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Sample records for abiotic factors temperature

  1. Abiotic Factors Influencing Mantangan (Merremia Peltata) Invasion in Bukit Barisan Selatan National Park

    OpenAIRE

    Master, Jani; Tjitrosoedirdjo, Soekisman; Qayim, Ibnul

    2016-01-01

    Some areas in Bukit Barisan Selatan National Park have serious problems related to Merremia peltata (Family Convolvulaceae) invasion. The abiotic factors influencing M. peltata invasion were investigated in this study. This research compared abiotic factors in three forest locations with different invasion levels i.e.severe, moderate and mild invasions. Abiotic factors measured were percentage of tree canopy coverage, micro climate factors (temperature and humidity), elevation above sea level...

  2. Abiotic factors influencing tropical dry forests regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Ceccon,Eliane; Huante,Pilar; Rincón,Emanuel

    2006-01-01

    Tropical dry forests represent nearly half the tropical forests in the world and are the ecosystems registering the greatest deterioration from the anthropogenic exploitation of the land. This paper presents a review on the dynamics of tropical dry forests regeneration and the main abiotic factors influencing this regeneration, such as seasonal nature, soil fertility and humidity, and natural and anthropic disturbances. The main purpose is to clearly understand an important part of TDF succes...

  3. Abiotic factors influencing tropical dry forests regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceccon Eliane

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Tropical dry forests represent nearly half the tropical forests in the world and are the ecosystems registering the greatest deterioration from the anthropogenic exploitation of the land. This paper presents a review on the dynamics of tropical dry forests regeneration and the main abiotic factors influencing this regeneration, such as seasonal nature, soil fertility and humidity, and natural and anthropic disturbances. The main purpose is to clearly understand an important part of TDF succession dynamics.

  4. Abiotic factors drives floristic variations of fern’s metacommunity in an Atlantic Forest remnant

    OpenAIRE

    L. E. N. Costa; R. P. Farias; A. C. P. Santiago; I. A. A. Silva; I. C. L. Barros

    2018-01-01

    Abstract We analyzed floristic variations in fern’s metacommunity at the local scale and their relationship with abiotic factors in an Atlantic Forest remnant of northeastern Brazil. Floristic and environmental variations were accessed on ten plots of 10 × 20 m. We performed cluster analyses, based on Bray-Curtis dissimilarity index to establish the floristic relationship. The influence of abiotic factors: luminosity, temperature, relative air humidity and relative soil moisture was evaluated...

  5. Effect of biotic and abiotic factors on composition and foraging ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    scale are well known: climate, soil type, land use management practices and landscape structure are among the most influential factors (Dauber et al., 2003, 2005). At smaller scales, however, there is less agreement about the biotic and abiotic ...

  6. Abiotic environmental factors influencing blowfly colonisation patterns in the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Kelly A; Archer, Melanie S; Toop, Tes

    2013-06-10

    The accuracy of minimum post-mortem interval (mPMI) estimates usually hinges upon the ability of forensic entomologists to predict the conditions under which calliphorids will colonise bodies. However, there can be delays between death and colonisation due to poorly understood abiotic and biotic factors, hence the need for a mPMI. To quantify the importance of various meteorological and light-level factors, beef liver baits were placed in the field (Victoria, Australia) on 88 randomly selected days over 3 years in all seasons and observed every 60-90 min for evidence of colonisation. Baits were exposed during daylight, and the following parameters were measured: barometric pressure, light intensity, wind speed, ambient temperature, relative humidity and rainfall. Collected data were analysed using backward LR logistic regression to produce an equation of colonisation probability. This type of analysis removes factors with the least influence on colonisation in successive steps until all remaining variables significantly increase the accuracy of predicting colonisation presence or absence. Ambient temperature was a positive predictor variable (an increase in temperature increased the probability of calliphorid colonisation). Relative humidity was a negative predictor variable (an increase in humidity decreased the probability of calliphorid colonisation). Barometric pressure, light intensity, wind speed and rainfall did not enhance the accuracy of the probability model; however, analysis of species activity patterns suggests that heavy rainfall and strong wind speeds inhibit calliphorid colonisation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Influence of salinity and temperature on the physiology of Limia melanonotata (Cyprinodontiformes: Poeciliidae): A search for abiotic factors limiting insular distribution in Hispaniola

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haney, D.C.; Walsh, S.J.

    2003-01-01

    We investigated salinity and temperature effects on routine metabolic rate (RMR), temperature tolerance (CTMax, critical thermal maximum), and salinity tolerance of Limia melanonotata, a poecliid fish that occurs in west-central inland waters of Hispaniola. Routine metabolic rate and CTMax were measured in fish acclimated to three salinities (0, 30, and 60 ppt) and temperatures (25??, 30??, and 35??C) for nine temperature-salinity combinations. Salinity and temperature did not significantly interact in their effect on RMR. For combined salinity acclimations, adjusted RMR (ANCOVA) was significantly lower at 25??C than either 30?? or 35??C. For combined temperature acclimations, mean RMR was significantly lower at 60 ppt than either 0 or 30 ppt. Salinity and temperature had a significant interactive effect on temperature tolerance. Mean CTMax was significantly higher at 30?? than 25??C at all salinities, but at 35??C was significantly higher than at 25?? or 30??C only among fish acclimated in fresh water. Fish exposed to a chronic increase in salinity experienced most mortality in a salinity range of 70-107 ppt, with females exhibiting greater salinity tolerance than males. Limia melanonotata approaches the upper extreme in salinity and temperature tolerances known for poeciliids. Our results also suggest that L. melanonotata may reduce energy expenditures at environmental extremes to tolerate harsh conditions for extended periods. Despite its curythermal and euryhaline adaptations, L. melanonotata has a relatively restricted inland range in Hispaniola and is unknown from inshore brackish or marine habitats. The present distribution of this species and congeners may be the result of a combination of factors that include historical zoogeography and ecological requirements.

  8. Structure, function and networks of transcription factors involved in abiotic stress responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindemose, Søren; O'Shea, Charlotte; Jensen, Michael Krogh

    2013-01-01

    Transcription factors (TFs) are master regulators of abiotic stress responses in plants. This review focuses on TFs from seven major TF families, known to play functional roles in response to abiotic stresses, including drought, high salinity, high osmolarity, temperature extremes...... and the phytohormone ABA. Although ectopic expression of several TFs has improved abiotic stress tolerance in plants, fine-tuning of TF expression and protein levels remains a challenge to avoid crop yield loss. To further our understanding of TFs in abiotic stress responses, emerging gene regulatory networks based...... disorder (ID), referring to their lack of fixed tertiary structures. ID is now an emerging topic in plant science. Furthermore, the importance of the ubiquitin-proteasome protein degradation systems and modification by sumoylation is also apparent from the interactomes. Therefore; TF interaction partners...

  9. Abiotic factors drives floristic variations of fern's metacommunity in an Atlantic Forest remnant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, L E N; Farias, R P; Santiago, A C P; Silva, I A A; Barros, I C L

    2018-02-15

    We analyzed floristic variations in fern's metacommunity at the local scale and their relationship with abiotic factors in an Atlantic Forest remnant of northeastern Brazil. Floristic and environmental variations were accessed on ten plots of 10 × 20 m. We performed cluster analyses, based on Bray-Curtis dissimilarity index to establish the floristic relationship. The influence of abiotic factors: luminosity, temperature, relative air humidity and relative soil moisture was evaluated from a redundancy analysis. We found 24 species belonging to 20 genera and 12 families. The fern's flora showed high floristic heterogeneity (>75% for most of the plot's associations). The fern's metacommunity was structured along an abiotic gradient modulated by temperature, luminosity, and relative soil moisture.

  10. Abiotic factors drives floristic variations of fern’s metacommunity in an Atlantic Forest remnant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. E. N. Costa

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We analyzed floristic variations in fern’s metacommunity at the local scale and their relationship with abiotic factors in an Atlantic Forest remnant of northeastern Brazil. Floristic and environmental variations were accessed on ten plots of 10 × 20 m. We performed cluster analyses, based on Bray-Curtis dissimilarity index to establish the floristic relationship. The influence of abiotic factors: luminosity, temperature, relative air humidity and relative soil moisture was evaluated from a redundancy analysis. We found 24 species belonging to 20 genera and 12 families. The fern’s flora showed high floristic heterogeneity (>75% for most of the plot’s associations. The fern’s metacommunity was structured along an abiotic gradient modulated by temperature, luminosity, and relative soil moisture.

  11. Abiotic Factors Affecting Canola Establishment and Insect Pest Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Nansen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Canola is grown mainly as an oil-seed crop, but recently the interest in canola has increased due to its potential as a biodiesel crop. The main objectives of this paper were to evaluate effects of abiotic factors and seed treatment on canola plant establishment and pest pressure in the Southern High Plains of Texas. Data was collected at two field locations during the first seven months of two field seasons. Based on multi-regression analysis, we demonstrated that precipitation was positively associated with ranked plant weight, daily minimum relative humidity and maximum temperature were negatively associated with plant weight, and that there may be specific optimal growth conditions regarding cumulative solar radiation and wind speed. The outlined multi-regression approach may be considered appropriate for ecological studies of canola establishment and pest communities elsewhere and therefore enable identification of suitable regions for successful canola production. We also demonstrated that aphids were about 35% more abundant on non-treated seeds than on treated seeds, but the sensitivity to seed treatment was only within four months after plant emergence. On the other hand, seed treatment had negligible effect on presence of thrips.

  12. Effects of Abiotic Factors on HIPV-Mediated Interactions between Plants and Parasitoids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Christine; Desneux, Nicolas; Monticelli, Lucie; Fernandez, Xavier; Michel, Thomas; Lavoir, Anne-Violette

    2015-01-01

    In contrast to constitutively emitted plant volatiles (PV), herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPV) are specifically emitted by plants when afflicted with herbivores. HIPV can be perceived by parasitoids and predators which parasitize or prey on the respective herbivores, including parasitic hymenoptera. HIPV act as signals and facilitate host/prey detection. They comprise a blend of compounds: main constituents are terpenoids and “green leaf volatiles.” Constitutive emission of PV is well known to be influenced by abiotic factors like temperature, light intensity, water, and nutrient availability. HIPV share biosynthetic pathways with constitutively emitted PV and might therefore likewise be affected by abiotic conditions. However, the effects of abiotic factors on HIPV-mediated biotic interactions have received only limited attention to date. HIPV being influenced by the plant's growing conditions could have major implications for pest management. Quantitative and qualitative changes in HIPV blends may improve or impair biocontrol. Enhanced emission of HIPV may attract a larger number of natural enemies. Reduced emission rates or altered compositions, however, may render blends imperceptible to parasitoides and predators. Predicting the outcome of these changes is highly important for food production and for ecosystems affected by global climate change. PMID:26788501

  13. Effects of Abiotic Factors on HIPV-Mediated Interactions between Plants and Parasitoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Becker

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In contrast to constitutively emitted plant volatiles (PV, herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPV are specifically emitted by plants when afflicted with herbivores. HIPV can be perceived by parasitoids and predators which parasitize or prey on the respective herbivores, including parasitic hymenoptera. HIPV act as signals and facilitate host/prey detection. They comprise a blend of compounds: main constituents are terpenoids and “green leaf volatiles.” Constitutive emission of PV is well known to be influenced by abiotic factors like temperature, light intensity, water, and nutrient availability. HIPV share biosynthetic pathways with constitutively emitted PV and might therefore likewise be affected by abiotic conditions. However, the effects of abiotic factors on HIPV-mediated biotic interactions have received only limited attention to date. HIPV being influenced by the plant’s growing conditions could have major implications for pest management. Quantitative and qualitative changes in HIPV blends may improve or impair biocontrol. Enhanced emission of HIPV may attract a larger number of natural enemies. Reduced emission rates or altered compositions, however, may render blends imperceptible to parasitoides and predators. Predicting the outcome of these changes is highly important for food production and for ecosystems affected by global climate change.

  14. Influence of abiotic factors on bacterial proliferation and anoxic survival of the sea mussel Mytilus edulis L.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Babarro, J.M.F.; De Zwaan, A.

    2002-01-01

    The effect of several abiotic factors (salinity, temperature and pH) on bacterial proliferation and survival time of the sea mussel Mytilus edulis L. were studied under anoxic incubations. In addition, the presence in the incubation media of ammonium and the volatile fatty acids propionate and

  15. Abiotic and Microbiotic Factors Controlling Biofilm Formation by Thermophilic Sporeformers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yu; Caspers, Martien P. M.; Metselaar, Karin I.; de Boer, Paulo; Roeselers, Guus; Moezelaar, Roy; Nierop Groot, Masja; Montijn, Roy C.; Abee, Tjakko

    2013-01-01

    One of the major concerns in the production of dairy concentrates is the risk of contamination by heat-resistant spores from thermophilic bacteria. In order to acquire more insight in the composition of microbial communities occurring in the dairy concentrate industry, a bar-coded 16S amplicon sequencing analysis was carried out on milk, final products, and fouling samples taken from dairy concentrate production lines. The analysis of these samples revealed the presence of DNA from a broad range of bacterial taxa, including a majority of mesophiles and a minority of (thermophilic) spore-forming bacteria. Enrichments of fouling samples at 55°C showed the accumulation of predominantly Brevibacillus and Bacillus, whereas enrichments at 65°C led to the accumulation of Anoxybacillus and Geobacillus species. Bacterial population analysis of biofilms grown using fouling samples as an inoculum indicated that both Anoxybacillus and Geobacillus preferentially form biofilms on surfaces at air-liquid interfaces rather than on submerged surfaces. Three of the most potent biofilm-forming strains isolated from the dairy factory industrial samples, including Geobacillus thermoglucosidans, Geobacillus stearothermophilus, and Anoxybacillus flavithermus, have been characterized in detail with respect to their growth conditions and spore resistance. Strikingly, Geobacillus thermoglucosidans, which forms the most thermostable spores of these three species, is not able to grow in dairy intermediates as a pure culture but appears to be dependent for growth on other spoilage organisms present, probably as a result of their proteolytic activity. These results underscore the importance of abiotic and microbiotic factors in niche colonization in dairy factories, where the presence of thermophilic sporeformers can affect the quality of end products. PMID:23851093

  16. Variability in connectivity patterns of fish with ontogenetic migrations: Modelling effects of abiotic and biotic factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Eva Tanner

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Connectivity is a critical property of marine fish populations as it drives population replenishment, determines colonization patterns and the resilience of populations to harvest. Understanding connectivity patterns is particularly important in species that present ontogenetic migrations and segregated habitat use during their life history, such as marine species with estuarine nursery areas. Albeit challenging, fish movement can be estimated and quantified using different methodologies depending on the life history stages of interest (e.g. biophysical modelling, otolith chemistry, genetic markers. Relative contributions from estuarine nursery areas to the adult coastal populations were determined using otolith elemental composition and maximum likelihood estimation for four commercially important species (Dicentrarchus labrax, Plathichtys flesus, Solea senegalensis and Solea solea and showed high interannual variability. Here, the effects of abiotic and biotic factors on the observed variability in connectivity rates and extent between estuarine juvenile and coastal adult subpopulations are investigated using generalized linear models (GLM and generalized mixed models (GMM. Abiotic factors impacting both larval and juvenile life history stages are included in the models (e.g. wind force and direction, NAO, water temperature while biotic factors relative to the estuarine residency of juvenile fish are evaluated (e.g. juvenile density, food availability. Factors contributing most to the observed variability in connectivity rates are singled out and compared among species. General trends are identified and results area discussed in the general context of identifying potential management frameworks applicable to different life stages and which may prove useful for ontogenetically migrating species.

  17. A pea chloroplast translation elongation factor that is regulated by abiotic factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, B.N.; Mishra, R.N.; Agarwal, Pradeep K.; Goswami, Mamta; Nair, Suresh; Sopory, S.K.; Reddy, M.K.

    2004-01-01

    We report the cloning and characterization of both the cDNA (tufA) and genomic clones encoding for a chloroplast translation elongation factor (EF-Tu) from pea. The analysis of the deduced amino acids of the cDNA clone reveals the presence of putative transit peptide sequence and four GTP binding domains and two EF-Tu signature motifs in the mature polypeptide region. Using in vivo immunostaining followed by confocal microscopy pea EF-Tu was localized to chloroplast. The steady state transcript level of pea tufA was high in leaves and not detectable in roots. The expression of this gene is stimulated by light. The differential expression of this gene in response to various abiotic stresses showed that it is down-regulated in response to salinity and ABA and up-regulated in response to low temperature and salicylic acid treatment. These results indicate that regulation of pea tufA may have an important role in plant adaptation to environmental stresses

  18. Effects of biotic and abiotic factors on the temporal dynamic of bat-fruit interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurindo, Rafael de Souza; Gregorin, Renato; Tavares, Davi Castro

    2017-08-01

    Mutualistic interactions between animals and plants vary over time and space based on the abundance of fruits or animals and seasonality. Little is known about this temporal dynamic and the influence of biotic and abiotic factors on the structure of interaction networks. We evaluated changes in the structure of network interactions between bats and fruits in relation to variations in rainfall. Our results suggest that fruit abundance is the main variable responsible for temporal changes in network attributes, such as network size, connectance, and number of interactions. In the same way, temperature positively affected the abundance of fruits and bats. An increase in temperature and alterations in rainfall patterns, due to human induced climate change, can cause changes in phenological patterns and fruit production, with negative consequences to biodiversity maintenance, ecological interactions, and ecosystem functioning.

  19. Influence of selected abiotic factors on the decomposition of chlorophylls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gra¿yna Kowalewska

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of experiments to determine the influence of selected physico-chemical factors - oxygen, visible light and temperature - on the decomposition of (1 chlorophylls a, b and c, chlorophyll a derivatives and beta-carotene in acetone solution, and (2 chlorophyll a and beta-carotene in axenic cultures of the blue-green algae Anabaena variabilis. The results indicate that both in acetone extracts and in blue-green algae cultures these pigments were most sensitive to light and oxygen; temperatures of up to 25oC had no marked influence on these compounds. Under anoxia in acetone solution, the stability towards light decreased in the order chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, chlorophylls c. Chlorophyll a, moreover, was less stable than its derivatives - phaeophorbides, phaeophytins, pyrophaeophytins and steryl chlorins - but more stable than beta-carotene, in the last case also in the blue-green algae cultures. Decomposition of all the pigments proceeded mainly via the breakdown of the porphyrin macrocycle, since the decomposition products were not detected in the VIS range. On the basis of these experiments one can state that while light and oxygen may have a decisive direct influence on the distribution of chlorophylls and beta-carotene in sediments, in the natural environment, temperatures of up to 25oC may have very little immediate effect.

  20. Effect of abiotic and biotic stress factors analysis using machine learning methods in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutha, Rajasekar; Yarrappagaari, Suresh; Thopireddy, Lavanya; Reddy, Kesireddy Sathyavelu; Saddala, Rajeswara Reddy

    2018-03-01

    In order to understand the mechanisms underlying stress responses, meta-analysis of transcriptome is made to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and their biological, molecular and cellular mechanisms in response to stressors. The present study is aimed at identifying the effect of abiotic and biotic stress factors, and it is found that several stress responsive genes are common for both abiotic and biotic stress factors in zebrafish. The meta-analysis of micro-array studies revealed that almost 4.7% i.e., 108 common DEGs are differentially regulated between abiotic and biotic stresses. This shows that there is a global coordination and fine-tuning of gene regulation in response to these two types of challenges. We also performed dimension reduction methods, principal component analysis, and partial least squares discriminant analysis which are able to segregate abiotic and biotic stresses into separate entities. The supervised machine learning model, recursive-support vector machine, could classify abiotic and biotic stresses with 100% accuracy using a subset of DEGs. Beside these methods, the random forests decision tree model classified five out of 8 stress conditions with high accuracy. Finally, Functional enrichment analysis revealed the different gene ontology terms, transcription factors and miRNAs factors in the regulation of stress responses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. ANALYSIS OF BIOTIC AND ABIOTIC FACTORS INFLUENCING THE OCCURRENCE OF WEST NILE VIRUS INFECTION IN TUNISIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Hassine, Th; Calistri, P; Ippoliti, C; Conte, A; Danzetta, M L; Bruno, R; Lelli, R; Bejaoui, M; Hammami, S

    2014-01-01

    Eco-climatic conditions are often associated with the occurrence of West Nile Disease (WND) cases. Among the complex set of biotic and abiotic factors influencing the emergence and spread of this vector-borne disease, two main variables have been considered to have a great influence on the probability of West Nile Virus (WNV) introduction and circulation in Tunisia: the presence of susceptible bird populations and the existence of geographical areas where the environmental and climatic conditions are more favourable to mosquito multiplications. The aim of this study was to identify and classify the climatic and environmental variables possibly associated with the occurrence of WNVhuman cases in Tunisia. The following environmental and climatic variables have been considered: wetlands and humid areas, Normalised Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), temperatures and elevation. A preliminary analysis for the characterization of main variables associated with areas with a history of WNV human cases in Tunisia between 1997 and 2011 has been made. This preliminary analysis clearly indicates the closeness to marshes ecosystem, where migratory bird populations are located, as an important risk factor for WNV infection. On the contrary the temperature absolute seems to be not a significant factor in Tunisian epidemiological situation. In relation to NDVI values, more complex considerations should be made.

  2. Earth, wind, and fire: Abiotic factors and the impacts of global environmental change on forest health

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.E. Lundquist; A.E. Camp; M.L. Tyrell; S.J. Seybold; P. Cannon; D.J. Lodge

    2011-01-01

    Trees do not just die; there is always a primary cause, and often contributing factors. Trees need adequate quantities of water, heat, light, nutrients, carbon dioxide, oxygen, and other abiotic resources to sustain life, growth, and reproduction. When these factors are deficient or excessive, they cause mortality. According to the concept of baseline mortality (...

  3. Biotic factors are more important than abiotic factors in regulating the abundance of Plutella xylostella L., in Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar Augusto Marchioro

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The serious economic loss caused Plutella xylostella L., 1758 in several regions of the world has prompted a demand for alternative management strategies. In this context, understanding the key factors governing the population dynamics of the pest is important for development of management strategies. This study aimed to identify the larval parasitoids associated with P. xylostella and investigate the biotic (crop subspecies, plant age and parasitism and abiotic factors (minimum and maximum temperatures, rainfall, relative humidity and planting season affecting the population dynamics of the pest in organic crops located in Southern Paraná State, Brazil. Despite the continuous and abundant availability of host plants throughout the year, P. xylostella occurred between June and November, and the largest peaks of abundance were observed between August and September, when low temperatures and rainfall were recorded. According to the stepwise regression analysis, P. xylostella was more abundant in broccoli during winter. Neither temperature, nor rainfall significantly influenced pest abundance. Four species of larval parasitoids were identified associated with the pest, of which Diadegma leontiniae (Brèthes (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae, Apanteles piceotrichosus Blanchard (Hymenoptera: Braconidae and Siphona sp. Meigen (Diptera: Tachinidae were abundant, while Oomyzus sokolowskii (Kurdjumov (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae was rarely found. Parasitism was the major factor influencing population dynamics of P. xylostella, contributing to 48% of the variation in pest abundance. These results show the importance of larval parasitoids complex in regulating P. xylostella population and that the temperature and rainfall recorded during field experiments did not influenced pest abundance.

  4. Periphyton and abiotic factors influencing arsenic speciation in aquatic environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Adeline R; Silva, Silmara Costa; Webb, Samuel M; Hesterberg, Dean; Buchwalter, David B

    2018-03-01

    Benthic periphytic biofilms are important food sources at the base of aquatic ecosystems. These biofilms also sit at the interface of oxic waters and hypoxic sediments, and can be influenced by or influence trace element speciation. In the present study, we compared arsenic (As) enrichment in periphyton exposed to arsenate (As[V]) or arsenite (As[III]) (20 μg/L, static renewal, 7 d), and we found similar accumulation patterns of total As (101 ± 27 and 88 ± 22 mg kg -1 dry wt, respectively). Periphyton As was 6281- and 6684-fold higher than their aqueous exposures and occurred primarily as As(V). When these biofilms were fed to larval mayflies, similar total As tissue concentrations (13.9 and 14.6 mg kg -1 dry wt, respectively) were observed, revealing significant biodilution (∼ 10% of their dietary concentrations). Finally, we investigated the influence of aeration and periphyton presence on As speciation in solutions and solid phases treated with As(III). Predominantly As(III) solutions were slowly oxidized over a 7-d time period, in the absence of periphyton, and aeration did not strongly affect oxidation rates. However, in the presence of periphyton, solution and solid-phase analyses (by microscale x-ray absorption spectroscopy) showed rapid As(III) oxidation to As(V) and an increasing proportion of organo-As forming over time. Thus periphyton plays several roles in As environmental behavior: 1) decreasing total dissolved As concentrations via abiotic and biotic accumulation, 2) rapidly oxidizing As(III) to As(V), 3) effluxing organo-As forms into solution, and 4) limiting trophic transfer to aquatic grazers. Environ Toxicol Chem 2018;37:903-913. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  5. Abiotic factors in colony formation: effects of nutrition and light on extracellular polysaccharide production and cell aggregates of Microcystis aeruginosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhen; Kong, Fanxiang

    2013-07-01

    Colony morphology is important for Microcystis to sustain a competitive advantage in eutrophic lakes. The mechanism of colony formation in Microcystis is currently unclear. Extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) has been reported to play an important role in cell aggregate formation of some phytoplankton. Microcystis aeruginosa was cultivated under varied abiotic conditions, including different nutrient, light, and temperature conditions, to investigate their effects on EPS production and morphological change. The results show that nutrient concentration and light intensity have great effects on EPS productionin M. aeruginosa. There was a considerable increase in EPS production after M. aeruginosa was cultivated in adjusted culture conditions similar to those present in the field (28.9 mg C/L, 1.98 mg N/L, 0.65 mg P/L, light intensity: 100 μmol/(m2 · s)). These results indicate that abiotic factors might be one of the triggers for colony formation in Microcystis.

  6. Dof transcription factors in carrot: genome-wide analysis and their response to abiotic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wei; Huang, Ying; Li, Meng-yao; Wang, Feng; Xu, Zhi-sheng; Xiong, Ai-sheng

    2016-01-01

    The DNA-binding one zinc finger (Dof) family transcription factors (TF) are involved in stress response. Dof TFs in carrot were identified and the responses of DcDof genes to abiotic stresses were analyzed. 46 DcDofs in carrot were identified from carrot genome database. Based on the conserved domain in Dof TF family of Arabidopsis thaliana, the DcDof TFs were divided into four classes, named class A, B, C and D. Carrot and Arabidopsis shared most motifs in the same subgroup. Real-time quantification PCR analysis showed tissue-specific expression patterns in DcDofs. DcDofs from eight subgroups responded to four abiotic stress treatments. The expression profiles were different with the abiotic stresses changed, indicating complicated regulatory mechanisms in Dof TF family in higher plant, and the response mechanisms of Dof genes may be influenced by different plant species.

  7. Feeding in deep-sea demosponges: Influence of abiotic and biotic factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Leah M.; Hamel, Jean-François; Mercier, Annie

    2017-09-01

    In shallow benthic communities, sponges are widely recognized for their ability to contribute to food webs by cycling nutrients and mediating carbon fluxes through filter feeding. In comparison, little is known about filter feeding in deep-sea species and how it may be modulated by environmental conditions. Here, a rare opportunity to maintain live healthy deep-sea sponges for an extended period led to a preliminary experimental study of their feeding metrics. This work focused on demosponges collected from the continental slope of eastern Canada at 1000 m depth. Filtration rates (as clearance of phytoplankton cells) at holding temperature (6 °C) were positively correlated with food particle concentration, ranging on average from 18.8 to 160.6 cells ml-1 h-1 at nominal concentrations of 10,000-40,000 cells ml-1. Cell clearance was not significantly affected by decreasing seawater temperature, from 6 °C to 3 °C or 0 °C, although two of the sponges showed decreased filtration rates. Low pH ( 7.5) and the presence of a predatory sea star markedly depressed or inhibited feeding activity in all sponges tested. While performed under laboratory conditions on a limited number of specimens, this work highlights the possible sensitivity of deep-sea demosponges to various types and levels of biotic and abiotic factors, inferring a consequent vulnerability to natural and anthropogenic disturbances.

  8. Diagnosis of abiotic and biotic stress factors using the visible symptoms in foliage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vollenweider, P.; Guenthardt-Goerg, Madeleine S.

    2005-01-01

    Visible symptoms in the foliage of trees are recorded to monitor the effects of abiotic and biotic stress. Difficulties are reported in diagnosing the origin of stress. The present paper discusses several diagnostic criteria which are usable in different species for a better determination of the stress factor type. A new diagnosis scheme to differentiate between classes of abiotic and biotic stress factors is supplied. Abiotic stress generates gradients of symptoms. The symptom specificity is determined by the degree of interaction between the stress factor and plant defense system. Symptoms caused by abiotic stress and natural autumnal senescence can be morphologically different or undistinguishable according to the stress and plant species. With biotic stress, the class of parasitic is generally recognizable on the basis of the visible symptoms. Structurally and physiologically based explanations of the symptom morphology are still missing for many stress factors. - The morphology and distribution of visible stress symptoms in tree foliage provides diagnostic tools to identify plant defense responses and differentiate stress from natural senescence symptoms

  9. Abiotic factors influencing the occurrence of Salicornia europaea in West Estonia

    OpenAIRE

    Hulisz, Piotr; Elvisto, Tina; Karasiewicz, Mirosław T.; Piernik, Agnieszka

    2011-01-01

    The occurrence of Salicornia europaea in Western Estonia (Kassari and Topu bays) is the result of complex processes occurring in the Baltic coastal zone and conditioned by such abiotic factors as topography, lithology, hydrogeology and climate. This is reflected by very high salinity level of groundwater and soils.

  10. Abiotic factors influencing deer browsing in West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler A. Campbell; Benjamin R. Laseter; W. Mark Ford; Richard H. Odom; Karl V. Miller

    2006-01-01

    We present a comparison of woody browse availability and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) use among clearcut interiors, skidder trail edges, and mature forest and an evaluation of the relative importance of aboitic factors in predicting browsing pressure within regenerating clearcuts in the central Appalachians of West Virginia. We sampled...

  11. ROLE OF ABIOTIC AND BIOTIC FACTORS IN RESEARCH OF VARIETES OF WEIGELA (WEIGELA THUNB., CAPRIFOLIACEAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Savenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The success of the introduction of plants depends on their vitality and adaptation to the new conditions of existence. The aim of our study is to identify environmental characteristics of varieties of Weigela to extend the range of ornamental plants under urban ecosystem of Krasnodar. We have analyzed the tolerance of varieties of Weigela to the temperature regime in the introduction region, we explored the complex biotic factors influencing the growth and development of these plants, and also studied the morphological characteristics of pollen and pollen productivity of Weigela flowers.Methods. Evaluation of resistance of varieties of Weigela to a complex of abiotic and biotic factors has been conducted in the field and in the laboratory, taking into account recommendations for ornamental shrubs.Results. Studied Weigela varieties have enough ecological valence to the force of impact of the maximum and minimum air temperatures in the area of the introduction. The most resistant to the complex of summer stress factors are the following varieties of Weigela: 'Candida', 'Nana Variegata', 'Olimpik Flame', 'Red Rrince'. The most heat-resistant varieties are 'Nana Variegata' and 'Olimpik Flame'. The most winter-hardy varieties are 'Candida' and 'Red Rrince', less winter-hardy variety is 'Nana Purpurea'. The most cold-resistant variety is 'Candida'. 'Nana Variegata' produces the highest number of fertile pollen grains. The smallest amount of fertile pollen is formed by 'Nana Purpurea'.Main conclusion. These studies allow us to conclude that all the studied varieties of Weigela are characterized by a high degree of adaptation and deserve widespread use in gardens and parks of the city of Krasnodar.

  12. Identifying potential molecular factors involved in Bacillus amyloliquefaciens 5113 mediated abiotic stress tolerance in wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El-Daim, I A; Bejai, S; Fridborg, I; Meijer, J

    2018-03-01

    Abiotic stressors are main limiting factors for agricultural production around the world. Plant growth-promoting bacteria have been successfully used to improve abiotic stress tolerance in several crops including wheat. However, the molecular changes involved in the improvement of stress management are poorly understood. The present investigation addressed some molecular factors involved in bacterially induced plant abiotic stress responses by identifying differentially expressed genes in wheat (Triticum aestivum) seedlings treated with the beneficial bacterium Bacillus amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum UCMB5113 prior to challenge with abiotic stress conditions such as heat, cold or drought. cDNA-AFLP analysis revealed differential expression of more than 200 transcript-derived fragments (TDFs) in wheat leaves. Expression of selected TDFs was confirmed using RT-PCR. DNA sequencing of 31 differentially expressed TDFs revealed significant homology with both known and unknown genes in database searches. Virus-induced gene silencing of two abscisic acid-related TDFs showed different effects upon heat and drought stress. We conclude that treatment with B. amyloliquefaciens 5113 caused molecular modifications in wheat in order to induce tolerance against heat, cold and drought stress. Bacillus treatment provides systemic effects that involve metabolic and regulatory functions supporting both growth and stress management. © 2017 German Society for Plant Sciences and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  13. Induced Systemic Tolerance to Multiple Stresses Including Biotic and Abiotic Factors by Rhizobacteria

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    Sung-Je Yoo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently, global warming and drastic climate change are the greatest threat to the world. The climate change can affect plant productivity by reducing plant adaptation to diverse environments including frequent high temperature; worsen drought condition and increased pathogen transmission and infection. Plants have to survive in this condition with a variety of biotic (pathogen/pest attack and abiotic stress (salt, high/low temperature, drought. Plants can interact with beneficial microbes including plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria, which help plant mitigate biotic and abiotic stress. This overview presents that rhizobacteria plays an important role in induced systemic resistance (ISR to biotic stress or induced systemic tolerance (IST to abiotic stress condition; bacterial determinants related to ISR and/or IST. In addition, we describe effects of rhizobacteria on defense/tolerance related signal pathway in plants. We also review recent information including plant resistance or tolerance against multiple stresses (bioticabiotic. We desire that this review contribute to expand understanding and knowledge on the microbial application in a constantly varying agroecosystem, and suggest beneficial microbes as one of alternative environment-friendly application to alleviate multiple stresses.

  14. Fast Abiotic Production of Methane at Temperatures Below 100°C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etiope, G.; Ionescu, A.

    2015-12-01

    Fischer-Tropsch Type (FTT) reactions, e.g., the Sabatier synthesis between H2 and CO2, are considered a main source of abiotic methane on Earth and likely on other planets. Several laboratory FTT experiments demonstrated abiotic CH4 production at temperatures above 200°C, by using Fe, Ni or Cr catalysts, simulating hydrothermal conditions in peridotite-hosted systems in mid-ocean ridges. Nevertheless, at least on laboratory experiment time-scale, Fe-Ni-Cr catalysts do not support CH4 generation at T800 ppmv in 155 mL bottles after 1 day) via Sabatier reaction at 90, 50 and 25°C, using small concentrations of non-pretreated ruthenium (Ru) equivalent to those occurring in chromitites in continental ultramafic rocks (Etiope & Ionescu, 2014; Geofluids, doi:10.1111/gfl.12106). We have repeated the experiments by using 13C-enriched CO2 and we confirm fast production of CH4at percentage levels. The experiments performed so far show that: 1. considerable amounts of CH4can be produced in dry conditions below 100°C with small quantities of Ru; 2. under the same experimental conditions (<100°C), Fe, Ni and Cr oxides do not produce CH4; 3. low T Sabatier reaction can produce CH4 with a large C isotope fractionation between CO2 and CH4, leading to relatively " light" (13C-depleted) CH4, resembling microbial gas; 4. the CO2-CH4isotope separation decreases over time and by increasing the temperature; 5. minor amounts of C2-C6hydrocarbons are also generated. Our laboratory data are compatible with the isotopic patterns of CH4 naturally occurring in land-based seeps and springs. Our experiments suggest that Ru-enriched chromitites could potentially generate CH4 at low T. Since Ru is reported in Martian meteorites, low T abiotic CH4 production on Mars via Sabatier reaction cannot be excluded (Etiope et al. 2013, Icarus, 224, 276-285).

  15. Seasonal variation in abiotic factors and toxicity of thymol against the snail Lymnaea acuminata

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    Shefali Srivastava

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Toxicity of thymol against Lymnaea acuminata was conducted in each month of the year 2010-2011. The 24, 48, 72 and 96 h LC50 values of a molluscicide thymol were determined, with the concomitant estimation of levels of temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, carbon dioxide and electrical conductivity, both in control and test water. On the basis of a 24h toxicity assay, it was observed that 24h LC50 value of 6.41 mg/l in month of May, was most effective in killing the snails, while the thymol was least effective in month of April, when its 24h LC50 was 15.25 mg/l. There was a significant positive correlation between LC50 of thymol and levels of carbon dioxide/ pH of water in corresponding months. On the contrary, a negative correlation was noted between LC50 of thymol and dissolved oxygen/ temperature of test water in the same months. In order to confirm that relationship between toxicity and abiotic factors is not coincidental, activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE, acid phosphatase (ACP and alkaline phosphatase (ALP in the nervous tissue of control as well as sublethal thymol (60% of 24hLC50 treated snail, were assayed during each of the 12 months of the same year. A significant positive rank correlation was noted between AChE/ACP/ALP activity and corresponding sublethal treatment of thymol. Maximum inhibition of AChE, ACP and ALP activity was observed in the month of May. This study shows conclusively that the best time to control the L. acuminata population with thymol is during the month of May to July.

  16. Effects of abiotic factors on the foraging activity of Apis mellifera Linnaeus, 1758 in inflorescences of Vernonia polyanthes Less (Asteraceae

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    Luis Henrique Soares Alves

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge on the foraging activity of Apis mellifera under the influence of abiotic factors has not been fully elucidated. Knowing the interactions between bees and plants with beekeeping relevance is fundamental to develop management strategies aimed at improving the beekeeping productivity. In this way, this study aimed to determine the foraging schedule of A. mellifera and to assess the influence of environmental factors on the foraging on inflorescences of Vernonia polyanthes. The study was conducted in the rural area of Valença, Rio de Janeiro State. Visits of A. mellifera workers to V. polyanthes inflorescences occurred from 9 am to 4 pm, especially between 11 am and 3 pm. Among the abiotic variables, relative humidity (rs = -0.691; p < 0.0001 and temperature (rs = 0.531; p < 0.0001 were correlated with foraging activity. Increase in temperature and decrease in humidity resulted in increased frequency in bee foraging activity, accounting for 46.9% of the activity in A. mellifera. This study provides subsidies to the development of apiculture, emphasizing the importance of V. polyanthes as a food resource during winter, representing a good alternative to increase the productivity, especially in areas of grasslands or abandoned crops, where ‘Assa-peixe’ is abundant.

  17. Abiotic and biotic factors influencing the winter distribution of predatory insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Matthew B; Mitchell, Heidi J; Wratten, Stephen D

    1992-01-01

    Various environmental factors were investigated to analyse those involved in successful overwintering and possibly overwintering site selection for Tachyporus hypnorum and Demetrias atricapillus, both important coleopteran predators of cereal aphids. The results of the study indicated food supply to be important for both predator species during the winter period, although the role of biotic factors in site selection in the autumn could not be clearly demonstrated. The winter distribution of the two species could, however, be explained well in terms of abiotic factors. It is suggested that these and other similar predator species have well-defined overwintering requirements and that these can be exploited in the management of field boundary habitats.

  18. The influence of abiotic factors present in the Rio de la Plata over the chromium genotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, L.C.; Moretton, J.

    1997-01-01

    The alterations suffered by the well-known environmental genotoxic agent, Cr(V I), were studied. Cr(V I) salts were dissolved in water effluent river receptors waters such as from the Rio de la Plata. The influence of abiotic factors present in this kind of water was evaluated using the Rec. assay in Bacillus subtilis. The results detected a soluble fraction that potentiated Cr(V I) genotoxicity. This substance (or group of substances) is sensible to sterilization by heat and UV radiation, and its activity seems to decrease with particulate matter. Its genotoxicity was not affected by high concentrations of particulate matter in the Rio de la Plata water. In samples where chromium salts were added to raw river water, abiotic interference due to sterilization process occurred. A decrease in genotoxicity was found after filtration through inorganic filters (0.22 μ m) and an increase was noticed after exposure to UV radiation. (Author)

  19. Characterization of moso bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis) Dof transcription factors in floral development and abiotic stress responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Zhanchao; Hou, Dan; Liu, Jun; Li, Xiangyu; Xie, Lihua; Ma, Yanjun; Gao, Jian

    2018-03-01

    The Dof transcription factor (TF) family belongs to a class of plant-specific TFs and is involved in plant growth, development, and response to abiotic stresses. However, there are only very limited reports on the characterization of Dof TFs in moso bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis). In the present research, PheDof TFs showed specific expression profiles based on RNA-seq data analyses. The co-expression network indicated that PheDof12, PheDof14, and PheDof16 might play vital roles during flower development. Cis-regulatory element analysis of these PheDof genes suggested diverse functions. Expression patterns of 12 selected genes from seven different classes under three abiotic stresses (cold, salt, and drought) are further investigated by quantitative real-time PCR. This work will provide useful information for functional analysis and regulation mechanisms of Dof TFs in moso bamboo.

  20. Molecular characterization of BZR transcription factor family and abiotic stress induced expression profiling in Brassica rapa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Gopal; Park, Jong-In; Jung, Hee-Jeong; Ahmed, Nasar Uddin; Kayum, Md Abdul; Kang, Jong-Goo; Nou, Ill-Sup

    2015-07-01

    BRASSINAZOLE-RESISTANT (BZR) transcription factors (TFs) are primarily well known as positive regulators of Brassinosteroid (BR) signal transduction in different plants. BR is a plant specific steroid hormone, which has multiple stress resistance functions besides various growth regulatory roles. Being an important regulator of the BR synthesis, BZR TFs might have stress resistance related activities. However, no stress resistance related functional study of BZR TFs has been reported in any crop plants so far. Therefore, this study identified 15 BZR TFs of Brassica rapa (BrBZR) from a genome-wide survey and characterized them through sequence analysis and expression profiling against several abiotic stresses. Various systematic in silico analysis of these TFs validated the fundamental properties of BZRs, where a high degree of similarity also observed with recognized BZRs of other plant species from the comparison studies. In the organ specific expression analyses, 6 BrBZR TFs constitutively expressed in flower developmental stages indicating their flower specific functions. Subsequently, from the stress resistance related expression profiles differential transcript abundance levels were observed by 6 and 11 BrBZRs against salt and drought stresses, respectively. All BrBZRs showed several folds up-regulation against exogenous ABA treatment. All BrBZRs also showed differential expression against low temperature stress treatments and these TFs were proposed as transcriptional activators of CBF cold response pathway of B. rapa. Notably, three BrBZRs gave co-responsive expression against all the stresses tested here, suggesting their multiple stress resistance related functions. Thus, the findings would be helpful in resolving the complex regulatory mechanism of BZRs in stress resistance and further functional genomics study of these potential TFs in different Brassica crops. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Impact of abiotic stress on photosynthetic efficiency and leaf temperature in sunflower

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    Antonela Markulj Kulundžić

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to investigate the variability of photosynthetic performance index (PIABS and leaf temperature values measured in V6 development phase on 13 sunflower hybrids, grown in stressful conditions. The pot trial was made up of two treatments, one (T1 with 60% Field Water Capacity (FWC, and the other one (T2 with 80% FWC. Significant differences between T1 and T2 treatments were established for both of these parameters which prove their dependence on the water content in the soil, while the influence of hybrid was evident only in the case of PIABS. Although in T1, as opposed to T2, all sunflower hybrids reacted by increasing leaf temperature, reaction to stress conditions measured with PIABS parameter was not uniform. Some of the hybrids reacted by decreasing PIABS values, while others reacted by increasing their PIABS values. Therefore, it can be concluded that changes in parameters were independent of each other, which was confirmed by correlation analysis. Investigated parameters are suitable for determining the existence of undesirable environmental conditions that cause stress in plants and can be used in breeding of sunflower to withstand abiotic stress conditions, i.e. in selection of stress tolerant hybrids.

  2. Recent advances in utilizing transcription factors to improve plant abiotic stress tolerance by transgenic technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyan eWang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural production and quality are adversely affected by various abiotic stresses worldwide and this will be exacerbated by the deterioration of global climate. To feed a growing world population, it is very urgent to breed stress-tolerant crops with higher yields and improved qualities against multiple environmental stresses. Since conventional breeding approaches had marginal success due to the complexity of stress tolerance traits, the transgenic approach is now being popularly used to breed stress-tolerant crops. So identifying and characterizing the the critical genes involved in plant stress responses is an essential prerequisite for engineering stress-tolerant crops. Far beyond the manipulation of single functional gene, engineering certain regulatory genes has emerged as an effective strategy now for controlling the expression of many stress-responsive genes. Transcription factors (TFs are good candidates for genetic engineering to breed stress-tolerant crop because of their role as master regulators of many stress-responsive genes. Many TFs belonging to families AP2/EREBP, MYB, WRKY, NAC, bZIP have been found to be involved in various abiotic stresses and some TF genes have also been engineered to improve stress tolerance in model and crop plants. In this review, we take five large families of TFs as examples and review the recent progress of TFs involved in plant abiotic stress responses and their potential utilization to improve multiple stress tolerance of crops in the field conditions.

  3. Spatially dependent biotic and abiotic factors drive survivorship and physical structure of green roof vegetation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloisio, Jason M; Palmer, Matthew I; Giampieri, Mario A; Tuininga, Amy R; Lewis, James D

    2017-01-01

    Plant survivorship depends on biotic and abiotic factors that vary at local and regional scales. This survivorship, in turn, has cascading effects on community composition and the physical structure of vegetation. Survivorship of native plant species is variable among populations planted in environmentally stressful habitats like urban roofs, but the degree to which factors at different spatial scales affect survivorship in urban systems is not well understood. We evaluated the effects of biotic and abiotic factors on survivorship, composition, and physical structure of two native perennial species assemblages, one characterized by a mixture of C 4 grasses and forbs (Hempstead Plains, HP) and one characterized by a mixture of C 3 grasses and forbs (Rocky Summit, RS), that were initially sown at equal ratios of growth forms (5:1:4; grass, N-fixing forb and non-N-fixing forb) in replicate 2-m 2 plots planted on 10 roofs in New York City (New York, USA). Of 24 000 installed plants, 40% survived 23 months after planting. Within-roof factors explained 71% of variation in survivorship, with biotic (species identity and assemblage) factors accounting for 54% of the overall variation, and abiotic (growing medium depth and plot location) factors explaining 17% of the variation. Among-roof factors explained 29% of variation in survivorship and increased solar radiation correlated with decreased survivorship. While growing medium properties (pH, nutrients, metals) differed among roofs there was no correlation with survivorship. Percent cover and sward height increased with increasing survivorship. At low survivorship, cover of the HP assemblage was greater compared to the RS assemblage. Sward height of the HP assemblage was about two times greater compared to the RS assemblage. These results highlight the effects of local biotic and regional abiotic drivers on community composition and physical structure of green roof vegetation. As a result, initial green roof plant

  4. Microbial Hub Taxa Link Host and Abiotic Factors to Plant Microbiome Variation.

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    Matthew T Agler

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant-associated microorganisms have been shown to critically affect host physiology and performance, suggesting that evolution and ecology of plants and animals can only be understood in a holobiont (host and its associated organisms context. Host-associated microbial community structures are affected by abiotic and host factors, and increased attention is given to the role of the microbiome in interactions such as pathogen inhibition. However, little is known about how these factors act on the microbial community, and especially what role microbe-microbe interaction dynamics play. We have begun to address this knowledge gap for phyllosphere microbiomes of plants by simultaneously studying three major groups of Arabidopsis thaliana symbionts (bacteria, fungi and oomycetes using a systems biology approach. We evaluated multiple potential factors of microbial community control: we sampled various wild A. thaliana populations at different times, performed field plantings with different host genotypes, and implemented successive host colonization experiments under lab conditions where abiotic factors, host genotype, and pathogen colonization was manipulated. Our results indicate that both abiotic factors and host genotype interact to affect plant colonization by all three groups of microbes. Considering microbe-microbe interactions, however, uncovered a network of interkingdom interactions with significant contributions to community structure. As in other scale-free networks, a small number of taxa, which we call microbial "hubs," are strongly interconnected and have a severe effect on communities. By documenting these microbe-microbe interactions, we uncover an important mechanism explaining how abiotic factors and host genotypic signatures control microbial communities. In short, they act directly on "hub" microbes, which, via microbe-microbe interactions, transmit the effects to the microbial community. We analyzed two "hub" microbes (the

  5. Microbial Hub Taxa Link Host and Abiotic Factors to Plant Microbiome Variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agler, Matthew T; Ruhe, Jonas; Kroll, Samuel; Morhenn, Constanze; Kim, Sang-Tae; Weigel, Detlef; Kemen, Eric M

    2016-01-01

    Plant-associated microorganisms have been shown to critically affect host physiology and performance, suggesting that evolution and ecology of plants and animals can only be understood in a holobiont (host and its associated organisms) context. Host-associated microbial community structures are affected by abiotic and host factors, and increased attention is given to the role of the microbiome in interactions such as pathogen inhibition. However, little is known about how these factors act on the microbial community, and especially what role microbe-microbe interaction dynamics play. We have begun to address this knowledge gap for phyllosphere microbiomes of plants by simultaneously studying three major groups of Arabidopsis thaliana symbionts (bacteria, fungi and oomycetes) using a systems biology approach. We evaluated multiple potential factors of microbial community control: we sampled various wild A. thaliana populations at different times, performed field plantings with different host genotypes, and implemented successive host colonization experiments under lab conditions where abiotic factors, host genotype, and pathogen colonization was manipulated. Our results indicate that both abiotic factors and host genotype interact to affect plant colonization by all three groups of microbes. Considering microbe-microbe interactions, however, uncovered a network of interkingdom interactions with significant contributions to community structure. As in other scale-free networks, a small number of taxa, which we call microbial "hubs," are strongly interconnected and have a severe effect on communities. By documenting these microbe-microbe interactions, we uncover an important mechanism explaining how abiotic factors and host genotypic signatures control microbial communities. In short, they act directly on "hub" microbes, which, via microbe-microbe interactions, transmit the effects to the microbial community. We analyzed two "hub" microbes (the obligate biotrophic

  6. Mediterranean coastal dune systems: Which abiotic factors have the most influence on plant communities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruocco, Matteo; Bertoni, Duccio; Sarti, Giovanni; Ciccarelli, Daniela

    2014-08-01

    Mediterranean coastal dunes are dynamic and heterogeneous ecosystems characterised by a strong interaction between abiotic and biotic factors. The present study aimed to adopt a multidisciplinary approach - integrating data on dune morphology, sediment texture and soil parameters as well as shoreline trend - in order to define which are the abiotic factors that most affect the distribution and composition of Mediterranean plant dune communities. The study was carried out in two protected areas, located in central Italy, subjected to different shoreline trends in recent years. 75 plots were identified along eleven randomly positioned cross-shore transects, starting from the beach continuing up to the plant communities of the backdunes. In each plot floristic and environmental data - such as distance to the coastline, plot altitude, inclination, shoreline trend, mean grain-size, sorting, pH, conductivity and organic matter concentration - were collected. The analyses revealed significant changes of vegetational cover, dune morphology and geopedological features along the coast-to-inland gradient. Relationships between vegetation composition and environmental factors were investigated through Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA). Four factors - distance to the coastline, mean grain-size, shoreline trend and organic matter - were found to be closely correlated with the floristic composition of plant communities. Finally, soil properties were highlighted as the most determinant factors of community zonation in these Mediterranean coastal dune ecosystems. These results could be taken into account by local managers in conservation actions such as protecting the eroding foredunes as well as in artificial dune reconstructions.

  7. The Red Queen and the Court Jester: species diversity and the role of biotic and abiotic factors through time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benton, Michael J

    2009-02-06

    Evolution may be dominated by biotic factors, as in the Red Queen model, or abiotic factors, as in the Court Jester model, or a mixture of both. The two models appear to operate predominantly over different geographic and temporal scales: Competition, predation, and other biotic factors shape ecosystems locally and over short time spans, but extrinsic factors such as climate and oceanographic and tectonic events shape larger-scale patterns regionally and globally, and through thousands and millions of years. Paleobiological studies suggest that species diversity is driven largely by abiotic factors such as climate, landscape, or food supply, and comparative phylogenetic approaches offer new insights into clade dynamics.

  8. The effect of abiotic factors on the hatching of Moina micrura Kurz, 1874 (Crustacea: Cladocera ephippial eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. E. T. ROJAS

    Full Text Available The roles of some abiotic factors in controlling the hatching rates of Moina micrura ephippial eggs were investigated. Determination of optimum hatching conditions would be important in developing the use of this species as a food for fish larvae in aquaculture. Ephippia were exposed to different treatments in the laboratory, and monitored for hatching over a period of seven days. Optimum hatching conditions were: pH 5-9, temperature 25ºC, photoperiod eight or more hours light per day and light intensity equal to or greater than 850 lux. Differences in water ionic concentrations (from deionized water to 880 mg.L-1 of selected salts had no effect.

  9. Genetically engineered Rice with transcription factor DREB genes for abiotic stress tolerance(abstract)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Datta, S.K.; Datta, K.

    2005-01-01

    Water stress (drought and Salinity) is the most severe limitation to rice productivity. Several breeding approaches (MAS, QTL) applied to suitable genotypes are in place at IRRI and elsewhere. Phenotyping of water stress tolerance is in progress with potential predictability. Dr. Shinozaki's group has cloned a number of transcription factor genes, which have been shown to work in Arabidopsis to achieve drought, cold, and salinity tolerant plants. None of these genes have as yet displayed their potential functioning in rice. Genetic engineering aims at cross talk between different stress signaling pathways leading to stress tolerance. Osmotic Adjustment (OA) is an effective component of abiotic stress (drought and salinity) tolerance in many plants including rice. When plant experiences water stress, OA contributes to turgor maintenance of both shoots and roots. Conventional breeding could not achieve the OA in rice excepting a few rice cultivars, which are partially adapted to water-stress conditions. Several stress-related genes have now been cloned and transferred in to enhance the osmolytes and some transgenic lines showed increased tolerance to osmotic stress. A few strategies could be effectively deployed for a better understanding of water-stress tolerance in rice and to develop transgenic rice, which can survive for a critical period of water-stress conditions: 1) Switching on of transcription factor regulating the expression of several genes related to abiotic stress, 2) Use of a suitable stress inducible promoter driving the target gene for an efficient and directed expression in plants, 3) Understanding of phenotyping and GxE in a given environment, 4) Selection of a few adaptive rice cultivars suitable in drought/salinity prone areas, 5) Microarray, proteomics, QTL and MAS may expedite the cloning and characterizing the stress induced genes, and 6) Finally, the efficient transformation system for generating a large number of transgenic rice of different

  10. Multifaceted role of cycling DOF factor 3 (CDF3) in the regulation of flowering time and abiotic stress responses in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrales, Alba-Rocio; Carrillo, Laura; Lasierra, Pilar; Nebauer, Sergio G; Dominguez-Figueroa, Jose; Renau-Morata, Begoña; Pollmann, Stephan; Granell, Antonio; Molina, Rosa-Victoria; Vicente-Carbajosa, Jesús; Medina, Joaquín

    2017-05-01

    DNA-binding with one finger (DOF)-type transcription factors are involved in many fundamental processes in higher plants, from responses to light and phytohormones to flowering time and seed maturation, but their relation with abiotic stress tolerance is largely unknown. Here, we identify the roles of CDF3, an Arabidopsis DOF gene in abiotic stress responses and developmental processes like flowering time. CDF3 is highly induced by drought, extreme temperatures and abscisic acid treatment. The CDF3 T-DNA insertion mutant cdf3-1 is much more sensitive to drought and low temperature stress, whereas CDF3 overexpression enhances the tolerance of transgenic plants to drought, cold and osmotic stress and promotes late flowering. Transcriptome analysis revealed that CDF3 regulates a set of genes involved in cellular osmoprotection and oxidative stress, including the stress tolerance transcription factors CBFs, DREB2A and ZAT12, which involve both gigantea-dependent and independent pathways. Consistently, metabolite profiling disclosed that the total amount of some protective metabolites including γ-aminobutyric acid, proline, glutamine and sucrose were higher in CDF3-overexpressing plants. Taken together, these results indicate that CDF3 plays a multifaceted role acting on both flowering time and abiotic stress tolerance, in part by controlling the CBF/DREB2A-CRT/DRE and ZAT10/12 modules. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Abiotic factors influencing biomass accumulation of green tide causing Ulva spp. on Pyropia culture rafts in the Yellow Sea, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keesing, John K; Liu, Dongyan; Shi, Yajun; Wang, Yujue

    2016-04-15

    Annually recurrent green-tides in the Yellow Sea have been shown to result from direct disposal into the sea of fouling Ulva from Pyropia aquaculture. The role abiotic factors play in Ulva biomass accumulation on rafts was studied to find ways to mitigate this problem. Dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) was very high at all sites, but the highest Ulva biomass was associated with the lowest DIN and anthropogenic N. Under luxuriant background nutrient conditions, variability in temperature and periods of emersion, rather than pH, light and salinity determined Ulva biomass. Two dominant species of Ulva displayed differing tolerances to temperature and desiccation which helped explain why Ulva prolifera dominates floating green-tides. Rather than trying to mitigate green-tides only by reducing nutrient pollution, an earlier harvest of Pyropia in southern Jiangsu Province especially before temperatures increase greatly above 10°C during April, could reduce the biomass of U. prolifera disposed from rafts. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Abiotic and biotic factors responsible for antimonite oxidation in Agrobacterium tumefaciens GW4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jingxin; Yang, Birong; Shi, Manman; Yuan, Kai; Guo, Wei; Wang, Qian; Wang, Gejiao

    2017-03-01

    Antimonite [Sb(III)]-oxidizing bacteria can transform the toxic Sb(III) into the less toxic antimonate [Sb(V)]. Recently, the cytoplasmic Sb(III)-oxidase AnoA and the periplasmic arsenite [As(III)] oxidase AioAB were shown to responsible for bacterial Sb(III) oxidation, however, disruption of each gene only partially decreased Sb(III) oxidation efficiency. This study showed that in Agrobacterium tumefaciens GW4, Sb(III) induced cellular H2O2 content and H2O2 degradation gene katA. Gene knock-out/complementation of katA, anoA, aioA and anoA/aioA and Sb(III) oxidation and growth experiments showed that katA, anoA and aioA were essential for Sb(III) oxidation and resistance and katA was also essential for H2O2 resistance. Furthermore, linear correlations were observed between cellular H2O2 and Sb(V) content in vivo and chemical H2O2 and Sb(V) content in vitro (R2 = 0.93 and 0.94, respectively). These results indicate that besides the biotic factors, the cellular H2O2 induced by Sb(III) also catalyzes bacterial Sb(III) oxidation as an abiotic oxidant. The data reveal a novel mechanism that bacterial Sb(III) oxidation is associated with abiotic (cellular H2O2) and biotic (AnoA and AioAB) factors and Sb(III) oxidation process consumes cellular H2O2 which contributes to microbial detoxification of both Sb(III) and cellular H2O2.

  13. Simultaneous influence of indigenous microorganism along with abiotic factors controlling arsenic mobilization in Brahmaputra floodplain, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathe, Sandip S; Mahanta, Chandan; Mishra, Pushpanjali

    2018-03-05

    In the dynamic cycling of oxic and anoxic aqueous alluvial aquifer environments, varying Arsenic (As) concentrations are controlled by both abiotic and biotic factors. Studies have shown a significant form of toxic As (III) being released through the reductive dissolution of iron-oxy/hydroxide minerals and microbial reduction mechanisms, which leads to a serious health concern. The present study was performed in order to assess the abiotic and biotic factors influencing As release into the alluvial aquifer groundwater in Brahmaputra floodplain, India. The groundwater chemistry, characterization of the sediments, isolation, identification and characterization of prominent As releasing indigenous bacterium were conducted. The measured solid and liquid phases of total As concentration were ranged between 0.02 and 17.2 mg kg -1 and 8 to 353 μg L -1 , respectively. The morphology and mineralogy showed the presence of detrital and authigenic mineral assemblages whereas primary and secondary As bearing Realgar and Claudetite minerals were identified, respectively. Furthermore, significant non-labile As fraction was found associated with the amorphous oxides of Fe, Mn and Al. The observed groundwater chemistry and sediment color, deduced a sub-oxic reducing aquifer conditions in As-contaminated regions. In addition, 16S rDNA sequencing results of the isolated bacterium showed the prominent Pseudomonas aeruginosa responsible for the mobilization of As, reducing condition, biomineralization and causing grey color to the sediments at the shallower and deeper aquifers in the study area. These findings suggest that microbial metabolic activities are equally responsible in iron-oxy/hydroxide reductive dissolution, controlling As mobilization in dynamic fluvial flood plains. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The abiotic and biotic factors limiting establishment of predatory fishes at their expanding northern range boundaries in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alofs, Karen M; Jackson, Donald A

    2015-06-01

    There is a poor understanding of the importance of biotic interactions in determining species distributions with climate change. Theory from invasion biology suggests that the success of species introductions outside of their historical ranges may be either positively (biotic acceptance) or negatively (biotic resistance) related to native biodiversity. Using data on fish community composition from two survey periods separated by approximately 28 years during which climate was warming, we examined the factors influencing the establishment of three predatory centrarchids: Smallmouth Bass (Micropterus dolomieu), Largemouth Bass (M. salmoides), and Rock Bass (Ambloplites rupestris) in lakes at their expanding northern range boundaries in Ontario. Variance partitioning demonstrated that, at a regional scale, abiotic factors play a stronger role in determining the establishment of these species than biotic factors. Pairing lakes within watersheds where each species had established with lakes sharing similar abiotic conditions where the species had not established revealed both positive and negative relationships between the establishment of centrarchids and the historical presence of other predatory species. The establishment of these species near their northern range boundaries is primarily determined by abiotic factors at a regional scale; however, biotic factors become important at the lake-to-lake scale. Studies of exotic species invasions have previously highlighted how spatial scale mediates the importance of abiotic vs. biotic factors on species establishment. Our study demonstrates how concepts from invasion biology can inform our understanding of the factors controlling species distributions with changing climate. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Identification and expression of C2H2 transcription factor genes in Carica papaya under abiotic and biotic stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ling; Pan, Lin-jie

    2012-06-01

    C2H2 proteins belong to a group of transcription factors (TFs) existing as a superfamily that plays important roles in defense responses and various other physiological processes in plants. The present study aimed to screen for and identify C2H2 proteins associated with defense responses to abiotic and biotic stresses in Carica papaya L. Data were collected for 47,483 papaya-expressed sequence tags (ESTs). The full-length cDNA nucleotide sequences of 87 C2H2 proteins were predicated by BioEdit. All 91 C2H2 proteins were aligned, and a phylogenetic tree was constructed using DNAman. The expression levels of 42 C2H2 were analyzed under conditions of salt stress by quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Methyl jasmonate treatment rapidly upregulated ZF(23.4) and ZF(30,912.1) by 18.6- and 21.7-fold, respectively. ZF(1.3), ZF(138.44), ZF(94.49), ZF(29.160), and ZF(20.206) were found to be downregulated after low temperature treatment at very significant levels (p papaya ringspot virus pathogen. ZF(30,912.1) was subcellularly localized in the nucleus by a transgenic fusion of pBS-ZF(30,912.1)-GFP into the protoplast of papaya. The results of the present study showed that ZF(30,912.1) could be an important TF that mediates responses to abiotic and biotic stresses in papaya.

  16. Identification and expression of the WRKY transcription factors of Carica papaya in response to abiotic and biotic stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Lin-Jie; Jiang, Ling

    2014-03-01

    The WRKY transcription factor (TF) plays a very important role in the response of plants to various abiotic and biotic stresses. A local papaya database was built according to the GenBank expressed sequence tag database using the BioEdit software. Fifty-two coding sequences of Carica papaya WRKY TFs were predicted using the tBLASTn tool. The phylogenetic tree of the WRKY proteins was classified. The expression profiles of 13 selected C. papaya WRKY TF genes under stress induction were constructed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. The expression levels of these WRKY genes in response to 3 abiotic and 2 biotic stresses were evaluated. TF807.3 and TF72.14 are upregulated by low temperature; TF807.3, TF43.76, TF12.199 and TF12.62 are involved in the response to drought stress; TF9.35, TF18.51, TF72.14 and TF12.199 is involved in response to wound; TF12.199, TF807.3, TF21.156 and TF18.51 was induced by PRSV pathogen; TF72.14 and TF43.76 are upregulated by SA. The regulated expression levels of above eight genes normalized against housekeeping gene actin were significant at probability of 0.01 levels. These WRKY TFs could be related to corresponding stress resistance and selected as the candidate genes, especially, the two genes TF807.3 and TF12.199, which were regulated notably by four stresses respectively. This study may provide useful information and candidate genes for the development of transgenic stress tolerant papaya varieties.

  17. Roles of arabidopsis WRKY18, WRKY40 and WRKY60 transcription factors in plant responses to abscisic acid and abiotic stress

    OpenAIRE

    Chen Zhixiang; Xiao Yong; Shi Junwei; Lai Zhibing; Chen Han; Xu Xinping

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background WRKY transcription factors are involved in plant responses to both biotic and abiotic stresses. Arabidopsis WRKY18, WRKY40, and WRKY60 transcription factors interact both physically and functionally in plant defense responses. However, their role in plant abiotic stress response has not been directly analyzed. Results We report that the three WRKYs are involved in plant responses to abscisic acid (ABA) and abiotic stress. Through analysis of single, double, and triple muta...

  18. Abiotic Stresses Cause Differential Regulation of Alternative Splice Forms of GATA Transcription Factor in Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka Gupta

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The GATA gene family is one of the most conserved families of transcription factors, playing a significant role in different aspects of cellular processes, in organisms ranging from fungi to angiosperms. GATA transcription factors are DNA-binding proteins, having a class IV zinc-finger motif CX2CX17−20CX2C followed by a highly basic region and are known to bind a consensus sequence WGATAR. In plants, GATAs are known to be involved in light-dependent gene regulation and nitrate assimilation. However, a comprehensive analysis of these GATA gene members has not yet been highlighted in rice when subjected to environmental stresses. In this study, we present an overview of the GATA gene family in rice (OsGATA in terms of, their chromosomal distribution, domain architecture, and phylogeny. Our study has revealed the presence of 28 genes, encoding 35 putative GATA transcription factors belonging to seven subfamilies in the rice genome. Transcript abundance analysis in contrasting genotypes of rice—IR64 (salt sensitive and Pokkali (salt tolerant, for individual GATA members indicated their differential expression in response to various abiotic stresses such as salinity, drought, and exogenous ABA. One of the members of subfamily VII—OsGATA23a, emerged as a multi-stress responsive transcription factor giving elevated expression levels in response to salinity and drought. ABA also induces expression of OsGATA23a by 35 and 55-folds in IR64 and Pokkali respectively. However, OsGATA23b, an alternative splice variant of OsGATA23 did not respond to above-mentioned stresses. Developmental regulation of the OsGATA genes based on a publicly available microarray database showed distinct expression patterns for most of the GATA members throughout different stages of rice development. Altogether, our results suggest inherent roles of diverse OsGATA factors in abiotic stress signaling and also throw some light on the tight regulation of the spliced variants of

  19. Coupling effects of abiotic and biotic factors on molecular composition of dissolved organic matter in a freshwater wetland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Wei [Department of Environment and Energy, Sejong University, Seoul 143-747 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Ilhwan [Water Analysis and Research Center, K-water, 560 Sintanjin-ro, Daedeok-gu, Daejeon 307-711 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jung-Joon [Department of Biological Education, Daegu University, Gyungbuk 712-714 (Korea, Republic of); Hur, Jin, E-mail: jinhur@sejong.ac.kr [Department of Environment and Energy, Sejong University, Seoul 143-747 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-02-15

    In this study, temporal and spatial variations in five defined molecular size fractions of dissolved organic matter (DOM) were examined for a well preserved wetland (Upo Wetland) and its surrounding areas, and the influencing factors were explored with many biotic and abioic parameters. For each DOM sample, the five size fractions were determined by size-exclusion chromatography coupled with organic carbon detector (SEC-OCD). For 2-year long monthly monitoring, bio-polymers (BP), humic substances (HS), building blocks (BB), low molecular-weight (LMW) neutrals, and LMW acids displayed the median values of 264, 1884, 1070, 1090, and 11 μg-C L{sup −1}, respectively, accounting for 6.2%, 41.7%, 24.5%, 26.4%, and 0.4% of dissolved organic carbon (DOC). The dominant presence of HS indicated that terrestrial input played important roles in DOM composition of the freshwater ecosystem, which contrasted with coastal wetlands in other reports. Both seasonal and periodic patterns in the variations were found only for HS and BB among the size fractions. It was also notable that the sources of HS were seasonally shifted from aquagenic origin in winter to pedogenic origin in summer. The correlations among the size fractions revealed that BB and LMW neutrals might be degradation products from HS and humic-like substances (HS + BB), respectively, while LMW acids, from LMW neutrals. Principle component analysis revealed that the humic-like substances and the aromaticity of DOM were associated with temperature, chlorophyll a, phosphorous, and rainfall, whereas the other fractions and the molecular weight of HS were primarily affected by solar irradiation. Significant correlations between DOM composition and some biotic factors further suggested that DOM may even affect the biological communities, which provides an insight into the potential coupling effects of biotic and abiotic factors on DOM molecular composition in freshwater wetlands. - Highlights: • Humic fractions varied

  20. Biotic and abiotic factors investigated in two Drosophila species – evidence of both negative and positive effects of interactions on performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørsted, Michael; Schou, Mads Fristrup; Kristensen, Torsten Nygaard

    2017-01-01

    Multiple environmental factors acting in concert can interact and strongly influence population fitness and ecosystem composition. Studies investigating interactions usually involve only two environmental factors; most frequently a chemical and another abiotic factor such as a stressful temperature....... Here we investigate the effects of three environmental factors: temperature, an insecticide (dimethoate) and interspecific co-occurrence. We expose two naturally co-occurring species of Drosophila (D. hydei and D. melanogaster) to the different environments during development and examine...... the consequences on several performance measures. Results are highly species and trait specific with evidence of two- and three-way interactions in approximately 30% of all cases, suggesting that additive effects of combined environmental factors are most common, and that interactions are not universal. To provide...

  1. Influence of abiotic factors on cathemeral activity: the case of Eulemur fulvus collaris in the littoral forest of Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donati, Giuseppe; Borgognini-Tarli, Silvana M

    2006-01-01

    The role environmental factors play in influencing circadian rhythms in natural habitats is still poorly described in primates, especially for those taxa with an activity cycle extended over the 24-hour cycle. In this paper, we elucidate the importance of abiotic factors in entraining the activity of cathemeral primates, focussing on results from a long-term study of Eulemur fulvus collaris (collared brown lemur) in south-eastern Malagasy littoral forest. Two groups of lemurs were followed for 60 whole-day and 59 whole-night observation periods over 14 months. Diurnal and nocturnal observations were equally distributed among moon phases and seasons. Temperature and humidity were recorded hourly by automatic data loggers. The littoral forest has a climatic environment where rainfall and humidity are uncorrelated with temperature and photoperiod. Diurnal and nocturnal activity varied seasonally, with the former increasing significantly with extended day length and the latter increasing significantly with shortened day length. Dusk seemed to act as a primary zeitgeber for these lemurs, coordinating the onset of evening activity throughout the entire year. Lunar phase and the nocturnal luminosity index correlated positively with the duration of nocturnal activity and negatively with the length of diurnal activity. Temperature was positively associated with diurnal activity but did not seem to influence lemur rhythms at night. Finally, lemur nocturnal activity significantly decreased when levels of humidity and rainfall were high. Cathemeral biorhythm is triggered by zeitgebers and influenced by masking factors. The activity of collared brown lemurs appears to be seasonally influenced by photoperiod and directly modulated by nocturnal ambient luminosity. These results are discussed by comparing data from other cathemeral species living in various climatic situations. Copyright (c) 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Carbon Isotopes of Alkanes in Hydrothermal Abiotic Organic Synthesis Processes at High Temperatures and Pressures: An Experimental Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Qi; Socki, Richard A.; Niles, Paul B.

    2010-01-01

    Observation of methane in the Martian atmosphere has been reported by different detection techniques [1-4]. With more evidence showing extensive water-rock interaction in Martian history [5-7], abiotic formation by Fischer-Tropsch Type (FTT) synthesis during serpentization reactions may be one possible process responsible for methane generation on Mars [8, 9]. While the experimental studies performed to date leave little doubt that chemical reactions exist for the abiotic synthesis of organic compounds by mineral surface-catalyzed reactions [10-12], little is known about the reaction pathways by which CO2 and/or CO are reduced under hydrothermal conditions. Carbon and hydrogen isotope measurements of alkanes have been used as an effective tool to constrain the origin and reaction pathways of hydrocarbon formation. Alkanes generated by thermal breakdown of high molecular weight organic compounds have carbon and hydrogen isotopic signatures completely distinct from those formed abiotically [13-15]. Recent experimental studies, however, showed that different abiogenic hydrocarbon formation processes (e.g., polymerization vs. depolymerization) may have different carbon and hydrogen isotopic patterns [16]. Results from previous experiments studying decomposition of higher molecular weight organic compounds (lignite) also suggested that pressure could be a crucial factor affecting fractionation of carbon isotopes [17]. Under high pressure conditions, no experimental data are available describing fractionation of carbon isotope during mineral catalyzed FTT synthesis. Thus, hydrothermal experiments present an excellent opportunity to provide the requisite carbon isotope data. Such data can also be used to identify reaction pathways of abiotic organic synthesis under experimental conditions.

  3. Review of microbial responses to abiotic environmental factors in the context of the proposed Yucca Mountain repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meike, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., Livermore, CA (United States); Stroes-Gascoyne, S

    2000-10-01

    A workshop on Microbial Activities at Yucca Mountain (May 1995, Lafayette, CA) was held with the intention to compile information on all pertinent aspects of microbial activity for application to a potential repository at Yucca Mountain. The findings of this workshop set off a number of efforts intended to eventually incorporate the impacts of microbial behaviour into performance assessment models. One effort was to expand an existing modelling approach to include the distinctive characteristics of a repository at Yucca Mountain (e.g., unsaturated conditions and a significant thermal load). At the same time, a number of experimental studies were initiated as well as a compilation of relevant literature to more thoroughly study the physical, chemical and biological parameters that would affect microbial activity under Yucca Mountain-like conditions. This literature search (completed in 1996) is the subject of the present document. The collected literature can be divided into four categories, 1) abiotic factors, 2) community dynamics and in-situ considerations, 3) nutrient considerations and 4) transport of radionuclides. The complete bibliography (included in Appendix A) represents a considerable resource, but is too large to be discussed in one document. Therefore, the present report focuses on the first category, abiotic factors, and a discussion of these factors in order to facilitate the development of a model for Yucca Mountain. The first part of the report (Chapters 1-3) is a review of general microbial states, phases and requirements for growth, conditions for 'normal growth' and other types of growth, survival strategies and cell death. It contains primarily well-established ideas in microbiology. Microbial capabilities for survival and adaptation to environmental changes are examined because a repository placed at Yucca Mountain would have two effects. First, the natural environment would be perturbed by the excavation and construction of the

  4. Review of microbial responses to abiotic environmental factors in the context of the proposed Yucca Mountain repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meike, A.; Stroes-Gascoyne, S.

    2000-10-01

    A workshop on Microbial Activities at Yucca Mountain (May 1995, Lafayette, CA) was held with the intention to compile information on all pertinent aspects of microbial activity for application to a potential repository at Yucca Mountain. The findings of this workshop set off a number of efforts intended to eventually incorporate the impacts of microbial behaviour into performance assessment models. One effort was to expand an existing modelling approach to include the distinctive characteristics of a repository at Yucca Mountain (e.g., unsaturated conditions and a significant thermal load). At the same time, a number of experimental studies were initiated as well as a compilation of relevant literature to more thoroughly study the physical, chemical and biological parameters that would affect microbial activity under Yucca Mountain-like conditions. This literature search (completed in 1996) is the subject of the present document. The collected literature can be divided into four categories, 1) abiotic factors, 2) community dynamics and in-situ considerations, 3) nutrient considerations and 4) transport of radionuclides. The complete bibliography (included in Appendix A) represents a considerable resource, but is too large to be discussed in one document. Therefore, the present report focuses on the first category, abiotic factors, and a discussion of these factors in order to facilitate the development of a model for Yucca Mountain. The first part of the report (Chapters 1-3) is a review of general microbial states, phases and requirements for growth, conditions for 'normal growth' and other types of growth, survival strategies and cell death. It contains primarily well-established ideas in microbiology. Microbial capabilities for survival and adaptation to environmental changes are examined because a repository placed at Yucca Mountain would have two effects. First, the natural environment would be perturbed by the excavation and construction of the repository and

  5. Flowering phenology, growth forms, and pollination syndromes in tropical dry forest species: Influence of phylogeny and abiotic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés-Flores, Jorge; Hernández-Esquivel, Karen Beatriz; González-Rodríguez, Antonio; Ibarra-Manríquez, Guillermo

    2017-01-01

    Analyses of the influence of temporal variation in abiotic factors on flowering phenology of tropical dry forest species have not considered the possible response of species with different growth forms and pollination syndromes, while controlling for phylogenetic relationships among species. Here, we investigated the relationship between flowering phenology, abiotic factors, and plant functional attributes, while controlling for phylogenetic relationship among species, in a dry forest community in Mexico. We characterized flowering phenology (time and duration) and pollination syndromes of 55 tree species, 49 herbs, 24 shrubs, 15 lianas, and 11 vines. We tested the influence of pollination syndrome, growth form, and abiotic factors on flowering phenology using phylogenetic generalized least squares. We found a relationship between flowering duration and time. Growth form was related to flowering time, and the pollination syndrome had a more significant relationship with flowering duration. Flowering time variation in the community was explained mainly by abiotic variables, without an important phylogenetic effect. Flowering time in lianas and trees was negatively and positively correlated with daylength, respectively. Functional attributes, environmental cues, and phylogeny interact with each other to shape the diversity of flowering patterns. Phenological differentiation among species groups revealed multiples strategies associated with growth form and pollination syndromes that can be important for understanding species coexistence in this highly diverse plant community. © 2017 Botanical Society of America.

  6. Factors influencing the abundance of Japanese encephalitis vectors in ricefields in India--I. Abiotic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunish, I P; Reuben, R

    2001-12-01

    Mosquitoes of the Culex vishnui subgroup (Diptera: Culicidae) are the most important vectors of Japanese encephalitis (JE) and ricefields are their most productive breeding sites in south India, where predominant species of this subgroup are Culex tritaeniorhynchus Giles, Cx. pseudovishnui Colless and Cx. vishnui Theobald sensu stricto. The relationship of 13 abiotic variables with the abundance of Cx. vishnui subgroup immatures was investigated in transplanted rice fields for 3 years (1991-94) covering three different crop seasons. The results from the multiple regression model suggested paddy height (- ve), water temperature (+ ve), dissolved oxygen (- ve), ammonia nitrogen (- ve) and nitrate nitrogen (+ ve) to be the best predictor variables associated with the immature abundance, nearly always consistent in their effects within and between seasons. Application of synthetic nitrogenous fertilizers to the rice fields was followed by a rise in concentration of ammonia nitrogen and a subsequent increase in nitrate nitrogen level in the rice field water, during which an increase in the density of larval instars was observed.

  7. Biotic and abiotic factors influencing zooplankton vertical distribution in Lake Huron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowicki, Carly J.; Bunnell, David B.; Armenio, Patricia M.; Warner, David M.; Vanderploeg, Henry A.; Cavaletto, Joann F.; Mayer, Christine M.; Adams, Jean V.

    2017-01-01

    The vertical distribution of zooplankton can have substantial influence on trophic structure in freshwater systems, particularly by determining spatial overlap for predator/prey dynamics and influencing energy transfer. The zooplankton community in some of the Laurentian Great Lakes has undergone changes in composition and declines in total biomass, especially after 2003. Mechanisms underlying these zooplankton changes remain poorly understood, in part, because few studies have described their vertical distributions during daytime and nighttime conditions or evaluated the extent to which predation, resources, or environmental conditions could explain their distribution patterns. Within multiple 24-h periods during July through October 2012 in Lake Huron, we conducted daytime and nighttime sampling of zooplankton, and measured food (chlorophyll-a), temperature, light (Secchi disk depth), and planktivory (biomass of Bythotrephes longimanus and Mysis diluviana). We used linear mixed models to determine whether the densities for 22 zooplankton taxa varied between day and night in the epi-, meta-, and hypolimnion. For eight taxa, higher epilimnetic densities were observed at night than during the day; general linear models revealed these patterns were best explained by Mysis diluviana (four taxa), Secchi disk depth (three taxa), epilimnetic water temperature (three taxa), chlorophyll (one taxon), and biomass of Bythotrephes longimanus (one taxon). By investigating the potential effects of both biotic and abiotic variables on the vertical distribution of crustacean zooplankton and rotifers, we provide descriptions of the Lake Huron zooplankton community and discuss how future changes in food web dynamics or climate change may alter zooplankton distribution in freshwater environments.

  8. Plant Abiotic Stress Proteomics: The Major Factors Determining Alterations in Cellular Proteome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosová, Klára; Vítámvás, Pavel; Urban, Milan O.; Prášil, Ilja T.; Renaut, Jenny

    2018-01-01

    HIGHLIGHTS: Major environmental and genetic factors determining stress-related protein abundance are discussed.Major aspects of protein biological function including protein isoforms and PTMs, cellular localization and protein interactions are discussed.Functional diversity of protein isoforms and PTMs is discussed. Abiotic stresses reveal profound impacts on plant proteomes including alterations in protein relative abundance, cellular localization, post-transcriptional and post-translational modifications (PTMs), protein interactions with other protein partners, and, finally, protein biological functions. The main aim of the present review is to discuss the major factors determining stress-related protein accumulation and their final biological functions. A dynamics of stress response including stress acclimation to altered ambient conditions and recovery after the stress treatment is discussed. The results of proteomic studies aimed at a comparison of stress response in plant genotypes differing in stress adaptability reveal constitutively enhanced levels of several stress-related proteins (protective proteins, chaperones, ROS scavenging- and detoxification-related enzymes) in the tolerant genotypes with respect to the susceptible ones. Tolerant genotypes can efficiently adjust energy metabolism to enhanced needs during stress acclimation. Stress tolerance vs. stress susceptibility are relative terms which can reflect different stress-coping strategies depending on the given stress treatment. The role of differential protein isoforms and PTMs with respect to their biological functions in different physiological constraints (cellular compartments and interacting partners) is discussed. The importance of protein functional studies following high-throughput proteome analyses is presented in a broader context of plant biology. In summary, the manuscript tries to provide an overview of the major factors which have to be considered when interpreting data from proteomic

  9. Assessment of Relationships between Earthworms and Soil Abiotic and Biotic Factors as a Tool in Sustainable Agricultural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radoslava Kanianska

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Earthworms are a major component of soil fauna communities. They influence soil chemical, biological, and physical processes and vice versa, their abundance and diversity are influenced by natural characteristics or land management practices. There is need to establish their characteristics and relations. In this study earthworm density (ED, body biomass (EB, and diversity in relation to land use (arable land—AL, permanent grasslands—PG, management, and selected abiotic (soil chemical, physical, climate related and biotic (arthropod density and biomass, ground beetle density, carabid density indicators were analysed at seven different study sites in Slovakia. On average, the density of earthworms was nearly twice as high in PG compared to AL. Among five soil types used as arable land, Fluvisols created the most suitable conditions for earthworm abundance and biomass. We recorded a significant correlation between ED, EB and soil moisture in arable land. In permanent grasslands, the main climate related factor was soil temperature. Relationships between earthworms and some chemical properties (pH, available nutrients were observed only in arable land. Our findings indicate trophic interaction between earthworms and carabids in organically managed arable land. Comprehensive assessment of observed relationships can help in earthworm management to achieve sustainable agricultural systems.

  10. [Inhibitors of proteolytic enzymes under abiotic stresses in plants (review)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosolov, V V; Valueva, T A

    2011-01-01

    Data on the role of proteolytic enzyme inhibitors in plant adaptation to various unfavorable environmental abiotic factors--water deficiency, salinization of soil, extreme temperatures, etc.--and also probable functions of proteinases inhibitors in natural plant senescense are considered.

  11. Mycobacterium ulcerans dynamics in aquatic ecosystems are driven by a complex interplay of abiotic and biotic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garchitorena, Andrés; Guégan, Jean-François; Léger, Lucas; Eyangoh, Sara; Marsollier, Laurent; Roche, Benjamin

    2015-07-28

    Host-parasite interactions are often embedded within complex host communities and can be influenced by a variety of environmental factors, such as seasonal variations in climate or abiotic conditions in water and soil, which confounds our understanding of the main drivers of many multi-host pathogens. Here, we take advantage of a combination of large environmental data sets on Mycobacterium ulcerans (MU), an environmentally persistent microorganism associated to freshwater ecosystems and present in a large variety of aquatic hosts, to characterize abiotic and biotic factors driving the dynamics of this pathogen in two regions of Cameroon. We find that MU dynamics are largely driven by seasonal climatic factors and certain physico-chemical conditions in stagnant and slow-flowing ecosystems, with an important role of pH as limiting factor. Furthermore, water conditions can modify the effect of abundance and diversity of aquatic organisms on MU dynamics, which suggests a different contribution of two MU transmission routes for aquatic hosts (trophic vs environmental transmission) depending on local abiotic factors.

  12. Coupling effects of abiotic and biotic factors on molecular composition of dissolved organic matter in a freshwater wetland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Wei; Choi, Ilhwan; Lee, Jung-Joon; Hur, Jin

    2016-02-15

    In this study, temporal and spatial variations in five defined molecular size fractions of dissolved organic matter (DOM) were examined for a well preserved wetland (Upo Wetland) and its surrounding areas, and the influencing factors were explored with many biotic and abioic parameters. For each DOM sample, the five size fractions were determined by size-exclusion chromatography coupled with organic carbon detector (SEC-OCD). For 2-year long monthly monitoring, bio-polymers (BP), humic substances (HS), building blocks (BB), low molecular-weight (LMW) neutrals, and LMW acids displayed the median values of 264, 1884, 1070, 1090, and 11 μg-CL(-1), respectively, accounting for 6.2%, 41.7%, 24.5%, 26.4%, and 0.4% of dissolved organic carbon (DOC). The dominant presence of HS indicated that terrestrial input played important roles in DOM composition of the freshwater ecosystem, which contrasted with coastal wetlands in other reports. Both seasonal and periodic patterns in the variations were found only for HS and BB among the size fractions. It was also notable that the sources of HS were seasonally shifted from aquagenic origin in winter to pedogenic origin in summer. The correlations among the size fractions revealed that BB and LMW neutrals might be degradation products from HS and humic-like substances (HS+BB), respectively, while LMW acids, from LMW neutrals. Principle component analysis revealed that the humic-like substances and the aromaticity of DOM were associated with temperature, chlorophyll a, phosphorous, and rainfall, whereas the other fractions and the molecular weight of HS were primarily affected by solar irradiation. Significant correlations between DOM composition and some biotic factors further suggested that DOM may even affect the biological communities, which provides an insight into the potential coupling effects of biotic and abiotic factors on DOM molecular composition in freshwater wetlands. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Vascular plant one-zinc-finger protein 1/2 transcription factors regulate abiotic and biotic stress responses in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakai, Yusuke; Nakahira, Yoichi; Sumida, Hiroki; Takebayashi, Kosuke; Nagasawa, Yumiko; Yamasaki, Kanako; Akiyama, Masako; Ohme-Takagi, Masaru; Fujiwara, Sumire; Shiina, Takashi; Mitsuda, Nobutaka; Fukusaki, Eiichiro; Kubo, Yasuyuki; Sato, Masa H

    2013-03-01

    Plants adapt to abiotic and biotic stresses by activating abscisic acid-mediated (ABA) abiotic stress-responsive and salicylic acid-(SA) or jasmonic acid-mediated (JA) biotic stress-responsive pathways, respectively. Although the abiotic stress-responsive pathway interacts antagonistically with the biotic stress-responsive pathways, the mechanisms that regulate these pathways remain largely unknown. In this study, we provide insight into the function of vascular plant one-zinc-finger proteins (VOZs) that modulate various stress responses in Arabidopsis. The expression of many stress-responsive genes was changed in the voz1voz2 double mutant under normal growth conditions. Consistent with altered stress-responsive gene expression, freezing- and drought-stress tolerances were increased in the voz1voz2 double mutant. In contrast, resistance to a fungal pathogen, Colletotrichum higginsianum, and to a bacterial pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae, was severely impaired. Thus, impairing VOZ function simultaneously conferred increased abiotic tolerance and biotic stress susceptibility. In a chilling stress condition, both the VOZ1 and VOZ2 mRNA expression levels and the VOZ2 protein level gradually decreased. VOZ2 degradation during cold exposure was completely inhibited by the addition of the 26S proteasome inhibitor, MG132, a finding that suggested that VOZ2 degradation is dependent on the ubiquitin/26S proteasome system. In voz1voz2, ABA-inducible transcription factor CBF4 expression was enhanced significantly even under normal growth conditions, despite an unchanged endogenous ABA content. A finding that suggested that VOZs negatively affect CBF4 expression in an ABA-independent manner. These results suggest that VOZs function as both negative and positive regulators of the abiotic and biotic stress-responsive pathways, and control Arabidopsis adaptation to various stress conditions. © 2012 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. Abscisic-acid-dependent basic leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factors in plant abiotic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Aditya; Roychoudhury, Aryadeep

    2017-01-01

    One of the major causes of significant crop loss throughout the world is the myriad of environmental stresses including drought, salinity, cold, heavy metal toxicity, and ultraviolet-B (UV-B) rays. Plants as sessile organisms have evolved various effective mechanism which enable them to withstand this plethora of stresses. Most of such regulatory mechanisms usually follow the abscisic-acid (ABA)-dependent pathway. In this review, we have primarily focussed on the basic leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factors (TFs) activated by the ABA-mediated signalosome. Upon perception of ABA by specialized receptors, the signal is transduced via various groups of Ser/Thr kinases, which phosphorylate the bZIP TFs. Following such post-translational modification of TFs, they are activated so that they bind to specific cis-acting sequences called abscisic-acid-responsive elements (ABREs) or GC-rich coupling elements (CE), thereby influencing the expression of their target downstream genes. Several in silico techniques have been adopted so far to predict the structural features, recognize the regulatory modification sites, undergo phylogenetic analyses, and facilitate genome-wide survey of TF under multiple stresses. Current investigations on the epigenetic regulation that controls greater accessibility of the inducible regions of DNA of the target gene to the bZIP TFs exclusively under stress situations, along with the evolved stress memory responses via genomic imprinting mechanism, have been highlighted. The potentiality of overexpression of bZIP TFs, either in a homologous or in a heterologous background, in generating transgenic plants tolerant to various abiotic stressors have also been addressed by various groups. The present review will provide a coherent documentation on the functional characterization and regulation of bZIP TFs under multiple environmental stresses, with the major goal of generating multiple-stress-tolerant plant cultivars in near future.

  15. [Effect of abiotic and biotic factors on the structural and functional organization of the saline lake ecosystems in Crimea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balushkina, E V; Golubkov, S M; Golubkov, M S; Litvinchuk, L F; Shadrin, N V

    2009-01-01

    Decrease of both zooplankton and zoobenthos species richness and a trend toward decrease of their biomass with the salinity increase was recorded in the hypersaline lakes of Crimea. The most of structural and functional characteristics of macrobenthos is positively correlated with abiotic and biotic characteristics of those lakes. Abundance, biomass, productivity of macrobenthos and ration of non-predating macrozoobenthos decrease with salinity increase, while they increase with the depth and growth of amount of chlorophyll a and primary production. Macrozoobenthos portion in the total zooplankton and macrozoobenthos biomass decreases with both salinity and depth increase. Zooplankton community is less controlled by abiotic factors as compared to macrozoobenthos, while the former's species number significantly decrease with salinity increase. Effect of salinity on zooplankton biomass is slightly significant, unlike that of macrozoobenthos. Comparison of total amount of rations of zooplankton and macrozoobenthos with amount of primary production indicates intense trophic interactions in the lakes under study.

  16. Transcriptome-Based Analysis of Dof Family Transcription Factors and Their Responses to Abiotic Stress in Tea Plant (Camellia sinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tea plant (Camellia sinensis (L. O. Kuntze is affected by abiotic stress during its growth and development. DNA-binding with one finger (Dof transcription factors (TFs play important roles in abiotic stress tolerance of plants. In this study, a total of 29 putative Dof TFs were identified based on transcriptome of tea plant, and the conserved domains and common motifs of these CsDof TFs were predicted and analyzed. The 29 CsDof proteins were divided into 7 groups (A, B1, B2, C1, C2.1, C2.2, and D2, and the interaction networks of Dof proteins in C. sinensis were established according to the data in Arabidopsis. Gene expression was analyzed in “Yingshuang” and “Huangjinya” under four experimental stresses by qRT-PCR. CsDof genes were expressed differentially and related to different abiotic stress conditions. In total, our results might suggest that there is a potential relationship between CsDof factors and tea plant stress resistance.

  17. Transcriptome-Based Analysis of Dof Family Transcription Factors and Their Responses to Abiotic Stress in Tea Plant (Camellia sinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Huang, Wei; Liu, Zhi-Wei; Wang, Yong-Xin; Zhuang, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Tea plant ( Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze) is affected by abiotic stress during its growth and development. DNA-binding with one finger (Dof) transcription factors (TFs) play important roles in abiotic stress tolerance of plants. In this study, a total of 29 putative Dof TFs were identified based on transcriptome of tea plant, and the conserved domains and common motifs of these CsDof TFs were predicted and analyzed. The 29 CsDof proteins were divided into 7 groups (A, B1, B2, C1, C2.1, C2.2, and D2), and the interaction networks of Dof proteins in C. sinensis were established according to the data in Arabidopsis . Gene expression was analyzed in "Yingshuang" and "Huangjinya" under four experimental stresses by qRT-PCR. CsDof genes were expressed differentially and related to different abiotic stress conditions. In total, our results might suggest that there is a potential relationship between CsDof factors and tea plant stress resistance.

  18. [Variation characteristic in soil respiration of apple orchard and its biotic and abiotic influencing factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rui; Guo, Sheng-Li; Liu, Qing-Fang; Zhang, Yan-Jun; Jiang, Ji-Shao; Guo, Hui-Min; Li, Ru-Jian

    2014-05-01

    To evaluate the orchard variability of soil respiration and the response of soil respiration to its influencing factors is helpful for a deep understanding about the effects of converting cropland to apple orchard. A field experiment was conducted in the Changwu State Key Agro-Ecological Station. Soil respiration, soil temperature, soil moisture and roots biomasses were periodically measured in a mature apple orchard during 2011 and 2012. Soil respiration decreased as the distance from the trunk increased. The cumulative soil respiration in the 0.5 m-distance from the trunk was 20% and 31% higher than that in the 2 m-distance from the trunk, respectively in 2011 and 2012. The temperature sensitivity of soil respiration (Q10) was relatively lower in the 2 m-distance than that in the 0. 5 m-distance in both years. Soil temperature and soil moisture were slightly higher in the 2 m-distance, but there was no significant difference between the 2 m-distance and the 0. 5 m-distance. Soil respiration and soil temperature showed a significant exponential relationship, but there was no positive correlation between soil moisture and soil respiration. Soil temperature changes can explain seasonal variation of soil respiration well, but it could not explain its spatial variability. Root density was an important factor for the spatial variability of soil respiration and Q15. Variation of soil respiration coefficient was 23% -31%. Therefore, the distance from the trunk should be considered when estimating orchards soil respiration.

  19. Genome-wide analysis of Dof family transcription factors and their responses to abiotic stresses in Chinese cabbage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jing; Li, Meng-Yao; Wang, Feng; Tang, Jun; Xiong, Ai-Sheng

    2015-01-31

    Chinese cabbage is an important leaf vegetable that experienced long-term cultivation and artificial selection. Dof (DNA-binding One Zinc Finger) transcription factors, with a highly conserved Dof domain, are members of a major plant-specific transcription factor family that play important roles in many plant biological processes. The Dof family transcription factors, one of the most important families of transcriptional regulators in higher plants, are involved in massive aspects of plant growth, development, and response to abiotic stresses. Our study will supply resources for understanding how Dof transcription factors respond to abiotic stress and the interaction network of these genes in tolerance mechanism. In this study, we performed a comprehensive analysis of Dof family factors in Chinese cabbage. In total, 76 genes encoding BraDof family transcription factor were identified from Chinese cabbage, and those BraDof factors were divided into nine classes. Fifteen motifs were found based on Dof amino acid sequence alignments. Chromosome locations and gene duplications of BraDof family genes were also analyzed. Ten duplicate events of BraDof genes were discovered in Chinese cabbage chromosomes. The uneven distribution of BraDof genes in Brassica chromosomes may cause the expansion of BraDof genes. In the Dof family, 37 and 7 orthologous genes were identified between Chinese cabbage and Arabidopsis and between Chinese cabbage and Oryza sativa, respectively. The interaction networks of Dof factors in Chinese cabbage were also constructed. Expression profiles of nine selected genes from different nine classes subjected to four abiotic stresses (cold, heat, salt and drought) were further investigated by quantitative real-time PCR to obtain a better understanding of the functions and regulation mechanisms of BraDof family transcription factors in two Chinese cabbage varieties, 'Lubaisanhao' and 'Qingdao 87-114'. Dof-family transcription factors were analyzed in

  20. Recovery of white sturgeon populations through natural production: Understanding the influence of abiotic and biotic factors on spawning and subsequent recruitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsley, M.J.; Anders, P.J.; Miller, Allen I.; Beckman, L.G.; McCabe, G.T.

    2002-01-01

    Recovery or maintenance of sturgeon populations through natural production in perturbed rivers requires adequate knowledge of the abiotic and biotic factors that influence spawning and cause mortality of embryonic, larval, and juvenile life stages. Although it is known that year-class strength of white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus is determined within 2-3 months after spawning, little is known about specific causes of mortality to early life stages during this period. Initial spawning success is critical in the development of a strong year-class, and maximized recruitment may be dependent upon water temperature and the availability of optimal in-river habitat. Analyses have shown that increased river discharge combined with suitable water temperatures during spawning, egg incubation, yolk sac larvae dispersal, and first exogenous feeding result in greater recruitment. However, little is known about the importance of other variables, such as food availability or losses due to predation that influence year-class strength. ?? 2002 by the American Fisheries Society.

  1. Temperature dependence of an abiotic glucose/air alkaline fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orton, Dane; Scott, Daniel

    2015-11-01

    The temperature dependence of a previously developed glucose fuel cell is explored. This cell uses a small molecule dye mediator to transport oxidizable electrons from glucose to a carbon felt anode. This reaction is driven by an air breathing MnO2 cathode. This research investigates how the temperature of the system affects the power production of the fuel cell. Cell performance is observed using either methyl viologen, indigo carmine, trypan blue, or hydroquinone as a mediator at temperatures of 15, 19, 27, 32, 37, 42, and 49 °C. Cyclic voltammetry of the cell anode at the given temperatures with the individual dyes is also presented. The highest power production amongst all of the cells occurs at 32 °C. This occurs with the mediator indigo carmine or with the mediator methyl viologen. These sustained powers are 2.31 mW cm-2 and 2.39 mW cm-2, respectively. This is approximately a 350% increase for these cells compared to their power produced at room temperature. This dramatic increase is likely due to increased solubility of the mediator dye at higher temperatures.

  2. Characterization of tomato Cycling Dof Factors reveals conserved and new functions in the control of flowering time and abiotic stress responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrales, Alba-Rocío; Nebauer, Sergio G; Carrillo, Laura; Fernández-Nohales, Pedro; Marqués, Jorge; Renau-Morata, Begoña; Granell, Antonio; Pollmann, Stephan; Vicente-Carbajosa, Jesús; Molina, Rosa-Victoria; Medina, Joaquín

    2014-03-01

    DNA binding with One Finger (DOF) transcription factors are involved in multiple aspects of plant growth and development but their precise roles in abiotic stress tolerance are largely unknown. Here we report a group of five tomato DOF genes, homologous to Arabidopsis Cycling DOF Factors (CDFs), that function as transcriptional regulators involved in responses to drought and salt stress and flowering-time control in a gene-specific manner. SlCDF1-5 are nuclear proteins that display specific binding with different affinities to canonical DNA target sequences and present diverse transcriptional activation capacities in vivo. SlCDF1-5 genes exhibited distinct diurnal expression patterns and were differentially induced in response to osmotic, salt, heat, and low-temperature stresses. Arabidopsis plants overexpressing SlCDF1 or SlCDF3 showed increased drought and salt tolerance. In addition, the expression of various stress-responsive genes, such as COR15, RD29A, and RD10, were differentially activated in the overexpressing lines. Interestingly, overexpression in Arabidopsis of SlCDF3 but not SlCDF1 promotes late flowering through modulation of the expression of flowering control genes such as CO and FT. Overall, our data connect SlCDFs to undescribed functions related to abiotic stress tolerance and flowering time through the regulation of specific target genes and an increase in particular metabolites.

  3. Abiotic drivers of Chihuahuan Desert plant communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laura Marie Ladwig

    2014-01-01

    Within grasslands, precipitation, fire, nitrogen (N) addition, and extreme temperatures influence community composition and ecosystem function. The differential influences of these abiotic factors on Chihuahuan Desert grassland communities was examined within the Sevilleta National Wildlife Refuge, located in central New Mexico, U.S.A. Although fire is a natural...

  4. Individual cell based traits obtained by scanning flow-cytometry show selection by biotic and abiotic environmental factors during a phytoplankton spring bloom.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Pomati

    Full Text Available In ecology and evolution, the primary challenge in understanding the processes that shape biodiversity is to assess the relationship between the phenotypic traits of organisms and the environment. Here we tested for selection on physio-morphological traits measured by scanning flow-cytometry at the individual level in phytoplankton communities under a temporally changing biotic and abiotic environment. Our aim was to study how high-frequency temporal changes in the environment influence biodiversity dynamics in a natural community. We focused on a spring bloom in Lake Zurich (Switzerland, characterized by rapid changes in phytoplankton, water conditions, nutrients and grazing (mainly mediated by herbivore ciliates. We described bloom dynamics in terms of taxonomic and trait-based diversity and found that diversity dynamics of trait-based groups were more pronounced than those of identified phytoplankton taxa. We characterized the linkage between measured phytoplankton traits, abiotic environmental factors and abundance of the main grazers and observed weak but significant correlations between changing abiotic and biotic conditions and measured size-related and fluorescence-related traits. We tested for deviations in observed community-wide distributions of focal traits from random patterns and found evidence for both clustering and even spacing of traits, occurring sporadically over the time series. Patterns were consistent with environmental filtering and phenotypic divergence under herbivore pressure, respectively. Size-related traits showed significant even spacing during the peak of herbivore abundance, suggesting that morphology-related traits were under selection from grazing. Pigment distribution within cells and colonies appeared instead to be associated with acclimation to temperature and water chemistry. We found support for trade-offs among grazing resistance and environmental tolerance traits, as well as for substantial periods of

  5. Individual Cell Based Traits Obtained by Scanning Flow-Cytometry Show Selection by Biotic and Abiotic Environmental Factors during a Phytoplankton Spring Bloom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomati, Francesco; Kraft, Nathan J. B.; Posch, Thomas; Eugster, Bettina; Jokela, Jukka; Ibelings, Bas W.

    2013-01-01

    In ecology and evolution, the primary challenge in understanding the processes that shape biodiversity is to assess the relationship between the phenotypic traits of organisms and the environment. Here we tested for selection on physio-morphological traits measured by scanning flow-cytometry at the individual level in phytoplankton communities under a temporally changing biotic and abiotic environment. Our aim was to study how high-frequency temporal changes in the environment influence biodiversity dynamics in a natural community. We focused on a spring bloom in Lake Zurich (Switzerland), characterized by rapid changes in phytoplankton, water conditions, nutrients and grazing (mainly mediated by herbivore ciliates). We described bloom dynamics in terms of taxonomic and trait-based diversity and found that diversity dynamics of trait-based groups were more pronounced than those of identified phytoplankton taxa. We characterized the linkage between measured phytoplankton traits, abiotic environmental factors and abundance of the main grazers and observed weak but significant correlations between changing abiotic and biotic conditions and measured size-related and fluorescence-related traits. We tested for deviations in observed community-wide distributions of focal traits from random patterns and found evidence for both clustering and even spacing of traits, occurring sporadically over the time series. Patterns were consistent with environmental filtering and phenotypic divergence under herbivore pressure, respectively. Size-related traits showed significant even spacing during the peak of herbivore abundance, suggesting that morphology-related traits were under selection from grazing. Pigment distribution within cells and colonies appeared instead to be associated with acclimation to temperature and water chemistry. We found support for trade-offs among grazing resistance and environmental tolerance traits, as well as for substantial periods of dynamics in which

  6. Seasonal variation in abiotic factors and ferulic acid toxicity in snail-attractant pellets against the intermediate host snail Lymnaea acuminata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrahari, P; Singh, D K

    2013-11-01

    Laboratory evaluation was made to access the seasonal variations in abiotic environmental factors temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, carbon dioxide, electrical conductivity and ferulic acid toxicity in snail-attractant pellets (SAP) against the intermediate host snail Lymnaea acuminata in each month of the years 2010 and 2011. On the basis of a 24-h toxicity assay, it was noted that lethal concentration values of 4.03, 3.73% and 4.45% in SAP containing starch and 4.16, 4.23% and 4.29% in SAP containing proline during the months of May, June and September, respectively, were most effective in killing the snails, while SAP containing starch/proline + ferulic acid was least effective in the month of January/February (24-h lethal concentration value was 7.67%/7.63% in SAP). There was a significant positive correlation between lethal concentration value of ferulic acid containing SAP and levels of dissolved O2 /pH of water in corresponding months. On the contrary, a negative correlation was observed between lethal concentration value and dissolved CO2 /temperature of test water in the same months. To ascertain that such a relationship between toxicity and abiotic factors is not co-incidental, the nervous tissue of treated (40% and 80% of 24-h lethal concentration value) and control group of snails was assayed for the activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in each of the 12 months of the same year. There was a maximum inhibition of 58.43% of AChE, in snails exposed to 80% of the 24-h lethal concentration value of ferulic acid + starch in the month of May. This work shows conclusively that the best time to control snail population with SAP containing ferulic acid is during the months of May, June and September. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  7. Severity of cotton whitefly (bemisia tabaci genn.) population with special reference to abiotic factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zia, K.; Bashir, M.H.; Khan, B.S.; Khan, R.R.; Hafeez, F.

    2013-01-01

    Bemisia tabaci is serious insect and constantly destabilizing the cotton production. The research was conducted to evaluate cotton cultivars (transgenic and non transgenic) for resistance against whitefly and further correlated with weather factors such as temperature, relative humidity and rainfall, during the cropping seasons 2010 and 2011. However, peak population (6.36 per leaf) was recorded from FH-113 followed FH-167 and FH-114, whereas minimum population was recorded from FH-4243 in transgenic group whereas peak population (5.24 per leaf) was recorded from FH- 941 followed by FH-100 and FH- 901 while minimum population was recorded from FH-207, in non transgenic group of cultivars in the year 2010. The incidence and abundance was much high and reaching towards two folds in the year 2011 but the trend of whitefly varied with peak population (11.03 per leaf) recorded from FH -167 followed by FH- 4243 and FH113 (from transgenic group of cultivars) whereas a peak of 10.77 per leaf population of whitefly, recorded followed by FH-901 and FH-941 (from non transgenic group of cultivars). FH-207 found more resistant from all ten cultivars studied in 2011. Correlation among weather factors and whitefly population showed that rainfall was negatively correlated while temperature and relative humidity were positively correlated with whitefly population. In addition to that situation is becoming worse because of shifting from conventional to more advanced transgenic cultivars that are susceptible and serve as host. Moreover, climatic conditions provide addition favor and helps in population buildup, abundance and incidence. (author)

  8. Unexpected fungal communities in the Rehai thermal springs of Tengchong influenced by abiotic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kai-Hui; Ding, Xiao-Wei; Salam, Nimaichand; Zhang, Bo; Tang, Xiao-Fei; Deng, Baiwan; Li, Wen-Jun

    2018-05-01

    Fungal communities represent an indispensable part of the geothermal spring ecosystem; however, studies on fungal community within hot springs are still scant. Here, we used Illumina HiSeq 2500 sequencing to detect fungal community diversity in extremely acidic hot springs (pH springs (pH > 6) of Tengchong-indicated by the presence of over 0.75 million valid reads. These sequences were phylogenetically assigned to 5 fungal phyla, 67 order, and 375 genera, indicating unexpected fungal diversity in the hot springs. The genera such as Penicillium, Entyloma, and Cladosporium dominated the fungal community in the acidic geothermal springs, while the groups such as Penicillium, Engyodontium, and Schizophyllum controlled the fungal assemblages in the alkaline hot springs. The alpha-diversity indices and the abundant fungal taxa were significantly correlated with physicochemical factors of the hot springs particularly pH, temperature, and concentrations of Fe 2+ , NH 4 + , NO 2 -, and S 2- , suggesting that the diversity and distribution of fungal assemblages can be influenced by the complex environmental factors of hot springs.

  9. Recent Molecular Advances on Downstream Plant Responses to Abiotic Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Regina Batista de Souza

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abiotic stresses such as extremes of temperature and pH, high salinity and drought, comprise some of the major factors causing extensive losses to crop production worldwide. Understanding how plants respond and adapt at cellular and molecular levels to continuous environmental changes is a pre-requisite for the generation of resistant or tolerant plants to abiotic stresses. In this review we aimed to present the recent advances on mechanisms of downstream plant responses to abiotic stresses and the use of stress-related genes in the development of genetically engineered crops.

  10. Identification and Expression Profiling of the Auxin Response Factors in Capsicum annuum L. under Abiotic Stress and Hormone Treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenliang Yu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Auxin response factors (ARFs play important roles in regulating plant growth and development and response to environmental stress. An exhaustive analysis of the CaARF family was performed using the latest publicly available genome for pepper (Capsicum annuum L.. In total, 22 non-redundant CaARF gene family members in six classes were analyzed, including chromosome locations, gene structures, conserved motifs of proteins, phylogenetic relationships and Subcellular localization. Phylogenetic analysis of the ARFs from pepper (Capsicum annuum L., tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L., Arabidopsis and rice (Oryza sativa L. revealed both similarity and divergence between the four ARF families, and aided in predicting biological functions of the CaARFs. Furthermore, expression profiling of CaARFs was obtained in various organs and tissues using quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR. Expression analysis of these genes was also conducted with various hormones and abiotic treatments using qRT-PCR. Most CaARF genes were regulated by exogenous hormone treatments at the transcriptional level, and many CaARF genes were altered by abiotic stress. Systematic analysis of CaARF genes is imperative to elucidate the roles of CaARF family members in mediating auxin signaling in the adaptation of pepper to a challenging environment.

  11. Spatial and temporal diversity of methanotrophs in a landfill cover soil are differentially related to soil abiotic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumaresan, Deepak; Abell, Guy C J; Bodrossy, Levente; Stralis-Pavese, Nancy; Murrell, J Colin

    2009-10-01

    Methanotrophs present in landfill cover soil can limit methane emissions from landfill sites by oxidizing methane produced in landfill. Understanding the spatial and temporal distribution of populations of methanotrophs and the factors influencing their activity and diversity in landfill cover soil is critical to devise better landfill cover soil management strategies. pmoA-based microarray analyses of methanotroph community structure revealed a temporal shift in methanotroph populations across different seasons. Type II methanotrophs (particularly Methylocystis sp.) were found to be present across all seasons. Minor shifts in type I methanotroph populations were observed. In the case of spatial distribution, only minor differences in methanotroph community structure were observed with no recognizable patterns (both vertical and horizontal) at a 5 m scale. Correlation analysis between soil abiotic parameters (total C, N, NH4 (+) , NO3 (-) and water content) and distribution of methanotrophs revealed a lack of conclusive evidence for any distinct correlation pattern between measured abiotic parameters and methanotroph community structure, suggesting that complex interactions of several physico-chemical parameters shape methanotroph diversity and activity in landfill cover soils. © 2009 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. Experimental Study of Abiotic Organic Synthesis at High Temperature and Pressure Conditions: Carbon Isotope and Mineral Surface Characterizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Qi; Socki, R. A.; Niles, P. B.

    2010-01-01

    Abiotic organic synthesis processes have been proposed as potential mechanisms for methane generation in subseafloor hydrothermal systems on Earth, and on other planets. To better understand the detailed reaction pathways and carbon isotope fractionations in this process under a wide range of physical and chemical conditions, hydrothermal experiments at high temperature (750 C) and pressure (0.55 GPa) were performed using piston cylinder apparatus. Formic acid was used as the source of CO2 and H2, and magnetite was the mineral catalyst. The chemical and carbon isotopic compositions of dissolved organic products were determined by GC-C-MS-IRMS, while organic intermediaries on the mineral catalyst were characterized by Pyrolysis-GC-MS. Among experimental products, dissolved CO2 was the dominant carbon species with a relative abundance of 88 mol%. Dissolved CH4 and C2H6 were also identified with a mole ratio of CH4 over C2H6 of 15:1. No dissolved CO was detected in the experiment, which might be attributable to the loss of H2 through the Au capsule used in the experiments at high temperature and pressure conditions and corresponding conversion of CO to CO2 by the water-gas shift reaction. Carbon isotope results showed that the 13C values of CH4 and C2H6 were -50.3% and -39.3% (V-PDB), respectively. CO2 derived from decarboxylation of formic acid had a (sigma)C-13 value of -19.2%, which was 3.2% heavier than its source, formic acid. The (sigma)C-13 difference between CO2 and CH4 was 31.1%, which was higher than the value of 9.4% calculated from theoretical isotopic equilibrium predictions at experimental conditions, suggesting the presence of a kinetic isotope effect. This number was also higher than the values (4.6 to 27.1%) observed in similar experiments previously performed at 400 C and 50 MPa with longer reaction times. CH4 is 11.0% less enriched in C-13 than C2H6. Alcohols were observed as carbon compounds on magnetite surfaces by Pyrolysis-GC-MS, which confirms

  13. The role of abiotic factors in the Cambrian Substrate Revolution: A review from the benthic community replacements of West Gondwana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvaro, J. Javier; Zamora, Samuel; Clausen, Sébastien; Vizcaïno, Daniel; Smith, Andrew B.

    2013-03-01

    The Cambrian Substrate Revolution refers to a substantial and "rapid" change to the nature of marine sedimentary substrates in the early Cambrian and is widely interpreted as a biologically-driven event, a direct response to evolutionary innovations in metazoan burrowing and the development of new shelly faunas. However, abiotic factors such as tectonic and climatic evolution also had the potential to restructure Cambrian substrates, and are here shown to be more plausible drivers of change in the benthic faunas of western Gondwana. The western Mediterranean region underwent a southward drift during Cambrian times, which drove a switch from subtropical carbonates to temperate siliciclastic substrates with short-term episodes of temperate carbonate productivity. As a result, microbial and shelly carbonates disappeared diachronously in a stepwise manner across the lower-middle Cambrian boundary interval. Archaeocyathan-microbial reefs were replaced by chancelloriid-eocrinoid-(spiculate) sponge meadows, in which the stepwise immigration of new echinoderm taxa was primarily controlled by extensional tectonic events, first recorded in rifting settings and later in passive-margin platforms. Availability of new kinds of substrate was thus the primary factor that controlled where and when evolutionary innovations in benthic strategies arose. Examples of this include the early Cambrian colonization of phosphatic hardgrounds and thrombolite crusts by chancelloriids, archaeocyathan and spiculate sponges, and the exploitation by benthos to the increasingly widespread availability of shelly grounds and carbonate firmgrounds by early-diagenetic cementation. A microbial mat/epifaunal antagonistic relationship is demonstrated for echinoderm pelmatozoans based on the non-overlapping palaeogeographic distributions of microbial reefs and mats versus mud-sticker pelmatozoans. Cambrian benthic communities thus evolved in parallel with substrates in response to abiotic factors rather

  14. Biotic or abiotic factors: which has greater influence in determining the structure of rotifers in semi-arid reservoirs?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Jovem da Silva Azevêdo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveThe objective of this study is to evaluate whether the distribution of structural attributes of rotifers in reservoirs in the semiarid region is more strongly influenced by abiotic or biotic environmental factors (density of cyanobacteria.MethodSampling occurred in two reservoirs in the Paraíba Basin, northeastern Brazil (Poções and Camalaú during April and June 2012. Eight sampling points were distributed at two stations in each reservoir: the region near the entrance of the main tributary and region of the dam and collections were made in the limnetic and littoral zone in every season. To assess the abiotic influence and density of cyanobacteria in the distribution of the structural attributes of rotifers, environmental variables bivariate correlation was conducted in series.ResultsIn Poções reservoir, the distribution of rotifer biomass was negatively related to the density of cyanobacteria; among the environmental variables, chlorophyll-a and total nitrogen were negatively related to all of the tested structural attributes, while the concentrations of total phosphorus were strongly related to the abundance of rotifers. In the Camalaú reservoir, the biomass was a structural attribute with a stronger correlation to the density of cyanobacteria; between the environmental variables and Egeria densa, nitrate was negatively related to all of the attributes tested, while transparency was moderately related to the abundance, biomass and richness as well as Chara sp. with abundance.ConclusionsAssemblages of rotifers are more clearly related to environmental conditions, especially those indicative of trophic conditions, despite the density of cyanobacteria having been a factor that was positively related to the structural characteristics of rotifers and thus indicative of such structural assemblies. This can be used for analysis of local environmental condition factors.

  15. Vegetation diversity and selected abiotic factors influencing the primary succession process on the foreland of Gåsbreen, Svalbard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wietrzyk Paulina

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The rapidly changing Arctic provides excellent opportunities for investigating primary succession on freshly deglaciated areas. Research on the Gåsbreen foreland (S Spitsbergen traced the succession of particular groups of organisms and species, particularly lichens and bryophytes, and determined the effect of selected abiotic factors on this succession. Fieldwork in 2008, employed a continuous linear transect of phytosociological relevés (1 m2 along the foreland. Data analysis allowed to distinguish five different succession stages and three types of colonisers. Canonical correspondence analysis and a permutation test showed that distance from the front of the glacier and fine grain material in the substrate mostly influenced the distribution and abundance of vegetation, and the steepness of the moraine hills affected the colonisation process, mainly in the older part of the marginal zone.

  16. Linking the spatial patterns of organisms and abiotic factors to ecosystem function and management: insights from semi-arid environments

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    F. T. Maestre

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Numerous theoretical and modeling studies have demonstrated the ecological significance of the spatial patterning of organisms on ecosystem functioning and dynamics. However, there is a paucity of empirical evidence that quantitatively shows how changes in the spatial patterns of the organisms forming biotic communities are directly related to ecosystem structure and functioning. In this article, I review a series of experiments and observational studies conducted in semi-arid environments from Spain (degraded calcareous shrubland, steppes dominated by Stipa tenacissima, and gypsum shrublands to: 1 evaluate whether the spatial patterns of the dominant biotic elements in the community are linked to ecosystem structure and functioning, and 2 test if these patterns, and those of abiotic factors, can be used to improve ecosystem restoration. In the semiarid steppes we found a significant positive relationship between the spatial pattern of the perennial plant community and: i the water status of S. tenacissima and ii perennial species richness and diversity. Experimental plantings conducted in these steppes showed that S. tenacissima facilitated the establishment of shrub seedlings, albeit the magnitude and direction of this effect was dependent on rainfall conditions during the first yr after planting. In the gypsum shrubland, a significant, direct relationship between the spatial pattern of the biological soil crusts and surrogates of ecosystem functioning (soil bulk density and respiration was found. In a degraded shrubland with very low vegetation cover, the survival of an introduced population of the shrub Pistacia lentiscus showed marked spatial patterns, which were related to the spatial patterns of soil properties such as soil compaction and sand content. These results provide empirical evidence on the importance of spatial patterns for maintaining ecosystem structure and functioning in semi-arid ecosystems

  17. Characterization of a eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A homolog from Tamarix androssowii involved in plant abiotic stress tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liuqiang; Xu, Chenxi; Wang, Chao; Wang, Yucheng

    2012-07-26

    The eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A (eIF5A) promotes formation of the first peptide bond at the onset of protein synthesis. However, the function of eIF5A in plants is not well understood. In this study, we characterized the function of eIF5A (TaeIF5A1) from Tamarix androssowii. The promoter of TaeIF5A1 with 1,486 bp in length was isolated, and the cis-elements in the promoter were identified. A WRKY (TaWRKY) and RAV (TaRAV) protein can specifically bind to a W-box motif in the promoter of TaeIF5A1 and activate the expression of TaeIF5A1. Furthermore, TaeIF5A1, TaWRKY and TaRAV share very similar expression pattern and are all stress-responsive gene that functions in the abscisic acid (ABA) signaling pathway, indicating that they are components of a single regulatory pathway. Transgenic yeast and poplar expressing TaeIF5A1 showed elevated protein levels combined with improved abiotic stresses tolerance. Furthermore, TaeIF5A1-transformed plants exhibited enhanced superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) activities, lower electrolyte leakage and higher chlorophyll content under salt stress. These results suggested that TaeIF5A1 is involved in abiotic stress tolerance, and is likely regulated by transcription factors TaWRKY and TaRAV both of which can bind to the W-box motif. In addition, TaeIF5A1 may mediate stress tolerance by increasing protein synthesis, enhancing ROS scavenging by improving SOD and POD activities, and preventing chlorophyll loss and membrane damage. Therefore, eIF5A may play an important role in plant adaptation to changing environmental conditions.

  18. Characterization of a eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A homolog from Tamarix androssowii involved in plant abiotic stress tolerance

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    Wang Liuqiang

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A (eIF5A promotes formation of the first peptide bond at the onset of protein synthesis. However, the function of eIF5A in plants is not well understood. Results In this study, we characterized the function of eIF5A (TaeIF5A1 from Tamarix androssowii. The promoter of TaeIF5A1 with 1,486 bp in length was isolated, and the cis-elements in the promoter were identified. A WRKY (TaWRKY and RAV (TaRAV protein can specifically bind to a W-box motif in the promoter of TaeIF5A1 and activate the expression of TaeIF5A1. Furthermore, TaeIF5A1, TaWRKY and TaRAV share very similar expression pattern and are all stress-responsive gene that functions in the abscisic acid (ABA signaling pathway, indicating that they are components of a single regulatory pathway. Transgenic yeast and poplar expressing TaeIF5A1 showed elevated protein levels combined with improved abiotic stresses tolerance. Furthermore, TaeIF5A1-transformed plants exhibited enhanced superoxide dismutase (SOD and peroxidase (POD activities, lower electrolyte leakage and higher chlorophyll content under salt stress. Conclusions These results suggested that TaeIF5A1 is involved in abiotic stress tolerance, and is likely regulated by transcription factors TaWRKY and TaRAV both of which can bind to the W-box motif. In addition, TaeIF5A1 may mediate stress tolerance by increasing protein synthesis, enhancing ROS scavenging by improving SOD and POD activities, and preventing chlorophyll loss and membrane damage. Therefore, eIF5A may play an important role in plant adaptation to changing environmental conditions.

  19. Ectopic Expression of Pumpkin NAC Transcription Factor CmNAC1 Improves Multiple Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Arabidopsis

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    Haishun Cao

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Drought, cold and salinity are the major environmental stresses that limit agricultural productivity. NAC transcription factors regulate the stress response in plants. Pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata is an important cucurbit vegetable crop and it has strong resistance to abiotic stress; however, the biological functions of stress-related NAC genes in this crop are largely unknown. This study reports the function of CmNAC1, a stress-responsive pumpkin NAC domain protein. The CmNAC1-GFP fusion protein was transiently expressed in tobacco leaves for subcellular localization analysis, and we found that CmNAC1 is localized in the nucleus. Transactivation assay in yeast cells revealed that CmNAC1 functions as a transcription activator, and its transactivation domain is located in the C-terminus. CmNAC1 was ubiquitously expressed in different organs, and its transcript was induced by salinity, cold, dehydration, H2O2, and abscisic acid (ABA treatment. Furthermore, the ectopic expression (EE of CmNAC1 in Arabidopsis led to ABA hypersensitivity and enhanced tolerance to salinity, drought and cold stress. In addition, five ABA-responsive elements were enriched in CmNAC1 promoter. The CmNAC1-EE plants exhibited different root architecture, leaf morphology, and significantly high concentration of ABA compared with WT Arabidopsis under normal conditions. Our results indicated that CmNAC1 is a critical factor in ABA signaling pathways and it can be utilized in transgenic breeding to improve the abiotic stress tolerance of crops.

  20. Characterization of a novel wheat NAC transcription factor gene involved in defense response against stripe rust pathogen infection and abiotic stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Ning; Zhang, Gang; Liu, Xin-Ying; Deng, Lin; Cai, Gao-Lei; Zhang, Yi; Wang, Xiao-Jie; Zhao, Jie; Huang, Li-Li; Kang, Zhen-Sheng

    2010-12-01

    Proteins encoded by the NAC gene family constitute one of the largest plant-specific transcription factors, which have been identified to play many important roles in both abiotic and biotic stress adaptation, as well as in plant development regulation. In the current paper, a full-length cDNA sequence of a novel wheat NAC gene, designated as TaNAC4, was isolated using in silico cloning and the reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) methods. TaNAC4 sharing high homology with rice OsNAC4 gene was predicted to encode a protein of 308 amino acid residues, which contained a plant-specific NAC domain in the N-terminus. Transient expression analysis indicated that the deduced TaNAC4 protein was localized in the nucleus of onion epidemical cells. Yeast one-hybrid assay revealed that the C-terminal region of the TaNAC4 protein had transcriptional activity. The expression of TaNAC4 was largely higher in the wheat seedling roots, than that in leaves and stems. TaNAC4 transcript in wheat leaves was induced by the infection of strip rust pathogen, and also by exogenous applied methyl jasmonate (MeJA), ABA and ethylene. However, salicylic acid (SA) had no obvious effect on TaNAC4 expression. Environmental stimuli, including high salinity, wounding, and low-temperature also induced TaNAC4 expression. These results indicate that this novel TaNAC4 gene functions as a transcriptional activator involved in wheat response to biotic and abiotic stresses.

  1. Host morphophysiological conditions and environment abiotic factors correlate with bat flies (Streblidae prevalence and intensity in Artibeus Leach, 1821 (Phyllostomidae

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    Priscilla Maria Peixoto Patrício

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to correlate Streblidae parasitism rates with temperature and humidity as well as sex, age and reproductive condition of Artibeus bats. Streblidae specimens were collected during two years in the Tinguá Biological Reserve and in two areas inside buffer zone, located in Nova Iguaçu, Rio de Janeiro State and preserved as wet specimens. The abundance of Streblidae species parasitizing Artibeus was analyzed, and no differences were found between them. However, the number of females parasitizing Artibeus fimbriatus was higher. Moreover, regarding sex, Artibeus females were more parasitized, particularly A. fimbriatus and A. lituratus. There was no correlation between mean intensity of infestation and body mass index of Artibeus species, even when correlated to abiotic data. This study contributes to better understand the parasitism on Artibeus by Streblidae, and based on results, it is clear that Streblidae show no preferences in terms of reproductive condition, body size, age, sex, temperature and humidity in parasitizing Artibeus species.

  2. Plant distribution and stand characteristics in brackish marshes: Unravelling the roles of abiotic factors and interspecific competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carus, Jana; Heuner, Maike; Paul, Maike; Schröder, Boris

    2017-09-01

    Due to increasing pressure on estuarine marshes from sea level rise and river training, there is a growing need to understand how species-environment relationships influence the zonation and growth of tidal marsh vegetation. In the present study, we investigated the distribution and stand characteristics of the two key brackish marsh species Bolboschoenus maritimus and Phragmites australis in the Elbe estuary together with several abiotic habitat factors. We then tested the effect of these habitat factors on plant growth and zonation with generalised linear models (GLMs). Our study provides detailed information on the importance of single habitat factors and their interactions for controlling the distribution patterns and stand characteristics of two key marsh species. Our results suggest that flow velocity is the main factor influencing species distribution and stand characteristics and together with soil-water salinity even affects the inundation tolerance of the two specie investigated here. Additionally, inundation height and duration as well as interspecific competition helped explain the distribution patterns and stand characteristics. By identifying the drivers of marsh zonation and stand characteristics and quantifying their effects, this study provides useful information for evaluating a future contribution of tidal marsh vegetation to ecosystem-based shore protection.

  3. Selected Abiotic and Biotic Environmental Stress Factors Affecting Two Economically Important Sugarcane Stalk Boring Pests in the United States

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    Allan T. Showler

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane, Saccharum spp., in the United States is attacked by a number of different arthropod pests. The most serious among those pests are two stalk boring moths in the Family Crambidae: the sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F., and the Mexican rice borer, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar. The two species are affected by abiotic and biotic environmental stress factors. Water deficit and excessive soil nitrogen alter physical and physiochemical aspects of the sugarcane plant that make the crop increasingly vulnerable to E. loftini. Weed growth can be competitive with sugarcane but it also supports enhanced abundances and diversity of natural enemies that can suppress infestations of D. saccharalis. In an instance where the stalk borer is considered a stress factor, proximity of vulnerable crops to sugarcane can influence levels of E. loftini infestation of sugarcane. The adverse effects of each stress factor, in terms of stalk borer attack, can be reduced by adopting appropriate cultural practices, such as adequate irrigation, judicious use of nitrogen fertilizer, using noncompetitive weed growth, and not planting vulnerable crops near sugarcane fields. Understanding the relationships between stress factors and crop pests can provide valuable insights for plant breeders and tools for incorporation into integrated pest management strategies.

  4. Impact of abiotic factors on development of the community of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in the soil: a Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamiołkowska, Agnieszka; Księżniak, Andrzej; Gałązka, Anna; Hetman, Beata; Kopacki, Marek; Skwaryło-Bednarz, Barbara

    2018-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi inhabiting soil play an important role for vascular plants. Interaction between arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, plants and soil microorganisms leads to many mutual advantages. However, the effectiveness of mycorrhizal fungi depends not only on biotic, but also abiotic factors such as physico-chemical properties of the soil, availability of water and biogenic elements, agricultural practices, and climatic conditions. First of all, it is important to adapt the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi species to changing environmental conditions. The compactness of the soil and its structure have a huge impact on its biological activity. Soil pH reaction has a substantial impact on the mobility of ions in soil dilutions and their uptake by plants and soil microflora. Water excess can be a factor negatively affecting arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi because these microorganisms are sensitive to a lower availability of oxygen. Mechanical cultivation of the soil has a marginal impact on the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi spores. However, soil translocation can cause changes to the population of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi abundance in the soil profile. The geographical location and topographic differentiation of cultivated soils, as well as the variability of climatic factors affect the population of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in the soils and their symbiotic activity.

  5. A wheat WRKY transcription factor TaWRKY10 confers tolerance to multiple abiotic stresses in transgenic tobacco.

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    Chen Wang

    Full Text Available WRKY transcription factors are reported to be involved in defense regulation, stress response and plant growth and development. However, the precise role of WRKY transcription factors in abiotic stress tolerance is not completely understood, especially in crops. In this study, we identified and cloned 10 WRKY genes from genome of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.. TaWRKY10, a gene induced by multiple stresses, was selected for further investigation. TaWRKY10 was upregulated by treatment with polyethylene glycol, NaCl, cold and H2O2. Result of Southern blot indicates that the wheat genome contains three copies of TaWRKY10. The TaWRKY10 protein is localized in the nucleus and functions as a transcriptional activator. Overexpression of TaWRKY10 in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. resulted in enhanced drought and salt stress tolerance, mainly demonstrated by the transgenic plants exhibiting of increased germination rate, root length, survival rate, and relative water content under these stress conditions. Further investigation showed that transgenic plants also retained higher proline and soluble sugar contents, and lower reactive oxygen species and malonaldehyde contents. Moreover, overexpression of the TaWRKY10 regulated the expression of a series of stress related genes. Taken together, our results indicate that TaWRKY10 functions as a positive factor under drought and salt stresses by regulating the osmotic balance, ROS scavenging and transcription of stress related genes.

  6. MANAGEMENT OF THE WHITE-CLAWED CRAYFISH (AUSTROPOTAMOBIUS PALLIPES IN WESTERN FRANCE: ABIOTIC AND BIOTIC FACTORS STUDY

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    TROUILHE M. C.

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available In France, the distribution of the white-clawed crayfish, Austropotamobius pallipes (Lereboullet, 1858, is restricted, fragmented and mainly located in headwaters. To preserve this indigenous species, it is necessary to characterize its ecological requirements (water and habitat quality. With this aim in view, a two-year study is being conducted in the Deux-Sèvres department (Western France since November 2002. Nine brooks from four different catchments are monitored regularly; eight of the nine brooks harbour whiteclawed crayfish populations. Two sampling sites are surveyed per brook, the first being where the crayfish population is located and the second 2 to 3 km downstream. Physicochemical parameters (18 are measured twice monthly and biotic factors are estimated twice yearly. In this study, the I.B.G.N. (Indice Biologique Global Normalisé protocol based on the determination of macroinvertebrates was used as a biotic index of biological water quality. Results of this preliminary study on two brooks (Thouet and Verdonnière show that physico-chemical and biological data considered separately do not provide reliable information about A. pallipes ecological requirements. However, the use of multivariate analyses (Principal Component Analysis to combine abiotic and biotic factors highlights a good correlation between these parameters. Organic matter appears to be a better discriminating factor than mineral matter affecting presence or absence of the whiteclawed crayfish.

  7. Elasticity of population growth with respect to the intensity of biotic or abiotic driving factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Charlotte T

    2017-04-01

    Demographic analysis can elucidate how driving factors, such as climate or species interactions, affect populations. One important question is how growth would respond to future changes in the mean intensity of a driving factor or in its variability, such as might be expected in a fluctuating and shifting climate. Here I develop an approach to computing new stochastic elasticities to address this question. The linchpin of this novel approach is the multidimensional demographic difference that expresses how a population responds to change in the driving factor between two discrete levels of intensity. I use this difference to design a perturbation matrix that links data from common empirical sampling schemes with rigorous theory for stochastic elasticities. Although the starting point is a difference, the products of this synthesis are true derivatives: they are elasticity with respect to the mean intensity of a driving factor, and elasticity with respect to variability in a driving factor. Applying the methods to published data, I demonstrate how these new elasticities can shed light on growth rate response within and at the boundary of the previously observed range of the driving factor, thus helpfully indicating nonlinearity in the observed and in the potential future response. The stochastic approach simplifies in a fixed environment, yielding a compact formula for deterministic elasticity to a driving factor. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  8. Interactive influence of biotic and abiotic cues on the plasticity of preferred body temperatures in a predator–prey system

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Smolinský, Radovan; Gvoždík, Lumír

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 170, č. 1 (2012), s. 47-55 ISSN 0029-8549 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP506/10/2170; GA MŠk LC06073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Aeshna * Biotic interactions * Preferred temperature * Reciprocal plasticity * Thermal acclimation * Triturus Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 3.011, year: 2012

  9. The role of abiotic and biotic environmental factors in shaping epiphyton on common reed in shallow, hydrologically transformed, temperate lakes

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    Toporowska Magdalena

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Epiphytic algae are an important group of organisms involved in primary productivity, nutrient cycling, and energy transfer in littoral food webs. However, multifactorial studies conducted on epiphyton on the same substrate across a spectrum of environmental parameters are very limited. Here, we present first complex field study on the role of abiotic and biotic factors in shaping the species richness, diversity, abundance, and biomass composition of epiphyton on common reed in four shallow lakes with different trophic status, water and fish management, and the abundance and structure of potential algal grazers: littoral crustaceans and fish. The obtained results revealed that the algal taxa richness was the lowest in the hypertrophic lake and the highest in the meso-eutrophic lake. Epiphyton abundance (predominated by pennate diatoms and biomass were found to be the highest in eutrophic water bodies. Biomass consisted primarily of diatoms, but we found the seasonal predominance of filamentous Chlorophyta (in the eutrophic lakes and Chlorophyceae (in the meso-eutrophic lake. Redundancy analysis (RDA showed that the frequency of water level fluctuations was the most significant variable in the composition of epiphyton. RDA also revealed the importance of grazing pressure of fish. Thus, in hydrologically transformed lakes, man-made factors may be of great relevance in the development of epiphytic algae.

  10. Seasonal biotic and abiotic factors affecting hunting strategy in free-living Saharan sand vipers, Cerastes vipera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horesh, Sefi J A; Sivan, Jaim; Rosenstrauch, Avi; Tesler, Itay; Degen, A Allan; Kam, Michael

    2017-02-01

    Sit-and-wait ambushing and active hunting are two strategies used by predators to capture prey. In snakes, hunting strategy is conserved phylogenetically; most species employ only one strategy. Active hunters encounter and capture more prey but invest more energy in hunting and have higher risks of being predated. This trade-off is important to small predators. The small Cerastes vipera employs both modes of hunting, which is unlike most viperids which use only sit-and wait ambushing. This species hibernates in October and emerges in April. Energy intake should be high prior to hibernation to overcome the non-feeding hibernation period and for reproduction on their emergence. We predicted that more individuals would hunt actively towards hibernation and an abiotic factor would trigger this response. Furthermore, since more energy is required for active hunting, we predicted that snakes in good body condition would use active hunting to a greater extent than snakes in poor body condition. To test our predictions, we tracked free-living snakes year round and determined their hunting strategy, estimated their body condition index (BCI), and calculated circannual parameters of day length as environmental cues known to affect animal behaviour. Two novel findings emerged in this study, namely, hunting strategy was affected significantly by 1) the circannual change in day length and 2) by BCI. The proportion of active hunters increased from 5% in April to over 30% in October and BCI of active foragers was higher than that of sit-and-wait foragers and, therefore, our predictions were supported. The entrainment between the proportion of active hunting and the abiotic factor is indicative of an adaptive function for choosing a hunting strategy. A trend was evident among life stages. When all life stages were present (September-October), the proportion of active foragers increased with age: 0.0% among neonates, 18.2% among juveniles and 31.4% among adults. We concluded that

  11. Abiotic factors influencing the ecology of wild rabbit fleas in north-eastern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osacar-Jimenez, J J; Lucientes-Curdi, J; Calvete-Margolle, C

    2001-06-01

    During 1992, the population dynamics of rabbit fleas were compared at two sites in north-eastern Spain. The sites differed mainly in terms of annual rainfall and soil type. All flea species showed seasonal cycles of abundance, although peaks in numbers occurred at different times, reflecting their specific adaptations for coping with climatic variables. Adult Spilopsyllus cuniculi (Dale) (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae) were found largely parasitizing rabbits in spring and adult Caenopsylla laptevi (Beaucournu etal.) (Siphonaptera: Ceratophyllidae) in the autumn. In contrast, monthly flea indices of Xenopsylla cunicularis (Smit) (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae) and Echidnophaga iberica (Ribeiro et al.) (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae) peaked in summer. Spilopsyllus cuniculi was present at both sites, but was less common on the drier site, where monthly mean temperature and annual rainfall approached the flea's physiological limits. By contrast, E. iberica, X. cunicularis and C. laptevi, known to be better adapted for dryness, showed the opposite patterns of abundance. Nevertheless, even these arid-adapted species took advantage of the milder and wetter spring (X. cunicularis and E. iberica) or autumn (C. laptevi) for breeding and larval development. Although environmental temperature, rainfall and soil texture will influence the microclimate of the burrows where the flea larvae develop, burrow humidity seems to be more dependent on soil characteristics and past rainfall rather than the humidity of the external air.

  12. Influence of abiotic factors on spider and ground beetle communities in different salt-marsh systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petillon, Julien; Georges, Anita; Canard, Alain; Lefeuvre, Jean-Claude; Bakker, Jan P.; Ysnel, Frederic

    2008-01-01

    Salt marshes are interesting and endangered ecosystems in West-Europe. Nevertheless, their arthropod fauna remains largely unknown and the factors determining assemblages at micro-habitat scale are poorly understood. Few data are also available about the effects of management measures in salt

  13. Influence of prey abundance and abiotic factors on the long-term ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the home-range distribution of spotted grunter. Spatial distribution of prey appears to be a dominant factor influencing home-range parameters of this species within an intermittently open estuary. Keywords: acoustic telemetry, East Kleinemonde Estuary, estuarine fish, movement behaviour, prey abundance, South Africa ...

  14. Effect of abiotic factors on species richness and cover in Central European weed communities

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pyšek, Petr; Jarošík, Vojtěch; Kropáč, Z.; Chytrý, M.; Wild, Jan; Tichý, L.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 109, - (2005), s. 1-8 ISSN 0167-8809 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA526/00/1443 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : weed s of arable land * diversity * agricultural management Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.495, year: 2005

  15. POPULATION FLUCTUATION OF ADULT MALES OF THE FRUIT FLY, Bactrocera tau Walker (DIPTERA: TEPHRITIDAE IN PASSION FRUIT ORCHARDS IN RELATION TO ABIOTIC FACTORS AND SANITATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hasyim

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Fruit fly (Bactrocera tau is the most destructive pest on some fruits in Indonesia. Monitoring of the pest population is essential as one of the procedures in the IPM concept. The study aimed to investigate the seasonal fluctuation of adult males of B. tau and their damage on passion fruits in relation to abiotic factors. The research was done by a survey method on three plots of passion fruit orchards in Alahan Panjang, West Sumatra, Indonesia from March to December 2005. In plot 1 the farmer practiced sanitation by removing damaged fruits and weeds from the orchard. In the plots 2 and 3 no sanitation was practiced. Each plot was 1 ha in size. The parameters observed were density of adult male B. tau and climatic factors (rainfall per day, number of rainy days, and average day temperature. Empty mineral water bottle traps were used to catch adult males of B. tau. Each plot had 16 traps set up with cue lure as fruit fly attractant. Each trap was baited with 3 ml cue lure on a cotton wick (1 cm diameter. The cotton wick was rebaited at 2-week intervals. The traps were placed on host plants about 1.5 m above the ground. Trapped flies were collected every two weeks and counted. The data were analyzed by correlation analysis. The results revealed that the number of male B. tauin three orchards showed a similar fluctuation during the study period with a major peak in July. The lower numbers of flies captured in plot 1 (with sanitation compared to the two other plots (without sanitation were consistent with a lower percentage of damaged fruits in the plot 1 compared to the other two. The percentage of damaged fruits gradually decreased over time to about 20% in plot 1 which is lower than that in the other twoplots (30-40%. The number of fruit flies captured with cue lure baited traps correlated positively with all three abiotic factors studied. The seasonal fluctuation of the fruit fly population and the damage to the

  16. Biotic vs. abiotic control of decomposition: a comparison of the effects of simulated extinctions and changes in temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyero, Luz; Cardinale, Bradley J; Bastian, Mikis; Pearson, Richard G

    2014-01-01

    The loss of species is known to have significant effects on ecosystem functioning, but only recently has it been recognized that species loss might rival the effects of other forms of environmental change on ecosystem processes. There is a need for experimental studies that explicitly manipulate species richness and environmental factors concurrently to determine their relative impacts on key ecosystem processes such as plant litter decomposition. It is crucial to understand what factors affect the rate of plant litter decomposition and the relative magnitude of such effects because the rate at which plant litter is lost and transformed to other forms of organic and inorganic carbon determines the capacity for carbon storage in ecosystems and the rate at which greenhouse gasses such as carbon dioxide are outgassed. Here we compared how an increase in water temperature of 5°C and loss of detritivorous invertebrate and plant litter species affect decomposition rates in a laboratory experiment simulating stream conditions. Like some prior studies, we found that species identity, rather than species richness per se, is a key driver of decomposition, but additionally we showed that the loss of particular species can equal or exceed temperature change in its impact on decomposition. Our results indicate that the loss of particular species can be as important a driver of decomposition as substantial temperature change, but also that predicting the relative consequences of species loss and other forms of environmental change on decomposition requires knowledge of assemblages and their constituent species' ecology and ecophysiology.

  17. Biotic vs. abiotic control of decomposition: a comparison of the effects of simulated extinctions and changes in temperature.

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    Luz Boyero

    Full Text Available The loss of species is known to have significant effects on ecosystem functioning, but only recently has it been recognized that species loss might rival the effects of other forms of environmental change on ecosystem processes. There is a need for experimental studies that explicitly manipulate species richness and environmental factors concurrently to determine their relative impacts on key ecosystem processes such as plant litter decomposition. It is crucial to understand what factors affect the rate of plant litter decomposition and the relative magnitude of such effects because the rate at which plant litter is lost and transformed to other forms of organic and inorganic carbon determines the capacity for carbon storage in ecosystems and the rate at which greenhouse gasses such as carbon dioxide are outgassed. Here we compared how an increase in water temperature of 5°C and loss of detritivorous invertebrate and plant litter species affect decomposition rates in a laboratory experiment simulating stream conditions. Like some prior studies, we found that species identity, rather than species richness per se, is a key driver of decomposition, but additionally we showed that the loss of particular species can equal or exceed temperature change in its impact on decomposition. Our results indicate that the loss of particular species can be as important a driver of decomposition as substantial temperature change, but also that predicting the relative consequences of species loss and other forms of environmental change on decomposition requires knowledge of assemblages and their constituent species' ecology and ecophysiology.

  18. Dominant Repression by Arabidopsis Transcription Factor MYB44 Causes Oxidative Damage and Hypersensitivity to Abiotic Stress

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    Helene Persak

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In any living species, stress adaptation is closely linked with major changes of the gene expression profile. As a substrate protein of the rapidly stress-induced mitogen-activated protein kinase MPK3, Arabidopsis transcription factor MYB44 likely acts at the front line of stress-induced re-programming. We recently characterized MYB44 as phosphorylation-dependent positive regulator of salt stress signaling. Molecular events downstream of MYB44 are largely unknown. Although MYB44 binds to the MBSII element in vitro, it has no discernible effect on MBSII-driven reporter gene expression in plant co-transfection assays. This may suggest limited abundance of a synergistic co-regulator. MYB44 carries a putative transcriptional repression (Ethylene responsive element binding factor-associated Amphiphilic Repression, EAR motif. We employed a dominant repressor strategy to gain insights into MYB44-conferred stress resistance. Overexpression of a MYB44-REP fusion markedly compromised salt and drought stress tolerance—the opposite was seen in MYB44 overexpression lines. MYB44-mediated resistance likely results from induction of tolerance-enhancing, rather than from repression of tolerance-diminishing factors. Salt stress-induced accumulation of destructive reactive oxygen species is efficiently prevented in transgenic MYB44, but accelerated in MYB44-REP lines. Furthermore, heterologous overexpression of MYB44-REP caused tissue collapse in Nicotiana. A mechanistic model of MAPK-MYB-mediated enhancement in the antioxidative capacity and stress tolerance is proposed. Genetic engineering of MYB44 variants with higher trans-activating capacity may be a means to further raise stress resistance in crops.

  19. Biotic and abiotic factors influencing in vitro growth of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in ruminant digestive contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaucheyras-Durand, Frédérique; Madic, Jordan; Doudin, Florent; Martin, Christine

    2006-06-01

    The gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of ruminants is the main reservoir of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli, which is responsible for food-borne infections in humans that can lead to severe kidney disease. Characterization of biotic and abiotic factors that influence the carriage of these pathogens by the ruminant would help in the development of ecological strategies to reduce their survival in the GIT and to decrease the risk of contamination of animal products. We found that growth of E. coli O157:H7 in rumen fluid was inhibited by the autochthonous microflora. Growth was also reduced when rumen fluid came from sheep fed a mixed diet composed of 50% wheat and 50% hay, as opposed to a 100% hay diet. In fecal suspensions, E. coli O157:H7 growth was not suppressed by the autochthonous flora. However, a probiotic strain of Lactobacillus acidophilus inhibited E. coli O157:H7 growth in fecal suspensions. The inhibitory effect was dose dependent. These lactic acid bacteria could be a relevant tool for controlling O157:H7 development in the terminal part of the ruminant GIT, which has been shown to be the main site of colonization by these pathogenic bacteria.

  20. Combined Effects of Soil Biotic and Abiotic Factors, Influenced by Sewage Sludge Incorporation, on the Incidence of Corn Stalk Rot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghini, Raquel; Fortes, Nara Lúcia Perondi; Navas-Cortés, Juan A; Silva, Carlos Alberto; Bettiol, Wagner

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the combined effects of soil biotic and abiotic factors on the incidence of Fusarium corn stalk rot, during four annual incorporations of two types of sewage sludge into soil in a 5-years field assay under tropical conditions and to predict the effects of these variables on the disease. For each type of sewage sludge, the following treatments were included: control with mineral fertilization recommended for corn; control without fertilization; sewage sludge based on the nitrogen concentration that provided the same amount of nitrogen as in the mineral fertilizer treatment; and sewage sludge that provided two, four and eight times the nitrogen concentration recommended for corn. Increasing dosages of both types of sewage sludge incorporated into soil resulted in increased corn stalk rot incidence, being negatively correlated with corn yield. A global analysis highlighted the effect of the year of the experiment, followed by the sewage sludge dosages. The type of sewage sludge did not affect the disease incidence. A multiple logistic model using a stepwise procedure was fitted based on the selection of a model that included the three explanatory parameters for disease incidence: electrical conductivity, magnesium and Fusarium population. In the selected model, the probability of higher disease incidence increased with an increase of these three explanatory parameters. When the explanatory parameters were compared, electrical conductivity presented a dominant effect and was the main variable to predict the probability distribution curves of Fusarium corn stalk rot, after sewage sludge application into the soil.

  1. Combined Effects of Soil Biotic and Abiotic Factors, Influenced by Sewage Sludge Incorporation, on the Incidence of Corn Stalk Rot.

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    Raquel Ghini

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to evaluate the combined effects of soil biotic and abiotic factors on the incidence of Fusarium corn stalk rot, during four annual incorporations of two types of sewage sludge into soil in a 5-years field assay under tropical conditions and to predict the effects of these variables on the disease. For each type of sewage sludge, the following treatments were included: control with mineral fertilization recommended for corn; control without fertilization; sewage sludge based on the nitrogen concentration that provided the same amount of nitrogen as in the mineral fertilizer treatment; and sewage sludge that provided two, four and eight times the nitrogen concentration recommended for corn. Increasing dosages of both types of sewage sludge incorporated into soil resulted in increased corn stalk rot incidence, being negatively correlated with corn yield. A global analysis highlighted the effect of the year of the experiment, followed by the sewage sludge dosages. The type of sewage sludge did not affect the disease incidence. A multiple logistic model using a stepwise procedure was fitted based on the selection of a model that included the three explanatory parameters for disease incidence: electrical conductivity, magnesium and Fusarium population. In the selected model, the probability of higher disease incidence increased with an increase of these three explanatory parameters. When the explanatory parameters were compared, electrical conductivity presented a dominant effect and was the main variable to predict the probability distribution curves of Fusarium corn stalk rot, after sewage sludge application into the soil.

  2. Evolution analysis of Dof transcription factor family and their expression in response to multiple abiotic stresses in Malus domestica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhengrong; Yuan, Li; Liu, Xin; Chen, Xuesen; Wang, Xiaoyun

    2018-01-10

    As a family of transcription factors, DNA binding with one figure (Dof) proteins play important roles in various biological processes in plants. Here, a total of 60 putative apple (Malus domestica) Dof genes (MdDof) were identified and mapped to different chromosomes. Chromosomal distribution and synteny analysis indicated that the expansion of the MdDof genes came primarily from segmental and duplication events, and from whole genome duplication, which lead to more Dof members in apples than in other plants. All 60 MdDof genes were classified into thirteen groups, according to multiple sequence alignment and the phylogenetic tree constructed of Dof genes from apple, peach (Prunus persica), Arabidopsis and rice. Within each group, the members shared a similar exon/intron and motif compositions, although the sizes of the MdDof genes and encoding proteins were quite different. Several Dof genes from the apple and peach were identified to be homologues based on their close synteny relationship, which suggested that these genes bear similar functions. Half of the MdDof genes were randomly selected to determine their responses to different stresses. The majority of MdDof genes were quite sensitive to PEG, NaCl, cold and exogenous ABA treatment. Our results suggested that MdDof family members may play important roles in plant tolerance to abiotic stress. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Abiotic Factors and Yushania Influences on Abies Forest Composition in Taiwan

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    Cheng-Tao Lin

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Abies kawakamii forests are generally distributed above 3,000 m in Taiwanese high mountains. The community data used in our analysis were derived from the database of the National Vegetation Diversity Inventory and Mapping Project of Taiwan (NVDIMP, and environmental data were obtained from the WorldClim and NVDIMP databases. We used non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS to identify vegetation composition of Abies communities and the structural equation models (SEMs were used to examine the complex relationships between environmental factors and vegetation composition. The results of ordination showed the most important factors determining species composition of Abies forests involved habitat rockiness, heat load index, warmth index and summer and winter. SEM results approved the warmth index and winter precipitation were the main drivers determining the latent variable—climate, which significantly affect the overstory composition of Abies communities. The relative frequency of Yushania niitakayamensis also had a minor effect on the overstory. However, the relative frequency of Yushania had strong and significant effects on the understory flora and it was also strongly correlated with rock ratio and winter precipitation. Moreover, the overstory displayed a negative but insignificant coefficient on the understory composition, and this might be attributed to the fragile and high heterogeneous habitat in Taiwanese high mountain areas.

  4. Controls of evapotranspiration and CO2 fluxes from scots pine by surface conductance and abiotic factors.

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    Tianshan Zha

    Full Text Available Evapotranspiration (E and CO2 flux (Fc in the growing season of an unusual dry year were measured continuously over a Scots pine forest in eastern Finland, by eddy covariance techniques. The aims were to gain an understanding of their biological and environmental control processes. As a result, there were obvious diurnal and seasonal changes in E, Fc , surface conductance (gc , and decoupling coefficient (Ω, showing similar trends to those in radiation (PAR and vapour pressure deficit (δ. The maximum mean daily values (24-h average for E, Fc , gc , and Ω were 1.78 mmol m(-2 s(-1, -11.18 µmol m(-2 s(-1, 6.27 mm s(-1, and 0.31, respectively, with seasonal averages of 0.71 mmol m(-2 s(-1, -4.61 µmol m(-2 s(-1, 3.3 mm s(-1, and 0.16. E and Fc were controlled by combined biological and environmental variables. There was curvilinear dependence of E on gc and Fc on gc . Among the environmental variables, PAR was the most important factor having a positive linear relationship to E and curvilinear relationship to Fc , while vapour pressure deficit was the most important environmental factor affecting gc . Water use efficiency was slightly higher in the dry season, with mean monthly values ranging from 6.67 to 7.48 μmol CO2 (mmol H2O(-1 and a seasonal average of 7.06 μmol CO2 (μmol H2O(-1. Low Ω and its close positive relationship with gc indicate that evapotranspiration was sensitive to surface conductance. Mid summer drought reduced surface conductance and decoupling coefficient, suggesting a more biotic control of evapotranspiration and a physiological acclimation to dry air. Surface conductance remained low and constant under dry condition, supporting that a constant value of surface constant can be used for modelling transpiration under drought condition.

  5. Cork oak vulnerability to fire: the role of bark harvesting, tree characteristics and abiotic factors.

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    Filipe X Catry

    Full Text Available Forest ecosystems where periodical tree bark harvesting is a major economic activity may be particularly vulnerable to disturbances such as fire, since debarking usually reduces tree vigour and protection against external agents. In this paper we asked how cork oak Quercus suber trees respond after wildfires and, in particular, how bark harvesting affects post-fire tree survival and resprouting. We gathered data from 22 wildfires (4585 trees that occurred in three southern European countries (Portugal, Spain and France, covering a wide range of conditions characteristic of Q. suber ecosystems. Post-fire tree responses (tree mortality, stem mortality and crown resprouting were examined in relation to management and ecological factors using generalized linear mixed-effects models. Results showed that bark thickness and bark harvesting are major factors affecting resistance of Q. suber to fire. Fire vulnerability was higher for trees with thin bark (young or recently debarked individuals and decreased with increasing bark thickness until cork was 3-4 cm thick. This bark thickness corresponds to the moment when exploited trees are debarked again, meaning that exploited trees are vulnerable to fire during a longer period. Exploited trees were also more likely to be top-killed than unexploited trees, even for the same bark thickness. Additionally, vulnerability to fire increased with burn severity and with tree diameter, and was higher in trees burned in early summer or located in drier south-facing aspects. We provided tree response models useful to help estimating the impact of fire and to support management decisions. The results suggested that an appropriate management of surface fuels and changes in the bark harvesting regime (e.g. debarking coexisting trees in different years or increasing the harvesting cycle would decrease vulnerability to fire and contribute to the conservation of cork oak ecosystems.

  6. Cork oak vulnerability to fire: the role of bark harvesting, tree characteristics and abiotic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catry, Filipe X; Moreira, Francisco; Pausas, Juli G; Fernandes, Paulo M; Rego, Francisco; Cardillo, Enrique; Curt, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Forest ecosystems where periodical tree bark harvesting is a major economic activity may be particularly vulnerable to disturbances such as fire, since debarking usually reduces tree vigour and protection against external agents. In this paper we asked how cork oak Quercus suber trees respond after wildfires and, in particular, how bark harvesting affects post-fire tree survival and resprouting. We gathered data from 22 wildfires (4585 trees) that occurred in three southern European countries (Portugal, Spain and France), covering a wide range of conditions characteristic of Q. suber ecosystems. Post-fire tree responses (tree mortality, stem mortality and crown resprouting) were examined in relation to management and ecological factors using generalized linear mixed-effects models. Results showed that bark thickness and bark harvesting are major factors affecting resistance of Q. suber to fire. Fire vulnerability was higher for trees with thin bark (young or recently debarked individuals) and decreased with increasing bark thickness until cork was 3-4 cm thick. This bark thickness corresponds to the moment when exploited trees are debarked again, meaning that exploited trees are vulnerable to fire during a longer period. Exploited trees were also more likely to be top-killed than unexploited trees, even for the same bark thickness. Additionally, vulnerability to fire increased with burn severity and with tree diameter, and was higher in trees burned in early summer or located in drier south-facing aspects. We provided tree response models useful to help estimating the impact of fire and to support management decisions. The results suggested that an appropriate management of surface fuels and changes in the bark harvesting regime (e.g. debarking coexisting trees in different years or increasing the harvesting cycle) would decrease vulnerability to fire and contribute to the conservation of cork oak ecosystems.

  7. Abiotic factors and their interactions influence on the co-production of aflatoxin B(1) and cyclopiazonic acid by Aspergillus flavus isolated from corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astoreca, Andrea; Vaamonde, Graciela; Dalcero, Ana; Marin, Sonia; Ramos, Antonio

    2014-04-01

    The objectives of this study were i) to determine the effects of the interactions of water activity, temperature and incubation time on the co-production of AFB1 and CPA by isolates of Aspergillus flavus with different profile of mycotoxin production and ii) to identify the aW and temperature limiting conditions for the production of both mycotoxins. Fungi used in this study were selected because they belonged to different chemotypes: chemotype I (AFB1+/CPA+), III (AFB1+/CPA-) and IV (AFB1-/CPA+), respectively. Two culture media were used; Czapek yeast agar (CYA) and corn extract agar (CEM), at different incubated temperatures (10-40 °C) and aW levels (0.80-0.98). AFB1 and CPA production were analyzed after 7, 14, 21 and 28 days of incubation. Significant differences were observed with respect to mycotoxin production depending on the media evaluated. The AFB1 production occurred more favorably on CYA while the highest CPA concentrations were recorded on CEM. Within the range of aW evaluated in this study, 0.83 was the limiting level for both toxins production. The optimum conditions for AFB1 production occurred at 0.96 aW and 30 °C after 21 days of incubation, regardless of the media and isolate. Although different amounts of toxins were produced in each medium, the limiting and optimum conditions for their production were similar in both. No differences in the response of the three isolates to the abiotic factors discussed were observed despite belonging to different chemotypes. The determination of the thresholds of mycotoxins co-production, especially in the case of data obtained with the corn extract medium can be useful to avoid the conditions conducive to co-occurrence of these mycotoxins in corn. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. THE INFLUENCE OF ABIOTIC FACTORS ON THE PRESENCE OF EUROPEAN CORN BORER (Ostrinia nubilalis Hubner

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    Ankica Sarajlić

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Field experiments with natural population of European corn borer (ECB were conducted in three vegetation seasons (2012-2014 at Agricultural Institute in Osijek. The experiment was set up in a randomized block design as split-split plot method, with three repetitions. This plot has been constantly maize - soybean rotation for already 15 years. It was a 3x3x4 factorial experiment with three irrigation levels (A1- non-irrigated (only natural precipitation, A2-from 60% to 80% field water capacity - FWC and A3-from 80% to100% FWC, three nitrogen fertilizer levels (B1-0, B2-100 and B3-200 kg N/ha and four different genotypes (C1-0SSK 596; C2-0SSK 617; C3-0SSK 602 and C4-0SSK 552.The aim of this study was to determine the effect of different levels of irrigation, nitrogen fertilization and genotypes on occurrence and damage of maize plants by the European corn borer larvae and relation between leaf feeding larvae with nitrogen and silicon concentration as well as C/N ratio. At the end of each growing season, ten maize plants from each variant were cut. Ear weight for each specific plant (g, tunnel length (cm, number of larvae in stalk, number of larvae in the ear shank, ear shank damage (cm and total number of larvae in maize plantwere determined. In silking stage (middle of July ten leaves (below the ear, from 10 maize plants were sampled on each variant. Nitrogen, carbon and silicon concentrations were determined in maize leaf (% and C/N ratio calculated. In 2014, a significantly lower ECB attack was determined taking into account lower temperatures and higher amount of precipitate compared to the previous years. Dominance of Z-type European corn borer on pheromone traps in the area of eastern Slavonia was confirmed. Increasing the level of soil water content, damage from larvae was reduced and increasing the level of nitrogen fertilization feeding activity was increased. We have confirmed different hybrid resistance in regards to damage from larvae

  9. Selected abiotic factors that influence raw cow milk freezing point depression

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    Oto Hanuš

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Freezing point depression (FPD is an important property of milk that is influenced primarily by milk components connected to osmotic pressure. Under certain conditions it is possible to detect the addition of water to milk. It is necessary to have the right FPD limit in legislation for milk quality control. The aim of this study was to improve the estimation procedure of this limit. Apart from factors related to dairy cow nutrition, cattle breed and milk yield, it is important to take into account CO2 (6%, water steam evaporation and pasteurization under technological conditions. Bulk milk samples (1, 30, 6, 6, 10, 1 according to experiment from Holstein and Czech Fleckvieh breed (1:1 were used in the experiments and technologically treated. The effects of water addition (water saturated and unsaturated by CO2, carbon dioxide evaporation and pasteurization (80 °C for 22 min were quantified. Pasteurization aggravation of FPD was -0.00394 ± 0.00171 ºC (P P < 0.001 depending on practice. Increase in FPD is recorded after milking during technological procedures of milk storage, mixing, pumping, transport shaking and warming. During FPD shift, the acuteness of FPD data sets increases. This fact should be considered in the process of deriving standard raw cow milk FPD limits. Similar experimental analysis of milk FPD technological shifts has not been performed in this way until now.

  10. Distribution and diversity of soil microfauna from East Antarctica: assessing the link between biotic and abiotic factors.

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    Alejandro Velasco-Castrillón

    Full Text Available Terrestrial life in Antarctica has been described as some of the simplest on the planet, and mainly confined to soil microfaunal communities. Studies have suggested that the lack of diversity is due to extreme environmental conditions and thought to be driven by abiotic factors. In this study we investigated soil microfauna composition, abundance, and distribution in East Antarctica, and assessed correlations with soil geochemistry and environmental variables. We examined 109 soil samples from a wide range of ice-free habitats, spanning 2000 km from Framnes Mountains to Bailey Peninsula. Microfauna across all samples were patchily distributed, from complete absence of invertebrates to over 1600 specimens/gram of dry weight of soil (gdw, with highest microfauna abundance observed in samples with visible vegetation. Bdelloid rotifers were on average the most widespread found in 87% of sampled sites and the most abundant (44 specimens/gdw. Tardigrades occurred in 57% of the sampled sites with an abundance of 12 specimens/gdw. Nematodes occurred in 71% of samples with a total abundance of 3 specimens/gdw. Ciliates and mites were rarely found in soil samples, with an average abundance of 1.3 and 0.04 specimens/gdw, respectively. We found that microfaunal composition and abundance were mostly correlated with the soil geochemical parameters; phosphorus, NO3 (- and salinity, and likely to be the result of soil properties and historic landscape formation and alteration, rather than the geographic region they were sampled from. Studies focusing on Antarctic biodiversity must take into account soil geochemical and environmental factors that influence population and species heterogeneity.

  11. Distribution and Diversity of Soil Microfauna from East Antarctica: Assessing the Link between Biotic and Abiotic Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco-Castrillón, Alejandro; Schultz, Mark B.; Colombo, Federica; Gibson, John A. E.; Davies, Kerrie A.; Austin, Andrew D.; Stevens, Mark I.

    2014-01-01

    Terrestrial life in Antarctica has been described as some of the simplest on the planet, and mainly confined to soil microfaunal communities. Studies have suggested that the lack of diversity is due to extreme environmental conditions and thought to be driven by abiotic factors. In this study we investigated soil microfauna composition, abundance, and distribution in East Antarctica, and assessed correlations with soil geochemistry and environmental variables. We examined 109 soil samples from a wide range of ice-free habitats, spanning 2000 km from Framnes Mountains to Bailey Peninsula. Microfauna across all samples were patchily distributed, from complete absence of invertebrates to over 1600 specimens/gram of dry weight of soil (gdw), with highest microfauna abundance observed in samples with visible vegetation. Bdelloid rotifers were on average the most widespread found in 87% of sampled sites and the most abundant (44 specimens/gdw). Tardigrades occurred in 57% of the sampled sites with an abundance of 12 specimens/gdw. Nematodes occurred in 71% of samples with a total abundance of 3 specimens/gdw. Ciliates and mites were rarely found in soil samples, with an average abundance of 1.3 and 0.04 specimens/gdw, respectively. We found that microfaunal composition and abundance were mostly correlated with the soil geochemical parameters; phosphorus, NO3 − and salinity, and likely to be the result of soil properties and historic landscape formation and alteration, rather than the geographic region they were sampled from. Studies focusing on Antarctic biodiversity must take into account soil geochemical and environmental factors that influence population and species heterogeneity. PMID:24498126

  12. Effects of Abiotic Factors on the Geographic Distribution of Body Size Variation and Chromosomal Polymorphisms in Two Neotropical Grasshopper Species (Dichroplus: Melanoplinae: Acrididae

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    Claudio J. Bidau

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We review the effects of abiotic factors on body size in two grasshopper species with large geographical distributions: Dichroplus pratensis and D. vittatus, inhabiting Argentina in diverse natural habitats. Geographical spans for both species provide an opportunity to study the effects of changes in abiotic factors on body size. The analyses of body size distribution in both species revealed a converse Bergmannian pattern: body size is positively correlated with latitude, altitude, and seasonality that influences time available for development and growth. Allen’s rule is also inverted. Morphological variability increases towards the ends of the Bergmannian clines and, in D. pratensis, is related with a central-marginal distribution of chromosomal variants that influence recombination. The converse Bergmannian patterns influence sexual size dimorphism in both species but in different fashions. Body size variation at a microspatial scale in D. pratensis is extremely sensitive to microclimatic clines. We finally compare our results with those for other Orthopteran species.

  13. Global analysis of WRKY transcription factor superfamily in Setaria identifies potential candidates involved in abiotic stress signalling

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    Mehanathan eMuthamilarasan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Transcription factors (TFs are major players in stress signalling and constitute an integral part of signalling networks. Among the major TFs, WRKY proteins play pivotal roles in regulation of transcriptional reprogramming associated with stress responses. In view of this, genome- and transcriptome-wide identification of WRKY TF family was performed in the C4 model plants, Setaria italica (SiWRKY and S. viridis (SvWRKY, respectively. The study identified 105 SiWRKY and 44 SvWRKY proteins that were computationally analysed for their physicochemical properties. Sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis classified these proteins into three major groups, namely I, II and III with majority of WRKY proteins belonging to group II (53 SiWRKY and 23 SvWRKY, followed by group III (39 SiWRKY and 11 SvWRKY and group I (10 SiWRKY and 6 SvWRKY. Group II proteins were further classified into 5 subgroups (IIa to IIe based on their phylogeny. Domain analysis showed the presence of WRKY motif and zinc finger-like structures in these proteins along with additional domains in a few proteins. All SiWRKY genes were physically mapped on the S. italica genome and their duplication analysis revealed that 10 and 8 gene pairs underwent tandem and segmental duplications, respectively. Comparative mapping of SiWRKY and SvWRKY genes in related C4 panicoid genomes demonstrated the orthologous relationships between these genomes. In silico expression analysis of SiWRKY and SvWRKY genes showed their differential expression patterns in different tissues and stress conditions. Expression profiling of candidate SiWRKY genes in response to stress (dehydration and salinity and hormone treatments (abscisic acid, salicylic acid and methyl jasmonate suggested the putative involvement of SiWRKY066 and SiWRKY082 in stress and hormone signalling. These genes could be potential candidates for further characterization to delineate their functional roles in abiotic stress signalling.

  14. On the occurrence of Common Baron (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Limenitidinae: Euthalia aconthea Cramer, 1777 in the Delhi area and analysis of abiotic factors affecting its distribution in India

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    Rajv K. Singh Bais

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives details of the occurrence of Euthalia aconthea from Delhi area situated in the Indo-Gangetic plains.  Occurrence records of this species suggest that it is most frequent in five zones of India, despite the fact that its main larval food plant Mango Mangifera indica is abundantly available almost throughout India.  Possible abiotic factors are hypothesized for this distribution. 

  15. Plant available silicon in South-east Asian rice paddy soils - relevance of agricultural practice and of abiotic factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marxen, A.; Klotzbücher, T.; Vetterlein, D.; Jahn, R.

    2012-12-01

    Background Silicon (Si) plays a crucial role in rice production. Si content of rice plants exceeds the content of other major nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphorous or potassium. Recent studies showed that in some environments external supply of Si can enhance the growth of rice plants. Rice plants express specific Si transporters to absorb Si from soil solutions in form of silicic acid, which precipitates in tissue cells forming amorphous silica bodies, called phytoliths. The phytoliths are returned to soils with plant residues. They might be a main source of plant available silicic acid in soils. Aims In this study we assess the effects of rice paddy cultivation on the stocks of `reactive` Si fractions in mineral topsoils of rice paddy fields in contrasting landscapes. The `reactive` Si fractions are presumed to determine the release of plant-available silicic acid in soils. We consider the relevance of abiotic factors (mineral assemblage; soil weathering status) and agricultural practice for these fractions. Agricultural practices, which were assumed to affect the stocks of `reactive` Si were (i) the usage of different rice varieties (which might differ in Si demand), (ii) straw residue management (i.e., whether straw residues are returned to the fields or removed and used e.g. as fodder), and (iii) yield level and number of crops per year. Material and methods Soils (top horizon of about 0-20 cm depth) were sampled from rice paddy fields in 2 mountainous and 5 lowland landscapes of contrasting geologic conditions in Vietnam and the Philippines. Ten paddy fields were sampled per landscape. The rice paddy management within landscapes differed when different farmers and/or communities managed the fields. We analysed the following fractions of `reactive` Si in the soils: acetate-extractable Si (dissolved and easily exchangeable Si), phosphate-extractable Si (adsorbed Si), oxalate extractable Si (Si associated with poorly-ordered sesquioxides), NaOH extractable Si

  16. Epigenetic regulation of the expression of WRKY75 transcription factor in response to biotic and abiotic stresses in Solanaceae plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Galiano, María José; González-Hernández, Ana I; Crespo-Salvador, Oscar; Rausell, Carolina; Real, M Dolores; Escamilla, Mónica; Camañes, Gemma; García-Agustín, Pilar; González-Bosch, Carmen; García-Robles, Inmaculada

    2018-01-01

    SlyWRKY75: gene expression was induced in response to biotic stresses, especially in Botrytis cinerea-infected tomato plants, in which Sly-miR1127-3p is a putative SlyWRKY75 regulator and epigenetic marks were detected. WRKY75 transcription factor involved in Pi homeostasis was recently found also induced in defense against necrotrophic pathogens. In this study, we analyzed by RT-qPCR the expression of SlyWRKY75 gene in tomato plants in response to abiotic stresses (drought or heat) and biotic stresses (Colorado potato beetle larvae infestation, Pseudomonas syringae or Botrytis cinerea infection) being only differentially expressed following biotic stresses, especially upon B. cinerea infection (55-fold induction). JA and JA-Ile levels were significantly increased in tomato plants under biotic stresses compared with control plants, indicating that SlyWRKY75 might be a transcriptional regulator of the JA pathway. The contribution of miRNAs and epigenetic molecular mechanisms to the regulation of this gene in B. cinerea-infected tomato plants was explored. We identified a putative Sly-miR1127-3p miRNA predicted to bind the intronic region of the SlyWRKY75 genomic sequence. Sly-miR1127-3p miRNA was repressed in infected plants (0.4-fold) supporting that it might act as an epigenetic regulation factor of SlyWRKY75 gene expression rather than via the post-transcriptional mechanisms of canonical miRNAs. It has been proposed that certain miRNAs can mediate DNA methylation in the plant nucleus broadening miRNA functions with transcriptional gene silencing by targeting intron-containing pre-mRNAs. Histone modifications analysis by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) demonstrated the presence of the activator histone modification H3K4me3 on SlyWRKY75 transcription start site and gene body. The induction of this gene in response to B. cinerea correlates with the presence of an activator mark. Thus, miRNAs and chromatin modifications might cooperate as epigenetic factors to

  17. Roles of arabidopsis WRKY18, WRKY40 and WRKY60 transcription factors in plant responses to abscisic acid and abiotic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Han; Lai, Zhibing; Shi, Junwei; Xiao, Yong; Chen, Zhixiang; Xu, Xinping

    2010-12-19

    WRKY transcription factors are involved in plant responses to both biotic and abiotic stresses. Arabidopsis WRKY18, WRKY40, and WRKY60 transcription factors interact both physically and functionally in plant defense responses. However, their role in plant abiotic stress response has not been directly analyzed. We report that the three WRKYs are involved in plant responses to abscisic acid (ABA) and abiotic stress. Through analysis of single, double, and triple mutants and overexpression lines for the WRKY genes, we have shown that WRKY18 and WRKY60 have a positive effect on plant ABA sensitivity for inhibition of seed germination and root growth. The same two WRKY genes also enhance plant sensitivity to salt and osmotic stress. WRKY40, on the other hand, antagonizes WRKY18 and WRKY60 in the effect on plant sensitivity to ABA and abiotic stress in germination and growth assays. Both WRKY18 and WRKY40 are rapidly induced by ABA, while induction of WRKY60 by ABA is delayed. ABA-inducible expression of WRKY60 is almost completely abolished in the wrky18 and wrky40 mutants. WRKY18 and WRKY40 recognize a cluster of W-box sequences in the WRKY60 promoter and activate WRKY60 expression in protoplasts. Thus, WRKY60 might be a direct target gene of WRKY18 and WRKY40 in ABA signaling. Using a stable transgenic reporter/effector system, we have shown that both WRKY18 and WRKY60 act as weak transcriptional activators while WRKY40 is a transcriptional repressor in plant cells. We propose that the three related WRKY transcription factors form a highly interacting regulatory network that modulates gene expression in both plant defense and stress responses by acting as either transcription activator or repressor.

  18. Roles of arabidopsis WRKY18, WRKY40 and WRKY60 transcription factors in plant responses to abscisic acid and abiotic stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Zhixiang

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background WRKY transcription factors are involved in plant responses to both biotic and abiotic stresses. Arabidopsis WRKY18, WRKY40, and WRKY60 transcription factors interact both physically and functionally in plant defense responses. However, their role in plant abiotic stress response has not been directly analyzed. Results We report that the three WRKYs are involved in plant responses to abscisic acid (ABA and abiotic stress. Through analysis of single, double, and triple mutants and overexpression lines for the WRKY genes, we have shown that WRKY18 and WRKY60 have a positive effect on plant ABA sensitivity for inhibition of seed germination and root growth. The same two WRKY genes also enhance plant sensitivity to salt and osmotic stress. WRKY40, on the other hand, antagonizes WRKY18 and WRKY60 in the effect on plant sensitivity to ABA and abiotic stress in germination and growth assays. Both WRKY18 and WRKY40 are rapidly induced by ABA, while induction of WRKY60 by ABA is delayed. ABA-inducible expression of WRKY60 is almost completely abolished in the wrky18 and wrky40 mutants. WRKY18 and WRKY40 recognize a cluster of W-box sequences in the WRKY60 promoter and activate WRKY60 expression in protoplasts. Thus, WRKY60 might be a direct target gene of WRKY18 and WRKY40 in ABA signaling. Using a stable transgenic reporter/effector system, we have shown that both WRKY18 and WRKY60 act as weak transcriptional activators while WRKY40 is a transcriptional repressor in plant cells. Conclusions We propose that the three related WRKY transcription factors form a highly interacting regulatory network that modulates gene expression in both plant defense and stress responses by acting as either transcription activator or repressor.

  19. Kresoxim-methyl primes Medicago truncatula plants against abiotic stress factors via altered reactive oxygen and nitrogen species signalling leading to downstream transcriptional and metabolic readjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippou, Panagiota; Antoniou, Chrystalla; Obata, Toshihiro; Van Der Kelen, Katrien; Harokopos, Vaggelis; Kanetis, Loukas; Aidinis, Vassilis; Van Breusegem, Frank; Fernie, Alisdair R; Fotopoulos, Vasileios

    2016-03-01

    Biotic and abiotic stresses, such as fungal infection and drought, cause major yield losses in modern agriculture. Kresoxim-methyl (KM) belongs to the strobilurins, one of the most important classes of agricultural fungicides displaying a direct effect on several plant physiological and developmental processes. However, the impact of KM treatment on salt and drought stress tolerance is unknown. In this study we demonstrate that KM pre-treatment of Medicago truncatula plants results in increased protection to drought and salt stress. Foliar application with KM prior to stress imposition resulted in improvement of physiological parameters compared with stressed-only plants. This protective effect was further supported by increased proline biosynthesis, modified reactive oxygen and nitrogen species signalling, and attenuation of cellular damage. In addition, comprehensive transcriptome analysis identified a number of transcripts that are differentially accumulating in drought- and salinity-stressed plants (646 and 57, respectively) after KM pre-treatment compared with stressed plants with no KM pre-treatment. Metabolomic analysis suggests that the priming role of KM in drought- and to a lesser extent in salinity-stressed plants can be attributed to the regulation of key metabolites (including sugars and amino acids) resulting in protection against abiotic stress factors. Overall, the present study highlights the potential use of this commonly used fungicide as a priming agent against key abiotic stress conditions. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  20. The Alfin-like homeodomain finger protein AL5 suppresses multiple negative factors to confer abiotic stress tolerance in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wei; Zhang, Yu-Qin; Tao, Jian-Jun; Chen, Hao-Wei; Li, Qing-Tian; Zhang, Wan-Ke; Ma, Biao; Lin, Qing; Zhang, Jin-Song; Chen, Shou-Yi

    2015-03-01

    Plant homeodomain (PHD) finger proteins affect processes of growth and development by changing transcription and reading epigenetic histone modifications, but their functions in abiotic stress responses remain largely unclear. Here we characterized seven Arabidopsis thaliana Alfin1-like PHD finger proteins (ALs) in terms of the responses to abiotic stresses. ALs localized to the nucleus and repressed transcription. Except AL6, all the ALs bound to G-rich elements. Mutations of the amino acids at positions 34 and 35 in AL6 caused loss of ability to bind to G-rich elements. Expression of the AL genes responded differentially to osmotic stress, salt, cold and abscisic acid treatments. AL5-over-expressing plants showed higher tolerance to salt, drought and freezing stress than Col-0. Consistently, al5 mutants showed reduced stress tolerance. We used ChIP-Seq assays to identify eight direct targets of AL5, and found that AL5 binds to the promoter regions of these genes. Knockout mutants of five of these target genes exhibited varying tolerances to stresses. These results indicate that AL5 inhibits multiple signaling pathways to confer stress tolerance. Our study sheds light on mechanisms of AL5-mediated signaling in abiotic stress responses, and provides tools for improvement of stress tolerance in crop plants. © 2015 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Compilation of temperature factors of cubic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butt, N.M.; Bashir, J.; Willis, B.T.M.; Khan, M.N.

    1991-11-01

    A compilation of the temperature factors of 52 cubic compounds determined by diffraction methods using X-rays, neutron, and gamma rays is presented. For each compound the recommended temperature factors of cation B/sup +/, anion B/sup -/and B/sup prime/, the mass weighted average of B/sup +/and B/sup -/, along with the Debye temperature phi are given. This represents the second stage of a temperature factor project initiated by the Neutron Diffraction Commission of the International Union of Crystallography. (author)

  2. Transcriptional profiling of Medicago truncatula under salt stress identified a novel CBF transcription factor MtCBF4 that plays an important role in abiotic stress responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Zhen

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Salt stress hinders the growth of plants and reduces crop production worldwide. However, different plant species might possess different adaptive mechanisms to mitigate salt stress. We conducted a detailed pathway analysis of transcriptional dynamics in the roots of Medicago truncatula seedlings under salt stress and selected a transcription factor gene, MtCBF4, for experimental validation. Results A microarray experiment was conducted using root samples collected 6, 24, and 48 h after application of 180 mM NaCl. Analysis of 11 statistically significant expression profiles revealed different behaviors between primary and secondary metabolism pathways in response to external stress. Secondary metabolism that helps to maintain osmotic balance was induced. One of the highly induced transcription factor genes was successfully cloned, and was named MtCBF4. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that MtCBF4, which belongs to the AP2-EREBP transcription factor family, is a novel member of the CBF transcription factor in M. truncatula. MtCBF4 is shown to be a nuclear-localized protein. Expression of MtCBF4 in M. truncatula was induced by most of the abiotic stresses, including salt, drought, cold, and abscisic acid, suggesting crosstalk between these abiotic stresses. Transgenic Arabidopsis over-expressing MtCBF4 enhanced tolerance to drought and salt stress, and activated expression of downstream genes that contain DRE elements. Over-expression of MtCBF4 in M. truncatula also enhanced salt tolerance and induced expression level of corresponding downstream genes. Conclusion Comprehensive transcriptomic analysis revealed complex mechanisms exist in plants in response to salt stress. The novel transcription factor gene MtCBF4 identified here played an important role in response to abiotic stresses, indicating that it might be a good candidate gene for genetic improvement to produce stress-tolerant plants.

  3. The Translation Initiation Factor 1A (TheIF1A) fromTamarix hispidaIs Regulated by a Dof Transcription Factor and Increased Abiotic Stress Tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guiyan; Yu, Lili; Wang, Yucheng; Wang, Chao; Gao, Caiqiu

    2017-01-01

    Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 1A ( eIF1A ) functions as an mRNA scanner and AUG initiation codon locator. However, few studies have clarified the role of eIF1A in abiotic stress. In this study, we cloned eIF1A ( TheIF1A ) from Tamarix hispida and found its expression to be induced by NaCl and polyethylene glycol (PEG) in roots, stems, and leaves. Compared to control, TheIF1A root expression was increased 187.63-fold when exposed to NaCl for 6 h, suggesting a potential abiotic stress response for this gene. Furthermore, transgenic tobacco plants overexpressing TheIF1A exhibited enhanced seed germination and a higher total chlorophyll content under salt and mannitol stresses. Increased superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, glutathione transferase and glutathione peroxidase activities, as well as decreased electrolyte leakage rates and malondialdehyde contents, were observed in TheIF1A -transgenic tobacco and T. hispida seedlings under salt and mannitol stresses. Histochemical staining suggested that TheIF1A improves reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging in plants. Moreover, TheIF1A may regulate expression of stress-related genes, including TOBLTP , GST , MnSOD , NtMPK9 , poxN1 , and CDPK15 . Moreover, a 1352-bp promoter fragment of TheIF1A was isolated, and cis -elements were identified. Yeast one-hybrid assays showed that ThDof can specifically bind to the Dof motif present in the promoter. In addition, ThDof showed expression patterns similar to those of TheIF1A under NaCl and PEG stresses. These findings suggest the potential mechanism and physiological roles of TheIF1A . ThDof may be an upstream regulator of TheIF1A , and TheIF1A may function as a stress response regulator to improve plant salt and osmotic stress tolerance via regulation of associated enzymes and ROS scavenging, thereby reducing cell damage under stress conditions.

  4. Ethylene Response Factor Sl-ERF.B.3 Is Responsive to Abiotic Stresses and Mediates Salt and Cold Stress Response Regulation in Tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imen Klay

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sl-ERF.B.3 (Solanum lycopersicum ethylene response factor B.3 gene encodes for a tomato transcription factor of the ERF (ethylene responsive factor family. Our results of real-time RT-PCR showed that Sl-ERF.B.3 is an abiotic stress responsive gene, which is induced by cold, heat, and flooding, but downregulated by salinity and drought. To get more insight into the role of Sl-ERF.B.3 in plant response to separate salinity and cold, a comparative study between wild type and two Sl-ERF.B.3 antisense transgenic tomato lines was achieved. Compared with wild type, Sl-ERF.B.3 antisense transgenic plants exhibited a salt stress dependent growth inhibition. This inhibition was significantly enhanced in shoots but reduced in roots, leading to an increased root to shoot ratio. Furthermore, the cold stress essay clearly revealed that introducing antisense Sl-ERF.B.3 in transgenic tomato plants reduces their cell injury and enhances their tolerance against 14 d of cold stress. All these results suggest that Sl-ERF.B.3 gene is involved in plant response to abiotic stresses and may play a role in the layout of stress symptoms under cold stress and in growth regulation under salinity.

  5. Effects of soil abiotic factors on the plant morphology in an intertidal salt marsh, Yellow River Delta, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shanze; Cui, Baoshan; Bai, Junhong; Xie, Tian; Yan, Jiaguo; Wang, Qing; Zhang, Shuyan

    2018-02-01

    Plant morphology plays important role in studying biogeography in many ecosystems. Suadea salsa, as a native plant community of northern China and an important habitat for diversity of waterbirds and macrobenthos, has often been overlooked. Nowadays, S. salsa community is facing great loss due to coastal reclamation activities and natural disturbances. To maintain and restore S. salsa community, it's important to address the plant morphology across marsh zones, as well as its relationships with local soil abiotic conditions. In our studied intertidal salt marsh, we found that less flood disturbance frequency, softer soil conditions, rich soil organic matter, total carbon and total nitrogen, lower water depth and water content, less species competition will benefit S. salsa plant in the morphology of high coverage, above-ground biomass, shoot height and leaf length. Lower soil porewater salinity will benefit the below-ground biomass of S. salsa. Thus, we recommend managers help alleviate soil abiotic stresses in the intertidal salt marshes, making the soil conditions more suitable for S. salsa growth and succession.

  6. Safety aspects of genetically modified crops with abiotic stress tolerance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liang, C.; Prins, T.W.; Wiel, van de C.C.M.; Kok, E.J.

    2014-01-01

    Abiotic stress, such as drought, salinity, and temperature extremes, significantly reduce crop yields. Hence, development of abiotic stress-tolerant crops by modern biotechnology may contribute to global food security. Prior to introducing genetically modified crops with abiotic stress tolerance to

  7. Effect of elevated CO2 and temperature on abiotic and biologically-driven basalt weathering and C sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juarez, Sabrina; Dontsova, Katerina; Le Galliard, Jean-François; Chollet, Simon; Llavata, Mathieu; Massol, Florent; Cros, Alexis; Barré, Pierre; Gelabert, Alexandre; Daval, Damien; Corvisier, Jérôme; Troch, Peter; Barron-Gafford, Greg; Van Haren, Joost; Ferrière, Régis

    2016-04-01

    Weathering of primary silicates is one of the mechanisms involved in carbon removal from the atmosphere, affecting the carbon cycle at geologic timescales with basalt significantly contributing to the global weathering CO2 flux. Mineral weathering can be enhanced by microbiota and plants. Increase in both temperature and amount of CO2 in the atmosphere can directly increase weathering and can also affect weathering through impact on biological systems. This would result in possible negative feedback on climate change. The goal of this research was to quantify direct and indirect effects of temperature and elevated CO2 on basalt weathering and carbon sequestration. In order to achieve this goal we performed controlled-environment mesocosm experiments at Ecotron Ile-de-France (France). Granular basalt collected in Flagstaff (AZ, USA) was exposed to rainfall at equilibrium with two different CO2 concentrations in the air, ambient (400 ppm) and elevated (800 ppm); and kept at two climate regimes, with ambient and elevated (+ 4° C) temperature. Four biological treatments were superimposed on this design: a plant-free control; N-fixing grass (Alfalfa, Medicago sativa), N-fixing tree (Velvet mesquite, Prosopis velutina); and grass that does not form symbiotic relationships with N fixers (Green Sprangletop, Leptochloa dubia). All used basalt had native microbial community. Mesocosms were equipped with solution and gas samplers. To monitor biogenic and lithogenic weathering product concentrations, soil solution samples were collected under vacuum after each rainfall event and analyzed to determine pH, electrical conductivity, major and trace elements concentrations, anions concentrations, and aqueous phase organic matter chemistry. Soil gases were monitored for CO2 using porous Teflon gas samplers connected to the Vaisala probes. Plant biomass was collected at the end of the experiment to determine dry weight, as well as removal of N and lithogenic elements by the plants

  8. Tomato NAC transcription factor SlSRN1 positively regulates defense response against biotic stress but negatively regulates abiotic stress response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Liu

    Full Text Available Biotic and abiotic stresses are major unfavorable factors that affect crop productivity worldwide. NAC proteins comprise a large family of transcription factors that play important roles in plant growth and development as well as in responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. In a virus-induced gene silencing-based screening to identify genes that are involved in defense response against Botrytis cinerea, we identified a tomato NAC gene SlSRN1 (Solanum lycopersicum Stress-related NAC1. SlSRN1 is a plasma membrane-localized protein with transactivation activity in yeast. Expression of SlSRN1 was significantly induced by infection with B. cinerea or Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst DC3000, leading to 6-8 folds higher than that in the mock-inoculated plants. Expression of SlSRN1 was also induced by salicylic acid, jasmonic acid and 1-amino cyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid and by drought stress. Silencing of SlSRN1 resulted in increased severity of diseases caused by B. cinerea and Pst DC3000. However, silencing of SlSRN1 resulted in increased tolerance against oxidative and drought stresses. Furthermore, silencing of SlSRN1 accelerated accumulation of reactive oxygen species but attenuated expression of defense genes after infection by B. cinerea. Our results demonstrate that SlSRN1 is a positive regulator of defense response against B. cinerea and Pst DC3000 but is a negative regulator for oxidative and drought stress response in tomato.

  9. Tomato NAC transcription factor SlSRN1 positively regulates defense response against biotic stress but negatively regulates abiotic stress response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bo; Ouyang, Zhigang; Zhang, Yafen; Li, Xiaohui; Hong, Yongbo; Huang, Lei; Liu, Shixia; Zhang, Huijuan; Li, Dayong; Song, Fengming

    2014-01-01

    Biotic and abiotic stresses are major unfavorable factors that affect crop productivity worldwide. NAC proteins comprise a large family of transcription factors that play important roles in plant growth and development as well as in responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. In a virus-induced gene silencing-based screening to identify genes that are involved in defense response against Botrytis cinerea, we identified a tomato NAC gene SlSRN1 (Solanum lycopersicum Stress-related NAC1). SlSRN1 is a plasma membrane-localized protein with transactivation activity in yeast. Expression of SlSRN1 was significantly induced by infection with B. cinerea or Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst) DC3000, leading to 6-8 folds higher than that in the mock-inoculated plants. Expression of SlSRN1 was also induced by salicylic acid, jasmonic acid and 1-amino cyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid and by drought stress. Silencing of SlSRN1 resulted in increased severity of diseases caused by B. cinerea and Pst DC3000. However, silencing of SlSRN1 resulted in increased tolerance against oxidative and drought stresses. Furthermore, silencing of SlSRN1 accelerated accumulation of reactive oxygen species but attenuated expression of defense genes after infection by B. cinerea. Our results demonstrate that SlSRN1 is a positive regulator of defense response against B. cinerea and Pst DC3000 but is a negative regulator for oxidative and drought stress response in tomato.

  10. Issues in determining factors influencing bacterial attachment: a review using the attachment of Escherichia coli to abiotic surfaces as an example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulter, R M; Gentle, I R; Dykes, G A

    2009-07-01

    An understanding of the mechanisms which facilitate the attachment of Escherichia coli and other bacterial species to abiotic surfaces is desired by numerous industries including the food and medical industries. Numerous studies have attempted to explain bacterial attachment as a function of bacterial properties such as cellular surface charge, hydrophobicity and outer membrane proteins amongst others. Conflicting evidence in the literature both for and against a positive relationship may arise from the nature of the test methods used to measure them. A handful of recent studies utilizing technologies such as atomic force microscopy have begun to look at bacterial attachment at a single cell and molecular level. These studies may provide the information required to fully understand the underlying factors which influence bacterial cell attachment to abiotic surfaces. A number of issues in determining the influential factors of bacterial attachment have been identified from the literature: a lack of standardization and sensitivity of methods, as well as the value of measuring bulk properties of a number of cells rather than the behaviour of single cells which may overlook key interactions at a molecular level. These issues will need to be addressed in future studies in this area.

  11. Genome wide analysis of the apple MYB transcription factor family allows the identification of MdoMYB121 gene confering abiotic stress tolerance in plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong-Hui Cao

    Full Text Available The MYB proteins comprise one of the largest families of transcription factors (TFs in plants. Although several MYB genes have been characterized to play roles in secondary metabolism, the MYB family has not yet been identified in apple. In this study, 229 apple MYB genes were identified through a genome-wide analysis and divided into 45 subgroups. A computational analysis was conducted using the apple genomic database to yield a complete overview of the MYB family, including the intron-exon organizations, the sequence features of the MYB DNA-binding domains, the carboxy-terminal motifs, and the chromosomal locations. Subsequently, the expression of 18 MYB genes, including 12 were chosen from stress-related subgroups, while another 6 ones from other subgroups, in response to various abiotic stresses was examined. It was found that several of these MYB genes, particularly MdoMYB121, were induced by multiple stresses. The MdoMYB121 was then further functionally characterized. Its predicted protein was found to be localized in the nucleus. A transgenic analysis indicated that the overexpression of the MdoMYB121 gene remarkably enhanced the tolerance to high salinity, drought, and cold stresses in transgenic tomato and apple plants. Our results indicate that the MYB genes are highly conserved in plant species and that MdoMYB121 can be used as a target gene in genetic engineering approaches to improve the tolerance of plants to multiple abiotic stresses.

  12. Genome wide analysis of the apple MYB transcription factor family allows the identification of MdoMYB121 gene confering abiotic stress tolerance in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Zhong-Hui; Zhang, Shi-Zhong; Wang, Rong-Kai; Zhang, Rui-Fen; Hao, Yu-Jin

    2013-01-01

    The MYB proteins comprise one of the largest families of transcription factors (TFs) in plants. Although several MYB genes have been characterized to play roles in secondary metabolism, the MYB family has not yet been identified in apple. In this study, 229 apple MYB genes were identified through a genome-wide analysis and divided into 45 subgroups. A computational analysis was conducted using the apple genomic database to yield a complete overview of the MYB family, including the intron-exon organizations, the sequence features of the MYB DNA-binding domains, the carboxy-terminal motifs, and the chromosomal locations. Subsequently, the expression of 18 MYB genes, including 12 were chosen from stress-related subgroups, while another 6 ones from other subgroups, in response to various abiotic stresses was examined. It was found that several of these MYB genes, particularly MdoMYB121, were induced by multiple stresses. The MdoMYB121 was then further functionally characterized. Its predicted protein was found to be localized in the nucleus. A transgenic analysis indicated that the overexpression of the MdoMYB121 gene remarkably enhanced the tolerance to high salinity, drought, and cold stresses in transgenic tomato and apple plants. Our results indicate that the MYB genes are highly conserved in plant species and that MdoMYB121 can be used as a target gene in genetic engineering approaches to improve the tolerance of plants to multiple abiotic stresses.

  13. Changes in biotic and abiotic processes following mangrove clearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granek, Elise; Ruttenberg, Benjamin I.

    2008-12-01

    Mangrove forests, important tropical coastal habitats, are in decline worldwide primarily due to removal by humans. Changes to mangrove systems can alter ecosystem properties through direct effects on abiotic factors such as temperature, light and nutrient supply or through changes in biotic factors such as primary productivity or species composition. Despite the importance of mangroves as transitional habitats between land and sea, little research has examined changes that occur when they are cleared. We examined changes in a number of biotic and abiotic factors following the anthropogenic removal of red mangroves ( Rhizophora mangle) in the Panamanian Caribbean, including algal biomass, algal diversity, algal grazing rates, light penetration, temperature, sedimentation rates and sediment organic content. In this first study examining multiple ecosystem-level effects of mangrove disturbance, we found that areas cleared of mangroves had higher algal biomass and richness than intact mangrove areas. This increase in algal biomass and richness was likely due to changes in abiotic factors (e.g. light intensity, temperature), but not biotic factors (fish herbivory). Additionally the algal and cyanobacterial genera dominating mangrove-cleared areas were rare in intact mangroves and included a number of genera that compete with coral for space on reefs. Interestingly, sedimentation rates did not differ between intact and cleared areas, but the sediments that accumulated in intact mangroves had higher organic content. These findings are the first to demonstrate that anthropogenic clearing of mangroves changes multiple biotic and abiotic processes in mangrove forests and that some of these changes may influence adjacent habitats such as coral reefs and seagrass beds. Additional research is needed to further explore the community and ecosystem-level effects of mangrove clearing and their influence on adjacent habitats, but it is clear that mangrove conservation is an

  14. Resilience of cereal crops to abiotic stress: A review | Ahmad ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the last century, conventional selection and breeding program proved to be highly effective in improving crops against abiotic stresses. Therefore, breeding for abiotic stress tolerance in crop plants should be given high research priority as abiotic stresses are the main factor negatively affecting crop growth and ...

  15. Environment Is Life (EIL): a new local structure to study the influence of abiotic factors on agro-systems functional behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longdoz, Bernard; Leemans, Vincent; Heinesch, Bernard; Delaplace, Pierre; Dumont, Benjamin; Jacques, Philippe

    2017-04-01

    , to simulate the biogeochemical cycles of an outdoor agro-system plots. The objectives of the model runs will be to translate for natural conditions (real agro-system), the impact of the studied perturbation, with possibilities of divergences in terms of intensity and timing compared to the Ecotron situations Finally, the structure is completed with an eddy covariance tower site named Lonzée installed in a traditional European temperate agro-system plot and presently part of the ICOS labeling process. The Lonzee site is a cropland (cultivated for more than 75 years) with a 4-year rotation: sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.), winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), winter wheat. The experimental device collect some data similar to those obtained in the Ecotron chambers and will give the opportunity to (i) quantify the actual and real the influence of abiotic factors on ecosystemic services and (ii) validate the model used for the spatio-temporal extrapolation of the Ecotron results.

  16. The influence of abiotic factors present in the Rio de la Plata over the chromium genotoxicity; Influencia de factores abioticos presentes en el rio de la Plata sobre la genotoxicidad del cromo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, L.C.; Moretton, J. [Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquimica. Universidad de Buenos Aires. Argentina (Argentina)

    1997-12-31

    The alterations suffered by the well-known environmental genotoxic agent, Cr(V I), were studied. Cr(V I) salts were dissolved in water effluent river receptors waters such as from the Rio de la Plata. The influence of abiotic factors present in this kind of water was evaluated using the Rec. assay in Bacillus subtilis. The results detected a soluble fraction that potentiated Cr(V I) genotoxicity. This substance (or group of substances) is sensible to sterilization by heat and UV radiation, and its activity seems to decrease with particulate matter. Its genotoxicity was not affected by high concentrations of particulate matter in the Rio de la Plata water. In samples where chromium salts were added to raw river water, abiotic interference due to sterilization process occurred. A decrease in genotoxicity was found after filtration through inorganic filters (0.22 {mu} m) and an increase was noticed after exposure to UV radiation. (Author)

  17. Interactions among biotic and abiotic factors affect the reliability of tungsten microneedles puncturing in vitro and in vivo peripheral nerves: A hybrid computational approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sergi, Pier Nicola; Jensen, Winnie; Yoshida, Ken

    2016-01-01

    Tungsten is an elective material to produce slender and stiff microneedles able to enter soft tissues and minimize puncture wounds. In particular, tungsten microneedles are used to puncture peripheral nerves and insert neural interfaces, bridging the gap between the nervous system and robotic devices (e.g., hand prostheses). Unfortunately, microneedles fail during the puncture process and this failure is not dependent on stiffness or fracture toughness of the constituent material. In addition, the microneedles' performances decrease during in vivo trials with respect to the in vitro ones. This further effect is independent on internal biotic effects, while it seems to be related to external biotic causes. Since the exact synergy of phenomena decreasing the in vivo reliability is still not known, this work explored the connection between in vitro and in vivo behavior of tungsten microneedles through the study of interactions between biotic and abiotic factors. A hybrid computational approach, simultaneously using theoretical relationships and in silico models of nerves, was implemented to model the change of reliability varying the microneedle diameter, and to predict in vivo performances by using in vitro reliability and local differences between in vivo and in vitro mechanical response of nerves. - Highlights: • We provide phenomenological Finite Element (FE) models of peripheral nerves to study the interactions with W microneedles • We provide a general interaction-based approach to model the reliability of slender microneedles • We evaluate the reliability of W microneedels to puncture in vivo nerves • We provide a novel synergistic hybrid approach (theory + simulations) involving interactions among biotic and abiotic factors • We validate the hybrid approach by using experimental data from literature

  18. Interactions among biotic and abiotic factors affect the reliability of tungsten microneedles puncturing in vitro and in vivo peripheral nerves: A hybrid computational approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sergi, Pier Nicola, E-mail: p.sergi@sssup.it [Translational Neural Engineering Laboratory, The Biorobotics Institute, Scuola Superiore Sant' Anna, Viale Rinaldo Piaggio 34, Pontedera, 56025 (Italy); Jensen, Winnie [Department of Health Science and Technology, Fredrik Bajers Vej 7, 9220 Aalborg (Denmark); Yoshida, Ken [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Indiana University - Purdue University Indianapolis, 723 W. Michigan St., SL220, Indianapolis, IN 46202 (United States)

    2016-02-01

    Tungsten is an elective material to produce slender and stiff microneedles able to enter soft tissues and minimize puncture wounds. In particular, tungsten microneedles are used to puncture peripheral nerves and insert neural interfaces, bridging the gap between the nervous system and robotic devices (e.g., hand prostheses). Unfortunately, microneedles fail during the puncture process and this failure is not dependent on stiffness or fracture toughness of the constituent material. In addition, the microneedles' performances decrease during in vivo trials with respect to the in vitro ones. This further effect is independent on internal biotic effects, while it seems to be related to external biotic causes. Since the exact synergy of phenomena decreasing the in vivo reliability is still not known, this work explored the connection between in vitro and in vivo behavior of tungsten microneedles through the study of interactions between biotic and abiotic factors. A hybrid computational approach, simultaneously using theoretical relationships and in silico models of nerves, was implemented to model the change of reliability varying the microneedle diameter, and to predict in vivo performances by using in vitro reliability and local differences between in vivo and in vitro mechanical response of nerves. - Highlights: • We provide phenomenological Finite Element (FE) models of peripheral nerves to study the interactions with W microneedles • We provide a general interaction-based approach to model the reliability of slender microneedles • We evaluate the reliability of W microneedels to puncture in vivo nerves • We provide a novel synergistic hybrid approach (theory + simulations) involving interactions among biotic and abiotic factors • We validate the hybrid approach by using experimental data from literature.

  19. The CarERF genes in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) and the identification of CarERF116 as abiotic stress responsive transcription factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deokar, Amit A; Kondawar, Vishwajith; Kohli, Deshika; Aslam, Mohammad; Jain, Pradeep K; Karuppayil, S Mohan; Varshney, Rajeev K; Srinivasan, Ramamurthy

    2015-01-01

    The AP2/ERF family is one of the largest transcription factor gene families that are involved in various plant processes, especially in response to biotic and abiotic stresses. Complete genome sequences of one of the world's most important pulse crops chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.), has provided an important opportunity to identify and characterize genome-wide ERF genes. In this study, we identified 120 putative ERF genes from chickpea. The genomic organization of the chickpea ERF genes suggested that the gene family might have been expanded through the segmental duplications. The 120 member ERF family was classified into eleven distinct groups (I-X and VI-L). Transcriptional factor CarERF116, which is differentially expressed between drought tolerant and susceptible chickpea cultivar under terminal drought stress has been identified and functionally characterized. The CarERF116 encodes a putative protein of 241 amino acids and classified into group IX of ERF family. An in vitro CarERF116 protein-DNA binding assay demonstrated that CarERF116 protein specifically interacts with GCC box. We demonstrate that CarERF116 is capable of transactivation activity of and show that the functional transcriptional domain lies at the C-terminal region of the CarERF116. In transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing CarERF116, significant up-regulation of several stress related genes were observed. These plants also exhibit resistance to osmotic stress and reduced sensitivity to ABA during seed germination. Based on these findings, we conclude that CarERF116 is an abiotic stress responsive gene, which plays an important role in stress tolerance. In addition, the present study leads to genome-wide identification and evolutionary analyses of chickpea ERF gene family, which will facilitate further research on this important group of genes and provides valuable resources for comparative genomics among the grain legumes.

  20. Overexpression of an AP2/ERF Type Transcription Factor OsEREBP1 Confers Biotic and Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Rice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Jisha

    Full Text Available AP2/ERF-type transcription factors regulate important functions of plant growth and development as well as responses to environmental stimuli. A rice AP2/ERF transcription factor, OsEREBP1 is a downstream component of a signal transduction pathway in a specific interaction between rice (Oryza sativa and its bacterial pathogen, Xoo (Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae. Constitutive expression of OsEREBP1 in rice driven by maize ubiquitin promoter did not affect normal plant growth. Microarray analysis revealed that over expression of OsEREBP1 caused increased expression of lipid metabolism related genes such as lipase and chloroplastic lipoxygenase as well as several genes related to jasmonate and abscisic acid biosynthesis. PR genes, transcription regulators and Aldhs (alcohol dehydrogenases implicated in abiotic stress and submergence tolerance were also upregulated in transgenic plants. Transgenic plants showed increase in endogenous levels of α-linolenate, several jasmonate derivatives and abscisic acid but not salicylic acid. Soluble modified GFP (SmGFP-tagged OsEREBP1 was localized to plastid nucleoids. Comparative analysis of non-transgenic and OsEREBP1 overexpressing genotypes revealed that OsEREBP1 attenuates disease caused by Xoo and confers drought and submergence tolerance in transgenic rice. Our results suggest that constitutive expression of OsEREBP1 activates the jasmonate and abscisic acid signalling pathways thereby priming the rice plants for enhanced survival under abiotic or biotic stress conditions. OsEREBP1 is thus, a good candidate gene for engineering plants for multiple stress tolerance.

  1. Transcriptional downregulation of rice rpL32 gene under abiotic stress is associated with removal of transcription factors within the promoter region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradipto Mukhopadhyay

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The regulation of ribosomal proteins in plants under stress conditions has not been well studied. Although a few reports have shown stress-specific post-transcriptional and translational mechanisms involved in downregulation of ribosomal proteins yet stress-responsive transcriptional regulation of ribosomal proteins is largely unknown in plants. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the present work, transcriptional regulation of genes encoding rice 60S ribosomal protein L32 (rpL32 in response to salt stress has been studied. Northern and RT-PCR analyses showed a significant downregulation of rpL32 transcripts under abiotic stress conditions in rice. Of the four rpL32 genes in rice genome, the gene on chromosome 8 (rpL32_8.1 showed a higher degree of stress-responsive downregulation in salt sensitive rice variety than in tolerant one and its expression reverted to its original level upon withdrawal of stress. The nuclear run-on and promoter:reporter assays revealed that the downregulation of this gene is transcriptional and originates within the promoter region. Using in vivo footprinting and electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA, cis-elements in the promoter of rpL32_8.1 showing reduced binding to proteins in shoots of salt stressed rice seedlings were identified. CONCLUSIONS: The present work is one of the few reports on study of stress downregulated genes. The data revealed that rpL32 gene is transcriptionally downregulated under abiotic stress in rice and that this transcriptional downregulation is associated with the removal of transcription factors from specific promoter elements.

  2. Abiotic factors influencing embryonic development, egg hatching, and larval orientation in the reindeer warble fly, Hypoderma tarandi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karter, A J; Folstad, I; Anderson, J R

    1992-10-01

    Wild-caught, tethered females of the reindeer warble fly, Hypoderma tarandi (L.) (= Oedemagena tarandi (L.)), (Diptera, Oestridae) were stimulated to oviposit on hairs of a reindeer hide. Newly laid eggs incubated at constant temperatures and relative humidities hatched within 3 days to 2 weeks, depending on the experimental conditions. Over a range of 7-40 degrees C, hatching only occurred between 20 and 37 degrees C. Eggs held at 100% relative humidity had lower hatchability and longer time to hatch relative to eggs held at 77% relative humidity. The average number of degree-days for hatching was 50.35. Between 20 and 33 degrees C there was a temperature-dependent linear trend in developmental rate, and the proportion of eggs hatching was highest, and least variable, at the mid-temperature ranges. The temperature range found in the natural host micro-habitat where H. tarandi commonly affix their eggs (close to the skin at the base of a host hair) was consistent with the experimental temperature treatments that produced the highest hatching rate. Newly emerged larvae displayed positive thermotaxis, while showing no phototaxic or geotaxic behaviour. Results indicate that constraints of the host environment, coupled with temperature-dependent hatching success, may impose a selective pressure on oviposition behaviour.

  3. Oxylipins and plant abiotic stress resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savchenko, T V; Zastrijnaja, O M; Klimov, V V

    2014-04-01

    Oxylipins are signaling molecules formed enzymatically or spontaneously from unsaturated fatty acids in all aerobic organisms. Oxylipins regulate growth, development, and responses to environmental stimuli of organisms. The oxylipin biosynthesis pathway in plants includes a few parallel branches named after first enzyme of the corresponding branch as allene oxide synthase, hydroperoxide lyase, divinyl ether synthase, peroxygenase, epoxy alcohol synthase, and others in which various biologically active metabolites are produced. Oxylipins can be formed non-enzymatically as a result of oxygenation of fatty acids by free radicals and reactive oxygen species. Spontaneously formed oxylipins are called phytoprostanes. The role of oxylipins in biotic stress responses has been described in many published works. The role of oxylipins in plant adaptation to abiotic stress conditions is less studied; there is also obvious lack of available data compilation and analysis in this area of research. In this work we analyze data on oxylipins functions in plant adaptation to abiotic stress conditions, such as wounding, suboptimal light and temperature, dehydration and osmotic stress, and effects of ozone and heavy metals. Modern research articles elucidating the molecular mechanisms of oxylipins action by the methods of biochemistry, molecular biology, and genetics are reviewed here. Data on the role of oxylipins in stress signal transduction, stress-inducible gene expression regulation, and interaction of these metabolites with other signal transduction pathways in cells are described. In this review the general oxylipin-mediated mechanisms that help plants to adjust to a broad spectrum of stress factors are considered, followed by analysis of more specific responses regulated by oxylipins only under certain stress conditions. New approaches to improvement of plant resistance to abiotic stresses based on the induction of oxylipin-mediated processes are discussed.

  4. Functional ecological genomics to demonstrate general and specific responses to abiotic stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelofs, D.; Aarts, M.G.M.; Schat, H.; Straalen, van N.M.

    2008-01-01

    1. Stress is a major component of natural selection in soil ecosystems. The most prominent abiotic stress factors in the field are temperature extremes (heat, cold), dehydration (drought), high salinity and specific toxic compounds such as heavy metals. Organisms are able to deal with these stresses

  5. Functional ecological genomics to demonstrate general and specific responses to abiotic stress.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelofs, D.; Aarts, M.G.M.; Schat, H.; van Straalen, N.M.

    2008-01-01

    1. Stress is a major component of natural selection in soil ecosystems. The most prominent abiotic stress factors in the field are temperature extremes (heat, cold), dehydration (drought), high salinity and specific toxic compounds such as heavy metals. Organisms are able to deal with these stresses

  6. Abiotic and biotic factors associated with the presence of Anopheles arabiensis immatures and their abundance in naturally occurring and man-made aquatic habitats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gouagna Louis

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anopheles arabiensis (Diptera: Culicidae is a potential malaria vector commonly present at low altitudes in remote areas in Reunion Island. Little attention has been paid to the environmental conditions driving larval development and abundance patterns in potential habitats. Two field surveys were designed to determine whether factors that discriminate between aquatic habitats with and without An. arabiensis larvae also drive larval abundance, comparatively in man-made and naturally occurring habitats. Methods In an initial preliminary survey, a representative sample of aquatic habitats that would be amenable to an intensive long-term study were selected and divided into positive and negative sites based on the presence or absence of Anopheles arabiensis larvae. Subsequently, a second survey was prompted to gain a better understanding of biotic and abiotic drivers of larval abundance, comparatively in man-made and naturally occurring habitats in the two studied locations. In both surveys, weekly sampling was performed to record mosquito species composition and larval density within individual habitats, as well as in situ biological characteristics and physico-chemical properties. Results Whilst virtually any stagnant water body could be a potential breeding ground for An. arabiensis, habitats occupied by their immatures had different structural and biological characteristics when compared to those where larvae were absent. Larval occurrence seemed to be influenced by flow velocity, macrofauna diversity and predation pressure. Interestingly, the relative abundance of larvae in man-made habitats (average: 0.55 larvae per dip, 95%CI [0.3–0.7] was significantly lower than that recorded in naturally occurring ones (0.74, 95%CI [0.5–0.8]. Such differences may be accounted for in part by varying pressures that could be linked to a specific habitat. Conclusions If the larval ecology of An. arabiensis is in general very complex

  7. LIKE IT ACID AND POOR: A STUDY OF ABIOTIC FACTORS INFLUENCING Streptococcus bovis HC5 GROWTH AND BACTERIOCIN PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Andréa Teixeira Barbosa

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the effect of pH, temperature, growth atmosphere and nutrient availability on bovicin HC5 production by Streptococcus bovis HC5. S. bovis HC5 grew well in complex and basal media under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, but greater bacteriocin yields were recovered from anaerobic cultures. Lactate production and glucose consumption increased if S. bovis HC5 cells were cultivated at pH 7.0 and at 45 ºC, but higher bovicin HC5 activity was recovered from cells grown in acidic conditions and at lower temperatures (39 ºC. Cultures maintained under continuous CO2 flow showed faster growth rates in basal media, but bacteriocin production was always higher if S. bovis was cultivated in anaerobic sealed tubes. These results suggest that acidic pH and anoxic conditions favor bovicin HC5 production by S. bovis HC5. S. bovis HC5 is a unique lactic acid bacterium in its ability to grow and produce high amounts of a potentially useful bacteriocin in simple media. Considering the constrains for bacteriocin production at commercial scale, it appears that bovicin HC5 production could be achieved at lower costs compared to other bacteriocins from lactic acid bacteria.

  8. Biotic and abiotic soil factors in the succession of sea buckthorn, Hippophae rhamnoides L. in coastal sand dunes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zoon, F.

    1995-01-01

    Decline and succession in dune scrub vegetation of sea buckthorn, Hippophaë rhamnoides L. in the Netherlands was previously found to be stimulated by biotic soil factors. In the present study, the role of plant-parasitic nematodes and root fungi was investigated. A

  9. The Arabidopsis Transcription Factor ANAC032 Represses Anthocyanin Biosynthesis in Response to High Sucrose and Oxidative and Abiotic Stresses

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmood, Kashif; Xu, Zhenhua; El-Kereamy, Ashraf; Casaretto, Jos? A.; Rothstein, Steven J.

    2016-01-01

    Production of anthocyanins is one of the adaptive responses employed by plants during stress conditions. During stress, anthocyanin biosynthesis is mainly regulated at the transcriptional level via a complex interplay between activators and repressors of anthocyanin biosynthesis genes. In this study, we investigated the role of a NAC transcription factor, ANAC032, in the regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis during stress conditions. ANAC032 expression was found to be induced by exogenous su...

  10. A novel ethylene-responsive factor from Tamarix hispida, ThERF1, is a GCC-box- and DRE-motif binding protein that negatively modulates abiotic stress tolerance in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liuqiang; Qin, Liping; Liu, Wenjin; Zhang, Daoyuan; Wang, Yucheng

    2014-09-01

    Ethylene-responsive factor (ERF) family is one of the largest families of plant-specific transcription factor that can positively or negatively regulate abiotic stress tolerance. However, their functions in regulating abiotic stress tolerance are still not fully understood. In this study, we characterized the functions of an ERF gene from Tamarix hispida, ThERF1, which can negatively regulate abiotic stress tolerance. The expression of ThERF1 was induced by salinity, PEG-simulated drought and abscisic acid (ABA) treatments. ThERF1 can specifically bind to GCC-box and DRE motifs. Overexpression of ThERF1 in transgenic Arabidopsis plants showed inhibited seed germination, and decreased fresh weight gain and root growth compared with wild-type (WT) plants. In addition, the transcript levels of several superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) genes in transgenic plants were significantly inhibited compared with in WT plants, resulting in decreased SOD and POD activities in transgenic plants under salt and drought stress conditions. Furthermore, the reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, malondialdehyde (MDA) contents and cell membrane damage in ThERF1-transformed plants were all highly increased relative to WT plants. Our results suggest that ThERF1 negatively regulates abiotic stress tolerance by strongly inhibiting the expression of SOD and POD genes, leading to decreased ROS-scavenging ability. © 2014 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  11. Influence of abiotic stress factors on VOCs emission from Portuguese rice paddy fields: relation with increased climate change

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Catarina Chemetova Cravo Branco de

    2013-01-01

    Dissertação para obtenção do Grau de Mestre em Engenharia do Ambiente Perfil de Gestão de Sistemas Ambientais Plants are emitting chemical-signals to the atmosphere in response to stress factors - Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs). VOCs have higher influence on atmosphere chemistry: they are acting as photochemical precursors in tropospheric ozone formation. Present work studies VOCs emission released by rice (Oryza sativa L cv. Aríete) cycle in paddy fields, in aleatory schemes with th...

  12. Aquatic macroinvertebrates associated with Eichhornia azurea (Swartz Kunth and relationships with abiotic factors in marginal lentic ecosystems (São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CV. Silva

    Full Text Available Marginal lakes are characterised by their having high biological diversity due to the presence of aquatic macrophytes in their coastal zones, providing habitats for refuge and food for animal community members. Among the fauna components associated with macrophytes, aquatic macroinvertebrates are important because they are an energy source for predators and fish. In six lakes and two different seasons (March and August 2009, the ecological attributes of aquatic macroinvertebrate community associated with Eichhornia azurea were compared and the controlling environmental factors were identified. Since the attributes of macroinvertebrate community are strictly associated with abiotic variables of each distinct habitat, our hypothesis was that each site associated with the same floating aquatic macrophyte (E. azurea should have a typical composition and density of organisms. We identified 50 taxa of macroinvertebrates, with greater taxa richness for aquatic insects (37 taxa divided into eight orders; the order Diptera being the most abundant in the two study periods. On the other hand, higher values of total taxa richness were recorded in August. Dissolved oxygen and pH presented the greatest number of significant positive correlations with the different taxa. The animals most frequently collected in the six lakes in March and August 2009 were Hirudinea, Oligochaeta, Hydrachnidae, Conchostraca, Ostracoda, Noteridae, Ceratopogonidae, Chironomidae, Culicidae, Caenidae, Pleidae, Aeshnidae, Libellulidae, Coenagrionidae and Nematoda. Only densities of Trichoptera, Ostracoda and Conchostraca presented the highest significant differences between lakes in both study periods and considering the composition of macroinvertebrates no significant differences were registered for macroinvertebrate composition.

  13. Aquatic macroinvertebrates associated with Eichhornia azurea (Swartz) Kunth and relationships with abiotic factors in marginal lentic ecosystems (São Paulo, Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, C V; Henry, R

    2013-02-01

    Marginal lakes are characterised by their having high biological diversity due to the presence of aquatic macrophytes in their coastal zones, providing habitats for refuge and food for animal community members. Among the fauna components associated with macrophytes, aquatic macroinvertebrates are important because they are an energy source for predators and fish. In six lakes and two different seasons (March and August 2009), the ecological attributes of aquatic macroinvertebrate community associated with Eichhornia azurea were compared and the controlling environmental factors were identified. Since the attributes of macroinvertebrate community are strictly associated with abiotic variables of each distinct habitat, our hypothesis was that each site associated with the same floating aquatic macrophyte (E. azurea) should have a typical composition and density of organisms. We identified 50 taxa of macroinvertebrates, with greater taxa richness for aquatic insects (37 taxa) divided into eight orders; the order Diptera being the most abundant in the two study periods. On the other hand, higher values of total taxa richness were recorded in August. Dissolved oxygen and pH presented the greatest number of significant positive correlations with the different taxa. The animals most frequently collected in the six lakes in March and August 2009 were Hirudinea, Oligochaeta, Hydrachnidae, Conchostraca, Ostracoda, Noteridae, Ceratopogonidae, Chironomidae, Culicidae, Caenidae, Pleidae, Aeshnidae, Libellulidae, Coenagrionidae and Nematoda. Only densities of Trichoptera, Ostracoda and Conchostraca presented the highest significant differences between lakes in both study periods and considering the composition of macroinvertebrates no significant differences were registered for macroinvertebrate composition.

  14. Overexpression of Hevea brasiliensis ethylene response factor HbERF-IXc5 enhances growth and tolerance to abiotic stress and affects laticifer differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lestari, Retno; Rio, Maryannick; Martin, Florence; Leclercq, Julie; Woraathasin, Natthakorn; Roques, Sandrine; Dessailly, Florence; Clément-Vidal, Anne; Sanier, Christine; Fabre, Denis; Melliti, Sémi; Suharsono, Sony; Montoro, Pascal

    2018-01-01

    Ethylene response factor 1 (ERF1) is an essential integrator of the jasmonate and ethylene signalling pathways coordinating a large number of genes involved in plant defences. Its orthologue in Hevea brasiliensis, HbERF-IXc5, has been assumed to play a major role in laticifer metabolism and tolerance to harvesting stress for better latex production. This study sets out to establish and characterize rubber transgenic lines overexpressing HbERF-IXc5. Overexpression of HbERF-IXc5 dramatically enhanced plant growth and enabled plants to maintain some ecophysiological parameters in response to abiotic stress such as water deficit, cold and salt treatments. This study revealed that HbERF-IXc5 has rubber-specific functions compared to Arabidopsis ERF1 as transgenic plants overexpressing HbERF-IXc5 accumulated more starch and differentiated more latex cells at the histological level. The role of HbERF-IXc5 in driving the expression of some target genes involved in laticifer differentiation is discussed. © 2017 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. The influence of biotic and abiotic factors on (137)Cs accumulation in higher fungi after the accident at Chernobyl NPP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarubina, N

    2016-09-01

    Levels of soil contamination with (137)Cs, the belonging of fungi to a certain ecological group, the localization depth of the main part of mycelium in soil are the primary factors influencing the value of (137)Cs specific activity in higher fungi after the accident at Chernobyl NPP. It has been found that the value of (137)Cs specific activity in fungi of one species could vary by more than 10 times during a vegetation period. A correlation between the changes of (137)Cs content in fungi during the vegetation period and the amount of precipitates during various periods preceding the collection of samples has not been determined. An assumption has been proposed stating dependence between peculiarities of mycelium growth during the vegetation period and the changes of (137)Cs specific activity in fungi. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The influence of environmental abiotic factors on the qualitative and quantitative structure of ichthyofauna from predeltaic Danube area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petronela Georgiana Calin Sandu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper  is to analyse the influence of environmental factors on the capture and fish communities structure from Danube, between Siret River and Prut River mouth. Fish were collected from April to December 2012 in four fishing areas. During the year, 4910 kg, respectively 7121 fish of 31 species were collected. Cyprinidae, the dominant family, 54.84% in term of number of species, was represented by 17 species (Cyprinus carpio, Carassius gibelio, Barbus barbus, Abramis brama, Abramis sapa, Blicca bjoerkna, Leuciscus idus, Vimba vimba, Aspius aspius, Pelecus cultratus, Chondrostoma nasus, Ctenopharingodon idella, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, Hypophthalmichthys nobilis, Scardinius erythrophthalmus, Rutilus rutilus, Alburnus alburnus. Other families had the following structure: Percidae (16.13% with 5 species (Sander lucioperca, Zingel zingel, Zingel streber, Perca fluviatilis, Gymnocephalus schraetzer, Acipenseridae (12.90% with 4 species (Huso huso, Acipenser stellatus, Acipenser ruthenus, Acipenser gueldenstaedtii, Clupeidae (6.45% with two species (Alosa immaculata, Alosa tanaica, Siluridae (3.23% with one species (Silurus glanis, Esocidae (3.23% with one species (Esox lucius  and Salmonidae (3.23% with one species also (Salmo labrax. The highest capture was 2977.93 kg (60.65%, during the spring season (April-May, followed by autumn season (September–November, with 992.39 kg (20.21%. The water level and water flow showed high correlation with both number and total catch, respectively.

  17. Abiotic and biotic factors influencing nanoflagellate abundance and distribution in three different seasons in PRE, South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xia; Shi, Zhen; Huang, Xiaoping; Li, Xiangfu

    2017-07-01

    Spatial distribution characteristics of two nanoflagellate groups, together with physico-chemical and biological factors, were studied in three seasons in the Pearl River Estuary (PRE), South China Sea. Nanoflagellates were more abundant in warm periods than that in winter. The average abundance in the three observations (spring, summer and winter) was as follow: 1.28 ± 1.17, 0.88 ± 1.02 and 0.28 ± 0.23 × 103 cells ml-1 of heterotrophic nanoflagellate (HNF), and 1.26 ± 0.85, 0.89 ± 0.77 and 0.65 ± 0.52 × 103 cells ml-1 of pigmented nanoflagellate (PNF). In our three studied seasons, NF density was generally higher in the inner estuary and decreasing to the lowest in the outer estuary. Our results suggested that PNF classes were more sensitive than HNF groups to freshwater discharge. The proportion of PNF gradually increased from spring (49.7%) to winter (67.7%), with the river flow was accordingly decreasing. Moreover, spatial distribution pattern in three seasons showed the response of PNF populations to freshwater input was similar to phytoplankton assemblages in the PRE. Total bacterial and live bacterial abundance (measured by LIVE/DEAD kit) were associated with both two NF components, which implied that NF was a potential predator controlling the bulk abundance of bacteria and proportion of active cells. These results revealed the seasonal and spatial variations of NF abundance in diverse conditions in the PRE and how their response to different ecological processes.

  18. Major Biotic and Abiotic Factors that Influence Soil Carbon Dynamics in Forested Floodplains of the Eastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricker, M. C.

    2016-12-01

    Alluvial soil organic carbon (SOC) storage and sequestration rates are extremely variable among the heterogeneous river systems of the eastern United States. Much of the variability observed in soil carbon can be attributed to the spatial and temporal complexity of fluvial landscapes. Floodplain soils form via two major pedogenic processes; alluviation (net sedimentation) and humification (incorporation of organic matter). The degree that these processes impact SOC dynamics depends on many modern and antecedent factors within a watershed. Although a great deal of complexity exists in floodplain soil formation, commonalities among studies have indicated some key carbon storage processes to focus our research attention on. For example, in poorly drained hydric soils the mineralization of organic matter is slow and we consistently measure greater SOC storage in floodplain landscapes that have a high water table during the growing season (meander scars, backswamps) compared to drier areas, such as natural levees and flats. Alluvial soils with buried surfaces (humus-rich A or O horizons) also have significantly greater carbon storage than soils lacking this morphology, regardless of drainage class. Rapid burial of carbon-rich surfaces likely protects SOC from microbial mineralization and promotes long-term storage. Removal of vegetation during land use change has also increased regional erosion rates, resulting in a common sequence of soil morphologies. In the field we frequently observe a pre-colonial surface buried by thick deposits of agricultural or industrial "legacy sediments" with modern urban alluvium deposited at the surface. By using relative and absolute dating methodologies it is possible to discern changes in floodplain sedimentation over time and link this process with SOC dynamics. Our findings indicate that as sedimentation rates have historically increased, there are also greater carbon sequestration rates in floodplains. The exact mechanisms for this

  19. The Arabidopsis transcription factor ANAC032 represses anthocyanin biosynthesis in response to high sucrose and oxidative and abiotic stresses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kashif Mahmood

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Production of anthocyanins is one of the adaptive responses employed by plants during stress conditions. During stress, anthocyanin biosynthesis is mainly regulated at the transcriptional level via a complex interplay between activators and repressors of anthocyanin biosynthesis genes. In this study, we investigated the role of a NAC transcription factor, ANAC032, in the regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis during stress conditions. ANAC032 expression was found to be induced by exogenous sucrose as well as high light stress. Using biochemical, molecular and transgenic approaches, we show that ANAC032 represses anthocyanin biosynthesis in response to sucrose treatment, high light and oxidative stress. ANAC032 was found to negatively affect anthocyanin accumulation and the expression of anthocyanin biosynthesis (DFR, ANS/LDOX and positive regulatory (TT8 genes as demonstrated in overexpression line (35S:ANAC032 compared to wild-type under high light stress. The chimeric repressor line (35S:ANAC032-SRDX exhibited the opposite expression patterns for these genes. The negative impact of ANAC032 on the expression of DFR, ANS/LDOX and TT8 was found to be correlated with the altered expression of negative regulators of anthocyanin biosynthesis, AtMYBL2 and SPL9. In addition to this, ANAC032 also repressed the MeJA- and ABA-induced anthocyanin biosynthesis. As a result, transgenic lines overexpressing ANAC032 (35S:ANAC032 produced drastically reduced levels of anthocyanin pigment compared to wild-type when challenged with salinity stress. However, transgenic chimeric repressor lines (35S:ANAC032-SRDX exhibited the opposite phenotype. Our results suggest that ANAC032 functions as a negative regulator of anthocyanin biosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana during stress conditions.

  20. The Arabidopsis Transcription Factor ANAC032 Represses Anthocyanin Biosynthesis in Response to High Sucrose and Oxidative and Abiotic Stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Kashif; Xu, Zhenhua; El-Kereamy, Ashraf; Casaretto, José A; Rothstein, Steven J

    2016-01-01

    Production of anthocyanins is one of the adaptive responses employed by plants during stress conditions. During stress, anthocyanin biosynthesis is mainly regulated at the transcriptional level via a complex interplay between activators and repressors of anthocyanin biosynthesis genes. In this study, we investigated the role of a NAC transcription factor, ANAC032, in the regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis during stress conditions. ANAC032 expression was found to be induced by exogenous sucrose as well as high light (HL) stress. Using biochemical, molecular and transgenic approaches, we show that ANAC032 represses anthocyanin biosynthesis in response to sucrose treatment, HL and oxidative stress. ANAC032 was found to negatively affect anthocyanin accumulation and the expression of anthocyanin biosynthesis ( DFR, ANS/LDOX) and positive regulatory ( TT8) genes as demonstrated in overexpression line (35S:ANAC032) compared to wild-type under HL stress. The chimeric repressor line (35S:ANAC032-SRDX) exhibited the opposite expression patterns for these genes. The negative impact of ANAC032 on the expression of DFR, ANS/LDOX and TT8 was found to be correlated with the altered expression of negative regulators of anthocyanin biosynthesis, AtMYBL2 and SPL9 . In addition to this, ANAC032 also repressed the MeJA- and ABA-induced anthocyanin biosynthesis. As a result, transgenic lines overexpressing ANAC032 (35S:ANAC032) produced drastically reduced levels of anthocyanin pigment compared to wild-type when challenged with salinity stress. However, transgenic chimeric repressor lines (35S:ANAC032-SRDX) exhibited the opposite phenotype. Our results suggest that ANAC032 functions as a negative regulator of anthocyanin biosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana during stress conditions.

  1. Biotic and abiotic factors investigated in two Drosophila species – evidence of both negative and positive effects of interactions on performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørsted, Michael; Schou, Mads Fristrup; Kristensen, Torsten Nygaard

    2017-01-01

    . Here we investigate the effects of three environmental factors: temperature, an insecticide (dimethoate) and interspecific co-occurrence. We expose two naturally co-occurring species of Drosophila (D. hydei and D. melanogaster) to the different environments during development and examine...

  2. The interaction of biotic and abiotic factors at multiple spatial scales affects the variability of CO2 fluxes in polar environments

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cannone, N.; Augusti, A.; Malfasi, F.; Pallozi, E.; Calfapietra, Carlo; Brugnoli, E.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 39, č. 9 (2016), s. 1581-1596 ISSN 0722-4060 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : Arctic ecosystems * CO2 fluxes * Speciesspecific photosynthetic capacity * Soil temperature * Carbon isotope composition * Climate warming Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.949, year: 2016

  3. Influence of abiotic stress signals on secondary metabolites in plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishna, Akula; Ravishankar, Gokare Aswathanarayana

    2011-01-01

    Plant secondary metabolites are unique sources for pharmaceuticals, food additives, flavors, and industrially important biochemicals. Accumulation of such metabolites often occurs in plants subjected to stresses including various elicitors or signal molecules. Secondary metabolites play a major role in the adaptation of plants to the environment and in overcoming stress conditions. Environmental factors viz. temperature, humidity, light intensity, the supply of water, minerals, and CO2 influence the growth of a plant and secondary metabolite production. Drought, high salinity, and freezing temperatures are environmental conditions that cause adverse effects on the growth of plants and the productivity of crops. Plant cell culture technologies have been effective tools for both studying and producing plant secondary metabolites under in vitro conditions and for plant improvement. This brief review summarizes the influence of different abiotic factors include salt, drought, light, heavy metals, frost etc. on secondary metabolites in plants. The focus of the present review is the influence of abiotic factors on secondary metabolite production and some of important plant pharmaceuticals. Also, we describe the results of in vitro cultures and production of some important secondary metabolites obtained in our laboratory. PMID:22041989

  4. The Importance of Biotic vs. Abiotic Drivers of Local Plant Community Composition Along Regional Bioclimatic Gradients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kari Klanderud

    Full Text Available We assessed if the relative importance of biotic and abiotic factors for plant community composition differs along environmental gradients and between functional groups, and asked which implications this may have in a warmer and wetter future. The study location is a unique grid of sites spanning regional-scale temperature and precipitation gradients in boreal and alpine grasslands in southern Norway. Within each site we sampled vegetation and associated biotic and abiotic factors, and combined broad- and fine-scale ordination analyses to assess the relative explanatory power of these factors for species composition. Although the community responses to biotic and abiotic factors did not consistently change as predicted along the bioclimatic gradients, abiotic variables tended to explain a larger proportion of the variation in species composition towards colder sites, whereas biotic variables explained more towards warmer sites, supporting the stress gradient hypothesis. Significant interactions with precipitation suggest that biotic variables explained more towards wetter climates in the sub alpine and boreal sites, but more towards drier climates in the colder alpine. Thus, we predict that biotic interactions may become more important in alpine and boreal grasslands in a warmer future, although more winter precipitation may counteract this trend in oceanic alpine climates. Our results show that both local and regional scales analyses are needed to disentangle the local vegetation-environment relationships and their regional-scale drivers, and biotic interactions and precipitation must be included when predicting future species assemblages.

  5. Current trends in genetic manipulations to enhance abiotic and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-05-21

    May 21, 2014 ... Environmental stresses, both abiotic and biotic, are the main factors reducing crops productivity. Biotic stresses caused by fungi, viruses, bacteria and insects are the major threats. However, abiotic stresses have more adverse effects on crop yield and crop survival. Hitherto, tolerant plants were mainly.

  6. Abiotic stressors and stress responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sulmon, Cecile; Van Baaren, Joan; Cabello-Hurtado, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    life history traits of stressed organisms, and ii) to what extent trait responses influence individual and population responses. Common response mechanisms are evident at molecular and cellular scales but become rather difficult to define at higher levels due to evolutionary distance and environmental......Abstract Organisms are regularly subjected to abiotic stressors related to increasing anthropogenic activities, including chemicals and climatic changes that induce major stresses. Based on various key taxa involved in ecosystem functioning (photosynthetic microorganisms, plants, invertebrates), we...... review how organisms respond and adapt to chemical- and temperature-induced stresses from molecular to population level. Using field-realistic studies, our integrative analysis aims to compare i) how molecular and physiological mechanisms related to protection, repair and energy allocation can impact...

  7. The bZIP protein from Tamarix hispida, ThbZIP1, is ACGT elements binding factor that enhances abiotic stress signaling in transgenic Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Xiaoyu; Liu, Guifeng; Liu, Yujia; Zheng, Lei; Nie, Xianguang; Wang, Yucheng

    2013-10-04

    Tamarix spp. are woody halophyte, which are very tolerant to abiotic stresses such as salinity and drought, but little is known about their specific stress response systems. Basic leucine zipper proteins (bZIPs) play important roles in the ability of plants to withstand adverse environmental conditions. However, their exact roles in abiotic stress tolerance are still not fully known. In the current study, we functionally characterized a bZIP gene (ThbZIP1) from Tamarix hispida in response to abiotic stresses. We addressed the regulatory network of ThbZIP1 in three levels, i.e. its upstream regulators, the cis-acting elements recognized by ThbZIP1, and its downstream target genes. Two MYCs were found to bind to E-box, in the promoter of ThbZIP1 to activate its expression. Expression of ThbZIP1 is induced by ABA, salt, drought, methyl viologen and cold. ThbZIP1 can specifically bind to ACGT elements, with the highest binding affinity to the C-box, followed by the G-box and lastly the A-box. Compared with wild-type (Col-0) Arabidopsis, transgenic plants expressing ThbZIP1 had an increased tolerance to drought and salt, but had an increased sensitivity to ABA during seed germination and root growth; meanwhile, ROS level, cell death and water loss rate in transgenic plants were significantly reduced. Microarray analyses showed that many ROS scavenging genes were up-regulated by ThbZIP1 under salt stress conditions. Based on these data, we suggest that ThbZIP1 confers abiotic stress tolerance through activating stress tolerance genes to modulate ROS scavenging ability and other physiological changes involved in stress tolerance, and plays an important role in the ABA-mediated stress response of T. hispida.

  8. Analysis of Crout, Lu, Cholesky Decomposition, and QR Factorization: A Case Study On The Relationship Between Abiotic (Carbon and Nitrogen and Biotic (Macrobenthos Diversity Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widowati Widowati

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Many real world problems can be represented by a system of linear equations, such as in the field of ecology, i.e, the relationship of carbon and nitrogen with  macrobenthos  diversity. There are many methods to solve linear equations system, then it is necessary to do an analysis of which method is the best so that the user can choose the most efficient method. The methods that will be analyzed are LU, Crout, Cholesky decomposition, and QR factorization. From the calculation of arithmetic operations obtained Cholesky decomposition method is the most efficient method because it has the fewest arithmetic operations. Further, to verify the proposed method we demonstrated simulation with a case study of the relationship between carbon and nitrogen with the macrobenthos diversity based on data from the area of polyculture system and PT. Kayu Lapis Indonesia coastal, Mororejo village subdistrict Kaliwungu district Kendal. From the simulation resultsis obtained that computing time the smallest is the Cholesky decomposition is equal to 1.4664 seconds, which means that the Cholesky decomposition is the most efficient method than the method of LU, Crout decomposition and QR factorization. Keywords— LU Decomposition, Crout decomposition, QR factorization, Cholesky decomposition, Carbon, Nitrogen, Macrobenthos

  9. A temperature dependent slip factor based thermal model for friction ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper proposes a new slip factor based three-dimensional thermal model to predict the temperature distribution during friction stir welding of 304L stainless steel plates. The proposed model employs temperature and radius dependent heat source to study the thermal cycle, temperature distribution, power required, the ...

  10. A temperature dependent slip factor based thermal model for friction

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper proposes a new slip factor based three-dimensional thermal model to predict the temperature distribution during friction stir welding of 304L stainless steel plates. The proposed model employs temperature and radius dependent heat source to study the thermal cycle, temperature distribution, power required, the ...

  11. Factors Influencing Temperature Fields during Combustion Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-20

    nanothermite reaction. A review of the recent work in nanothermite temperature measurement techniques and advances is provided in Ref. [25]. Optical pyrometry...III : Coupling Pyrometer and IR Data For each nanothermite, the thermal image with the maxi- mum amount of radiance was identified. From each of...D. Frost, J. Levine, Optical Pyrometry of Fireballs of Metalized Explosives, Propellants Explos. Pyrotech. 2006, 31, 169. [10] M. Zachariah

  12. The Tomato Hoffman's Anthocyaninless Gene Encodes a bHLH Transcription Factor Involved in Anthocyanin Biosynthesis That Is Developmentally Regulated and Induced by Low Temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Zhengkun; Wang, Xiaoxuan; Gao, Jianchang; Guo, Yanmei; Huang, Zejun; Du, Yongchen

    2016-01-01

    Anthocyanin pigments play many roles in plants, including providing protection against biotic and abiotic stresses. Many of the genes that mediate anthocyanin accumulation have been identified through studies of flowers and fruits; however, the mechanisms of genes involved in anthocyanin regulation in seedlings under low-temperature stimulus are less well understood. Genetic characterization of a tomato inbred line, FMTT271, which showed no anthocyanin pigmentation, revealed a mutation in a bHLH transcription factor (TF) gene, which corresponds to the ah (Hoffman's anthocyaninless) locus, and so the gene in FMTT271 at that locus was named ah. Overexpression of the wild type allele of AH in FMTT271 resulted in greater anthocyanin accumulation and increased expression of several genes in the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway. The expression of AH and anthocyanin accumulation in seedlings was shown to be developmentally regulated and induced by low-temperature stress. Additionally, transcriptome analyses of hypocotyls and leaves from the near-isogenic lines seedlings revealed that AH not only influences the expression of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes, but also genes associated with responses to abiotic stress. Furthermore, the ah mutation was shown to cause accumulation of reactive oxidative species and the constitutive activation of defense responses under cold conditions. These results suggest that AH regulates anthocyanin biosynthesis, thereby playing a protective role, and that this function is particularly important in young seedlings that are particularly vulnerable to abiotic stresses.

  13. The Tomato Hoffman's Anthocyaninless Gene Encodes a bHLH Transcription Factor Involved in Anthocyanin Biosynthesis That Is Developmentally Regulated and Induced by Low Temperatures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengkun Qiu

    Full Text Available Anthocyanin pigments play many roles in plants, including providing protection against biotic and abiotic stresses. Many of the genes that mediate anthocyanin accumulation have been identified through studies of flowers and fruits; however, the mechanisms of genes involved in anthocyanin regulation in seedlings under low-temperature stimulus are less well understood. Genetic characterization of a tomato inbred line, FMTT271, which showed no anthocyanin pigmentation, revealed a mutation in a bHLH transcription factor (TF gene, which corresponds to the ah (Hoffman's anthocyaninless locus, and so the gene in FMTT271 at that locus was named ah. Overexpression of the wild type allele of AH in FMTT271 resulted in greater anthocyanin accumulation and increased expression of several genes in the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway. The expression of AH and anthocyanin accumulation in seedlings was shown to be developmentally regulated and induced by low-temperature stress. Additionally, transcriptome analyses of hypocotyls and leaves from the near-isogenic lines seedlings revealed that AH not only influences the expression of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes, but also genes associated with responses to abiotic stress. Furthermore, the ah mutation was shown to cause accumulation of reactive oxidative species and the constitutive activation of defense responses under cold conditions. These results suggest that AH regulates anthocyanin biosynthesis, thereby playing a protective role, and that this function is particularly important in young seedlings that are particularly vulnerable to abiotic stresses.

  14. The Tomato Hoffman’s Anthocyaninless Gene Encodes a bHLH Transcription Factor Involved in Anthocyanin Biosynthesis That Is Developmentally Regulated and Induced by Low Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jianchang; Guo, Yanmei; Huang, Zejun; Du, Yongchen

    2016-01-01

    Anthocyanin pigments play many roles in plants, including providing protection against biotic and abiotic stresses. Many of the genes that mediate anthocyanin accumulation have been identified through studies of flowers and fruits; however, the mechanisms of genes involved in anthocyanin regulation in seedlings under low-temperature stimulus are less well understood. Genetic characterization of a tomato inbred line, FMTT271, which showed no anthocyanin pigmentation, revealed a mutation in a bHLH transcription factor (TF) gene, which corresponds to the ah (Hoffman's anthocyaninless) locus, and so the gene in FMTT271 at that locus was named ah. Overexpression of the wild type allele of AH in FMTT271 resulted in greater anthocyanin accumulation and increased expression of several genes in the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway. The expression of AH and anthocyanin accumulation in seedlings was shown to be developmentally regulated and induced by low-temperature stress. Additionally, transcriptome analyses of hypocotyls and leaves from the near-isogenic lines seedlings revealed that AH not only influences the expression of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes, but also genes associated with responses to abiotic stress. Furthermore, the ah mutation was shown to cause accumulation of reactive oxidative species and the constitutive activation of defense responses under cold conditions. These results suggest that AH regulates anthocyanin biosynthesis, thereby playing a protective role, and that this function is particularly important in young seedlings that are particularly vulnerable to abiotic stresses. PMID:26943362

  15. Abiotic tooth enamel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeom, Bongjun; Sain, Trisha; Lacevic, Naida; Bukharina, Daria; Cha, Sang-Ho; Waas, Anthony M.; Arruda, Ellen M.; Kotov, Nicholas A.

    2017-03-01

    Tooth enamel comprises parallel microscale and nanoscale ceramic columns or prisms interlaced with a soft protein matrix. This structural motif is unusually consistent across all species from all geological eras. Such invariability—especially when juxtaposed with the diversity of other tissues—suggests the existence of a functional basis. Here we performed ex vivo replication of enamel-inspired columnar nanocomposites by sequential growth of zinc oxide nanowire carpets followed by layer-by-layer deposition of a polymeric matrix around these. We show that the mechanical properties of these nanocomposites, including hardness, are comparable to those of enamel despite the nanocomposites having a smaller hard-phase content. Our abiotic enamels have viscoelastic figures of merit (VFOM) and weight-adjusted VFOM that are similar to, or higher than, those of natural tooth enamels—we achieve values that exceed the traditional materials limits of 0.6 and 0.8, respectively. VFOM values describe resistance to vibrational damage, and our columnar composites demonstrate that light-weight materials of unusually high resistance to structural damage from shocks, environmental vibrations and oscillatory stress can be made using biomimetic design. The previously inaccessible combinations of high stiffness, damping and light weight that we achieve in these layer-by-layer composites are attributed to efficient energy dissipation in the interfacial portion of the organic phase. The in vivo contribution of this interfacial portion to macroscale deformations along the tooth’s normal is maximized when the architecture is columnar, suggesting an evolutionary advantage of the columnar motif in the enamel of living species. We expect our findings to apply to all columnar composites and to lead to the development of high-performance load-bearing materials.

  16. The Role of Silicon under Biotic and Abiotic Stress Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    YAVAŞ, İlkay; ÜNAY, Aydın

    2017-01-01

    Biotic and abiotic stress factors can adversely affect the agricultural productivity leading to physiological and biochemical damage to crops. Therefore, the most effective way is to increase the resistance to stresses. Silicon plays a role in reducing the effects of abiotic and biotic stresses (drought, salt stress, disease and insect stress etc.) on plants. Silicon is accumulated in the cell walls and intercellular spaces and thus it has beneficial effects on disease infestations in especia...

  17. Biotic and abiotic factors influencing growth rate and production of traps by the nematode-trapping fungus Duddingtonia flagrans when induced by Cooperia oncophora larvae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønvold, J.; Wolstrup, J.; Nansen, P.

    1999-01-01

    A series of experiments on corn meal agar was carried out to evaluate the efficacy of the nematode-trapping fungus Duddingtonia flagrans in different abiotic and biotic conditions which occur in cow pats. Above a concentration of 50 parasitic larvae (L-3) cm(-2) the fungus produced a maximum...... of between 500 and 600 nets cm(-2) at 20 degrees C in 2 days on the surface of corn meal agar. There were no differences in the trap-producing capacity of three strains of D. flagrans (CIII4, CI3 and Trol A). On agar at 30 degrees and 20 degrees C, the fungus responded to Coaperia oncophora L-3 very quickly...... will be ready to attack parasitic larvae, when the oxygen tension increases as a result of, for example the activity of the coprophilic fauna. Artificial light giving 3000-3400 Lux on the surface of the agar significantly depressed the growth rate and the production of trapping nets in D, flagrans (CI3...

  18. The effect of irrigation water including Cu, Pb, Cd, and Zn on the physiological and biochemical parameters in eggplant genotypes tolerant or susceptible to some abiotic stress factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevinç KIRAN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The eggplant genotypes (Burdur Merkez, Burdur Bucak, Kemer ve Giresun of which salt and drought tolerances were determined before by examining changes in some of the morphological and physiological characteristics were used as materials. In the studies carried out in controlled greenhouse conditions, eggplant plants were subjected to different levels heavy metal irrigation at 20 days after sowing (Control: 0 ppm; I. mixture: 0.2 ppm Cu+0.01 ppm Cd+5 ppm Pb+2 ppm Zn; II. mixture: 0.4 ppm Cu+0.02 ppm Cd+10 ppm Pb+4 ppm Zn. Young plants were harvested after forty days at heavy metal treatment and the fresh and dry shoot weight, fresh and dry root weight, shoot and root length, leaf areas, chlorophyll, malondi-aldehyde (MDA, superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione reductase (GR were determined. The eggplant plants were adversely affected by heavy metal applications. In parallel to increase the dose, heavy metal mixtures led to a reduction in values of fresh and dry weight of shoot and root, stem and root length, leaf area. MDA and antioxidative enzyme activities increased in plants irrigated with water containing a mixture of heavy metal. As a result of this study, tolerant Burdur Merkez and Burdur Bucak genotypes showed a better performance compared with the salt sensitive genotypes Giresun and Kemer. The plants are thought to use similar mechanisms for resistance to abiotic stresses such as drought and heavy metal stress.

  19. The role of C2H2 zinc finger proteins in plant responses to abiotic stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ke; Ding, Yanfei; Cai, Chong; Chen, Zhixiang; Zhu, Cheng

    2018-03-23

    Abiotic stresses are important factors affecting plant growth and development and limiting agricultural production worldwide. Plants have evolved complex regulatory mechanisms to respond and adapt to constantly changing environmental conditions. C2H2 zinc finger proteins form a relatively large family of transcriptional regulators in plants. Recent studies have revealed that C2H2 zinc finger proteins function as key transcriptional regulators in plant responses to a wide spectrum of stress conditions, including extreme temperatures, salinity, drought, oxidative stress, excessive light and silique shattering. Here, we summarize recent functional analysis on C2H2 zinc finger proteins in plant responses to abiotic stresses and discuss their roles as part of a large regulatory network in the perception and responses by plants to different environmental stimuli. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  20. Abiotic and biotic factors influencing the mobility of arsenic in groundwater of a through-flow island in the Okavango Delta, Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mladenov, Natalie; Wolski, Piotr; Hettiarachchi, Ganga M.; Murray-Hudson, Michael; Enriquez, Hersy; Damaraju, Sivaramakrishna; Galkaduwa, Madhubhashini B.; McKnight, Diane M.; Masamba, Wellington

    2014-10-01

    The Okavango Delta of Botswana is a large arid-zone wetland comprising 20,000 km2 of permanent and seasonal floodplains and over 100,000 islands. It has been shown that island groundwater can have very high dissolved arsenic (As) concentration, but the abiotic and biotic controls on As mobility are not well understood in this setting. At New Island, an island located in the seasonal swamp, dissolved As concentration increased from below detection limits in the surface water to 180 μg/L in groundwater, present as As(III) species. We investigated the relative importance of hydrologic, geochemical, and geomicrobial processes, as well as influences of recent extreme flooding events, in mobilizing and sequestering As in the shallow groundwater system under this island. Our results suggest that evapotranspiration and through-flow conditions control the location of the high arsenic zone. A combination of processes is hypothesized to control elevated As in the concentration zone of New Island: high evapotranspiration rates concentrate As and other solutes, more alkaline pH leads to desorption of arsenic or dissolution of arsenic sulfides, and formation of thioarsenic complexes acts to keep arsenic in solution. Evidence from X-ray absorption near-edge structure spectroscopy (XANES) and sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) measurements further suggests that SRBs influence arsenic sequestration as orpiment (As2S3). Although dissolved organic matter (DOM) was not significantly correlated to dissolved As in the groundwater, our results suggest that DOM may serve as an electron donor for sulfate reduction or other microbial reactions that influence redox state and As mobility. These results have important implications for water management in the region and in other large wetland environments. The processes evaluated in this study are also relevant for arsenic removal in subsurface constructed wetland systems that may exhibit rapidly changing processes over small spatial scales.

  1. The interactions of abiotic and biotic factors influencing perch Perca fluviatilis and roach Rutilus rutilus populations in small acidified boreal lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linløkken, A N; Hesthagen, T

    2011-08-01

    Four small, acidified boreal lakes, all sustaining populations of perch Perca fluviatilis, roach Rutilus rutilus and pike Esox lucius, were studied in four successive years. Three lakes were moderately acidified (mean pH of 5·61-5·83), while the fourth was more acidic (mean pH of 5·16) and had a sparse population of R. rutilus. Perca fluviatilis density was higher in this lake (1004 ha(-1)) than in the other three (355-717 ha(-1)), where R. rutilus dominated in terms of numbers (981-2185 ha(-1)). Large, potentially predatory, P. fluviatilis were most abundant in the lake with clearest water, and these seemed to have a negative effect on P. fluviatilis density. Perca fluviatilis mean mass was negatively correlated with R. rutilus biomass and was highest in the most acidic lake with the sparse R. rutilus and the highest P. fluviatilis density. Perca fluviatilis mass correlated positively with pH in two lakes (with the highest fish biomass), suggesting that low pH affected P. fluviatilis mass negatively. Perca fluviatilis growth correlated positively with summer (July to August) air temperature in the lake with sparse R. rutilus, thus differing from P. fluviatilis and R. rutilus growth in the other three lakes. The mean age of P. fluviatilis was generally lower than that of R. rutilus and was lowest in the two lakes with the highest fish biomass, indicating that adult mortality was affected by density-induced factors. Journal of Fish Biology © 2011 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles. No claim to original US government works.

  2. Abiotic stress signaling and responses in plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jian-Kang

    2016-01-01

    Summary As sessile organisms, plants must cope with abiotic stress such as soil salinity, drought, and extreme temperatures. Core stress signaling pathways involve protein kinases related to the yeast SNF1 and mammalian AMPK, suggesting that stress signaling in plants evolved from energy sensing. Stress signaling regulates proteins critical for ion and water transport and for metabolic and gene-expression reprogramming to bring about ionic and water homeostasis and cellular stability under stress conditions. Understanding stress signaling and responses will increase our ability to improve stress resistance in crops to achieve agricultural sustainability and food security for a growing world population. PMID:27716505

  3. Abiotic environmental conditions for germination and development of gametophytes of Cyathea phalerata Mart. (Cyatheaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catiuscia Marcon

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In order to successfully establish themselves in their natural environment, ferns need habitats with abiotic conditions that are suitable for spore germination and gametophyte development. The objective of this study was to assess the influence of abiotic factors on the initial development of Cyathea phalerata cultivated in vitro. Spore germination and gametophyte development were assessed under varying conditions of surface sterilization, pH, temperature and photoperiod. Exogenous contamination was eliminated by sterilizing spores with 2.5 % NaClO for 15 min and sowing them into a culture medium supplemented with nystatin. Spores germinated at all pHs tested. Gametophytic development was faster in acidic pHs. Cultures at 25 °C exhibited the highest percentages of germination and laminar gametophytes. The species produced its highest percentages of gametophytes in cultures with photoperiods between 6 and 18 h. The optimal abiotic conditions found here for in vitro development of C. phalerata are similar to those found in its natural habitat. The southern limit of this species to north of the 30th parallel in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, may be because further south spores do not encounter the ideal combined conditions of temperature, pH and photoperiod determined in the laboratory.

  4. Temperature can interact with landscape factors to affect songbird productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. Andrew Cox; Frank R. III Thompson; Jennifer L. Reidy; John. Faaborg

    2013-01-01

    Increased temperatures and more extreme weather patterns associated with global climate change can interact with other factors that regulate animal populations, but many climate change studies do not incorporate other threats to wildlife in their analyses. We used 20 years of nest-monitoring data from study sites across a gradient of habitat fragmentation in Missouri,...

  5. Biological Networks Underlying Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Temperate Crops--A Proteomic Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosová, Klára; Vítámvás, Pavel; Urban, Milan Oldřich; Klíma, Miroslav; Roy, Amitava; Prášil, Ilja Tom

    2015-09-01

    Abiotic stress factors, especially low temperatures, drought, and salinity, represent the major constraints limiting agricultural production in temperate climate. Under the conditions of global climate change, the risk of damaging effects of abiotic stresses on crop production increases. Plant stress response represents an active process aimed at an establishment of novel homeostasis under altered environmental conditions. Proteins play a crucial role in plant stress response since they are directly involved in shaping the final phenotype. In the review, results of proteomic studies focused on stress response of major crops grown in temperate climate including cereals: common wheat (Triticum aestivum), durum wheat (Triticum durum), barley (Hordeum vulgare), maize (Zea mays); leguminous plants: alfalfa (Medicago sativa), soybean (Glycine max), common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), pea (Pisum sativum); oilseed rape (Brassica napus); potato (Solanum tuberosum); tobacco (Nicotiana tabaccum); tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum); and others, to a wide range of abiotic stresses (cold, drought, salinity, heat, imbalances in mineral nutrition and heavy metals) are summarized. The dynamics of changes in various protein functional groups including signaling and regulatory proteins, transcription factors, proteins involved in protein metabolism, amino acid metabolism, metabolism of several stress-related compounds, proteins with chaperone and protective functions as well as structural proteins (cell wall components, cytoskeleton) are briefly overviewed. Attention is paid to the differences found between differentially tolerant genotypes. In addition, proteomic studies aimed at proteomic investigation of multiple stress factors are discussed. In conclusion, contribution of proteomic studies to understanding the complexity of crop response to abiotic stresses as well as possibilities to identify and utilize protein markers in crop breeding processes are discussed.

  6. Biological Networks Underlying Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Temperate Crops—A Proteomic Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosová, Klára; Vítámvás, Pavel; Urban, Milan Oldřich; Klíma, Miroslav; Roy, Amitava; Prášil, Ilja Tom

    2015-01-01

    Abiotic stress factors, especially low temperatures, drought, and salinity, represent the major constraints limiting agricultural production in temperate climate. Under the conditions of global climate change, the risk of damaging effects of abiotic stresses on crop production increases. Plant stress response represents an active process aimed at an establishment of novel homeostasis under altered environmental conditions. Proteins play a crucial role in plant stress response since they are directly involved in shaping the final phenotype. In the review, results of proteomic studies focused on stress response of major crops grown in temperate climate including cereals: common wheat (Triticum aestivum), durum wheat (Triticum durum), barley (Hordeum vulgare), maize (Zea mays); leguminous plants: alfalfa (Medicago sativa), soybean (Glycine max), common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), pea (Pisum sativum); oilseed rape (Brassica napus); potato (Solanum tuberosum); tobacco (Nicotiana tabaccum); tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum); and others, to a wide range of abiotic stresses (cold, drought, salinity, heat, imbalances in mineral nutrition and heavy metals) are summarized. The dynamics of changes in various protein functional groups including signaling and regulatory proteins, transcription factors, proteins involved in protein metabolism, amino acid metabolism, metabolism of several stress-related compounds, proteins with chaperone and protective functions as well as structural proteins (cell wall components, cytoskeleton) are briefly overviewed. Attention is paid to the differences found between differentially tolerant genotypes. In addition, proteomic studies aimed at proteomic investigation of multiple stress factors are discussed. In conclusion, contribution of proteomic studies to understanding the complexity of crop response to abiotic stresses as well as possibilities to identify and utilize protein markers in crop breeding processes are discussed. PMID:26340626

  7. Biological Networks Underlying Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Temperate Crops—A Proteomic Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klára Kosová

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Abiotic stress factors, especially low temperatures, drought, and salinity, represent the major constraints limiting agricultural production in temperate climate. Under the conditions of global climate change, the risk of damaging effects of abiotic stresses on crop production increases. Plant stress response represents an active process aimed at an establishment of novel homeostasis under altered environmental conditions. Proteins play a crucial role in plant stress response since they are directly involved in shaping the final phenotype. In the review, results of proteomic studies focused on stress response of major crops grown in temperate climate including cereals: common wheat (Triticum aestivum, durum wheat (Triticum durum, barley (Hordeum vulgare, maize (Zea mays; leguminous plants: alfalfa (Medicago sativa, soybean (Glycine max, common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris, pea (Pisum sativum; oilseed rape (Brassica napus; potato (Solanum tuberosum; tobacco (Nicotiana tabaccum; tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum; and others, to a wide range of abiotic stresses (cold, drought, salinity, heat, imbalances in mineral nutrition and heavy metals are summarized. The dynamics of changes in various protein functional groups including signaling and regulatory proteins, transcription factors, proteins involved in protein metabolism, amino acid metabolism, metabolism of several stress-related compounds, proteins with chaperone and protective functions as well as structural proteins (cell wall components, cytoskeleton are briefly overviewed. Attention is paid to the differences found between differentially tolerant genotypes. In addition, proteomic studies aimed at proteomic investigation of multiple stress factors are discussed. In conclusion, contribution of proteomic studies to understanding the complexity of crop response to abiotic stresses as well as possibilities to identify and utilize protein markers in crop breeding processes are discussed.

  8. Heat Shock Factor 1 Deficiency Affects Systemic Body Temperature Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingenwerth, Marc; Noichl, Erik; Stahr, Anna; Korf, Horst-Werner; Reinke, Hans; von Gall, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    Heat shock factor 1 (HSF1) is a ubiquitous heat-sensitive transcription factor that mediates heat shock protein transcription in response to cellular stress, such as increased temperature, in order to protect the organism against misfolded proteins. In this study, we analysed the effect of HSF1 deficiency on core body temperature regulation. Body temperature, locomotor activity, and food consumption of wild-type mice and HSF1-deficient mice were recorded. Prolactin and thyroid-stimulating hormone levels were measured by ELISA. Gene expression in brown adipose tissue was analysed by quantitative real-time PCR. Hypothalamic HSF1 and its co-localisation with tyrosine hydroxylase was analysed using confocal laser scanning microscopy. HSF1-deficient mice showed an increase in core body temperature (hyperthermia), decreased overall locomotor activity, and decreased levels of prolactin in pituitary and blood plasma reminiscent of cold adaptation. HSF1 could be detected in various hypothalamic regions involved in temperature regulation, suggesting a potential role of HSF1 in hypothalamic thermoregulation. Moreover, HSF1 co-localises with tyrosine hydroxylase, the rate-limiting enzyme in dopamine synthesis, suggesting a potential role of HSF1 in the hypothalamic control of prolactin release. In brown adipose tissue, levels of prolactin receptor and uncoupled protein 1 were increased in HSF1-deficient mice, consistent with an up-regulation of heat production. Our data suggest a role of HSF1 in systemic thermoregulation. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Transcriptome-based discovery of AP2/ERF transcription factors related to temperature stress in tea plant (Camellia sinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhi-Jun; Li, Xing-Hui; Liu, Zhi-Wei; Li, Hui; Wang, Yong-Xin; Zhuang, Jing

    2015-11-01

    Tea plant (Camellia sinensis) is an important natural resource for the global supply of non-alcoholic beverage production. The extension of tea plant cultivation is challenged by biotic and abiotic stresses. Transcription factors (TFs) of the APETALA 2 (AP2)/ethylene-responsive factor (ERF) family are involved in growth and anti-stresses through multifaceted transcriptional regulation in plants. This study comprehensively analyzed AP2/ERF family TFs from C. sinensis on the basis of the transcriptome sequencing data of four tea plant cultivars, namely, 'Yunnanshilixiang', 'Chawansanhao', 'Ruchengmaoyecha', and 'Anjibaicha'. A total of 89 putative AP2/ERF transcription factors with full-length AP2 domain were identified from C. sinensis and classified into five subfamilies, namely, AP2, dehydration-responsive-element-binding (DREB), ERF, related to ABI3/VP (RAV), and Soloist. All identified CsAP2/ERF genes presented relatively stable expression levels in the four tea plant cultivars. Many groups also showed cultivar specificity. Five CsAP2/ERF genes from each AP2/ERF subfamily (DREB, ERF, AP2, and RAV) were related to temperature stresses; these results indicated that AP2/ERF TFs may play important roles in abnormal temperature stress response in C. sinensis.

  10. Plant size and abiotic factors determine the intra-specific variation in the multi-stemmed architecture of Prunus lusitanica in the Northeast limit of its global distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Muñoz Costa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: The present work provides novel insights on factors (either intrinsic or extrinsic that trigger sprouting in woody species living at range margins. We aim to explain the inter-individual variability in the multi-stemmed architecture of Prunus lusitanica L., an Iberian evergreen relict tree related to the Tertiary flora.Area of study: Northeastern Mediterranean mountains of the Iberian Peninsula, the Northeast limit of the global distribution of the species.Material and Methods: We gathered data on two modes of vegetative reproduction, basal and layering sprouts, in 288 clumps of Prunus lusitanica from four populations. We modeled and analyzed the effect of environmental factors (topography, canopy cover, soil moisture and disturbances and plant size (diameter at breast height on sprouting by means of Generalized Linear Model and other statistical approaches.Main results: Plant size arises as the principal factor to explain the variability of the numbers of both types of sprouts yet it is not a trigger factor. Natural and anthropogenic disturbances promote basal and layering shoots, while tree canopy is mainly relevant for basal shoots, and slope and soil moisture are significant factors for layering shoots.Research highlights: The multi-stemmed architecture of P. lusitanica at the Northeastern limit of its worldwide distribution is triggered by local environmental factors and disturbances. Each external factor shows different levels of influence on the variability and type of vegetative reproduction yet the intensity of the response is driven by the size of the largest trunk of each clump.Key words: vegetative reproduction; sprouting; disturbances; woody plants; relict tree; subtropical; Iberian Peninsula.

  11. Characterisation and normalisation factors for life cycle impact assessment mined abiotic resources categories in South Africa - The manufacturing of catalytic converter exhaust systems as a case study

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Strauss, K

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available levels. The normalisation factors are based on the total economic reserves of key South African minerals and world non-renewable energy resources respectively. A case study of the manufacturing of an exhaust system for a standard sedan is used to compare...

  12. EXPRESSION OF CALCIUM-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE (CDPK GENES IN VITIS AMURENSIS UNDER ABIOTIC STRESS CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubrovina A.S.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abiotic stresses, such as extreme temperatures, soil salinity, or water deficit, are one of the major limiting factors of crop productivity worldwide. Examination of molecular and genetic mechanisms of abiotic stress tolerance in plants is of great interest to plant biologists. Calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs, which are the most important Ca2+ sensors in plants, are known to play one of the key roles in plant adaptation to abiotic stress. CDPK is a multigene family of enzymes. Analysis of CDPK gene expression under various abiotic stress conditions would help identify those CDPKs that might play important roles in plant adaptation to abiotic stress. We focused on studying CDPK gene expression under osmotic, water deficit, and temperature stress conditions in a wild-growing grapevine Vitis amurensis Rurp., which is native to the Russian Far East and is known to possess high adaptive potential and high level of resistance against adverse environmental conditions. Healthy V. amurensis cuttings (excised young stems with one healthy leaf were used for the treatments. For the non-stress treatment, we placed the cuttings in distilled water for 12 h at room temperature. For the water-deficit stress, detached cuttings were laid on a paper towel for 12 h at room temperature. For osmotic stress treatments, the cuttings were placed in 0.4 М NaCl and 0.4 М mannitol solutions for 12 h at room temperature. To examine temperature stress tolerance, the V. amurensis cuttings were placed in a growth chamber at +10oC and +37oC for 12 h. The total expression of VaCDPK genes was examined by semiquantitative RT-PCR with degenerate primers designed to the CDPK kinase domain. The total level of CDPK gene expression increased under salt and decreased under low temperature stress conditions. We sequenced 300 clones of the amplified part of different CDPK transcripts obtained from the analyzed cDNA probes. Analysis of the cDNA sequences identified 8 different

  13. Declining of forests - biotic and abiotic stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radulović Zlatan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available During the last several years, a significant decline of different forests in Serbia was recorded. The decline is more widespread in conifer stands, but occurence of decline was recorded in broadleaved forest stands as well. These declines are the result of abiotic, biotic and anthropogenic factors. According to the studies performed so far in Serbia, the predisposing factor were droughts during the 2012 and 2013 vegetation periods that caused physiological weakness of the trees. Among the biotic factors, the most important are fungi (mainly root rot, but rot fungi, and needle diseases and insects (bark beetles in conifer species and defoliators in broadleaved species. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 37008 i br. TR 31070

  14. Po2 temperature blood factor for blood gas apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teisseire, B P; Hérigault, R A; Teisseire, L J; Laurent, D N

    1984-01-01

    PO2 temperature formulae supplied by manufacturers on automatic blood gas apparatus, PO2 corr. = PO2 37 degrees C X 10F X delta T were studied and compared to the experimental determination of the delta log PO2/delta T ratio (Hérigault et al. [10]). Acid-base status at 37 degrees C appeared to have a measurable influence on the PO2 temperature factor; alkalosis increased the delta log PO2/delta T ratio, and the contrary was found for acidosis in comparison with normal acid-base status at 37 degrees C. For the same PO2, measured at 37 degrees C, all the proposed formulae of commercial blood gas automatic apparatus did not give the same temperature corrected PO2. The observed difference between the corrected PO2 may be important and greater than the precision of the initial measurement. To correct the measured PO2 for temperature, a relationship between delta log PO2/delta T and PO2 is proposed, between PO2 zero and PO2 180 mmHg, which takes into account measured pH and PO2 values at 37 degrees C:delta log PO2/delta T = [(-0.35 pH + 0.658) X 10(-4) X PO2] + 0.035.

  15. Antioxidant activity as indicator of UV radiation and other abiotic stress factors on Agaricus bisporus (Lange/Imbach and Sedum hybridum (L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szabó A.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Investigation of stress level might be facilitated also in plant and horticultural sciences, but currently mainly morphological parameters are in use. Antioxidant activity routinely measured in food-oriented researches and several studies indirectly indicated that stress factors can influence this parameter. Our aim was to assess the potential direct indicator role of antioxidant activity in stress conditions. We measured the effects of UVB and soil-delivered stress on Agaricus bisporus and Sedum hybridum. Our results indicate that UVB slightly decreases, while the inadequate soil conditions increase antioxidant activity; hence these measurements are suitable for determining the level of stress in different living samples.

  16. Protection of the Abiotic Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michel, R.; Hutmacher, K. E.; Landfermann, H. H.

    2004-01-01

    Environmental protection against the dangers arising from ionizing radiation, radioactive materials, and other harmful substances is more than to avoid acute dangers or risks for humans or for non-human living organisms. To allow for a sustainable development the abiotic part of the environment must not be neglected in concepts of environmental protection. The environmental impact of some selected long-lived anthropogenic radionuclides is used to exemplify adverse effects for which a unified approach is needed. To this end, indicators are needed for the assessment of the human impact on the abiotic environment which allows to compare different human actions with respect to sustainability and to choose appropriate measures in the competition for a sustainable development. Such indicators have to account for the dynamics of the different environmental compartments. Using the long-lived radionuclides 14C, 36Cl, 85Kr, and 129I as examples, the importance to consider dynamical models and ecological lifetimes in quantifications of the human impact on the environment is emphasized. Particular problems arise from the natural occurrences and variability of radionuclides and other harmful substances. Suitable indicators for the assessment of human impact on the abiotic compartments air, water, and soil are discussed. (Author) 18 refs

  17. Classifying benthic biotopes on sub-tropical continental shelf reefs: How useful are abiotic surrogates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, Sarah; Stevens, Tim

    2014-02-01

    Biodiversity of marine areas beyond the reach of conventional diving technology (>30 m) is poorly known, yet subjected to increasing stresses from expanding recreational and commercial fishing, minerals exploration and other anthropogenic influences. In part, resource managers address this by using abiotic surrogates for patterns of biodiversity in planning marine protected areas or other management measures. However, the efficacy of these surrogates varies from place to place, and is often not quantified at the scale used by MPA designers and managers. This study surveyed and classified benthic assemblages of continental shelf rocky reefs across three depth categories from 30 to 70 m, using a suspended HD camera array, which is both non-destructive and cost-effective compared to any other methods of sampling at these depths. Five distinct benthic biotopes were defined, characterised primarily by variations in abundances of sea whips, sponges, kelp, and urchins. Derived patterns of benthic assemblage structure were compared to abiotic surrogates available at the scale (local) used in MPA planning. The individual factors with most influence on the classification were recreational fishing pressure, water temperature at the bottom, and distance from nearest estuary. The best combination of abiotic surrogates had a relatively strong relationship with the benthic assemblage, explaining 42% of the variation in assemblage structure (BIOENV ρ = 0.65), however the performance of a classification based on commonly used physical surrogates was relatively poor, explaining only 22% of variation. The results underline the limitations of using abiotic variables for habitat mapping at the local scale, and the need for robust surveys to quantify patterns of biodiversity.

  18. Coordinated Actions of Glyoxalase and Antioxidant Defense Systems in Conferring Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasanuzzaman, Mirza; Nahar, Kamrun; Hossain, Md Shahadat; Mahmud, Jubayer Al; Rahman, Anisur; Inafuku, Masashi; Oku, Hirosuke; Fujita, Masayuki

    2017-01-20

    Being sessile organisms, plants are frequently exposed to various environmental stresses that cause several physiological disorders and even death. Oxidative stress is one of the common consequences of abiotic stress in plants, which is caused by excess generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Sometimes ROS production exceeds the capacity of antioxidant defense systems, which leads to oxidative stress. In line with ROS, plants also produce a high amount of methylglyoxal (MG), which is an α-oxoaldehyde compound, highly reactive, cytotoxic, and produced via different enzymatic and non-enzymatic reactions. This MG can impair cells or cell components and can even destroy DNA or cause mutation. Under stress conditions, MG concentration in plants can be increased 2- to 6-fold compared with normal conditions depending on the plant species. However, plants have a system developed to detoxify this MG consisting of two major enzymes: glyoxalase I (Gly I) and glyoxalase II (Gly II), and hence known as the glyoxalase system. Recently, a novel glyoxalase enzyme, named glyoxalase III (Gly III), has been detected in plants, providing a shorter pathway for MG detoxification, which is also a signpost in the research of abiotic stress tolerance. Glutathione (GSH) acts as a co-factor for this system. Therefore, this system not only detoxifies MG but also plays a role in maintaining GSH homeostasis and subsequent ROS detoxification. Upregulation of both Gly I and Gly II as well as their overexpression in plant species showed enhanced tolerance to various abiotic stresses including salinity, drought, metal toxicity, and extreme temperature. In the past few decades, a considerable amount of reports have indicated that both antioxidant defense and glyoxalase systems have strong interactions in conferring abiotic stress tolerance in plants through the detoxification of ROS and MG. In this review, we will focus on the mechanisms of these interactions and the coordinated action of

  19. Biotic and abiotic variables show little redundancy in explaining tree species distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meier, Elaine S.; Kienast, Felix; Pearman, Peter B.

    2010-01-01

    Abiotic factors such as climate and soil determine the species fundamental niche, which is further constrained by biotic interactions such as interspecific competition. To parameterize this realized niche, species distribution models (SDMs) most often relate species occurrence data to abiotic var...

  20. Monthly Distribution of Phlebotomine Sand Flies, and Biotic and Abiotic Factors Related to Their Abundance, in an Urban Area to Which Visceral Leishmaniasis Is Endemic in Corumbá, Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Everton Falcão de Oliveira

    Full Text Available The monthly distribution and abundance of sand flies are influenced by both biotic and abiotic factors. The present study aimed to evaluate the seasonal distribution of sand flies and the relation between their abundance and environmental parameters, including vegetation and climate. This study was conducted over a 2-year period (April 2012 to March 2014. Monthly distribution was evaluated through the weekly deployment of CDC light traps in the peridomicile area of 5 residences in an urban area of the municipality of Corumbá in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Meteorological data were obtained from the Mato Grosso do Sul Center for Weather, Climate, and Water Resources. The spectral indices were calculated based on spatial resolution images (GeoEye and the percentage of vegetal coverage. Differences in the abundance of sand flies among the collection sites were assessed using the Kruskal-Wallis test, and the strength of correlations between environmental variables was determined by calculating Spearman's correlation coefficients. Lutzomyia cruzi, Lu. forattinii, and Evandromyia corumbaensis were the most frequently found species. Although no significant association was found among these sand fly species and the tested environmental variables (vegetation and climate, high population peaks were found during the rainy season, whereas low peaks were observed in the dry season. The monthly distribution of sand flies was primarily determined by Lu. cruzi, which accounted for 93.94% of the specimens collected each month throughout the experimental period. The fact that sand flies were detected year-round indicates a continuous risk of infection to humans, demonstrating the need for targeted management and education programs.

  1. Monthly Distribution of Phlebotomine Sand Flies, and Biotic and Abiotic Factors Related to Their Abundance, in an Urban Area to Which Visceral Leishmaniasis Is Endemic in Corumbá, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcão de Oliveira, Everton; Casaril, Aline Etelvina; Fernandes, Wagner Souza; Ravanelli, Michelle de Saboya; Medeiros, Márcio José de; Gamarra, Roberto Macedo; Paranhos Filho, Antônio Conceição; Oshiro, Elisa Teruya; Oliveira, Alessandra Gutierrez de; Galati, Eunice Aparecida Bianchi

    2016-01-01

    The monthly distribution and abundance of sand flies are influenced by both biotic and abiotic factors. The present study aimed to evaluate the seasonal distribution of sand flies and the relation between their abundance and environmental parameters, including vegetation and climate. This study was conducted over a 2-year period (April 2012 to March 2014). Monthly distribution was evaluated through the weekly deployment of CDC light traps in the peridomicile area of 5 residences in an urban area of the municipality of Corumbá in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Meteorological data were obtained from the Mato Grosso do Sul Center for Weather, Climate, and Water Resources. The spectral indices were calculated based on spatial resolution images (GeoEye) and the percentage of vegetal coverage. Differences in the abundance of sand flies among the collection sites were assessed using the Kruskal-Wallis test, and the strength of correlations between environmental variables was determined by calculating Spearman's correlation coefficients. Lutzomyia cruzi, Lu. forattinii, and Evandromyia corumbaensis were the most frequently found species. Although no significant association was found among these sand fly species and the tested environmental variables (vegetation and climate), high population peaks were found during the rainy season, whereas low peaks were observed in the dry season. The monthly distribution of sand flies was primarily determined by Lu. cruzi, which accounted for 93.94% of the specimens collected each month throughout the experimental period. The fact that sand flies were detected year-round indicates a continuous risk of infection to humans, demonstrating the need for targeted management and education programs.

  2. A membraneless single compartment abiotic glucose fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaughter, Gymama; Sunday, Joshua

    2014-09-01

    A simple energy harvesting strategy has been developed to selectively catalyze glucose in the presence of oxygen in a glucose/O2 fuel cell. The anode consists of an abiotic catalyst Al/Au/ZnO, in which ZnO seed layer was deposited on the surface of Al/Au substrate using hydrothermal method. The cathode is constructed from a single rod of platinum with an outer diameter of 500 μm. The abiotic glucose fuel cell was studied in phosphate buffer solution (pH 7.4) containing 5 mM glucose at a temperature of 22 °C. The cell is characterized according to its open-circuit voltage, polarization profile, and power density plot. Under these conditions, the abiotic glucose fuel cell possesses an open-circuit voltage of 840 mV and delivered a maximum power density of 16.2 μW cm-2 at a cell voltage of 495 mV. These characteristics are comparable to biofuel cell utilizing a much more complex system design. Such low-cost lightweight abiotic catalyzed glucose fuel cells have a great promise to be optimized, miniaturized to power bio-implantable devices.

  3. Aspects Of Meteorological Factors And Temperature Regime Of Asa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The temperatures of Asa lake were studied for 12 months at three sites along the lake between the early morning and afternoon hours. Surface water temperatures were generally higher than the air temperatures during the afternoon hours except in the months of January to March when air temperatures were high (28.1 to ...

  4. 49 CFR 192.115 - Temperature derating factor (T) for steel pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Temperature derating factor (T) for steel pipe... § 192.115 Temperature derating factor (T) for steel pipe. The temperature derating factor to be used in... (Celsius) Temperature derating factor (T) 250 °F (121 °C) or less 1.000 300 °F (149 °C) 0.967 350 °F (177...

  5. Influence of abiotic stress during soybean germination followed by recovery on the phenolic compounds of radicles and their antioxidant capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylwia Swigonska

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Abiotic stress factors are among the major causes of lower crop yields. It is known, that in response to cold and/or osmotic stress, crops activate various defense mechanisms, including morphological, physiological and metabolic adaptations. Secondary metabolism, especially phenolic compounds, seem to be an important factor of stress-induced metabolic re-engineering as their levels are alternated by abiotic stress in plants. Despite the fact, that the nature and function of phenolic compounds was already studied in various plant species, it is important to define tissue-specific changes induced by two most potent abiotic stressors – low temperature and decreased water potential. Moreover, in fields, the appearance of single stress is rather rare. Usually two or more factors are acting in parallel, which may potentially result in different effects. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze selected elements of secondary metabolism in roots of germinating soybean seeds under cold stress, osmotic stress and both stresses combined. In addition the effects of constant and persistent stress were compared to those induced by sudden and brief stress appearance, as well as after the post-stress recovery process. In the presented study standard methods for identification and quantification of phenolic acids and isoflavones were used and the antioxidant capacity of the radicle extracts was measured. The phenolic metabolism in plants was greatly intensified in response to cold and osmotic stress and remained at high level during the post-stress recovery. The amount and composition of both phenolic acids and identified isoflavones also changed in stress- and duration-dependent manner. This proves an important role of phenolic compounds in abiotic stress response of germinating soybean seeds and opens up new perspectives for further investigations.

  6. Abiotic and biotic controls over biogeochemical cycles in drylands: Insights from climate change and nitrogen deposition experiments on the Colorado Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, S.; Ferrenberg, S.; Tucker, C.; Rutherford, W. A.; Wertin, T. M.; McHugh, T. A.; Morrissey, E.; Kuske, C.; Mueller, R.; Belnap, J.

    2016-12-01

    As for all ecosystems, biogeochemical cycling in drylands represents numerous intricate connections between biotic and abiotic controls. However, patterns of many fundamental ecosystem processes that generally hold across global gradients fall apart at the arid and semiarid end of the spectrum, and data point to an exceptionally strong role for abiotic controls in explaining these patterns. Further, there are multiple dryland characteristics - such as extreme aridity and high UV radiation, as well as specialized biological communities - which can point to a conclusion that "drylands are different". Indeed, drylands are often characterized by their harsh environment, by the diverse classes of biota representing a range of traits aimed at surviving such harsh conditions, and, more recently, by the suggestion of dramatic biotic responses to seemingly subtle changes in abiotic factors. In this talk, we will explore a range of biotic and abiotic controls over fundamental biogeochemical cycling in drylands using data from a suite of manipulation experiments on the Colorado Plateau, USA. We will present results from field treatments that speak to the effects of increasing temperature, altered precipitation regimes, increased nitrogen availability via deposition, and the effects of altered litterfall inputs. Biogeochemical processes we explore will include plant photosynthesis, soil photosynthesis and respiration (with a focus on biological soil crusts), litter decomposition, and nutrient cycling. In addition, we will assess how treatments alter dryland community composition, as well as the resultant feedbacks of community shifts to environmental change. Taken together we will use these diverse datasets to ask questions about what makes drylands different or, instead, if a holistic joining of biotic and abiotic perspectives suggests they are not so different after all. These data will not only lend insight into the partitioning of and balance between biotic and abiotic

  7. Wheat breeding in abiotic stress conditions of solonetz

    OpenAIRE

    Dimitrijević Miodrag; Petrović Sofija; Banjac Borislav

    2012-01-01

    The complex stress environment at locality Kumane (Banat) primarily is caused by alkaline soil of solonetz type, but includes the other sources of wheat variability, water-logging and occasional extreme temperatures, as well. In order to obtain wheat varieties that could fulfill the requirement of enhanced tolerance to abiotic stress conditions of alkaline soil a set of wheat varieties was examined in parallel trials in Kumane (solonetz), and at Rimski Sanc...

  8. Influência dos fatores abióticos e da disponibilidade de presas sobre comunidade de serpentes do Planalto Médio do Rio Grande do Sul Influence of abiotic factors and availability of prey on the occurrence of snakes in the middle plateau region of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noeli Zanella

    2009-03-01

    dorsatus Duméril, Bibron & Duméril, 1854 and generalist (n = 2: Liophis poecilogyrus (Wied-Neuwied, 1825 and Philodryas patagoniensis (Girard, 1858. Among the abiotic factors analyzed, snake abundance was associated with maximum temperature (R² = 0.66 and showed no significant association with rainfall. Amphibian abundance showed a positive association with rainfall (R² = 0.54 and was not significantly associated with minimum temperature. Snake abundance was not correlated with the abundance of amphibians or rodents.

  9. Predicting macropores in space and time by earthworms and abiotic controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohenbrink, Tobias Ludwig; Schneider, Anne-Kathrin; Zangerlé, Anne; Reck, Arne; Schröder, Boris; van Schaik, Loes

    2017-04-01

    Macropore flow increases infiltration and solute leaching. The macropore density and connectivity, and thereby the hydrological effectiveness, vary in space and time due to earthworms' burrowing activity and their ability to refill their burrows in order to survive drought periods. The aim of our study was to predict the spatiotemporal variability of macropore distributions by a set of potentially controlling abiotic variables and abundances of different earthworm species. We measured earthworm abundances and effective macropore distributions using tracer rainfall infiltration experiments in six measurement campaigns during one year at six field sites in Luxembourg. Hydrologically effective macropores were counted in three soil depths (3, 10, 30 cm) and distinguished into three diameter classes (6 mm). Earthworms were sampled and determined to species-level. In a generalized linear modelling framework, we related macropores to potential spatial and temporal controlling factors. Earthworm species such as Lumbricus terrestris and Aporrectodea longa, local abiotic site conditions (land use, TWI, slope), temporally varying weather conditions (temperature, humidity, precipitation) and soil moisture affected the number of effective macropores. Main controlling factors and explanatory power of the models (uncertainty and model performance) varied depending on the depth and diameter class of macropores. We present spatiotemporal predictions of macropore density by daily-resolved, one year time series of macropore numbers and maps of macropore distributions at specific dates in a small-scale catchment with 5 m resolution.

  10. Abiotic racemization kinetics of amino acids in marine sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steen, Andrew; Jørgensen, Bo Barker; Lomstein, Bente Aagaard

    2013-01-01

    Enantiomeric ratios of amino acids can be used to infer the sources and composition of sedimentary organic matter. Such inferences, however, rely on knowing the rates at which amino acids in sedimentary organic racemize abiotically. Based on a heating experiment, we report Arrhenius parameters...... for aspartic acid, glutamic acid, serine, and alanine in bulk sediment from Aarhus Bay, Denmark, taken from the surface, 30 cm, and 340 cm depth. Extrapolation to a typical cold deep sea sediment temperature of 3 °C suggests racemization rate constants of on the order of 10-5 yr-1 without evident differences...... between different amino acids or depths. These results can be used in conjunction with measurements of sediment age to predict the ratio of D:L amino acids due solely to abiotic racemization of the source material, deviations from which can indicate the abundance and turnover of active microbial...

  11. Abiotic degradation of plastic films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ángeles-López, Y. G.; Gutiérrez-Mayen, A. M.; Velasco-Pérez, M.; Beltrán-Villavicencio, M.; Vázquez-Morillas, A.; Cano-Blanco, M.

    2017-01-01

    Degradable plastics have been promoted as an option to mitigate the environmental impacts of plastic waste. However, there is no certainty about its degradability under different environmental conditions. The effect of accelerated weathering (AW), natural weathering (NW) and thermal oxidation (TO) on different plastics (high density polyethylene, HDPE; oxodegradable high density polyethylene, HDPE-oxo; compostable plastic, Ecovio ® metalized polypropylene, PP; and oxodegradable metalized polypropylene, PP-oxo) was studied. Plastics films were exposed to AW per 110 hours; to NW per 90 days; and to TO per 30 days. Plastic films exposed to AW and NW showed a general loss on mechanical properties. The highest reduction in elongation at break on AW occurred to HDPE-oxo (from 400.4% to 20.9%) and was higher than 90% for HDPE, HDPE-oxo, Ecovio ® and PP-oxo in NW. No substantial evidence of degradation was found on plastics exposed to TO. Oxo-plastics showed higher degradation rates than their conventional counterparts, and the compostable plastic was resistant to degradation in the studied abiotic conditions. This study shows that degradation of plastics in real life conditions will vary depending in both, their composition and the environment.

  12. The influence of abiotic factors on litter deposition in a semiarid area, northeastern Brazil. Influência de fatores abióticos na deposição de serapilheira em uma área semiárida no Nordeste brasileiro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Jeferson Sampaio DIOGO

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The amount of deciduous material throughout the year is mostly related to climatic conditions in tropical areas. A large deposition of litterfall in the dry season is described for deciduous and semideciduous forests. We aimed to assess the monthly deposition rate of litterfall during one year and the climatic influence in a deciduous thorny woodland area. The study area had a permanent plot of one hectare. To collect litterfall, 50 plots were selected and a collector (0.5 x 0.5 m was installed. Samples were collected monthly for twelve months and divided into fractions: leaves, branches, fruits and seeds, flowers and miscellaneous. We tested the correlation of four abiotic factors (rainfall, soil humidity, temperature and wind and the litter deposition.The annual litterfall collected had a total value of 2,731.6 kg ha-1.The contribution fraction of leaves corresponded to 54.3%, branches (14.2%, fruits (12.6%, flowers (1.6% and miscellaneous (17.2%. The wind was the abiotic factor most correlated with the total deposition of the litterfall, but other correlations were found. In this area, site-dependent climatic and edaphic variables have an important control on litterfall. A quantidade de material decíduo ao longo do ano em ambientes tropicais está relacionada principalmente com as condições climáticas. Há uma grande deposição de serapilheira na estação seca em florestas decíduas e semidecíduas. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a taxa de deposição mensal de serapilheira durante um ano e a influência climática sobre esta deposição em uma área de floresta decídua espinhosa. A área de estudo teve uma parcela permanente de um hectare. Para a coleta de serapilheira, foram selecionados 50 pontos e um coletor (0,5 x 0,5 m foi instalado. As amostras foram coletadas mensalmente, por doze meses, e divididas em cinco frações: folhas, galhos, frutos e sementes, flores e miscelânea. Foi testada a correlação entre quatro

  13. Reverse engineering: A key component of systems biology to unravel global abiotic stress cross-talk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swetlana eFriedel

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the global abiotic stress response is an important stepping stone for the development of universal stress tolerance in plants in the era of climate change. Although co-occurrence of several stress factors (abiotic and biotic in nature is found to be frequent, current attempts are poor to understand the complex physiological processes impacting plant growth under combinatory factors. In this review article, we discuss the recent advances of reverse engineering approaches that led to seminal discoveries of key candidate regulatory genes involved in cross-talk of abiotic stress responses and summarised the available tools of reverse-engineering and its relevant application. Among the universally induced regulators involved in various abiotic stress responses, we highlight the importance of (i abscisic acid (ABA and jasmonic acid (JA hormonal cross-talks and (ii the central role of WRKY transcription factors, potentially mediating both abiotic and biotic stress responses. Such interactome networks help not only to derive hypotheses but also play a vital role in identifying key regulatory targets and interconnected hormonal responses. To explore the full potential of gene network inference in the area of abiotic stress tolerance, we need to validate hypotheses by implementing time-dependent gene expression data from genetically engineered plants with modulated expression of target genes. We further propose to combine information on gene-by-gene interactions with data from physical interaction platforms such as protein-protein or transcription factor (TF-gene networks.

  14. Sunflower breeding for resistance to abiotic stresses

    OpenAIRE

    Škorić D.

    2009-01-01

    Due to a specific structure of its main organs (root, stem, leaves, head), sunflower can be successfully grown on marginal soils and in semi-arid conditions and it is more resistant to abiotic stresses than other field crops. In sunflower breeding for resistance to abiotic stresses, the greatest progress has been made in selection for drought resistance. Breeders use over 30 different parameters in sunflower screening for drought resistance, with physiological ones being the predominant type....

  15. Hydrologic, abiotic and biotic interactions: plant density, windspeed, leaf size and groundwater all affect oak water use efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darin J. Law; Deborah M. Finch

    2011-01-01

    Plant water use in drylands can be complex due to variation in hydrologic, abiotic and biotic factors, particularly near ephemeral or intermittent streams. Plant use of groundwater may be important but is usually uncertain. Disturbances like fire contribute to complex spatiotemporal heterogeneity. Improved understanding of how such hydrologic, abiotic, and biotic...

  16. Identification and expression analysis of WRKY family genes under biotic and abiotic stresses in Brassica rapa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayum, Md Abdul; Jung, Hee-Jeong; Park, Jong-In; Ahmed, Nasar Uddin; Saha, Gopal; Yang, Tae-Jin; Nou, Ill-Sup

    2015-02-01

    WRKY proteins constitute one of the largest transcription factor families in higher plants, and they are involved in multiple biological processes such as plant development, metabolism, and responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. Genes of this family have been well documented in response to many abiotic and biotic stresses in many plant species, but not yet against Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum and Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. conglutinans in any of the plants. Moreover, potentiality of a specific gene may vary depending on stress conditions and genotypes. To identify stress resistance-related potential WRKY genes of Brassica rapa, we analyzed their expressions against above-mentioned pathogens and cold, salt, and drought stresses in B. rapa. Stress resistance-related functions of all Brassica rapa WRKY (BrWRKY) genes were firstly analyzed through homology study with existing biotic and abiotic stress resistance-related WRKY genes of other plant species and found a high degree of homology. We then identified all BrWRKY genes in a Br135K microarray dataset, which was created by applying low-temperature stresses to two contrasting Chinese cabbage doubled haploid (DH) lines, Chiifu and Kenshin, and selected 41 BrWRKY genes with high and differential transcript abundance levels. These selected genes were further investigated under cold, salt, and drought stresses as well as after infection with P. carotovorum subsp. carotovorum and F. oxysporum f.sp. conglutinans in B. rapa. The selected genes showed an organ-specific expression, and 22 BrWRKY genes were differentially expressed in Chiifu compared to Kenshin under cold and drought stresses. Six BrWRKY genes were more responsive in Kenshin compared to Chiffu under salt stress. In addition, eight BrWRKY genes showed differential expression after P. carotovorum subsp. carotovorum infection and five genes after F. oxysporum f.sp. conglutinans infection in B. rapa. Thus, the differentially expressed Br

  17. A temperature dependent slip factor based thermal model for friction ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    alloy using the finite element software ABACUS considering constant frictional heat source. Chao & Tang (2003) simulated a temperature distribution of FSW process using finite element software ABACUS .... Nandan et al (2006) stated that the material flow is significant when the viscosity is less than. 4 MPa-s for the ...

  18. A temperature dependent slip factor based thermal model for friction ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the tool shoulder and pin to predict the thermal history of aluminium alloy was developed by. Rajamanickam et al .... where σy is the temperature dependent yield stress of the workpiece material as shown in table 2. ... greater than the material yield shear stress, hence the material accelerates to a velocity less than the tool ...

  19. The Key Factors Analysis of Palisades Temperature in Deep Open-pit Mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuan; Du, Cuifeng; Jin, Wenbo; Wang, Puyu

    2018-01-01

    In order to study the key factors of palisades temperature field in a deep open-pit mine in the natural environment, the influence of natural factors on the palisades temperature in a deep open-pit mine were analysed based on the principle of heat transfer. Four typical places with different ways of solar radiation were selected to carry out the field test. The results show that solar radiation, atmospheric temperature, and wind speed are three main factors affecting the temperature of palisades and that the direct sunlight plays a leading role. The time period of the sun shining directly on the shady slope of the palisades is short because of blocking effect, whose temperature changes in a smaller scale. At the same time, the sun slope of the palisades suffers from the solar radiation for a long time, whose temperature changes in a larger scale, and the variation is similar to the air temperature.

  20. Abiotic conditions affect floral antagonists and mutualists of Impatiens capensis (Balsaminaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soper Gorden, Nicole L; Adler, Lynn S

    2013-04-01

    While the effect of abiotic factors on leaf herbivory is well known, the relative importance of abiotic conditions influencing both mutualists and antagonists is less well understood. Species interactions could enhance or reduce the direct effects of abiotic factors, depending on how mutualists and antagonists respond to abiotic conditions. We manipulated soil nutrients and shade in a factorial design and measured soil moisture in the annual Impatiens capensis. We then measured interactions with mutualists (two pollinating species) and antagonists (herbivores, florivores, nectar thieves, and flower bud gallers), as well as plant growth, floral rewards, and plant reproduction. Fertilizer increased plant growth, floral attractiveness, mutualist and antagonist interactions, and plant reproduction. Shade had no effects, and soil moisture was negatively associated with plant growth and reproduction. All effects were additive. Mutualist and antagonist floral interactions both increased on fertilized plants, but antagonists increased at a greater rate, leading to a larger ratio of antagonist to mutualist interactions on fertilized plants. Despite having more antagonists, fertilized plants still had significantly higher reproduction, suggesting higher tolerance to antagonists. Abiotic effects can have consistent effects on antagonists and mutualists, and on both floral and leaf antagonists. However, tolerance to antagonisms increased in favorable conditions. Thus, the direct positive effects of favorable abiotic conditions on plants outweighed negative indirect effects via increased antagonisms, which may lead to selection to grow in high-nutrient microsites in spite of increased herbivory.

  1. Factores bióticos y abióticos que influyen en la descomposición de la hojarasca en pastizales Biotic and abiotic factors that influence litter decomposition in pasturelands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saray Sánchez

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available La hojarasca constituye la vía de entrada principal de los nutrientes en el suelo y es uno de los puntos clave del reciclado de la materia orgánica y de los nutrientes. Varios autores han estudiado con detalle la dinámica de la descomposición de la hojarasca de las plantas leñosas, tanto en climas templados como en el mediterráneo. Sin embargo, hay pocos estudios sobre la dinámica de la descomposición de la hojarasca en los pastizales a pesar de su importancia en la producción primaria y secundaria, sobre todo en los sistemas donde los nutrientes disponibles para la vegetación escasean, como ocurre en los ecosistemas de pastizales. Por ello en el presente artículo se abordan dichos procesos, así como el efecto del clima, la vegetación, el suelo y la fauna descomponedora, como factores principales que determinan el proceso de descomposición de la hojarasca en los pastizales. Además se brindan los resultados más relevantes relacionados con el empleo de los sistemas silvopastoriles como alternativa viable para lograr la sostenibilidad ecológica y productiva de los pastizales tropicales, con mayor énfasis en el papel que estos desempeñan en el reciclaje de los nutrientes.Litter constitutes the main way of entrance of nutrients in the soil and is one of the key points for recycling organic matter and nutrients. Several authors have studied in detail the dynamics of the decomposition of the litter of ligneous plants, in temperate as well as Mediterranean climates. Nevertheless, there are few studies about the decomposition dynamics of litter in pasturelands, in spite of its importance in the primary and secondary production, especially in systems in which the available nutrients for the vegetation are scarce, as in pastureland ecosystems. That is why in this work such processes are approached, as well as the effect of climate, vegetation, soil and decomposing fauna, as main factors that determine the process of litter decomposition

  2. Abiotic degradation of antibiotic ionophores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohn, Pernille; Bak, Søren A; Björklund, Erland

    2013-01-01

    Hydrolytic and photolytic degradation were investigated for the ionophore antibiotics lasalocid, monensin, salinomycin, and narasin. The hydrolysis study was carried out by dissolving the ionophores in solutions of pH 4, 7, and 9, followed by incubation at three temperatures of 6, 22, and 28 °C f...

  3. The Temperature Dependence of the Debye-Waller Factor of Magnesium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sledziewska-Blocka, D.; Lebech, Bente

    1976-01-01

    The temperature dependence of the average Debye-Waller factor for magnesium was measured by means of neutron diffraction spectrometry. The experimental results obtained in the temperature range from 5 to 256 K are compared with theoretical calculations, using the harmonic and quasi-harmonic appro......The temperature dependence of the average Debye-Waller factor for magnesium was measured by means of neutron diffraction spectrometry. The experimental results obtained in the temperature range from 5 to 256 K are compared with theoretical calculations, using the harmonic and quasi...

  4. Temperature dependent electron Lande g-factor and interband matrix element in GaAs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huebner, Jens; Doehrmann, Stefanie; Haegele, Daniel; Oestreich, Michael [Institute for Solid State Physics, Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz University Hannover (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    High precision measurements of the electron Lande g-factor in GaAs are presented using spin quantum beat spectroscopy at low excitation densities and temperatures ranging from 2.6 to 300 K. Influences of nuclear spin polarization at low temperatures have been fully compensated. Comparing these measurements with available data for the temperature dependent effective mass reveals an unexpected strong temperature dependence of the interband matrix element and resolves a long lasting discrepancy between experiment and kp - theory. The strong decrease of the interband matrix element with increasing temperature is explained by phonon induced fluctuations of the interatomic spacing and adiabatic following of the electrons.

  5. Leaf ontogeny strongly influences photosynthetic tolerance to drought and high temperature in Gossypium hirsutum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temperature and drought are major abiotic limitations to crop productivity worldwide. While abiotic stress physiology research has focused primarily on fully expanded leaves, no studies have investigated photosynthetic tolerance to concurrent drought and high temperature during leaf ontogeny. To add...

  6. Biotic and abiotic factors associated with soil suppressiveness to Rhizoctonia solani Fatores bióticos e abióticos associados à supressividade de solos a Rhizoctonia solani

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Ghini

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Crop management may modify soil characteristics, and as a consequence, alter incidence of diseases caused by soilborne pathogens. This study evaluated the suppressiveness to R. solani in 59 soil samples from a microbasin. Soil sampling areas included undisturbed forest, pasture and fallow ground areas, annual crops, perennial crops, and ploughed soil. The soil samples were characterized according to abiotic variables (pH; electrical conductivity; organic matter content; N total; P; K; Ca; Mg; Al; H; S; Na; Fe; Mn; Cu; Zn; B; cation exchange capacity; sum of bases and base saturation and biotic variables (total microbial activity evaluated by the CO2 evolution and fluorescein diacetate hydrolysis; culturable bacterial, fungal, actinomycetes, protozoa, fluorescent Pseudomonas and Fusarium spp. communities. The contribution and relationships of these variables to suppression to R. solani were assessed by path analysis. When all samples were analyzed together, only abiotic variables correlated with suppression of R. solani, but the entire set of variables explained only 51% of the total variation. However, when samples were grouped and analyzed by vegetation cover, the set of evaluated variables in all cases accounted for more than 90% of the variation in suppression of the pathogen. In highly suppressive soils of forest and pasture/fallow ground areas, several abiotic variables and fluorescein diacetate hydrolysis correlated with suppression of R. solani and the set of variables explained more than 98% of suppressiveness.As atividades agrícolas podem modificar as características do solo e, como conseqüência, alterar a incidência de patógenos veiculados pelo solo. Este trabalho avaliou a supressividade a R. solani em 59 amostras de solos de uma microbacia. As áreas amostradas foram selecionadas quanto à vegetação, incluindo mata, pasto/pousio, culturas anuais, culturas perenes e solo arado. As amostras de solo foram caracterizadas quanto

  7. Abiotic Bromination of Soil Organic Matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leri, Alessandra C; Ravel, Bruce

    2015-11-17

    Biogeochemical transformations of plant-derived soil organic matter (SOM) involve complex abiotic and microbially mediated reactions. One such reaction is halogenation, which occurs naturally in the soil environment and has been associated with enzymatic activity of decomposer organisms. Building on a recent finding that naturally produced organobromine is ubiquitous in SOM, we hypothesized that inorganic bromide could be subject to abiotic oxidations resulting in bromination of SOM. Through lab-based degradation treatments of plant material and soil humus, we have shown that abiotic bromination of particulate organic matter occurs in the presence of a range of inorganic oxidants, including hydrogen peroxide and assorted forms of ferric iron, producing both aliphatic and aromatic forms of organobromine. Bromination of oak and pine litter is limited primarily by bromide concentration. Fresh plant material is more susceptible to bromination than decayed litter and soil humus, due to a labile pool of mainly aliphatic compounds that break down during early stages of SOM formation. As the first evidence of abiotic bromination of particulate SOM, this study identifies a mechanistic source of the natural organobromine in humic substances and the soil organic horizon. Formation of organobromine through oxidative treatments of plant material also provides insights into the relative stability of aromatic and aliphatic components of SOM.

  8. Infinite Multiplication Factor and Temperature Coefficient of MSR Calculated by HELIOS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemeth, Z.; Necas, V.; Darilak, P.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to make a correct model of an elementary MSR cell calculated by HELIOS. Infinite multiplication factor and temperature coefficient of reactivity were calculated for various fuel channel diameters (Authors)

  9. Abiotic degradation of antibiotic ionophores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohn, Pernille; Bak, Søren A; Björklund, Erland

    2013-01-01

    Hydrolytic and photolytic degradation were investigated for the ionophore antibiotics lasalocid, monensin, salinomycin, and narasin. The hydrolysis study was carried out by dissolving the ionophores in solutions of pH 4, 7, and 9, followed by incubation at three temperatures of 6, 22, and 28 °C...... for maximum 34 days. Using LC-MS/MS for chemical analysis, lasalocid was not found to hydrolyse in any of the tested environments. Monensin, salinomycin, and narasin were all stable in neutral or alkaline solution but hydrolysed in the solution with a pH of 4. Half-lives at 25 °C were calculated to be 13, 0.......6, and 0.7 days for monensin, salinomycin, and narasin, respectively. Absorbance spectra from each compound indicated that only lasalocid is degraded by photolysis (half-life below 1 h) due to an absorbance maximum around 303 nm, and monensin, salinomycin, and narasin are resistant to direct photolysis...

  10. Microelectromechanical System (MEMS) Gyroscope Noise Analysis and Scale Factor Characterization over Temperature Variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    trials) ........................................................................10 Fig. 7 Allan deviation graph from the PinPoint CRM100 datasheet ...15 Fig. 12 Bias over temperature from the PinPoint CRM100 datasheet (image courtesy of Silicon Sensing Systems Limited...17 Fig. 14 Scale factor error over temperature from the PinPoint CRM100 datasheet (image courtesy of Silicon Sensing

  11. High School 9th Grade Students' Understanding Level and Misconceptions about Temperature and Factors Affecting It

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbas, Yavuz

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore students' understanding levels and misconceptions about temperature and factors affecting it. The concept of the study was chosen from Geography National Curriculum. In this study, a questionnaire was developed after a pilot study with an aim to ascertain the students' understanding levels of temperature and…

  12. Abiotic and biotic drivers of biomass change in a Neotropical forest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sande, van der M.T.; Pena Claros, M.; Ascarrunz, Nataly; Arets, E.J.M.M.; Licona, J.C.; Toledo, Marisol; Poorter, L.

    2017-01-01

    Summary
    1. Tropical fores ts play an important role in the global carbon cycle, but the drivers of net forest biomass change (i.e. net carbon sequestration) are poorly understood. Here, we evaluate how abiotic factors (soil co nditions and disturbance) and biotic factors (forest structure,

  13. Silicon's Role in Abiotic and Biotic Plant Stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debona, Daniel; Rodrigues, Fabrício A; Datnoff, Lawrence E

    2017-08-04

    Silicon (Si) plays a pivotal role in the nutritional status of a wide variety of monocot and dicot plant species and helps them, whether directly or indirectly, counteract abiotic and/or biotic stresses. In general, plants with a high root or shoot Si concentration are less prone to pest attack and exhibit enhanced tolerance to abiotic stresses such as drought, low temperature, or metal toxicity. However, the most remarkable effect of Si is the reduction in the intensities of a number of seedborne, soilborne, and foliar diseases in many economically important crops that are caused by biotrophic, hemibiotrophic, and necrotrophic plant pathogens. The reduction in disease symptom expression is due to the effect of Si on some components of host resistance, including incubation period, lesion size, and lesion number. The mechanical barrier formed by the polymerization of Si beneath the cuticle and in the cell walls was the first proposed hypothesis to explain how this element reduced the severity of plant diseases. However, new insights have revealed that many plant species supplied with Si have the phenylpropanoid and terpenoid pathways potentiated and have a faster and stronger transcription of defense genes and higher activities of defense enzymes. Photosynthesis and the antioxidant system are also improved for Si-supplied plants. Although the current understanding of how this overlooked element improves plant reaction against pathogen infections, pest attacks, and abiotic stresses has advanced, the exact mechanism(s) by which it modulates plant physiology through the potentiation of host defense mechanisms still needs further investigation at the genomic, metabolomic, and proteomic levels.

  14. A temperature-dependent theory for HeII: Application to the liquid structure factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chela-Flores, J.; Ghassib, H.B.

    1981-08-01

    A temperature-dependent theory is presented for HeII, which is based on both a gauge-theoretic formulation as well as a mean-field (Hartree) approach. A simple model calculation is then performed within this framework for the liquid structure factor of the system. In particular, explicit expressions are obtained for the low-momentum-transfer and low-temperature limits, which seem to conform with the available experimental data. Further, the curvature of the structure factor is predicted, under these circumstances, to be only mildly dependent on temperature. Throughout, we compare and contrast with other theoretical attempts, including Feynman's. (author)

  15. Local and regional factors influencing zooplankton communities in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Associations between zooplankton community structure and abiotic (temperature, dissolved oxygen, turbidity, nutriments) and biotic factors (chlorophyll a and phytoplankton community) were examined, in Kasseb Reservoir, northern Tunisia. Samples were taken bimonthly from July to December 2002 at 3 sampling stations ...

  16. Abiotic Stresses Antagonize the Rice Defence Pathway through the Tyrosine-Dephosphorylation of OsMPK6.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshihisa Ueno

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Plants, as sessile organisms, survive environmental changes by prioritizing their responses to the most life-threatening stress by allocating limited resources. Previous studies showed that pathogen resistance was suppressed under abiotic stresses. Here, we show the mechanism underlying this phenomenon. Phosphorylation of WRKY45, the central transcription factor in salicylic-acid (SA-signalling-dependent pathogen defence in rice, via the OsMKK10-2-OsMPK6 cascade, was required to fully activate WRKY45. The activation of WRKY45 by benzothiadiazole (BTH was reduced under low temperature and high salinity, probably through abscisic acid (ABA signalling. An ABA treatment dephosphorylated/inactivated OsMPK6 via protein tyrosine phosphatases, OsPTP1/2, leading to the impaired activation of WRKY45 and a reduction in Magnaporthe oryzae resistance, even after BTH treatment. BTH induced a strong M. oryzae resistance in OsPTP1/2 knockdown rice, even under cold and high salinity, indicating that OsPTP1/2 is the node of SA-ABA signalling crosstalk and its down-regulation makes rice disease resistant, even under abiotic stresses. These results points to one of the directions to further improve crops by managing the tradeoffs between different stress responses of plants.

  17. McWRI1, a transcription factor of the AP2/SHEN family, regulates the biosynthesis of the cuticular waxes on the apple fruit surface under low temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Suxiao; Ma, Yiyi; Zhao, Shuang; Ji, Qianlong; Zhang, Kezhong; Yang, Mingfeng; Yao, Yuncong

    2017-01-01

    Cuticular waxes of plant and organ surfaces play an important role in protecting plants from biotic and abiotic stress and extending the freshness, storage time and shelf life in the post-harvest agricultural products. WRI1, a transcription factor of AP2/SHEN families, had been found to trigger the related genes taking part in the biosynthesis of seed oil in many plants. But whether WRI1 is involved in the biosynthesis of the cuticular waxes on the Malus fruits surface has been unclear. We investigated the changes of wax composition and structure, the related genes and WRI1 expression on Malus asiatica Nakai and sieversii fruits with the low temperature treatments, found that low temperature induced the up-regulated expression of McWRI1, which promoted gene expression of McKCS, McLACs and McWAX in very-long-chain fatty acid biosynthesis pathway, resulting in the accumulation of alkanes component and alteration of wax structure on the fruit surface. Corresponding results were verified in McWRI1 silenced by VIGS, and WRI1 silenced down-regulated the related genes on two kinds of fruits, it caused the diversity alteration in content of some alkanes, fatty acid and ester component in two kinds of fruits. We further conducted Y1H assay to find that McWRI1 transcription factor activated the promoter of McKCS, McLAC and McWAX to regulate their expression. These results demonstrated that McWRI1 is involved in regulating the genes related synthesis of very long chain fatty acid on surface of apple fruits in storage process, providing a highlight for improvement of the modified atmosphere storage of apple fruits.

  18. McWRI1, a transcription factor of the AP2/SHEN family, regulates the biosynthesis of the cuticular waxes on the apple fruit surface under low temperature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suxiao Hao

    Full Text Available Cuticular waxes of plant and organ surfaces play an important role in protecting plants from biotic and abiotic stress and extending the freshness, storage time and shelf life in the post-harvest agricultural products. WRI1, a transcription factor of AP2/SHEN families, had been found to trigger the related genes taking part in the biosynthesis of seed oil in many plants. But whether WRI1 is involved in the biosynthesis of the cuticular waxes on the Malus fruits surface has been unclear. We investigated the changes of wax composition and structure, the related genes and WRI1 expression on Malus asiatica Nakai and sieversii fruits with the low temperature treatments, found that low temperature induced the up-regulated expression of McWRI1, which promoted gene expression of McKCS, McLACs and McWAX in very-long-chain fatty acid biosynthesis pathway, resulting in the accumulation of alkanes component and alteration of wax structure on the fruit surface. Corresponding results were verified in McWRI1 silenced by VIGS, and WRI1 silenced down-regulated the related genes on two kinds of fruits, it caused the diversity alteration in content of some alkanes, fatty acid and ester component in two kinds of fruits. We further conducted Y1H assay to find that McWRI1 transcription factor activated the promoter of McKCS, McLAC and McWAX to regulate their expression. These results demonstrated that McWRI1 is involved in regulating the genes related synthesis of very long chain fatty acid on surface of apple fruits in storage process, providing a highlight for improvement of the modified atmosphere storage of apple fruits.

  19. A NAP-Family Histone Chaperone Functions in Abiotic Stress Response and Adaptation1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pareek, Ashwani; Singla-Pareek, Sneh Lata

    2016-01-01

    Modulation of gene expression is one of the most significant molecular mechanisms of abiotic stress response in plants. Via altering DNA accessibility, histone chaperones affect the transcriptional competence of genomic loci. However, in contrast to other factors affecting chromatin dynamics, the role of plant histone chaperones in abiotic stress response and adaptation remains elusive. Here, we studied the physiological function of a stress-responsive putative rice (Oryza sativa) histone chaperone of the NAP superfamily: OsNAPL6. We show that OsNAPL6 is a nuclear-localized H3/H4 histone chaperone capable of assembling a nucleosome-like structure. Utilizing overexpression and knockdown approaches, we found a positive correlation between OsNAPL6 expression levels and adaptation to multiple abiotic stresses. Results of comparative transcriptome profiling and promoter-recruitment studies indicate that OsNAPL6 functions during stress response via modulation of expression of various genes involved in diverse functions. For instance, we show that OsNAPL6 is recruited to OsRad51 promoter, activating its expression and leading to more efficient DNA repair and abrogation of programmed cell death under salinity and genotoxic stress conditions. These results suggest that the histone chaperone OsNAPL6 may serve a regulatory role in abiotic stress physiology possibly via modulating nucleosome dynamics at various stress-associated genomic loci. Taken together, our findings establish a hitherto unknown link between histone chaperones and abiotic stress response in plants. PMID:27342307

  20. Robust RNA silencing-mediated resistance to Plum pox virus under variable abiotic and biotic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Nicola, Elisa; Tavazza, Mario; Lucioli, Alessandra; Salandri, Laura; Ilardi, Vincenza

    2014-10-01

    Some abiotic and biotic conditions are known to have a negative impact on post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS), thus representing a potential concern for the production of stable engineered virus resistance traits. However, depending on the strategy followed to achieve PTGS of the transgene, different responses to external conditions can be expected. In the present study, we utilized the Nicotiana benthamiana–Plum pox virus (PPV) pathosystem to evaluate in detail the stability of intron-hairpin(ihp)-mediated virus resistance under conditions known to adversely affect PTGS. The ihp plants grown at low or high temperatures were fully resistant to multiple PPV challenges, different PPV inoculum concentrations and even to a PPV isolate differing from the ihp construct by more than 28% at the nucleotide level. In addition, infections of ihp plants with viruses belonging to Cucumovirus, Potyvirus or Tombusvirus, all known to affect PTGS at different steps, were not able to defeat PPV resistance. Low temperatures did not affect the accumulation of transgenic small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), whereas a clear increase in the amount of siRNAs was observed during infections sustained by Cucumber mosaic virus and Potato virus Y. Our results show that the above stress factors do not represent an important concern for the production,through ihp-PTGS technology, of transgenic plants having robust virus resistance traits.

  1. Brassinosteroid Mediated Cell Wall Remodeling in Grasses under Abiotic Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolan Rao

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Unlike animals, plants, being sessile, cannot escape from exposure to severe abiotic stresses such as extreme temperature and water deficit. The dynamic structure of plant cell wall enables them to undergo compensatory changes, as well as maintain physical strength, with changing environments. Plant hormones known as brassinosteroids (BRs play a key role in determining cell wall expansion during stress responses. Cell wall deposition differs between grasses (Poaceae and dicots. Grass species include many important food, fiber, and biofuel crops. In this article, we focus on recent advances in BR-regulated cell wall biosynthesis and remodeling in response to stresses, comparing our understanding of the mechanisms in grass species with those in the more studied dicots. A more comprehensive understanding of BR-mediated changes in cell wall integrity in grass species will benefit the development of genetic tools to improve crop productivity, fiber quality and plant biomass recalcitrance.

  2. Wheat breeding in abiotic stress conditions of solonetz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrijević Miodrag

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The complex stress environment at locality Kumane (Banat primarily is caused by alkaline soil of solonetz type, but includes the other sources of wheat variability, water-logging and occasional extreme temperatures, as well. In order to obtain wheat varieties that could fulfill the requirement of enhanced tolerance to abiotic stress conditions of alkaline soil a set of wheat varieties was examined in parallel trials in Kumane (solonetz, and at Rimski Šančevi on chernzem (black soil. The multiyear results helped to select usable wheat genetic material among the existing varietal genetic variability. That variability was used as parents in in situ established crosses. The results in segregating F2 offspring surpassed the average parental values for examined traits - plant height, grain number and grain weight per spike. Hence, selecting desirable genetic variability in novel variability through years could lead to wheat plant ideotype capable to bring forth a economically justified yield.

  3. Abiotic stresses as tools for metabolites in microalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paliwal, Chetan; Mitra, Madhusree; Bhayani, Khushbu; Bharadwaj, S V Vamsi; Ghosh, Tonmoy; Dubey, Sonam; Mishra, Sandhya

    2017-11-01

    Microalgae, due to various environmental stresses, constantly tune their cellular mechanisms to cope with them. The accumulation of the stress metabolites is closely related to the changes occurring in their metabolic pathways. The biosynthesis of metabolites can be triggered by a number of abiotic stresses like temperature, salinity, UV- radiation and nutrient deprivation. Although, microalgae have been considered as an alternative sustainable source for nutraceutical products like pigments and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) to cater the requirement of emerging human population but inadequate biomass generation makes the process economically impractical. The stress metabolism for carotenoid regulation in green algae is a 2-step metabolism. There are a few major stresses which can influence the formation of phycobiliprotein in cyanobacteria. This review would primarily focus on the cellular level changes under stress conditions and their corresponding effects on lipids (including omega-3 PUFAs), pigments and polymers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Relations of Tualatin River water temperatures to natural and human-caused factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risley, John C.

    1997-01-01

    Aquatic research has long shown that the survival of cold-water fish, such as salmon and trout, decreases markedly as water temperatures increase above a critical threshold, particularly during sensitive life stages of the fish. In an effort to improve the overall health of aquatic ecosystems, the State of Oregon in 1996 adopted a maximum water-temperature standard of 17.8 degrees Celsius (68 degrees Fahrenheit), based on a 7-day moving average of daily maximum temperatures, for most water bodies in the State. Anthropogenic activities are not permitted to raise the temperature of a water body above this level. In the Tualatin River, a tributary of the Willamette River located in northwestern Oregon, water temperatures periodically surpass this threshold during the low-flow summer and fall months.An investigation by the U.S. Geological Survey quantified existing seasonal, diel, and spatial patterns of water temperatures in the main stem of the river, assessed the relation of water temperatures to natural climatic conditions and anthropogenic factors (such as wastewater-treatment-plant effluent and modification of riparian shading), and assessed the impact of various flow management practices on stream temperatures. Half-hourly temperature measurements were recorded at 13 monitoring sites from river mile (RM) 63.9 to RM 3.4 from May to November of 1994. Four synoptic water- temperature surveys also were conducted in the upstream and downstream vicinities of two wastewater-treatment-plant outfalls. Temperature and streamflow time-series data were used to calibrate two dynamic-flow heat-transfer models, DAFLOW-BLTM (RM 63.9-38.4) and CE-QUAL-W2 (RM 38.4-3.4). Simulations from the models provided a basis for approximating 'natural' historical temperature patterns, performing effluent and riparian-shading sensitivity analyses, and evaluating mitigation management scenarios under 1994 climatic conditions. Findings from the investigation included (1) under 'natural

  5. ROS-mediated abiotic stress-induced programmed cell death in plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petrov, Veselin; Hille, Jacob; Mueller-Rober, Bernd; Gechev, Tsanko S.

    2015-01-01

    During the course of their ontogenesis plants are continuously exposed to a large variety of abiotic stress factors which can damage tissues and jeopardize the survival of the organism unless properly countered. While animals can simply escape and thus evade stressors, plants as sessile organisms

  6. The Arabidopsis PLAT domain protein1 promotes abiotic stress tolerance and growth in tobacco

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hyun, T.K.; Albacete, A.; van der Graaff, E.; Eom, S. H.; Großkinsky, D.K.; Böhm, H.; Janschek, U.; Rim, Y.; Ali, W.; Kim, S.Y.; Roitsch, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 4 (2015), s. 651-663 ISSN 0962-8819 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : Abiotic stress * Biotic stress * Plant growth * AtPLAT1 gene * Tobacco Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.054, year: 2015

  7. Identification of Arabidopsis candidate genes in response to biotic and abiotic stresses using comparative microarrays.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjun Sham

    Full Text Available Plants have evolved with intricate mechanisms to cope with multiple environmental stresses. To adapt with biotic and abiotic stresses, plant responses involve changes at the cellular and molecular levels. The current study was designed to investigate the effects of combinations of different environmental stresses on the transcriptome level of Arabidopsis genome using public microarray databases. We investigated the role of cyclopentenones in mediating plant responses to environmental stress through TGA (TGACG motif-binding factor transcription factor, independently from jasmonic acid. Candidate genes were identified by comparing plants inoculated with Botrytis cinerea or treated with heat, salt or osmotic stress with non-inoculated or non-treated tissues. About 2.5% heat-, 19% salinity- and 41% osmotic stress-induced genes were commonly upregulated by B. cinerea-treatment; and 7.6%, 19% and 48% of genes were commonly downregulated by B. cinerea-treatment, respectively. Our results indicate that plant responses to biotic and abiotic stresses are mediated by several common regulatory genes. Comparisons between transcriptome data from Arabidopsis stressed-plants support our hypothesis that some molecular and biological processes involved in biotic and abiotic stress response are conserved. Thirteen of the common regulated genes to abiotic and biotic stresses were studied in detail to determine their role in plant resistance to B. cinerea. Moreover, a T-DNA insertion mutant of the Responsive to Dehydration gene (rd20, encoding for a member of the caleosin (lipid surface protein family, showed an enhanced sensitivity to B. cinerea infection and drought. Overall, the overlapping of plant responses to abiotic and biotic stresses, coupled with the sensitivity of the rd20 mutant, may provide new interesting programs for increased plant resistance to multiple environmental stresses, and ultimately increases its chances to survive. Future research

  8. Identification of Arabidopsis candidate genes in response to biotic and abiotic stresses using comparative microarrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sham, Arjun; Moustafa, Khaled; Al-Ameri, Salma; Al-Azzawi, Ahmed; Iratni, Rabah; AbuQamar, Synan

    2015-01-01

    Plants have evolved with intricate mechanisms to cope with multiple environmental stresses. To adapt with biotic and abiotic stresses, plant responses involve changes at the cellular and molecular levels. The current study was designed to investigate the effects of combinations of different environmental stresses on the transcriptome level of Arabidopsis genome using public microarray databases. We investigated the role of cyclopentenones in mediating plant responses to environmental stress through TGA (TGACG motif-binding factor) transcription factor, independently from jasmonic acid. Candidate genes were identified by comparing plants inoculated with Botrytis cinerea or treated with heat, salt or osmotic stress with non-inoculated or non-treated tissues. About 2.5% heat-, 19% salinity- and 41% osmotic stress-induced genes were commonly upregulated by B. cinerea-treatment; and 7.6%, 19% and 48% of genes were commonly downregulated by B. cinerea-treatment, respectively. Our results indicate that plant responses to biotic and abiotic stresses are mediated by several common regulatory genes. Comparisons between transcriptome data from Arabidopsis stressed-plants support our hypothesis that some molecular and biological processes involved in biotic and abiotic stress response are conserved. Thirteen of the common regulated genes to abiotic and biotic stresses were studied in detail to determine their role in plant resistance to B. cinerea. Moreover, a T-DNA insertion mutant of the Responsive to Dehydration gene (rd20), encoding for a member of the caleosin (lipid surface protein) family, showed an enhanced sensitivity to B. cinerea infection and drought. Overall, the overlapping of plant responses to abiotic and biotic stresses, coupled with the sensitivity of the rd20 mutant, may provide new interesting programs for increased plant resistance to multiple environmental stresses, and ultimately increases its chances to survive. Future research directions towards a

  9. Estimating respiration of roots in soil: interactions with soil CO2, soil temperature and soil water content

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouma, T.J.; Nielsen, K.F.; Eissenstat, D.M.; Lynch, J.P.

    1997-01-01

    Little information is available on the variability of the dynamics of the actual and observed root respiration rate in relation to abiotic factors. In this study, we describe I) interactions between soil CO2 concentration, temperature, soil water content and root respiration, and II) the effect of

  10. Incorporation of crystallographic temperature factors in the statistical analysis of protein tertiary structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bott, R; Frane, J

    1990-08-01

    A method to identify statistically significant differences between equivalent atoms in two closely related protein X-ray crystallographic structures is described. This method uses the linear relationship found between the logarithm of the distance between equivalent atoms and their mean temperature factor to determine, by linear regression, the expected difference and variance.

  11. Silicon nitride membrane resonators at millikelvin temperatures with quality factors exceeding 10^8

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yuan, M.; Cohen, M.A.; Steele, G.A.

    2015-01-01

    We study the mechanical dissipation of the fundamental mode of millimeter-sized, high quality-factor (Q) metalized silicon nitride membranes at temperatures down to 14?mK using a three-dimensional optomechanical cavity. Below 200?mK, high-Q modes of the membranes show a diverging increase of Q with

  12. Multi-factor fiber coil temperature distribution model of FOG based on distributed fiber temperaturesensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Wenshuai; Shi, Haiyang; Xu, Baoxiang; Ding, Dongfa

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, factors of fiber coil winding asymmetry, winding tension, non-ideal fiber type, adhensive glue type,and bonding way in fiber optic gyroscope could lead to fiber coils have different temperature distribution, and thermal induced nonreciprocity errors(Shupe errors). The influence of fiber coil temperature distribution in different wingding states on the fiber optic gyrocope temperature performance is studied in this paper, a temperatue distribution measure system of fiber coil is established, and the different wingding states coils are tested. Compared to the truly temperature distribution, the temperatue distribution measure model is exact relatively. The measure system can give more symmetrical and more uniform wingding state of fiber coil by meausure the temperatue distribution. Finally, the contrast experiment of fiber optic gyrocope is progressed, the experimental results agree well with the theory

  13. Regulatory roles of serotonin and melatonin in abiotic stress tolerance in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Harmeet; Mukherjee, Soumya; Baluska, Frantisek; Bhatla, Satish C

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the physiological and biochemical basis of abiotic stress tolerance in plants has always been one of the major aspects of research aiming to enhance plant productivity in arid and semi-arid cultivated lands all over the world. Growth of stress-tolerant transgenic crops and associated agricultural benefits through increased productivity, and related ethical issues, are also the major concerns of current research in various laboratories. Interesting data on the regulation of abiotic stress tolerance in plants by serotonin and melatonin has accumulated in the recent past. These two indoleamines possess antioxidative and growth-inducing properties, thus proving beneficial for stress acclimatization. Present review shall focus on the modes of serotonin and melatonin-induced regulation of abiotic stress tolerance in plants. Complex molecular interactions of serotonin and auxin-responsive genes have suggested their antagonistic nature. Data from genomic and metabolomic analyses of melatonin-induced abiotic stress signaling have lead to an understanding of the regulation of stress tolerance through the modulation of transcription factors, enzymes and various signaling molecules. Melatonin, nitric oxide (NO) and calmodulin interactions have provided new avenues for research on the molecular aspects of stress physiology in plants. Investigations on the characterization of receptors associated with serotonin and melatonin responses, are yet to be undertaken in plants. Patenting of biotechnological inventions pertaining to serotonin and melatonin formulations (through soil application or foliar spray) are expected to be some of the possible ways to regulate abiotic stress tolerance in plants. The present review, thus, summarizes the regulatory roles of serotonin and melatonin in modulating the signaling events accompanying abiotic stress in plants.

  14. Evaluation of weldment creep and fatigue strength-reduction factors for elevated-temperature design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corum, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    New explicit weldment strength criteria in the form of creep and fatigue strength-reduction factors were recently introduced into the American Society of Mechanical Engineers Code Case N-47, which governs the design of elevated-temperature nuclear plants components in the United States. This paper provides some of the background and logic for these factors and their use, and it describes the results of a series of long-term, confirmatory, creep-rupture and fatigue tests of simple welded structures. The structures (welded plates and tubes) were made of 316 stainless steel base metal and 16-8-2 weld filler metal. Overall, the results provide further substantiation of the validity of the strength-reduction factor approach for ensuring adequate life in elevated-temperature nuclear component weldments. 16 refs., 7 figs

  15. Evaluation of Abiotic Resource LCIA Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo A. F. Alvarenga

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In a life cycle assessment (LCA, the impacts on resources are evaluated at the area of protection (AoP with the same name, through life cycle impact assessment (LCIA methods. There are different LCIA methods available in literature that assesses abiotic resources, and the goal of this study was to propose recommendations for that impact category. We evaluated 19 different LCIA methods, through two criteria (scientific robustness and scope, divided into three assessment levels, i.e., resource accounting methods (RAM, midpoint, and endpoint. In order to support the assessment, we applied some LCIA methods to a case study of ethylene production. For RAM, the most suitable LCIA method was CEENE (Cumulative Exergy Extraction from the Natural Environment (but SED (Solar Energy Demand and ICEC (Industrial Cumulative Exergy Consumption/ECEC (Ecological Cumulative Exergy Consumption may also be recommended, while the midpoint level was ADP (Abiotic Depletion Potential, and the endpoint level was both the Recipe Endpoint and EPS2000 (Environmental Priority Strategies. We could notice that the assessment for the AoP Resources is not yet well established in the LCA community, since new LCIA methods (with different approaches and assessment frameworks are showing up, and this trend may continue in the future.

  16. Consideration of hot channel factors in design for providing operating margins on coolant channel outlet temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, V.K.; Surendar, C.; Bapat, C.N.

    1994-01-01

    The Indian Pressurized Heavy Water Reactors (IPHWR) are horizontal pressure tube reactors using natural uranium oxide fuel in the form of short (495 mm) clusters. The fuel clusters in the Zr-Nb pressure tubes are cooled by high pressure, high temperature and subcooled circulating heavy water. Coolant flow distribution to individual channels is designed to match the power distribution so as to obtain uniform coolant outlet temperature. However, during operation, the coolant outlet temperature in individual channels deviate from their nominal value due to: tolerances in process design; effects of grid frequency on the pump speed; deviation in channel powers from the nominal values due to on-power fuelling and movement of reactivity devices, and so on. Thus an operating margin, between the highest permissible and nominal coolant outlet temperatures, is required taking into account various hot channel factors that contribute to higher coolant outlet temperatures. The paper discusses the methodology adopted to assess various hot channel factors which would provide optimum operating margins while ensuring sub-cooling. (author)

  17. Temperature dependence of the calibration factor of radon and radium determination in water samples by SSNTD

    CERN Document Server

    Hunyadi, I; Hakl, J; Baradacs, E; Dezso, Z

    1999-01-01

    The sensitivity of a sup 2 sup 2 sup 6 Ra determination method of water samples by SSNTD was measured as a function of storage temperature during exposure. The method is based on an etched track type radon monitor, which is closed into a gas permeable foil and is immersed in the water sample. The sample is sealed in a glass vessel and stored for an exposure time of 10-30 days. The sensitivity increased more than a factor of two when the storage temperature was raised from 2 deg. C to 30 deg. C. Temperature dependence of the partition coefficient of radon between water and air provides explanation for this dependence. For practical radio- analytical application the temperature dependence of the calibration factor is given by fitting the sensitivity data obtained by measuring sup 2 sup 2 sup 6 Ra standard solutions (in the activity concentration range of 0.1-48.5 kBq m sup - sup 3) at different storage temperatures.

  18. Methane clumped isotopes in the Songliao Basin (China): New insights into abiotic vs. biotic hydrocarbon formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuai, Yanhua; Etiope, Giuseppe; Zhang, Shuichang; Douglas, Peter M. J.; Huang, Ling; Eiler, John M.

    2018-01-01

    Abiotic hydrocarbon gas, typically generated in serpentinized ultramafic rocks and crystalline shields, has important implications for the deep biosphere, petroleum systems, the carbon cycle and astrobiology. Distinguishing abiotic gas (produced by chemical reactions like Sabatier synthesis) from biotic gas (produced from degradation of organic matter or microbial activity) is sometimes challenging because their isotopic and molecular composition may overlap. Abiotic gas has been recognized in numerous locations on the Earth, although there are no confirmed instances where it is the dominant source of commercially valuable quantities in reservoir rocks. The deep hydrocarbon reservoirs of the Xujiaweizi Depression in the Songliao Basin (China) have been considered to host significant amounts of abiotic methane. Here we report methane clumped-isotope values (Δ18) and the isotopic composition of C1-C3 alkanes, CO2 and helium of five gas samples collected from those Xujiaweizi deep reservoirs. Some geochemical features of these samples resemble previously suggested identifiers of abiotic gas (13C-enriched CH4; decrease in 13C/12C ratio with increasing carbon number for the C1-C4 alkanes; abundant, apparently non-biogenic CO2; and mantle-derived helium). However, combining these constraints with new measurements of the clumped-isotope composition of methane and careful consideration of the geological context, suggests that the Xujiaweizi depression gas is dominantly, if not exclusively, thermogenic and derived from over-mature source rocks, i.e., from catagenesis of buried organic matter at high temperatures. Methane formation temperatures suggested by clumped-isotopes (167-213 °C) are lower than magmatic gas generation processes and consistent with the maturity of local source rocks. Also, there are no geological conditions (e.g., serpentinized ultramafic rocks) that may lead to high production of H2 and thus abiotic production of CH4 via CO2 reduction. We propose

  19. Investigation of Factors Affecting Body Temperature Changes During Routine Clinical Head Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myeong Seong

    2016-01-01

    Background Pulsed radiofrequency (RF) magnetic fields, required to produce magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) signals from tissue during the MRI procedure have been shown to heat tissues. Objectives To investigate the relationship between body temperature rise and the RF power deposited during routine clinical MRI procedures, and to determine the correlation between this effect and the body’s physiological response. Patients and Methods We investigated 69 patients from the Korean national cancer center to identify the main factors that contribute to an increase in body temperature (external factors and the body’s response) during a clinical brain MRI. A routine protocol sequence of MRI scans (1.5 T and 3.0 T) was performed. The patient’s tympanic temperature was recorded before and immediately after the MRI procedure and compared with changes in variables related to the body’s physiological response to heat. Results Our investigation of the physiological response to RF heating indicated a link between increasing age and body temperature. A higher increase in body temperature was observed in older patients after a 3.0-T MRI (r = 0.07, P = 0.29 for 1.5-T MRI; r = 0.45, P = 0.002 for 3.0-T MRI). The relationship between age and body heat was related to the heart rate (HR) and changes in HR during the MRI procedure; a higher RF power combined with a reduction in HR resulted in an increase in body temperature. Conclusion A higher magnetic field strength and a decrease in the HR resulted in an increase in body temperature during the MRI procedure. PMID:27895872

  20. Silicon nitride membrane resonators at millikelvin temperatures with quality factors exceeding 108

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Mingyun; Cohen, Martijn A.; Steele, Gary A.

    2015-12-01

    We study the mechanical dissipation of the fundamental mode of millimeter-sized, high quality-factor (Q) metalized silicon nitride membranes at temperatures down to 14 mK using a three-dimensional optomechanical cavity. Below 200 mK, high-Q modes of the membranes show a diverging increase of Q with decreasing temperature, reaching Q =1.27 ×108 at 14 mK, an order of magnitude higher than that reported before. The ultra-low dissipation makes the membranes highly attractive for the study of optomechanics in the quantum regime, as well as for other applications of optomechanics such as microwave to optical photon conversion.

  1. Soil moisture and biogeochemical factors influence the distribution of annual Bromus species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayne Belnap; John M. Stark; Benjamin M. Rau; Edith B. Allen; Susan Phillips

    2016-01-01

    Abiotic factors have a strong influence on where annual Bromus species are found. At the large regional scale, temperature and precipitation extremes determine the boundaries of Bromus occurrence. At the more local scale, soil characteristics and climate influence distribution, cover, and performance. In hot, dry, summer-rainfall-dominated deserts (Sonoran, Chihuahuan...

  2. DREB1/CBF transcription factors: their structure, function and role in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2012-12-10

    Dec 10, 2012 ... growth due to decline in photosynthesis and nonavailability of nutrients as soil dries. Similarly, salinity leads to phys- iological dryness. Chilling and freezing temperatures can ... and stress-responsive gene expres-. Keywords. abiotic stress; transcription factors; DREB1/CBF. Journal of Genetics, Vol. 91, No.

  3. Impact Factors Analysis of the Hot Side Temperature of Thermoelectric Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xingyu; Tan, Gangfeng; Yang, Bo

    2018-03-01

    The thermoelectric generator (TEG) plays a crucial role in converting the waste energy of exhaust into electricity, which ensures energy saving and increased fuel utilization efficiency. In the urban driving cycle, frequent vehicle operation, like deceleration or acceleration, results in continuous variation of the exhaust temperature. In order to make the operating performance stable, and to weaken the adverse effects of the frequent variation of the exhaust temperature on the lifetime and work efficiency of the electronic components of TEG systems, the output voltage of the thermoelectric (TE) module should stay more stable. This article provides an improved method for the temperature stability of the TE material hot side based on sandwiching material. From the view of the TEG system's average output power and the hot side temperature stability of the TE material, the analyzing factors, including the fluctuation frequency of the exhaust temperature and the physical properties and thickness of the sandwiching material are evaluated, respectively, in the sine and new European driving cycle (NEDC) fluctuation condition of the exhaust temperature. The results show few effects of sandwiching material thickness with excellent thermal conductivity on the average output power. During the 150-170 s of the NEDC test condition, the minimum hot side temperatures with a BeO ceramic thickness of 2 mm and 6 mm are, respectively, 537.19 K and 685.70 K, which shows the obvious effect on the hot side temperature stability of the BeO ceramic thickness in the process of acceleration and deceleration of vehicle driving.

  4. temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Polt

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In-situ X-ray diffraction was applied to isotactic polypropylene with a high volume fraction of α-phase (α-iPP while it has been compressed at temperatures below and above its glass transition temperature Tg. The diffraction patterns were evaluated by the Multi-reflection X-ray Profile Analysis (MXPA method, revealing microstructural parameters such as the density of dislocations and the size of coherently scattering domains (CSD-size. A significant difference in the development of the dislocation density was found compared to compression at temperatures above Tg, pointing at a different plastic deformation mechanism at these temperatures. Based on the individual evolutions of the dislocation density and CSD-size observed as a function of compressive strain, suggestions for the deformation mechanisms occurring below and above Tg are made.

  5. Generation of RNA in abiotic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Mauro, Ernesto

    Generation of RNA in abiotic conditions. Ernesto Di Mauro Dipartimento di Genetica Bi-ologia Molecolare, Universit` "Sapienza" Roma, Italy. a At least four conditions must be satisfied for the spontaneous generation of (pre)-genetic poly-mers: 1) availability of precursors that are activated enough to spontaneously polymerize. Preliminary studies showed that (a) nucleic bases and acyclonucleosides can be synthesized from formamide H2NCOH by simply heating with prebiotically available mineral catalysts [last reviewed in (1)], and that b) nucleic bases can be phosphorylated in every possible posi-tion [2'; 3'; 5'; cyclic 2',3'; cyclic 3',5' (2)]. The higher stability of the cyclic forms allows their accumulation. 2) A polymerization mechanism. A reaction showing the formation of RNA polymers starting from prebiotically plausible precursors (3',5' cyclic GMP and 3', 5'cyclic AMP) was recently reported (3). Polymerization in these conditions is thermodynamically up-hill and an equilibrium is attained that limits the maximum length of the polymer produced to about 40 nucleotides for polyG and 100 nucleotides for polyA. 3) Ligation of the synthesized oligomers. If this type of reaction could occur according to a terminal-joining mechanism and could generate canonical 3',5' phosphodiester bonds, exponential growth would be obtained of the generated oligomers. This type of reaction has been reported (4) , limited to homogeneous polyA sequences and leading to the production of polyA dimers and tetramers. What is still missing are: 4) mechanisms that provide the proof of principle for the generation of sequence complexity. We will show evidence for two mechanisms providing this proof of principle for simple complementary sequences. Namely: abiotic sequence complementary-driven terminal ligation and sequence-complementary terminal growth. In conclusion: all the steps leading to the generation of RNA in abiotic conditions are satisfied. (1) R Saladino, C Crestini, F

  6. Proline accumulation is a general response to abiotic stress in the date palm tree (Phoenix dactylifera L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaish, M W

    2015-08-19

    Plants exposed to certain abiotic stress conditions tend to produce the amino acid proline, which acts as an active osmolyte, a metal chelator, an antioxidant, and a signaling molecule. There is increasing evidence that proline accumulates in plants due to a wide range of abiotic stress, in particular high soil salinity and drought. Therefore, proline content is often used as a marker-assisted breeding tool aimed at improving drought and salinity tolerance. In this study, it was investigated whether proline accumulation in date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) seedlings occurs solely due to high salinity and drought stresses or due to other unspecified abiotic stresses, including salinity and salinity shock, drought, extreme temperatures, and abscisic acid. The free proline assays revealed that this amino acid over-accumulated in the roots and leaves of each stress-treated plant, and was remarkably high when leaves were exposed to suboptimum temperatures and salinity stress. These results indicate that the production of proline is a common response to various abiotic stresses and its differential accumulation cannot be used as a molecular marker in date palm breeding programs aimed at improving drought or salinity tolerance traits in date palms. This conclusion is consistent with the theory that the molecular outcomes of abiotic stresses are often non-specific.

  7. An experimental test of well-described vegetation patterns across slope aspects using woodland herb transplants and manipulated abiotic drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Robert J

    2010-03-01

    *The ubiquitous transition of plant communities across slope aspects is a well-described, but rarely tested, ecological dynamic. Aspect position is often used as a proxy for microclimate changes in moisture, light and temperature, but these abiotic drivers are seldom decoupled and very rarely manipulated across slope aspects. *To investigate the mechanisms and demographic stages driving the observed distribution patterns of two woodland herbs in the southeastern USA, seeds and adults were transplanted across north- and south-facing slopes, and moisture and light were experimentally manipulated. *Stage- and species-specific abiotic responses resulted in similar landscape-level patterning for Hexastylis arifolia and Hepatica nobilis, but the underlying abiotic drivers were unique. Adult rather than seed survival best explained the natural distributions across slope aspects, and Hexastylis arifolia was limited by higher temperature, whereas Hepatica nobilis was limited by lower soil moisture. *The stage- and species-specific responses indicated that the use of slope aspect to explain plant distributions not only obfuscates explanatory mechanisms, but probably undermines the portability of results. As abiotic drivers, not topographical proxies, are projected to shift with global climate change, distribution research requires direct abiotic data in association with key demographic stages rather than topographical proxies.

  8. Density mediates grasshopper performance in response to temperature manipulation and spider predation in tallgrass prairie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laws, A N; Joern, A

    2017-04-01

    Species interactions are often context-dependent, where outcomes require an understanding of influences among multiple biotic and abiotic factors. However, it remains unclear how abiotic factors such as temperature combine with important biotic factors such as density-dependent food limitation and predation to influence species interactions. Using a native grassland - grasshopper - wolf spider model food chain in tallgrass prairie, we conducted a manipulative field experiment to examine how predator-prey interactions respond to manipulations of temperature, grasshopper density, and food chain length. We find that grasshopper performance responses to temperature and predator treatments were density dependent. At high densities, grasshopper survival decreased with increased temperature when no spiders were present. When spiders were present, grasshopper survival was reduced, and this effect was strongest in the cooled treatment. In contrast, grasshopper survival did not vary significantly with spider presence or among temperature treatments at low grasshopper densities. Our results indicate that context-dependent species interactions are common and highlight the importance of understanding how and when key biotic and abiotic factors combine to influence species interactions.

  9. Determination of the PO2 temperature blood factor from oxygen dissociation curves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hérigault, R A; Soulard, C D; Teisseire, B P; Laurent, D N

    1983-01-01

    The variation with saturation of the temperature coefficient of PO2 in human blood (delta log PO2/delta T) was determined by continuous recording of the oxygen dissociation curve (ODC), at 37 degrees C and 25 degrees C, on the same blood samples. PCO2 and pH were held constant through an ODC run, and PCO2 was reduced at 25 degrees C to the value measured by anaerobic cooling of the same sample. delta log PO2/delta T was calculated from isosaturation points on the 37 and 25 degrees C curves. The temperature coefficient was also computed as an independent check on this method by determination of the effects of temperature (25, 30, 37 and 40 degrees C) on hemoglobin ligand interaction: fixed acid Bohr effect (delta log PO2/delta pH), carbamino-formation (delta log PO2/delta log PCO2) and hemoglobin oxygen affinity. The values of delta log PO2/delta T ratio obtained from the two different approaches were found to be in good agreement. The coefficient decreased when [H+] concentration was increased. A linear relationship between the Bohr factor and the temperature was found: delta log PO2/delta pH = 0.00267 T-0.520 (r = 0.85; n = 40) At 25 degrees C, the carbamino-formation was one order of magnitude lower than at 37 degrees C. Acid-base state and saturation value appeared to be major determinant factors for the temperature correction coefficient to be applied to blood PO2 values measured at standard (37 degrees C) temperature.

  10. Factores bióticos y abióticos que determinan la seroprevalencia de anticuerpos contra Trypanosoma Cruzi en el municipio de Palmar de Bravo, Puebla, México Biotic and abiotic determinants of seroprevalence of antibodies against Trypanosoma cruzi in Palmar de Bravo, Puebla, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca Sosa-Jurado

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar la prevalencia de anticuerpos contra Trypanosoma cruzi y su relación con los factores bióticos y abióticos en Palmar de Bravo, Puebla, México. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Estudio transversal efectuado en agosto de 2000 a septiembre de 2001, con una muestra aleatoria simple de 390 voluntarios residentes en Palmar de Bravo, Puebla, México. Se hizo determinación de anticuerpos contra T cruzi con técnicas serológicas validadas, búsqueda del vector y de reservorios domésticos, así como determinación de asociación entre caso positivo y factores de riesgo bióticos y abióticos. El análisis estadístico consistió en índice Kappa para las pruebas diagnósticas, empleando tabla de contingencia de 2 x 2; ji cuadrada corregida de Yates, exacta de Fisher y la razón de posibilidad para estimar la significancia de la asociación de factores bióticos y abióticos. RESULTADOS: La seroprevalencia fue de 4% en la población humana estudiada y de los reservorios (equinos, porcinos y caninos, sólo 10% de los caninos resultaron reactivos. Los vectores identificados fueron T barberi y T pallidipennis, con índice de dispersión e índice de colonización de 55 y 40%, respectivamente. Los factores de riesgo más importantes fueron la altitud (>2 150 y OBJECTIVE: To establish the relationship between seroprevalence for antibodies against Trypanosoma cruzi and its relationship with biotic and abiotic factors. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted between August 2000 and September 2001. The study population consisted of a simple random sample of 390 volunteers residing in Palmar de Bravo, Puebla, Mexico. Sample and data collection procedures included assaying antibodies against T cruzi with validated assays, and searching for domestic reservoirs and triatomine bugs. The relationship between biotic and abiotic factors with seropositivity was assessed. Statistical analysis was conducted using Kappa values for

  11. Matematical modeling of galophytic plants productivity taking into account the temperature factor and soil salinity level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natalia, Slyusar; Pisman, Tamara; Pechurkin, Nikolai S.

    Among the most challenging tasks faced by contemporary ecology is modeling of biological production process in different plant communities. The difficulty of the task is determined by the complexity of the study material. Models showing the influence of climate and climate change on plant growth, which would also involve soil site parameters, could be of both practical and theoretical interest. In this work a mathematical model has been constructed to describe the growth dynamics of different plant communities of halophytic meadows as dependent upon the temperature factor and soil salinity level, which could be further used to predict yields of these plant communities. The study was performed on plants of halophytic meadows in the coastal area of Lake of the Republic of Khakasia in 2004 - 2006. Every plant community grew on the soil of a different level of salinity - the amount of the solid residue of the saline soil aqueous extract. The mathematical model was analyzed using field data of 2004 and 2006, the years of contrasting air temperatures. Results of model investigations show that there is a correlation between plant growth and the temperature of the air for plant communities growing on soils containing the lowest (0.1Thus, results of our study, in which we used a mathematical model describing the development of plant communities of halophytic meadows and field measurements, suggest that both climate conditions (temperature) and ecological factors of the plants' habitat (soil salinity level) should be taken into account when constructing models for predicting crop yields.

  12. On two special values of temperature factor in hypersonic flow stagnation point

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilchenko, G. G.; Bilchenko, N. G.

    2018-03-01

    The hypersonic aircraft permeable cylindrical and spherical surfaces laminar boundary layer heat and mass transfer control mathematical model properties are investigated. The nonlinear algebraic equations systems are obtained for two special values of temperature factor in the hypersonic flow stagnation point. The mappings bijectivity between heat and mass transfer local parameters and controls is established. The computation experiments results are presented: the domains of allowed values “heat-friction” are obtained.

  13. Advances in genetic engineering for plants abiotic stress control ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Consequently, engineering genes that protect and maintain the function and structure of cellular components can enhance tolerance to stress. This review presents principal methods adapted in the control of plants abiotic stresses including recent advances in using transgenes for the improvement of abiotic stress tolerance ...

  14. Additional insights into the adaptation of cotton plants under abiotic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abiotic stress is the primary cause of crop losses worldwide. In addition to protein coding genes, microRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as important players in plant stress responses. Though miRNAs are key in regulating many aspects of plant developmental plasticity under abiotic stresses, very few information are available ...

  15. Uptake of inorganic phosphate is a limiting factor for Saccharomyces cerevisiae during growth at low temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicent, Isabel; Navarro, Alfonso; Mulet, Jose M; Sharma, Sukesh; Serrano, Ramón

    2015-05-01

    The fermenting ability of Saccharomyces at low temperatures is crucial for the development of alcoholic beverages, but the key factors for the cold tolerance of yeast are not well known. In this report, we present the results of a screening for genes able to confer cold tolerance by overexpression in a laboratory yeast strain auxotrophic for tryptophan. We identified genes of tryptophan permeases (TAT1 and TAT2), suggesting that the first limiting factor in the growth of tryptophan auxotrophic yeast at low temperatures is tryptophan uptake. This fact is of little relevance to industrial strains which are prototrophic for tryptophan. Then, we screened for genes able to confer growth at low temperatures in tryptophan-rich media and found several genes related to phosphate uptake (PHO84, PHO87, PHO90 and GTR1). This suggests that without tryptophan limitation, uptake of inorganic phosphate becomes the limiting factor. We have found that overexpression of the previously uncharacterized ORF YCR015c/CTO1 increases the uptake of inorganic phosphate. Also, genes involved in ergosterol biosynthesis (NSG2) cause improvement of growth at 10°C, dependent on tryptophan uptake, while the gluconeogenesis gene PCK1 and the proline biosynthesis gene PRO2 cause an improvement in growth at 10°C, independent of tryptophan and phosphate uptake. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Unraveling the role of fungal symbionts in plant abiotic stress tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Lamabam Peter

    2011-01-01

    Fungal symbionts have been found to be associated with every plant studied in the natural ecosystem, where they colonize and reside entirely or partially in the internal tissues of their host plant. Fungal endophytes can express/form a range of different lifestyle/relationships with different host including symbiotic, mutualistic, commensalistic and parasitic in response to host genotype and environmental factors. In mutualistic association fungal endophyte can enhance growth, increase reproductive success and confer biotic and abiotic stress tolerance to its host plant. Since abiotic stress such as, drought, high soil salinity, heat, cold, oxidative stress and heavy metal toxicity is the common adverse environmental conditions that affect and limit crop productivity worldwide. It may be a promising alternative strategy to exploit fungal endophytes to overcome the limitations to crop production brought by abiotic stress. There is an increasing interest in developing the potential biotechnological applications of fungal endophytes for improving plant stress tolerance and sustainable production of food crops. Here we have described the fungal symbioses, fungal symbionts and their role in abiotic stress tolerance. A putative mechanism of stress tolerance by symbionts has also been covered. PMID:21512319

  17. Coral Reef Functioning Along a Cross‐shelf Environmental Gradient: Abiotic and Biotic Drivers of Coral Reef Growth in the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Roik, Anna

    2016-06-01

    Despite high temperature and salinity conditions that challenge reef growth in other oceans, the Red Sea maintains amongst the most biodiverse and productive coral reefs worldwide. It is therefore an important region for the exploration of coral reef functioning, and expected to contribute valuable insights towards the understanding of coral reefs in challenging environments. This dissertation assessed the baseline variability of in situ abiotic conditions (temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, and total alkalinity, among others) in the central Red Sea and highlights these environmental regimes in a global context. Further, focus was directed on biotic factors (biofilm community dynamics, calcification and bioerosion), which underlie reef growth processes and are crucial for maintaining coral reef functioning and ecosystem services. Using full‐year data from an environmental cross‐shelf gradient, the dynamic interplay of abiotic and biotic factors was investigated. In situ observations demonstrate that central Red Sea coral reefs were highly variable on spatial, seasonal, and diel scales, and exhibited comparably high temperature, high salinity, and low dissolved oxygen levels, which on the one hand reflect future ocean predictions. Under these conditions epilithic bacterial and algal assemblages were mainly driven by variables (i.e., temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen) which are predicted to change strongly in the progression of global climate change, implying an influential bottom up effect on reef‐building communities. On the other hand, measured alkalinity and other carbonate chemistry value were close to the estimates of preindustrial global ocean surface water and thus in favor of reef growth processes. Despite this beneficial carbonate chemistry, calcification and carbonate budgets in the reefs were not higher than in other coral reef regions. In this regard, seasonal calcification patterns suggest that summer temperatures may be exceeding the optima

  18. Using an artificial neural network to predict carbon dioxide compressibility factor at high pressure and temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohagheghian, Erfan [Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John' s (Canada); Zafarian-Rigaki, Habiballah; Motamedi-Ghahfarrokhi, Yaser; Hemmati-Sarapardeh, Abdolhossein [Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Carbon dioxide injection, which is widely used as an enhanced oil recovery (EOR) method, has the potential of being coupled with CO{sub 2} sequestration and reducing the emission of greenhouse gas. Hence, knowing the compressibility factor of carbon dioxide is of a vital significance. Compressibility factor (Z-factor) is traditionally measured through time consuming, expensive and cumbersome experiments. Hence, developing a fast, robust and accurate model for its estimation is necessary. In this study, a new reliable model on the basis of feed forward artificial neural networks is presented to predict CO{sub 2} compressibility factor. Reduced temperature and pressure were selected as the input parameters of the proposed model. To evaluate and compare the results of the developed model with pre-existing models, both statistical and graphical error analyses were employed. The results indicated that the proposed model is more reliable and accurate compared to pre-existing models in a wide range of temperature (up to 1,273.15 K) and pressure (up to 140MPa). Furthermore, by employing the relevancy factor, the effect of pressure and temprature on the Z-factor of CO{sub 2} was compared for below and above the critical pressure of CO{sub 2}, and the physcially expected trends were observed. Finally, to identify the probable outliers and applicability domain of the proposed ANN model, both numerical and graphical techniques based on Leverage approach were performed. The results illustrated that only 1.75% of the experimental data points were located out of the applicability domain of the proposed model. As a result, the developed model is reliable for the prediction of CO{sub 2} compressibility factor.

  19. Enhancing crop resilience to combined abiotic and biotic stress through the dissection of physiological and molecular crosstalk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christos eKissoudis

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Plants growing in their natural habitats are often challenged simultaneously by multiple stress factors, both abiotic and biotic. Research has so far been limited to responses to individual stresses, and understanding of adaptation to combinatorial stress is limited, but indicative of non-additive interactions. Omics data analysis and functional characterization of individual genes has revealed a convergence of signalling pathways for abiotic and biotic stress adaptation. Taking into account that most data originate from imposition of individual stress factors, this review summarizes these findings in a physiological context, following the pathogenesis timeline and highlighting potential differential interactions occurring between abiotic and biotic stress signalling across the different cellular compartments and at the whole plant level. Potential effects of abiotic stress on resistance components such as extracellular receptor proteins, R-genes and systemic acquired resistance will be elaborated, as well as crosstalk at the levels of hormone, ROS and redox signalling. Breeding targets and strategies are proposed focusing on either manipulation and deployment of individual common regulators such as transcription factors or pyramiding of non- (negatively interacting components such as R-genes with abiotic stress resistance genes. We propose that dissection of broad spectrum stress tolerance conferred by priming chemicals may provide an insight on stress cross regulation and additional candidate genes for improving crop performance under combined stress. Validation of the proposed strategies in lab and field experiments is a first step towards the goal of achieving tolerance to combinatorial stress in crops.

  20. Factors affecting process temperature and biogas production in small-scale rural biogas digesters in winter in northern Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cuong, Pham Hung; Vu, C.C.; Sommer, Sven G.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the main factors influencing digester temperature and methods to reduce heat losses during the cold season in the subtropics. Four composite digesters (two insulated and two uninsulated) were buried underground to measure their internal temperature (°C) at a depth of 140 cm...... and the influent chemical composition was measured monthly during the whole experimental period. Seasonal variations in air temperature significantly affected the temperature in the soil, mixing tank and digester. Consequently, biogas production, which is temperature dependent, was influenced by the season....... The main factors determining the internal temperature in the digesters were insulation with Styrofoam, air temperature and temperature of slurry in the mixing tank. Biogas production is low due to the cold climate conditions in winter in Northern Vietnam, but the study proved that storing slurry...

  1. Emergence of entanglement with temperature and time in factorization-surface states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanda, Titas; Das, Tamoghna; Sadhukhan, Debasis; Pal, Amit Kumar; SenDe, Aditi; Sen, Ujjwal

    2018-01-01

    There exist zero-temperature states in quantum many-body systems that are fully factorized, thereby possessing vanishing entanglement, and hence being of no use as resource in quantum information processing tasks. Such states can become useful for quantum protocols when the temperature of the system is increased, and when the system is allowed to evolve under either the influence of an external environment, or a closed unitary evolution driven by its own Hamiltonian due to a sudden change in the system parameters. Using the one-dimensional anisotropic XY model in a uniform and an alternating transverse magnetic field, we show that entanglement of the thermal states, corresponding to the factorization points in the space of the system parameters, revives once or twice with increasing temperature. We also study the closed unitary evolution of the quantum spin chain driven out of equilibrium when the external magnetic fields are turned off, and show that considerable entanglement is generated during the dynamics, when the initial state has vanishing entanglement. Interestingly, we find that creation of entanglement for a pair of spins is possible when the system is made open to an external heat bath, interacting with the system through that spin-pair via a repetitive quantum interaction.

  2. A pedestal temperature model with self-consistent calculation of safety factor and magnetic shear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onjun, T; Siriburanon, T; Onjun, O

    2008-01-01

    A pedestal model based on theory-motivated models for the pedestal width and the pedestal pressure gradient is developed for the temperature at the top of the H-mode pedestal. The pedestal width model based on magnetic shear and flow shear stabilization is used in this study, where the pedestal pressure gradient is assumed to be limited by first stability of infinite n ballooning mode instability. This pedestal model is implemented in the 1.5D BALDUR integrated predictive modeling code, where the safety factor and magnetic shear are solved self-consistently in both core and pedestal regions. With the self-consistently approach for calculating safety factor and magnetic shear, the effect of bootstrap current can be correctly included in the pedestal model. The pedestal model is used to provide the boundary conditions in the simulations and the Multi-mode core transport model is used to describe the core transport. This new integrated modeling procedure of the BALDUR code is used to predict the temperature and density profiles of 26 H-mode discharges. Simulations are carried out for 13 discharges in the Joint European Torus and 13 discharges in the DIII-D tokamak. The average root-mean-square deviation between experimental data and the predicted profiles of the temperature and the density, normalized by their central values, is found to be about 14%

  3. Relationships Between Plankton Primary Productivity, Biotic and Abiotic Variables of Carp Fish Ponds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doychin I. Terziyski

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Experiments measuring primary productivity, biotic and abiotic environmental factors in carp ponds were carried out within three consecutive years (2004, 2005 and 2006. The aim of the study was investigation of the relations between the biotic and abiotic variables, their influence on the primary productivity and the effect of manuring on the fish ponds. The influence of environmental factors onto primary productivity was investigated in ponds with and without organic manure. Nitrate nitrogen demonstrated the closest relationship with the gross primary productivity followed by chlorophyll a level and N/P ratio in manured ponds. When no manuring was applied, the importance of the nutrients along the food chain: nutrients– phytoplankton – zooplankton decreased. Trends, which can be used for increasing of productivity in carp ponds, were obtained. They give indications to improve the existing practices for better management of production efficiency and water quality in fish farms.

  4. Overexpression of small heat shock protein LimHSP16.45 in Arabidopsis enhances tolerance to abiotic stresses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changjun Mu

    Full Text Available Small heat shock proteins (smHSPs play important and extensive roles in plant defenses against abiotic stresses. We cloned a gene for a smHSP from the David Lily (Lilium davidii (E. H. Wilson Raffill var. Willmottiae, which we named LimHSP16.45 based on its protein molecular weight. Its expression was induced by many kinds of abiotic stresses in both the lily and transgenic plants of Arabidopsis. Heterologous expression enhanced cell viability of the latter under high temperatures, high salt, and oxidative stress, and heat shock granules (HSGs formed under heat or salinity treatment. Assays of enzymes showed that LimHSP16.45 overexpression was related to greater activity by superoxide dismutase and catalase in transgenic lines. Therefore, we conclude that heterologous expression can protect plants against abiotic stresses by preventing irreversible protein aggregation, and by scavenging cellular reactive oxygen species.

  5. Biotic and abiotic stress tolerance in transgenic tomatoes by constitutive expression of S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazarika, Pranjal; Rajam, Manchikatla Venkat

    2011-04-01

    Recent findings have implicated the role of polyamines (putrescine, spermidine and spermine) in stress tolerance. Therefore, the present work was carried out with the goal of generating transgenic tomato plants with human S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase (samdc) gene, a key gene involved in biosynthesis of polyamines, viz. spermidine and spermine and evaluating the transgenic plants for tolerance to both biotic and abiotic stresses. Several putative transgenic tomato plants with normal phenotype were obtained, and the transgene integration and expression was validated by PCR, Southern blot analysis and RT-PCR analysis, respectively. The transgenic plants exhibited high levels of polyamines as compared to the untransformed control plants. They also showed increased resistance against two important fungal pathogens of tomato, the wilt causing Fusarium oxysporum and the early blight causing Alternaria solani and tolerance to multiple abiotic stresses such as salinity, drought, cold and high temperature. These results suggest that engineering polyamine accumulation can confer tolerance to both biotic and abiotic stresses in plants.

  6. Factors Affecting Process Temperature and Biogas Production in Small-scale Rural Biogas Digesters in Winter in Northern Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. H. Pham

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the main factors influencing digester temperature and methods to reduce heat losses during the cold season in the subtropics. Four composite digesters (two insulated and two uninsulated were buried underground to measure their internal temperature (°C at a depth of 140 cm and 180 cm, biogas production and methane (CH4 concentration in biogas from August to February. In parallel the temperature of the air (100 cm above ground, in the slurry mixing tank and in the soil (10, 100, 140, and 180 cm depth was measured by thermocouple. The influent amount was measured daily and the influent chemical composition was measured monthly during the whole experimental period. Seasonal variations in air temperature significantly affected the temperature in the soil, mixing tank and digester. Consequently, biogas production, which is temperature dependent, was influenced by the season. The main factors determining the internal temperature in the digesters were insulation with Styrofoam, air temperature and temperature of slurry in the mixing tank. Biogas production is low due to the cold climate conditions in winter in Northern Vietnam, but the study proved that storing slurry in the mixing tank until its temperature peak at around 14:00 h will increase the temperature in the digester and thus increase potential biogas production. Algorithms are provided linking digester temperature to the temperature of slurry in the mixing tank.

  7. Abiotic and biotic determinants of leaf carbon exchange capacity from tropical to high boreal biomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, N. G.; Dukes, J. S.

    2016-12-01

    Photosynthesis and respiration on land represent the two largest fluxes of carbon dioxide between the atmosphere and the Earth's surface. As such, the Earth System Models that are used to project climate change are high sensitive to these processes. Studies have found that much of this uncertainty is due to the formulation and parameterization of plant photosynthetic and respiratory capacity. Here, we quantified the abiotic and biotic factors that determine photosynthetic and respiratory capacity at large spatial scales. Specifically, we measured the maximum rate of Rubisco carboxylation (Vcmax), the maximum rate of Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate regeneration (Jmax), and leaf dark respiration (Rd) in >600 individuals of 98 plant species from the tropical to high boreal biomes of Northern and Central America. We also measured a bevy of covariates including plant functional type, leaf nitrogen content, short- and long-term climate, leaf water potential, plant size, and leaf mass per area. We found that plant functional type and leaf nitrogen content were the primary determinants of Vcmax, Jmax, and Rd. Mean annual temperature and mean annual precipitation were not significant predictors of these rates. However, short-term climatic variables, specifically soil moisture and air temperature over the previous 25 days, were significant predictors and indicated that heat and soil moisture deficits combine to reduce photosynthetic capacity and increase respiratory capacity. Finally, these data were used as a model benchmarking tool for the Community Land Model version 4.5 (CLM 4.5). The benchmarking analyses determined errors in the leaf nitrogen allocation scheme of CLM 4.5. Under high leaf nitrogen levels within a plant type the model overestimated Vcmax and Jmax. This result suggested that plants were altering their nitrogen allocation patterns when leaf nitrogen levels were high, an effect that was not being captured by the model. These data, taken with models in mind

  8. Downscaling Land Surface Temperature in Complex Regions by Using Multiple Scale Factors with Adaptive Thresholds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yingbao; Li, Xiaolong; Pan, Xin; Zhang, Yong; Cao, Chen

    2017-04-01

    Many downscaling algorithms have been proposed to address the issue of coarse-resolution land surface temperature (LST) derived from available satellite-borne sensors. However, few studies have focused on improving LST downscaling in urban areas with several mixed surface types. In this study, LST was downscaled by a multiple linear regression model between LST and multiple scale factors in mixed areas with three or four surface types. The correlation coefficients (CCs) between LST and the scale factors were used to assess the importance of the scale factors within a moving window. CC thresholds determined which factors participated in the fitting of the regression equation. The proposed downscaling approach, which involves an adaptive selection of the scale factors, was evaluated using the LST derived from four Landsat 8 thermal imageries of Nanjing City in different seasons. Results of the visual and quantitative analyses show that the proposed approach achieves relatively satisfactory downscaling results on 11 August, with coefficient of determination and root-mean-square error of 0.87 and 1.13 °C, respectively. Relative to other approaches, our approach shows the similar accuracy and the availability in all seasons. The best (worst) availability occurred in the region of vegetation (water). Thus, the approach is an efficient and reliable LST downscaling method. Future tasks include reliable LST downscaling in challenging regions and the application of our model in middle and low spatial resolutions.

  9. Chemical Priming of Plants Against Multiple Abiotic Stresses: Mission Possible?

    KAUST Repository

    Savvides, Andreas

    2015-12-15

    Crop plants are subjected to multiple abiotic stresses during their lifespan that greatly reduce productivity and threaten global food security. Recent research suggests that plants can be primed by chemical compounds to better tolerate different abiotic stresses. Chemical priming is a promising field in plant stress physiology and crop stress management. We review here promising chemical agents such as sodium nitroprusside, hydrogen peroxide, sodium hydrosulfide, melatonin, and polyamines that can potentially confer enhanced tolerance when plants are exposed to multiple abiotic stresses. The challenges and opportunities of chemical priming are addressed, with the aim to boost future research towards effective application in crop stress management.

  10. Chemical Priming of Plants Against Multiple Abiotic Stresses: Mission Possible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savvides, Andreas; Ali, Shawkat; Tester, Mark; Fotopoulos, Vasileios

    2016-04-01

    Crop plants are subjected to multiple abiotic stresses during their lifespan that greatly reduce productivity and threaten global food security. Recent research suggests that plants can be primed by chemical compounds to better tolerate different abiotic stresses. Chemical priming is a promising field in plant stress physiology and crop stress management. We review here promising chemical agents such as sodium nitroprusside, hydrogen peroxide, sodium hydrosulfide, melatonin, and polyamines that can potentially confer enhanced tolerance when plants are exposed to multiple abiotic stresses. The challenges and opportunities of chemical priming are addressed, with the aim to boost future research towards effective application in crop stress management. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Depletion of abiotic resources in the steel production in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Burchart-Korol

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Steelmaking processes consume a lot of energy and materials, therefore researchers are constantly looking for new ways of reducing the consumption of resources in the production processes. The main purpose of the article is to present abiotic resource depletion the in steel production in the case of integrated steelmaking route in Poland and its role in life cycle assessment. There are different methods of life cycle assessment for abiotic resources, the use of which affects the quality of the obtained information. The article presents some results of life cycle assessment of abiotic depletion.

  12. Biot Critical Frequency Applied as Common Friction Factor for Chalk with Different Pore Fluids and Temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, Katrine Alling; Fabricius, Ida Lykke

    2010-01-01

    Injection of water into chalk hydrocarbon reservoirs has lead to mechanical yield and failure. Laboratory experiments on chalk samples correspondingly show that the mechanical properties of porous chalk depend on pore fluid and temperature. Water has a significant softening effect on elastic...... and rate independent b-factor used when describing the time dependent mechanical properties of soft rock or soils. As a consequence it is then possible to further characterize the material constant from the porosity and permeability of the rock as well as from pore fluid density and viscosity which...

  13. Extremely high Q-factor mechanical modes in quartz bulk acoustic wave resonators at millikelvin temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goryachev, M.; Creedon, D. L.; Ivanov, E. N.; Tobar, M. E. [ARC Centre of Excellence for Engineered Quantum Systems, University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley WA 6009 (Australia); Galliou, S.; Bourquin, R. [Department of Time and Frequency, FEMTO-ST Institute, ENSMM, 26 Chemin de l' Épitaphe, 25000, Besançon (France)

    2014-12-04

    We demonstrate that Bulk Acoustic Wave (BAW) quartz resonator cooled down to millikelvin temperatures are excellent building blocks for hybrid quantum systems with extremely long coherence times. Two overtones of the longitudinal mode at frequencies of 15.6 and 65.4 MHz demonstrate a maximum f.Q product of 7.8×10{sup 16} Hz. With this result, the Q-factor in such devices near the quantum ground state can be four orders of magnitude better than previously attained in other mechanical systems. Tested quartz resonators possess the ultra low acoustic losses crucial for electromagnetic cooling to the phonon ground state.

  14. Comparative study of biogenic and abiotic iron-containing materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cherkezova-Zheleva, Z., E-mail: zzhel@ic.bas.bg; Shopska, M., E-mail: shopska@ic.bas.bg; Paneva, D. [Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Catalysis (Bulgaria); Kovacheva, D. [Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry (Bulgaria); Kadinov, G.; Mitov, I. [Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Catalysis (Bulgaria)

    2016-12-15

    Series of iron-based biogenic materials prepared by cultivation of Leptothrix group of bacteria in different feeding media (Sphaerotilus-Leptothrix group of bacteria isolation medium, Adler, Lieske and silicon-iron-glucose-peptone) were studied. Control samples were obtained in the same conditions and procedures but the nutrition media were not infected with bacteria, i.e. they were sterile. Room and low temperature Mössbauer spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), and infrared spectroscopy (IRS) were used to reveal the composition and physicochemical properties of biomass and respective control samples. Comparative analysis showed differences in their composition and dispersity of present phases. Sample composition included different ratio of nanodimensional iron oxyhydroxide and oxide phases. Relaxation phenomena such as superparamagnetism or collective magnetic excitation behaviour were registered for some of them. The experimental data showed that the biogenic materials were enriched in oxyhydroxides of high dispersion. Catalytic behaviour of a selected biomass and abiotic material were studied in the reaction of CO oxidation. In situ diffuse-reflectance (DR) IRS was used to monitor the phase transformations in the biomass and CO conversion.

  15. Factors controlling cloud microphysics, precipitation rate, and brightness temperature of tropical convective and stratiform clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashino, T.; Casella, D.; Mugnai, A.; Sano, P.; Smith, E. A.; Tripoli, G.

    2008-12-01

    This paper discusses factors controlling cloud microphysics, precipitation rate and brightness temperature of tropical convective and stratiform clouds. Tropical convective and stratiform clouds are important in radiative forcing of climates and distribution of precipitation over the ocean. The possible effects of climate change on these clouds are still not well understood. Recent studies show that the higher CCN concentration in a convective cloud can lead to more vigorous updrafts and a higher evaporation/precipitation ratio. The stronger updraft often means stronger downdraft and gust fronts, which can trigger convection nearby. This implies that increases in CCN concentration can result in an increase in area coverage and persistence of tropical cirrus and stratiform clouds. The increased cloudiness would then be expected to lower sensible and latent heat flux from the ocean by lowering sea surface temperature, affecting the future development of convective clouds. The sea surface temperature may also change in a local area due to change of ocean circulation in climate change scenarios. Satellite remote sensing is a powerful tool to study tropical and global precipitation distribution. Many physically-based passive-microwave (MW) satellite precipitation algorithms make use of cloud radiation databases (CRDs), which typically consist of microphysical profiles from cloud resolving model (CRMs) and simulated MW brightness temperature (Tb). Thus, it is important to validate Tb simulated by a CRM against the observed Tb. Also, it is important to study how any changes in the tropical clouds due to aerosols and sea surface temperature translate into the precipitation and brightness temperature. The case study chosen is KWAJEX campaign that took place from 23 July to 14 September 1999. Authors have developed microphysical physical framework (Advanced Microphysics Prediction System) to predict ice particle properties explicitly in a CRM (University of Wisconsin

  16. Bacillus amyloliquefaciens Confers Tolerance to Various Abiotic Stresses and Modulates Plant Response to Phytohormones through Osmoprotection and Gene Expression Regulation in Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shalini Tiwari

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Being sessile in nature, plants have to withstand various adverse environmental stress conditions including both biotic and abiotic stresses. Comparatively, abiotic stresses such as drought, salinity, high temperature, and cold pose major threat to agriculture by negatively impacting plant growth and yield worldwide. Rice is one of the most widely consumed staple cereals across the globe, the production and productivity of which is also severely affected by different abiotic stresses. Therefore, several crop improvement programs are directed toward developing stress tolerant rice cultivars either through marker assisted breeding or transgenic technology. Alternatively, some known rhizospheric competent bacteria are also known to improve plant growth during abiotic stresses. A plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens NBRI-SN13 (SN13 was previously reported by our lab to confer salt stress tolerance to rice seedlings. However, the present study investigates the role of SN13 in ameliorating various abiotic stresses such as salt, drought, desiccation, heat, cold, and freezing on a popular rice cv. Saryu-52 under hydroponic growth conditions. Apart from this, seedlings were also exogenously supplied with abscisic acid (ABA, salicylic acid (SA, jasmonic acid (JA and ethephon (ET to study the role of SN13 in phytohormone-induced stress tolerance as well as its role in abiotic and biotic stress cross-talk. All abiotic stresses and phytohormone treatments significantly affected various physiological and biochemical parameters like membrane integrity and osmolyte accumulation. SN13 also positively modulated stress-responsive gene expressions under various abiotic stresses and phytohormone treatments suggesting its multifaceted role in cross-talk among stresses and phytohormones in response to PGPR. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on detailed analysis of plant growth promotion and stress alleviation by a

  17. Factores abióticos que influencian la germinación de seis especies herbáceas de la zona árida de Chile Abiotic factors effects influencing the germination of six herbaceous species of Chilean arid zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola A Jara

    2006-09-01

    determinadas por las características ambientales del lugar de procedencia y de la época de germinación naturalThe arid zone of northern Chile has a dry climate that prevents the massive emergency of plant species. The exception to this general trend arises when scarce and irregular rainfall events occur, modify the environmental humidity, and stimulate the germination of seeds. The main external factors that modify the internal nature of the seeds are the hydration time, light, temperature and scarification. In this work two questions were addressed: (a is the germination of seeds of arid zones regulated by independent external factors or by a combined array of stimuli? and (b do exist correspondence between laboratory and in situ germinative conditions?. Seeds of six native and endemic herbaceous species of the north of Chile (Cistanthe salsoloides, Leucocoryne purpurea, Pasithea coerulea, Placea amoena, Schizanthus litoralis y Trichopetalum plumosum were subjected to two germination experiments, with factorial combinations of hydration time, temperature, light, dehydration and scarification. Schizanthus litoralis, was subjected to an aditional scarification-dehydration experiment (experiment 3. Results showed a common response of all the species in study to certain external factors. Maximum germination percentages were reached when exceeding a threshold of 96 h of hydration and at temperatures of 10 to 25 ºC. Light response was species-dependent. Agreement was found between the germinative conditions determined in laboratory and natural conditions of germination. Therefore, the seeds of plant species of arid zones display similar germinative thresholds and the techniques of germination in laboratory must be determined by the environmental characteristics of the place of origin and the time of natural germination

  18. Managing Abiotic Factors of Compost to Increase Soilborne Disease Suppression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Deirdre E.

    2012-01-01

    Soilborne pathogens can devastate crops, causing economic losses for farmers due to reduced yields and expensive management practices. Fumigants and fungicides have harmful impacts on the surrounding environment and can be toxic to humans. Therefore, alternative methods of disease management are important. The disease suppressive abilities of…

  19. Abiotic and microbiotic factors controlling biofilm formation by thermophilic sporeformers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, Y.; Caspers, M.P.M.; Metselaar, K.I.; Boer, de P.; Roeselers, G.; Moezelaar, R.; Nierop Groot, M.N.; Montijn, R.C.; Abee, T.; Kort, R.

    2013-01-01

    One of the major concerns in the production of dairy concentrates is the risk of contamination by heat-resistant spores from thermophilic bacteria. In order to acquire more insight in the composition of microbial communities occurring in the dairy concentrate industry, a bar-coded 16S amplicon

  20. Abiotic and Microbiotic Factors Controlling Biofilm Formation by Thermophilic Sporeformers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, Y.; Caspers, M.P.M.; Metselaar, K.I.; Boer, P. de; Roeselers, G.; Moezelaar, R.; Groot, M.N.; Montijn, R.C.; Abee, T.; Korta, R.

    2013-01-01

    One of the major concerns in the production of dairy concentrates is the risk of contamination by heat-resistant spores from thermophilic bacteria. In order to acquire more insight in the composition of microbial communities occurring in the dairy concentrate industry, a bar-coded 16S amplicon

  1. Investigation of potential factors affecting the measurement of dew point temperature in oil-soaked transformers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Adam H.

    Moisture within a transformer's insulation system has been proven to degrade its dielectric strength. When installing a transformer in situ, one method used to calculate the moisture content of the transformer insulation is to measure the dew point temperature of the internal gas volume of the transformer tank. There are two instruments commercially available that are designed for dew point temperature measurement: the Alnor Model 7000 Dewpointer and the Vaisala DRYCAPRTM Hand-Held Dewpoint Meter DM70. Although these instruments perform an identical task, the design technology behind each instrument is vastly different. When the Alnor Dewpointer and Vaisala DM70 instruments are used to measure the dew point of the internal gas volume simultaneously from a pressurized transformer, their differences in dew point measurement have been observed to vary as much as 30 °F. There is minimal scientific research available that focuses on the process of measuring dew point of a gas inside a pressurized transformer, let alone this observed phenomenon. The primary objective of this work was to determine what effect certain factors potentially have on dew point measurements of a transformer's internal gas volume, in hopes of understanding the root cause of this phenomenon. Three factors that were studied include (1) human error, (2) the use of calibrated and out-of-calibration instruments, and (3) the presence of oil vapor gases in the dry air sample, and their subsequent effects on the Q-value of the sampled gas. After completing this portion of testing, none of the selected variables proved to be a direct cause of the observed discrepancies between the two instruments. The secondary objective was to validate the accuracy of each instrument as compared to its respective published range by testing against a known dew point temperature produced by a humidity generator. In a select operating range of -22 °F to -4 °F, both instruments were found to be accurate and within their

  2. The Neurospora crassa colonial temperature-sensitive 3 (cot-3) gene encodes protein elongation factor 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Propheta, O; Vierula, J; Toporowski, P; Gorovits, R; Yarden, O

    2001-02-01

    At elevated temperatures, the Neurospora crassa mutant colonial, temperature-sensitive 3 (cot-3) forms compact, highly branched colonies. Growth of the cot-3 strain under these conditions also results in the loss of the lower molecular weight (LMW) isoform of the Ser/Thr protein kinase encoded by the unlinked cot-1 gene, whose function is also involved in hyphal elongation. The unique cot-3 gene has been cloned by complementation and shown to encode translation elongation factor 2 (EF-2). As expected for a gene with a general role in protein synthesis, cot-3 mRNA is abundantly expressed throughout all asexual phases of the N. crassa life cycle. The molecular basis of the cot-3 mutation was determined to be an ATT to AAT transversion, which causes an Ile to Asn substitution at residue 278. Treatment with fusidic acid (a specific inhibitor of EF-2) inhibits hyphal elongation and induces hyperbranching in a manner which mimics the cot-3 phenotype, and also leads to a decrease in the abundance of the LMW isoform of COT1. This supports our conclusion that the mutation in cot-3 which results in abnormal hyphal elongation/branching impairs EF-2 function and confirms that the abundance of a LMW isoform of COT1 kinase is dependent on the function of this general translation factor.

  3. Soot temperature and KL factor for biodiesel and diesel spray combustion in a constant volume combustion chamber

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Ji

    2013-07-01

    This paper presents measurements of the soot temperature and KL factor for biodiesel and diesel combustion in a constant volume chamber using a two-color technique. This technique uses a high-speed camera coupled with two narrowband filters (550. nm and 650. nm, 10. nm FWHM). After calibration, statistical analysis shows that the uncertainty of the two-color temperature is less than 5%, while it is about 50% for the KL factor. This technique is then applied to the spray combustion of biodiesel and diesel fuels under an ambient oxygen concentration of 21% and ambient temperatures of 800, 1000 and 1200. K. The heat release result shows higher energy utilization efficiency for biodiesel compared to diesel under all conditions; meanwhile, diesel shows a higher pressure increase due to its higher heating value. Biodiesel yields a lower temperature inside the flame area, a longer soot lift-off length, and a smaller soot area compared to diesel. Both the KL factor and the total soot with biodiesel are lower than with diesel throughout the entire combustion process, and this difference becomes larger as the ambient temperature decreases. Biodiesel shows approximately 50-100. K lower temperatures than diesel at the quasi-steady stage for 1000 and 1200. K ambient temperature, while diesel shows a lower temperature than biodiesel at 800. K ambient. This result may raise the question of how important the flame temperature is in explaining the higher NO. x emissions often observed during biodiesel combustion. Other factors may also play an important role in controlling NO. x emissions. Both biodiesel and diesel temperature measurements show a monotonic dependence on the ambient temperature. However, the ambient temperature appears to have a more significant effect on the soot formation and oxidation in diesel combustion, while biodiesel combustion soot characteristics shows relative insensitivity to the ambient temperature. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Designing cooperatively folded abiotic uni- and multimolecular helix bundles

    Science.gov (United States)

    de, Soumen; Chi, Bo; Granier, Thierry; Qi, Ting; Maurizot, Victor; Huc, Ivan

    2018-01-01

    Abiotic foldamers, that is foldamers that have backbones chemically remote from peptidic and nucleotidic skeletons, may give access to shapes and functions different to those of peptides and nucleotides. However, design methodologies towards abiotic tertiary and quaternary structures are yet to be developed. Here we report rationally designed interactional patterns to guide the folding and assembly of abiotic helix bundles. Computational design facilitated the introduction of hydrogen-bonding functionalities at defined locations on the aromatic amide backbones that promote cooperative folding into helix-turn-helix motifs in organic solvents. The hydrogen-bond-directed aggregation of helices not linked by a turn unit produced several thermodynamically and kinetically stable homochiral dimeric and trimeric bundles with structures that are distinct from the designed helix-turn-helix. Relative helix orientation within the bundles may be changed from parallel to tilted on subtle solvent variations. Altogether, these results prefigure the richness and uniqueness of abiotic tertiary structure behaviour.

  5. The Abiotic Depletion Potential: Background, Updates, and Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauran van Oers

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Depletion of abiotic resources is a much disputed impact category in life cycle assessment (LCA. The reason is that the problem can be defined in different ways. Furthermore, within a specified problem definition, many choices can still be made regarding which parameters to include in the characterization model and which data to use. This article gives an overview of the problem definition and the choices that have been made when defining the abiotic depletion potentials (ADPs for a characterization model for abiotic resource depletion in LCA. Updates of the ADPs since 2002 are also briefly discussed. Finally, some possible new developments of the impact category of abiotic resource depletion are suggested, such as redefining the depletion problem as a dilution problem. This means taking the reserves in the environment and the economy into account in the reserve parameter and using leakage from the economy, instead of extraction rate, as a dilution parameter.

  6. Abiotic stress responses in plant roots: a proteomics perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Dipanjana; Xu, Jian

    2014-01-01

    Abiotic stress conditions adversely affect plant growth, resulting in significant decline in crop productivity. To mitigate and recover from the damaging effects of such adverse environmental conditions, plants have evolved various adaptive strategies at cellular and metabolic levels. Most of these strategies involve dynamic changes in protein abundance that can be best explored through proteomics. This review summarizes comparative proteomic studies conducted with roots of various plant species subjected to different abiotic stresses especially drought, salinity, flood, and cold. The main purpose of this article is to highlight and classify the protein level changes in abiotic stress response pathways specifically in plant roots. Shared as well as stressor-specific proteome signatures and adaptive mechanism(s) are simultaneously described. Such a comprehensive account will facilitate the design of genetic engineering strategies that enable the development of broad-spectrum abiotic stress-tolerant crops.

  7. Abiotic stress responses in plant roots: a proteomics perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipanjana eGhosh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Abiotic stress conditions adversely affect plant growth, resulting in significant decline in crop productivity. To mitigate and recover from the damaging effects of such adverse environmental conditions, plants have evolved various adaptive strategies at cellular and metabolic levels. Most of these strategies involve dynamic changes in protein abundance that can be best explored through proteomics. This review summarizes comparative proteomic studies conducted with roots of various plant species subjected to different abiotic stresses especially drought, salinity, flood and cold. The main purpose of this article is to highlight and classify the protein level changes in abiotic stress response pathways specifically in plant roots. Shared as well as stressor-specific proteome signatures and adaptive mechanism(s are simultaneously described. Such a comprehensive account will facilitate the design of genetic engineering strategies that enable the development of broad-spectrum abiotic stress-tolerant crops.

  8. The Real Difference between Biotic and Abiotic Methane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, X.; Bao, H.; Peng, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Methane has both biotic and abiotic origins, and the identification of these two origins has important implications not only in understanding terrestrial processes but also in searching for extraterrestrial life. Carbon and hydrogen isotopes in methane have been used to identify certain biosignatures, but such efforts often suffer from ambiguity. Recent advancement in our capability in measuring multiply substituted isotopologues of methane (i.e. 13CDH3 and 12CD2H2) has found large 12CD2H2 depletion in abiotic methane. Quantum tunneling has been proposed to account for the apparent abiotic signature. However, quantum tunneling is neither unique to abiotic processes nor consistent with the observed not-so-depleted hydrogen isotope composition. Here we constructed a general kinetic model for methane formation from CO2, and validated it by fitting its parameters to observed 13CDH3, 12CD2H2, and 12CDH3. Our model revealed that the fundamental difference between biotic and abiotic methane isotopic signatures is in the source of hydrogens during methane formation. Hydrogens in biotic methane originate from the stronger carbon-hydrogen and sulfur-hydrogen bonds, while hydrogens in abiotic methane originate from the much weaker metal-hydrogen adsorption bond. This hydrogen source difference results in abiotic methane being more depleted in 12CD2H2 than the biotic one. Our model also shows that the primary kinetic hydrogen isotope effect is at approximately 0.6 for both abiotic and biotic pathways, a normal value further nullifying the role of quantum tunneling. The active and exclusive shuttling of reduced hydrogen via strong chemical bonds like carbon-hydrogen and sulfur-hydrogen in coenzymes is proposed here to be a unique signature of life. In an ironic sense, it is the equilibrated hydrogen isotope composition in the hydrogen donors that distinguishes the living from the non-living.

  9. Abiotic stress miRNomes in the Triticeae

    OpenAIRE

    Alptekin, Burcu; Langridge, Peter; Budak, Hikmet

    2016-01-01

    The continued growth in world population necessitates increases in both the quantity and quality of agricultural production. Triticeae members, particularly wheat and barley, make an important contribution to world food reserves by providing rich sources of carbohydrate and protein. These crops are grown over diverse production environments that are characterized by a range of environmental or abiotic stresses. Abiotic stresses such as drought, heat, salinity, or nutrient deficiencies and tox...

  10. The Ascorbate-glutathione-α-tocopherol Triad in Abiotic Stress Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bálint Tomasskovics

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The life of any living organism can be defined as a hurdle due to different kind of stresses. As with all living organisms, plants are exposed to various abiotic stresses, such as drought, salinity, extreme temperatures and chemical toxicity. These primary stresses are often interconnected, and lead to the overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS in plants, which are highly reactive and toxic and cause damage to proteins, lipids, carbohydrates and DNA, which ultimately results in oxidative stress. Stress-induced ROS accumulation is counteracted by enzymatic antioxidant systems and non-enzymatic low molecular weight metabolites, such as ascorbate, glutathione and α-tocopherol. The above mentioned low molecular weight antioxidants are also capable of chelating metal ions, reducing thus their catalytic activity to form ROS and also scavenge them. Hence, in plant cells, this triad of low molecular weight antioxidants (ascorbate, glutathione and α-tocopherol form an important part of abiotic stress response. In this work we are presenting a review of abiotic stress responses connected to these antioxidants.

  11. Roots Withstanding their Environment: Exploiting Root System Architecture Responses to Abiotic Stress to Improve Crop Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koevoets, Iko T.; Venema, Jan Henk; Elzenga, J. Theo. M.; Testerink, Christa

    2016-01-01

    To face future challenges in crop production dictated by global climate changes, breeders and plant researchers collaborate to develop productive crops that are able to withstand a wide range of biotic and abiotic stresses. However, crop selection is often focused on shoot performance alone, as observation of root properties is more complex and asks for artificial and extensive phenotyping platforms. In addition, most root research focuses on development, while a direct link to the functionality of plasticity in root development for tolerance is often lacking. In this paper we review the currently known root system architecture (RSA) responses in Arabidopsis and a number of crop species to a range of abiotic stresses, including nutrient limitation, drought, salinity, flooding, and extreme temperatures. For each of these stresses, the key molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the RSA response are highlighted. To explore the relevance for crop selection, we especially review and discuss studies linking root architectural responses to stress tolerance. This will provide a first step toward understanding the relevance of adaptive root development for a plant’s response to its environment. We suggest that functional evidence on the role of root plasticity will support breeders in their efforts to include root properties in their current selection pipeline for abiotic stress tolerance, aimed to improve the robustness of crops. PMID:27630659

  12. Role of nitric oxide in tolerance of plants to abiotic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Manzer H; Al-Whaibi, Mohamed H; Basalah, Mohammed O

    2011-07-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) has now gained significant place in plant science, mainly due to its properties (free radical, small size, no charge, short-lived, and highly diffusible across biological membranes) and multifunctional roles in plant growth, development, and regulation of remarkable spectrum of plant cellular mechanisms. In the last few years, the role of NO in tolerance of plants to abiotic stress has established much consideration. As it is evident from the present review, recent progress on NO potentiality in tolerance of plants to environmental stresses has been impressive. These investigations suggest that NO, itself, possesses antioxidant properties and might act as a signal in activating ROS-scavenging enzyme activities under abiotic stress. NO plays an important role in resistance to salt, drought, temperature (high and low), UV-B, and heavy metal stress. Rapidly increasing evidences indicate that NO is essentially involve in several physiological processes; however, there has been much disagreement regarding the mechanism(s) by which NO reduces abiotic stress.

  13. ROS-mediated abiotic stress-induced programmed cell death in plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veselin ePetrov

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available During the course of their ontogenesis, plants are continuously exposed to a large variety of abiotic stress factors which can damage tissues and jeopardize the survival of the organism unless properly countered. While animals can simply escape and thus evade stressors, plants as sessile organisms have developed complex strategies to withstand them. When the intensity of a detrimental factor is high, one of the defense programs employed by plants is the induction of programmed cell death (PCD. This is an active, genetically controlled process which is initiated to isolate and remove damaged tissues thereby ensuring the survival of the organism. The mechanism of PCD induction usually includes an increase in the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS which are utilized as mediators of the stress signal. Abiotic stress-induced PCD is not only a process of fundamental biological importance, but also of considerable interest to agricultural practice as it has the potential to significantly influence crop yield. Therefore, numerous scientific enterprises have focused on elucidating the mechanisms leading to and controlling PCD in response to adverse conditions in plants. This knowledge may help to develop novel strategies to obtain more resilient crop varieties with improved tolerance and enhanced productivity. The aim of the present review is to summarize the recent advances in research on ROS-induced PCD related to abiotic stress and the role of the organelles in the process.

  14. The Role of Micro-Ribonucleic Acids in Legumes with a Focus on Abiotic Stress Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitin Mantri

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Legumes are special group of N-fixing plants that are an essential component of cropping system and important source of food and feed for human and animal consumption. Like other crops, the productivity of legumes is threatened by environmental stresses caused due to global climate change. Abiotic stress tolerance is complex trait involving a suite of genes, the expression of which is controlled by transcription factors including gene and/or polypeptide sequences. Recently, micro-ribonucleic acids (miRNAs have been increasingly recognized for their role in regulating the synthesis of polypeptides from different messenger ribonucleic acids (mRNAs including those that act as transcription factors. This review summarizes the current knowledge on the role of different miRNAs in response to main abiotic stresses in legumes. We found consistent as well as conflicting results within and between different legume species. This highlights that we have barely scratched the surface and very comprehensive and targeted experiments will be required in future to underpin the role of miRNAs in controlling the expression of important genes associated with abiotic stress tolerances.

  15. Abiotic Stresses: Insight into Gene Regulation and Protein Expression in Photosynthetic Pathways of Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouri, Mohammad-Zaman; Moumeni, Ali; Komatsu, Setsuko

    2015-01-01

    Global warming and climate change intensified the occurrence and severity of abiotic stresses that seriously affect the growth and development of plants, especially, plant photosynthesis. The direct impact of abiotic stress on the activity of photosynthesis is disruption of all photosynthesis components such as photosystem I and II, electron transport, carbon fixation, ATP generating system and stomatal conductance. The photosynthetic system of plants reacts to the stress differently, according to the plant type, photosynthetic systems (C3 or C4), type of the stress, time and duration of the occurrence and several other factors. The plant responds to the stresses by a coordinate chloroplast and nuclear gene expression. Chloroplast, thylakoid membrane, and nucleus are the main targets of regulated proteins and metabolites associated with photosynthetic pathways. Rapid responses of plant cell metabolism and adaptation to photosynthetic machinery are key factors for survival of plants in a fluctuating environment. This review gives a comprehensive view of photosynthesis-related alterations at the gene and protein levels for plant adaptation or reaction in response to abiotic stress. PMID:26343644

  16. Role of Hot Water System Design on Factors Influential to Pathogen Regrowth: Temperature, Chlorine Residual, Hydrogen Evolution, and Sediment

    OpenAIRE

    Brazeau, Randi H.; Edwards, Marc A.

    2013-01-01

    Residential water heating is linked to growth of pathogens in premise plumbing, which is the primary source of waterborne disease in the United States. Temperature and disinfectant residual are critical factors controlling increased concentration of pathogens, but understanding of how each factor varies in different water heater configurations is lacking. A direct comparative study of electric water heater systems was conducted to evaluate temporal variations in temperature and water quality ...

  17. Biotic, abiotic, and management controls on the net ecosystem CO2 exchange of European mountain grassland ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wohlfahrt, Georg; Anderson-Dunn, Margaret; Bahn, Michael

    2008-01-01

    The net ecosystem carbon dioxide (CO2) exchange (NEE) of nine European mountain grassland ecosystems was measured during 2002-2004 using the eddy covariance method. Overall, the availability of photosynthetically active radiation (PPFD) was the single most important abiotic influence factor for NEE...... mountain grassland ecosystems to climatic drivers....

  18. Relative Importance of Biotic and Abiotic Forces on the Composition and Dynamics of a Soft-Sediment Intertidal Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbeau, Myriam A.

    2016-01-01

    Top-down, bottom-up, middle-out and abiotic factors are usually viewed as main forces structuring biological communities, although assessment of their relative importance, in a single study, is rarely done. We quantified, using multivariate methods, associations between abiotic and biotic (top-down, bottom-up and middle-out) variables and infaunal population/community variation on intertidal mudflats in the Bay of Fundy, Canada, over two years. Our analysis indicated that spatial structural factors like site and plot accounted for most of the community and population variation. Although we observed a significant relationship between the community/populations and the biotic and abiotic variables, most were of minor importance relative to the structural factors. We suggest that community and population structure were relatively uncoupled from the structuring influences of biotic and abiotic factors in this system because of high concentrations of resources that sustain high densities of infauna and limit exploitative competition. Furthermore, we hypothesize that the infaunal community primarily reflects stochastic spatial events, namely a “first come, first served” process. PMID:26790098

  19. MicroRNA Regulation of Abiotic Stress Response in 7B-1 Male-Sterile Tomato Mutant

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Omidvar, Vahid; Mohorianu, I.; Dalmay, T.; Fellner, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 3 (2015), s. 1-13 ISSN 1940 -3372 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : 7B-1 mutant * abiotic stress * miRNAs Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.509, year: 2015

  20. Roles of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi and Soil Abiotic Conditions in the Establishment of a Dry Grassland Community

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Knappová, Jana; Pánková, Hana; Münzbergová, Zuzana

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 7 (2016), s. 1-24 E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-11635S Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : AMF * dry grassland commnunity * soil abiotic conditions Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.806, year: 2016

  1. Relationship between tolerance factor and temperature coefficient of permittivity of temperature-stable high permittivity BaTiO3–Bi(MeO3 compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natthaphon Raengthon

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The temperature coefficient of permittivity (TCε of BaTiO3–Bi(MeO3 solid solutions were investigated. It was determined that as the tolerance factor was decreased with the addition of Bi(MeO3, the TCε shifted from large negative values to TCε values approaching zero. It is proposed that the different bonding nature of the dopant cation affects the magnitude and temperature stability of the permittivity. This study suggests that the relationship between tolerance factor and TCε can be used as a guide to design new dielectric compounds exhibiting temperature-stable high permittivity characteristics, which is similar to past research on perovskite and pyrochlore-based microwave dielectrics.

  2. Improved tolerance to various abiotic stresses in transgenic sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) expressing spinach betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Weijuan; Zhang, Min; Zhang, Hongxia; Zhang, Peng

    2012-01-01

    Abiotic stresses are critical delimiters for the increased productivity and cultivation expansion of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas), a root crop with worldwide importance. The increased production of glycine betaine (GB) improves plant tolerance to various abiotic stresses without strong phenotypic changes, providing a feasible approach to improve stable yield production under unfavorable conditions. The gene encoding betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH) is involved in the biosynthesis of GB in plants, and the accumulation of GB by the heterologous overexpression of BADH improves abiotic stress tolerance in plants. This study is to improve sweet potato, a GB accumulator, resistant to multiple abiotic stresses by promoted GB biosynthesis. A chloroplastic BADH gene from Spinacia oleracea (SoBADH) was introduced into the sweet potato cultivar Sushu-2 via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The overexpression of SoBADH in the transgenic sweet potato improved tolerance to various abiotic stresses, including salt, oxidative stress, and low temperature. The increased BADH activity and GB accumulation in the transgenic plant lines under normal and multiple environmental stresses resulted in increased protection against cell damage through the maintenance of cell membrane integrity, stronger photosynthetic activity, reduced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and induction or activation of ROS scavenging by the increased activity of free radical-scavenging enzymes. The increased proline accumulation and systemic upregulation of many ROS-scavenging genes in stress-treated transgenic plants also indicated that GB accumulation might stimulate the ROS-scavenging system and proline biosynthesis via an integrative mechanism. This study demonstrates that the enhancement of GB biosynthesis in sweet potato is an effective and feasible approach to improve its tolerance to multiple abiotic stresses without causing phenotypic defects. This strategy for trait improvement in

  3. Improved Tolerance to Various Abiotic Stresses in Transgenic Sweet Potato (Ipomoea batatas) Expressing Spinach Betaine Aldehyde Dehydrogenase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Weijuan; Zhang, Min; Zhang, Hongxia; Zhang, Peng

    2012-01-01

    Abiotic stresses are critical delimiters for the increased productivity and cultivation expansion of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas), a root crop with worldwide importance. The increased production of glycine betaine (GB) improves plant tolerance to various abiotic stresses without strong phenotypic changes, providing a feasible approach to improve stable yield production under unfavorable conditions. The gene encoding betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH) is involved in the biosynthesis of GB in plants, and the accumulation of GB by the heterologous overexpression of BADH improves abiotic stress tolerance in plants. This study is to improve sweet potato, a GB accumulator, resistant to multiple abiotic stresses by promoted GB biosynthesis. A chloroplastic BADH gene from Spinacia oleracea (SoBADH) was introduced into the sweet potato cultivar Sushu-2 via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The overexpression of SoBADH in the transgenic sweet potato improved tolerance to various abiotic stresses, including salt, oxidative stress, and low temperature. The increased BADH activity and GB accumulation in the transgenic plant lines under normal and multiple environmental stresses resulted in increased protection against cell damage through the maintenance of cell membrane integrity, stronger photosynthetic activity, reduced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and induction or activation of ROS scavenging by the increased activity of free radical-scavenging enzymes. The increased proline accumulation and systemic upregulation of many ROS-scavenging genes in stress-treated transgenic plants also indicated that GB accumulation might stimulate the ROS-scavenging system and proline biosynthesis via an integrative mechanism. This study demonstrates that the enhancement of GB biosynthesis in sweet potato is an effective and feasible approach to improve its tolerance to multiple abiotic stresses without causing phenotypic defects. This strategy for trait improvement in

  4. Improved tolerance to various abiotic stresses in transgenic sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas expressing spinach betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weijuan Fan

    Full Text Available Abiotic stresses are critical delimiters for the increased productivity and cultivation expansion of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas, a root crop with worldwide importance. The increased production of glycine betaine (GB improves plant tolerance to various abiotic stresses without strong phenotypic changes, providing a feasible approach to improve stable yield production under unfavorable conditions. The gene encoding betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH is involved in the biosynthesis of GB in plants, and the accumulation of GB by the heterologous overexpression of BADH improves abiotic stress tolerance in plants. This study is to improve sweet potato, a GB accumulator, resistant to multiple abiotic stresses by promoted GB biosynthesis. A chloroplastic BADH gene from Spinacia oleracea (SoBADH was introduced into the sweet potato cultivar Sushu-2 via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The overexpression of SoBADH in the transgenic sweet potato improved tolerance to various abiotic stresses, including salt, oxidative stress, and low temperature. The increased BADH activity and GB accumulation in the transgenic plant lines under normal and multiple environmental stresses resulted in increased protection against cell damage through the maintenance of cell membrane integrity, stronger photosynthetic activity, reduced reactive oxygen species (ROS production, and induction or activation of ROS scavenging by the increased activity of free radical-scavenging enzymes. The increased proline accumulation and systemic upregulation of many ROS-scavenging genes in stress-treated transgenic plants also indicated that GB accumulation might stimulate the ROS-scavenging system and proline biosynthesis via an integrative mechanism. This study demonstrates that the enhancement of GB biosynthesis in sweet potato is an effective and feasible approach to improve its tolerance to multiple abiotic stresses without causing phenotypic defects. This strategy for trait

  5. Abiotic Stress Responses and Microbe-Mediated Mitigation in Plants: The Omics Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meena, Kamlesh K.; Sorty, Ajay M.; Bitla, Utkarsh M.; Choudhary, Khushboo; Gupta, Priyanka; Pareek, Ashwani; Singh, Dhananjaya P.; Prabha, Ratna; Sahu, Pramod K.; Gupta, Vijai K.; Singh, Harikesh B.; Krishanani, Kishor K.; Minhas, Paramjit S.

    2017-01-01

    Abiotic stresses are the foremost limiting factors for agricultural productivity. Crop plants need to cope up adverse external pressure created by environmental and edaphic conditions with their intrinsic biological mechanisms, failing which their growth, development, and productivity suffer. Microorganisms, the most natural inhabitants of diverse environments exhibit enormous metabolic capabilities to mitigate abiotic stresses. Since microbial interactions with plants are an integral part of the living ecosystem, they are believed to be the natural partners that modulate local and systemic mechanisms in plants to offer defense under adverse external conditions. Plant-microbe interactions comprise complex mechanisms within the plant cellular system. Biochemical, molecular and physiological studies are paving the way in understanding the complex but integrated cellular processes. Under the continuous pressure of increasing climatic alterations, it now becomes more imperative to define and interpret plant-microbe relationships in terms of protection against abiotic stresses. At the same time, it also becomes essential to generate deeper insights into the stress-mitigating mechanisms in crop plants for their translation in higher productivity. Multi-omics approaches comprising genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics and phenomics integrate studies on the interaction of plants with microbes and their external environment and generate multi-layered information that can answer what is happening in real-time within the cells. Integration, analysis and decipherization of the big-data can lead to a massive outcome that has significant chance for implementation in the fields. This review summarizes abiotic stresses responses in plants in-terms of biochemical and molecular mechanisms followed by the microbe-mediated stress mitigation phenomenon. We describe the role of multi-omics approaches in generating multi-pronged information to provide a better understanding

  6. Abiotic and microbial interactions during anaerobic transformations of Fe(II and NOx-

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flynn ePicardal

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Microbial Fe(II oxidation using NO3- as the terminal electron acceptor (nitrate-dependent Fe(II oxidation; NDFO has been studied for over 15 years. Although there are reports of autotrophic isolates and stable enrichments, many of the bacteria capable of NDFO are known organotrophic NO3- -reducers that require the presence of an organic, primary substrate, e.g., acetate, for significant amounts of Fe(II oxidation. Although the thermodynamics of Fe(II oxidation are favorable when coupled to either NO3- or NO2- reduction, the kinetics of abiotic Fe(II oxidation by NO3- are relatively slow except under special conditions. NDFO is typically studied in batch cultures containing millimolar concentrations of Fe(II, NO3-, and the primary substrate. In such systems, NO2- is often observed to accumulate in culture media during Fe(II oxidation. Compared to NO3-, abiotic reactions of biogenic NO2- and Fe(II are relatively rapid. The kinetics and reaction pathways of Fe(II oxidation by NO2- are strongly affected by medium composition and pH, reactant concentration, and the presence of Fe(II-sorptive surfaces, e.g., Fe(III oxyhydroxides and cellular surfaces. In batch cultures, the combination of abiotic and microbial Fe(II oxidation can alter product distribution and, more importantly, results in the formation of intracellular precipitates and extracellular Fe(III oxyhydroxide encrustations that apparently limit further cell growth and Fe(II oxidation. Unless steps are taken to minimize or account for potential abiotic reactions, results of microbial NDFO studies can be obfuscated by artifacts of the chosen experimental conditions, the use of inappropriate analytical methods, and the resulting uncertainties about the relative importance of abiotic and microbial reactions.In this manuscript, abiotic reactions of NO3- and NO2- with aqueous Fe2+, chelated Fe(II, and solid-phase Fe(II are reviewed along with factors that can influence overall NDFO reac

  7. Biot Critical Frequency Applied as Common Friction Factor for Chalk with Different Pore Fluids and Temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, Katrine Alling; Fabricius, Ida Lykke

    2010-01-01

    Injection of water into chalk hydrocarbon reservoirs has lead to mechanical yield and failure. Laboratory experiments on chalk samples correspondingly show that the mechanical properties of porous chalk depend on pore fluid and temperature. Water has a significant softening effect on elastic...... and we propose that the fluid effect on mechanical properties of highly porous chalk may be the result of liquid‐solid friction. Applying a different strain or stress rate is influencing the rock strength and needs to be included. The resulting function is shown to relate to the material dependent...... and rate independent b-factor used when describing the time dependent mechanical properties of soft rock or soils. As a consequence it is then possible to further characterize the material constant from the porosity and permeability of the rock as well as from pore fluid density and viscosity which...

  8. Low temperature resistivity, thermoelectricity, and power factor of Nb doped anatase TiO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaćimović, J.; Gaál, R.; Magrez, A.; Piatek, J.; Forró, L.; Nakao, S.; Hirose, Y.; Hasegawa, T.

    2013-01-01

    The resistivity of a very high quality anatase TiO2 doped with 6% of Nb was measured from 300 K down to 40 mK. No sign of superconductivity was detected. Instead, a minute quantity of cation vacancies resulted in a Kondo scattering. Measurements of thermo-electric power and resistivity were extended up to 600 K. The calculated power factor has a peak value of 14 μW/(K2cm) at 350 K, which is comparable to that of Bi2Te3 [Venkatasubramanian et al., Nature 413, 597 (2001)], the archetype thermolectrics. Taking the literature value for the thermal conductivity of Nb doped TiO2 thin films, the calculated figure of merit (ZT) is in the range of 0.1 above 300 K. This value is encouraging for further engineering of the material in order to reach ZT of 1 suitable for high temperature thermoelectrics.

  9. Possible Mechanism of Infrared Radiation Reception: The Role of the Temperature Factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yachnev, I. L.; Penniyaynen, V. A.; Podzorova, S. A.; Rogachevskii, I. V.; Krylov, B. V.

    2018-02-01

    The role of the temperature factor in the mechanism of reception of the CO2 laser low-power infrared (IR) radiation (λ = 10.6 μm) by a sensory neuron membrane has been studied. Organotypic embryonic tissue culture has been used to measure and estimate the temperature of a sensory ganglia monolayer exposed to radiation at different energy densities. The effects of tissue exposure to low-power IR radiation have been investigated. It has been found that inhibition of tissue growth by radiation of low energy density (10-14-10-10 J/cm2) is replaced by tissue growth (10-7-10-4 J/cm2), and again followed by inhibition in the range of 0.1-6 J/cm2. A statistically significant specific reaction to nonthermal radiation has been detected at the radiation power density of 3 × 10-10 J/cm2, which is due to activation of the Na+,K+-ATPase transducer function. The mechanisms of interaction of IR radiation with embryonic nerve tissue have been considered. Low-power IR radiation with the wavelength of 10.6 μm has been demonstrated to specifically activate a novel signal transducer function of the sodium pump, which controls the reception of nonthermal IR radiation in the energy density range of 10-14 to 10-10 J/cm2.

  10. Factors that impact the stability of vitamin C at intermediate temperatures in a food matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbig, Anna-Lena; Renard, Catherine M G C

    2017-04-01

    The study comprises a systematic and quantitative evaluation of potential intrinsic and extrinsic factors that impact vitamin C degradation in a real food matrix. The supernatant of centrifuged apple purée was fortified in vitamin C, and degradation was followed without stirring. Model discrimination indicated better fit for the zero order model than the first order model which was hence chosen for determination of rate constants. pH influenced strongly vitamin C degradation in citrate-phosphate buffer but not in the apple purée serum. To get an idea of the impact of the food matrix, stability in apple purée serum was compared with that in carrot purée. In the latter, stability was slightly higher. Vitamin C degradation rates were not influenced by its initial concentration. The temperature effect was only marked in the temperature range 40-60°C. In the range 60-80°C, filling height of tubes had the greatest impact. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of various ecological factors on radiostrontium uptake in two euryhaline teleosts: Mugil auratus Risso and Pleuronectes platessa L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amiard, J.-C.

    1975-11-01

    The effects of various ecological, biotic and abiotic factors (age, species, salinity, temperature, sediment, calcium overload, food) on the accumulation of 85 Sr were studied in two euryhaline Teleosts. Generally, all the physico-chemical and biotic factors tending to activate metabolism, slightly increased radiostrontium intake. Concentration factors were seldom above one for animals measured in toto. According to the concentration kinetics of 85 Sr, three types of organs were distinguished: bone-type tissues, soft tissues and digestive tract [fr

  12. Profile correction to electron temperature and enhancement factor in soft-x-ray pulse-height-analysis measurements in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sesnic, S.; Diesso, M.; Hill, K.; Holland, A.; Pohl, F.

    1988-01-01

    Because soft-x-ray pulse-height-analysis spectra contain chordal information, the electron temperature and the radiation intensity (enhancement factor) measurements do not represent the local values. The correction factors for the electron temperature and the enhancement factor as a function of the temperature and density profile parameters and the energy are obtained. The spectrum distortion due to pulse pileup effects is also evaluated. A set of curves is given from which the distortion of the spectrum can be obtained if the electron temperature, the Be filter thickness, and the electronic parameters of the acquisition system are known. PG 1810,1812 ID 131801CON N X-ray diagnostics TT Profile correction to electron temperature and enhancement factor in soft-x-ray pulse-height-analysis measurements in tokamaks AU S. Sesnic, M. Diesso, K. Hill, and A. Holland LO Princeton University, Plasma Physics Laboratory, P.O. Box 451, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 AU F. Pohl LO Max-Planck Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, 8046-Garching, Federal Republic of Germany SD (Presented on 16 March 1988) AB Because soft-x-ray pulse-height-analysis spectra contain chordal information, the electron temperature and the radiation intensity (enhancement factor) measurements do not represent the local values. The correction factors for the electron temperature and the enhancement factor as a function of the temperature and density profile parameters and the energy are obtained. The spectrum distortion due to pulse pileup effects is also evaluated. A set of curves is given from which the distortion of the spectrum can be obtained if the electron tempe

  13. Environmental factors structuring Arctic megabenthos - a case study from a shelf and two fjords

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirstin eMeyer

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available From photographic samples, we describe the benthic megafaunal communities in two north Svalbard fjords and on the adjacent continental shelf. We analyze the fauna in relation to abiotic factors of depth, bottom water temperature, percent cover of hard substratum, heterogeneity of stone size, and bottom-water turbidity to explore how these factors might affect the fauna and how they are related to the functional traits (size, morphology, mobility, colonial/solitary, and feeding type of the megabenthos. Depth and bottom water temperature were consistently the strongest correlates with faunal composition and functional traits of the constituent species. A greater proportion of the variability in the functional traits of the megabenthos could be explained by abiotic factors rather than faunal composition, indicating that the abiotic factors of depth and temperature were strongly related to the functional traits of the megabenthos. On a local scale, stone size heterogeneity explained most variation in the functional traits of the megabenthos in one fjord. The results of this case study show a significant relationship between bottom water temperature and the functioning of north Svalbard megabenthic communities. Warming temperatures in the Arctic will likely decrease the variety of functional traits represented in Svalbard megabentos, resulting in scavenger-dominated communities. A reduction in megabenthic biomass may also result, reducing energy availability to higher trophic levels.

  14. Polyamines and abiotic stress in plants: A complex relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh eMinocha

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The physiological relationship between abiotic stress in plants and polyamines was reported more than 40 years ago. Ever since there has been a debate as to whether increased polyamines protect plants against abiotic stress (e.g. due to their ability to deal with oxidative radicals or cause damage to them (perhaps due to hydrogen peroxide produced by their catabolism. The observation that cellular polyamines are typically elevated in plants under both short-term as well as long-term abiotic stress conditions is consistent with the possibility of their dual effects, i.e. being a protector as well as a perpetrator of stress damage to the cells. The observed increase in tolerance of plants to abiotic stress when their cellular contents are elevated by either exogenous treatment with polyamines or through genetic engineering with genes encoding polyamine biosynthetic enzymes is indicative of a protective role for them. However, through their catabolic production of hydrogen peroxide and acrolein, both strong oxidizers, they can potentially be the cause of cellular harm during stress. In fact, somewhat enigmatic but strong positive relationship between abiotic stress and foliar polyamines has been proposed as a potential biochemical marker of persistent environmental stress in forest trees in which phenotypic symptoms of stress are not yet visible. Such markers may help forewarn forest managers to undertake amelioration strategies before the appearance of visual symptoms of stress and damage at which stage it is often too late for implementing strategies for stress remediation and reversal of damage. This review provides a comprehensive and critical evaluation of the published literature on interactions between abiotic stress and polyamines in plants, and examines the experimental strategies used to understand the functional significance of this relationship with the aim of improving plant productivity, especially under conditions of abiotic stress.

  15. Abscisic Acid Signaling and Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Plants: A Review on Current Knowledge and Future Prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishwakarma, Kanchan; Upadhyay, Neha; Kumar, Nitin; Yadav, Gaurav; Singh, Jaspreet; Mishra, Rohit K; Kumar, Vivek; Verma, Rishi; Upadhyay, R G; Pandey, Mayank; Sharma, Shivesh

    2017-01-01

    Abiotic stress is one of the severe stresses of environment that lowers the growth and yield of any crop even on irrigated land throughout the world. A major phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) plays an essential part in acting toward varied range of stresses like heavy metal stress, drought, thermal or heat stress, high level of salinity, low temperature, and radiation stress. Its role is also elaborated in various developmental processes including seed germination, seed dormancy, and closure of stomata. ABA acts by modifying the expression level of gene and subsequent analysis of cis - and trans -acting regulatory elements of responsive promoters. It also interacts with the signaling molecules of processes involved in stress response and development of seeds. On the whole, the stress to a plant can be susceptible or tolerant by taking into account the coordinated activities of various stress-responsive genes. Numbers of transcription factor are involved in regulating the expression of ABA responsive genes by acting together with their respective cis -acting elements. Hence, for improvement in stress-tolerance capacity of plants, it is necessary to understand the mechanism behind it. On this ground, this article enlightens the importance and role of ABA signaling with regard to various stresses as well as regulation of ABA biosynthetic pathway along with the transcription factors for stress tolerance.

  16. MICROSCALE METABOLIC, REDOX AND ABIOTIC REACTIONS IN HANFORD 300 AREA SUBSURFACE SEDIMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beyenal, Haluk [WSU; McLEan, Jeff [JCVI; Majors, Paul [PNNL; Fredrickson, Jim [PNNL

    2013-11-14

    The Hanford 300 Area is a unique site due to periodic hydrologic influence of river water resulting in changes in groundwater elevation and flow direction. This area is also highly subject to uranium remobilization, the source of which is currently believed to be the region at the base of the vadose zone that is subject to period saturation due to the changes in the water levels in the Columbia River. We found that microbial processes and redox and abiotic reactions which operate at the microscale were critical to understanding factors controlling the macroscopic fate and transport of contaminants in the subsurface. The combined laboratory and field research showed how microscale conditions control uranium mobility and how biotic, abiotic and redox reactions relate to each other. Our findings extended the current knowledge to examine U(VI) reduction and immobilization using natural 300 Area communities as well as selected model organisms on redox-sensitive and redox-insensitive minerals. Using innovative techniques developed specifically to probe biogeochemical processes at the microscale, our research expanded our current understanding of the roles played by mineral surfaces, bacterial competition, and local biotic, abiotic and redox reaction rates on the reduction and immobilization of uranium.

  17. Carbon Isotope Fractionation of 1,2-Dibromoethane by Biological and Abiotic Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koster van Groos, Paul G; Hatzinger, Paul B; Streger, Sheryl H; Vainberg, Simon; Philp, R Paul; Kuder, Tomasz

    2018-03-20

    1,2-Dibromethane (EDB) is a toxic fuel additive that likely occurs at many sites where leaded fuels have impacted groundwater. This study quantified carbon (C) isotope fractionation of EDB associated with anaerobic and aerobic biodegradation, abiotic degradation by iron sulfides, and abiotic hydrolysis. These processes likely contribute to EDB degradation in source zones (biodegradation) and in more dilute plumes (hydrolysis). Mixed anaerobic cultures containing dehalogenating organisms (e.g., Dehaloccoides spp.) were examined, as were aerobic cultures that degrade EDB cometabolically. Bulk C isotope enrichment factors (ε bulk ) associated with biological degradation covered a large range, with mixed anaerobic cultures fractionating more (ε bulk from -8 to -20‰) than aerobic cultures (ε bulk from -3 to -6‰). ε bulk magnitudes associated with the abiotic processes (dihaloelimination by FeS/FeS 2 and hydrolysis) were large but fairly well constrained (ε bulk from -19 to -29‰). As expected, oxidative mechanisms fractionated EDB less than dihaloelimination and substitution mechanisms, and biological systems exhibited a larger range of fractionation, potentially due to isotope masking effects. In addition to quantifying and discussing ε bulk values, which are highly relevant for quantifying in situ EDB degradation, an innovative approach for constraining the age of EDB in the aqueous phase, based on fractionation during hydrolysis, is described.

  18. Natural variation in abiotic stress responsive gene expression and local adaptation to climate in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasky, Jesse R; Des Marais, David L; Lowry, David B; Povolotskaya, Inna; McKay, John K; Richards, James H; Keitt, Timothy H; Juenger, Thomas E

    2014-09-01

    Gene expression varies widely in natural populations, yet the proximate and ultimate causes of this variation are poorly known. Understanding how variation in gene expression affects abiotic stress tolerance, fitness, and adaptation is central to the field of evolutionary genetics. We tested the hypothesis that genes with natural genetic variation in their expression responses to abiotic stress are likely to be involved in local adaptation to climate in Arabidopsis thaliana. Specifically, we compared genes with consistent expression responses to environmental stress (expression stress responsive, "eSR") to genes with genetically variable responses to abiotic stress (expression genotype-by-environment interaction, "eGEI"). We found that on average genes that exhibited eGEI in response to drought or cold had greater polymorphism in promoter regions and stronger associations with climate than those of eSR genes or genomic controls. We also found that transcription factor binding sites known to respond to environmental stressors, especially abscisic acid responsive elements, showed significantly higher polymorphism in drought eGEI genes in comparison to eSR genes. By contrast, eSR genes tended to exhibit relatively greater pairwise haplotype sharing, lower promoter diversity, and fewer nonsynonymous polymorphisms, suggesting purifying selection or selective sweeps. Our results indicate that cis-regulatory evolution and genetic variation in stress responsive gene expression may be important mechanisms of local adaptation to climatic selective gradients. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  19. Alcohol dehydrogenase 1 (ADH1) confers both abiotic and biotic stress resistance in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Haitao; Liu, Wen; Yao, Yue; Wei, Yunxie; Chan, Zhulong

    2017-09-01

    Although the transcriptional regulation and upstream transcription factors of AtADH1 in response to abiotic stress are widely revealed, the in vivo roles of AtADH1 remain unknown. In this study, we found that the expression of AtADH1 was largely induced after salt, drought, cold and pathogen infection. Further studies found that AtADH1 overexpressing plants were more sensitive to abscisic acid (ABA) in comparison to wide type (WT), while AtADH1 knockout mutants showed no significant difference compared with WT in ABA sensitivity. Consistently, AtADH1 overexpressing plants showed improved stress resistance to salt, drought, cold and pathogen infection than WT, but the AtADH1 knockout mutants had no significant difference in abiotic and biotic stress resistance. Moreover, overexpression of AtADH1 expression increased the transcript levels of multiple stress-related genes, accumulation of soluble sugars and callose depositions. All these results indicate that AtADH1 confers enhanced resistance to both abiotic and biotic stresses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Abiotic stress responses in plants: roles of calmodulin-regulated proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virdi, Amardeep S.; Singh, Supreet; Singh, Prabhjeet

    2015-01-01

    Intracellular changes in calcium ions (Ca2+) in response to different biotic and abiotic stimuli are detected by various sensor proteins in the plant cell. Calmodulin (CaM) is one of the most extensively studied Ca2+-sensing proteins and has been shown to be involved in transduction of Ca2+ signals. After interacting with Ca2+, CaM undergoes conformational change and influences the activities of a diverse range of CaM-binding proteins. A number of CaM-binding proteins have also been implicated in stress responses in plants, highlighting the central role played by CaM in adaptation to adverse environmental conditions. Stress adaptation in plants is a highly complex and multigenic response. Identification and characterization of CaM-modulated proteins in relation to different abiotic stresses could, therefore, prove to be essential for a deeper understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in abiotic stress tolerance in plants. Various studies have revealed involvement of CaM in regulation of metal ions uptake, generation of reactive oxygen species and modulation of transcription factors such as CAMTA3, GTL1, and WRKY39. Activities of several kinases and phosphatases have also been shown to be modulated by CaM, thus providing further versatility to stress-associated signal transduction pathways. The results obtained from contemporary studies are consistent with the proposed role of CaM as an integrator of different stress signaling pathways, which allows plants to maintain homeostasis between different cellular processes. In this review, we have attempted to present the current state of understanding of the role of CaM in modulating different stress-regulated proteins and its implications in augmenting abiotic stress tolerance in plants. PMID:26528296

  1. Microarray meta-analysis to explore abiotic stress-specific gene expression patterns in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Po-Chih; Hour, Ai-Ling; Liu, Li-Yu Daisy

    2017-12-01

    Abiotic stresses are the major limiting factors that affect plant growth, development, yield and final quality. Deciphering the underlying mechanisms of plants' adaptations to stresses using few datasets might overlook the different aspects of stress tolerance in plants, which might be simultaneously and consequently operated in the system. Fortunately, the accumulated microarray expression data offer an opportunity to infer abiotic stress-specific gene expression patterns through meta-analysis. In this study, we propose to combine microarray gene expression data under control, cold, drought, heat, and salt conditions and determined modules (gene sets) of genes highly associated with each other according to the observed expression data. By analyzing the expression variations of the Eigen genes from different conditions, we had identified two, three, and five gene modules as cold-, heat-, and salt-specific modules, respectively. Most of the cold- or heat-specific modules were differentially expressed to a particular degree in shoot samples, while most of the salt-specific modules were differentially expressed to a particular degree in root samples. A gene ontology (GO) analysis on the stress-specific modules suggested that the gene modules exclusively enriched stress-related GO terms and that different genes under the same GO terms may be alternatively disturbed in different conditions. The gene regulatory events for two genes, DREB1A and DEAR1, in the cold-specific gene module had also been validated, as evidenced through the literature search. Our protocols study the specificity of the gene modules that were specifically activated under a particular type of abiotic stress. The biplot can also assist to visualize the stress-specific gene modules. In conclusion, our approach has the potential to further elucidate mechanisms in plants and beneficial for future experiments design under different abiotic stresses.

  2. Simultaneous optimization of monolayer formation factors, including temperature, to significantly improve nucleic acid hybridization efficiency on gold substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pris, Andrew D; Ostrowski, Sara G; Garaas, Sarah D

    2010-04-20

    Past literature investigations have optimized various single factors used in the formation of thiolated, single stranded DNA (ss-DNA) monolayers on gold. In this study a more comprehensive approach is taken, where a design of experiment (DOE) is employed to simultaneously optimize all of the factors involved in construction of the capture monolayer used in a fluorescence-based hybridization assay. Statistical analysis of the fluorescent intensities resulting from the DOE provides empirical evidence for the importance and the optimal levels of traditional and novel factors included in this investigation. We report on the statistical importance of a novel factor, temperature of the system during monolayer formation of the capture molecule and lateral spacer molecule, and how proper usage of this temperature factor increased the hybridization signal 50%. An initial theory of how the physical factor of heat is mechanistically supplementing the function of the lateral spacer molecule is provided.

  3. Abiotic versus biotic uptake of radiophosphorus in lake water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarapchak, S.J.; Slavens, D.R.; Maloney, L.M.

    1981-01-01

    Tests were conducted on Selenastrum capricornutum and lake water to evaluate the common practice of estimating abiotic uptake of radiophosphorus ( 33 P sub(i)) by poisoning samples with glutaraldehyde (GA) and Formalin (FM) and to estimate abiotic uptake in Lake Michigan water. Algae treated with GA and FM release intracellular 31 P sub(i) into solution, which elevates the dissolved 31 P sub(i): 33 P sub(i) ratio and could seriously underestimate abiotic uptake. Carbonyl-cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CP), an inhibitor of phosphorylation, was identified as a satisfactory agent for estimating abiotic uptake because it effectively inhibits biological uptake, it does not cause the release of detectable amounts of 31 P sub(i) from algae into solution, and it does not appear to block significantly abiotic uptake by particulate material in lake water. Two types of tests demonstrated that nonbiological uptake of 33 P sub(i) in water from Lake Michigan was negligible: uptake in samples treated with 10 -3 mol/L CP was 33 P sub(i) tracer experiments are proposed. (auth)

  4. Factors that influence effective perioperative temperature management by anesthesiologists: a qualitative study using the Theoretical Domains Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boet, Sylvain; Patey, Andrea M; Baron, Justine S; Mohamed, Karim; Pigford, Ashlee-Ann E; Bryson, Gregory L; Brehaut, Jamie C; Grimshaw, Jeremy M

    2017-06-01

    Inadvertent perioperative hypothermia (IPH) is associated with a range of adverse outcomes. Safe and effective warming techniques exist to prevent IPH; however, IPH remains common. This study aimed to identify factors that anesthesiologists perceive may influence temperature management during the perioperative period. After Research Ethics Board approval, semi-structured interviews were conducted with staff anesthesiologists at a Canadian academic hospital. An interview guide based on the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) was used to capture 14 theoretical domains that may influence temperature management. The interview transcripts were coded using direct content analysis to generate specific beliefs and to identify relevant TDF domains perceived to influence temperature management behaviour. Data saturation was achieved after 15 interviews. The following nine theoretical domains were identified as relevant to designing an intervention for practices in perioperative temperature management: knowledge, beliefs about capabilities, beliefs about consequences, reinforcement, memory/attention/decision-making, environmental context and resources, social/professional role/identity, social influences, and behavioural regulation. Potential target areas to improve temperature management practices include interventions that address information needs about individual temperature management behaviour as well as patient outcome (feedback), increasing awareness of possible temperature management strategies and guidelines, and a range of equipment and surgical team dynamics that influence temperature management. This study identified several potential target areas for future interventions from nine of the TDF behavioural domains that anesthesiologists perceive to drive their temperature management practices. Future interventions that aim to close the evidence-practice gap in perioperative temperature management may include these targets.

  5. Buildup of Abiotic Oxygen and Ozone in Atmospheres of Temperate Terrestrial Exoplanets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinboehl, Armin; Willacy, Karen; Friedson, Andrew James; Swain, Mark R.

    2015-12-01

    The last two decades have seen a rapid increase in the detection and characterization of exoplanets. A focus of future missions will be on the subset of transiting, terrestrial, temperate exoplanets as they are the strongest candidates to harbor life as we know it.An important bioindicator for life as we know it is the existence of significant amounts of oxygen, and its photochemical byproduct ozone, in the exoplanet’s atmosphere. However, abiotic processes also produce oxygen and ozone, and the amount of oxygen abiotically produced in an atmosphere will largely depend on other atmospheric parameters. Constraining this parameter space will be essential to avoid ‘false positive’ detections of life, that is the interpretation of oxygen or ozone as a bioindicator despite being produced abiotically.Based on 1D radiative-convective model calculations, Wordsworth and Pierrehumbert (ApJL, 2014) recently pointed out that the formation and buildup of abiotic oxygen on water-rich planets largely depends on the amount of non-condensable gases in the atmosphere. The amount of non-condensable gases determines whether an atmosphere will develop a 'cold-trap' (similar to the tropopause on Earth) that contains most of the water in the lower atmosphere and dries out the upper atmosphere. If water vapor is a major constituent of the atmosphere, this cold-trapping is inhibited, leading to a much moister upper atmosphere. Water vapor in the upper atmosphere is photolyzed due to the availability of hard UV radiation, yielding oxygen.We use a photochemical model coupled to a 1D radiative-convective climate model to self-consistently study this effect in atmospheres with N2, CO2 and H2O as the main constituents. These are typical constituents for secondary, oxidized atmospheres, and they can exist in a wide range of ratios. We calculate the amounts of abiotically produced oxygen and ozone and determine the vertical structure of temperature and constituent mixing ratios for various

  6. Abiotic Stresses Downregulate Key Genes Involved in Nitrogen Uptake and Assimilation in Brassica juncea L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parul Goel

    Full Text Available Abiotic stresses such as salinity, drought and extreme temperatures affect nitrogen (N uptake and assimilation in plants. However, little is known about the regulation of N pathway genes at transcriptional level under abiotic stress conditions in Brassica juncea. In the present work, genes encoding nitrate transporters (NRT, ammonium transporters (AMT, nitrate reductase (NR, nitrite reductase (NiR, glutamine synthetase (GS, glutamate synthase (GOGAT, glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH, asparagines synthetase (ASN were cloned from Brassica juncea L. var. Varuna. The deduced protein sequences were analyzed to predict their subcellular localization, which confirmed localization of all the proteins in their respective cellular organelles. The protein sequences were also subjected to conserved domain identification, which confirmed presence of characteristic domains in all the proteins, indicating their putative functions. Moreover, expression of these genes was studied after 1h and 24h of salt (150 mM NaCl, osmotic (250 mM Mannitol, cold (4°C and heat (42°C stresses. Most of the genes encoding nitrate transporters and enzymes responsible for N assimilation and remobilization were found to be downregulated under abiotic stresses. The expression of BjAMT1.2, BjAMT2, BjGS1.1, BjGDH1 and BjASN2 was downregulated after 1hr, while expression of BjNRT1.1, BjNRT2.1, BjNiR1, BjAMT2, BjGDH1 and BjASN2 was downregulated after 24h of all the stress treatments. However, expression of BjNRT1.1, BjNRT1.5 and BjGDH2 was upregulated after 1h of all stress treatments, while no gene was found to be upregulated after 24h of stress treatments, commonly. These observations indicate that expression of most of the genes is adversely affected under abiotic stress conditions, particularly under prolonged stress exposure (24h, which may be one of the reasons of reduction in plant growth and development under abiotic stresses.

  7. Current perspectives in proteomic analysis of abiotic stress in Grapevines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iniga Seraphina George

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Grapes are an important crop plant which forms the basis of a globally important industry. Grape and wine production is particularly vulnerable to environmental and climatic fluctuations, which makes it essential for us to develop a greater understanding of the molecular level responses of grape plants to various abiotic stresses. The completion of the initial grape genome sequence in 2007 has led to a significant increase in research on grapes using proteomics approaches. In this article, we discuss some of the current research on abiotic stress in grapevines, in the context of abiotic stress research in other plant species. We also highlight some of the current limitations in grapevine proteomics and identify areas with promising scope for potential future research.

  8. New equations to calculate temperature correction factors for PO2 in human blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inaba, H; Ohwada, T; Sato, J; Mizuguchi, T; Hirasawa, H

    1986-01-01

    Effects of hemoglobin concentration (Hb), pH, and body temperature (T) on the relationships between delta log PO2/delta T and PO2 were studied by means of a mathematical model using a Newton-Raphson iteration method. The functions between delta log PO2/delta T and PO2 were affected by the above three factors. New equations considering the effects of Hb, pH, and T were proposed by modifying the equation reported by Severinghaus: delta log PO2/delta T = (L +(U-L)/(A(vPO237)B + 1))(10(-2) where U = 3.15-0.45(7.4-pH37) L = 0.68-0.09(7.4-pH37) A = 5.86(exp10(0.074(T)-0.294(7.4-pH37)-11))((Hb)0.913) B = 6.33(exp10(-0.0051(T)))((Hb)-0.113) + 0.24(7.4-pH37) and vPO237 is virtual PO237 which may exist when PO237 is corrected to standard conditions (pH = 7.4, BE = 0) by the following equations: vPO237 = PO237(exp10(fB(7.4-pH37)-0.0013(BE))) fB = (PO237/26.6)0.08-1.52 where fB is the Bohr factor. The above equations provided values of delta log PO2/delta T which fit closely to those obtained by the complex iteration method with maximum differences of less than 1.3 X 10(-3) at T = 27, indicating that maximum % errors for PO2 at T (PO2T) are less than 3.0% at T = 27 and that our equations can be applied over a wide range of Hb, pH37 and T.

  9. Influence of sky view factor on outdoor thermal environment and physiological equivalent temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiaodong; Miao, Shiguang; Shen, Shuanghe; Li, Ju; Zhang, Benzhi; Zhang, Ziyue; Chen, Xiujie

    2015-03-01

    Sky view factor (SVF), which is an indicator of urban canyon geometry, affects the surface energy balance, local air circulation, and outdoor thermal comfort. This study focused on a continuous and long-term meteorological observation system to investigate the effects of SVF on outdoor thermal conditions and physiological equivalent temperature (PET) in the central business district (CBD) of Beijing (which is located within Chaoyang District), specifically addressed current knowledge gaps for SVF-PET relationships in cities with typical continental/microthermal climates. An urban sub-domain scale model and the RayMan model were used to diagnose wind fields and to calculate SVF and long-term PET, respectively. Analytical results show that the extent of shading contributes to variations in thermal perception distribution. Highly shaded areas (SVF 0.5), and vice versa. Because Beijing has a monsoon-influenced humid continental climate with hot summers and long, cold, windy, and dry winters, a design project that ideally provides moderate shading should be planned to balance hot discomfort in summer and cold discomfort in winter, which effectively prolongs the comfort periods in outdoor spaces throughout the entire year. This research indicate that climate zone characteristics, urban environmental conditions, and thermal comfort requirements of residents must be accounted for in local-scale scientific planning and design, i.e., for urban canyon streets and residential estates.

  10. Analysis of the Prandtl Number Impact on the Temperature Recovery Factor Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Burtsev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses a design procedure for the gas-dynamic energy separation device and shows that its performance efficiency is mainly dependent on the temperature recovery factor values r.As a result of the performed analysis it was found, that the r values depend on a wide range of parameters, namely Mach and Reynolds number values, gas flow type, axial pressure gradient presence and its magnitude, surface relief, etc. At the same time Prandtl number is the parameter, which has the greatest effect on the r value.A review of correlations available in publications to calculate r values is conducted for Prandtl number values equal to or less than 1 (which is consistent almost with all pure gases and their mixtures and the obtained calculation results are compared with analytical expressions and available experimental data (for laminar and turbulent air flows, turbulent helium and hydrogen-argon mixture flow.It is shown that for laminar boundary layer the correlation of square root of Prandtl number is in good agreement with the experimental and analytical data.For turbulent flows the most widely known correlations were studied, and it was found, that for Prandtl number values equal to or less than 1 all of them lead to errors of at least 10 % and more.A new correlation for r calculation with respect to Prandtl number is proposed with maximum error of 1,5 % for Prandtl number values equal to or less than 1.

  11. Development of a Model of Geophysical and Geochemical Controls on Abiotic Carbon Cycling on Earth-Like Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neveu, M.; Felton, R.; Domagal-Goldman, S. D.; Desch, S. J.; Arney, G. N.

    2017-12-01

    About 20 Earth-sized planets (0.6-1.6 Earth masses and radii) have now been discovered beyond our solar system [1]. Although such planets are prime targets in the upcoming search for atmospheric biosignatures, their composition, geology, and climate are essentially unconstrained. Yet, developing an understanding of how these factors influence planetary evolution through time and space is essential to establishing abiotic backgrounds against which any deviations can provide evidence for biological activity. To this end, we are building coupled geophysical-geochemical models of abiotic carbon cycling on such planets. Our models are controlled by atmospheric factors such as temperature and composition, and compute interior inputs to atmospheric species. They account for crustal weathering, ocean-atmosphere equilibria, and exchange with the deep interior as a function of planet composition and size (and, eventually, age).Planets in other solar systems differ from the Earth not only in their bulk physical properties, but also likely in their bulk chemical composition [2], which influences key parameters such as the vigor of mantle convection and the near-surface redox state. Therefore, simulating how variations in such parameters affect carbon cycling requires us to simulate the above processes from first principles, rather than by using arbitrary parameterizations derived from observations as is often done with models of carbon cycling on Earth [3] or extrapolations thereof [4]. As a first step, we have developed a kinetic model of crustal weathering using the PHREEQC code [5] and kinetic data from [6]. We will present the ability of such a model to replicate Earth's carbon cycle using, for the time being, parameterizations for surface-interior-atmosphere exchange processes such as volcanism (e.g., [7]).[1] exoplanet.eu, 7/28/2017.[2] Young et al. (2014) Astrobiology 14, 603-626.[3] Lerman & Wu (2008) Kinetics of Global Geochemical Cycles. In Kinetics of Water

  12. Cloning and Expression Analysis of an AP2/ERF Gene and Its Responses to Phytohormones and Abiotic Stresses in Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao-li MA

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Ethylene response factors (ERFs play important roles in response to plant biotic and abiotic stresses. In this study, a gene encoding a putative AP2/ERF domain-containing protein was isolated by screening a SSH cDNA library from rice and designated as Oryza sativa AP2/ERF-like protein (OsAP2LP gene. OsAP2LP is 1491 bp in length, interrupted by seven introns, and encodes a putative protein of 348 amino acids. Temporal and spatial expression analysis showed that the OsAP2LP gene was preferentially expressed in roots, panicles, mature embryos and seeds in rice. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis indicated that the expression levels of the OsAP2LP gene were increased under the treatments of drought and gibberellin but decreased under the treatments of low temperature, salt, abscisic acid (ABA and zeatin. Taken together, these results suggest that OsAP2LP might be involved in stress responses, and probably plays roles as a transcription regulator when plants response to cold, salt and drought stresses through ABA and gibberellin pathways.

  13. Unravelling abiotic and biotic controls on the seasonal water balance using data-driven dimensionless diagnostics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. P. Seibert

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The baffling diversity of runoff generation processes, alongside our sketchy understanding of how physiographic characteristics control fundamental hydrological functions of water collection, storage, and release, continue to pose major research challenges in catchment hydrology. Here, we propose innovative data-driven diagnostic signatures for overcoming the prevailing status quo in catchment inter-comparison. More specifically, we present dimensionless double mass curves (dDMC which allow inference of information on runoff generation and the water balance at the seasonal and annual timescales. By separating the vegetation and winter periods, dDMC furthermore provide information on the role of biotic and abiotic controls in seasonal runoff formation. A key aspect we address in this paper is the derivation of dimensionless expressions of fluxes which ensure the comparability of the signatures in space and time. We achieve this by using the limiting factors of a hydrological process as a scaling reference. We show that different references result in different diagnostics. As such we define two kinds of dDMC which allow us to derive seasonal runoff coefficients and to characterize dimensionless streamflow release as a function of the potential renewal rate of the soil storage. We expect these signatures for storage controlled seasonal runoff formation to remain invariant, as long as the ratios of release over supply and supply over storage capacity develop similarly in different catchments. We test the proposed methods by applying them to an operational data set comprising 22 catchments (12–166 km2 from different environments in southern Germany and hydrometeorological data from 4 hydrological years. The diagnostics are used to compare the sites and to reveal the dominant controls on runoff formation. The key findings are that dDMC are meaningful signatures for catchment runoff formation at the seasonal to annual scale and that the type of

  14. Unravelling abiotic and biotic controls on the seasonal water balance using data-driven dimensionless diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seibert, Simon Paul; Jackisch, Conrad; Ehret, Uwe; Pfister, Laurent; Zehe, Erwin

    2017-06-01

    The baffling diversity of runoff generation processes, alongside our sketchy understanding of how physiographic characteristics control fundamental hydrological functions of water collection, storage, and release, continue to pose major research challenges in catchment hydrology. Here, we propose innovative data-driven diagnostic signatures for overcoming the prevailing status quo in catchment inter-comparison. More specifically, we present dimensionless double mass curves (dDMC) which allow inference of information on runoff generation and the water balance at the seasonal and annual timescales. By separating the vegetation and winter periods, dDMC furthermore provide information on the role of biotic and abiotic controls in seasonal runoff formation. A key aspect we address in this paper is the derivation of dimensionless expressions of fluxes which ensure the comparability of the signatures in space and time. We achieve this by using the limiting factors of a hydrological process as a scaling reference. We show that different references result in different diagnostics. As such we define two kinds of dDMC which allow us to derive seasonal runoff coefficients and to characterize dimensionless streamflow release as a function of the potential renewal rate of the soil storage. We expect these signatures for storage controlled seasonal runoff formation to remain invariant, as long as the ratios of release over supply and supply over storage capacity develop similarly in different catchments. We test the proposed methods by applying them to an operational data set comprising 22 catchments (12-166 km2) from different environments in southern Germany and hydrometeorological data from 4 hydrological years. The diagnostics are used to compare the sites and to reveal the dominant controls on runoff formation. The key findings are that dDMC are meaningful signatures for catchment runoff formation at the seasonal to annual scale and that the type of scaling strongly

  15. Daily changes of radon concentration in soil gas under influence of atmospheric factors: room temperature, soil surface temperature and relative humidity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lara, Evelise G.; Oliveira, Arno Heeren de, E-mail: evelise.lara@gmail.com, E-mail: heeren@nuclear.ufmg.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear; Rocha, Zildete; Rios, Francisco Javier, E-mail: rochaz@cdtn.br, E-mail: javier@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    This work aims at relating the daily change in the radon concentration in soil gas in a Red Yellow Acrisol (SiBCS) under influence of atmospheric factors: room temperature, soil surface temperature and relative humidity. The {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th, U content and permeability were also performed. The measurements of radon soil gas were carried out by using an AlphaGUARD monitor. The {sup 226}Ra activity concentration was made by Gamma Spectrometry (HPGe); the permeability was carried out using the RADON-JOK permeameter and ICP-MS analysis to {sup 232}Th and U content. The soil permeability is 5.0 x 10{sup -12}, which is considered average. The {sup 226}Ra (22.2 ± 0.3 Bq.m{sup -3}); U content (73.4 ± 3.6 Bq.kg{sup -1}) and {sup 232}Th content (55.3 ± 4.0 Bq.kg{sup -1}) were considered above of average concentrations, according to mean values for soils typical (~ 35.0 Bq.kg{sup -1}) by UNSCEAR. The results showed a difference of 26.0% between the highest and the lowest concentration of radon in soil gas: at midnight (15.5 ± 1.0 kBq.m{sup -3}) and 3:00 pm, the highest mean radon concentration (21.0 ± 1.0 kBq.m{sup -3}). The room temperature and surface soil temperature showed equivalent behavior and the surface soil temperature slightly below room temperature during the entire monitoring time. Nevertheless, the relative humidity showed the highest cyclical behavior, showing a higher relationship with the radon concentration in soil gas. (author)

  16. Daily changes of radon concentration in soil gas under influence of atmospheric factors: room temperature, soil surface temperature and relative humidity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lara, Evelise G.; Oliveira, Arno Heeren de

    2015-01-01

    This work aims at relating the daily change in the radon concentration in soil gas in a Red Yellow Acrisol (SiBCS) under influence of atmospheric factors: room temperature, soil surface temperature and relative humidity. The 226 Ra, 232 Th, U content and permeability were also performed. The measurements of radon soil gas were carried out by using an AlphaGUARD monitor. The 226 Ra activity concentration was made by Gamma Spectrometry (HPGe); the permeability was carried out using the RADON-JOK permeameter and ICP-MS analysis to 232 Th and U content. The soil permeability is 5.0 x 10 -12 , which is considered average. The 226 Ra (22.2 ± 0.3 Bq.m -3 ); U content (73.4 ± 3.6 Bq.kg -1 ) and 232 Th content (55.3 ± 4.0 Bq.kg -1 ) were considered above of average concentrations, according to mean values for soils typical (~ 35.0 Bq.kg -1 ) by UNSCEAR. The results showed a difference of 26.0% between the highest and the lowest concentration of radon in soil gas: at midnight (15.5 ± 1.0 kBq.m -3 ) and 3:00 pm, the highest mean radon concentration (21.0 ± 1.0 kBq.m -3 ). The room temperature and surface soil temperature showed equivalent behavior and the surface soil temperature slightly below room temperature during the entire monitoring time. Nevertheless, the relative humidity showed the highest cyclical behavior, showing a higher relationship with the radon concentration in soil gas. (author)

  17. Assessing and Exploiting Functional Diversity in Germplasm Pools to Enhance Abiotic Stress Adaptation and Yield in Cereals and Food Legumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, Sangam L.; Scheben, Armin; Edwards, David; Spillane, Charles; Ortiz, Rodomiro

    2017-01-01

    There is a need to accelerate crop improvement by introducing alleles conferring host plant resistance, abiotic stress adaptation, and high yield potential. Elite cultivars, landraces and wild relatives harbor useful genetic variation that needs to be more easily utilized in plant breeding. We review genome-wide approaches for assessing and identifying alleles associated with desirable agronomic traits in diverse germplasm pools of cereals and legumes. Major quantitative trait loci and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with desirable agronomic traits have been deployed to enhance crop productivity and resilience. These include alleles associated with variation conferring enhanced photoperiod and flowering traits. Genetic variants in the florigen pathway can provide both environmental flexibility and improved yields. SNPs associated with length of growing season and tolerance to abiotic stresses (precipitation, high temperature) are valuable resources for accelerating breeding for drought-prone environments. Both genomic selection and genome editing can also harness allelic diversity and increase productivity by improving multiple traits, including phenology, plant architecture, yield potential and adaptation to abiotic stresses. Discovering rare alleles and useful haplotypes also provides opportunities to enhance abiotic stress adaptation, while epigenetic variation has potential to enhance abiotic stress adaptation and productivity in crops. By reviewing current knowledge on specific traits and their genetic basis, we highlight recent developments in the understanding of crop functional diversity and identify potential candidate genes for future use. The storage and integration of genetic, genomic and phenotypic information will play an important role in ensuring broad and rapid application of novel genetic discoveries by the plant breeding community. Exploiting alleles for yield-related traits would allow improvement of selection efficiency and

  18. Assessing and Exploiting Functional Diversity in Germplasm Pools to Enhance Abiotic Stress Adaptation and Yield in Cereals and Food Legumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, Sangam L; Scheben, Armin; Edwards, David; Spillane, Charles; Ortiz, Rodomiro

    2017-01-01

    There is a need to accelerate crop improvement by introducing alleles conferring host plant resistance, abiotic stress adaptation, and high yield potential. Elite cultivars, landraces and wild relatives harbor useful genetic variation that needs to be more easily utilized in plant breeding. We review genome-wide approaches for assessing and identifying alleles associated with desirable agronomic traits in diverse germplasm pools of cereals and legumes. Major quantitative trait loci and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with desirable agronomic traits have been deployed to enhance crop productivity and resilience. These include alleles associated with variation conferring enhanced photoperiod and flowering traits. Genetic variants in the florigen pathway can provide both environmental flexibility and improved yields. SNPs associated with length of growing season and tolerance to abiotic stresses (precipitation, high temperature) are valuable resources for accelerating breeding for drought-prone environments. Both genomic selection and genome editing can also harness allelic diversity and increase productivity by improving multiple traits, including phenology, plant architecture, yield potential and adaptation to abiotic stresses. Discovering rare alleles and useful haplotypes also provides opportunities to enhance abiotic stress adaptation, while epigenetic variation has potential to enhance abiotic stress adaptation and productivity in crops. By reviewing current knowledge on specific traits and their genetic basis, we highlight recent developments in the understanding of crop functional diversity and identify potential candidate genes for future use. The storage and integration of genetic, genomic and phenotypic information will play an important role in ensuring broad and rapid application of novel genetic discoveries by the plant breeding community. Exploiting alleles for yield-related traits would allow improvement of selection efficiency and

  19. Assessing and Exploiting Functional Diversity in Germplasm Pools to Enhance Abiotic Stress Adaptation and Yield in Cereals and Food Legumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangam L. Dwivedi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available There is a need to accelerate crop improvement by introducing alleles conferring host plant resistance, abiotic stress adaptation, and high yield potential. Elite cultivars, landraces and wild relatives harbor useful genetic variation that needs to be more easily utilized in plant breeding. We review genome-wide approaches for assessing and identifying alleles associated with desirable agronomic traits in diverse germplasm pools of cereals and legumes. Major quantitative trait loci and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs associated with desirable agronomic traits have been deployed to enhance crop productivity and resilience. These include alleles associated with variation conferring enhanced photoperiod and flowering traits. Genetic variants in the florigen pathway can provide both environmental flexibility and improved yields. SNPs associated with length of growing season and tolerance to abiotic stresses (precipitation, high temperature are valuable resources for accelerating breeding for drought-prone environments. Both genomic selection and genome editing can also harness allelic diversity and increase productivity by improving multiple traits, including phenology, plant architecture, yield potential and adaptation to abiotic stresses. Discovering rare alleles and useful haplotypes also provides opportunities to enhance abiotic stress adaptation, while epigenetic variation has potential to enhance abiotic stress adaptation and productivity in crops. By reviewing current knowledge on specific traits and their genetic basis, we highlight recent developments in the understanding of crop functional diversity and identify potential candidate genes for future use. The storage and integration of genetic, genomic and phenotypic information will play an important role in ensuring broad and rapid application of novel genetic discoveries by the plant breeding community. Exploiting alleles for yield-related traits would allow improvement of selection

  20. Temperature dependence of the field-induced magnetic form factor of the intermetallic compound PrSn3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loong, C.; Stassis, C.; Zarestky, J.; McMasters, O.D.; Moon, R.M.

    1984-01-01

    The spatial distribution of the magnetization induced by a magnetic field of 42.5 kG in a single crystal of PrSn 3 has been studied at 100 and 20 K using polarized neutron scattering techniques. We find that at both temperatures the measured form factor is in good agreement with the theoretical 4f magnetic form factor of the Pr 3+ ion. This result is in contrast to the large deviations from the 4f magnetic form factor of Ce 3+ observed, at low temperatures, for the mixed-valence compounds CeSn 3 and CePd 3 . The localized static susceptibility of PrSn 3 at 100 and 20 K, obtained by extrapolating the measured form factor to the forward direction, agrees very well with bulk susceptibility measurements

  1. Abiotic water quality control on mangrove distribution in estuarine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abiotic water quality control on mangrove distribution in estuarine river channels assessed by a novel boat-mounted electromagnetic- induction technique. Melissa A .... of operation depends on coil orientation, spacing and operation. * To whom all .... the visual estimation method in proportion (%) to the total site area ...

  2. Resilience of cereal crops to abiotic stress: A review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-07-16

    Jul 16, 2014 ... Key words: Cereal crops, abiotic stresses, food insecurity, molecular breeding, quantitative trait loci (QTLs), salinity, water stress. ... production of genetically modified (GM) crops, exo- genous use of osmo protectants etc. ... stressful environments is important to fulfill food demand of the ever-increasing world ...

  3. Ecogenomics of plant resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davila Olivas, N.H.

    2016-01-01

    Summary

    In natural and agricultural ecosystems, plants are exposed to a wide diversity of abiotic and biotic stresses such as drought, salinity, pathogens and insect herbivores. Under natural conditions, these stresses do not occur in isolation but commonly occur simultaneously.

  4. Effect of plant growth hormones and abiotic stresses on germination ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phosphatases are believed to be important for phosphorous scavenging and remobilization in plants, but its role in adaptation to abiotic stresses and growth hormones at ... Subsequently, a remarkable decrease in fresh weight and dry weight was observed in embryos under ABA and NaCl treatments, whereas a significant ...

  5. Understanding the Posttranscriptional Regulation of Plant Responses to Abiotic Stress

    KAUST Repository

    AlShareef, Sahar A.

    2017-06-01

    Constitutive and alternative splicing of pre-mRNAs from multiexonic genes controls the diversity of the proteome; these precisely regulated processes also fine-tune responses to cues related to growth, development, and biotic and abiotic stresses. Recent work showed that AS is pervasive across plant species, with more than 60% of intron-containing genes producing different isoforms. Mammalian cell-based assays have discovered various AS small-molecule inhibitors that perturb splicing and thereby provide invaluable tools for use as chemical probes to uncover the molecular underpinnings of splicing regulation and as potential anticancer compounds. Here, I show that the macrolide Pladienolide B (PB) and herboxidiene (GEX1A) inhibits both constitutive and alternative splicing, mimics an abiotic stress signal, and activates the abscisic acid (ABA) pathway in plants. Moreover, PB and GEX1A activate genome-wide transcriptional patterns involved in abiotic stress responses in plants. PB and GEX1A treatment triggered the ABA signaling pathway, activated ABA-inducible promoters, and led to stomatal closure. Interestingly, PB and GEX1A elicited similar cellular changes, including alterations in the patterns of transcription and splicing, suggesting that these compounds might target the same spliceosome complex in plant cells. This work establishes PB and GEX1A as potent splicing inhibitors in plants that can be used to probe the assembly, dynamics, and molecular functions of the spliceosome and to study the interplay between splicing stress and abiotic stresses, as well as having potential biotechnological applications.

  6. Compartment specific importance of glutathione during abiotic and biotic stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernd eZechmann

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The tripeptide thiol glutathione (γ-L-glutamyl-L-cysteinyl-glycine is the most important sulfur containing antioxidant in plants and essential for plant defense against abiotic and biotic stress conditions. It is involved in the detoxification of reactive oxygen species, redox signaling, the modulation of defense gene expression and important for the regulation of enzymatic activities. Even though changes in glutathione contents are well documented in plants and its roles in plant defense are well established, still too little is known about its compartment specific importance during abiotic and biotic stress conditions. Due to technical advances in the visualization of glutathione and the redox state of plants through microscopical methods some progress was made in the last few years in studying the importance of subcellular glutathione contents during stress conditions in plants. This review summarizes the data available on compartment specific importance of glutathione in the protection against abiotic and biotic stress conditions such as high light stress, exposure to cadmium, drought, and pathogen attack (Pseudomonas, Botrytis, Tobacco Mosaic Virus. The data will be discussed in connection with the subcellular accumulation of ROS during these conditions and glutathione synthesis which are both highly compartment specific (e.g. glutathione synthesis takes place in chloroplasts and the cytosol. Thus this review will reveal the compartment specific importance of glutathione during abiotic and biotic stress conditions.

  7. STRESS ECOLOGY IN FUCUS : ABIOTIC, BIOTIC AND GENETIC INTERACTIONS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wahl, Martin; Jormalainen, Veijo; Eriksson, Britas Klemens; Coyer, James A.; Molis, Markus; Schubert, Hendrik; Dethier, Megan; Karez, Rolf; Kruse, Inken; Lenz, Mark; Pearson, Gareth; Rohde, Sven; Wikstrom, Sofia A.; Olsen, Jeanine L.; Lesser, M

    2011-01-01

    Stress regimes defined as the synchronous or sequential action of abiotic and biotic stresses determine the performance and distribution of species. The natural patterns of stress to which species are more or less well adapted have recently started to shift and alter under the influence of global

  8. Current trends in genetic manipulations to enhance abiotic and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Success in breeding for better adapted varieties to abiotic and biotic stresses depends on the concerted efforts of various research domains including plant and cell physiology, molecular biology, genetics and breeding. However, such process is time consuming. The production of transgenic plants by genetic engineering ...

  9. Differential contributions to the transcriptome of duplicated genes in response to abiotic stresses in natural and synthetic polyploids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Shaowei; Adams, Keith L

    2011-06-01

    Polyploidy has occurred throughout plant evolution and can result in considerable changes to gene expression when it takes place and over evolutionary time. Little is known about the effects of abiotic stress conditions on duplicate gene expression patterns in polyploid plants. We examined the expression patterns of 60 duplicated genes in leaves, roots and cotyledons of allotetraploid Gossypium hirsutum in response to five abiotic stress treatments (heat, cold, drought, high salt and water submersion) using single-strand conformation polymorphism assays, and 20 genes in a synthetic allotetraploid. Over 70% of the genes showed stress-induced changes in the relative expression levels of the duplicates under one or more stress treatments with frequent variability among treatments. Twelve pairs showed opposite changes in expression levels in response to different abiotic stress treatments. Stress-induced expression changes occurred in the synthetic allopolyploid, but there was little correspondence in patterns between the natural and synthetic polyploids. Our results indicate that abiotic stress conditions can have considerable effects on duplicate gene expression in a polyploid, with the effects varying by gene, stress and organ type. Differential expression in response to environmental stresses may be a factor in the preservation of some duplicated genes in polyploids. © 2011 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2011 New Phytologist Trust.

  10. Analysis of stress intensity factor for a Griffith crack opened under constant pressure in a plate with temperature dependent properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hata, Toshiaki

    1982-01-01

    Recently, the research on the thermal stress of structural materials has become important with the progress of nuclear reactor technology. In the case of large temperature gradient, the change of the physical properties of materials must be taken into account. The thermal stress analysis for the things with cracks taking the temperature dependence of properties into account has scarcely been carried out. In this report, the general method of solution of three-dimensional problems using perturbation method and the extension of thermo-elastic displacement potential method is shown for the case in which Young's modulus changes according to the exponential function of temperature. Moreover, using this method, the effect of the temperature dependence of properties on the stress intensity factor of the cracks subjected to internal pressure in a strip exposed to linear thermal flow was clarified. In the analysis, Young's modulus, the coefficient of linear thermal expansion and thermal conductivity were assumed to be dependent on temperature. The method of solution, the analysis of stress intensity factor considering the change of properties due to temperature, and the numerical calculation for a square plate with a crack are explained. (Kako, I.)

  11. Abiotic ozone and oxygen in atmospheres similar to prebiotic Earth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domagal-Goldman, Shawn D. [Planetary Environments Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 8800 Greenbelt Road, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Segura, Antígona; Claire, Mark W.; Robinson, Tyler D.; Meadows, Victoria S., E-mail: shawn.goldman@nasa.gov [NASA Astrobiology Institute—Virtual Planetary Laboratory (United States)

    2014-09-10

    The search for life on planets outside our solar system will use spectroscopic identification of atmospheric biosignatures. The most robust remotely detectable potential biosignature is considered to be the detection of oxygen (O{sub 2}) or ozone (O{sub 3}) simultaneous to methane (CH{sub 4}) at levels indicating fluxes from the planetary surface in excess of those that could be produced abiotically. Here we use an altitude-dependent photochemical model with the enhanced lower boundary conditions necessary to carefully explore abiotic O{sub 2} and O{sub 3} production on lifeless planets with a wide variety of volcanic gas fluxes and stellar energy distributions. On some of these worlds, we predict limited O{sub 2} and O{sub 3} buildup, caused by fast chemical production of these gases. This results in detectable abiotic O{sub 3} and CH{sub 4} features in the UV-visible, but no detectable abiotic O{sub 2} features. Thus, simultaneous detection of O{sub 3} and CH{sub 4} by a UV-visible mission is not a strong biosignature without proper contextual information. Discrimination between biological and abiotic sources of O{sub 2} and O{sub 3} is possible through analysis of the stellar and atmospheric context—particularly redox state and O atom inventory—of the planet in question. Specifically, understanding the spectral characteristics of the star and obtaining a broad wavelength range for planetary spectra should allow more robust identification of false positives for life. This highlights the importance of wide spectral coverage for future exoplanet characterization missions. Specifically, discrimination between true and false positives may require spectral observations that extend into infrared wavelengths and provide contextual information on the planet's atmospheric chemistry.

  12. Mapping temperature-induced conformational changes in the Escherichia coli heat shock transcription factor sigma 32 by amide hydrogen exchange

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rist, Wolfgang; Jørgensen, Thomas J D; Roepstorff, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Stress conditions such as heat shock alter the transcriptional profile in all organisms. In Escherichia coli the heat shock transcription factor, sigma 32, out-competes upon temperature up-shift the housekeeping sigma-factor, sigma 70, for binding to core RNA polymerase and initiates heat shock...... gene transcription. To investigate possible heat-induced conformational changes in sigma 32 we performed amide hydrogen (H/D) exchange experiments under optimal growth and heat shock conditions combined with mass spectrometry. We found a rapid exchange of around 220 of the 294 amide hydrogens at 37...... promoters. The correlated exchange is shown to constitute a reversible unfolding with a half-life of about 30 min due to a temperature-dependent decrease in stabilization energy. We propose that this gradual decrease in stabilization energy of domain sigma 2 with increasing temperatures facilitates...

  13. Determination of Factors Related to Students' Understandings of Heat, Temperature and Internal Energy Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurcay, Deniz; Gulbas, Etna

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to investigate the relationships between high school students' learning approaches and logical thinking abilities and their understandings of heat, temperature and internal energy concepts. Learning Approach Questionnaire, Test of Logical Thinking and Three-Tier Heat, Temperature and Internal Energy Test were used…

  14. On the pressure velocity and temperature factors and the effect of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    By this, explicit results about the pressure, velocity and temperature distributions are obtained. It is observed that viscosity reduces the pressure, hence, the velocity and temperature distributions. Our results may find relevance in the medical treatment of high blood-pressure problem. Keywords: Viscosity pressure, velocity, ...

  15. Temperature dependence of the lattice parameter and Debye-Waller factor of a high-chromium pressure-vessel steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumin, V. V.; Simkin, V. G.; Sheverev, S. G.; Leont'eva-Smirnova, M. V.; Chernov, V. M.

    2009-12-01

    The method of thermal neutron diffraction has been used to study samples of the EK-181 steel at temperatures of 15 to 973 K in an IBR-2 reactor (Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR)). Temperature dependences of the lattice parameter, internal textural stresses (of the third kind), and the Debye-Waller factor of this steel have been calculated from diffraction spectra by the Rietveld method. It has been found that at low temperatures the temperature dependence of the lattice parameter in the EK-181 steel (RUSFER EK-181) differs from the corresponding dependence in pure iron and binary iron-chromium alloys containing 12 and 16% Cr. Also, a broadening of the ( 200) reflection has been observed in the diffraction spectra of the EK-181 steel and the Fe-12Cr alloy, while it is not detected in the spectra of Fe-16Cr and pure iron.

  16. Dominant factors affecting temperature rise in simulations of human thermoregulation during RF exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laakso, Ilkka; Hirata, Akimasa

    2011-12-07

    Numerical models of the human thermoregulatory system can be used together with realistic voxel models of the human anatomy to simulate the body temperature increases caused by the power absorption from radio-frequency electromagnetic fields. In this paper, the Pennes bioheat equation with a thermoregulatory model is used for calculating local peak temperatures as well as the body-core-temperature elevation in a realistic human body model for grounded plane-wave exposures at frequencies 39, 800 and 2400 MHz. The electromagnetic power loss is solved by the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method, and the discretized bioheat equation is solved by the geometric multigrid method. Human thermoregulatory models contain numerous thermophysiological and computational parameters--some of which may be subject to considerable uncertainty--that affect the simulated core and local temperature elevations. The goal of this paper is to find how greatly the computed temperature is influenced by changes in various modelling parameters, such as the skin blood flow rate, models for vasodilation and sweating, and clothing and air movement. The results show that the peak temperature rises are most strongly affected by the modelling of tissue blood flow and its temperature dependence, and mostly unaffected by the central control mechanism for vasodilation and sweating. Almost the opposite is true for the body-core-temperature rise, which is however typically greatly lower than the peak temperature rise. It also seems that ignoring the thermoregulation and the blood temperature increase is a good approximation when the local 10 g averaged specific absorption rate is smaller than 10 W kg(-1).

  17. Dominant factors affecting temperature rise in simulations of human thermoregulation during RF exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laakso, Ilkka; Hirata, Akimasa

    2011-01-01

    Numerical models of the human thermoregulatory system can be used together with realistic voxel models of the human anatomy to simulate the body temperature increases caused by the power absorption from radio-frequency electromagnetic fields. In this paper, the Pennes bioheat equation with a thermoregulatory model is used for calculating local peak temperatures as well as the body-core-temperature elevation in a realistic human body model for grounded plane-wave exposures at frequencies 39, 800 and 2400 MHz. The electromagnetic power loss is solved by the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method, and the discretized bioheat equation is solved by the geometric multigrid method. Human thermoregulatory models contain numerous thermophysiological and computational parameters—some of which may be subject to considerable uncertainty—that affect the simulated core and local temperature elevations. The goal of this paper is to find how greatly the computed temperature is influenced by changes in various modelling parameters, such as the skin blood flow rate, models for vasodilation and sweating, and clothing and air movement. The results show that the peak temperature rises are most strongly affected by the modelling of tissue blood flow and its temperature dependence, and mostly unaffected by the central control mechanism for vasodilation and sweating. Almost the opposite is true for the body-core-temperature rise, which is however typically greatly lower than the peak temperature rise. It also seems that ignoring the thermoregulation and the blood temperature increase is a good approximation when the local 10 g averaged specific absorption rate is smaller than 10 W kg −1 .

  18. Aquatic macroinvertebrates associated with Eichhornia azurea (Swartz Kunth and relationships with abiotic factors in marginal lentic ecosystems (São Paulo, Brazil Macroinvertebrados aquáticos associados à Eichhornia azurea (Swartz Kunth e suas relações com as variáveis abióticas em ecossistemas lênticos marginais (São Paulo, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CV. Silva

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Marginal lakes are characterised by their having high biological diversity due to the presence of aquatic macrophytes in their coastal zones, providing habitats for refuge and food for animal community members. Among the fauna components associated with macrophytes, aquatic macroinvertebrates are important because they are an energy source for predators and fish. In six lakes and two different seasons (March and August 2009, the ecological attributes of aquatic macroinvertebrate community associated with Eichhornia azurea were compared and the controlling environmental factors were identified. Since the attributes of macroinvertebrate community are strictly associated with abiotic variables of each distinct habitat, our hypothesis was that each site associated with the same floating aquatic macrophyte (E. azurea should have a typical composition and density of organisms. We identified 50 taxa of macroinvertebrates, with greater taxa richness for aquatic insects (37 taxa divided into eight orders; the order Diptera being the most abundant in the two study periods. On the other hand, higher values of total taxa richness were recorded in August. Dissolved oxygen and pH presented the greatest number of significant positive correlations with the different taxa. The animals most frequently collected in the six lakes in March and August 2009 were Hirudinea, Oligochaeta, Hydrachnidae, Conchostraca, Ostracoda, Noteridae, Ceratopogonidae, Chironomidae, Culicidae, Caenidae, Pleidae, Aeshnidae, Libellulidae, Coenagrionidae and Nematoda. Only densities of Trichoptera, Ostracoda and Conchostraca presented the highest significant differences between lakes in both study periods and considering the composition of macroinvertebrates no significant differences were registered for macroinvertebrate composition.Lagoas marginais são caracterizadas por apresentar elevada diversidade biológica, devido à presença de macrófitas aquáticas nas suas zonas litor

  19. Long-term research in Bosque Fray Jorge National Park: Twenty years studying the role of biotic and abiotic factors in a Chilean semiarid scrubland Investigación de largo plazo en el Parque Nacional Bosque Fray Jorge: Veinte años estudiando el rol de los factores bióticos y abióticos en un matorral chileno semiárido

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JULIO R GUTIÉRREZ

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Since 1989, we have conducted a large-scale ecological experiment in semiarid thorn scrub of a national park in north-central Chile. Initially, we focused on the role of biotic interactions including predation, interspecific competition, and herbivory in small mammal and plant components of the community. We utilized a reductionist approach with replicated 0.56 ha fenced grids that selectively excluded vertebrate predators and/or larger small mammal herbivores such as the degu, Octodon degus. Although we detected small transitory effects of predator exclusions on degu survival and numbers, other species failed to show responses. Similarly, interspecific competition (i.e., degus with other small mammals had no detectable numerical effects (although some behavioral responses occurred, and degu-exclusions had relatively small effects on various plant components. Modeling approaches indicate that abiotic factors play a determining role in the dynamics of principal small mammal species such as O. degus and the leaf-eared mouse (Phyllotis darwini. In turn, these are mainly related to aperiodic pulses of higher rainfall (usually during El Niño events which trigger ephemeral plant growth; a food addition experiment in 1997-2000 verified the importance of precipitation as a determinant of food availability. Since 2004, we have expanded long-term monitoring efforts to other important community components including birds and insects in order to understand effects of abiotic factors on them; we report some of the first results of comprehensive surveys on the former in this region. Finally, we recently shifted focus to documenting effects of exotic lagomorphs in the park. We installed additional treatments selectively excluding small mammals, lagomorphs, or both, from replicated grids in order to evaluate putative herbivore impacts. In conjunction with increased annual rainfall since 2000, we predict that introduced lagomorphs will have increasing impacts

  20. Resource supply overrides temperature as a controlling factor of marine phytoplankton growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Marañón

    Full Text Available The universal temperature dependence of metabolic rates has been used to predict how ocean biology will respond to ocean warming. Determining the temperature sensitivity of phytoplankton metabolism and growth is of special importance because this group of organisms is responsible for nearly half of global primary production, sustains most marine food webs, and contributes to regulate the exchange of CO2 between the ocean and the atmosphere. Phytoplankton growth rates increase with temperature under optimal growth conditions in the laboratory, but it is unclear whether the same degree of temperature dependence exists in nature, where resources are often limiting. Here we use concurrent measurements of phytoplankton biomass and carbon fixation rates in polar, temperate and tropical regions to determine the role of temperature and resource supply in controlling the large-scale variability of in situ metabolic rates. We identify a biogeographic pattern in phytoplankton metabolic rates, which increase from the oligotrophic subtropical gyres to temperate regions and then coastal waters. Variability in phytoplankton growth is driven by changes in resource supply and appears to be independent of seawater temperature. The lack of temperature sensitivity of realized phytoplankton growth is consistent with the limited applicability of Arrhenius enzymatic kinetics when substrate concentrations are low. Our results suggest that, due to widespread resource limitation in the ocean, the direct effect of sea surface warming upon phytoplankton growth and productivity may be smaller than anticipated.

  1. Resource Supply Overrides Temperature as a Controlling Factor of Marine Phytoplankton Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marañón, Emilio; Cermeño, Pedro; Huete-Ortega, María; López-Sandoval, Daffne C.; Mouriño-Carballido, Beatriz; Rodríguez-Ramos, Tamara

    2014-01-01

    The universal temperature dependence of metabolic rates has been used to predict how ocean biology will respond to ocean warming. Determining the temperature sensitivity of phytoplankton metabolism and growth is of special importance because this group of organisms is responsible for nearly half of global primary production, sustains most marine food webs, and contributes to regulate the exchange of CO2 between the ocean and the atmosphere. Phytoplankton growth rates increase with temperature under optimal growth conditions in the laboratory, but it is unclear whether the same degree of temperature dependence exists in nature, where resources are often limiting. Here we use concurrent measurements of phytoplankton biomass and carbon fixation rates in polar, temperate and tropical regions to determine the role of temperature and resource supply in controlling the large-scale variability of in situ metabolic rates. We identify a biogeographic pattern in phytoplankton metabolic rates, which increase from the oligotrophic subtropical gyres to temperate regions and then coastal waters. Variability in phytoplankton growth is driven by changes in resource supply and appears to be independent of seawater temperature. The lack of temperature sensitivity of realized phytoplankton growth is consistent with the limited applicability of Arrhenius enzymatic kinetics when substrate concentrations are low. Our results suggest that, due to widespread resource limitation in the ocean, the direct effect of sea surface warming upon phytoplankton growth and productivity may be smaller than anticipated. PMID:24921945

  2. Abiotic Versus Biotic Pathogens: Replicative Growth in Host Tissues Key to Discriminating Between Biotoxic Injury and Active Pathogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuerger, Andrew C.; Ming, Douglas W.; Golden, D. C.

    2012-01-01

    Life can be defined as a self-sustaining chemical system capable of undergoing Darwinian evolution; a self-bounded, self-replicating, and self-perpetuating entity [1]. This definition should hold for terrestrial as well as extraterrestrial life-forms. Although, it is reasonable to expect that a Mars life-form would be more adaptable to Mars-like conditions than to Earth-like environments, it remains possible that negative ecological or host interactions might occur if Mars microbiota were to be inadvertently released into the terrestrial environment. A biogenic infectious agent can be defined as a self-sustaining chemical system capable of undergoing Darwinian evolution and derives its sustenance from a living cell or from the by-products of cell death. Disease can be de-fined as the detrimental alteration of one or more ordered metabolic processes in a living host caused by the continued irritation of a primary causal factor or factors; disease is a dynamic process [2]. In contrast, an injury is due to an instantaneous event; injury is not a dynamic process [2]. A causal agent of disease is defined as a pathogen, and can be either abiotic or biotic in nature. Diseases incited by biotic pathogens are the exceptions, not the norms, in terrestrial host-microbe interactions. Disease induction in a plant host can be conceptually characterized using the Disease Triangle (Fig. 1) in which disease occurs only when all host, pathogen, and environ-mental factors that contribute to the development of disease are within conducive ranges for a necessary minimum period of time. For example, plant infection and disease caused by the wheat leaf rust fungus, Puccinia recondita, occur only if virulent spores adhere to genetically susceptible host tissues for at least 4-6 hours under favorable conditions of temperature and moisture [3]. As long as one or more conditions required for disease initiation are not available, disease symptoms will not develop.

  3. The impact of climatic and non-climatic factors on land surface temperature in southwestern Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roşca, Cristina Florina; Harpa, Gabriela Victoria; Croitoru, Adina-Eliza; Herbel, Ioana; Imbroane, Alexandru Mircea; Burada, Doina Cristina

    2017-11-01

    Land surface temperature is one of the most important parameters related to global warming. It depends mainly on soil type, discontinuous vegetation cover, or lack of precipitation. The main purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship between high LST, synoptic conditions and air masses trajectories, vegetation cover, and soil type in one of the driest region in Romania. In order to calculate the land surface temperature and normalized difference vegetation index, five satellite images of LANDSAT missions 5 and 7, covering a period of 26 years (1986-2011), were selected, all of them collected in the month of June. The areas with low vegetation density were derived from normalized difference vegetation index, while soil types have been extracted from Corine Land Cover database. HYSPLIT application was employed to identify the air masses origin based on their backward trajectories for each of the five study cases. Pearson, logarithmic, and quadratic correlations were used to detect the relationships between land surface temperature and observed ground temperatures, as well as between land surface temperature and normalized difference vegetation index. The most important findings are: strong correlation between land surface temperature derived from satellite images and maximum ground temperature recorded in a weather station located in the area, as well as between areas with land surface temperature equal to or higher than 40.0 °C and those with lack of vegetation; the sandy soils are the most prone to high land surface temperature and lack of vegetation, followed by the chernozems and brown soils; extremely severe drought events may occur in the region.

  4. Factors influencing intra-articular fluid temperature profiles with radiofrequency ablation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoric, Bojan B; Horn, Nils; Braun, Sepp; Millett, Peter J

    2009-10-01

    Radiofrequency ablation devices are being used increasingly in arthroscopic surgery. However, there are concerns that excessive temperatures may damage the articular cartilage. The purpose of this study was to investigate the temperature profiles that occur within the glenohumeral space with the use of one commercially available radiofrequency ablation probe. Ten fresh-frozen human cadaver shoulder specimens were used. Intra-articular temperatures were measured at different time intervals over a two-minute period at a distance of 1, 3, 5, and 10 mm away from the probe. The radiofrequency probe was activated throughout the range of machine power settings, and irrigation fluid flow was varied (no flow, a flow at 60 mm Hg without suction, and a flow at 60 mm Hg with suction). Temperatures deleterious to articular cartilage chondrocytes (i.e., those in excess of 50 degrees C) were seen with an increased duration of application, a decreased distance between the thermometer and the probe, and a decreased irrigation fluid flow rate. The highest recorded irrigation fluid temperature reached >80 degrees C after two minutes in a no-flow setting. The flow rate was found to be the most significant predictor of intra-articular temperature profiles. The various machine power settings had no apparent influence on temperature, meaning that higher probe settings are not necessarily associated with higher temperature profiles. These results demonstrate the importance of the management of the irrigation fluid flow rate across the joint during arthroscopic procedures that involve radiofrequency ablation. Even short intervals of limited flow could lead to supraphysiological temperature profiles and potentially to cartilage damage.

  5. Bar shoes and ambient temperature are risk factors for exercise-induced pulmonary haemorrhage in Thoroughbred racehorses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crispe, E J; Lester, G D; Robertson, I D; Secombe, C J

    2016-07-01

    Ambient temperature has been identified as a risk factor for exercise-induced pulmonary haemorrhage (EIPH) in racing Thoroughbreds. This warranted a more expansive investigation of climatic conditions on the incidence and severity of EIPH. The impact of other variables such as the type of bit used, tongue ties and nonstandard shoes has not been reported and also warrant investigation. To examine the effect of various climatic variables as contributing risk factors for EIPH. Other previously uninvestigated variables as well as standard track and population factors will also be examined. Cross-sectional study. Thoroughbred racehorses competing at metropolitan racetracks in Perth, Western Australia were examined 30-200 min post race with tracheobronchoscopy. Examination took place at 48 race meetings over a 12 month period. Examinations were graded (0-4), independently by two experienced veterinarians. Univariable analyses were performed and variables with a Pshoes were significantly associated with EIPH grades ≥1 (OR 6.35; 95% CI 2.17-18.54) and EIPH grades ≥2 (OR 2.72; 95% CI 1.3-5.68). Increasing race distance was significantly associated with EIPH grade ≥1 and increasing lifetime starts was significantly associated with EIPH grade ≥2. Ambient temperature is a risk factor for EIPH in Thoroughbred racehorses, with lower temperatures associated with increased risk. Bar shoes are a novel risk factor for EIPH in this population. © 2015 EVJ Ltd.

  6. Abiotic hydrolysis of pesticides in the aquatic environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katagi, Toshiyuki

    2002-01-01

    Hydrolysis of a pesticide is basically a reaction with a water molecule involving specific catalysis by proton or hydroxide, and sometimes inorganic ions such as phosphate ion, present in the aquatic environment that play a role in general acid-base catalysis. In this review, the basic profiles of hydrolysis such as pH and temperature dependencies are clarified for each class of pesticides together with typical reaction mechanisms. Although these hydrolytic profiles depend on the chemical structure and functional group(s) of a pesticide molecule, they are not always consistent within a chemical class of pesticides. For example, organophosphorus pesticides are primarily susceptible to alkaline hydrolysis with less acidic catalysis, but some of phosphorodithioates are found to be acid labile. In the case of carbamates, the pKa value of a leaving group is known to control their hydrolysis mechanism, whether BAC2 or E1cB. As one of the predictive approaches, the linear free-energy relationship has been successfully applied to hydrolysis of a series of organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides under conditions in which the reaction mechanism does not change. However, it still seems advantageous to estimate a priori hydrolytic profiles of pesticides, either because there is insufficient precision in the methodology or the chemical class is limited, or because of pH and temperature dependencies of hydrolysis. Therefore, it would still be practical, for the present, when investigating abiotic hydrolysis of a new pesticide that a laboratory study be effectively designed on the basis of accumulated knowledge of hydrolytic profiles for the essential chemical structure and functional groups and conducted to obtain pH- and temperature-rate profiles. Various instrumental techniques have been applied to chemical identification of degradates, leading to clarification of the reaction mechanisms involved, but greater use of computational methods such as ab initio and semiempirical

  7. The shifting influence of abiotic drivers during landslide succession in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    L. R. Walker; A. B. Shiels; P. J. Bellingham; A. D. Sparrow; N. Fetcher; F. H. Landau; D. J. Lodge

    2013-01-01

    Summary 1. Abiotic variables are critical drivers of succession in most primary seres, but how their influence on biota changes over time is rarely examined. Landslides provide good model systems for examining abiotic influences because they are spatially and temporally heterogeneous habitats with distinct abiotic and biotic gradients and post-landslide erosion. 2. In...

  8. The Influence of Environmental Factors on Employee Comfort Based on an Example of Location Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szer I.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Work in unfavorable, changing environmental conditions negatively affects people working on scaffoldings used on construction sites, which may increase the risk of occurrence of dangerous situations. The purpose of this article is to show the scale of temperature changes which workers are exposed to. The paper compares examples of temperature measurements obtained from a metrological station and during tests on scaffoldings located in the Lodz and Warsaw regions. This article also presents the methodology of examining environmental parameters of the surroundings where employees work on scaffoldings. Analysis results show that high temperatures and significant temperature variations frequently occur on the scaffoldings, which leads to a lack of adaptability and consequently to tiredness or decreased alertness. Unfavorable environmental conditions can lead to behaviors which, in turn, can cause accidents.

  9. Investigating factors affecting the body temperature of dogs competing in cross country (canicross) races in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Anne J; Hall, Emily J

    2018-02-01

    Increasing numbers of people are running with their dogs, particularly in harness through the sport canicross. Whilst canicross races are typically held in the winter months, some human centred events are encouraging running with dogs in summer months, potentially putting dogs at risk of heat related injuries, including heatstroke. The aim of this project was to investigate the effects of ambient conditions and running speed on post-race temperature of canicross dogs in the UK, and investigate the potential risk of heatstroke to canicross racing dogs. The effects of canine characteristics (e.g. gender, coat colour) were explored in order to identify factors that could increase the risk of exercise-induced hyperthermia (defined as body temperature exceeding the upper normal limit of 38.8°C).108 dogs were recruited from 10 race days, where ambient conditions ranged from - 5 to 11°C measured as universal thermal comfort index (UTCI). 281 post race tympanic membrane temperatures were recorded, ranging from 37.0-42.5°C. There was a weak correlation between speed and post-race temperature (r = 0.269, P coated dogs (χ(2) = 8.234, P = 0.014), were significantly more likely to finish the race with a temperature exceeding 40.6°C. Prolonged elevati°n of body temperature above this temperature is likely to cause heatstroke. At every race dogs exceeded this critical temperature, with 10.7% (n = 30) of the overall study population exceeding this temperature throughout the study period. The results suggest male dogs, dark coloured dogs, and increased speed of running all increase the risk of heatstroke in racing canicross dogs. Further research is required to investigate the impact of environmental conditions on post-race cooling, to better understand safe running conditions for dogs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Modeling environmentally mediated rotavirus transmission: The role of temperature and hydrologic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraay, Alicia N M; Brouwer, Andrew F; Lin, Nan; Collender, Philip A; Remais, Justin V; Eisenberg, Joseph N S

    2018-03-01

    Rotavirus is considered a directly transmitted disease due to its high infectivity. Environmental pathways have, therefore, largely been ignored. Rotavirus, however, persists in water sources, and both its surface water concentrations and infection incidence vary with temperature. Here, we examine the potential for waterborne rotavirus transmission. We use a mechanistic model that incorporates both direct and waterborne transmission pathways, coupled with a hydrological model, and we simulate rotavirus transmission between two communities with interconnected water sources. To parameterize temperature dependency, we estimated temperature-dependent decay rates in water through a meta-analysis. Our meta-analysis suggests that rotavirus decay rates are positively associated with temperature ( n = 39, P [Formula: see text] 0.001). This association is stronger at higher temperatures (over 20 °C), consistent with tropical climate conditions. Our model analysis demonstrates that water could disseminate rotavirus between the two communities for all modeled temperatures. While direct transmission was important for disease amplification within communities, waterborne transmission could also amplify transmission. In standing-water systems, the modeled increase in decay led to decreased disease, with every 1 °C increase in temperature leading to up to a 2.4% decrease in incidence. These effect sizes are consistent with prior meta-analyses, suggesting that environmental transmission through water sources may partially explain the observed associations between temperature and rotavirus incidence. Waterborne rotavirus transmission is likely most important in cooler seasons and in communities that use slow-moving or stagnant water sources. Even when indirect transmission through water cannot sustain outbreaks, it can seed outbreaks that are maintained by high direct transmission rates.

  11. Abiotic stress miRNomes in the Triticeae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alptekin, Burcu; Langridge, Peter; Budak, Hikmet

    2017-05-01

    The continued growth in world population necessitates increases in both the quantity and quality of agricultural production. Triticeae members, particularly wheat and barley, make an important contribution to world food reserves by providing rich sources of carbohydrate and protein. These crops are grown over diverse production environments that are characterized by a range of environmental or abiotic stresses. Abiotic stresses such as drought, heat, salinity, or nutrient deficiencies and toxicities cause large yield losses resulting in economic and environmental damage. The negative effects of abiotic stresses have increased at an alarming rate in recent years and are predicted to further deteriorate due to climate change, land degradation, and declining water supply. New technologies have provided an important tool with great potential for improving crop tolerance to the abiotic stresses: microRNAs (miRNAs). miRNAs are small regulators of gene expression that act on many different molecular and biochemical processes such as development, environmental adaptation, and stress tolerance. miRNAs can act at both the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels, although post-transcriptional regulation is the most common in plants where miRNAs can inhibit the translation of their mRNA targets via complementary binding and cleavage. To date, expression of several miRNA families such as miR156, miR159, and miR398 has been detected as responsive to environmental conditions to regulate stress-associated molecular mechanisms individually and/or together with their various miRNA partners. Manipulation of these miRNAs and their targets may pave the way to improve crop performance under several abiotic stresses. Here, we summarize the current status of our knowledge on abiotic stress-associated miRNAs in members of the Triticeae tribe, specifically in wheat and barley, and the miRNA-based regulatory mechanisms triggered by stress conditions. Exploration of further mi

  12. Temperature-mediated local adaptation alters the symbiotic function in arbuscular mycorrhiza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Rong; Cai, Xiaobu; Li, Xiaolin; Christie, Peter; Zhang, Junling; Gai, Jingping

    2017-07-01

    Variation in the symbiotic function of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AM fungi) has been demonstrated among distinct biotic and abiotic interactions. However, there is little knowledge on how local temperature conditions influence the functional divergence of AM symbionts in alpine ecosystems. Here, we conduct a reciprocal inoculation experiment to explore the three-way interactions among plants, AM fungal inoculum and temperature at sites of contrasting elevation. Evidence of local adaptation of plant growth was found only under low temperature conditions, with no consistent local versus foreign effect found in AM fungal performance. The origin of either the plant or the inoculum relative to the temperature was important in explaining symbiotic function. Specifically, when inoculum and temperature were sympatric but allopatric to the plant, poor adaptation by the plant to the novel environment was clearly found under both temperature conditions. Further analysis found that the symbiotic function was inversely related to fungal diversity under high temperature conditions. These results suggest that local adaptation represents a powerful factor in the establishment of novel combinations of plant, inoculum and temperature, and confirms the importance of taking into account both biotic and abiotic interactions in the prediction of the response of symbionts to global environmental change. © 2017 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. A Variationally Formulated Problem of the Stationary Heat Conduction in a Plate with Radiation Reduction Factor Increased under Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Zarubin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The equipment uses heat-shielding and structural materials that, when exposed, absorb radiation both on the surface and in the volume. In a variety of technical devices, absorption processes of penetrating radiation of materials and structural elements are typical for a number of process steps and operating conditions. Absorption of radiation penetrating into material volume may significantly affect the temperature state and runability of construction made of such material.The process of material-absobed penetrating radiation is associated with transition of the electromagnetic wave energy into the excitation energy of this material microparticles that, after all, leads to increasing internal energy and temperature growth. With radiation passing through the layer of material its flow density and hence energy of penetrating radiation decreases exponentially with increasing distance from the exposed layer surface. This law was experimentally established by the French physicist P. Bouguer and bears his name. In general, a certain fraction of this energy is radiated and dissipated in the material volume, and the rest is absorbed. A mathematical model describing these processes is an equation of the radiative energy transfer.In mathematical modeling of thermomechanical processes there is a need to consider the effect of penetrating radiation on the temperature state of materials and construction elements. The P. Bouguer law is used also when the volume radiation and scattering of penetrating radiation in the material can be neglected, but it is necessary to take into account its absorption. In this case, a negative indicator of the exponential function is represented by the product of the distance from the irradiated surface and integral or some average absorption factor that is constant for a given material and spectral distribution of penetrating radiation. However, with increasing power of radiation passing through the material layer there is a

  14. Using thermodynamics to assess biotic and abiotic impediments to root water uptake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechmann, Marcel; Hildebrandt, Anke; Kleidon, Axel

    2016-04-01

    Root water uptake has been the subject of extensive research, dealing with understanding the processes limiting transpiration and understanding strategies of plants to avoid water stress. Many of those studies use models of water flow from the soil through the plant into the atmosphere to learn about biotic and abiotic factors affecting plant water relations. One important question in this context is to identify those processes that are most limiting to water transport, and specifically whether these processes lie within the plant or the soil? Here, we propose to use a thermodynamic formulation of root water uptake to answer this question. The method allows us to separate the energy exported at the root collar into a sum of energy fluxes related to all processes along the flow path, notably including the effect of increasing water retention in drier soils. Evaluation of the several contributions allows us to identify and rank the processes by how much these impede water flow from the soil to the atmosphere. The application of this approach to a complex 3-dimensional root water uptake model reveals insights on the role of root versus soil resistances to limit water flow. We investigate the efficiency of root water uptake in an ensemble of root systems with varying root hydraulic properties. While root morphology is kept the same, root radial and axial resistances are artificially varied. Starting with entirely young systems (uptake roots, high radial, low axial conductance) we increasingly add older roots (transport roots, high axial, low radial conductance) to improve transport within root systems. This yields a range of root hydraulic architectures, where the extremes are limited either by radial uptake capacity or low capacity to transport water along the root system. We model root water uptake in this range of root systems with a 3-dimensional root water uptake model in two different soils, applying constant flux boundary conditions in a dry down experiment and

  15. Homeologous genes involved in mannitol synthesis reveal unequal contributions in response to abiotic stress in Coffea arabica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, Kenia; Petkowicz, Carmen L O; Nagashima, Getulio T; Bespalhok Filho, João C; Vieira, Luiz G E; Pereira, Luiz F P; Domingues, Douglas S

    2014-10-01

    Polyploid plants can exhibit transcriptional modulation in homeologous genes in response to abiotic stresses. Coffea arabica, an allotetraploid, accounts for 75% of the world's coffee production. Extreme temperatures, salinity and drought limit crop productivity, which includes coffee plants. Mannitol is known to be involved in abiotic stress tolerance in higher plants. This study aimed to investigate the transcriptional responses of genes involved in mannitol biosynthesis and catabolism in C. arabica leaves under water deficit, salt stress and high temperature. Mannitol concentration was significantly increased in leaves of plants under drought and salinity, but reduced by heat stress. Fructose content followed the level of mannitol only in heat-stressed plants, suggesting the partitioning of the former into other metabolites during drought and salt stress conditions. Transcripts of the key enzymes involved in mannitol biosynthesis, CaM6PR, CaPMI and CaMTD, were modulated in distinct ways depending on the abiotic stress. Our data suggest that changes in mannitol accumulation during drought and salt stress in leaves of C. arabica are due, at least in part, to the increased expression of the key genes involved in mannitol biosynthesis. In addition, the homeologs of the Coffea canephora subgenome did not present the same pattern of overall transcriptional response, indicating differential regulation of these genes by the same stimulus. In this way, this study adds new information on the differential expression of C. arabica homeologous genes under adverse environmental conditions showing that abiotic stresses can influence the homeologous gene regulation pattern, in this case, mainly on those involved in mannitol pathway.

  16. Utilization of genes encoding osmoprotectants in transgenic plants for enhanced abiotic stress tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Sayyar Khan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Global agriculture in the context of growing and expanding populations is under huge pressure to provide increased food, feed, and fiber. The recent phenomenon of climate change has further added fuel to the fire. It has been practically established now that the global temperature has been on the increase with associated fluctuations in annual rainfall regimes, and the resultant drought and flood events and increasing soil and water salinization. These challenges would be met with the introduction and utilization of new technologies coupled with conventional approaches. In recent years, transgenic technology has been proved very effective in terms of production of improved varieties of crop plants, resistant to biotic stresses. The abiotic stresses such as salt and drought are more complex traits, controlled by many genes. Transgenic plant development for these stresses has utilized many single genes. However, much emphasis has been placed on genes catalyzing the biosynthetic pathways of osmoprotectants. This review focuses on the current status of research on osmoprotectant genes and their role in abiotic stress tolerance in transgenic plants.

  17. Could abiotic stress tolerance in wild relatives of rice be used to improve Oryza sativa?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwell, Brian J; Wang, Han; Scafaro, Andrew P

    2014-02-01

    Oryza sativa and Oryza glaberrima have been selected to acquire and partition resources efficiently as part of the process of domestication. However, genetic diversity in cultivated rice is limited compared to wild Oryza species, in spite of 120,000 genotypes being held in gene banks. By contrast, there is untapped diversity in the more than 20 wild species of Oryza, some having been collected from just a few coastal locations (e.g. Oryza schlechteri), while others are widely distributed (e.g. Oryza nivara and Oryza rufipogon). The extent of DNA sequence diversity and phenotypic variation is still being established in wild Oryza, with genetic barriers suggesting a vast range of morphologies and function even within species, such as has been demonstrated for Oryza meridionalis. With increasing climate variability and attempts to make more marginal land arable, abiotic and biotic stresses will be managed over the coming decades by tapping into the genetic diversity of wild relatives of O. sativa. To help create a more targeted approach to sourcing wild rice germplasm for abiotic stress tolerance, we have created a climate distribution map by plotting the natural occurrence of all Oryza species against corresponding temperature and moisture data. We then discuss interspecific variation in phenotype and its significance for rice, followed by a discussion of ways to integrate germplasm from wild relatives into domesticated rice. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The Importance of Water Temperature Fluctuations in Relation to the Hydrological Factor. Case Study – Bistrita River Basin (Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cojoc Gianina Maria

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The increase in most components of the climate over the past 50 years, including air and water temperature, is a real phenomenon, as attested by the numerous specialized researches according to IPCC (2013. The water temperature is one of the most important climatic components in analyzing the hydrological regime of the Bistrita River (Romania. The thermal regime of the Bistrita River basin and the frost phenomena associated with the risk factor are particularly important and frequently appear in this area. In recent years, under the Siret Water Basin Administration, this parameter was permanently monitored, so we could do an analysis, which shows that the water temperature fluctuations, influenced by air temperature, lead to the emergence of the ice jam phenomenon. The present study aims to analyze the water temperature, as compared to the air temperature, and the effect of these components on the liquid flow regime (the values were recorded at the hydrological stations on the main course of the Bistrita River. The negative effects resulted from the ice jam phenomenon require developing methods of damage prevention and defense. The frost phenomena recorded after the construction of the Bicaz dam are analyzed in this article

  19. Psychophysics of a nociceptive test in the mouse: ambient temperature as a key factor for variation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanne Pincedé

    Full Text Available The mouse is increasingly used in biomedical research, notably in behavioral neurosciences for the development of tests or models of pain. Our goal was to provide the scientific community with an outstanding tool that allows the determination of psychophysical descriptors of a nociceptive reaction, which are inaccessible with conventional methods: namely the true threshold, true latency, conduction velocity of the peripheral fibers that trigger the response and latency of the central decision-making process.Basically, the procedures involved heating of the tail with a CO(2 laser, recording of tail temperature with an infrared camera and stopping the heating when the animal reacted. The method is based mainly on the measurement of three observable variables, namely the initial temperature, the heating rate and the temperature reached at the actual moment of the reaction following random variations in noxious radiant heat. The initial temperature of the tail, which itself depends on the ambient temperature, very markedly influenced the behavioral threshold, the behavioral latency and the conduction velocity of the peripheral fibers but not the latency of the central decision-making.We have validated a psychophysical approach to nociceptive reactions for the mouse, which has already been described for rats and Humans. It enables the determination of four variables, which contribute to the overall latency of the response. The usefulness of such an approach was demonstrated by providing new fundamental findings regarding the influence of ambient temperature on nociceptive processes. We conclude by challenging the validity of using as "pain index" the reaction time of a behavioral response to an increasing heat stimulus and emphasize the need for a very careful control of the ambient temperature, as a prevailing environmental source of variation, during any behavioral testing of mice.

  20. Temperature sensitive lethal factors and puparial colour sex separation mechanisms in the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wied.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busch-Petersen, E.

    1990-01-01

    A programme to develop genetic sexing mechanisms in the Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly), Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), was initiated at the IAEA Laboratories, Seibersdorf, in 1983. Because of the potential benefits arising from the elimination of females early in the developmental cycle, combined with the anticipated relative ease of inducing temperature sensitive lethal (tsl) factors, it was decided to attempt to induce and isolate tsl factors active in the egg or early larval stages. Initially, five recombination suppressor (RS) strains were isolated. The degree of recombination suppression ranged from 77.6% to 99.1%. The viability of each of the five RS strains was assessed and RS 30/55 was selected as the most suitable strain. Ethyl methanesulphonate (EMS) was used to induce the tsl factors, by feeding two-day old adult males with a suspension of EMS in a 10% solution of sugar in the drinking water supply. Temperature tolerance tests indicated a discriminating temperature of 32 deg. C when isolating tsl factors active in the egg stage and 35 deg. C when isolating such factors in the early larval stage. A total of 39 and 22 tsl factors have been isolated in the two stages, respectively. However, none has yet proved stable. Induction of tsl factors with a reduced dose of EMS is now being attempted. An alternative genetic sexing programme was initiated in 1985, based on the use of pupal colour dimorphisms. Previously, a genetic sexing strain, T:Y(wp + )101, based on a white female/brown male puparial colour dimorphism, had twice been assessed for stability under mass rearing conditions. In both cases the sexual colour dimorphism disintegrated immediately. Another similarly dimorphic strain, T:Y(wp + )30C, was developed. This strain remained stable for seven generations of mass rearing, after which it started to disintegrate. Disintegration of this strain was probably caused by accidental contamination by wild type medflies. 34 refs, 1 fig., 1 tab

  1. Integrated biomarker responses of the invasive species Corbicula fluminea in relation to environmental abiotic conditions: a potential indicator of the likelihood of clam's summer mortality syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Cristiana; Vilares, Pedro; Guilhermino, Lúcia

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the variation of several biomarkers in wild populations of Corbicula fluminea in relation to abiotic condition changes to identify environmental factors associated with increased stress in this species potentially leading to massive mortality events. The study was carried out from July to October in the freshwater tidal areas of the estuaries of Minho and Lima Rivers (NW Iberian Peninsula). Monthly, 7 biomarkers (biotransformation, energy production, anti-oxidant defenses and lipid peroxidation damages) were determined in C. fluminea and 17 abiotic parameters were determined in water or sediments in 4 sampling sites: M1, M2 and M3 in Minho (up=> downstream); and L in Lima estuaries. The results of biomarkers were integrated using the Integrated Biomarker Response (IBR), Index and also analysed in relation to environmental parameters by Redundancy Analysis (RDA). Overall, the findings of the present study indicate that July and August are particularly stressful months for the studied C. fluminea populations, especially at downstream sites; the increase of nutrients and ammonium water concentrations, water temperature and conductivity are major contributors for this increased stress; the biomarkers indicated that in July/August C. fluminea is exposed to oxidative stress inducers, environmental chemical contaminants biotransformed by esterases and glutathione S-transferase enzymes, and that organisms need additional energy to cope with the chemical and/or thermally-induced stress. The findings of the present study stress the importance of biomonitoring the health condition of C. fluminea because it may allow determining the likelihood of summer/post summer mortality syndrome in this species. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Abiotic-biotic characterization of Pt/Ir microelectrode arrays in chronic implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek ePrasad

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Pt/Ir electrodes have been extensively used in neurophysiology research in recent years as they provide more inert recording surface as compared to tungsten or stainless steel. While floating microelectrode arrays consisting of Pt/Ir electrodes are an option for neuroprosthetic applications, long-term in vivo functional performance characterization of these FMAs is lacking. In this study, we have performed comprehensive abiotic-biotic characterization of Pt/Ir arrays in twelve rats with implant periods ranging from one week up to six months. Each of the FMAs consisted of 16-channel, 1.5mm long, and 75µm diameter microwires with tapered tips that were implanted into the somatosensory cortex. Abiotic characterization included (1 pre-implant and post-explant scanning electron microscopy to study recording site changes, insulation delamination and cracking, and (2 chronic in vivo electrode impedance spectroscopy. Biotic characterization included study of microglial responses using a panel of antibodies, such as Iba1, ED1, and anti-ferritin, the latter being indicative of blood-brain barrier disruption. Significant structural variation was observed pre-implantation among the arrays in the form of irregular insulation, cracks in insulation/recording surface, and insulation delamination. We observed delamination and cracking of insulation in almost all electrodes post-implantation. These changes altered the electrochemical surface area of the electrodes and resulted in declining impedance over the long-term due to formation of electrical leakage pathways. In general, the decline in impedance corresponded with poor electrode functional performance, which was quantified via electrode yield. Our abiotic results suggest that manufacturing variability and insulation material as an important factor contributing to electrode failure. Biotic results show that electrode performance was not correlated with microglial activation (neuroinflammation as we were

  3. Effects of abiotic stress on plants: a systems biology perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Grant R; Urano, Kaoru; Delrot, Serge; Pezzotti, Mario; Shinozaki, Kazuo

    2011-11-17

    The natural environment for plants is composed of a complex set of abiotic stresses and biotic stresses. Plant responses to these stresses are equally complex. Systems biology approaches facilitate a multi-targeted approach by allowing one to identify regulatory hubs in complex networks. Systems biology takes the molecular parts (transcripts, proteins and metabolites) of an organism and attempts to fit them into functional networks or models designed to describe and predict the dynamic activities of that organism in different environments. In this review, research progress in plant responses to abiotic stresses is summarized from the physiological level to the molecular level. New insights obtained from the integration of omics datasets are highlighted. Gaps in our knowledge are identified, providing additional focus areas for crop improvement research in the future.

  4. Chemical behavior of phthalates under abiotic conditions in landfills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jingyu; Nkrumah, Philip N; Li, Yi; Appiah-Sefah, Gloria

    2013-01-01

    The phthalates comprise a family of phthalic acid esters that are used primarily as plasticizers in polymeric materials to impart flexibility during the manufacturing process and to the end product. It is estimated that the annual worldwide production of phthalate esters exceeds five million tons. Plasticizers are one of the most prominent classes of chemicals, but unfortunately, they possess endocrine-disrupting chemical properties. As endocrine-disrupting chemicals, plasticizers have produced adverse developmental and reproductive effects in mammalian animal models.Phthalates are easily transported into the environment during manufacture, disposal,and leaching from plastic materials, because they are not covalently bound to the plastics of which they are a component. Because of their fugitive nature and widespread use, the phthalates are commonly detected in air, water, sediment/soil, and biota, including human tissue. Large amounts of phthalic acid esters are often leached from the plastics that are dumped at municipal landfills.Phthalate esters undergo chemical changes when released into the environment.The primary processes by which they are transformed include hydrolysis, photolysis,and biodegradation. It is noteworthy that all of these degradation processes are greatly influenced by the local physical and chemical conditions. Hence, in the present review, we have sought to ascertain from the literature how the phthalate esters undergo transformation when they are released into lower landfill layers.Within the upper landfill layers, biodegradation prevails as the major degradation mechanism by which the phthalates are dissipated. Generally, biodegradation pathways for the phthalates consist of primary biodegradation from phthalate diesters to phthalate monoesters, then to phthalic acid, and ultimately biodegradation of phthalic acid to form C02 and/or CH4• We have noted that the phthalate esters are also degraded through abiotic means,which proceeds via

  5. Wheat EST resources for functional genomics of abiotic stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Links Matthew G

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Wheat is an excellent species to study freezing tolerance and other abiotic stresses. However, the sequence of the wheat genome has not been completely characterized due to its complexity and large size. To circumvent this obstacle and identify genes involved in cold acclimation and associated stresses, a large scale EST sequencing approach was undertaken by the Functional Genomics of Abiotic Stress (FGAS project. Results We generated 73,521 quality-filtered ESTs from eleven cDNA libraries constructed from wheat plants exposed to various abiotic stresses and at different developmental stages. In addition, 196,041 ESTs for which tracefiles were available from the National Science Foundation wheat EST sequencing program and DuPont were also quality-filtered and used in the analysis. Clustering of the combined ESTs with d2_cluster and TGICL yielded a few large clusters containing several thousand ESTs that were refractory to routine clustering techniques. To resolve this problem, the sequence proximity and "bridges" were identified by an e-value distance graph to manually break clusters into smaller groups. Assembly of the resolved ESTs generated a 75,488 unique sequence set (31,580 contigs and 43,908 singletons/singlets. Digital expression analyses indicated that the FGAS dataset is enriched in stress-regulated genes compared to the other public datasets. Over 43% of the unique sequence set was annotated and classified into functional categories according to Gene Ontology. Conclusion We have annotated 29,556 different sequences, an almost 5-fold increase in annotated sequences compared to the available wheat public databases. Digital expression analysis combined with gene annotation helped in the identification of several pathways associated with abiotic stress. The genomic resources and knowledge developed by this project will contribute to a better understanding of the different mechanisms that govern stress tolerance in

  6. Biotic-Abiotic Nanoscale Interactions in Biological Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-28

    such as ATP. This strategy, called oxidative phosphorylation, is embraced by all respiratory microorganisms. Most eukaryotes and many prokaryotes are...AFRL-OSR-VA-TR-2014-0087 (YIP-10) BIOTIC-ABIOTIC NANOSCALE INTERACTIONS IN BIOLOGICAL FUEL CELLS Mohamed El-Naggar UNIVERSITY OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA...Interactions in Biological Fuel Cells Award Number: FA9550-10-1-0144 Start Date: 04/15/2010 Program Manager: Patrick O. Bradshaw, PhD Air

  7. Abiotic Reductive Dechlorination of Tetrachloroethylene and Trichloroethylene in Anaerobic Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-15

    Quantification of Reactants and Products For PCE and TCE analysis in abiotic experiments, a 250 µL aliquot of the supernatant was added to 750 µL isooctane in...reflecting the official policy or position of the Department of Defense. Reference herein to any specific commercial product , process, or service by...Objective 3 Background 4 Materials and Methods 7 Quantification of Reactants and Products 8 Isotope Measurements

  8. Plant Responses to Abiotic Stress Regulated by Histone Deacetylases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Luo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In eukaryotic cells, histone acetylation and deacetylation play an important role in the regulation of gene expression. Histone acetylation levels are modulated by histone acetyltransferases and histone deacetylases (HDACs. Recent studies indicate that HDACs play essential roles in the regulation of gene expression in plant response to environmental stress. In this review, we discussed the recent advance regarding the plant HDACs and their functions in the regulation of abiotic stress responses. The role of HDACs in autophagy was also discussed.

  9. Uncovering different masking factors on wrist skin temperature rhythm in free-living subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Martinez-Nicolas

    Full Text Available Most circadian rhythms are controlled by a major pacemaker located in the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus. Some of these rhythms, called marker rhythms, serve to characterize the timing of the internal temporal order. However, these variables are susceptible to masking effects as the result of activity, body position, light exposure, environmental temperature and sleep. Recently, wrist skin temperature (WT has been proposed as a new index for evaluating circadian system status. In light of previous evidence suggesting the important relationship between WT and core body temperature regulation, the aim of this work was to purify the WT pattern in order to obtain its endogenous rhythm with the application of multiple demasking procedures. To this end, 103 subjects (18-24 years old were recruited and their WT, activity, body position, light exposure, environmental temperature and sleep were recorded under free-living conditions for 1 week. WT demasking by categories or intercepts was applied to simulate a "constant routine" protocol (awakening, dim light, recumbent position, low activity and warm environmental temperature. Although the overall circadian pattern of WT was similar regardless of the masking effects, its amplitude was the rhythmic parameter most affected by environmental conditions. The acrophase and mesor were determined to be the most robust parameters for characterizing this rhythm. In addition, a circadian modulation of the masking effect was found for each masking variable. WT rhythm exhibits a strong endogenous component, despite the existence of multiple external influences. This was evidenced by simultaneously eliminating the influence of activity, body position, light exposure, environmental temperature and sleep. We therefore propose that it could be considered a valuable and minimally-invasive means of recording circadian physiology in ambulatory conditions.

  10. Deconvolving temperature and substrate effects on soil heterotrophic respiration under multiple global change factors in mixed grass prairie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, C.; Nie, M.; Pendall, E. G.

    2013-12-01

    in temperature sensitivity of SOM decomposition. Overall, the temperature sensitivity of the fast pool was highly sensitive to global change factors and their interactions. On the other hand, there were no differences in temperature sensitivity of the slow pool in response to the global change factors. Similarly, the base rate of the fast pool was sensitive to the global change factors, while the slow pool base rate was not. However, the overall size of the slow pool was significantly affected by the global change factors. Vegetation removal reduced the slow pool by ~19% across all warming x CO2 treatments. This effect was greatest under elevated CO2 (both warmed and control), but non-significant under ambient CO2 and temperature. Importantly, effects mediated through the vegetation were the primary factor determining whether slow pool C was gained or lost under elevated CO2 and warming. Our data-model fusion approach allowed us to deconvolve the effect of reduced substrate availability from temperature sensitivity, and to demonstrate that global change may lead to strong positive C cycling feedbacks.

  11. Factors affecting the wettability of different surface materials with vegetable oil at high temperatures and its relation to cleanability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashokkumar, Saranya; Adler-Nissen, Jens; Møller, Per

    2012-01-01

    The main aim of the work was to investigate the wettability of different surface materials with vegetable oil (olive oil) over the temperature range of 25–200°C to understand the differences in cleanability of different surfaces exposed to high temperatures in food processes. The different surface...... different levels of roughness. The cosine of the contact angle of olive oil on different surface materials rises linearly with increasing temperature. Among the materials analyzed, polymers (PTFE, silicone) gave the lowest cosθ values. Studies of the effect of roughness and surface flaws on wettability...... contact angle and cleanability. In addition to surface wettability with oil many other factors such as roughness and surface defects play an essential role in determining their cleanability....

  12. Maternal, social and abiotic environmental effects on growth vary across life stages in a cooperative mammal

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, Sinead; Bateman, Andrew W; Mares, Rafael; Ozgul, Arpat; Clutton-Brock, Tim H

    2014-01-01

    Resource availability plays a key role in driving variation in somatic growth and body condition, and the factors determining access to resources vary considerably across life stages. Parents and carers may exert important influences in early life, when individuals are nutritionally dependent, with abiotic environmental effects having stronger influences later in development as individuals forage independently. Most studies have measured specific factors influencing growth across development or have compared relative influences of different factors within specific life stages. Such studies may not capture whether early-life factors continue to have delayed effects at later stages, or whether social factors change when individuals become nutritionally independent and adults become competitors for, rather than providers of, food. Here, we examined variation in the influence of the abiotic, social and maternal environment on growth across life stages in a wild population of cooperatively breeding meerkats. Cooperatively breeding vertebrates are ideal for investigating environmental influences on growth. In addition to experiencing highly variable abiotic conditions, cooperative breeders are typified by heterogeneity both among breeders, with mothers varying in age and social status, and in the number of carers present. Recent rainfall had a consistently marked effect on growth across life stages, yet other seasonal terms only influenced growth during stages when individuals were growing fastest. Group size and maternal dominance status had positive effects on growth during the period of nutritional dependence on carers, but did not influence mass at emergence (at 1 month) or growth at independent stages (>4 months). Pups born to older mothers were lighter at 1 month of age and subsequently grew faster as subadults. Males grew faster than females during the juvenile and subadult stage only. Our findings demonstrate the complex ways in which the external environment

  13. Maternal, social and abiotic environmental effects on growth vary across life stages in a cooperative mammal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, Sinead; Bateman, Andrew W; Mares, Rafael; Ozgul, Arpat; Clutton-Brock, Tim H

    2014-03-01

    Resource availability plays a key role in driving variation in somatic growth and body condition, and the factors determining access to resources vary considerably across life stages. Parents and carers may exert important influences in early life, when individuals are nutritionally dependent, with abiotic environmental effects having stronger influences later in development as individuals forage independently. Most studies have measured specific factors influencing growth across development or have compared relative influences of different factors within specific life stages. Such studies may not capture whether early-life factors continue to have delayed effects at later stages, or whether social factors change when individuals become nutritionally independent and adults become competitors for, rather than providers of, food. Here, we examined variation in the influence of the abiotic, social and maternal environment on growth across life stages in a wild population of cooperatively breeding meerkats. Cooperatively breeding vertebrates are ideal for investigating environmental influences on growth. In addition to experiencing highly variable abiotic conditions, cooperative breeders are typified by heterogeneity both among breeders, with mothers varying in age and social status, and in the number of carers present. Recent rainfall had a consistently marked effect on growth across life stages, yet other seasonal terms only influenced growth during stages when individuals were growing fastest. Group size and maternal dominance status had positive effects on growth during the period of nutritional dependence on carers, but did not influence mass at emergence (at 1 month) or growth at independent stages (>4 months). Pups born to older mothers were lighter at 1 month of age and subsequently grew faster as subadults. Males grew faster than females during the juvenile and subadult stage only. Our findings demonstrate the complex ways in which the external environment

  14. Legume genetic resources and transcriptome dynamics under abiotic stress conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelrahman, Mostafa; Jogaiah, Sudisha; Burritt, David J; Tran, Lam-Son Phan

    2018-01-04

    Grain legumes are an important source of nutrition and income for billions of consumers and farmers around the world. However, the low productivity of new legume varieties, due to the limited genetic diversity available for legume breeding programmes and poor policymaker support, combined with an increasingly unpredictable global climate is resulting in a large gap between current yields and the increasing demand for legumes as food. Hence, there is a need for novel approaches to develop new high-yielding legume cultivars that are able to cope with a range of environmental stressors. Next-generation technologies are providing the tools that could enable the more rapid and cost-effective genomic and transcriptomic studies for most major crops, allowing the identification of key functional and regulatory genes involved in abiotic stress resistance. In this review, we provide an overview of the recent achievements regarding abiotic stress resistance in a wide range of legume crops and highlight the transcriptomic and miRNA approaches that have been used. In addition, we critically evaluate the availability and importance of legume genetic resources with desirable abiotic stress resistance traits. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Abiotic Deposition of Fe Complexes onto Leptothrix Sheaths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunoh, Tatsuki; Hashimoto, Hideki; McFarlane, Ian R.; Hayashi, Naoaki; Suzuki, Tomoko; Taketa, Eisuke; Tamura, Katsunori; Takano, Mikio; El-Naggar, Mohamed Y.; Kunoh, Hitoshi; Takada, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria classified in species of the genus Leptothrix produce extracellular, microtubular, Fe-encrusted sheaths. The encrustation has been previously linked to bacterial Fe oxidases, which oxidize Fe(II) to Fe(III) and/or active groups of bacterial exopolymers within sheaths to attract and bind aqueous-phase inorganics. When L. cholodnii SP-6 cells were cultured in media amended with high Fe(II) concentrations, Fe(III) precipitates visibly formed immediately after addition of Fe(II) to the medium, suggesting prompt abiotic oxidation of Fe(II) to Fe(III). Intriguingly, these precipitates were deposited onto the sheath surface of bacterial cells as the population was actively growing. When Fe(III) was added to the medium, similar precipitates formed in the medium first and were abiotically deposited onto the sheath surfaces. The precipitates in the Fe(II) medium were composed of assemblies of globular, amorphous particles (ca. 50 nm diameter), while those in the Fe(III) medium were composed of large, aggregated particles (≥3 µm diameter) with a similar amorphous structure. These precipitates also adhered to cell-free sheaths. We thus concluded that direct abiotic deposition of Fe complexes onto the sheath surface occurs independently of cellular activity in liquid media containing Fe salts, although it remains unclear how this deposition is associated with the previously proposed mechanisms (oxidation enzyme- and/or active group of organic components-involved) of Fe encrustation of the Leptothrix sheaths. PMID:27271677

  16. Abiotic Deposition of Fe Complexes onto Leptothrix Sheaths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsuki Kunoh

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria classified in species of the genus Leptothrix produce extracellular, microtubular, Fe-encrusted sheaths. The encrustation has been previously linked to bacterial Fe oxidases, which oxidize Fe(II to Fe(III and/or active groups of bacterial exopolymers within sheaths to attract and bind aqueous-phase inorganics. When L. cholodnii SP-6 cells were cultured in media amended with high Fe(II concentrations, Fe(III precipitates visibly formed immediately after addition of Fe(II to the medium, suggesting prompt abiotic oxidation of Fe(II to Fe(III. Intriguingly, these precipitates were deposited onto the sheath surface of bacterial cells as the population was actively growing. When Fe(III was added to the medium, similar precipitates formed in the medium first and were abiotically deposited onto the sheath surfaces. The precipitates in the Fe(II medium were composed of assemblies of globular, amorphous particles (ca. 50 nm diameter, while those in the Fe(III medium were composed of large, aggregated particles (≥3 µm diameter with a similar amorphous structure. These precipitates also adhered to cell-free sheaths. We thus concluded that direct abiotic deposition of Fe complexes onto the sheath surface occurs independently of cellular activity in liquid media containing Fe salts, although it remains unclear how this deposition is associated with the previously proposed mechanisms (oxidation enzyme- and/or active group of organic components-involved of Fe encrustation of the Leptothrix sheaths.

  17. Cell Wall Metabolism in Response to Abiotic Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyacinthe Le Gall

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This review focuses on the responses of the plant cell wall to several abiotic stresses including drought, flooding, heat, cold, salt, heavy metals, light, and air pollutants. The effects of stress on cell wall metabolism are discussed at the physiological (morphogenic, transcriptomic, proteomic and biochemical levels. The analysis of a large set of data shows that the plant response is highly complex. The overall effects of most abiotic stress are often dependent on the plant species, the genotype, the age of the plant, the timing of the stress application, and the intensity of this stress. This shows the difficulty of identifying a common pattern of stress response in cell wall architecture that could enable adaptation and/or resistance to abiotic stress. However, in most cases, two main mechanisms can be highlighted: (i an increased level in xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolase (XTH and expansin proteins, associated with an increase in the degree of rhamnogalacturonan I branching that maintains cell wall plasticity and (ii an increased cell wall thickening by reinforcement of the secondary wall with hemicellulose and lignin deposition. Taken together, these results show the need to undertake large-scale analyses, using multidisciplinary approaches, to unravel the consequences of stress on the cell wall. This will help identify the key components that could be targeted to improve biomass production under stress conditions.

  18. Role of Hot Water System Design on Factors Influential to Pathogen Regrowth: Temperature, Chlorine Residual, Hydrogen Evolution, and Sediment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazeau, Randi H; Edwards, Marc A

    2013-10-01

    Residential water heating is linked to growth of pathogens in premise plumbing, which is the primary source of waterborne disease in the United States. Temperature and disinfectant residual are critical factors controlling increased concentration of pathogens, but understanding of how each factor varies in different water heater configurations is lacking. A direct comparative study of electric water heater systems was conducted to evaluate temporal variations in temperature and water quality parameters including dissolved oxygen levels, hydrogen evolution, total and soluble metal concentrations, and disinfectant decay. Recirculation tanks had much greater volumes of water at temperature ranges with potential for increased pathogen growth when set at 49°C compared with standard tank systems without recirculation. In contrast, when set at the higher end of acceptable ranges (i.e., 60°C), this relationship was reversed and recirculation systems had less volume of water at risk for pathogen growth compared with conventional systems. Recirculation tanks also tended to have much lower levels of disinfectant residual (standard systems had 40-600% higher residual), 4-6 times as much hydrogen, and 3-20 times more sediment compared with standard tanks without recirculation. On demand tankless systems had very small volumes of water at risk and relatively high levels of disinfectant residual. Recirculation systems may have distinct advantages in controlling pathogens via thermal disinfection if set at 60°C, but these systems have lower levels of disinfectant residual and greater volumes at risk if set at lower temperatures.

  19. Dynamic Temperature Rise Mechanism and Some Controlling Factors of Wet Clutch Engagement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Zhigang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The friction transmission model of wet clutch is established to analyze the friction transmission mechanism of its engagement. The model is developed by applying both the average flow model and the elastic contact model between the friction disk and separator plate. The key components during wet clutch engagement are the separator plate, friction disk, and lubricant. The one-dimension transient models of heat transfer in radial direction for the three components are built on the basis of the heat transfer theory and the conservation law of energy. The friction transmission model and transient heat transfer models are coupled and solved by using the Runge-Kutta numerical method, and the radial temperature distribution and their detailed parametric study for the three components are conducted separately. The simulation results show that the radial temperature for the three components rises with the increase of radius in engagement. The changes in engagement pressure, lubricant viscosity, friction lining permeability, combined surface roughness RMS, equivalent elasticity modulus, difference between dynamic and static friction coefficients, and lubricant flow have important influence on the temperature rise characteristics. The proposed models can get better understanding of the dynamic temperature rise characteristics of wet clutch engagement.

  20. International Normalized Ratio (INR), coagulation factor activities and calibrated automated thrombin generation - influence of 24 h storage at ambient temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, T D; Jensen, C; Larsen, T B

    2010-01-01

    International Normalized Ratio (INR) measurements are used to monitor oral anticoagulation therapy with coumarins. Single coagulation factor activities and calibrated automated thrombin (CAT) generation are considered as more advanced methods for evaluating overall haemostatic capacity. The aims...... were to assess the variability of INR, coagulation factor activities, and CAT, during 24 h of storage of blood samples at ambient temperature. A total of 24 patients on stable coumarin treatment were followed prospectively for 6 weeks. INR was analyzed at 0, 6 and 24 h after blood sampling and 1-stage...

  1. Examination of Abiotic Drivers and Their Influence on Spartina alterniflora Biomass over a Twenty-Eight Year Period Using Landsat 5 TM Satellite Imagery of the Central Georgia Coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John P. R. O’Donnell

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We examined the influence of abiotic drivers on inter-annual and phenological patterns of aboveground biomass for Marsh Cordgrass, Spartina alterniflora, on the Central Georgia Coast. The linkages between drivers and plant response via soil edaphic factors are captured in our graphical conceptual model. We used geospatial techniques to scale up in situ measurements of aboveground S. alterniflora biomass to landscape level estimates using 294 Landsat 5 TM scenes acquired between 1984 and 2011. For each scene we extracted data from the same 63 sampling polygons, containing 1222 pixels covering about 1.1 million m2. Using univariate and multiple regression tests, we compared Landsat derived biomass estimates for three S. alterniflora size classes against a suite of abiotic drivers. River discharge, total precipitation, minimum temperature, and mean sea level had positive relationships with and best explained biomass for all dates. Additional results, using seasonally binned data, indicated biomass was responsive to changing combinations of variables across the seasons. Our 28-year analysis revealed aboveground biomass declines of 33%, 35%, and 39% for S. alterniflora tall, medium, and short size classes, respectively. This decline correlated with drought frequency and severity trends and coincided with marsh die-backs events and increased snail herbivory in the second half of the study period.

  2. Dentin pretreatment and adhesive temperature as affecting factors on bond strength of a universal adhesive system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Gabrielle da Silva Sutil

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives: To evaluate the effects of dentin pretreatment and temperature on the bond strength of a universal adhesive system to dentin. Material and Methods: Ninety-six extracted non-carious human third molars were randomly divided into 12 groups (n=8 according to Scotchbond Universal Adhesive (SbU applied in self-etch (SE and etch-and-rinse (ER mode, adhesive temperature (20°C or 37°C and sodium bicarbonate or aluminum oxide air abrasion. After composite build up, bonded sticks with cross-sectional area of 1 mm2 were obtained to evaluate the microtensile bond strength (μTBS. The specimens were tested at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min on a testing machine until failure. Fractured specimens were analyzed under stereomicroscope to determine the failure patterns in adhesive, cohesive (dentin or resin and mixed fractures. The microtensile bond strength data was analyzed using two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (α=5%. Results: Interaction between treatment and temperature was statistically significant for SbU applied in self-etch technique. Both dentin treatments showed higher bond strength for ER mode, regardless of adhesive temperature. When compared to control group, sodium bicarbonate increased bond strength of SbU in SE technique. Adhesive temperature did not significantly affect the μTBS of tested groups. Predominantly, adhesive failure was observed for all groups. Conclusions: Dentin surface treatment with sodium bicarbonate air abrasion improves bond strength of SbU, irrespective of adhesive application mode, which makes this approach an alternative to increase adhesive performance of Scotchbond Universal Adhesive to dentin.

  3. The measurement temperature: an important factor relating physicochemical and adhesive properties of yeast cells to biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardo-Moreno, A M; González-Martín, M L; Pérez-Giraldo, C; Bruque, J M; Gómez-García, A C

    2004-03-15

    Flow chambers applied to the study of the initial adhesion process of Candida parapsilosis are rarely found in the literature. The ability of these microorganisms to proliferate and form biofilms in environments at temperatures around 22 or 37 degrees C is reflected in the contamination of laboratory instruments and material or in human implant infections, respectively. The initial interaction between yeasts and substrata is mediated by physicochemical forces, which in turn originate from the physicochemical surface properties of both interacting phases. In this context, this work aims to relate the initial rates of adhesion rates to glass and silicone of Candida parapsilosis, strains 294 and 289, grown at 22 and 37 degrees C with the theoretical predictions of the adhesion process, expressed by the interaction free energies and calculated through the physicochemical parameters, which are also measured at 22 and 37 degrees C. The results indicate that physicochemical parameters of yeasts are changed not only by the culture temperature but also by the measurement temperature; only when the measurement temperature is equal to the growth temperature a coherent relation between in vitro adhesion data and interaction free energies can be established. In this sense, the adhesion to glass is mediated by long-range forces or, what amounts to the same thing, by Lifshitz-van der Waals interaction free energy. On the other hand, the adhesion to silicone rubber seems to be moderated by acid-base interaction free energy, which involves the presence of short-range forces. Based on these results, it can be assumed that the substratum surface properties are directly related to the kind of force acting on the initial microbial adhesion process, while cell surface properties dictate the changes in the strength of the force between different samples.

  4. Growth and Yield Quality Parameter of Phyllanthus Amarus as Affected by Moisture and Temperature Stress factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandrawanshi, N.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This work investigates the influence of moisture and temperature stress on plant phenological parameters of Phyllanthus amarusplant. A pot experiment was conducted under controlled water stress environment in greenhouse during the Rabi season of 2007 and 2008 at the Experimental Farm area, JNKVV, Jabalpur. Plants were treated with different levels of water and temperature stresses. The experimental design was Completely Randomized Design (CRD with six treatments and five replications. Moisture stress has been given on selected dates for which the sets of pot were first brought to field capacity and the water with hold till wilting. It was found that the Plantheight, Root length, Number of leaves, Number of branches per plants, No. of fruits per plant, Leaf area, Dry weight gm per plant were found maximum in control condition.

  5. STUDY OF VARIOUS FACTORS INFLUENCE ON LAND SURFACE TEMPERATURE IN URBAN ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debjit Datta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Land surface temperature (LST is an important for urban enviro nment. Our research mainly based on the landuse and landcover (LULC on LST. The re search of our study tells how the LST variations based especially for a rapidly dev eloping city such as Vellore, India. This study uses the techniques of remote sensin g and geographic information system (GIS to detect the temperature variation of LST. The spatial variability of texture in LST was done. These variations are al so present in the images, and are responsible for the spa tial patterns in an urban enviro nment. The result values shows that both the spatial and temporal variation in surface t emperature is associated with CO 2 concentration levels and thus a ffects the local land use pattern.

  6. Temperature factors effect on occurrence of stress corrosion cracking of main gas pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazarova, M. N.; Akhmetov, R. R.; Krainov, S. A.

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of the article is to analyze and compare the data in order to contribute to the formation of an objective opinion on the issue of the growth of stress corrosion defects of the main gas pipeline. According to available data, a histogram of the dependence of defects due to stress corrosion on the distance from the compressor station was constructed, and graphs of the dependence of the accident density due to stress corrosion in the winter and summer were also plotted. Data on activation energy were collected and analyzed in which occurrence of stress corrosion is most likely constructed, a plot of activation energy versus temperature is plotted, and the process of occurrence of stress corrosion by the example of two different grades of steels under the action of different temperatures was analyzed.

  7. Influence of temperature on symptom expression, detection of host factors in virus infected Piper nigrum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umadevi, P; Bhat, A I; Krishnamurthy, K S; Anandaraj, M

    2016-05-01

    Expression of symptoms in black pepper plants (Piper nigrum) infected with Piper yellow mottle virus (PYMoV) vary depending on the season, being high during summer months. Here, we explored the influence of temperature on symptom expression in PYMoV infected P. nigrum. Our controlled environment study revealed increase in virus titer, total proteins, IAA and reducing sugars when exposed to temperature stress. There was change in the 2-D separated protein before and after exposure. The 2-D proteomics LC-MS identified host and viral proteins suggesting virus-host interaction during symptom expression. The analysis as well as detection of host biochemical compounds may help in understanding the detailed mechanisms underlying the viral replication and damage to the crop, and thereby plan management strategies.

  8. DETECTION AND ASSESSMENT OF ABIOTIC STRESS OF CONIFEROUS LANDSCAPES CAUSED BY URANIUM MINING (USING MULTITEMPORAL HIGH RESOLUTION LANDSAT DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lachezar Filchev

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Remote sensing have become one of decisive technologies for detection and assessment of abiotic stress situations, such as snowstorms, forest fires, drought, frost, technogenic pollution etc. Present work is aiming at detection and assessment of abiotic stress of coniferous landscapes caused by uranium mining using high resolution satellite data from Landsat. To achieve the aim, ground-based geochemical data and were coupled with the satellite data for two periods, i.e. prior and after uranium mining decommissioning, into a file geodatabase in ArcGIS/ArcInfo 9.2, where spatial analyses were carried out. As a result, weak and very weak relationships were found between the factor of technogenic pollution—Zc and vegetation indices NDVI, NDWI, MSAVI, TVI, and VCI. The TVI performs better compared to other indices in terms of separability among classes, whereas the NDVI and VCI correlate well than other indices with Zc.

  9. Study of a new alternative antioxidant in soybean plants subjected to abiotic stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zilli, C.; Santa Cruz, D.; Caggiano, E.; Romanello, M.; Tomaro, M.; Balestrasse, K.

    2010-01-01

    We have recently, demonstrated that the induction of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) plays a protective role for soybean plants against oxidative stress produced by cadmium and UV-B radiation. At this moment we propose to investigate if the enzyme has the same capacity against another type of abiotic stress, such as drought, for to demonstrate that heme oxygenase acts as an enzyme of plant antioxidant defense system under several different stress situations, as occur in mammalian tissues. To carry out this objective we propose to study, in leaf, root and nodule of soybean plants, the oxidative stress generation; the behavior of classical antioxidant system; the behavior of HO-1 activity and protein and gene expression; the effect of its reaction products and inhibitors on the oxidative stress parameters; the signaling mechanism that produce HO-1 induction and the immunohistochemistry localization of the enzyme in the different plant tissues. The results obtained let us undoubtedly demonstrate the involvement of HO-1 in the antioxidant defense system in plants. This finding will allow the increase in the knowledge of the defense mechanisms in interesting economic plants for our country, such as soybean, and against drought, an abiotic stress considered one of the most important factors limiting plant performance and yield worldwide. (authors)

  10. Using Phenomic Analysis of Photosynthetic Function for Abiotic Stress Response Gene Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rungrat, Tepsuda; Awlia, Mariam; Brown, Tim; Cheng, Riyan; Sirault, Xavier; Fajkus, Jiri; Trtilek, Martin; Furbank, Bob; Badger, Murray; Tester, Mark; Pogson, Barry J; Borevitz, Justin O; Wilson, Pip

    2016-01-01

    Monitoring the photosynthetic performance of plants is a major key to understanding how plants adapt to their growth conditions. Stress tolerance traits have a high genetic complexity as plants are constantly, and unavoidably, exposed to numerous stress factors, which limits their growth rates in the natural environment. Arabidopsis thaliana , with its broad genetic diversity and wide climatic range, has been shown to successfully adapt to stressful conditions to ensure the completion of its life cycle. As a result, A. thaliana has become a robust and renowned plant model system for studying natural variation and conducting gene discovery studies. Genome wide association studies (GWAS) in restructured populations combining natural and recombinant lines is a particularly effective way to identify the genetic basis of complex traits. As most abiotic stresses affect photosynthetic activity, chlorophyll fluorescence measurements are a potential phenotyping technique for monitoring plant performance under stress conditions. This review focuses on the use of chlorophyll fluorescence as a tool to study genetic variation underlying the stress tolerance responses to abiotic stress in A. thaliana .

  11. Molecular responses of genetically modified maize to abiotic stresses as determined through proteomic and metabolomic analyses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Fonseca Benevenuto

    Full Text Available Some genetically modified (GM plants have transgenes that confer tolerance to abiotic stressors. Meanwhile, other transgenes may interact with abiotic stressors, causing pleiotropic effects that will affect the plant physiology. Thus, physiological alteration might have an impact on the product safety. However, routine risk assessment (RA analyses do not evaluate the response of GM plants exposed to different environmental conditions. Therefore, we here present a proteome profile of herbicide-tolerant maize, including the levels of phytohormones and related compounds, compared to its near-isogenic non-GM variety under drought and herbicide stresses. Twenty differentially abundant proteins were detected between GM and non-GM hybrids under different water deficiency conditions and herbicide sprays. Pathway enrichment analysis showed that most of these proteins are assigned to energetic/carbohydrate metabolic processes. Among phytohormones and related compounds, different levels of ABA, CA, JA, MeJA and SA were detected in the maize varieties and stress conditions analysed. In pathway and proteome analyses, environment was found to be the major source of variation followed by the genetic transformation factor. Nonetheless, differences were detected in the levels of JA, MeJA and CA and in the abundance of 11 proteins when comparing the GM plant and its non-GM near-isogenic variety under the same environmental conditions. Thus, these findings do support molecular studies in GM plants Risk Assessment analyses.

  12. Using Phenomic Analysis of Photosynthetic Function for Abiotic Stress Response Gene Discovery

    KAUST Repository

    Rungrat, Tepsuda

    2016-09-09

    Monitoring the photosynthetic performance of plants is a major key to understanding how plants adapt to their growth conditions. Stress tolerance traits have a high genetic complexity as plants are constantly, and unavoidably, exposed to numerous stress factors, which limits their growth rates in the natural environment. Arabidopsis thaliana, with its broad genetic diversity and wide climatic range, has been shown to successfully adapt to stressful conditions to ensure the completion of its life cycle. As a result, A. thaliana has become a robust and renowned plant model system for studying natural variation and conducting gene discovery studies. Genome wide association studies (GWAS) in restructured populations combining natural and recombinant lines is a particularly effective way to identify the genetic basis of complex traits. As most abiotic stresses affect photosynthetic activity, chlorophyll fluorescence measurements are a potential phenotyping technique for monitoring plant performance under stress conditions. This review focuses on the use of chlorophyll fluorescence as a tool to study genetic variation underlying the stress tolerance responses to abiotic stress in A. thaliana.

  13. Limnoperna fortunei Dunker, 1857 larvae in different environments of a Neotropical floodplain: relationships of abiotic variables and phytoplankton with different stages of development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Ernandes-Silva

    Full Text Available Abstract Limnoperna fortunei Dunker, 1857 is an Asian invasive freshwater bivalve. Although there need to contain their spread, studies about the biology of the larvae are scarce. We correlated the larval stages of L. fortunei with biotic factors such as phytoplankton and main abiotic variables in lotic environments of the Upper Paraná River floodplain. The four samples were taken quarterly during the year 2012. The Principal component analysis (PCA showed only spatial differences, as did a Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA. High densities of larvae were recorded in all samples the Paraná River and Baía River only in December, especially those in their initial stage. In the biovolume of Class of algae, Bacillarophyceae showed the highest value, but Chlorophycea who was strongly correlated with the density of D-stage larvae. The large variety of phytoplankton, especially microplankton Chlorophyceae, high values of PO4, NH4 and temperature were positively correlated with high densities of D-stage larvae. We conclude that high temperature, and food availability, indicated by phytoplankton community, favored the reproduction of L. fortunei and enhance the ability of specie dispersion due to the increase in the emission of propagules. Therefore, studies that address the biology of golden mussel larvae should be performed in order to prevent its spread.

  14. The constitutive expression of a two transgene construct enhances the abiotic stress tolerance of chrysanthemum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Aiping; An, Juan; Guan, Zhiyong; Jiang, Jiafu; Chen, Fadi; Lou, Wanghuai; Fang, Weimin; Liu, Zhaolei; Chen, Sumei

    2014-07-01

    Various abiotic stresses downgrade the quality and productivity of chrysanthemum. A construct carrying both CcSOS1 (from Chrysanthemum crassum) and CdICE1 (from Chrysanthemum dichrum) was constitutively expressed in the chrysanthemum variety 'Jinba'. The transgenic plants were superior to the wild type (WT) ones with respect to their sensitivity to low temperature, drought and salinity, as measured by visible damage and plant survival. Salinity stressed transgenic plants accumulated more proline, and their level of superoxide dismutase and peroxidase activity was higher than in WT plants. At the physiological level, they suffered less loss of viable leaf area, maintained a lower leaf electrolyte conductivity and retained more chlorophyll (a+b). The ratio between the K(+) and Na(+) content was higher in the root, stem and median leaves of salinity stressed transgenic plants than in those of WT plants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Environmental and Physiological Factors Associated With Stamina in Dogs Exercising in High Ambient Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick J. Robbins

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This IACUC approved study was performed to evaluate the environmental, physiological, and hematological components that contribute to stamina following successive bouts of exercise that included searching (5-min, agility (5-min, and ball retrieve (<10-min. Regularly exercised dogs (N = 12 were evaluated on five separate occasions. The population consisted of eight males and four females ranging in age from 8 to 23 months, which included six Labrador retrievers, three German shepherds, and one each English springer spaniel, German wirehaired pointer, and Dutch shepherd. The exercise period was up to 30 min with 5 min of intermittent rest between the exercise bouts or until a designated trainer determined that the dog appeared fatigued (e.g., curled tongue while panting, seeking shade, or voluntary reluctance to retrieve. At the end of the exercise period, pulse rate (PR, core temperature, blood lactate, and venous blood gas were collected. The median outdoor temperature was 28.9°C (84°F (IQR; 27.2–30°C/81–86°F and median humidity was 47% (IQR; 40–57%. Median duration of exercise was 27 min (IQR; 25–29. No dog showed signs of heat stress that required medical intervention. The components used to measure stamina in this study were total activity, post-exercise core body temperature (CBT, and increase in CBT. When controlling for breed, total activity, as measured by omnidirectional accelerometer device, could be predicted from a linear combination of the independent variables: pre-exercise activity (p = 0.008, post-exercise activity (p < 0.001, outdoor temperature (p = 0.005, reduction in base excess in extracellular fluid compartment (BEecf (p = 0.044, and decrease in TCO2 (p = 0.005. When controlling for breed and sex, increase in CBT could be predicted from a linear combination of the independent variables: study day (p = 0.005, increase in PR (p < 0.001, increase in lactate (p = 0

  16. Environmental and Physiological Factors Associated With Stamina in Dogs Exercising in High Ambient Temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Patrick J; Ramos, Meghan T; Zanghi, Brian M; Otto, Cynthia M

    2017-01-01

    This IACUC approved study was performed to evaluate the environmental, physiological, and hematological components that contribute to stamina following successive bouts of exercise that included searching (5-min), agility (5-min), and ball retrieve (dogs ( N  = 12) were evaluated on five separate occasions. The population consisted of eight males and four females ranging in age from 8 to 23 months, which included six Labrador retrievers, three German shepherds, and one each English springer spaniel, German wirehaired pointer, and Dutch shepherd. The exercise period was up to 30 min with 5 min of intermittent rest between the exercise bouts or until a designated trainer determined that the dog appeared fatigued (e.g., curled tongue while panting, seeking shade, or voluntary reluctance to retrieve). At the end of the exercise period, pulse rate (PR), core temperature, blood lactate, and venous blood gas were collected. The median outdoor temperature was 28.9°C (84°F) (IQR; 27.2-30°C/81-86°F) and median humidity was 47% (IQR; 40-57%). Median duration of exercise was 27 min (IQR; 25-29). No dog showed signs of heat stress that required medical intervention. The components used to measure stamina in this study were total activity, post-exercise core body temperature (CBT), and increase in CBT. When controlling for breed, total activity, as measured by omnidirectional accelerometer device, could be predicted from a linear combination of the independent variables: pre-exercise activity ( p  = 0.008), post-exercise activity ( p  < 0.001), outdoor temperature ( p  = 0.005), reduction in base excess in extracellular fluid compartment (BEecf) ( p  = 0.044), and decrease in TCO 2 ( p  = 0.005). When controlling for breed and sex, increase in CBT could be predicted from a linear combination of the independent variables: study day ( p  = 0.005), increase in PR ( p  < 0.001), increase in lactate ( p  = 0.001), reduction in BEecf ( p

  17. Increase of ozone concentrations, its temperature sensitivity and the precursor factor in South China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. C. Lee

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Concerns have been raised about the possible connections between the local and regional photochemical problem and global warming. The current study assesses the trend of ozone in Hong Kong and the Pearl River Delta (PRD in South China and investigates the interannual changes of sensitivity of ozone to air temperature, as well as the trends in regional precursors. Results reveal, at the three monitoring sites from the mid-1990s to 2010, an increase in the mean ozone concentrations from 1.0 to 1.6 µg m−3 per year. The increase occurred in all seasons, with the highest rate in autumn. This is consistent with trends and temperature anomalies in the region. The increase in the sensitivity of ozone to temperature is clearly evident from the correlation between ozone (OMI [Ozone Monitoring Instrument] column amount and surface air temperature (from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder displayed in the correlation maps for the PRD during the prominently high ozone period of July–September. It is observed to have increased from 2005 to 2010, the latter being the hottest year on record globally. To verify this temporal change in sensitivity, the ground-level trends of correlation coefficients/regression slopes are analysed. As expected, results reveal a statistically significant upward trend over a 14-year period (1997–2010. While the correlation revealed in the correlation maps is in agreement with the corresponding OMI ozone maps when juxtaposed, temperature sensitivity of surface ozone also shows an association with ozone concentration, with R=0.5. These characteristics of ozone sensitivity are believed to have adverse implications for the region. As shown by ground measurements and/or satellite analyses, the decrease in nitrogen oxides (NO2 and NOx in Hong Kong is not statistically significant while NO2 of the PRD has only very slightly changed. However, carbon dioxide has remarkably declined in the whole region. While these observations concerning

  18. Assay of Plasma Membrane H+-ATPase in Plant Tissues under Abiotic Stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janicka, Małgorzata; Wdowikowska, Anna; Kłobus, Grażyna

    2018-01-01

    Plasma membrane (PM) H + -ATPase, which generates the proton gradient across the outer membrane of plant cells, plays a fundamental role in the regulation of many physiological processes fundamental for growth and development of plants. It is involved in the uptake of nutrients from external solutions, their loading into phloem and long-distance transport, stomata aperture and gas exchange, pH homeostasis in cytosol, cell wall loosening, and cell expansion. The crucial role of the enzyme in resistance of plants to abiotic and biotic stress factors has also been well documented. Such great diversity of physiological functions linked to the activity of one enzyme requires a suitable and complex regulation of H + -ATPase. This regulation comprises the transcriptional as well as post-transcriptional levels. Herein, we describe the techniques that can be useful for the analysis of the plasma membrane proton pump modifications at genetic and protein levels under environmental factors.

  19. Late glacial climatic and environmental changes in eastern-central Europe: Correlation of multiple biotic and abiotic proxies from the Lake Švarcenberk, Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hošek, J.; Pokorný, P.; Kubovčík, V.; Horáček, I.; Žáčková, P.; Kadlec, Jaroslav; Rojik, C.; Lisá, Lenka; Bučkuliaková, S.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 396, 15 February (2014), s. 155-172 ISSN 0031-0182 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : Last Glacial Termination * lacustrine sediments * climate changes * biotic/abiotic responses * Eastern-Central Europe Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 2.339, year: 2014

  20. The net effect of abiotic conditions and biotic interactions in a semi-arid ecosystem NE Spain: implications for the management and restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pueyo, Yolanda; Arroyo, Antonio I.; Saiz, Hugo; Alados, Concepción L.

    2014-05-01

    Degradation in arid and semiarid lands can be irreversible without human intervention, due to a positive plant-soil feedback where the loss of vegetation cover leads to soil degradation, which in turn hampers plant establishment. Human intervention in restoration actions usually involves the amendment of the degraded abiotic conditions, revegetation of bare areas, or both. However, abiotic amelioration is often expensive and too intrusive, and revegetation is not successful in many cases. Biotic interactions between plants, and more specifically facilitation by a "nurse" plant, have been proposed as a new via to take profit of improved abiotic conditions without intervention, and to increase the success rate of revegetation actions. But "nurse" plants can also interfere with others (i.e. by competition for resources or the release of allelopathic compounds), and the net balance between facilitation and interference could depend on plant types involved. We present recent observational and experimental studies performed in the semiarid ecosystems of the Middle Ebro Valley (NE Spain) about the role of abiotic conditions and biotic interactions in the productivity, dynamics and diversity of plant communities under different stress conditions (aridity and grazing). We found that all plant types studied (shrubs and perennial grasses) improved abiotic conditions (soil temperature and water availability for plants) with respect to open areas. However, only some shrubs (mainly Salsola vermiculata) had a positive net balance in the biotic interactions between plants, while other shrubs (Artemisia herba-alba) and perennial grasses (Lygeum spartum) showed interference with other plants. Moreover, the net balance between facilitation and interference among plants in the community shifted from competitive to neutral or from neutral to facilitative with increasing aridity. Grazing status did not strongly change the net biotic interactions between plants. Our results suggest that

  1. EFFECTS OF NEUTRINO ELECTROMAGNETIC FORM FACTORS ON NEUTRINO INTERACTION WITH FINITE TEMPERATURE ELECTRON MATTERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anto Sulaksono

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The differential cross-section of neutrino interaction with dense and warm electron gasses has been calculated by takinginto account the neutrino electromagnetic form factors. The significant effect of electromagnetic properties of neutrinocan be found if the neutrino dipole moment, μ ν , is ≥ 5.10-9 μB and neutrino charge radius, Rv, is ≥ 5.10-6 MeV-1. Theimportance of the retarded correction, detailed balance and Pauli blocking factors is shown and analyzed. Many-bodyeffects on the target matter which are included via random phase approximation (RPA correlation as well as photoneffective mass are also investigated.

  2. Theoretical Research on Thermal Shock Resistance of Ultra-High Temperature Ceramics Focusing on the Adjustment of Stress Reduction Factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daining Fang

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The thermal shock resistance of ceramics depends on not only the mechanical and thermal properties of materials, but also the external constraint and thermal condition. So, in order to study the actual situation in its service process, a temperature-dependent thermal shock resistance model for ultra-high temperature ceramics considering the effects of the thermal environment and external constraint was established based on the existing theory. The present work mainly focused on the adjustment of the stress reduction factor according to different thermal shock situations. The influences of external constraint on both critical rupture temperature difference and the second thermal shock resistance parameter in either case of rapid heating or cooling conditions had been studied based on this model. The results show the necessity of adjustment of the stress reduction factor in different thermal shock situations and the limitations of the applicable range of the second thermal shock resistance parameter. Furthermore, the model was validated by the finite element method.

  3. The influence of the interactions between anthropogenic activities and multiple ecological factors on land surface temperatures of urban forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Context Land surface temperatures (LSTs) spatio-temporal distribution pattern of urban forests are influenced by many ecological factors; the identification of interaction between these factors can improve simulations and predictions of spatial patterns of urban cold islands. This quantitative research requires an integrated method that combines multiple sources data with spatial statistical analysis. Objectives The purpose of this study was to clarify urban forest LST influence interaction between anthropogenic activities and multiple ecological factors using cluster analysis of hot and cold spots and Geogdetector model. We introduced the hypothesis that anthropogenic activity interacts with certain ecological factors, and their combination influences urban forests LST. We also assumed that spatio-temporal distributions of urban forest LST should be similar to those of ecological factors and can be represented quantitatively. Methods We used Jinjiang as a representative city in China as a case study. Population density was employed to represent anthropogenic activity. We built up a multi-source data (forest inventory, digital elevation models (DEM), population, and remote sensing imagery) on a unified urban scale to support urban forest LST influence interaction research. Through a combination of spatial statistical analysis results, multi-source spatial data, and Geogdetector model, the interaction mechanisms of urban forest LST were revealed. Results Although different ecological factors have different influences on forest LST, in two periods with different hot spots and cold spots, the patch area and dominant tree species were the main factors contributing to LST clustering in urban forests. The interaction between anthropogenic activity and multiple ecological factors increased LST in urban forest stands, linearly and nonlinearly. Strong interactions between elevation and dominant species were generally observed and were prevalent in either hot or cold spots

  4. Sample weight and digestion temperature as critical factors in mercury determination in fish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadiq, M.; Zaidi, T.H.; Al-Mohana, H. (King Fahd Univ. of Petroleum and Minerals, Dharan (Saudi Arabia))

    1991-09-01

    The concern about mercury (Hg) pollution of the marine environment started with the well publicized case of Minimata (Japan) where in the 1950s several persons died or became seriously ill after consuming fish or shellfish containing high levels of methylmercury. It is now accepted that Hg contaminated seafoods constitute a hazard to human health. To safeguard humans, accurate determination of Hg in marine biota is, therefore, very important. Two steps are involved in the determination of total Hg in biological materials: (a) decomposition of organic matrix (sample preparation), and (b) determination of Hg in aliquot samples. Although the procedures for determining Hg using the cold vapor technique are well established, sample preparation procedures have not been standardized. In general, samples of marine biota have been prepared by digesting different weights at different temperatures, by using mixtures of different chemicals and of varying quantities, and by digesting for variable durations. The objectives of the present paper were to evaluate the effects of sample weights and digestion temperatures on Hg determination in fish.

  5. Influence of metallurgical and electrochemical factors on cracking of steels at nuclear power plants under high temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pokhmurskii, V.I.; Gnyp, I.P.

    1994-01-01

    The influence of metallurgical heterogeneities in steels and electrochemical factors on corrosion cracking under high temperature water environment is studied, with special emphasis on the influence of manganese sulfide inclusions and other non-metallic ones on the crack growth rate. Results show that the electro-chemical conditions for an hydrogen concentration increase in a pre-failure zone exist at a crack tip under cyclic loading; hydrogen penetrating into metals at high temperature reduces manganese sulfides, ferric carbides, and cause high pressure of gases in micro-discontinuities, thus leading to cyclic corrosion cracking; anodic (relatively to a metal matrix) inclusions are rather the cause of steel cracking resistance decrease than cathodic ones. 16 refs., 4 figs

  6. Sensitivity analysis of power depression and axial power factor effect on fuel pin to temperature and related properties distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suwardi, S.

    2001-01-01

    The presented paper is a preliminary step to evaluate the effect of radial and axial distribution of power generation on thermal analysis of whole fuel pin model with large L/D ratio. The model takes into account both radial and axial distribution of power generation due to power depression and core geometry, temperature and microstructure dependent on thermal conductivity. The microstructure distribution and the gap conductance for typical steady-state situation are given for the sensitivity analysis. The temperature and thermal conductivity distribution along the radial and axial directions obtained by different power distribution is used to indicate the sensitivity of power depression and power factor on thermal aspect. The evaluation is made for one step of incremental time and steady state approach is used. The analysis has been performed using a finite element-finite difference model. The result for typical reactor fuel shows that the sensitivity is too important to be omitted in thermal model

  7. Coupled Abiotic-Biotic Degradation of Bisphenol A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, J.; Prevatte, C.; Campagna, S. R.; Loeffler, F.

    2014-12-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a ubiquitous environmental contaminant with weak estrogenic activity. BPA is readily biodegradable with oxygen available, but is recalcitrant to microbial degradation under anoxic conditions. However, BPA is susceptible to abiotic transformation under anoxic conditions. To better understand the fate of BPA in anoxic environments, the kinetics of BPA transformation by manganese oxide (d-MnO2) were investigated. BPA was rapidly transformed by MnO2 with a pseudo-first-order rate constant of 0.413 min-1. NMR and LC-MS analyses identified 4-hydroxycumyl alcohol (HCA) as a major intermediate. Up to 64% of the initial amount of BPA was recovered as HCA within 5 min, but the conversion efficiency decreased with time, suggesting that HCA was further degraded by MnO2. Further experiments confirmed that HCA was also susceptible to transformation by MnO2, albeit at 5-fold lower rates than BPA transformation. Mass balance approaches suggested that HCA was the major BPA transformation intermediate, but other compounds may also be formed. The abiotic transformation of BPA by MnO2 was affected by pH, and 10-fold higher transformation rates were observed at pH 4.5 than at pH 10. Compared to BPA, HCA has a lower octanol-water partitioning coefficient (Log Kow) of 0.76 vs 2.76 for BPA and a higher aqueous solubility of 2.65 g L-1 vs 0.31 g L-1 for BPA, suggesting higher mobility of HCA in the environment. Microcosms established with freshwater sediment materials collected from four geographically distinct locations and amended with HCA demonstrated rapid HCA biodegradation under oxic, but not under anoxic conditions. These findings suggest that BPA is not inert under anoxic conditions and abiotic reactions with MnO2 generate HCA, which has increased mobility and is susceptible to aerobic degradation. Therefore, coupled abiotic-biotic processes can affect the fate and longevity of BPA in terrestrial environments.

  8. Regulation of abiotic and biotic stress responses by plant hormones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grosskinsky, Dominik Kilian; van der Graaff, Eric; Roitsch, Thomas Georg

    2016-01-01

    Plant hormones (phytohormones) are signal molecules produced within the plant, and occur in very low concentrations. In the present chapter, the current knowledge on the regulation of biotic and biotic stress responses by plant hormones is summarized with special focus on the novel insights...... into the complex hormonal crosstalk of classical growth stimulating plant hormones within the naturally occurring biotic and abiotic multistress environment of higher plants. The MAPK- and phytohormone-cascades which comprise a multitude of single molecules on different signalling levels, as well as interactions...

  9. Limiting factor of defect-engineered spin-filtering effect at room temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puttisong, Y.; Buyanova, I. A.; Chen, W. M.

    2014-05-01

    We identify hyperfine-induced electron and nuclear spin cross-relaxation as the dominant physical mechanism for the longitudinal electron spin relaxation time 1 of the spin-filtering Gai2+ defects in GaNAs alloys. This conclusion is based on our experimental findings that T1 is insensitive to temperature over 4-300 K, and its exact value is directly correlated with the hyperfine coupling strength of the defects that varies between different configurations of the Gai2+ defects present in the alloys. These results thus provide a guideline for further improvements of the spin-filtering efficiency by optimizing growth and processing conditions to preferably incorporate the Gai2+ defects with a weak hyperfine interaction and by searching for new spin-filtering defects with zero nuclear spin.

  10. Desenvolvimento de um sistema de apoio à decisão para a diagnose de doenças, pragas e distúrbios abióticos dos citros Development of a decision support system for the diagnosis of citrus diseases, pests, and abiotic factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleilson do Nascimento Uchôa

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A preocupação com a diagnose dos problemas que afetam as plantas cítricas proporcionou ao longo dos anos o acúmulo de conhecimento, que precisava ser organizado e divulgado de forma eficiente e rápida. Dessa forma, objetivou-se com esse trabalho construir uma base de conhecimentos para diagnóstico de doenças bióticas e abióticas dos citros, desenvolver e implementar o sistema de apoio à decisão (SAD e avaliar o sistema. O SAD foi construído utilizando a ferramenta 'Borland Delphi' versão 5. Foram formuladas 562 perguntas, 322 regras e anexadas fotografias para facilitar o diagnóstico de 34 doenças, 40 pragas e 34 distúrbios abióticos dos citros. A avaliação do SAD foi dividida em verificação e validação. Na verificação, o SAD foi submetido a uma análise por meio de questionário a 5 especialistas em citros. A validação do programa foi realizada com quatro grupos, de diferentes níveis de conhecimento (10 pessoas/grupo, tentando diagnosticar corretamente. Obteve-se um acerto de 45,6% dos usuários e 93,6% do SAD. O sistema foi denominado Dr. Citrus (protótipo com registro no INPI n° 014070009188.The concern about the diagnosis of problems affecting citrus led to an accumulation of knowledge over the years. However, such accumulated knowledge needed to be organized and efficiently disseminated. Thus, the aims of this work were to build a knowledge basis for the diagnosis of abiotic and biotic citrus diseases to develop and implement a Decision Support System (DSS and to test and evaluate this system. DSS was built by using the tool 'Borland Delphi' version 5. A total of 562 questions were formulated, including 322 rules, besides photographs to help in the diagnosis of 34 diseases, 40 pests and 34 abiotics disturbances in citrus. DSS evolution was divided into verification and validation. In the verification phase, DSS was analyzed by means of a questionnaire applied to citrus specialists. The program validation phase

  11. Survival of Manure-borne and Fecal Coliforms in Soil: Temperature Dependence as Affected by Site-Specific Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yongeun; Pachepsky, Yakov; Shelton, Daniel; Jeong, Jaehak; Whelan, Gene

    2016-05-01

    Understanding pathogenic and indicator bacteria survival in soils is essential for assessing the potential of microbial contamination of water and produce. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of soil properties, animal source, experimental conditions, and the application method on temperature dependencies of manure-borne generic , O157:H7, and fecal coliforms survival in soils. A literature search yielded 151 survival datasets from 70 publications. Either one-stage or two-stage kinetics was observed in the survival datasets. We used duration and rate of the logarithm of concentration change as parameters of the first stage in the two-stage kinetics data. The second stage of the two-stage kinetics and the one-stage kinetics were simulated with the model to find the dependence of the inactivation rate on temperature. Classification and regression trees and linear regressions were applied to parameterize the kinetics. Presence or absence of two-stage kinetics was controlled by temperature, soil texture, soil water content, and for fine-textured soils by setting experiments in the field or in the laboratory. The duration of the first stage was predominantly affected by soil water content and temperature. In the model dependencies of inactivation rates on temperature, parameter estimates were significantly affected by the laboratory versus field conditions and by the application method, whereas inactivation rates at 20°C were significantly affected by all survival and management factors. Results of this work can provide estimates of coliform survival parameters for models of microbial water quality. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  12. Field evaluation of durum wheat landraces for prevailing abiotic and biotic stresses in highland rainfed regions of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Mohammadi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Biotic and abiotic stresses are major limiting factors for high crop productivity worldwide. A landrace collection consisting of 380 durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. var. durum entries originating in several countries along with four check varieties were evaluated for biotic stresses: yellow rust (Puccinia striiformis Westendorf f. sp. tritici and wheat stem sawfly (WSS Cephus cinctus Norton (Hymenoptera: Cephidae, and abiotic stresses: cold and drought. The main objectives were to (i quantify phenotypic diversity and identify variation in the durum wheat landraces for the different stresses and (ii characterize the agronomic profiles of landraces in reaction to the stresses. Significant changes in reactions of landraces