, with local paragneiss, granulite, amphibolite and marble, with metamorphic grades ranging from greenschist to granulite facies. Largely on the basis of metamorphic grade, they were previously divided into the Palaeo- to Mesoproterozoic Gaozhou Complex, the early Neoproterozoic Yunkai 'Group' and early Palaeozoic sediments. Granitic rocks were considered to be Meso- and Neoproterozoic, or early Palaeozoic in age. In this study, four meta-sedimentary rock samples, two each from the Yunkai 'Group' and Gaozhou Complex, together with three granite samples, record metamorphic and magmatic zircon ages of 443-430 Ma (Silurian), with many inherited and detrital zircons with the ages mainly ranging from 1.1 to 0.8 Ga, although zircons with Archaean and Palaeoproterozoic ages have also been identified in several of the samples. A high-grade sillimanite-garnet-cordierite gneiss contains ˜242 Ma metamorphic zircons, as well as ˜440 Ma ones. Three of the meta-sedimentary rocks show large variations in major element compositions, but have similar REE patterns, and have tDM model ages of 2.17-1.91 Ga and ɛNd (440 Ma) values of -13.4 to -10.0. Granites range in composition from monzogranite to syenogranite and record tDM model ages of 2.13-1.42 Ga and ɛNd (440 Ma) values of -8.4 to -1.2. It is concluded that the Yunkai 'Group' and Gaozhou Complex formed coevally in the late Neoproterozoic to early Palaeozoic, probably at the same time as weakly to un-metamorphosed early Palaeozoic sediments in the area. Based on the detrital zircon population, the source area contained Meso- to Neoproterozoic rocks, with some Archaean material. Palaeozoic tectonothermal events and zircon growth in the Yunkai Terrane can be correlated with events of similar age and

  18. Contrasting zircon morphology and UPb systematics in peralkaline and metaluminous post-orogenic granite complexes of the Arabian Shield, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (United States)

    Aleinikof, J.N.; Stoeser, D.B.


    Uzircon ages are reported for seven metaluminous-to-peralkaline post-orogenic granites from the Late Proterozoic Arabian Shield of Saudi Arabia. Zircons from the metaluminous rocks are prismatic, with length-to-width ratios of ??? 2-4: 1 and small pyramidal terminations. In contrast, zircons from three of the four peralkaline complexes either lack well-developed prismatic faces (are pseudo-octahedral) or are anhedral. Some zircons from the peralkaline granites contain inherited radiogenic Pb and have very high common Pb contents (206Pb/204Pb Zircons in the metaluminous granites do not contain inheritance and yield well-defined concordia intercepts. The span of ages of the seven complexes (670-470 Ma) indicates that post-orogenic granitic magmatism was not a singular event in the Arabian Shield but rather occurred as multiple intrusive episodes from the Late Proterozoic to the Middle Ordovician. ?? 1989.

  19. Magma mixing and crystal exchange at Yellowstone caldera revealed though sub-crystal-scale age, trace-element, and Hf-isotopic analyses of zircons (United States)

    Stelten, M. E.; Cooper, K. M.; Vazquez, J. A.; Wimpenny, J.; Yin, Q.


    We examine magma mixing and crystal exchange in a young magma reservoir by correlating sub-crystal-scale SIMS age, SIMS trace element, and LA-MC-ICPMS Hf-isotopic data from zircons in the coeval ca. 100ka, yet compositionally distinct rhyolites of the Solfatara Plateau flow (SPF) and Hayden Valley flow (HVF) at Yellowstone Caldera. The SPF and HVF lavas are part of the Central Plateau Member (CPM) of the Plateau Rhyolite that is composed of the youngest intracaldera rhyolite flows at Yellowstone, erupted between ca. 170-70ka. We compare these data to age and trace element data from zircons in 1) the Pitchstone Plateau Flow, West Yellowstone Flow, and Dry Creek Flow of the CPM as representative of main reservoir zircons, 2) the ca. 118ka extracaldera Gibbon River Flow rhyolite (GRF), and 3) the ca. 260ka Scaup Lake Flow of the Upper Basin Member rhyolites. Additionally, we compare the zircon data to new MC-ICPMS Hf-isotopic data from CPM glasses. Correlating age, trace element, and Hf-isotopic data from zircons in the HVF and SPF reveals the presence of four zircon populations. Main reservoir-like (MR-like) zircons have trace element compositions similar to main CPM reservoir zircons, young ages (Lastly, a population of zircons (which we interpret to be inherited) have cores with older ages (>350ka), a range in trace element compositions, and high ɛHf (-5.8 to -3.6) whereas the rims have restricted MR-like trace element compositions and ɛHf within error of CPM glasses. The sense of core to rim zoning specific to each population suggests that each population has its own unique history. The core to rim zoning in MR-like and inherited zircons, from cores with a range of Hf-isotopic compositions to rims similar to CPM glasses, suggests that MR-like and inherited zircons in the SPF and HVF came from distinct high ɛHf magmas and were incorporated into the CPM reservoir. For mixed zircons, the zoning from MR-like or EC-like cores to intermediate rim compositions

  20. U‐Pb zircon ages from the Indian plate in northwest Pakistan and their significance to Himalayan and pre‐Himalayan geologic history

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    DiPietro, Joseph A; Isachsen, Clark E


    U‐Pb zircon isotopic ages of seven rock samples are combined with field data to provide constraints on deposition, intrusion, and metamorphism in the northwestern part of the Indian plate (Pakistani...

  1. Zircon U-Pb geochronology and Hf isotopes from the Sanbagawa Metamorphic Belt, Western Shikoku, Japan: evidence for the prevalence for the Late Cretaceous protoliths (United States)

    Walia, Monika; Knittel, Ulrich; Suzuki, Shigeyuki; Nishizaka, Naoki; Kimura, Kazunari; Lee, Yuan-Hsi; Lee, Hao-Yang


    Sanbagawa Metamorphic Belt lies to the south of Median Tectonic Line and is exposed on Kyushu, Shikoku and Honshu Islands in Japan. This belt has been the focus of many studies in recent years since the discovery of young detrital zircon grains (80 - 95 Ma). Samples for this study come from a 2000 m bore hole from north-western Shikoku drilled in an area considered to be part of the Jurassic to Early Cretaceous part of the Sanbagawa Belt. Dating of single zircon grains using the LA-ICP-MS U-Pb dating method shows that all but one sample contain zircons younger than 100 Ma and thus the protoliths are younger than the previously accepted age of metamorphism of the Sanbagawa Belt at ca. 110 Ma. The single sample that contains only zircons dated at 136 ± 3 Ma, apparently is of volcanic origin and could be a clast representing the source of 130-140 Ma zircons of the sample taken about 120m above this sample. In addition, three surface samples were analyzed. Two of these also contain zircons younger than 100 Ma, whereas the third sample contains only zircons older than 159 Ma. Hf-isotope values for the younger age group 82-116 Ma, ɛHf(T) range from -2.4 to +9.6. Zircon grains of 127-146 Ma ages have more positive ɛHf(T) values of +11.5 to +19.0 indicating depleted mantle source. We envisage these zircons to have been derived from the ocean side of a magmatic arc. All grains in the range 215-250 Ma are characterized by negative ɛHf(T) ranging from -2.3 to -15.2, suggesting re-melting of already existent crust. Within the detrital zircon populations contained in the Sanbagawa meta-sediments age groups are recognized that are also known from SE China. However, compared to those from mainland China, zircons from the Sanbagawa meta-sediments are usually characterized by higher ɛHf(T) values suggesting higher input of material derived from the depleted mantle.

  2. Complicated secondary textures in zircon record evolution of the host granitic rocks: Studies from Western Tauern Window and Ötztal-Stubai Crystalline Complex (Eastern Alps, Western Austria) (United States)

    Kovaleva, Elizaveta; Harlov, Daniel; Klötzli, Urs


    Samples of metamorphosed and deformed granitic rocks were collected from two Alpine complexes with well-constrained metamorphic history: Western Tauern Window and Ötztal-Stubai Crystalline Complex. Zircon grains from these samples were investigated in situ by a combination of scanning electron microscope techniques, cathodoluminescence (CL) imaging and Raman spectroscopy. The aims were: to describe and interpret complicated secondary textures and microstructures in zircon; based on cross-cutting relationships between secondary microstructures, reconstruct the sequence of processes, affecting zircon crystals; link the evolution of zircon with the history of the host rocks. The results indicate that zircon in the sampled granitic rocks forms growth twins and multi-grain aggregates, which are unusual for this mineral. Moreover, various secondary textures have been found in the sampled zircon, often cross-cutting each other in a single crystal. These include: distorted oscillatory CL zoning with inner zones forming inward-penetrating, CL-bright embayments, which are the evidence of dry recrystallization via annealing/lattice recovery; CL mosaicism with no preservation of growth zoning, but abundant nano- and micro-scale pores and mineral inclusions, which are the evidence of recrystallization by coupled dissolution-reprecipitation and/or leaching; embayed zircon boundaries filled with apatite, monazite, epidote and mylonitic matrix, indicating mineral-fluid reactions resulting in zircon dissolution and fragmentation; overgrowth CL-dark rims, which contain nano-pores and point to transport and precipitation of dissolved zircon matter. We conclude that zircon in our meta-granites is sensitive to metamorphism/deformation events, and was reactive with metamorphic fluids. Additionally, we have found evidence of crystal-plastic deformation in the form of low angle boundaries and bent grain tips, which is a result of shearing and ductile deformation of the host rock. We

  3. Trace element composition and U-Pb age of zircons from Estherville: Constraints on the timing of the metal-silicate mixing event on the mesosiderite parent body (United States)

    Haba, Makiko K.; Yamaguchi, Akira; Kagi, Hiroyuki; Nagao, Keisuke; Hidaka, Hiroshi


    Mesosiderites are a group of stony-iron meteorites, which are thought to be the result of mixing of silicates with Fe-Ni metal. In this study, we combined textural observations with geochemical and chronological studies of two zircon grains found in the Estherville mesosiderite. One of the zircons (Zrc1) occurs with pyroxene, plagioclase, troilite, and silica, and the other (Zrc2) is located at a boundary between Fe-Ni metal and a silicate part mainly composed of pyroxene and plagioclase. The textural observations demonstrate that Zrc1 is relatively homogenous, whereas Zrc2 is composed of at least two chemically distinct domains. Trace element analyses of Zrc2 resolve large concentration gradients within this single grain with variations that are an order of magnitude for rare earth elements (REE) and two orders of magnitude for U and Th. The lowest trace element concentration in Zrc2 is more than an order of magnitude lower than those of lunar and eucritic zircons. However, it is similar to those of Zrc1 and a zircon from the Vaca Muerta mesosiderite. The calculated REE composition of the melt in equilibrium with Zrc2 shows that Zrc2 and perhaps also Zrc1 did not crystallize from a melt that was produced by fractional crystallization of the primary magmatic mineral assemblages. The zircons with low REE, U, and Th concentrations can be interpreted to have formed in a residual melt after incorporation of large amounts of REE, U, and Th into secondary phosphate minerals, which formed during the metal-silicate mixing event. The large concentration gradients observed in Zrc2 suggest significant heterogeneities in the melt from which the zircon crystallized. Alternatively, either mixing or diffusion between a relict zircon and a newly formed zircon could explain the observed concentration gradients. However, the REE patterns of Zrc2 cannot be explained by mixing or diffusion between the two distinct generations of zircons. These considerations suggest that Zrc1 and Zrc2

  4. Clinical experience with a novel, irrigated, flexible tip ablation catheter in atrial fibrillation ablation. (United States)

    Pezzulich, B; Taralli, S; Villata, G; Sori, P


    This paper aimed at assessing clinical efficacy and safety of a new fully irrigated and flexible tip catheter (Therapy™ Cool Flex™, St Jude Medical, St. Paul, MN, USA) in ablation of atrial fibrillation (AF). The study enrolled 117 consecutive patients with symptomatic AF who underwent for the first time a circumferential pulmonary vein isolation with a new irrigated and flexible tip catheter. All patients underwent successful pulmonary vein circumferential ablation. The mean procedure duration was 100 ± 27 min, total fluoroscopy time was 7.4 ± 5 min. The mean number of RF lesion was 139 ± 43 and the mean total RF time was 22.45 ± 3.9 min. Median follow-up was 665 ± 241 days. Through Kaplan-Meier analysis, overall event-free survival was 79.7%. In details, arrhythmia free survival was 85.4% in patients with persistent AF, 76% in paroxysmal AF and 75% in chronic AF. Three patients (2.5%) suffered from minor vascular complication (groin hematoma). Two patients (1.7%) suffered from pericardial effusion, treated with pericardiocentesis and with no sequelae. We did not observe any atrioesophageal fistula or pulmonary vein stenosis. The present study represents the largest cohort of patients receiving AF ablation with this new tip-flexible catheter. It demonstrated comparable efficacy to that previously reported, with a very low complication rate and procedural time. A head-to-head clinical trial would be necessary to address the relative efficacy of catheter type.

  5. Tectono-magmatic evolution of the Chihuahua-Sinaloa border region in northern Mexico: Insights from zircon-apatite U-Pb geochronology, zircon Hf isotope composition and geochemistry of granodiorite intrusions (United States)

    Mahar, Munazzam Ali; Goodell, Philip C.; Feinstein, Michael Nicholas


    We present the whole-rock geochemistry, LA-ICP-MS zircon-apatite U-Pb ages and zircon Hf isotope composition of the granodioritic plutons at the southwestern boundary of Chihuahua with the states of Sinaloa and Sonora. These granodiorites are exposed in the north and south of the Rio El Fuerte in southwest Chihuahua and northern Sinaloa. The magmatism spans over a time period of 37 Ma from 90 to 53 Ma. Zircons are exclusively magmatic with strong oscillatory zoning. No inheritance of any age has been observed. Our new U-Pb dating ( 250 analyses) does not support the involvement of older basement lithologies in the generation of the granitic magmas. The U-Pb apatite ages from granodiorites in southwest Chihuahua vary from 52 to 70 Ma. These apatite ages are 1 to 20 Ma younger than the corresponding zircon U-Pb crystallization ages, suggesting variable cooling rates from very fast to 15 °C/Ma ( 800 °C to 500 °C) and shallow to moderate emplacement depths. In contrast, U-Pb apatite ages from the Sinaloa batholith are restricted from 64 to 61 Ma and are indistinguishable from the zircon U-Pb ages range from 67 to 60 Ma within the error, indicating rapid cooling and very shallow emplacement. However, one sample from El Realito showed a larger difference of 20 Ma in zircon-apatite age pair: zircon 80 ± 0.8 Ma and apatite 60.6 ± 4 Ma, suggesting a slower cooling rate of 15 °C/Ma. The weighted mean initial εHf (t) isotope composition (2σ) of granodiorites varies from + 1.8 to + 5.2. The radiogenic Hf isotope composition coupled with previous Sr-Nd isotope data demonstrates a significant shift from multiple crustal sources in the Sonoran batholithic belt to the predominant contribution of the mantle-derived magmas in the southwest Chihuahua and northern Sinaloa. Based on U-Pb ages, the absence of inheritance, typical high Th/U ratio and radiogenic Hf isotope composition, we suggest that the Late Cretaceous-Paleogene magmatic rocks in this region are not derived from

  6. Provenance of Oligo-Miocene Strata from the Adriatic Foredeep of the Alps-Apennines System Determined through Detrital-Zircon U-Pb Geochronology (United States)

    Dafov, L. N.; Anfinson, O. A.; Malusa', M. G.; Stockli, D. F.


    U-Pb geochronology of detrital zircon is an effective method for evaluating exhumation history, provenance, and depositional age constraints of sedimentary deposits. Over 1400 grains evaluated from thirteen samples collected from distal and proximal Oligo-Miocene strata of Adriatic turbidites are consistent with modern characterization of the proposed source region. Studies indicate that the principal source area of Oligo-Miocene strata from Adriatic deposits is the Lepontine Dome of the Central Alps. Our data reveals a significant shift in detrital zircon U-Pb age populations during the Oligocene-Miocene boundary which, when compared with data from modern sands, closely correlates to the westward shift of the erosional foci within the Lepontine Dome, from the Ticino to the Toce subdome, due to progressive indentation of Adria. This is coeval with progressive unroofing of Periadriatic magmatic rocks of Tertiary age along the Insubric Fault. The lowermost Upper Oligocene proximal samples collected from the Como and Villa Olmo Conglomerates are dominated by Caledonian and Cadomian detrital zircon U-Pb age populations. The uppermost Oligocene and lower Miocene proximal samples collected from the Como Conglomerate are dominated instead by Periadriatic detrital zircon. Distal samples collected from the Lower Oligocene Aveto Formation have a dominant Periadriatic age peak with lesser amounts of late Cretaceous, Variscan, Caledonian and Cadomian detrital zircon. The lowermost Upper Oligocene distal samples collected from the Macigno Formation contain populations of Periadriatic, Variscan, Caledonian, and Cadomian detrital zircon, with major shifts in relative abundance from the lower to upper strata. The most dramatic shift in provenance in the distal units is between two samples located relatively proximally to one another in the Modino unit: Upper Oligocene marls contains primarily Variscan and Caledonian zircon grains with no individuals yielding Periadriatic ages

  7. Stability of zircon u-pb systematics in a greenschist-grade mylonite - an example from the rockfish valley fault zone, central Virginia, USA


    Wayne, D. M.; Sinha, A. K.


    The mid-Paleozoic, greenschist-grade Rockfish Valley Fault Zone (RVFZ) of central Virginia cuts the Grenville-aged Pedlar River Charnockite Suite (PRCS) and contains zircons that underwent brittle failure during ductile deformation. Electron microprobe analyses and scanning electron microscope (SEM) backscattered electron (BSE) imaging show that zircons from the protolith PRCS are concentrically zoned (with alternating U-Hf-rich and U-Hf-poor bands), and contain numerous radial microcracks. Z...

  8. U-Pb-Hf-REE-Ti zircon and REE garnet geochemistry of the Cambrian Attunga eclogite, New England Orogen, Australia: Implications for continental growth along eastern Gondwana (United States)

    Manton, Ryan J.; Buckman, Solomon; Nutman, Allen P.; Bennett, Vickie C.; Belousova, Elena A.


    The timing and location of eclogite metamorphism is central to understanding subduction events responsible for the assembly of eastern Gondwana. The Attunga eclogite is one of only six eclogites in Australia and occurs as small blocks within a schistose serpentinite mélange known as the Weraerai terrane, along the Peel Fault of the southern New England Orogen. Our zircon data reveal the presence of high Th/U oscillatory zoned magmatic zircon with a weighted mean 206Pb/238U age of 534 ± 14 Ma and recrystallized metamorphic domains with an age of 490 ± 14 Ma. The latter have lower Th/U ratios, mostly no Eu anomalies and heavy rare earth element (HREE)-depleted patterns. Garnet rims demonstrate that the final stages of garnet growth occurred in a HREE-depleted environment, due to coeval formation with metamorphic zircon. Direct application of the Ti-in-zircon thermometer to metamorphic zircon yields temperatures of 770-610°C. Hf isotopic analyses of the zircons have an average ɛHf(t) of +13, indicating a juvenile crustal signature. We interpret the Attunga eclogite to be an indicator of Late Cambrian subduction beneath an oceanic suprasubduction zone prior to accretion against eastern Gondwanan in the latest Devonian. Phillips et al. () suggest two metamorphic age populations within the Attunga eclogite, based on U-Pb zircon and 40Ar/39Ar phengite data. These are 515 Ma and 480 Ma. We confirm these data, but our zircon trace element chemistry data indicate that the Early Cambrian age (530 Ma) represents igneous protolith formation rather than eclogite metamorphism.

  9. Zircon record of fractionation, hydrous partial melting and thermal gradients at different depths in oceanic crust (ODP Site 735B, South-West Indian Ocean) (United States)

    Pietranik, A.; Storey, C.; Koepke, J.; Lasalle, S.


    Felsic veins (plagiogranites) are distributed throughout the whole oceanic crust section and offer insight into late-magmatic/high temperature hydrothermal processes within the oceanic crust. Despite constituting only 0.5% of the oceanic crust section drilled in IODP Site 735B, they carry a significant budget of incompatible elements, which they redistribute within the crust. Such melts are saturated in accessory minerals, such as zircon, titanite and apatite, and often zircon is the only remaining phase that preserves magmatic composition and records processes of felsic melt formation and evolution. In this study, we analysed zircon from four depths in IODP Site 735B; they come from the oxide gabbro (depth approximately 250 m below sea floor) and plagiogranite (depths c. 500, 860, 940 m below sea floor). All zircons have similar ɛHf composition of c. 15 units indicating an isotopically homogenous source for the mafic magmas forming IODP Site 735B gabbro. Zircons from oxide gabbro are scarce and variable in composition consistent with their crystallization from melts formed by both fractionation of mafic magmas and hydrous remelting of gabbro cumulate. On the other hand, zircon from plagiogranite is abundant and each sample is characterized by compositional trends consistent with crystallization of zircon in an evolving melt. However, the trends are different between the plagiogranite at 500 m bsf and the deeper sections, which are interpreted as the record of plagiogranite formation by two processes: remelting of gabbro cumulate at 500 m bsf and fractionation at deeper sections. Zircon from both oxide gabbro and plagiogranite has δ18O from 3.5 to 6.0‰. Values of δ18O are best explained by redistribution of δ18O in a thermal gradient and not by remelting of hydrothermally altered crust. Tentatively, it is suggested that fractionation could be an older episode contemporaneous with gabbro crystallization and remelting could be a younger one, triggered by


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Ya. Alekseev


    Full Text Available The wide use of current diagnostic techniques, such as ultrasound study, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging, has led to significantly increased detection rates for disease in its early stages. This gave rise to a change in the standards for the treatment of locally advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC. Laparoscopic nephrectomy (LN has recently become the standard treatment of locally advanced RCC in the clinics having much experience with laparoscopic surgery. The chief drawback of LN is difficulties in maintaining intraoperative hemostasis and a need for creating renal tissue ischemia. The paper gives the intermediate results of application of the new procedure of LN using radiofrequency thermal ablation in patients with non-ischemic early-stage RCC.

  11. Formation of tribological structures by laser ablation (United States)

    Schilling, Niels; Paschke, Mike; Hendow, Sami T.; Klotzbach, Udo


    Many technical applications can benefit from the use of tribological structures in minimizing abrasive material wear and energy consumption without the integration of additional materials in a working assembly. Especially in lubricated friction systems, the tribological character can be significantly improved through the addition of oriented and repetitive microstructure. In this study, experimental tests are discussed for a small range of structure dimensions to verify the effect of optimizing the tribological contact performance. A nanosecond pulsed fiber laser is used to create various test structures with different sizes and form. The quality of the fabricated surface pattern, particularly form correctness, feathering and material modification effects of the ablated area is characterized and optimized. The influence of pulse duration, pulse energy and pulse delay using normal pulsing is presented and compared to various burst modes.

  12. Laser ablation threshold of cultural heritage metals (United States)

    Lorusso, A.; Nassisi, V.; Buccolieri, A.; Buccolieri, G.; Castellano, A.; Leo, L. S.; di Giulio, M.; Torrisi, L.; Caridi, F.; Borrielli, A.

    The present work has the purpose to evaluate experimentally the ablation threshold fluences of copper, silver, and their alloys in order to induce a safety laser cleaning of the metal artifacts avoiding damages to the bulkE We used two different pulsed lasers: a KrF excimer laser operating at 248 nm, 23 ns pulse duration and a Nd:YAG laser operating at 532 nm (second harmonic), 3 ns pulse. Preliminary experimental results about the laser cleaning of bronze coins will be reported. The laser cleaning consists on the reduction of the chlorine concentration from the surface of the coins. The laser cleaning, carried out by the KrF laser, provides a safe way of removing the chlorine concentration as the Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence analyses will demonstrate.

  13. Alcohol septal ablation to overcome shock. (United States)

    Galle, Katalien; De Sutter, Johan; Cornelis, Kristoff


    A 69-year-old man, known with hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy (HOCM), was referred to our hospital because of progressive hypoxaemia and sepsis after admission for respiratory infection. Once at the emergency department, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, intubation and mechanical ventilation were necessary. Despite vasopressors and colloids the patient remained haemodynamically unstable. Because of the conviction that the distributive shock, caused by sepsis, was worsened by an associated obstructive shock related to the HOCM, an alcohol septal ablation (ASA) was attempted in these acute circumstances. Immediately after the ASA the gradient over the left ventricular outflow tract disappeared and the mean arterial pressure and oxygenation increased. Despite his cardiovascular recuperation the patient died a couple of days later. Nevertheless we achieved an improvement of the haemodynamic situation of this patient with HOCM by performing an urgent ASA.

  14. Treatment of ulcers with ablative fractional lasers. (United States)

    Morton, Laurel M; Dover, Jeffrey S; Phillips, Tania J; Krakowski, Andrew C; Uebelhoer, Nathan S


    Chronic, nonhealing ulcers are a frustrating therapeutic challenge and investigation of innovative therapies continues to be an important research pursuit. One unique and newly applied intervention is the use of ablative fractional lasers. This technology has recently been employed for the treatment of hypertrophic, disfiguring and function-limiting scars, and was first shown to induce healing of chronic wounds in patients with persistent ulcers and erosions within traumatic scars. Recent reports suggest it may be applicable for other types of chronic wounds as well. The mechanism of action for this modality remains to be elucidated but possible factors include laser-induced collagen remodeling, photomicrodebridement and disruption of biofilms, and induction of a proper wound healing cascade. ©2015 Frontline Medical Communications.

  15. Laser Ablation for Cancer: Past, Present and Future (United States)

    Schena, Emiliano; Saccomandi, Paola; Fong, Yuman


    Laser ablation (LA) is gaining acceptance for the treatment of tumors as an alternative to surgical resection. This paper reviews the use of lasers for ablative and surgical applications. Also reviewed are solutions aimed at improving LA outcomes: hyperthermal treatment planning tools and thermometric techniques during LA, used to guide the surgeon in the choice and adjustment of the optimal laser settings, and the potential use of nanoparticles to allow biologic selectivity of ablative treatments. Promising technical solutions and a better knowledge of laser-tissue interaction should allow LA to be used in a safe and effective manner as a cancer treatment. PMID:28613248

  16. Impact of liquid environment on femtosecond laser ablation (United States)

    Kanitz, A.; Hoppius, J. S.; Fiebrandt, M.; Awakowicz, P.; Esen, C.; Ostendorf, A.; Gurevich, E. L.


    The ablation rate by femtosecond laser processing of iron in different liquids is investigated for fluences up to 5 J/cm^2. The resulting fluence dependency is modeled by an approach derived from the two-temperature model. In our experiments, the liquid environment strongly affects the effective penetration depth, e.g, the ablation rate in water is almost ten times higher than in toluene. This effect is discussed and introduced phenomenologically into the model. Additional reflectivity measurements and plasma imaging provide improved insight into the ablation process.

  17. Numerical simulation of film-cooled ablative rocket nozzles (United States)

    Landrum, D. B.; Beard, R. M.


    The objective of this research effort was to evaluate the impact of incorporating an additional cooling port downstream between the injector and nozzle throat in the NASA Fast Track chamber. A numerical model of the chamber was developed for the analysis. The analysis did not model ablation but instead correlated the initial ablation rate with the initial nozzle wall temperature distribution. The results of this study provide guidance in the development of a potentially lighter, second generation ablative rocket nozzle which maintains desired performance levels.

  18. Alternative High Performance Polymers for Ablative Thermal Protection Systems (United States)

    Boghozian, Tane; Stackpoole, Mairead; Gonzales, Greg


    Ablative thermal protection systems are commonly used as protection from the intense heat during re-entry of a space vehicle and have been used successfully on many missions including Stardust and Mars Science Laboratory both of which used PICA - a phenolic based ablator. Historically, phenolic resin has served as the ablative polymer for many TPS systems. However, it has limitations in both processing and properties such as char yield, glass transition temperature and char stability. Therefore alternative high performance polymers are being considered including cyanate ester resin, polyimide, and polybenzoxazine. Thermal and mechanical properties of these resin systems were characterized and compared with phenolic resin.

  19. Overview of the CHarring Ablator Response (CHAR) Code (United States)

    Amar, Adam J.; Oliver, A. Brandon; Kirk, Benjamin S.; Salazar, Giovanni; Droba, Justin


    An overview of the capabilities of the CHarring Ablator Response (CHAR) code is presented. CHAR is a one-, two-, and three-dimensional unstructured continuous Galerkin finite-element heat conduction and ablation solver with both direct and inverse modes. Additionally, CHAR includes a coupled linear thermoelastic solver for determination of internal stresses induced from the temperature field and surface loading. Background on the development process, governing equations, material models, discretization techniques, and numerical methods is provided. Special focus is put on the available boundary conditions including thermochemical ablation and contact interfaces, and example simulations are included. Finally, a discussion of ongoing development efforts is presented.

  20. Ablative Thermal Response Analysis Using the Finite Element Method (United States)

    Dec John A.; Braun, Robert D.


    A review of the classic techniques used to solve ablative thermal response problems is presented. The advantages and disadvantages of both the finite element and finite difference methods are described. As a first step in developing a three dimensional finite element based ablative thermal response capability, a one dimensional computer tool has been developed. The finite element method is used to discretize the governing differential equations and Galerkin's method of weighted residuals is used to derive the element equations. A code to code comparison between the current 1-D tool and the 1-D Fully Implicit Ablation and Thermal Response Program (FIAT) has been performed.