WorldWideScience

Sample records for abiotic natural gas

  1. Enhanced Prognosis for Abiotic Natural Gas and Petroleum Resources

    CERN Document Server

    Herndon, J M

    2006-01-01

    The prognosis for potential resources of abiotic natural gas and petroleum depends critically upon the nature and circumstances of Earth formation. Until recently, that prognosis has been considered solely within the framework of the so-called "standard model of solar system formation", which is incorrect and leads to the contradiction of terrestrial planets having insufficiently massive cores. By contrast, that prognosis is considerably enhanced (i) by the new vision I have disclosed of Earth formation as a Jupiter-like gas giant; (ii) by core formation contemporaneous with raining out from within a giant gaseous protoplanet rather than through subsequent whole-Earth re-melting after loss of gases; (iii) by the consequences of whole-Earth decompression dynamics, which obviates the unfounded assumption of mantle convection, and; (iv) by the process of mantle decompression thermal-tsunami. The latter, in addition to accounting for much of the heat leaving the Earth's surface, for the geothermal gradient observ...

  2. Natural gas; Gas Natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, Carlos A.; Moraes, Claudia C.D. [Eletricidade de Sao Paulo S.A. (ELETROPAULO), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Fonseca, Carlos H.F. [Centrais Eletricas de Santa Catarina S.A., Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Silva, Clecio Fabricio da; Alves, Ricardo P. [Companhia Paranaense de Energia (COPEL), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Sposito, Edivaldo Soares; Hulle, Lutero [Espirito Santo Centrais Eletricas S.A. (ESCELSA), Vitoria, ES (Brazil); S. Martins, Icaro da [Centrais Eletricas do Norte do Brasil S.A. (ELETRONORTE), Belem, PA (Brazil); Vilhena, Joao Luiz S. de [Companhia Energetica de Minas Gerais (CEMIG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Fagundes, Zaluar Aquino [Companhia Estadual de Energia Eletrica do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    1996-12-31

    An increase in the consumption of natural gas in Brazil is an expected fact in what concerns energetic planning. This work presents the existing situation in what concerns natural gas utilization in the main world economies, as well as an analysis of the participation of this fuel among the energy final consumption per sources. The Brazilian consumption of natural gas is also analysed as well as the international agreement between Brazil and Bolivia for natural gas commercialization. Some legal, institutional and political aspects related to natural gas commercialization are also discussed. Finally, several benefits to be brought by the utilization of natural gas are presented 10 refs., 3 tabs.

  3. Natural Gas Transport

    OpenAIRE

    Tomás Correa; Nelson Osorio

    2009-01-01

    This paper reviews the present and future on natural gas transportation options, from oil and gas fields to markets, including liquefied natural gas, gas pipeline, compressed natural gas, natural gas hydrates, and gas to liquids and the perspectives of using them in Colombia, since this is the main fuel alternative to supply the world in at least the next 50 years.

  4. Natural Gas Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomás Correa

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the present and future on natural gas transportation options, from oil and gas fields to markets, including liquefied natural gas, gas pipeline, compressed natural gas, natural gas hydrates, and gas to liquids and the perspectives of using them in Colombia, since this is the main fuel alternative to supply the world in at least the next 50 years.

  5. Natural gas annual 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    This document provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience. The 1996 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas from it`s production to it`s end use.

  6. Natural Gas Basics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-06-08

    Natural gas powers about 150,000 vehicles in the United States and roughly 22 million vehicles worldwide. Natural gas vehicles (NGVs) are a good choice for high-mileage fleets -- such as buses, taxis, and refuse vehicles -- that are centrally fueled or operate within a limited area or along a route with natural gas fueling stations. This brochure highlights the advantages of natural gas as an alternative fuel, including its domestic availability, established distribution network, relatively low cost, and emissions benefits.

  7. Natural Gas Basics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-06-01

    Natural gas powers about 150,000 vehicles in the United States and roughly 22 million vehicles worldwide. Natural gas vehicles (NGVs) are a good choice for high-mileage fleets -- such as buses, taxis, and refuse vehicles -- that are centrally fueled or operate within a limited area or along a route with natural gas fueling stations. This brochure highlights the advantages of natural gas as an alternative fuel, including its domestic availability, established distribution network, relatively low cost, and emissions benefits.

  8. Natural gas annual 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-17

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1994 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. This is followed by tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1990 to 1994 for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level.

  9. Natural gas annual 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1995 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. This is followed by tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1991 to 1995 for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level.

  10. Murray GRAY, Geodiversity, valuing  and conserving abiotic nature

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    « Geodiversity : valuing and conserving abiotic nature » est un ouvrage dédié exclusivement à la conservation et à la valorisation du patrimoine géologique et géomorphologique de la Terre, y compris pédologique. Comme le souligne l’auteur, le terme géodiversité est fortement lié à d’autres néologismes tels que géoconservation, géohéritage ou encore géo-indicateurs. Tous ces termes défendent l’idée que les activités humaines menacent la diversité des roches, des sols et des formes du relief ai...

  11. Natural gas annual 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-10-01

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1997 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. This is followed by tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1993 to 1997 for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level. 27 figs., 109 tabs.

  12. Almacenamiento de gas natural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomás Correa

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The largest reserves of natural gas worldwide are found in regions far of main cities, being necessary different alternatives to transport the fluid to the consumption cities, such as pipelines, CNG or ships, LNG, depending on distances between producing regions and demanding regions and the producing volumes. Consumption regions have three different markets to naturalgas; residential and commercial, industrial and power generation sector. The residential and commercial is highly seasonal and power generation sector is quite variable depending on increases of temperature during summer time. There are also external issuesthat affect the normal gas flow such as fails on the national system or unexpected interruptions on it, what imply that companies which distribute natural gas should design plans that allow supplying the requirements above mentioned. One plan is using underground natural gas storage with capacities and deliverability rates enough to supply demands. In Colombia there are no laws in this sense but it could be an exploration to discuss different ways to store gas either way as underground natural gas storage or above superficies. Existing basically three different types of underground natural gas storage; depleted reservoirs, salt caverns and aquifers. All ofthem are adequate according to geological characteristics and the needs of the distributors companies of natural gas. This paper is anexploration of technical and economical characteristics of different kind of storages used to store natural gas worldwide.

  13. Thermoacoustic natural gas liquefier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swift, G.; Gardner, D.; Hayden, M.; Radebaugh, R. [National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States); Wollan, J. [Cryenco, Inc. (United States)

    1996-07-01

    This is the final report of a two-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This project sought to develop a natural-gas-powered natural-gas liquefier that has absolutely no moving parts and requires no electrical power. It should have high efficiency, remarkable reliability, and low cost. The thermoacoustic natural-gas liquefier (TANGL) is based on our recent invention of the first no-moving-parts cryogenic refrigerator. In short, our invention uses acoustic phenomena to produce refrigeration from heat, with no moving parts. The required apparatus comprises nothing more than heat exchangers and pipes, made of common materials, without exacting tolerances. Its initial experimental success in a small size lead us to propose a more ambitious application: large-energy liquefaction of natural gas, using combustion of natural gas as the energy source. TANGL was designed to be maintenance-free, inexpensive, portable, and environmentally benign.

  14. World Natural Gas Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-12-01

    RAMSGAS, the Research and Development Analysis Modeling System World Natural Gas Model, was developed to support planning of unconventional gaseoues fuels research and development. The model is a scenario analysis tool that can simulate the penetration of unconventional gas into world markets for oil and gas. Given a set of parameter values, the model estimates the natural gas supply and demand for the world for the period from 1980 to 2030. RAMSGAS is based on a supply/demand framwork and also accounts for the non-renewable nature of gas resources. The model has three fundamental components: a demand module, a wellhead production cost module, and a supply/demand interface module. The demand for gas is a product of total demand for oil and gas in each of 9 demand regions and the gas share. Demand for oil and gas is forecast from the base year of 1980 through 2030 for each demand region, based on energy growth rates and price-induced conservation. For each of 11 conventional and 19 unconventional gas supply regions, wellhead production costs are calculated. To these are added transportation and distribution costs estimates associated with moving gas from the supply region to each of the demand regions and any economic rents. Based on a weighted average of these costs and the world price of oil, fuel shares for gas and oil are computed for each demand region. The gas demand is the gas fuel share multiplied by the total demand for oil plus gas. This demand is then met from the available supply regions in inverse proportion to the cost of gas from each region. The user has almost complete control over the cost estimates for each unconventional gas source in each year and thus can compare contributions from unconventional resources under different cost/price/demand scenarios.

  15. Natural Gas Market Hubs

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — A hub is a physical transfer point for natural gas where several pipelines are connected. A market center is a hub where the operator offers services that facilitate...

  16. Natural Gas Liquid Pipelines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Natural gas interstate and intrastate pipelines in the United States. Based on a variety of sources with varying scales and levels of accuracy and therefore accuracy...

  17. Natural Gas Acquisition Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    General Services Administration — The "NGAP" system is a web based application which serves NGAP GSA users for tracking information details for various natural gas supply chain elements like Agency,...

  18. Natural gas outlook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, R. [TransCanada Transmission, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    This presentation reviewed natural gas supply and demand issues facing Ontario and outlined TransCanada's role as a key player in Ontario's energy industry. TransCanada's gas transmission assets include 39,000 km of wholly owned pipelines from British Columbia to Atlantic Canada that carry 11 Bcf of gas per day. In addition, TransCanada operates 29 power generating plants, of which 6 are in Ontario. The company is also involved the proposed Mackenzie Valley and Alaska pipeline. A map illustrating Ontario and Quebec operations was included along with graphs depicting the 2004 base case for North American gas demand by region. Historical and forecasted gas demand by end use sector in Ontario and Quebec was also illustrated. A chart of North American gas supply indicates that new supply is needed to meet energy demands. Production forecasts for Western Canada for conventional and unconventional reserves indicates that by 2015, unconventional reserves such as coalbed methane (CBM) will make up a larger portion of the production mix. A map indicating existing and proposed import terminals along the Atlantic and Pacific coasts for liquefied natural gas (LNG) was included. The challenges facing the North American gas market include price volatility, the need to update energy policies, the need to improve regulatory efficiency, and aligning the interests of market participants. It was concluded that although natural gas from Western Canada will continue to be a stable supply source for many years, the natural gas market in North America is seeking new supply in frontier gas, LNG and CBM to meeting growing demand. 1 tab., 11 figs.

  19. Natural gas shortage. [Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boorstin, D.

    1975-11-07

    Curtailments of gas supplies in the winter of 1975-76 were estimated to be 2.9 trillion cubic feet or 15 percent of demand, which represented a 45 percent increase over curtailments in 1974-75. The scarcities are discussed under the following topics: probable dimensions of natural gas curtailment; effects of winter shortages, possibility of relief; debate over attempt to remove price ceilings; and charges of gas withholding and underreporting. The history of gas use and regulation is reviewed under the following: from unwanted oil by-product to useful fuel; development of regulation and extent of control; and policy change at the Federal Power Commission. The outlook for overcoming the shortage is discussed under the following: revised estimates of undiscovered resources; rival proposals to make Alaskan gas available; and continuing search for substitute energy sources. 37 references. (MCW)

  20. Natural gas; Erdgas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graf, Frank [DVGW-Forschungsstelle am KIT, Karlsruhe (Germany); Groeschl, Frank; Wetzel, Uwe [DVGW, Bonn (Germany); Heikrodt, Klaus [Hochschule Ostwestfalen-Lippe, Lemgo (Germany); Krause, Hartmut [DBI Gastechnologisches Institut, An-Institut der TU Bergakademie, Freiberg (Germany); Beestermoeller, Christina; Witschen, Bernhard [Team Consult G.P.E. GmbH, Berlin (Germany); Albus, Rolf; Burmeister, Frank [Gas- und Waerme-Institut Essen e.V., Essen (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    The reform of the EEG in Germany, a positive global development in natural gas, the decline in oil prices, questions about the security of supply in Europe, and not least the effect of the decision by E.on at the end of 2014 have moved the gas industry. Gas has the lowest CO{sub 2} emissions of fossil fuels. Flexibility, storability, useful for networks and the diversity in the application make it an ideal partner for renewable energy. However, these complementary properties are valued at wind and photovoltaics internationally and nationally different. The situation in the gas power plants remains tense. LNG - liquefied natural gas - is on the rise. [German] Die Reform des EEG in Deutschland, eine positive Entwicklung beim Gas weltweit, der Verfall der Oelpreises, Fragen zur Versorgungssicherheit in Europa und nicht zuletzt die Auswirkung der Entscheidung von E.on Ende 2014 haben die Gaswirtschaft bewegt. Gas weist die geringsten CO{sub 2}-Emissioen der fossilen Energietraeger auf. Flexibilitaet, Speicherbarkeit, Netzdienlichkeit sowie die Vielfalt in der Anwendung machen es zum idealen Partner der erneuerbaren Energien. Allerdings werden diese komplementaeren Eigenschaften zu Wind und Photovoltaik international und national unterschiedlich bewertet. Die Lage bei den Gaskraftwerken bleibt weiter angespannt. LNG - verfluessigtes Erdgas - ist auf dem Vormarsch.

  1. Natural gas : nirvana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stonehouse, D.

    2001-04-01

    Despite completing 8,900 gas wells in year 2000, the deliverability of natural gas out of the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin (WCSB) was stagnant which has left many analysts wondering whether the basin has reached its limit. It also leaves many wondering if gas producers will be able to meet the strong demand for natural gas in the future. Nearly all new electrical generation being built in the U.S. is gas-based due to strict new environmental standards limiting the growth in hydro and coal-powered generation. Any future coal plants will use gasification technology and combined cycle turbines. Combined cycle turbines developed by Boeing and Lockheed are more efficient than combustion turbines, making gas more competitive with fuel alternatives. The lack of growth in natural gas supply has left storage levels near record lows. Demand is expected to increase in 2001 by 3.2 per cent to 23 trillion cubic feet in the U.S. Longer term, major new reserves must be brought on stream to meet this demand. It was noted that the easy discoveries within the WCSB have been made. The new plays are smaller, more technically complex and expensive which suggests that more investment is needed in training geologists, geophysicists and petroleum engineers to find new reserves. The Canadian Energy Research Institute agrees that there is enough gas in Alberta and British Columbia to meet current demands but efforts must shift towards drilling in the foothills front and northwest regions of Alberta to increase deliverability. Brief notes on several gas finds by various oil and gas companies in the area were presented. The article also discussed the huge untapped potential of northern reserves. Analysts have noted 44 Tcf of proven reserve, with a potential of 165 Tcf. In addition, new pipelines from the Alaskan North Slope and the Mackenzie Delta could transport nearly 2 Tcf annually to market. Wells drilled by Chevron and Paramount at Fort Liard in 1999 initially flowed at rates up to

  2. Natural Gas Price Rises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ As was projected in the third-quarter monetary policy implementation report published by the People's Bank of China on November 15th, 2006, the residents' consumption price index in China would reach 1.5% in 2006. Prices of consumer commodities such as water, power and natural gas would rise and the pressure of inflation would persist in the future.

  3. US crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids reserves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-10-05

    This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1989, and production volumes for the year 1989 for the total United States and for selected states and state sub-divisions. Estimates are presented for the following four categories of natural gas: total gas (wet after lease separation), its two major components (nonassociated and associated-dissolved gas), and total dry gas (wet gas adjusted for the removal of liquids at natural gas processing plants). In addition, two components of natural gas liquids, lease condensate and natural gas plant liquids, have their reserves and production reported separately. Also included is information on indicated additional crude oil reserves and crude oil, natural gas, and lease condensate reserves in nonproducing reservoirs. 28 refs., 9 figs., 15 tabs.

  4. Thermoacoustic natural gas liquefier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swift, G.W. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Condensed Matter and Thermal Physics Group

    1997-05-01

    Cryenco and Los Alamos are collaborating to develop a natural-gas-powered natural-gas liquefier that will have no moving parts and require no electrical power. It will have useful efficiency, remarkable reliability, and low cost. The liquefaction of natural gas, which occurs at only 115 Kelvin at atmospheric pressure, has previously required rather sophisticated refrigeration machinery. The 1990 invention of the thermoacoustically driven orifice pulse-tube refrigerator (TA-DOPTR) provides cryogenic refrigeration with no moving parts for the first time. In short, this invention uses acoustic phenomena to produce refrigeration from heat. The required apparatus consists of nothing more than helium-filled heat exchangers and pipes, made of common materials, without exacting tolerances. In the Cryenco-Los Alamos collaboration, the authors are developing a version of this invention suitable for use in the natural-gas industry. The project is known as acoustic liquefier for short. The present program plans call for a two-phase development. Phase 1, with capacity of 500 gallon per day (i.e., approximately 40,000 scfd, requiring a refrigeration power of about 7 kW), is large enough to illuminate all the issues of large-scale acoustic liquefaction without undue cost, and to demonstrate the liquefaction of 60--70% of input gas, while burning 30--40%. Phase 2 will target versions of approximately 10{sup 6} scfd = 10,000 gallon per day capacity. In parallel with both, they continue fundamental research on the technology, directed toward increased efficiency, to build scientific foundations and a patent portfolio for future acoustic liquefiers.

  5. Almacenamiento de gas natural

    OpenAIRE

    Tomás Correa; Elkin Castrillón

    2008-01-01

    The largest reserves of natural gas worldwide are found in regions far of main cities, being necessary different alternatives to transport the fluid to the consumption cities, such as pipelines, CNG or ships, LNG, depending on distances between producing regions and demanding regions and the producing volumes. Consumption regions have three different markets to naturalgas; residential and commercial, industrial and power generation sector. The residential and commercial is highly seasonal and...

  6. Natural gas monthly, April 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-06

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. There are two feature articles in this issue: Natural gas 1998: Issues and trends, Executive summary; and Special report: Natural gas 1998: A preliminary summary. 6 figs., 28 tabs.

  7. Natural gas monthly, August 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-25

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) is prepared in the Data Operations Branch of the Reserves and Natural Gas Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration (EIA), US Department of Energy (DOE). The NGM highhghts activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  8. Natural gas monthly, October 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) is prepared in the Data Operations Branch of the Reserves and Natural Gas Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration (EIA), U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The NGM highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  9. Natural gas monthly, July 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The feature article this month is entitled ``Intricate puzzle of oil and gas reserves growth.`` A special report is included on revisions to monthly natural gas data. 6 figs., 24 tabs.

  10. Nonconventional natural gas resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-03-01

    It is concluded that it is impossible at this time to forecast the volume of natural gas dissolved in water that can be economically recovered. The investigation to southern Louisiana, both onshore and offshore was confined. Estimates of the dissolved methane content are based upon information on temperatures, pressures, sandstone thicknesses, sandstone porosities, salinity, and the solubility of methane. The salinity of waters encountered in wells was estimated from wireline logs, and in turn used to reduce the estimated content of dissolved gas. The reductions range from 51 to 61 percent of the solubility of methane in fresh water. The assessment does not include gas dissolved in water contained in shale beds. A series of maps display the information used in the computation. Methane solubility values were multiplied by porosity--feet values for each 1000-foot interval. The total dissolved methane in the resource base is estimated to be 6,143 trillion cubic feet (Tcf); assumptions on the effect of salinity reduce this to 3,264 Tcf. This figure does not include methane beneath the Texas coast. Very preliminary estimates of the recoverable proportion of dissolved gas in the highly ''geopressured'' zones range from 1 to over 20 percent. Not all of the resource base estimates of 3,264 Tcf occurs in the highly geopressured zone, and the proportions individually allocatable within the resource base to the highly ''geopressured'' zone, to the intermediate-pressure zone, and to the normal or ''hydropressure'' zone cannotbe estimated readily. The environmental aspects of recovery of dissolved gas are also presented. The review is necessarily generalized, since it could not be based on actual experience. The problems include subsidence of land surface and possibly increased seismic activity. Fluid withdrawal might result in subsidence of the land surface, as well as activation of growth faults, with adjustments

  11. Natural gas monthly, July 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. 6 figs., 25 tabs.

  12. Natural gas monthly, June 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-06-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. 6 figs., 25 tabs.

  13. Natural gas monthly, August 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-24

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  14. Natural gas monthly, June 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-06-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. 6 figs., 27 tabs.

  15. Natural gas monthly, June 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. 6 figs., 24 tabs.

  16. Natural gas monthly, October 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-10-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. 6 figs., 27 tabs.

  17. Natural gas monthly, May 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. 6 figs., 27 tabs.

  18. Natural gas monthly: December 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. Articles are included which are designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  19. Natural gas monthly, July 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. 6 figs., 25 tabs.

  20. Natural Gas Monthly, March 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-25

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  1. Natural gas monthly, July 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-20

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  2. Natural gas monthly, November 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-29

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground state data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  3. Natural gas monthly, February 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-02-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. 6 figs., 28 tabs.

  4. Natural gas monthly, November 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-11-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. 6 figs., 27 tabs.

  5. Natural gas monthly, January 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-02-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. 6 figs., 28 tabs.

  6. Natural gas monthly, December 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. 6 figs., 28 tabs.

  7. Thermoacoustic natural gas liquefier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swift, G.W. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1995-06-01

    In collaboration with Cryenco Inc. and NIST-Boulder, we intend to develop a natural gas-powered natural-gas liquefier which has absolutely no moving parts and requires no electrical power. It will have high efficiency, remarkable reliability, and low cost. Progress on the liquefier to be constructed at Cryenco continues satisfactorily. The thermoacoustic driver is still ahead of the pulse tube refrigerator, because of NIST`s schedule. We completed the thermoacoustics design in the fall of 1994, with Los Alamos providing physics input and checks of all aspects, and Cryenco providing engineering to ASME code, drafting, etc. Completion of this design represents a significant amount of work, especially in view of the many unexpected problems encountered. Meanwhile, Cryenco and NIST have almost completed the design of the pulse tube refrigerator. At Los Alamos, we have assembled a half-size scale model of the thermoacoustic portion of the 500 gal/day TANGL. This scale model will enable easy experimentation in harmonic suppression techniques, new stack geometries, new heat-exchanger geometries, resonator coiling, and other areas. As of March 1995, the scale model is complete and we are performing routine debugging tests and modifications.

  8. Abiotic nitrate loss and nitrogenous trace gas emission from Chinese acidic forest soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yajing; Cao, Wenchao; Zhang, Xinmu; Guo, Jingheng

    2017-08-16

    There are an increasing number of studies, which have shown the potential importance of abiotic denitrification in nitrogen biogeochemistry through pure chemical coupling between nitrate/nitrite reduction and Fe(II) oxidation. However, there is little direct evidence showing the environmental significance of abiotic nitrate (NO3(-)) reduction in acidic soils. We assessed the magnitude and gaseous product stoichiometry of abiotic nitrate reduction in acidic forest soils based on sterilized anoxic soil incubations at different soil pHs and nitrate loadings. The results showed that 24.9, 53.4, and 88.7% of added nitrate (70 mg N kg(-1)) were lost during 15 days incubation at pHs 3.9, 4.8, and 5.6, respectively. Nitrous oxide (N2O) was found as the dominant gaseous product of abiotic nitrate reduction, accounting for 5.0, 28.9, and 47.9% of nitrate losses at three pH levels, respectively. Minor but clear NO accumulations were observed for all nitrate-amended treatments, with the maxima at intermediate pH 4.8. The percentage of NO increased significantly with soil pH decline, leading to a negative correlation between NO/N2O ratio and soil pH. Though saturations were found under excessive nitrogen loading (i.e., 140 mg N kg(-1)), we still pose that abiotic nitrate reduction may represent a potentially important pathway for nitrate loss from acidic forest soils receiving nitrogen deposition. Our results here highlight the importance of abiotic nitrate reduction in the soil nitrogen cycle, with special relevance to nitrate removal and nitrogenous trace gas (NO and N2O) emissions from acidic soils.

  9. Natural Gas Monthly, October 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-10

    The (NGM) Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. This month`s feature articles are: US Production of Natural Gas from Tight Reservoirs: and Expanding Rule of Underground Storage.

  10. Natural gas monthly, May 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-05-25

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The featured articles for this month are: Opportunities with fuel cells, and revisions to monthly natural gas data.

  11. Natural gas monthly, March 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The feature article is entitled ``Natural gas analysis and geographic information systems.`` 6 figs., 27 tabs.

  12. Natural gas monthly, May 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The feature article this month is ``Restructuring energy industries: Lessons from natural gas.`` 6 figs., 26 tabs.

  13. Natural gas monthly, June 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The feature article this month is the executive summary from Natural Gas 1994: Issues and Trends. 6 figs., 31 tabs.

  14. Natural gas monthly, April 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-04-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are present3ed each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The feature article is entitled ``Natural gas pipeline and system expansions.`` 6 figs., 27 tabs.

  15. Natural gas monthly, December 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The article this month is entitled ``Recent Trends in Natural Gas Spot Prices.`` 6 figs., 27 tabs.

  16. Natural gas monthly, April 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-04-01

    This issue of the Natural Gas Monthly presents the most recent estimates of natural gas data from the Energy Information Administration (EIA). Estimates extend through April 1998 for many data series. The report highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, feature articles are presented designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. This issue contains the special report, ``Natural Gas 1997: A Preliminary Summary.`` This report provides information on natural gas supply and disposition for the year 1997, based on monthly data through December from EIA surveys. 6 figs., 28 tabs.

  17. Natural gas monthly, April 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-26

    The National Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  18. Natural gas monthly, September 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    The National Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. 6 figs., 27 tabs.

  19. Liquefied Natural Gas Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    Chicago Bridge & Iron Company's tanks and associated piping are parts of system for transferring liquefied natural gas from ship to shore and storing it. LNG is a "cryogenic" fluid meaning that it must be contained and transferred at very low temperatures, about 260 degrees below Fahrenheit. Before the LNG can be pumped from the ship to the storage tanks, the two foot diameter transfer pipes must be cooled in order to avoid difficulties associated with sharp differences of temperature between the supercold fluid and relatively warm pipes. Cooldown is accomplished by sending small steady flow of the cryogenic substance through the pipeline; the rate of flow must be precisely controlled or the transfer line will be subjected to undesirable thermal stress.

  20. Natural gas conversion process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    The experimental apparatus was dismantled and transferred to a laboratory space provided by Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) which is already equipped with a high-ventilation fume hood. This will enable us to make tests at higher gas flow rates in a safe environment. Three papers presented at the ACS meeting in San Francisco (Symposium on Natural Gas Upgrading II) April 5--10, 1992 show that the goal of direct catalytic conversion of Methane into heavier Hydrocarbons in a reducing atmosphere is actively pursued in three other different laboratories. There are similarities in their general concept with our own approach, but the temperature range of the experiments reported in these recent papers is much lower and this leads to uneconomic conversion rates. This illustrates the advantages of Methane activation by a Hydrogen plasma to reach commercial conversion rates. A preliminary process flow diagram was established for the Integrated Process, which was outlined in the previous Quarterly Report. The flow diagram also includes all the required auxiliary facilities for product separation and recycle of the unconverted feed as well as for the preparation and compression of the Syngas by-product.

  1. Unnatural monopoly: natural gas industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Copulos, M.

    1984-07-01

    There appears to be no change in position despite the annual congressional debate over natural gas issues. A fresh look is needed, particularly at the idea that interstate gas pipelines are a natural monopoly that require a government franchise. The Natural Gas Act of 1938 giving the Federal Power Commission jurisdiction over gas pipelines was intended to correct abuses, but resulted in encouraging the pipelines to assume a monopolistic behavior. This was not a serous problem until natural gas prices began rising and shortages appeared due to uneven distribution. The Natural Gas Policy Act reinforced the monopolistic behavior by extending federal controls to the intrastate market. Contract carriage is a remedy that would allow firms and utilities to contract for gas on their own. They would pay pipelines for transport costs only. Competition would increase because there would be new buyers and sellers, and pipelines would have an incentive to seek lower wellhead prices for their contract gas.

  2. Natural gas and Brazilian energetic matrix; Gas natural no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moraes, Ricardo Luchese de [White Martins S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1997-07-01

    Recent projection of the market in global scale shows a tendency in natural gas using replacing mostly the fuel oil. Its market share well increase from 21.1% in 1994 to 24.0% in 2010. The annual energetic use will reach 29.23 x 10{sup 9} Gcal in 2010 (8990 million Nm{sup 3} natural gas/day) versus 18.90 x 10{sup 9} Gcal in 1994 (5810 million Nm{sup 3} natural gas/day). For Brazil, its consumption will increase from 8.7 million Nm{sup 3} natural gas/day in 1994 to 35.9 million Nm{sup 3} natural gas/day in 2010. Projects like Brazil-Bolivia natural gas pipeline, will supply 18 million Nm{sup 3} natural gas/day, which expected to start-up before the year 2000. This projects will supply the Brazilian southern regions, that do not consume natural gas at the current moment. Although there are many different kind of natural gas consumption in the industry this paper presents the technical and economical estimate of the injection in the blast furnace operating with coke or charcoal. The process simulation is done assisted by math modeling developed by White Martins/Praxair Inc. (author)

  3. 75 FR 13524 - Northern Natural Gas Company, Southern Natural Gas Company, Florida Gas Transmission Company, LLC...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-22

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Northern Natural Gas Company, Southern Natural Gas Company, Florida Gas... of Application March 16, 2010. Take notice that on March 5, 2010, Northern Natural Gas Company... other owners, Southern Natural Gas Company, Florida Gas Transmission Company, LLC, Transcontinental...

  4. Natural gas monthly, February 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-25

    The NGM highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. The NGM also features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  5. Essentials of natural gas microturbines

    CERN Document Server

    Boicea, Valentin A

    2013-01-01

    Addressing a field which, until now, has not been sufficiently investigated, Essentials of Natural Gas Microturbines thoroughly examines several natural gas microturbine technologies suitable not only for distributed generation but also for the automotive industry. An invaluable resource for power systems, electrical, and computer science engineers as well as operations researchers, microturbine operators, policy makers, and other industry professionals, the book: Explains the importance of natural gas microturbines and their use in distributed energy resource (DER) systemsDiscusses the histor

  6. Natural gas monthly, October 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-23

    The Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. A glossary of the terms used in this report is provided to assist readers in understanding the data presented in this publication. 6 figs., 30 tabs.

  7. Natural gas monthly, March 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The March 1998 edition of the Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. This report also features an article on the correction of errors in the drilling activity estimates series, and in-depth drilling activity data. 6 figs., 28 tabs.

  8. Natural gas monthly, March 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The March 1998 edition of the Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. This report also features an article on the correction of errors in the drilling activity estimates series, and in-depth drilling activity data. 6 figs., 28 tabs.

  9. Natural gas monthly, January 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The featured article for this month is on US coalbed methane production.

  10. Natural gas market under the Natural Gas Policy Act

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, M.; Ody, N.; O' Neill, R.; Rodekohr, M.; Shambaugh, P.; Thrasher, R.; Trapmann, W.

    1981-06-01

    This first of a series of analyses presents data on the exploration, development, production, and pricing of US natural gas since the passage of the Natural Gas Policy Act in 1978. Designed to give pricing incentives for new-well activity, the NGPA has apparently eliminated many of the pricing differences that existed between interstate and intrastate markets. Estimates of the annual production volumes in trillion CF/yr of gas for the categories defined by the NGPA include new gas 4.5, new onshore wells 4.1, high-cost unconventional gas 0.7, and stripper wells 0.4. Preliminary statistics on the end-use pricing of natural gas suggest that significant changes in the average wellhead prices have not caused correspondingly large increases in the price of delivered gas.

  11. Natural abiotic formation of oxalic acid in soils: results from aromatic model compounds and soil samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studenroth, Sabine; Huber, Stefan G; Kotte, Karsten; Schöler, Heinz F

    2013-02-05

    Oxalic acid is the smallest dicarboxylic acid and plays an important role in soil processes (e.g., mineral weathering and metal detoxification in plants). We have first proven its abiotic formation in soils and investigated natural abiotic degradation processes based on the oxidation of soil organic matter, enhanced by Fe(3+) and H(2)O(2) as hydroxyl radical suppliers. Experiments with the model compound catechol and further hydroxylated benzenes were performed to examine a common degradation pathway and to presume a general formation mechanism of oxalic acid. Two soil samples were tested for the release of oxalic acid and the potential effects of various soil parameters on oxalic acid formation. Additionally, the soil samples were treated with different soil sterilization methods to prove the oxalic acid formation under abiotic soil conditions. Different series of model experiments were conducted to determine a range of factors including Fe(3+), H(2)O(2), reaction time, pH, and chloride concentration on oxalic acid formation. Under certain conditions, catechol is degraded up to 65.6% to oxalic acid referring to carbon. In serial experiments with two soil samples, oxalic acid was produced, and the obtained results are suggestive of an abiotic degradation process. In conclusion, Fenton-like conditions with low Fe(3+) concentrations and an excess of H(2)O(2) as well as acidic conditions were required for an optimal oxalic acid formation. The presence of chloride reduced oxalic acid formation.

  12. Natural gas monthly, October 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-11-05

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) is prepared in the Data Operations Branch of the Reserves and Natural Gas Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration (EIA), US Department of Energy (DOE). The NGM highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. The data in this publication are collected on surveys conducted by the EIA to fulfill its responsibilities for gathering and reporting energy data. Some of the data are collected under the authority of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), an independent commission within the DOE, which has jurisdiction primarily in the regulation of electric utilities and the interstate natural gas industry. Geographic coverage is the 50 States and the District of Columbia. 16 figs., 33 tabs.

  13. Natural gas pipeline technology overview.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Folga, S. M.; Decision and Information Sciences

    2007-11-01

    The United States relies on natural gas for one-quarter of its energy needs. In 2001 alone, the nation consumed 21.5 trillion cubic feet of natural gas. A large portion of natural gas pipeline capacity within the United States is directed from major production areas in Texas and Louisiana, Wyoming, and other states to markets in the western, eastern, and midwestern regions of the country. In the past 10 years, increasing levels of gas from Canada have also been brought into these markets (EIA 2007). The United States has several major natural gas production basins and an extensive natural gas pipeline network, with almost 95% of U.S. natural gas imports coming from Canada. At present, the gas pipeline infrastructure is more developed between Canada and the United States than between Mexico and the United States. Gas flows from Canada to the United States through several major pipelines feeding U.S. markets in the Midwest, Northeast, Pacific Northwest, and California. Some key examples are the Alliance Pipeline, the Northern Border Pipeline, the Maritimes & Northeast Pipeline, the TransCanada Pipeline System, and Westcoast Energy pipelines. Major connections join Texas and northeastern Mexico, with additional connections to Arizona and between California and Baja California, Mexico (INGAA 2007). Of the natural gas consumed in the United States, 85% is produced domestically. Figure 1.1-1 shows the complex North American natural gas network. The pipeline transmission system--the 'interstate highway' for natural gas--consists of 180,000 miles of high-strength steel pipe varying in diameter, normally between 30 and 36 inches in diameter. The primary function of the transmission pipeline company is to move huge amounts of natural gas thousands of miles from producing regions to local natural gas utility delivery points. These delivery points, called 'city gate stations', are usually owned by distribution companies, although some are owned by

  14. Abiotic degradation of four phthalic acid esters in aqueous phase under natural sunlight irradiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ruttapol Lertsirisopon; Satoshi Soda; Kazunari Sei; Michihiko Ike

    2009-01-01

    Abiotic degradability of four phthalic acid esters (PAEs) in the aquatic phase was evaluated over the wide pH range (5-9). The PAE solutions in glass test tubes were placed in the dark and under natural sunlight irradiation for evaluating the degradation rate via hydrolysis and photolysis plus hydrolysis, respectively, at ambient temperature for 140 d from autumn to winter in Osaka, Japan. The efficiency of abiotic degradation of the PAEs with relatively short alkyl chain, butylbenzyl phthalate (BBP) and di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) at neutral pH was significant less than that in the acidic or alkaline condition. Photolysis was considered to mainly contribute to total abiotic degradation at any pH. Neither hydrolysis nor photolysis of di-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) proceeded significantly at any pH, especially hydrolysis at neutral pH was negligible. On the other hand, the degradation rate of di-isononyl phthalate (DINP) mainly catalyzed by photolysis was much higher compared with that of the other PAEs, and almost complete removal was observed during the experimental period at pH 5.0 and 9.0. As a whole, according to the half-life (t1/2) obtained in the experiments, the abiotic degradability of the PAEs was in the sequence, DINP (32-140 d) > DBP (50-360 d), BBP (58-480 d) > DEHP (390-1600 d) under sunlight irradiation (via photolysis plus hydrolysis). Although the abiotic degradation rate for BBP, DBP, and DEHP are much lower than their biodegradation rate reported, the photolysis rate for DINP is comparable to its biodegradation rate in the acidic or alkaline condition.

  15. Natural gas monthly, February 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    This issue of the Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) presents the most recent estimates of natural gas data from the Energy Information Administration. Estimates extend through February 1998 for many data series, and through November 1997 for most natural gas prices. Highlights of the natural gas data contained in this issue are: Preliminary estimates for January and February 1998 show that dry natural gas production, net imports, and consumption are all within 1 percent of their levels in 1997. Warmer-than-normal weather in recent months has resulted in lower consumption of natural gas by the residential sector and lower net withdrawals of gas from under round storage facilities compared with a year ago. This has resulted in an estimate of the amount of working gas in storage at the end of February 1998 that is 18 percent higher than in February 1997. The national average natural gas wellhead price is estimated to be $3.05 per thousand cubic feet in November 1997, 7 percent higher than in October. The cumulative average wellhead price for January through November 1997 is estimated to be $2.42 per thousand cubic feet, 17 percent above that of the same period in 1996. This price increase is far less than 36-percent rise that occurred between 1995 and 1996. 6 figs., 26 tabs.

  16. Natural gas monthly, August 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-11-05

    This report highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector oganizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. 33 tabs.

  17. Natural Gas Energy Educational Kit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Gas Association, Arlington, VA. Educational Services.

    Prepared by energy experts and educators to introduce middle school and high school students to natural gas and its role in our society, this kit is designed to be incorporated into existing science and social studies curricula. The materials and activities focus on the origin, discovery, production, delivery, and use of natural gas. The role of…

  18. Natural gas monthly, July 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-10-03

    This report highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. A glossary is included. 7 figs., 33 tabs.

  19. Natural variation in abiotic stress responsive gene expression and local adaptation to climate in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasky, Jesse R; Des Marais, David L; Lowry, David B; Povolotskaya, Inna; McKay, John K; Richards, James H; Keitt, Timothy H; Juenger, Thomas E

    2014-09-01

    Gene expression varies widely in natural populations, yet the proximate and ultimate causes of this variation are poorly known. Understanding how variation in gene expression affects abiotic stress tolerance, fitness, and adaptation is central to the field of evolutionary genetics. We tested the hypothesis that genes with natural genetic variation in their expression responses to abiotic stress are likely to be involved in local adaptation to climate in Arabidopsis thaliana. Specifically, we compared genes with consistent expression responses to environmental stress (expression stress responsive, "eSR") to genes with genetically variable responses to abiotic stress (expression genotype-by-environment interaction, "eGEI"). We found that on average genes that exhibited eGEI in response to drought or cold had greater polymorphism in promoter regions and stronger associations with climate than those of eSR genes or genomic controls. We also found that transcription factor binding sites known to respond to environmental stressors, especially abscisic acid responsive elements, showed significantly higher polymorphism in drought eGEI genes in comparison to eSR genes. By contrast, eSR genes tended to exhibit relatively greater pairwise haplotype sharing, lower promoter diversity, and fewer nonsynonymous polymorphisms, suggesting purifying selection or selective sweeps. Our results indicate that cis-regulatory evolution and genetic variation in stress responsive gene expression may be important mechanisms of local adaptation to climatic selective gradients.

  20. Natural gas monthly, August 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    This analysis presents the most recent data on natural gas prices, supply, and consumption from the Energy Information Administration (EIA). The presentation of the latest monthly data is followed by an update on natural gas markets. The markets section examines the behavior of daily spot and futures prices based on information from trade press, as well as regional, weekly data on natural gas storage from the American Gas Association (AGA). This {open_quotes}Highlights{close_quotes} closes with a special section comparing and contrasting EIA and AGA storage data on a monthly and regional basis. The regions used are those defined by the AGA for their weekly data collection effort: the Producing Region, the Consuming Region East, and the Consuming Region West. While data on working gas levels have tracked fairly closely between the two data sources, differences have developed recently. The largest difference is in estimates of working gas levels in the East consuming region during the heating season.

  1. North American Natural Gas Markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-02-01

    This report summarizes die research by an Energy Modeling Forum working group on the evolution of the North American natural gas markets between now and 2010. The group's findings are based partly on the results of a set of economic models of the natural gas industry that were run for four scenarios representing significantly different conditions: two oil price scenarios (upper and lower), a smaller total US resource base (low US resource case), and increased potential gas demand for electric generation (high US demand case). Several issues, such as the direction of regulatory policy and the size of the gas resource base, were analyzed separately without the use of models.

  2. Gas Hydrate Storage of Natural Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudy Rogers; John Etheridge

    2006-03-31

    Environmental and economic benefits could accrue from a safe, above-ground, natural-gas storage process allowing electric power plants to utilize natural gas for peak load demands; numerous other applications of a gas storage process exist. A laboratory study conducted in 1999 to determine the feasibility of a gas-hydrates storage process looked promising. The subsequent scale-up of the process was designed to preserve important features of the laboratory apparatus: (1) symmetry of hydrate accumulation, (2) favorable surface area to volume ratio, (3) heat exchanger surfaces serving as hydrate adsorption surfaces, (4) refrigeration system to remove heat liberated from bulk hydrate formation, (5) rapid hydrate formation in a non-stirred system, (6) hydrate self-packing, and (7) heat-exchanger/adsorption plates serving dual purposes to add or extract energy for hydrate formation or decomposition. The hydrate formation/storage/decomposition Proof-of-Concept (POC) pressure vessel and supporting equipment were designed, constructed, and tested. This final report details the design of the scaled POC gas-hydrate storage process, some comments on its fabrication and installation, checkout of the equipment, procedures for conducting the experimental tests, and the test results. The design, construction, and installation of the equipment were on budget target, as was the tests that were subsequently conducted. The budget proposed was met. The primary goal of storing 5000-scf of natural gas in the gas hydrates was exceeded in the final test, as 5289-scf of gas storage was achieved in 54.33 hours. After this 54.33-hour period, as pressure in the formation vessel declined, additional gas went into the hydrates until equilibrium pressure/temperature was reached, so that ultimately more than the 5289-scf storage was achieved. The time required to store the 5000-scf (48.1 hours of operating time) was longer than designed. The lower gas hydrate formation rate is attributed to a

  3. Chemical Reactivity Probes for Assessing Abiotic Natural Attenuation by Reducing Iron Minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Dimin; Bradley, Miranda J; Hinkle, Adrian W; Johnson, Richard L; Tratnyek, Paul G

    2016-02-16

    Increasing recognition that abiotic natural attenuation (NA) of chlorinated solvents can be important has created demand for improved methods to characterize the redox properties of the aquifer materials that are responsible for abiotic NA. This study explores one promising approach: using chemical reactivity probes (CRPs) to characterize the thermodynamic and kinetic aspects of contaminant reduction by reducing iron minerals. Assays of thermodynamic CRPs were developed to determine the reduction potentials (ECRP) of suspended minerals by spectrophotometric determination of equilibrium CRP speciation and calculations using the Nernst equation. ECRP varied as expected with mineral type, mineral loading, and Fe(II) concentration. Comparison of ECRP with reduction potentials measured potentiometrically using a Pt electrode (EPt) showed that ECRP was 100-150 mV more negative than EPt. When EPt was measured with small additions of CRPs, the systematic difference between EPt and ECRP was eliminated, suggesting that these CRPs are effective mediators of electron transfer between mineral and electrode surfaces. Model contaminants (4-chloronitrobenzene, 2-chloroacetophenone, and carbon tetrachloride) were used as kinetic CRPs. The reduction rate constants of kinetic CRPs correlated well with the ECRP for mineral suspensions. Using the rate constants compiled from literature for contaminants and relative mineral reduction potentials based on ECRP measurements, qualitatively consistent trends were obtained, suggesting that CRP-based assays may be useful for estimating abiotic NA rates of contaminants in groundwater.

  4. Natural gas in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    The Indian gas market is expected to be one of the fastest growing in the world over the next two decades. This paper analyses this market, highlighting the current challenges. It first looks at the industry structure, presents the main players from industry as well as government, and gives an overview of the regulatory framework. The issue of pricing remaining crucial for both upstream and downstream development, the paper looks at both supply -- domestic production and LNG imports -- and demand.

  5. Natural Gas Monthly August 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-08-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. Explanatory notes supplement the information found in tables of the report. A description of the data collection surveys that support the NGM is provided. A glossary of the terms used in this report is also provided to assist readers in understanding the data presented in this publication.

  6. Natural Gas Fires Energy Future

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JANKOT

    2004-01-01

    On July 5, 2004, Mrs. Caoof Shanghai's Baoshan district became Shanghai's one-millionth natural gas user. "This is great!" exclaims Mrs. Cao as she points to her newly installed gas grid. "It's got a big flame perfect for Chinese stirfrying. It's easier to use and not as polluting as coal."

  7. Natural gas industry in Iran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omidvar, Hedayat

    2010-09-15

    Iran holds the second largest gas reserves in the word with over 27.5 trillion cubic meters (TCM) of natural gas. Due to lack of geological surveys in certain geographical regions in Iran, it is likely to explore further reserves in the future.

  8. Natural gas monthly, November 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    This issue of the Natural Gas Monthly presents the most recent estimates of natural gas data from the Energy Information Administration. Estimates extend through November for many data series, and through August for most natural gas prices. Highlights of the most recent data estimates are: (1) Preliminary estimates of dry natural gas production and total consumption available through November 1997 indicate that both series are on track to end the year at levels close to those of 1996. Cumulative dry production is one-half percent higher than in 1996 and consumption is one-half percent lower. (2) Natural gas production is estimated to be 52.6 billion cubic feet per day in November 1997, the highest rate since March 1997. (3) After falling 8 percent in July 1997, the national average wellhead price rose 10 percent in August 1997, reaching an estimated $2.21 per thousand cubic feet. (4) Milder weather in November 1997 compared to November 1996 has resulted in significantly lower levels of residential consumption of natural gas and net storage withdrawls than a year ago. The November 1997 estimates of residential consumption and net withdrawls are 9 and 20 percent lower, respectively, than in November 1996.

  9. Natural gas monthly, March 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    This issue of the Natural Gas Monthly contains estimates for March 1999 for many natural gas data series at the national level. Estimates of national natural gas prices are available through December 1998 for most series. Highlights of the data contained in this issue are listed below. Preliminary data indicate that the national average wellhead price for 1998 declined to 16% from the previous year ($1.96 compared to $2.32 per thousand cubic feet). At the end of March, the end of the 1998--1999 heating season, the level of working gas in underground natural gas storage facilities is estimated to be 1,354 billion cubic feet, 169 billion cubic feet higher than at the end of March 1998. Gas consumption during the first 3 months of 1999 is estimated to have been 179 billion cubic feet higher than in the same period in 1998. Most of this increase (133 billion cubic feet) occurred in the residential sector due to the cooler temperatures in January and February compared to the same months last year. According to the National Weather Service, heating degree days in January 1999 were 15% greater than the previous year while February recorded a 5% increase.

  10. Eastern Canada natural gas developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wall, A. [Engage Energy Canada, L.P., Mississauga, ON (Canada)

    2001-07-01

    This power point presentation addressed the following topics regarding development of natural gas in eastern Canada: (1) the 18 Tcf of proven natural gas reserves at Sable Island, (2) Canadian markets benefiting from the Maritimes and Northeast Pipeline (M and NP), (3) a 20 year franchise agreement between Enbridge Gas and the government of New Brunswick, (4) the 25 year provincial franchise agreement by Sempra Atlantic Gas, and (5) Sable Island's influence on central Canada. The Sable Offshore Energy Project (SOEP) is now producing about 540,000 MMBtu/day from 6 fields. Plans for Tier 2 expansion are underway. Firm contracts for the M and NP are scheduled to transport gas from the SOEP to markets in Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Maine and New Hampshire. Sable gas is also a potential supply for the Quebec market. Gaz Metropolitain and Enbridge have proposed to build the Cartier Pipeline from the Quebec/New Brunswick border to Quebec City. It is unlikely that Sable Island supply will directly serve the Ontario market. Canadian customers for Sable gas and M and NP service include pulp and paper companies, oil refineries, power generators and local distribution companies (LDC), with the majority of demand coming form the electric power industry. tabs., figs.

  11. LIQUIFIED NATURAL GAS (LNG CARRIERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Posavec

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Modern liquefied natural gas carriers are double-bottom ships classified according to the type of LNG tank. The tanks are specially designed to store natural gas cooled to -161°C, the boiling point of methane. Since LNG is highly flammable, special care must be taken when designing and operating the ship. The development of LNG carriers has begun in the middle of the twentieth century. LNG carrier storage space has gradually grown to the current maximum of 260000 m3. There are more than 300 LNG carriers currently in operation (the paper is published in Croatian.

  12. Raman Gas Analyzer (RGA): Natural Gas Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, Dmitry V; Matrosov, Ivan I

    2016-06-08

    In the present work, an improved model of the Raman gas analyzer (RGA) of natural gas (NG) developed by us is described together with its operating principle. The sensitivity has been improved and the number of measurable gases has been expanded. Results of its approbation on a real NG sample are presented for different measurement times. A comparison of the data obtained with the results of chromatographic analysis demonstrates their good agreement. The time stability of the results obtained using this model is analyzed. It is experimentally established that the given RGA can reliably determine the content of all molecular NG components whose content exceeds 0.005% for 100 s; moreover, in this case the limiting sensitivity for some NG components is equal to 0.002%.

  13. Natural Gas Gathering and Purification in Sichuan Gas Fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Zhilin

    1996-01-01

    @@ Natural Gas Gathering and Transmission Technology The construction of gas gathering & transmission lines and stations is an important part of the surface construction of gas fields, whose investment accounts for about half of the total in gas field's development.

  14. Natural gas monthly, January 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-01-01

    This publication, the Natural Gas Monthly, presents the most recent data on natural gas supply, consumption, and prices from the Energy Information Administration (EIA). Of special interest in this issue are two articles summarizing reports recently published by EIA. The articles are {open_quotes}Natural Gas Productive Capacity{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}Outlook for Natural Gas Through 2015,{close_quotes} both of which precede the {open_quotes}Highlights{close_quotes} section. With this issue, January 1997, changes have been made to the format of the Highlights section and to several of the tabular and graphical presentations throughout the publication. The changes to the Highlights affect the discussion of developments in the industry and the presentation of weekly storage data. An overview of the developments in the industry is now presented in a brief summary followed by specific discussions of supply, end-use consumption, and prices. Spot and futures prices are discussed as appropriate in the Price section, together with wellhead and consumer prices.

  15. Natural gas news; Gaz actualites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1998-12-01

    This brochure is a compilation of practical information concerning the Gaz de France group: organization chart, daughter companies, services, economical activity, natural gas market, trade, regulations etc. A list of partners, directions, centres, groups, associations and other various organisms in relation with Gaz de France company is given. (J.S.)

  16. North American Natural Gas Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Pemex Comercio Internacional (Pemex International), responsible for international trade. 30 North American Natural Gas Vision In 1995, the...distribution of secondary petrochemical products; and Pemex Internacional , which is in charge of international trade. Comisión Reguladora de Energía

  17. Staff Handbook on Natural Gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorges, H. A., Ed.; Raine, L. P., Ed.

    The Department of Commerce created a Natural Gas Action Group early in the fall of 1975 to assist industrial firms and the communities they serve to cope with the effects of potentially severe and crippling curtailment situations. This action group was trained to assess a specific local situation, review the potential for remedial action and…

  18. A natural monopoly in natural gas transmission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon, D.V.; Gunsch, K.; Pawluk, C.V. [Department of Economics, University of Calgary, 2500 University Dr. NW, Calgary, AB (Canada) T2N 1N4

    2003-09-01

    In this article, we test for subadditivity in the cost structure associated with transporting natural gas by Trans-Canada Pipelines Ltd. and measure for possible cost savings from increased competition that could be realized by removing the monopoly status granted by the National Energy Board. In measuring subadditivity, we apply both the Baumol et al. (Contestable Markets and the Theory of Industry Structure (1982)) and the Evans and Heckman (Am. Econ. Rev. 764 (1984) 613) procedures. Our results show evidence of subadditivity in the cost structure, and consequently, the possible benefits from increased competition resulting from splitting up the monopoly could be offset by the sacrifice of scale efficiencies.

  19. Natural Gas Multi-Year Program Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    This document comprises the Department of Energy (DOE) Natural Gas Multi-Year Program Plan, and is a follow-up to the `Natural Gas Strategic Plan and Program Crosscut Plans,` dated July 1995. DOE`s natural gas programs are aimed at simultaneously meeting our national energy needs, reducing oil imports, protecting our environment, and improving our economy. The Natural Gas Multi-Year Program Plan represents a Department-wide effort on expanded development and use of natural gas and defines Federal government and US industry roles in partnering to accomplish defined strategic goals. The four overarching goals of the Natural Gas Program are to: (1) foster development of advanced natural gas technologies, (2) encourage adoption of advanced natural gas technologies in new and existing markets, (3) support removal of policy impediments to natural gas use in new and existing markets, and (4) foster technologies and policies to maximize environmental benefits of natural gas use.

  20. Natural Gas Distribution Regulation Natural Gas Distribution Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Salas

    1995-03-01

    Full Text Available This document discusses the economic content of a set of Ruling affecting the provision of natural gas distribution services in Mexico. As such, it describes the mechanisms proposed in order to ensure economic efficiency in the undertaking of such activity, i.e., competition policies, rate regulation, delimination of licensed geographic regions and design of auction procedures for the granting of distribution franchises. This document discusses the economic content of a set of Ruling affecting the provision of natural gas distribution services in Mexico. As such, it describes the mechanisms proposed in order to ensure economic efficiency in the undertaking of such activity, i.e., competition policies, rate regulation, delimination of licensed geographic regions and design of auction procedures for the granting of distribution franchises.

  1. PANORAMA OF NATURAL GAS EXPLORATION IN CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Song Yan; Li Xianqi; Fang Dequan

    1997-01-01

    @@ According to the anticipation of the International Energy Convention,natural gas will be an important substitute energy in the next century,and thus natural gas industry development has become a world trend.China not only has abundant natural gas resources, but also is one of the earliest countries to make use of gas in the world.After a prolonged wavering and slow development, China's natural gas industry has acquired rapid development since the 1980's.

  2. Natural gas as public service; Gas natural como servico publico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gois, Breno Vincius de; Franca, Vladimir da Rocha [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The Natural Gas passes through an outbreak of enormous growth in Brazil. Important in several economies in the world and is one of the main components of the energy matrix of various countries, including neighbouring Southern Cone, such as Argentina and Bolivia, he begins to own as a major viable alternatives to replace oil, along with alcohol and biodiesel. When the distribution of the gas flowing, this should be governed by a system of public law, according to the principles governing the administration, is emphasizing the principle of continuity, efficiency, and generally modest, because this is public service, and how to see this be seen on a strong regulation of the Member States of the Federation, which has the power to provide them directly or by concession. (author)

  3. Methods of natural gas liquefaction and natural gas liquefaction plants utilizing multiple and varying gas streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilding, Bruce M; Turner, Terry D

    2014-12-02

    A method of natural gas liquefaction may include cooling a gaseous NG process stream to form a liquid NG process stream. The method may further include directing the first tail gas stream out of a plant at a first pressure and directing a second tail gas stream out of the plant at a second pressure. An additional method of natural gas liquefaction may include separating CO.sub.2 from a liquid NG process stream and processing the CO.sub.2 to provide a CO.sub.2 product stream. Another method of natural gas liquefaction may include combining a marginal gaseous NG process stream with a secondary substantially pure NG stream to provide an improved gaseous NG process stream. Additionally, a NG liquefaction plant may include a first tail gas outlet, and at least a second tail gas outlet, the at least a second tail gas outlet separate from the first tail gas outlet.

  4. Optimization of offshore natural gas field development

    OpenAIRE

    Johansen, Gaute Rannem

    2011-01-01

    In this thesis the target is to find the optimal development solution of an offshore natural gas field. Natural gas is increasing in importance as an energy source. Whilst most of the large oil fields have been developed, there are still several major natural gas deposits that may be developed. In addition, there are also smaller offshore natural gas fields that may be put into production. Finding an optimal development solution for these resources will increase the availability of natural ga...

  5. Natural gas powered bus; Erdgasbusprojekt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambuehl, D.; Fernandez, J.

    2003-07-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy presents the results of a project carried out by the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich to evaluate the performance of a natural-gas-powered bus in comparison with two diesel buses. The report provides details on the vehicles, their routes and the results of interviews made with both passengers and drivers. Details of measurements made on fuel consumption and pollutant emissions are presented in tabular and graphical form, as are those made on noise emissions inside and outside the vehicles. The conclusions of the project are presented including economic aspects of using gas as a motor fuel. Also, the views of passengers, who were more concerned with comfort aspects, and drivers, who were more interested in technical aspects, are quoted.

  6. Natural gas 1995: Issues and trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    Natural Gas 1995: Issues and Trends addresses current issues affecting the natural gas industry and markets. Highlights of recent trends include: Natural gas wellhead prices generally declined throughout 1994 and for 1995 averages 22% below the year-earlier level; Seasonal patterns of natural gas production and wellhead prices have been significantly reduced during the past three year; Natural gas production rose 15% from 1985 through 1994, reaching 18.8 trillion cubic feet; Increasing amounts of natural gas have been imported; Since 1985, lower costs of producing and transporting natural gas have benefitted consumers; Consumers may see additional benefits as States examine regulatory changes aimed at increasing efficiency; and, The electric industry is being restructured in a fashion similar to the recent restructuring of the natural gas industry.

  7. Natural Gas Storage Facilities, US, 2010, Platts

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Platts Natural Gas Storage Facilities geospatial data layer contains points that represent locations of facilities used for natural gas storage in the United...

  8. Reservoir-forming features of abiotic origin gas in Songliao Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭占谦; 王先彬; 刘文龙

    1997-01-01

    The vertical structure of the crustal block of the Songliao Basin can be divided into upper, middle and low Earth’s crust according to density. There is an about 3-km-thick low density interval between the upper crust and the middle crust. This interval may be a magma chamber accumulated in crust by "fluid phase" which is precipitated and separated from upper mantle meltmass. The abiogenetic natural gas, other gaseous mass and hydrothermal fluids are provided to the Songliao rifted basin through crustal faults and natural earthquakes. This is a basic condition to form an abiogenetic gas reservoir in the Songliao Basin. On both flanks of the upper crust (or named basin basement) fault there are structural traps in and above the basement and unconformity surface or lateral extended sand, which contains communicated pores, as migration pathway and natural gas reservoir; up to gas reservoirs there is shale as enclosed cap rock, and the suitable arrangement of these conditions is the basic features of abioge

  9. U.S. crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids reserves 1997 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, John H.; Grape, Steven G.; Green, Rhonda S.

    1998-12-01

    This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1997, as well as production volumes for the US and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 1997. Estimates are presented for the following four categories of natural gas: total gas (wet after lease separation), nonassociated gas and associated-dissolved gas (which are the two major types of wet natural gas), and total dry gas (wet gas adjusted for the removal of liquids at natural gas processing plants). In addition, reserve estimates for two types of natural gas liquids, lease condensate and natural gas plant liquids, are presented. Also included is information on indicated additional crude oil reserves and crude oil, natural gas, and lease condensate reserves in nonproducing reservoirs. A discussion of notable oil and gas exploration and development activities during 1997 is provided. 21 figs., 16 tabs.

  10. Storing natural gas as frozen hydrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gudmundsson, J.S.; Khokhar, A.A. (Univ. of Trondheim (Norway)); Parlaktuna, M. (Middle East Technical Univ., Ankara (Turkey))

    1994-02-01

    The formation of natural gas hydrates is a well-known problem in the petroleum and natural gas industries. Hydrates are solid materials that form when liquid water and natural gas are brought in contact under pressure. Hydrate formation need not be a problem. On the contrary, it can be an advantage. The volume of hydrates is much less than that of natural gas. At standard conditions, hydrates occupy 150 to 170 times less volume than the corresponding gas. Typically, natural gas hydrates contain 15% gas and 85% water by mass. It follows that hydrates can be used for large-scale storage of natural gas. Benesh proposed using hydrates to improve the load factor of natural gas supply systems. The author suggested that hydrates could be produced by bringing liquid water into contact with natural gas at the appropriate temperature and high pressure. The hydrate then would be stored at a temperature and pressure where it was stable. When gas was needed for the supply system, the hydrate would be melted at low pressure. The stability of a natural gas hydrate during storage at atmospheric pressure and below-freezing temperatures was studied in the laboratory. The gas hydrate was produced in a stirred vessel at 2- to 6-MPa pressure and temperatures from 0 to 20 C. The hydrate was refrigerated and stored in deep freezers at [minus]5, [minus]10, and [minus]18 C for up to 10 days. The natural gas hydrate remained stable when kept frozen at atmospheric pressure.

  11. NITROGEN REMOVAL FROM NATURAL GAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K.A. Lokhandwala; M.B. Ringer; T.T. Su; Z. He; I. Pinnau; J.G. Wijmans; A. Morisato; K. Amo; A. DaCosta; R.W. Baker; R. Olsen; H. Hassani; T. Rathkamp

    1999-12-31

    The objective of this project was to develop a membrane process for the denitrogenation of natural gas. Large proven reserves in the Lower-48 states cannot be produced because of the presence of nitrogen. To exploit these reserves, cost-effective, simple technology able to reduce the nitrogen content of the gas to 4-5% is required. Technology applicable to treatment of small gas streams (below 10 MMscfd) is particularly needed. In this project membranes that selectively permeate methane and reject nitrogen in the gas were developed. Preliminary calculations show that a membrane with a methane/nitrogen selectivity of 3 to 5 is required to make the process economically viable. A number of polymer materials likely to have the required selectivities were evaluated as composite membranes. Polyacetylenes such as poly(1-trimethylsilyl-1-propyne) [PTMSP] and poly(4-methyl-2-pentyne) [PMP] had high selectivities and fluxes, but membranes prepared from these polymers were not stable, showing decreasing flux and selectivity during tests lasting only a few hours. Parel, a poly(propylene oxide allyl glycidyl ether) had a selectivity of 3 at ambient temperatures and 4 or more at temperatures of {minus}20 C. However, Parel is no longer commercially available, and we were unable to find an equivalent material in the time available. Therefore, most of our experimental work focused on silicone rubber membranes, which have a selectivity of 2.5 at ambient temperatures, increasing to 3-4 at low temperatures. Silicone rubber composite membranes were evaluated in bench-scale module tests and with commercial-scale, 4-inch-diameter modules in a small pilot plant. Over six days of continuous operation at a feed gas temperature of {minus}5 to {minus}10 C, the membrane maintained a methane/nitrogen selectivity of about 3.3. Based on the pilot plant performance data, an analysis of the economic potential of the process was prepared. We conclude that a stand-alone membrane process is the lowest

  12. Dedicated natural gas vehicle with low emission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voogd, A. de; Weide, J. van der; Konig, A.; Wegener, R.

    1995-01-01

    In the introduction an overview is given of international activities in the field of natural gas vehicles. The main incentives for the use of natural gas in vehicles are: emission reduction in urban areas, fuel diversification, and long term availability. Heavy duty natural gas engines are mainly en

  13. Dedicated natural gas vehicle with low emission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voogd, A. de; Weide, J. van der; Konig, A.; Wegener, R.

    1995-01-01

    In the introduction an overview is given of international activities in the field of natural gas vehicles. The main incentives for the use of natural gas in vehicles are: emission reduction in urban areas, fuel diversification, and long term availability. Heavy duty natural gas engines are mainly en

  14. 76 FR 4417 - Liberty Natural Gas LLC, Liberty Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Deepwater Port License Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-25

    ... Maritime Administration Liberty Natural Gas LLC, Liberty Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Deepwater Port License.... Liberty Deepwater Port would receive and transfer natural gas from purpose-built LNG regasification... equipped to vaporize LNG cargo to natural gas through onboard closed loop vaporization systems and...

  15. 78 FR 38309 - Northern Natural Gas Company; Southern Natural Gas Company, L.L.C.; Florida Gas Transmission...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-26

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Northern Natural Gas Company; Southern Natural Gas Company, L.L.C.; Florida... Natural Gas Company (Northern), 1111 South 103rd Street, Omaha, Nebraska 68124; on behalf of itself, Southern Natural Gas Company, L.L.C., and Florida Gas Transmission Company, LLC, (collectively,...

  16. Recalcitrance and degradation of petroleum biomarkers upon abiotic and biotic natural weathering of Deepwater Horizon oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aeppli, Christoph; Nelson, Robert K; Radović, Jagoš R; Carmichael, Catherine A; Valentine, David L; Reddy, Christopher M

    2014-06-17

    Petroleum biomarkers such as hopanoids, steranes, and triaromatic steroids (TAS) are commonly used to investigate the source and fate of petroleum hydrocarbons in the environment based on the premise that these compounds are resistant to biotic and abiotic degradation. To test the validity of this premise in the context of the Deepwater Horizon disaster, we investigated changes to these biomarkers as induced by natural weathering of crude oil discharged from the Macondo Well (MW). For surface slicks collected from May to June in 2010, and other oiled samples collected on beaches in the northern Gulf of Mexico from July 2010 until August 2012, hopanoids with up to 31 carbons as well as steranes and diasteranes were not systematically affected by weathering processes. In contrast, TAS and C32- to C35-homohopanes were depleted in all samples relative to 17α(H),21β(H)-hopane (C30-hopane). Compared to MW oil, C35-homohopanes and TAS were depleted by 18 ± 10% and 36 ± 20%, respectively, in surface slicks collected from May to June 2010, and by 37 ± 9% and 67 ± 10%, respectively, in samples collected along beaches from April 2011 through August 2012. Based on patterns of relative losses of individual compounds, we hypothesize biodegradation and photooxidation as main degradation processes for homohopanes and TAS, respectively. This study highlights that (i) TAS and homohopanes can be degraded within several years following an oil spill, (ii) the use of homohopanes and TAS for oil spill forensics must account for degradation, and (iii) these compounds provide a window to parse biodegradation and photooxidation during advanced stages of oil weathering.

  17. Natural gas pricing: concepts and international overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorodicht, Daniel Monnerat [Gas Energy, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Veloso, Luciano de Gusmao; Fidelis, Marco Antonio Barbosa; Mathias, Melissa Cristina Pinto Pires [Agencia Nacional do Petroleo, Gas Natural e Biocombustiveis (ANP), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    The core of this article is a critical analysis of different forms of pricing of natural gas existing in the world today. This paper is to describe the various scenarios of natural gas price formation models. Along the paper, the context is emphasized by considering their cases of applications and their results. Today, basically, there are three main groups of models for natural gas pricing: i) competition gas-on-gas, i.e., a liberalized natural gas market, II) gas indexed to oil prices or its products and III) bilateral monopolies and regulated prices. All the three groups of models have relevant application worldwide. Moreover, those are under dynamic influence of economic, technological and sociopolitical factors which bring complexity to the many existing scenarios. However, at first this paper builds a critical analysis of the international current situation of natural gas today and its economic relevance. (author)

  18. Natural synthesis of bioactive greigite by solid-gas reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igarashi, Kensuke; Yamamura, Yasuhisa; Kuwabara, Tomohiko

    2016-10-01

    Greigite, a ferrimagnetic iron sulfide Fe(II)Fe(III)2S4, is thought to have played an essential role in chemical evolution leading to the origin of life. Greigite contains a [4Fe-4S] cluster-like structure and has been synthesized in the laboratory by liquid-state reactions. However, it is unclear how greigite can be synthesized in nature. Herein, we show that greigite is synthesized by the solid-gas reaction of Fe(III)-oxide-hydroxides and H2S. We discovered that the hyperthermophilic hydrogenotrophic methanogen Methanocaldococcus jannaschii reduced elemental sulfur, and the resulting sulfide generated greigite from hematite. The time course and pH dependence of the reaction respectively indicated the involvement of amorphous FeS and H2S as reaction intermediates. An abiotic solid-gas reaction of hematite and H2S (g) under strictly anaerobic conditions was developed. The solid-gas reaction fully converted hematite to greigite/pyrite at 40-120 °C within 12 h and was unaffected by the bulk gas phase. Similar abiotic reactions occurred, but relatively slowly, with aqueous H2S in acidulous liquids using hematite, magnetite, or amorphous FeO(OH) as starting materials, suggesting that greigite was extensively produced in the Hadean Eon as these Fe(III)-oxide-hydroxides were shown to be present or routinely produced during that era. Surprisingly, the obtained greigite induced methanogenesis and growth of hydrogenotrophic methanogens, suggesting that the external greigite crystals enhanced reactions that would otherwise require enzymes, such as [4Fe-4S] cluster-harboring membrane-bound hydrogenases. These data suggested that the greigite produced by the solid-gas and solid-dissolved gas reactions was bioactive.

  19. US crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids reserves, 1992 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-18

    This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1992, as well as production volumes for the United States, and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 1992. Estimates are presented for the following four categories of natural gas: total gas (wet after lease separation), its two major components (nonassociated and associated-dissolved gas), and total dry gas (wet gas adjusted for the removal of liquids at natural gas processing plants). In addition, two components of natural gas liquids, lease condensate and natural gas plant liquids, have their reserves and production data presented. Also included is information on indicated additional crude oil reserves and crude oil, natural gas, and lease condensate reserves in nonproducing reservoirs. A discussion of notable oil and gas exploration and development activities during 1992 is provided.

  20. Life-cycle analysis of shale gas and natural gas.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, C.E.; Han, J.; Burnham, A.; Dunn, J.B.; Wang, M. (Energy Systems); ( EVS)

    2012-01-27

    The technologies and practices that have enabled the recent boom in shale gas production have also brought attention to the environmental impacts of its use. Using the current state of knowledge of the recovery, processing, and distribution of shale gas and conventional natural gas, we have estimated up-to-date, life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions. In addition, we have developed distribution functions for key parameters in each pathway to examine uncertainty and identify data gaps - such as methane emissions from shale gas well completions and conventional natural gas liquid unloadings - that need to be addressed further. Our base case results show that shale gas life-cycle emissions are 6% lower than those of conventional natural gas. However, the range in values for shale and conventional gas overlap, so there is a statistical uncertainty regarding whether shale gas emissions are indeed lower than conventional gas emissions. This life-cycle analysis provides insight into the critical stages in the natural gas industry where emissions occur and where opportunities exist to reduce the greenhouse gas footprint of natural gas.

  1. Potential recoverable natural gas resources in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Chenglin; Zhu Jie; Che Changbo; Liu Guangdi

    2008-01-01

    Natural gas resources in China are abundant. The undiscovered recoverable natural gas resources in China are estimated to be 19.27×1012 m3. Natural gas is mainly distributed in the middle and west China and offshore areas of China. The Tarim Basin, Sichuan Basin, Ordos Basin, East China Sea Basin, Tsaidam Basin, Yinggehai Basin, and Qiongdongnan Basin are the main gas-beating basins. The natural gas resources are not distributed evenly and are under-explored in China. The deeper horizons in east China, foreland basins and craton paleo-uplifts in the middle and west China, and the offshore basins are the main exploration areas in the future.

  2. The domestic natural gas shortage in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ting

    This thesis analyzes the domestic shortage in the Chinese natural gas market. Both the domestic supply and demand of natural gas are growing fast in China. However, the supply cannot catch up with the demand. Under the present pricing mechanism, the Chinese natural gas market cannot get the equilibrium by itself. Expensive imports are inadequate to fill the increasing gap between the domestic demand and supply. Therefore, the shortage problem occurs. Since the energy gap can result in the arrested development of economics, the shortage problem need to be solved. This thesis gives three suggestions to solve the problem: the use of Unconventional Gas, Natural Gas Storage and Pricing Reform.

  3. Origin of natural gas; Tennen gas no kigen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katayama, Y. [The Institute of Applied Energy, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-03-20

    Natural gas, which is a general term of flammable hydrocarbon gases such as methane, is classified by origin into the following categories : (1) oil field gas (oil gas), (2) aquifers (bacteria-fermented methane), (3) coal gas (coal field gas), and (4) abiogenetic gas. The natural gas which has (1-4) origins and is now used as resource in a large quantity is (1) oil field gas. This gas is a hydrocarbon gas recovered in the production process of petroleum and contains components such as ethane, propane and butane. To the contrary, (2) aquifers and (3) coal gas have methane as main component. As (4) abiogenetic methane, there are gas formed in inorganic reaction in activities of submarine volcanos and deep gas (earth origin gas). Oil field gas has kerogen origin. Aquifers were formed by fermentation of organic matters. Coal gas was formed by coalification of vitrinite. As abiogenetic methane, there are inorganic reaction formation gas and deep gas, the latter of which exists little as resource. 7 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Natural gas leakage of Mizhi gas reservoir in Ordos Basin, recorded by natural gas fluid inclusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Abundant natural gas inclusions were found in calcite veins filled in fractures of Central Fault Belt across the centre of Ordos Basin. Time of the calcite veins and characteristics of natural gas fluid inclusion were investigated by means of dating of thermolum luminescence (TL) and analyzing stable isotope of fluid inclusion. Results show that natural gas inclusion formed at 130―140℃ with salinity of 5.5 wt%―6.0 wt% NaCl. It indicates that natural gas inclusion is a kind of thermal hydrocarbon fluid formed within the basin. Method of opening inclusion by heating was used to analyze composition of fluid inclusion online, of which the maximal hydrocarbon gas content of fluid inclusion contained in veins is 2.4219 m3/t rock and the maximal C1/Σci ratio is 91%. Laser Raman spectroscopy (LRS) was used to analyze chemistry of individual fluid inclusion in which the maximal hydrocarbon gas content is 91.6% compared with little inorganic composition. Isotope analysis results of calcite veins show that they were deposited in fresh water, in which the δ13CPDB of calcite veins is from -5.75‰ to 15.23‰ andδ18OSMOW of calcite veins is from 21.33‰ to 21.67‰. Isotope results show thatδ13C1 PDB of natural gas fluid inclusion is from -21.36‰ to -29.06‰ and δDSMOW of that is from -70.89‰ to -111.03‰. It indicates that the gas of fluid inclusion formed from coal source rocks and it is the same as that of natural gas of Mizhi gas reservoir. Results of TL dating show that time of calcite vein is (32.4±3.42)×104 a, which is thought to be formation time of gas inclusion. It indicated that natural gas inclusion contained in calcite veins recorded natural gas leakage from Mizhi gas reservoir through the Central Fault Belt due to Himalayan tectonic movement.

  5. Natural gas dehydration by desiccant materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan A.A. Farag

    2011-12-01

    Increasing water vapor concentration in inlet feed gas leads to a marked decrease in dehydration efficiency. As expected, a higher inlet flow rate of natural gas decrease dehydration efficiency. Increasing feed pressure leads to higher dehydration efficiency.

  6. Modelling emissions from natural gas flaring

    OpenAIRE

    G. Ezaina Umukoro; O. Saheed Ismail

    2017-01-01

    The world today recognizes the significance of environmental sustainability to the development of nations. Hence, the role oil and gas industry plays in environmental degrading activities such as gas flaring is of global concern. This study presents material balance equations and predicts results for non-hydrocarbon emissions such as CO2, CO, NO, NO2, and SO2 etc. from flaring (combustion) of 12 natural gas samples representing composition of natural gas of global origin. Gaseous emission est...

  7. Natural gas: modern application - the environmental question; Gas natural: roupagem moderna - a questao ambiental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suarez, Miriam Liliana Hinostroza; Guerra, Sinclair Mallet-Guy [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Energia]. E-mail: miriam@fem.unicamp.br; sguerra@fem.unicamp.br

    1999-07-01

    Natural gas has been proposed as a transition fuel. The combustion of natural gas emits less CO{sub 2} per unit of energy than the combustion of other fossil fuels. Increased reliance upon natural gas in preference to other fossil fuels would be encouraged to mitigate greenhouse gas releases while more comprehensive responses are devised to provide more time for adaptation to the inevitable climate change. In this context, the article overviews of natural gas and its relation with the environment.

  8. Natural gas 1998: Issues and trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-06-01

    Natural Gas 1998: Issues and Trends provides a summary of the latest data and information relating to the US natural gas industry, including prices, production, transmission, consumption, and the financial and environmental aspects of the industry. The report consists of seven chapters and five appendices. Chapter 1 presents a summary of various data trends and key issues in today`s natural gas industry and examines some of the emerging trends. Chapters 2 through 7 focus on specific areas or segments of the industry, highlighting some of the issues associated with the impact of natural gas operations on the environment. 57 figs., 18 tabs.

  9. Conceptos Basicos Sobre el Gas Natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-08-01

    El gas natural abastece cerca de 150.000 vehiculos en los Estados Unidos y aproximadamente 22 millones de vehiculos en todo el mundo. Los vehiculos de gas natural (NGV, por sus siglas en ingles) son una buena opcion para las flotas de vehiculos de alto kilometraje, tales como autobuses, taxis, vehiculos de recoleccion de basura, los cuales son alimentados centralmente u operan dentro de un area limitada o a lo largo de una ruta con estaciones de servicio de gas natural. Las ventajas del gas natural como combustible alternativo incluyen su disponibilidad interna, la red de distribucion establecida, un costo relativamente bajo, y los beneficios de las emisiones.

  10. US crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids reserves 1996 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    The EIA annual reserves report series is the only source of comprehensive domestic proved reserves estimates. This publication is used by the Congress, Federal and State agencies, industry, and other interested parties to obtain accurate estimates of the Nation`s proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids. These data are essential to the development, implementation, and evaluation of energy policy and legislation. This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1996, as well as production volumes for the US and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 1996. Estimates are presented for the following four categories of natural gas: total gas (wet after lease separation), nonassociated gas and associated-dissolved gas (which are the two major types of wet natural gas), and total dry gas (wet gas adjusted for the removal of liquids at natural gas processing plants). In addition, reserve estimates for two types of natural gas liquids, lease condensate and natural gas plant liquids, are presented. Also included is information on indicated additional crude oil reserves and crude oil, natural gas, and lease condensate reserves in nonproducing reservoirs. A discussion of notable oil and gas exploration and development activities during 1996 is provided. 21 figs., 16 tabs.

  11. U.S. crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids reserves 1995 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    The EIA annual reserves report series is the only source of comprehensive domestic proved reserves estimates. This publication is used by the Congress, Federal and State agencies, industry, and other interested parties to obtain accurate estimates of the Nation`s proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids. These data are essential to the development, implementation, and evaluation of energy policy and legislation. This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1995, as well as production volumes for the US and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 1995. Estimates are presented for the following four categories of natural gas: total gas (wet after lease separation), nonassociated gas and associated-dissolved gas (which are the two major types of wet natural gas), and total dry gas (wet gas adjusted for the removal of liquids at natural gas processing plants). In addition, reserve estimates for two types of natural gas liquids, lease condensate and natural gas plant liquids, are presented. Also included is information on indicated additional crude oil reserves and crude oil, natural gas, and lease condensate reserves in nonproducing reservoirs. A discussion of notable oil and gas exploration and development activities during 1995 is provided. 21 figs., 16 tabs.

  12. Natural gas annual 1993 supplement: Company profiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-02-01

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. This report, the Natural Gas Annual 1993 Supplement: Company Profiles, presents a detailed profile of 45 selected companies in the natural gas industry. The purpose of this report is to show the movement of natural gas through the various States served by the companies profiled. The companies in this report are interstate pipeline companies or local distribution companies (LDC`s). Interstate pipeline companies acquire gas supplies from company owned production, purchases from producers, and receipts for transportation for account of others. Pipeline systems, service area maps, company supply and disposition data are presented.

  13. UK Natural Gas: Gas-Specific or Oil Driven Pricing?

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the time-varying relationship between oil and natural gas in the UK. We develop a model where relative prices can move between pricing-regimes; markets switch between being decoupled and integrated. Our model endogenously accounts for periods where oil and natural gas temporarily decouple due to gas specific pricing. We show that gas-specific pricing is primarily related to fall/winter peak-load gas pricing and that mean reversion in relative prices is dependent o...

  14. Preliminary study natural gas; Foerstudie naturgas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamnevik, Stefan; Carlsson, Tomas; Dyhr, Kurt

    2000-09-01

    FOA has carried out a preliminary study on natural gas for the Swedish National Energy Administration. To use natural gas as an energy source could be one step towards use of carbon-free fuels such as hydrogen. Natural gas, consisting mainly of methane, is the hydrocarbon with the highest hydrogen content. It has a high heat of combustion, 55 MJ/kg, and a low emission of carbon dioxide, 2.8 kg/kg fuel or 0.051 kg/MJ. The carbon dioxide emission per energy unit is twice as high for coal, 75% higher for wood fuels, and 27% higher for fuel oils. The Swedish natural gas network starts at Malmoe and ends at Hyltebruk. The natural gas used is imported from Denmark by Sydgas AB. It would be possible in the future to get connections to the Russian and the Norwegian networks and also to import LNG by ship and store it to buffer the different consumption demands during summer and winter. Natural gas is non-toxic but can be suffocating due to too low oxygen content at high concentrations. Combustion with an inadequate air supply will form toxic carbon monoxide like other carbonaceous fuels. Natural gas/air mixtures may explode like other gaseous fuels. The gas is lighter than air and is therefore dispersed better than heavier gases like LPG. Natural gas is difficult to detonate unlike other gases.

  15. The economy of natural gas; De economie van het gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scholtens, B. [Rijksuniversiteit Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands)

    2013-03-08

    The Dutch government uses the benefits of natural gas especially for public consumption expenditures. Re-establishment of a natural gas fund would lead to productive investment and create a more prosperous Dutch economy [Dutch] De Nederlandse overheid gebruikt de aardgasbaten nu met name voor consumptieve overheidsbestedingen. Heroprichting van een aardgasfonds zou tot productieve investeringen leiden en Nederland welvarender maken.

  16. Acid Gas Removal from Natural Gas with Alkanolamines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sadegh, Negar

    Some 40 % of the world’s remaining gas reserves are sour or acid, containing large quantities of CO2 and H2S and other sulfur compounds. Many large oil and gas fields have more than 10 mole % CO2 and H2S content. In the gas processing industry absorption with chemical solvents has been used...... commercially for the removal of acid gas impurities from natural gas. Alkanolamines, simple combinations of alcohols and ammonia, are the most commonly used category of chemical solvents for acid gas capture. This Ph.D. project is aboutthermodynamics of natural gas cleaning process with alkanolamines...... pressure on acid gas solubility was also quantitatively investigated through both experimental and modeling approaches....

  17. SEAPORT LIQUID NATURAL GAS STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    COOK,Z.

    1999-02-01

    The Seaport Liquid Natural Gas Study has attempted to evaluate the potential for using LNG in a variety of heavy-duty vehicle and equipment applications at the Ports of Los Angeles and Oakland. Specifically, this analysis has focused on the handling and transport of containerized cargo to, from and within these two facilities. In terms of containerized cargo throughput, Los Angeles and Oakland are the second and sixth busiest ports in the US, respectively, and together handle nearly 4.5 million TEUs per year. At present, the landside handling and transportation of containerized cargo is heavily dependent on diesel-powered, heavy-duty vehicles and equipment, the utilization of which contributes significantly to the overall emissions impact of port-related activities. Emissions from diesel units have been the subject of increasing scrutiny and regulatory action, particularly in California. In the past two years alone, particulate matter from diesel exhaust has been listed as a toxic air contaminant by CAM, and major lawsuits have been filed against several of California's largest supermarket chains, alleging violation of Proposition 65 statutes in connection with diesel emissions from their distribution facilities. CARE3 has also indicated that it may take further regulatory action relating to the TAC listing. In spite of these developments and the very large diesel emissions associated with port operations, there has been little AFV penetration in these applications. Nearly all port operators interviewed by CALSTART expressed an awareness of the issues surrounding diesel use; however, none appeared to be taking proactive steps to address them. Furthermore, while a less controversial issue than emissions, the dominance of diesel fuel use in heavy-duty vehicles contributes to a continued reliance on imported fuels. The increasing concern regarding diesel use, and the concurrent lack of alternative fuel use and vigorous emissions reduction activity at the Ports

  18. Biodesulphurization Within Natural Gas in Oil and Gas Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Rahayu

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The presence of sulphur compounds in natural gas can interfere to the quality of natural gas. The decline of combustion gas capacity, metal instrument corrosion in gas piping, and the environmental pollution from gas emission can affect by their presence. Bio-filter is one of the methods  that selected to reduce sulphur content in natural gas. A lab scale study of hydrogen sulphide reduction in natural gas had conducted in oil and gas field using bio-filter method. The bio-filter system (±1 L volume contains an active carbon and thiosulphide medium as a substrate, Thiobacillus thioparus as a single culture of sulphur bacteria, and Thiobacillus thioparus with sludge as a mixed culture of sulphur bacteria. The study of hydrogen sulphide reduction was conducted with continuous flow line process. The gas flow rate approximately 1.5 L/min with a fluctuate presence of Hydrogen sulphide (approximately 40 - 70 mg/L. The bio-filter system contains active carbon, thiosulphide medium, and single culture of T. thioparus appear as a good filter for hydrogen sulphide reduction. During 24 hours, the hydrogen sulphide reduction obtains 93% to 16%. When  culture media added, the hydrogen sulphide reduction will increase almost 60% and then the reduction decrease to 4% after 20 hours. It is concluded that the bio-filter have potential to develop for sulphur reduction in natural gas.

  19. Cytosine methylation alteration in natural populations of Leymus chinensis induced by multiple abiotic stresses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingjie Yu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human activity has a profound effect on the global environment and caused frequent occurrence of climatic fluctuations. To survive, plants need to adapt to the changing environmental conditions through altering their morphological and physiological traits. One known mechanism for phenotypic innovation to be achieved is environment-induced rapid yet inheritable epigenetic changes. Therefore, the use of molecular techniques to address the epigenetic mechanisms underpinning stress adaptation in plants is an important and challenging topic in biological research. In this study, we investigated the impact of warming, nitrogen (N addition, and warming+nitrogen (N addition stresses on the cytosine methylation status of Leymus chinensis Tzvel. at the population level by using the amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP, methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP and retrotransposon based sequence-specific amplification polymorphism (SSAP techniques. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Our results showed that, although the percentages of cytosine methylation changes in SSAP are significantly higher than those in MSAP, all the treatment groups showed similar alteration patterns of hypermethylation and hypomethylation. It meant that the abiotic stresses have induced the alterations in cytosine methylation patterns, and the levels of cytosine methylation changes around the transposable element are higher than the other genomic regions. In addition, the identification and analysis of differentially methylated loci (DML indicated that the abiotic stresses have also caused targeted methylation changes at specific loci and these DML might have contributed to the capability of plants in adaptation to the abiotic stresses. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results demonstrated that abiotic stresses related to global warming and nitrogen deposition readily evoke alterations of cytosine methylation, and which may provide a molecular basis for rapid

  20. China Encourages Natural Gas Development and Utilization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Xuehou; Jiang Shiang

    1997-01-01

    @@ China is one of the earliest nations in developing and utilizing natural gas with modern drilling technique adopted as early as in the 1940s, and the scale of the country's gas resources exploration and development has been expanded since 1950s. At the end of 1995, its yearly gas production reached 17.4 × 109 m3.

  1. Natural variation for gene expression responses to abiotic stress in maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Amanda J; Makarevitch, Irina; Noshay, Jaclyn; Burghardt, Liana T; Hirsch, Candice N; Hirsch, Cory D; Springer, Nathan M

    2017-02-01

    Plants respond to abiotic stress through a variety of physiological, biochemical, and transcriptional mechanisms. Many genes exhibit altered levels of expression in response to abiotic stress, which requires concerted action of both cis- and trans-regulatory features. In order to study the variability in transcriptome response to abiotic stress, RNA sequencing was performed using 14-day-old maize seedlings of inbreds B73, Mo17, Oh43, PH207 and B37 under control, cold and heat conditions. Large numbers of genes that responded differentially to stress between parental inbred lines were identified. RNA sequencing was also performed on similar tissues of the F1 hybrids produced by crossing B73 and each of the three other inbred lines. By evaluating allele-specific transcript abundance in the F1 hybrids, we were able to measure the abundance of cis- and trans-regulatory variation between genotypes for both steady-state and stress-responsive expression differences. Although examples of trans-regulatory variation were observed, cis-regulatory variation was more common for both steady-state and stress-responsive expression differences. The genes with cis-allelic variation for response to cold or heat stress provided an opportunity to study the basis for regulatory diversity.

  2. Natural gas in the transportation sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ask, T.Oe.; Einang, P.M.; Stenersen, D. [MARINTEK (Norway)

    1996-12-01

    The transportation sector is responsible for more than 50% of all oil products consumed, and it is the fastest growing oil demand sector and the fastest growing source of emissions. During the last 10 years there have been a considerable and growing effort in developing internal combustion gas engines. This effort has resulted in gas engines with efficiencies comparable to the diesel engines and with emissions considerably lower than engines burning conventional fuels. This development offers us opportunities to use natural gas very efficiently also in the transportation sector, resulting in reduced emissions. However, to utilize all the built in abilities natural gas has as engine fuel, the natural gas composition must be kept within relatively narrow limits. This is the case with both diesel and gasoline today. A further development require therefore specified natural gas compositions, and the direct use of pipeline natural gas as today would only in limited areas be acceptable. An interesting possibility for producing a specified natural gas composition is by LNG (Liquid Natural Gas) production. (EG)

  3. Natural gas 1994: Issues and trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-01

    This report provides an overview of the natural gas industry in 1993 and early 1994 (Chapter 1), focusing on the overall ability to deliver gas under the new regulatory mandates of Order 636. In addition, the report highlights a range of issues affecting the industry, including: restructuring under Order 636 (Chapter 2); adjustments in natural gas contracting (Chapter 3); increased use of underground storage (Chapter 4); effects of the new market on the financial performance of the industry (Chapter 5); continued impacts of major regulatory and legislative changes on the natural gas market (Appendix A).

  4. Natural gas monthly, September 1990. [Contains Glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-11-30

    This report highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. 7 figs., 33 tabs.

  5. Natural gas monthly, October 1990. [Contains glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-28

    This report highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. 7 figs., 34 tabs.

  6. Adams natural gas/diesel demonstration project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-06-01

    The results of a ore-year program to demonstrate the viability of fuelling and operating diesel road vehicles on dual fuel natural gas/diesel under commercial operating conditions is presented. During this project a natural gas fuelling station designed to accomodate the specific needs of heavy trucks was constructed, and a Canada Safeway Ltd. tractor was converted to dual fuel natural gas/diesel operation. The truck accumulated more than 64,000 km during the one-year monitoring period, providing useful data in terms of comparative fuel efficiency, natural gas/diesel proportions of fuel use, operating range, and refuelling times, along with assessments of its performance by drivers and fleet management. In the dual fuel mode the truck experienced a 15% loss in thermal efficiency relative to straight diesel fuel during highway operation, and a 20% loss during local operation. Fuel cost savings resulting from the use of natural gas were not large given the increased level of fuel consumption and the purchase of natural gas at higher prices. If the fleet were to have its own natural gas fuelling station fuel cost savings would be substantially increased. Areas in which further development is needed for natural gas to emerge as a significant fuel for heavy trucks are mentioned. 3 figs., 15 tabs.

  7. Natural gas annual 1994: Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. This report, Volume 2, presents historical data fro the Nation from 1930 to 1994, and by State from 1967 to 1994.

  8. 40 CFR 1065.715 - Natural gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Natural gas. 1065.715 Section 1065.715 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Engine Fluids, Test Fuels, Analytical Gases and Other Calibration Standards § 1065.715 Natural gas. (a) Except as specified in...

  9. The Global Market for Liquefied Natural Gas

    OpenAIRE

    David Jacobs

    2011-01-01

    Liquefied natural gas (LNG) provides an economic means to transport natural gas over long distances, bringing production from remote gas reserves to market. A large expansion in global LNG trade is currently under way, and Australia is likely to emerge as the second largest supplier globally in coming years. This article describes the functioning of the global LNG market and outlines Australia's position within the market.

  10. Development Trends and Prospect of China Natural Gas Industry%Development Trends and Prospect of China Natural Gas Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Hui; Li Wei; Yanq Yi; Zhuang Tao

    2011-01-01

    China natural gas industry maintained a vigorous deveJopment trend in 2010. Either domestic natural gas production or natural gas import has witnessed a significant increase; natural gas pipelines and other infrastructure have been upgraded; natural gas consumption has kept rising, and consumption mix has been optimized increasingly; natural gas price reform has taken big step.

  11. Petroleum and natural gas in Illinois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-01-01

    Presentations made at the 7th Annual Illinois Energy Conference are compiled and reported. Specific topics include: Illinois petroleum and natural gas supply; energy use patterns for Illinois and the nation; impacts of the National Energy Act on the natural gas industry; natural gas for North America; natural gas supply under the Natural Gas Policy; US access to international oil; deregulation and its impact on the US petroleum supply; the US Energy Policy; petroleum pricing and taxation policies in Illinois; the high cost of energy and its impact on the poor; impact of increased fuel prices on Illinois' industrial future; energy prices and inflation; opportunities for energy conservation in transportaton; overview of energy and synfuels from biomass and wastes; an inventory of energy potential from biomass in Illinois; problems and potential of alcohol from agriculture; liquid and gaseous fuels from coal; and alternatives to liquid and gaseous fuels.

  12. Economics of natural gas resources and supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Neill, R.P.; Shambaugh, P.; Wood, J.

    1984-04-01

    The relative availability and cost of finding and producing natural gas fields of varying size, located in regions of the US at various depth intervals, are examined under different economic assumptions. First, historical trends related to the discovery and availability of natural gas are identified and discussed. These include trends in drilling activity, reserves production, and field-size distributions. Exploration, drilling, and production costs are presented and analyzed. This information is integrated, along with other data, as part of an economic evaluation of the natural gas discovery and production process in the US. Finally, possible future discoveries of natural gas are projected based on varying assumptions related to the underlying distribution of natural gas resources.

  13. IGNITION IMPROVEMENT OF LEAN NATURAL GAS MIXTURES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jason M. Keith

    2005-02-01

    This report describes work performed during a thirty month project which involves the production of dimethyl ether (DME) on-site for use as an ignition-improving additive in a compression-ignition natural gas engine. A single cylinder spark ignition engine was converted to compression ignition operation. The engine was then fully instrumented with a cylinder pressure transducer, crank shaft position sensor, airflow meter, natural gas mass flow sensor, and an exhaust temperature sensor. Finally, the engine was interfaced with a control system for pilot injection of DME. The engine testing is currently in progress. In addition, a one-pass process to form DME from natural gas was simulated with chemical processing software. Natural gas is reformed to synthesis gas (a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide), converted into methanol, and finally to DME in three steps. Of additional benefit to the internal combustion engine, the offgas from the pilot process can be mixed with the main natural gas charge and is expected to improve engine performance. Furthermore, a one-pass pilot facility was constructed to produce 3.7 liters/hour (0.98 gallons/hour) DME from methanol in order to characterize the effluent DME solution and determine suitability for engine use. Successful production of DME led to an economic estimate of completing a full natural gas-to-DME pilot process. Additional experimental work in constructing a synthesis gas to methanol reactor is in progress. The overall recommendation from this work is that natural gas to DME is not a suitable pathway to improved natural gas engine performance. The major reasons are difficulties in handling DME for pilot injection and the large capital costs associated with DME production from natural gas.

  14. 75 FR 70350 - Liberty Natural Gas LLC, Liberty Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Deepwater Port License Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-17

    ... Maritime Administration Liberty Natural Gas LLC, Liberty Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Deepwater Port License... receive and transfer natural gas from purpose-build LNG regasification vessels (LNGRVs) with a total cargo tank capacity of approximately 145,000 m\\3\\. The vessels would be equipped to vaporize LNG cargo...

  15. Historic Change for China's Natural Gas Exploration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Chaoyuan

    1994-01-01

    @@ Brilliant History China has enjoyed a long history for natural gas exploration and utilization. In the first year of Xijin Dynasty (AC 280year), cable tool was used to drill wells in Sichuan's Ziliujing Gasfield for the production of gas and brine. By Ming Dynasty,the depth of well was about 600m. In 1840, the depth of gas production well was 1000.1 m. In 1850, the Jialingjiang Group in lower Tertiary of major gas zone was penetrated.

  16. Natural gas vehicles : Status, barriers, and opportunities.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rood Werpy, M.; Santini, D.; Burnham, A.; Mintz, M.; Energy Systems

    2010-11-29

    In the United States, recent shale gas discoveries have generated renewed interest in using natural gas as a vehicular fuel, primarily in fleet applications, while outside the United States, natural gas vehicle use has expanded significantly in the past decade. In this report for the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities Program - a public-private partnership that advances the energy, economic, and environmental security of the U.S. by supporting local decisions that reduce petroleum use in the transportation sector - we have examined the state of natural gas vehicle technology, current market status, energy and environmental benefits, implications regarding advancements in European natural gas vehicle technologies, research and development efforts, and current market barriers and opportunities for greater market penetration. The authors contend that commercial intracity trucks are a prime area for advancement of this fuel. Therefore, we examined an aggressive future market penetration of natural gas heavy-duty vehicles that could be seen as a long-term goal. Under this scenario using Energy Information Administration projections and GREET life-cycle modeling of U.S. on-road heavy-duty use, natural gas vehicles would reduce petroleum consumption by approximately 1.2 million barrels of oil per day, while another 400,000 barrels of oil per day reduction could be achieved with significant use of natural gas off-road vehicles. This scenario would reduce daily oil consumption in the United States by about 8%.

  17. Thermodynamic DFT analysis of natural gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neto, Abel F G; Huda, Muhammad N; Marques, Francisco C; Borges, Rosivaldo S; Neto, Antonio M J C

    2017-08-01

    Density functional theory was performed for thermodynamic predictions on natural gas, whose B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p), B3LYP/6-31+G(d), CBS-QB3, G3, and G4 methods were applied. Additionally, we carried out thermodynamic predictions using G3/G4 averaged. The calculations were performed for each major component of seven kinds of natural gas and to their respective air + natural gas mixtures at a thermal equilibrium between room temperature and the initial temperature of a combustion chamber during the injection stage. The following thermodynamic properties were obtained: internal energy, enthalpy, Gibbs free energy and entropy, which enabled us to investigate the thermal resistance of fuels. Also, we estimated an important parameter, namely, the specific heat ratio of each natural gas; this allowed us to compare the results with the empirical functions of these parameters, where the B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) and G3/G4 methods showed better agreements. In addition, relevant information on the thermal and mechanic resistance of natural gases were investigated, as well as the standard thermodynamic properties for the combustion of natural gas. Thus, we show that density functional theory can be useful for predicting the thermodynamic properties of natural gas, enabling the production of more efficient compositions for the investigated fuels. Graphical abstract Investigation of the thermodynamic properties of natural gas through the canonical ensemble model and the density functional theory.

  18. Well log characterization of natural gas hydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collett, Timothy S.; Lee, Myung W.

    2011-01-01

    In the last 25 years we have seen significant advancements in the use of downhole well logging tools to acquire detailed information on the occurrence of gas hydrate in nature: From an early start of using wireline electrical resistivity and acoustic logs to identify gas hydrate occurrences in wells drilled in Arctic permafrost environments to today where wireline and advanced logging-while-drilling tools are routinely used to examine the petrophysical nature of gas hydrate reservoirs and the distribution and concentration of gas hydrates within various complex reservoir systems. The most established and well known use of downhole log data in gas hydrate research is the use of electrical resistivity and acoustic velocity data (both compressional- and shear-wave data) to make estimates of gas hydrate content (i.e., reservoir saturations) in various sediment types and geologic settings. New downhole logging tools designed to make directionally oriented acoustic and propagation resistivity log measurements have provided the data needed to analyze the acoustic and electrical anisotropic properties of both highly inter-bedded and fracture dominated gas hydrate reservoirs. Advancements in nuclear-magnetic-resonance (NMR) logging and wireline formation testing have also allowed for the characterization of gas hydrate at the pore scale. Integrated NMR and formation testing studies from northern Canada and Alaska have yielded valuable insight into how gas hydrates are physically distributed in sediments and the occurrence and nature of pore fluids (i.e., free-water along with clay and capillary bound water) in gas-hydrate-bearing reservoirs. Information on the distribution of gas hydrate at the pore scale has provided invaluable insight on the mechanisms controlling the formation and occurrence of gas hydrate in nature along with data on gas hydrate reservoir properties (i.e., permeabilities) needed to accurately predict gas production rates for various gas hydrate

  19. Liquefied natural gas (LNG) market and Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Firoz; Alam, Quamrul; Reza, Suman; Khurshid-ul-Alam, S. M.; Saleque, Khondkar; Ahsan, Saifuddin

    2017-06-01

    As low carbon-emitting fossil fuel, the natural gas is mainly used for power generation and industrial applications. It is also used for heating and cooling in commercial and residential buildings as well as in transport industry. Although the natural gas reaches the end-user mainly through pipelines (if gas is available locally), the liquefied form is the most viable alternative to transport natural gas from far away location to the end user. The economic progress in Asia and other parts of the world creates huge demand for energy (oil, gas and coal). As low carbon-emitting fuel, the demand for gas especially in liquefied form is progressively rising. Having 7th largest shale gas reserve (437 trillion cubic feet recoverable), Australia has become one of the world's major natural gas producers and exporters and is expected to continue a dominating role in the world gas market in foreseeable future. This paper reviews Australia's current gas reserve, industries, markets and LNG production capabilities.

  20. Natural gas market review 2006 - towards a global gas market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    Natural gas is essential to the world economy. Gas now accounts for almost a quarter of OECD primary energy requirements and is expected to become the second most important fuel in the world in the next decade. Industrial and residential consumers increasingly rely on natural gas to keep their houses warm, their lights on and their factories running. Meanwhile the gas industry itself has entered a new phase. Where gas used to be restricted to regional markets, it is now increasingly traded on a global scale. While gas production and transport requires long-term investment, now it is optimised on a short-term basis. Demand continues to grow, but local gas production has become much more expensive. How should we react? How will demand be satisfied? What changes are required to promote flexibility and trade? What are the implications for gas security, investment and interdependence? At stake is an opportunity to diversify supply and demand - but this goal is threatened by barriers to competition and investment. This book is the first of a new IEA publication series. It takes an unprecedented look at developments in natural gas to 2010, analysing not only the three IEA regions (Asia Pacific, North America and Europe) but also broader global trends, such as the interaction of pipeline gas with LNG which binds the regions together. The Review provides invaluable insights for understanding this dynamic market.

  1. Natural gas contracts in efficient portfolios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutherland, R.J.

    1994-12-01

    This report addresses the {open_quotes}contracts portfolio{close_quotes} issue of natural gas contracts in support of the Domestic Natural Gas and Oil Initiative (DGOI) published by the U.S. Department of Energy in 1994. The analysis is a result of a collaborative effort with the Public Service Commission of the State of Maryland to consider {open_quotes}reforms that enhance the industry`s competitiveness{close_quotes}. The initial focus of our collaborative effort was on gas purchasing and contract portfolios; however, it became apparent that efficient contracting to purchase and use gas requires a broader consideration of regulatory reform. Efficient portfolios are obtained when the holder of the portfolio is affected by and is responsible for the performance of the portfolio. Natural gas distribution companies may prefer a diversity of contracts, but the efficient use of gas requires that the local distribution company be held accountable for its own purchases. Ultimate customers are affected by their own portfolios, which they manage efficiently by making their own choices. The objectives of the DGOI, particularly the efficient use of gas, can be achieved when customers have access to suppliers of gas and energy services under an improved regulatory framework. The evolution of the natural gas market during the last 15 years is described to account for the changing preferences toward gas contracts. Long-term contracts for natural gas were prevalent before the early 1980s, primarily because gas producers had few options other than to sell to a single pipeline company, and this pipeline company, in turn, was the only seller to a gas distribution company.

  2. SCHEMES OF GAS PRODUCTION FROM NATURAL GAS HYDRATES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李淑霞; 陈月明; 杜庆军

    2003-01-01

    Natural gas hydrates are a kind of nonpolluting and high quality energy resources for future, the reserves of which are about twice of the carbon of the current fossil energy (petroleum, natural gas and coal) on the earth. And it will be the most important energy for the 21st century. The energy balance and numerical simulation are applied to study the schemes of the natural gas hydrates production in this paper,and it is considered that both depressurization and thermal stimulation are effective methods for exploiting natural gas hydrates, and that the gas production of the thermal stimulation is higher than that of the depressurization. But thermal stimulation is non-economic because it requires large amounts of energy.Therefore the combination of the two methods is a preferable method for the current development of the natural gas hydrates. The main factors which influence the production of natural gas hydrates are: the temperature of injected water, the injection rate, the initial saturation of the hydrates and the initial temperature of the reservoir which is the most important factor.

  3. Assessment of future natural gas vehicle concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groten, B.; Arrigotti, S.

    1992-10-01

    The development of Natural Gas Vehicles is progressing rapidly under the stimulus of recent vehicle emission regulations. The development is following what can be viewed as a three step progression. In the first step, contemporary gasoline or diesel fueled automobiles are retrofitted with equipment enabling the vehicle to operate on either natural gas or standard liquid fuels. The second step is the development of vehicles which utilize traditional internal combustion engines that have been modified to operate exclusively on natural gas. These dedicated natural gas vehicles operate more efficiently and have lower emissions than the dual fueled vehicles. The third step is the redesigning, from the ground up, of a vehicle aimed at exploiting the advantages of natural gas as an automotive fuel while minimizing its disadvantages. The current report is aimed at identifying the R&D needs in various fuel storage and engine combinations which have potential for providing increased efficiency, reduced emissions, and reductions in vehicle weight and size. Fuel suppliers, automobile and engine manufacturers, many segments of the natural gas and other industries, and regulatory authorities will influence or be affected by the development of such a third generation vehicle, and it is recommended that GRI act to bring these groups together in the near future to begin, developing the focus on a 'designed-for-natural-gas' vehicle.

  4. Natural gas dehydration by desiccant materials

    OpenAIRE

    Farag, Hassan A.A.; Mustafa Mohamed Ezzat; Hoda Amer; Adel William Nashed

    2011-01-01

    Water vapor in a natural gas stream can result in line plugging due to hydrate formation, reduction of line capacity due to collection of free water in the line, and increased risk of damage to the pipeline due to the corrosive effects of water. Therefore, water vapor must be removed from natural gas to prevent hydrate formation and corrosion from condensed water. Gas dehydration is the process of removing water vapor from a gas stream to lower the temperature at which water will condense ...

  5. North American Natural Gas Markets. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-02-01

    This report summarizes die research by an Energy Modeling Forum working group on the evolution of the North American natural gas markets between now and 2010. The group`s findings are based partly on the results of a set of economic models of the natural gas industry that were run for four scenarios representing significantly different conditions: two oil price scenarios (upper and lower), a smaller total US resource base (low US resource case), and increased potential gas demand for electric generation (high US demand case). Several issues, such as the direction of regulatory policy and the size of the gas resource base, were analyzed separately without the use of models.

  6. Present and future of natural gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wionczek, M.S.; Serrato, M.

    Analyses of world market behavior focused on crude oil until 1980, and paid little attention to future natural gas developments. The authors, after reviewing significant changes in the gas industry, explain the implications of the changes and point out possible trends for the rest of this decade. They assume a maturing international industry. Their analysis suggests an increasing rate of natural gas development because reserves are proving to be larger than expected, which will make gas a viable competitor of crude oil for direct burning and feedstocks. As world markets and industry infrastructure expand, wasteful flaring will diminish. This will especially benefit the less-developed oil-producing countries. 20 references. (DCK)

  7. Coordinated scheduling of electricity and natural gas infrastructures with a transient model for natural gas flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cong; Shahidehpour, Mohammad; Wang, Jianhui

    2011-06-01

    This paper focuses on transient characteristics of natural gas flow in the coordinated scheduling of security-constrained electricity and natural gas infrastructures. The paper takes into account the slow transient process in the natural gas transmission systems. Considering their transient characteristics, natural gas transmission systems are modeled as a set of partial differential equations (PDEs) and algebraic equations. An implicit finite difference method is applied to approximate PDEs by difference equations. The coordinated scheduling of electricity and natural gas systems is described as a bi-level programming formulation from the independent system operator's viewpoint. The objective of the upper-level problem is to minimize the operating cost of electric power systems while the natural gas scheduling optimization problem is nested within the lower-level problem. Numerical examples are presented to verify the effectiveness of the proposed solution and to compare the solutions for steady-state and transient models of natural gas transmission systems.

  8. 75 FR 42432 - Northern Natural Gas Company, Southern Natural Gas Company, Florida Gas Transmission Company, LLC...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-21

    ... Project (Project) which would include the abandonment of facilities by Northern Natural Gas Company... whether the project is in the public convenience and necessity. This notice announces the opening of the... abandon in place certain facilities known as the Matagorda Offshore Pipeline System (MOPS) located...

  9. Natural Gas Engine Development Gaps (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zigler, B.T.

    2014-03-01

    A review of current natural gas vehicle offerings is presented for both light-duty and medium- and heavy-duty applications. Recent gaps in the marketplace are discussed, along with how they have been or may be addressed. The stakeholder input process for guiding research and development needs via the Natural Gas Vehicle Technology Forum (NGVTF) to the U.S. Department of Energy and the California Energy Commission is reviewed. Current high-level natural gas engine development gap areas are highlighted, including efficiency, emissions, and the certification process.

  10. Natural gas annual 1992: Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-22

    This document provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and education institutions. The 1992 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production top its end use. Tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1988 to 1992 are given for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level. Volume 2 of this report presents State-level historical data.

  11. Impact of Recent Discoveries on Petroleum and Natural Gas Exploration: Emphasis on India

    CERN Document Server

    Herndon, J Marvin

    2010-01-01

    Two discoveries have greatly impacted understanding relevant to the origination and emplacement of petroleum and natural gas deposits. One discovery, pertaining to hydrocarbon formation from methane broadens significantly potential regions where abiotic petroleum and natural gas deposits might be found. The other, discovery of the physical impossibility of Earth-mantle convection, restricts the range and domain of geodynamic behavior, and leads to new insights on the formation of petroleum and natural gas deposits. This article highlights the impact and implications of those discoveries, especially as they relate to petroleum and natural gas exploration in India and throughout the world. From the reasoning developed here, the generality of the considerations involved, the understanding developed with respect to the East African Rift System, and the experience garnered from the larger and older Siberian Traps, the prognosis and potential for the region beneath the Deccan Traps of India to eventually become a m...

  12. A natural adsorbent for natural gas industry; Um adsorvente nacional para a industria do gas natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cachina, G.H.A.B.; Silveira, V.R.; Melo, D.M.A. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil); Balthar, A.R.; Oliveira, V.M.; Bayer, M.M. [CTGAS - Centro de Tecnologias do Gas, Natal, RN (Brazil); Barbosa, C.M.M. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    One the natural pollutants in the natural gas considered critical in reference to the corrosion is the H{sub 2}S. Its presence depends on the origin, as well as the own process used in the gas treatment, it can bring problems to the pipes and the final applications of natural gas (NG). The National Petroleum Agency (ANP) in its entrance number 104/02, establishes that the quantity of H{sub 2}S in NG, of national or imported origin, commercialized at the country can only be at the most 10 - 15 mg/m{sup 3}. In the Natural Gas Processing Unit (UPGN) different methods are used for the removal of H{sub 2}S, the absorption process (e.g. with aminas, Sulfinol{sup R} process) or for adsorption in tower filled with activated coal, zeolites and Sulfatreat{sup R}. In this work, the adsorbent material used is the mineral clay Paligorsquita. That class of clay minerals characterized by pores and a crystalline structure containing Tetrahedral layers linked by chains of longitudinal secondary lines. The typical unitary cell is formed basically by moisturized oxides of aluminum, Sicilian and magnesium of (Mg, Al)5SiO2O(OH)2(H20)4.4H20, with Mg specially located in octahedral sites. (author)

  13. Analysis of Adsorbed Natural Gas Tank Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Ernest; Schultz, Conrad; Rash, Tyler; Dohnke, Elmar; Stalla, David; Gillespie, Andrew; Sweany, Mark; Seydel, Florian; Pfeifer, Peter

    With gasoline being an ever decreasing finite resource and with the desire to reduce humanity's carbon footprint, there has been an increasing focus on innovation of alternative fuel sources. Natural gas burns cleaner, is more abundant, and conforms to modern engines. However, storing compressed natural gas (CNG) requires large, heavy gas cylinders, which limits space and fuel efficiency. Adsorbed natural gas (ANG) technology allows for much greater fuel storage capacity and the ability to store the gas at a much lower pressure. Thus, ANG tanks are much more flexible in terms of their size, shape, and weight. Our ANG tank employs monolithic nanoporous activated carbon as its adsorbent material. Several different configurations of this Flat Panel Tank Assembly (FPTA) along with a Fuel Extraction System (FES) were examined to compare with the mass flow rate demands of an engine.

  14. GAS/LIQUID MEMBRANES FOR NATURAL GAS UPGRADING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howard S. Meyer

    2003-04-01

    Gas Technology Institute (GTI) is conducting this research program whose objective is to develop gas/liquid membranes for natural gas upgrading to assist DOE in achieving their goal of developing novel methods of upgrading low quality natural gas to meet pipeline specifications. Kvaerner Process Systems (KPS) and W. L. Gore & Associates (GORE) gas/liquid membrane contactors are based on expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) membranes acting as the contacting barrier between the contaminated gas stream and the absorbing liquid. These resilient membranes provide much greater surface area for transfer than other tower internals, with packing densities five to ten times greater, resulting in equipment 50-70% smaller and lower weight for the same treating service. The scope of the research program is to (1) build and install a laboratory- and a field-scale gas/liquid membrane absorber; (2) operate the units with a low quality natural gas feed stream for sufficient time to verify the simulation model of the contactors and to project membrane life in this severe service; and (3) conducted an economic evaluation, based on the data, to quantify the impact of the technology. Chevron, one of the major producers of natural gas, has offered to host the test at a gas treating plant. KPS will use their position as a recognized leader in the construction of commercial amine plants for building the unit along with GORE providing the membranes. GTI will provide operator and data collection support during lab- and field-testing to assure proper analytical procedures are used. KPS and GTI will perform the final economic evaluation. GTI will provide project management and be responsible for reporting and interactions with DOE on this project. Efforts this quarter have concentrated on field site selection. ChevronTexaco has nominated their Headlee Gas Plant in Odessa, TX for a commercial-scale dehydration test. Potting and module materials testing were initiated. Preliminary design

  15. Natural gas at thermodynamic equilibrium. Implications for the origin of natural gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mango, Frank D; Jarvie, Daniel; Herriman, Eleanor

    2009-06-16

    It is broadly accepted that so-called 'thermal' gas is the product of thermal cracking, 'primary' thermal gas from kerogen cracking, and 'secondary' thermal gas from oil cracking. Since thermal cracking of hydrocarbons does not generate products at equilibrium and thermal stress should not bring them to equilibrium over geologic time, we would not expect methane, ethane, and propane to be at equilibrium in subsurface deposits. Here we report compelling evidence of natural gas at thermodynamic equilibrium. Molecular compositions are constrained to equilibrium, [Formula in text] and isotopic compositions are also under equilibrium constraints: [Formula in text].The functions [(CH4)*(C3H8)] and [(C2H6)2] exhibit a strong nonlinear correlation (R2 = 0.84) in which the quotient Q progresses to K as wet gas progresses to dry gas. There are striking similarities between natural gas and catalytic gas generated from marine shales. A Devonian/Mississippian New Albany shale generates gas with Q converging on K over time as wet gas progresses to dry gas at 200 degrees C. The position that thermal cracking is the primary source of natural gas is no longer tenable. It is challenged by its inability to explain the composition of natural gas, natural gases at thermodynamic equilibrium, and by the existence of a catalytic path to gas that better explains gas compositions.

  16. Natural gas at thermodynamic equilibrium Implications for the origin of natural gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarvie Daniel

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract It is broadly accepted that so-called 'thermal' gas is the product of thermal cracking, 'primary' thermal gas from kerogen cracking, and 'secondary' thermal gas from oil cracking. Since thermal cracking of hydrocarbons does not generate products at equilibrium and thermal stress should not bring them to equilibrium over geologic time, we would not expect methane, ethane, and propane to be at equilibrium in subsurface deposits. Here we report compelling evidence of natural gas at thermodynamic equilibrium. Molecular compositions are constrained to equilibrium, and isotopic compositions are also under equilibrium constraints: The functions [(CH4*(C3H8] and [(C2H62] exhibit a strong nonlinear correlation (R2 = 0.84 in which the quotient Q progresses to K as wet gas progresses to dry gas. There are striking similarities between natural gas and catalytic gas generated from marine shales. A Devonian/Mississippian New Albany shale generates gas with Q converging on K over time as wet gas progresses to dry gas at 200°C. The position that thermal cracking is the primary source of natural gas is no longer tenable. It is challenged by its inability to explain the composition of natural gas, natural gases at thermodynamic equilibrium, and by the existence of a catalytic path to gas that better explains gas compositions.

  17. Natural gas annual 1992: Supplement: Company profiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    The data for the Natural Gas Annual 1991 Supplement : Company Profiles are taken from Form EIA-176, (open quotes) Annual Report of Natural and Supplemental Gas Supply and Disposition (close quotes). Other sources include industry literature and corporate annual reports to shareholders. The companies appearing in this report are major interstate natural gas pipeline companies, large distribution companies, or combination companies with both pipeline and distribution operations. The report contains profiles of 45 corporate families. The profiles describe briefly each company, where it operates, and any important issues that the company faces. The purpose of this report is to show the movement of natural gas through the various States served by the 45 large companies profiled.

  18. Natural gas 1996 - issues and trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    This publication presents a summary of the latest data and information relating to the U.S. natural gas industry, including prices, production, transmission, consumption, and financial aspects of the industry.

  19. A Comparative Study of Liquefied Natural Gas: An Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Khan Memon; Saleem Qadir Tunio; Khalil Rehman Memon; Arshad Ahmed Lashari

    2014-01-01

    Natural gas is the world’s fastest growing fuel and being produced by many countries of the world in the commercial quantities. Increasing natural gas price and new development in the technologies, liquefied natural gas industry is economically attractive in the major gas exporting countries. Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) is an important energy source and continued to contribute the growth of natural gas industry. The new advance LNG technology is used for natural gas transportation for long di...

  20. Prospect of Sinopec's Exploration for Natural Gas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Long Shengxiang; Zhu Hong; Zhu Tong; Chen Chunfang; Xiao Kaihua

    2008-01-01

    @@ Current state of Sinopec's exploration for natural gas Distnbution of exploration area and resource base Sinopec now owns the exploration right of 364 blocks,with the acreage about one million square kilometers. The company mainly carries out exploration for oil and gas resources in 221, with the acreage about 650,000 square kilometers and taking up 65% of its total exploration area.

  1. Analysis of Natural Gas Vehicle Industry : none

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Zhen

    2014-01-01

    A vehicle powered by natural gas is becoming a prevalent trend and direction in automobile manufacturing. The thesis is aiming at analyzing the natural gas vehicle industry from its environmental effectiveness, economic effectiveness, recent status and its development in the near future with statistical data. And also it will find out the potential problems and relevant technologies. Investigation and literature research method are mainly used to fully collect the correct information and d...

  2. Research into the transmission of natural gas by gas pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gadonneix, P.

    1998-12-31

    This paper is the press release of the talk given at the `Gaz de France scientific meeting with the press` by P. Gadonneix, chairman of Gaz de France company, on October 7, 1998. The aim of this talk concerns the new French and European supply link for bringing natural gas from the Norwegian North Sea fields. This new supply link is the first direct link between Norway and France and the NorFra gas pipeline which brings natural gas from the North Sea to France is the longest offshore pipeline in the world. The `Artere des Hauts de France` pipeline (the largest diameter gas pipeline ever laid in France) is devoted to the transfer of natural gas from Dunkerque to the Gournay-sur-Aronde underground storage site. This paper describes successively: the French European gas supply hub, the NorFra project, the Artere des Hauts de France pipeline, the network performance research, the safety and quality guaranties, the reduction of overland natural gas transmission costs (improvement of pipe-laying techniques and optimization of line route and welding operations), the specific techniques used for road and river crossing (micro-tunnel digging, river-crossing ditches) and for anchoring (buoyancy compensation). Finally, the environmental impact of the laying operations is briefly described. (J.S.)

  3. Liquefied natural gas projects in Altamira: impacts on the prices of the natural gas; Proyectos de gas natural licuado en Altamira: impactos sobre los precios del gas natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez Cordova, Hugo; Elizalde Baltierra, Alberto [Petroleos Mexicanos (PEMEX), (Mexico)

    2004-06-15

    The possible incorporation of new points of supply of natural gas to the Sistema National de Gasoductos (SNG) through the import of Liquified Natural Gas or (GNL) could cause an important modification in the national balance of supply-demand of the fuel and in its price, if large volumes are received. An analysis is presented of the possible impact that would have in the natural gas national market and in its prices the import of GNL made by the region of Altamira, Tamaulipas. [Spanish] La posible incorporacion de nuevos puntos de oferta de gas natural al Sistema Nacional de Gasoductos (SNG) a traves de la importacion de Gas Natural Licuado (GNL), podria provocar una modificacion importante en el balance oferta-demanda nacional del combustible y en su precio, si se reciben fuertes volumenes. Se presenta un analisis del posible impacto que tendria en el mercado nacional del gas natural y en sus precios la importacion de GNL realizada por la region de Altamira, Tamaulipas.

  4. NATURAL GAS RESOURCES IN DEEP SEDIMENTARY BASINS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thaddeus S. Dyman; Troy Cook; Robert A. Crovelli; Allison A. Henry; Timothy C. Hester; Ronald C. Johnson; Michael D. Lewan; Vito F. Nuccio; James W. Schmoker; Dennis B. Riggin; Christopher J. Schenk

    2002-02-05

    From a geological perspective, deep natural gas resources are generally defined as resources occurring in reservoirs at or below 15,000 feet, whereas ultra-deep gas occurs below 25,000 feet. From an operational point of view, ''deep'' is often thought of in a relative sense based on the geologic and engineering knowledge of gas (and oil) resources in a particular area. Deep gas can be found in either conventionally-trapped or unconventional basin-center accumulations that are essentially large single fields having spatial dimensions often exceeding those of conventional fields. Exploration for deep conventional and unconventional basin-center natural gas resources deserves special attention because these resources are widespread and occur in diverse geologic environments. In 1995, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated that 939 TCF of technically recoverable natural gas remained to be discovered or was part of reserve appreciation from known fields in the onshore areas and State waters of the United. Of this USGS resource, nearly 114 trillion cubic feet (Tcf) of technically-recoverable gas remains to be discovered from deep sedimentary basins. Worldwide estimates of deep gas are also high. The U.S. Geological Survey World Petroleum Assessment 2000 Project recently estimated a world mean undiscovered conventional gas resource outside the U.S. of 844 Tcf below 4.5 km (about 15,000 feet). Less is known about the origins of deep gas than about the origins of gas at shallower depths because fewer wells have been drilled into the deeper portions of many basins. Some of the many factors contributing to the origin of deep gas include the thermal stability of methane, the role of water and non-hydrocarbon gases in natural gas generation, porosity loss with increasing thermal maturity, the kinetics of deep gas generation, thermal cracking of oil to gas, and source rock potential based on thermal maturity and kerogen type. Recent experimental simulations

  5. Proposals for China's Natural Gas Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua Ben

    2010-01-01

    @@ Demand,supply and consumption of natural gas in China Increased natural gas demand due to economic development,energy and environmental impact In China,the available energy resource is rich in coal and lack in oil and gas.Because of this special fuel pattern,the increasing energy demand needed to sustain the rapid economic development in the past 30 years relies heavily on the coal supply.This makes coal contributing for over70% of the primary energy consumed and leads to SO2 and NOx emission exceeding 70% of the environmental carrying capacity which causes ecological degradation.

  6. Natural gas profile: the baking industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1975-11-01

    The U.S. baking industry contains three segments: bakeries which produce perishable products (SIC 2051); bakeries for dry bakery products, such as cookies and crackers (SIC 2052), and retail bakeries which bake and sell (SIC 5462). Data are presented on the number of establishments and employment in each segment, natural gas consumption for each segment in each U.S. state, natural gas prices in various U.S. regions, fuel conservation possibilities in the baking industry, FEA policy on curtailment of gas supplies, and the economic impact of such possible curtailments. (LCL)

  7. Modelling emissions from natural gas flaring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Ezaina Umukoro

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The world today recognizes the significance of environmental sustainability to the development of nations. Hence, the role oil and gas industry plays in environmental degrading activities such as gas flaring is of global concern. This study presents material balance equations and predicts results for non-hydrocarbon emissions such as CO2, CO, NO, NO2, and SO2 etc. from flaring (combustion of 12 natural gas samples representing composition of natural gas of global origin. Gaseous emission estimates and pattern were modelled by coding material balance equations for six reaction types and combustion conditions with a computer program. On the average, anticipated gaseous emissions from flaring natural gas with an average annual global flaring rate 126 bcm per year (between 2000 and 2011 in million metric tonnes (mmt are 560 mmt, 48 mmt, 91 mmt, 93 mmt and 50 mmt for CO2, CO, NO, NO2 and SO2 respectively. This model predicted gaseous emissions based on the possible individual combustion types and conditions anticipated in gas flaring operation. It will assist in the effort by environmental agencies and all concerned to track and measure the extent of environmental pollution caused by gas flaring operations in the oil and gas industry.

  8. 77 FR 12274 - Orders Granting Authority To Import and Export Natural Gas and Liquefied Natural Gas During...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-29

    ... Orders Granting Authority To Import and Export Natural Gas and Liquefied Natural Gas During January 2012... 2012, it issued Orders granting authority to import and export natural gas and liquefied natural gas.... DOMINION COVE POINT LNG, LP 11-98-LNG ENERGY PLUS NATURAL GAS LLC 11-155-NG BROOKFIELD ENERGY......

  9. 77 FR 31838 - Notice of Orders Granting Authority to Import and Export Natural Gas and Liquefied Natural Gas...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-30

    ... of Orders Granting Authority to Import and Export Natural Gas and Liquefied Natural Gas During April..., it issued Orders granting authority to import and export natural gas and liquefied natural gas. These... Capital International, LLC....... 12-33-NG Phillips 66 Company 12-34-NG Northwest Natural Gas Company......

  10. 78 FR 46581 - Orders Granting Authority To Import and Export Natural Gas, and To Import Liquefied Natural Gas...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    ... Granting Authority To Import and Export Natural Gas, and To Import Liquefied Natural Gas During June 2013... authority to import and export natural gas and to import liquefied natural gas. These orders are summarized... of Fossil Energy, Office of Natural Gas Regulatory Activities, Docket Room 3E-033,......

  11. 78 FR 35014 - Orders Granting Authority to Import and Export Natural Gas, and to Import Liquefied Natural Gas...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-11

    ... Granting Authority to Import and Export Natural Gas, and to Import Liquefied Natural Gas During April 2013... natural gas and to import liquefied natural gas. These orders are summarized in the attached appendix and... INC 13-41-NG CASCADE NATURAL GAS CORPORATION 13-43-NG ENCANA MARKETING (USA) INC 13-44-NG......

  12. 77 FR 19277 - Orders Granting Authority To Import and Export Natural Gas and Liquefied Natural Gas During...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-30

    ... Granting Authority To Import and Export Natural Gas and Liquefied Natural Gas During February 2012 FE... 2012, it issued Orders granting authority to import and export natural gas and liquefied natural gas..., ULC 12-13-NG ENCANA NATURAL GAS INC 11-163-NG ALCOA INC 12-11-NG JPMORGAN LNG CO 12-15-LNG CNE......

  13. Quickening construction of natural gas infrastructures and ensuring safe supply of natural gas in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Peng; Zhongde, Zhao; Chunliang, Sun; Juexin, Shen

    2010-09-15

    Compared with North America or Europe in respect of natural gas resources, markets and pipeline networks, the current China stands in a special period with natural gas market in quick development, accordingly, it's recommended to strengthen cooperation and coordination between investors by way of diversified investment and joint adventures and on the basis of diversified resource supply modes, so as to accelerate the construction of infrastructures including the natural gas pipeline networks and the storage and peak-shaving facilities, quick up the market development, realize the situation of mutual-win-win, and finally ensure safety of natural gas utilization in the domestic markets.

  14. Growing power : renewable natural gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotelko, M. [Highmark Renewables, Vegreville, AB (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    This presentation described the sustainable production practices used at Alberta's Highland Feeders Ltd., one of Canada's largest cattle feeding operations. In particular, it presented an integrated manure utilization system (IMUS) technology developed by the Alberta Research Council and licensed to Highmark Renewables, a subsidiary of Highland Feeders. The rapidly expanding livestock industry in Canada presents challenges and opportunities for the proper treatment and use of large quantities of manure. With IMUS technology, methane gas produced by livestock operations can be harnessed to produce electricity, as demonstrated at Highmark Renewables' pilot plant which processes solid feedlot manure to produce electricity. The sustainable manure management process has major implications for intensive livestock operations. In addition to generating biogas for use in a cogeneration plant, the IMUS technology provides a value-added soil amendment. Raw manure is placed in a hopper and fed into anaerobic digester tanks. The dry solid by-product is a bio-based, nutrient rich fertilizer, while the liquid component can be recycled for irrigation water. The cogeneration plant will produce electricity for cattle feeding operations, with surplus power sold to the Alberta power grid. The benefits from IMUS include lower manure handling costs; protection of water resources; odour reduction; recycling of waste water; lower energy costs; and, value-added revenue from the sale of energy and bio-based fertilizer. tabs., figs.

  15. Life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions of shale gas, natural gas, coal, and petroleum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnham, Andrew; Han, Jeongwoo; Clark, Corrie E; Wang, Michael; Dunn, Jennifer B; Palou-Rivera, Ignasi

    2012-01-17

    The technologies and practices that have enabled the recent boom in shale gas production have also brought attention to the environmental impacts of its use. It has been debated whether the fugitive methane emissions during natural gas production and transmission outweigh the lower carbon dioxide emissions during combustion when compared to coal and petroleum. Using the current state of knowledge of methane emissions from shale gas, conventional natural gas, coal, and petroleum, we estimated up-to-date life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions. In addition, we developed distribution functions for key parameters in each pathway to examine uncertainty and identify data gaps such as methane emissions from shale gas well completions and conventional natural gas liquid unloadings that need to be further addressed. Our base case results show that shale gas life-cycle emissions are 6% lower than conventional natural gas, 23% lower than gasoline, and 33% lower than coal. However, the range in values for shale and conventional gas overlap, so there is a statistical uncertainty whether shale gas emissions are indeed lower than conventional gas. Moreover, this life-cycle analysis, among other work in this area, provides insight on critical stages that the natural gas industry and government agencies can work together on to reduce the greenhouse gas footprint of natural gas.

  16. Comparative Assessment Of Natural Gas Accident Risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgherr, P.; Hirschberg, S

    2005-01-01

    The study utilizes a hierarchical approach including (1) comparative analyses of different energy chains, (2) specific evaluations for the natural gas chain, and (3) a detailed overview of the German situation, based on an extensive data set provided by Deutsche Vereinigung des Gas- und Wasserfaches (DVGW). According to SVGW-expertise DVGW-data can be regarded as fully representative for Swiss conditions due to very similar technologies, management, regulations and safety culture, but has a substantially stronger statistical basis because the German gas grid is about 30 times larger compared to Switzerland. Specifically, the following tasks were carried out by PSI to accomplish the objectives of this project: (1) Consolidation of existing ENSAD data, (2) identification and evaluation of additional sources, (3) comparative assessment of accident risks, and (4) detailed evaluations of specific issues and technical aspects for severe and smaller accidents in the natural gas chain that are relevant under Swiss conditions. (author)

  17. UPGRADING NATURAL GAS VIA MEMBRANE SEPARATION PROCESSES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S.A.Stern; P.A. Rice; J. Hao

    2000-03-01

    The objective of the present study is to assess the potential usefulness of membrane separation processes for removing CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S from low-quality natural gas containing substantial amounts of both these ''acid'' gases, e.g., up to 40 mole-% CO{sub 2} and 10 mole-% H{sub 2}S. The membrane processes must be capable of upgrading the crude natural gas to pipeline specifications ({le} 2 mole-% CO{sub 2}, {le} 4 ppm H{sub 2}S). Moreover, these processes must also be economically competitive with the conventional separation techniques, such as gas absorption, utilized for this purpose by the gas industry.

  18. Alternative ways to transport natural gas; Transporte alternativo de gas natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moura, N.R.; Campos, F.B. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES)

    2008-07-01

    The Brazilian energy matrix has been showing a huge increase in the demand of natural gas due mainly to industries and power plants. Today the Brazilian gas market is supplied with gas produced by PETROBRAS and imported from Bolivia. To increase the Brazilian gas supply, on the short and middle term, PETROBRAS will import LNG (liquefied natural gas) and exploit the new offshore fields discovered on the pre-salt area. The only proven technology available today to bring this offshore gas to the market is the pipeline, but its costs for the pre-salt area are high enough to keep the solution economically attractive. So, PETROBRAS are evaluating and developing alternative ways to transport offshore gas, such as LNG, CNG (Compressed Natural Gas), GTS (Gas-to-Solids or Natural Gas Hydrates) and ANG (Adsorbed Natural Gas). Using information available in the literature, this paper analyses the main concepts of CNG and LNG floating unities. This paper also presents the PETROBRAS R and D results on ANG and GTS aiming at offshore application. (author)

  19. GAS/LIQUID MEMBRANES FOR NATURAL GAS UPGRADING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howard S. Meyer

    2003-07-01

    Gas Technology Institute (GTI) is conducting this research program whose objective is to develop gas/liquid membranes for natural gas upgrading to assist DOE in achieving their goal of developing novel methods of upgrading low quality natural gas to meet pipeline specifications. Kvaerner Process Systems (KPS) and W. L. Gore & Associates (GORE) gas/liquid membrane contactors are based on expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) membranes acting as the contacting barrier between the contaminated gas stream and the absorbing liquid. These resilient membranes provide much greater surface area for transfer than other tower internals, with packing densities five to ten times greater, resulting in equipment 50-70% smaller and lower weight for the same treating service. The scope of the research program is to (1) build and install a laboratory- and a field-scale gas/liquid membrane absorber; (2) operate the units with a low quality natural gas feed stream for sufficient time to verify the simulation model of the contactors and to project membrane life in this severe service; and (3) conducted an economic evaluation, based on the data, to quantify the impact of the technology. Chevron, one of the major producers of natural gas, has offered to host the test at a gas treating plant. KPS will use their position as a recognized leader in the construction of commercial amine plants for building the unit along with GORE providing the membranes. GTI will provide operator and data collection support during lab- and field-testing to assure proper analytical procedures are used. Kvaerner and GTI will perform the final economic evaluation. GTI will provide project management and be responsible for reporting and interactions with DOE on this project. Efforts this quarter have concentrated on field site selection. ChevronTexaco has nominated their Headlee Gas Plant in Odessa, TX for a commercial-scale dehydration test. Design and cost estimation for this new site are underway. Potting

  20. GAS/LIQUID MEMBRANES FOR NATURAL GAS UPGRADING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howard S. Meyer

    2003-10-01

    Gas Technology Institute (GTI) is conducting this research program whose objective is to develop gas/liquid membranes for natural gas upgrading to assist DOE in achieving their goal of developing novel methods of upgrading low quality natural gas to meet pipeline specifications. Kvaerner Process Systems (KPS) and W. L. Gore & Associates (GORE) gas/liquid membrane contactors are based on expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) membranes acting as the contacting barrier between the contaminated gas stream and the absorbing liquid. These resilient membranes provide much greater surface area for transfer than other tower internals, with packing densities five to ten times greater, resulting in equipment 50-70% smaller and lower weight for the same treating service. The scope of the research program is to (1) build and install a laboratory- and a field-scale gas/liquid membrane absorber; (2) operate the units with a low quality natural gas feed stream for sufficient time to verify the simulation model of the contactors and to project membrane life in this severe service; and (3) conducted an economic evaluation, based on the data, to quantify the impact of the technology. Chevron, one of the major producers of natural gas, has offered to host the test at a gas treating plant. KPS will use their position as a recognized leader in the construction of commercial amine plants for building the unit along with GORE providing the membranes. GTI will provide operator and data collection support during lab- and field-testing to assure proper analytical procedures are used. Kvaerner and GTI will perform the final economic evaluation. GTI will provide project management and be responsible for reporting and interactions with DOE on this project. Efforts this quarter have concentrated on field site selection. ChevronTexaco has nominated their Headlee Gas Plant in Odessa, TX for a commercial-scale dehydration test. Design and cost estimation for this new site are underway. A Haz

  1. Natural Gas Consumption to Increase in 2011

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    @@ China's apparent natural gas consumption is expected to grow by 22.6 percent in 2011 from 106 billion cubic meters in 2010.That's because domestic consumption of the clean fuel is set to surge in accordance with the country's need to reduce carbon emissions, according to a report released by the research arm of China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC).The demand for natural gas may hit around 130 billion cubic meters in 2011, and the figure is set to climb to 230 billion cubic meters by 2015.

  2. On modelling the market for natural gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathiesen, Lars

    2001-12-01

    Several features may separately or in combination influence conduct and performance of an industry, e.g. the numbers of sellers or buyers, the degree of economies of scale in production and distribution, the temporal and spatial dimensions, etc. Our main focus is on how to model market power. In particular, we demonstrate the rather different solutions obtained from the price-taking behavior versus the oligopolistic Coumot behavior. We also consider two approaches to model the transportation of natural gas. Finally, there is a brief review of previous modeling efforts of the European natural gas industry. (author)

  3. Natural Gas and Indoor Air Pollution: A Comparison With Coal Gas and Liquefied Petroleum Gas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUE ZHANG; BAO-SHENG CHEN; GUANG-QUAN LIU; JU-NING WANG; ZHEN-HUA ZHAO; LIAN-QING LIN

    2003-01-01

    The study was designed to compare the combustion products of coal gas, liquefied petroleum gas and natural gas in relation to indoor air pollution. Methods Regular pollutants including B(a)P were monitored and 1-hydroxy pyrene were tested in urine of the enrolled subjects.Radon concentrations and their changes in four seasons were also monitored in the city natural gas from its source plant and transfer stations to final users. To analyze organic components of coal gas,liquefied petroleum gas and natural gas, a high-flow sampling device specially designed was used to collect their combustion products, and semi-volatile organic compounds contained in the particles were detected by gas chromatograph-mass spectrograph (GC/MS). Results Findings in the study showed that the regular indoor air pollutants particles and CO were all above the standard in winter when heating facilities were operated in the city, but they were lowest in kitchens using natural gas;furthermore, although NO2 and CO2 were slightly higher in natural gas, B(a)P concentration was lower in this group and 1-hydroxy pyrene was lowest in urine of the subjects exposed to natural gas.Organic compounds were more complicated in coal gas and liquefied petroleum gas than in natural gas. The concentration of radon in natural gas accounted for less than 1‰ of its effective dose contributing to indoor air pollution in Beijing households. Conclusion Compared to traditional fuels, gases are deemed as clean ones, and natural gas is shown to be cleaner than the other two gases.

  4. Natural gas at thermodynamic equilibrium Implications for the origin of natural gas

    OpenAIRE

    Jarvie Daniel; Mango Frank D; Herriman Eleanor

    2009-01-01

    Abstract It is broadly accepted that so-called 'thermal' gas is the product of thermal cracking, 'primary' thermal gas from kerogen cracking, and 'secondary' thermal gas from oil cracking. Since thermal cracking of hydrocarbons does not generate products at equilibrium and thermal stress should not bring them to equilibrium over geologic time, we would not expect methane, ethane, and propane to be at equilibrium in subsurface deposits. Here we report compelling evidence of natural gas at ther...

  5. Natural gas pipeline leaks across Washington, DC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Robert B; Down, Adrian; Phillips, Nathan G; Ackley, Robert C; Cook, Charles W; Plata, Desiree L; Zhao, Kaiguang

    2014-01-01

    Pipeline safety in the United States has increased in recent decades, but incidents involving natural gas pipelines still cause an average of 17 fatalities and $133 M in property damage annually. Natural gas leaks are also the largest anthropogenic source of the greenhouse gas methane (CH4) in the U.S. To reduce pipeline leakage and increase consumer safety, we deployed a Picarro G2301 Cavity Ring-Down Spectrometer in a car, mapping 5893 natural gas leaks (2.5 to 88.6 ppm CH4) across 1500 road miles of Washington, DC. The δ(13)C-isotopic signatures of the methane (-38.2‰ ± 3.9‰ s.d.) and ethane (-36.5 ± 1.1 s.d.) and the CH4:C2H6 ratios (25.5 ± 8.9 s.d.) closely matched the pipeline gas (-39.0‰ and -36.2‰ for methane and ethane; 19.0 for CH4/C2H6). Emissions from four street leaks ranged from 9200 to 38,200 L CH4 day(-1) each, comparable to natural gas used by 1.7 to 7.0 homes, respectively. At 19 tested locations, 12 potentially explosive (Grade 1) methane concentrations of 50,000 to 500,000 ppm were detected in manholes. Financial incentives and targeted programs among companies, public utility commissions, and scientists to reduce leaks and replace old cast-iron pipes will improve consumer safety and air quality, save money, and lower greenhouse gas emissions.

  6. The Bolivian natural gas crisis and the future of natural gas industry in Brazil; Crise do gas boliviano e o futuro da industria de gas natural no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Edmar de

    2007-07-01

    The recent Bolivian natural crisis exhibits the worst scenery for the Brazilian natural gas industry. The government and PETROBRAS strategies for guaranteeing the gas supply undoubtedly failed. Independent of the discussion on the existence of other possible strategies, today the distributors and the consumers does not know how the PETROBRAS and government will guarantee the supply for the years to come. An also the agents do not know which will be the gas price in the future, as both the Bolivia but also the Natural Gas Industry in Brazil alternatives will be highly expensive.

  7. Progress in studies of natural gas conversion in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Changchun; Shen Shikong

    2008-01-01

    Progress in natural gas conversion in China is presented in this paper, including processes of natural gas to synthesis gas (syngas), syngas to liquid hydrocarbons, oxygenates synthesis, methanol to olefins (MTO), methane to aromatics and oxidative coupling of methane (OCM).

  8. Naturally fractured tight gas reservoir detection optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-06-01

    Building upon the partitioning of the Greater Green River Basin (GGRB) that was conducted last quarter, the goal of the work this quarter has been to conclude evaluation of the Stratos well and the prototypical Green River Deep partition, and perform the fill resource evaluation of the Upper Cretaceous tight gas play, with the goal of defining target areas of enhanced natural fracturing. The work plan for the quarter of November 1-December 31, 1998 comprised four tasks: (1) Evaluation of the Green River Deep partition and the Stratos well and examination of potential opportunity for expanding the use of E and P technology to low permeability, naturally fractured gas reservoirs, (2) Gas field studies, and (3) Resource analysis of the balance of the partitions.

  9. Foam drilling in natural gas hydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Na

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The key problem of foam drilling in natural gas hydrate is prediction of characteristic parameters of bottom hole. The simulation shows that when the well depth increases, the foam mass number reduces and the pressure increases. At the same depth, pressure in drill string is always higher than annulus. The research findings provide theoretical basis for safety control.

  10. Bibliography on Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordin, P. M.

    1976-01-01

    Approximately 600 citations concerning safety of liquefied natural gas and liquid methane are presented. Each entry includes the title, author, abstract, source, description of figures, key references, and major descriptors for retrieving the document. An author index is provided as well as an index of descriptors.

  11. Mexican demand for US natural gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanter, M.A.; Kier, P.H.

    1993-09-01

    This study describes the Mexican natural gas industry as it exists today and the factors that have shaped the evolution of the industry in the past or that are expected to influence its progress; it also projects production and use of natural gas and estimates the market for exports of natural gas from the United States to Mexico. The study looks ahead to two periods, a near term (1993--1995) and an intermediate term (1996--2000). The bases for estimates under two scenarios are described. Under the conservative scenario, exports of natural gas from the United States would decrease from the 1992 level of 250 million cubic feet per day (MMCF/d), would return to that level by 1995, and would reach about 980 MMCF/D by 2000. Under the more optimistic scenario, exports would decrease in 1993 and would recover and rise to about 360 MMCF/D in 1995 and to 1,920 MMCF/D in 2000.

  12. Case Study: Natural Gas Regional Transport Trucks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laughlin, M.; Burnham, A.

    2016-08-01

    Learn about Ryder System, Inc.'s experience in deploying nearly 200 CNG and LNG heavy-duty trucks and construction and operation of L/CNG stations using ARRA funds. Using natural gas in its fleet, Ryder mitigated the effects of volatile fuel pricing and reduced lifecycle GHGs by 20% and petroleum by 99%.

  13. NGTC`s natural gas heat pumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binet, M. [Natural Gas Technologies Centre, Boucherville, PQ (Canada)

    1996-12-01

    An overview of natural gas heat pumps and cooling systems evaluation projects carried out by the Natural Gas Technologies Centre (NGTC) in Boucherville, Quebec, was presented. Technological description of three natural gas engine-driven technologies were provided, as well as the results of laboratory and field tests. The residential sector was covered by the 3-ton York Triathlon heat pump, the commercial sector by the 10-ton Trico natural gas engine-driven condensing unit, and the institutional sector by 25-ton Carrier engine-driven rooftops. The York Triathlon heat pump showed a good performance at the given conditions, with an average COP of 1.29 in cooling mode and of 1.03 in heating mode. The Trico unit was fully instrumented at NGTC; performance testing will be carried out later in 1996. The Carrier rooftops showed performance levels below those of the manufacturer`s suggested characteristics, although user satisfaction with the comfort provided by the units was high. 7 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Reform Trend of China Natural Gas Price Policy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Du Wei; Liu Xinping

    2012-01-01

    China's natural gas price policy reform lags behind refined oil price reform comparatively, and current natural gas price policy could not adapt to the new situation of large scale import of foreign natural gas. Natural gas price reform could refer to the reform mode of refined oil price.

  15. 7 CFR 2900.4 - Natural gas requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Natural gas requirements. 2900.4 Section 2900.4..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ESSENTIAL AGRICULTURAL USES AND VOLUMETRIC REQUIREMENTS-NATURAL GAS POLICY ACT § 2900.4 Natural gas requirements. For purposes of Section 401(c), NGPA, the natural gas requirements...

  16. Natural gas strategic plan and program crosscut plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    The natural gas strategic plan recognizes the challenges and opportunities facing increased U.S. natural gas use. Focus areas of research include natural gas supply, delivery, and storage, power generation, industrial, residential and commercial, natural gas vehicles, and the environment. Historical aspects, mission, situation analysis, technology trends, strategic issues, performance indicators, technology program overviews, and forecasting in the above areas are described.

  17. Hydrolysis and Photolysis of Herbicide Clomazone in Aqueous Solutions and Natural Water Under Abiotic Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Jia; DIAO Xiao-ping; HU Ji-ye

    2013-01-01

    The hydrolysis and photolysis of clomazone in aqueous solutions and natural water were assessed under natural and controlled conditions. Kinetics of hydrolysis and photolysis of clomazone were determined by HPLC-DAD. Photoproducts were identiifed by HPLC-MS. No noticeable hydrolysis occurred in aqueous buffer solutions ((25±2)°C, pH (4.5±0.1), pH (7.4±0.1), pH (9.0±0.1);(50±2)°C, pH (4.5±0.1), pH (7.4±0.1)) or in natural water up to 90 d. At pH (9.0±0.1) and (50±2)°C the half-life of clomazone was 50.2 d. Clomazone photodecomposition rate in aqueous solutions under UV radiation and natural sunlight followed ifrst-order kinetics. Degradation rates were faster under UV light (half-life of 51-59 min) compared to sunlight (half-life of 87-136 d). Under UV light, four major photoproducts were detected and tentatively identiifed according to HPLC-MS spectral information such as 2-chlorobenzamide, N-hydroxy-(2-benzyl)-2-methylpropan-amide, 2-[2-phenol]-4,4-dimethyl-3-isoxazolidinone and 2-[(4,6-dihydroxyl-2-chlorine phenol)]-4,4-dimethyl-3-isoxazolidinone. These results suggested that clomazone photodegradation proceeds via several reaction pathways:1) dehalogenation;2) substitution of chlorine group by hydroxyl;3) cleavage of the side chain. Photosensitizers, such as H2O2 and ribolfavin, could enhance photolysis of clomazone in natural sunlight. In summary, we found that photoreaction is an important dissipation pathway of clomazone in natural water systems.

  18. Biotic and abiotic oxidation and reduction of iron at circumneutral pH are inseparable processes under natural conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ionescu, Danny; Heim, Christine; Polerecky, L.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/370827929; Thiel, Volker; de Beer, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Oxidation and reduction of iron can occur through abiotic (chemical) and biotic (microbial) processes. Abiotic iron oxidation is a function of pH and O2 concentration. Biotic iron oxidation is carried out by a diverse group of bacteria, using O2 or NO3 as terminal electron acceptors. At circumneutra

  19. Biotic and abiotic oxidation and reduction of iron at circumneutral pH are inseparable processes under natural conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ionescu, Danny; Heim, Christine; Polerecky, L.; Thiel, Volker; de Beer, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Oxidation and reduction of iron can occur through abiotic (chemical) and biotic (microbial) processes. Abiotic iron oxidation is a function of pH and O2 concentration. Biotic iron oxidation is carried out by a diverse group of bacteria, using O2 or NO3 as terminal electron acceptors. At circumneutra

  20. Formation rate of natural gas hydrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mork, Marit

    2002-07-01

    The rate of methane hydrate and natural gas hydrate formation was measured in a 9.5 litre stirred tank reactor of standard design. The experiments were performed to better understand the performance and scale-up of a reactor for continuous production of natural gas hydrates. The hydrate formation rate was measured at steady-state conditions at pressures between 70 and 90 bar and temperatures between 7 and 15 deg C. Between 44 and 56 % of the gas continuously supplied to the reactor was converted to hydrate. The experimental results show that the rate of hydrate formation is strongly influenced by gas injection rate and pressure. The effect of stirring rate is less significant and subcooling has no observable effect on the formation rate. Hydrate crystal concentration and gas composition do not influence the hydrate formation rate. Observations of produced hydrate crystals indicate that the crystals are elongated, about 5 micron in diameter and 10 micron long. Analysis of the results shows that the rate of hydrate formation is dominated by gas-liquid mass transfer. A mass transfer model, the bubble-to-crystal model, was developed for the hydrate formation rate in a continuous stirred tank reactor, given in terms of concentration driving force and an overall mass transfer coefficient. The driving force is the difference between the gas concentration at the gas-liquid interface and at the hydrate crystal surface. These concentrations correspond to the solubility of gas in water at experimental temperature and pressure and the solubility of gas at hydrate equilibrium temperature and experimental pressure, respectively. The overall mass transfer coefficient is expressed in terms of superficial gas velocity and impeller power consumption, parameters commonly used in study of stirred tank reactors. Experiments and modeling show that the stirred tank reactor has a considerable potential for increased production capacity. However, at higher hydrate production rates the

  1. A study on the geochemical characteristics of natural gas and gas sources in the Bozhong sag

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Natural gas is composed largely of hydrocarbon gas, especially wet gas in the Bozhong sag. The carbon isotopic composition shows that the gas is of organic origin. The carbon isotopic values of ethane indicate that the natural gas is dominated by mixed gas with minor coal-generated gas and oil-type gas. A gas-source correlation study showed that the source rocks of natural gas are those of the Lower Dongying Formation, the Shahejie Formation and the pre-Tertiary. The natural gas is characterized by multi-source and continuous generation in the study area, indicating that gas exploration potential is good in the Bozhong sag.

  2. The petroleum, natural gas and bio fuel transportation; O transporte de petroleo, gas natural e biocombustiveis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Diego Varela; Campos, Carlos Hebert

    2011-01-15

    The paper expose on the activity of petroleum, natural gas and bio fuels transportation, outlining the transportation means used by the petroleum industry. After that, analyses the importance and the economic relevance of the Transpetro. Yet, proceeds an examination of the transportation activity under a constitutional optics, based on the EC 9/95; a legal optic, from the Petroleum Law (Law 9478/97) and some other legal documents related to the theme. Finally, presents the importance that the Law of Natural Gas (Law 11909/09) brought for that activity, by making possible that the natural gas transportation can also be effectuated through the Concession.

  3. 78 FR 21351 - Orders Granting Authority to Import and Export Natural Gas, To Import Liquefied Natural Gas, To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-10

    ... Granting Authority to Import and Export Natural Gas, To Import Liquefied Natural Gas, To Export Liquefied Natural Gas, and Vacating Prior Authority During February 2013 FE Docket Nos. J.P. MORGAN COMMODITIES... and liquefied natural gas and vacating prior authority. These orders are summarized in the...

  4. 78 FR 19696 - Orders Granting Authority To Import and Export Natural Gas, To Import Liquefied Natural Gas, To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-02

    ... Granting Authority To Import and Export Natural Gas, To Import Liquefied Natural Gas, To Export Liquefied Natural Gas and Vacating Prior Authority During December 2012 FE Docket Nos. DIAMOND CAPITAL INTERNATIONAL... during December 2012, it issued orders granting authority to import and export natural gas and......

  5. 78 FR 21349 - Orders Granting Authority To Import and Export Natural Gas, To Export Liquefied Natural Gas, To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-10

    ... Granting Authority To Import and Export Natural Gas, To Export Liquefied Natural Gas, To Export Compressed Natural Gas, Vacating Prior Authority and Denying Request for Rehearing During January 2013 ] FE Docket... January 2013, it issued orders granting authority to import and export natural gas and liquefied......

  6. Natural gas pipelines for biomethane distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wojcik, Monika [PGNiG SA, Warszawa (Poland). Centrala Spolki

    2011-07-01

    The study reveals natural gas pipelines of high and medium pressure in Poland and Baltic countries, such as: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Norway, Sweden, Germany, Finland and the Kaliningrad Oblast. The basic aim of the study was assessing the possibility of injecting biogas produced in biogas plants to the gas network or its use as CNG fuel delivered via pipeline directly to the station. Characterized qualitative factors for the transmission of the biogas (purified to the natural gas) in existing gas networks and proposes the location of the biogas plants in relation to the deployment of these networks. The study shows existing solutions of the distribution of biomethane in selected countries bordering the Baltic Sea, and analyzes the cross-border transmission capacity of the gas. The article also contains a characterization and assessment of legal and economic conditions affecting the use of biomethane processes as fuel for motor vehicles. It also shows the main priorities in this area and environmental and social benefits arising from the production and use of biomethane as a motor fuel. (orig.)

  7. Status and Development of Natural Gas Utilization in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Kangyu; Ma An

    1995-01-01

    @@ Recently, the world's proven reserves of natural gas are increasing and are likely to exceed those of oil within the future one or two decades.Natural gas has efficient and clean-burning characteristics. Many countries attach importance to the natural gas utilization. Now China is the fifth largest oil producing country and produced 147 million tons of crude oil in 1994. As natural gas once was regarded as a useless by-product of oil production, so the output of natural gas is low in comparison with that of crude oil. China is now the twentifourth natural gas producing country based on gas output and produced 16. 67 billion cubic meters natural gas in 1994. Natural gas consumption occupies only two percent of total energy consumption in China. With the growth of economy and improvement of exploration and development technologies,it is sure that the output and utilization of natural gas will develop greatly before 2000 in China.

  8. SCADA Architecture for Natural Gas plant

    OpenAIRE

    Turc Traian; Grif Horaţiu

    2009-01-01

    The paper describes the Natural Gas Plant SCADA architecture. The main purpose of SCADA system is remote monitoring and controlling of any industrial plant. The SCADA hardware architecture is based on multi-dropping system allowing connecting a large number of different fiels devices. The SCADA Server gathers data from gas plant and stores data to a MtSQL database. The SCADA server is connected to other SCADA client application offers a intuitive and user-friendly HMI. The main benefit of us...

  9. Development of a thermoacoustic natural gas liquefier.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wollan, J. J. (John J.); Swift, G. W. (Gregory W.); Backhaus, S. N. (Scott N.); Gardner, D. L. (David L.)

    2002-01-01

    Praxair, in conjunction with the Los Alamos National Laboratory, is developing a new technology, thermoacoustic heat engines and refrigerators, for liquefaction of natural gas. This is the only technology capable of producing refrigeration power at cryogenic temperatures with no moving parts. A prototype, with a projected natural gas liquefaction capacity of 500 gallons/day, has been built and tested. The power source is a natural gas burner. Systems will be developed with liquefaction capacities up to 10,000 to 20,000 gallons per day. The technology, the development project, accomplishments and applications are discussed. In February 2001 Praxair, Inc. purchased the acoustic heat engine and refrigeration development program from Chart Industries. Chart (formerly Cryenco, which Chart purchased in 1997) and Los Alamos had been working on the technology development program since 1994. The purchase included assets and intellectual property rights for thermoacoustically driven orifice pulse tube refrigerators (TADOPTR), a new and revolutionary Thermoacoustic Stirling Heat Engine (TASHE) technology, aspects of Orifice Pulse Tube Refrigeration (OPTR) and linear motor compressors as OPTR drivers. Praxair, in cooperation with Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), the licensor of the TADOPTR and TASHE patents, is continuing the development of TASHE-OPTR natural gas powered, natural gas liquefiers. The liquefaction of natural gas, which occurs at -161 C (-259 F) at atmospheric pressure, has previously required rather sophisticated refrigeration machinery. The 1990 TADOPTR invention by Drs. Greg Swift (LANL) and Ray Radebaugh (NIST) demonstrated the first technology to produce cryogenic refrigeration with no moving parts. Thermoacoustic engines and refrigerators use acoustic phenomena to produce refrigeration from heat. The basic driver and refrigerator consist of nothing more than helium-filled heat exchangers and pipes, made of common materials, without exacting tolerances

  10. The Gas to Liquids Industry and Natural Gas Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-11-08

    BP Statistical Review of World Energy , p.20. Other estimates have put natural gas reserves in Qatar at up to 1.2 quadrillion cubic feet. Because...Statistical Review of World Energy 2004, June, 2004. p.12. The other two nations with GTL investment activity, Nigeria with 176 trillion cubic feet of...20 BP Statistical Review of World Energy , June, 2004, p.12. likely to be managed because only a few major energy companies have investment budgets

  11. Ambitious Blueprint of CNPC for Natural Gas Distribution Business

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC),China's leading company in natural gas production and transportation, has made ambitious plans to increase its portfolio in the urban natural gas distribution sector. The company will use its dominance in the upstream business,which is gas production and supplies, to further develop its gas retail operation and accelerate construction of gas pipeline network nationwide.

  12. SCADA Architecture for Natural Gas plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turc Traian

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the Natural Gas Plant SCADA architecture. The main purpose of SCADA system is remote monitoring and controlling of any industrial plant. The SCADA hardware architecture is based on multi-dropping system allowing connecting a large number of different fiels devices. The SCADA Server gathers data from gas plant and stores data to a MtSQL database. The SCADA server is connected to other SCADA client application offers a intuitive and user-friendly HMI. The main benefit of using SCADA is real time displaying of gas plant state. The main contriobution of the authors consists in designing SCADA architecture based on multi-dropping system and Human Machine Interface.

  13. LIQUID NATURAL GAS (LNG): AN ALTERNATIVE FUEL FROM LANDFILL GAS (LFG) AND WASTEWATER DIGESTER GAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    VANDOR,D.

    1999-03-01

    This Research and Development Subcontract sought to find economic, technical and policy links between methane recovery at landfill and wastewater treatment sites in New York and Maryland, and ways to use that methane as an alternative fuel--compressed natural gas (CNG) or liquid natural gas (LNG) -- in centrally fueled Alternative Fueled Vehicles (AFVs).

  14. California Natural Gas Pipelines: A Brief Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuscamman, Stephanie [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Price, Don [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Pezzola, Genny [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Glascoe, Lee [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2013-01-22

    The purpose of this document is to familiarize the reader with the general configuration and operation of the natural gas pipelines in California and to discuss potential LLNL contributions that would support the Partnership for the 21st Century collaboration. First, pipeline infrastructure will be reviewed. Then, recent pipeline events will be examined. Selected current pipeline industry research will be summarized. Finally, industry acronyms are listed for reference.

  15. Sorption dehumidification of natural gas exhaust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazzarin, R.M.; Longo, G.A. (Padua Univ. (Italy)); Piccininni, F. (Politecnico di Bari (Italy). Ist. di Fisica Tecnica)

    1992-09-01

    The calorific value of natural gas can be fully utilized only if the water vapour in the exhaust gases is condensed. This can be achieved in condensing boilers. Another possibility is to dry the exhaust before discharge by sorption dehumidification. The sorbent can be regenerated directly by the boiler. The vapour developed in the regenerator can be condensed in a condenser with useful effect. Simulations given an efficiency higher than 97% with respect to the Gross Calorific value. (author).

  16. Development of natural gas rotary engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, J. R.

    1991-08-01

    Development of natural gas-fueled rotary engines was pursued on the parallel paths of converted Mazda automotive engines and of establishing technology and demonstration of a test model of a larger John Deer Technologies Incorporated (JDTI) rotary engine with power capability of 250 HP per power section for future production of multi-rotor engines with power ratings 250, 500, and 1000 HP and upward. Mazda engines were converted to natural gas and were characterized by a laboratory which was followed by nearly 12,000 hours of testing in three different field installations. To develop technology for the larger JDTI engine, laboratory and engine materials testing was accomplished. Extensive combustion analysis computer codes were modified, verified, and utilized to predict engine performance, to guide parameters for actual engine design, and to identify further improvements. A single rotor test engine of 5.8 liter displacement was designed for natural gas operation based on the JDTI 580 engine series. This engine was built and tested. It ran well and essentially achieved predicted performance. Lean combustion and low NOW emission were demonstrated.

  17. Transboundary natural gas sales and North American Free Trade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dzienkowski, J.S. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

    1993-12-31

    During the last 25 years American natural gas producers have seen wide fluctuations in gas supply, demand and price, and changes in the transboundary natural gas sales regulations have added to the instability. The history of such changes is outlined, and the impact of free trade agreements is discussed. Such agreements may significantly limit the power of the executive branch to restrict natural gas imports with a contracting nation. Topics include: FERC control of transportation and rate design of imported gas; foreign regulatory schemes for the explortation of natural gas; free trade agreements and transboundary natural gas sales; Energy Policy Act of 1992.

  18. China: Striding into the Era of Natural Gas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zhanbin; Li Chunhui

    2005-01-01

    @@ As the earliest country discovered natural gas in the ancient time in the world, the production and sales of natural gas in China started booming only in the recent years. China's natural gas production in 1949 was only 10million cubic meters. The production exceeded 10 billion cubic meters (BCM) in 1979, and reached 25.2 BCM in 1999. Despite the inspiring increase of China's natural gas production, comparing with the 24% average proportion of international natural gas in energy consumption constitution, China's gas consumption only accounts for 3% of the total energy consumption. Global average gas consumption per capita is 403 cubic meters, whereas Chinese average is only 25 cubic meters.

  19. TREATMENT OF NATURAL GAS BY ADSORPTION OF CO2

    OpenAIRE

    Kristýna Hádková; Viktor Tekáč; Karel Ciahotný; Zdeněk Beňo; Veronika Vrbová

    2015-01-01

    Apart from burning, one of the possible uses of natural gas is as a fuel for motor vehicles. There are two types of fuel from natural gas — CNG (Compressed Natural Gas) or LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas). Liquefaction of natural gas is carried out for transport by tankers, which are an alternative to long-distance gas pipelines, as well as for transport over short distance, using LNG as a fuel for motor vehicles. A gas adjustment is necessary to get LNG. As an important part of the necessary adju...

  20. LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas): the natural gas becoming a world commodity and creating international price references; GNL (Gas Natural Liquefeito): o gas natural se tornando uma commodity mundial e criando referencias de preco internacionais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demori, Marcio Bastos [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao de Comercializacao de Gas e GNL; Santos, Edmilson Moutinho dos [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Eletrotecnica e Energia. Programa Interunidades de Pos-Graduacao em Energia (PIPGE)

    2004-07-01

    The transportation of large quantities of natural gas through long distances has been done more frequently by Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG). The increase of natural gas demand and the distance of major reserves, allied to technological improvements and cost reduction through LNG supply chain, have triggered the expressive increase of LNG world market This paper tries to evaluate the influence that LNG should cause on natural gas world market dynamic, analyzing the tendency of gas to become a world commodity, creating international price references, like oil and its derivates. For this, are shown data as natural gas world reserves, the participation of LNG in natural gas world market and their increase. Furthermore, will be analyzed the interaction between major natural gas reserves and their access to major markets, still considering scheduled LNG projects, the following impacts from their implementation and price arbitrage that should be provoked on natural gas markets. (author)

  1. Hydrogen-Enhanced Natural Gas Vehicle Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyde, Dan; Collier, Kirk

    2009-01-22

    The project objective is to demonstrate the viability of HCNG fuel (30 to 50% hydrogen by volume and the remainder natural gas) to reduce emissions from light-duty on-road vehicles with no loss in performance or efficiency. The City of Las Vegas has an interest in alternative fuels and already has an existing hydrogen refueling station. Collier Technologies Inc (CT) supplied the latest design retrofit kits capable of converting nine compressed natural gas (CNG) fueled, light-duty vehicles powered by the Ford 5.4L Triton engine. CT installed the kits on the first two vehicles in Las Vegas, trained personnel at the City of Las Vegas (the City) to perform the additional seven retrofits, and developed materials for allowing other entities to perform these retrofits as well. These vehicles were used in normal service by the City while driver impressions, reliability, fuel efficiency and emissions were documented for a minimum of one year after conversion. This project has shown the efficacy of operating vehicles originally designed to operate on compressed natural gas with HCNG fuel incorporating large quantities of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). There were no safety issues experienced with these vehicles. The only maintenance issue in the project was some rough idling due to problems with the EGR valve and piping parts. Once the rough idling was corrected no further maintenance issues with these vehicles were experienced. Fuel economy data showed no significant changes after conversion even with the added power provided by the superchargers that were part of the conversions. Driver feedback for the conversions was very favorable. The additional power provided by the HCNG vehicles was greatly appreciated, especially in traffic. The drivability of the HCNG vehicles was considered to be superior by the drivers. Most of the converted vehicles showed zero oxides of nitrogen throughout the life of the project using the State of Nevada emissions station.

  2. Synthetic Natural Gas. Large-scale introduction of green natural gas in existing gas grids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zwart, R.W.R. [ECN Biomass, Coal and Environmental Research, Petten (Netherlands)

    2007-10-15

    Attention is paid to definitions, SNG production technology, motivation for green gas, potential and application, green gas and SNG implementation, availability and import of biomass, the economy of SNG production, and the SNG development trajectory.

  3. Gas exchange measurements in natural systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broecker, W.S.; Peng, T.H.

    1983-01-01

    Direct knowledge of the rates of gas exchange in lakes and the ocean is based almost entirely on measurements of the isotopes /sup 14/C, /sup 222/Rn and /sup 3/He. The distribution of natural radiocarbon has yielded the average rate of CO/sub 2/ exchange for the ocean and for several closed basin lakes. That of bomb produced radiocarbon has been used in the same systems. The /sup 222/Rn to /sup 226/Ra ratio in open ocean surface water has been used to give local short term gas exchange rates. The radon method generally cannot be used in lakes, rivers, estuaries or shelf areas because of the input of radon from sediments. A few attempts have been made to use the excess /sup 3/He produced by decay of bomb produced tritium in lakes to give gas transfer rates. The uncertainty in the molecular diffusivity of helium and in the diffusivity dependence of the rate of gas transfer holds back the application of this method. A few attempts have been made to enrich the surface waters of small lakes with /sup 226/Ra and /sup 3/H in order to allow the use of the /sup 222/Rn and /sup 3/He methods. While these studies give broadly concordant results, many questions remain unanswered. The wind velocity dependence of gas exchange rate has yet to be established in field studies. The dependence of gas exchange rate on molecular diffusivity also remains in limbo. Finally, the degree of enhancement of CO/sub 2/ exchange through chemical reactions has been only partially explored. 49 references, 2 figures, 2 tables.

  4. Flex fuel polygeneration: Integrating renewable natural gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieffer, Matthew

    Flex Fuel Polygeneration (FFPG) is the use of multiple primary energy sources for the production of multiple energy carriers to achieve increased market opportunities. FFPG allows for adjustments in energy supply to meet market fluctuations and increase resiliency to contingencies such as weather disruptions, technological changes, and variations in supply of energy resources. In this study a FFPG plant is examined that uses a combination of the primary energy sources natural gas and renewable natural gas (RNG) derived from MSW and livestock manure and converts them into energy carriers of electricity and fuels through anaerobic digestion (AD), Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS), and gas turbine cycles. Previous techno-economic analyses of conventional energy production plants are combined to obtain equipment and operating costs, and then the 20-year NPVs of the FFPG plant designs are evaluated by static and stochastic simulations. The effects of changing operating parameters are investigated, as well as the number of anaerobic digestion plants on the 20-year NPV of the FTS and FFPG systems.

  5. World trade in liquefied natural gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, P. J.; Daniels, E. J.

    1978-01-01

    Descriptions of LNG projects make it evident that significant activity is continuing on the development of base-load LNG projects to serve all three major gas markets: Europe, Japan, and the United States. These activities have resulted in the development of an international LNG trade of approximately 48.2 billion m/sup 3//y. This represents nearly one-third of the current level of pipeline import/exports of natural gas. By 1982, when all of the projects considered to be firm or under construction are implemented, LNG trade will have grown to a level of 53.7 billion m/sup 3//y. With the implementation of the probable projects by the mid-1980's, this level could increase to more than 112.55 billion m/sup 3//y. Assuming that the 102.2 billion m/sup 3//y of pipeline import/export projects currently proposed and under construction are implemented in the same period, LNG's relatively more rapid growth will have increased to 48% of the amount of natural gas traded by pipeline.

  6. 75 FR 13644 - TORP Terminal LP, Bienville Offshore Energy Terminal Liquefied Natural Gas Deepwater Port License...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-22

    ... Maritime Administration TORP Terminal LP, Bienville Offshore Energy Terminal Liquefied Natural Gas...) for the TORP Terminal LP, Bienville Offshore Energy Terminal (BOET) Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG... Natural Gas Pipeline, Williams Natural Gas Pipeline, Destin Natural Gas Pipeline, and Viosca...

  7. Computer monitors natural-gas-liquids line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muldoon, J.F.; Wilson, W.O.

    1974-12-09

    A new computer-based system continuously monitors composition, flow, and specific gravity of natural-gas liquids flowing in a pipeline. Compositional analysis is performed automatically, under computer control, by a process gas chromatograph. The chromatograph is tailored for hydrocarbon analysis and will separate these compounds into individual components: nitrogen, carbon dioxide, methane, ethane, propane, n-butane, isobutane, n-pentane, isopentane, 1-hexane, 2-hexane, 3-hexane, 4-hexane, and heptanes-and-heavier. At the completion of the analysis, the compositional totals, barrels, and pounds, are updated based on flow and average specific gravity. Reports generated include a compositional report, a subtotal ticket report, and a ticket report. The new system, designated Pro-PACE-100, has been successfully installed in several pipeline applications, including one for Mid-America Pipeline Co. in New Mexico.

  8. Regulatory issues of natural gas distribution; Aspectos regulatorios acerca da distribuicao de gas natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leite, Fabio Augusto C.C.M.; Costa, Hirdan Katarina de M. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Faculdade de Direito

    2004-07-01

    In these past few years, natural gas in Brazil has arised as one of the alternatives for the energetic crisis suffered by the country. Such situation was one of the motives for its expansion, rising, after that, the importance of the regulation of its distribution. The regulation of canalized natural gas distribution can be found in the Federal Constitution, after Constitutional Amendment n. 05/95, in the article n. 25, para. 2nd, which say that belongs to the Federal States the concession or direct exercise of canalized natural gas services, now clearly classified as a public service. In order of these events, its imperative the analysis of natural gas distribution's public service, because it belongs to the Federal States. According to this situation, the study of the new regulatory function of the Administration and the tracing of action for the regulatory state agencies are the main goals of this work. As so, the present research aims to focus the reflexes from the actual dimension of natural gas distribution, specially referring to its regulatory statements, the limitations of state agencies, the National Petroleum Agency and the market where distribution belongs, and particularly the open access of new agents. (author)

  9. Substitute natural gas from biomass gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tunaa, Per (Lund Inst. of Technology, Lund (SE))

    2008-03-15

    Biomass is by many considered as the only alternative to phase-out the usage of fossil fuels such as natural gas and oil especially for the transportation sector where alternative solutions, such as hydrogen fuel cells and batteries, are not yet fully developed. Thermal gasification or other methods such as pyrolysis of the biomass must be applied in order to produce an intermediate product suitable for further upgrading to either gaseous or liquid products. This thesis will evaluate the possibilities of producing, substitute natural gas, (SNG) from biomass gasification by using computer simulation. Three different gasification techniques were evaluated; entrained-flow, fluidized-bed and indirect gasification coupled with two different desulphurisation systems and two methanation processes. The desulphurisation systems were a zinc oxide bed and a Rectisol wash system. Methanation were performed by a series of adiabatic reactors with gas recycling and by an isothermal reactor. The impact on SNG efficiency from system pressure, isothermal methanation temperature and PSA methane recovery were evaluated as well. The results show that the fluidized-bed and the indirect gasifier have the highest SNG efficiency. Furthermore there are little to no difference between the methanation processes and small differences for the gas cleanup systems. SNG efficiencies in excess of 50 % were possible for all gasifiers. SNG efficiency is defined as the energy in the SNG product divided by the total input to the system from biomass, drying and oxygen. Increasing system pressure has a negative impact on SNG efficiency as well as increasing operating costs due to increased power for compression. Isothermal methanation temperature has no significant impact on SNG efficiency. Recovering as much methane as possible in the PSA is the most important parameter. Recovering methane that has been dissolved in condensed process water increases the SNG efficiency by 2-10% depending on system.

  10. Oil and Natural Gas Wells, Western U.S.

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A complete set of wells associated with oil, natural gas, and coal bed natural gas development in the western states as of June 2004. This is a static dataset even...

  11. Oil and Natural Gas Pipelines, North America, 2010, Platts

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Oil and Natural Gas Pipeline geospatial data layer contains gathering, interstate, and intrastate natural gas pipelines, crude and product oil pipelines, and...

  12. Zhongxian-Wuhan Natural Gas Put into Operation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ The 1375-kilometer Zhongxian-Wuhan natural gas pipeline was put into operation on November 16 after five years of construction, starting to supply natural gas for commercial users in Central China's Hubei Province one month ahead of schedule.

  13. Environmental effects of submarine seeping natural gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dando, P. R.; Hovland, M.

    1992-10-01

    It is suspected that most shallow reservoirs of natural gas vent to the surface to some degree. This seeping may be through diffusion of dissolved gas or by a flow of gas bubbles which entrain interstitial water during the rise through the sediments to the surface. Methane bubbles dissolved other gases, notably hydrogen sulphide and carbon dioxide, during their ascent. Under suitable temperature-pressure conditions gas hydrates may be formed close to or at the seabed Black suphide-rich sediments and mats of sulphur oxidizing bacteria are frequently observed close to the sediments surface at seep sites, including a sharp oxic/anoxic boundary. Animal species associated with these gas seeps include both species which obtain nutrition from symbiotic methane-oxidizing bacteria and species with symbolic sulphur-oxidizing bacteria. It is suspected that at some microseepage an enhanced biomass of meiofauna and macrofauna is supported by a food chain based on free-living and symbiotic sulphur-oxidizing and methane-oxidizing bacteria. The most common seep-related features of sea floor topography are local depressions including pockmark craters. Winnowing of the sediment during their creation leads to an accumulation of larger detritis in the depressions. Where the deprssions overlies salt diapirs they may be filled with hypersaline solutions. In some areas dome-shaped features are associated with seepage and these may be colonized by coral reefs. Other reefs, "hard-grounds", columnar and disc-shaped protrusions, all formed of carbonate-cemented sediments, are common on the sea floor in seep areas. Much of the carbonate appears to be derived from carbon dioxide formed as a result of methane oxidation. The resulting hard-bottoms on the sea floor are often colonized by species not found on the neighboring soft-bottoms. As a result seep areas may be characterized by the presence of a rich epifauna.

  14. Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) dispenser verification device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Maotao; Yang, Jie-bin; Zhao, Pu-jun; Yu, Bo; Deng, Wan-quan

    2013-01-01

    The composition of working principle and calibration status of LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas) dispenser in China are introduced. According to the defect of weighing method in the calibration of LNG dispenser, LNG dispenser verification device has been researched. The verification device bases on the master meter method to verify LNG dispenser in the field. The experimental results of the device indicate it has steady performance, high accuracy level and flexible construction, and it reaches the international advanced level. Then LNG dispenser verification device will promote the development of LNG dispenser industry in China and to improve the technical level of LNG dispenser manufacture.

  15. Fuel tank for liquefied natural gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLay, Thomas K. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A storage tank is provided for storing liquefied natural gas on, for example, a motor vehicle such as a bus or truck. The storage tank includes a metal liner vessel encapsulated by a resin-fiber composite layer. A foam insulating layer, including an outer protective layer of epoxy or of a truck liner material, covers the composite layer. A non-conducting protective coating may be painted on the vessel between the composite layer and the vessel so as to inhibit galvanic corrosion.

  16. Risk management of liquefied natural gas installations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedor, O. H.; Parsons, W. N.; Coutinho, J. De C.

    1976-01-01

    In connection with the construction of four major liquefied natural gas (LNG) facilities in New York City, the New York City Fire Commissioner has asked NASA for assistance. It was decided that the Kennedy Space Center should develop a risk management system (RMS) for the use of the New York Fire Department (NYFD). The RMS provides for a published set of safety regulations by the NYFD. A description of the RMS is presented as an example of an application of aerospace technology to a civilian sector, namely LNG facilities.

  17. Lightweight Tanks for Storing Liquefied Natural Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLay, Tom

    2008-01-01

    Single-walled, jacketed aluminum tanks have been conceived for storing liquefied natural gas (LNG) in LNG-fueled motor vehicles. Heretofore, doublewall steel tanks with vacuum between the inner and outer walls have been used for storing LNG. In comparison with the vacuum- insulated steel tanks, the jacketed aluminum tanks weigh less and can be manufactured at lower cost. Costs of using the jacketed aluminum tanks are further reduced in that there is no need for the vacuum pumps heretofore needed to maintain vacuum in the vacuum-insulated tanks.

  18. Natural gas and oil technology partnership support

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, T.W.

    1996-06-01

    The Natural Gas and Oil Technology Partnership expedites development and transfer of advanced technologies through technical interactions and collaborations between the national laboratories and the petroleum industry - majors, independents, service companies, and universities. The Partnership combines the expertise, equipment, facilities, and technologies of the Department of Energy`s national laboratories with those of the US petroleum industry. The laboratories utilize unique capabilities developed through energy and defense R&D including electronics, instrumentation, materials, computer hardware and software, engineering, systems analysis, physics, and expert systems. Industry contributes specialized knowledge and resources and prioritizes Partnership activities.

  19. Pricing natural gas distribution in Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez, Jose Carlos; Rosellon, Juan [Centro de Investigacion y Docencia Economicas CIDE, Carret. Mexico-Toluca 3655, Km. 16.5, Lomas de Santa Fe, 01210, D.F. Mexico (Mexico)

    2002-05-01

    We examine regulation of distribution tariffs in the Mexican natural gas industry. Average revenue in each period is constrained not to exceed an upper bound and is calculated as the ratio of total revenue to output in the current period. This regime implies incentives for strategically setting two-part tariffs. The usage charge is typically dropped to its lowest feasible level, while the fixed charge is raised to compensate for the loss of profit. The regime also creates a stochastic effect that implies decreased values of consumer surplus for lower levels of risk aversion and uncertainty.

  20. Mathematical simulation of the process of condensing natural gas

    OpenAIRE

    Tastandieva G.M.

    2015-01-01

    Presents a two-dimensional unsteady model of heat transfer in terms of condensation of natural gas at low temperatures. Performed calculations of the process heat and mass transfer of liquefied natural gas (LNG) storage tanks of cylindrical shape. The influence of model parameters on the nature of heat transfer. Defined temperature regimes eliminate evaporation by cooling liquefied natural gas. The obtained dependence of the mass flow rate of vapor condensation gas temperature. Identified the...

  1. Practical Results of Forecasting for the Natural Gas Market

    OpenAIRE

    Potocnik, Primoz; Govekar, Edvard

    2010-01-01

    Natural gas consumption forecasting is required to balance the supply and consumption of natural gas. Companies and natural gas distributors are motivated to forecast their consumption by the economic incentive model that dictates the cash flow rules corresponding to the forecasting accuracy. The rules are quite challenging but enable the company to gain positive cash flow by forecasting accurately their short-term natural gas consumption. In this chapter, some practical forecasting results f...

  2. Liquefied natural gas: a harbor plan; Plano diretor portuario para o gas natural liquefeito

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Aluisio de Souza; Baitelo, Ricardo Lacerda [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica; Rego, Erik Eduardo [Excelencia Energetica Consultoria Empresarial Ltda., Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Rosim, Sidney Olivieri [Rosim e Papaleo Consultoria e Participacoes Ltda., Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The objective of this article is to present the structuring of a port directing plan for the liquefied natural gas. In this sense, an integrated approach between the applied logistic and the requested market conditions was used. For the large distances transportation of liquefied natural gas, the marine modal must attain technical requirements that are not usual in the port routine. Apart from the proper dimensioning of the naval fleet in order to maximize the transported load, providing the optimization of the economic distance, the entire port infra-structure is planned for the reception of liquefied natural gas, in order to attend the physical peculiarities as well as security aspects of extreme importance. The selection of the studied local was motivated by the fuel supply shortage suffered by the country, especially in the northeast region, which owns already installed thermal units in need of the fuel supply to be operated. (author)

  3. The 1991 natural gas vehicle challenge: Developing dedicated natural gas vehicle technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, R.; Rimkus, W. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Davies, J. [General Motors of Canada Ltd., Toronto, ON (Canada); Zammit, M. [AC Rochester, NY (United States); Patterson, P. [USDOE, Washington, DC (United States)

    1992-02-01

    An engineering research and design competition to develop and demonstrate dedicated natural gas-powered light-duty trucks, the Natural Gas Vehicle (NGV) Challenge, was held June 6--11, 1191, in Oklahoma. Sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE), Energy, Mines, and Resources -- Canada (EMR), the Society of Automative Engineers (SAE), and General Motors Corporation (GM), the competition consisted of rigorous vehicle testing of exhaust emissions, fuel economy, performance parameters, and vehicle design. Using Sierra 2500 pickup trucks donated by GM, 24 teams of college and university engineers from the US and Canada participated in the event. A gasoline-powered control testing as a reference vehicle. This paper discusses the results of the event, summarizes the technologies employed, and makes observations on the state of natural gas vehicle technology.

  4. The 1991 natural gas vehicle challenge: Developing dedicated natural gas vehicle technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, R.; Rimkus, W. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Davies, J. (General Motors of Canada Ltd., Toronto, ON (Canada)); Zammit, M. (AC Rochester, NY (United States)); Patterson, P. (USDOE, Washington, DC (United States))

    1992-01-01

    An engineering research and design competition to develop and demonstrate dedicated natural gas-powered light-duty trucks, the Natural Gas Vehicle (NGV) Challenge, was held June 6--11, 1191, in Oklahoma. Sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE), Energy, Mines, and Resources -- Canada (EMR), the Society of Automative Engineers (SAE), and General Motors Corporation (GM), the competition consisted of rigorous vehicle testing of exhaust emissions, fuel economy, performance parameters, and vehicle design. Using Sierra 2500 pickup trucks donated by GM, 24 teams of college and university engineers from the US and Canada participated in the event. A gasoline-powered control testing as a reference vehicle. This paper discusses the results of the event, summarizes the technologies employed, and makes observations on the state of natural gas vehicle technology.

  5. Natural gas: energy, environment, development and externalities; Gas natural: energia, meio-ambiente, desenvolvimento e externalidades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sousa, Eduardo F. de [Universidade Salvador (UNIFACS), BA (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Natural gas is a major source of non-renewable energy in the Brazilian energy matrix, and the noticeable increase in demand for this energy. This can be checked with the expansion of investments in Brazil and in the state of Bahia for the various sectors. The environmental benefits of natural gas highlight the advantages of using this input to the other fossil fuels. This paper discusses the availability of natural gas in Brazil and how it occurs its participation in the national energy matrix. This issue of the vulnerability of the market by the conflict between the growing demand from various industries and the need for order of thermal. It indicates scenarios and future prospects, and limiting factors for their growth. (author)

  6. 26 CFR 48.4041-21 - Compressed natural gas (CNG).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Compressed natural gas (CNG). 48.4041-21 Section... natural gas (CNG). (a) Delivery of CNG into the fuel supply tank of a motor vehicle or motorboat—(1) Imposition of tax. Tax is imposed on the delivery of compressed natural gas (CNG) into the fuel supply...

  7. 75 FR 48321 - Corning Natural Gas Corporation; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-10

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Corning Natural Gas Corporation; Notice of Application August 4, 2010. Take notice that on July 26, 2010, Corning Natural Gas Corporation (Corning), 330 W. William Street, Corning... Natural Gas Act (NGA) requesting the determination of a service area with which Corning may,...

  8. Regional Cooperation Towards Trans-country Natural Gas Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shukla, P.R.; Dhar, Subash

    2009-01-01

    India began gas imports since 2004 through liquified natural gas (LNG) route. Imports through trans-country gas pipelines could help in bringing gas directly into the densely populated Northern part of India, which are far from domestic gas resources as well as coastal LNG terminals. The purpose...

  9. Field tests and commercialization of natural gas leak detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, D.S.; Jeon, J.S.; Kim, K.D.; Cho, Y.A. [R and D Center, Korea Gas Corporation, Ansan (Korea)

    1999-09-01

    Objectives - (1) fields test of industrial gas leak detection monitoring system. (2) commericialization of residential gas leak detector. Contents - (1) five sets of gas leak detection monitoring system were installed at natural gas transmition facilities and tested long term stability and their performance. (2) improved residential gas leak detector was commercialised. Expected benefits and application fields - (1) contribution to the improvement of domestic gas sensor technology. (2) localization of fabrication technology for gas leak detectors. 23 refs., 126 figs., 37 tabs.

  10. Advanced Natural Gas Reciprocating Engines(s)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zurlo, James [Dresser, Inc., Addison, TX (United States)

    2012-04-05

    The ARES program was initiated in 2001 to improve the overall brake thermal efficiency of stationary, natural gas, reciprocating engines. The ARES program is a joint award that is shared by Dresser, Inc., Caterpillar and Cummins. The ARES program was divided into three phases; ARES I (achieve 44% BTE), ARES II (achieve 47% BTE) and ARES III (achieve 50% BTE). Dresser, Inc. completed ARES I in March 2005 which resulted in the commercialization of the APG1000 product line. ARES II activities were completed in September 2010 and the technology developed is currently being integrated into products. ARES III activities began in October 2010. The ARES program goal is to improve the efficiency of natural gas reciprocating engines. The ARES project is structured in three phases with higher efficiency goals in each phase. The ARES objectives are as follows: 1. Achieve 44% (ARES I), 47% (ARES II), and 50% brake thermal efficiency (BTE) as a final ARES III objective 2. Achieve 0.1 g/bhp-hr NOx emissions (with after-treatment) 3. Reduce the cost of the produced electricity by 10% 4. Improve or maintain reliability, durability and maintenance costs

  11. Gasoline from natural gas by sulfur processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erekson, E.J.; Miao, F.Q. [Institute of Gas Technology, Des Plaines, IL (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The overall objective of this research project is to develop a catalytic process to convert natural gas to liquid transportation fuels. The process, called the HSM (Hydrogen Sulfide-Methane) Process, consists of two steps that each utilize a catalyst and sulfur-containing intermediates: (1) converting natural gas to CS{sub 2} and (2) converting CS{sub 2} to gasoline range liquids. Catalysts have been found that convert methane to carbon disulfide in yields up to 98%. This exceeds the target of 40% yields for the first step. The best rate for CS{sub 2} formation was 132 g CS{sub 2}/kg-cat-h. The best rate for hydrogen production is 220 L H{sub 2} /kg-cat-h. A preliminary economic study shows that in a refinery application hydrogen made by the HSM technology would cost $0.25-R1.00/1000 SCF. Experimental data will be generated to facilitate evaluation of the overall commercial viability of the process.

  12. Competitive position of natural gas: Industrial baking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minsker, B.S.; Salama, S.Y.

    1988-01-01

    Industrial baking is one of the largest natural gas consumers in the food industry. In 1985, bread, rolls, cookies, and crackers accounted for over 82 percent of all baked goods production. Bread accounting for 46 percent of all production. The baking industry consumed approximately 16 trillion Btu in 1985. About 93 percent was natural gas, while distillate fuel oil accounted for seven percent, and electricity accounted for much less than one percent. The three main types of baking ovens are the single lap, tunnel, and Lanham ovens. In the single lap oven, trays carry the product back and forth through the baking chamber once. The single lap oven is the most common type of oven and is popular due to its long horizontal runs, extensive steam zone, and simple construction. The tunnel oven is slightly more efficient and more expensive that the single lap oven. IN the tunnel oven, the hearth is a motorized conveyor which passes in a straight line through a series of heating zones, with loading and unloading occurring at opposite ends of the oven. The advantages of the tunnel oven include flexibility with respect to pan size and simple, accurate top and bottom heat control. The tunnel oven is used exclusively in the cookie and cracker baking, with the product being deposited directly on the oven band. The most recently developed type of oven is the Lanham oven. The Lanham oven is the most efficient type of oven, with a per pound energy consumption approaching the practical minimum for baking bread. Between one--half and two--thirds of all new industrial baking ovens are Lanham ovens. In the Lanham oven, the product enters the oven near the top of the chamber, spirals down through a series of heating zones, and exits near the bottom of the oven. The oven is gas--fired directly by ribbon burners. 31 refs.

  13. Study on the natural gas utilization in the ceramic industry; Estudo sobre a utilizacao do gas natural na industria ceramica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    The production, principal applications, characteristics and properties, advantages of the gas natural is showed. A sectorial overview of the ceramic industry and the utilization of the natural gas in the ceramic industry is presented. The expectations are systematized and the impact of the natural gas utilization in the ceramic industry is evaluated. Some conclusions are withdrawn and recommendations suggested.

  14. Mathematical simulation of the process of condensing natural gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tastandieva G.M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Presents a two-dimensional unsteady model of heat transfer in terms of condensation of natural gas at low temperatures. Performed calculations of the process heat and mass transfer of liquefied natural gas (LNG storage tanks of cylindrical shape. The influence of model parameters on the nature of heat transfer. Defined temperature regimes eliminate evaporation by cooling liquefied natural gas. The obtained dependence of the mass flow rate of vapor condensation gas temperature. Identified the possibility of regulating the process of “cooling down” liquefied natural gas in terms of its partial evaporation with low cost energy.

  15. The Impact of Wind Power on European Natural Gas Markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-09-06

    Due to its clean burning properties, low investment costs and flexibility in production, natural gas is often put forward as the ideal partner fuel for wind power and other renewable sources of electricity generation with strongly variable output. This working paper examines three vital questions associated with this premise: 1) Is natural gas indeed the best partner fuel for wind power? 2) If so, to what extent will an increasing market share of wind power in European electricity generation affect demand for natural gas in the power sector? and 3) Considering the existing European natural gas markets, is natural gas capable of fulfilling this role of partner for renewable sources of electricity?.

  16. Legislative competence relative to natural gas; Competencia legislativa atinente ao gas natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galvao, Rafael Silva Paes Pires; Silveira Neto, Otacilio dos Santos [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Programa de Recursos Humanos da ANP para Habilitacao em Petroleo e Gas Natural, PRH-36

    2004-07-01

    The expansion of the gas industry in our country in the actual days, allied to the constitutional authorization for the private initiative acting in this sector provides the establishment of precise rules to the consequent market consolidation. In spite of the exigencies, one realises that the law no. 9.487/97, often denominated as Oil Law, does not rule in its fullness the specifics situations concerned to the natural gas. Despite the elaboration of the natural gas Law is a target of the governmental politics, overcoming the question pondered, there is not, until now, a detailed study of the legislative competency regimen relative to the natural gas. This very work, notably, gathers relevance in front of the State shape adopted in our country and the federative pact historically built; while aiming the complex distribution of legislative power made to each one of the political entities, there is need to establish the limits of performance to the sort of the coming gas Law, under penalty its arising with an unconstitutionality defect confronting to the federative pact. In the sense of clarifying the probably doubts around the subject and allowing that power comes closer to the people are our considerations proposed for. (author)

  17. The perspectives of the natural gas in Mexico; Las perspecivas del gas natural en Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vazquez S, Luis [DIAVAZ S.A de C.V, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2001-07-01

    As never before in the last year we have suffered the increases in the cost of the natural gas. For those who are not aware, the prices have gone from 2.48 dollars per million BTU a year ago to 9.57 last month. The truth is that we are facing a true world-wide energy crisis. From one year to date the prices of all the energy sources have increased an average superior to 30%, including increases in Diesel oil, LP Gas, Natural Gas, Turbine fuel. The causes are many and very varied, from efficiency decisions, as in the case of the electrical Generation that has chosen to incline definitively to the natural gas, confusing de-regulations as in the case of California, increases of demand beyond the anticipated by economic activity, changes of consumption pattern, etc.. This demonstrates the well focussed and the opportunity of this Seminar, since there is no doubt that it has become imperative a single and efficient criterium on this so limited resource. In Mexico, the situation is very similar. Recently a measurement has been implemented that tries to palliate the conjunctural effects of this crisis and PEMEX has put to the disposition of the users a contract at fixed price, for three years and by a specific amount. [Spanish] Como nunca antes en el ultimo ano hemos resentido los incrementos en el gasto del gas natural. Para quien no este al tanto los precios han pasado de 2.48 dolares por millon de BTU hace un ano a 9.57 el mes pasado. La verdad es que os estamos enfrentando a una verdadera crisis energetica mundial. De un ano para aca todos los energeticos han aumentado un promedio superior al 30%, incluyendo aumentos en Diesel, Gas LP, Gas Natural, Turbosina. Las causas son muchas y muy variadas, desde decisiones de eficiencia, como en el caso de la Generacion electrica que ha optado por inclinarse definitivamente por el gas natural, desregulaciones confusas como en el caso de California, incrementos de demanda mas alla de lo previsto por actividad economica, cambios

  18. PetroChina, Wuhan City Signs Natural Gas Supply Contract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Keyu

    2001-01-01

    @@ In mid-November 200 1, PetroChina and Wuhan City, the capital of Hubei Province, signed a contract for natural gas sales and transmission via ZhongxianWuhan pipeline to provide natural gas for the city that is the largest gas consumer of the pipeline. The contract is in line with the "take or pay" clause of the international convention on natural gas marketing.

  19. Naturally fractured tight gas reservoir detection optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-11-30

    The work plan for October 1, 1997 to September 30, 1998 consisted of investigation of a number of topical areas. These topical areas were reported in four quarterly status reports, which were submitted to DOE earlier. These topical areas are reviewed in this volume. The topical areas covered during the year were: (1) Development of preliminary tests of a production method for determining areas of natural fracturing. Advanced Resources has demonstrated that such a relationship exists in the southern Piceance basin tight gas play. Natural fracture clusters are genetically related to stress concentrations (also called stress perturbations) associated with local deformation such a faulting. The mechanical explanation of this phenomenon is that deformation generally initiates at regions where the local stress field is elevated beyond the regional. (2) Regional structural and geologic analysis of the Greater Green River Basin (GGRB). Application of techniques developed and demonstrated during earlier phases of the project for sweet-spot delineation were demonstrated in a relatively new and underexplored play: tight gas from continuous-typeUpper Cretaceous reservoirs of the Greater Green River Basin (GGRB). The effort included data acquisition/processing, base map generation, geophysical and remote sensing analysis and the integration of these data and analyses. (3) Examination of the Table Rock field area in the northern Washakie Basin of the Greater Green River Basin. This effort was performed in support of Union Pacific Resources- and DOE-planned horizontal drilling efforts. The effort comprised acquisition of necessary seismic data and depth-conversion, mapping of major fault geometry, and analysis of displacement vectors, and the development of the natural fracture prediction. (4) Greater Green River Basin Partitioning. Building on fundamental fracture characterization work and prior work performed under this contract, namely structural analysis using satellite and

  20. Development of natural gas vehicles in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zongmin, Cheng

    1996-12-31

    Past decade and current status of development of natural gas vehicles (NGVs) in China is described. By the end of 1995, 35 CNG refueling stations and 9 LPG refueling stations had been constructed in 12 regions, and 33,100 vehicles had been converted to run on CNG or LPG. China`s automobile industry, a mainstay of the national economy, is slated for accelerated development over next few years. NGVs will help to solve the problems of environment protection, GHGs mitigation, and shortage of oil supply. The Chinese government has started to promote the development of NGVs. Projects, investment demand, GHG mitigation potential, and development barriers are discussed. China needs to import advanced foreign technologies of CNGs. China`s companies expect to cooperate with foreign partners for import of CNG vehicle refueling compressors, conversions, and light cylinders, etc.

  1. Olefins from Natural Gas by Oxychlorination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zichittella, Guido; Aellen, Nicolas; Paunović, Vladimir; Amrute, Amol P; Pérez-Ramírez, Javier

    2017-08-03

    Ethylene and propylene are the key building blocks of the chemical industry, but current processes are unable to close the growing gap between demand and manufacture. Reported herein is an exceptional europium oxychloride (EuOCl) catalyst for the selective (≥95 %) production of light olefins from ethane and propane by oxychlorination chemistry, thus achieving yields of ethylene (90 %) and propylene (40 %) unparalleled by any existing olefin production technology. Moreover, EuOCl is able to process mixtures of methane, ethane, and propane to produce the olefins, thereby reducing separation costs of the alkanes in natural gas. Finally, the EuOCl catalyst was supported on suitable carriers and evaluated in extrudate form, and preserves performance for >150 h under realistic process conditions. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Production of Substitute Natural Gas from Coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrew Lucero

    2009-01-31

    The goal of this research program was to develop and demonstrate a novel gasification technology to produce substitute natural gas (SNG) from coal. The technology relies on a continuous sequential processing method that differs substantially from the historic methanation or hydro-gasification processing technologies. The thermo-chemistry relies on all the same reactions, but the processing sequences are different. The proposed concept is appropriate for western sub-bituminous coals, which tend to be composed of about half fixed carbon and about half volatile matter (dry ash-free basis). In the most general terms the process requires four steps (1) separating the fixed carbon from the volatile matter (pyrolysis); (2) converting the volatile fraction into syngas (reforming); (3) reacting the syngas with heated carbon to make methane-rich fuel gas (methanation and hydro-gasification); and (4) generating process heat by combusting residual char (combustion). A key feature of this technology is that no oxygen plant is needed for char combustion.

  3. Natural gas conversion process. Sixth quarterly report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-01

    The experimental apparatus was dismantled and transferred to a laboratory space provided by Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) which is already equipped with a high-ventilation fume hood. This will enable us to make tests at higher gas flow rates in a safe environment. Three papers presented at the ACS meeting in San Francisco (Symposium on Natural Gas Upgrading II) April 5--10, 1992 show that the goal of direct catalytic conversion of Methane into heavier Hydrocarbons in a reducing atmosphere is actively pursued in three other different laboratories. There are similarities in their general concept with our own approach, but the temperature range of the experiments reported in these recent papers is much lower and this leads to uneconomic conversion rates. This illustrates the advantages of Methane activation by a Hydrogen plasma to reach commercial conversion rates. A preliminary process flow diagram was established for the Integrated Process, which was outlined in the previous Quarterly Report. The flow diagram also includes all the required auxiliary facilities for product separation and recycle of the unconverted feed as well as for the preparation and compression of the Syngas by-product.

  4. Literature Review and Synthesis for the Natural Gas Infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Folga, Stephen [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Talaber, Leah [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); McLamore, Michael [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Kraucunas, Ian [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); McPherson, Timothy [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Parrott, Lori [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Manzanares, Trevor [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-06-01

    The efficient and effective movement of natural gas from producing regions to consuming regions requires an extensive and elaborate transportation system. In many instances, natural gas produced from a particular well has to travel a great distance to reach its point of use. The transportation system for natural gas consists of a complex network of pipelines designed to quickly and efficiently transport the gas from its origin to areas of high demand. The transportation of natural gas is closely linked to its storage: If the natural gas being transported is not immediately required, it can be put into storage facilities until it is needed. A description of the natural gas transmission, storage, and distribution (TS&D) sector is provided as follows.

  5. NewSituation of China Natural Gas Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Bo; Wu Jie

    2015-01-01

    China natural gas industry is at a turning point. Growth of mid-long term natural gas consumption may maintain at about 10%, supply is sufficient or even “over-sufficient”, natural gas price will be determined by competition, oil and gas pipeline facilities will be opened fairly, and private enterprises will play important roles in natural gas exploration, development, storage, transportation, and trade. It can been foreseen that China natural gas industry is very likely to take a turn in next 10 years, and a modern natural gas market with consumption about 500 billion cubic meters will come into being characterized by complete supervision system, diversified market, steady supply, fairly opened pipelines, transparent trading mechanism, and competitive prices.

  6. The natural gas ducts and the ICMS; Os dutos de gas natural e o ICMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galvao, Rafael Silva Paes Pires; Silveira Neto, Otacilio dos Santos; Gomes, Carlos Roberto de Miranda [Rio Grande do Norte Univ., Natal, RN (Brazil). Programa de Recursos Humanos da ANP para o Setor Petroleo e Gas, PRH-36

    2005-07-01

    With the advent of the Constitutional Emendation no. 9/95 operated it the open of the industry of the oil and the natural gas for companies others that came to be contracted by the State. Ahead of the insertion of new players, the regulation of the sector was given for the Law (no. 9.478/97), as well for legal acts edited for the National Agency of the Oil - ANP. Meanwhile, the Oil norm little disciplined the industry of the natural gas that, for its peculiarities, imposes specific rules. In this context, the transport of the natural gas by means of ducts become prominent for the lack of debates on the correct form to classify them. The present work has for target to analyze the legal types instituted by the Law and for the ANP acts for the ducts, as form of if having a correct understanding of the matter. Thus, will reveal as each one of the adopted classifications can cause (or not) the incidence of the ICMS, or either, as the legal regimen of the gas-lines is correlated with the tax. (author)

  7. Experimental study of natural gas flame structure. New tools for natural gas combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bachman, J.S.; Perrin, M. [Gaz de France (GDF), 93 - Saint-Denis (France)

    1994-10-01

    Recent progress in the fields of electronics, signal processing, digital imaging, optics, especially in laser, allows a finer and easier access for studies of gaseous flows structure and flames. The good knowledge of physical and chemical characteristics of flames and the understanding of mechanisms determining their stability is fundamental for improvement of burners and development of numerical models able to predict their behaviours in different experimental configurations. Therefore, it is an essential stake for the development of natural gas used both in household and industrial applications. The first part of this paper presents the different measurement techniques used at the Gaz de France R and D division for flow visualisation (laser sheet illumination), measurements temperature (fine wire thermocouples with numerical compensation) and chemical species (CO{sub 2}, CO, NO, CH{sub 4}, O{sub 2}). Examples of applications of these methods to the study of natural gas burners are presented in a second part of the paper. The first part of this paper presents applications of these techniques to improve natural gas burners. They are used, on one hand, to develop new practical heating equipments and, on the other hand, for basic studies on industrial flames structure. Work done at CERSTA, in cooperation with the Gas Research Institute, on a model burner is presented. It deals, in particular, with the effect of confinement by a cylindrical quart on the flame structure. (authors). 22 refs., 31 figs., 1 tab.

  8. China Ranks 15th for 2001 Natural Gas Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    @@ China's natural gas output totaled 30.302 billion cubic meters in 2001, an 11 percent increase as compared with the previous year. However, China ranked 15th in the world for its natural gas production last year while Malaysia jumped to the 12th place in the ranking since the country saw a considerable increase in gas production.

  9. PetroChina to Harness New Natural Gas Resources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ As climate change is alarming policymakers,a string of oil companies are eyeing to harness China's plentiful unconventional natural gas resources,such as coalbed methane gas,deeply locked in China's bountiful coal reserves,which is expected to reduce China's reliance on natural gas imports for decades to come.

  10. Advanced Natural Gas Reciprocating Engine(s)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwok, Doris; Boucher, Cheryl

    2009-09-30

    Energy independence and fuel savings are hallmarks of the nation’s energy strategy. The advancement of natural gas reciprocating engine power generation technology is critical to the nation’s future. A new engine platform that meets the efficiency, emissions, fuel flexibility, cost and reliability/maintainability targets will enable American manufacturers to have highly competitive products that provide substantial environmental and economic benefits in the US and in international markets. Along with Cummins and Waukesha, Caterpillar participated in a multiyear cooperative agreement with the Department of Energy to create a 50% efficiency natural gas powered reciprocating engine system with a 95% reduction in NOx emissions by the year 2013. This platform developed under this agreement will be a significant contributor to the US energy strategy and will enable gas engine technology to remain a highly competitive choice, meeting customer cost of electricity targets, and regulatory environmental standard. Engine development under the Advanced Reciprocating Engine System (ARES) program was divided into phases, with the ultimate goal being approached in a series of incremental steps. This incremental approach would promote the commercialization of ARES technologies as soon as they emerged from development and would provide a technical and commercial foundation of later-developing technologies. Demonstrations of the Phase I and Phase II technology were completed in 2004 and 2008, respectively. Program tasks in Phase III included component and system development and testing from 2009-2012. Two advanced ignition technology evaluations were investigated under the ARES program: laser ignition and distributed ignition (DIGN). In collaboration with Colorado State University (CSU), a laser ignition system was developed to provide ignition at lean burn and high boost conditions. Much work has been performed in Caterpillar’s DIGN program under the ARES program. This work

  11. TREATMENT OF NATURAL GAS BY ADSORPTION OF CO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristýna Hádková

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Apart from burning, one of the possible uses of natural gas is as a fuel for motor vehicles. There are two types of fuel from natural gas — CNG (Compressed Natural Gas or LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas. Liquefaction of natural gas is carried out for transport by tankers, which are an alternative to long-distance gas pipelines, as well as for transport over short distance, using LNG as a fuel for motor vehicles. A gas adjustment is necessary to get LNG. As an important part of the necessary adjustment of natural gas to get LNG, a reduction of CO2 is needed. There is a danger of the carbon dioxide freezing during the gas cooling. This work deals with the testing of adsorption removal of CO2 from natural gas. The aim of these measurements was to find a suitable adsorbent for CO2 removal from natural gas. Two different types of adsorbents were tested: activated carbon and molecular sieve. The adsorption properties of the selected adsorbents were tested and compared. The breakthrough curves for CO2 for both adsorbents were measured. The conditions of the testing were estimated according to conditions at a gas regulation station — 4.0MPa pressure and 8 °C temperature. Natural gas was simulated by model gas mixture during the tests. The breakthrough volume was set as the gas volume passing through the adsorber up to the CO2 concentration of 300 ml/m3 in the exhaust gas. The thermal and pressure desorption of CO2 from saturated adsorbents were also tested after the adsorption.

  12. Opportunities to reduce methane emissions in the natural gas industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowgill, R.M. [Radian Corporation, Austin, TX (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Gas Research Institute (GRI) cofunded a project to quantify methane (CH{sub 4}) emissions from the U.S. natural gas industry. Methane, the major constituent of natural gas, is a potent greenhouse gas that is believed to increase the effect of global warming when released to the atmosphere. Reducing emissions from natural gas systems would lessen the greenhouse gas effect attributable to atmospheric CH{sub 4}. Further, mitigation methods to reduce emissions of natural gas, a marketable resource, could save money and increase energy efficiency. This presentation summarizes the major sources and quantity of methane being emitted to the atmosphere for all segments of the U.S. gas industry: production; processing; storage; transmission; and distribution. A description of how those emissions were determined is included here, as well as a discussion of which sources are potential candidates for reducing emissions. (author)

  13. The liberalization of natural gas market: from the natural monopoly to competitive market; La liberalizacion del mercado del gas natural. Del monopolio a un regimen de competencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasines Garcia, L. A. [Universidad del Pais Vasco (Spain)

    1998-12-31

    The problems related to the efficient economic regulation of the bundled companies authorised to supply natural gas a result of the asymmetric information about the real costs of natural gas supply, joined to the increase of the density and degree of amortization of the natural gas grid have pushed the governments of the most developed countries of the world to promote competition in the natural gas market. The main instruments used to achieve that aim are the opening of the gird to third parties, the liberalization of the natural gas supply and the unbundling of the natural gas companies. (Author) 44 refs.

  14. Development of Natural Gas Chemical Engineering in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan Qingmin

    1996-01-01

    @@ The equivalent ratio of natural gas to oil has reached 0.73:1 worldwide by 1994. The Chinese output of natural gas and oil ranks the 22nd and 5th respectively in the world's oil and gas production. The quantity equivalent ratio of gas to oil in China is only 0.11:1, which can not meet the needs of future economic development. Since the beginning of the 1990s, the discovery and expansion of natural gas reserves in Sichuan, Shaanxi, Xinjiang and Hainan Provinces and offshore area have brought about a solid foundation for the rapid development of the country's natural gas industry. It is sure that a new era of the development of China's natural gas chemical engineering is coming.

  15. 10 CFR 221.11 - Natural gas and ethane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Natural gas and ethane. 221.11 Section 221.11 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OIL PRIORITY SUPPLY OF CRUDE OIL AND PETROLEUM PRODUCTS TO THE DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE UNDER THE DEFENSE PRODUCTION ACT Exclusions § 221.11 Natural gas and ethane. The supply of natural...

  16. IMPROVED NATURAL GAS STORAGE WELL REMEDIATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James C. Furness; Donald O. Johnson; Michael L. Wilkey; Lynn Furness; Keith Vanderlee; P. David Paulsen

    2001-12-01

    This report summarizes the research conducted during Budget Period One on the project ''Improved Natural Gas Storage Well Remediation''. The project team consisted of Furness-Newburge, Inc., the technology developer; TechSavants, Inc., the technology validator; and Nicor Technologies, Inc., the technology user. The overall objectives for the project were: (1) To develop, fabricate and test prototype laboratory devices using sonication and underwater plasma to remove scale from natural gas storage well piping and perforations; (2) To modify the laboratory devices into units capable of being used downhole; (3) To test the capability of the downhole units to remove scale in an observation well at a natural gas storage field; (4) To modify (if necessary) and field harden the units and then test the units in two pressurized injection/withdrawal gas storage wells; and (5) To prepare the project's final report. This report covers activities addressing objectives 1-3. Prototype laboratory units were developed, fabricated, and tested. Laboratory testing of the sonication technology indicated that low-frequency sonication was more effective than high-frequency (ultrasonication) at removing scale and rust from pipe sections and tubing. Use of a finned horn instead of a smooth horn improves energy dispersal and increases the efficiency of removal. The chemical data confirmed that rust and scale were removed from the pipe. The sonication technology showed significant potential and technical maturity to warrant a field test. The underwater plasma technology showed a potential for more effective scale and rust removal than the sonication technology. Chemical data from these tests also confirmed the removal of rust and scale from pipe sections and tubing. Focusing of the underwater plasma's energy field through the design and fabrication of a parabolic shield will increase the technology's efficiency. Power delivered to the underwater plasma unit

  17. Consortium for Petroleum & Natural Gas Stripper Wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrison, Joel [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    2011-12-01

    The United States has more oil and gas wells than any other country. As of December 31, 2004, there were more than half a million producing oil wells in the United States. That is more than three times the combined total for the next three leaders: China, Canada, and Russia. The Stripper Well Consortium (SWC) is a partnership that includes domestic oil and gas producers, service and supply companies, trade associations, academia, the Department of Energy’s Strategic Center for Natural Gas and Oil (SCNGO) at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), and the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA). The Consortium was established in 2000. This report serves as a final technical report for the SWC activities conducted over the May 1, 2004 to December 1, 2011 timeframe. During this timeframe, the SWC worked with 173 members in 29 states and three international countries, to focus on the development of new technologies to benefit the U.S. stripper well industry. SWC worked with NETL to develop a nationwide request-for-proposal (RFP) process to solicit proposals from the U.S. stripper well industry to develop and/or deploy new technologies that would assist small producers in improving the production performance of their stripper well operations. SWC conducted eight rounds of funding. A total of 132 proposals were received. The proposals were compiled and distributed to an industry-driven SWC executive council and program sponsors for review. Applicants were required to make a formal technical presentation to the SWC membership, executive council, and program sponsors. After reviewing the proposals and listening to the presentations, the executive council made their funding recommendations to program sponsors. A total of 64 projects were selected for funding, of which 59 were fully completed. Penn State then worked with grant awardees to issue a subcontract for their approved work. SWC organized and hosted a total of 14 meetings

  18. Advanced Natural Gas Reciprocating Engine(s)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwok, Doris; Boucher, Cheryl

    2009-09-30

    Energy independence and fuel savings are hallmarks of the nation’s energy strategy. The advancement of natural gas reciprocating engine power generation technology is critical to the nation’s future. A new engine platform that meets the efficiency, emissions, fuel flexibility, cost and reliability/maintainability targets will enable American manufacturers to have highly competitive products that provide substantial environmental and economic benefits in the US and in international markets. Along with Cummins and Waukesha, Caterpillar participated in a multiyear cooperative agreement with the Department of Energy to create a 50% efficiency natural gas powered reciprocating engine system with a 95% reduction in NOx emissions by the year 2013. This platform developed under this agreement will be a significant contributor to the US energy strategy and will enable gas engine technology to remain a highly competitive choice, meeting customer cost of electricity targets, and regulatory environmental standard. Engine development under the Advanced Reciprocating Engine System (ARES) program was divided into phases, with the ultimate goal being approached in a series of incremental steps. This incremental approach would promote the commercialization of ARES technologies as soon as they emerged from development and would provide a technical and commercial foundation of later-developing technologies. Demonstrations of the Phase I and Phase II technology were completed in 2004 and 2008, respectively. Program tasks in Phase III included component and system development and testing from 2009-2012. Two advanced ignition technology evaluations were investigated under the ARES program: laser ignition and distributed ignition (DIGN). In collaboration with Colorado State University (CSU), a laser ignition system was developed to provide ignition at lean burn and high boost conditions. Much work has been performed in Caterpillar’s DIGN program under the ARES program. This work

  19. Flow restriction of multicontrolled natural gas; Restritor de fluxo de gas natural microcontrolado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz, Lauro C.; Reis, Antonio M.; Maldonado, Waldemar; Suzuqui, Moises [Universidade para o Desenvolvimento do Estado e da Regiao do Pantanal (UNIDERP), Campo Grande, MS (Brazil). Nucleo de Energia, Automacao e Controle; Scucuglia, Jose W.; Cortez, Marco A.A. [Universidade para o Desenvolvimento do Estado e da Regiao do Pantanal (UNIDERP), Campo Grande, MS (Brazil). Curso de Engenharia Eletrica; Teixeira, Marcelo C.M. [UNESP, Ilha Solteira, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Eletrica; Carrasco, Benjamim N. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    One of the specific cases of control in the operation of natural gas distribution is of the automatic restriction of the outflow due the violations of standards of draining of the natural gas in the ducts. With the objective to get a device of low cost, with national technology and high technological value aggregate, developed an electronic, microcontrolled, programmable device, and of low cost, that will function connected the sensors and valves of flow control, of form to monitor in real time the outflow of draining of the natural gas in the respective ducts and to restrict of automatic form the outflow, that necessary or always convenient. The developed hardware was conceived using micro controllers of high performance with capacity of reading of sensors of pressure, temperature and measurers of outflow. Had to a serial communication and the storage in memory of mass with 264 capacity of Kbytes is possible the pertinent visualization of graphs and reports to the behavior of the outflow and performance of the system. An internal RTC - Real Clock Teams, added to the hardware a clock and a calendar for acquisition of data in the schedule defined, as well as the possibility of unloading of the data through the telephonic line, using one embedded modem. (author)

  20. Comparison of three methods for natural gas dehydration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Michal Netusil; Pavel Ditl

    2011-01-01

    This paper compares three methods for natural gas dehydration that are widely applied in industry:(1) absorption by triethylene glycol,(2)adsorption on solid desiccants and (3) condensation.A comparison is made according to their energy demand and suitability for use.The energy calculations are performed on a model where 105 Nm3/h water saturated natural gas is processed at 30 ℃.The pressure of the gas varies from 7 to 20 MPa.The required outlet concentration of water in natural gas is equivalent to the dew point temperature of - 10 ℃ at gas pressure of 4 MPa.

  1. Biogas in the natural gas distribution network; Biogas til nettet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kvist Jensen, T.

    2009-05-15

    With the Danish 'Thorsoe Biogas Plant' as reference case, an assessment of the possibility of using the existing natural gas distribution network for distributing biogas was carried out. Technologies for and cost of upgrading biogas to natural gas quality are presented. Furthermore, a socio-economic analysis has been performed, including the Danish financial conditions, the market models, and the role of the natural gas distribution companies.

  2. Using Natural Gas for Vehicles: Comparing Three Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-12-01

    Natural gas could be used as a transportation fuel, especially with the recent expansion of U.S. resource and production. This could mean burning natural gas in an internal combustion engine like most of the vehicles on the road today. Or, with the advanced vehicles now becoming available, other pathways are possible to use natural gas for personal vehicles. This brochure summarizes a comparison of efficiency and environmental metrics for three possible options.

  3. Natural Gas in China: Market evolution and strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    In 2007, Chinas natural gas consumption increased by 23.8% and attained 69.5 billion cubic metres (bcm) (NBS 2008). Thanks to this rapid increase, China became one of the world's top 10 countries in terms of natural gas consumption. Moreover, according to the IEA's World Energy Outlook 2008, China will become the top natural gas consuming country in the Asia-Pacific region, overtaking Japan by 2015.

  4. Using Natural Gas for Vehicles: Comparing Three Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-12-01

    Natural gas could be used as a transportation fuel, especially with the recent expansion of U.S. resource and production. This could mean burning natural gas in an internal combustion engine like most of the vehicles on the road today. Or, with the advanced vehicles now becoming available, other pathways are possible to use natural gas for personal vehicles. This fact sheet summarizes a comparison of efficiency and environmental metrics for three possible options.

  5. New Market Order Grows out of Natural Gas New Policy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Natural gas new deal: more rationality in market The most important implication of the "Policy for the Natural Gas Utilization" is to set up an intangible "barrier" between suppliers and irrational consumers so as to check the unreasonable demand in the natural gas market and attain the purpose of "puttinq good material in the most suitable place and standardizing the market demand order with limited resources.

  6. Totals of crude oil, natural gas and gas condensates listed by province. [Argentina]. Totales de petroleo, gas natural y gasolina natural detallados por

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-01-01

    Statistics on total mineral and petroleum production in Argentina during the year 1976 are presented. Production totals for petroleum, natural gas, and gas condensates are listed by province and by category. The province production records include Chubut, Jujuy, La Pampa, Mendoza, Neuquen, Rio Negro, Salta, Santa Cruz, Territorio National de la Tierra del Fuego, the Antarctic, and islands of the S. Atlantic. Total production amounted to 23,148,339 cu m of petroleum, 10,879,906,919 cu m of natural gas, and 69,790 cu m of gas condensates. Information on petroleum sector employment in the years 1967 through 1976 also is provided.

  7. Totals of crude oil, natural gas and gas condensates listed by province. [Argentina]. Totales de petroleo, gas natural y gasolina natural detallados por

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1975-01-01

    Statistics on total mineral and petroleum production in Argentina during the year 1975 are presented. Production totals for petroleum, natural gas, and gas condensates are listed by province and by category. The province production records include Chubut, Jujuy, La Pampa, Mendoza, Neuquen, Rio Negro, Salta, Santa Cruz, and Tierre del Fuego. Total production amounted to 22,968,224 cu m of petroleum, 10,275,106,000 cu m of natural gas, and 30,883 cu m of gas condensates. Information on petroleum sector employment in the years 1966 through 1975 also is provided.

  8. Production of crude oil, natural gas, and gas condensate (in cubic meters). [Argentina]. Produccion de petroleo, gas natural y gasolina natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-01-01

    Statistics on total mineral and petroleum production in Argentina during the year 1977 are presented. Production totals of petroleum, natural gas, and gas condensate are listed by province and by category. The province production records include Chubut, Jujuy, La Pampa, Mendoza, Neuquen, Rio Negro, Salta, Santa Cruz, Territorio Nacional de La Tierra del Fuego, the Antarctic, and islands of the S. Atlantic. Total production amounted to 25,060,908 cu m of petroleum, 11,594,853,909 cu m of natural gas, and 12,351.8 cu m of gas condensates. Information on petroleum sector employment in the years 1968 through 1977 also is provided.

  9. Quality of seamless steel cylinders for compressed natural gas; Qualidade de cilindros para gas metano veicular (gas natural comprimido)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wajnberg, Sergio [Mat-Incendio S.A., Cajamar, SP (Brazil)

    1999-07-01

    This work generally describes important aspects related to the quality of Seamless Steel Cylinders used with Compressed Natural Gas in vehicles which are converted in Brazil to use this kind of fuel. In addition to the manufacturing process, the necessity of a correct usage, maintenance and control of these cylinders are emphasized. (author)

  10. Eastern Mediterranean Natural Gas: Analyzing Turkey's Stance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Tanriverdi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Recent large-scale natural gas discoveries in East Mediterranean have drawn attention to the region. The discoveries caused both hope and tension in the region. As stated, the new resources may serve as a new hope for all relevant parties as well as the region if managed in a collaborative and conciliatory way. Energy may be a remedy to Cyprus' financial predicament, initiate a process for resolving differences between Turkey and Cyprus, normalize Israel-Turkey relations and so on. On the contrary, adopting unilateral and uncooperative approach may aggravate the tension and undermine regional stability and security. In this sense, the role of energy in generating hope or tension is dependent on the approaches of related parties. The article will analyze Turkey's attitude in East Mediterranean case in terms of possible negative and positive implications for Turkey in the energy field. The article examines Turkey's position and the reasons behind its stance in the East Mediterranean case. Considering Turkey's energy profile and energy policy goals, the article argues that the newly found hydrocarbons may bring in more stakes for Turkey if Turkey adopts a cooperative approach in this case.

  11. The drivers behind the globalization of natural gas markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed El Hachemi Mazighi [Sonatrach Commercialisation, Algiers (Algeria)

    2006-06-15

    Today, the globalisation of natural gas markets is a topic much discussed amongst gas industry practitioners, policy makers and academics. If there is a consensus on a tendency towards the ''commoditisation'' of natural gas markets, there is less agreement on the certainty of the global approach to gas marketing. The aim of this paper is to untangle the main drivers behind the globalisation of natural gas markets, both on the demand and supply sides, and to discuss problems related to the market structure, such as price arbitrages and organised markets. The paper will conclude that the globalisation of natural gas markets cannot be approached as a deterministic problem and as a consequence, there is still no precise answer as to when the different regional gas markets will forge a global one. (author)

  12. Methane hydrates and the future of natural gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppel, Carolyn

    2011-01-01

    For decades, gas hydrates have been discussed as a potential resource, particularly for countries with limited access to conventional hydrocarbons or a strategic interest in establishing alternative, unconventional gas reserves. Methane has never been produced from gas hydrates at a commercial scale and, barring major changes in the economics of natural gas supply and demand, commercial production at a large scale is considered unlikely to commence within the next 15 years. Given the overall uncertainty still associated with gas hydrates as a potential resource, they have not been included in the EPPA model in MITEI’s Future of Natural Gas report. Still, gas hydrates remain a potentially large methane resource and must necessarily be included in any consideration of the natural gas supply beyond two decades from now.

  13. Buying natural gas in the spot market: risks related to the natural gas industry globalization; Aquisicao de gas natural em bases 'spot': riscos associados a globalizacao da industria do gas natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathias, Melissa Cristina [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Szklo, Alexandre Salem [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE). Programa de Planejamento Energetico

    2008-07-01

    The growth of the international natural gas trade during the last decade resulted in the expectation that this product would be traded as a commodity. This expectation created a boom in the investments related to the commercialization of natural gas between borders, especially in the distinct segments of the chain of liquefied natural gas (LNG). Different agents launched themselves into liquefaction and regasification enterprises, and the ordering of ships also showed significant growth. Despite that, the natural gas market still cannot be considered global, and international gas transactions are primarily done within regional markets. This article investigates the challenges posed to the constitution of a global natural gas market. These challenges represent risks to the commercialization of this product in spot bases, for the agents that launch themselves into projects to export or import LNG to be commercialized through short term contracts in the international market for this product. (author)

  14. A Comparative Study of Liquefied Natural Gas: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Khan Memon

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Natural gas is the world’s fastest growing fuel and being produced by many countries of the world in the commercial quantities. Increasing natural gas price and new development in the technologies, liquefied natural gas industry is economically attractive in the major gas exporting countries. Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG is an important energy source and continued to contribute the growth of natural gas industry. The new advance LNG technology is used for natural gas transportation for long distances. LNG can be transported by the large insulated cryogenic tankers at affordable cost. This study presents an overview of LNG liquidation facilities from natural gas as feed gas to LNG storage and transport. The main objective of the study is to highlight the current data for reviewers on LNG world market, mainly on LNG production, supply, demand, price and new development of LNG plants. The technology is growing gradually with increasing number of LNG consuming countries in overall the world. In the near future, LNG price may be affected by the advanced shale gas production in the United States of America and China. Australia becomes the world second largest exporter of LNG market after Qatar. Australia will increase LNG supply by 15 Bcf/day from 2014 and accounting for 25% of world LNG production by 2030. Global LNG production forecast will be reached 540 Bcm by 2020 and LNG trade will be reached 425 Mtpa by 2025. New countries are interested to enter in the LNG world market as importers and exporters.

  15. Thermodynamic modelling of acid gas removal from natural gas using the Extended UNIQUAC model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sadegh, Negar; Stenby, Erling Halfdan; Thomsen, Kaj

    2017-01-01

    Thermodynamics of natural gas sweetening process needs to be known for proper design of natural gas treating plants. Absorption with aqueous N-Methyldiethanolamine is currently the most commonly used process for removal of acid gas (CO2 and H2S) impurities from natural gas. Model parameters...... for the Extended UNIQUAC model have already been determined by the same authors to calculate single acid gas solubility in aqueous MDEA. In this study, the model is further extended to estimate solubility of CO2 and H2S and their mixture in aqueous MDEA at high pressures with methane as a makeup gas....

  16. Market prospective of natural gas 2010-2025; Prospectiva del mercado de gas natural 2010-2025

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz Bautista, Alejandro; Doniz Gonzalez, Virginia; Navarrete Barbosa, Juan Ignacio [Secretaria de Energia, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2010-07-01

    The Ministry of Energy, in compliance to Article 109 of the Natural Gas Regulations, publishes the Prospective natural gas market 2010-2025, which contains the most current information about the historical evolution and growth prospects of the domestic market country's natural gas and its role in the international context. This foresight is attached to the lines of action established in the National Energy Strategy, ratified by Congress in April 2010 in regard to strengthening the transportation infrastructure of natural gas, in order to ensure the supply of this fuel, therefore remains congruence with the instruments of power sector planning. The first one concerns the international panorama of natural gas in the different producing and consuming regions around the world. Chapter two provides a current perspective of those actions in the sector within the regulatory framework for natural gas in Mexico. The third chapter details the issues that occurred in the natural gas market during the period 1999-2009 and the fourth chapter discusses the expected evolution of demand and domestic supply of natural gas by 2025. [Spanish] La Secretaria de Energia, en el cumplimiento al Articulo 109 del Reglamento de Gas Natural, publica la Prospectiva del mercado de gas natural 2010-2025, la cual contiene la informacion mas actualizada acerca de la evolucion historica y las expectativas de crecimiento del mercado interno de gas natural del pais y su papel en el contexto internacional. Esta Prospectiva se apega a las lineas de accion establecidas en la Estrategia Nacional de Energia, ratificada por el Congreso en abril de 2010, en lo relativo a fortalecer la infraestructura de transporte de gas natural, con el fin de asegurar el suministro de este combustible, por lo cual se mantiene congruencia con los instrumentos de planeacion del sector energetico. La Prospectiva esta integrada por cuatro capitulos. El primero se refiere al panorama internacional del gas natural en las

  17. Research and Development Concerning Coalbed Natural Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William Ruckelshaus

    2008-09-30

    The Powder River Basin in northeastern Wyoming is one of the most active areas of coalbed natural gas (CBNG) development in the western United States. This resource provides clean energy but raises environmental concerns. Primary among these is the disposal of water that is co-produced with the gas during depressurization of the coal seam. Beginning with a few producing wells in Wyoming's Powder River Basin (PRB) in 1987, CBNG well numbers in this area increased to over 13,600 in 2004, with projected growth to 20,900 producing wells in the PRB by 2010. CBNG development is continuing apace since 2004, and CBNG is now being produced or evaluated in four other Wyoming coal basins in addition to the PRB, with roughly 3500-4000 new CBNG wells permitted statewide each year since 2004. This is clearly a very valuable source of clean fuel for the nation, and for Wyoming the economic benefits are substantial. For instance, in 2003 alone the total value of Wyoming CBNG production was about $1.5 billion, with tax and royalty income of about $90 million to counties, $140 million to the state, and $27 million to the federal government. In Wyoming, cumulative CBNG water production from 1987 through December 2004 was just over 380,000 acre-feet (2.9 billion barrels), while producing almost 1.5 trillion cubic feet (tcf) of CBNG gas statewide. Annual Wyoming CBNG water production in 2003 was 74,457 acre-feet (577 million barrels). Total production of CBNG water across all Wyoming coal fields could total roughly 7 million acre-feet (55.5 billion barrels), if all of the recoverable CBNG in the projected reserves of 31.7 tcf were produced over the coming decades. Pumping water from coals to produce CBNG has been designated a beneficial water use by the Wyoming State Engineer's Office (SEO), though recently the SEO has limited this beneficial use designation by requiring a certain gas/water production ratio. In the eastern part of the PRB where CBNG water is generally of good

  18. Advanced Natural Gas Reciprocating Engine(s)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pike, Edward

    2014-03-31

    The objective of the Cummins ARES program, in partnership with the US Department of Energy (DOE), is to develop advanced natural gas engine technologies that increase engine system efficiency at lower emissions levels while attaining lower cost of ownership. The goals of the project are to demonstrate engine system achieving 50% Brake Thermal Efficiency (BTE) in three phases, 44%, 47% and 50% (starting baseline efficiency at 36% BTE) and 0.1 g/bhp-hr NOx system out emissions (starting baseline NOx emissions at 2 – 4 g/bhp-hr NOx). Primary path towards above goals include high Brake Mean Effective Pressure (BMEP), improved closed cycle efficiency, increased air handling efficiency and optimized engine subsystems. Cummins has successfully demonstrated each of the phases of this program. All targets have been achieved through application of a combined set of advanced base engine technologies and Waste Heat Recovery from Charge Air and Exhaust streams, optimized and validated on the demonstration engine and other large engines. The following architectures were selected for each Phase: Phase 1: Lean Burn Spark Ignited (SI) Key Technologies: High Efficiency Turbocharging, Higher Efficiency Combustion System. In production on the 60/91L engines. Over 500MW of ARES Phase 1 technology has been sold. Phase 2: Lean Burn Technology with Exhaust Waste Heat Recovery (WHR) System Key Technologies: Advanced Ignition System, Combustion Improvement, Integrated Waste Heat Recovery System. Base engine technologies intended for production within 2 to 3 years Phase 3: Lean Burn Technology with Exhaust and Charge Air Waste Heat Recovery System Key Technologies: Lower Friction, New Cylinder Head Designs, Improved Integrated Waste Heat Recovery System. Intended for production within 5 to 6 years Cummins is committed to the launch of next generation of large advanced NG engines based on ARES technology to be commercialized worldwide.

  19. Lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions of coal, conventional and unconventional natural gas for electricity generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    An analysis of the lifecycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with natural gas use recently published by Howarth et al. (2011) stated that use of natural gas produced from shale formations via hydraulic fracturing would generate greater lifecycle GHG emissions than petro...

  20. Migration and accumulation of natural gas in Kela-2 gas field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    With the guidance of petroleum system theory, the dynamic filling history of natural gas in the Kela-2 gas field is analyzed by using a large suite of oil and gas geochemistry evidence in combination with the tectonic evolution history and reservoir evolution history. It concludes that the Kela-2 gas field was formed by capturing the gas generated during the main gas generation period, while the late kerogen cracking gas contributed a little to the gas field. It suggests that the gas generated during the main gas generation accumulated in the early-formed wide-gentle anticline, which is the necessary condition for natural gas to re-migrate and enrich late to form the large-scale gas reservoir. The newest research shows that the filling history of gas in the Dabei-1, Yinan-2, Tuziluoke and Dina-2 gas fields was related with the natural gas accumulation in the early wide- gentle anticline as well as late re-migration and enrichment of natural gas.

  1. Natural gas imports and exports, first quarter report 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2000-06-01

    The Office of Natural Gas and Petroleum Import and Export Activities prepares quarterly reports showing natural gas import and export activity. Companies are required to file quarterly reports. Attachments show the percentage of takes to maximum firm contract levels and the weighted average per unit price for each of the long-term importers during the 5 most recent reporting quarters, volumes and prices of gas purchased by long-term importers and exporters during the past 12 months, volume and price data for gas imported on a short-term or spot market basis, and the gas exported on a short-term or spot market basis to Canada and Mexico.

  2. Natural gas imports and exports, third quarter report 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2000-12-01

    The Office of Natural Gas and Petroleum Import and Export Activities prepares quarterly reports showing natural gas import and export activity. Companies are required to file quarterly reports. Attachments show the percentage of takes to maximum firm contract levels and the weighted average per unit price for each of the long-term importers during the 5 most recent quarters, volumes and prices of gas purchased by long-term importers and exporters during the past 12 months, volume and price data for gas imported on a short-term or spot market basis, and the gas exported on a short-term or spot market basis to Canada and Mexico.

  3. Natural gas imports and exports, fourth quarter report 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2000-03-01

    The Office of Natural Gas and Petroleum Import and Export Activities prepares quarterly reports showing natural gas import and export activity. Companies are required to file quarterly reports. Attachments show the percentage of takes to maximum firm contract levels and the weighted average per unit price for each of the long-term importers during the five most recent quarters, volumes and prices of gas purchased by long-term importers and exporters during the past 12 months, volume and price data for gas imported on a short-term or spot market basis, and the gas exported on a short-term or spot market basis to Canada and Mexico.

  4. Experimental Study of Gas Explosions in Hydrogen Sulfide-Natural Gas-Air Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Vagner Gaathaug

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An experimental study of turbulent combustion of hydrogen sulfide (H2S and natural gas was performed to provide reference data for verification of CFD codes and direct comparison. Hydrogen sulfide is present in most crude oil sources, and the explosion behaviour of pure H2S and mixtures with natural gas is important to address. The explosion behaviour was studied in a four-meter-long square pipe. The first two meters of the pipe had obstacles while the rest was smooth. Pressure transducers were used to measure the combustion in the pipe. The pure H2S gave slightly lower explosion pressure than pure natural gas for lean-to-stoichiometric mixtures. The rich H2S gave higher pressure than natural gas. Mixtures of H2S and natural gas were also studied and pressure spikes were observed when 5% and 10% H2S were added to natural gas and also when 5% and 10% natural gas were added to H2S. The addition of 5% H2S to natural gas resulted in higher pressure than pure H2S and pure natural gas. The 5% mixture gave much faster combustion than pure natural gas under fuel rich conditions.

  5. Natural gas origins of large and medium-scale gas fields in China sedimentary basins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    China sedimentary basins present abundant natural gas resource thanks to its unique geological settings.Marine highly-matured hydrocarbon source rocks,widespread coal-measure strata and low temperature Quaternary saline strata,etc.,indicate the wide foreground of China natural gas resources. Up to now,most of the petroliferous basins have been discovered to have wholesale natural gas accumulation from Precambrian,Paleozoic,Mesozoic to Cenozoic in the east,the central,the west and the coast of China.These large and medium-scale gas reservoirs are mainly composed of hydrocarbon gas with big dry coefficient,tiny non-hydrocarbon,wide carbon isotope distribution and varying origin types,the hydrocarbon gas includes coal-formed gas,oil-formed gas,biogenic gas and inorganic gas, etc.Coal-formed gas is the main type of China natural gas resources,in particular several explored large-scale gas fields(>100 billion cubic meter)of Kela 2,Sulige and Daniudi,etc.,they all belong to coal-formed gas fields or the gas fields consisting mostly of coal-formed gas.Oil-formed gas is also abundant in China marine basins,for example marine natural gas of Sichuan Basin generated from crude oil cracking gas.Primary and secondary biogenic gas fields were discovered respectively in the Qaidam Basin and Western Slope of Songliao Basin.In addition,inorganic gases are mainly distributed in the eastern China,in particular the Songliao Basin with abundant carbon dioxide accumulation,indicating that the eastern China present large exploration potential of inorganic gas.

  6. Current Status and Prospects of Natural Gas Utilization in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi Xin

    2002-01-01

    @@ 1 Overview and Current Status of Utilization of China's Natural Gas Resources Natural gas as a green fuel with low carbon content can comply with the trend in the epoch for development of non carbonaceous energy source, and has a lot of advantages such as its abundance in resources, convenience in applica tion and cost competitiveness. The application of natural gas as a premium fuel has become a focus pursued aggres sively by international players, and the perspectives for gas demand growth will be better than that for oil globally.

  7. Development of Purification Technology of Natural Gas in Sichuan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Genliang

    1995-01-01

    @@ Sichuan is an important base of natural gas production in China. Its output is about 70×108 m3/a which makes up over 40% of that in whole country. The composition of natural gas from various fields in Sichuan is different. Most of the gas contains H2S which reaches its summit of above 490 g/m3. It also contains CO2. According to the criterion, H2S conent in natural gas should be lower than 20 mg/m3, about 70%of the gas produced in Sichuan has to be purified before it comes into use for commercial purpose. Therefore it is of great significance for our natural gas industry to develop the purification technology.

  8. Natural gas hydrates and the mystery of the Bermuda Triangle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruy, H.J.

    1998-03-01

    Natural gas hydrates occur on the ocean floor in such great volumes that they contain twice as much carbon as all known coal, oil and conventional natural gas deposits. Releases of this gas caused by sediment slides and other natural causes have resulted in huge slugs of gas saturated water with density too low to float a ship, and enough localized atmospheric contamination to choke air aspirated aircraft engines. The unexplained disappearances of ships and aircraft along with their crews and passengers in the Bermuda Triangle may be tied to the natural venting of gas hydrates. The paper describes what gas hydrates are, their formation and release, and their possible link to the mystery of the Bermuda Triangle.

  9. World resources of crude oil and natural gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masters, C.D.; Root, D.H.; Attanasi, E.D. (Geological Survey, Reston, VA (United States))

    1991-01-01

    An abstract is given of a paper presented at the World Petroleum Congress 1991 on the world estimates of identified reserves and undiscovered resources for crude oil, natural gas and natural gas liquids. Data are presented for Canada, Mexico, USA, South America, Western Europe, Eastern Europe, USSR, Africa, Middle East, Asia/Oceania and Antartica. (UK).

  10. Development of Natural Gas Vehicle(NGV)Industry in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi Baoheng

    1996-01-01

    @@ Present Situation of ChineseNGV Industry Natural gas has been used as vehicle fuel since 1950s in China.In the early time, the Iow pressure natural gas was filled in big rubber bags placed on the top of the vehicles. This kind of vehicles were inferior and had caused many problems.

  11. Shell and PetroChina Launch Changbei Natural Gas Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ PetroChina and Shell China Exploration and Production Company Limited announced on May 17, 2005, that they would go ahead with the joint development of Changbei natural gas field in China's Shaanxi Province and Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, the first onshore natural gas field project of Shell in China. The total development costs for the project will be about US$ 600 million.

  12. Rapid Growth in China Natural Gas Demand and Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Min

    2003-01-01

    @@ China's natural gas production will exceed 35 billion cubic meters in 2003,more than 7 percent up from last year,according to the estimation by the related department. There are now more than 60 enterprises engaged in natural gas production in China.

  13. Natural gas imports and exports. Second quarter report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    The Office of Natural Gas and Petroleum Import and Export Activities prepares quarterly reports summarizing the data provided by companies authorized to import or export natural gas. Companies are required, as a condition of their authorizations, to file quarterly reports. This report is for the second quarter of 1997 (April through June).

  14. Conversion of diesel engines for natural gas engines; Conversao de motores diesel para gas natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mauro Junior, Leonardo; Almeida, Silvio Carlos Anibal de [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: leonardomauro@terra.com.br, e-mail: silvio@gmail.com

    2006-07-01

    The present project approach the conversion of a Scania engine DSI 11, originally Diesel cycle, used for stationary generation, to operate at a Otto cycle natural gas. The conversion dedicated to Otto cycle allows a better performance at a lower cost generation to the consumer providing an energy economy when operating at a peak hours compared with the fees charged by the distributors. In the power range of this engine (231 kw), there is no other engine available at the brazilian market. An economic study of the conversion shows that the cost is significantly less than the importation of a similar engine. (author)

  15. North American Natural Gas Markets: Selected technical studies. Volume 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huntington, H.G.; Schuler, G.E. [eds.

    1989-04-01

    The Energy Modeling Forum (EMF) was established in 1976 at Stanford University to provide a structural framework within which energy experts, analysts, and policymakers could meet to improve their understanding of critical energy problems. The ninth EMF study, North American Natural Gas Markets, was conducted by a working group comprised of leading natural gas analysts and decision-makers from government, private companies, universities, and research and consulting organizations. The EMF 9 working group met five times from October 1986 through June 1988 to discuss key issues and analyze natural gas markets. This third volume includes technical papers that support many of the conclusions discussed in the EMF 9 summary report (Volume 1) and full working group report (Volume 2). These papers discuss the results from the individual models as well as some nonmodeling analysis related to US natural gas imports and industrial natural gas demand. Individual papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  16. North American Natural Gas Markets: Selected technical studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huntington, H.G.; Schuler, G.E. (eds.)

    1989-04-01

    The Energy Modeling Forum (EMF) was established in 1976 at Stanford University to provide a structural framework within which energy experts, analysts, and policymakers could meet to improve their understanding of critical energy problems. The ninth EMF study, North American Natural Gas Markets, was conducted by a working group comprised of leading natural gas analysts and decision-makers from government, private companies, universities, and research and consulting organizations. The EMF 9 working group met five times from October 1986 through June 1988 to discuss key issues and analyze natural gas markets. This third volume includes technical papers that support many of the conclusions discussed in the EMF 9 summary report (Volume 1) and full working group report (Volume 2). These papers discuss the results from the individual models as well as some nonmodeling analysis related to US natural gas imports and industrial natural gas demand. Individual papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  17. Forecasting natural gas consumption in China by Bayesian Model Averaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available With rapid growth of natural gas consumption in China, it is in urgent need of more accurate and reliable models to make a reasonable forecast. Considering the limitations of the single model and the model uncertainty, this paper presents a combinative method to forecast natural gas consumption by Bayesian Model Averaging (BMA. It can effectively handle the uncertainty associated with model structure and parameters, and thus improves the forecasting accuracy. This paper chooses six variables for forecasting the natural gas consumption, including GDP, urban population, energy consumption structure, industrial structure, energy efficiency and exports of goods and services. The results show that comparing to Gray prediction model, Linear regression model and Artificial neural networks, the BMA method provides a flexible tool to forecast natural gas consumption that will have a rapid growth in the future. This study can provide insightful information on natural gas consumption in the future.

  18. Research and Development Concerning Coalbed Natural Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William Ruckelshaus

    2008-09-30

    The Powder River Basin in northeastern Wyoming is one of the most active areas of coalbed natural gas (CBNG) development in the western United States. This resource provides clean energy but raises environmental concerns. Primary among these is the disposal of water that is co-produced with the gas during depressurization of the coal seam. Beginning with a few producing wells in Wyoming's Powder River Basin (PRB) in 1987, CBNG well numbers in this area increased to over 13,600 in 2004, with projected growth to 20,900 producing wells in the PRB by 2010. CBNG development is continuing apace since 2004, and CBNG is now being produced or evaluated in four other Wyoming coal basins in addition to the PRB, with roughly 3500-4000 new CBNG wells permitted statewide each year since 2004. This is clearly a very valuable source of clean fuel for the nation, and for Wyoming the economic benefits are substantial. For instance, in 2003 alone the total value of Wyoming CBNG production was about $1.5 billion, with tax and royalty income of about $90 million to counties, $140 million to the state, and $27 million to the federal government. In Wyoming, cumulative CBNG water production from 1987 through December 2004 was just over 380,000 acre-feet (2.9 billion barrels), while producing almost 1.5 trillion cubic feet (tcf) of CBNG gas statewide. Annual Wyoming CBNG water production in 2003 was 74,457 acre-feet (577 million barrels). Total production of CBNG water across all Wyoming coal fields could total roughly 7 million acre-feet (55.5 billion barrels), if all of the recoverable CBNG in the projected reserves of 31.7 tcf were produced over the coming decades. Pumping water from coals to produce CBNG has been designated a beneficial water use by the Wyoming State Engineer's Office (SEO), though recently the SEO has limited this beneficial use designation by requiring a certain gas/water production ratio. In the eastern part of the PRB where CBNG water is generally of good

  19. Natural Gas and Cellulosic Biomass: A Clean Fuel Combination? Determining the Natural Gas Blending Wall in Biofuel Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M Wright, Mark; Seifkar, Navid; Green, William H; Román-Leshkov, Yuriy

    2015-07-07

    Natural gas has the potential to increase the biofuel production output by combining gas- and biomass-to-liquids (GBTL) processes followed by naphtha and diesel fuel synthesis via Fischer-Tropsch (FT). This study reflects on the use of commercial-ready configurations of GBTL technologies and the environmental impact of enhancing biofuels with natural gas. The autothermal and steam-methane reforming processes for natural gas conversion and the gasification of biomass for FT fuel synthesis are modeled to estimate system well-to-wheel emissions and compare them to limits established by U.S. renewable fuel mandates. We show that natural gas can enhance FT biofuel production by reducing the need for water-gas shift (WGS) of biomass-derived syngas to achieve appropriate H2/CO ratios. Specifically, fuel yields are increased from less than 60 gallons per ton to over 100 gallons per ton with increasing natural gas input. However, GBTL facilities would need to limit natural gas use to less than 19.1% on a LHV energy basis (7.83 wt %) to avoid exceeding the emissions limits established by the Renewable Fuels Standard (RFS2) for clean, advanced biofuels. This effectively constitutes a blending limit that constrains the use of natural gas for enhancing the biomass-to-liquids (BTL) process.

  20. Projections of demand of natural gas in Mexico; Proyecciones de demanda de gas natural en Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quintanilla Martinez, Juan [Programa Universitario de Energia, UNAM (Mexico)

    1996-07-01

    The projections of demand of energy for Mexico, in the global and regional scope, for period 1992-2020 are presented. The projections are based on the use of a simulation model built in the University Program of Energy of the Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM), which allows to project the demand in the short and medium term of the primary and final energy. Projections of the demands of energy or for fuels by sectors and subsectors are obtained in accordance with different scenarios of growth. Particularly the demand of natural gas is analyzed, both, as energy and as raw material for the petrochemical industry, and as fuel oil, under different scenarios of economic growth and policies of environmental character. [Spanish] Se presentan las proyecciones de demanda de energia para Mexico, en el ambito global y regional, para el periodo 1992-2020. Las proyecciones estan basadas en el uso de un modelo de simulacion construido en el Programa Universitario de Energia de la Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM), el cual permite proyectar la demanda de energia primaria y final en el corto y mediano plazos. Se obtienen proyecciones de las demandas de energia por sectores y subsectores o por combustibles de acuerdo con diferentes escenarios de crecimiento. En particular se analiza la demanda de gas natural, tanto como energetico como materia prima para la petroquimica, y combustoleo bajo diferentes escenarios de crecimiento economico y politicas de caracter ambiental.

  1. Overview of natural gas in Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil; Panorama do gas natural no Rio Grande do Norte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teixeira, Pedro Helio Gomes [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (GREEN/UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia. Grupo de Estudos Energeticos

    2008-07-01

    This work draws a picture of what the natural gas means to Rio Grande do Norte in its quantitative dimension, expressed in the numbers and reserve indicators, production and structure of consume. In another dimension, it broaches the processes of energetic substitution by the natural gas in the state energetic matrix. (author)

  2. Regasification of LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Rum Pandu Nuswantara

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available LNG (Liquified Narural Gas adalah gas alam yang telah diproses untuk menghilangkan ketidakmurnian dan hidrokarbon berat dan kemudian dikondensasi menjadi cairan pada tekan atmosfer dengan mendinginkannya sekitar -160° Celcius. LNG ditransportasi menggunakan kendaraan yang dirancang khusus dan ditaruh dalam tangki yang juga dirancang khusus. LNG memiliki isi sekitar 1/600 dari gas alam pada suhu dan tekanan standar, membuatnya lebih hemat untuk ditransportasi jarak jauh di mana jalur pipa tidak ada. Ketika memindahkan gas alam dengan jalur pipa tidak memungkinkan atau tidak ekonomis, dia dapat ditransportasi oleh suatu kapal pengangkut untuk LNG. Gas alam dapat digunakan sebagai bahan bakar untuk pembangkit listrik PLTG dan PLTU. Dari data ESDM cadangan gas alam tersebut dapat dikatakan bahwa potensi gas alam Indonesia sangatlah besar, karena pada data tahun 2012 ditjen migas tersebut, cadangan gas alam yang masih tersimpan dan tersebar di Indonesia masih sangat besar, dengan potensial sebesar 47.35 TSCF (Trillion Square Cubic Feet. Potensi tersebut adalah total dari seluruh potensi yang tersebar di Indonesia sebesar 150.70 TSCF. Pabrik Terminal Regasifikasi LNG direncanakan dibangun pada tahun 2014 dengan target siap beroperasi pada tahun 2016. Pabrik ini berlokasi di Celukan Bawang Bali dengan terdapat 3 PLTG yang membutuhkan distribusi LNG yaitu PLTG Gilimanuk, Pemaron, dan Pesanggaran. Kapasitas pabrik ini adalah 100 MMSCFD. Pabrik ini akan memenuhi kebutuhan pembangkit listrik untuk daerah Bali. Rangkaian proses pabrik ini adalah unit Regasification. Analisa ekonomi dari pabrik ini adalah investasi sebesar 371,66 MUSD, IRR sebesar 38,6%, POT selama 2,71 tahun, BEP sebesar 49,6% dan NPV 10 tahun sebesar 1011,82 MUSD.

  3. Natural gas : the green fuel of the future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, R.S.; Harbinson, S.W. [Halliburton Energy Services, Calgary, AB (Canada); Tertzakian, P. [ARC Financial, Calgary, AB (Canada); Wall, T.; Wilkinson, J. [Apache Canada Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada); Graham, M. [EnCana Corp., Calgary, AB (Canada); Young, P.J. [DYAD Consulting, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2010-07-01

    Studies have shown that the demand for crude oil exceeds supply and other energy sources are needed to met the shortfall. Natural gas and coal are the only 2 current energy sources that have the global capacity to, by themselves, address increased energy demand in a timely manner. Both these resources have been used primarily for power generation and heating. This paper discussed the transition that will likely occur in which natural gas and coal will be used increasingly as transportation fuels. It presented data comparing the environmental impact of using methane versus coal and proposed natural gas as the future green fuel. A strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT) analysis was conducted to obtain a better understanding of the current Canadian natural gas market. The strengths include recent discoveries in the Horn River Basin and the Montney plays in British Columbia which are expected to triple natural gas production within the next decade. The weaknesses include an oversupply of gas compared to current demand; gas prices are currently in a range that are barely economic for many shale plays; and Canadian gas is disadvantaged for sales in the United States by additional pipeline transportation costs. The opportunities include global export opportunities of liquefied natural gas (LNG) through the proposed Kitimat LNG export facility and others off the west coast of Canada. The threat facing natural gas development is the strong competition for market share with coal. However, emissions data and energy efficiencies provide evidence to support the choice to use natural gas. 5 refs., 2 tabs., 26 figs.

  4. The consumers defense versus the crisis of the natural gas; A defesa do consumidor diante da crise do gas natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, William Lima [Secretaria de Estado de Desenvolvimento Economico, Energia, Industria e Servicos, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Given the notorious unavailability of natural gas, the crisis initiated by the government of Bolivia and considering the irreversible damage that would be caused to consumers by the lack of product, which the solutions to ensure the minimum rights, or even discourage the consumption of gas for integrate with new prospects for rational use of energy. We discussed about the crisis and the role of the state in the Consumer Protection and the new sphere of regulation for the industry Gas Natural. (author)

  5. China to Regulate Natural Gas Import from Mid-Year

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ The Chinese government plans to introduce new measures on June 10 to regulate imports of natural gas in order to protect its three major gas importers from intense domestic competition. The Ministry of Commerce said late-May that the move would end the chaotic competition between China's big-three oil and gas companies - China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC), China Petrochemical Corporation (Sinopec) and China National Offshore Oil Corporation (CNOOC) - in the purchase of gas,which has helped overseas exporters raise prices. The competition has been blamed on the lax import system for natural gas that is currently in place. Enterprises, at present, do not have to satisfy any conditions to obtain import permits for natural gas. After June 10, each application for an import permit will be examined and approved.

  6. Experimental Study of Natural Gas Storage in Hydrates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙志高; 王如竹; 郭开华; 樊栓狮

    2004-01-01

    Hydrate formation rate plays an important role in the making of hydrates for natural gas storage. The effect of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), alkyl polysaccharide glycoside (APG) and cyclopentane (CP) on natural gas hydrate formation rate, induction time and storage capacity was studied. Micellar surfactant solutions were found to increase hydrate formation rate in a quiescent system and improve hydrate formation rate and natural gas storage capacity. The process of hydrate formation includes two stages with surfactant presence. Hydrate forms quickly in the first stage, and then the formation rate is slowed down. Surfactants (SDS or APG) reduce the induction time of hydrate formation. The effect of an anionic surfactant (SDS) on gas storage in hydrates is more pronounced compared to a nonionic surfactant (APG). CP also reduces the induction time of hydrate formation, but can not improve the natural gas storage capacity in hydrates.

  7. The use of compressed natural gas as a strategy of development of natural gas industry; Utilizacao do GNC (Gas Natural Comprimido) como estrategia de desenvolvimento da industria do gas natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bock, Jucemara [Companhia de Gas do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul (Sulgas), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Coordenacao de Segmento Veicular; Rickmann, Cristiano [Companhia de Gas do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul (Sulgas), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Gerencia de Novos Negocios; Maestri, Juares [Companhia de Gas do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul (Sulgas), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Gerencia de Mercado de Grandes Consumidores

    2008-07-01

    This work emphasizes the Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) as modal of transport, used by the Company of Gas of the State of Rio Grande do Sul - Sulgas, through experience in pioneering project in Brazil: the introduction of the technology of Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) to assist areas where there is not the infrastructure of pipeline for the transport. The article offers a display of the project of expansion of the Natural gas in Rio Grande do Sul, through the supply of CNG to the company Tramontina in Carlos Barbosa's city in the year of 2002. The last aspect focused by this article demonstrates as the use of this transport technology impelled the development of the transport market in the State and it has been used as an important strategy for the development of the market of Natural Gas Vehicle (NGV) in the state. (author)

  8. Natural gas network resiliency to a "shakeout scenario" earthquake.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellison, James F.; Corbet, Thomas Frank,; Brooks, Robert E.

    2013-06-01

    A natural gas network model was used to assess the likely impact of a scenario San Andreas Fault earthquake on the natural gas network. Two disruption scenarios were examined. The more extensive damage scenario assumes the disruption of all three major corridors bringing gas into southern California. If withdrawals from the Aliso Canyon storage facility are limited to keep the amount of stored gas within historical levels, the disruption reduces Los Angeles Basin gas supplies by 50%. If Aliso Canyon withdrawals are only constrained by the physical capacity of the storage system to withdraw gas, the shortfall is reduced to 25%. This result suggests that it is important for stakeholders to put agreements in place facilitating the withdrawal of Aliso Canyon gas in the event of an emergency.

  9. Nanoporous Materials for the Onboard Storage of Natural Gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, K Vasanth; Preuss, Kathrin; Titirici, Maria-Magdalena; Rodríguez-Reinoso, Francisco

    2017-02-08

    Climate change, global warming, urban air pollution, energy supply uncertainty and depletion, and rising costs of conventional energy sources are, among others, potential socioeconomic threats that our community faces today. Transportation is one of the primary sectors contributing to oil consumption and global warming, and natural gas (NG) is considered to be a relatively clean transportation fuel that can significantly improve local air quality, reduce greenhouse-gas emissions, and decrease the energy dependency on oil sources. Internal combustion engines (ignited or compression) require only slight modifications for use with natural gas; rather, the main problem is the relatively short driving distance of natural-gas-powered vehicles due to the lack of an appropriate storage method for the gas, which has a low energy density. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has set some targets for NG storage capacity to obtain a reasonable driving range in automotive applications, ruling out the option of storing methane at cryogenic temperatures. In recent years, both academia and industry have foreseen the storage of natural gas by adsorption (ANG) in porous materials, at relatively low pressures and ambient temperatures, as a solution to this difficult problem. This review presents recent developments in the search for novel porous materials with high methane storage capacities. Within this scenario, both carbon-based materials and metal-organic frameworks are considered to be the most promising materials for natural gas storage, as they exhibit properties such as large surface areas and micropore volumes, that favor a high adsorption capacity for natural gas. Recent advancements, technological issues, advantages, and drawbacks involved in natural gas storage in these two classes of materials are also summarized. Further, an overview of the recent developments and technical challenges in storing natural gas as hydrates in wetted porous carbon materials is also included

  10. The research on natural gas pipeline transportation price formulation method

    OpenAIRE

    YU Wenjia; Ma, Yan

    2014-01-01

    This paper will introduce a method of natural gas pipeline transportation price on the basis of two-part tariff.Distance,investment and income have been taken into consideration.The total fee is divided into three parts:reservation fee,usage fee and peak-load regulation fee.Because there are different types of users in the natural gas market who show great difference in the continuity and reliability of gas supply,capacity of bearing price,elastic demand and balance use of gas,according to th...

  11. Use of compressed natural gas in automotive vehicles; Uso del gas natural comprimido aplicado en vehiculos automotores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez R, Adrian [Comision Nacional para el Ahorro de Energia (CONAE) (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    The natural gas is natural origin energy (fossil fuel); it contains predominantly 90 percent methane; does not require transformation process for its use; is supplied the 24 hours to commerce, industries and homes by underground pipes; it is lighter than air; it is not corrosive, nor absorbent or toxic. For those reasons a study was performed where it is widely justified why the natural gas ought to be used in vehicles. [Spanish] El gas natural es un energetico de origen natural (combustible fosil), contiene predominantemente 90 por ciento de metano, no requiere proceso de transformacion para su utilizacion, llega directamente las 24 horas del dia a los hogares, comercios e industrias por tuberias subterraneas, es mas ligero que el aire, no es corrosivo, no es absorbente y no es toxico. Por esas razones se hizo un estudio donde se justifica ampliamente porque el gas natural debe utilizarse en vehiculos.

  12. Life cycle water consumption for shale gas and conventional natural gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Corrie E; Horner, Robert M; Harto, Christopher B

    2013-10-15

    Shale gas production represents a large potential source of natural gas for the nation. The scale and rapid growth in shale gas development underscore the need to better understand its environmental implications, including water consumption. This study estimates the water consumed over the life cycle of conventional and shale gas production, accounting for the different stages of production and for flowback water reuse (in the case of shale gas). This study finds that shale gas consumes more water over its life cycle (13-37 L/GJ) than conventional natural gas consumes (9.3-9.6 L/GJ). However, when used as a transportation fuel, shale gas consumes significantly less water than other transportation fuels. When used for electricity generation, the combustion of shale gas adds incrementally to the overall water consumption compared to conventional natural gas. The impact of fuel production, however, is small relative to that of power plant operations. The type of power plant where the natural gas is utilized is far more important than the source of the natural gas.

  13. Measure Guideline: High Efficiency Natural Gas Furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brand, L.; Rose, W.

    2012-10-01

    This Measure Guideline covers installation of high-efficiency gas furnaces. Topics covered include when to install a high-efficiency gas furnace as a retrofit measure, how to identify and address risks, and the steps to be used in the selection and installation process. The guideline is written for Building America practitioners and HVAC contractors and installers. It includes a compilation of information provided by manufacturers, researchers, and the Department of Energy as well as recent research results from the Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit (PARR) Building America team.

  14. Measure Guideline. High Efficiency Natural Gas Furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brand, L. [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit (PARR), Des Plaines, IL (United States); Rose, W. [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit (PARR), Des Plaines, IL (United States)

    2012-10-01

    This measure guideline covers installation of high-efficiency gas furnaces, including: when to install a high-efficiency gas furnace as a retrofit measure; how to identify and address risks; and the steps to be used in the selection and installation process. The guideline is written for Building America practitioners and HVAC contractors and installers. It includes a compilation of information provided by manufacturers, researchers, and the Department of Energy as well as recent research results from the Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit (PARR) Building America team.

  15. Discussion of gas enrichment mechanism and natural gas origin in marine sedimentary basin, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    There are abundant natural gas resources in Chinese marine sedimentary basin. The exploration hot shots of natural gas are the Palaeozoic marine strata here in recent years, and several large scale gas fields have been discovered. Chinese Palaeozoic high-post matured and coal measure hydrocarbon source rocks are mainly prone to gas generation in the present. This research considered that gas source rocks and TSR are the key cause of gas enrichment of marine strata. High-quality argillaceous and coal measure hydrocarbon rocks are distributed widely in the Palaeozoic marine strata, which have been in highly matured phase in the present. The argillaceous source rock generally contains various sulfates that could accelerate crude oil cracking to gas for TSR occurrence, and coal measure source rock mainly generates gas, so Chinese marine basin gives priority to accumulating gas. Marine strata have not founded oil reservoirs in the Sichuan Basin and Ordos Basin, and they consist mainly of dry gas. Marine natural gases are the mixed gases of oil cracking gas and coal-formed gas in a general way,oil cracking gases contain usually some H2S and CO2. Hydrocarbon carbon isotopes are very complicated, and methane and ethane isotopic values bear apparent reversal caused by thermal evolution and mixing among different genetic types of natural gas. Coal-formed gases are the main component of Chinese marine natural gas. The Upper Permian of the Sichuan Basin and the Carboniferous-Permian of the Ordos Basin coal measure hydrocarbon source rock present large hydrocarbon generation potential, which are the prospecting highlight of marine natural gas hereafter. Oil cracking gas exploration will be paid much attention to in the Tarim Basin because of the lack of coal measure hydrocarbon source rock.

  16. China Adjusts Natural Gas Price for Better Allocation of Resources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luo Shichao

    2010-01-01

    @@ China has recently increased the wholesale prices of natural gas by around 25 percent to curb demand and better allocate resources.Natural gas benchmark prices went up by 230 yuan to 1,155 yuan per thousand cubic meters,according to the announcement made by the National Development and Reform Commission(NDRC)at the end of May."It is necessary to make the adjustment,as the country's natural gas price is significantly lower than that of other fuels,"said Cap Changqing,head of NDRC's pricing department.

  17. Compressed natural gas vehicles motoring towards a green Beijing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Ming; Kraft-Oliver, T. [International Institute for Energy Conservation (IIEC) - Asia, Bangkok (Thailand); Guo Xiao Yan [China North Vehicle Research Institute (CNVRI), Beijing (China)

    1996-12-31

    This paper first describes the state-of-the-art of compressed natural gas (CNG) technologies and evaluates the market prospects for CNG vehicles in Beijing. An analysis of the natural gas resource supply for fleet vehicles follows. The costs and benefits of establishing natural gas filling stations and promoting the development of vehicle technology are evaluated. The quantity of GHG reduction is calculated. The objective of the paper is to provide information of transfer niche of CNG vehicle and equipment production in Beijing. This paper argues that the development of CNG vehicles is a cost-effective strategy for mitigating both air pollution and GHG.

  18. Natural gas opens up a new era for Oman

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abi-Aad, Naji

    1996-05-01

    Oman, currently seeking to diversify its hydrocarbon industry, away from dependence on oil, is currently planning to exploit its huge reserves of natural gas. Three projects are described. The first involves the construction of a regional gasline to the emirate of Ras al-Khaimah. The second two projects are export based. The first entails producing liquefied natural gas (LNG) for export by sea to markets in the Far East. The last project includes pumping natural gas to India via a marine pipeline through the Arabian Sea. (UK)

  19. DEVELOPMENT OF A THERMOACOUSTIC NATURAL GAS LIQUEFIER-UPDATE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. WOLLAN; G. SWIFT

    2001-05-01

    Thermoacoustic heat engines and refrigerators are being developed for liquefaction of natural gas. This is the only technology capable of producing refrigeration power at cryogenic temperatures with no moving parts. A prototype, with a projected natural gas liquefaction capacity of 500 gallons/day, has been built and tested. The power source is a natural gas burner. Systems are developed with liquefaction capacities up to 10,000 to 20,000 gallons per day. The technology, the development project, accomplishments and applications are discussed.

  20. Obtención de gas natural licuado presurizado: GNLP

    OpenAIRE

    Talavera Herrera, Hugo Alfonso

    2011-01-01

    El presente proyecto, tiene como objetivo general promover e incentivar el mayor consumo del gas natural a nivel nacional, mostrándose como una alternativa adicional a la distribución por duetos, al Gas Natural Comprimido (GNC) y al Gas Natural Licuado (GNL) desde el punto de vista de la innovación tecnológica, de la distancia a los puntos de abastecimiento, del valor agregado de negocios ya consolidados de GNC y GNV, de la rentabilidad, de la seguridad y de la protección al medio ambiente. ...

  1. Natural gas industry transformation, competitive institutions and the role of regulation: lessons from open access in US natural gas markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Vaney, A. (Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States) California Univ., Irvine, CA (United States)); Walls, W.D. (Hong Kong Univ. (Hong Kong))

    1994-09-01

    Open access pipeline transport transformed the US natural gas industry. This paper examines the role that transport rights played in the industry's transformation. It documents the convergence of gas field prices, pooling area prices and city gate prices that has occurred since the adoption of open access. The analysis suggests the most important reasons for this convergence to be the fact that direct dealing between gas suppliers and users has replaced the pipeline merchant; that gas transactions are made within a competitive market institution; and that transport trading has created an interconnected grid of pipelines in place of the closed and disconnected grid that preceded open access. This open and interconnected grid supplied the means for price arbitrage. These changes have made natural gas markets contestable. The conclusions about the role of regulation in an industry organized around transferable transport rights extend to natural gas markets beyond those in North America. (Author)

  2. Natural gas imports and exports: First quarter report 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    The Office of Fuels Programs prepares quarterly reports summarizing the data provided by companies authorized to import or export natural gas. Companies are required, as a condition of their authorizations, to file quarterly reports with the OFP. This quarter`s focus is market penetration of gas imports into New England. Attachments show the following: % takes to maximum firm contract levels and weighted average per unit price for the long-term importers, volumes and prices of gas purchased by long-term importers and exporters, volumes and prices for gas imported on short-term or spot market basis, and gas exported short-term to Canada and Mexico.

  3. From monopoly to competition; Marketing natural gas in the UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heal, D.W. (University Coll. of Wales, Aberystwyth (UK))

    1990-10-01

    Natural gas was introduced from 1964 into an expanding UK energy market by the state-owned British Gas Corporation, a statutory monopsonists to the gas producers, and a monopoly supplier to the final users. This unified structure was the dominant influence on a marketing strategy that led to the successful introduction of this third fossil fuel. The 1988 recommendations of the Monopolies and Mergers Commission were designed to promote direct competition for a now privatized British Gas operating in a static energy market with competition between fuels. Lower gas prices are available for some, but not for all consumers. (author).

  4. Marine prospecting for petroleum and natural gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katzung, G.

    1982-01-01

    The contribution presents a review of areas of oceans and seas, where prospecting for oil and gas is carried out. Prospecting in marine areas is characterized by advancing to growing water depths and in hospitable climatic districts. The growing expenditures, connected with these circumstances, call for a more careful preparation of drilling work.

  5. Coalbed methane/natural gas coal chart

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2005-10-01

    This map of coal and coalbed gas in Alberta also listed Canadian coal and coalbed gas resources by region, basin or coalfield; major coal-bearing formations or groups; coal rank; estimated in-place coal resources per billion tons; and estimated coalbed gas in-place resources. The major coalfields of British Columbia were shown to be grouped into Rocky Mountains, Insular and Intermontane coalfields. The insular belt includes the coalfields and deposits on Vancouver Island and small deposits on the Queen Charlotte Islands. Saskatchewan resources were also presented, along with resource potential in the east coast of Canada, the Alberta plains, the Upper and Lower Cretaceous regions and the Alberta foothills. A stratigraphic chart of coal bearing formations in the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin was presented, as well as a schematic cross-section showing major coal zones in Alberta. An inset map of North American coal basins was also provided. The following advertisers listed their services: Schlumberger, Weatherford, Kudu Industries Inc., Calfrac Well Services, Ferus Gas Industries Trust, Baker Hughes, MGV Energy Inc., Pembina Controls Inc., R and M Energy Systems Inc., Trident Exploration Corp., Enviro Noise Control, Toromont Energy Systems, Canyon Technical Services, Sproule, Enerflex, Computer Modelling Group Ltd., Norwest Corp., Fekete, Wellco Energy Services, Sanjel, Smithbits, Colt Engineering, Perspective Consultants Inc. and Concept Compression Corp.

  6. Restoring Equilibrium to Natural Gas Markets: Can Renewable Energy Help?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark

    2005-01-01

    Heightened natural gas prices have emerged as a key energy-policy challenge for at least the early part of the 21st century. With the recent run-up in gas prices and the expected continuation of volatile and high prices in the near future, a growing number of voices are calling for increased diversification of energy supplies. Proponents of renewable energy technologies identify these clean energy sources as an important part of the solution. Increased deployment of renewable energy (RE) can hedge natural gas price risk in more than one way, but a recent report by Berkeley Lab evaluates one such benefit in detail: by displacing gas-fired electricity generation, RE reduces natural gas demand and thus puts downward pressure on gas prices. Many recent modeling studies of increased RE deployment have demonstrated that this ''secondary'' effect of lowering natural gas prices could be significant; as a result, this effect is increasingly cited as justification for policies promoting RE. The Berkeley Lab report summarizes recent modeling studies that have evaluated the impact of RE deployment on gas prices, reviews the reasonableness of the results of these studies in light of economic theory and other research, and develops a simple tool that can be used to evaluate the impact of RE on gas prices without relying on a complex national energy model.

  7. Ternary geochemical-tracing system in natural gas accumulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The establishment of geochemical-tracing system of gas generation and accumulation is helpful to re-elucidating the gas migration and accumulation in time and space. To deduce the complex process of gas accumulation, a ternary geochemical-tracing system is set up, according to stable isotope inheritance of source rocks, kinetic fractionation of stable isotopes, time-accumulating effect of noble gas isotopes, mantle-derived volatile inheritance, and organic molecule inheritance of light hydrocarbons and thermally kinetic fractionation in their generation, in combination with the previous achievements of gas geochemistry and geochemical parameters of gas-source correlation. There are tight interactions for the geochemical parameters with much information about parent inheritance and special biomarkers, in which they are confirmed each other, reciprocally associated and preferentially used for the requirement so that we can use these geochemical parameters to effectively demonstrate the sources of natural gas, sedimentary environments and thermal evolution of source rocks, migration and accumulation of natural gas, and rearrangement of natural gas reservoirs. It is necessary for the ternary geochemical-tracing system to predict the formation of high efficient gas reservoir and their distribution in time and space.

  8. Natural Gas Value-Chain and Network Assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobos, Peter H. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Outkin, Alexander V. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Beyeler, Walter E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Walker, LaTonya Nicole [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Malczynski, Leonard A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Myerly, Melissa M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Vargas, Vanessa N. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Tenney, Craig M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Borns, David J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The current expansion of natural gas (NG) development in the United States requires an understanding of how this change will affect the natural gas industry, downstream consumers, and economic growth in order to promote effective planning and policy development. The impact of this expansion may propagate through the NG system and US economy via changes in manufacturing, electric power generation, transportation, commerce, and increased exports of liquefied natural gas. We conceptualize this problem as supply shock propagation that pushes the NG system and the economy away from its current state of infrastructure development and level of natural gas use. To illustrate this, the project developed two core modeling approaches. The first is an Agent-Based Modeling (ABM) approach which addresses shock propagation throughout the existing natural gas distribution system. The second approach uses a System Dynamics-based model to illustrate the feedback mechanisms related to finding new supplies of natural gas - notably shale gas - and how those mechanisms affect exploration investments in the natural gas market with respect to proven reserves. The ABM illustrates several stylized scenarios of large liquefied natural gas (LNG) exports from the U.S. The ABM preliminary results demonstrate that such scenario is likely to have substantial effects on NG prices and on pipeline capacity utilization. Our preliminary results indicate that the price of natural gas in the U.S. may rise by about 50% when the LNG exports represent 15% of the system-wide demand. The main findings of the System Dynamics model indicate that proven reserves for coalbed methane, conventional gas and now shale gas can be adequately modeled based on a combination of geologic, economic and technology-based variables. A base case scenario matches historical proven reserves data for these three types of natural gas. An environmental scenario, based on implementing a $50/tonne CO 2 tax results in less proven

  9. Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) project: a tax overview; Projeto Gas Natural Liquefeito (GNL): uma abordagem tributaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correia, Claudia W.M.; Faria, Viviana C.S. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    In the second semester of 2008, the Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) will be introduced in the Brazilian energy matrix, it will be done through an innovator project according technical and tax points of view. Mentioned the enormous effort of adapting the federal legislation approved for this new activity which begins in the country, uncharged both the admission of the vessel as the import of the commodity in the incidence of federal taxes. The market for LNG demand simplified customs procedures in order to benefit from the dynamism that this industry offers, and in addition, a tax burden that encourages the use of a competitive and compatible with the precepts of sustainable development of the country. (author)

  10. LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas): emerging control; GNL (Gas Natural Liquefeito): controle de emergencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berardinelli, Ricardo Porto; Correa, Kleber Macedo; Moura Filho, Nelson Barboza de; Matos, Jose Eduardo Nogueira de; Fernandez, Carlos Antonio [TRANSPETRO, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Gerencia de Seguranca, Meio Ambiente e Saude

    2008-07-01

    The operation to Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) is innovative for the PETROBRAS System. PETROBRAS Transporte - TRANSPETRO will operate two LNG flexible terminals. In accordance with the health, safety and environmental policy - training, education and awareness action plans were formulated by TRANSPETRO to assure the operational safety for the activity. Part of this action plan includes the training of LNG spill control and fire suppression. The training was carried out in 20 hours and divided into two parts: theoretical and practice. In the practice part, 3.000 gallons of LNG were unloaded and the students could verify the behaviour of the LNG and the effectiveness of the resources available for the emergency control. The knowledge was introduced in the company to create specific procedures, local emergency plans and develop internal instructors. (author)

  11. Recovery of white sturgeon populations through natural production: Understanding the influence of abiotic and biotic factors on spawning and subsequent recruitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsley, M.J.; Anders, P.J.; Miller, A.I.; Beckman, L.G.; McCabe, G.T.

    2002-01-01

    Recovery or maintenance of sturgeon populations through natural production in perturbed rivers requires adequate knowledge of the abiotic and biotic factors that influence spawning and cause mortality of embryonic, larval, and juvenile life stages. Although it is known that year-class strength of white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus is determined within 2-3 months after spawning, little is known about specific causes of mortality to early life stages during this period. Initial spawning success is critical in the development of a strong year-class, and maximized recruitment may be dependent upon water temperature and the availability of optimal in-river habitat. Analyses have shown that increased river discharge combined with suitable water temperatures during spawning, egg incubation, yolk sac larvae dispersal, and first exogenous feeding result in greater recruitment. However, little is known about the importance of other variables, such as food availability or losses due to predation that influence year-class strength. ?? 2002 by the American Fisheries Society.

  12. The research on natural gas pipeline transportation price formulation method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YU Wenjia

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper will introduce a method of natural gas pipeline transportation price on the basis of two-part tariff.Distance,investment and income have been taken into consideration.The total fee is divided into three parts:reservation fee,usage fee and peak-load regulation fee.Because there are different types of users in the natural gas market who show great difference in the continuity and reliability of gas supply,capacity of bearing price,elastic demand and balance use of gas,according to the method,the different types of users can pay reasonable fee.This method not only considers the investment income recovery but also considers the different types of users paying a reasonable fee.We hope the new pricing model can give a reference to the development of China's natural gas industry.

  13. Natural gas in transport. An assessment of different routes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kampman, B.; Croezen, H.; Aarnink, S. [CE Delft, Delft (Netherlands); Verbeek, R.; Ligterink, N.; Meulenbrugge, J.; Koornneef, G. [TNO, Delft (Netherlands); Kroon, P.; De Wilde, H. [ECN Policy Studies, Petten (Netherlands)

    2013-05-15

    Compressed or liquid natural gas (CNG, LNG) along with energy carriers produced from natural gas like electricity, hydrogen and Gas to Liquid (GTL) can limit emissions of greenhouse gases and air pollutants in the transport sector. This is particularly the case if electricity, hydrogen or CNG are used to power cars and buses, with LNG being used for trucks and ships. To reduce the overall greenhouse gas emissions of shipping, however, methane emissions also need to be limited. To ensure the safety of LNG, effective control of the distribution infrastructure is also required, moreover. This study compares various types of natural gas with diesel and petrol as primary energy sources in the transport sector. The analysis covers the environment, costs and safety. Taking 2025 as a horizon, the entire fuel chain is considered, from production at source to combustion in the engine.

  14. Smart with Natural Gas in the built environment; Slim met Gas in de gebouwde omgeving

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ensing, H.; Oude Elberink, L.; Holwerda, B. [et al.] (ed.)

    2011-12-15

    This magazine addresses the future of the energy system, the role of natural gas in the energy transition process and innovative (gas) technology for the built environment [Dutch] In dit magazine komen de toekomst van de energievoorziening, de rol van aardgas in het energietransitieproces en innovatieve (gas)technologie voor de gebouwde omgeving aan bod.

  15. MOFs for storage of natural gas in mobile applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marx, S.; Arnold, L.; Gaab, M.; Maurer, S.; Weickert, M.; Mueller, U. [BASF SE, Ludwigshafen (Germany); Gummaraju, R.; SantaMaria, M.; Wilson, K.; Garbotz, C.; Lynch, J. [BASF Corporation, Iselin, NJ (United States)

    2013-11-01

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are supposed to have high potential in gas storage, particular in the storage of natural gas (NG) for mobile applications. Due to the shale gas exploration and the cost advantage of natural gas on the North American market as well as the environmental benign behavior upon combustion, storage of gaseous fuels will become more important for future mobility. The main challenge with all gaseous fuels is the limited range of the fuel stored on board of a vehicle. Instead of increasing the pressure in the tank, which would lead to heavy tanks and high compression costs, MOFs might help to improve the energy density of the gas stored in a tank resulting in an increased driving distance or reduced space needed for the gas tanks. (orig.)

  16. Formulating formation mechanism of natural gas hydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palodkar, Avinash V; Jana, Amiya K

    2017-07-25

    A large amount of energy, perhaps twice the total amount of all other hydrocarbon reserves combined, is trapped within gas hydrate deposits. Despite emerging as a potential energy source for the world over the next several hundred years and one of the key factors in causing future climate change, gas hydrate is poorly known in terms of its formation mechanism. To address this issue, a mathematical formulation is proposed in the form of a model to represent the physical insight into the process of hydrate growth that occurs on the surface and in the irregular nanometer-sized pores of the distributed porous particles. To evaluate the versatility of this rigorous model, the experimental data is used for methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) hydrates grown in different porous media with a wide range of considerations.

  17. LNG systems for natural gas propelled ships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chorowski, M.; Duda, P.; Polinski, J.; Skrzypacz, J.

    2015-12-01

    In order to reduce the atmospheric pollution generated by ships, the International Marine Organization has established Emission Controlled Areas. In these areas, nitrogen oxides, sulphur oxides and particulates emission is strongly controlled. From the beginning of 2015, the ECA covers waters 200 nautical miles from the coast of the US and Canada, the US Caribbean Sea area, the Baltic Sea, the North Sea and the English Channel. From the beginning of 2020, strong emission restrictions will also be in force outside the ECA. This requires newly constructed ships to be either equipped with exhaust gas cleaning devices or propelled with emission free fuels. In comparison to low sulphur Marine Diesel and Marine Gas Oil, LNG is a competitive fuel, both from a technical and economical point of view. LNG can be stored in vacuum insulated tanks fulfilling the difficult requirements of marine regulations. LNG must be vaporized and pressurized to the pressure which is compatible with the engine requirements (usually a few bar). The boil-off must be controlled to avoid the occasional gas release to the atmosphere. This paper presents an LNG system designed and commissioned for a Baltic Sea ferry. The specific technical features and exploitation parameters of the system will be presented. The impact of strict marine regulations on the system's thermo-mechanical construction and its performance will be discussed. The review of possible flow-schemes of LNG marine systems will be presented with respect to the system's cost, maintenance, and reliability.

  18. Gas supplies of interstate natural gas pipeline companies, 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-07-01

    A statistical summary of the year-end 1976 total reserves is presented along with deliverability of the interstate pipeline companies and pertinent comparisons with information developed from annual reports filed over the preceding 13 years. Total dedicated domestic gas reserves owned and controlled by interstate pipeline companies declined in 1976 by 8.5 trillion cubic feet, or 8.0 percent, from 106.8 trillion cubic feet at the beginning of the year to 98.3 trillion cubic feet at the end of the year. A five-year tabulation shows that domestic interstate gas reserves have declined from 161.3 trillion cubic feet at the beginning of the year 1972 to 98.3 trillion cubic feet at the end of 1976, a decline of 63.0 trillion cubic feet, or 39.0 percent. The pipelines continue to show a declining annual deliverability from their year-end dedicated reserves. This is expected because of the decline since 1967 in the volume of reserves dedicated to the interstate pipeline companies. Compared with deliverability estimates made from their 1975 year-end reserves, the current deliverability estimates based on 1976 year-end reserves are approximately 5 percent less in volume than the 1975 year-end estimates for the respective accumulated deliveries during the five-year periods following the year-end estimates.

  19. The economic value of Indonesia's natural gas: a quantitative assessment of three gas policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hutagalung, Aldi Martino

    2014-01-01

    Natural gas is regarded as the future energy of Indonesia and the natural gas sector has a strategic role to play in national development. This role can be seen in the state revenue and multiplier effect it generates, for example, in the growth of employment levels. Its contribution to the national

  20. Risk management technique for liquefied natural gas facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedor, O. H.; Parsons, W. N.

    1975-01-01

    Checklists have been compiled for planning, design, construction, startup and debugging, and operation of liquefied natural gas facilities. Lists include references to pertinent safety regulations. Methods described are applicable to handling of other hazardous materials.

  1. Discussion on rheology in petroleum and nature gas teservoir stimulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢拥军; 梁冲; 胥云; 陈彦东

    2008-01-01

    Petroleum and nature gas not only are important resources,but also are important strategic materials of our country.All methods the enhancing the producing degree of petroleum and natural gas reservoir,increasing single well production and extending the stimulation period of validity are important stratagem for petroleum and natural gas exploitation.Fracturing and acidizing are the main methods for stimulation as well as one of representative examples of rheology theory application in engineering.Based on analysis of low permeability reservoir characteristics,the fracturing and acidizing stimulation principles and main controlling factors were discussed.And the mechanical characteristics,chemical reaction and rheological behavior in the stimulation process were reviewed.Furthermore research trends afterwards including the material and fluid rheology in oil and natural gas production process,the deep rock fracture initiation and extension rheology,and the fracturing and acidizing application rheology were also proposed in this paper.

  2. 77 FR 69781 - Enhanced Natural Gas Market Transparency

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-21

    ... and competitive markets are protected from the adverse effects of potential collusion or other... competitive markets are protected from the adverse effects of potential collusion or other anticompetitive... Intelligence. Additionally, the Commission surveys publicly available scheduled flows on natural gas...

  3. An introduction to the economics of natural gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banks, F.E.

    2003-03-01

    This paper is an up-to-date, but only moderately technical survey, of the natural gas market. Supply, demand and pricing are discussed, and, in the light of the electricity deregulation experiment in California, where the expression ''dangerous failure'' has been repeatedly used to describe the extensive losses suffered by final consumers and utilities (or retailers), a modicum of attention is paid to the prospects for deregulating natural gas. Some microeconomics of the natural gas market is presented at a more elementary level than in author's energy economics textbook (2000) or book ''The Political Economy of Natural Gas'' (1987), and the author makes a studied attempt to avoid bringing the misleading Hotelling model (of exhaustible resource depletion) into the exposition. Finally, some comments on risk management with futures contracts are provided, and there is a brief mathematical appendix on futures, options and two-part pricing. (author)

  4. Liquid absorbent solutions for separating nitrogen from natural gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesen, Dwayne T.; Babcock, Walter C.; Edlund, David J.; Lyon, David K.; Miller, Warren K.

    2000-01-01

    Nitrogen-absorbing and -desorbing compositions, novel ligands and transition metal complexes, and methods of using the same, which are useful for the selective separation of nitrogen from other gases, especially natural gas.

  5. Radon measurement of natural gas using alpha scintillation cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitto, Michael E; Torres, Miguel A; Haines, Douglas K; Semkow, Thomas M

    2014-12-01

    Due to their sensitivity and ease of use, alpha-scintillation cells are being increasingly utilized for measurements of radon ((222)Rn) in natural gas. Laboratory studies showed an average increase of 7.3% in the measurement efficiency of alpha-scintillation cells when filled with less-dense natural gas rather than regular air. A theoretical calculation comparing the atomic weight and density of air to that of natural gas suggests a 6-7% increase in the detection efficiency when measuring radon in the cells. A correction is also applicable when the sampling location and measurement laboratory are at different elevations. These corrections to the measurement efficiency need to be considered in order to derive accurate concentrations of radon in natural gas.

  6. Forecasting China's natural gas consumption based on a combination model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gang Xu; Weiguo Wang

    2010-01-01

    Ensuring a sufficient energy supply is essential to a country.Natural gas constitutes a vital part in energy supply and therefore forecasting natural gas consumption reliably and accurately is an essential part of a country's energy policy.Over the years,studies have shown that a combinative model gives better projected results compared to a single model.In this study,we used Polynomial Curve and Moving Average Combination Projection (PCMACP) model to estimate the future natural gas consumption in China from 2009 to 2015.The new proposed PCMACP model shows more reliable and accurate results:its Mean Absolute Percentage Error (MAPE) is less than those of any previous models within the investigated range.According to the PCMACP model,the average annual growth rate will increase for the next 7 years and the amount of natural gas consumption will reach 171600 million cubic meters in 2015 in China.

  7. Regulation of open access in natural gas pipeline services; Regulacao do livre acesso aos dutos de transporte de gas natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Anderson Souza da [Rio Grande do Norte Univ., Natal, RN (Brazil)]. E-mail: andersonssmagister@yahoo.com.br

    2003-07-01

    The recent development of natural gas market lived nowadays in Brazil brings the discussion about the regulation model designed for this industry, in the face of the flexibility of constitutional monopoly achieved by Constitutional Amendment no. 09 and Petroleum Law (Nbr. 9.478/97). The present paper analyses the introduction of open access conception in the pipeline services - foreseen in Petroleum Law - and the open access regulation in the case of natural gas pipeline services. The paper points out the juridical issues of the introduction of open access and its role for the creation of an environment of competition in natural gas market. (author)

  8. Easing the natural gas crisis: Reducing natural gas prices through increased deployment of renewable energy and energy efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark; St. Clair, Matt

    2004-12-21

    Heightened natural gas prices have emerged as a key energy-policy challenge for at least the early part of the 21st century. With the recent run-up in gas prices and the expected continuation of volatile and high prices in the near future, a growing number of voices are calling for increased diversification of energy supplies. Proponents of renewable energy and energy efficiency identify these clean energy sources as an important part of the solution. Increased deployment of renewable energy (RE) and energy efficiency (EE) can hedge natural gas price risk in more than one way, but this paper touches on just one potential benefit: displacement of gas-fired electricity generation, which reduces natural gas demand and thus puts downward pressure on gas prices. Many recent modeling studies of increased RE and EE deployment have demonstrated that this ''secondary'' effect of lowering natural gas prices could be significant; as a result, this effect is increasingly cited as justification for policies promoting RE and EE. This paper summarizes recent studies that have evaluated the gas-price-reduction effect of RE and EE deployment, analyzes the results of these studies in light of economic theory and other research, reviews the reasonableness of the effect as portrayed in modeling studies, and develops a simple tool that can be used to evaluate the impact of RE and EE on gas prices without relying on a complex national energy model. Key findings are summarized.

  9. Liquefied natural gas production at Hammerfest: A transforming marine community

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bets, van L.K.J.; Tatenhove, van J.P.M.; Mol, A.P.J.

    2016-01-01

    Global energy demand and scarce petroleum resources require communities to adapt to a rapidly changing Arctic environment, but as well to a transforming socio-economic environment instigated by oil and gas development. This is illustrated by liquefied natural gas production by Statoil at Hammerfest,

  10. 77 FR 51795 - Coordination Between Natural Gas and Electricity Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-27

    ...-electric coordination, in light of the different market structures and mix of resources that co-exist. The... transmission provider and its marketing function) need to be clarified or potentially revised to improve gas... coordinate studies of the natural gas and electric systems to analyze forecasted resource mix and/or...

  11. Natural gas imports and exports. Fourth quarter report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    This report summarizes the data provided by companies authorized to import or export natural gas. Data includes volume and price for long term and short term, and gas exported to Canada and Mexico on a short term or spot market basis.

  12. Sceneries and projections of demands of natural gas in Brazil; Cenario e projecoes das demandas de gas natural no pais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chianca, Marcos Duilio de Oliveira; Marques, Ziney Dias [SENAI - Servico Nacional de Aprendizagem Industrial, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Sistema FIRJAN

    2004-07-01

    Interest in Natural Gas in Brazil emerged in the second half of the twentieth century, against a background in which the global giants of the petroleum and gas industries stated that reserves within the country were not commercially viable. This scenario changed with the discovery of numerous oil and gas fields and resulted in the participation of numerous foreign companies bidding for exploration and production rights in the new fields established by ANP. Natural Gas has come to assume a new dimension with further recent discoveries in Santos, Espirito Santo, Sergipe and Urucu, with proven reserves in the order of 490 billion m3. This new dimension is reinforced by PETROBRAS's current strategic plan which considers investments in the order of 3.5 Billion U$ dollars for the production, processing and transport of Natural Gas and half a billion dollars for thermoelectric power stations. The use of Natural Gas in industries, in general, and in the generation of electricity will provide a strong push for the country's economy, substituting other sources of energy with the recognized advantages for production and reduced environmental impact. In this new era 24 gas distribution companies, widely distributed throughout Brazil, are also programming new investments to make best the use of Natural Gas for industry, commerce, for the residential sector and throughout all the national territory. (author)

  13. Leaking Methane from Natural Gas Vehicles: Implications for US Greenhouse Gas Reductions from the Automobile Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Victor, D.G.

    1989-01-01

    A model of the US automobile market is used to test the role that natural gas vehicles (NGVs) might play in reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Since natural gas (methane) emits less CO2 per unit of energy than petroleum products, NGVs are an obvious pathway to lower CO2 emissions. High and low demand scenarios are used to forecast the emissions from unrestricted growth and a modest program of conservation, respectively. Based on these scenarios, a reference scenario is developed that projects...

  14. Resilience of Natural Gas Networks during Conflicts, Crises and Disruptions

    OpenAIRE

    Rui Carvalho; Lubos Buzna; Flavio Bono; Marcelo Masera; Arrowsmith, David K.; Dirk Helbing

    2013-01-01

    Human conflict, geopolitical crises, terrorist attacks, and natural disasters can turn large parts of energy distribution networks offline. Europe's current gas supply network is largely dependent on deliveries from Russia and North Africa, creating vulnerabililties to social and political instabilities. During crises, less delivery may mean greater congestion, as the pipeline network is used in ways it has not been designed for. Given the importance of the security of natural gas supply, we ...

  15. Use of Expansion Turbines in Natural Gas Pressure Reduction Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poživil Jaroslav

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Through the use of expansion turbines in natural gas pressure reduction stations it is possible to produce clean, “green” electricity.Such energy recovery unit utilize the potential energy of natural gas being delivered under high pressure. Expansion turbines are not onlyefficient and profitable but meet the environmental criteria – no emissions of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides or carbon dioxide.

  16. Costs Associated With Compressed Natural Gas Vehicle Fueling Infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, M.; Gonzales, J.

    2014-09-01

    This document is designed to help fleets understand the cost factors associated with fueling infrastructure for compressed natural gas (CNG) vehicles. It provides estimated cost ranges for various sizes and types of CNG fueling stations and an overview of factors that contribute to the total cost of an installed station. The information presented is based on input from professionals in the natural gas industry who design, sell equipment for, and/or own and operate CNG stations.

  17. Knowledge based decision making: perspective on natural gas production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ydstie, B. Erik; Stuland, Kjetil M.

    2009-07-01

    Conclusions (drawn by the author): Decarbonization of energy sources - From coal to renewable. Natural Gas Abundantly available - Norway is no. 3 exporter. Natural gas important as - Hydrogen source for chemicals; - Electricity; - End consumer usage (heating etc). Large potential for application of model based decision making; - Where and when to install platforms and drill wells - How to operate platforms and pipeline systems; - How to operate and optimize chemical production; - Optimization of electricity generation systems. (author)

  18. Case Study - internal corrosion in natural gas pipelines; Estudo de caso - corrosao interna em dutos transportadores de gas natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nobrega, A.C.V. da; Barbosa, A.F.F.; Silva, D.R. da [Rio Grande do Norte Univ., Natal, RN (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica. Lab. de Corrosao]. E-mail: anacecilia@eol.com.br; andreafranciscab@yahoo.com; djalma@ccet.ufrn.br; Pimenta, G.S. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas; Peixoto, D.G. [PETROBRAS S.A., Natal/Fortaleza, RN/CE (Brazil). Unidade de Negocios

    2003-07-01

    One of the aspects what more characterize the gas natural is the possibility of your state physical can be adapted the conditions of transport , since the zone where is producing until the region where it is consumer (distant only one from another), you can stand out this three principal alternatives: gas pipelines; in the form of liquefied, in cryogenic ships; in the form of derive compounds that can be liquids or solid. For susceptibilities to the corrosion of the carbons steels used in the equipment and natural gas pipelines of the production reservoirs until the denominated city gates, it makes be necessary to identify the acting corrosive agents and monitoring them along time, because, the failures for internal corrosion in natural gas pipelines can carry serious environmental problems, damages to the image of the distributors companies and prejudices related to operational continuity. Some aspects of the processing of the natural gas are argued, as well as your effect regarding the internal corrosion in natural gas pipelines. To leave of this analysis, it tries establishing a monitoring and controlling methodology of the internal corrosion in field for natural gas pipelines. For chemical characterization of the samples of the black powder were used analyses for Scanning Electron Microscopy, X-Ray Diffraction, X-Ray Fluorescence. (author)

  19. Role of natural gas in meeting an electric sector emissions reduction strategy and effects on greenhouse gas emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    With advances in natural gas extraction technologies, there is an increase in availability of domestic natural gas, and natural gas is gaining a larger share of use as a fuel in electricity production. At the power plant, natural gas is a cleaner burning fuel than coal, but unce...

  20. Autothermal Reforming of Natural Gas to Synthesis Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven F. Rice; David P. Mann

    2007-04-13

    This Project Final Report serves to document the project structure and technical results achieved during the 3-year project titled Advanced Autothermal Reformer for US Dept of Energy Office of Industrial Technology. The project was initiated in December 2001 and was completed March 2005. It was a joint effort between Sandia National Laboratories (Livermore, CA), Kellogg Brown & Root LLC (KBR) (Houston, TX) and Süd-Chemie (Louisville, KY). The purpose of the project was to develop an experimental capability that could be used to examine the propensity for soot production in an Autothermal Reformer (ATR) during the production of hydrogen-carbon monoxide synthesis gas intended for Gas-to-Liquids (GTL) applications including ammonia, methanol, and higher hydrocarbons. The project consisted of an initial phase that was focused on developing a laboratory-scale ATR capable of reproducing conditions very similar to a plant scale unit. Due to budget constraints this effort was stopped at the advanced design stages, yielding a careful and detailed design for such a system including ATR vessel design, design of ancillary feed and let down units as well as a PI&D for laboratory installation. The experimental effort was then focused on a series of measurements to evaluate rich, high-pressure burner behavior at pressures as high as 500 psi. The soot formation measurements were based on laser attenuation at a view port downstream of the burner. The results of these experiments and accompanying calculations show that soot formation is primarily dependent on oxidation stoichiometry. However, steam to carbon ratio was found to impact soot production as well as burner stability. The data also showed that raising the operating pressure while holding mass flow rates constant results in considerable soot formation at desirable feed ratios. Elementary reaction modeling designed to illuminate the role of CO2 in the burner feed showed that the conditions in the burner allow for the direct

  1. Autothermal Reforming of Natural Gas to Synthesis Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven F. Rice; David P. Mann

    2007-04-13

    This Project Final Report serves to document the project structure and technical results achieved during the 3-year project titled Advanced Autothermal Reformer for US Dept of Energy Office of Industrial Technology. The project was initiated in December 2001 and was completed March 2005. It was a joint effort between Sandia National Laboratories (Livermore, CA), Kellogg Brown & Root LLC (KBR) (Houston, TX) and Süd-Chemie (Louisville, KY). The purpose of the project was to develop an experimental capability that could be used to examine the propensity for soot production in an Autothermal Reformer (ATR) during the production of hydrogen-carbon monoxide synthesis gas intended for Gas-to-Liquids (GTL) applications including ammonia, methanol, and higher hydrocarbons. The project consisted of an initial phase that was focused on developing a laboratory-scale ATR capable of reproducing conditions very similar to a plant scale unit. Due to budget constraints this effort was stopped at the advanced design stages, yielding a careful and detailed design for such a system including ATR vessel design, design of ancillary feed and let down units as well as a PI&D for laboratory installation. The experimental effort was then focused on a series of measurements to evaluate rich, high-pressure burner behavior at pressures as high as 500 psi. The soot formation measurements were based on laser attenuation at a view port downstream of the burner. The results of these experiments and accompanying calculations show that soot formation is primarily dependent on oxidation stoichiometry. However, steam to carbon ratio was found to impact soot production as well as burner stability. The data also showed that raising the operating pressure while holding mass flow rates constant results in considerable soot formation at desirable feed ratios. Elementary reaction modeling designed to illuminate the role of CO2 in the burner feed showed that the conditions in the burner allow for the direct

  2. Metrological aspects to quality control for natural gas analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Claudia Cipriano; Borges, Cleber Nogueira; Cunha, Valnei S. [Instituto Nacional de Metrologia, Normalizacao e Qualidade Industrial (INMETRO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Augusto, Cristiane R. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil); Augusto, Marco Ignazio [Companhia Estadual de Gas do Rio de Janeiro (CEG), RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The Product's Quality and Services are fundamental topics in the globalized commercial relationship inclusive concern the measurements in natural gas. Considerable investments were necessary for industry especially about the quality control in the commercialized gas with an inclusion of the natural gas in Brazilian energetic resources The Brazilian Regulatory Agency, ANP - Agencia Nacional de Petroleo, Gas Natural e Biocombustiveis - created the Resolution ANP no.16. This Resolution defines the natural gas specification, either national or international source, for commercialization in Brazil and list the tolerance concentration for some components. Between of this components are the inert compounds like the CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}. The presence of this compounds reduce the calorific power, apart from increase the resistance concern the detonation in the case of vehicular application, and occasion the reduction in the methane concentration in the gas. Controls charts can be useful to verify if the process are or not under Statistical Control. The process can be considerate under statistical control if the measurements have it values between in lower and upper limits stated previously The controls charts can be approach several characteristics in each subgroup: means, standard deviations, amplitude or proportion of defects. The charts are draws for a specific characteristic and to detect some deviate in the process under specific environment conditions. The CEG - Companhia de Distribuicao de Gas do Rio de Janeiro and the DQUIM - Chemical Metrology Division has an agreement for technical cooperation in research and development of gas natural composition Concern the importance of the natural gas in the Nation development, as well as the question approaching the custody transference, the objective of this work is demonstrate the control quality of the natural gas composition between the CEG laboratory and the DQUIM laboratory aiming the quality increase of the

  3. The Long-Run Oil-Natural Gas Price Relationship And The Shale Gas Revolution

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The gas extraction technological developments of the 2000s have allowed shale gas production, which in the US has become a significant part of the total gas production. Such a significant change might have affected the long-run relationship between oil and natural gas prices postulated by several authors. By using monthly data of oil and gas prices, as well as gas quantities from 1997 to 2013, we test for the presence of a long-run relationship, allowing also for possible breaks. We first sho...

  4. Natural gas power generation: interruptible gas distribution network regulation; Geracao termoeletrica a gas natural: regulacao do segmento interruptivel de distribuicao de gas canalizado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paula, Claudio Paiva de; Kann, Zevi [Agencia Reguladora de Saneamento e Energia do Estado de Sao Paulo (ARSESP), SP (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The paper relates studies regarding the natural gas distribution network interruptible branch. This new service can be appropriate for thermal power generation on flexible dispatch mode, as 'take or pay' contracts surplus jobs. The paper indicates no regulatory restraints in an interruptible network implantation. The final conclusion is that interruptible contracts can be an improvement on the distribution business and certainly can accommodate a suitable demand and supply volumes in the long-term gas market balance. (author)

  5. The characteristics of gas hydrates occurring in natural environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, H.; Moudrakovski, I.; Udachin, K.; Enright, G.; Ratcliffe, C.; Ripmeester, J.

    2009-12-01

    In the past few years, extensive analyses have been carried out for characterizing the natural gas hydrate samples from Cascadia, offshore Vancouver Island; Mallik, Mackenzie Delta; Mount Elbert, Alaska North Slope; Nankai Trough, offshore Japan; Japan Sea and offshore India. With the results obtained, it is possible to give a general picture of the characteristics of gas hydrates occurring in natural environment. Gas hydrate can occur in sediments of various types, from sands to clay, although it is preferentially enriched in sediments of certain types, for example coarse sands and fine volcanic ash. Most of the gas hydrates in sediments are invisible, occurring in the pores of the sediments, while some hydrates are visible, appearing as massive, nodular, planar, vein-like forms and occurring around the seafloor, in the fractures related to fault systems, or any other large spaces available in sediments. Although methane is the main component of most of the natural gas hydrates, C2 to C7 hydrocarbons have been recognized in hydrates, sometimes even in significant amounts. Shallow marine gas hydrates have been found generally to contain minor amounts of hydrogen sulfide. Gas hydrate samples with complex gas compositions have been found to have heterogeneous distributions in composition, which might reflect changes in the composition of the available gas in the surrounding environment. Depending on the gas compositions, the structure type of a natural gas hydrate can be structure I, II or H. For structure I methane hydrate, the large cages are almost fully occupied by methane molecules, while the small cages are only partly occupied. Methane hydrates occurring in different environments have been identified with almost the same crystallographic parameters.

  6. Logistical management system for natural gas distribution; Sistema de gestao logistica para a distribuicao de gas natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arruda, Joao Bosco F.; Nobre Junior, Ernesto F.; Praca, Eduardo R. [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Nucleo de Pesquisa em Logistica, Transportes e Desenvolvimento

    2004-07-01

    The Brazilian Federal Government has the very purpose of increasing the participation of the Natural Gas in the primary energy internal supply from 7,5% nowadays to about 12% till 2010. However, for that, it is necessary to eliminate the great impedance represented by the restricted accessibility to the product, due to the high distribution costs involved. So, there is an urgent need for availability of technologies to help natural gas distribution systems. This paper proposes an innovative logistics-based approach on the subject of the natural gas distribution, through a computational tool (GASLOG System) to be applied in the North and Northeastern urban and country areas of Brazil, with initial case study in the city of Fortaleza. In its conception, the GASLOG System focuses on the point-of-view of everyone of the actors involved with the natural gas distribution process trying to respond their particular necessities in the sector. (author)

  7. Natural gas in Italy; Expanding market for foreign natural gas. Aardgas in Italie; Een groeiende markt voor gas uit den vreemde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-11-01

    Italy's national gas industry, SNAM, has been established in 1941 and was responsible for transport and sales of natural gas. In Mussolini's Italy natural gas was important as fuel for automobiles. As a result Italy now has a natural gas fueled fleet of more than 250,000 cars and buses. In 1953 SNAM became part of ENI and became responsible for a.o.: logistics for the oil- and gas industry, transport of oil and gas and it controls the natural gas distribution network (nowadays more than 23,000 km). Dependence from oil decreased from 72.5% in 1970 to 58.1% in 1989, the natural gas share increased in this period from 8.8% to 22.9%, solid fuels remained the same: 9.1%, and primary and imported electric power increased from 9.6% to 9.9%. Natural gas distribution in 1989 in thousand millions m{sup 3} (35.17 MJ/m{sup 3}): inland production 17.8, imports 31.0, total 48.8 from which industrial consumption + chemical applications + electric power generation consume 26.2, communal distribution networks 21.8, road transport 0.3, and losses 0.5. In 1989 Italy imported more than 12 thousand million m{sup 3} natural gas from Algeria, the same amount from the USSR and about 6 {times} 10{sup 9} m{sup 3} from the Netherlands. 6 figs., 12 ills.

  8. Natural gas distribution in Brazil - opportunities of improvement; Distribuicao de gas natural no pais - oportunidades de melhoria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correa, Silvia R. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Quintella, Odair M.; Farias Filho, Jose R. de [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    Great are the challenges established by the Brazilian Government related to goals to be achieved for the increment of the Natural Gas participation in brazilian energetic matrix, from current 5% to 12%, up to 2010. The enlargement of the distribution infrastructure of the gas (gas-pipelines 'mesh') in Brazil is considered one of the greatest challenges for the growth of the Brazilian market of Natural Gas, accomplishment that involves elevated investments. This paper presents a model of Management System for the good organizational performance of the small Natural Gas Supplying Brazilian Companies focused on criteria of Leadership, Strategies and Plans and Results, established by the Premio TOP Empresarial and by the 'Rumo a Excelencia', held by the 'Progama Qualidade Rio' and 'Fundacao para o Premio Nacional da Qualidade', respectively. The management practices of these companies were reviewed, considering the context of the energetic Brazilian scenario, subjected to the political and operational definitions and uncertainties, the available financial resources, limited or not prioritized, and actual barriers to be surpassed by the Gas Supplying Companies in order to achieve the pre-established government goals for this segment. The implementation of the proposed simplified Model, seen as improvement opportunities for the segment of Natural Gas distribution, will lead the Gas Distribution Companies to a intermediary stage envisioning the real steps towards the excellence of the performance. (author)

  9. Well log characterization of natural gas-hydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collett, Timothy S.; Lee, Myung W.

    2012-01-01

    In the last 25 years there have been significant advancements in the use of well-logging tools to acquire detailed information on the occurrence of gas hydrates in nature: whereas wireline electrical resistivity and acoustic logs were formerly used to identify gas-hydrate occurrences in wells drilled in Arctic permafrost environments, more advanced wireline and logging-while-drilling (LWD) tools are now routinely used to examine the petrophysical nature of gas-hydrate reservoirs and the distribution and concentration of gas hydrates within various complex reservoir systems. Resistivity- and acoustic-logging tools are the most widely used for estimating the gas-hydrate content (i.e., reservoir saturations) in various sediment types and geologic settings. Recent integrated sediment coring and well-log studies have confirmed that electrical-resistivity and acoustic-velocity data can yield accurate gas-hydrate saturations in sediment grain-supported (isotropic) systems such as sand reservoirs, but more advanced log-analysis models are required to characterize gas hydrate in fractured (anisotropic) reservoir systems. New well-logging tools designed to make directionally oriented acoustic and propagation-resistivity log measurements provide the data needed to analyze the acoustic and electrical anisotropic properties of both highly interbedded and fracture-dominated gas-hydrate reservoirs. Advancements in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) logging and wireline formation testing (WFT) also allow for the characterization of gas hydrate at the pore scale. Integrated NMR and formation testing studies from northern Canada and Alaska have yielded valuable insight into how gas hydrates are physically distributed in sediments and the occurrence and nature of pore fluids(i.e., free water along with clay- and capillary-bound water) in gas-hydrate-bearing reservoirs. Information on the distribution of gas hydrate at the pore scale has provided invaluable insight on the mechanisms

  10. Fundamentals of natural gas processing - hydrocarbon dew point meter modelling

    OpenAIRE

    Michalsen, Kathrine; Nævdal, Helene Sire

    2014-01-01

    When natural gas is taken from the reservoir it needs to be refined by removing liquid and other impurities in order to prevent hydrate formation in the pipelines and to keep the gas within sales specifications. Scrubbers, vertical separators, are used to remove the liquid and the efficiency of the scrubber has a great impact on the quality of the gas. To control the gas specifications and the efficiency of the scrubber, a dew point meter can be used. This tool will ideally provide the real d...

  11. Low-quality natural gas sulfur removal/recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damon, D.A. [CNG Research Co., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Siwajek, L.A. [Acrion Technologies, Inc., Cleveland, OH (United States); Klint, B.W. [BOVAR Inc., AB (Canada). Western Research

    1993-12-31

    Low quality natural gas processing with the integrated CFZ/CNG Claus process is feasible for low quality natural gas containing 10% or more of CO{sub 2}, and any amount of H{sub 2}S. The CNG Claus process requires a minimum CO{sub 2} partial pressure in the feed gas of about 100 psia (15% CO{sub 2} for a 700 psia feed gas) and also can handle any amount of H{sub 2}S. The process is well suited for handling a variety of trace contaminants usually associated with low quality natural gas and Claus sulfur recovery. The integrated process can produce high pressure carbon dioxide at purities required by end use markets, including food grade CO{sub 2}. The ability to economically co-produce high pressure CO{sub 2} as a commodity with significant revenue potential frees process economic viability from total reliance on pipeline gas, and extends the range of process applicability to low quality gases with relatively low methane content. Gases with high acid gas content and high CO{sub 2} to H{sub 2}S ratios can be economically processed by the CFZ/CNG Claus and CNG Claus processes. The large energy requirements for regeneration make chemical solvent processing prohibitive. The cost of Selexol physical solvent processing of the LaBarge gas is significantly greater than the CNG/CNG Claus and CNG Claus processes.

  12. Calorimetric Determination of Enthalpy of Formation of Natural Gas Hydrates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高军; KennethN.Marsh

    2003-01-01

    This paper reports the measurements of enthalpies of natural gas hydrates in typical natural gas mixture containing methane, ethane, propane and iso-butane at pressure in the vicinity of 2000 kPa (300 psi) and 6900 kPa(1000psi). The measurements were made in a multi-cell differential scanning calorimeter using modified high pressure cells. The enthalpy of water and the enthalpy of dissociation of the gas hydrate were determined from the calorimeter response during slow temperature scanning at constant pressure. The amount of gas released from the dissociation of hydrate was determined from the pumped volume of the high pressure pump. The occupation ratio (mole ratio) of the water to gas and the enthalpy of hydrate formation are subject to uncertainty of 1.5%.The results show that the enthalpy of hydrate formation and the occupation ratio are essentially independent of pressure.

  13. Natural gas imports and exports. First quarter report 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    The Office of Natural Gas and Petroleum Import and Export Activities prepares quarterly reports summarizing the data provided by companies authorized to import or export natural gas. Attachment A shows the percentage of takes to maximum firm contract levels and the weighted average per unit price for each of the long-term importers during the five most recent reporting quarters. Attachment B shows volumes and prices of gas purchased by long-term importers and exporters during the past 12 months. Attachment C shows volume and price information pertaining to gas imported on a short-term or spot market basis. Attachment D shows the gas exported on a short-term or spot market basis to Canada and Mexico. 14 figs., 9 tabs.

  14. Natural gas imports and exports: Third quarter report, 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    The Office of Natural Gas and Petroleum Import and Export Activities prepares quarterly reports summarizing the data provided by companies authorized to import or export natural gas. Companies are required, as a condition of their authorizations, to file quarterly reports. This report is for the third quarter of 1998 (July--September). Attachment A shows the percentage of takes to maximum firm contract levels and the weighted average per unit price for each of the long-term importers during the five most recent calendar quarters. Attachment B shows volumes and prices of gas purchased by long-term importers and exporters during the past 12 months. Attachment C shows volume and price information pertaining to gas imported on a short-term or spot market basis. Attachment D shows the gas exported on a short-term or spot market basis to Canada and Mexico.

  15. Natural gas imports and exports. Third quarter report 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    This quarterly report, prepared by The Office of Natural Gas and Petroleum Import and Export Activities, summarizes the data provided by companies authorized to import or export natural gas. Numerical data are presented in four attachments, each of which is comprised of a series of tables. Attachment A shows the percentage of takes to maximum firm contract levels and the weighted average per unit price for each of the long-term importers during the five most recent calendar quarters. Volumes and prices of gas purchased by long-term importers and exporters during the past year are given in Attachment B. Attachment C shows volume and price information pertaining to gas imported on a short-term or spot market basis. Attachment D lists gas exported on a short-term or spot market basis to Canada and Mexico. Highlights of the report are very briefly summarized.

  16. Natural gas imports and exports. Fourth quarter report, 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    The Office of Natural Gas and Petroleum Import and Export Activities prepares quarterly reports summarizing the data provided by companies authorized to import or export natural gas. Companies are required, as a condition of their authorizations, to file quarterly reports. This report is for the fourth quarter of 1998 (October through December). Attachment A shows the percentage of takes to maximum firm contract levels and the weighted average per unit price for each of the long-term importers during the five most recent reporting quarters. Attachment B shows volumes and prices of gas purchased by long-term importers and exporters during the past 12 months. Attachment C shows volume and price information pertaining to gas imported on a short-term or spot market basis. Attachment D shows the gas exported on a short-term or spot market basis to Canada and Mexico.

  17. Natural gas imports and exports. First quarter report, 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-08-01

    The Office of Natural Gas and Petroleum Import and Export Activities prepares quarterly reports summarizing the data provided by companies authorized to import or export natural gas. Companies are required, as a condition of their authorizations, to file quarterly reports. This report is for the first quarter of 1998 (January through March). Attachment A shows the percentage of takes to maximum firm contract levels and the weighted average per unit price for each of the long-term importers during the five most recent reporting quarters. Attachment B shows volumes and prices of gas purchased by long-term importers and exporters during the past 12 months. Attachment C shows volume and price information pertaining to gas imported on a short-term or spot market basis. Attachment D shows the gas exported on a short-term or spot market basis to Canada and Mexico.

  18. Natural gas imports and exports. Second quarter report, 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-11-01

    The Office of Natural Gas and Petroleum Import and Export Activities prepared quarterly reports summarizing the data provided by companies authorized to import or export natural gas. Companies are required, as a condition of their authorizations, to file quarterly reports. This report is for the second quarter of 1998 (April through June). Attachment A shows the percentage of takes to maximum firm contract levels and the weighted average per unit price for each of the long-term importers during the five most recent reporting quarters. Attachment B shows volumes and prices of gas purchased by long-term importers and exporters during the past 12 months. Attachment C shows volume and price information pertaining to gas imported on a short-term or spot market basis. Attachment D shows the gas exported on a short-term or spot market basis to Canada and Mexico.

  19. Dongfang Starts to Supply Natural Gas to Hainan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    @@ The onshore terminal of Dongfang 1-1 Gas Field was recently completed for construction, two months ahead of the schedule. The operating personnel are now working to get the terminal ready for production. The offshore natural gas is scheduled to go through the terminal on trial late in July 2003.The terminal links Dongfang 1-1 Gas Field, 113 kilometers away with a water depth of around 70 meters, to the important industrial bases like Basuo,Yangpu and Haikou. The terminal is responsible for treatment of natural gas coming from the undersea pipeline and then transmission of gas to the onshore users in Yangpu and Haikou. In addition, it also monitors the working conditions of all the operating systems including the drilling platform.

  20. Thermodynamic Modeling of Natural Gas Systems Containing Water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karakatsani, Eirini K.; Kontogeorgis, Georgios M.

    2013-01-01

    with a heavy phase were previously obtained using cubic plus association (CPA) coupled with a solid phase model in the case of hydrates, for the binary systems of water–methane and water–nitrogen and a few natural gas mixtures. In this work, CPA is being validated against new experimental data, both water...... content and phase equilibrium data, and solid model parameters are being estimated for four natural gas main components (methane, ethane, propane, and carbon dioxide). Different tests for the solid model parameters are reported, including vapor-hydrate-equilibria (VHE) and liquid-hydrate-equilibria (LHE......As the need for dew point specifications remains very urgent in the natural gas industry, the development of accurate thermodynamic models, which will match experimental data and will allow reliable extrapolations, is needed. Accurate predictions of the gas phase water content in equilibrium...

  1. An accurate empirical correlation for predicting natural gas viscosity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ehsan Sanjari; Ebrahim Nemati Lay; Mohammad Peymani

    2011-01-01

    Natural gas viscosity is an important parameter in many gas and petroleum engineering calculations.This study presents a new empirical model for quickly calculating the natural gas viscosity.The model was derived from 4089 experimental viscosity data with varieties ranging from 0.01to 21,and 1 to 3 of pseudo reduced pressure and temperature,respectively.The accuracy of this new empirical correlation has been compared with commonly used empirical models,including Lee et al.,Heidaryan et al.,Carr et al.,and Adel Elsharkawy correlations.The comparison indicates that this new empirical model can predict viscosity of natural gas with average absolute relative deviation percentage AARD (%) of 2.173.

  2. An accurate empirical correlation for predicting natural gas compressibility factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ehsan Sanjari; Ebrahim Nemati Lay

    2012-01-01

    The compressibility factor of natural gas is an important parameter in many gas and petroleum engineering calculations.This study presents a new empirical model for quick calculation of natural gas compressibility factors.The model was derived from 5844 experimental data of compressibility factors for a range of pseudo reduced pressures from 0.01 to 15 and pseudo reduced temperatures from 1 to 3.The accuracy of the new empirical correlation has been compared with commonly used existing methods.The comparison indicates the superiority of the new empirical model over the other methods used to calculate compressibility factor of natural gas with average absolute relative deviation percent (AARD%) of 0.6535.

  3. Co-pyrolysis characteristics of coal and natural gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, L.R.; Zhang, J.M.; Lian, H.; Luo, M. [Shanghai University of Science & Technology, Shanghai (China)

    2007-05-15

    A co-pyrolysis experiment of coal and natural gas was investigated on a fixed-bed reactor. SEM was used to study the structure changes of the exterior surface of char prepared in this co-pyrolysis experiment, while GC was also utilized to analyze the associated gas. The result showed that, with increasing temperature, the coal char tended to agglomerate. GC and SEM results show that the CH{sub 4} decomposition on the exterior surface of char was turned to filamentous char and extended around like coral. It was also proved that the co-pyrolysis of coal and natural gas promoted syngas production. A synergistic effect of coal and natural gas does exist during this process.

  4. The EROI of Conventional Canadian Natural Gas Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon Freise

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Canada was the world’s third largest natural gas producer in 2008, with 98% of its gas being produced by conventional, tight gas, and coal bed methane wells in Western Canada. Natural gas production in Western Canada peaked in 2001 and remained nearly flat until 2006 despite more than quadrupling the drilling rate. Canada seems to be one of many counter examples to the idea that oil and gas production can rise with sufficient investment. This study calculated the Energy Return on Energy Invested and Net Energy of conventional natural gas and oil production in Western Canada by a variety of methods to explore the energy dynamics of the peaking process. All these methods show a downward trend in EROI during the last decade. Natural gas EROI fell from 38:1 in 1993 to 15:1 at the peak of drilling in 2005. The drilling intensity for natural gas was so high that net energy delivered to society peaked in 2000–2002, while production did not peak until 2006. The industry consumed all the extra energy it delivered to maintain the high drilling effort. The inability of a region to increase net energy may be the best definition of peak production. This increase in energy consumption reduces the total energy provided to society and acts as a contracting pressure on the overall economy as the industry consumes greater quantities of labor, steel, concrete and fuel. It appears that energy production from conventional oil and gas in Western Canada has peaked and entered permanent decline.

  5. 77 FR 2126 - Pipeline Safety: Implementation of the National Registry of Pipeline and Liquefied Natural Gas...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-13

    ... Registry of Pipeline and Liquefied Natural Gas Operators AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety... registry of pipeline and liquefied natural gas operators. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Jamerson Pender... 72878), titled: ``Pipeline Safety: Updates to Pipeline and Liquefied Natural Gas Reporting...

  6. 77 FR 28331 - Standards for Business Practices for Interstate Natural Gas Pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-14

    ... Natural Gas Pipelines AGENCY: Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, DOE. ACTION: Request for additional... North American Energy Standards Board (NAESB) applicable to natural gas pipelines. The Commission... American Energy Standards Board (NAESB) applicable to natural gas pipelines. The Commission, however,...

  7. Methane Leaks from Natural Gas Systems Follow Extreme Distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Adam R; Heath, Garvin A; Cooley, Daniel

    2016-11-15

    Future energy systems may rely on natural gas as a low-cost fuel to support variable renewable power. However, leaking natural gas causes climate damage because methane (CH4) has a high global warming potential. In this study, we use extreme-value theory to explore the distribution of natural gas leak sizes. By analyzing ∼15 000 measurements from 18 prior studies, we show that all available natural gas leakage data sets are statistically heavy-tailed, and that gas leaks are more extremely distributed than other natural and social phenomena. A unifying result is that the largest 5% of leaks typically contribute over 50% of the total leakage volume. While prior studies used log-normal model distributions, we show that log-normal functions poorly represent tail behavior. Our results suggest that published uncertainty ranges of CH4 emissions are too narrow, and that larger sample sizes are required in future studies to achieve targeted confidence intervals. Additionally, we find that cross-study aggregation of data sets to increase sample size is not recommended due to apparent deviation between sampled populations. Understanding the nature of leak distributions can improve emission estimates, better illustrate their uncertainty, allow prioritization of source categories, and improve sampling design. Also, these data can be used for more effective design of leak detection technologies.

  8. Regulation Strategy in Natural Gas Sector. The Romanian Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coralia Angelescu

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available This study provides a methodological analysis to evaluate the regulation strategy in Romanian natural gas sector. The market oriented reforms are not only associated with the gap between internal prices and world prices. In the same time, the market oriented reforms are mixed with the other forms of government intervention. The industry network theory provides a good pillar for maintaining natural monopoly in public utilities. The conclusions which are presented in this article offer a good theory for the activity of the National Authority of Regulation in Romanian natural gas sector.

  9. Regulation Strategy in Natural Gas Sector. The Romanian Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aura Socol

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This study provides a methodological analysis to evaluate the regulation strategy in Romanian natural gas sector. The market oriented reforms are not only associated with the gap between internal prices and world prices. In the same time, the market oriented reforms are mixed with the other forms of government intervention. The industry network theory provides a good pillar for maintaining natural monopoly in public utilities. The conclusions which are presented in this article offer a good theory for the activity of the National Authority of Regulation in Romanian natural gas sector.

  10. Storage of natural gas in adsorbent materials; Armazenamento de gas natural em materiais adsorventes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Jose R.; Rojas, Leopoldo O.A.; Silva, Claudio F. da; Dantas, Jose H.A. [Centro de Tecnologias do Gas (CTGAS), Natal, RN (Brazil); Moraes, Caetano [Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia (INT), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Freire, Luiz G. de M. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    This paper presents a review of our research work in methane storage with adsorbents. The performance of three overseas (CA1, CA2, CA3) and one local-made (CAN) activated carbons were evaluated as natural gas adsorbent materials for storage in automotive reservoirs. A detailed analysis of the surface properties of these materials was also made so to correlate them with the storage capacity, in volume basis. The effects of micropore volume, pore size distribution, specific area and bulk density were considered in the analysis of the results. The storage tests showed that CA1 activate carbon presented the highest storage capacity (84,2 V/V) due for its very high specific area and micropore volume (95 %). CA2's activated carbon was the second best with 75,7 V/V of storage capacity, CA3 and CAN carbons presenting stored capacities of 55,4 V/V and 53,2 V/V respectively. (author)

  11. Focus on the Development of Natural Gas Hydrate in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongfu Tan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Natural gas hydrate, also known as combustible ice, and mainly composed of methane, is identified as a potential clean energy for the 21st century. Due to its large reserves, gas hydrate can ease problems caused by energy resource shortage and has gained attention around the world. In this paper, we focus on the exploration and development of gas hydrate as well as discussing its status and future development trend in China and abroad. We then analyze its opportunities and challenges in China from four aspects, resource, technology, economy and policy, with five forces model and Politics Economics Society Technology method. The results show China has abundance gas hydrate resource; however, backward technologies and inadequate investment have seriously hindered the future development of gas hydrate; thus, China should establish relevant cooperation framework and intuitional arrangement to attract more investment as well as breaking through technical difficulties to commercialization gas hydrate as soon as possible.

  12. The impact of high oil prices on natural gas; Hoge olieprijzen maken gas duur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koevoet, H. (ed.)

    2003-04-01

    The principle of gas-to-oil (oil prices determine the price of natural gas) in the Netherlands and several other developments elsewhere (war in Iraq and a cold winter in the USA) has caused high natural gas prices. The question is whether the liberalization of the energy market can change this principle. [Dutch] De oorlogswolken boven Irak en een koude winter in de USA hebben de prijs van olie fors opgedreven. Daardoor is ook gas erg duur geworden. Kan de liberalisering daar iets aan veranderen?.

  13. Natural gas hydrate formation and inhibition in gas/crude oil/aqueous systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daraboina, Nagu; Pachitsas, Stylianos; von Solms, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    Gas hydrate formation in multi phase mixtures containing an aqueous phase (with dissolved salts), reservoir fluid (crude oil) and natural gas phase was investigated by using a standard rocking cell (RC-5) apparatus. The hydrate formation temperature was reduced in the presence of crude oils...... of the biodegradable commercial kinetic inhibitor (Luvicap-Bio) on natural gas hydrate formation with and without crude oil (30%) was investigated. The strength of kinetic inhibitor was not affected by salts, but decreased significantly in the presence of crude oil. Data for hydrate formation at practical conditions...... can contribute to the safe operation of sub sea pipelines in the oil and gas industry....

  14. Necessary conditions for the planning on the natural gas market; Condicoes necessarias para o planejamento no mercado de gas natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Edmar de; Iootty, Mariana

    2007-07-01

    In 2004, the natural gas agents discovered a radical change in the sector panoram. Since 1998, when the Bolivia-Brazil gas pipeline was inaugurated, the market situation was a supply excess. The major problem of the distributors and the PETROBRAS was how to accelerate the market development to accomplish with the contract for buying natural gas compromised with Bolivia. From 2004 on progressively, the supply insurance occupied the discussions agenda. The agents discovered to be real the risks of the supply not to follow the demand.

  15. Abiotic and biotic factors associated with the presence of Anopheles arabiensis immatures and their abundance in naturally occurring and man-made aquatic habitats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gouagna Louis

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anopheles arabiensis (Diptera: Culicidae is a potential malaria vector commonly present at low altitudes in remote areas in Reunion Island. Little attention has been paid to the environmental conditions driving larval development and abundance patterns in potential habitats. Two field surveys were designed to determine whether factors that discriminate between aquatic habitats with and without An. arabiensis larvae also drive larval abundance, comparatively in man-made and naturally occurring habitats. Methods In an initial preliminary survey, a representative sample of aquatic habitats that would be amenable to an intensive long-term study were selected and divided into positive and negative sites based on the presence or absence of Anopheles arabiensis larvae. Subsequently, a second survey was prompted to gain a better understanding of biotic and abiotic drivers of larval abundance, comparatively in man-made and naturally occurring habitats in the two studied locations. In both surveys, weekly sampling was performed to record mosquito species composition and larval density within individual habitats, as well as in situ biological characteristics and physico-chemical properties. Results Whilst virtually any stagnant water body could be a potential breeding ground for An. arabiensis, habitats occupied by their immatures had different structural and biological characteristics when compared to those where larvae were absent. Larval occurrence seemed to be influenced by flow velocity, macrofauna diversity and predation pressure. Interestingly, the relative abundance of larvae in man-made habitats (average: 0.55 larvae per dip, 95%CI [0.3–0.7] was significantly lower than that recorded in naturally occurring ones (0.74, 95%CI [0.5–0.8]. Such differences may be accounted for in part by varying pressures that could be linked to a specific habitat. Conclusions If the larval ecology of An. arabiensis is in general very complex

  16. Safety in Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buhrow, C. [Technische Univ. Bergakademie, Freiberg (Germany). Lehrstuhl Bergbau/Tiefbau; Niemann-Delius, C.; Okafor, E. [Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany). Lehrstuhl und Inst. fuer Bergbaukunde 3

    2005-07-01

    Germany needs an LNG receiving terminal to import LNG and supplement expected future gas supply shortages. Enormous economic benefits also abound if Germany is to install an LNG receiving terminal. Jobs will be created for several hundred people. New tax revenues will be generated for state and local governments and this will further enhance the economic competitiveness of Germany. Additionally, it will provide Germany with a reliable source of clean-burning energy. Any proposed LNG receiving terminal should incorporate safety right from the start. These safety requirements will: ensure that certain public land uses, people, and structures outside the LNG facility boundaries are protected in the event of LNG fire, prevent vapour clouds associated with an LNG spill from reaching a property line that can be built upon, prevent severe burns resulting from thermal radiation, specify requirements for design, construction and use of LNG facilities and other equipments, and promote safe, secure and reliable LNG operations. The German future LNG business will not be complete without the evolution of both local and international standards that can apply to LNG operations. Currently existing European standards also appear inadequate. With an OHSAS 18001 management system integrated with other existing standards we can better control our LNG occupational health and safety risks, and improve performance in the process. Additionally, an OHSAS 18001 System will help future German LNG contractors and operators safeguard their most important assets - their employees. (orig.)

  17. Natural Gas Sweetening by Ultra-Microporous Polyimides Membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Alghunaimi, Fahd

    2017-05-01

    Most natural gas fields in Saudi Arabia contain around 10 mol.% carbon dioxide. The present technology to remove carbon dioxide is performed by chemical absorption, which has many drawbacks. Alternatively, membrane-based gas separation technology has attracted great interest in recent years due to: (i) simple modular design, (ii) potential cost effectiveness, (iii) ease of scale-up, and (iv) environmental friendliness. The state-of-the-art membrane materials for natural gas sweetening are glassy cellulose acetate and polyimide, which were introduced in the 1980s. In the near future, the kingdom is planning to boost its production of natural gas for power generation and increase the feedstock for new petrochemical plants. Therefore, the kingdom and worldwide market has an urgent need for better membrane materials to remove carbon dioxide from raw natural gas. The focus of this dissertation was to design new polyimide membrane materials for CO2/CH4 separation exhibiting high permeability and high selectivity relative to the standard commercial materials tested under realistic mixed-gas feed conditions. Furthermore, this study provided a fundamental understanding of structure/gas transport property relationships of triptycene-based PIM-polyimides. Optimally designed intrinsically microporous polyimide (PIM-PIs) membranes in this work exhibited drastically increased CO2/CH4 selectivities of up to ~75. In addition, a novel triptycene-based hydroxyl-containing polyimide (TDA1-APAF) showed 5-fold higher permeabilities over benchmark commercial materials such as cellulose acetate. Furthermore, this polyimide had a N2/CH4 selectivity of 2.3, thereby making it possible to simultaneously treat CO2- and N2-contaminated natural gas. Also, TDA1-APAF showed a CO2 permeability of 21 Barrer under binary 1:1 CO2/CH4 mixed-gas feed with a selectivity of 72 at a partial CO2 pressure of 10 bar which are significantly better than cellulose triacetate. These results suggest that TDA1

  18. 75 FR 18607 - Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases: Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-12

    ... stations, underground natural gas storage, liquefied natural gas (LNG) storage, LNG import and export... Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change kg kilograms LDCs local natural gas distribution companies LNG liquefied natural gas LPG liquefied petroleum gas MRR mandatory GHG reporting rule MMTCO 2 e million......

  19. The Spatial Footprint of Natural Gas-Fired Electricity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordaan, S. M.; Heath, G.; Macknick, J.; Mohammadi, E.; Ben-Horin, D.; Urrea, V.; Marceau, D.

    2015-12-01

    Consistent comparisons of the amount of land required for different electricity generation technologies are challenging because land use associated with fossil fuel acquisition and delivery has not been well characterized or empirically grounded. This research focuses on improving estimates of the life cycle land use of natural gas-fired electricity (m2/MWh generated) through the novel combination of inventories of natural gas-related infrastructure, satellite imagery analysis and gas production estimates. We focus on seven counties that represent 98% of the total gas production in the Barnett Shale (Texas), evaluating over 500 sites across five life cycle stages (gas production, gathering, processing, transmission, and power generation as well as produced water disposal). We find that a large fraction of total life cycle land use is related to gathering (midstream) infrastructure, particularly pipelines; access roads related to all stages also contribute a large life cycle share. Results were sensitive to several inputs, including well lifetime, pipeline right of way, number of wells per site, variability of heat rate for electricity generation, and facility lifetime. Through this work, we have demonstrated a novel, highly-resolved and empirical method for estimating life cycle land use from natural gas infrastructure in an important production region. When replicated for other gas production regions and other fuels, the results can enable more empirically-grounded and robust comparisons of the land footprint of alternative energy choices.

  20. Dynamic safety assessment of natural gas stations using Bayesian network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarei, Esmaeil; Azadeh, Ali; Khakzad, Nima; Aliabadi, Mostafa Mirzaei; Mohammadfam, Iraj

    2017-01-05

    Pipelines are one of the most popular and effective ways of transporting hazardous materials, especially natural gas. However, the rapid development of gas pipelines and stations in urban areas has introduced a serious threat to public safety and assets. Although different methods have been developed for risk analysis of gas transportation systems, a comprehensive methodology for risk analysis is still lacking, especially in natural gas stations. The present work is aimed at developing a dynamic and comprehensive quantitative risk analysis (DCQRA) approach for accident scenario and risk modeling of natural gas stations. In this approach, a FMEA is used for hazard analysis while a Bow-tie diagram and Bayesian network are employed to model the worst-case accident scenario and to assess the risks. The results have indicated that the failure of the regulator system was the worst-case accident scenario with the human error as the most contributing factor. Thus, in risk management plan of natural gas stations, priority should be given to the most probable root events and main contribution factors, which have identified in the present study, in order to reduce the occurrence probability of the accident scenarios and thus alleviate the risks.

  1. Natural gas geochemistry and its origins in Kuqa depression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    According to gas compositional and carbon isotopic measurement of 114 gas samples from the Kuqa depression,accumulation of the natural gases in the depression is dominated by hydrocarbon gases, with high gas dryness(C1/C1-4)at the middle and northern parts of the depression and low one towards east and west sides and southern part.The carbon isotopes of methane and its homologues are relatively enriched in 13 C,and the distributive range ofδ13C 1 ,δ13C 2 andδ13C 3 is-32‰―-36‰,-22‰―-24‰and-20‰―-22‰,respectively.In general,the carbon isotopes of gaseous alkanes become less negative with the increase of carbon numbers.Theδ13C CO2 value is less than-10‰in the Kuqa depression,indicating its organogenic origin.The distributive range of 3 He/ 4 He ratio is within n×10-8 and a decrease in 3 He/ 4 He ratio from north to south in the depression is observed.Based on the geochemical parameters of natural gas above,natural gas in the Kuqa depression is of characteristics of coal-type gas origin.The possible reasons for the partial reversal of stable carbon isotopes of gaseous alkanes involve the mixing of gases from one common source rock with different thermal maturity or from two separated source rock intervals of similar kerogen type,multistages accumulation of natural gas under high-temperature and over-pressure conditions,and sufficiency and diffusion of natural gas.

  2. Prospective of the Natural Gas marketing 2002-2011; Prospectiva del Mercado de Gas Natural 2002-2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    According with the 109 Th Article of the Natural Gas Regulations the Secretaria de Energia publishes this prospective of the Natural gas market 2002-2011 which describes and analyses the necessities of Mexico in relation with this industry in the mentioned period. Here aspects such as: the present and future international panorama of the natural gas market, international prices, the world demand with base in the Department of Energy (DOE) turnover of the United States, Advances of the in force regulatory framework, Sales, the National Gas pipeline system, Evolution of the National market, Demand at regional and sectoral scales, Supply analysis, Programs and projects of energy savings, natural gas balance with the high demand scene, the methodology of the Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo for calculating the self-generation demand of the electric energy by sector, a glossary with the more used terms, conversion factors and abbreviations and acronyms used in the document are treated. In the next ten years, the national demand of natural gas will suffer an annual average growth of 7.4% passing from 4358 millions of daily cubic feet (mm pcd) in 2001 to 8883 mm pcd in 2011. (Author)

  3. Hydraulic fracturing for natural gas: impact on health and environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, David O

    2016-03-01

    Shale deposits exist in many parts of the world and contain relatively large amounts of natural gas and oil. Recent technological developments in the process of horizontal hydraulic fracturing (hydrofracturing or fracking) have suddenly made it economically feasible to extract natural gas from shale. While natural gas is a much cleaner burning fuel than coal, there are a number of significant threats to human health from the extraction process as currently practiced. There are immediate threats to health resulting from air pollution from volatile organic compounds, which contain carcinogens such as benzene and ethyl-benzene, and which have adverse neurologic and respiratory effects. Hydrogen sulfide, a component of natural gas, is a potent neuro- and respiratory toxin. In addition, levels of formaldehyde are elevated around fracking sites due to truck traffic and conversion of methane to formaldehyde by sunlight. There are major concerns about water contamination because the chemicals used can get into both ground and surface water. Much of the produced water (up to 40% of what is injected) comes back out of the gas well with significant radioactivity because radium in subsurface rock is relatively water soluble. There are significant long-term threats beyond cancer, including exacerbation of climate change due to the release of methane into the atmosphere, and increased earthquake activity due to disruption of subsurface tectonic plates. While fracking for natural gas has significant economic benefits, and while natural gas is theoretically a better fossil fuel as compared to coal and oil, current fracking practices pose significant adverse health effects to workers and near-by residents. The health of the public should not be compromized simply for the economic benefits to the industry.

  4. Natural Gas Consumption of Emerging Economies in the Industrialization Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Chai

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Natural gas has become more and more important in the world energy market with the change of energy consumption structure and consumption subjects. This paper applies the panel smooth transition regression (PSTR model to study the nonlinear relationship between natural gas consumption and economic variables of emerging economies, and the empirical results show that: (1 There is a non-linear relationship among natural gas consumption, GDP per capita, industrialization and urbanization rate; (2 The optimal PSTR model is a two-regime model by using the lagged industrialization as a transition variable, and the impact of GDP per capita and of industrialization on natural gas consumption shows incomplete symmetry in low and high regime, respectively; (3 The result of time-varying elasticity analysis indicates that natural gas consumption is inelastic to GDP per capita, but elastic to both industrialization and urbanization. The elasticity of GDP per capita generally decrease with fluctuation, the elasticity of industrialization tends to rise, and the elasticity of urbanization is linear at high level; (4 Regional difference shows that there are 10 emerging economies are in first regime (below industrialization of 43.2%, and the remaining 6 are in second regime. This provides reference for countries in different transformation periods to make economic policies adapting to energy saving, energy structure optimization and other sustainable development strategies.

  5. Bioconversion of natural gas to liquid fuel: Opportunities and challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fei, Q; Guarnieri, MT; Tao, L; Laurens, LML; Dowe, N; Pienkos, PT

    2014-05-01

    Natural gas is a mixture of low molecular weight hydrocarbon gases that can be generated from either fossil or anthropogenic resources. Although natural gas is used as a transportation fuel, constraints in storage, relatively low energy content (MJ/L), and delivery have limited widespread adoption. Advanced utilization of natural gas has been explored for biofuel production by microorganisms. In recent years, the aerobic bioconversion of natural gas (or primarily the methane content of natural gas) into liquid fuels (Bio-GTL) by biocatalysts (methanotrophs) has gained increasing attention as a promising alternative for drop-in biofuel production. Methanotrophic bacteria are capable of converting methane into microbial lipids, which can in turn be converted into renewable diesel via a hydrotreating process. In this paper, biodiversity, catalytic properties and key enzymes and pathways of these microbes are summarized. Bioprocess technologies are discussed based upon existing literature, including cultivation conditions, fermentation modes, bioreactor design, and lipid extraction and upgrading. This review also outlines the potential of Bio-GTL using methane as an alternative carbon source as well as the major challenges and future research needs of microbial lipid accumulation derived from methane, key performance index, and techno-economic analysis. An analysis of raw material costs suggests that methane-derived diesel fuel has the potential to be competitive with petroleum-derived diesel. (C) 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Bioconversion of Natural Gas to Liquid Fuel. Opportunities and Challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fei, Qiang [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Guarnieri, Michael T. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tao, Ling [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Laurens, Lieve M. L. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Dowe, Nancy [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Pienkos, Philip T. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2014-05-01

    Natural gas is a mixture of low molecular weight hydrocarbon gases that can be generated from either fossil or anthropogenic resources. Although natural gas is used as a transportation fuel, constraints in storage, relatively low energy content (MJ/L), and delivery have limited widespread adoption. Advanced utilization of natural gas has been explored for biofuel production by microorganisms. In recent years, the aerobic bioconversion of natural gas (or primarily the methane content of natural gas) into liquid fuels (Bio-GTL) by biocatalysts (methanotrophs) has gained increasing attention as a promising alternative for drop-in biofuel production. Moreover, methanotrophic bacteria are capable of converting methane into microbial lipids, which can in turn be converted into renewable diesel via a hydrotreating process. In this paper, biodiversity, catalytic properties and key enzymes and pathways of these microbes are summarized. Bioprocess technologies are discussed based upon existing literature, including cultivation conditions, fermentation modes, bioreactor design, and lipid extraction and upgrading. Our review also outlines the potential of Bio-GTL using methane as an alternative carbon source as well as the major challenges and future research needs of microbial lipid accumulation derived from methane, key performance index, and techno-economic analysis. An analysis of raw material costs suggests that methane-derived diesel fuel has the potential to be competitive with petroleum-derived diesel.

  7. Low pressure storage of natural gas on activated carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegrzyn, J.; Wiesmann, H.; Lee, T.

    The introduction of natural gas to the transportation energy sector offers the possibility of displacing imported oil with an indigenous fuel. The barrier to the acceptance of natural gas vehicles (NGV) is the limited driving range due to the technical difficulties of on-board storage of a gaseous fuel. In spite of this barrier, compressed natural gas (CNG) vehicles are today being successfully introduced into the market place. The purpose of this work is to demonstrate an adsorbent natural gas (ANG) storage system as a viable alternative to CNG storage. It can be argued that low pressure ANG has reached near parity with CNG, since the storage capacity of CNG (2400 psi) is rated at 190 V/V, while low pressure ANG (500 psi) has reached storage capacities of 180 V/V in the laboratory. A program, which extends laboratory results to a full-scale vehicle test, is necessary before ANG technology will receive widespread acceptance. The objective of this program is to field test a 150 V/V ANG vehicle in FY 1994. As a start towards this goal, carbon adsorbents have been screened by Brookhaven for their potential use in a natural gas storage system. This paper reports on one such carbon, trade name Maxsorb, manufactured by Kansai Coke under an Amoco license.

  8. Bioconversion of natural gas to liquid fuel: opportunities and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Qiang; Guarnieri, Michael T; Tao, Ling; Laurens, Lieve M L; Dowe, Nancy; Pienkos, Philip T

    2014-01-01

    Natural gas is a mixture of low molecular weight hydrocarbon gases that can be generated from either fossil or anthropogenic resources. Although natural gas is used as a transportation fuel, constraints in storage, relatively low energy content (MJ/L), and delivery have limited widespread adoption. Advanced utilization of natural gas has been explored for biofuel production by microorganisms. In recent years, the aerobic bioconversion of natural gas (or primarily the methane content of natural gas) into liquid fuels (Bio-GTL) by biocatalysts (methanotrophs) has gained increasing attention as a promising alternative for drop-in biofuel production. Methanotrophic bacteria are capable of converting methane into microbial lipids, which can in turn be converted into renewable diesel via a hydrotreating process. In this paper, biodiversity, catalytic properties and key enzymes and pathways of these microbes are summarized. Bioprocess technologies are discussed based upon existing literature, including cultivation conditions, fermentation modes, bioreactor design, and lipid extraction and upgrading. This review also outlines the potential of Bio-GTL using methane as an alternative carbon source as well as the major challenges and future research needs of microbial lipid accumulation derived from methane, key performance index, and techno-economic analysis. An analysis of raw material costs suggests that methane-derived diesel fuel has the potential to be competitive with petroleum-derived diesel.

  9. Centrifugal separation of liquid carbon dioxide from natural gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batalović Veselin B.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural gas is becoming more and more a commodity in the global energy consumption. New technologies like the conversion from gas to liquid, contribute to this. But more than 16 % of the currently known global gas reserves cannot be produced due to severe CO2 and/or H2S contamination: (CO2 > 10% and H2S> 5%. The traditional technology of amine treatment is not able to economically remove these contaminants. The objective of this article is to investigate the possibilities of centrifugal separation to resolve the problem. After analyzing the existing situation, in the centrifugal separation of natural gas, some innovations in separators design and theory are suggested. The aim of the presented theoretical considerations is that the complex theory of separation to adapt to the needs of engineers engaged on the design, development and operation of these devices. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 33001

  10. Liquefaction of remote sources of natural gas. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, D.W.

    1981-12-01

    The objective was to determine the technical and financial feasibility of liquefying remote reserves of natural gas and transporting the liquefied product to users. The proposed methodology included efforts to (1) identify any prohibitive or limiting laws and/or regulations; (2) identify sufficient unutilized reserves in remote areas to justify further investigation; (3) identify existing portable liquefaction equipment (or an interested manufacturer that could supply the needed equipment) to obtain cost and performance data; (4) determine site preparation, supply and production costs for use in assessing economic feasibility; and (5) identify potential users. The conclusion is that the liquefaction of natural gas in remote areas of Appalachia is not economically feasible as long as an adequate and reliable supply of pipeline gas is perceived to be available for the forseable future and the price per Btu of pipeline gas remains so far below other fuels. 3 tables.

  11. Natural oscillations of a gas in an elongated combustion chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesterov, S. V.; Akulenko, L. D.; Baydulov, V. G.

    2017-02-01

    For the analysis of the frequencies and shapes of the natural oscillations of a gas in an elongated rectilinear combustion chamber, this chamber can be treated as a kind of an organ pipe that has the following specific features: 1. the chamber has an inlet and outlet nozzles; 2. a gas mixture burns in the combustion chamber; 3. the combustion materials flow out from the outlet nozzle; 4. the gas flows in such a way that its velocity in the larger part (closer to the outlet nozzle) of the chamber exceeds the speed of sound (Mach number M > 1). There are only separate domains (one or several), where M < 1. The excitation of the natural oscillations of the gas and an increase in the amplitude of such oscillations can lead to instability of the combustion process [1].

  12. Natural Gas Venting on the Northern Cascadia Margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherwath, M.; Riedel, M.; Roemer, M.; Paull, C. K.; Spence, G.; Veloso, M.

    2016-12-01

    Over the past decades, hundreds of natural gas vents have been observed along the Northern Cascadia Margin in the Northeast Pacific, and we present a summary of these observations from offshore Vancouver Island, BC, Canada. We have gathered observed locations and analyzed original data from published literature as well as research cruises and fishing sonar from various archives. By far the highest accumulation of gas vent locations appear both shallow (100-200 m) and concentrated towards the mouth of the Juan de Fuca Strait, however these observations are naturally biased toward the distribution of the observation footprints. Normalized observations confirm the shallow high concentrations of gas vents but also establish some deeper sections of focused venting activity. We will speculate about the reasons behind the distribution, focus on specific examples, extrapolate for rough margin flux rate ranges and comment on short-comings and future directions for margin-wide gas vent studies.

  13. Contribution of natural gas for sustainable development in Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Sarmento

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Portugal has strongly limited domestic energy resources, since imports almost 90% of its energy needs and its energy production is totally from renewable energy sources. The addition of natural gas to the Portuguese energy mix in 1997 helped to diversify Portugal’s energy sources and is a contribution to the mitigation of environmental problems. In 1997 also ceased the production and use of domestic coal. In fact, Portugal is working to reduce the growth in energy use and CO2 emissions, in order to follow the Kyoto Protocol. This measure can be linked to environmental sustainability policies, creating the opportunity for new business to appear. Natural gas, in some applications, can substitute the electricity, implying a decrease in price. Security of gas supply is an important issue, since Portugal depends mainly on a single supplier. This paper aims at analysing the emerging gas market, (threats and opportunities, its evolution andcomparison with other OECD countries.

  14. The natural gas vehicles; Le gaz naturel vehicules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    The NGV (Natural Gas Vehicles) is a new ''clean'' fuel used for the urban public transports which can be adapted to the vehicles. It is the same gas as those for the cooking and the heating, but compressed at 200 bars. this document presents this abundant energy sources, the bound emissions standards, the technical and economical aspects, the environmental advantages, the today implementation and compare the french policy towards the NGV to other countries. (A.L.B.)

  15. Internal combustion engine for natural gas compressor operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagen, Christopher; Babbitt, Guy

    2016-12-27

    This application concerns systems and methods for compressing natural gas with an internal combustion engine. In a representative embodiment, a method is featured which includes placing a first cylinder of an internal combustion engine in a compressor mode, and compressing a gas within the first cylinder, using the cylinder as a reciprocating compressor. In some embodiments a compression check valve system is used to regulate pressure and flow within cylinders of the engine during a compression process.

  16. Natural gas distribution network of Lima and Callao, Peru

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maroye, Stephane; Aerssens, Andre [Tractebel Engineering, Lima (Peru)

    2005-07-01

    In May 2002, Suez-Tractebel was awarded by the government of Peru a 30-year concession for the construction and operation of the gas distribution network in Lima, Peru. On 10 July, 2004, first gas was delivered to Lima, 1 month ahead of the official date. This gas distribution network, operated by GNLC (Gas Natural de Lima y Callao), delivers gas to some of the largest industries and power generators in and around Lima and the harbour area of Callao. Gas delivered in Lima comes through a 700 km HP gas pipeline from Camisea fields. This pipeline is operated by TGP (Transportadora de Gas del Peru). A City Gate is located at Lurin, on the southern side of the city. The gas distribution network is made of a 62 km main pipeline (20') with 25 km laterals. The main pipeline is operated at 50 bar, as the main customer, the Etevensa power plant, is located on the northern side of the city. Due to this high operating pressure combined to the surroundings, specific design philosophies were adopted to meet the extreme safety requirements. This paper highlights the specific measures taken during construction phase and the experience of the first months of operation of this challenging project. (author)

  17. Yangzi Petrochemical Company Uses Natural Gas to Supplement Steam Cracker Fuel Gas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ A major energy conservation and retrofitting project-ap-plication of natural gas as supplementary fuel for steam crackers has been successfully put into operation starting April 30, 2008 at the SINOPEC Yangzi Petrochemical Company.

  18. INVESTIGATION INTO NATURAL GAS LIQUEFACTION METHODS, LNG TRANSPORT AND STORAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atakan AVCI

    1995-03-01

    Full Text Available Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG processes are very new in Turkey. The Government of Turkey, due to diversification of supply and balancing of seasonal load, decided to import LNG from Algeria. The first shipment in Marmara Ereğli import terminal has been carried out in the August the 3 rd, 1994. LNG after regasification will be injected into the main transmission pipeline. The share of LNG in the world natural gas trade was approixmately 22.1% in 1988. According to the forecast, LNG share will be rapidly spreading all over the world in near future. In this paper, treatment, liquefaction, transport, storage, regasification, distribution and utilisation of LNG are examined. Particular attention has given into liquefaction of natural gas.

  19. STUDY FOR NATURAL GAS HYDRATE CONVERSED FROM ICE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Shengjie; SHEN Jiandong; HAO Miaoli; LIU Furong

    2003-01-01

    Natural gas hydrates are crystalline clathrate compounds composed of water and gases of small molecular diameters that can be used for storage and transport of natural gas as a novel method. In the paper a series of experiments of aspects and kinetics for hydrate formed from natural gas and ice were carried out on the industrial small scale production apparatus. The experimental results show that formation conditions of hydrate conversed from ice are independent of induction time, and bigger degrees of supersaturation and supercooling improved the driving force and advanced the hydrate formation.Superpressure is also favorable for ice particle conversion to hydrate. In addition, it was found there have an optimal reaction time during hydrate formation.

  20. [A mobile sensor for remote detection of natural gas leakage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuai; Liu, Wen-qing; Zhang, Yu-jun; Kan, Rui-feng; Ruan, Jun; Wang, Li-ming; Yu, Dian-qiang; Dong, Jin-ting; Han, Xiao-lei; Cui, Yi-ben; Liu, Jian-guo

    2012-02-01

    The detection of natural gas pipeline leak becomes a significant issue for body security, environmental protection and security of state property. However, the leak detection is difficult, because of the pipeline's covering many areas, operating conditions and complicated environment. A mobile sensor for remote detection of natural gas leakage based on scanning wavelength differential absorption spectroscopy (SWDAS) is introduced. The improved soft threshold wavelet denoising was proposed by analyzing the characteristics of reflection spectrum. And the results showed that the signal to noise ratio (SNR) was increased three times. When light intensity is 530 nA, the minimum remote sensitivity will be 80 ppm x m. A widely used SWDAS can make quantitative remote sensing of natural gas leak and locate the leak source precisely in a faster, safer and more intelligent way.

  1. Security resolution minute for natural gas distribution pipeline; Minuta de resolucao de seguranca na distribuicao do gas natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teles, Marcus de Barros [ARCE - Agencia Reguladora de Servicos Publicos Delegados do Estado do Ceara, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    In the current scenery of natural gas distribution regulation, there is no specific resolution about security. The security is boarded in few concession contracts of some private gas companies, but not as principal theme. The security resolution minute presented in this paper aim break the direct and indirect causes of accidents, eliminating their potential. In this new point of view, the quality of services is the principal cause to guarantee the security of natural gas distribution systems. The methodology used to develop the minute was based on the research of Brazilian and American resolutions of state regulation agencies, concession contracts of private distribution gas companies, American code of federal regulation, ASME code for pressure piping B31.8 - 1999 edition and the NBR 12712 standard. The result of the research was the elaboration of an specific minute resolution of security that can be used as reference in the fiscalization of the natural gas distribution piping companies activities. This minute, can be an important instrument to avoid accidents and incidents, eliminating prejudices to the people, to properties, to environment and to the image of natural gas distribution companies and regulation agencies. (author)

  2. Seismic response to natural gas anomalies in crystalline rocks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    According to the geological and seismic reflection data of the Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling (CCSD) main-hole (MH), and the anomalies of CH4, CO2, and He are correlated to the three-component seismic reflectors, especially in horizontal component profiles. However, the seismic response is dif-ficult to be explained as the porosity of crystalline rocks is only about 1% in well section where the gas anomalies occur. Seismic velocity measurement of the MH cores indicated that compared with wa-ter-saturated rock samples, seismic velocity (especially the S-wave) could be distinctly decreased by gas contained in tiny cracks despite of the low porosity, and then notable seismic response could be induced in gas-filled crystalline rocks. It could be predicated that if the porosity of certain rocks in the middle crust rose due to water-rock interaction and had natural gas filled, then there would be more probability for natural gas in top of the mid-crust to fill in the crystalline rocks with increased porosity. In such case, based on the decrease of Swave velocity in crystalline rocks, seismic method could be applied in the future to explore natural gas reservoirs in the middle crust.

  3. Seismic response to natural gas anomalies in crystalline rocks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG WenCai; JIN ZhenMin; YU ChangQing

    2008-01-01

    According to the geological and seismic reflection data of the Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling (CCSD) main-hole (MH), and the anomalies of CH4, CO2, and He are correlated to the three-component seismic reflectors, especially in horizontal component profiles. However, the seismic response is difficult to be explained as the porosity of crystalline rocks is only about 1% in well section where the gas anomalies occur. Seismic velocity measurement of the MH cores indicated that compared with water-saturated rock samples, seismic velocity (especially the S-wave) could be distinctly decreased by gas contained in tiny cracks despite of the low porosity, and then notable seismic response could be induced in gas-filled crystalline rocks. It could be predicated that if the porosity of certain rocks in the middle crust rose due to water-rock interaction and had natural gas filled, then there would be more probability for natural gas in top of the mid-crust to fill in the crystalline rocks with increased porosity. In such case, based on the decrease of S-wave velocity in crystalline rocks, seismic method could be applied in the future to explore natural gas reservoirs in the middle crust.

  4. Natural gas imports and exports. Second quarter report 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    This quarter`s feature report focuses on natural gas exports to Mexico. OFP invites ideas from the public on future topics dealing with North American natural gas import/export trade. Such suggestions should be left on OFP`s electronic bulletin board. Natural Gas exports to Mexico continued to grow and reached an historic high for the month of June (7.8 Bcf). Two new long-term contracts were activated; Pennsylvania Gas & Water Company began importing 14.7 MMcf per day from TransCanada PipeLines Ltd., and Renaissance Energy (U.S.) Inc. began importing 2.8 MMcf per day from Renaissance Energy Ltd. for resale to Delmarva Power & Light Company. Algerian LNG imports remained stagnant with only one tanker being imported by Pan National Gas Sales, Inc. (Pan National). During the first six months of 1995, data indicates gas imports increased by about 10 percent over the 1994 level (1,418 vs. 1,285 Bcf), with Canadian imports increasing by 14 percent and Algerian imports decreasing by 81 percent. During the same time period, exports increased by 18 percent (83 vs. 70.1 Bcf).

  5. Abiotic methane formation during experimental serpentinization of olivine

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCollom, Thomas M.

    2016-12-01

    Fluids circulating through actively serpentinizing systems are often highly enriched in methane (CH4). In many cases, the CH4 in these fluids is thought to derive from abiotic reduction of inorganic carbon, but the conditions under which this process can occur in natural systems remain unclear. In recent years, several studies have reported abiotic formation of CH4 during experimental serpentinization of olivine at temperatures at or below 200 °C. However, these results seem to contradict studies conducted at higher temperatures (300 °C to 400 °C), where substantial kinetic barriers to CH4 synthesis have been observed. Here, the potential for abiotic formation of CH4 from dissolved inorganic carbon during olivine serpentinization is reevaluated in a series of laboratory experiments conducted at 200 °C to 320 °C. A 13C-labeled inorganic carbon source was used to unambiguously determine the origin of CH4 generated in the experiments. Consistent with previous high-temperature studies, the results indicate that abiotic formation of CH4 from reduction of dissolved inorganic carbon during the experiments is extremely limited, with nearly all of the observed CH4 derived from background sources. The results indicate that the potential for abiotic synthesis of CH4 in low-temperature serpentinizing environments may be much more limited than some recent studies have suggested. However, more extensive production of CH4 was observed in one experiment performed under conditions that allowed an H2-rich vapor phase to form, suggesting that shallow serpentinization environments where a separate gas phase is present may be more favorable for abiotic synthesis of CH4.

  6. A STOCHASTIC PROGRAMMING APPROACH TO LIQUIFIED NATURAL GAS PLANNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo A.M. Moraes

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This work reports on modeling and numerical experience in solving the liquefied natural gas (LNG planning for an oil and gas company. We developed a model to optimize said purchase, optimizing the amount of LNG bought on the spot and on the long-term markets, based on the predicted demand for the planning horizon. A stochastic approach to address uncertainties related to the LNG demand and spot prices is presented. The expected cost of the operation is minimized, considering stock costs and the possibility to export the surplus gas. Numerical experiments in a real-life case are assessed.

  7. Replacing coal with natural gas would reduce warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Colin

    2012-08-01

    A debate has raged in the past couple of years as to whether natural gas is better or worse overall than coal and oil from a global warming perspective. The back-and-forth findings have been due to the timelines taken into consideration, the details of natural gas extraction, and the electricity-generating efficiency of various fuels. An analysis by Cathles, which focuses exclusively on potential warming and ignores secondary considerations, such as economic, political, or other environmental concerns, finds that natural gas is better for electricity generation than coal and oil under all realistic circumstances. To come to this conclusion, the author considered three different future fuel consumption scenarios: (1) a business-as-usual case, which sees energy generation capacity continue at its current pace with its current energy mix until the middle of the century, at which point the implementation of low-carbon energy sources dominates and fossil fuel-derived energy production declines; (2) a gas substitution scenario, where natural gas replaces all coal power production and any new oil-powered facilities, with the same midcentury shift; and (3) a low-carbon scenario, where all electricity generation is immediately and aggressively switched to non-fossil fuel sources such as solar, wind, and nuclear.

  8. Trend of natural gas demand/supply in China; Chugoku no tennen gas jukyu doko

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furuta, T. [The Institute of Energy Economics, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-08-01

    Confirmed recoverable reserves of natural gas are increasing at a sharp rate, with 1.7-trillion meters{sup 3} reported in 1995. Production also increased to reach 17.6-billion meters{sup 3} in the same year. The produced natural gas is all for domestic consumption at the present time. Sichuan Province occupies more than 40% of the total production. Exploration and exploitation are under way in the Shanganning district, Sichuan district, Sinkiang district, South China Sea, East China Sea, etc. Natural gas occupies 1.9% of China`s primary energy consumption, and it is urgently required that more natural gas be used in big cities in view of environmental problems. As for the transportation capability of pipelines, they handle 9-billion meters{sup 3}/year, mainly in Sichuan Province. There are large-scale pipeline systems in the Tarim basin and some other land locations and on the sea bottom of the `cliff 13-1,` partly in service already and partly under construction yet. It has been decided that Export-Import Bank of Japan invest in a submarine pipeline project off Shanghai. In 2000, China will need to import natural gas. Natural gas-fired thermal power stations and LNG storage facilities are under construction. 13 figs., 4 tabs.

  9. Recent trends of research in natural gas utilisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clerici, M.G.; Zennaro, R. [Enircerche SpA, San Donato Milanese, Milan (Italy)

    1997-01-01

    The use of natural gas to produce chemicals and liquid fuels is a matter of increasing interest in a number of research centres. The final aim is to render economically viable the exploitation of remote natural gas fields and to use it as a raw material in petrochemical and liquid fuel industry. Both direct and indirect routes are being explored. Typical examples of the former category are the oxidation of methane to methanol or ethylene and its halogenation by electrophilic or radical reagents. Fischer-Tropsch, Methanol/MTG and Methanol/MTO processes are among the most important indirect routes.

  10. INVESTIGATION INTO NATURAL GAS LIQUEFACTION METHODS, LNG TRANSPORT AND STORAGE

    OpenAIRE

    Atakan AVCI; Muhiddin CAN; Muhsin KILIÇ

    1995-01-01

    Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) processes are very new in Turkey. The Government of Turkey, due to diversification of supply and balancing of seasonal load, decided to import LNG from Algeria. The first shipment in Marmara Ereğli import terminal has been carried out in the August the 3 rd, 1994. LNG after regasification will be injected into the main transmission pipeline. The share of LNG in the world natural gas trade was approixmately 22.1% in 1988. According to the forecast, LNG share will be...

  11. Considerations on Seismic Design of Installations using Natural Gas Fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Tokar

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents issues relating to existing standards underlying seismic design restrictions for non-structural components (NSC related to constructions. Are presented measures that can be implemented to maintain a high level of safety in case of earthquake, natural gas plants, which due to the flammability of fuel, carry some risk of fire or explosion. The purpose of this paper is to highlight the need for seismic design of facilities using natural gas fuel for new buildings but also to review the existing installations in buildings by taking mandatory measures.

  12. Preliminary report on the commercial viability of gas production from natural gas hydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, M.R.; Hancock, S.H.; Wilson, S.J.; Patil, S.L.; Moridis, G.J.; Boswell, R.; Collett, T.S.; Koh, C.A.; Sloan, E.D.

    2009-01-01

    Economic studies on simulated gas hydrate reservoirs have been compiled to estimate the price of natural gas that may lead to economically viable production from the most promising gas hydrate accumulations. As a first estimate, $CDN2005 12/Mscf is the lowest gas price that would allow economically viable production from gas hydrates in the absence of associated free gas, while an underlying gas deposit will reduce the viability price estimate to $CDN2005 7.50/Mscf. Results from a recent analysis of the simulated production of natural gas from marine hydrate deposits are also considered in this report; on an IROR basis, it is $US2008 3.50-4.00/Mscf more expensive to produce marine hydrates than conventional marine gas assuming the existence of sufficiently large marine hydrate accumulations. While these prices represent the best available estimates, the economic evaluation of a specific project is highly dependent on the producibility of the target zone, the amount of gas in place, the associated geologic and depositional environment, existing pipeline infrastructure, and local tariffs and taxes. ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V.

  13. Earthquake Risk Reduction to Istanbul Natural Gas Distribution Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulfikar, Can; Kariptas, Cagatay; Biyikoglu, Hikmet; Ozarpa, Cevat

    2017-04-01

    Earthquake Risk Reduction to Istanbul Natural Gas Distribution Network Istanbul Natural Gas Distribution Corporation (IGDAS) is one of the end users of the Istanbul Earthquake Early Warning (EEW) signal. IGDAS, the primary natural gas provider in Istanbul, operates an extensive system 9,867km of gas lines with 750 district regulators and 474,000 service boxes. The natural gas comes to Istanbul city borders with 70bar in 30inch diameter steel pipeline. The gas pressure is reduced to 20bar in RMS stations and distributed to district regulators inside the city. 110 of 750 district regulators are instrumented with strong motion accelerometers in order to cut gas flow during an earthquake event in the case of ground motion parameters exceeds the certain threshold levels. Also, state of-the-art protection systems automatically cut natural gas flow when breaks in the gas pipelines are detected. IGDAS uses a sophisticated SCADA (supervisory control and data acquisition) system to monitor the state-of-health of its pipeline network. This system provides real-time information about quantities related to pipeline monitoring, including input-output pressure, drawing information, positions of station and RTU (remote terminal unit) gates, slum shut mechanism status at 750 district regulator sites. IGDAS Real-time Earthquake Risk Reduction algorithm follows 4 stages as below: 1) Real-time ground motion data transmitted from 110 IGDAS and 110 KOERI (Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Institute) acceleration stations to the IGDAS Scada Center and KOERI data center. 2) During an earthquake event EEW information is sent from IGDAS Scada Center to the IGDAS stations. 3) Automatic Shut-Off is applied at IGDAS district regulators, and calculated parameters are sent from stations to the IGDAS Scada Center and KOERI. 4) Integrated building and gas pipeline damage maps are prepared immediately after the earthquake event. The today's technology allows to rapidly estimate the

  14. Natural gas seeps in the French Alps: Sources and pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloppmann, Wolfram; Blessing, Michaela; Proust, Eric; Gal, Frédéric; Bentivegna, Gaetan; Henry, Benoit; Defossez, Pierrick; Catherine, Lerouge; Humez, Pauline; Mayer, Bernhard; Millot, Romain; Gaucher, Eric

    2016-04-01

    Natural gas emanations are part of the geochemical baseline to take into account when assessing global greenhouse gas emissions and potential impacts of conventional and unconventional gas exploration and exploitation on groundwater. Examples of such natural gas macro-seeps are known in several parts of the world (Etiope et al., 2009). Only a limited number of them have been characterized for their gas and isotopic compositions. Such analyses can provide essential information for baseline studies, providing insight in the sources (biogenic vs. thermogenic or modified thermogenic) and pathways of such seeps and may allow for distinction of natural seeps from stray gas leakage associated with human activities. Here, we report gas concentrations and multi-isotope data (δ13C and δ2H of methane and ethane, δ13C and δ18O of CO2, 3He/4He ratio) of two gas seeps in the French subalpine chains, both in a similar geological and structural position within Middle Jurassic claystones along the eastern border of the large synclinal structures of the Vercors and the Chartreuse massifs (Moss, 1992). The "ardent fountain" (fontaine ardente) of Le Gua, 30 km south of Grenoble has most likely the longest continuous written record of existence of any individual natural gas seep, mentioned explicitly as early as the first quarter of the 5th century (Augustin of Hippo (St. Augustin), approx. 426) This natural seep was described in the past as a "wet seep" associated with a spring, whereas the second investigated seep, Rochasson near Meylan north of Grenoble, is a dry seep. Both seeps contain methane and ethane with thermogenic C and H isotope signatures, comparable with a seep in the Northern Swiss Alps at Giswil (Etiope et al., 2010) but with a higher dryness (C1/(C2+C3)>1000) for the Le Gua seep, possibly due to molecular fractionation upon advective fluid+gas migration (Etiope et al., 2009). Maturity (R0) of the reservoir rocks deduced from δ13C(CH4), δ13C(C2H6) is similar to

  15. Evaluation of Reformer Produced Synthesis Gas for Emissions Reductions in Natural Gas Reciprocating Engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark Scotto

    2010-05-30

    Rolls-Royce Fuel Cell Systems (US) Inc. (RRFCS) has developed a system that produces synthesis gas from air and natural gas. A near-term application being considered for this technology is synthesis gas injection into reciprocating engines for reducing NO{sub x} emissions. A proof of concept study using bottled synthesis gas and a two-stroke reciprocating engine showed that injecting small amounts of high-flammable content synthesis gas significantly improved combustion stability and enabled leaner engine operation resulting in over 44% reduction in NO{sub x} emissions. The actual NO{sub x} reduction that could be achieved in the field is expected to be engine specific, and in many cases may be even greater. RRFCS demonstrated that its synthesis gas generator could produce synthesis gas with the flammable content that was successfully used in the engine testing. An economic analysis of the synthesis gas approach estimates that its initial capital cost and yearly operating cost are less than half that of a competing NO{sub x} reduction technology, Selective Catalytic Reduction. The next step in developing the technology is an integrated test of the synthesis gas generator with an engine to obtain reliability data for system components and to confirm operating cost. RRFCS is actively pursuing opportunities to perform the integrated test. A successful integrated test would demonstrate the technology as a low-cost option to reduce NO{sub x} emissions from approximately 6,000 existing two-stroke, natural gas-fired reciprocating engines used on natural gas pipelines in North America. NO{sub x} emissions reduction made possible at a reasonable price by this synthesis gas technology, if implemented on 25% of these engines, would be on the order of 25,000 tons/year.

  16. Evaluation of Reformer Produced Synthesis Gas for Emissions Reductions in Natural Gas Reciprocating Engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark V. Scotto; Mark A. Perna

    2010-05-30

    Rolls-Royce Fuel Cell Systems (US) Inc. (RRFCS) has developed a system that produces synthesis gas from air and natural gas. A near-term application being considered for this technology is synthesis gas injection into reciprocating engines for reducing NOx emissions. A proof of concept study using bottled synthesis gas and a two-stroke reciprocating engine showed that injecting small amounts of highflammables content synthesis gas significantly improved combustion stability and enabled leaner engine operation resulting in over 44% reduction in NOx emissions. The actual NOx reduction that could be achieved in the field is expected to be engine specific, and in many cases may be even greater. RRFCS demonstrated that its synthesis gas generator could produce synthesis gas with the flammables content that was successfully used in the engine testing. An economic analysis of the synthesis gas approach estimates that its initial capital cost and yearly operating cost are less than half that of a competing NOx reduction technology, Selective Catalytic Reduction. The next step in developing the technology is an integrated test of the synthesis gas generator with an engine to obtain reliability data for system components and to confirm operating cost. RRFCS is actively pursuing opportunities to perform the integrated test. A successful integrated test would demonstrate the technology as a low-cost option to reduce NOx emissions from approximately 6,000 existing two-stroke, natural gas-fired reciprocating engines used on natural gas pipelines in North America. NOx emissions reduction made possible at a reasonable price by this synthesis gas technology, if implemented on 25% of these engines, would be on the order of 25,000 tons/year.

  17. Internal combustion engine for natural gas compressor operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagen, Christopher L.; Babbitt, Guy; Turner, Christopher; Echter, Nick; Weyer-Geigel, Kristina

    2016-04-19

    This application concerns systems and methods for compressing natural gas with an internal combustion engine. In a representative embodiment, a system for compressing a gas comprises a reciprocating internal combustion engine including at least one piston-cylinder assembly comprising a piston configured to travel in a cylinder and to compress gas in the cylinder in multiple compression stages. The system can further comprise a first pressure tank in fluid communication with the piston-cylinder assembly to receive compressed gas from the piston-cylinder assembly until the first pressure tank reaches a predetermined pressure, and a second pressure tank in fluid communication with the piston-cylinder assembly and the first pressure tank. The second pressure tank can be configured to receive compressed gas from the piston-cylinder assembly until the second pressure tank reaches a predetermined pressure. When the first and second pressure tanks have reached the predetermined pressures, the first pressure tank can be configured to supply gas to the piston-cylinder assembly, and the piston can be configured to compress the gas supplied by the first pressure tank such that the compressed gas flows into the second pressure tank.

  18. Internal combustion engine for natural gas compressor operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, Christopher L.; Babbitt, Guy; Turner, Christopher; Echter, Nick; Weyer-Geigel, Kristina

    2016-04-19

    This application concerns systems and methods for compressing natural gas with an internal combustion engine. In a representative embodiment, a system for compressing a gas comprises a reciprocating internal combustion engine including at least one piston-cylinder assembly comprising a piston configured to travel in a cylinder and to compress gas in the cylinder in multiple compression stages. The system can further comprise a first pressure tank in fluid communication with the piston-cylinder assembly to receive compressed gas from the piston-cylinder assembly until the first pressure tank reaches a predetermined pressure, and a second pressure tank in fluid communication with the piston-cylinder assembly and the first pressure tank. The second pressure tank can be configured to receive compressed gas from the piston-cylinder assembly until the second pressure tank reaches a predetermined pressure. When the first and second pressure tanks have reached the predetermined pressures, the first pressure tank can be configured to supply gas to the piston-cylinder assembly, and the piston can be configured to compress the gas supplied by the first pressure tank such that the compressed gas flows into the second pressure tank.

  19. 75 FR 2126 - Regulations Governing the Conduct of Open Seasons for Alaska Natural Gas Transportation Projects...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-14

    ... Gas Transportation Projects; Notice of Alaska Natural Gas Transportation Projects Open Season Pre... season for an Alaska Natural Gas Transportation Project. The Workshop is being hosted by the Alaska... capacity on Alaskan natural gas transportation projects. Both Denali--The Alaska Gas Pipeline LLC and Trans...

  20. Regulation of natural gas: the issue of open access; Regulacao em materia de gas natural: a questao do livre acesso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandes, Ingrid; Siqueira, Mariana [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Faculdade de Direito

    2004-07-01

    The present work discusses the question of the open access to the natural gas ducts, trying to show the most relevant aspects of it. Analyzing the regulation existent in Brazil and the main important characteristics of the natural gas activities, it will be tried to suggest new directions to be taken in the future. The open access it is a very important way to introduce new agents on the sector and, in that way, the discussions that try to show new aspects of it, are very relevant (author)

  1. Field test of hydrogen in the natural gas grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iskov, H.

    2010-08-15

    In order to prepare for a future use of hydrogen as a fuel gas it became evident that very little information existed regarding the compatibility between long-term exposure and transportation of hydrogen in natural gas pipelines. A program was therefore set to study the transportation in a small-scale pilot grid at the research centre in Hoersholm, Denmark. The test program included steel pipes from the Danish gas transmission grid and polymer pipes from the Danish and Swedish gas distribution grid. The test of polymer pipes was devised so that samples of all test pipes were cut out of the grid each year and analysis performed on these pipe samples; in this way any form of influence on the integrity of the polyethylene pipe would be detected. The analytical program for polymer was devised in order to detect any influence on the additivation of the polyethylene as this has an influence on oxidative resistance, as well as checking already encountered possible degradation caused by extrusion of the material. Further tools as rheology and melt flow rate were used for detecting any structural changes on the material. On the mechanical property side the tensile strength and modulus were followed as well as the most important property for the pipe line, namely slow crack growth. The results of the polymer pipe tests show no degradations of any kind related to the continuous hydrogen exposure for more than 4 years. This is a strong indication of the compatibility to hydrogen of the tested polymer materials PE 80 and PE 100. The object of the steel pipe test was to see the effect on fatigue life of existing natural gas transmission lines with hydrogen replacing the natural gas. Full-scale dynamic tests were performed using randomly selected cut-out API 5L X70 pipe sections with a diameter of 20 inches and a wall thickness of 7 millimetres from the Danish natural gas transmission system. The pipe sections contained field girth weld made during the installation of the pipe

  2. Natural Gas Imports and Exports. Third Quarter Report 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none

    1999-10-01

    The second quarter 1997 Quarterly Report of Natural Gas Imports and Exports featured a Quarterly Focus report on cross-border natural gas trade between the United States and Mexico. This Quarterly Focus article is a follow-up to the 1997 report. This report revisits and updates the status of some of the pipeline projects discussed in 1997, and examines a number of other planned cross-border pipeline facilities which were proposed subsequent to our 1997 report. A few of the existing and proposed pipelines are bidirectional and thus have the capability of serving either Mexico, or the United States, depending on market conditions and gas supply availability. These new projects, if completed, would greatly enhance the pipeline infrastructure on the U.S.-Mexico border and would increase gas pipeline throughput capacity for cross-border trade by more than 1 billion cubic feet (Bcf) per day. The Quarterly Focus is comprised of five sections. Section I includes the introduction as well as a brief historic overview of U.S./Mexican natural gas trade; a discussion of Mexico's energy regulatory structure; and a review of trade agreements and a 1992 legislative change which allows for her cross-border gas trade in North America. Section II looks at initiatives that have been taken by the Mexican Government since 1995to open its energy markets to greater competition and privatization. Section III reviews Mexican gas demand forecasts and looks at future opportunities for U.S. gas producers to supplement Mexico's indigenous supplies in order to meet the anticipated rapid growth in demand. Section IV examines the U.S.-Mexico natural gas trade in recent years. It also looks specifically at monthly import and export volumes and prices and identifies short-term trends in this trade. Finally, Section V reviews the existing and planned cross-border gas pipeline infrastructure. The section also specifically describes six planned pipelines intended to expand this pipeline

  3. Resilience of natural gas networks during conflicts, crises and disruptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Rui; Buzna, Lubos; Bono, Flavio; Masera, Marcelo; Arrowsmith, David K; Helbing, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    Human conflict, geopolitical crises, terrorist attacks, and natural disasters can turn large parts of energy distribution networks offline. Europe's current gas supply network is largely dependent on deliveries from Russia and North Africa, creating vulnerabilities to social and political instabilities. During crises, less delivery may mean greater congestion, as the pipeline network is used in ways it has not been designed for. Given the importance of the security of natural gas supply, we develop a model to handle network congestion on various geographical scales. We offer a resilient response strategy to energy shortages and quantify its effectiveness for a variety of relevant scenarios. In essence, Europe's gas supply can be made robust even to major supply disruptions, if a fair distribution strategy is applied.

  4. A multiple-stage natural gas-powered assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirokov, V.A.; Bannikov, V.F.; Zhukovskii, A.V.

    1979-01-01

    In 1976, the Volgograd tractor factory produced a furnace-type gas-powered assembly--a dryer. The natural gas combustion products from nonmufflered cement equipment in a heat-treating department, equipped with radiative piping, are directed by exhaust fans into the drying chambers of the painting section of a tractor assembly plant. The total natural gas consumption for one furnace is 120 cubic meters per hour, the utilization factor of the fuel in the furnace is 51%. The amount of heat lost to the exhaust gases (1.35 gigacalories per hour) is enough to satisfy the heat requirement of the drying chambers. The combustion products from these furnaces are automatically fed to individual smoke stacks or dryers. The capital expenditures for incorporating the system amount to 10,000 rubles, and the pay-back period is 7 months. The economic savings from incorporating the system amounted to 2,000 rubles.

  5. Resilience of natural gas networks during conflicts, crises and disruptions

    CERN Document Server

    Carvalho, Rui; Bono, Flavio; Masera, Marcelo; Arrowsmith, David K; Helbing, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    Human conflict, geopolitical crises, terrorist attacks, and natural disasters can turn large parts of energy distribution networks offline. Europe's current gas supply network is largely dependent on deliveries from Russia and North Africa, creating vulnerabililties to social and political instabilities. During crises, less delivery may mean greater congestion, as the pipeline network is used in ways it has not been designed for. Given the importance of the security of natural gas supply, we develop a model to handle network congestion on various geographical scales. We offer a resilient response strategy to energy shortages and quantify its effectiveness for a variety of relevant scenarios. In essence, Europe's gas supply can be made robust even to major supply disruptions, if a fair distribution strategy is applied.

  6. Resilience of natural gas networks during conflicts, crises and disruptions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Carvalho

    Full Text Available Human conflict, geopolitical crises, terrorist attacks, and natural disasters can turn large parts of energy distribution networks offline. Europe's current gas supply network is largely dependent on deliveries from Russia and North Africa, creating vulnerabilities to social and political instabilities. During crises, less delivery may mean greater congestion, as the pipeline network is used in ways it has not been designed for. Given the importance of the security of natural gas supply, we develop a model to handle network congestion on various geographical scales. We offer a resilient response strategy to energy shortages and quantify its effectiveness for a variety of relevant scenarios. In essence, Europe's gas supply can be made robust even to major supply disruptions, if a fair distribution strategy is applied.

  7. Natural Gas will Transport from Changqing to Beijing in 1996

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Xinmin

    1994-01-01

    @@ It was reported from the reserves appraisal meeting held on March 27,1993 for the south and north part of the central gasfield in Ordos Basin,that by the end of last year, the approved natural gas reserves of Changqing Petroleum Exploration Bureau amount to 100 billion cubic meters cumulatively.

  8. The catalytic conversion of natural gas to useful products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ross, J.R.H.; Ross, J.R.H.; van Keulen, A.N.J.; van Keulen, A.N.J.; Hegarty, M.E.S.; Seshan, Kulathuiyer

    1996-01-01

    This paper gives a brief summary of some processes, direct and indirect, for the conversion of natural gas to useful products. It then proceeds to give an outline of some work from the authors' laboratories on subjects such as steam reforming, oxidative coupling and CO2 reforming of methane, paying

  9. Guangdong to Invest Heavily in Natural Gas and Petrochemical Projects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Guangdong Provincial Government has decided to focus on 10 key projects this year with a total investment of 210,2 billion yuan, including energy infrastructure projects, natural gas projects,petrochemical projects, and auto projects. It is expected to complete an investment of 40 billion yuan

  10. The natural gas for vehicles; Le gaz naturel pour vehicules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-11-15

    This document aims to present the trumps of the natural gas for vehicle (NGV). It discusses the particularities, the actions of the government in favor of the NGV by the creation of financial and legal incentives and the challenges. A detail description of the financial and fiscal assistances and the regulation references are given. (A.L.B.)

  11. Infrastructures for natural gas: The challenges of internationalization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Correlje, A.F.; De Jong, J.

    2009-01-01

    The European natural gas infrastructure is facing the challenge of adapting itself to an increasingly international pattern of supply and demand, while the coordination of transactions is getting more and more complex. New patterns of trade are evolving, reflecting the consequences of the gradual de

  12. The liquefied natural gas infrastructure and tanker fleet sizing problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koza, David Franz; Røpke, Stefan; Molas, Anna Boleda

    2017-01-01

    We consider a strategic infrastructure and tanker fleet sizing problem in the liquefied natural gas business. The goal is to minimize long-term on-shore infrastructure and tanker investment cost combined with interrelated expected cost for operating the tanker fleet. A non-linear arc-based model...

  13. Synergistic kinetic inhibition of natural gas hydrate formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daraboina, Nagu; Malmos, Christine; von Solms, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    Rocking cells were used to investigate the natural gas hydrate formation and decomposition in the presence of kinetic inhibitor, Luvicap. In addition, the influence of poly ethylene oxide (PEO) and NaCl on the performance of Luvicap was investigated using temperature ramping and isothermal...

  14. The Contribution of Natural Gas Vehicles to Sustainable Transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    The transport sector is currently responsible for 23% of energy-related CO2 emissions, and transport associated CO2 emissions will more than double by 2050. This working paper evaluates the potential costs and benefits of using natural gas as a vehicle fuel for road transportation, as well as the policy related to its market development.

  15. Driving on Natural Gas, Greening the Gasunie Fleet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faber, Tom

    2008-01-01

    Driving on CNG is preferable to conventional fuels because of diversification of the energy mix, local availability of natural gas, the financial benefit and the transition function towards (sustain-able) biogas and emission reduction. Furthermore, the CNG technology is expected to be safer than con

  16. Marine transportation of liquefied natural gas. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curt, R.P.; Delaney, T.D.

    1973-01-01

    This report covers in some detail most of the major areas of consideration involved in the marine carriage of LNG. Some of the fields investigated and reviewed are the world's total energy picture and the particular requirements of natural gas in the United States in the near future. (GRA)

  17. Gas Cooled, Natural Uranium, D20 Moderated Power Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlberg, R.C.; Beasley, E.G.; DeBoer, T.K.; Evans, T.C.; Molino, D.F.; Rothwell, W.S.; Slivka, W.R.

    1956-08-01

    The attractiveness of a helium cooled, heavy water moderated, natural uranium central station power plant has been investigated. A fuel element has been devised which allows the D20 to be kept at a low pressure while the exit gas temperature is high. A preliminary cost analysis indicates that, using currently available materials, competitive nuclear power in foreign countries is possible.

  18. Low Carbon Technology Options for the Natural Gas Electricity Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ultimate goal of this task is to perform environmental and economic analysis of natural gas based power production technologies (different routes) to investigate and evaluate strategies for reducing emissions from the power sector. It is a broad research area. Initially, the...

  19. Driving on Natural Gas, Greening the Gasunie Fleet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faber, Tom

    2008-01-01

    Driving on CNG is preferable to conventional fuels because of diversification of the energy mix, local availability of natural gas, the financial benefit and the transition function towards (sustain-able) biogas and emission reduction. Furthermore, the CNG technology is expected to be safer than con

  20. US Natural Gas Price and Its Influencing Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Hsing-Chien

    Research has shown that the Henry Hub natural gas price and the WTI crude oil price are cointegrated in the long run; however, the short term relationship between these two energy prices draws continued discussions and remains inconclusive so far. This paper uses advanced nonlinear time series method MARS VAR to study the dynamic relationship between natural gas price movements and crude oil prices over the past 14 years of daily data. The main finding is that WTI crude oil prices were causally prior to Henry Hub natural gas prices prior to 2004. After this period a decoupling occurred that was captured by the MARS VAR model but not seen in other research using vector error correction model (VECM) that does not support thresholds. Moreover, the out-of-sample forecasting power of MARS VAR is superior to VECM, which based on the cointegration assumption. The research findings may have significant implications of commodity pricing, hedging, and risk management to natural gas local distribution company (LDC), and the Energy Administration.