WorldWideScience

Sample records for ability test scores

  1. The Relationship between Kindergarten Students' Home Block Play and Their Spatial Ability Test Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Tracy Anne

    2010-01-01

    Researchers are increasingly aware of the role of spatial skills in preparing children for future mathematics achievement (National Mathematics Advisory Panel, 2008). In addition, sex differences have been consistently documented showing boys score higher than girls in assessments of spatial ability, particularly mental rotation (Linn &…

  2. Cognitive Ability and Personality Variables as Predictors of School Grades and Test Scores in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofer, Manfred; Kuhnle, Claudia; Kilian, Britta; Fries, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    The predictive power of cognitive ability and self-control strength for self-reported grades and an achievement test were studied. It was expected that the variables use of time structure, academic procrastination, and motivational interference during learning further aid in predicting students' achievement because they are operative in situations…

  3. The Score Reliability of Draw-a-Person Intellectual Ability Test (DAP: IQ) for Rural Malawi Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khasu, Denis S.; Williams, Thomas O., Jr.

    2016-01-01

    In this brief article, the reliability of scores for the Draw-A-Person Intellectual Ability Test for Children, Adolescents, and Adults (DAP: IQ; Reynolds & Hickman, 2004) was examined through several analyses with a sample of 147 children from rural Malawi, Africa using a Chichewa translation of instructions. Cronbach alpha coefficients for…

  4. Visual-Constructional Ability in Individuals with Severe Obesity: Rey Complex Figure Test Accuracy and the Q-Score

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna L. Sargénius

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to investigate visual-construction and organizational strategy among individuals with severe obesity, as measured by the Rey Complex Figure Test (RCFT, and to examine the validity of the Q-score as a measure for the quality of performance on the RCFT. Ninety-six non-demented morbidly obese (MO patients and 100 healthy controls (HC completed the RCFT. Their performance was calculated by applying the standard scoring criteria. The quality of the copying process was evaluated per the directions of the Q-score scoring system. Results revealed that the MO did not perform significantly lower than the HC on Copy accuracy (mean difference −0.302, CI −1.374 to 0.769, p = 0.579. In contrast, the groups did statistically differ from each other, with MO performing poorer than the HC on the Q-score (mean −1.784, CI −3.237 to −0.331, p = 0.016 and the Unit points (mean −1.409, CI −2.291 to −0.528, p = 0.002, but not on the Order points score (mean −0.351, CI −0.994 to 0.293, p = 0.284. Differences on the Unit score and the Q-score were slightly reduced when adjusting for gender, age, and education. This study presents evidence supporting the presence of inefficiency in visuospatial constructional ability among MO patients. We believe we have found an indication that the Q-score captures a wider range of cognitive processes that are not described by traditional scoring methods. Rather than considering accuracy and placement of the different elements only, the Q-score focuses more on how the subject has approached the task.

  5. A Test of the Relationship between Reading Ability & Standardized Biology Assessment Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Denise A.

    2014-01-01

    Little empirical evidence suggested that independent reading abilities of students enrolled in biology predicted their performance on the Biology I Graduation End-of-Course Assessment (ECA). An archival study was conducted at one Indiana urban public high school in Indianapolis, Indiana, by examining existing educational assessment data to test…

  6. An Investigation of Calculator Use on Employment Tests of Mathematical Ability: Effects on Reliability, Validity, Test Scores, and Speed of Completion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bing, Mark N.; Stewart, Susan M.; Davison, H. Kristl

    2009-01-01

    Handheld calculators have been used on the job for more than 30 years, yet the degree to which these devices can affect performance on employment tests of mathematical ability has not been thoroughly examined. This study used a within-subjects research design (N = 167) to investigate the effects of calculator use on test score reliability, test…

  7. Comparing and evaluating alternative (in vitro) tests on their ability to predict the Draize maximum average score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lordo, R A; Feder, P I; Gettings, S D

    1999-02-01

    Phase III, relatively narrow prediction interval widths were observed at both the low and high end of the observed range of irritation potential; wider intervals were observed in the middle of the observed range. In general, the selected endpoints in each phase had similar average prediction interval widths and thereby differed only slightly in their ability to predict MAS to a given level of precision; any differences between endpoints tended to occur at the low and/or high ends of the observed range of irritation potential. The primary contributor to total variability associated with prediction of MAS is the deviation between the Draize score as observed in the laboratory and what is predicted by the model for a given formulation. Consistently, this component is responsible for 70% to 95% of the total variability. The other components (i.e. variability among replicate MAS and in vitro scores) could be reduced simply by increasing the number of replicate tests performed on each test formulation. However, this would have relatively little impact on the overall precision of prediction.

  8. Fluctuation in Spatial Ability Scores during the Menstrual Cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moody, M. Suzanne

    Whether or not fluctuations in spatial ability as measured by S. G. Vandenberg's Mental Rotations Test occur during the menstrual cycle was studied with 133 female students from 9 undergraduate educational psychology and nursing classes. For comparison, 28 male students also took the test. Scores from 55 females fell into the relevant menstrual…

  9. Discrimination ability of the Energy score

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinson, Pierre; Tastu, Julija

    as appealing since being proper, we show that its discrimination ability may be limited when focusing on the dependence structure of multivariate probabilistic forecasts. For the case of multivariate Gaussian process, a theoretical upper for such discrimination ability is derived and discussed. This limited...... discrimination ability may eventually get compromised by computational and sampling issues, as dimension increases....

  10. Do Test Scores Buy Happiness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCluskey, Neal

    2017-01-01

    Since at least the enactment of No Child Left Behind in 2002, standardized test scores have served as the primary measures of public school effectiveness. Yet, such scores fail to measure the ultimate goal of education: maximizing happiness. This exploratory analysis assesses nation level associations between test scores and happiness, controlling…

  11. From neural oscillations to reasoning ability: Simulating the effect of the theta-to-gamma cycle length ratio on individual scores in a figural analogy test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuderski, Adam; Andrelczyk, Krzysztof

    2015-02-01

    Several existing computational models of working memory (WM) have predicted a positive relationship (later confirmed empirically) between WM capacity and the individual ratio of theta to gamma oscillatory band lengths. These models assume that each gamma cycle represents one WM object (e.g., a binding of its features), whereas the theta cycle integrates such objects into the maintained list. As WM capacity strongly predicts reasoning, it might be expected that this ratio also predicts performance in reasoning tasks. However, no computational model has yet explained how the differences in the theta-to-gamma ratio found among adult individuals might contribute to their scores on a reasoning test. Here, we propose a novel model of how WM capacity constraints figural analogical reasoning, aimed at explaining inter-individual differences in reasoning scores in terms of the characteristics of oscillatory patterns in the brain. In the model, the gamma cycle encodes the bindings between objects/features and the roles they play in the relations processed. Asynchrony between consecutive gamma cycles results from lateral inhibition between oscillating bindings. Computer simulations showed that achieving the highest WM capacity required reaching the optimal level of inhibition. When too strong, this inhibition eliminated some bindings from WM, whereas, when inhibition was too weak, the bindings became unstable and fell apart or became improperly grouped. The model aptly replicated several empirical effects and the distribution of individual scores, as well as the patterns of correlations found in the 100-people sample attempting the same reasoning task. Most importantly, the model's reasoning performance strongly depended on its theta-to-gamma ratio in same way as the performance of human participants depended on their WM capacity. The data suggest that proper regulation of oscillations in the theta and gamma bands may be crucial for both high WM capacity and effective complex

  12. Reliability, validity, and minimal detectable change of the push-off test scores in assessing upper extremity weight-bearing ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Saurabh P; George, Hannah R; Goering, Christian A; Shafer, Danielle R; Koester, Alan; Novotny, Steven

    2017-11-01

    Clinical measurement study. The push-off test (POT) was recently conceived and found to be reliable and valid for assessing weight bearing through injured wrist or elbow. However, further research with larger sample can lend credence to the preliminary findings supporting the use of the POT. This study examined the interrater reliability, construct validity, and measurement error for the POT in patients with wrist conditions. Participants with musculoskeletal (MSK) wrist conditions were recruited. The performance on the POT, grip isometric strength of wrist extensors was assessed. The shortened version of the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand and numeric pain rating scale were completed. The intraclass correlation coefficient assessed interrater reliability of the POT. Pearson correlation coefficients (r) examined the concurrent relationships between the POT and other measures. The standard error of measurement and the minimal detectable change at 90% confidence interval were assessed as measurement error and index of true change for the POT. A total of 50 participants with different elbow or wrist conditions (age: 48.1 ± 16.6 years) were included in this study. The results of this study strongly supported the interrater reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient: 0.96 and 0.93 for the affected and unaffected sides, respectively) of the POT in patients with wrist MSK conditions. The POT showed convergent relationships with the grip strength on the injured side (r = 0.89) and the wrist extensor strength (r = 0.7). The POT showed smaller standard error of measurement (1.9 kg). The minimal detectable change at 90% confidence interval for the POT was 4.4 kg for the sample. This study provides additional evidence to support the reliability and validity of the POT. This is the first study that provides the values for the measurement error and true change on the POT scores in patients with wrist MSK conditions. Further research should examine the

  13. The anatomy competence score: a new marker for anatomical ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoeman, Scarpa; Chandratilake, Madawa

    2012-01-01

    The assessment of students' ability in gross anatomy is a complex process as it involves the measurement of multiple facets. In this work, the authors developed and introduced the Anatomy Competence Score (ACS), which incorporates the three domains of anatomy teaching and assessment namely: theoretical knowledge, practical 3D application of the knowledge, and clinical or bedside application of knowledge on patients. Equal contributions from these tripartite domains were used to synthesize the ACS. The theory knowledge was assessed using MCQs and short answer questions while the knowledge of practical 3D application was assessed using an Objective Structured Practical Examination (OSPE). The clinical or bedside application of anatomy knowledge was assessed by an Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE). In this correlation study, the authors examined the interdomain correlations of the summative marks for the three contributing domains of the ACS, in order to examine the rationality of this new marker. Three cohorts of medical students (n = 538) at St. George's, University of London (SGUL) Medical School in the United Kingdom were included and analyzed. The results demonstrated that the correlations between the three domains were significantly low or moderate. The three domains probably represent unique knowledge and abilities. Therefore, it would appear that the average of the domains scores (the ACS) provide a comprehensive picture of a student's ability in anatomy. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Anatomists.

  14. The Absolute Normal Scores Test for Symmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penfield, Douglas A.; Sachdeva, Darshan

    1976-01-01

    The absolute normal scores test is described as a test for the symmetry of a distribution of scores about a location parameter. The test is compared to the sign test and the Wilcoxon test as an alternative to the "t"-test. (Editor/RK)

  15. Relationship between Age and the Ability to Break Scored Tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notenboom, Kim; Vromans, Herman; Schipper, Maarten; Leufkens, Hubert G M; Bouvy, Marcel L

    2016-01-01

    Practical problems with the use of medicines, such as difficulties with breaking tablets, are an often overlooked cause for non-adherence. Tablets frequently break in uneven parts and loss of product can occur due to crumbling and powdering. Health characteristics, such as the presence of peripheral neuropathy, decreased grip strength and manual dexterity, can affect a patient's ability to break tablets. As these impairments are associated with aging and age-related diseases, such as Parkinson's disease and arthritis, difficulties with breaking tablets could be more prevalent among older adults. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between age and the ability to break scored tablets. A comparative study design was chosen. Thirty-six older adults and 36 young adults were systematically observed with breaking scored tablets. Twelve different tablets were included. All participants were asked to break each tablet by three techniques: in between the fingers with the use of nails, in between the fingers without the use of nails and pushing the tablet downward with one finger on a solid surface. It was established whether a tablet was broken or not, and if broken, whether the tablet was broken accurately or not. The older adults experienced more difficulties to break tablets compared to the young adults. On average, the older persons broke 38.1% of the tablets, of which 71.0% was broken accurately. The young adults broke 78.2% of the tablets, of which 77.4% was broken accurately. Further analysis by mixed effects logistic regression revealed that age was associated with the ability to break tablets, but not with the accuracy of breaking. Breaking scored tablets by hand is less successful in an elderly population compared to a group of young adults. Health care providers should be aware that tablet breaking is not appropriate for all patients and for all drugs. In case tablet breaking is unavoidable, a patient's ability to break tablets should

  16. Mental Test Performance as a Function of Various Scoring Cutoffs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quereshi, M. Y.; Veeser, William R.

    1970-01-01

    Investigates the influence of various scoring cutoffs on mental test performance as measured by the Michell General Ability Test (MGAT) and develops a rationale for selecting the optimum cutoff based on raw scores, internal consistency, stability, parallel-form reliability and concurrent validity estimates. (MB)

  17. TIE: an ability test of emotional intelligence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Śmieja

    Full Text Available The Test of Emotional Intelligence (TIE is a new ability scale based on a theoretical model that defines emotional intelligence as a set of skills responsible for the processing of emotion-relevant information. Participants are provided with descriptions of emotional problems, and asked to indicate which emotion is most probable in a given situation, or to suggest the most appropriate action. Scoring is based on the judgments of experts: professional psychotherapists, trainers, and HR specialists. The validation study showed that the TIE is a reliable and valid test, suitable for both scientific research and individual assessment. Its internal consistency measures were as high as .88. In line with theoretical model of emotional intelligence, the results of the TIE shared about 10% of common variance with a general intelligence test, and were independent of major personality dimensions.

  18. TIE: An Ability Test of Emotional Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Śmieja, Magdalena; Orzechowski, Jarosław; Stolarski, Maciej S.

    2014-01-01

    The Test of Emotional Intelligence (TIE) is a new ability scale based on a theoretical model that defines emotional intelligence as a set of skills responsible for the processing of emotion-relevant information. Participants are provided with descriptions of emotional problems, and asked to indicate which emotion is most probable in a given situation, or to suggest the most appropriate action. Scoring is based on the judgments of experts: professional psychotherapists, trainers, and HR specialists. The validation study showed that the TIE is a reliable and valid test, suitable for both scientific research and individual assessment. Its internal consistency measures were as high as .88. In line with theoretical model of emotional intelligence, the results of the TIE shared about 10% of common variance with a general intelligence test, and were independent of major personality dimensions. PMID:25072656

  19. School Inputs, Household Substitution, and Test Scores

    OpenAIRE

    Das, Jishnu; Dercon, Stefan; Krishnan, Pramila; Sundararaman, Venkatesh; Muralidharan, Karthik; Habyarimana, James

    2013-01-01

    Empirical studies of the relationship between school inputs and test scores typically do not account for the fact that households will respond to changes in school inputs. This paper presents a dynamic household optimization model relating test scores to school and household inputs, and tests its predictions in two very different low-income country settings -- Zambia and India. The authors...

  20. A Human Capital Model of Educational Test Scores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McIntosh, James; D. Munk, Martin

    Latent class Poisson count models are used to analyze a sample of Danish test score results from a cohort of individuals born in 1954-55 and tested in 1968. The procedure takes account of unobservable effects as well as excessive zeros in the data. The bulk of unobservable effects are uncorrelated...... with observable parental attributes and, thus, are environmental rather than genetic in origin. We show that the test scores measure manifest or measured ability as it has evolved over the life of the respondent and is, thus, more a product of the human capital formation process than some latent or fundamental...... measure of pure cognitive ability. We find that variables which are not closely associated with traditional notions of intelligence explain a significant proportion of the variation in test scores. This adds to the complexity of interpreting test scores and suggests that school culture, attitudes...

  1. The Work-ability Support Scale: evaluation of scoring accuracy and rater reliability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner-Stokes, Lynne; Fadyl, Joanna; Rose, Hilary; Williams, Heather; Schlüter, Philip; McPherson, Kathryn

    2014-09-01

    The Work-ability Support Scale (WSS) is a new tool designed to assess vocational ability and support needs following onset of acquired disability, to assist decision-making in vocational rehabilitation. In this article, we report an iterative process of development through evaluation of inter- and intra-rater reliability and scoring accuracy, using vignettes. The impact of different methodological approaches to analysis of reliability is highlighted. Following preliminary evaluation using case-histories, six occupational therapists scored vignettes, first individually and then together in two teams. Scoring was repeated blind after 1 month. Scoring accuracy was tested against agreed 'reference standard' vignette scores using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) for total scores and linear-weighted kappas (kw) for individual items. Item-by-item inter- and intra-rater reliability was evaluated for both individual and team scores, using two different statistical methods. ICCs for scoring accuracy ranged from 0.95 (95 % CI 0.78-0.98) to 0.96 (0.89-0.99) for Part A, and from 0.78 (95 % CI 0.67-0.85) to 0.84 (0.69-0.92) for Part B. Item by item analysis of scoring accuracy, inter- and intra-rater reliability all showed 'substantial' to 'almost perfect' agreement (kw ≥ 0.60) for all Part-A and 8/12 Part-B items, although multi-rater kappa (Fleiss) produced more conservative results (mK = 0.34-0.79). Team rating produced marginal improvements for Part-A but not Part-B. Four problematic contextual items were identified, leading to adjustment of the scoring manual. This vignette-based study demonstrates generally acceptable levels of scoring accuracy and reliability for the WSS. Further testing in real-life situations is now warranted.

  2. Work ability as prognostic risk marker of disability pension : Single-item work ability score versus multi-item work ability index

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelen, C.A.M.; Rhenen, van W.; Groothoff, J.W.; Klink, van der J.J.L.; Twisk, W.R.; Heymans, M.W.

    2014-01-01

    Work ability predicts future disability pension (DP). A single-item work ability score (WAS) is emerging as a measure for work ability. This study compared single-item WAS with the multi-item work ability index (WAI) in its ability to identify workers at risk of DP.

  3. Exercise Testing Score for Myocardial Ischemia Gradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andres Ricardo P. Riera

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Scores aimed at contributing to the optimization of exercise testing (ET have been developed and the experience with their application in coronary artery disease (CAD has proven to be favorable1. Although there is debate on the use of scores in clinical practice, those that stand for it argue that they may decrease the rate of undiagnosed CAD, besides reducing the number of patients without disease that undergo highly expensive tests2. Additionally, scores may be helpful, in a more consistent and organized fashion, in prognosis evaluation and in the adoption of an appropriate plan of action for the triage of this disease in the general population.

  4. The Effects of Anchor Length, Test Difficulty, Population Ability Differences, Mixture of Populations and Sample Size on the Psychometric Properties of Levine Observed Score Linear Equating Method for Different Assumptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvajal-Espinoza, Jorge E.

    2011-01-01

    The Non-Equivalent groups with Anchor Test equating (NEAT) design is a widely used equating design in large scale testing that involves two groups that do not have to be of equal ability. One group P gets form X and a group of items A and the other group Q gets form Y and the same group of items A. One of the most commonly used equating methods in…

  5. Some procedures for computerized ability testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Linden, Willem J.; Zwarts, Michel A.

    1989-01-01

    For computerized test systems to be operational, the use of item response theory is a prerequisite. As opposed to classical test theory, in item response models the abilities of the examinees and the properties of the items are parameterized separately. Hence, when measuring the abilities of

  6. What do educational test scores really measure?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McIntosh, James; D. Munk, Martin

    Latent class Poisson count models are used to analyze a sample of Danish test score results from a cohort of individuals born in 1954-55 and tested in 1968. The procedure takes account of unobservable effects as well as excessive zeros in the data. The bulk of unobservable effects are uncorrelate...

  7. Sedation scoring and managing abilities of intensive care nurses post educational intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramoo, Vimala; Abdullah, Khatijah Lim; Tan, Patrick Sk; Wong, Li Ping; Chua, Yan Piaw; Tang, Li Yoong

    2017-05-01

    Inappropriate sedation assessment can jeopardize patient comfort and safety. Therefore, nurses' abilities in assessing and managing sedation are vital for effective care of mechanically ventilated patients. This study assessed nurses' sedation scoring and management abilities as primary outcomes following educational interventions. Nurses' perceived self-confidence and barriers to effective sedation management were assessed as secondary outcomes. A post-test-only quasi-experimental design was used. Data were collected at 3 and 9 months post-intervention. A total of 66 nurses from a 14-bed intensive care unit of a Malaysian teaching hospital participated. The educational interventions included theoretical sessions, hands-on sedation assessment practice using the Richmond Agitation Sedation Scale, and a brief sedation assessment tool. Nurses' sedation scoring and management abilities and perceived self-confidence level were assessed at both time points using self-administered questionnaires with case scenarios. Sedation assessment and management barriers were assessed once at 9 months post-intervention. Median scores for overall accurate sedation scoring (9 months: 4·00; 3 months: 2·00, p = 0·0001) and overall sedation management (9 months: 14·0; 3 months: 7·0, p = 0·0001) were significantly higher at 9 months compared to 3 months post-intervention. There were no significant differences in the perceived self-confidence level for rating sedation level. Overall perceived barrier scores were low (M = 27·78, SD = 6·26, possible range = 11·0-55·0). Patient conditions (M = 3·68, SD = 1·13) and nurses' workload (M = 3·54, SD = 0·95) were the greatest barriers to effective sedation assessment and management. Demographic variables did not affect sedation scoring or management abilities. Positive changes in nurses' sedation assessment and management abilities were observed, indicating that adequate hands

  8. Exploring a Source of Uneven Score Equity across the Test Score Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huggins-Manley, Anne Corinne; Qiu, Yuxi; Penfield, Randall D.

    2018-01-01

    Score equity assessment (SEA) refers to an examination of population invariance of equating across two or more subpopulations of test examinees. Previous SEA studies have shown that score equity may be present for examinees scoring at particular test score ranges but absent for examinees scoring at other score ranges. No studies to date have…

  9. Using IQ discrepancy scores to examine the neural correlates of specific cognitive abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolis, Amy; Bansal, Ravi; Hao, Xuejun; Algermissen, Molly; Erickson, Cole; Klahr, Kristin W; Naglieri, Jack A; Peterson, Bradley S

    2013-08-28

    The underlying neural determinants of general intelligence have been studied intensively, and seem to derive from the anatomical and functional characteristics of a frontoparietal network. Little is known, however, about the underlying neural correlates of domain-specific cognitive abilities, the other factors hypothesized to explain individual performance on intelligence tests. Previous preliminary studies have suggested that spatially distinct neural structures do not support domain-specific cognitive abilities. To test whether differences between abilities that affect performance on verbal and performance tasks derive instead from the morphological features of a single anatomical network, we assessed in two independent samples of healthy human participants (N=83 and N=58; age range, 5-57 years) the correlation of cortical thickness with the magnitude of the verbal intelligence quotient (VIQ)-performance intelligence quotient (PIQ) discrepancy. We operationalized the VIQ-PIQ discrepancy by regressing VIQ onto PIQ (VIQ-regressed-on-PIQ score), and by regressing PIQ onto VIQ (PIQ-regressed-on-VIQ score). In both samples, a progressively thinner cortical mantle in anterior and posterior regions bilaterally was associated with progressively greater (more positive) VIQ-regressed-on-PIQ scores. A progressively thicker cortical mantle in anterior and posterior regions bilaterally was associated with progressively greater (more positive) PIQ-regressed-on-VIQ scores. Variation in cortical thickness in these regions accounted for a large portion of the overall variance in magnitude of the VIQ-PIQ discrepancy. The degree of hemispheric asymmetry in cortical thickness accounted for a much smaller but statistically significant portion of variance in VIQ-PIQ discrepancy.

  10. ITC Guidelines on Quality Control in Scoring, Test Analysis, and Reporting of Test Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allalouf, Avi

    2014-01-01

    The Quality Control (QC) Guidelines are intended to increase the efficiency, precision, and accuracy of the scoring, analysis, and reporting process of testing. The QC Guidelines focus on large-scale testing operations where multiple forms of tests are created for use on set dates. However, they may also be used for a wide variety of other testing…

  11. The Experimental Design Ability Test (EDAT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirum, Karen; Humburg, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Higher education goals include helping students develop evidence based reasoning skills; therefore, scientific thinking skills such as those required to understand the design of a basic experiment are important. The Experimental Design Ability Test (EDAT) measures students' understanding of the criteria for good experimental design through their…

  12. Phishing IQ Tests Measure Fear, Not Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anandpara, Vivek; Dingman, Andrew; Jakobsson, Markus; Liu, Debin; Roinestad, Heather

    We argue that phishing IQ tests fail to measure susceptibility to phishing attacks. We conducted a study where 40 subjects were asked to answer a selection of questions from existing phishing IQ tests in which we varied the portion (from 25% to 100%) of the questions that corresponded to phishing emails. We did not find any correlation between the actual number of phishing emails and the number of emails that the subjects indicated were phishing. Therefore, the tests did not measure the ability of the subjects. To further confirm this, we exposed all the subjects to existing phishing education after they had taken the test, after which each subject was asked to take a second phishing test, with the same design as the first one, but with different questions. The number of stimuli that were indicated as being phishing in the second test was, again, independent of the actual number of phishing stimuli in the test. However, a substantially larger portion of stimuli was indicated as being phishing in the second test, suggesting that the only measurable effect of the phishing education (from the point of view of the phishing IQ test) was an increased concern—not an increased ability.

  13. Integrated Test Scoring, Performance Rating and Assessment Records Keeping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cason, Gerald J.; And Others

    The Objective Test Scoring and Performance Rating (OTS-PR) system is a fully integrated set of 70 modular FORTRAN programs run on a VAX-8530 computer. Even with no knowledge of computers, the user can implement OTS-PR to score multiple-choice tests, include scores from external sources such as hand-scored essays or scores from nationally…

  14. Validating the Interpretations and Uses of Test Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Michael T.

    2013-01-01

    To validate an interpretation or use of test scores is to evaluate the plausibility of the claims based on the scores. An argument-based approach to validation suggests that the claims based on the test scores be outlined as an argument that specifies the inferences and supporting assumptions needed to get from test responses to score-based…

  15. Facilitating the Interpretation of English Language Proficiency Scores: Combining Scale Anchoring and Test Score Mapping Methodologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Donald; Schedl, Mary; Papageorgiou, Spiros

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop, for the benefit of both test takers and test score users, enhanced "TOEFL ITP"® test score reports that go beyond the simple numerical scores that are currently reported. To do so, we applied traditional scale anchoring (proficiency scaling) to item difficulty data in order to develop performance…

  16. Biering-Sorensen test scores in coal miners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tekin, Y.; Ortancil, O.; Ankarali, H.; Basaran, A.; Sarikaya, S.; Ozdolap, S. [Zonguldak Karaelmas University, Zonguldak (Turkey)

    2009-05-15

    Biering-Sorensen test is an isometric back endurance test. Biering-Sorensen test scores have varied in different cultural and occupational groups. The aims of this study were to collect normative data on Biering-Sorensen holding times, to determine the discriminative ability of the Biering-Sorensen test in Turkish coal miners, and to examine the association between Biering-Sorensen test result and functional disability. One hundred and fifty male coal miners participated in this study. Trunk extensor muscle strength was measured using the Biering-Sorensen test. Oswestry disability index was used to measure the functional disability level of low back pain. The mean Biering-Sorensen holding time for the total subject group was 107.3 {+-} 22.5 s. The mean time of Biering-Sorensen test of the subjects with and without low back pain were 99.9 {+-} 19.8 and 128.6 {+-} 15.2 s, respectively. The difference between the subjects with and without low back pain was statistically significant (p < 0.001). There was a statistically significant negative correlation between Oswestry functional disability score and Biering-Sorensen holding time (R = -0.824, p < 0.001). Turkish coal miners have low mean back extensor endurance holding times. Biering-Sorensen test had a good discriminative ability in our study group. Trunk muscle strength has a significant effect on the disability level of low back pain. Thus trunk muscle endurance training exercise therapy may be effective for the reduction of disability in patients with low back pain.

  17. Poor predictive ability of the risk chart SCORE in a Danish population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saidj, Madina; Jørgensen, Torben; Prescott, Eva

    2013-01-01

    In Denmark, the European risk chart Systematic COronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE) from the European Society of Cardiology is recommended for use in cardiovascular prevention. Nevertheless, its predictive ability in a Danish population has never been investigated. The purpose of this study was there......In Denmark, the European risk chart Systematic COronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE) from the European Society of Cardiology is recommended for use in cardiovascular prevention. Nevertheless, its predictive ability in a Danish population has never been investigated. The purpose of this study...... was therefore to assess the predictive ability of the SCORE risk chart with regard to fatal cardiovascular risk according to the socio-demographic factors of age, sex, income and education in a Danish population....

  18. Poor predictive ability of the risk chart SCORE in a Danish population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saidj, Madina; Jørgensen, Torben; Prescott, Eva

    2013-01-01

    In Denmark, the European risk chart Systematic COronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE) from the European Society of Cardiology is recommended for use in cardiovascular prevention. Nevertheless, its predictive ability in a Danish population has never been investigated. The purpose of this study was there...... was therefore to assess the predictive ability of the SCORE risk chart with regard to fatal cardiovascular risk according to the socio-demographic factors of age, sex, income and education in a Danish population.......In Denmark, the European risk chart Systematic COronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE) from the European Society of Cardiology is recommended for use in cardiovascular prevention. Nevertheless, its predictive ability in a Danish population has never been investigated. The purpose of this study...

  19. School accountability and the black-white test score gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaddis, S Michael; Lauen, Douglas Lee

    2014-03-01

    Since at least the 1960s, researchers have closely examined the respective roles of families, neighborhoods, and schools in producing the black-white achievement gap. Although many researchers minimize the ability of schools to eliminate achievement gaps, the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) increased pressure on schools to do so by 2014. In this study, we examine the effects of NCLB's subgroup-specific accountability pressure on changes in black-white math and reading test score gaps using a school-level panel dataset on all North Carolina public elementary and middle schools between 2001 and 2009. Using difference-in-difference models with school fixed effects, we find that accountability pressure reduces black-white achievement gaps by raising mean black achievement without harming mean white achievement. We find no differential effects of accountability pressure based on the racial composition of schools, but schools with more affluent populations are the most successful at reducing the black-white math achievement gap. Thus, our findings suggest that school-based interventions have the potential to close test score gaps, but differences in school composition and resources play a significant role in the ability of schools to reduce racial inequality. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The Anatomy Competence Score--A New Marker for Anatomical Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoeman, Scarpa; Chandratilake, Madawa

    2012-01-01

    The assessment of students' ability in gross anatomy is a complex process as it involves the measurement of multiple facets. In this work, the authors developed and introduced the Anatomy Competence Score (ACS), which incorporates the three domains of anatomy teaching and assessment namely: theoretical knowledge, practical 3D application of the…

  1. ISSUE PAPER: What Do Test Scores in Texas Tell Us?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Klein, Stephen

    2000-01-01

    ...) about possible unintended consequences of these programs. We conducted several analyses to examine the issue of whether TAAS scores can be trusted to provide an accurate index of student skills and abilities...

  2. Comparison of the Qualitative and Developmental Scoring Systems for the Modified Version of the Bender-Gestalt Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brannigan, Gary G.; Brunner, Nancy A.

    1993-01-01

    Examined two scoring systems for Modified Version of the Bender-Gestalt Test. Administered Bender-Gestalt and Otis-Lennon School Ability Test to 75 first-grade and 84 second-grade students. Both systems were significantly correlated with school ability. Results of tests for differences between correlations indicated that Qualitative Scoring System…

  3. A NOTE ON INCONSISTENCY OF THE SCORE TEST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumathi K

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The score test proposed by Rao (1947 has been widely used in the recent years for data analysis and model building because of its simplicity. However, at the time of its computation, it has been found that the value of the score test statistic becomes negative. Freedman (2007 discussed some of the theoretical reasons for this inconsistency of the score test and observed that the test was inconsistent when the observed Fisher information matrix was used rather than the expected Fisher information matrix. The present paper is an attempt to demonstrate the inconsistency of the score test in terms of the power function.

  4. Development of WAIS-III General Ability Index Minus WMS-III memory discrepancy scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Rael T; Chelune, Gordon J; Tulsky, David S

    2006-09-01

    Analysis of the discrepancy between intellectual functioning and memory ability has received some support as a useful means for evaluating memory impairment. In recent additions to Wechlser scale interpretation, the WAIS-III General Ability Index (GAI) and the WMS-III Delayed Memory Index (DMI) were developed. The purpose of this investigation is to develop base rate data for GAI-IMI, GAI-GMI, and GAI-DMI discrepancy scores using data from the WAIS-III/WMS-III standardization sample (weighted N = 1250). Base rate tables were developed using the predicted-difference method and two simple-difference methods (i.e., stratified and non-stratified). These tables provide valuable data for clinical reference purposes to determine the frequency of GAI-IMI, GAI-GMI, and GAI-DMI discrepancy scores in the WAIS-III/WMS-III standardization sample.

  5. Adaptive testing with equated number-correct scoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Linden, Willem J.

    1999-01-01

    A constrained CAT algorithm is presented that automatically equates the number-correct scores on adaptive tests. The algorithm can be used to equate number-correct scores across different administrations of the same adaptive test as well as to an external reference test. The constraints are derived

  6. Accountability Is More than a Test Score

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnipseed, Stephan; Darling-Hammond, Linda

    2015-01-01

    The number one quality business leaders look for in employees is creativity and yet the U.S. education system undermines the development of the higher-order skills that promote creativity by its dogged focus on multiple-choice tests. Stephan Turnipseed and Linda DarlingHammond discuss the kind of rich accountability system that will help students…

  7. The Test Score Decline: A Review and Annotated Bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-08-01

    40. Champagne, D., & Roberts, E., An Exercise in Freedom: A Place Where Test Scores Appear to Be Rising. = 3. Acland , H., If Reading Scores Are...of the nation’s young teachers. Scientific, Engineering, Tech- nical Manpower Comments, November 1979. 3. Acland , Henry, If reading scores are

  8. Item selection and ability estimation adaptive testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pashley, Peter J.; van der Linden, Wim J.; van der Linden, Willem J.; Glas, Cornelis A.W.; Glas, Cees A.W.

    2010-01-01

    The last century saw a tremendous progression in the refinement and use of standardized linear tests. The first administered College Board exam occurred in 1901 and the first Scholastic Assessment Test (SAT) was given in 1926. Since then, progressively more sophisticated standardized linear tests

  9. State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 1: Rising Scores on State Tests and NAEP. Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles Washington's test score trends through 2008-09. Between 2005 and 2009, the percentages of students reaching the proficient level on the state test and the basic level on NAEP (National Assessment of Educational Progress) decreased in grade 4 reading. In grade 4 math, the percentage scoring proficient on the state test decreased…

  10. Use of Functional Ambulation Performance Score as measurement of gait ability: review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouelle, Arnaud

    2014-01-01

    Gait analysis systems are widely used for the assessment of gait disabilities and provide more accurate and detailed information than clinical tests. Scores and indexes have been proposed to summarize the large volume of data produced, each emphasizing different aspects of gait. Based on specific spatiotemporal parameters, the Functional Ambulation Performance Score (FAPS) quantifies gait at a self-selected speed. Integrated within electronic walkways, the FAPS is commonly used for clinical evaluations and has been used in an increasing number of publications over the past few years. However, its use is sometimes distorted by misunderstandings of its composition and calculation, practical and/or conceptual limits, and even the meaning of the score. This technical report reviews the use of the FAPS for the evaluation of gait based on peer-reviewed articles and clinical experience and addresses important issues that must be considered for an optimal unbiased understanding and analysis of the score.

  11. What Do Test Scores Really Mean? A Latent Class Analysis of Danish Test Score Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Martin D.; McIntosh, James

    2014-01-01

    measure manifest or measured ability as it has evolved over the life of the respondent and is, thus, more a product of the human capital formation process than some latent or fundamental measure of pure cognitive ability. We find that variables which are not closely associated with traditional notions...

  12. Improving personality facet scores with multidimensional computer adaptive testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makransky, Guido; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Glas, Cees A W

    2013-01-01

    Narrowly defined personality facet scores are commonly reported and used for making decisions in clinical and organizational settings. Although these facets are typically related, scoring is usually carried out for a single facet at a time. This method can be ineffective and time consuming when...... personality tests contain many highly correlated facets. This article investigates the possibility of increasing the precision of the NEO PI-R facet scores by scoring items with multidimensional item response theory and by efficiently administering and scoring items with multidimensional computer adaptive...... testing (MCAT). The increase in the precision of personality facet scores is obtained from exploiting the correlations between the facets. Results indicate that the NEO PI-R could be substantially shorter without attenuating precision when the MCAT methodology is used. Furthermore, the study shows...

  13. The Effect of Piano Playing on Preservice Teachers' Ability to Detect Errors in a Choral Score

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napoles, Jessica; Babb, Sandra L.; Bowers, Judy; Hankle, Steven; Zrust, Adam

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine and empirically test the pedagogical claim that playing the piano while listening to choral singers impedes error detection ability. In a within-subjects design, participants (N = 55 preservice teachers) either listened to four excerpts of choral hymns or played a single part (soprano/bass) on the piano…

  14. Scoring based on item response theory did not alter the measurement ability of EORTC QLQ-C30 scales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petersen, Morten Aa; Groenvold, Mogens; Aaronson, Neil; Brenne, Elisabeth; Fayers, Peter; Nielsen, Julie Damgaard; Sprangers, Mirjam; Bjorner, Jakob B.

    2005-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Most health-related quality-of-life questionnaires include multi-item scales. Scale scores are usually estimated as simple sums of the item scores. However, scoring procedures utilizing more information from the items might improve measurement abilities, and thereby reduce

  15. Evaluating the Predictive Validity of Graduate Management Admission Test Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sireci, Stephen G.; Talento-Miller, Eileen

    2006-01-01

    Admissions data and first-year grade point average (GPA) data from 11 graduate management schools were analyzed to evaluate the predictive validity of Graduate Management Admission Test[R] (GMAT[R]) scores and the extent to which predictive validity held across sex and race/ethnicity. The results indicated GMAT verbal and quantitative scores had…

  16. From Test Scores to Language Use: Emergent Bilinguals Using English to Accomplish Academic Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Mojica, Claudia

    2018-01-01

    Prominent discourses about emergent bilinguals' academic abilities tend to focus on performance as measured by test scores and perpetuate the message that emergent bilinguals trail far behind their peers. When we remove the constraints of formal testing situations, what can emergent bilinguals do in English as they engage in naturally occurring…

  17. Neurocognitive abilities in the general population and composite genetic risk scores for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Joanna; Hamshere, Marian L; Stergiakouli, Evangelia; O'Donovan, Michael C; Thapar, Anita

    2015-06-01

    The genetic architecture of ADHD is complex, with rare and common variants involved. Common genetic variants (as indexed by a composite risk score) associated with clinical ADHD significantly predict ADHD and autistic-like behavioural traits in children from the general population, suggesting that ADHD lies at the extreme of normal trait variation. ADHD and other neurodevelopmental disorders share neurocognitive difficulties in several domains (e.g. impaired cognitive ability and executive functions). We hypothesised that ADHD composite genetic risk scores derived from clinical ADHD cases would also contribute to variation in neurocognitive abilities in the general population. Children (N = 6,832) from a UK population cohort, the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), underwent neurocognitive testing. Parent-reported measures of their children's ADHD and autistic-like traits were used to construct a behavioural latent variable of 'neurodevelopmental traits'. Composite genetic risk scores for ADHD were calculated for ALSPAC children based on findings from an independent ADHD case-control genome-wide association study. Structural equation modelling was used to assess associations between ADHD composite genetic risk scores and IQ, working memory, inhibitory control and facial emotion recognition, as well as the latent 'neurodevelopmental trait' measure. The results confirmed that neurocognitive and neurodevelopmental traits are correlated in children in the general population. Composite genetic risk scores for ADHD were independently associated with lower IQ (β = -.05, p  .05). These findings suggest that common genetic variants relevant to clinically diagnosed ADHD have pleiotropic effects on neurocognitive traits as well as behavioural dimensions in the general population. This further suggests that the well-recognised association between cognition and neurodevelopmental behavioural traits is underpinned at a biological level. © 2014 The

  18. Functional ability level development and validation: providing clinical meaning for Spinal Cord Injury Functional Index scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Richa; Slavin, Mary D; Kisala, Pamela A; Ni, Pengsheng; Tulsky, David S; Jette, Alan M

    2015-08-01

    To develop functional ability levels for the Spinal Cord Injury Functional Index (SCI-FI) and to validate them using calibration and reliability samples. Three-phase strategy involved (1) performing quantitative synthesis of SCI-FI data to create item maps; (2) using a panel of experts to identify functional ability levels after the bookmarking and Delphi consensus-building process; and (3) performing quantitative analyses to examine demographic characteristics across 2 samples, assessing the distribution pattern across functional ability levels, and examining concurrent validity using the self-reported functional measure and the observer-rated FIM. Inpatient and community settings. People 18 years or older with traumatic spinal cord injury (N=1124) were recruited from the Spinal Cord Injury Model Systems programs and stratified by diagnosis, severity, and time since injury (n=855 and n=269 for calibration and reliability samples, respectively). Not applicable. SCI-FI. Five functional ability levels were identified for all SCI-FI domains, except fine motor having 4 functional ability levels. Statistical test results indicated no significant differences in the distribution pattern across the 2 samples across functional ability levels for all domains except for ambulation. Known-group comparisons were able to discern the spinal cord injury population as expected. Basic mobility, self-care, and wheelchair mobility domains had a cluster of persons with paraplegia and incomplete lesions at higher functional ability levels and persons with tetraplegia and complete lesions at lower functional ability levels. For the ambulation domain, the distribution was skewed to the lower end, with a relatively small percentage of persons with incomplete lesions (paraplegia and tetraplegia) at higher functional ability levels. For the fine motor domain, the distribution was skewed to higher functional ability levels, with a high percentage of persons with paraplegia at the highest

  19. Validation of a cardiopulmonary exercise test score in heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Jonathan; Oliveira, Ricardo; Dewey, Frederick; Arena, Ross; Guazzi, Marco; Chase, Paul; Bensimhon, Daniel; Peberdy, Mary Ann; Ashley, Euan; West, Erin; Cahalin, Lawrence P; Forman, Daniel E

    2013-03-01

    Cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPX) responses are strong predictors of outcomes in patients with heart failure. We recently developed a CPX score that integrated the additive prognostic information from CPX. The purpose of this study was to validate the score in a larger, independent sample of patients. A total of 2625 patients with heart failure underwent CPX and were followed for cardiovascular (CV) mortality and major CV events (death, transplantation, left ventricular assist device implantation). Net reclassification improvement (NRI) for the score and each of its components were determined at 3 years. The VE/VCO2 slope was the strongest predictor of risk and was attributed a relative weight of 7, with weighted scores for abnormal heart rate recovery, oxygen uptake efficiency slope, end-tidal CO2 pressure, and peak VO2 having scores of 5, 3, 3, and 2, respectively. A summed score of >15 was associated with an annual mortality rate of 12.2% and a relative risk >9 for total events, whereas a score of NRI compared with peak VO2 (category-free NRI, 0.61-0.77), and the score provided significant NRI above clinical risk factors for both CV events and mortality (NRI, 0.63 and 0.65 for CPX score compared with clinical variables alone). These results validate the application of a simple, integrated multivariable score based on readily available CPX responses.

  20. Experimental testing of exchangeable cutting inserts cutting ability

    OpenAIRE

    Čep, Robert; Janásek, Adam; Čepová, Lenka; Petrů, Jana; Hlavatý, Ivo; Car, Zlatan; Hatala, Michal

    2013-01-01

    The article deals with experimental testing of the cutting ability of exchangeable cutting inserts. Eleven types of exchangeable cutting inserts from five different manufacturers were tested. The tested cutting inserts were of the same shape and were different especially in material and coating types. The main aim was both to select a suitable test for determination of the cutting ability of exchangeable cutting inserts and to design such testing procedure that could make it possible...

  1. Gray matter correlates of cognitive ability tests used for vocational guidance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tang Cheuk

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Individual differences in cognitive abilities provide information that is valuable for vocational guidance, but there is an ongoing debate about the role of ability factors, including general intelligence (g, compared to individual tests. Neuroimaging can help identify brain parameters that may account for individual differences in both factors and tests. Here we investigate how eight tests used in vocational guidance correlate to regional gray matter. We compare brain networks identified by using scores for ability factors (general and specific to those identified by using individual tests to determine whether these relatively broad and narrow approaches yield similar results. Findings Using MRI and voxel-based morphometry (VBM, we correlated gray matter with independent ability factors (general intelligence, speed of reasoning, numerical, spatial, memory and individual test scores from a battery of cognitive tests completed by 40 individuals seeking vocational guidance. Patterns of gray matter correlations differed between group ability factors and individual tests. Moreover, tests within the same factor showed qualitatively different brain correlates to some degree. Conclusions The psychometric factor structure of cognitive tests can help identify brain networks related to cognitive abilities beyond a general intelligence factor (g. Correlates of individual ability tests with gray matter, however, appear to have some differences from the correlates for group factors.

  2. Prediction of true test scores from observed item scores and ancillary data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberman, Shelby J; Yao, Lili; Sinharay, Sandip

    2015-05-01

    In many educational tests which involve constructed responses, a traditional test score is obtained by adding together item scores obtained through holistic scoring by trained human raters. For example, this practice was used until 2008 in the case of GRE(®) General Analytical Writing and until 2009 in the case of TOEFL(®) iBT Writing. With use of natural language processing, it is possible to obtain additional information concerning item responses from computer programs such as e-rater(®). In addition, available information relevant to examinee performance may include scores on related tests. We suggest application of standard results from classical test theory to the available data to obtain best linear predictors of true traditional test scores. In performing such analysis, we require estimation of variances and covariances of measurement errors, a task which can be quite difficult in the case of tests with limited numbers of items and with multiple measurements per item. As a consequence, a new estimation method is suggested based on samples of examinees who have taken an assessment more than once. Such samples are typically not random samples of the general population of examinees, so that we apply statistical adjustment methods to obtain the needed estimated variances and covariances of measurement errors. To examine practical implications of the suggested methods of analysis, applications are made to GRE General Analytical Writing and TOEFL iBT Writing. Results obtained indicate that substantial improvements are possible both in terms of reliability of scoring and in terms of assessment reliability. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.

  3. Predicting Freshman Grade Point Average From College Admissions Test Scores and State High School Test Scores

    OpenAIRE

    Koretz, Daniel; Yu, C; Mbekeani, Preeya Pandya; Langi, M.; Dhaliwal, Tasminda Kaur; Braslow, David Arthur

    2016-01-01

    The current focus on assessing “college and career readiness” raises an empirical question: How do high school tests compare with college admissions tests in predicting performance in college? We explored this using data from the City University of New York and public colleges in Kentucky. These two systems differ in the choice of college admissions test, the stakes for students on the high school test, and demographics. We predicted freshman grade point average (FGPA) from high school GPA an...

  4. High Test Scores: The Wrong Road to National Economic Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Keith

    2011-01-01

    A widely held view is that good schools are essential to a nation's international economic success and that high test scores on international tests of academic skills and knowledge indicate how good a nation's schools are. The widespread belief that good schools are an important contributor to a nation's economic success in the world is supported…

  5. Predicting Freshman Grade Point Average From College Admissions Test Scores and State High School Test Scores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Koretz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The current focus on assessing “college and career readiness” raises an empirical question: How do high school tests compare with college admissions tests in predicting performance in college? We explored this using data from the City University of New York and public colleges in Kentucky. These two systems differ in the choice of college admissions test, the stakes for students on the high school test, and demographics. We predicted freshman grade point average (FGPA from high school GPA and both college admissions and high school tests in mathematics and English. In both systems, the choice of tests had only trivial effects on the aggregate prediction of FGPA. Adding either test to an equation that included the other had only trivial effects on prediction. Although the findings suggest that the choice of test might advantage or disadvantage different students, it had no substantial effect on the over- and underprediction of FGPA for students classified by race-ethnicity or poverty.

  6. Predictive ability of the ISS, NISS, and APACHE II score for SIRS and sepsis in polytrauma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mica, L; Furrer, E; Keel, M; Trentz, O

    2012-12-01

    Systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and sepsis as causes of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) remain challenging to treat in polytrauma patients. In this study, the focus was set on widely used scoring systems to assess their diagnostic quality. A total of 512 patients (mean age: 39.2 ± 16.2, range: 16-88 years) who had an Injury Severity Score (ISS) ≥17 were included in this retrospective study. The patients were subdivided into four groups: no SIRS, slight SIRS, severe SIRS, and sepsis. The ISS, New Injury Severity Score (NISS), Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) scores, and prothrombin time were collected at admission. The Kruskal-Wallis test and χ(2)-test, multinomial regression analysis, and kernel density estimates were performed. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis is reported as the area under the curve (AUC). Data were considered as significant if p SIRS severity for NISS (slight vs. no SIRS, 1.06, p = 0.07; severe vs. no SIRS, 1.07, p = 0.04; and sepsis vs. no SIRS, 1.11, p = 0.0028) and APACHE II score (slight vs. no SIRS, 0.97, p = 0.44; severe vs. no SIRS, 1.08, p = 0.02; and sepsis vs. no SIRS, 1.12, p = 0.0028). ROC analysis revealed that the NISS (slight vs. no SIRS, AUC 0.61; severe vs. no SIRS, AUC 0.67; and sepsis vs. no SIRS, AUC 0.77) and APACHE II score (slight vs. no SIRS, AUC 0.60; severe vs. no SIRS, AUC 0.74; and sepsis vs. no SIRS, AUC 0.82) had the best predictive ability for SIRS and sepsis. Quick assessment with the NISS or APACHE II score could preselect possible candidates for sepsis following polytrauma and provide guidance in trauma surgeons' decision-making.

  7. Whole-word response scoring underestimates functional spelling ability for some individuals with global agraphia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Tesla Demarco

    2015-05-01

    These data suggest that conventional whole-word scoring may significantly underestimate functional spelling performance. Because by-letter scoring boosted pre-treatment scores to the same extent as post-treatment scores, the magnitude of treatment gains was no greater than estimates from conventional whole-word scoring. Nonetheless, the surprisingly large disparity between conventional whole-word scoring and by-letter scoring suggests that by-letter scoring methods may warrant further investigation. Because by-letter analyses may hold interest to others, we plan to make the software tool used in this study available on-line for use to researchers and clinicians at large.

  8. Explaining the black-white gap in cognitive test scores: Toward a theory of adverse impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottrell, Jonathan M; Newman, Daniel A; Roisman, Glenn I

    2015-11-01

    In understanding the causes of adverse impact, a key parameter is the Black-White difference in cognitive test scores. To advance theory on why Black-White cognitive ability/knowledge test score gaps exist, and on how these gaps develop over time, the current article proposes an inductive explanatory model derived from past empirical findings. According to this theoretical model, Black-White group mean differences in cognitive test scores arise from the following racially disparate conditions: family income, maternal education, maternal verbal ability/knowledge, learning materials in the home, parenting factors (maternal sensitivity, maternal warmth and acceptance, and safe physical environment), child birth order, and child birth weight. Results from a 5-wave longitudinal growth model estimated on children in the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development from ages 4 through 15 years show significant Black-White cognitive test score gaps throughout early development that did not grow significantly over time (i.e., significant intercept differences, but not slope differences). Importantly, the racially disparate conditions listed above can account for the relation between race and cognitive test scores. We propose a parsimonious 3-Step Model that explains how cognitive test score gaps arise, in which race relates to maternal disadvantage, which in turn relates to parenting factors, which in turn relate to cognitive test scores. This model and results offer to fill a need for theory on the etiology of the Black-White ethnic group gap in cognitive test scores, and attempt to address a missing link in the theory of adverse impact. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 1: Rising Scores on State Tests and NAEP. Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles Texas' test score trends through 2008-09. Between 2005 and 2009, the percentages of students reaching the proficient level on the state test and the basic level on NAEP (National Assessment of Educational Progress) increased in reading at grades 4 and 8 and in math at grade 8. In grade 4 math, however, the percentage scoring…

  10. Background Variables, Levels of Aggregation, and Standardized Test Scores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon E. Paulson

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the role of student demographic characteristics in standardized achievement test scores at both the individual level and aggregated at the state, district, school levels. For several data sets, the majority of the variance among states, districts, and schools was related to demographic characteristics. Where these background variables outside of the control of schools significantly affected averaged scores, and test scores result in high stakes consequences, benefits and sanctions may be inappropriately applied. Furthermore, disaggregating the data by race, SES, limited English, or other groupings ignores the significant confounding and cumulative effects of belonging to more than one disadvantaged group. With these approaches to evaluation being fundamental to the No Child Left Behind mandates, the danger of misinterpretation and inappropriate application of sanctions is substantial.

  11. Test-retest reliability of the Work Ability Index questionnaire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Zwart, B. C. H.; Frings-Dresen, M. H. W.; Van Duivenbooden, J. C.

    2002-01-01

    The goal of the study was to assess the test-retest reliability of the Work Ability Index (WAI) questionnaire. Reliability was tested using a test-retest design with a 4 week interval between measurements. Valid data were collected among 97 elderly construction workers aged 40 years and older. We

  12. Examining alternative scoring rubrics on a statewide test: The impact of different scoring methods on science and social studies performance assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creighton, Susan Dabney

    There is no consensus regarding the most reliable and valid scoring methods for the assessment of higher order thinking skills. Most of the research on alternative formats has focused on the scoring of writing ability. This study examined the value of different types of performance assessment scoring guides on state mandated science and social studies tests. A proportional stratified sample of raters were randomly assigned to one of four scoring groups: checklist, analytic rubric, holistic rubric, and generic rubrics. A fifth method, the weighted analytic rubric, was included by applying an algorithmic formula to the scores assigned by raters using the analytic rubric. A comparison of the mean scores for the five scoring groups suggests that there may be a difference in the way raters applied the rubric for each group. Although the literature suggests that it is possible to achieve high levels of inter-rater reliability, across forms of scoring, phi coefficients of moderate strength were obtained for three of the four constructed-response items. Results for each scoring group were compared indicating that item complexity may impact the level of inter-rate, reliability and the selection of the most reliable rubric for each discipline. Analytic rubrics appear to achieve more reliable results with less complex items. A multitrait-multimethod approach was utilized to investigate the external validity of the social studies and science tasks. As expected, there tended to be a stronger association between the PACT science constructed-response scores with scores based on science multiple-choice scores than between the science constructed-response scores and the writing ability subtest scores. A similar pattern was seen with social studies items. These results provide some evidence for the validity of the performance assessments. A post study survey completed by raters provided qualitative information regarding their thought processes and their primary focus during the

  13. Source Country Differences in Test Score Gaps: Evidence from Denmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangvid, Beatrice Schindler

    2010-01-01

    We combine data from three studies for Denmark in the PISA 2000 framework to investigate differences in the native-immigrant test score gap by country of origin. In addition to the controls available from PISA data sources, we use student-level data on home background and individual migration histories linked from administrative registers. We find…

  14. Racial Differences in Mathematics Test Scores for Advanced Mathematics Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minor, Elizabeth Covay

    2016-01-01

    Research on achievement gaps has found that achievement gaps are larger for students who take advanced mathematics courses compared to students who do not. Focusing on the advanced mathematics student achievement gap, this study found that African American advanced mathematics students have significantly lower test scores and are less likely to be…

  15. America's Mediocre Test Scores: Education Crisis or Poverty Crisis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrilli, Michael J.; Wright, Brandon L.

    2016-01-01

    At a time when the national conversation is focused on lagging upward mobility, it is no surprise that many educators point to poverty as the explanation for mediocre test scores among U.S. students compared to those of students in other countries. If American teachers in struggling U.S. schools taught in Finland, says Finnish educator Pasi…

  16. A Latent Class Approach to Estimating Test-Score Reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Ark, L. Andries; van der Palm, Daniel W.; Sijtsma, Klaas

    2011-01-01

    This study presents a general framework for single-administration reliability methods, such as Cronbach's alpha, Guttman's lambda-2, and method MS. This general framework was used to derive a new approach to estimating test-score reliability by means of the unrestricted latent class model. This new approach is the latent class reliability…

  17. Job applicants’ attitudes towards cognitive ability and personality testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachelle Visser

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Growing research has shown that not only test validity considerations but also the test-taking attitudes of job applicants are important in the choice of selection instruments as these can contribute to test performance and the perceived fairness of the selection process. Research purpose: The main purpose of this study was to determine the test-taking attitudes of a diverse group of job applicants towards personality and cognitive ability tests administered conjointly online as part of employee selection in a financial services company in South Africa. Motivation for the study: If users understand how job applicants view specific test types, they will know which assessments are perceived more negatively and how this situation can potentially be rectified. Research design, approach and method: A non-experimental and cross-sectional survey design was used. An adapted version of the Test Attitude Survey was used to determine job applicants’ attitudes towards tests administered online as part of an employee selection process. The sample consisted of a group of job applicants (N = 160 who were diverse in terms of ethnicity and age and the educational level applicable for sales and supervisory positions. Main findings: On average, the job applicants responded equally positively to the cognitive ability and personality tests. The African job applicants had a statistically significantly more positive attitude towards the tests than the other groups, and candidates applying for the sales position viewed the cognitive ability tests significantly less positively than the personality test. Practical and managerial implications: The choice of selection tests used in combination as well as the testing conditions that are applicable should be considered carefully as they are the factors that can potentially influence the test-taking motivation and general test-taking attitudes of job applicants. Contribution: This study consolidated the

  18. Simulating the Effects of Common and Specific Abilities on Test Performance: An Evaluation of Factor Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, Dennis J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Factor analysis is a useful technique to aid in organizing multivariate data characterizing speech, language, and auditory abilities. However, knowledge of the limitations of factor analysis is essential for proper interpretation of results. The present study used simulated test scores to illustrate some characteristics of factor…

  19. Basketball ability testing and category for players with mental retardation: 8-month training effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franciosi, Emanuele; Gallotta, Maria Chiara; Baldari, Carlo; Emerenziani, Gian Pietro; Guidetti, Laura

    2012-06-01

    Although sport for athletes with mental retardation (MR) is achieving an important role, the literature concerning basketball tests and training is still poor. The aims of this study were to verify whether the basketball test battery could be an appropriate modality to classify the players in the Promotion (Pro) category, to assess basketball abilities before (PRE) and after (POST) an 8-month training in players with MR in relation to Competitive (Comp) and Pro categories, to analyze the variation of specific basketball abilities based on subjects' MR diagnosis. Forty-one male basketball players with MR (17 Comp and 24 Pro; age range 18-45 years; MR: 15% mild, 54% moderate, 29% severe, and 2% profound) were assessed PRE and POST training through the basketball test battery, which assessed 4 ability levels of increasing difficulty (from I to IV), each one characterized by the analysis of fundamental areas (ball handling, reception, passing, and shooting). Level I was significantly changed after the intervention period regardless of the Category, whereas shooting was affected by the interaction between Category and Intervention. The results showed significant differences between categories in the scores of individual global, level I, level II, level III, and in all fundamental areas. Individual global score in both categories significantly increased. The players of Comp significantly improved in level III, in ball handling, reception, passing, and shooting scores. The players of Pro improved significantly in level II, in ball handling, reception, and passing scores. Individual global, ability levels I-III, and fundamental area scores were negatively correlated to the MR level indicating that the players with a lower MR obtained higher ability scores. In conclusion, it was found that the basketball test battery could be useful for improving and monitoring training in both Comp and Pro players.

  20. Statistical tests for equal predictive ability across multiple forecasting methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borup, Daniel; Thyrsgaard, Martin

    We develop a multivariate generalization of the Giacomini-White tests for equal conditional predictive ability. The tests are applicable to a mixture of nested and non-nested models, incorporate estimation uncertainty explicitly, and allow for misspecification of the forecasting model as well as ...

  1. Spinal appearance questionnaire: factor analysis, scoring, reliability, and validity testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreon, Leah Y; Sanders, James O; Polly, David W; Sucato, Daniel J; Parent, Stefan; Roy-Beaudry, Marjolaine; Hopkins, Jeffrey; McClung, Anna; Bratcher, Kelly R; Diamond, Beverly E

    2011-08-15

    Cross sectional. This study presents the factor analysis of the Spinal Appearance Questionnaire (SAQ) and its psychometric properties. Although the SAQ has been administered to a large sample of patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) treated surgically, its psychometric properties have not been fully evaluated. This study presents the factor analysis and scoring of the SAQ and evaluates its psychometric properties. The SAQ and the Scoliosis Research Society-22 (SRS-22) were administered to AIS patients who were being observed, braced or scheduled for surgery. Standard demographic data and radiographic measures including Lenke type and curve magnitude were also collected. Of the 1802 patients, 83% were female; with a mean age of 14.8 years and mean initial Cobb angle of 55.8° (range, 0°-123°). From the 32 items of the SAQ, 15 loaded on two factors with consistent and significant correlations across all Lenke types. There is an Appearance (items 1-10) and an Expectations factor (items 12-15). Responses are summed giving a range of 5 to 50 for the Appearance domain and 5 to 20 for the Expectations domain. The Cronbach's α was 0.88 for both domains and Total score with a test-retest reliability of 0.81 for Appearance and 0.91 for Expectations. Correlations with major curve magnitude were higher for the SAQ Appearance and SAQ Total scores compared to correlations between the SRS Appearance and SRS Total scores. The SAQ and SRS-22 Scores were statistically significantly different in patients who were scheduled for surgery compared to those who were observed or braced. The SAQ is a valid measure of self-image in patients with AIS with greater correlation to curve magnitude than SRS Appearance and Total score. It also discriminates between patients who require surgery from those who do not.

  2. Acute Kidney Injury Enhances Outcome Prediction Ability of Sequential Organ Failure Assessment Score in Critically Ill Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Chih-Hsiang; Fan, Pei-Chun; Chang, Ming-Yang; Tian, Ya-Chung; Hung, Cheng-Chieh; Fang, Ji-Tseng; Yang, Chih-Wei; Chen, Yung-Chang

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common and serious complication in intensive care unit (ICU) patients and also often part of a multiple organ failure syndrome. The sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) score is an excellent tool for assessing the extent of organ dysfunction in critically ill patients. This study aimed to evaluate the outcome prediction ability of SOFA and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) III score in ICU patients with AKI. Methods A tot...

  3. Champion lineman scores unprecedented 100 on written test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon

    2011-01-15

    The 27th annual international lineman's rodeo saw a lineman from Duke Energy Distribution named World Champion Apprentice. He was also the first competitor to score 100 % in the written test and finished first in the apprentice category in the investor owned utility (IOU) division. The apprentice division is made up of linemen within their first four years of trade. Events include a hurt man rescue, pole climb, cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), mystery event and a written test. The rodeo began in 1984, and this year more than 650 men competed.

  4. Parent Ratings of Impulsivity and Inhibition Predict State Testing Scores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca A. Lundwall

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available One principle of cognitive development is that earlier intervention for educational difficulties tends to improve outcomes such as future educational and career success. One possible way to help students who struggle is to determine if they process information differently. Such determination might lead to clues for interventions. For example, early information processing requires attention before the information can be identified, encoded, and stored. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether parent ratings of inattention, inhibition, and impulsivity, and whether error rate on a reflexive attention task could be used to predict child scores on state standardized tests. Finding such an association could provide assistance to educators in identifying academically struggling children who might require targeted educational interventions. Children (N = 203 were invited to complete a peripheral cueing task (which measures the automatic reorienting of the brain’s attentional resources from one location to another. While the children completed the task, their parents completed a questionnaire. The questionnaire gathered information on broad indicators of child functioning, including observable behaviors of impulsivity, inattention, and inhibition, as well as state academic scores (which the parent retrieved online from their school. We used sequential regression to analyze contributions of error rate and parent-rated behaviors in predicting six academic scores. In one of the six analyses (for science, we found that the improvement was significant from the simplified model (with only family income, child age, and sex as predictors to the full model (adding error rate and three parent-rated behaviors. Two additional analyses (reading and social studies showed near significant improvement from simplified to full models. Parent-rated behaviors were significant predictors in all three of these analyses. In the reading score analysis

  5. Development of the Spatial Ability Test for Middle School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz, Sevda Göktepe; Özdemir, Ahmet Sükrü

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a test to determine spatial ability of middle school students. The participants were 704 middle school students (6th, 7th and 8th grade) who were studying at different schools from Istanbul. Item analysis, exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis, reliability analysis were used to analyse the data.…

  6. Generation of GHS Scores from TEST and online sources ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alternatives assessment frameworks such as DfE (Design for the Environment) evaluate chemical alternatives in terms of human health effects, ecotoxicity, and fate. T.E.S.T. (Toxicity Estimation Software Tool) can be utilized to evaluate human health in terms of acute oral rat toxicity, developmental toxicity, endocrine activity, and mutagenicity. It can be used to evaluate ecotoxicity (in terms of acute fathead minnow toxicity) and fate (in terms of bioconcentration factor). It also be used to estimate a variety of key physicochemical properties such as melting point, boiling point, vapor pressure, water solubility, and bioconcentration factor. A web-based version of T.E.S.T. is currently being developed to allow predictions to be made from other web tools. Online data sources such as from NCCT’s Chemistry Dashboard, REACH dossiers, or from ChemHat.org can also be utilized to obtain GHS (Global Harmonization System) scores for comparing alternatives. The purpose of this talk is to show how GHS (Global Harmonization Score) data can be obtained from literature sources and from T.E.S.T. (Toxicity Estimation Software Tool). This data will be used to compare chemical alternatives in the alternatives assessment dashboard (a 2018 CSS product).

  7. Application of new WAIS-III/WMS-III discrepancy scores for evaluating memory functioning: relationship between intellectual and memory ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Rael T; Chelune, Gordon J

    2006-05-01

    Analysis of the discrepancy between memory and intellectual ability has received some support as a means for evaluating memory impairment. Recently, comprehensive base rate tables for General Ability Index (GAI) minus memory discrepancy scores (i.e., GAI-memory) were developed using the WAIS-III/WMS-III standardization sample (Lange, Chelune, & Tulsky, in press). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical utility of GAI-memory discrepancy scores to identify memory impairment in 34 patients with Alzheimer's type dementia (DAT) versus a sample of 34 demographically matched healthy participants. On average, patients with DAT obtained significantly lower scores on all WAIS-III and WMS-III indexes and had larger GAI-memory discrepancy scores. Clinical outcome analyses revealed that GAI-memory scores were useful at identifying memory impairment in patients with DAT versus matched healthy participants. However, GAI-memory discrepancy scores failed to provide unique interpretive information beyond that which is gained from the memory indexes alone. Implications and future research directions are discussed.

  8. ANOVA Analysis of Student Daily Test Scores in Multi-Day Test Periods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouritsen, Matthew L.; Davis, Jefferson T.; Jones, Steven C.

    2016-01-01

    Instructors are often concerned when giving multiple-day tests because students taking the test later in the exam period may have an advantage over students taking the test early in the exam period due to information leakage. However, exam scores seemed to decline as students took the same test later in a multi-day exam period (Mouritsen and…

  9. Correlation of the Scores on Barron's Ego Strength Scale with the Scores on the Bender-Gestalt Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, John D.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    The degree of relationship between scores on the Barron Ego Strength Scale and the scores on the Bender-Gestalt Test was investigated on a sample of college students. Correlations were moderate to low. Racial differences were observed on the Bender-Gestalt Test. (Author/JKS)

  10. Clinically important improvement thresholds for Harris Hip Score and its ability to predict revision risk after primary total hip arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jasvinder A; Schleck, Cathy; Harmsen, Scott; Lewallen, David

    2016-06-10

    Some aspects of validity are missing for the Harris Hip Score (HHS). Our objective was to examine the clinically meaningful change thresholds, responsiveness and the predictive ability of the HHS questionnaire. We included a cohort of patients who underwent primary total hip arthroplasty (THA) and responded to the HHS preoperatively and at 2- or 5-year post-THA (change score) to examine the clinically meaningful change thresholds (Minimal clinically important improvement, MCII; and moderate improvement), responsiveness (effect size (ES) and standardized response mean (SRM)) based on pre- to post-operative change and the predictive ability of change score or absolute postoperative score at 2- and 5-years post-THA for future revision. Two thousand six hundred sixty-seven patients with a mean age of 64 years completed baseline HHS; 1036 completed both baseline and 2-year HHS and 669 both baseline and 5-year HHS. MCII and moderate improvement thresholds ranged 15.9-18 points and 39.6-40.1 points, respectively. ES was 3.12 and 3.02 at 2- and 5-years; respective SRM was 2.73 and 2.52. There were 3195 hips with HHS scores at 2-years and 2699 hips with HHS scores at 5-years (regardless of the completion of baseline HHS; absolute postoperative scores). Compared to patients with absolute HHS scores of 81-100 (score range, 0-100), patients with scores revision, 4.34 (2.14, 7.95; p 50 points from preoperative to 2-years post-THA, lack of improvement/worsening or 1-20 point improvement were associated with increased hazards of revision, 18.10 (1.41, 234.83; p = 0.02); and 6.21 (0.81, 60.73; p = 0.10), respectively. HHS is a valid measure of THA outcomes and is responsive to change. Both absolute HHS postoperative scores and HHS score change postoperatively are predictive of revision risk post-primary THA. We defined MCID and moderate improvement thresholds for HHS in this study.

  11. Tests of executive functioning predict scores on the MacAndrew Alcoholism Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deckel, A W

    1999-02-01

    1. Previous work reported that tests of executive functioning (EF) predict the risk of alcoholism in subject populations selected for a "high density" of a family history of alcoholism and/or the presence of sociopathic traits. The current experiment examined the ability of EF tests to predict the risk of alcoholism, as measured by the MacAndrew Alcoholism Scale (MAC), in outpatient subjects referred to a general neuropsychological testing service. 2. Sixty-eight male and female subjects referred for neuropsychological testing were assessed for their past drinking histories and administered the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised, the Trails (Part B) Test, and the MAC. Principal Components analysis (PCA) reduced the number of EF tests to two measures, including one that loaded on the WCST, and one that loaded on the Similarities, Picture Arrangement, and Trails tests. Multiple hierarchical regression first removed the variance from demographic variables, alcohol consumption, and verbal (i.e., Vocabulary) and non-verbal (i.e., Block Design) IQ, and then entered the executive functioning factors into the prediction of the MAC. 3. Seventy-six percent of the subjects were classified as either light, infrequent, or non-drinkers on the Quantity-Frequency-Variability scale. The factor derived from the WCST on PCA significantly added to the prediction of risk on the MAC (p = .0063), as did scores on Block Design (p = .033). Relatively more impaired scores on the WCST factor and Block Design were predictive of higher scores on the MAC. The other factors were not associated with MAC scores. 4. These results support the hypothesis that decrements in EF are associated with risk factors for alcoholism, even in populations where the density of alcoholic behaviors are not unusually high. When taken in conjunction with other findings, these results implicate EF test scores, and prefrontal brain functioning, in the neurobiology of the risk for

  12. Testing the applicability of the SASS5 scoring procedure for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Total SASS5 scores ranged from 15 to 82. Five of the wetlands had mean SASS5 scores of between 46 and 59. Five of the wetlands had an intra-wetland SASS5 score range of greater than 30. Average score per taxa (ASPT) values ranged from 3.3 to 5.5, and few high scoring (≥ 8) taxa were collected. There was no ...

  13. The Performance of the Upper Limb scores correlate with pulmonary function test measures and Egen Klassifikation scores in Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ha Neul; Sawnani, Hemant; Horn, Paul S; Rybalsky, Irina; Relucio, Lani; Wong, Brenda L

    2016-01-01

    The Performance of the Upper Limb scale was developed as an outcome measure specifically for ambulant and non-ambulant patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy and is implemented in clinical trials needing longitudinal data. The aim of this study is to determine whether this novel tool correlates with functional ability using pulmonary function test, cardiac function test and Egen Klassifikation scale scores as clinical measures. In this cross-sectional study, 43 non-ambulatory Duchenne males from ages 10 to 30 years and on long-term glucocorticoid treatment were enrolled. Cardiac and pulmonary function test results were analyzed to assess cardiopulmonary function, and Egen Klassifikation scores were analyzed to assess functional ability. The Performance of the Upper Limb scores correlated with pulmonary function measures and had inverse correlation with Egen Klassifikation scores. There was no correlation with left ventricular ejection fraction and left ventricular dysfunction. Body mass index and decreased joint range of motion affected total Performance of the Upper Limb scores and should be considered in clinical trial designs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The ability of PAM50 risk of recurrence score to predict 10-year distant recurrence in hormone receptor-positive postmenopausal women with special histological subtypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laenkholm, Anne-Vibeke; Jensen, Maj-Britt; Eriksen, Jens Ole

    2018-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The Prosigna-PAM50 risk of recurrence (ROR) score has been validated in randomized clinical trials to predict 10-year distant recurrence (DR) in hormone receptor-positive breast cancer. Here, we examine the ability of Prosigna for predicting DR at 10 years in a subgroup of postmenop......INTRODUCTION: The Prosigna-PAM50 risk of recurrence (ROR) score has been validated in randomized clinical trials to predict 10-year distant recurrence (DR) in hormone receptor-positive breast cancer. Here, we examine the ability of Prosigna for predicting DR at 10 years in a subgroup......, mucinous, papillary, secretory, tubular, neuroendocrine) who were tested with Prosigna. Fine and Gray models were applied to determine the prognostic value of the Prosigna-PAM50 ROR score for DR special subtypes as compared to IDC. RESULTS: Median follow-up for DR was 9.2 year and for OS 15.2 year. The 10...... of the continuous ROR score with risk of DR for both IDC and the special subtypes (IDC: p PAM50 continuous ROR score added significant prognostic information for 10-year DR in postmenopausal patients with special...

  15. Your move: The effect of chess on mathematics test scores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosholm, Michael; Mikkelsen, Mai Bjørnskov; Gumede, Kamilla Trille

    2017-01-01

    We analyse the effect of substituting a weekly mathematics lesson in primary school grades 1–3 with a lesson in mathematics based on chess instruction. We use data from the City of Aarhus in Denmark, combining test score data with a comprehensive data set obtained from administrative registers. We...... are bored in school, perhaps because chess instruction facilitates learning by providing an alternative approach to mathematics for these children. The results are encouraging and suggest that chess may be an important and effective tool for improving mathematical capacity in young students....... use two different methodological approaches to identify and estimate treatment effects and we tend to find positive effects, indicating that knowledge acquired through chess play can be transferred to the domain of mathematics. We also find larger impacts for unhappy children and children who...

  16. Your move: The effect of chess on mathematics test scores.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Rosholm

    Full Text Available We analyse the effect of substituting a weekly mathematics lesson in primary school grades 1-3 with a lesson in mathematics based on chess instruction. We use data from the City of Aarhus in Denmark, combining test score data with a comprehensive data set obtained from administrative registers. We use two different methodological approaches to identify and estimate treatment effects and we tend to find positive effects, indicating that knowledge acquired through chess play can be transferred to the domain of mathematics. We also find larger impacts for unhappy children and children who are bored in school, perhaps because chess instruction facilitates learning by providing an alternative approach to mathematics for these children. The results are encouraging and suggest that chess may be an important and effective tool for improving mathematical capacity in young students.

  17. The Weighted Airman Promotion System: Standardizing Test Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    u th o ri ze d Top 3/E6 ratio, inventory 1401206040 100 70 130 5R 2F 2G 3N 2M 2A 4J 4C 4P 4T 4B 1W 2T 3P 1T 4A 2S 5J 1A 1S1C 6F 4N 7S 4R 4E 1N 3A 3V...Costs If the Air Force decided to standardize test scores, there would be three basic types of costs: implementation costs, marketing costs, and...analytical costs for this more deliberate approach could be three to four person-years. It would be appropriate for the Air Force to market any

  18. The Contributions of Memory and Vocabulary to Non-Verbal Ability Scores in Adolescents with Intellectual Disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mungkhetklang, Chantanee; Bavin, Edith L; Crewther, Sheila G; Goharpey, Nahal; Parsons, Carl

    2016-01-01

    It is usually assumed that performance on non-verbal intelligence tests reflects visual cognitive processing and that aspects of working memory (WM) will be involved. However, the unique contribution of memory to non-verbal scores is not clear, nor is the unique contribution of vocabulary. Thus, we aimed to investigate these contributions. Non-verbal test scores for 17 individuals with intellectual disability (ID) and 39 children with typical development (TD) of similar mental age were compared to determine the unique contribution of visual and verbal short-term memory (STM) and WM and the additional variance contributed by vocabulary scores. No significant group differences were found in the non-verbal test scores or receptive vocabulary scores, but there was a significant difference in expressive vocabulary. Regression analyses indicate that for the TD group STM and WM (both visual and verbal) contributed similar variance to the non-verbal scores. For the ID group, visual STM and verbal WM contributed most of the variance to the non-verbal test scores. The addition of vocabulary scores to the model contributed greater variance for both groups. More unique variance was contributed by vocabulary than memory for the TD group, whereas for the ID group memory contributed more than vocabulary. Visual and auditory memory and vocabulary contributed significantly to solving visual non-verbal problems for both the TD group and the ID group. However, for each group, there were different weightings of these variables. Our findings indicate that for individuals with TD, vocabulary is the major factor in solving non-verbal problems, not memory, whereas for adolescents with ID, visual STM, and verbal WM are more influential than vocabulary, suggesting different pathways to achieve solutions to non-verbal problems.

  19. Relationship between walk tests and parental reports of walking abilities in children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Jimmy; Mackey, Anna H; Broadbent, Elizabeth; Stott, N Susan

    2011-02-01

    To test the strength of association between 2 clinic-based measures of walking ability, the 1-minute walk test (1MWT) and the six-minute walk test (6MWT), and the parental report of usual walking performance, measured by the ABILOCO-Kids logit score, in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Observational study. Tertiary level outpatient clinics. Children and youth with CP (N=60; 32 boys, 28 girls; mean age, 11.2y [range, 5-18y]), Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) level I to IV. Not applicable. The 10-item ABILOCO-Kids questionnaire, the 1MWT, and the 6MWT. ABILOCO-Kids logit scores were significantly correlated with the 1MWT (ρ=.70, Pwalking distance, depending on GMFCS level (P=.06 1MWT; P=.14 6MWT). The strongest relationship was observed at GMFCS level II, where ABILOCO-Kids score predicted 33% of variance in 1MWT (P=.003) and 31% of 6MWT (P=.003). The weakest relationship was at GMFCS level I, where ABILOCO-Kids score predicted only 5% of the variance in 1MWT (P=.33) and 16% of the variance in 6MWT (P=.08). Parental perceptions of their child's walking ability in the community correlate with clinic-based walking tests in ambulatory children with CP, providing evidence of convergent validity for the 1MWT and 6MWT. However, parents report a much wider range of walking abilities in children who function at a high level (GMFCS I) than is reflected by their walk test results. Copyright © 2011 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Score Gains on g-loaded Tests: No g

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    te Nijenhuis, J.; van Vianen, A.E.M.; van der Flier, H.

    2007-01-01

    IQ scores provide the best general predictor of success in education, job training, and work. However, there are many ways in which IQ scores can be increased, for instance by means of retesting or participation in learning potential training programs. What is the nature of these score gains? Jensen

  1. Validity of GRE General Test Scores and TOEFL Scores for Graduate Admission to a Technical University in Western Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Judith; von Davier, Alina A.; Buhmann, Joachim M.; Heinimann, Hans R.

    2018-01-01

    Graduate admission has become a critical process in tertiary education, whereby selecting valid admissions instruments is key. This study assessed the validity of Graduate Record Examination (GRE) General Test scores for admission to Master's programmes at a technical university in Europe. We investigated the indicative value of GRE scores for the…

  2. Diagnostic ability of retinal nerve fiber layer thickness measurements and neurologic hemifield test to detect chiasmal compression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Chan Hee; Lee, Si Hyung; Kim, Bum-Tae; Hwang, Sun Chul; Ohn, Young-Hoon; Park, Tae Kwann

    2012-08-09

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the diagnostic ability of the neurologic hemifield test (NHT) and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness measurements to detect chiasmal compression. Thirty-seven patients with chiasmal compression, 35 patients with glaucoma, and 30 patients with glaucoma suspect were enrolled. The NHT score was established from a 30-2 visual field pattern deviation probability plot. Each test point value was calculated for a number that was inversely proportional to its pattern deviation probability. The NHT score was the absolute value of the difference in the sum of the point scores for two symmetrical regions of 16 points on either side of the vertical meridian. RNFL thickness was scored from 0 to 10 according to the pattern of RNFL loss and probability of abnormality. Solely present nasal or temporal RNFL defects were scored high, and exclusively appearing superior or nasal RNFL defects were scored low. The differences in the NHT and RNFL scores among the three groups were compared. Diagnostic ability was assessed by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. The NHT and RNFL scores were significantly higher in patients with chiasmal compression than in patients with glaucoma and glaucoma suspect. The area under the ROC curve (AROC) was 0.734 of the NHT score and 0.613 of the RNFL score. When AROC was calculated using the NHT and RNFL scores concurrently, AROC was increased to 0.807. The NHT score and RNFL score have diagnostic ability to detect chiasmal compression, and simultaneous assessment of NHT and RNFL scores improves the diagnostic power.

  3. Comparison of the abilities of five scoring systems to predict short-term and medium-term death risks in patients with decompensated cirrhosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FAN Xiaoli

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo compare the abilities of Child-Turcotte-Pugh (CTP score, Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD, MELD combined with serum sodium concentration (MELD-Na, integrated MELD (iMELD, and MELD to SNa ratio (MESO to predict short-term and medium-term death risks in patients with decompensated cirrhosis at months 3 and 12. MethodsThe records of 269 patients with decompensated cirrhosis in Department of Gastroenterology, West China Hospital, Sichuan University from January 1 to December 31, 2014 were retrospectively analyzed. The CTP, MELD, MELD-Na, iMELD, and MESO scores were evaluated for these patients within 48 hours after admission and these patients were followed up for at least 12 months. The predictive abilities of these five scoring systems were evaluated by the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC at months 3 and 12. Comparison of continuous data was conducted using t test (for data with normal distribution and homogeneity of variance or Mann-Whitney U test (for data with non-normal distribution, while comparison of categorical data was conducted usingχ2 test. Meanwhile, logistic regression analysis, Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit test, and Kaplan-Meier survival analysis were performed. ResultsTwenty-five (9.29% and thirty-eight (1413% of all patients died within 3 months and 12 months, respectively. There were significant differences between the patients who died and survived within 12 months in total bilirubin, creatinine, urea, albumin, white blood cell count, prothrombin time, international normalized ratio, serum sodium, the presence or absence of hepatic encephalopathy on admission, degree of ascites, the CTP, MELD, MELD-Na, iMELD, and MESO scores on admission, history of hepatic encephalopathy, and treatments for these factors after discharge (all P<0.05. The multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that all five scores were independent prognostic factors for the patients (odds ratios

  4. The counterintuitive effect of multiple injuries in severity scoring: a simple variable improves the predictive ability of NISS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valent Francesca

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Injury scoring is important to formulate prognoses for trauma patients. Although scores based on empirical estimation allow for better prediction, those based on expert consensus, e.g. the New Injury Severity Score (NISS are widely used. We describe how the addition of a variable quantifying the number of injuries improves the ability of NISS to predict mortality. Methods We analyzed 2488 injury cases included into the trauma registry of the Italian region Emilia-Romagna in 2006-2008 and assessed the ability of NISS alone, NISS plus number of injuries, and the maximum Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS to predict in-hospital mortality. Hierarchical logistic regression was used. We measured discrimination through the C statistics, and calibration through Hosmer-Lemeshow statistics, Akaike's information criterion (AIC and calibration curves. Results The best discrimination and calibration resulted from the model with NISS plus number of injuries, followed by NISS alone and then by the maximum AIS (C statistics 0.775, 0.755, and 0.729, respectively; AIC 1602, 1635, and 1712, respectively. The predictive ability of all the models improved after inclusion of age, gender, mechanism of injury, and the motor component of Glasgow Coma Scale (C statistics 0.889, 0.898, and 0.901; AIC 1234, 1174, and 1167. The model with NISS plus number of injuries still showed the best performances, this time with borderline statistical significance. Conclusions In NISS, the same weight is assigned to the three worst injuries, although the contribution of the second and third to the probability of death is smaller than that of the worst one. An improvement of the predictive ability of NISS can be obtained adjusting for the number of injuries.

  5. Effects of explicit instructions to "be creative" on the psychological meaning of divergent thinking test scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, D M

    1975-09-01

    The Alternate Uses Test was administered to 50 undergraduate males instructed to produce creative (i.e., novel and worthwhile) uses and to 55 comparable subjects simply instructed to produce as many uses as possible. All uses were rated for creativity. An index of self-assessed creative thinking ability correlated significantly more strongly (p less than .05) with the number of creative uses produced in the qualitatively-oriented condition than with the number of creative or total uses produced in the standard, quantitatively-oriented condition. The correlation between self-rated creative ability and creative uses production in the qualitatively-oriented condition remained significant (p less than .001) after indices of achievement motivation and general verbal aptitude were partialled out. The results were interpreted as demonstrating the value of coordinating informative divergent thinking test instructions with qualitative scoring criteria.

  6. The Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Cognitive Abilities III's Cognitive Performance Model: Empirical Support for Intermediate Factors within CHC Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taub, Gordon E.; McGrew, Kevin S.

    2014-01-01

    The Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Cognitive Ability Third Edition is developed using the Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) measurement-theory test design as the instrument's theoretical blueprint. The instrument provides users with cognitive scores based on the Cognitive Performance Model (CPM); however, the CPM is not a part of CHC theory. Within the…

  7. Predicting Bobsled Pushing Ability from Various Combine Testing Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasevicz, Curtis L; Ransone, Jack W; Bach, Christopher W

    2018-03-12

    The requisite combination of speed, power, and strength necessary for a bobsled push athlete coupled with the difficulty in directly measuring pushing ability makes selecting effective push crews challenging. Current practices by USA Bobsled and Skeleton (USABS) utilize field combine testing to assess and identify specifically selected performance variables in an attempt to best predict push performance abilities. Combine data consisting of 11 physical performance variables were collected from 75 subjects across two winter Olympic qualification years (2009 and 2013). These variables were sprints of 15-, 30-, and 60 m, a flying 30 m sprint, a standing broad jump, a shot toss, squat, power clean, body mass, and dry-land brake and side bobsled pushes. Discriminant Analysis (DA) in addition to Principle Component Analysis (PCA) was used to investigate two cases (Case 1: Olympians vs. non-Olympians; Case 2: National Team vs. non-National Team). Using these 11 variables, DA led to a classification rule that proved capable of identifying Olympians from non-Olympians and National Team members from non-National Team members with 9.33% and 14.67% misclassification rates, respectively. The PCA was used to find similar test variables within the combine that provided redundant or useless data. After eliminating the unnecessary variables, DA on the new combinations showed that 8 (Case 1) and 20 (Case 2) other combinations with fewer performance variables yielded misclassification rates as low as 6.67% and 13.33% respectively. Utilizing fewer performance variables can allow governing bodies in many other sports to create more appropriate combine testing that maximize accuracy, while minimizing irrelevant and redundant strategies.

  8. Innovative testing of spatial ability: interactive responding and the use of complex stimuli material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelínek, Martin; Květon, Petr; Vobořil, Dalibor

    2015-02-01

    Despite initial expectations, which have emerged with the advancement of computer technology over the last decade of the twentieth century, scientific literature does not contain many relevant references regarding the development and use of innovative items in psychological testing. Our study presents and evaluates two novel item types. One item type is derived from a standard schematic test item used for the assessment of the spatial perception aspect of spatial ability, enhanced by an interactive response module. The performance on this item type is correlated with the performance on its paper and pencil counterpart. The other innovative item type used complex stimuli in the form of a short video of a ride through a city presented in an on-route perspective, which is intended to measure navigation skills and the ability to keep oneself oriented in space. In this case, the scores were related to the capacity of visuo-spatial working memory and also to the overall score in the paper/pencil test of spatial ability. The second relationship was moderated by gender.

  9. Scoring and Testing Procedures Devoted to Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albarello, Dario; D'Amico, Vera

    2015-03-01

    This review addresses long-term (tens of years) seismic ground-motion forecasting (seismic hazard assessment) in the presence of alternative computational models (the so-called epistemic uncertainty affecting hazard estimates). We review the different approaches that have been proposed to manage epistemic uncertainty in the context of probabilistic seismic hazard assessment (PSHA). Ex- ante procedures (based on the combination of expert judgments about inherent characteristics of the PSHA model) and ex- post approaches (based on empirical comparison of model outcomes and observations) should not be considered as mutually exclusive alternatives but can be combined in a coherent Bayesian view. Therefore, we propose a procedure that allows a better exploitation of available PSHA models to obtain comprehensive estimates, which account for both epistemic and aleatory uncertainty. We also discuss the respective roles of empirical ex-post scoring and testing of alternative models concurring in the development of comprehensive hazard maps. In order to show how the proposed procedure may work, we also present a tentative application to the Italian area. In particular, four PSHA models are evaluated ex-post against macroseismic effects actually observed in a large set of Italian municipalities during the time span 1957-2006. This analysis shows that, when the whole Italian area is considered, all the models provide estimates that do not agree with the observations. However, two of them provide results that are compatible with observations, when a subregion of Italy (Apulia Region) is considered. By focusing on this area, we computed a comprehensive hazard curve for a single locality in order to show the feasibility of the proposed procedure.

  10. Diagnostic Utility of WISC-IV General Abilities Index and Cognitive Proficiency Index Difference Scores among Children with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devena, Sarah E.; Watkins, Marley W.

    2012-01-01

    The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition General Abilities Index and Cognitive Proficiency Index have been advanced as possible diagnostic markers of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. This hypothesis was tested with a hospital sample with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (n = 78), a referred but nondiagnosed…

  11. The Ability of the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE IV Score to Predict Mortality in a Single Tertiary Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Woo Choi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background The Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE II model has been widely used in Korea. However, there have been few studies on the APACHE IV model in Korean intensive care units (ICUs. The aim of this study was to compare the ability of APACHE IV and APACHE II in predicting hospital mortality, and to investigate the ability of APACHE IV as a critical care triage criterion. Methods The study was designed as a prospective cohort study. Measurements of discrimination and calibration were performed using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC and the Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit test respectively. We also calculated the standardized mortality ratio (SMR. Results The APACHE IV score, the Charlson Comorbidity index (CCI score, acute respiratory distress syndrome, and unplanned ICU admissions were independently associated with hospital mortality. The calibration, discrimination, and SMR of APACHE IV were good (H = 7.67, P = 0.465; C = 3.42, P = 0.905; AUROC = 0.759; SMR = 1.00. However, the explanatory power of an APACHE IV score >93 alone on hospital mortality was low at 44.1%. The explanatory power was increased to 53.8% when the hospital mortality was predicted using a model that considers APACHE IV >93 scores, medical admission, and risk factors for CCI >3 coincidentally. However, the discriminative ability of the prediction model was unsatisfactory (C index <0.70. Conclusions The APACHE IV presented good discrimination, calibration, and SMR for hospital mortality.

  12. Effects of white noise on Callsign Acquisition Test and Modified Rhyme Test scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blue-Terry, Misty; Letowski, Tomasz

    2011-02-01

    The Callsign Acquisition Test (CAT) is a speech intelligibility test developed by the US Army Research Laboratory. The test has been used to evaluate speech transmission through various communication systems but has not been yet sufficiently standardised and validated. The aim of this study was to compare CAT and Modified Rhyme Test (MRT) performance in the presence of white noise across a range of signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs). A group of 16 normal-hearing listeners participated in the study. The speech items were presented at 65 dB(A) in the background of white noise at SNRs of -18, -15, -12, -9 and -6 dB. The results showed a strong positive association (75.14%) between the two tests, but significant differences between the CAT and MRT absolute scores in the range of investigated SNRs. Based on the data, a function to predict CAT scores based on existing MRT scores and vice versa was formulated. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: This work compares performance data of a common speech intelligibility test (MRT) with a new test (CAT) in the presence of white noise. The results here can be used as a part of the standardisation procedures and provide insights to the predictive capabilities of the CAT to quantify speech intelligibility communication in high-noise military environments.

  13. The Impact of Time-Series Diagnostic Tests on the Writing Ability of Iranian EFL learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahareh Molazem Atashgahi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to show whether administering a battery of time-series diagnostic tests (screening has any impact on Iranian EFL learners’ writing ability. The study was conducted on the intermediate EFL learners at Islamic Azad University North Tehran branch.  The researcher administered a homogenizing test in order to exclude the exceptional scores, among all the testers, only those whose scores were nearly within one standard deviation above or below the mean were selected as the participants of this study. After the assignment of the participants to the control and experimental groups- 30 students in each group- they were asked to write five-paragraph-essays on two topics. Such a pretest was given to both groups to test their initial writing ability. Once scoring of the students’ writings (five- paragraph essay was finished the two means of the groups were calculated and compared with each other through the t-test analysis. The result demonstrated that there was no statistically significant difference between those two groups regarding the variable under investigation. Four sets of diagnostic tests were given to the experimental group every two weeks and after each test both the result of the exam and suitable feedback regarding students’ errors were given to them by the teacher, while the Current-Traditional Rhetoric method was administered in the control group. In the posttest which was run after giving the treatment and placebo to experimental group and control group respectively, students took another writing test with the same characteristics in administration, topics and scoring as the one in pretest. Thereafter, the significance of the difference between the obtained means of experimental and control groups in the posttest was determined through the t-test.  The result of the t-test analysis indicated a significant difference between the two groups which consequently rejected the null hypothesis of the study. Therefore, any

  14. Acute kidney injury enhances outcome prediction ability of sequential organ failure assessment score in critically ill patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Hsiang Chang

    Full Text Available Acute kidney injury (AKI is a common and serious complication in intensive care unit (ICU patients and also often part of a multiple organ failure syndrome. The sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA score is an excellent tool for assessing the extent of organ dysfunction in critically ill patients. This study aimed to evaluate the outcome prediction ability of SOFA and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE III score in ICU patients with AKI.A total of 543 critically ill patients were admitted to the medical ICU of a tertiary-care hospital from July 2007 to June 2008. Demographic, clinical and laboratory variables were prospectively recorded for post hoc analysis as predictors of survival on the first day of ICU admission.One hundred and eighty-seven (34.4% patients presented with AKI on the first day of ICU admission based on the risk of renal failure, injury to kidney, failure of kidney function, loss of kidney function, and end-stage renal failure (RIFLE classification. Major causes of the ICU admissions involved respiratory failure (58%. Overall in-ICU mortality was 37.9% and the hospital mortality was 44.7%. The predictive accuracy for ICU mortality of SOFA (areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves: 0.815±0.032 was as good as APACHE III in the AKI group. However, cumulative survival rates at 6-month follow-up following hospital discharge differed significantly (p<0.001 for SOFA score ≤10 vs. ≥11 in these ICU patients with AKI.For patients coexisting with AKI admitted to ICU, this work recommends application of SOFA by physicians to assess ICU mortality because of its practicality and low cost. A SOFA score of ≥ "11" on ICU day 1 should be considered an indicator of negative short-term outcome.

  15. Using implicit association tests in age-heterogeneous samples: The importance of cognitive abilities and quad model processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrzus, Cornelia; Egloff, Boris; Riediger, Michaela

    2017-08-01

    Implicit association tests (IATs) are increasingly used to indirectly assess people's traits, attitudes, or other characteristics. In addition to measuring traits or attitudes, IAT scores also reflect differences in cognitive abilities because scores are based on reaction times (RTs) and errors. As cognitive abilities change with age, questions arise concerning the usage and interpretation of IATs for people of different age. To address these questions, the current study examined how cognitive abilities and cognitive processes (i.e., quad model parameters) contribute to IAT results in a large age-heterogeneous sample. Participants (N = 549; 51% female) in an age-stratified sample (range = 12-88 years) completed different IATs and 2 tasks to assess cognitive processing speed and verbal ability. From the IAT data, D2-scores were computed based on RTs, and quad process parameters (activation of associations, overcoming bias, detection, guessing) were estimated from individual error rates. Substantial IAT scores and quad processes except guessing varied with age. Quad processes AC and D predicted D2-scores of the content-specific IAT. Importantly, the effects of cognitive abilities and quad processes on IAT scores were not significantly moderated by participants' age. These findings suggest that IATs seem suitable for age-heterogeneous studies from adolescence to old age when IATs are constructed and analyzed appropriately, for example with D-scores and process parameters. We offer further insight into how D-scoring controls for method effects in IATs and what IAT scores capture in addition to implicit representations of characteristics. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Use of Multi-Response Format Test in the Assessment of Medical Students' Critical Thinking Ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mafinejad, Mahboobeh Khabaz; Arabshahi, Seyyed Kamran Soltani; Monajemi, Alireza; Jalili, Mohammad; Soltani, Akbar; Rasouli, Javad

    2017-09-01

    To evaluate students critical thinking skills effectively, change in assessment practices is must. The assessment of a student's ability to think critically is a constant challenge, and yet there is considerable debate on the best assessment method. There is evidence that the intrinsic nature of open and closed-ended response questions is to measure separate cognitive abilities. To assess critical thinking ability of medical students by using multi-response format of assessment. A cross-sectional study was conducted on a group of 159 undergraduate third-year medical students. All the participants completed the California Critical Thinking Skills Test (CCTST) consisting of 34 multiple-choice questions to measure general critical thinking skills and a researcher-developed test that combines open and closed-ended questions. A researcher-developed 48-question exam, consisting of 8 short-answers and 5 essay questions, 19 Multiple-Choice Questions (MCQ), and 16 True-False (TF) questions, was used to measure critical thinking skills. Correlation analyses were performed using Pearson's coefficient to explore the association between the total scores of tests and subtests. One hundred and fifty-nine students participated in this study. The sample comprised 81 females (51%) and 78 males (49%) with an age range of 20±2.8 years (mean 21.2 years). The response rate was 64.1%. A significant positive correlation was found between types of questions and critical thinking scores, of which the correlations of MCQ (r=0.82) and essay questions (r=0.77) were strongest. The significant positive correlations between multi-response format test and CCTST's subscales were seen in analysis, evaluation, inference and inductive reasoning. Unlike CCTST subscales, multi-response format test have weak correlation with CCTST total score (r=0.45, p=0.06). This study highlights the importance of considering multi-response format test in the assessment of critical thinking abilities of medical

  17. Use of Multi-Response Format Test in the Assessment of Medical Students’ Critical Thinking Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mafinejad, Mahboobeh Khabaz; Monajemi, Alireza; Jalili, Mohammad; Soltani, Akbar; Rasouli, Javad

    2017-01-01

    Introduction To evaluate students critical thinking skills effectively, change in assessment practices is must. The assessment of a student’s ability to think critically is a constant challenge, and yet there is considerable debate on the best assessment method. There is evidence that the intrinsic nature of open and closed-ended response questions is to measure separate cognitive abilities. Aim To assess critical thinking ability of medical students by using multi-response format of assessment. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted on a group of 159 undergraduate third-year medical students. All the participants completed the California Critical Thinking Skills Test (CCTST) consisting of 34 multiple-choice questions to measure general critical thinking skills and a researcher-developed test that combines open and closed-ended questions. A researcher-developed 48-question exam, consisting of 8 short-answers and 5 essay questions, 19 Multiple-Choice Questions (MCQ), and 16 True-False (TF) questions, was used to measure critical thinking skills. Correlation analyses were performed using Pearson’s coefficient to explore the association between the total scores of tests and subtests. Results One hundred and fifty-nine students participated in this study. The sample comprised 81 females (51%) and 78 males (49%) with an age range of 20±2.8 years (mean 21.2 years). The response rate was 64.1%. A significant positive correlation was found between types of questions and critical thinking scores, of which the correlations of MCQ (r=0.82) and essay questions (r=0.77) were strongest. The significant positive correlations between multi-response format test and CCTST’s subscales were seen in analysis, evaluation, inference and inductive reasoning. Unlike CCTST subscales, multi-response format test have weak correlation with CCTST total score (r=0.45, p=0.06). Conclusion This study highlights the importance of considering multi-response format test in

  18. Validation of a new scoring system for the Weigl Color Form Sorting Test in a memory disorders clinic sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, L M; Bucks, R S; Cuerden, J M

    1998-04-01

    The Bristol Memory Disorders Clinic uses the Weigl Color Form Sorting Test (CFST) to appraise abstraction and the ability to shift set. The original scoring system for the CFST (Grewal & Haward, 1984), developed on the premise that sorting to form is more difficult than sorting to color, had no score for an individual able to sort to form and subsequently unable to shift to color with a cue. Clinical experience suggested that the performance of some individuals required such a score. A new scoring system was developed and validated in a memory-disorders-clinic sample. The validation showed the new score to be necessary and gave support to the original premise that people with organic brain damage show a preference for sorting to color.

  19. Using Heteroskedastic Ordered Probit Models to Recover Moments of Continuous Test Score Distributions from Coarsened Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reardon, Sean F.; Shear, Benjamin R.; Castellano, Katherine E.; Ho, Andrew D.

    2017-01-01

    Test score distributions of schools or demographic groups are often summarized by frequencies of students scoring in a small number of ordered proficiency categories. We show that heteroskedastic ordered probit (HETOP) models can be used to estimate means and standard deviations of multiple groups' test score distributions from such data. Because…

  20. Age and test setting affect the prevalence of invalid baseline scores on neurocognitive tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenstein, Jonathan D; Moser, Rosemarie Scolaro; Schatz, Philip

    2014-02-01

    Prevalence rates of invalid baseline scores on computerized neurocognitive assessments for high school, collegiate, and professional athletes have been published in the literature. At present, there is limited research on the prevalence of invalid baseline scores in pre-high school athletes. Pre-high school athletes assessed with baseline neurocognitive tests would show higher prevalence rates of invalidity than older youth athletes, and those athletes, regardless of age, who were tested in a large group setting would show a higher prevalence rate of invalidity than athletes tested in a small group setting. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. A total of 502 athletes between the ages of 10 and 18 years completed preseason baseline neurocognitive tests in "large" or "small" groups. All athletes completed the online version of ImPACT (Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing). Baseline test results that were "flagged" by the computer software as being of suspect validity and labeled with a "++" symbol were identified for analysis. Participants were retrospectively assigned to 2 independent groups: large group or small group. Test administration of the large group occurred off-site in groups of approximately 10 athletes, and test administration of the small group took place at a private-practice neuropsychology center with only 1 to 3 athletes present. Chi-square analyses identified a significantly greater proportion of participants obtaining invalid baseline results on the basis of age; younger athletes produced significantly more invalid baseline scores (7.0%, 17/244) than older athletes (2.7%, 7/258) (χ2 (1) = 4.99; P = .021). Log-linear analysis revealed a significant age (10-12 years, 13-18 years) × size (small, large) interaction effect (χ2 (4) = 66.1; P < .001) on the prevalence of invalidity, whereby younger athletes tested in larger groups were significantly more likely to provide invalid results (11.9%) than younger athletes

  1. Effects of Students’ Effort Scores in a Structured Inquiry Unit on Long-Term Recall Abilities of Content Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Schmid

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of students’ investment and perception during participation in structured inquiry-based learning on their long-term retention was analyzed to gain more insights into the underlying reasons for long-term retention through structured inquiry learning. Therefore achievement was correlated to effort, lesson rating and perceived competence for learning (PCL, and subject grades. 126 ninth graders participating in a structured inquiry-based interdisciplinary Biology and Physics module were analyzed. Students’ knowledge was even measured four times: 2 weeks before, directly after, and six and 12 weeks after module participation. Effort, usefulness, and PCL were observed once, directly after module participation. The invested effort during the lesson correlated positively with the knowledge score measured six weeks and twelve weeks after the lesson. Thus, high effort individuals achieved high knowledge scores at the medium and the long-term measurement. Therefore, effort is a variable that seems to be linked to long-term achievement. Furthermore, Biology and Physics grades reflected individual abilities to acquire long-term knowledge, while a high preknowledge level did not. This result indicates learning strategies as possible core concept underlying individual achievement levels.

  2. Development of new risk score for pre-test probability of obstructive coronary artery disease based on coronary CT angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimoto, Shinichiro; Kondo, Takeshi; Yamamoto, Hideya; Yokoyama, Naoyuki; Tarutani, Yasuhiro; Takamura, Kazuhisa; Urabe, Yoji; Konno, Kumiko; Nishizaki, Yuji; Shinozaki, Tomohiro; Kihara, Yasuki; Daida, Hiroyuki; Isshiki, Takaaki; Takase, Shinichi

    2015-09-01

    Existing methods to calculate pre-test probability of obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD) have been established using selected high-risk patients who were referred to conventional coronary angiography. The purpose of this study is to develop and validate our new method for pre-test probability of obstructive CAD using patients who underwent coronary CT angiography (CTA), which could be applicable to a wider range of patient population. Using consecutive 4137 patients with suspected CAD who underwent coronary CTA at our institution, a multivariate logistic regression model including clinical factors as covariates calculated the pre-test probability (K-score) of obstructive CAD determined by coronary CTA. The K-score was compared with the Duke clinical score using the area under the curve (AUC) for the receiver-operating characteristic curve. External validation was performed by an independent sample of 319 patients. The final model included eight significant predictors: age, gender, coronary risk factor (hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, smoking), history of cerebral infarction, and chest symptom. The AUC of the K-score was significantly greater than that of the Duke clinical score for both derivation (0.736 vs. 0.699) and validation (0.714 vs. 0.688) data sets. Among patients who underwent coronary CTA, newly developed K-score had better pre-test prediction ability of obstructive CAD compared to Duke clinical score in Japanese population.

  3. Relation between achievements on Acadia test of developmental abilities and intelligence in younger school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buha Nataša

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Academic success depends on numerous factors: intelligence, motivation, developmental level of basic and more complex cognitive functions, personality traits, etc. In special education, Acadia test of developmental abilities is most frequently used to assess the abilities necessary for acquiring academic knowledge and skills, with the aim to detect the children who have, or might have, learning disabilities. In Serbia, psychometric characteristics of the test have not been determined so far. Thus, the aim of this paper is to determine the relation between the achievements on this test and intelligence in a sample of younger school children who attend regular schools in Belgrade. The sample consisted of 784 children of both genders (51% of girls and 49% of boys, aged between 8 and 12 (AM=9.71; SD=0.65. Acadia test, which consists of 13 subtests for assessing attention and short-term memory, perceptive, visual-constructive, conceptual, and speech-language abilities, was used in this research. Intelligence was assessed by means of the standard version of Raven’s progressive matrices (AM=37.03; SD=10.51, and the examinees were organized in four groups on the basis of percentile ranks of the raw score (3 sections. By analyzing the results, statistically significant positive correlation was determined between all the subtests of Acadia test and intelligence, which ranges from 0.27 to 0.63. Age has a low (r=0.08-0.26, but also statistically significant correlation with the achievements on the subtests of Acadia test (p0.05. By applying multivariate analysis of covariance, with controlling the influence of age, it was determined that intelligence is a significant factor of achievement on Acadia test (Wilks’ λ=0.502; F(39=14.926; p≤0.000, ηp2 =0.205, and on all the subtests separately (p≤0.000, accounting for 7 to 35% of the results variability.

  4. Ability of a new hop test to determine functional deficits after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustsson, Jesper; Thomeé, Roland; Karlsson, Jon

    2004-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of a new hop test to determine functional deficits after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. The test consists of a pre-exhaustion exercise protocol combined with a single-leg hop. Nineteen male patients with ACL reconstruction (mean time after operation 11 months) who exhibited normal single-leg hop symmetry values (> or =90% compared with the non-involved extremity) were tested for one-repetition maximum (1 RM) strength of a knee-extension exercise. The patients then performed single-leg hops following a standardised pre-exhaustion exercise protocol, which consisted of unilateral weight machine knee-extensions until failure at 50% of 1 RM. Although no patients displayed abnormal hop symmetry when non-fatigued, 68% of the patients showed abnormal hop symmetry for the fatigued test condition. Sixty-three per cent exhibited 1 RM strength scores of below 90% of the non-involved leg. Eighty-four percent of the patients exhibited abnormal symmetry in at least one of the tests. Our findings indicate that patients are not fully rehabilitated 11 months after ACL reconstruction. It is concluded that the pre-exhaustion exercise protocol, combined with the single-leg hop test, improved testing sensitivity when evaluating lower-extremity function after ACL reconstruction. For a more comprehensive evaluation of lower-extremity function after ACL reconstruction, it is therefore suggested that functional testing should be performed both under non-fatigued and fatigued test conditions.

  5. Modeling the Impact of Test Anxiety and Test Familiarity on the Criterion-Related Validity of Cognitive Ability Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeve, Charlie L.; Heggestad, Eric D.; Lievens, Filip

    2009-01-01

    The assessment of cognitive abilities, whether it is for purposes of basic research or applied decision making, is potentially susceptible to both facilitating and debilitating influences. However, relatively little research has examined the degree to which these factors might moderate the criterion-related validity of cognitive ability tests. To…

  6. Neuropsychological test scores, academic performance, and developmental disorders in Spanish-speaking children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosselli, M; Ardila, A; Bateman, J R; Guzmán, M

    2001-01-01

    Limited information is currently available about performance of Spanish-speaking children on different neuropsychological tests. This study was designed to (a) analyze the effects of age and sex on different neuropsychological test scores of a randomly selected sample of Spanish-speaking children, (b) analyze the value of neuropsychological test scores for predicting school performance, and (c) describe the neuropsychological profile of Spanish-speaking children with learning disabilities (LD). Two hundred ninety (141 boys, 149 girls) 6- to 11-year-old children were selected from a school in Bogotá, Colombia. Three age groups were distinguished: 6- to 7-, 8- to 9-, and 10- to 11-year-olds. Performance was measured utilizing the following neuropsychological tests: Seashore Rhythm Test, Finger Tapping Test (FTT), Grooved Pegboard Test, Children's Category Test (CCT), California Verbal Learning Test-Children's Version (CVLT-C), Benton Visual Retention Test (BVRT), and Bateria Woodcock Psicoeducativa en Español (Woodcock, 1982). Normative scores were calculated. Age effect was significant for most of the test scores. A significant sex effect was observed for 3 test scores. Intercorrelations were performed between neuropsychological test scores and academic areas (science, mathematics, Spanish, social studies, and music). In a post hoc analysis, children presenting very low scores on the reading, writing, and arithmetic achievement scales of the Woodcock battery were identified in the sample, and their neuropsychological test scores were compared with a matched normal group. Finally, a comparison was made between Colombian and American norms.

  7. ISSUE PAPER: What Do Test Scores in Texas Tell Us?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Klein, Stephen

    2000-01-01

    .... Although testing and accountability are intended to improve achievement and motivate staff and students, concerns have been raised in both the media and the professional literature (e.g., Heubert & Hauser, 1999; Linn, 2000...

  8. Reading ability and print exposure: item response theory analysis of the author recognition test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Mariah; Gordon, Peter C

    2015-12-01

    In the author recognition test (ART), participants are presented with a series of names and foils and are asked to indicate which ones they recognize as authors. The test is a strong predictor of reading skill, and this predictive ability is generally explained as occurring because author knowledge is likely acquired through reading or other forms of print exposure. In this large-scale study (1,012 college student participants), we used item response theory (IRT) to analyze item (author) characteristics in order to facilitate identification of the determinants of item difficulty, provide a basis for further test development, and optimize scoring of the ART. Factor analysis suggested a potential two-factor structure of the ART, differentiating between literary and popular authors. Effective and ineffective author names were identified so as to facilitate future revisions of the ART. Analyses showed that the ART is a highly significant predictor of the time spent encoding words, as measured using eyetracking during reading. The relationship between the ART and time spent reading provided a basis for implementing a higher penalty for selecting foils, rather than the standard method of ART scoring (names selected minus foils selected). The findings provide novel support for the view that the ART is a valid indicator of reading volume. Furthermore, they show that frequency data can be used to select items of appropriate difficulty, and that frequency data from corpora based on particular time periods and types of texts may allow adaptations of the test for different populations.

  9. Reading Ability and Print Exposure: Item Response Theory Analysis of the Author Recognition Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Mariah; Gordon, Peter C.

    2015-01-01

    In the Author Recognition Test (ART) participants are presented with a series of names and foils and are asked to indicate which ones they recognize as authors. The test is a strong predictor of reading skill, with this predictive ability generally explained as occurring because author knowledge is likely acquired through reading or other forms of print exposure. This large-scale study (1012 college student participants) used Item Response Theory (IRT) to analyze item (author) characteristics to facilitate identification of the determinants of item difficulty, provide a basis for further test development, and to optimize scoring of the ART. Factor analysis suggests a potential two factor structure of the ART differentiating between literary vs. popular authors. Effective and ineffective author names were identified so as to facilitate future revisions of the ART. Analyses showed that the ART is a highly significant predictor of time spent encoding words as measured using eye-tracking during reading. The relationship between the ART and time spent reading provided a basis for implementing a higher penalty for selecting foils, rather than the standard method of ART scoring (names selected minus foils selected). The findings provide novel support for the view that the ART is a valid indicator of reading volume. Further, they show that frequency data can be used to select items of appropriate difficulty and that frequency data from corpora based on particular time periods and types of text may allow test adaptation for different populations. PMID:25410405

  10. Examining Method Effect of Synonym and Antonym Test in Verbal Abilities Measure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahyu Widhiarso

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Many researchers have assumed that different methods could be substituted to measure the same attributes in assessment. Various models have been developed to accommodate the amount of variance attributable to the methods but these models application in empirical research is rare. The present study applied one of those models to examine whether method effects were presents in synonym and antonym tests. Study participants were 3,469 applicants to graduate school. The instrument used was the Graduate Academic Potential Test (PAPS, which includes synonym and antonym questions to measure verbal abilities. Our analysis showed that measurement models that using correlated trait–correlated methods minus one, CT-C(M–1, that separated trait and method effect into distinct latent constructs yielded slightly better values for multiple goodness-of-fit indices than one factor model. However, either for the synonym or antonym items, the proportion of variance accounted for by the method is smaller than trait variance. The correlation between factor scores of both methods is high (r = 0.994. These findings confirm that synonym and antonym tests represent the same attribute so that both tests cannot be treated as two unique methods for measuring verbal ability.

  11. Examining Method Effect of Synonym and Antonym Test in Verbal Abilities Measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widhiarso, Wahyu; Haryanta

    2015-08-01

    Many researchers have assumed that different methods could be substituted to measure the same attributes in assessment. Various models have been developed to accommodate the amount of variance attributable to the methods but these models application in empirical research is rare. The present study applied one of those models to examine whether method effects were presents in synonym and antonym tests. Study participants were 3,469 applicants to graduate school. The instrument used was the Graduate Academic Potential Test (PAPS), which includes synonym and antonym questions to measure verbal abilities. Our analysis showed that measurement models that using correlated trait-correlated methods minus one, CT-C(M-1), that separated trait and method effect into distinct latent constructs yielded slightly better values for multiple goodness-of-fit indices than one factor model. However, either for the synonym or antonym items, the proportion of variance accounted for by the method is smaller than trait variance. The correlation between factor scores of both methods is high (r = 0.994). These findings confirm that synonym and antonym tests represent the same attribute so that both tests cannot be treated as two unique methods for measuring verbal ability.

  12. The Health Professions Admission Test (HPAT) score and leaving certificate results can independently predict academic performance in medical school: do we need both tests?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Halpenny, D

    2010-11-01

    A recent study raised concerns regarding the ability of the health professions admission test (HPAT) Ireland to improve the selection process in Irish medical schools. We aimed to establish whether performance in a mock HPAT correlated with academic success in medicine. A modified HPAT examination and a questionnaire were administered to a group of doctors and medical students. There was a significant correlation between HPAT score and college results (r2: 0.314, P = 0.018, Spearman Rank) and between leaving cert score and college results (r2: 0.306, P = 0.049, Spearman Rank). There was no correlation between leaving cert points score and HPAT score. There was no difference in HPAT score across a number of other variables including gender, age and medical speciality. Our results suggest that both the HPAT Ireland and the leaving certificate examination could act as independent predictors of academic achievement in medicine.

  13. Reduce, Reuse, Recycle: The Longitudinal Value of Local Cut Scores Using State Test Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Peter M.; Van Norman, Ethan R.; VanDerHeyden, Amanda

    2017-01-01

    We used existing reading (n = 1,498) and math (n = 2,260) data to evaluate state test scores for screening middle school students. In Phase 1, state test data were used to create a research-derived cut score that was optimal for predicting state test performance the following year. In Phase 2, those cut scores were applied with future cohorts.…

  14. Validity of interpretation: a user validity perspective beyond the test score

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MacIver, R.; Anderson, N.; Costa, A-C.; Evers, A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces the concept of user validity and provides a new perspective on the validity of interpretations from tests. Test interpretation is based on outputs such as test scores, profiles, reports, spreadsheets of multiple candidates' scores, etc. The user validity perspective focuses on

  15. Allometric Scaling of Wingate Anaerobic Power Test Scores in Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetzler, Ronald K.; Stickley, Christopher D.; Kimura, Iris F.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we developed allometric exponents for scaling Wingate anaerobic test (WAnT) power data that are reflective in controlling for body mass (BM) and lean body mass (LBM) and established a normative WAnT data set for college-age women. One hundred women completed a standard WAnT. Allometric exponents and percentile ranks for peak (PP)…

  16. Comparing Graphical and Verbal Representations of Measurement Error in Test Score Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwick, Rebecca; Zapata-Rivera, Diego; Hegarty, Mary

    2014-01-01

    Research has shown that many educators do not understand the terminology or displays used in test score reports and that measurement error is a particularly challenging concept. We investigated graphical and verbal methods of representing measurement error associated with individual student scores. We created four alternative score reports, each…

  17. The Effects of Listening to Music Just Before Reading Test on Students’ Test Score

    OpenAIRE

    MAHDAVI, Mojtaba

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. In this study the researcher  examined  the  effect  of  music  on  reading  comprehension played just before the test .  Because the emotional consequences of music listening are evident in stress and anxiety removal, it was used as a tool to pacify the mind of the tastes and boost their memory and the related cognitive processes. Experimental group did well with the mean score of) and control group (). This study confirmed that using multimedia devices such as music can not only i...

  18. Characteristics of Patients with High Lie Scores in a Personality Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasai, Yuichi; Sakakibara, Toshihiko; Mizuno, Tetsutaro

    2017-01-01

    It is reported that persons with high Lie score (L score) of a personality test are aggressively self-confident and are also related to depression or schizophrenia In this study, we examined the characteristics of patients with high L scores on the Maudsley Personality Inventory (MPI) and examined the significance of the L score. We collected the data of 10789 subjects and examined the relationship between L score or the number of characteristic biased persons and the parameters of age, sex, education level, occupation, and degree of pain. Furthermore, we examined the changes in extraversion-introversion (E score), neuroticism (N score), and L scores at approximately 1 year after surgery in 1711 patients who underwent surgery at our university hospital or affiliated hospitals. L score was significantly higher among persons with a high degree of pain, and ratio of the characteristic biased persons in L score was significantly high among persons in their 40s to 60s, healthcare professionals and those with a high degree of pain. Moreover, L score scarcely changed between before and after surgery when compared with E score and N score. L score is not greatly influenced by an individual's state of mind or situation at different times, and may indicate the personality traits proper to the person. It is shown that L score may indicate the personality trait characteristics of persons who want to make themselves look good in the eyes of other.

  19. Effects of Test Media on Different EFL Test-Takers in Writing Scores and in the Cognitive Writing Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Xiao-Ling; Chen, Yan-Min

    2016-01-01

    The effects of computer and paper test media on EFL test-takers with different computer familiarity in writing scores and in the cognitive writing process have been comprehensively explored from the learners' aspect as well as on the basis of related theories and practice. The results indicate significant differences in test scores among the…

  20. Predicting Student Success in a Major's Introductory Biology Course via Logistic Regression Analysis of Scientific Reasoning Ability and Mathematics Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, E. David; Bowling, Bethany V.; Markle, Ross E.

    2018-02-01

    Studies over the last 30 years have considered various factors related to student success in introductory biology courses. While much of the available literature suggests that the best predictors of success in a college course are prior college grade point average (GPA) and class attendance, faculty often require a valuable predictor of success in those courses wherein the majority of students are in the first semester and have no previous record of college GPA or attendance. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of the ACT Mathematics subject exam and Lawson's Classroom Test of Scientific Reasoning in predicting success in a major's introductory biology course. A logistic regression was utilized to determine the effectiveness of a combination of scientific reasoning (SR) scores and ACT math (ACT-M) scores to predict student success. In summary, we found that the model—with both SR and ACT-M as significant predictors—could be an effective predictor of student success and thus could potentially be useful in practical decision making for the course, such as directing students to support services at an early point in the semester.

  1. Clinical Importance of the Heel Drop Test and a New Clinical Score for Adult Appendicitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Shin; Lee, Hyeji; Choi, Wookjin; Ahn, Ryeok; Hong, Jung-Suk; Sohn, Chang Hwan; Seo, Dong Woo; Lee, Yoon-Seon; Lim, Kyung Soo; Kim, Won Young

    2016-01-01

    Objective We tried to evaluate the accuracy of the heel drop test in patients with suspected appendicitis and tried to develop a new clinical score, which incorporates the heel drop test and other parameters, for the diagnosis of this condition. Methods We performed a prospective observational study on adult patients with suspected appendicitis at two academic urban emergency departments between January and August 2015. The predictive characteristics of each parameter, along with heel drop test results were calculated. A composite score was generated by logistic regression analysis. The performance of the generated score was compared to that of the Alvarado score. Results Of the 292 enrolled patients, 165 (56.5%) had acute appendicitis. The heel drop test had a higher predictive value than rebound tenderness. Variables and their points included in the new (MESH) score were pain migration (2), elevated white blood cell (WBC) >10,000/μL (3), shift to left (2), and positive heel drop test (3). The MESH score had a higher AUC than the Alvarado score (0.805 vs. 0.701). Scores of 5 and 11 were chosen as cut-off values; a MESH score ≥5 compared to an Alvarado score ≥5, and a MESH score ≥8 compared to an Alvarado score ≥7 showed better performance in diagnosing appendicitis. Conclusion MESH (migration, elevated WBC, shift to left, and heel drop test) is a simple clinical scoring system for assessing patients with suspected appendicitis and is more accurate than the Alvarado score. Further validation studies are needed. PMID:27723842

  2. Clinical Importance of the Heel Drop Test and a New Clinical Score for Adult Appendicitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin Ahn

    Full Text Available We tried to evaluate the accuracy of the heel drop test in patients with suspected appendicitis and tried to develop a new clinical score, which incorporates the heel drop test and other parameters, for the diagnosis of this condition.We performed a prospective observational study on adult patients with suspected appendicitis at two academic urban emergency departments between January and August 2015. The predictive characteristics of each parameter, along with heel drop test results were calculated. A composite score was generated by logistic regression analysis. The performance of the generated score was compared to that of the Alvarado score.Of the 292 enrolled patients, 165 (56.5% had acute appendicitis. The heel drop test had a higher predictive value than rebound tenderness. Variables and their points included in the new (MESH score were pain migration (2, elevated white blood cell (WBC >10,000/μL (3, shift to left (2, and positive heel drop test (3. The MESH score had a higher AUC than the Alvarado score (0.805 vs. 0.701. Scores of 5 and 11 were chosen as cut-off values; a MESH score ≥5 compared to an Alvarado score ≥5, and a MESH score ≥8 compared to an Alvarado score ≥7 showed better performance in diagnosing appendicitis.MESH (migration, elevated WBC, shift to left, and heel drop test is a simple clinical scoring system for assessing patients with suspected appendicitis and is more accurate than the Alvarado score. Further validation studies are needed.

  3. Validity of the shuttle walk test as a functional assessment of walking ability in individuals with polyneuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdmann, Peter G; Teunissen, Laurien L; van den Berg, Leonard H; Notermans, Nicolette C; Schröder, Carin D; Bongers, Bart C; van Meeteren, Nico L U

    2017-10-01

    This study assessed the validity of the shuttle walk test (SWT) to evaluate walking ability in patients with polyneuropathy. Forty-one patients with chronic idiopathic axonal polyneuropathy (CIAP) and 49 patients with multifocal motor neuropathy (MMN) performed both the 10-meter walk test (10MWT) and the SWT. Face validity was assessed by evaluating whether patients considered both tests to reflect their walking ability (Likert scale: 1 = not at all, 10 = very well). Concurrent validity was determined by Spearman rank-correlation analyses performed on the outcomes of both tests. Mean (SD) scores for how well the 10MWT and SWT reflected daily walking ability were 6.8 (1.3) and 7.4 (1.6) (p = 0.117) in patients with CIAP and 6.9 (1.2) and 7.9 (1.0) (p = 0.001) in patients with MMN, respectively. Correlation scores between both tests ranged from -0.70 to -0.82, except for 18 patients with MMN with a "normal" walking speed at the 10MWT (-0.21). The SWT seems a valid instrument for assessing walking ability in individuals with CIAP and MMN. Moreover, the SWT seems to be useful for investigating the symptoms elicited by walking long distances and may be more sensitive to changes when compared to the 10MWT. Implications for Rehabilitation Patients with polyneuropathy mainly experience problems when walking long distances. The 10-meter walk test does not possess sufficient psychometrics to diagnose walking abilities in these circumstances. The shuttle walk test is a valid instrument for assessing walking ability in individuals with polyneuropathy and might be the preferred instrument of choice when compared to the 10-meter walk test.

  4. A physical function test for use in the intensive care unit: validity, responsiveness, and predictive utility of the physical function ICU test (scored).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denehy, Linda; de Morton, Natalie A; Skinner, Elizabeth H; Edbrooke, Lara; Haines, Kimberley; Warrillow, Stephen; Berney, Sue

    2013-12-01

    Several tests have recently been developed to measure changes in patient strength and functional outcomes in the intensive care unit (ICU). The original Physical Function ICU Test (PFIT) demonstrates reliability and sensitivity. The aims of this study were to further develop the original PFIT, to derive an interval score (the PFIT-s), and to test the clinimetric properties of the PFIT-s. A nested cohort study was conducted. One hundred forty-four and 116 participants performed the PFIT at ICU admission and discharge, respectively. Original test components were modified using principal component analysis. Rasch analysis examined the unidimensionality of the PFIT, and an interval score was derived. Correlations tested validity, and multiple regression analyses investigated predictive ability. Responsiveness was assessed using the effect size index (ESI), and the minimal clinically important difference (MCID) was calculated. The shoulder lift component was removed. Unidimensionality of combined admission and discharge PFIT-s scores was confirmed. The PFIT-s displayed moderate convergent validity with the Timed "Up & Go" Test (r=-.60), the Six-Minute Walk Test (r=.41), and the Medical Research Council (MRC) sum score (rho=.49). The ESI of the PFIT-s was 0.82, and the MCID was 1.5 points (interval scale range=0-10). A higher admission PFIT-s score was predictive of: an MRC score of ≥48, increased likelihood of discharge home, reduced likelihood of discharge to inpatient rehabilitation, and reduced acute care hospital length of stay. Scoring of sit-to-stand assistance required is subjective, and cadence cutpoints used may not be generalizable. The PFIT-s is a safe and inexpensive test of physical function with high clinical utility. It is valid, responsive to change, and predictive of key outcomes. It is recommended that the PFIT-s be adopted to test physical function in the ICU.

  5. Predictive value of background experiences and visual spatial ability testing on laparoscopic baseline performance among residents entering postgraduate surgical training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louridas, Marisa; Quinn, Lauren E; Grantcharov, Teodor P

    2016-03-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that despite dedicated practice, not all surgical trainees have the ability to reach technical competency in minimally invasive techniques. While selecting residents that have the ability to reach technical competence is important, evidence to guide the incorporation of technical ability into selection processes is limited. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to evaluate whether background experiences and 2D-3D visual spatial test results are predictive of baseline laparoscopic skill for the novice surgical trainee. First-year residents were studied. Demographic data and background surgical and non-surgical experiences were obtained using a questionnaire. Visual spatial ability was evaluated using the PicSOr, cube comparison (CC) and card rotation (CR) tests. Technical skill was assessed using the camera navigation (LCN) task and laparoscopic circle cut (LCC) task. Resident performance on these technical tasks was compared and correlated with the questionnaire and visual spatial findings. Previous experience in observing laparoscopic procedures was associated with significantly better LCN performance, and experience in navigating the laparoscopic camera was associated with significantly better LCC task results. Residents who scored higher on the CC test demonstrated a more accurate LCN path length score (r s(PL) = -0.36, p = 0.03) and angle path (r s(AP) = -0.426, p = 0.01) score when completing the LCN task. No other significant correlations were found between the visual spatial tests (PicSOr, CC or CR) and LCC performance. While identifying selection tests for incoming surgical trainees that predict technical skill performance is appealing, the surrogate markers evaluated correlate with specific metrics of surgical performance related to a single task but do not appear to reliably predict technical performance of different laparoscopic tasks. Predicting the acquisition of technical skills will require the development

  6. The Implications of Family Size and Birth Order for Test Scores and Behavioral Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silles, Mary A.

    2010-01-01

    This article, using longitudinal data from the National Child Development Study, presents new evidence on the effects of family size and birth order on test scores and behavioral development at age 7, 11 and 16. Sibling size is shown to have an adverse causal effect on test scores and behavioral development. For any given family size, first-borns…

  7. Using Raters from India to Score a Large-Scale Speaking Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Xiaoming; Mollaun, Pam

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the scoring of the Speaking section of the Test of English as a Foreign Language[TM] Internet-based (TOEFL iBT[R]) test by speakers of English and one or more Indian languages. We explored the extent to which raters from India, after being trained and certified, were able to score the TOEFL examinees with mixed first languages…

  8. Comparing the Effects of Elementary Music and Visual Arts Lessons on Standardized Mathematics Test Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Molly Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative, causal-comparative study was to compare the effect elementary music and visual arts lessons had on third through sixth grade standardized mathematics test scores. Inferential statistics were used to compare the differences between test scores of students who took in-school, elementary, music instruction during the…

  9. Correcting for Test Score Measurement Error in ANCOVA Models for Estimating Treatment Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockwood, J. R.; McCaffrey, Daniel F.

    2014-01-01

    A common strategy for estimating treatment effects in observational studies using individual student-level data is analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) or hierarchical variants of it, in which outcomes (often standardized test scores) are regressed on pretreatment test scores, other student characteristics, and treatment group indicators. Measurement…

  10. An Item Analysis and Validity Investigation of Bender Visual Motor Gestalt Test Score Items

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Nadine M.

    1971-01-01

    This investigation attempted to demonstrate the utility of standard item analysis procedures for selecting the most reliable and valid items for scoring Bender Visual Motor Gestalt Test test records. (Author)

  11. Musical Ability and the Drake Music Memory Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Lawrence R.; Eisenman, Russell

    1972-01-01

    Results show that the Drake Music Memory Test should be able to discriminate between the poorest and strongest prospects for success in profiting from musical instruction, although it may not be particularly useful in individual counseling. (Authors)

  12. Does IQ = IQ? Comparability of Intelligence Test Scores in Typically Developing Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagmann-von Arx, Priska; Lemola, Sakari; Grob, Alexander

    2016-08-05

    Numerous intelligence tests are available to psychological diagnosticians to assess children's intelligence, but whether they yield comparable test results has been little studied. We examined test scores of 206 typically developing children aged 6 to 11 years on five German intelligence tests (Reynolds Intellectual Assessment Scales; Snijders Oomen Nonverbal Intelligence Test; Intelligence and Development Scales; Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, 4th edition; Culture Fair Intelligence Test Scale 2), which were individually administered. On a sample level, the test scores showed strong correlation and little or no mean difference. These results indicate that the tests measure a similar underlying construct, which is interpreted as general intelligence. On an individual level, however, test scores significantly differed across tests for 12% to 38% of the children. Differences did not depend on which test was used but rather on unexplained error. Implications for the application of intelligence assessment in psychological practice are discussed. © The Author(s) 2016.

  13. Validating a test to assess early childhood learners’ ability to perceive, express and appreciate emotions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Miguel Mestre Navas

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Emotional Education, regardless of the school level, has an important mission in the goal of any educational project: socialising younger generations. However, it is also important to assess implemented programs by means of a valid, reliable measure of the progression of children’s’ cognitive and emotional development. Using a sample of 138 early childhood learners (aged from 3 to 6 this paper tested an instrument for assessing the ability to perceive, appreciate and express emotions (as defined by Mayer & Salovey’s model, 1997; 2007. Also, external criteria were developed by teachers on several issues related to children’s social and personal adaptation (school rules, achievement, impulsiveness, social acceptance of peers and hostility. Findings suggest that children from 3 to 6 years who obtain best scores in the perception and assessment of basic emotions are considered by their teachers to better adjust to school rules, to better control impulses, to achieve better academic performance and to be less problematic. It is also important to note that the study is at its initial stages and presents some limitations, as certain important variables such as personality and verbal ability are not controlled. Nevertheless, it should be pointed out that children showed great enthusiasm in taking the test.

  14. Effects of Targeted Test Preparation on Scores of Two Tests of Oral English as a Second Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnsworth, Tim

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of targeted test preparation, or coaching, on oral English as a second language test scores. The tests in question were the Basic English Skills Test Plus (BEST Plus), a scripted oral interview published by the Center for Applied Linguistics, and the Versant English Test (VET), a computer-administered and…

  15. Comparison of the Ability of Different Clinical Treatment Scores to Estimate Prognosis in High-Risk Early Breast Cancer Patients: A Hellenic Cooperative Oncology Group Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flora Stavridi

    Full Text Available Early breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease, and, therefore, prognostic tools have been developed to evaluate the risk for distant recurrence. In the present study, we sought to develop a risk for recurrence score (RRS based on mRNA expression of three proliferation markers in high-risk early breast cancer patients and evaluate its ability to predict risk for relapse and death. In addition the Adjuvant! Online score (AOS was also determined for each patient, providing a 10-year estimate of relapse and mortality risk. We then evaluated whether RRS or AOS might possibly improve the prognostic information of the clinical treatment score (CTS, a model derived from clinicopathological variables.A total of 1,681 patients, enrolled in two prospective phase III trials, were treated with anthracycline-based adjuvant chemotherapy. Sufficient RNA was extracted from 875 samples followed by multiplex quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction for assessing RACGAP1, TOP2A and Ki67 mRNA expression. The CTS, slightly modified to fit our cohort, integrated the prognostic information from age, nodal status, tumor size, histological grade and treatment. Patients were also classified to breast cancer subtypes defined by immunohistochemistry. Likelihood ratio (LR tests and concordance indices were used to estimate the relative increase in the amount of information provided when either RRS or AOS is added to CTS.The optimal RRS, in terms of disease-free survival (DFS and overall survival (OS, was based on the co-expression of two of the three evaluated genes (RACGAP1 and TOP2A. CTS was prognostic for DFS (p3 positive nodes (LR-Δχ2 23.9, p3 positive nodes.

  16. Grammar tests increase the ability to lateralize language function in the Wada test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Połczyńska, Monika; Curtiss, Susan; Walshaw, Particia; Siddarth, Prabha; Benjamin, Chris; Moseley, Brian D; Vigil, Celia; Jones, Michael; Eliashiv, Dawn; Bookheimer, Susan

    2014-12-01

    Grammar is a core component of the language system, yet it is rarely assessed during the Wada (intracarotid amobarbital) test. It is hypothesized that adding grammar tests to the recovery phase of the Wada test will increase our ability to lateralize language function. Sixteen individuals (nine females, fifteen right-handed, mean age 38.4 years, SD=10.7) with medically refractory temporal lobe epilepsy participated in the study. On EEG ten patients had seizures originating in the left hemisphere (LH), five in the right hemisphere (RH), and one was insufficiently lateralized. We included only patients who were LH-dominant on the standard test in the encoding phase of the Wada test. In the recovery phase of Wada testing the participants underwent evaluation with a standard language and a new test of grammar, the CYCLE-N. Ten patients underwent bilateral injections, six unilateral (one RH, five LH). As expected, injection in the LH decreased language performance to a greater extent than injection to the RH on both tests. However, the CYCLE-N produced more profound language deficits in the injected LH compared to the RH (p=0.01), whereas the standard tests did not cause such pronounced differences (p=0.2). The results suggest that the standard tests did not significantly differentiate the effects of the injections and the CYCLE-N, for the most part, did. Our results are of particular relevance to patients who are too obtunded to speak in the encoding phase. In sum, the CYCLE-N may be helpful in assessing hemispheric dominance for language. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Early Mathematics Skills from Prekindergarten to First Grade: Score Changes and Ability Group Differences in Kentucky, Nebraska, and Shanghai Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryoo, Ji Hoon; Molfese, Victoria J.; Heaton, Ruth; Zhou, Xin; Brown, E. Todd; Prokasky, Amanda; Davis, Erika

    2014-01-01

    The 2011 Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study shows average mathematics scores of U.S. fourth graders are lower than children in many Asian countries. There are questions about differences in mathematics skills at younger ages. This study examines differences in score growth for High-, Average-, and Low-performing children in two…

  18. Using Microcomputer Software to Score Placement Tests--An Example from the University of California, Irvine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoemaker, Judith S.; And Others

    This article describes the placement testing program, the use of microcomputer software for scoring and analyzing test results, and the integration of the computerized test results into a comprehensive microcomputer-based student information system at the University of California, Irvine (UCI). UCI offers placement tests in five academic fields:…

  19. An assessment of the test-retest reliability of the New Nordic Diet score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjørnarå, Helga Birgit; Hillesund, Elisabet Rudjord; Torstveit, Monica Klungland; Stea, Tonje Holte; Øverby, Nina Cecilie; Bere, Elling

    2015-01-01

    There is a growing interest in the New Nordic Diet (NND) as a potentially health promoting, environmentally friendly, and palatable regional diet. Also, dietary scores are gaining ground as a complementary approach for examining relations between dietary patterns and various health outcomes. A score assessing adherence to the NND has earlier been published, yet not tested for reliability. To assess the test-retest reliability of the NND score in a sample of parents of toddlers, residing in Southern Norway. A questionnaire survey was completed on two occasions, approximately 14 days apart, by 67 parents of toddlers [85% females, mean age 34 years (SD=5.3 years)]. The NND score was constructed from 24 items and comprised 10 subscales that summarize meal pattern and intake of typical Nordic foods. Each subscale was dichotomized by the median and assigned values of '0' or '1'. Adding the subscales yielded a score ranging from 0 to 10, which was further trichotomized. Test-retest reliability of the final NND score and individual subscales was assessed by Pearson's correlation coefficient and Spearman's rank correlation coefficient, respectively. Additionally, cross tabulation and kappa measure of agreement (k) were used to assess the test-retest agreement of classification into the NND score, and the subscales. Test-retest correlations of the NND score and subscales were r=0.80 (Pearson) and r=0.54-0.84 (Spearman), respectively, all ptest-retest correct classification of the trichotomized score and the dichotomized subscales, respectively. The NND score and the 10 subscales appear to have acceptable test-retest reliability when tested in a sample of parents of toddlers.

  20. Construction and Evaluation of Reliability and Validity of Reasoning Ability Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Mehraj A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper is based on the construction and evaluation of reliability and validity of reasoning ability test at secondary school students. In this paper an attempt was made to evaluate validity, reliability and to determine the appropriate standards to interpret the results of reasoning ability test. The test includes 45 items to measure six types…

  1. Androgens and eye movements in women and men during a test of mental rotation ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Gerianne M; Son, Troy

    2007-08-01

    Eye movements were monitored in 16 women and 20 men during completion of a standard diagram-based test of mental rotation ability to provide measures of cognitive function not requiring conscious, decisional processes. Overall, women and men allocated visual attention during task performance in very similar, systematic ways. However, consistent with previous suggestions that sex differences in attentional processes during completion of the mental rotation task may exist, eye movements in men compared to women indicated greater discrimination and longer processing of correct alternatives during task performance. Other findings suggested that androgens may enhance cognitive processes that are recruited differentially by women and men as a function of the task. Specifically, smaller (i.e., more masculine) digit ratios were associated with men's shorter fixations on distracters, suggesting that perinatal androgen action may influence brain systems that facilitate the identification of relevant task stimuli. In women, higher circulating testosterone levels appeared to contribute to more general processes engaged during task performance, for example higher levels of visual persistence. It is possible that variability in the relative contribution of such hormone sensitive cognitive processes to accuracy scores as a function of different sample characteristics or assessment methods may partially account for the inconsistent findings of previous research on hormonal factors in mental rotation ability.

  2. Effects of Analytical and Holistic Scoring Patterns on Scorer Reliability in Biology Essay Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebuoh, Casmir N.

    2018-01-01

    Literature revealed that the patterns/methods of scoring essay tests had been criticized for not being reliable and this unreliability is more likely to be more in internal examinations than in the external examinations. The purpose of this study is to find out the effects of analytical and holistic scoring patterns on scorer reliability in…

  3. Optimal Scoring Methods of Hand-Strength Tests in Patients with Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Sheau-Ling; Hsieh, Ching-Lin; Lin, Jau-Hong; Chen, Hui-Mei

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the optimal scoring methods for measuring strength of the more-affected hand in patients with stroke by examining the effect of reducing measurement errors. Three hand-strength tests of grip, palmar pinch, and lateral pinch were administered at two sessions in 56 patients with stroke. Five scoring methods…

  4. Language Variation and Score Variation in the Testing of English Language Learners, Native Spanish Speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solano-Flores, Guillermo; Li, Min

    2009-01-01

    We investigated language variation and score variation in the testing of English language learners, native Spanish speakers. We gave students the same set of National Assessment of Educational Progress mathematics items in both their first language and their second language. We examined the amount of score variation due to the main and interaction…

  5. Psychometric Properties of Raw and Scale Scores on Mixed-Format Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolen, Michael J.; Lee, Won-Chan

    2011-01-01

    This paper illustrates that the psychometric properties of scores and scales that are used with mixed-format educational tests can impact the use and interpretation of the scores that are reported to examinees. Psychometric properties that include reliability and conditional standard errors of measurement are considered in this paper. The focus is…

  6. TOEFL iBT Speaking Test Scores as Indicators of Oral Communicative Language Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridgeman, Brent; Powers, Donald; Stone, Elizabeth; Mollaun, Pamela

    2012-01-01

    Scores assigned by trained raters and by an automated scoring system (SpeechRater[TM]) on the speaking section of the TOEFL iBT[TM] were validated against a communicative competence criterion. Specifically, a sample of 555 undergraduate students listened to speech samples from 184 examinees who took the Test of English as a Foreign Language…

  7. The Effects of Scoring Formulas on the Discriminant Validity of Tests of Divergent Thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hocevar, Dennis; Michael, William B.

    1979-01-01

    Two multitrait-multimethod studies were conducted to investigate the effects of two scoring formulas. The study demonstrates that tests of divergent thinking lack discriminant validity when scored in the usual manner. A percentage formula did enhance discriminant validity when originality ratings were subjectively determined. (Author/CTM)

  8. Use of Standardized Test Scores to Predict Success in a Computer Applications Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Robert V.; King, Stephanie B.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to see if a relationship existed between American College Testing (ACT) scores (i.e., English, reading, mathematics, science reasoning, and composite) and student success in a computer applications course at a Mississippi community college. The study showed that while the ACT scores were excellent predictors of…

  9. AN ANALYSIS OF MARKING SYSTEM USED BY WRITING LECTURERS OF STAIN CURUP IN TESTING STUDENTS’ WRITING ABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leffi Noviyenty

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This is a descriptive study which is presented in narative way since the data is analysed by using verbal explanation. The reseracher collects the data about Writing test format, the criteria of marking and the scoring system used by Writing lecturers of STAIN Curup deeply. The subjects of this reserach are Writing Letcurers in English Tadris Study Program of STAIN Curup. A checklist and an interview guidance are used as the intruments of this research to gain the data on format of writing test and the criteria of marking. Fieldnotes are also taken in order to observe some data which is not performed in observation and also used to trianggulate the whole result. Observation, document analysis and interview are the technigues in collecting data. The finding of this research shows that Writing lecturers useGap Filling, Form Completion, Information transfer task, Letter writing, Integrating reading into Writing, Open-ended Essay Test, Responding to a given Information are their formats in testing students’ writing ability. The finding also finds that the criteria of marking used by the Writing lecturers are Grammar, Punctuation, Spelling, Relevance and Adequacy of Content. Unfortunately the writing lecturers do not include the score for each criteria. The scoring scheme is only based on the scheme designed by institusion (STAIN Curup they are: 00 – 49 = E (gagal, 50 – 59 = D, 60 – 69 = C, 70 – 85 = B dan 86 – 100 = A.There is also no scale of scoring for each aspect of writing. It is important for writing lecturers to include the score for each criteria of marking in writing test as suggested by the theory. It can improve the objectivity of scoring and directly minimize the subjectivity. Eventhough the institution has its own regulation in calculating the score, the writing lecturers also need to consider the purpose of teaching writing skill itself.

  10. Development of a Mathematical Ability Test: A Validity and Reliability Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dündar, Sefa; Temel, Hasan; Gündüz, Nazan

    2016-01-01

    The identification of talented students accurately at an early age and the adaptation of the education provided to the students depending on their abilities are of great importance for the future of the countries. In this regard, this study aims to develop a mathematical ability test for the identification of the mathematical abilities of students…

  11. The Glasgow Voice Memory Test: Assessing the ability to memorize and recognize unfamiliar voices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aglieri, Virginia; Watson, Rebecca; Pernet, Cyril; Latinus, Marianne; Garrido, Lúcia; Belin, Pascal

    2017-02-01

    One thousand one hundred and twenty subjects as well as a developmental phonagnosic subject (KH) along with age-matched controls performed the Glasgow Voice Memory Test, which assesses the ability to encode and immediately recognize, through an old/new judgment, both unfamiliar voices (delivered as vowels, making language requirements minimal) and bell sounds. The inclusion of non-vocal stimuli allows the detection of significant dissociations between the two categories (vocal vs. non-vocal stimuli). The distributions of accuracy and sensitivity scores (d') reflected a wide range of individual differences in voice recognition performance in the population. As expected, KH showed a dissociation between the recognition of voices and bell sounds, her performance being significantly poorer than matched controls for voices but not for bells. By providing normative data of a large sample and by testing a developmental phonagnosic subject, we demonstrated that the Glasgow Voice Memory Test, available online and accessible from all over the world, can be a valid screening tool (~5 min) for a preliminary detection of potential cases of phonagnosia and of "super recognizers" for voices.

  12. Contributions of Hamstring Stiffness to Straight-Leg-Raise and Sit-and-Reach Test Scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Naokazu; Hirata, Kosuke; Kimura, Noriko; Miyamoto-Mikami, Eri

    2018-02-01

    The passive straight-leg-raise (PSLR) and the sit-and-reach (SR) tests have been widely used to assess hamstring extensibility. However, it remains unclear to what extent hamstring stiffness (a measure of material properties) contributes to PSLR and SR test scores. Therefore, we aimed to clarify the relationship between hamstring stiffness and PSLR and SR scores using ultrasound shear wave elastography. Ninety-eight healthy subjects completed the study. Each subject completed PSLR testing, and classic and modified SR testing of the right leg. Muscle shear modulus of the biceps femoris, semitendinosus, and semimembranosus was quantified as an index of muscle stiffness. The relationships between shear modulus of each muscle and PSLR or SR scores were calculated using Pearson's product-moment correlation coefficients. Shear modulus of the semitendinosus and semimembranosus showed negative correlations with the two PSLR and two SR scores (absolute r value≤0.484). Shear modulus of the biceps femoris was significantly correlated with the PSLR score determined by the examiner and the modified SR score (absolute r value≤0.308). The present findings suggest that PSLR and SR test scores are strongly influenced by factors other than hamstring stiffness and therefore might not accurately evaluate hamstring stiffness. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  13. Relationships between spatial activities and scores on the mental rotation test as a function of sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginn, Sheryl R; Pickens, Stefanie J

    2005-06-01

    Previous results suggested that female college students' scores on the Mental Rotations Test might be related to their prior experience with spatial tasks. For example, women who played video games scored better on the test than their non-game-playing peers, whereas playing video games was not related to men's scores. The present study examined whether participation in different types of spatial activities would be related to women's performance on the Mental Rotations Test. 31 men and 59 women enrolled at a small, private church-affiliated university and majoring in art or music as well as students who participated in intercollegiate athletics completed the Mental Rotations Test. Women's scores on the Mental Rotations Test benefitted from experience with spatial activities; the more types of experience the women had, the better their scores. Thus women who were athletes, musicians, or artists scored better than those women who had no experience with these activities. The opposite results were found for the men. Efforts are currently underway to assess how length of experience and which types of experience are related to scores.

  14. A Maturing Global Testing Regime Meets the World Economy: Test Scores and Economic Growth, 1960-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamens, David H.

    2015-01-01

    This article considers the growth of the international testing regime. It discusses sources of growth and empirically examines two related sets of issues: (1) the stability of countries' achievement scores, and (2) the influence of those national scores on subsequent economic development over different time lags. The article suggests that…

  15. The Impact of Individual Ability, Favorable Team Member Scores, and Student Perception of Course Importance on Student Preference of Team-Based Learning and Grading Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Allan Yen-Lun

    2007-01-01

    This study explores the impact of individual ability and favorable team member scores on student preference of team-based learning and grading methods, and examines the moderating effects of student perception of course importance on student preference of team-based learning and grading methods. The author also investigates the relationship…

  16. The Sinonasal Outcome Test 22 score in persons without chronic rhinosinusitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, Bibi; Thilsing, T; Baelum, J

    2016-01-01

    -67 with a mean score of 10.5 (CI: 9.1 - 11.9) and the median score was 7. Persons with allergic rhinitis and blue collar workers had a significant higher score. CONCLUSION: The median value of 7 is taken as the normal SNOT 22 score in persons without CRS and can be used as a reference in clinical settings......OBJECTIVES: To determine the Sino Nasal Outcome Test 22 (SNOT 22) score in persons without chronic rhinosinusitis. DESIGN AND SETTING: As part of a trans-European study selected respondents to a survey questionnaire were invited for a clinical visit. Subjective symptoms and rhinoscopy were used...... for the clinical diagnosis of chronic rhinosinusitis according to EPOS. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 366 persons participated at the clinical visit and of these 268 did not have chronic rhinosinusitis. All participants completed the SNOT 22. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The SNOT 22. RESULTS: The SNOT 22 score ranged from 0...

  17. Validity of Alternative Cut-Off Scores for the Back-Saver Sit and Reach Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looney, Marilyn A.; Gilbert, Jennie

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine if currently used FITNESSGRAM[R] cut-off scores for the Back Saver Sit and Reach Test had the best criterion-referenced validity evidence for 6-12 year old children. Secondary analyses of an existing data set focused on the passive straight leg raise and Back Saver Sit and Reach Test flexibility scores of…

  18. A Modification to Angoff and Bookmarking Cut Scores to Account for the Imperfect Reliability of Test Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacCann, Robert G.

    2008-01-01

    It is shown that the Angoff and bookmarking cut scores are examples of true score equating that in the real world must be applied to observed scores. In the context of defining minimal competency, the percentage "failed" by such methods is a function of the length of the measuring instrument. It is argued that this length is largely…

  19. Relation between subjective and objective scores on the active straight leg raising test.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pool-Goudzwaard, A.L.; Mens, Jan M A; Beekmans, RE; Tijhuis, MT

    2010-01-01

    DESIGN: Cross sectional. OBJECTIVE: To fill a gap in the validation of the active straight leg raising (ASLR) test concerning the relation between a patient's subjective score on the ASLR test and the objective measured force. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: The ASLR test is used to classify patients

  20. Test Reviews: Ginsburg, H., & Baroody, A. (2003). "Test of Early Mathematics Ability--Third Edition." Austin, TX: Pro-Ed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bliss, Stacy

    2006-01-01

    The Test of Early Mathematics Ability--Third Edition (TEMA-3) is a norm-referenced parallel forms test intended to identify the level of mathematical ability for children aged 3 years 0 months through 8 years 11 months. According to the authors, the instrument can also be used as a criterion referenced or diagnostic tool for older students who are…

  1. How does emergency department overcrowding affect medical student test scores and clerkship evaluations?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grant Wei

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The effect of emergency department (ED crowding has been recognized as a concern for more than 20 years; its effect on productivity, medical errors, and patient satisfaction has been studied extensively. Little research has reviewed the effect of ED crowding on medical education. Prior studies that have considered this effect have shown no correlation between ED crowding and resident perception of quality of medical education. Objective: To determine whether ED crowding, as measured by the National ED Overcrowding Scale (NEDOCS score, has a quantifiable effect on medical student objective and subjective experiences during emergency medicine (EM clerkship rotations. Methods: We collected end-of-rotation examinations and medical student evaluations for 21 EM rotation blocks between July 2010 and May 2012, with a total of 211 students. NEDOCS scores were calculated for each corresponding period. Weighted regression analyses examined the correlation between components of the medical student evaluation, student test scores, and the NEDOCS score for each period. Results: When all 21 rotations are included in the analysis, NEDOCS scores showed a negative correlation with medical student tests scores (regression coefficient= -0.16, p=0.04 and three elements of the rotation evaluation (attending teaching, communication, and systems-based practice; p<0.05. We excluded an outlying NEDOCS score from the analysis and obtained similar results. When the data were controlled for effect of month of the year, only student test score remained significantly correlated with NEDOCS score (p=0.011. No part of the medical student rotation evaluation attained significant correlation with the NEDOCS score (p≥0.34 in all cases. Conclusion: ED overcrowding does demonstrate a small but negative association with medical student performance on end-of-rotation examinations. Additional studies are recommended to further evaluate this effect.

  2. Depressive status explains a significant amount of the variance in COPD assessment test (CAT) scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miravitlles, Marc; Molina, Jesús; Quintano, José Antonio; Campuzano, Anna; Pérez, Joselín; Roncero, Carlos

    2018-01-01

    COPD assessment test (CAT) is a short, easy-to-complete health status tool that has been incorporated into the multidimensional assessment of COPD in order to guide therapy; therefore, it is important to understand the factors determining CAT scores. This is a post hoc analysis of a cross-sectional, observational study conducted in respiratory medicine departments and primary care centers in Spain with the aim of identifying the factors determining CAT scores, focusing particularly on the cognitive status measured by the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and levels of depression measured by the short Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). A total of 684 COPD patients were analyzed; 84.1% were men, the mean age of patients was 68.7 years, and the mean forced expiratory volume in 1 second (%) was 55.1%. Mean CAT score was 21.8. CAT scores correlated with the MMSE score (Pearson's coefficient r =-0.371) and the BDI ( r =0.620), both p CAT scores and explained 45% of the variability. However, a model including only MMSE and BDI scores explained up to 40% and BDI alone explained 38% of the CAT variance. CAT scores are associated with clinical variables of severity of COPD. However, cognitive status and, in particular, the level of depression explain a larger percentage of the variance in the CAT scores than the usual COPD clinical severity variables.

  3. Do OSCE progress test scores predict performance in a national high-stakes examination?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugh, Debra; Bhanji, Farhan; Cole, Gary; Dupre, Jonathan; Hatala, Rose; Humphrey-Murto, Susan; Touchie, Claire; Wood, Timothy J

    2016-03-01

    Progress tests, in which learners are repeatedly assessed on equivalent content at different times in their training and provided with feedback, would seem to lend themselves well to a competency-based framework, which requires more frequent formative assessments. The objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) progress test is a relatively new form of assessment that is used to assess the progression of clinical skills. The purpose of this study was to establish further evidence for the use of an OSCE progress test by demonstrating an association between scores from this assessment method and those from a national high-stakes examination. The results of 8 years' of data from an Internal Medicine Residency OSCE (IM-OSCE) progress test were compared with scores on the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada Comprehensive Objective Examination in Internal Medicine (RCPSC IM examination), which is comprised of both a written and performance-based component (n = 180). Correlations between scores in the two examinations were calculated. Logistic regression analyses were performed comparing IM-OSCE progress test scores with an 'elevated risk of failure' on either component of the RCPSC IM examination. Correlations between scores from the IM-OSCE (for PGY-1 residents to PGY-4 residents) and those from the RCPSC IM examination ranged from 0.316 (p = 0.001) to 0.554 (OSCE were predictive of an 'elevated risk of failure' on both components of the RCPSC IM examination. This study provides further evidence for the use of OSCE progress testing by demonstrating a correlation between scores from an OSCE progress test and a national high-stakes examination. Furthermore, there is evidence that OSCE progress test scores are predictive of future performance on a national high-stakes examination. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. An Analysis of Cross Racial Identity Scale Scores Using Classical Test Theory and Rasch Item Response Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussman, Joshua; Beaujean, A. Alexander; Worrell, Frank C.; Watson, Stevie

    2013-01-01

    Item response models (IRMs) were used to analyze Cross Racial Identity Scale (CRIS) scores. Rasch analysis scores were compared with classical test theory (CTT) scores. The partial credit model demonstrated a high goodness of fit and correlations between Rasch and CTT scores ranged from 0.91 to 0.99. CRIS scores are supported by both methods.…

  5. The Effect of Quizzes on Test Scores of Nursing Students for Learning Maternal and Child Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoumeh Delaram

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: One of the common problems of education in universities is that teachers do not evaluate continuously. The effect of continuous evaluation on student learning has been less investigated and this study intends to address this issue.Methods: In this quasi-experimental study, 30 students in the first semester of 2014 and 22 students in the first semester of 2015 were enrolled. The control group received teaching in the form of lecturewith question and answer in all sessions and the intervention group in addition to that, received quizzes every week. Finally, test scores of students were compared. Data were analyzed using independentt, paired t, and Chi-square tests and P<0.05 was considered significant.Results: Mean scores of midterm examination in the intervention and control group were 3.77±0.47 and 3.25±0.44, respectively (P=0.003. Also mean scores of the final examination in the intervention and control groups were 16.69 ±1.63 and 15.40±1.02 (P<0.001.Conclusion: Weekly quiz tests increased the test scores in the midterm and final examinations in the students.Keywords: WEEKLY QUIZ TESTS, TEST SCORES, NURSING STUDENTS

  6. The predictive ability of critical thinking, nursing GPA, and SAT scores on first-time NCLEX-RN performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeo, Elizabeth M

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the predictability of several variables in achieving first-time success on the NCLEX-RN. Several researchers have attempted to investigate the differences between students who passed the NCLEX-RN the first time and those who failed. No studies used a large enough failure group to have statistical significance. The three specific variables in this study were nursing GPA, SAT combined math and verbal scores, and critical thinking measured on a standardized assessment examination. An ex post facto study design was used to examine data from the records of associate degree nursing graduates during a three-year period. The most significant predictors of NCLEX-RN success were the students' nursing GPA and the overall standardized assessment examination score. The findings of this study could potentially influence the identification of students at risk for NCLEX-RN failure.

  7. The Disaggregation of Value-Added Test Scores to Assess Learning Outcomes in Economics Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walstad, William B.; Wagner, Jamie

    2016-01-01

    This study disaggregates posttest, pretest, and value-added or difference scores in economics into four types of economic learning: positive, retained, negative, and zero. The types are derived from patterns of student responses to individual items on a multiple-choice test. The micro and macro data from the "Test of Understanding in College…

  8. Zertifikat Deutsch als Fremdsprache and the Oral Proficiency Interview: A Comparison of Test Scores and Examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalande, John F.; Schweckendiek, Jurgen

    1986-01-01

    Investigates what correlations might exist between an individual's score on the Zertifikat Deutsch als Fremdsprache and on the Oral Proficiency Interview. The tests themselves are briefly described. Results indicate that the two tests appear to correlate well in their evaluation of speaking skills. (SED)

  9. A review of methods for evaluating the fit of item score patterns on a test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, R.R.; Sijtsma, Klaas

    1999-01-01

    Methods are discussed that can be used to investigate the fit of an item score pattern to a test model. Model-based tests and personality inventories are administered to more than 100 million people a year and, as a result, individual fit is of great concern. Item Response Theory (IRT) modeling and

  10. How Well Does the Sum Score Summarize the Test? Summability as a Measure of Internal Consistency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goeman, J.J.; De, Jong N.H.

    2018-01-01

    Many researchers use Cronbach's alpha to demonstrate internal consistency, even though it has been shown numerous times that Cronbach's alpha is not suitable for this. Because the intention of questionnaire and test constructers is to summarize the test by its overall sum score, we advocate

  11. Are Raw Scores on Memory Tests Better than Age- and Education- Adjusted Scores for Predicting Progression from Amnesic Mild Cognitive Impairment to Alzheimer Disease ?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaranta, Davide; Gainotti, Guido; Vita, Maria Gabriella; Lacidogna, Giordano; Scaricamazza, Eugenia; Piccininni, Chiara; Marra, Camillo

    2016-01-01

    In this prospective longitudinal study, conducted in a large sample of amnestic MCI patients over a three-year period, we investigated the recently advanced proposal that unadjusted test scores obtained at baseline on long-term memory tests are more reliable than age- and education-corrected scores in predicting progression from aMCI to AD. Our experimental sample consisted of 270 aMCI patients who underwent extensive neurological and neuropsychological examinations both at baseline and at the follow-up, conducted at least 3 years later. At the follow-up 80 patients had converted to overt dementia. The predictive capacity of raw, age-corrected, education-corrected and fully corrected scores on RAVLT immediate and delayed recall was compared by examining the area under the ROC curves (AUCs) of all of these scores to assess which (raw or corrected) scores achieves the better reliability in predicting conversion to dementia. The condition (aMCI stable vs converted) was analyzed to assess the odds ratios resulting from a logistic regression on the corrected and uncorrected scores of RAVLT immediate and delayed recall. Even if both in immediate and in delayed recall the ROCs of 'raw scores' were generally higher than the other ROCs on corrected scores, these differences did not reach the level of statistical significance, failing to support the claim that unadjusted test scores are superior to age- and education-corrected scores in predicting progression from aMCI to AD.

  12. Standardised test protocol (Constant Score) for evaluation of functionality in patients with shoulder disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ban, Ilija; Troelsen, Anders; Christiansen, David Høyrup

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The Constant Score (CS), developed as a scoring system to evaluate overall functionality of patients with shoulder disorders, is widely used but has been criticised for relying on an imprecise terminology and for lack of a standardised methodology. A modified guideline was therefore...... internationally for standardised assessment of the CS. Testing of validity, reliability and responsiveness of both versions needs to be done in future research. FUNDING: not relevant. TRIAL REGISTRATION: not relevant....

  13. The Impact of Correction for Guessing Formula on MC and Yes/No Vocabulary Tests' Scores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    abdollah baradaran

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available A standard correction for random guessing (cfg formula on multiple-choice and Yes/Noexaminations was examined retrospectively in the scores of the intermediate female EFL learners in an English language school. The correctionwas a weighting formula for points awarded for correct answers,incorrect answers, and unanswered questions so that the expectedvalue of the increase in test score due to guessing was zero. The researcher compared uncorrected and corrected scores on examinationsusing multiple-choice and Yes/No formats. These short-answer formats eliminatedor at least greatly reduced the potential for guessing the correctanswer. The expectation for students to improve their grade by guessingon multiple-choice and Yes/No format examinations is well known. The researcher examined a method for correcting for random guessing (cfg " no knowledge" on multiple- choice and Yes/No vocabulary examinations by comparing application and non-application of correction for guessing (cfg formula on scores on these examinations. It was done to determine whether the test takers really knew the correct answer, or they had resorted to a kind of guessing. This study represented a unique opportunity to compare scores from multiple-choice and Yes/No examinations in a settingin which students were given the same number of questions ineach of the two format types testing their knowledge over thesame subject matter. The results of this study indicated that the significant differences were highlighted between the subjects' scores when cfg formula was applied and when it was not.

  14. Validation of new prognostic and predictive scores by sequential testing approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nieder, Carsten; Haukland, Ellinor; Pawinski, Adam; Dalhaug, Astrid

    2010-01-01

    Background and Purpose: For practitioners, the question arises how their own patient population differs from that used in large-scale analyses resulting in new scores and nomograms and whether such tools actually are valid at a local level and thus can be implemented. A recent article proposed an easy-to-use method for the in-clinic validation of new prediction tools with a limited number of patients, a so-called sequential testing approach. The present study evaluates this approach in scores related to radiation oncology. Material and Methods: Three different scores were used, each predicting short overall survival after palliative radiotherapy (bone metastases, brain metastases, metastatic spinal cord compression). For each scenario, a limited number of consecutive patients entered the sequential testing approach. The positive predictive value (PPV) was used for validation of the respective score and it was required that the PPV exceeded 80%. Results: For two scores, validity in the own local patient population could be confirmed after entering 13 and 17 patients, respectively. For the third score, no decision could be reached even after increasing the sample size to 30. Conclusion: In-clinic validation of new predictive tools with sequential testing approach should be preferred over uncritical adoption of tools which provide no significant benefit to local patient populations. Often the necessary number of patients can be reached within reasonable time frames even in small oncology practices. In addition, validation is performed continuously as the data are collected. (orig.)

  15. Validation of new prognostic and predictive scores by sequential testing approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieder, Carsten [Radiation Oncology Unit, Nordland Hospital, Bodo (Norway); Inst. of Clinical Medicine, Univ. of Tromso (Norway); Haukland, Ellinor; Pawinski, Adam; Dalhaug, Astrid [Radiation Oncology Unit, Nordland Hospital, Bodo (Norway)

    2010-03-15

    Background and Purpose: For practitioners, the question arises how their own patient population differs from that used in large-scale analyses resulting in new scores and nomograms and whether such tools actually are valid at a local level and thus can be implemented. A recent article proposed an easy-to-use method for the in-clinic validation of new prediction tools with a limited number of patients, a so-called sequential testing approach. The present study evaluates this approach in scores related to radiation oncology. Material and Methods: Three different scores were used, each predicting short overall survival after palliative radiotherapy (bone metastases, brain metastases, metastatic spinal cord compression). For each scenario, a limited number of consecutive patients entered the sequential testing approach. The positive predictive value (PPV) was used for validation of the respective score and it was required that the PPV exceeded 80%. Results: For two scores, validity in the own local patient population could be confirmed after entering 13 and 17 patients, respectively. For the third score, no decision could be reached even after increasing the sample size to 30. Conclusion: In-clinic validation of new predictive tools with sequential testing approach should be preferred over uncritical adoption of tools which provide no significant benefit to local patient populations. Often the necessary number of patients can be reached within reasonable time frames even in small oncology practices. In addition, validation is performed continuously as the data are collected. (orig.)

  16. A Test for the Assessment of Pragmatic Abilities and Cognitive Substrates (APACS): Normative Data and Psychometric Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcara, Giorgio; Bambini, Valentina

    2016-01-01

    The Assessment of Pragmatic Abilities and Cognitive Substrates (APACS) test is a new tool to evaluate pragmatic abilities in clinical populations with acquired communicative deficits, ranging from schizophrenia to neurodegenerative diseases. APACS focuses on two main domains, namely discourse and non-literal language, combining traditional tasks with refined linguistic materials in Italian, in a unified framework inspired by language pragmatics. The test includes six tasks (Interview, Description, Narratives, Figurative Language 1, Humor, Figurative Language 2) and three composite scores (Pragmatic Productions, Pragmatic Comprehension, APACS Total). Psychometric properties and normative data were computed on a sample of 119 healthy participants representative of the general population. The analysis revealed acceptable internal consistency and good test-retest reliability for almost every APACS task, suggesting that items are coherent and performance is consistent over time. Factor analysis supports the validity of the test, revealing two factors possibly related to different facets and substrates of the pragmatic competence. Finally, excellent match between APACS items and scores and the pragmatic constructs measured in the test was evidenced by experts' evaluation of content validity. The performance on APACS showed a general effect of demographic variables, with a negative effect of age and a positive effect of education. The norms were calculated by means of state-of-the-art regression methods. Overall, APACS is a valuable tool for the assessment of pragmatic deficits in verbal communication. The short duration and easiness of administration make the test especially suitable to use in clinical settings. In presenting APACS, we also aim at promoting the inclusion of pragmatics in the assessment practice, as a relevant dimension in defining the patient's cognitive profile, given its vital role for communication and social interaction in daily life. The combined

  17. A Test for the Assessment of Pragmatic Abilities and Cognitive Substrates (APACS): Normative Data and Psychometric Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcara, Giorgio; Bambini, Valentina

    2016-01-01

    The Assessment of Pragmatic Abilities and Cognitive Substrates (APACS) test is a new tool to evaluate pragmatic abilities in clinical populations with acquired communicative deficits, ranging from schizophrenia to neurodegenerative diseases. APACS focuses on two main domains, namely discourse and non-literal language, combining traditional tasks with refined linguistic materials in Italian, in a unified framework inspired by language pragmatics. The test includes six tasks (Interview, Description, Narratives, Figurative Language 1, Humor, Figurative Language 2) and three composite scores (Pragmatic Productions, Pragmatic Comprehension, APACS Total). Psychometric properties and normative data were computed on a sample of 119 healthy participants representative of the general population. The analysis revealed acceptable internal consistency and good test-retest reliability for almost every APACS task, suggesting that items are coherent and performance is consistent over time. Factor analysis supports the validity of the test, revealing two factors possibly related to different facets and substrates of the pragmatic competence. Finally, excellent match between APACS items and scores and the pragmatic constructs measured in the test was evidenced by experts' evaluation of content validity. The performance on APACS showed a general effect of demographic variables, with a negative effect of age and a positive effect of education. The norms were calculated by means of state-of-the-art regression methods. Overall, APACS is a valuable tool for the assessment of pragmatic deficits in verbal communication. The short duration and easiness of administration make the test especially suitable to use in clinical settings. In presenting APACS, we also aim at promoting the inclusion of pragmatics in the assessment practice, as a relevant dimension in defining the patient's cognitive profile, given its vital role for communication and social interaction in daily life. The combined

  18. The Effects of Group Members' Personalities on a Test Taker's L2 Group Oral Discussion Test Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ockey, Gary J.

    2009-01-01

    The second language group oral is a test of second language speaking proficiency, in which a group of three or more English language learners discuss an assigned topic without interaction with interlocutors. Concerns expressed about the extent to which test takers' personal characteristics affect the scores of others in the group have limited its…

  19. A score based on screening tests to differentiate mild cognitive impairment from subjective memory complaints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Henrique de Gobbi Porto

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available It is not easy to differentiate patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI from subjective memory complainers (SMC. Assessments with screening cognitive tools are essential, particularly in primary care where most patients are seen. The objective of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of screening cognitive tests and to propose a score derived from screening tests. Elderly subjects with memory complaints were evaluated using the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE and the Brief Cognitive Battery (BCB. We added two delayed recalls in the MMSE (a delayed recall and a late-delayed recall, LDR, and also a phonemic fluency test of letter P fluency (LPF. A score was created based on these tests. The diagnoses were made on the basis of clinical consensus and neuropsychological testing. Receiver operating characteristic curve analyses were used to determine area under the curve (AUC, the sensitivity and specificity for each test separately and for the final proposed score. MMSE, LDR, LPF and delayed recall of BCB scores reach statistically significant differences between groups (P=0.000, 0.03, 0.001 and 0.01, respectively. Sensitivity, specificity and AUC were MMSE: 64%, 79% and 0.75 (cut off <29; LDR: 56%, 62% and 0.62 (cut off <3; LPF: 71%, 71% and 0.71 (cut off <14; delayed recall of BCB: 56%, 82% and 0.68 (cut off <9. The proposed score reached a sensitivity of 88% and 76% and specificity of 62% and 75% for cut off over 1 and over 2, respectively. AUC were 0.81. In conclusion, a score created from screening tests is capable of discriminating MCI from SMC with moderate to good accurancy.

  20. Online pre-race education improves test scores for volunteers at a marathon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Shane; Renier, Colleen; Sikka, Robby; Widstrom, Luke; Paulson, William; Christensen, Trent; Olson, David; Nelson, Benjamin

    2017-09-01

    This study examined whether an online course would lead to increased knowledge about the medical issues volunteers encounter during a marathon. Health care professionals who volunteered to provide medical coverage for an annual marathon were eligible for the study. Demographic information about medical volunteers including profession, specialty, education level and number of marathons they had volunteered for was collected. A 15-question test about the most commonly encountered medical issues was created by the authors and administered before and after the volunteers took the online educational course and compared to a pilot study the previous year. Seventy-four subjects completed the pre-test. Those who participated in the pilot study last year (N = 15) had pre-test scores that were an average of 2.4 points higher than those who did not (mean ranks: pilot study = 51.6 vs. non-pilot = 33.9, p = 0.004). Of the 74 subjects who completed the pre-test, 54 also completed the post-test. The overall post-pre mean score difference was 3.8 ± 2.7 (t = 10.5 df = 53 p change among first time marathon volunteers was significantly different from the others. Subjects reporting all degree/certification levels demonstrated improvement, but no difference in improvement was found between degree/certification levels. In this follow-up to the previous year's pilot study, online education demonstrated a long-term (one-year) increase in test scores. Testing also continued to show short-term improvement in post-course test scores, compared to pre-course test scores. In general, marathon medical volunteers who had no volunteer experience demonstrated greater improvement than those who had prior volunteer experience.

  1. Web-based training and interrater reliability testing for scoring the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Jules; Mulsant, Benoit H; Marino, Patricia; Groening, Christopher; Young, Robert C; Fox, Debra

    2008-10-30

    Despite the importance of establishing shared scoring conventions and assessing interrater reliability in clinical trials in psychiatry, these elements are often overlooked. Obstacles to rater training and reliability testing include logistic difficulties in providing live training sessions, or mailing videotapes of patients to multiple sites and collecting the data for analysis. To address some of these obstacles, a web-based interactive video system was developed. It uses actors of diverse ages, gender and race to train raters how to score the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and to assess interrater reliability. This system was tested with a group of experienced and novice raters within a single site. It was subsequently used to train raters of a federally funded multi-center clinical trial on scoring conventions and to test their interrater reliability. The advantages and limitations of using interactive video technology to improve the quality of clinical trials are discussed.

  2. Opportunity to learn: Investigating possible predictors for pre-course Test Of Astronomy STandards TOAST scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berryhill, Katie J.

    As astronomy education researchers become more interested in experimentally testing innovative teaching strategies to enhance learning in introductory astronomy survey courses ("ASTRO 101"), scholars are placing increased attention toward better understanding factors impacting student gain scores on the widely used Test Of Astronomy STandards (TOAST). Usually used in a pre-test and post-test research design, one might naturally assume that the pre-course differences observed between high- and low-scoring college students might be due in large part to their pre-existing motivation, interest, experience in science, and attitudes about astronomy. To explore this notion, 11 non-science majoring undergraduates taking ASTRO 101 at west coast community colleges were interviewed in the first few weeks of the course to better understand students' pre-existing affect toward learning astronomy with an eye toward predicting student success. In answering this question, we hope to contribute to our understanding of the incoming knowledge of students taking undergraduate introductory astronomy classes, but also gain insight into how faculty can best meet those students' needs and assist them in achieving success. Perhaps surprisingly, there was only weak correlation between students' motivation toward learning astronomy and their pre-test scores. Instead, the most fruitful predictor of TOAST pre-test scores was the quantity of pre-existing, informal, self-directed astronomy learning experiences.

  3. The Impact of Linking Distinct Achievement Test Scores on the Interpretation of Student Growth in Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airola, Denise Tobin

    2011-01-01

    Changes to state tests impact the ability of State Education Agencies (SEAs) to monitor change in performance over time. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the Standardized Performance Growth Index (PGIz), a proposed statistical model for measuring change in student and school performance, across transitions in tests. The PGIz is a…

  4. Gender Gaps in High School GPA and ACT Scores: High School Grade Point Average and ACT Test Score by Subject and Gender. Information Brief 2014-12

    Science.gov (United States)

    ACT, Inc., 2014

    2014-01-01

    Female students who graduated from high school in 2013 averaged higher grades than their male counterparts in all subjects, but male graduates earned higher scores on the math and science sections of the ACT. This information brief looks at high school grade point average and ACT test score by subject and gender

  5. The Contribution of Test-Takers' Speech Content to Scores on an English Oral Proficiency Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Takanori

    2012-01-01

    The content that test-takers attempt to convey is not always included in the construct definition of "general" English oral proficiency tests, although some English-for-academic-purposes (EAP) speaking tests and most writing tests tend to place great emphasis on the evaluation of the content or ideas in the performance. This study…

  6. Scoring method of a Situational Judgment Test: influence on internal consistency reliability, adverse impact and correlation with personality?

    OpenAIRE

    Leng, Wendy; Stegers-Jager, Karen; Husbands, A.; Dowell, J.S.; Born, Marise; Themmen, Axel

    2017-01-01

    textabstractSituational Judgment Tests (SJTs) are increasingly used for medical school selection. Scoring an SJT is more complicated than scoring a knowledge test, because there are no objectively correct answers. The scoring method of an SJT may influence the construct and concurrent validity and the adverse impact with respect to non-traditional students. Previous research has compared only a small number of scoring methods and has not studied the effect of scoring method on internal consis...

  7. Standardized Ability Testing for Vocational Rehabilitation in Visually Impaired Adults: A Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, J. M. V.

    1997-01-01

    Reviews research on ability testing for adults with visual impairments, especially the tests used for vocational assessment and counseling. The verbal scales of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised were found to be widely accepted. The problems, however, with relying solely on verbal assessment are addressed, and the need for tests for…

  8. At the Interface between Language Testing and Second Language Acquisition: Language Ability and Context of Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Lin

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between latent components of academic English language ability and test takers' study-abroad and classroom learning experiences through a structural equation modeling approach in the context of TOEFL iBT® testing. Data from the TOEFL iBT public dataset were used. The results showed that test takers'…

  9. Genetic Tests for Ability?: Talent Identification and the Value of an Open Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miah, Andy; Rich, Emma

    2006-01-01

    This paper explores the prospect of genetic tests for performance in physical activity and sports practices. It investigates the terminology associated with genetics, testing, selection and ability as a means towards a socio-ethical analysis of its value within sport, education and society. Our argument suggests that genetic tests need not even be…

  10. Associations of maximal strength and muscular endurance test scores with cardiorespiratory fitness and body composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaara, Jani P; Kyröläinen, Heikki; Niemi, Jaakko; Ohrankämmen, Olli; Häkkinen, Arja; Kocay, Sheila; Häkkinen, Keijo

    2012-08-01

    The purpose of the present study was to assess the relationships between maximal strength and muscular endurance test scores additionally to previously widely studied measures of body composition and maximal aerobic capacity. 846 young men (25.5 ± 5.0 yrs) participated in the study. Maximal strength was measured using isometric bench press, leg extension and grip strength. Muscular endurance tests consisted of push-ups, sit-ups and repeated squats. An indirect graded cycle ergometer test was used to estimate maximal aerobic capacity (V(O2)max). Body composition was determined with bioelectrical impedance. Moreover, waist circumference (WC) and height were measured and body mass index (BMI) calculated. Maximal bench press was positively correlated with push-ups (r = 0.61, p strength (r = 0.34, p strength correlated positively (r = 0.36-0.44, p test scores were related to maximal aerobic capacity and body fat content, while fat free mass was associated with maximal strength test scores and thus is a major determinant for maximal strength. A contributive role of maximal strength to muscular endurance tests could be identified for the upper, but not the lower extremities. These findings suggest that push-up test is not only indicative of body fat content and maximal aerobic capacity but also maximal strength of upper body, whereas repeated squat test is mainly indicative of body fat content and maximal aerobic capacity, but not maximal strength of lower extremities.

  11. The FCE Speaking Test: Using rater Reports To Help Interpret Test Scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Michael

    2002-01-01

    Reports research using oral examiner verbal reports that attempts to gain insights into the rating process in the Cambridge First Certificate in English Speaking Test. Raters' verbal reports of the decision-making process were analyzed and heeded aspects of the test performances were identified, with a view to better understanding how test scores…

  12. The Relationships between Social Class, Listening Test Anxiety and Test Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaabadi, Omid Talebi

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the relationships between the social anxiety, social class and listening-test anxiety of students learning English as a foreign language. The aims of the study were to examine the relationship between listening-test anxiety and listening-test performance. The data were collected using an adapted Foreign Language Listening…

  13. Fine-Tuning Cross-Battery Assessment Procedures: After Follow-Up Testing, Use All Valid Scores, Cohesive or Not

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, W. Joel; Roman, Zachary

    2018-01-01

    We used data simulations to test whether composites consisting of cohesive subtest scores are more accurate than composites consisting of divergent subtest scores. We demonstrate that when multivariate normality holds, divergent and cohesive scores are equally accurate. Furthermore, excluding divergent scores results in biased estimates of…

  14. Intelligence Test Scores and Birth Order among Young Norwegian Men (Conscripts) Analyzed within and between Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjerkedal, Tor; Kristensen, Petter; Skjeret, Geir A.; Brevik, John I.

    2007-01-01

    The present paper reports the results of a within and between family analysis of the relation between birth order and intelligence. The material comprises more than a quarter of a million test scores for intellectual performance of Norwegian male conscripts recorded during 1984-2004. Conscripts, mostly 18-19 years of age, were born to women for…

  15. Classroom Organizational Structure in Fifth Grade Math Classrooms and the Effect on Standardized Test Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Dallas Marie

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if there is a relationship between the classroom organizational structure and MCT2 test scores of fifth-grade math students. The researcher gained insight regarding which structure teachers believe is most beneficial to them and students, and whether or not their belief of classroom organizational…

  16. Opportunity to Learn: Investigating Possible Predictors for Pre-Course "Test Of Astronomy STandards" TOAST Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berryhill, Katie J.; Slater, Timothy F.

    2017-01-01

    As discipline-based astronomy education researchers become more interested in experimentally testing innovative teaching strategies to enhance learning in undergraduate introductory astronomy survey courses ("ASTRO 101"), scholars are placing increased attention toward better understanding factors impacting student gain scores on the…

  17. International Test Score Comparisons and Educational Policy: A Review of the Critiques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnoy, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Stanford education professor Martin Carnoy examines four main critiques of how international test results are used in policymaking. Of particular interest are critiques of the policy analyses published by the Program for International Student Assessment (PISA). Using average PISA scores as a comparative measure of student achievement is misleading…

  18. Multiple Imputation of Item Scores in Test and Questionnaire Data, and Influence on Psychometric Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ginkel, Joost R.; van der Ark, L. Andries; Sijtsma, Klaas

    2007-01-01

    The performance of five simple multiple imputation methods for dealing with missing data were compared. In addition, random imputation and multivariate normal imputation were used as lower and upper benchmark, respectively. Test data were simulated and item scores were deleted such that they were either missing completely at random, missing at…

  19. Score test for familial aggregation in probands studies: application to Alzheimer's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Commenges; H. Jacqmin; L. Letenneur; C.M. van Duijn (Cornelia)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractWhen studying familial aggregation of a disease, the following two-stage design is often used: first select index subjects (cases and controls); then record data on their relatives. The likelihood corresponding to this design is derived and a score test of homogeneity is proposed for

  20. Validating Score Interpretations and Uses: Messick Lecture, Language Testing Research Colloquium, Cambridge, April 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The argument-based approach to validation involves two steps; specification of the proposed interpretations and uses of the test scores as an interpretive argument, and the evaluation of the plausibility of the proposed interpretive argument. More ambitious interpretations and uses tend to involve an extended network of inferences and assumptions…

  1. The Fight's Not Always Fixed: Using Literary Response to Transcend Standardized Test Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila, JuliAnna

    2012-01-01

    In 2004, the National Endowment for the Arts (NEA) concluded that "literature reading is fading as a meaningful activity, especially among younger people." How can educators continue to teach students about the power of literary response when the priority is for them to achieve proficiency on standardized tests, whose scores can only be narrowly…

  2. Evaluation of Two Methods for Modeling Measurement Errors When Testing Interaction Effects with Observed Composite Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Yu-Yu; Kwok, Oi-Man; Lai, Mark H. C.

    2018-01-01

    Path models with observed composites based on multiple items (e.g., mean or sum score of the items) are commonly used to test interaction effects. Under this practice, researchers generally assume that the observed composites are measured without errors. In this study, we reviewed and evaluated two alternative methods within the structural…

  3. Integrating GIS in the Middle School Curriculum: Impacts on Diverse Students' Standardized Test Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Donna; Alibrandi, Marsha

    2013-01-01

    This case study conducted with 1,425 middle school students in Palm Beach County, Florida, included a treatment group receiving GIS instruction (256) and a control group without GIS instruction (1,169). Quantitative analyses on standardized test scores indicated that inclusion of GIS in middle school curriculum had a significant effect on student…

  4. Methods for Improving Test Scores: The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    The No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB 2001) has the faculties of every public and charter school scrambling to drive test scores of seven identified groups of children (African-American children, Anglo-White children, children with disabilities, Hispanic children, children of poverty, children with English language limitations, and Native-American…

  5. Test Score Gaps between Private and Government Sector Students at School Entry Age in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Abhijeet

    2014-01-01

    Various studies have noted that students enrolled in private schools in India perform better on average than students in government schools. In this paper, I show that large gaps in the test scores of children in private and public sector education are evident even at the point of initial enrollment in formal schooling and are associated with…

  6. Virginia tech freshman class becoming more competitive; Rise in grades and test scores noted

    OpenAIRE

    Virginia Tech News

    2004-01-01

    Admission to Virginia Tech continues to become more competitive as applicants report higher grade point averages and test scores than previous years. The incoming class of 4,975 students has an average grade point average (GPA) of 3.68 and SAT 1203, up from 3.60 GPA and 1197 SAT in 2003.

  7. Testing Vegetation Flammability: The Problem of Extremely Low Ignition Frequency and Overall Flammability Score

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zorica Kauf

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the recent decades changes in fire regimes led to higher vulnerability of fire prone ecosystems, with vegetation being the only component influencing fire regime which can be managed in order to reduce probability of extreme fire events. For these management practices to be effective reliable information on the vegetation flammability is being crucial. Epiradiator based testing methods are one of the methods commonly used to investigate vegetation flammability and decrease in ignition frequency is always interpreted as a decrease in flammability. Furthermore, gathered information is often combined into a single flammability score. Here we present results of leaf litter testing which, together with previously conducted research on similar materials, show that material with very low ignition frequency under certain testing conditions can be extremely flammable if testing conditions are slightly changed. Additionally, our results indicate that combining measured information into one single flammability score, even though sometimes useful, is not always meaningful and should be performed with caution.

  8. Effects of Classroom Ventilation Rate and Temperature on Students' Test Scores.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulla Haverinen-Shaughnessy

    Full Text Available Using a multilevel approach, we estimated the effects of classroom ventilation rate and temperature on academic achievement. The analysis is based on measurement data from a 70 elementary school district (140 fifth grade classrooms from Southwestern United States, and student level data (N = 3109 on socioeconomic variables and standardized test scores. There was a statistically significant association between ventilation rates and mathematics scores, and it was stronger when the six classrooms with high ventilation rates that were indicated as outliers were filtered (> 7.1 l/s per person. The association remained significant when prior year test scores were included in the model, resulting in less unexplained variability. Students' mean mathematics scores (average 2286 points were increased by up to eleven points (0.5% per each liter per second per person increase in ventilation rate within the range of 0.9-7.1 l/s per person (estimated effect size 74 points. There was an additional increase of 12-13 points per each 1°C decrease in temperature within the observed range of 20-25°C (estimated effect size 67 points. Effects of similar magnitude but higher variability were observed for reading and science scores. In conclusion, maintaining adequate ventilation and thermal comfort in classrooms could significantly improve academic achievement of students.

  9. Lower Quarter Y-Balance Test Scores and Lower Extremity Injury in NCAA Division I Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Wilson C; Wang, Dean; Chen, James B; Vail, Jeremy; Rugg, Caitlin M; Hame, Sharon L

    2017-08-01

    Functional movement tests that are predictive of injury risk in National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) athletes are useful tools for sports medicine professionals. The Lower Quarter Y-Balance Test (YBT-LQ) measures single-leg balance and reach distances in 3 directions. To assess whether the YBT-LQ predicts the laterality and risk of sports-related lower extremity (LE) injury in NCAA athletes. Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. The YBT-LQ was administered to 294 NCAA Division I athletes from 21 sports during preparticipation physical examinations at a single institution. Athletes were followed prospectively over the course of the corresponding season. Correlation analysis was performed between the laterality of reach asymmetry and composite scores (CS) versus the laterality of injury. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to determine the optimal asymmetry cutoff score for YBT-LQ. A multivariate regression analysis adjusting for sex, sport type, body mass index, and history of prior LE surgery was performed to assess predictors of earlier and higher rates of injury. Neither the laterality of reach asymmetry nor the CS correlated with the laterality of injury. ROC analysis found optimal cutoff scores of 2, 9, and 3 cm for anterior, posteromedial, and posterolateral reach, respectively. All of these potential cutoff scores, along with a cutoff score of 4 cm used in the majority of prior studies, were associated with poor sensitivity and specificity. Furthermore, none of the asymmetric cutoff scores were associated with earlier or increased rate of injury in the multivariate analyses. YBT-LQ scores alone do not predict LE injury in this collegiate athlete population. Sports medicine professionals should be cautioned against using the YBT-LQ alone to screen for injury risk in collegiate athletes.

  10. Rey's Auditory Verbal Learning Test scores can be predicted from whole brain MRI in Alzheimer's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaheh Moradi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Rey's Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT is a powerful neuropsychological tool for testing episodic memory, which is widely used for the cognitive assessment in dementia and pre-dementia conditions. Several studies have shown that an impairment in RAVLT scores reflect well the underlying pathology caused by Alzheimer's disease (AD, thus making RAVLT an effective early marker to detect AD in persons with memory complaints. We investigated the association between RAVLT scores (RAVLT Immediate and RAVLT Percent Forgetting and the structural brain atrophy caused by AD. The aim was to comprehensively study to what extent the RAVLT scores are predictable based on structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI data using machine learning approaches as well as to find the most important brain regions for the estimation of RAVLT scores. For this, we built a predictive model to estimate RAVLT scores from gray matter density via elastic net penalized linear regression model. The proposed approach provided highly significant cross-validated correlation between the estimated and observed RAVLT Immediate (R = 0.50 and RAVLT Percent Forgetting (R = 0.43 in a dataset consisting of 806 AD, mild cognitive impairment (MCI or healthy subjects. In addition, the selected machine learning method provided more accurate estimates of RAVLT scores than the relevance vector regression used earlier for the estimation of RAVLT based on MRI data. The top predictors were medial temporal lobe structures and amygdala for the estimation of RAVLT Immediate and angular gyrus, hippocampus and amygdala for the estimation of RAVLT Percent Forgetting. Further, the conversion of MCI subjects to AD in 3-years could be predicted based on either observed or estimated RAVLT scores with an accuracy comparable to MRI-based biomarkers.

  11. Effects of correcting for prematurity on cognitive test scores in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson-Ching, Michelle; Pascoe, Leona; Doyle, Lex W; Anderson, Peter J

    2014-03-01

    The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that test scores should be corrected for prematurity up to 3 years of age, but this practice varies greatly in both clinical and research settings. The aim of this study was to contrast the effects of using chronological age and those of using corrected age on measures of cognitive outcome across childhood. A theoretical model was constructed using norms from the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Third Edition; the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence, Third Edition Australian; and the Wechsler Intelligence Scales for Children, Fourth Edition Australian. Baseline scores representing different levels of functioning (70, below average; 85, borderline; and 100, average) were recalculated using the normative data for ages 6 months to 16 years to account for 1, 2, 3 and 4 months of prematurity. The model created depicted the difference in standardised scores between chronological and corrected age. Compared with scores corrected for prematurity, the absolute reduction in scores using chronological age was greater for increasing degree of prematurity, younger ages at assessment and higher baseline scores and was substantial even beyond 3 years of age. However, the pattern was erratic, with considerable fluctuation evident across different ages and baseline scores. Chronological age results in a lowering of scores at all ages for preterm-born subjects that is greater in the first few years and in those born at earlier gestational ages. Whether or not to correct for prematurity depends upon the context of the assessment. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2014 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  12. Identifying genetic marker sets associated with phenotypes via an efficient adaptive score test

    KAUST Repository

    Cai, T.

    2012-06-25

    In recent years, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and gene-expression profiling have generated a large number of valuable datasets for assessing how genetic variations are related to disease outcomes. With such datasets, it is often of interest to assess the overall effect of a set of genetic markers, assembled based on biological knowledge. Genetic marker-set analyses have been advocated as more reliable and powerful approaches compared with the traditional marginal approaches (Curtis and others, 2005. Pathways to the analysis of microarray data. TRENDS in Biotechnology 23, 429-435; Efroni and others, 2007. Identification of key processes underlying cancer phenotypes using biologic pathway analysis. PLoS One 2, 425). Procedures for testing the overall effect of a marker-set have been actively studied in recent years. For example, score tests derived under an Empirical Bayes (EB) framework (Liu and others, 2007. Semiparametric regression of multidimensional genetic pathway data: least-squares kernel machines and linear mixed models. Biometrics 63, 1079-1088; Liu and others, 2008. Estimation and testing for the effect of a genetic pathway on a disease outcome using logistic kernel machine regression via logistic mixed models. BMC bioinformatics 9, 292-2; Wu and others, 2010. Powerful SNP-set analysis for case-control genome-wide association studies. American Journal of Human Genetics 86, 929) have been proposed as powerful alternatives to the standard Rao score test (Rao, 1948. Large sample tests of statistical hypotheses concerning several parameters with applications to problems of estimation. Mathematical Proceedings of the Cambridge Philosophical Society, 44, 50-57). The advantages of these EB-based tests are most apparent when the markers are correlated, due to the reduction in the degrees of freedom. In this paper, we propose an adaptive score test which up- or down-weights the contributions from each member of the marker-set based on the Z-scores of

  13. Effect on intelligence test score of prenatal exposure to ionizing radiation in Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schull, W.J.; Otake, Masanori; Yoshimaru, Hiroshi.

    1988-10-01

    Analyses of intelligence test scores (Koga) at 10-11 years of age of individuals exposed prenatally to the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki using estimates of the uterine absorbed dose based on the recently introduced system of dosimetry, the Dosimetry System 1986 (DS86), reveal the following: 1) there is no evidence of a radiation-related effect on intelligence among those individuals exposed within 0-7 weeks after fertilization or in the 26th or subsequent weeks; 2) for individuals exposed at 8-15 weeks after fertilization, and to a lesser extent those exposed at 16-25 weeks, the mean tests scores but not the variances are significantly heterogeneous among exposure categories; 3) the cumulative distribution of test scores suggests a progressive shift downwards in individual scores with increasing exposure; and 4) within the group most sensitive to the occurrence of clinically recognizable severe mental retardation, individuals exposed 8 through 15 weeks after fertilization, the regression of intelligence score on estimated DS86 uterine absorbed dose is more linear than with T65DR fetal dose, the diminution in intelligence score under the linear model is 21-29 points at 1Gy. The effect is somewhat greater when the controls receiving less than 0.01 Gy are excluded, 24-33 points at 1 Gy. These findings are discussed in the light of the earlier analysis of the frequency of occurrence of mental retardation among the prenatally exposed survivors of the A-bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. It is suggested that both are the consequences of the same underlying biological process or processes. (author)

  14. Treatment for Schistosoma japonicum, reduction of intestinal parasite load, and cognitive test score improvements in school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezeamama, Amara E; McGarvey, Stephen T; Hogan, Joseph; Lapane, Kate L; Bellinger, David C; Acosta, Luz P; Leenstra, Tjalling; Olveda, Remigio M; Kurtis, Jonathan D; Friedman, Jennifer F

    2012-01-01

    declines were independently associated with improvements in WRAML memory scores as was the joint decline in ≥2 STH species. Baseline coinfection by ≥2 STH species was associated with low PNIT scores (β = -1.9; P = 0.04). Children cured/S. japonicum-free for >12 months post-treatment and those who experienced declines of ≥2 STH species scored higher in three of four cognitive tests. Our result suggests that sustained deworming and simultaneous control for schistosome and STH infections could improve children's ability to take advantage of educational opportunities in helminth-endemic regions.

  15. The Childhood Asperger Syndrome Test (CAST): Test-Retest Reliability in a High Scoring Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Carrie; Williams, Jo; Scott, Fiona; Stott, Carol; Bolton, Patrick; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Brayne, Carol

    2007-01-01

    The Childhood Asperger Syndrome Test (CAST) is a 37-item parental self-completion questionnaire designed to screen for high-functioning autism spectrum conditions in epidemiological research. The CAST has previously demonstrated good accuracy for use as a screening test, with high sensitivity in studies with primary school aged children in…

  16. ACER Mathematics Profile Series: Number Test. (Test Booklet, Answer and Record Sheet, Score Key, and Teachers Handbook).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornish, Greg; Wines, Robin

    The Number Test of the ACER Mathematics Profile Series, contains 30 items, for each of three suggested grade levels: 7-8, 8-9, and 9-10. Raw scores on all tests in the ACER Mathematics Profile Series (Number, Operations, Space and Measurement) are converted to a common scale called MAPS, a major feature of the Series. Based on the Rasch Model,…

  17. Scoring method of a Situational Judgment Test: influence on internal consistency reliability, adverse impact and correlation with personality?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.E. de Leng (Wendy); K.M. Stegers-Jager (Karen); Husbands, A.; Dowell, J.S.; M.Ph. Born (Marise); A.P.N. Themmen (Axel)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractSituational Judgment Tests (SJTs) are increasingly used for medical school selection. Scoring an SJT is more complicated than scoring a knowledge test, because there are no objectively correct answers. The scoring method of an SJT may influence the construct and concurrent validity and

  18. Effects of Public Preschool Expenditures on the Test Scores of 4th Graders: Evidence from TIMSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldfogel, Jane; Zhai, Fuhua

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the effects of public preschool expenditures on the math and science scores of 4th graders, holding constant child, family, and school characteristics, other relevant social expenditures, and country and year effects, in seven Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries -- Australia, Japan, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, U.K., and U.S -- using data from the 1995 and 2003 Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS). Our results indicate that there are small but significant positive effects of public preschool expenditures on the math and science scores of 4th graders and preschool expenditures reduce the risk of children scoring at the low level of proficiency. We also find some evidence that children from low-resource homes and homes where the test language is not always spoken may tend to gain more from increased public preschool expenditures than other children,. PMID:21442008

  19. Effects of Public Preschool Expenditures on the Test Scores of 4 Graders: Evidence from TIMSS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldfogel, Jane; Zhai, Fuhua

    2008-02-01

    This study examines the effects of public preschool expenditures on the math and science scores of 4(th) graders, holding constant child, family, and school characteristics, other relevant social expenditures, and country and year effects, in seven Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries -- Australia, Japan, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, U.K., and U.S -- using data from the 1995 and 2003 Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS). Our results indicate that there are small but significant positive effects of public preschool expenditures on the math and science scores of 4(th) graders and preschool expenditures reduce the risk of children scoring at the low level of proficiency. We also find some evidence that children from low-resource homes and homes where the test language is not always spoken may tend to gain more from increased public preschool expenditures than other children,.

  20. Association of Health Sciences Reasoning Test scores with academic and experiential performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Wendy C; McLaughlin, Jacqueline E

    2014-05-15

    To assess the association of scores on the Health Sciences Reasoning Test (HSRT) with academic and experiential performance in a doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) curriculum. The HSRT was administered to 329 first-year (P1) PharmD students. Performance on the HSRT and its subscales was compared with academic performance in 29 courses throughout the curriculum and with performance in advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPEs). Significant positive correlations were found between course grades in 8 courses and HSRT overall scores. All significant correlations were accounted for by pharmaceutical care laboratory courses, therapeutics courses, and a law and ethics course. There was a lack of moderate to strong correlation between HSRT scores and academic and experiential performance. The usefulness of the HSRT as a tool for predicting student success may be limited.

  1. What's in a Teacher Test? Assessing the Relationship between Teacher Test Scores and Student Secondary STEM Achievement. CEDR Working Paper. WP #2016-4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldhaber, Dan; Gratz, Trevor; Theobald, Roddy

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the predictive validity of teacher credential test scores for student performance in secondary STEM classrooms in Washington state. After replicating earlier findings that teacher basic skills licensure test scores are a modest and statistically significant predictor of student math test score gains in elementary grades, we focus on…

  2. The Munich High Ability Test Battery (MHBT): A multidimensional, multimethod approach

    OpenAIRE

    CHRISTOPH PERLETH; KURT A. HELLER

    2008-01-01

    After a brief introduction the theoretical basis of the Munich High Ability Test-Battery (MHBT) will be outlined in the first part of the article. The MHBT has been developed in the framework of the Munich longitudinal study of giftedness and talent. The MHBT includes not only cognitive predictors measuring several dimensions and types of giftedness concerning intellectual, creative or social abilities etc., but also giftedness-relevant non-cognitive personality and social moderators measurin...

  3. Influence of the coronary calcium score on the ability to rule out coronary artery stenoses by coronary CT angiography in patients with suspected coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuhbaeck, Annika; Schmid, Jasmin; Zimmer, Thomas; Muschiol, Gerd; Hell, Michaela M; Marwan, Mohamed; Achenbach, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    Recent guidelines for the workup of patients with chest pain and suspected coronary artery disease include coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA). However, its diagnostic value may be limited in patients with severe coronary calcification. We investigated the relationship between the extent of coronary calcium and the ability of coronary CTA to rule out significant stenoses in a series of consecutive patients with suspected coronary artery disease. 2614 consecutive patients with suspected coronary artery disease in whom coronary calcium scoring and coronary CTA had been performed by Dual Source CT were analyzed. The ability of coronary CTA to rule out coronary artery stenoses (fully evaluable coronary arteries and absence of any luminal stenosis >75%) was analyzed relative to the coronary calcium score. The median coronary calcium score was 12, with calcium present in 60.5% of all patients. Coronary CTA ruled out stenoses in 82% of patients, while in 18% of patients at least one stenosis was found or could not be excluded. The threshold above which coronary CTA permitted to rule out stenoses in less than 50% of patients was an "Agatston Score" of 287. This threshold was significantly lower for male patients (213 vs. 330), for patients with a heart rate >65 beats/min (157 vs. 317) and for patients with a body mass index ≥25 kg/m(2) (208 vs. 392). The evaluability of coronary arteries decreased with increasing amounts of calcium and differed significantly between heart rates ≤65 beats/min and >65 beats/min (p coronary CTA permits to rule out coronary artery stenoses in less than 50% of cases. Copyright © 2016 Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Do candidate reactions relate to job performance or affect criterion-related validity? A multistudy investigation of relations among reactions, selection test scores, and job performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Julie M; Van Iddekinge, Chad H; Lievens, Filip; Kung, Mei-Chuan; Sinar, Evan F; Campion, Michael A

    2013-09-01

    Considerable evidence suggests that how candidates react to selection procedures can affect their test performance and their attitudes toward the hiring organization (e.g., recommending the firm to others). However, very few studies of candidate reactions have examined one of the outcomes organizations care most about: job performance. We attempt to address this gap by developing and testing a conceptual framework that delineates whether and how candidate reactions might influence job performance. We accomplish this objective using data from 4 studies (total N = 6,480), 6 selection procedures (personality tests, job knowledge tests, cognitive ability tests, work samples, situational judgment tests, and a selection inventory), 5 key candidate reactions (anxiety, motivation, belief in tests, self-efficacy, and procedural justice), 2 contexts (industry and education), 3 continents (North America, South America, and Europe), 2 study designs (predictive and concurrent), and 4 occupational areas (medical, sales, customer service, and technological). Consistent with previous research, candidate reactions were related to test scores, and test scores were related to job performance. Further, there was some evidence that reactions affected performance indirectly through their influence on test scores. Finally, in no cases did candidate reactions affect the prediction of job performance by increasing or decreasing the criterion-related validity of test scores. Implications of these findings and avenues for future research are discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved

  5. Student Test Scores: How the Sausage Is Made and Why You Should Care. Evidence Speaks Reports, Vol 1, #25

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Brian A.

    2016-01-01

    Contrary to popular belief, modern cognitive assessments--including the new Common Core tests--produce test scores based on sophisticated statistical models rather than the simple percent of items a student answers correctly. While there are good reasons for this, it means that reported test scores depend on many decisions made by test designers,…

  6. Validity and Relative Ability of 4 Balance Tests to Identify Fall Status of Older Adults With Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Alda; Silva, Alexandre; Oliveira, Ana; Cruz, Joana; Machado, Ana; Jácome, Cristina

    The Berg Balance Scale (BBS), the Balance Evaluation Systems Test (BESTest), the Mini-BESTest, and the Brief-BESTest are useful tests to assess balance; however, their clinimetric properties have not been studied well in older adults with type 2 diabetes (T2D). This study compared the validity and relative ability of the BBS, BESTest, Mini-BESTest, and Brief-BESTest to identify fall status in older adults with T2D. This study involved a cross-sectional design. Sixty-six older adults with T2D (75 ± 7.6 years) were included and asked to report the number of falls during the previous 12 months and to complete the Activities-specific Balance Confidence scale. The BBS and the BESTest were administered, and the Mini-BESTest and Brief-BESTest scores were computed based on the BESTest performance. Receiver operating characteristics were used to assess the ability of each balance test to differentiate between participants with and without a history of falls. The 4 balance tests were able to identify fall status (areas under the curve = 0.74-0.76), with similar sensitivity (60%-67%) and specificity (71%-76%). The 4 balance tests were able to differentiate between older adults with T2D with and without a history of falls. As the BBS and the BESTest require longer application time, the Brief-BESTest may be an appropriate choice to use in clinical practice to detect fall risk.

  7. [Performance of students with dyslexia, learning disabilities and learning difficulties in metaphonological abilities tests (PROHFON)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germano, Giseli Donadon; Capellini, Simone Aparecida

    2011-01-01

    To elaborate a procedure of metaphonological evaluation, and to characterize the performance of students with developmental dyslexia, learning disabilities and learning difficulties and good readers in this evaluation. Metaphonological abilities tests were elaborated based on the necessary skills for reading and writing development. Participants were 134 students from 3rd to 5th grades of elementary school of both genders, with ages between 7 and 13 years, divided into GI (20 students with developmental dyslexia), GII (20 students with learning disabilities), GIII (20 students with learning difficulties) and GIV (74 good readers). The assessment of metaphonological abilities - PROHFON - was applied. Students from GI and GII differed from GIV in most of the tests; GI differed from GII only in the phonemic synthesis and analysis test, and from GIII in abilities of deletion and combination of phonemes. GIII differed from GIV in counting, identification, rhyming, deletion, and combination abilities. Students with developmental dyslexia, learning disabilities and learning difficulties, and good readers showed similar performances in identification, counting and combining phonemes, rhyme and alliteration abilities. The groups differed from each other regarding syllabic (counting, identification, synthesis and analysis, deletion, combination) and phonemic (deletion, synthesis and analysis) abilities. The PROHFON contributed to characterize the metaphonological profile of students with different learning deficits.

  8. How Do Executive Functions Fit with the Cattell-Horn-Carroll Model? Some Evidence from a Joint Factor Analysis of the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System and the Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Cognitive Abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floyd, Randy G.; Bergeron, Renee; Hamilton, Gloria; Parra, Gilbert R.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the relations among executive functions and cognitive abilities through a joint exploratory factor analysis and joint confirmatory factor analysis of 25 test scores from the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System and the Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Cognitive Abilities. Participants were 100 children and adolescents…

  9. The effect of instructional methodology on high school students natural sciences standardized tests scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, P. E.

    Educators have recently come to consider inquiry based instruction as a more effective method of instruction than didactic instruction. Experience based learning theory suggests that student performance is linked to teaching method. However, research is limited on inquiry teaching and its effectiveness on preparing students to perform well on standardized tests. The purpose of the study to investigate whether one of these two teaching methodologies was more effective in increasing student performance on standardized science tests. The quasi experimental quantitative study was comprised of two stages. Stage 1 used a survey to identify teaching methods of a convenience sample of 57 teacher participants and determined level of inquiry used in instruction to place participants into instructional groups (the independent variable). Stage 2 used analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) to compare posttest scores on a standardized exam by teaching method. Additional analyses were conducted to examine the differences in science achievement by ethnicity, gender, and socioeconomic status by teaching methodology. Results demonstrated a statistically significant gain in test scores when taught using inquiry based instruction. Subpopulation analyses indicated all groups showed improved mean standardized test scores except African American students. The findings benefit teachers and students by presenting data supporting a method of content delivery that increases teacher efficacy and produces students with a greater cognition of science content that meets the school's mission and goals.

  10. A knowledge-based theory of rising scores on "culture-free" tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Mark C; Mitchum, Ainsley L

    2013-08-01

    Secular gains in intelligence test scores have perplexed researchers since they were documented by Flynn (1984, 1987). Gains are most pronounced on abstract, so-called culture-free tests, prompting Flynn (2007) to attribute them to problem-solving skills availed by scientifically advanced cultures. We propose that recent-born individuals have adopted an approach to analogy that enables them to infer higher level relations requiring roles that are not intrinsic to the objects that constitute initial representations of items. This proposal is translated into item-specific predictions about differences between cohorts in pass rates and item-response patterns on the Raven's Matrices (Flynn, 1987), a seemingly culture-free test that registers the largest Flynn effect. Consistent with predictions, archival data reveal that individuals born around 1940 are less able to map objects at higher levels of relational abstraction than individuals born around 1990. Polytomous Rasch models verify predicted violations of measurement invariance, as raw scores are found to underestimate the number of analogical rules inferred by members of the earlier cohort relative to members of the later cohort who achieve the same overall score. The work provides a plausible cognitive account of the Flynn effect, furthers understanding of the cognition of matrix reasoning, and underscores the need to consider how test-takers select item responses. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  11. Predicting First-Quarter Test Scores from the New Medical College Admission Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, Thomas J.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    The predictive validity of the new Medical College Admission Test as it relates to end-of-quarter examinations in anatomy, histology, physiology, biochemistry, and "ages of man" is presented. Results indicate that the Science Knowledge assessment areas of chemistry and physics and the Science Problems subtest were most useful in…

  12. Modification of the standing long jump test enhances ability to predict anaerobic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almuzaini, Khalid S; Fleck, Steven J

    2008-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether modifying the standing long jump test would enhance its ability to be a better predictor of anaerobic performance compared to other common anaerobic power tests. Three modified box long jump (MBLJ) tests were performed using 1, 2, or 3 boxes. Subjects consisted of 38 healthy males (age, 21.7 +/- 1.7 years) who performed all the testing procedures. All 3 variations of the MBLJ test showed significant correlations (p jump (VJ); standing long jump (SLJ); 50-, 100-, 200-, 400-m runs; long jump; triple jump; and shot put ability (r = 0.362-0.891). All 3 variations of the MBLJ test also showed significant correlations with isokinetic peak torque knee extension and flexion, Wingate mean power (W), and Wingate mean power per kilogram (W/kg) (r = 0.357-0.504). Generally, correlations of the 3 MBLJ tests were stronger than correlations between VJ and SLJ ability to the same measure of power. Generally, the 3-box MBLJ tests showed stronger correlations with measures of power than the 1- and 2-box MBLJ tests. Multiple linear regression models indicated that the 3-box MBLJ test is a major predictor of the track and field performances compared to the other tests of anaerobic power. Along with other independent variables, the 3-box MBLJ test explained 55%, 44%, 51%, 61%, 52%, and 72% of the variance of 50-, 100-, 200-, and 400-m runs; long jump; and triple jump performance, respectively. In conclusion, due to the significant correlations between the MBLJ tests, especially the 3-box version, and other measures of power, these tests are appropriate for testing lower body power.

  13. WEB-BASED ADAPTIVE TESTING SYSTEM (WATS FOR CLASSIFYING STUDENTS ACADEMIC ABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaemu LEE,

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Computer Adaptive Testing (CAT has been highlighted as a promising assessment method to fulfill two testing purposes: estimating student academic ability and classifying student academic level. In this paper, we introduced the Web-based Adaptive Testing System (WATS developed to support a cost effective assessment for classifying students’ ability into different academic levels. Instead of using a traditional paper and pencil test, the WATS is expected to serve as an alternate method to promptly diagnosis and identify underachieving students through Web-based testing. The WATS can also help provide students with appropriate learning contents and necessary academic support in time. In this paper, theoretical background and structure of WATS, item construction process based upon item response theory, and user interfaces of WATS were discussed.

  14. Impact of Answer-Switching Behavior on Multiple-Choice Test Scores in Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramazan BAŞTÜRK

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The multiple- choice format is one of the most popular selected-response item formats used in educational testing. Researchers have shown that Multiple-choice type test is a useful vehicle for student assessment in core university subjects that usually have large student numbers. Even though the educators, test experts and different test recourses maintain the idea that the first answer should be retained, many researchers argued that this argument is not dependent with empirical findings. The main question of this study is to examine how the answer switching behavior affects the multiple-choice test score. Additionally, gender differences and relationship between number of answer switching behavior and item parameters (item difficulty and item discrimination were investigated. The participants in this study consisted of 207 upper-level College of Education students from mid-sized universities. A Midterm exam consisted of 20 multiple-choice questions was used. According to the result of this study, answer switching behavior statistically increase test scores. On the other hand, there is no significant gender difference in answer-switching behavior. Additionally, there is a significant negative relationship between answer switching behavior and item difficulties.

  15. Are students' impressions of improved learning through active learning methods reflected by improved test scores?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everly, Marcee C

    2013-02-01

    To report the transformation from lecture to more active learning methods in a maternity nursing course and to evaluate whether student perception of improved learning through active-learning methods is supported by improved test scores. The process of transforming a course into an active-learning model of teaching is described. A voluntary mid-semester survey for student acceptance of the new teaching method was conducted. Course examination results, from both a standardized exam and a cumulative final exam, among students who received lecture in the classroom and students who had active learning activities in the classroom were compared. Active learning activities were very acceptable to students. The majority of students reported learning more from having active-learning activities in the classroom rather than lecture-only and this belief was supported by improved test scores. Students who had active learning activities in the classroom scored significantly higher on a standardized assessment test than students who received lecture only. The findings support the use of student reflection to evaluate the effectiveness of active-learning methods and help validate the use of student reflection of improved learning in other research projects. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Testing Students with Special Educational Needs in Large-Scale Assessments - Psychometric Properties of Test Scores and Associations with Test Taking Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohl, Steffi; Südkamp, Anna; Hardt, Katinka; Carstensen, Claus H; Weinert, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    Assessing competencies of students with special educational needs in learning (SEN-L) poses a challenge for large-scale assessments (LSAs). For students with SEN-L, the available competence tests may fail to yield test scores of high psychometric quality, which are-at the same time-measurement invariant to test scores of general education students. We investigated whether we can identify a subgroup of students with SEN-L, for which measurement invariant competence measures of adequate psychometric quality may be obtained with tests available in LSAs. We furthermore investigated whether differences in test-taking behavior may explain dissatisfying psychometric properties and measurement non-invariance of test scores within LSAs. We relied on person fit indices and mixture distribution models to identify students with SEN-L for whom test scores with satisfactory psychometric properties and measurement invariance may be obtained. We also captured differences in test-taking behavior related to guessing and missing responses. As a result we identified a subgroup of students with SEN-L for whom competence scores of adequate psychometric quality that are measurement invariant to those of general education students were obtained. Concerning test taking behavior, there was a small number of students who unsystematically picked response options. Removing these students from the sample slightly improved item fit. Furthermore, two different patterns of missing responses were identified that explain to some extent problems in the assessments of students with SEN-L.

  17. Ability and sex differences in spatial thinking: What does the mental rotation test really measure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegarty, Mary

    2017-08-14

    Spatial ability tests are often interpreted as measuring facility with imagined spatial transformations of objects. But some spatial ability tests can be solved by analytic strategies as well as imagery transformation strategies. In the present study, participants gave verbal protocols while completing items on the Vandenberg and Kuse (Perceptual & Motor Skills, 4, 599-604, 1978) mental rotation test, and/or reported the strategies they had used on the test. Most participants used both imagery transformation and analytic strategies (i.e., feature-based, orientation-independent strategies) to solve the test items. Use of one analytic strategy, the global-shape strategy, was positively correlated with accuracy. Specifically, some of the most successful students used this strategy to eliminate answer choices, reducing the need for mental imagery. Men outperformed women, as is typical on this test, and were more likely than women to use the global-shape strategy, in particular, and more holistic strategies, in general. These results argue against the mental rotation test as a measure of spatial imagery alone and suggest that the ability to discover and use more efficient analytic strategies may be an important additional component of what this test measures.

  18. Performance-based tests in subjects with stroke: outcome scores, reliability and measurement errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Christina D C M; Teixeira-Salmela, Luci F; Neto, Mansueto Gomes; Rodrigues-de-Paula, Fátima

    2012-05-01

    To assess the intra- and inter-rater reliabilities and measurement errors of seven widely applied performance-based tests for stroke subjects (comfortable/maximal gait speeds and both stair ascending/descending cadences, as well as the Timed 'Up and Go' test) and to verify whether the use of different types of outcome scores (one trial, the means of two and three trials, and the best and the worst values of the three trials) affected the score values, as well as their reliability and measurement errors. Intra- and inter-rater reliability study. Research laboratory. Sixteen stroke subjects with a mean age of 52 ± 17.9 years. Seven performance-based tests, over two sessions, seven days apart, evaluated by two independent examiners. A third examiner recorded all data. One-way ANOVAs, intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs) and percentages of the standard errors of measurement (SEM%) were used for analyses. For all tests, similar results were found for all types of outcome scores (0.01 ≤ F ≤ 0.56; 0.34 ≤ p ≤ 0.99). For instance, at the comfortable gait speed, the means (SD) values for the first trial, the means of two and three trials and the best and worst of three trials were, respectively, 1.04 (0.25), 1.04(0.24), 1.05 (0.24), 1.10 (0.26), 1.02 (0.24) seconds. Significant and adequate values of intra- (0.75 ≤ ICC ≤ 0.96; p ≤ 0.002) and inter-rater (0.75 ≤ ICC ≤ 0.97; p ≤ 0.001) reliabilities were found for all tests and outcome scores. Measurement errors were considered low (5.01 ≤ SEM% ≤14.78) and were also similar between all outcome scores. For the seven tests, only one trial was necessary to provide consistent and reliable results regarding the functional performances of stroke subjects.

  19. Sex Differences in Fluid Reasoning: Manifest and Latent Estimates from the Cognitive Abilities Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joni M. Lakin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The size and nature of sex differences in cognitive ability continues to be a source of controversy. Conflicting findings result from the selection of measures, samples, and methods used to estimate sex differences. Existing sex differences work on the Cognitive Abilities Test (CogAT has analyzed manifest variables, leaving open questions about sex differences in latent narrow cognitive abilities and the underlying broad ability of fluid reasoning (Gf. This study attempted to address these questions. A confirmatory bifactor model was used to estimate Gf and three residual narrow ability factors (verbal, quantitative, and figural. We found that latent mean differences were larger than manifest estimates for all three narrow abilities. However, mean differences in Gf were trivial, consistent with previous research. In estimating group variances, the Gf factor showed substantially greater male variability (around 20% greater. The narrow abilities varied: verbal reasoning showed small variability differences while quantitative and figural showed substantial differences in variance (up to 60% greater. These results add precision and nuance to the study of the variability and masking hypothesis.

  20. IMPRESS YOUR FRIENDS AND PREDICT THE FINAL SCORE: An analysis of the psychic ability of four target resetting methods used in One-Day International Cricket

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara J. O'Riley

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available One-Day cricket's eternal problem is how to fairly account for an interruption that occurs during a team's innings. Several methods have been applied in the past, some more successfully than others. Numerous articles have been written about different target resetting methods applicable in one-day international cricket and how they "favour" one team over another. In this paper we use an alternative approach looking at the psychic ability of four target resetting methods and compare how well they predict the final score based on the present state of the first innings. We attempt to convert each of methods we investigate into a ball-by-ball predictive tool. We introduce a terminal interruption to the first innings at every ball and compute the predicted final score. We ascribe a nominal value to the difference between the final achieved score and the prediction given by each method. We compute our own 'Psychic Metric' to enable a comparison between the four methods. We also develop a computer package to manipulate the data from matches in which the first innings was completed

  1. Comparison of a Class of Rank-Score Tests in Two-Factor Designs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences ... In this paper, four types of rank score functions Wilcoxon-scores, Mood-scores, normal-scores and expected normal- scores are studied in the context of two¡Vway factorial designs using ... Keywords: Rank score functions, Type I error rates, Power, Factorial designs.

  2. Learning Anatomy Enhances Spatial Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorstenbosch, Marc A. T. M.; Klaassen, Tim P. F. M.; Donders, A. R. T.; Kooloos, Jan G. M.; Bolhuis, Sanneke M.; Laan, Roland F. J. M.

    2013-01-01

    Spatial ability is an important factor in learning anatomy. Students with high scores on a mental rotation test (MRT) systematically score higher on anatomy examinations. This study aims to investigate if learning anatomy also oppositely improves the MRT-score. Five hundred first year students of medicine ("n" = 242, intervention) and…

  3. Learning anatomy enhances spatial ability.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vorstenbosch, M.A.T.M.; Klaassen, T.P.; Donders, A.R.T.; Kooloos, J.G.M.; Bolhuis, S.M.; Laan, R.F.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Spatial ability is an important factor in learning anatomy. Students with high scores on a mental rotation test (MRT) systematically score higher on anatomy examinations. This study aims to investigate if learning anatomy also oppositely improves the MRT-score. Five hundred first year students of

  4. DIAGNOSTIC TEST OF TORONTO AND MODIFIED TORONTO SCORING, MONOFILAMENT TEST, AND VIBRATE SENSATION TEST USING 128 HZ TUNING FORK FOR DIABETIC POLINEUROPATHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bethasiwi Purbasari

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The prevalence of diabetes mellitus has been epidemically increasing throughout all the world population, and diabetic polyneuropathy (PNP-DM is one of the most common neurologic manifestation of this disease. Clinical research has proved that effective bedside screening of PNP-DM can significantly reduce the incidence of foot ulcer and limb amputation. Objective. To measure the diagnostic test of polyneuropathy scoring, monofilament 10-g SemmesWeinstein test, and 128 Hz tuning fork test as an early detection measure for PNP-DM. Methods. This research was conducted using a cross sectional approach from Januari 2016 to Juli 2017. Results. Among the total study population of 43 (23 men and 20 woman, Modified Toronto Score has the highest sensitivity (100%, PPV (93% and accuracy (93%. Toronto score has the highest NPV (9%. Conclusion. Modified Toronto Score has good diagnostic value as screening tool in PNP-DM.

  5. Mental Abilities and School Achievement: A Test of a Mediation Hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vock, Miriam; Preckel, Franzis; Holling, Heinz

    2011-01-01

    This study analyzes the interplay of four cognitive abilities--reasoning, divergent thinking, mental speed, and short-term memory--and their impact on academic achievement in school in a sample of adolescents in grades seven to 10 (N = 1135). Based on information processing approaches to intelligence, we tested a mediation hypothesis, which states…

  6. Testing of spatial ability: construction and evaluation of a new instrument

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Květon, Petr; Jelínek, Martin; Vobořil, Dalibor

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 3 (2014), s. 233-252 ISSN 0039-3320 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP407/11/2397 Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : spatial ability * testing * psychometrics Subject RIV: AN - Psychology Impact factor: 0.442, year: 2014

  7. Reliability characteristics and applicability of a repeated sprint ability test in male young soccer players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castagna, Carlo; Francini, Lorenzo; Krustrup, Peter

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the usefulness and reliability characteristics of a repeated sprint ability test considering 5 line sprints of 30-m interspersed with 30-s of active recovery in non-elite outfield young male soccer players. Twenty-six (age 14.9±1.2 years, height 1.72±0.12 cm...

  8. Effects of Calibration Sample Size and Item Bank Size on Ability Estimation in Computerized Adaptive Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Alper; Weiss, David J.

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of calibration sample size and item bank size on examinee ability estimation in computerized adaptive testing (CAT). For this purpose, a 500-item bank pre-calibrated using the three-parameter logistic model with 10,000 examinees was simulated. Calibration samples of varying sizes (150, 250, 350, 500,…

  9. Predicting mobility outcome in lower limb amputees with motor ability tests used in early rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaan, Matthijs H; Vrieling, Aline H; van de Berg, Pim; Dijkstra, Pieter U; van Keeken, Helco G

    2017-04-01

    Retrospective cohort study. Persons with a lower limb amputation can regain mobility using a prosthetic device. For fast and adequate prescription of prosthetic components, it is necessary to predict the mobility outcome early in rehabilitation. Currently, prosthetic prescription is primarily based on empirical knowledge of rehabilitation professionals. In this study, we explored motor ability tests, to be completed without a prosthetic device, which have predictive value for mobility outcome at the end of rehabilitation. For this study, data of 82 patients with a lower limb amputation were included. The Single-limb standing balance test (Balance test), the Lower-Extremity Motor Coordination Test and the Amputee Mobility Predictor Assessment Tool (AMPnoPRO) were used as measures for motor ability. Mobility outcome was measured using the Timed Up and Go Test, the Two-Minute Walking Test and K levels were used. The explained variance of the Balance test, the Lower-Extremity Motor Coordination Test and the AMPnoPRO was, respectively, 0.603, 0.534 and 0.649 on the Two-Minute Walking Test (linear regression); 0.597, 0.431 and 0.624 on the Timed Up and Go Test (linear regression); and 0.432, 0.420 and 0.526 on the K levels (logistic regression). The AMPnoPRO predicted mobility outcome statistically (largest amount of explained variance). Clinical relevance This study explored the possibility of statistically predicting mobility outcome in lower limb amputees at the end of rehabilitation, using motor ability tests conducted in early rehabilitation. This study suggests the use of the AMPnoPRO to predict mobility outcome in lower limb amputees.

  10. Development of a Culture Specific Critical Thinking Ability Test and Using It as a Supportive Diagnostic Test for Giftedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köksal, Mustafa Serdar

    2016-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to develop a culture specific critical thinking ability test for 6, 7, and 8. grade students in Turkey and to use it as an assessment instrument for giftedness. For these purposes, item pool involving 22 items was formed by writing items focusing on the current and common events presented in (Turkish) media from…

  11. Association testing for next-generation sequencing data using score statistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skotte, Line; Korneliussen, Thorfinn Sand; Albrechtsen, Anders

    2012-01-01

    computationally feasible due to the use of score statistics. As part of the joint likelihood, we model the distribution of the phenotypes using a generalized linear model framework, which works for both quantitative and discrete phenotypes. Thus, the method presented here is applicable to case-control studies...... of genotype calls into account have been proposed; most require numerical optimization which for large-scale data is not always computationally feasible. We show that using a score statistic for the joint likelihood of observed phenotypes and observed sequencing data provides an attractive approach...... to association testing for next-generation sequencing data. The joint model accounts for the genotype classification uncertainty via the posterior probabilities of the genotypes given the observed sequencing data, which gives the approach higher power than methods based on called genotypes. This strategy remains...

  12. A high COPD assessment test score may predict anxiety in COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harryanto H

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Hilman Harryanto,1 Sally Burrows,2 Yuben Moodley1,2 1Department of Respiratory Medicine, Fiona Stanley Hospital, Perth, WA, Australia; 2Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, Medical School, University of Western Australia, Perth, WA, AustraliaThe prevalence of anxiety is 55% in patients with COPD,1 and it is associated with worse disease control. Therefore, early recognition and institution of treatment of this comorbidity significantly improve patient’s quality of life. Recently, a questionnaire called the COPD assessment test (CAT has been incorporated into the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD guidelines for the management of COPD, and a higher score is associated with increased COPD symptoms.2 Considering the regular use of CAT, it was evaluated whether this tool can also be used to identify anxiety. The CAT score was correlated with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS to determine the level at which CAT may predict anxiety.

  13. Estimates of premorbid ability in a neurodegenerative disease clinic population: comparing the Test of Premorbid Functioning and the Wide Range Achievement Test, 4th Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Jody-Lynn; Durant, January; Banks, Sarah J; Miller, Justin B

    2016-05-01

    Two frequently used measures to assess premorbid intellectual ability include the Wide Range Achievement Test, 4th Edition Reading Subtest (WRAT-4 READ) and the Test of Premorbid Functioning (TOPF). The present study compared estimates obtained from these measures in a neurodegenerative disease population. Records from 85 referrals seen for neuropsychological evaluation in a neurodegenerative disorders clinic were reviewed. Evaluations included TOPF, WRAT-4 READ, and measures of memory, reasoning, language, and executive functioning. Pairwise correlations and concordance correlation coefficients (CCC) were calculated between raw scores and predicted intelligence estimates. Discrepancy scores were calculated between estimates and data were divided into three groups based on size of standardized discrepancy score: Equal, WRAT-4 READ > TOPF, and TOPF > WRAT-4 READ. analysis of variances compared groups on demographic characteristics and cognitive performance. Despite strong Pearson correlation, CCC between predicted IQ estimates showed poor agreement between measures, with evidence of both fixed and proportional bias. Discrepancies ranged from -24.0 to 22.0 (M = 1.78, SD = 6.65), with TOPF generating higher estimates on average. Individuals performing better on WRAT-4 READ were significantly older (M age = 76.26, SD = 7.53) than those performing similarly on both measures and those performing better on TOPF (F (2, 82) = 7.31, p neurodegenerative disease clinical sample and should not be used interchangeably.

  14. A comprehensive test of evolutionarily increased competitive ability in a highly invasive plant species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Srijana; Gruntman, Michal; Bilton, Mark; Seifan, Merav; Tielbörger, Katja

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims A common hypothesis to explain plants' invasive success is that release from natural enemies in the introduced range selects for reduced allocation to resistance traits and a subsequent increase in resources available for growth and competitive ability (evolution of increased competitive ability, EICA). However, studies that have investigated this hypothesis have been incomplete as they either did not test for all aspects of competitive ability or did not select appropriate competitors. Methods Here, the prediction of increased competitive ability was examined with the invasive plant Lythrum salicaria (purple loosestrife) in a set of common-garden experiments that addressed these aspects by carefully distinguishing between competitive effect and response of invasive and native plants, and by using both intraspecific and interspecific competition settings with a highly vigorous neighbour, Urtica dioica (stinging nettle), which occurs in both ranges. Key Results While the intraspecific competition results showed no differences in competitive effect or response between native and invasive plants, the interspecific competition experiment revealed greater competitive response and effect of invasive plants in both biomass and seed production. Conclusions The use of both intra- and interspecific competition experiments in this study revealed opposing results. While the first experiment refutes the EICA hypothesis, the second shows strong support for it, suggesting evolutionarily increased competitive ability in invasive populations of L. salicaria. It is suggested that the use of naturally co-occurring heterospecifics, rather than conspecifics, may provide a better evaluation of the possible evolutionary shift towards greater competitive ability. PMID:25301818

  15. PROMIS Pain Interference and Physical Function Scores Correlate With the Foot and Ankle Ability Measure (FAAM) in Patients With Hallux Valgus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, Devon C; McCormick, Jeremy J; Johnson, Jeffrey E; Klein, Sandra E

    2017-11-01

    Traditional patient-reported outcome instruments like the Foot and Ankle Ability Measure (FAAM) quantify patient disability but often are limited by responder burden and incomplete questionnaires. The Patient-Reported Outcome Measurement Information System (PROMIS) overcomes such obstacles through computer-adaptive technology and can capture outcome data from various domains including physical and psychosocial function. Prior work has compared the FAAM with PROMIS physical function; however, there is little evidence comparing the association between foot and ankle-specific tools like the FAAM with more general outcomes measures of PROMIS pain interference and depression in foot and ankle conditions. (1) We asked whether there was a relationship between FAAM Activities of Daily Living (ADL) scores with PROMIS physical function, pain interference, and depression in patients with hallux valgus. (2) Additionally, we asked if we could identify specific factors that are associated with variance in FAAM and PROMIS physical function scores in patients with hallux valgus. Eighty-five new patients with either a primary or secondary diagnosis of hallux valgus based on clinic billing codes from July 2015 to February 2016 were retrospectively identified. Patients completed FAAM ADL paper-based surveys and electronic PROMIS questionnaires for physical function, pain interference, and depression from new patient visits at a single time. Spearman rho correlations were performed between FAAM ADL and PROMIS scores. Analyses then were used to identify differences in FAAM ADL and PROMIS physical function measures based on demographic variables. Stepwise linear regressions then determined which demographic and/or outcome variable(s) accounted for the variance in FAAM ADL and PROMIS physical function scores. FAAM scores correlated strongly with PROMIS physical function (r = 0.70, p hallux valgus. PROMIS tools allow for more-efficient data collection across multiple domains and, moving

  16. Stochastic order in dichotomous item response models for fixed tests, research adaptive tests, or multiple abilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Linden, Willem J.

    1995-01-01

    Dichotomous item response theory (IRT) models can be viewed as families of stochastically ordered distributions of responses to test items. This paper explores several properties of such distributiom. The focus is on the conditions under which stochastic order in families of conditional

  17. Linking Composite Scores: Effects of Anchor Test Length and Content Representativeness. Research Report. ETS RR-16-36

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Peng; Dorans, Neil; Weeks, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    The nonequivalent groups with anchor test (NEAT) design is frequently used in test score equating or linking. One important assumption of the NEAT design is that the anchor test is a miniversion of the 2 tests to be equated/linked. When the content of the 2 tests is different, it is not possible for the anchor test to be adequately representative…

  18. The Listening Skills Test--a new instrument to assess children's pragmatic ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, P; Peers, I; Foster, C

    2001-01-01

    Research has established that the development of autonomous (as opposed to collaborative) communication skills, using referential communication speaker and listener tasks, develops only slowly during the primary school years. Such a finding has implications for the classroom which puts a premium on independent language processing. Although the importance of oral language is recognised in the National Curriculum, there has been little attempt to assess the ability formally. The Listening Skills Test is a standardised pragmatic instrument focusing on the 3 1/2-7 years age group. The test is in four parts and assesses the ability to make judgements about the efficacy of verbal messages or instructions. Tasks include relating messages to arrays of pictorial items, making judgements about statements that refer to one complex picture, marking routes on a street plan in response to an extended set of instructions, and the ability to evaluate purely verbal utterances. The overall aim of the test is to assess children's ability to make sense on their own of verbal information in a decontextualised situation thought to represent the nature of much transactional communication in the classroom. Suggestions for remediation that have arisen from research conducted by the authors are also discussed.

  19. Woodcock-Johnson-III, Kaufman Adolescent and Adult Intelligence Test (KAIT), Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children (KABC), and Differential Ability Scales (DAS) support Carroll but not Cattell-Horn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucina, Jeffrey M; Howardson, Garett N

    2017-08-01

    Recently emerging evidence suggests that the dominant structural model of mental abilities-the Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) model-may not adequately account for observed scores for mental abilities batteries, leading scholars to call into question the model's validity. Establishing the robustness of these findings is important since CHC is the foundation for several contemporary mental abilities test batteries, such as the Woodcock-Johnson III (WJ-III). Using confirmatory factor analysis, we investigated CHC's robustness across 4 archival samples of mental abilities test battery data, including the WJ-III, the Kaufman Adolescent & Adult Intelligence Test (KAIT), the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children (KABC), and the Differential Ability Scales (DAS). We computed omega hierarchical (ωH) and omega subscale (ωS) coefficients for g and the broad factors, which estimated the relationship of composite scores to g and the broad factors, respectively. Across all 4 samples, we found strong evidence for a general ability, g. We additionally found evidence for 3 to 9 residualized, orthogonal broad abilities existing independently of g, many of which also explained reliable variance in test battery scores that cannot be accounted for by g alone. The reliabilities of these broad factors, however, were less than desirable (i.e., mental abilities test battery scores, which is consistent with Carroll but not Cattell-Horn. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Age-related differential item functioning in tests of face and car recognition ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunday, Mackenzie A; Lee, Woo-Yeol; Gauthier, Isabel

    2018-01-01

    The presence of differential item functioning (DIF) in a test suggests bias that could disadvantage members of a certain group. Previous work with tests of visual learning abilities found significant DIF related to age groups in a car test (Lee, Cho, McGugin, Van Gulick, & Gauthier, 2015), but not in a face test (Cho et al., 2015). The presence of age DIF is a threat to the validity of the test even for studies where aging is not of interest. Here, we assessed whether this pattern of age DIF for cars and not faces would also apply to new tests targeting the same abilities with a new matching task that uses two studied items per trial. We found evidence for DIF in matching tests for faces and for cars, though with encouragingly small effect sizes. Even though the age DIF was small enough at the test level to be acceptable for most uses, we also asked whether the specific format of our matching tasks may induce some age-related DIF regardless of domain. We decomposed the face matching task into its components, and using new data from subjects performing these simpler tasks, found evidence that the age DIF was driven by the similarity of the two faces presented at study on each trial. Overall, our results suggest that using a matching format, especially for cars, reduces age-related DIF, and that a simpler matching task with only one study item per trial could reduce age DIF further.

  1. The effect of constructivist teaching strategies on science test scores of middle school students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaca, James L., Jr.

    International studies show that the United States is lagging behind other industrialized countries in science proficiency. The studies revealed how American students showed little significant gain on standardized tests in science between 1995 and 2005. Little information is available regarding how reform in American teaching strategies in science could improve student performance on standardized testing. The purpose of this quasi-experimental quantitative study using a pretest/posttest control group design was to examine how the use of a hands-on, constructivist teaching approach with low achieving eighth grade science students affected student achievement on the 2007 Ohio Eighth Grade Science Achievement Test posttest (N = 76). The research question asked how using constructivist teaching strategies in the science classroom affected student performance on standardized tests. Two independent samples of 38 students each consisting of low achieving science students as identified by seventh grade science scores and scores on the Ohio Eighth Grade Science Half-Length Practice Test pretest were used. Four comparisons were made between the control group receiving traditional classroom instruction and the experimental group receiving constructivist instruction including: (a) pretest/posttest standard comparison, (b) comparison of the number of students who passed the posttest, (c) comparison of the six standards covered on the posttest, (d) posttest's sample means comparison. A Mann-Whitney U Test revealed that there was no significant difference between the independent sample distributions for the control group and the experimental group. These findings contribute to positive social change by investigating science teaching strategies that could be used in eighth grade science classes to improve student achievement in science.

  2. Guided-Inquiry Lessons Raise Scores on the Sixth Grade Georgia Science Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Purlie M.

    At the local level, G Middle School has the highest district-wide percentage of 6th grade science students who are not meeting standards. It is imperative that G middle school take corrective action to reduce the number of students failing to meet state science standards. Dewey's theory of conceptual framework, which involves knowledge constructed on a person's personal experience and mind activity through active forms of learning, guided this study. The goal of the study was to determine whether inquiry-based science modules produce greater 6th grade science achievement, as measured by an equivalent instrument of the science section of the Georgia Criterion-Referenced Competency Test, when compared to traditional instruction among eastern Georgia 6th graders. The sample consisted of 230 students in the nonintervention group and 119 students in the intervention group. All students were from intact classes. At the end of the intervention, an independent t test was conducted to analyze the scores. According to the study t test, (t = 12.33, df = 304.56, p grade levels and within the district to improve county-wide science scores. An increase in student interest and comprehension of science concepts could ultimately lead to the United States producing more students in the fields of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education.

  3. Test and Score Data Summary for TOEFL[R] Internet-Based and Paper-Based Tests. January 2008-December 2008 Test Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Educational Testing Service, 2008

    2008-01-01

    The Test of English as a Foreign Language[TM], better known as TOEFL[R], is designed to measure the English-language proficiency of people whose native language is not English. TOEFL scores are accepted by more than 6,000 colleges, universities, and licensing agencies in 130 countries. The test is also used by governments, and scholarship and…

  4. INFLUENCE OF MOTORIC ABILITIES ON EFFECTIVELY OF SPECIFIC MOTORIC TESTS IN WRESTLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branimir Mikić

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this research is determining of infl uence of motoric abilities on effe ctively of specifi c motoric tests in wrestling. Based on analysis of infl uence used moto ric variables on performing specifi c motoric tests in wrestling, evident is that on good result in specifi c tests in wrestling statistically signifi cant infl uence have next va ri a bles: ta ping (tiptoe by leg, drumming of legs and arms, deep infl exion, wrestling “bridge”, agi lity in air, throwing “medicine” ball with twisted inwards and standing transversely on both legs with eyes wide open.

  5. Achilles tendon Total Rupture Score at 3 months can predict patients' ability to return to sport 1 year after injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Maria Swennergren; Christensen, Marianne; Budolfsen, T

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate how the Achilles tendon Total Rupture Score (ATRS) at 3 months and 1 year after injury is associated with a patient's ability to return to work and sports as well as to investigate whether sex and age influence ATRS after 3 months and 1 year. METHOD: This is a retrospective...... study analysing the data from the Danish Achilles tendon Database. A total of 366 patients were included. Logistic regression was conducted to describe the effect of ATRS on return to work and sports. The effect of age and sex on ATRS was analysed by linear regression. RESULTS: Three months after injury...... patients had a significantly increased chance of return to sport after 1 year with an increased ATRS (OR 1.06, p = 0.001) but a non-significant effect on return to work. After 1 year, patients had a significantly increased probability of having returned to sport (OR 1.11, p

  6. Arithmetic Abilities in Children With Developmental Dyslexia: Performance on French ZAREKI-R Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Clercq-Quaegebeur, Maryse; Casalis, Séverine; Vilette, Bruno; Lemaitre, Marie-Pierre; Vallée, Louis

    A high comorbidity between reading and arithmetic disabilities has already been reported. The present study aims at identifying more precisely patterns of arithmetic performance in children with developmental dyslexia, defined with severe and specific criteria. By means of a standardized test of achievement in mathematics ( Calculation and Number Processing Assessment Battery for Children; von Aster & Dellatolas, 2006), we analyzed the arithmetic abilities of 47 French children with dyslexia attending 3rd, 4th, and 5th grade. Of them, 40% displayed arithmetic deficits, mostly with regard to number transcoding and mental calculation. Their individual profiles of performance accounted for varying strengths and weaknesses in arithmetic abilities. Our findings showed the pathway for the development of arithmetic abilities in children with dyslexia is not unique. Our study contrasts with the hypotheses suggesting the mutual exclusiveness of the phonological representation deficit and the core number module deficit.

  7. Clock Drawing Test and the diagnosis of amnestic mild cognitive impairment: can more detailed scoring systems do the work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubínová, Eva; Nikolai, Tomáš; Marková, Hana; Siffelová, Kamila; Laczó, Jan; Hort, Jakub; Vyhnálek, Martin

    2014-01-01

    The Clock Drawing Test is a frequently used cognitive screening test with several scoring systems in elderly populations. We compare simple and complex scoring systems and evaluate the usefulness of the combination of the Clock Drawing Test with the Mini-Mental State Examination to detect patients with mild cognitive impairment. Patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (n = 48) and age- and education-matched controls (n = 48) underwent neuropsychological examinations, including the Clock Drawing Test and the Mini-Mental State Examination. Clock drawings were scored by three blinded raters using one simple (6-point scale) and two complex (17- and 18-point scales) systems. The sensitivity and specificity of these scoring systems used alone and in combination with the Mini-Mental State Examination were determined. Complex scoring systems, but not the simple scoring system, were significant predictors of the amnestic mild cognitive impairment diagnosis in logistic regression analysis. At equal levels of sensitivity (87.5%), the Mini-Mental State Examination showed higher specificity (31.3%, compared with 12.5% for the 17-point Clock Drawing Test scoring scale). The combination of Clock Drawing Test and Mini-Mental State Examination scores increased the area under the curve (0.72; p Drawing Test did not differentiate between healthy elderly and patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment in our sample. Complex scoring systems were slightly more efficient, yet still were characterized by high rates of false-positive results. We found psychometric improvement using combined scores from the Mini-Mental State Examination and the Clock Drawing Test when complex scoring systems were used. The results of this study support the benefit of using combined scores from simple methods.

  8. Scoring in genetically modified organism proficiency tests based on log-transformed results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Michael; Ellison, Stephen L R; Owen, Linda; Mathieson, Kenneth; Powell, Joanne; Key, Pauline; Wood, Roger; Damant, Andrew P

    2006-01-01

    The study considers data from 2 UK-based proficiency schemes and includes data from a total of 29 rounds and 43 test materials over a period of 3 years. The results from the 2 schemes are similar and reinforce each other. The amplification process used in quantitative polymerase chain reaction determinations predicts a mixture of normal, binomial, and lognormal distributions dominated by the latter 2. As predicted, the study results consistently follow a positively skewed distribution. Log-transformation prior to calculating z-scores is effective in establishing near-symmetric distributions that are sufficiently close to normal to justify interpretation on the basis of the normal distribution.

  9. Generalist genes and the Internet generation: etiology of learning abilities by web testing at age 10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, O S P; Kovas, Y; Harlaar, N; Busfield, P; McMillan, A; Frances, J; Petrill, S A; Dale, P S; Plomin, R

    2008-06-01

    A key translational issue for neuroscience is to understand how genes affect individual differences in brain function. Although it is reasonable to suppose that genetic effects on specific learning abilities, such as reading and mathematics, as well as general cognitive ability (g), will overlap very little, the counterintuitive finding emerging from multivariate genetic studies is that the same genes affect these diverse learning abilities: a Generalist Genes hypothesis. To conclusively test this hypothesis, we exploited the widespread access to inexpensive and fast Internet connections in the UK to assess 2541 pairs of 10-year-old twins for reading, mathematics and g, using a web-based test battery. Heritabilities were 0.38 for reading, 0.49 for mathematics and 0.44 for g. Multivariate genetic analysis showed substantial genetic correlations between learning abilities: 0.57 between reading and mathematics, 0.61 between reading and g, and 0.75 between mathematics and g, providing strong support for the Generalist Genes hypothesis. If genetic effects on cognition are so general, the effects of these genes on the brain are also likely to be general. In this way, generalist genes may prove invaluable in integrating top-down and bottom-up approaches to the systems biology of the brain.

  10. What's in a Teacher Test? Assessing the Relationship between Teacher Licensure Test Scores and Student STEM Achievement and Course-Taking. Working Paper 158

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldhaber, Dan; Gratz, Trevor; Theobald, Roddy

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the relationship between teacher licensure test scores and student test achievement and high school course-taking. We focus on three subject/grade combinations--middle school math, ninth-grade algebra and geometry, and ninth-grade biology--and find evidence that a teacher's basic skills test scores are modestly predictive of student…

  11. What's in a Teacher Test? Assessing the Relationship between Teacher Licensure Test Scores and Student STEM Achievement and Course-Taking. CEDR Working Paper. WP #2016-11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldhaber, Dan; Gratz, Trevor; Theobald, Roddy

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the relationship between teacher licensure test scores and student test achievement and high school course-taking. We focus on three subject/grade combinations-- middle school math, ninth-grade algebra and geometry, and ninth-grade biology--and find evidence that a teacher's basic skills test scores are modestly predictive of…

  12. REPRODUCIBILITY OF THE MODIFIED STAR EXCURSION BALANCE TEST COMPOSITE AND SPECIFIC REACH DIRECTION SCORES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Lieshout, Remko; Reijneveld, Elja A E; van den Berg, Sandra M; Haerkens, Gijs M; Koenders, Niek H; de Leeuw, Arina J; van Oorsouw, Roel G; Paap, Davy; Scheffer, Else; Weterings, Stijn; Stukstette, Mirelle J

    2016-06-01

    The mSEBT is a screening tool used to evaluate dynamic balance. Most research investigating measurement properties focused on intrarater reliability and was done in small samples. To know whether the mSEBT is useful to discriminate dynamic balance between persons and to evaluate changes in dynamic balance, more research into intra- and interrater reliability and smallest detectable change (synonymous with minimal detectable change) is needed. To estimate intra- and interrater reliability and smallest detectable change of the mSEBT in adults at risk for ankle sprain. Cross-sectional, test-retest design. Fifty-five healthy young adults participating in sports at risk for ankle sprain participated (mean ± SD age, 24.0 ± 2.9 years). Each participant performed three test sessions within one hour and was rated by two physical therapists (session 1, rater 1; session 2, rater 2; session 3, rater 1). Participants and raters were blinded for previous measurements. Normalized composite and reach direction scores for the right and left leg were collected. Analysis of variance was used to calculate intraclass correlation coefficient values for intra- and interrater reliability. Smallest detectable change values were calculated based on the standard error of measurement. Intra- and interrater reliability for both legs was good to excellent (intraclass correlation coefficient ranging from 0.87 to 0.94). The intrarater smallest detectable change for the composite score of the right leg was 7.2% and for the left 6.2%. The interrater smallest detectable change for the composite score of the right leg was 6.9% and for the left 5.0%. The mSEBT is a reliable measurement instrument to discriminate dynamic balance between persons. Most smallest detectable change values of the mSEBT appear to be large. More research is needed to investigate if the mSEBT is usable for evaluative purposes. Level 2.

  13. Increased correlation coefficient between the written test score and tutors’ performance test scores after training of tutors for assessment of medical students during problem-based learning course in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heethal Jaiprakash

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper is aimed at finding if there was a change of correlation between the written test score and tutors’ performance test scores in the assessment of medical students during a problem-based learning (PBL course in Malaysia. This is a cross-sectional observational study, conducted among 264 medical students in two groups from November 2010 to November 2012. The first group’s tutors did not receive tutor training; while the second group’s tutors were trained in the PBL process. Each group was divided into high, middle and low achievers based on their end-of-semester exam scores. PBL scores were taken which included written test scores and tutors’ performance test scores. Pearson correlation coefficient was calculated between the two kinds of scores in each group. The correlation coefficient between the written scores and tutors’ scores in group 1 was 0.099 (p<0.001 and for group 2 was 0.305 (p<0.001. The higher correlation coefficient in the group where tutors received the PBL training reinforces the importance of tutor training before their participation in the PBL course.

  14. Development of a psychological test to diagnose abilities required for successful learning medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.-W. Gessmann

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We substantiate the necessity of psychological tools aimed at diagnostics of the capabilities for successful learning in medical university, and show the progress of its development. The questionnaire is developed based on the U.S. and European success tests, and its design meets the famous “test for medical professions” (TMS. “Kostroma test for medical professions” (KTMP is not a translation or adaptation of TMS to Russian conditions. It will be re-designed with new test items based on the principles of classical test construction. Creating scientifically based methods of psychological diagnosis of general cognitive ability is a prerequisite for the successful solution of a wide range of research and practical issues related to improving the effectiveness of education and training programs.

  15. Athens QRS Score as a Predictor of Coronary Artery Disease in Patients With Chest Pain and Normal Exercise Stress Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvi, Raza; Sklyar, Eduard; Gorski, Robert; Atoui, Moustapha; Afshar, Maryam; Bella, Jonathan N

    2016-06-10

    The diagnostic value of the Athens QRS score to detect obstructive coronary artery disease CAD in patients with otherwise normal exercise stress test remains unclear. We analyzed 458 patients who underwent exercise stress test with or without myocardial perfusion imaging within 2 months of coronary angiography from 2008 to 2011. Patients (n=173) with abnormal stress test based on ST segment criteria were excluded. The Athens QRS score ≤5 was defined as abnormal. In our study cohort, 285 patients met the inclusion criteria and were divided into 2 groups: low Athens QRS score (LQRS, n=56), with QRS score ≤5 and normal Athens QRS score normal Athens QRS score, n=229), with QRS score >5. The presence of single-vessel and multivessel obstructive CAD was higher in LQRS than in normal Athens QRS score patients (47% versus 7.5% and 30% versus 3.8%, respectively, all Pexercise stress test, LQRS score is a strong independent predictor of presence of CAD. LQRS patients have a 6-fold higher prevalence of CAD and may warrant further evaluation even with reassuring exercise stress test. © 2016 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  16. Androgens and eye movements in women and men during a test of mental rotation ability

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander, Gerianne M.; Son, Troy

    2007-01-01

    Eye movements were monitored in 16 women and 20 men during completion of a standard diagram-based test of mental rotation ability to provide measures of cognitive function not requiring conscious, decisional processes. Overall, women and men allocated visual attention during task performance in very similar, systematic ways. However, consistent with previous suggestions that sex differences in attentional processes during completion of the mental rotation task may exist, eye movements in men ...

  17. Reliability and validity of the new Tanaka B Intelligence Scale scores: a group intelligence test.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yota Uno

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The present study evaluated the reliability and concurrent validity of the new Tanaka B Intelligence Scale, which is an intelligence test that can be administered on groups within a short period of time. METHODS: The new Tanaka B Intelligence Scale and Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Third Edition were administered to 81 subjects (mean age ± SD 15.2 ± 0.7 years residing in a juvenile detention home; reliability was assessed using Cronbach's alpha coefficient, and concurrent validity was assessed using the one-way analysis of variance intraclass correlation coefficient. Moreover, receiver operating characteristic analysis for screening for individuals who have a deficit in intellectual function (an FIQ<70 was performed. In addition, stratum-specific likelihood ratios for detection of intellectual disability were calculated. RESULTS: The Cronbach's alpha for the new Tanaka B Intelligence Scale IQ (BIQ was 0.86, and the intraclass correlation coefficient with FIQ was 0.83. Receiver operating characteristic analysis demonstrated an area under the curve of 0.89 (95% CI: 0.85-0.96. In addition, the stratum-specific likelihood ratio for the BIQ≤65 stratum was 13.8 (95% CI: 3.9-48.9, and the stratum-specific likelihood ratio for the BIQ≥76 stratum was 0.1 (95% CI: 0.03-0.4. Thus, intellectual disability could be ruled out or determined. CONCLUSION: The present results demonstrated that the new Tanaka B Intelligence Scale score had high reliability and concurrent validity with the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Third Edition score. Moreover, the post-test probability for the BIQ could be calculated when screening for individuals who have a deficit in intellectual function. The new Tanaka B Intelligence Test is convenient and can be administered within a variety of settings. This enables evaluation of intellectual development even in settings where performing intelligence tests have previously been difficult.

  18. Back extensor muscle endurance test scores in coal miners in Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, M.; Latimer, J.; Jamieson, M. [University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW (Australia). Faculty of Health and Science, School of Physiotherapy

    2003-06-01

    Low back pain is a common complaint among those working in the Australian coal mining industry. One test that may be predictive of first-time episodes of low back pain is the Biering-Sorensen test of back extensor endurance strength. While this test has been evaluated in overseas sedentary populations, normative data and the discriminative ability of the test have not been evaluated with coal miners. Eighty-eight coal miners completed a questionnaire for known risk factors for low back pain, performed the Biering-Sorensen test, and undertook a test of aerobic fitness. Data analysis was performed to describe the groups and to determine whether any significant difference existed between those with a past history of low back pain and those without. Significantly lower than expected holding times were found in this group of coal miners (mean 113 s). This result was significantly lower than demonstrated in previous studies. When holding times for those with a past history of low back pain were compared with times for those with no history of low back pain, the difference was not statistically significant, nor was there a significant difference in fitness between those with a past history of low back pain and those without. It is concluded that coal miners in Australia have lower than normal Biering-Sorensen holding times. This lower back holding time does not differ between coal miners with a past history of low back pain and those without.

  19. Pilot Field Test: The Ability to Ambulate Following Landing as Assessed with Seat Egress, Walk and Obstacle Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, E. A.; Fomina, E. V; Reschke, M. F.; Cerisano, J. M.; Kofman, I. S.; Gadd, N. E.; Phillips, T. R.; Lee, S. M. C.; Laurie, S. S.; Stenger, M. B.; hide

    2016-01-01

    To date, changes in functional performance have been systematically studied after short-duration space flight. As important as the postflight functional changes have been, full functional recovery has never been investigated or established for long-duration flights. The Pilot Field Test (PFT) experiment, conducted with participation of ISS crewmembers traveling on Soyuz expeditions 34S - 41S, is comprised of several tasks designed to study the recovery of sensorimotor abilities of astronauts during the first 24 hours after landing and beyond. The objective of the Seat Egress - Walk and Obstacle Test, developed by NASA's Russian collaborators at the Institute for Biomedical Problems, is to address this gap in knowledge. This will allow us to characterize the ability of crewmembers to perform critical mission requirements that they will be expected to perform after an unassisted landing following 6 to 12 months in microgravity.

  20. A comprehensive test of evolutionarily increased competitive ability in a highly invasive plant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Srijana; Gruntman, Michal; Bilton, Mark; Seifan, Merav; Tielbörger, Katja

    2014-12-01

    A common hypothesis to explain plants' invasive success is that release from natural enemies in the introduced range selects for reduced allocation to resistance traits and a subsequent increase in resources available for growth and competitive ability (evolution of increased competitive ability, EICA). However, studies that have investigated this hypothesis have been incomplete as they either did not test for all aspects of competitive ability or did not select appropriate competitors. Here, the prediction of increased competitive ability was examined with the invasive plant Lythrum salicaria (purple loosestrife) in a set of common-garden experiments that addressed these aspects by carefully distinguishing between competitive effect and response of invasive and native plants, and by using both intraspecific and interspecific competition settings with a highly vigorous neighbour, Urtica dioica (stinging nettle), which occurs in both ranges. While the intraspecific competition results showed no differences in competitive effect or response between native and invasive plants, the interspecific competition experiment revealed greater competitive response and effect of invasive plants in both biomass and seed production. The use of both intra- and interspecific competition experiments in this study revealed opposing results. While the first experiment refutes the EICA hypothesis, the second shows strong support for it, suggesting evolutionarily increased competitive ability in invasive populations of L. salicaria. It is suggested that the use of naturally co-occurring heterospecifics, rather than conspecifics, may provide a better evaluation of the possible evolutionary shift towards greater competitive ability. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Scoring method of a Situational Judgment Test: influence on internal consistency reliability, adverse impact and correlation with personality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Leng, W E; Stegers-Jager, K M; Husbands, A; Dowell, J S; Born, M Ph; Themmen, A P N

    2017-05-01

    Situational Judgment Tests (SJTs) are increasingly used for medical school selection. Scoring an SJT is more complicated than scoring a knowledge test, because there are no objectively correct answers. The scoring method of an SJT may influence the construct and concurrent validity and the adverse impact with respect to non-traditional students. Previous research has compared only a small number of scoring methods and has not studied the effect of scoring method on internal consistency reliability. This study compared 28 different scoring methods for a rating SJT on internal consistency reliability, adverse impact and correlation with personality. The scoring methods varied on four aspects: the way of controlling for systematic error, and the type of reference group, distance and central tendency statistic. All scoring methods were applied to a previously validated integrity-based SJT, administered to 931 medical school applicants. Internal consistency reliability varied between .33 and .73, which is likely explained by the dependence of coefficient alpha on the total score variance. All scoring methods led to significantly higher scores for the ethnic majority than for the non-Western minorities, with effect sizes ranging from 0.48 to 0.66. Eighteen scoring methods showed a significant small positive correlation with agreeableness. Four scoring methods showed a significant small positive correlation with conscientiousness. The way of controlling for systematic error was the most influential scoring method aspect. These results suggest that the increased use of SJTs for selection into medical school must be accompanied by a thorough examination of the scoring method to be used.

  2. The design organization test: further demonstration of reliability and validity as a brief measure of visuospatial ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killgore, William D S; Gogel, Hannah

    2014-01-01

    Neuropsychological assessments are frequently time-consuming and fatiguing for patients. Brief screening evaluations may reduce test duration and allow more efficient use of time by permitting greater attention toward neuropsychological domains showing probable deficits. The Design Organization Test (DOT) was initially developed as a 2-min paper-and-pencil alternative for the Block Design (BD) subtest of the Wechsler scales. Although initially validated for clinical neurologic patients, we sought to further establish the reliability and validity of this test in a healthy, more diverse population. Two alternate versions of the DOT and the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI) were administered to 61 healthy adult participants. The DOT showed high alternate forms reliability (r = .90-.92), and the two versions yielded equivalent levels of performance. The DOT was highly correlated with BD (r = .76-.79) and was significantly correlated with all subscales of the WASI. The DOT proved useful when used in lieu of BD in the calculation of WASI IQ scores. Findings support the reliability and validity of the DOT as a measure of visuospatial ability and suggest its potential worth as an efficient estimate of intellectual functioning in situations where lengthier tests may be inappropriate or unfeasible.

  3. An alternative to the balance error scoring system: using a low-cost balance board to improve the validity/reliability of sports-related concussion balance testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jasper O; Levy, Susan S; Seay, Seth W; Goble, Daniel J

    2014-05-01

    Recent guidelines advocate sports medicine professionals to use balance tests to assess sensorimotor status in the management of concussions. The present study sought to determine whether a low-cost balance board could provide a valid, reliable, and objective means of performing this balance testing. Criterion validity testing relative to a gold standard and 7 day test-retest reliability. University biomechanics laboratory. Thirty healthy young adults. Balance ability was assessed on 2 days separated by 1 week using (1) a gold standard measure (ie, scientific grade force plate), (2) a low-cost Nintendo Wii Balance Board (WBB), and (3) the Balance Error Scoring System (BESS). Validity of the WBB center of pressure path length and BESS scores were determined relative to the force plate data. Test-retest reliability was established based on intraclass correlation coefficients. Composite scores for the WBB had excellent validity (r = 0.99) and test-retest reliability (R = 0.88). Both the validity (r = 0.10-0.52) and test-retest reliability (r = 0.61-0.78) were lower for the BESS. These findings demonstrate that a low-cost balance board can provide improved balance testing accuracy/reliability compared with the BESS. This approach provides a potentially more valid/reliable, yet affordable, means of assessing sports-related concussion compared with current methods.

  4. Alexithymia. The development of a valid and reliable projective measure (the objectively scored Archetypal9 Test).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, K; Auld, F; Demers, L; Catchlove, R

    1985-10-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether the Archetypal9 Test (AT9) could meet the need for a valid and reliable test with which to measure the alexithymic trait cluster. Participants in this study included 61 patients drawn from pain clinics in Montreal (Royal Victoria Hospital) and Detroit (Henry Ford Hospital) and 30 patients undergoing minor surgery at the Royal Victoria Hospital in Montreal. All 91 subjects took both the AT9 Test and the Clarke Vocabulary Scale. The results of the attempts at validation reveal that the objectively scored AT9 Test (SAT9) is a highly internally consistent instrument, that it has demonstrated construct validity, and that it can significantly discriminate between patient groups (pain patients and medical patients). The SAT9 is positively related to age, inversely related to occupational level, and uncorrelated with IQ (as measured by the Clarke Vocabulary Scale). The authors concluded that thus far, the SAT9 has proven to be a valid instrument which can be used to measure a central feature of alexithymia.

  5. Performance on large-scale science tests: Item attributes that may impact achievement scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Janet Victoria

    Significant differences in achievement among ethnic groups persist on the eighth-grade science Washington Assessment of Student Learning (WASL). The WASL measures academic performance in science using both scenario and stand-alone question types. Previous research suggests that presenting target items connected to an authentic context, like scenario question types, can increase science achievement scores especially in underrepresented groups and thus help to close the achievement gap. The purpose of this study was to identify significant differences in performance between gender and ethnic subgroups by question type on the 2005 eighth-grade science WASL. MANOVA and ANOVA were used to examine relationships between gender and ethnic subgroups as independent variables with achievement scores on scenario and stand-alone question types as dependent variables. MANOVA revealed no significant effects for gender, suggesting that the 2005 eighth-grade science WASL was gender neutral. However, there were significant effects for ethnicity. ANOVA revealed significant effects for ethnicity and ethnicity by gender interaction in both question types. Effect sizes were negligible for the ethnicity by gender interaction. Large effect sizes between ethnicities on scenario question types became moderate to small effect sizes on stand-alone question types. This indicates the score advantage the higher performing subgroups had over the lower performing subgroups was not as large on stand-alone question types compared to scenario question types. A further comparison examined performance on multiple-choice items only within both question types. Similar achievement patterns between ethnicities emerged; however, achievement patterns between genders changed in boys' favor. Scenario question types appeared to register differences between ethnic groups to a greater degree than stand-alone question types. These differences may be attributable to individual differences in cognition

  6. The Mediating Effect of Listening Metacognitive Awareness between Test-Taking Motivation and Listening Test Score: An Expectancy-Value Theory Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Xu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated test-taking motivation in L2 listening testing context by applying Expectancy-Value Theory as the framework. Specifically, this study was intended to examine the complex relationships among expectancy, importance, interest, listening anxiety, listening metacognitive awareness, and listening test score using data from a large-scale and high-stakes language test among Chinese first-year undergraduates. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the mediating effect of listening metacognitive awareness on the relationship between expectancy, importance, interest, listening anxiety, and listening test score. According to the results, test takers’ listening scores can be predicted by expectancy, interest, and listening anxiety significantly. The relationship between expectancy, interest, listening anxiety, and listening test score was mediated by listening metacognitive awareness. The findings have implications for test takers to improve their test taking motivation and listening metacognitive awareness, as well as for L2 teachers to intervene in L2 listening classrooms.

  7. Survival analysis of colorectal cancer patients with tumor recurrence using global score test methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zain, Zakiyah; Aziz, Nazrina; Ahmad, Yuhaniz; Azwan, Zairul; Raduan, Farhana; Sagap, Ismail

    2014-12-01

    Colorectal cancer is the third and the second most common cancer worldwide in men and women respectively, and the second in Malaysia for both genders. Surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy are among the options available for treatment of patients with colorectal cancer. In clinical trials, the main purpose is often to compare efficacy between experimental and control treatments. Treatment comparisons often involve several responses or endpoints, and this situation complicates the analysis. In the case of colorectal cancer, sets of responses concerned with survival times include: times from tumor removal until the first, the second and the third tumor recurrences, and time to death. For a patient, the time to recurrence is correlated to the overall survival. In this study, global score test methodology is used in combining the univariate score statistics for comparing treatments with respect to each survival endpoint into a single statistic. The data of tumor recurrence and overall survival of colorectal cancer patients are taken from a Malaysian hospital. The results are found to be similar to those computed using the established Wei, Lin and Weissfeld method. Key factors such as ethnic, gender, age and stage at diagnose are also reported.

  8. Survival analysis of colorectal cancer patients with tumor recurrence using global score test methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zain, Zakiyah, E-mail: zac@uum.edu.my; Ahmad, Yuhaniz, E-mail: yuhaniz@uum.edu.my [School of Quantitative Sciences, Universiti Utara Malaysia, UUM Sintok 06010, Kedah (Malaysia); Azwan, Zairul, E-mail: zairulazwan@gmail.com, E-mail: farhanaraduan@gmail.com, E-mail: drisagap@yahoo.com; Raduan, Farhana, E-mail: zairulazwan@gmail.com, E-mail: farhanaraduan@gmail.com, E-mail: drisagap@yahoo.com; Sagap, Ismail, E-mail: zairulazwan@gmail.com, E-mail: farhanaraduan@gmail.com, E-mail: drisagap@yahoo.com [Surgery Department, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre, Jalan Yaacob Latif, 56000 Bandar Tun Razak, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Aziz, Nazrina, E-mail: nazrina@uum.edu.my

    2014-12-04

    Colorectal cancer is the third and the second most common cancer worldwide in men and women respectively, and the second in Malaysia for both genders. Surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy are among the options available for treatment of patients with colorectal cancer. In clinical trials, the main purpose is often to compare efficacy between experimental and control treatments. Treatment comparisons often involve several responses or endpoints, and this situation complicates the analysis. In the case of colorectal cancer, sets of responses concerned with survival times include: times from tumor removal until the first, the second and the third tumor recurrences, and time to death. For a patient, the time to recurrence is correlated to the overall survival. In this study, global score test methodology is used in combining the univariate score statistics for comparing treatments with respect to each survival endpoint into a single statistic. The data of tumor recurrence and overall survival of colorectal cancer patients are taken from a Malaysian hospital. The results are found to be similar to those computed using the established Wei, Lin and Weissfeld method. Key factors such as ethnic, gender, age and stage at diagnose are also reported.

  9. The digits-in-noise test: assessing auditory speech recognition abilities in noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smits, Cas; Theo Goverts, S; Festen, Joost M

    2013-03-01

    A speech-in-noise test which uses digit triplets in steady-state speech noise was developed. The test measures primarily the auditory, or bottom-up, speech recognition abilities in noise. Digit triplets were formed by concatenating single digits spoken by a male speaker. Level corrections were made to individual digits to create a set of homogeneous digit triplets with steep speech recognition functions. The test measures the speech reception threshold (SRT) in long-term average speech-spectrum noise via a 1-up, 1-down adaptive procedure with a measurement error of 0.7 dB. One training list is needed for naive listeners. No further learning effects were observed in 24 subsequent SRT measurements. The test was validated by comparing results on the test with results on the standard sentences-in-noise test. To avoid the confounding of hearing loss, age, and linguistic skills, these measurements were performed in normal-hearing subjects with simulated hearing loss. The signals were spectrally smeared and/or low-pass filtered at varying cutoff frequencies. After correction for measurement error the correlation coefficient between SRTs measured with both tests equaled 0.96. Finally, the feasibility of the test was approved in a study where reference SRT values were gathered in a representative set of 1386 listeners over 60 years of age.

  10. Comparison of educationally handicapped students scores on the Revised Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration and Bender-Gestalt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breen, M J

    1982-06-01

    32 elementary-aged boys enrolled in a program for the emotionally disturbed were administered the Revised Beery and Bender-Gestalt. A significant correlation of .73 was found between Beery and Bender age-equivalent scores. A t test for correlated data indicated mean scores did not differ significantly from one another, but scores were quite varied. The implications of such variability are discussed.

  11. Change of direction ability test differentiates higher level and lower level soccer referees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Yanci

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This report examines the agility and level of acceleration capacity of Spanish soccer referees and investigates the possible differences between field referees of different categories. The speed test consisted of 3 maximum acceleration stretches of 15 metres. The change of direction ability (CODA test used in this study was a modification of the Modified Agility Test (MAT. The study included a sample of 41 Spanish soccer field referees from the Navarre Committee of Soccer Referees divided into two groups: i the higher level group (G1, n = 20: 2ndA, 2ndB and 3rd division referees from the Spanish National Soccer League (28.43 ± 1.39 years; and ii the lower level group (G2, n = 21: Navarre Provincial League soccer referees (29.54 ± 1.87 years. Significant differences were found with respect to the CODA between G1 (5.72 ± 0.13 s and G2 (6.06 ± 0.30 s, while no differences were encountered between groups in acceleration ability. No significant correlations were obtained in G1 between agility and the capacity to accelerate. Significant correlations were found between sprint and agility times in the G2 and in the total group. The results of this study showed that agility can be used as a discriminating factor for differentiating between national and regional field referees; however, no observable differences were found over the 5 and 15 m sprint tests.

  12. Change of direction ability test differentiates higher level and lower level soccer referees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Los, Arcos A; Grande, I; Casajús, JA

    2016-01-01

    This report examines the agility and level of acceleration capacity of Spanish soccer referees and investigates the possible differences between field referees of different categories. The speed test consisted of 3 maximum acceleration stretches of 15 metres. The change of direction ability (CODA) test used in this study was a modification of the Modified Agility Test (MAT). The study included a sample of 41 Spanish soccer field referees from the Navarre Committee of Soccer Referees divided into two groups: i) the higher level group (G1, n = 20): 2ndA, 2ndB and 3rd division referees from the Spanish National Soccer League (28.43 ± 1.39 years); and ii) the lower level group (G2, n = 21): Navarre Provincial League soccer referees (29.54 ± 1.87 years). Significant differences were found with respect to the CODA between G1 (5.72 ± 0.13 s) and G2 (6.06 ± 0.30 s), while no differences were encountered between groups in acceleration ability. No significant correlations were obtained in G1 between agility and the capacity to accelerate. Significant correlations were found between sprint and agility times in the G2 and in the total group. The results of this study showed that agility can be used as a discriminating factor for differentiating between national and regional field referees; however, no observable differences were found over the 5 and 15 m sprint tests. PMID:27274111

  13. Functional Screening Tests: Interrelationships and Ability to Predict Vertical Jump Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loturco, Irineu; Pereira, Lucas Adriano; Kobal, Ronaldo; Abad, Cesar Cavinato Cal; Komatsu, William; Cunha, Ronaldo; Arliani, Gustavo; Ejnisman, Benno; Pochini, Alberto de Castro; Nakamura, Fábio Yuzo; Cohen, Moises

    2018-02-01

    There are several methods used in sports science to identify asymmetries in athletes, given their purported relevance to injury prevention and performance optimization. We aimed to verify whether asymmetries provided by isokinetic assessments, jump tests, and tensiomyography (TMG) are associated with each other, and whether their respective functional indices are related to jumping ability. TMG parameters, unilateral and bilateral squat-jump (SJ) and countermovement-jump (CMJ) performances, and peak torque in knee-extension and flexion with angular velocities of 60 o /s and 300 o /s for twenty-four soccer players were retained for analyses. Asymmetry was detected by examining the percentage difference between dominant and non-dominant legs. The median-split technique was used to identify the best and worst performers in SJ and CMJ tests. Results revealed that the asymmetries detected in the three different methods were not interrelated. Curiously, better performances in SJ and CMJ tests were associated with higher asymmetry levels. Furthermore, only the knee-extension peak torque at both angular velocities was correlated moderately to largely (r=0.48-0.66) with jump performance. Despite their recognized ability to predict the risk of injury, the absence of interrelationships between TMG, isokinetic tests, and unilateral jumps precludes their single use as a unique functional screening diagnostic. Finally, and very importantly, lower-limb asymmetry is not necessarily related to impaired vertical jump performance in soccer players. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  14. Equating scores of the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test and Sniffin' Sticks test in patients with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, Michael; Hu, Michele T M; Baig, Fahd; Ruffmann, Claudio; Barron, Eilidh; Swallow, Diane M A; Malek, Naveed; Grosset, Katherine A; Bajaj, Nin; Barker, Roger A; Williams, Nigel; Burn, David J; Foltynie, Thomas; Morris, Huw R; Wood, Nicholas W; May, Margaret T; Grosset, Donald G; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav

    2016-12-01

    Impaired olfaction is an important feature in Parkinson's disease (PD) and other neurological diseases. A variety of smell identification tests exist such as "Sniffin' Sticks" and the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (UPSIT). An important part of research is being able to replicate findings or combining studies in a meta-analysis. This is difficult if olfaction has been measured using different metrics. We present conversion methods between the: UPSIT, Sniffin' 16, and Brief-SIT (B-SIT); and Sniffin' 12 and Sniffin' 16 odour identification tests. We used two incident cohorts of patients with PD who were tested with either the Sniffin' 16 (n = 1131) or UPSIT (n = 980) and a validation dataset of 128 individuals who took both tests. We used the equipercentile and Item Response Theory (IRT) methods to equate the olfaction scales. The equipercentile conversion suggested some bias between UPSIT and Sniffin' 16 tests across the two groups. The IRT method shows very good characteristics between the true and converted Sniffin' 16 (delta mean = 0.14, median = 0) based on UPSIT. The equipercentile conversion between the Sniffin' 12 and 16 item worked well (delta mean = 0.01, median = 0). The UPSIT to B-SIT conversion showed evidence of bias but amongst PD cases worked well (mean delta = -0.08, median = 0). We have demonstrated that one can convert UPSIT to B-SIT or Sniffin' 16, and Sniffin' 12 to 16 scores in a valid way. This can facilitate direct comparison between tests aiding future collaborative analyses and evidence synthesis. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Correlations between the scores of computerized adaptive testing, paper and pencil tests, and the Korean Medical Licensing Examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mee Young Kim

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the usefulness of computerized adaptive testing (CAT in medical school, the General Examination for senior medical students was administered as a paper and pencil test (P&P and using CAT. The General Examination is a graduate examination, which is also a preliminary examination for the Korean Medical Licensing Examination (KMLE. The correlations between the results of the CAT and P&P and KMLE were analyzed. The correlation between the CAT and P&P was 0.8013 (p=0.000; that between the CAT and P&P was 0.7861 (p=0.000; and that between the CAT and KMLE was 0.6436 (p=0.000. Six out of 12 students with an ability estimate below 0.52 failed the KMLE. The results showed that CAT could replace P&P in medical school. The ability of CAT to predict whether students would pass the KMLE was 0.5 when the criterion of the theta value was set at -0.52 that was chosen arbitrarily for the prediction of pass or failure.

  16. Subpopulation Differences in Performance on Tests of Mental Ability: Historical Review and Annotated Bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-08-01

    studies of American ethnic groups in the 1920s found man IQs of 85.6 for Slovaks. 83 for Greeks, 85 for Poles, 78 for Spanish, 84 for Portuguese , a range...and Japanese) received test scores in close proximity with white American norms. American Blacks and Indians, Italians, Portuguese , and Mexicans...Scottish 5 93-105 99 Japanese 9 81-114 99 Chinese 11 87-107 98 American Black 27 58-105 86 jItalian 16 79-96 85 Portugues 6 83-96 84 ilxican 9 78-101

  17. Pupillary responses during information processing vary with Scholastic Aptitude Test scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahern, S; Beatty, J

    1979-09-21

    The magnitude of task-evoked pupillary dilations during mental activity has previously been shown to index the cognitive capacity utilized in the performance of the mental task. To determine the relation between "intelligence" and capacity demands during mental activity, task-evoked pupillary dilations were measured while two groups of university students differing in their scores on the Scholastic Aptitude Test solved mental arithmetic problems. Over three levels of problems difficulty, more intelligent subjects showed smaller task-evoked pupillary dilations than did their less intelligent counterparts. Thus, the more intelligent appear to possess more efficient cognitive structures of information processing. These data provide evidence that physiological differences between individuals of differing psychometric intelligence emerge during mental activity.

  18. Academic self-concept, interest, grades, and standardized test scores: reciprocal effects models of causal ordering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Herbert W; Trautwein, Ulrich; Lüdtke, Oliver; Köller, Olaf; Baumert, Jürgen

    2005-01-01

    Reciprocal effects models of longitudinal data show that academic self-concept is both a cause and an effect of achievement. In this study this model was extended to juxtapose self-concept with academic interest. Based on longitudinal data from 2 nationally representative samples of German 7th-grade students (Study 1: N = 5,649, M age = 13.4; Study 2: N = 2,264, M age = 13.7 years), prior self-concept significantly affected subsequent math interest, school grades, and standardized test scores, whereas prior math interest had only a small effect on subsequent math self-concept. Despite stereotypic gender differences in means, linkages relating these constructs were invariant over gender. These results demonstrate the positive effects of academic self-concept on a variety of academic outcomes and integrate self-concept with the developmental motivation literature.

  19. Educational test scores among adolescents in three-generational households in 20 countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antti Olavi Tanskanen

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Grandparental presence is often found to associate with improved grandchild wellbeing. However, studies have shown that the effect is not always positive. This could be explained by the fact that in some circumstances grandparents compete with grandchildren over parental time resources. We studied the assumption using data from the Program for International Student Assessment (PISA from 20 Western countries (n=73,346 children at age 15. According to the results grandparental presence was associated with lower levels of parental involvement and decreased educational test scores among adolescents. Moreover, the results indicate that when the parental involvement is lower at the first place the grandparental presence tends to be associated with even weaker child outcomes. Finally, we found support that grandparental co-residence is a mediator of the association between parental involvement and child outcomes. These results are discussed with reference to the local resource competition model.

  20. Applying cognitive acuity theory to the development and scoring of situational judgment tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeds, J Peter

    2017-11-09

    The theory of cognitive acuity (TCA) treats the response options within items as signals to be detected and uses psychophysical methods to estimate the respondents' sensitivity to these signals. Such a framework offers new methods to construct and score situational judgment tests (SJT). Leeds (2012) defined cognitive acuity as the capacity to discern correctness and distinguish between correctness differences among simultaneously presented situation-specific response options. In this study, SJT response options were paired in order to offer the respondent a two-option choice. The contrast in correctness valence between the two options determined the magnitude of signal emission, with larger signals portending a higher probability of detection. A logarithmic relation was found between correctness valence contrast (signal stimulus) and its detectability (sensation response). Respondent sensitivity to such signals was measured and found to be related to the criterion variables. The linkage between psychophysics and elemental psychometrics may offer new directions for measurement theory.

  1. Role of spatial ability as a probable ability determinant in skill acquisition for sonographic scanning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clem, Douglas W; Donaldson, Joe; Curs, Brad; Anderson, Sharlette; Hdeib, Moses

    2013-03-01

    Spatial ability refers to an individual's capacity to visualize and mentally manipulate 3-dimensional objects. Because sonographers manually manipulate 2- and 3-dimensional sonographic images to generate renderings of anatomic structures, it can be assumed that spatial ability is an ability determinant for understanding and producing these medical images. Using the theory of ability determinants of skilled performance as a conceptual framework, this study explored the relationship of spatial ability and learning sonographic scanning. Beginning sonography students from 3 different types of educational institutions were administered a spatial ability test before their initial scanning laboratory course work. The students' spatial test scores were compared with their scanning competency performance scores after the first scanning competency test and then to the overall average of the competency scores for the 2 semesters. The spatial ability test was again administered after the 2-semester learning period to see whether the students' spatial ability had increased. A significant relationship between the students' spatial ability test scores and their scanning performance scores was found after the first scanning competency (r = 0.46; P spatial ability of the students was also found (r = 0.32; P spatial or ACT scores. No relationship was found between spatial ability and student retention. High spatial test scores as well as a high incoming grade point average appear to be the best ability determinants in skill acquisition for sonographic scanning.

  2. The achievement impact of the inclusion model on the standardized test scores of general education students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett-Rainey, Syrena

    The purpose of this study was to compare the achievement of general education students within regular education classes to the achievement of general education students in inclusion/co-teach classes to determine whether there was a significant difference in the achievement between the two groups. The school district's inclusion/co-teach model included ongoing professional development support for teachers and administrators. General education teachers, special education teachers, and teacher assistants collaborated to develop instructional strategies to provide additional remediation to help students to acquire the skills needed to master course content. This quantitative study reviewed the end-of course test (EoCT) scores of Grade 10 physical science and math students within an urban school district. It is not known whether general education students in an inclusive/co-teach science or math course will demonstrate a higher achievement on the EoCT in math or science than students not in an inclusive/co-teach classroom setting. In addition, this study sought to determine if students classified as low socioeconomic status benefited from participating in co-teaching classrooms as evidenced by standardized tests. Inferential statistics were used to determine whether there was a significant difference between the achievements of the treatment group (inclusion/co-teach) and the control group (non-inclusion/co-teach). The findings can be used to provide school districts with optional instructional strategies to implement in the diverse classroom setting in the modern classroom to increase academic performance on state standardized tests.

  3. Utilizing the Six Realms of Meaning in Improving Campus Standardized Test Scores through Team Teaching and Strategic Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Rosnisha D.; Kritsonis, William Allan

    2009-01-01

    This article will seek to utilize Dr. William Allan Kritsonis' book "Ways of Knowing Through the Realms of Meaning" (2007) as a framework to improve a campus's standardized test scores, more specifically, their TAKS (Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills) scores. Many campuses have an improvement plan, also known as a Campus…

  4. An Examination of the Relationship Between School Scores Derived From Commercial Achievement Tests and Those From Statewide Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blust, Ross S.; Kohr, Richard L.

    An apparent discrepancy between building level scores in basic skills produced by Pennsylvania's state assessment program (EQA) and building summary scores, generally a grade equivalent, provided by commercial standardized achievement tests is investigated. The impetus for the study came from occasional reports by school administrators that their…

  5. Expanded Koppitz Scoring System of the Bender Gestalt Visual-Motor Test for Adolescents: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolen, Larry M.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Examined use of Bender Gestalt Visual-Motor Test with school-age adolescents over age 11. Mean error scores suggest that visual-motor development is not maturationally complete by age 11 years, 11 months. Suggests additional research focusing on extending normative sample or developing new scoring system for adolescents. (Author/NB)

  6. The relationship between vertical jump power estimates and weightlifting ability: a field-test approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlock, Jon M; Smith, Sarah L; Hartman, Michael J; Morris, Robert T; Ciroslan, Dragomir A; Pierce, Kyle C; Newton, Robert U; Harman, Everett A; Sands, William A; Stone, Michael H

    2004-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the usefulness of the vertical jump and estimated vertical-jump power as a field test for weightlifting. Estimated PP output from the vertical jump was correlated with lifting ability among 64 USA national-level weightlifters (junior and senior men and women). Vertical jump was measured using the Kinematic Measurement System, consisting of a switch mat interfaced with a laptop computer. Vertical jumps were measured using a hands-on-hips method. A counter-movement vertical jump (CMJ) and a static vertical jump (SJ, 90 degrees knee angle) were measured. Two trials were given for each condition. Test-retest reliability for jump height was intra-class correlation (ICC) = 0.98 (CMJ) and ICC = 0.96 (SJ). Athletes warmed up on their own for 2-3 minutes, followed by 2 practice jumps at each condition. Peak power (PP) was estimated using the equations developed by Sayers et al. (24). The athletes' current lifting capabilities were assessed by a questionnaire, and USA national coaches checked the listed values. Differences between groups (i.e., men versus women, juniors versus resident lifters) were determined using t-tests (p weightlifting ability. Thus, these results indicate that PP derived from the vertical jump (CMJ or SJ) can be a valuable tool in assessing weightlifting performance.

  7. The use of test scores from large-scale assessment surveys: psychometric and statistical considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Braun

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Economists are making increasing use of measures of student achievement obtained through large-scale survey assessments such as NAEP, TIMSS, and PISA. The construction of these measures, employing plausible value (PV methodology, is quite different from that of the more familiar test scores associated with assessments such as the SAT or ACT. These differences have important implications both for utilization and interpretation. Although much has been written about PVs, it appears that there are still misconceptions about whether and how to employ them in secondary analyses. Methods We address a range of technical issues, including those raised in a recent article that was written to inform economists using these databases. First, an extensive review of the relevant literature was conducted, with particular attention to key publications that describe the derivation and psychometric characteristics of such achievement measures. Second, a simulation study was carried out to compare the statistical properties of estimates based on the use of PVs with those based on other, commonly used methods. Results It is shown, through both theoretical analysis and simulation, that under fairly general conditions appropriate use of PV yields approximately unbiased estimates of model parameters in regression analyses of large scale survey data. The superiority of the PV methodology is particularly evident when measures of student achievement are employed as explanatory variables. Conclusions The PV methodology used to report student test performance in large scale surveys remains the state-of-the-art for secondary analyses of these databases.

  8. The TSCA interagency testing committee`s approaches to screening and scoring chemicals and chemical groups: 1977-1983

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, J.D. [Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States)

    1990-12-31

    This paper describes the TSCA interagency testing committee`s (ITC) approaches to screening and scoring chemicals and chemical groups between 1977 and 1983. During this time the ITC conducted five scoring exercises to select chemicals and chemical groups for detailed review and to determine which of these chemicals and chemical groups should be added to the TSCA Section 4(e) Priority Testing List. 29 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  9. Meta-Analyses of the Relationship of Creative Achievement to both IQ and Divergent Thinking Test Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyung Hee

    2008-01-01

    There is disagreement among researchers about whether IQ tests or divergent thinking (DT) tests are better predictors of creative achievement. Resolving this dispute is complicated by the fact that some research has shown a relationship between IQ and DT test scores (e.g., Runco & Albert, 1986; Wallach, 1970). The present study conducted…

  10. Rugby versus Soccer in South Africa: Content Familiarity Contributes to Cross-Cultural Differences in Cognitive Test Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malda, Maike; van de Vijver, Fons J. R.; Temane, Q. Michael

    2010-01-01

    In this study, cross-cultural differences in cognitive test scores are hypothesized to depend on a test's cultural complexity (Cultural Complexity Hypothesis: CCH), here conceptualized as its content familiarity, rather than on its cognitive complexity (Spearman's Hypothesis: SH). The content familiarity of tests assessing short-term memory,…

  11. An improved method for the diatom test utilizing DNA binding ability of silica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Yasuhisa; Ichida, Daisuke; Sato, Shingo; Kuroki, Kohji; Kishida, Tetsuko

    2014-05-01

    In order to devise a better forensic test for diatoms, the DNA binding ability of the diatom frustule constructing by silica, in the presence of chaotropic ions were utilized. It was proved that the diatoms were able to be captured via λDNA using silica-coated magnetic beads (Mag beads), followed by isolation and purification from the Mag beads as a solid phase by substituting the chaotropic agent with ultrapure water. Five cases of drowning, three in freshwater and two in seawater, were applied to the present method and similar results as the usual diatom test were obtained. Specimens of lung and other organs were rendered clearly visible, with elimination of foreign impurities. The present method appears applicable for detection of diatoms indirectly using PCR amplification of bound DNA or directly staining of the DNA. © 2014 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  12. One generation of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid deprivation increases depression and aggression test scores in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMar, James C; Ma, Kiazong; Bell, Jane M; Igarashi, Miki; Greenstein, Deanna; Rapoport, Stanley I

    2006-01-01

    Male rat pups at weaning (21 days of age) were subjected to a diet deficient or adequate in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) for 15 weeks. Performance on tests of locomotor activity, depression, and aggression was measured in that order during the ensuing 3 weeks, after which brain lipid composition was determined. In the n-3 PUFA-deprived rats, compared with n-3 PUFA-adequate rats, docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3) in brain phospholipid was reduced by 36% and docosapentaenoic acid (22:5n-6) was elevated by 90%, whereas brain phospholipid concentrations were unchanged. N-3 PUFA-deprived rats had a significantly increased (P = 0.03) score on the Porsolt forced-swim test for depression, and increased blocking time (P = 0.03) and blocking number (P = 0.04) scores (uncorrected for multiple comparisons) on the isolation-induced resident-intruder test for aggression. Large effect sizes (d > 0.8) were found on the depression score and on the blocking time score of the aggression test. Scores on the open-field test for locomotor activity did not differ significantly between groups, and had only small to medium effect sizes. This single-generational n-3 PUFA-deprived rat model, which demonstrated significant changes in brain lipid composition and in test scores for depression and aggression, may be useful for elucidating the contribution of disturbed brain PUFA metabolism to human depression, aggression, and bipolar disorder.

  13. The Effect of Computer-Based Self-Access Learning on Weekly Vocabulary Test Scores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan Dreyer

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study sets out to clarify the effectiveness of using an online vocabulary study tool, Quizlet, in an urban high school language arts class. Previous similar studies have mostly dealt with English Language Learners in college settings (Chui, 2013, and were therefore not directed at the issue self-efficacy that is at the heart of the problem of urban high school students in America entering remedial writing programs (Rose, 1989. The study involves 95 students over the course of 14 weeks. Students were tested weekly and were asked to use the Quizlet program in their own free time. The result of this optional involvement was that many students did not participate in the treatment and therefore acted as an elective control group. The resultant data collected shows a strong correlation between the use of an online vocabulary review program and short-term vocabulary retention. The study also showed that students who paced themselves and spread out their study sessions outperformed those students who used the program only for last minute “cram sessions.” The implications of the study are that students who take advantage of tools outside of the classroom are able to out perform their peers. The results are also in line with the call to include technology in the Basic Writing classroom not simply as a tool, but as a “form of discourse” (Jonaitis, 2012. Weekly vocabulary tests, combined with the daily online activity as reported by Quizlet, show that: 1 utilizing the review software improved the scores of most students, 2 those students who used Quizlet to review more than a single time (i.e., several days before the test outperformed those who only used the product once, and 3 students who professed proficiency with the “notebook” system of vocabulary learning appeared not to need the treatment.

  14. Reliability and Accuracy of Batak Lite Tests Used for Assessing Coordination Motor Abilities in Wrestlers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gierczuk Dariusz

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The aim of this work was to assess selected validity criteria of motor tasks included in Batak Lite. The tasks are used to control coordination motor abilities in athletes of different sports. Material and methods. Twenty male Greco-Roman wrestlers from the sports school SMS in Radom were included in the study. They were 17-18 years of age and their training experience was 4-7.5 years long. The validity of motor tasks was determined on the basis of two criteria, i.e. reliability and diagnostic accuracy. To define the reliability of the tests, the research was carried out twice with an interval of 5-7-days (test-retest. Diagnostic accuracy of selected indices was determined with the help of three main criteria. The analysis included 6 motor tasks performed with the use of Batak Lite. Results. Tests I, II, IV and V are characterised by reliability coefficients higher than 0.50 and, regardless of the assumed accuracy criterion, by coefficients higher than 0.30. Thus, they meet the validity requirements within the assessed criteria. The highest accuracy coefficients were observed in motor tests assessing quick reaction (r = 0.46-0.63, simple reaction including sensory (r = 0.61-0.78, motor (r = 0.33-0.46 and complex (r = 0.34-0.49 reactions as well as spatio-temporal orientation (r = 0.33-0.49 and movement coupling (r = 0.34-0.49. Conclusions. Four Batak Lite tests displayed sufficient reliability and diagnostic accuracy. Therefore, they can be implemented in the training process of wrestlers. The strongest correlation was noted between Batak Lite tests and motor tests that assessed quick reaction, spatio-temporal orientation and movement coupling.

  15. Evaluation of Factors Affecting Continuous Performance Test Identical Pairs Version Score of Schizophrenic Patients in a Japanese Clinical Sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takayoshi Koide

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Cognitive impairment in schizophrenia strongly relates to social outcome and is a good candidate for endophenotypes. When we accurately measure drug efficacy or effects of genes or variants relevant to schizophrenia on cognitive impairment, clinical factors that can affect scores on cognitive tests, such as age and severity of symptoms, should be considered. To elucidate the effect of clinical factors, we conducted multiple regression analysis using scores of the Continuous Performance Test Identical Pairs Version (CPT-IP, which is often used to measure attention/vigilance in schizophrenia. Methods. We conducted the CPT-IP (4-4 digit and examined clinical information (sex, age, education years, onset age, duration of illness, chlorpromazine-equivalent dose, and Positive and Negative Symptom Scale (PANSS scores in 126 schizophrenia patients in Japanese population. Multiple regression analysis was used to evaluate the effect of clinical factors. Results. Age, chlorpromazine-equivalent dose, and PANSS-negative symptom score were associated with mean d′ score in patients. These three clinical factors explained about 28% of the variance in mean d′ score. Conclusions. As conclusion, CPT-IP score in schizophrenia patients is influenced by age, chlorpromazine-equivalent dose and PANSS negative symptom score.

  16. Reconstructing, Investigating the Reliability and Validity and Scoring the Stanford Diagnostic Reading Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahram Saleh Sedghpour

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of the present study was to reconstruct determining validity, and score The Stanford Diagnostic Reading Test fourth edition (SDRT4 in the sixth grade students. Methods: The population of the study was all sixth grades of the 19 educational districts from Tehran, 571 students (255 boys and 316 girls were selected by using a random multi-cluster sampling. The data were analyzed. The techniques were item analysis (difficulty index, discriminative index, and loop techniques. Validity, translation validity, content validity, and construct validity (factorial analysis, and reliability (Kuder-Richardson. Results: The exploratory factor analysis determined five factors: declarative knowledge, inferential knowledge, procedural knowledge and visualization knowledge. The reliability of the Stanford diagnostic Reading Test’s subtests by computing the Kuder-Richardson coefficient were 0.778, 0.732 and 0.748 for comprehension subtest, vocabulary subtest and scanning subtest in order. Discussion: By considering the results of present study, SDRT4 has good reliability and validity and can appropriately diagnose the reading disabled students in the sixth grade.

  17. Genetic parameters for test day somatic cell score in Brazilian Holstein cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, C N; Santos, G G; Cobuci, J A; Thompson, G; Carvalheira, J G V

    2015-12-29

    Selection for lower somatic cell count has been included in the breeding objectives of several countries in order to increase resistance to mastitis. Genetic parameters of somatic cell scores (SCS) were estimated from the first lactation test day records of Brazilian Holstein cows using random-regression models with Legendre polynomials (LP) of the order 3-5. Data consisted of 87,711 TD produced by 10,084 cows, sired by 619 bulls calved from 1993 to 2007. Heritability estimates varied from 0.06 to 0.14 and decreased from the beginning of the lactation up to 60 days in milk (DIM) and increased thereafter to the end of lactation. Genetic correlations between adjacent DIM were very high (>0.83) but decreased to negative values, obtained with LP of order four, between DIM in the extremes of lactation. Despite the favorable trend, genetic changes in SCS were not significant and did not differ among LP. There was little benefit of fitting an LP of an order >3 to model animal genetic and permanent environment effects for SCS. Estimates of variance components found in this study may be used for breeding value estimation for SCS and selection for mastitis resistance in Holstein cattle in Brazil.

  18. [Influence of hearing aids on monosyllabic test score and subjective everyday hearing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thümmler, R; Liebscher, T; Hoppe, U

    2016-08-01

    Pure tone and speech audiometry are essential methods for examining the indication for hearing aids, as well as for hearing aid evaluation. Additionally, the subjective benefit of hearing aids has to be evaluated with appropriate questionnaires. The aim of the present study was to investigate the correlation between speech audiometry data and the results of a simple and user-friendly questionnaire, as well as to provide normative data for subjective benefit. Data from 136 hearing aid users with bilateral sensorineural hearing loss were analyzed retrospectively. Pure tone thresholds and Freiburg monosyllabic speech perception in the binaural situation were measured at 65 dB in quiet and in noise (signal-to-noise ratio, SNR = +5 dB), with and without hearing aids. Additionally, subjective hearing in everyday life was recorded using the 12-item Oldenburg Inventory. Improvement of speech perception with hearing aids for the Freiburg monosyllabic test in quiet was 32.0 percentage points on average; in noise, there was an average improvement of 16.4 percentage points. There was a strong correlation between the results of pure tone and speech audiometry. With hearing aids, patients scored their everyday hearing using the Oldenburg Inventory on average 1.4 scale points better than without hearing aids. Results of the Oldenburg Inventory correlate with both pure tone and speech audiometry. Hearing aid evaluation should include both speech audiometry and systematic measurement of the subjective benefit using a suitable questionnaire. In combination, the Freiburg monosyllabic test and the Oldenburg Inventory allow for quick and comprehensive evaluation.

  19. Conceptual Scoring and Classification Accuracy of Vocabulary Testing in Bilingual Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anaya, Jissel B.; Peña, Elizabeth D.; Bedore, Lisa M.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the effects of single-language and conceptual scoring on the vocabulary performance of bilingual children with and without specific language impairment. We assessed classification accuracy across 3 scoring methods. Method: Participants included Spanish-English bilingual children (N = 247) aged 5;1 (years;months) to…

  20. A Comparison of Special Education Teacher and Psychologist Scoring of the Bender Visual Motor Gestalt Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Glen G.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Ten special education teachers and two school psychologists scored the Bender-Gestalt protocals of elementary school children using the Koppitz scoring system. The reported correlations between teachers and school psychologists compared favorably to correlations between school psychologists as well as to interrater reliabilities reported in the…

  1. Assessment of Emotion Processing Skills in Acquired Brain Injury Using an Ability-Based Test of Emotional Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Sarah E; Wrench, Joanne M; Wilson, Sarah J

    2017-05-29

    Social and emotional problems are commonly reported after moderate to severe acquired brain injury (ABI) and pose a significant barrier to rehabilitation. However, progress in assessment of emotional skills has been limited by a lack of validated measurement approaches. This study represents the first formal psychometric evaluation of the use of the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT) V2.0 as a tool for assessing skills in perceiving, using, understanding and managing emotions following ABI. The sample consisted of 82 participants aged 18-80 years in the postacute phase of recovery (2 months-7 years) after moderate to severe ABI. Participants completed the MSCEIT V2.0 and measures of cognition and mood. Sociodemographic and clinical variables were collated from participant interview and medical files. Results revealed deficits across all MSCEIT subscales (approximately 1 SD below the normative mean). Internal consistency was adequate at overall, area, and branch levels, and MSCEIT scores correlated in expected ways with key demographic, clinical, cognitive, and mood variables. MSCEIT performance was related to injury severity and clinician-rated functioning after ABI. Confirmatory factor analysis favored a 3-factor model of EI due to statistical redundancy of the Using Emotions branch. Overall, these findings suggest that the MSCEIT V2.0 is sensitive to emotion processing deficits after moderate to severe ABI, and can yield valid and reliable scores in an ABI sample. In terms of theoretical contributions, our findings support a domain-based, 3-factor approach for characterizing emotion-related abilities in brain-injured individuals. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Testing of both receptive and linguistic abilities in Italian among students of italian studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darja Mertelj

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Although the study of Italian Language and Literature generally does not only con sist of teaching/learning contemporary Italian as a foreign language (FL, the paper will present some of the main results of testing general proficiency in Italian as a FL achieved by most students from the first to the fourth years of Italian Studies at the University of Ljubljana. The presentation of results is limited to both receptive abilities (listening and reading comprehension and to grammar and lexical proficiency. The testing project start ed with the first cycle of testing in May 2010 in the framework of a bilateral agreement be tween Italian Studies in Ljubljana and in Belgrade (the other two cycles will follow in 2011 and 2012. The paper is concerned about the (non achievement of appropriate levels (1st to 4th year, from B1 to C2, respectively, according to the Common European Framework agreed on by teaching staff at the two universities who considered their experience with students in the last years. It will attempt to sketch out some initial ideas about the extent to which the study of Italian Language and Literature contributes to general proficiency in Italian as a foreign language.

  3. EVALUATION OF PHYSIOLOGICAL ABILITIES OF TRAINEES OF NORDIC WALKING WITH UKK2-TEST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nebojša Čokorilo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The research included (N=60 females from the territory of Municipality of Novi Sad. The sample of individuals included females of the average age of 58.5 ±6.90, average body mass of 70.9 kg±15.32, and average body height of 164.8 m±7.24. The walking test of 2 kilometres of length offers the possibility to determine the Fitness Index (general ability and evaluate maximal consumption of oxygen VO2max. Since the individuals were older, very demanding tests were not recommendable, so we chose UKK test of 2 kilometre walking. Although it engages great muscle groups, it is not considered a risky activity which can bring to quick body exhaustion. Nordic walking is very convenient for intensifying of the training, and the important thing is that it protects joints. The use of sticks off-loads the whole passive composition for moving, such as ligaments and connective tissues, back and joints (especially knees, for some 15 to 35 tonnes per hour. Because of that, Nordic walking is ideal as a rehabilitation sport for people with orthopaedic disorders. The protocol of the test requires observation of the air temperature in the span of 5 - 25°C, moderate humidity, casual clothes or sweat suit and appropriate clothes and sneakers, and 5 to 10 minutes of warm-up: stretching of the spine muscles, legs muscles, and fast walking of 200 meters. After such preparations, the test starts, and each individual sets own tempo of walking. After 2 kilometres, we measure achieved time and the value of the pulse

  4. The Validity of Graduate Management Admission Test Scores: A Summary of Studies Conducted from 1997 to 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talento-Miller, Eileen; Rudner, Lawrence M.

    2008-01-01

    The validity of Graduate Management Admission Test (GMAT) scores is examined by summarizing 273 studies conducted between 1997 and 2004. Each of the studies was conducted through the Validity Study Service of the test sponsor and contained identical variables and statistical methods. Validity coefficients from each of the studies were corrected…

  5. A general equation to obtain multiple cut-off scores on a test from multinomial logistic regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bersabé, Rosa; Rivas, Teresa

    2010-05-01

    The authors derive a general equation to compute multiple cut-offs on a total test score in order to classify individuals into more than two ordinal categories. The equation is derived from the multinomial logistic regression (MLR) model, which is an extension of the binary logistic regression (BLR) model to accommodate polytomous outcome variables. From this analytical procedure, cut-off scores are established at the test score (the predictor variable) at which an individual is as likely to be in category j as in category j+1 of an ordinal outcome variable. The application of the complete procedure is illustrated by an example with data from an actual study on eating disorders. In this example, two cut-off scores on the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26) scores are obtained in order to classify individuals into three ordinal categories: asymptomatic, symptomatic and eating disorder. Diagnoses were made from the responses to a self-report (Q-EDD) that operationalises DSM-IV criteria for eating disorders. Alternatives to the MLR model to set multiple cut-off scores are discussed.

  6. Comparison of the diagnostic ability of Moorfield′s regression analysis and glaucoma probability score using Heidelberg retinal tomograph III in eyes with primary open angle glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jindal Shveta

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To compare the diagnostic performance of the Heidelberg retinal tomograph (HRT glaucoma probability score (GPS with that of Moorfield′s regression analysis (MRA. Materials and Methods: The study included 50 eyes of normal subjects and 50 eyes of subjects with early-to-moderate primary open angle glaucoma. Images were obtained by using HRT version 3.0. Results: The agreement coefficient (weighted k for the overall MRA and GPS classification was 0.216 (95% CI: 0.119 - 0.315. The sensitivity and specificity were evaluated using the most specific (borderline results included as test negatives and least specific criteria (borderline results included as test positives. The MRA sensitivity and specificity were 30.61 and 98% (most specific and 57.14 and 98% (least specific. The GPS sensitivity and specificity were 81.63 and 73.47% (most specific and 95.92 and 34.69% (least specific. The MRA gave a higher positive likelihood ratio (28.57 vs. 3.08 and the GPS gave a higher negative likelihood ratio (0.25 vs. 0.44.The sensitivity increased with increasing disc size for both MRA and GPS. Conclusions: There was a poor agreement between the overall MRA and GPS classifications. GPS tended to have higher sensitivities, lower specificities, and lower likelihood ratios than the MRA. The disc size should be taken into consideration when interpreting the results of HRT, as both the GPS and MRA showed decreased sensitivity for smaller discs and the GPS showed decreased specificity for larger discs.

  7. The Effects of Teaching Descriptive Geometry in General Engineering 103 on Spatial Relations Tests Scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stallings, William M.

    It was hypothesized that instruction in descriptive geometry produces an increase in SRT scores. The resultant data do not firmly support this hypothesis. It is suggested that this study be replicated with the use of randomly selected control groups. (MS)

  8. Lead exposure and the 2010 achievement test scores of children in New York counties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strayhorn, Jillian C; Strayhorn, Joseph M

    2012-01-23

    Lead is toxic to cognitive and behavioral functioning in children even at levels well below those producing physical symptoms. Continuing efforts in the U.S. since about the 1970s to reduce lead exposure in children have dramatically reduced the incidence of elevated blood lead levels (with elevated levels defined by the current U.S. Centers for Disease Control threshold of 10 μg/dl). The current study examines how much lead toxicity continues to impair the academic achievement of children of New York State, using 2010 test data. This study relies on three sets of data published for the 57 New York counties outside New York City: school achievement data from the New York State Department of Education, data on incidence of elevated blood lead levels from the New York State Department of Health, and data on income from the U.S. Census Bureau. We studied third grade and eighth grade test scores in English Language Arts and mathematics. Using the county as the unit of analysis, we computed bivariate correlations and regression coefficients, with percent of children achieving at the lowest reported level as the dependent variable and the percent of preschoolers in the county with elevated blood lead levels as the independent variable. Then we repeated those analyses using partial correlations to control for possible confounding effects of family income, and using multiple regressions with income included. The bivariate correlations between incidence of elevated lead and number of children in the lowest achievement group ranged between 0.38 and 0.47. The partial correlations ranged from 0.29 to 0.40. The regression coefficients, both bivariate and partial (both estimating the increase in percent of children in the lowest achievement group for every percent increase in the children with elevated blood lead levels), ranged from 0.52 to 1.31. All regression coefficients, when rounded to the nearest integer, were approximately 1. Thus, when the percent of children showing

  9. Lead exposure and the 2010 achievement test scores of children in New York counties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strayhorn Jillian C

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lead is toxic to cognitive and behavioral functioning in children even at levels well below those producing physical symptoms. Continuing efforts in the U.S. since about the 1970s to reduce lead exposure in children have dramatically reduced the incidence of elevated blood lead levels (with elevated levels defined by the current U.S. Centers for Disease Control threshold of 10 μg/dl. The current study examines how much lead toxicity continues to impair the academic achievement of children of New York State, using 2010 test data. Methods This study relies on three sets of data published for the 57 New York counties outside New York City: school achievement data from the New York State Department of Education, data on incidence of elevated blood lead levels from the New York State Department of Health, and data on income from the U.S. Census Bureau. We studied third grade and eighth grade test scores in English Language Arts and mathematics. Using the county as the unit of analysis, we computed bivariate correlations and regression coefficients, with percent of children achieving at the lowest reported level as the dependent variable and the percent of preschoolers in the county with elevated blood lead levels as the independent variable. Then we repeated those analyses using partial correlations to control for possible confounding effects of family income, and using multiple regressions with income included. Results The bivariate correlations between incidence of elevated lead and number of children in the lowest achievement group ranged between 0.38 and 0.47. The partial correlations ranged from 0.29 to 0.40. The regression coefficients, both bivariate and partial (both estimating the increase in percent of children in the lowest achievement group for every percent increase in the children with elevated blood lead levels, ranged from 0.52 to 1.31. All regression coefficients, when rounded to the nearest integer, were

  10. Longitudinal analysis of standardized test scores of students in the Science Writing Heuristic approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanlen, Niphon

    The purpose of this study was to examine the longitudinal impacts of the Science Writing Heuristic (SWH) approach on student science achievement measured by the Iowa Test of Basic Skills (ITBS). A number of studies have reported positive impact of an inquiry-based instruction on student achievement, critical thinking skills, reasoning skills, attitude toward science, etc. So far, studies have focused on exploring how an intervention affects student achievement using teacher/researcher-generated measurement. Only a few studies have attempted to explore the long-term impacts of an intervention on student science achievement measured by standardized tests. The students' science and reading ITBS data was collected from 2000 to 2011 from a school district which had adopted the SWH approach as the main approach in science classrooms since 2002. The data consisted of 12,350 data points from 3,039 students. The multilevel model for change with discontinuity in elevation and slope technique was used to analyze changes in student science achievement growth trajectories prior and after adopting the SWH approach. The results showed that the SWH approach positively impacted students by initially raising science achievement scores. The initial impact was maintained and gradually increased when students were continuously exposed to the SWH approach. Disadvantaged students who were at risk of having low science achievement had bigger benefits from experience with the SWH approach. As a result, existing problematic achievement gaps were narrowed down. Moreover, students who started experience with the SWH approach as early as elementary school seemed to have better science achievement growth compared to students who started experiencing with the SWH approach only in high school. The results found in this study not only confirmed the positive impacts of the SWH approach on student achievement, but also demonstrated additive impacts found when students had longitudinal experiences

  11. Life Orientation Test- Revised (LOT-R) Versus Academic Score in Various First Year Health Professional Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulloo, Puja; Vedi, Neeraj; Gandotra, Achleshwar

    2016-10-01

    Health field per se requires mental, physical and psychological steadiness and wellbeing. In modern times decline in psychological and physical health has been observed in student after admission in health education program. Factors like perfectionism, self-esteem, personal and professional consequence have affected their academic score directly or indirectly. Life Orientation Test-Revised (LOT-R) instrument measures optimism in relation to self-esteem of individual. A better score will show more confidence level of the student. To find an association of LOT-R with the academic score of health professional students and assess gender variation. A total of 350 students enrolled for academic year 2015-16 in health professional program of medicine, dental and physiotherapy institutes of Sumandeep Vidyapeeth University were considered. Non-randomized and purposive study was done by providing LOT-R questionnaire to students. Average academic score of Anatomy and Physiology course was used for analysis excluding the biochemistry due to non-availability of tangible data at the time of study. Data was collected, analysed statistically using independent t-test, ANOVA with post-hoc and correlation analysis. Statistical significant for one-way ANOVA was assessed for academic score between the group of health professional students. While no statistical correlation of significance was observed for LOT-R score with that of academic score. As per gender distribution there was no statistical significant observation for LOT-R score within the groups. The present study highlighted the need of student's counseling for their approach towards health education; as their career. Psychological self-reliance and optimism improves the academic score. A study needs to be compared with the socio-economic status of the student to have a better understanding of the LOT-R.

  12. Developing a Numerical Ability Test for Students of Education in Jordan: An Application of Item Response Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abed, Eman Rasmi; Al-Absi, Mohammad Mustafa; Abu shindi, Yousef Abdelqader

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is developing a test to measure the numerical ability for students of education. The sample of the study consisted of (504) students from 8 universities in Jordan. The final draft of the test contains 45 items distributed among 5 dimensions. The results revealed that acceptable psychometric properties of the test;…

  13. The Extent to Which TOEFL iBT Speaking Scores Are Associated with Performance on Oral Language Tasks and Oral Ability Components for Japanese University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ockey, Gary J.; Koyama, Dennis; Setoguchi, Eric; Sun, Angela

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which performance on the TOEFL iBT speaking section is associated with other indicators of Japanese university students' abilities to communicate orally in an academic English environment and to determine which components of oral ability for these tasks are best assessed by TOEFL iBT. To…

  14. Test-retest reliability and minimal detectable change scores for fitness assessment in older adults with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonso-Rosa, Rosa M; Del Pozo-Cruz, Borja; Del Pozo-Cruz, Jesus; Sañudo, Borja; Rogers, Michael E

    2014-01-01

    To assess the intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) and to determine the minimal detectable change (MDC95 ) scores of the data for the Hand Grip Strength Test, the Chair Sit and Reach Test (CSRT), the Timed "Up and Go" (TUG) test, the 6-Minute Walk Test (6MWT) and 30 seconds Sit to Stand Test (30s-STS) test in older adults with type 2 NIDDM. Test-retest reliability. Eighteen subject participated in two sessions (1 week apart), which included the different tests. High ICCs (≥ 0.92) were found for all tests. The MDC₉₅ scores were as follows: 4.0 kg for Hand Grip Strength Tests, 7.5 cm for the right leg-CSRT, 9.0 cm for the left leg-CSRT, 1.0 second for the TUG test, 27 m for the 6MWT, and 3.3 repetitions for the 30s-STS test. All tests evaluated are reliable outcome measures for type 2 NIDDM patients. This study has generated novel MCD₉₅ data, which will assist nursing practitioners in both prescribing the most beneficial exercise and interpreting posttreatment changes after rehabilitation in patients with T2DM. © 2013 Association of Rehabilitation Nurses.

  15. Testing measurement invariance of the schizotypal personality questionnaire-brief scores across Spanish and Swiss adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Ortuño-Sierra

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Schizotypy is a complex construct intimately related to psychosis. Empirical evidence indicates that participants with high scores on schizotypal self-report are at a heightened risk for the later development of psychotic disorders. Schizotypal experiences represent the behavioural expression of liability for psychotic disorders. Previous factorial studies have shown that schizotypy is a multidimensional construct similar to that found in patients with schizophrenia. Specifically, using the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire-Brief (SPQ-B, the three-dimensional model has been widely replicated. However, there has been no in-depth investigation of whether the dimensional structure underlying the SPQ-B scores is invariant across countries. METHODS: The main goal of this study was to examine the measurement invariance of the SPQ-B scores across Spanish and Swiss adolescents. The final sample was made up of 261 Spanish participants (51.7% men; M = 16.04 years and 241 Swiss participants (52.3% men; M = 15.94 years. RESULTS: The results indicated that Raine et al.'s three-factor model presented adequate goodness-of-fit indices. Moreover, the results supported the measurement invariance (configural and partial strong invariance of the SPQ-B scores across the two samples. Spanish participants scored higher on Interpersonal dimension than Swiss when latent means were compared. DISCUSSION: The study of measurement equivalence across countries provides preliminary evidence for the Raine et al.'s three-factor model and of the cross-cultural validity of the SPQ-B scores in adolescent population. Future studies should continue to examine the measurement invariance of the schizotypy and psychosis-risk syndromes across cultures.

  16. Validity and predictive ability of the juvenile arthritis disease activity score based on CRP versus ESR in a Nordic population-based setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordal, E B; Zak, M; Aalto, K

    2012-01-01

    To compare the juvenile arthritis disease activity score (JADAS) based on C reactive protein (CRP) (JADAS-CRP) with JADAS based on erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) (JADAS-ESR) and to validate JADAS in a population-based setting.......To compare the juvenile arthritis disease activity score (JADAS) based on C reactive protein (CRP) (JADAS-CRP) with JADAS based on erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) (JADAS-ESR) and to validate JADAS in a population-based setting....

  17. Verbal Ability and Persistent Offending: A Race-Specific Test of Moffitt's Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellair, Paul E.; McNulty, Thomas L.; Piquero, Alex R.

    2014-01-01

    Theoretical questions linger over the applicability of the verbal ability model to African Americans and the social control theory hypothesis that educational failure mediates the effect of verbal ability on offending patterns. Accordingly, this paper investigates whether verbal ability distinguishes between offending groups within the context of Moffitt's developmental taxonomy. Questions are addressed with longitudinal data spanning childhood through young-adulthood from an ongoing national panel, and multinomial and hierarchical Poisson models (over-dispersed). In multinomial models, low verbal ability predicts membership in a life-course-persistent-oriented group relative to an adolescent-limited-oriented group. Hierarchical models indicate that verbal ability is associated with arrest outcomes among White and African American subjects, with effects consistently operating through educational attainment (high school dropout). The results support Moffitt's hypothesis that verbal deficits distinguish adolescent-limited- and life-course-persistent-oriented groups within race as well as the social control model of verbal ability. PMID:26924885

  18. The current ability to test theories of gravity with black hole shadows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Yosuke; Younsi, Ziri; Fromm, Christian M.; Porth, Oliver; De Laurentis, Mariafelicia; Olivares, Hector; Falcke, Heino; Kramer, Michael; Rezzolla, Luciano

    2018-04-01

    Our Galactic Centre, Sagittarius A*, is believed to harbour a supermassive black hole, as suggested by observations tracking individual orbiting stars1,2. Upcoming submillimetre very-long baseline interferometry images of Sagittarius A* carried out by the Event Horizon Telescope collaboration (EHTC)3,4 are expected to provide critical evidence for the existence of this supermassive black hole5,6. We assess our present ability to use EHTC images to determine whether they correspond to a Kerr black hole as predicted by Einstein's theory of general relativity or to a black hole in alternative theories of gravity. To this end, we perform general-relativistic magnetohydrodynamical simulations and use general-relativistic radiative-transfer calculations to generate synthetic shadow images of a magnetized accretion flow onto a Kerr black hole. In addition, we perform these simulations and calculations for a dilaton black hole, which we take as a representative solution of an alternative theory of gravity. Adopting the very-long baseline interferometry configuration from the 2017 EHTC campaign, we find that it could be extremely difficult to distinguish between black holes from different theories of gravity, thus highlighting that great caution is needed when interpreting black hole images as tests of general relativity.

  19. 76 FR 16350 - Medical Devices; Ovarian Adnexal Mass Assessment Score Test System; Labeling; Black Box Restrictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-23

    ... a risk identified in the special controls guidance document must be in a black box and must appear... (special controls). DATES: Submit either electronic or written comments by May 23, 2011. ADDRESSES: You may... gynecologic oncologist for surgery. B. Identified Risk to Health The ovarian adnexal mass assessment score...

  20. Contributions of biological tests and the 4 Ts score in the diagnosis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    On the other hand, 22.2% of patients were HIT positive in high probability group versus 0% in the low probability group. Conclusion: These results confirmed that the negative predictive value of the HIT score was high. The 4T's model has demonstrated excellent sensitivity but its specificity was limited. The specificity of the ...

  1. Hypothesis Testing Using Factor Score Regression: A Comparison of Four Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devlieger, Ines; Mayer, Axel; Rosseel, Yves

    2016-01-01

    In this article, an overview is given of four methods to perform factor score regression (FSR), namely regression FSR, Bartlett FSR, the bias avoiding method of Skrondal and Laake, and the bias correcting method of Croon. The bias correcting method is extended to include a reliable standard error. The four methods are compared with each other and…

  2. Teenage Self Test: cigarette smoking. Discussion Leader's Guide. How do you score?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Public Health Service (DHEW), Rockville, MD. National Clearinghouse for Smoking and Health.

    This self-scoring questionnaire on attitudes related to smoking includes norms based upon the responses of 7,000 teenagers and a discussion of the meaning of eight subscores. The subscores are: (1) effect of smoking on health; (2) non-smoker's rights; (3) positive effects of smoking; (4) manufactured reasons for smoking; (5) reasons for starting;…

  3. Comparison of a Class of Rank-Score Tests in Two-Factor Designs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT: Rank score functions are known to be versatile and powerful techniques in factorial designs. Researchers have established the theoretical properties of these methods based on nonparametric hypotheses, but only scanty empirical results are available in the literature on these procedures. In this paper, four ...

  4. Reliability and validity test of a Scoring Rubric for Information Literacy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Helvoort, Jos; Brand-Gruwel, Saskia; Huysmans, Frank; Sjoer, Ellen

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to measure reliability and validity of the Scoring Rubric for Information Literacy (Van Helvoort, 2010).Design/methodology/approach Percentages of agreement and Intraclass Correlation were used to describe interrater reliability. For the determination of construct

  5. Use of transdermal and intravenous granisetron and the ability of the Hesketh score to assess nausea and vomiting induced by multiday chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boccia RV

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Ralph V Boccia,1 Gemma Clark,2 Julian D Howell21Center for Cancer and Blood Disorders, Bethesda, MD, USA; 2ProStrakan Pharmaceuticals, Galashiels, UKPurpose: Hesketh scores define emetogenicity of single-agent and multiagent single-day chemotherapy. This analysis determined the emetogenicity of multiagent, multiday chemotherapy and the Granisetron Transdermal System (GTDS; Sancuso®.Methods: This was a retrospective analysis of a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, phase III noninferiority trial of GTDS versus oral granisetron in patients receiving 3 days of multiagent moderately or highly emetogenic chemotherapy, regardless of granisetron formulation. Emesis was defined as vomiting/retching or the use of rescue medication. Logistic regression and classification trees were used to determine the optimal combination of Hesketh scores over the multiagent, multiday regimens for the prediction of emesis.Results: Of 393 patients, 272 (69.2% were chemotherapy naïve. The most common types of cancer were lung (30.5% and gynecologic (21.9%. The most common chemotherapeutic regimen (in 14.2% of patients was cisplatin plus etoposide on days 1–3. The best binary emesis predictor was day 1 Hesketh score. Patients with a day 1 Hesketh score of 5 had the highest rate of emesis (62.5% versus patients with a score < 5 (31.7%. For patients with day 1 Hesketh score < 5, only 14.3% of those receiving only one drug on day 1 experienced emesis.Conclusion: Hesketh emetogenicity scores of individual agents are applicable to multiday, multiagent chemotherapeutic regimens in patients receiving antiemetics.Keywords: chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting, emetogenicity, granisetron, clinical trial, retrospective analysis

  6. Detection of improvement in the masticatory function from old to new removable partial dentures using mixing ability test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakawa, A; Fueki, K; Ohyama, T

    2005-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the sensitivity of the Mixing Ability Test to detect improvement of masticatory function in subjects on transition from old to new removable partial dentures. Thirty-two subjects (seven males, 25 females, mean age 65.0 years) with distal extension partially edentulous area in mandible and/or maxilla participated in the study. The following reasons were presented for replacing the old removable partial dentures with new ones: fracture and/or poor fitness of retainers, extraction of abutment teeth, poor fitness of denture base, severe wear of artificial teeth and request for metal base dentures. Masticatory function with old and new removable partial dentures after an adaptation period (mean 27.4 weeks) was evaluated by the Mixing Ability Test. Subjects were asked to masticate five two-coloured wax cubes with each removable partial denture. Mixing Ability Index was obtained from the colour mixture and shape of the masticated cubes. Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to test the difference of Mixing Ability Indexes between old and new removable partial dentures. The mixing ability indexes with new removable partial dentures (mean+/- s.d.: 0.70+/- 0.68) was significantly higher (Premovable partial dentures (-0.11+/-1.13). The results suggest that the Mixing Ability Test was capable of detecting improvement in masticatory function with new removable partial dentures.

  7. Empirical Results of Using an Analytic versus Holistic Scoring Method To Score Geometric Proofs: Linking and Assessing Greeno, Bloom, and van Hiele Views of Student Abilities To Do Proof.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Bethe; Carifio, James

    This study sought to establish the benefits of an analytic scoring procedure for assessing student performance in doing geometry proofs. Using the cognitive behavior theories of B. Bloom and the theories of J. G. Greeno about geometric knowledge, five criteria were established for assessing performance in proof. After a training session, 3 judges…

  8. Predicting Pre-Service Classroom Teachers' Civil Servant Recruitment Examination's Educational Sciences Test Scores Using Artificial Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Metin

    2015-01-01

    This study predicts the number of correct answers given by pre-service classroom teachers in Civil Servant Recruitment Examination's (CSRE) educational sciences test based on their high school grade point averages, university entrance scores, and grades (mid-term and final exams) from their undergraduate educational courses. This study was…

  9. Differential Predictive Validity of High School GPA and College Entrance Test Scores for University Students in Yemen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hattami, Abdulghani Ali Dawod

    2012-01-01

    High school grade point average and college entrance test scores are two admission criteria that are currently used by most colleges in Yemen to select their prospective students. Given their widespread use, it is important to investigate their predictive validity to ensure the accuracy of the admission decisions in these institutions. This study…

  10. Automated Scoring for the "TOEFL Junior"® Comprehensive Writing and Speaking Test. Research Report. ETS RR-15-09

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evanini, Keelan; Heilman, Michael; Wang, Xinhao; Blanchard, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    This report describes the initial automated scoring results that were obtained using the constructed responses from the Writing and Speaking sections of the pilot forms of the "TOEFL Junior"® Comprehensive test administered in late 2011. For all of the items except one (the edit item in the Writing section), existing automated scoring…

  11. Differences in physical-fitness test scores between actively and passively recruited older adults : Consequences for norm-based classification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Heuvelen, M.J.G.; Stevens, M.; Kempen, G.I.J.M.

    This study investigated differences in physical-fitness test scores between actively and passively recruited older adults and the consequences thereof for norm-based classification of individuals. Walking endurance, grip strength, hip flexibility, balance, manual dexterity, and reaction time were

  12. Predictive validity of the classroom strategies scale-observer form on statewide testing scores: an initial investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Linda A; Fabiano, Gregory A; Dudek, Christopher M; Hsu, Louis

    2013-12-01

    The present study examined the validity of a teacher observation measure, the Classroom Strategies Scale--Observer Form (CSS), as a predictor of student performance on statewide tests of mathematics and English language arts. The CSS is a teacher practice observational measure that assesses evidence-based instructional and behavioral management practices in elementary school. A series of two-level hierarchical generalized linear models were fitted to data of a sample of 662 third- through fifth-grade students to assess whether CSS Part 2 Instructional Strategy and Behavioral Management Strategy scale discrepancy scores (i.e., ∑ |recommended frequency--frequency ratings|) predicted statewide mathematics and English language arts proficiency scores when percentage of minority students in schools was controlled. Results indicated that the Instructional Strategy scale discrepancy scores significantly predicted mathematics and English language arts proficiency scores: Relatively larger discrepancies on observer ratings of what teachers did versus what should have been done were associated with lower proficiency scores. Results offer initial evidence of the predictive validity of the CSS Part 2 Instructional Strategy discrepancy scores on student academic outcomes. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  13. The Bender-Gestalt test in an Italian sample: an analysis of Koppitz's Developmental Bender Scoring System deviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzeschi, C; Lis, A

    2000-04-01

    This study extended the research of the psychometric characteristics of Koppitz's 1963/1975 Developmental Scoring System of the Bender-Gestalt test. Attention was paid to relations among the 7 deviations. The test was administered by licensed psychologists to 1,065 white children, aged from 3 yr., 6 mo. to 11 yr., 5 mo., enrolled in the regular education track of kindergarten and elementary school in Italy.

  14. WiiFit™ Plus balance test scores for the assessment of balance and mobility in older adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed-Jones, Rebecca J; Dorgo, Sandor; Hitchings, Maija K; Bader, Julia O.

    2012-01-01

    The Nintendo Wii™ is becoming an increasingly popular technology for the training and assessment of balance in older adults. Recent studies have shown promising results for its use in fall prevention. However, it is not clear how scores on the WiiFit™ balance games relate to current standardized tests of balance and mobility. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between WiiFit™ Plus balance tests, and standardized tests of older adult fitness, balance, mobility, self-reported balance confidence, and visual attention and processing. Results from 34 older adult participants indicate that WiiFit™ balance tests do not correlate well with standardized functional balance, mobility and fitness tests. However, the Wii balance score, as measured by the Basic Balance Test of the WiiFit™, does correlate with visual processing speed as measured by the Useful Field of View (UFOV) test. These results indicate that WiiFit™ balance tests may provide advantageous information supplementary to information obtained through standard functional mobility and balance tests; however, caution should be used when using the WiiFit™ balance tests in isolation. Further research is necessary as these technologies become widely used in clinical and home settings for balance training and assessment. PMID:22534562

  15. Estimation of an Examinee's Ability in the Web-Based Computerized Adaptive Testing Program IRT-CAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon-Hwan Lee

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available We developed a program to estimate an examinee's ability in order to provide freely available access to a web-based computerized adaptive testing (CAT program. We used PHP and Java Script as the program languages, PostgresSQL as the database management system on an Apache web server and Linux as the operating system. A system which allows for user input and searching within inputted items and creates tests was constructed. We performed an ability estimation on each test based on a Rasch model and 2- or 3-parametric logistic models. Our system provides an algorithm for a web-based CAT, replacing previous personal computer-based ones, and makes it possible to estimate an examinee?占퐏 ability immediately at the end of test.

  16. Testing an OMERACT MRI scoring system for peripheral psoriatic arthritis in cross-sectional and longitudinal settings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McQueen, Fiona; Lassere, Marissa; Duer-Jensen, Anne

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is increasingly used to measure articular inflammation and damage in patients with psoriatic arthritis (PsA). We evaluated the reliability of a new OMERACT PsA MRI scoring system, PsAMRIS, in PsA fingers. METHODS: In 2 separate studies, MRI scans were o......, reliability for change scores was acceptable only for synovitis and tenosynovitis. CONCLUSION: Further development and testing of the PsAMRIS is planned to improve its performance as a clinical and research tool to identify and measure pathology in peripheral joint PsA....

  17. Are WISC IQ scores in children with mathematical learning disabilities underestimated? The influence of a specialized intervention on test performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Katharina; Spinath, Birgit

    2018-01-01

    Intelligence measures play a pivotal role in the diagnosis of mathematical learning disabilities (MLD). Probably as a result of math-related material in IQ tests, children with MLD often display reduced IQ scores. However, it remains unclear whether the effects of math remediation extend to IQ scores. The present study investigated the impact of a special remediation program compared to a control group receiving private tutoring (PT) on the WISC IQ scores of children with MLD. We included N=45 MLD children (7-12 years) in a study with a pre- and post-test control group design. Children received remediation for two years on average. The analyses revealed significantly greater improvements in the experimental group on the Full-Scale IQ, and the Verbal Comprehension, Perceptual Reasoning, and Working Memory indices, but not Processing Speed, compared to the PT group. Children in the experimental group showed an average WISC IQ gain of more than ten points. Results indicate that the WISC IQ scores of MLD children might be underestimated and that an effective math intervention can improve WISC IQ test performance. Taking limitations into account, we discuss the use of IQ measures more generally for defining MLD in research and practice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Compensation or inhibitory failure? Testing hypotheses of age-related right frontal lobe involvement in verbal memory ability using structural and diffusion MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Simon R; Bastin, Mark E; Ferguson, Karen J; Allerhand, Mike; Royle, Natalie A; Maniega, Susanna Muñoz; Starr, John M; MacLullich, Alasdair M J; Wardlaw, Joanna M; Deary, Ian J; MacPherson, Sarah E

    2015-02-01

    Functional neuroimaging studies report increased right prefrontal cortex (PFC) involvement during verbal memory tasks amongst low-scoring older individuals, compared to younger controls and their higher-scoring contemporaries. Some propose that this reflects inefficient use of neural resources through failure of the left PFC to inhibit non-task-related right PFC activity, via the anterior corpus callosum (CC). For others, it indicates partial compensation - that is, the right PFC cannot completely supplement the failing neural network, but contributes positively to performance. We propose that combining structural and diffusion brain MRI can be used to test predictions from these theories which have arisen from fMRI studies. We test these hypotheses in immediate and delayed verbal memory ability amongst 90 healthy older adults of mean age 73 years. Right hippocampus and left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) volumes, and fractional anisotropy (FA) in the splenium made unique contributions to verbal memory ability in the whole group. There was no significant effect of anterior callosal white matter integrity on performance. Rather, segmented linear regression indicated that right DLPFC volume was a significantly stronger positive predictor of verbal memory for lower-scorers than higher-scorers, supporting a compensatory explanation for the differential involvement of the right frontal lobe in verbal memory tasks in older age. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Compensation or inhibitory failure? Testing hypotheses of age-related right frontal lobe involvement in verbal memory ability using structural and diffusion MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Simon R.; Bastin, Mark E.; Ferguson, Karen J.; Allerhand, Mike; Royle, Natalie A.; Maniega, Susanna Muñoz; Starr, John M.; MacLullich, Alasdair M.J.; Wardlaw, Joanna M.; Deary, Ian J.; MacPherson, Sarah E.

    2015-01-01

    Functional neuroimaging studies report increased right prefrontal cortex (PFC) involvement during verbal memory tasks amongst low-scoring older individuals, compared to younger controls and their higher-scoring contemporaries. Some propose that this reflects inefficient use of neural resources through failure of the left PFC to inhibit non-task-related right PFC activity, via the anterior corpus callosum (CC). For others, it indicates partial compensation – that is, the right PFC cannot completely supplement the failing neural network, but contributes positively to performance. We propose that combining structural and diffusion brain MRI can be used to test predictions from these theories which have arisen from fMRI studies. We test these hypotheses in immediate and delayed verbal memory ability amongst 90 healthy older adults of mean age 73 years. Right hippocampus and left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) volumes, and fractional anisotropy (FA) in the splenium made unique contributions to verbal memory ability in the whole group. There was no significant effect of anterior callosal white matter integrity on performance. Rather, segmented linear regression indicated that right DLPFC volume was a significantly stronger positive predictor of verbal memory for lower-scorers than higher-scorers, supporting a compensatory explanation for the differential involvement of the right frontal lobe in verbal memory tasks in older age. PMID:25241394

  20. Measuring English Language Workplace Proficiency across Subgroups: Using CFA Models to Validate Test Score Interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Hanwook; Manna, Venessa F.

    2017-01-01

    This study assessed the factor structure of the Test of English for International Communication (TOEIC®) Listening and Reading test, and its invariance across subgroups of test-takers. The subgroups were defined by (a) gender, (b) age, (c) employment status, (d) time spent studying English, and (e) having lived in a country where English is the…

  1. Comparison of Physical Therapy Anatomy Performance and Anxiety Scores in Timed and Untimed Practical Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Sarah M.; Evans, Cathy; Agur, Anne M.R.

    2015-01-01

    Students in health care professional programs face many stressful tests that determine successful completion of their program. Test anxiety during these high stakes examinations can affect working memory and lead to poor outcomes. Methods of decreasing test anxiety include lengthening the time available to complete examinations or evaluating…

  2. THE INFLUENCE OF MOTORIC AND COGNITIVE ABILITIES ON THE SUCCESSFULNESS IN SITUATIONAL MOTORIC TESTS IN VOLLEYBALL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bećir Šabotić

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The process of management of moving in volleyball is significally leaning on the activity of analyst. By practicing the game the sharpness of visual, tactical, cinestatical, vestbular and hearing feelings are significally improving. The aim of this work is to consolidate the relation between motoric and cognitive abilities of situational motoric abilities in volleyball. The sample of examination is taken from the population of pupils in eighth grade of primary school. For the processing of results the method of canonically – corelational analyses has been used. According to the given results it can be concluded that there is a very significant connection between the group of predictorical variables of motoric and cognitive abilities with the group of criteria variables of situational motoric abilities. Results like this are logical as well concerning the structure of performing the exercises in volleyball, which comes from the performing of quick movements and good coordination.

  3. Timed up & go test score in patients with hip fracture is related to the type of walking aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Morten T; Bandholm, Thomas; Holm, Bente

    2009-01-01

    Kristensen MT, Bandholm T, Holm B, Ekdahl C, Kehlet H. Timed Up & Go test score in patients with hip fracture is related to the type of walking aid. OBJECTIVE: To determine the relationship between Timed Up & Go (TUG) test scores and type of walking aid used during the test, and to determine...... the feasibility of using the rollator as a standardized walking aid during the TUG in patients with hip fracture who were allowed full weight-bearing (FWB). DESIGN: Prospective methodological study. SETTING: An acute orthopedic hip fracture unit at a university hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Patients (N=126; 90 women......, 36 men) with hip fracture with a mean age +/- SD of 74.8+/-12.7 years performed the TUG the day before discharge from the orthopedic ward. INTERVENTIONS: Not applicable. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The TUG was performed with the walking aid the patient was to be discharged with: a walker (n=88) or elbow...

  4. Differentiating malingering from genuine cognitive dysfunction using the Trail Making Test-ratio and Stroop Interference scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egeland, Jens; Langfjaeran, Tone

    2007-01-01

    Patterns of test performance that are inconsistent with knowledge of brain dysfunction can potentially differentiate between malingering and true impairment among litigants with low scores on neuropsychological tests. In this study possible malingerers (n = 41), impaired (30) or cognitively normal (17) litigants were compared on the Trail Making Test B:A ratio score and Stroop Interference. The majority of possible malingerers had a low TMT-ratio (Stroop effect, whereas the majority of impaired subjects had a high TMT-ratio and specific Stroop interference. Sensitivity to malingering was 61 and 68 percent, and specificity was 57 and 59 percent. This is too low for valid classification of individuals. However, the combination of both measures increases predictability. The clinician is advised to look for other evidence of malingering in cases of simultaneous low TMT-ratio and inverted Stroop. Patients with high TMT-ratio and Stroop interference, should be thoroughly examined for indications of brain disease.

  5. Zero Calcium Score as a Filter for Further Testing in Patients Admitted to the Coronary Care Unit with Chest Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Luis Cláudio Lemos; Esteves, Fábio P; Carvalhal, Manuela; Souza, Thiago Menezes Barbosa de; Sá, Nicole de; Correia, Vitor Calixto de Almeida; Alexandre, Felipe Kalil Beirão; Lopes, Fernanda; Ferreira, Felipe; Noya-Rabelo, Márcia

    2017-06-12

    The accuracy of zero coronary calcium score as a filter in patients with chest pain has been demonstrated at the emergency room and outpatient clinics, populations with low prevalence of coronary artery disease (CAD). To test the gatekeeping role of zero calcium score in patients with chest pain admitted to the coronary care unit (CCU), where the pretest probability of CAD is higher than that of other populations. Patients underwent computed tomography for calcium scoring, and obstructive CAD was defined by a minimum 70% stenosis on invasive angiography. In 146 patients studied, the prevalence of CAD was 41%. A zero calcium score was present in 35% of the patients. The sensitivity and specificity of zero calcium score yielded a negative likelihood ratio of 0.16. After logistic regression adjustment for pretest probability, zero calcium score was independently associated with lower odds of CAD (OR = 0.12, 95%CI = 0.04-0.36), increasing the area under the ROC curve of the clinical model from 0.76 to 0.82 (p = 0.006). Zero calcium score provided a net reclassification improvement of 0.20 (p = 0.0018) over the clinical model when using a pretest probability threshold of 10% for discharging without further testing. In patients with pretest probability valores preditivos negativos do escore zero. Em 146 pacientes estudados, a prevalência de DAC foi 41% e o escore de cálcio zero foi demonstrado em 35% deles. A sensibilidade e a especificidade para escore de cálcio zero resultaram numa razão de verossimilhança negativa de 0,16. Após ajuste com um escore clínico com a regressão logística para a probabilidade pré-teste, o escore de cálcio zero foi preditor independente associado a baixa probabilidade de DAC (OR = 0,12, IC95% = 0,04-0,36), aumentando a área abaixo da curva ROC do modelo clínico de 0,76 para 0,82 (p = 0,006). Considerando a probabilidade de DAC valor preditivo negativo de 90%. Em pacientes com probabilidade pré-teste valor preditivo negativo foi

  6. Ability-performance relationships in education and employment settings: critical tests of the more-is-better and the good-enough hypotheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arneson, Justin J; Sackett, Paul R; Beatty, Adam S

    2011-10-01

    The nature of the relationship between ability and performance is of critical importance for admission decisions in the context of higher education and for personnel selection. Although previous research has supported the more-is-better hypothesis by documenting linearity of ability-performance relationships, such research has not been sensitive enough to detect deviations at the top ends of the score distributions. An alternative position receiving considerable attention is the good-enough hypothesis, which suggests that although higher levels of ability may result in better performance up to a threshold, above this threshold greater ability does not translate to better performance. In this study, the nature of the relationship between cognitive ability and performance was examined throughout the score range in four large-scale data sets. Monotonicity was maintained in all instances. Contrary to the good-enough hypothesis, the ability-performance relationship was commonly stronger at the top end of the score distribution than at the bottom end.

  7. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) assessment test scores corresponding to modified Medical Research Council grades among COPD patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chang-Hoon; Lee, Jinwoo; Park, Young Sik; Lee, Sang-Min; Yim, Jae-Joon; Kim, Young Whan; Han, Sung Koo; Yoo, Chul-Gyu

    2015-09-01

    In assigning patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) to subgroups according to the updated guidelines of the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease, discrepancies have been noted between the COPD assessment test (CAT) criteria and modified Medical Research Council (mMRC) criteria. We investigated the determinants of symptom and risk groups and sought to identify a better CAT criterion. This retrospective study included COPD patients seen between June 20, 2012, and December 5, 2012. The CAT score that can accurately predict an mMRC grade ≥ 2 versus COPD patients, the percentages of patients classified into subgroups A, B, C, and D were 24.5%, 47.2%, 4.2%, and 24.1% based on CAT criteria and 49.3%, 22.4%, 8.9%, and 19.4% based on mMRC criteria, respectively. More than 90% of the patients who met the mMRC criteria for the 'more symptoms group' also met the CAT criteria. AUROC and CART analyses suggested that a CAT score ≥ 15 predicted an mMRC grade ≥ 2 more accurately than the current CAT score criterion. During follow-up, patients with CAT scores of 10 to 14 did not have a different risk of exacerbation versus those with CAT scores COPD patients.

  8. Evaluation of the Discrepancy between the European Pharmacopoeia Test and an Adopted United States Pharmacopoeia Test Regarding the Weight Uniformity of Scored Tablet Halves: Is Harmonization Required?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaid, Abdel Naser; Ghoush, Abeer Abu; Al-Ramahi, Rowa'; Are'r, Mohammed

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether there exists any discrepancy between the European Pharmacopoeia (Ph. Eur.) and adopted United States Pharmacopeia (USP) tests concerning the weight uniformity measurements of tablet halves after splitting. The USP method does not contain provisions to evaluate split tablets, so here we adopt their whole tablet weight uniformity method. Twenty-nine different commercial scored tablets (local and imported) were divided. The split units were individually weighed and the relative standard deviation (RSD) for each product was calculated and then evaluated according to both the adopted USP and the Ph. Eur. tests of weight uniformity. Twenty out of the 29 products tested failed the USP test, while 14 of them failed the Ph. Eur. test. Nine products passed both the USP and Ph. Eur. tests. Six products passed the Ph. Eur. test but failed the USP test, with all of these products having an RSD greater than 6%. The correlation coefficient between the weight and content of split halves for three randomly selected products-corotenol 100 mg, corotenol 50 mg, and lorazepam 2.5 mg-was found to be 0.986, 0.998, and 0.72, respectively. A clear difference can be seen between outcomes obtained by the two compendial tablet splitting methods with regard to weight uniformity. Results from the USP test showed that tighter measures are needed to pass the test. Our results argue that the Ph. Eur. should revise the existing weight uniformity test on scored tablets to include the RSD parameter in it. The USP should include this adopted test as a specific test for scored tablet halves, not just whole tablets. Manufacturers in some cases will need to improve the quality of the produced scored tablets in order to pass the USP test, especially those with low therapeutic indices. Finally, harmonization between the pharmacopoeias regarding the weight uniformity testing of split tablets is warranted. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether there

  9. Standardised test protocol (Constant Score) for evaluation of functionality in patients with shoulder disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ban, Ilija; Troelsen, Anders; Christiansen, David Høyrup

    2013-01-01

    physiotherapists gave feedback on the objective part. Relevant items were culturally adapted and rephrased, and a simple standardised test protocol was developed. RESULTS: Only minor inconsistencies in the translations were found. A few questions and words had to be rephrased due to cultural and linguistic...... differences. One of the authors of the modified CS approved both the English and the Danish test protocol. CONCLUSION: A simple test protocol of the modified CS was developed in both English and Danish. With precise terminology and definitions, the test protocol is the first of its kind. We suggest its use...

  10. Reliability and Practicality of the Core Score: Four Dynamic Core Stability Tests Performed in a Physician Office Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Jason; Brakke, Rachel; Akuthota, Venu; Sullivan, William

    2017-07-01

    Pilot study to determine the practicality and inter-rater reliability of the "Core Score," a composite measure of 4 clinical core stability tests. Repeated measures. Academic hospital physician clinic. 23 healthy volunteers with mean age of 32 years (12 females, 11 males). All subjects performed 4 core stability maneuvers under direct observation from 3 independent physicians in sequence. Inter-rater reliability and time necessary to perform examination. The Core Score scale is 0 to 12, with 12 reflecting the best core stability. The mean composite score of all 4 tests for all subjects was 9.54 (SD, 1.897; range, 4-12). The intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC 1,1) for inter-rater reliability for the composite Core Score and 4 individual tests were 0.68 (Core Score), 0.14 (single-leg squat), 0.40 (supine bridge), 0.69 (side bridge), and 0.46 (prone bridge). The time required for a single examiner to assess a given subject's core stability in all 4 maneuvers averaged 4 minutes (range, 2-6 minutes). Even without specialized equipment, a clinically practical and moderately reliable measure of core stability may be possible. Further research is necessary to optimize this measure for clinical application. Despite the known value of core stability to athletes and patients with low back pain, there is currently no reliable and practical means for rating core stability in a typical office-based practice. This pilot study provides a starting point for future reliability research on clinical core stability assessments.

  11. Evaluation of association between exercise-induced bronchoconstriction and childhood asthma control test questionnaire scores in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinellato, Iolanda; Piazza, Michele; Sandri, Marco; Cardinale, Fabio; Peroni, Diego G; Boner, Attilio L; Piacentini, Giorgio L

    2012-03-01

    Asthma control represents a major challenge in the management of asthmatic children; however, correct perception of control is poor. The aim of the study was to evaluate the association between subjective answers given to the Childhood Asthma Control Test (C-ACT) and objective evaluation of exercise-induced bronchonstriction (EIB) by standardized treadmill exercise challenge. EIB was evaluated by standardized treadmill exercise challenge and related to C-ACT scores in 92 asthmatic children. Of the 92 studied children only six children had a concordance between a positive challenge test (ΔFEV1 ≥ 13%) and a positive response to the exercise-related issue of the C-ACT questionnaire (C-ACT total score ≤ 19). There was no significant association between the degree of EIB and the scores relative to the single question on exercise-related problems while a significant association was found when considering the whole questionnaire with C-ACT total score > 19 (r = -0.40, P asthma. The areas under the ROC curve (AUC) for the sum of the scores of these questions in relationship to a positive response to the exercise test was 0.74. The AUC of the C-ACT total score was 0.76 and 0.55 for the specific question on EIB related problems. The discrimination power of the C-ACT total score in relationship to EIB was moderately good, and C-ACT questionnaire was capable of correctly predicting the absence of EIB in children reporting a global score > 19. However, direct questions on EIB are associated with a high number of false positive and negative responses; better associations are found questioning on the presence on nocturnal symptoms. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. The increasing impact of socioeconomics and race on standardized academic test scores across elementary, middle, and high school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Gwyne W; Stepney, Cesalie T; Hatchimonji, Danielle Ryan; Moceri, Dominic C; Linsky, Arielle V; Reyes-Portillo, Jazmin A; Elias, Maurice J

    2016-01-01

    For students and schools, the current policy is to measure success via standardized testing. Yet the immutable factors of socioeconomic status (SES) and race have, consistently, been implicated in fostering an achievement gap. The current study explores, at the school-level, the impact of these factors on test scores. Percentage of students proficient for Language and Math was analyzed from 452 schools across the state of New Jersey. By high school, 52% of the variance in Language and 59% in Math test scores can be accounted for by SES and racial factors. At this level, a 1% increase in school minority population corresponds to a 0.19 decrease in percent Language proficient and 0.33 decrease for Math. These results have significant implications as they suggest that school-level interventions to improve academic achievement scores will be stymied by socioeconomic and racial factors and efforts to improve the achievement gap via testing have largely measured it. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. The Two-Systems Account of Theory of Mind: Testing the Links to Social- Perceptual and Cognitive Abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinhardt-Injac, Bozana; Daum, Moritz M; Meinhardt, Günter; Persike, Malte

    2018-01-01

    According to the two-systems account of theory of mind (ToM), understanding mental states of others involves both fast social-perceptual processes, as well as slower, reflexive cognitive operations (Frith and Frith, 2008; Apperly and Butterfill, 2009). To test the respective roles of specific abilities in either of these processes we administered 15 experimental procedures to a large sample of 343 participants, testing ability in face recognition and holistic perception, language, and reasoning. ToM was measured by a set of tasks requiring ability to track and to infer complex emotional and mental states of others from faces, eyes, spoken language, and prosody. We used structural equation modeling to test the relative strengths of a social-perceptual (face processing related) and reflexive-cognitive (language and reasoning related) path in predicting ToM ability. The two paths accounted for 58% of ToM variance, thus validating a general two-systems framework. Testing specific predictor paths revealed language and face recognition as strong and significant predictors of ToM. For reasoning, there were neither direct nor mediated effects, albeit reasoning was strongly associated with language. Holistic face perception also failed to show a direct link with ToM ability, while there was a mediated effect via face recognition. These results highlight the respective roles of face recognition and language for the social brain, and contribute closer empirical specification of the general two-systems account.

  14. The Two-Systems Account of Theory of Mind: Testing the Links to Social- Perceptual and Cognitive Abilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bozana Meinhardt-Injac

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the two-systems account of theory of mind (ToM, understanding mental states of others involves both fast social-perceptual processes, as well as slower, reflexive cognitive operations (Frith and Frith, 2008; Apperly and Butterfill, 2009. To test the respective roles of specific abilities in either of these processes we administered 15 experimental procedures to a large sample of 343 participants, testing ability in face recognition and holistic perception, language, and reasoning. ToM was measured by a set of tasks requiring ability to track and to infer complex emotional and mental states of others from faces, eyes, spoken language, and prosody. We used structural equation modeling to test the relative strengths of a social-perceptual (face processing related and reflexive-cognitive (language and reasoning related path in predicting ToM ability. The two paths accounted for 58% of ToM variance, thus validating a general two-systems framework. Testing specific predictor paths revealed language and face recognition as strong and significant predictors of ToM. For reasoning, there were neither direct nor mediated effects, albeit reasoning was strongly associated with language. Holistic face perception also failed to show a direct link with ToM ability, while there was a mediated effect via face recognition. These results highlight the respective roles of face recognition and language for the social brain, and contribute closer empirical specification of the general two-systems account.

  15. Identifying Language Impairment in Children: Combining Language Test Scores with Parental Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Dorothy V. M.; McDonald, David

    2009-01-01

    Background: Children who meet language test criteria for specific language impairment (SLI) are not necessarily the same as those who are referred to a speech and language therapist. Aims: To consider how far this discrepancy reflects insensitivity of traditional language tests to clinically important features of language impairment. Methods &…

  16. The Relative Effects of Traditional Lectures and Guided Notes Lectures on University Student Test Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, W. Larry; Weil, Timothy M.; Porter, James C. K.

    2012-01-01

    Guided notes were employed in two undergraduate Psychology courses involving 71 students. The study design utilized an alternating treatments format to compare Traditional Lectures with Guided Notes lectures. In one of the two courses, tests were administered after each class lecture, whereas the same type of test was administered at the beginning…

  17. Relationship of WPPSI and Subsequent Metropolitan Achievement Test Scores in Head-Start Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crockett, Bruce K.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    The Metropolitan Achievement Test (MAT) was administered to 35 original Head-Start children three to four years after initial WPPSI testing. WPPSI Verbal IQ did not correlate significantly with any of the subject areas of the MAT, while Performance IQ correlated only moderately with mathematical components of the MAT (r = .42 - .52). (Author)

  18. The effect of an intervention program on functional movement screen test scores in mixed martial arts athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodden, Jamie G; Needham, Robert A; Chockalingam, Nachiappan

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the basic fundamental movements of mixed martial arts (MMA) athletes using the functional movement screen (FMS) assessment and determined if an intervention program was successful at improving results. Participants were placed into 1 of the 2 groups: intervention and control groups. The intervention group was required to complete a corrective exercise program 4 times per week, and all participants were asked to continue their usual MMA training routine. A mid-intervention FMS test was included to examine if successful results were noticed sooner than the 8-week period. Results highlighted differences in FMS test scores between the control group and intervention group (p = 0.006). Post hoc testing revealed a significant increase in the FMS score of the intervention group between weeks 0 and 8 (p = 0.00) and weeks 0 and 4 (p = 0.00) and no significant increase between weeks 4 and 8 (p = 1.00). A χ analysis revealed that the intervention group participants were more likely to have an FMS score >14 than participants in the control group at week 4 (χ = 7.29, p < 0.01) and week 8 (χ = 5.2, p ≤ 0.05). Finally, a greater number of participants in the intervention group were free from asymmetry at week 4 and week 8 compared with the initial test period. The results of the study suggested that a 4-week intervention program was sufficient at improving FMS scores. Most if not all, the movements covered on the FMS relate to many aspects of MMA training. The knowledge that the FMS can identify movement dysfunctions and, furthermore, the fact that the issues can be improved through a standardized intervention program could be advantageous to MMA coaches, thus, providing the opportunity to adapt and implement new additions to training programs.

  19. The Effect of Presentation Medium on Pilot Selection Test Battery Scores

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Biggerstaff, S

    1998-01-01

    .... The American Psychological Association (APA) has set guidelines to be followed to ensure both qualitative and quantitative equivalence of new test formats prior to their use in applied settings...

  20. Isolation and testing the cholesteral reduction ability (in-vitro) of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Probiotics are live microbial feed supplements, which positively affect the host animal by improving its intestinal microbial balance. Studies have shown probiotic activities of Lactococci isolated from dairy foods, which include the ability to inhibit the growth of other bacteria and the reduction of cholesterol. However, there is ...

  1. Different Perspectives: Spatial Ability Influences Where Individuals Look on a Timed Spatial Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roach, Victoria A.; Fraser, Graham M.; Kryklywy, James H.; Mitchell, Derek G. V.; Wilson, Timothy D.

    2017-01-01

    Learning in anatomy can be both spatially and visually complex. Pedagogical investigations have begun exploration as to how spatial ability may mitigate learning. Emerging hypotheses suggests individuals with higher spatial reasoning may attend to images differently than those who are lacking. To elucidate attentional patterns associated with…

  2. Innovative testing of spatial ability: interactive responding and the use of complex stimuli material

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jelínek, Martin; Květon, Petr; Vobořil, Dalibor

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 1 (2015), s. 45-55 ISSN 1612-4782 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP407/11/2397 Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : Spatial ability * Navigation skill * Working memory Subject RIV: AN - Psychology Impact factor: 1.340, year: 2015

  3. Diagnosing academic language ability : An analysis of the Test of Academic Literacy for Postgraduate Students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pot, Anna; Weideman, Albert

    2015-01-01

    Following the observation that a large number of postgraduate students may not possess an adequate level of academic language ability to complete their studies successfully, this study investigates postgraduate students' strengths and weaknesses in academic literacy, with a specific focus on

  4. Students' Attitude toward and Acceptability of Computerized Adaptive Testing in Medical School and their Effect on the Examinees' Ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mee Young Kim

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available An examinee's ability can be evaluated precisely using computerized adaptive testing (CAT, which is shorter than written tests and more efficient in terms of the duration of the examination. We used CAT for the second General Examination of 98 senior students in medical college on November 27, 2004. We prepared 1,050 pre-calibrated test items according to item response theory, which had been used for the General Examination administered to senior students in 2003. The computer was programmed to pose questions until the standard error of the ability estimate was smaller than 0.01. To determine the students' attitude toward and evaluation of CAT, we conducted surveys before and after the examination, via the Web. The mean of the students' ability estimates was 0.3513 and its standard deviation was 0.9097 (range -2.4680 to +2.5310. There was no significant difference in the ability estimates according to the responses of students to items concerning their experience with CAT, their ability to use a computer, or their anxiety before and after the examination (p>0.05. Many students were unhappy that they could not recheck their responses (49%, and some stated that there were too few examination items (24%. Of the students, 79 % had no complaints concerning using a computer and 63% wanted to expand the use of CAT. These results indicate that CAT can be implemented in medical schools without causing difficulties for users.

  5. Polytrauma Defined by the New Berlin Definition: A Validation Test Based on Propensity-Score Matching Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rau, Cheng-Shyuan; Wu, Shao-Chun; Kuo, Pao-Jen; Chen, Yi-Chun; Chien, Peng-Chen; Hsieh, Hsiao-Yun; Hsieh, Ching-Hua

    2017-09-11

    Background: Polytrauma patients are expected to have a higher risk of mortality than that obtained by the summation of expected mortality owing to their individual injuries. This study was designed to investigate the outcome of patients with polytrauma, which was defined using the new Berlin definition, as cases with an Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) ≥ 3 for two or more different body regions and one or more additional variables from five physiologic parameters (hypotension [systolic blood pressure ≤ 90 mmHg], unconsciousness [Glasgow Coma Scale score ≤ 8], acidosis [base excess ≤ -6.0], coagulopathy [partial thromboplastin time ≥ 40 s or international normalized ratio ≥ 1.4], and age [≥70 years]). Methods: We retrieved detailed data on 369 polytrauma patients and 1260 non-polytrauma patients with an overall Injury Severity Score (ISS) ≥ 18 who were hospitalized between 1 January 2009 and 31 December 2015 for the treatment of all traumatic injuries, from the Trauma Registry System at a level I trauma center. Patients with burn injury or incomplete registered data were excluded. Categorical data were compared with two-sided Fisher exact or Pearson chi-square tests. The unpaired Student t -test and the Mann-Whitney U -test was used to analyze normally distributed continuous data and non-normally distributed data, respectively. Propensity-score matched cohort in a 1:1 ratio was allocated using the NCSS software with logistic regression to evaluate the effect of polytrauma on patient outcomes. Results: The polytrauma patients had a significantly higher ISS than non-polytrauma patients (median (interquartile range Q1-Q3), 29 (22-36) vs. 24 (20-25), respectively; p sex, age, co-morbidity, AIS ≥ 3, and Injury Severity Score (ISS), the polytrauma patients had a significantly higher mortality rate (OR 17.5, 95% CI 4.21-72.76; p definition of polytrauma is feasible and applicable for trauma patients.

  6. [The effect of a warm-up protocol on the sit-and-reach test score in adolescent students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Soler, María Angeles; Vaquero-Cristóbal, Raquel; Espejo-Antúnez, Luis; López-Miñarro, Pedro Ángel

    2015-06-01

    Sit-and-reach tests are often used in physical education classes for measurement of hamstring extensibility in students, without a standar protocol to perform it. To analyze the effect of a warm-up protocol based on locomotion activities and stretching in the sit-and-reach scores in adolescent students. A total of 47 teenagers students (17 boys and 30 girls) performed the sit-and-reach test before, immediately after, and 5 and 10 minutes after completing a structured warm-up. The warm-up consisted on a part of continuous running, dynamic locomotor and mobility activities as well as static stretching of lower limbs (quadriceps, hamstrings, adductors, iliopsoas and gastrocnemius), with a total duration of 8 minutes. Between measurements after warm-up, the participants remained standing without performing any exercise and/or stretching. After warm-up there was a significant improvement in the sit-and-reach score (+ 2.15 cm) (p test). A warm-up protocol performed before the sit-and-reach test, comprised by locomotion, dynamic activities and stretching, improves significantly the distance achieved in this test. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  7. A framework for testing the ability of models to project climate change and its impacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Refsgaard, J. C.; Madsen, H.; Andréassian, V.

    2014-01-01

    Models used for climate change impact projections are typically not tested for simulation beyond current climate conditions. Since we have no data truly reflecting future conditions, a key challenge in this respect is to rigorously test models using proxies of future conditions. This paper presents...... a validation framework and guiding principles applicable across earth science disciplines for testing the capability of models to project future climate change and its impacts. Model test schemes comprising split-sample tests, differential split-sample tests and proxy site tests are discussed in relation...... to their application for projections by use of single models, ensemble modelling and space-time-substitution and in relation to use of different data from historical time series, paleo data and controlled experiments. We recommend that differential-split sample tests should be performed with best available proxy data...

  8. Generation of Alternative Assessment Scores using TEST and online data sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alternatives assessment frameworks such as DfE (Design for the Environment) evaluate chemical alternatives in terms of human health effects, ecotoxicity, and fate. T.E.S.T. (Toxicity Estimation Software Tool) can be utilized to evaluate human health in terms of acute oral rat tox...

  9. The Effects of Specific Reading Interventions on Elementary Students' Test Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Jacqueline Laverne Meeks

    2016-01-01

    Many students in third, fourth and fifth grades struggle at the lowest levels of reading proficiency. In fact, fewer than 40% of fourth graders in the United States read at or above the "proficient" level on state standardized tests in 2009 (D'Ardenne, Barnes, Hightower, Lamason, Mason, Patterson, Stephens, Wilson, Smith & Erickson,…

  10. Nasalance Scores of Children with Repaired Cleft Palate Who Exhibit Normal Velopharyngeal Closure during Aerodynamic Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajac, David J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To determine if children with repaired cleft palate and normal velopharyngeal (VP) closure as determined by aerodynamic testing exhibit greater acoustic nasalance than control children without cleft palate. Method: Pressure-flow procedures were used to identify 2 groups of children based on VP closure during the production of /p/ in the…

  11. The Influence of Test Mode and Visuospatial Ability on Mathematics Assessment Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Tracy

    2015-01-01

    Mathematics assessment and testing are increasingly situated within digital environments with international tests moving to computer-based testing in the near future. This paper reports on a secondary data analysis which explored the influence the mode of assessment--computer-based (CBT) and pencil-and-paper based (PPT)--and visuospatial ability…

  12. Use of e-rater[R] in Scoring of the TOEFL iBT[R] Writing Test. Research Report. ETS RR-11-25

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberman, Shelby J.

    2011-01-01

    Alternative approaches are discussed for use of e-rater[R] to score the TOEFL iBT[R] Writing test. These approaches involve alternate criteria. In the 1st approach, the predicted variable is the expected rater score of the examinee's 2 essays. In the 2nd approach, the predicted variable is the expected rater score of 2 essay responses by the…

  13. The 2-min walk test is sufficient for evaluating walking abilities in sporadic inclusion body myositis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfano, L N; Lowes, L P; Dvorchik, I; Yin, H; Maus, E G; Flanigan, K M; Mendell, J R

    2014-03-01

    Sporadic inclusion body myositis causes progressive functional loss due to declining muscle strength. Although the underlying cause is unknown, clinical trials are underway to improve strength and function. Selection of appropriate outcome measures is critical for the success of these trials. The 6-min walk test has been the de facto standard for assessing function in neuromuscular disease; however, the optimal walking test has not been determined in this disease. In this study, 67 individuals with sporadic inclusion body myositis completed a battery of quantitative strength and functional tests including timed walking tests, patient-reported outcomes, and other tasks. The 2-min and 6-min walk tests are highly correlated to each other (r=0.97, pwalk test, but 7% of subjects were unable to walk the full 6-min of the 6-min walk test due to fatigue. The 2-min walk test demonstrates similar correlation to all outcomes compared to the 6-min walk test, is less fatiguing and better tolerated. Results suggest that the 2-min walk test is a better alternative to tests of longer duration. Further research is needed to determine longitudinal changes on this outcome. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Sistem Scoring Conversion TOEFL Paper Based Test (PBT Politeknik Negeri Cilacap Menggunakan Metode User Centered Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cahya Vikasari

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Sistem komputer interaktif untuk dipakai oleh useruntuk mendukung pekerjannya. User merupakan object yang penting didalam pengembangan dan pembangun sistem. User adalah personal-personal yang terlibat langsung dalam pemakaian aplikasi. Konsep dari UCD adalah user sebagai pusat dari proses pengembangan sistem, dan tujuan/sifat-sifat, konteks dan lingkungan sistem semua didasarkan dari pengalaman pengguna Pembangunan sistem skoring test TOEFL paper based test (PBT di UPT bahasa politeknik negeri cilacapmenggunakan metode UCD. Dengan menggunakan metode UCD sistem dapat   mempermudah dan mempercepat pendaftaran oleh calon pendaftar dengan tampilan antarmuka yang user friendly , mempermudah proses pengelolaan data dan rekap data pendaftar, mempermudah pengkonversian skor TOEFL yang dilakukan secara otomatis, serta  meminimalisir terjadinya kesalahan, duplikasi data dan duplikasi kegiatan.

  15. Report test scores assessment of the functioning of dosimetry service staff of the CNLV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez R, J.T.; Tovar M, V.M.

    2002-12-01

    The ININ realized the evaluation of the service of personal dosimetry in the CNLV, in the categories: IV. (Photons of high energy of 137 CS) and the VA. (Particles beta of 90 Sr/ 90 Y); in the category IV the test was satisfactory, however in the chart 1 has an underestimation a the American Standard HP over the value true conventional of a 9%; for this irregularity it is recommended to revise the procedures of evaluation of the process and the determination of the chart 1 of the HP. In the category VA, the test is also satisfactory, however the results contrasted with the chart 2 and the HP, the values were overestimated in 29% of the true conventional value, and for that problem is recommended to revise the evaluation procedures in contrast with the values determined by the standard HP. (Author)

  16. Stability of person ability measures in people with acquired brain injury in the use of everyday technology: the test-retest reliability of the Management of Everyday Technology Assessment (META).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinowsky, Camilla; Kassberg, Ann-Charlotte; Larsson-Lund, Maria; Kottorp, Anders

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the test-retest reliability of the Management of Everyday Technology Assessment (META) in a sample of people with acquired brain injury (ABI). The META was administered twice within a two-week period to 25 people with ABI. A Rasch measurement model was used to convert the META ordinal raw scores into equal-interval linear measures of each participant's ability to manage everyday technology (ET). Test-retest reliability of the stability of the person ability measures in the META was examined by a standardized difference Z-test and an intra-class correlations analysis (ICC 1). The results showed that the paired person ability measures generated from the META were stable over the test-retest period for 22 of the 25 subjects. The ICC 1 correlation was 0.63, which indicates good overall reliability. The META demonstrated acceptable test-retest reliability in a sample of people with ABI. The results illustrate the importance of using sufficiently challenging ETs (relative to a person's abilities) to generate stable META measurements over time. Implications for Rehabilitation The findings add evidence regarding the test-retest reliability of the person ability measures generated from the observation assessment META in a sample of people with ABI. The META might support professionals in the evaluation of interventions that are designed to improve clients' performance of activities including the ability to manage ET.

  17. Predisposing factors of pneumothorax in percutaneous transthoracic fine needle aspiration biopsy: comparison between CT emphysema score and pulmonary function test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Chang Ho; Park, Kyung Joo; Park, Dong Won; Jung, Kyung Il; Suh, Jung Ho

    1997-01-01

    To compare the CT emphysema score with various factors of pulmonary function test by simple spirometry and to use the result as a predictor of pneumothorax in percutaneous transthoracic fine needle aspiration biopsy. The CT scans of 106 patients who had undergone percutaneous transthoracic fine needle aspiration biopsy of lung lesions within the previous 18 months were retrospectively reviewed. In 75 of these 106 cases, the results of the pulmonary function test were also reviewed. On plain chest radiography, pneumothorax was noted in 20 cases (19%). Emphysema was blindly evaluated. We divided each lung into four segments and determined the severity and involved volume of emphysema, as seen on CT. Severity was classified as one of four grades, as follow : absence of emphysema=0 ; low attenuation area of less than 5mm=1 ; low attenuation area of more than 5mm, and vascular pruning with normal lung intervening=2 ; and diffuse low attenuation without intervening normal lung, and larger confluent low attenuation with vascular pruning and distortion of branching pattern occupying all or almost all the involved parenchyma=3. The involved area was also classified as one of four grades : less than 25%=1 ; 25 - 49%=2 ; 51 - 74%=3 ; and more than 75%=4. The CT emphysema score was defined as the average of the grade of severity multiplied by the grade of involved area. Pulmonary function tests, consisting of simple spirometry and a pulmonologist's interpretation, were evaluated. We also evaluated depth and size of lesion as known predisposing factors in postbioptic pneumothorax. Statistical analysis was performed using the chi-square test, Wilcoxon ranks sum W test and the student t test. A comparison between the two groups of occurrence(with or without pneumothorax) showed the emphysema scores to be 1.69±2.0 and 1.11±2.9, respectively ; there was thus no significant difference between the two groups (z= - 0.048, p>0.10). Nor were differences revealed by the pulmonary

  18. Predisposing factors of pneumothorax in percutaneous transthoracic fine needle aspiration biopsy: comparison between CT emphysema score and pulmonary function test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chang Ho; Park, Kyung Joo; Park, Dong Won; Jung, Kyung Il; Suh, Jung Ho [Ajou Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-11-01

    To compare the CT emphysema score with various factors of pulmonary function test by simple spirometry and to use the result as a predictor of pneumothorax in percutaneous transthoracic fine needle aspiration biopsy. The CT scans of 106 patients who had undergone percutaneous transthoracic fine needle aspiration biopsy of lung lesions within the previous 18 months were retrospectively reviewed. In 75 of these 106 cases, the results of the pulmonary function test were also reviewed. On plain chest radiography, pneumothorax was noted in 20 cases (19%). Emphysema was blindly evaluated. We divided each lung into four segments and determined the severity and involved volume of emphysema, as seen on CT. Severity was classified as one of four grades, as follow : absence of emphysema=0 ; low attenuation area of less than 5mm=1 ; low attenuation area of more than 5mm, and vascular pruning with normal lung intervening=2 ; and diffuse low attenuation without intervening normal lung, and larger confluent low attenuation with vascular pruning and distortion of branching pattern occupying all or almost all the involved parenchyma=3. The involved area was also classified as one of four grades : less than 25%=1 ; 25 - 49%=2 ; 51 - 74%=3 ; and more than 75%=4. The CT emphysema score was defined as the average of the grade of severity multiplied by the grade of involved area. Pulmonary function tests, consisting of simple spirometry and a pulmonologist's interpretation, were evaluated. We also evaluated depth and size of lesion as known predisposing factors in postbioptic pneumothorax. Statistical analysis was performed using the chi-square test, Wilcoxon ranks sum W test and the student t test. A comparison between the two groups of occurrence(with or without pneumothorax) showed the emphysema scores to be 1.69{+-}2.0 and 1.11{+-}2.9, respectively ; there was thus no significant difference between the two groups (z= - 0.048, p>0.10). Nor were differences revealed by the

  19. The implications of policy pre-post test scores for street-level bureaucratic discretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorch, Edwina L

    2009-01-01

    Substantial reductions in audit error rates observed over the past few years suggest eligibility workers have moved toward an eligibility compliance culture described by Bane and Ellwood. However, the results of this study indicate that social service caseworkers responded correctly to 49% of the targeted policy items at the pre-test stage and 68% at the post-test stage. Such findings provide preliminary support for the hypothesis that, in instances when caseworkers lack policy knowledge, they use their own discretion. Such a finding not only supports Lipsky's theory but also supports the notion that administrators should be encouraged to utilize 'mastery learning' procedures whereby caseworkers are retained in new-hire and follow-up training classes until they have mastered 100% of targeted policy information. Retention of caseworkers may also reduce federal and local audit errors and errors in crediting the reduction of caseloads to social service policies when in fact significant components of them have not been implemented (learned or utilized). And, most importantly, retention in training classes may increase the appropriate provision of services to the needy.

  20. Does Stereotype Threat Affect Post-Course Scores on the Astronomy Diagnostic Test?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deming, G. L.; Hufnagel, B.; Landato, J. M.; Hodari, A. K.

    2003-12-01

    During the 1990s, Claude Steele and others demonstrated that women mathematics students under-performed while men over-performed on selected GRE questions when told that the exam could differentiate by gender. Stereotype threat is triggered for these women when they fear someone else may negatively stereotype them, and therefore, their performance is affected. In a limited study involving 229 students, we investigated the effect of stereotype threat on performance on the Astronomy Diagnostic Test (ADT). The ADT was administered as a pre-test in four introductory astronomy classes intended for non-science majors. The same professors taught pairs of classes at the University of Maryland, a large research institution, and W. R. Harper College, a small liberal arts school. The classes were treated the same until the final day before the post-course ADT was given. One "threatened" class at each campus was told that gender mattered so they should be sure to include it on the ADT. The "control" classes were told that gender does not matter. The results show no stereotype threat effect on the women in these introductory classes. The university men did slightly over-perform at low statistical significance. As Steele suggested, students must identify with a subject in order to strongly invoke a stereotype threat. This research was supported in part by the National Science Foundation through grants REC-0089239 to GLD, DGE-97014489 to BH, and DGE-9714452 for AKH.

  1. A standardized scoring method for the copy of cube test, developed to be suitable for use in psychiatric populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terzoglou Vassiliki A

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the 'copy of cube test', a version of which is included in the Short Test of Mental Status (STMS, has existed for years, little has been done to standardize it in detail. The aim of the current study was to develop a novel and detailed standardized method of administration and scoring this test. Methods The study sample included 93 healthy control subjects (53 women and 40 men aged 35.87 ± 12.62 and 127 patients suffering from schizophrenia (54 women and 73 men aged 34.07 ± 9.83 years. The psychometric assessment included the Positive and Negative Symptoms Scale (PANSS the Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS, and the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS. Results A scoring method was developed based on the frequencies of responses of healthy controls. Cronbach's α was equal to 0.75 and inter-rater reliability was 0.90. Three indices and five subscales of the Standardized Copy of the Cube Test (SCCT were eventually developed. They included the Deficit Index (DcI, which includes the Missing Elements (ME Mirror Image (M subscales, the Deformation Index (DfI which includes the Deformation (D and the Rotation (R subscales and the Closing-In Index (CiI. Discussion The SCCT seems to be a reliable, valid and sensitive to change instrument for the testing of psychiatric patients. The great advantage of this instrument is the fact that it only requires paper and a pencil, and is this easily administered and brief. Further research is necessary to test its usefulness as a neuropsychological test.

  2. The students' ability in the mathematical literacy for uncertainty problems on the PISA adaptation test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julie, Hongki; Sanjaya, Febi; Anggoro, Ant. Yudhi

    2017-08-01

    One of purposes of this study was to describe the solution profile of the junior high school students for the PISA adaptation test. The procedures conducted by researchers to achieve this objective were (1) adapting the PISA test, (2) validating the adapting PISA test, (3) asking junior high school students to do the adapting PISA test, and (4) making the students' solution profile. The PISA problems for mathematics could be classified into four areas, namely quantity, space and shape, change and relationship, and uncertainty. The research results that would be presented in this paper were the result test for uncertainty problems. In the adapting PISA test, there were fifteen questions. Subjects in this study were 18 students from 11 junior high schools in Yogyakarta, Central Java, and Banten. The type of research that used by the researchers was a qualitative research. For the first uncertainty problem in the adapting test, 66.67% of students reached level 3. For the second uncertainty problem in the adapting test, 44.44% of students achieved level 4, and 33.33% of students reached level 3. For the third uncertainty problem in the adapting test n, 38.89% of students achieved level 5, 11.11% of students reached level 4, and 5.56% of students achieved level 3. For the part a of the fourth uncertainty problem in the adapting test, 72.22% of students reached level 4 and for the part b of the fourth uncertainty problem in the adapting test, 83.33% students achieved level 4.

  3. Associations between cadmium exposure and neurocognitive test scores in a cross-sectional study of US adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Low-level environmental cadmium exposure and neurotoxicity has not been well studied in adults. Our goal was to evaluate associations between neurocognitive exam scores and a biomarker of cumulative cadmium exposure among adults in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III). Methods NHANES III is a nationally representative cross-sectional survey of the U.S. population conducted between 1988 and 1994. We analyzed data from a subset of participants, age 20–59, who participated in a computer-based neurocognitive evaluation. There were four outcome measures: the Simple Reaction Time Test (SRTT: visual motor speed), the Symbol Digit Substitution Test (SDST: attention/perception), the Serial Digit Learning Test (SDLT) trials-to-criterion, and the SDLT total-error-score (SDLT-tests: learning recall/short-term memory). We fit multivariable-adjusted models to estimate associations between urinary cadmium concentrations and test scores. Results 5662 participants underwent neurocognitive screening, and 5572 (98%) of these had a urinary cadmium level available. Prior to multivariable-adjustment, higher urinary cadmium concentration was associated with worse performance in each of the 4 outcomes. After multivariable-adjustment most of these relationships were not significant, and age was the most influential variable in reducing the association magnitudes. However among never-smokers with no known occupational cadmium exposure the relationship between urinary cadmium and SDST score (attention/perception) was significant: a 1 μg/L increase in urinary cadmium corresponded to a 1.93% (95%CI: 0.05, 3.81) decrement in performance. Conclusions These results suggest that higher cumulative cadmium exposure in adults may be related to subtly decreased performance in tasks requiring attention and perception, particularly among those adults whose cadmium exposure is primarily though diet (no smoking or work based cadmium exposure). This

  4. Understanding and using the brief Implicit Association Test: recommended scoring procedures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian A Nosek

    Full Text Available A brief version of the Implicit Association Test (BIAT has been introduced. The present research identified analytical best practices for overall psychometric performance of the BIAT. In 7 studies and multiple replications, we investigated analytic practices with several evaluation criteria: sensitivity to detecting known effects and group differences, internal consistency, relations with implicit measures of the same topic, relations with explicit measures of the same topic and other criterion variables, and resistance to an extraneous influence of average response time. The data transformation algorithms D outperformed other approaches. This replicates and extends the strong prior performance of D compared to conventional analytic techniques. We conclude with recommended analytic practices for standard use of the BIAT.

  5. Assessing the discriminating power of item and test scores in the linear factor-analysis model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pere J. Ferrando

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Las propuestas rigurosas y basadas en un modelo psicométrico para estudiar el impreciso concepto de "capacidad discriminativa" son escasas y generalmente limitadas a los modelos no-lineales para items binarios. En este artículo se propone un marco general para evaluar la capacidad discriminativa de las puntuaciones en ítems y tests que son calibrados mediante el modelo de un factor común. La propuesta se organiza en torno a tres criterios: (a tipo de puntuación, (b rango de discriminación y (c aspecto específico que se evalúa. Dentro del marco propuesto: (a se discuten las relaciones entre 16 medidas, de las cuales 6 parecen ser nuevas, y (b se estudian las relaciones entre ellas. La utilidad de la propuesta en las aplicaciones psicométricas que usan el modelo factorial se ilustra mediante un ejemplo empírico.

  6. The differential item functioning and structural equivalence of a nonverbal cognitive ability test for five language groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieter Schaap

    2011-10-01

    Research purpose: The aim of the study was to determine the differential item functioning (DIF and structural equivalence of a nonverbal cognitive ability test (the PiB/SpEEx Observance test [401] for five South African language groups. Motivation for study: Cultural and language group sensitive tests can lead to unfair discrimination and is a contentious workplace issue in South Africa today. Misconceptions about psychometric testing in industry can cause tests to lose credibility if industries do not use a scientifically sound test-by-test evaluation approach. Research design, approach and method: The researcher used a quasi-experimental design and factor analytic and logistic regression techniques to meet the research aims. The study used a convenience sample drawn from industry and an educational institution. Main findings: The main findings of the study show structural equivalence of the test at a holistic level and nonsignificant DIF effect sizes for most of the comparisons that the researcher made. Practical/managerial implications: This research shows that the PIB/SpEEx Observance Test (401 is not completely language insensitive. One should see it rather as a language-reduced test when people from different language groups need testing. Contribution/value-add: The findings provide supporting evidence that nonverbal cognitive tests are plausible alternatives to verbal tests when one compares people from different language groups.

  7. The specificity of the Loughborough Intermittent Shuttle Test for recreational soccer players is independent of their intermittent running ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coratella, Giuseppe; Beato, Marco; Schena, Federico

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether or not recreational soccer players (SP) and non-soccer players (non-SP) with similar intermittent-running ability had similar physiological responses to a soccer match-simulation protocol. Twenty-two recreational SP and 19 fitness-matched non-SP participated. Yo-Yo level 1 assessed intermittent-running ability, while the Loughborough Intermittent Shuttle Test served as soccer match-simulation protocol. Heart rate (HR), blood lactate concentration [La - ] and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were recorded after each bout (1-5, plus an exhaustive task). SP had lower HR after the third, fourth and fifth bout, compared to non-SP. Similarly, SP had lower [La - ] after the third, fourth and the fifth bout. SP also had lower RPE after the third, fourth and fifth bout. The appropriateness of intermittent-running ability as the main determinant of physical performance in SP was questioned.

  8. Endurance Tests Ability to predict Chronicity in First Episode Acute Low Back Pain Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Asghar Norasteh

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Despite evaluation of spinal muscle endurance was done in chronic low back pain, this has not been studied in first episode acute low back pain. The purpose of present study was comparatively evaluating patients with first-episode low back pain and healthy subjects to predict disability and chronicity after six weeks with spinal muscle endurance tests. Materials & Methods: Through an analytical, cross sectional and case – control study in the first stage of research Eliot’s spinal endurance tests were used to evaluate endurance. Disability and pain were used to assess recovery. The study was conducted in two groups of patients (n=32 and normal subjects (n=51 using non-randomized simple sampling. In the second stage, a longitudinal prospective study was done. Studied variables were compared in recovered and non recovered patients after six weeks. Data were analyzed by using Kolmogorof – Smirnoff test, independent T test and Chi-Square. Results: The results of independent t tests showed lower muscular endurance in patients compared to normal individuals (P<0.0001. Also the results of independent t-tests showed lower flexor endurance in unrecovered patients (P<0.04. Conclusion: It seems low back pain patients can contract decreased endurance in the first episode and no need to repeat episodes. Results show may be endurance tests could differentiate acute low back pain patients with high risk to chronicity and disability.

  9. [Correlation between ICIQ-UI-SF score and personality testing results over a urinary incontinent population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmermans, L; De Mol, J; Mélot, C; Falez, F

    2016-03-01

    We found out the personality pattern of an incontinent population and proceeded to a correlation between the personality inventory and the ICIQ-UI-SF (International Consultation Incontinence Questionnaire Urinary Incontinence Short Form) to demonstrate reliability and sincerity of the answers and to establish that a personality disturbance may impact the physiopathology of micturition. We performed an observational prospective study. It included patient's answers to a computed questionnaire combining a double ICIQ-UI-SF questionnaire and the 71 questions of the Minimult questionnaire. Forty-seven patients were asked to participate. Over 37 patients included, Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney non parametric test confirmed agreement of the two ICIQ-UI-SF questionnaires with P=0.1792. Twenty-three patients were validated to the Minimult inventory with F scaleMinimult L scale. We confirm and precise literature information over clinical personality pattern of this population and observe relevant elements concerning the psycho-asthenic pattern which depicts an anxious personality with an important feeling of the problem. These elements permit to suspect that a personality disturbance may impact the physiopathology of the micturition. 4. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Measuring Creative Imagery Abilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota M. Jankowska

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Over the decades, creativity and imagination research developed in parallel, but they surprisingly rarely intersected. This paper introduces a new theoretical model of creative imagination, which bridges creativity and imagination research, as well as presents a new psychometric instrument, called the Test of Creative Imagery Abilities (TCIA, developed to measure creative imagery abilities understood in accordance with this model. Creative imagination is understood as constituted by three interrelated components: vividness (the ability to create images characterized by a high level of complexity and detail, originality (the ability to produce unique imagery, and transformativeness (the ability to control imagery. TCIA enables valid and reliable measurement of these three groups of abilities, yielding the general score of imagery abilities and at the same time making profile analysis possible. We present the results of eight studies on a total sample of more than 1,700 participants, showing the factor structure of TCIA using confirmatory factor analysis, as well as provide data confirming this instrument’s validity and reliability. The availability of TCIA for interested researchers may result in new insights and possibilities of integrating the fields of creativity and imagination science.

  11. The Reliability of Clock Drawing Test Scoring Systems Modeled on the Normative Data in Healthy Aging and Nonamnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazancova, Adela Fendrych; Nikolai, Tomas; Stepankova, Hana; Kopecek, Miloslav; Bezdicek, Ondrej

    2017-10-01

    The Clock Drawing Test (CDT) is a commonly used tool in clinical practice and research for cognitive screening among older adults. The main goal of the present study was to analyze the interrater reliability of three different CDT scoring systems (by Shulman et al., Babins et al., and Cohen et al.). We used a clock with a predrawn circle. The CDT was evaluated by three independent raters based on the normative data set of healthy older and very old adults and patients with nonamnestic mild cognitive impairment (naMCI; N = 438; aged 61-94). We confirmed a high interrater reliability measured by the intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs): Shulman ICC = .809, Babins ICC = .894, and Cohen ICC = .862, all p < .001. We found that age and education levels have a significant effect on CDT performance, yet there was no influence of gender. Finally, the scoring systems differentiated between naMCI and age- and education-matched controls: Shulman's area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) = .84, Cohen AUC = .71, all p < .001; and a slightly lower discriminative ability was shown by Babins: AUC = .65, p = .012.

  12. ¿Exito en California? A Validity Critique of Language Program Evaluations and Analysis of English Learner Test Scores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilyn S. Thompson

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Several states have recently faced ballot initiatives that propose to functionally eliminate bilingual education in favor of English-only approaches. Proponents of these initiatives have argued an overall rise in standardized achievement scores of California's limited English proficient (LEP students is largely due to the implementation of English immersion programs mandated by Proposition 227 in 1998, hence, they claim Exito en California (Success in California. However, many such arguments presented in the media were based on flawed summaries of these data. We first discuss the background, media coverage, and previous research associated with California's Proposition 227. We then present a series of validity concerns regarding use of Stanford-9 achievement data to address policy for educating LEP students; these concerns include the language of the test, alternative explanations, sample selection, and data analysis decisions. Finally, we present a comprehensive summary of scaled-score achievement means and trajectories for California's LEP and non-LEP students for 1998-2000. Our analyses indicate that although scores have risen overall, the achievement gap between LEP and EP students does not appear to be narrowing.

  13. Ability of the normal human small intestine to absorb fructose: evaluation by breath testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Satish S C; Attaluri, Ashok; Anderson, Leslie; Stumbo, Phyllis

    2007-08-01

    Fructose consumption is increasing, and its malabsorption causes common gastrointestinal symptoms. Because its absorption capacity is poorly understood, there is no standard method of assessing fructose absorption. We performed a dose-response study of fructose absorption in healthy subjects to develop a breath test to distinguish normal from abnormal fructose absorption capacity. In a double-blind study, 20 healthy subjects received 10% solutions of 15, 25, and 50 g of fructose and 33% solution of 50-g fructose on 4 separate days at weekly intervals. Breath samples were assessed for hydrogen (H2) and methane (CH4) during a period of 5 hours, and symptoms were recorded. No subject tested positive with 15 g. Two (10%) tested positive with 25 g fructose but were asymptomatic. Sixteen (80%) tested positive with 50 g (10% solution), and 11 (55%) had symptoms. Breath H2 was elevated in 13 (65%), CH4 in 1 (5%), and both in 2 (10%). Twelve (60%) tested positive with 50 g (33% solution), and 9 (45%) experienced symptoms. The area under the curve for H2 and CH4 was higher (P fructose, whereas many exhibit malabsorption and intolerance with 50 g fructose. Hence, we recommend 25 g as the dose for testing subjects with suspected fructose malabsorption. Breath samples measured for H2 and CH4 concentration at 30-minute intervals and for 3 hours will detect most subjects with fructose malabsorption.

  14. The Ability of the Normal Human Small Intestine to Absorb Fructose: Evaluation by Breath Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Satish S.C; Attaluri, Ashok; Anderson, Leslie; Stumbo, Phyllis

    2007-01-01

    Background Fructose consumption is rising and its malabsorption causes common gastrointestinal symptoms. Because its absorption capacity is poorly understood, there is no standard method of assessing fructose absorption. We performed a dose response study of fructose absorption in healthy subjects in order to develop a breath test to distinguish normal from abnormal fructose absorption capacity. Methods In a double-blind study, 20 healthy subjects received 10% solutions of 15g, 25g and 50g of fructose and 33 % solution of 50g fructose on 4 separate days, at weekly intervals. Breath samples were assessed for hydrogen and methane over five hours, and symptoms were recorded. Results No subject tested positive with 15g. Two (10%) tested positive with 25g fructose but were asymptomatic. Sixteen (80 %) tested positive with 50g (10% solution) and 11 (55%) had symptoms. Breath H2 was elevated in 13 (65%), CH4 in 1 (5%) and both in 2 (10%). Twelve (60%) tested positive with 50g (33% solution) and 9 (45%) experienced symptoms. The area under the curve for H2 and CH4 was higher (pfructose whereas many exhibit malabsorption and intolerance with 50g fructose. Hence, we recommend 25g as the dose for testing subjects with suspected fructose malabsorption. Breath samples measured for H2 and CH4 concentration at 30 minute intervals and for 3 hours will detect most subjects with fructose malabsorption. PMID:17625977

  15. Test-Retest Reliability of Word Recognition Score Using Korean Standard Monosyllabic Word Lists for Adults as a Function of the Number of Test Words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinsook; Lee, Junghak; Lee, Kyoung Won; Bahng, Junghwa; Lee, Jae Hee; Choi, Chul-Hee; Cho, Soo Jin; Shin, Eun Yeong; Park, Jeonghye

    2015-09-01

    The purpose was to establish the test-retest reliability of word recognition score (WRS) using Korean standard monosyllabic word lists for adults (KS-MWL-A) recently developed based on the international standard for speech audiometry (ISO 8253-3:2012). Subjects consisted of 159 adults aged to 18 to 25 years with normal hearing sensitivity. WRSs were obtained in 2 dB steps from the level of speech recognition thresholds to the level of 86% correct responses or greater. After one or two weeks, retest was performed. Correlation, confidence interval (CI) and prediction interval (PI) were calculated for the reliability. Correlation coefficients were 0.88 for 50 test words, 0.76 for 25 and 0.61 for 10 words. Results also showed that 95% CIs and PIs were narrower for 25 and 50 test words than those for 10 test words. Korean WRS using the KS-MWL-A has high reliability for 25 and 50 test words, but relatively low for 10 words. It suggested that 95% CIs for each test words would be criteria for significant differences in WRS for groups and 95% PIs at each score of WRS could be utilized for a considerable difference for each individual at retest.

  16. Development and preliminary testing of a self-rating instrument to measure self-directed learning ability of nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Su-Fen; Kuo, Chien-Lin; Lin, Kuan-Chia; Lee-Hsieh, Jane

    2010-09-01

    With the growing trend of preparing students for lifelong learning, the theory of self-directed learning (SDL) has been increasingly applied in the context of higher education. In order to foster lifelong learning, abilities among nursing students, faculties need to have an appropriate instrument to measure the SDL abilities of nursing students. The objectives of this study were to develop an instrument to measure the SDL abilities of nursing students and to test the validity and reliability of this instrument. This study was conducted in 4 phases. In Phase 1, based on a review of the literature, the researchers developed an instrument to measure SDL. In Phase 2, two rounds of the Delphi study were conducted, to determine the content validity of the instrument. In Phase 3, a convenience sample of 1072 nursing students from two representative schools across three different types of nursing programs were recruited to test the construct validity of the Self-Directed Learning Instrument (SDLI). Finally, in Phase 4, the internal consistency and reliability of the instrument were tested. The resulting SDLI consists of 20 items across the following four domains: learning motivation, planning and implementing, self-monitoring, and interpersonal, communication. The final model in confirmatory factor analysis revealed that this 20-item SDLI indicated a good fit of the model. The value of Cronbach's alpha for the total scale was .916 and for the four domains were .801, .861, .785, and .765, respectively. The SDLI is a valid and reliable instrument for identifying student SDL abilities. It is available to students in nursing and similar medical programs to evaluate their own SDL. This scale may also enable nursing faculty to assess students' SDL status, design better lesson plans and curricula, and, implement appropriate teaching strategies for nursing students in order to foster the growth of lifelong learning abilities. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Benton Judgment of Line Orientation (JoLO) Test: A Brief and Useful Measure for Assessing Visuospatial Abilities in Manifest, but not Premanifest, Huntington's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corey-Bloom, Jody; Gluhm, Shea; Herndon, Andrew; Haque, Ameera S; Park, Sungmee; Gilbert, Paul E

    2016-01-01

    Visuospatial deficits have been described in Huntington's disease (HD); however, the extent of these deficits remains unclear. The Benton Judgment of Line Orientation (JoLO) Test, commonly used to assess visuospatial ability, requires minimal motor involvement. It has demonstrated sensitivity to visuospatial deficits in Parkinson's disease; however, few studies have examined performance on this test in HD. The objective of the current study was to assess visuospatial ability in premanifest and manifest HD using the JoLO. A global cognitive measure, the Mattis Dementia Rating Scale (DRS), was used to stratify manifest HD patients as mild (DRS ≥129) vs. moderate-severe (DRS ≤128). Fifty mild, 42 moderate-severe, and 30 premanifest HD subjects, as well as 35 matched controls, were administered the JoLO. HD Burden of Pathology (BOP) scores were used as a measure of disease severity. Results revealed that the total manifest HD sample (p visuospatial deficits across various stages of manifest HD. However, any visuospatial impairment that might be present during the premanifest stage of HD was not detected using the JoLO in the present sample.

  18. Insights into Using "TOEIC"® Test Scores to Inform Human Resource Management Decisions. Research Report. ETS RR-17-48

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveri, María Elena; Tannenbaum, Richard J.

    2017-01-01

    This report explores the ways in which human resource (HR) managers use "TOEIC"® scores to inform hiring, promotion, and training decisions in an international workplace. Two data sources were used (a) previously collected test users' testimonials that described managers' use of TOEIC scores to inform HR decisions and (b) test-use…

  19. The Impact of Scholastic Instrumental Music and Scholastic Chess Study on the Standardized Test Scores of Students in Grades Three, Four, and Five

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Edwin E.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the impact of instrumental music study and group chess lessons on the standardized test scores of suburban elementary public school students (grades three through five) in Levittown, New York. The study divides the students into the following groups and compares the standardized test scores of each: a) instrumental music…

  20. The test ability of fish Tawes to leachate garbage dump (TPA) Benowo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juliardi AR, N. R.; Wiyanti, R. I.

    2018-01-01

    Leachate is a liquid from waste containing elements of dissolved and suspended elements. Garbage collected at the landfill site contains organic, inorganic and heavy metal substances. If the rains will produce leachate with mineral content, organic and heavy metals. When the condition or leachate flow in let to the soil surface can cause negative effects to the surrounding environment including for humans. Toxicity test it was conducted to determine the level of leachate toxicity of the test animals living in surface water located around of the “TPA Benowo”. In this study using Tawes fish with length between 4-6 cm. In this toxicity test is done in 2 stages, namely: range finding test, the search for this range is obtained 0% concentrations (as control) 0,3%; 0,6%; 0,9%; 0,12% and 0,15%. The next stage of toxicity acute test, at this stage of toxicity concentration do smaller again that is: 0,18%; 0,36%; 0,54%; 0,72% and 0,9%. The results obtained LC50 value of 0,385%, while eyes, brown stomach skin.

  1. The relationship between nursing students' mathematics ability and their performance in a drug calculation test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Røykenes, Kari; Larsen, Torill

    2010-10-01

    Nurses and nursing students need good mathematics skills to do drug calculations correctly. As part of their undergraduate education, Norwegian nursing students must take a drug calculation test, obtaining no errors in the results. In spite of drug calculation tests, many adverse events occur, leading to a focus on drug administration skills both during students' courses and afterwards. Adverse events in drug administration can be related to poor mathematics skills education. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between students' mathematics experiences in school (primary, secondary and high school) and their beliefs about being able to master the drug calculation test. A questionnaire was given to 116 first-year Bachelor of Nursing students. Those students who assessed their mathematics knowledge as poor found the requirement to obtain no errors in the drug calculation test more stressful than students who judged their mathematics knowledge as good. The youngest students were most likely to find the test requirement stressful. Teachers in high school had the most positive influence on mathematics interest, followed by teachers in secondary and primary school. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The differential item functioning and structural equivalence of a nonverbal cognitive ability test for five language groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieter Schaap

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: For a number of years, eliminating a language component in testing by using nonverbal cognitive tests has been proposed as a possible solution to the effect of groups’ languages (mother tongues or first languages on test performance. This is particularly relevant in South Africa with its 11 official languages.Research purpose: The aim of the study was to determine the differential item functioning (DIF and structural equivalence of a nonverbal cognitive ability test (the PiB/SpEEx Observance test [401] for five South African language groups.Motivation for study: Cultural and language group sensitive tests can lead to unfair discrimination and is a contentious workplace issue in South Africa today. Misconceptions about psychometric testing in industry can cause tests to lose credibility if industries do not use a scientifically sound test-by-test evaluation approach.Research design, approach and method: The researcher used a quasi-experimental design and factor analytic and logistic regression techniques to meet the research aims. The study used a convenience sample drawn from industry and an educational institution.Main findings: The main findings of the study show structural equivalence of the test at a holistic level and nonsignificant DIF effect sizes for most of the comparisons that the researcher made.Practical/managerial implications: This research shows that the PIB/SpEEx Observance Test (401 is not completely language insensitive. One should see it rather as a language-reduced test when people from different language groups need testing.Contribution/value-add: The findings provide supporting evidence that nonverbal cognitive tests are plausible alternatives to verbal tests when one compares people from different language groups.

  3. Evaluation of the Sealing Ability of Three Obturation Techniques Using a Glucose Leakage Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Olczak

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the sealing ability of three different canal filling techniques. Sixty-four roots of extracted human maxillary anterior teeth were prepared using ProTaper® rotary instruments. The specimens were then randomly divided into 3 experimental groups (n=16 and 2 control groups (n=8. The root canals were filled using cold lateral compaction (CLC group, continuous wave condensation technique using the Elements Obturation Unit® (EOU group, and ProTaper obturators (PT group. For the negative control group, 8 roots were filled using lateral compaction as in the CLC group, and the teeth were covered twice with a layer of nail varnish (NCG group. Another 8 roots were filled using lateral compaction, but without sealer, and these were used as the positive control (PCG group. A glucose leakage model was used for quantitative evaluation of microleakage for 24 hours and 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, and 12 weeks. No significant difference in the cumulative amount of leakage was found between the three experimental groups at all observation times. The lateral condensation of cold gutta-percha can guarantee a similar seal of canal fillings as can be achieved by using thermal methods, in the round canals.

  4. Mental Status Test Scores are Inversely Correlated with Tremor Severity: A Study of 161 Elderly Essential Tremor Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elan D. Louis

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is an increasing awareness that patients with essential tremor (ET may exhibit non-motor features, including cognitive dysfunction. Yet there are surprisingly few data in ET on the association, if any, between cognitive dysfunction and motor dysfunction (i.e., tremor severity. Establishing links between the cognitive and motor features of ET would imply that the two share a common underlying pathogenic process. Recent neuroimaging data support this notion.Methods: ET cases were enrolled in a clinical–pathological study at Columbia University Medical Center, New York. The Folstein Mini-Mental State Examination (FMMSE and Modified Mini Mental Status Examination (mMMSE were administered. Action tremor was rated with a total tremor score (TTS.Results: There were 161 ET cases (mean age 83.9±5.7 years, median FMMSE 28, median mMMSE 50. The FMMSE and mMMSE were inversely correlated with the TTS (r = −0.22, p = 0.005; and r = −0.17, p = 0.029. The association, while statistically significant, was modest in magnitude. In linear regression models that adjusted for age, gender, and education, the association between cognitive test scores and TTS remained robust (p<0.001. After excluding 68 (42.2% cases taking ET medications with potential cognitive side effects, results remained unchanged.Conclusions: Each of the two cognitive test scores was associated with tremor severity such that greater cognitive dysfunction occurred in cases with more marked tremor. These data support recent imaging data, which suggest that the cerebellar neurodegeneration underlying ET may be involved in the expression of cognitive symptoms in ET.

  5. Including osteoprotegerin and collagen IV in a score-based blood test for liver fibrosis increases diagnostic accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosselut, Nelly; Taibi, Ludmia; Guéchot, Jérôme; Zarski, Jean-Pierre; Sturm, Nathalie; Gelineau, Marie-Christine; Poggi, Bernard; Thoret, Sophie; Lasnier, Elisabeth; Baudin, Bruno; Housset, Chantal; Vaubourdolle, Michel

    2013-01-16

    Noninvasive methods for liver fibrosis evaluation in chronic liver diseases have been recently developed, i.e. transient elastography (Fibroscan™) and blood tests (Fibrometer®, Fibrotest®, and Hepascore®). In this study, we aimed to design a new score in chronic hepatitis C (CHC) by selecting blood markers in a large panel and we compared its diagnostic performance with those of other noninvasive methods. Sixteen blood tests were performed in 306 untreated CHC patients included in a multicenter prospective study (ANRS HC EP 23 Fibrostar) using METAVIR histological fibrosis stage as reference. The new score was constructed by non linear regression using the most accurate biomarkers. Five markers (alpha-2-macroglobulin, apolipoprotein-A1, AST, collagen IV and osteoprotegerin) were included in the new function called Coopscore©. Using the Obuchowski Index, Coopscore© shows higher diagnostic performances than for Fibrometer®, Fibrotest®, Hepascore® and Fibroscan™ in CHC. Association between Fibroscan™ and Coopscore© might avoid 68% of liver biopsies for the diagnosis of significant fibrosis. Coopscore© provides higher accuracy than other noninvasive methods for the diagnosis of liver fibrosis in CHC. The association of Coopscore© with Fibroscan™ increases its predictive value. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Evaluation of ability of reference toxicity tests to identify stress in laboratory populations of the amphipod Hyalella azteca

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNulty, E.W.; Dwyer, F.J.; Ellersieck, Mark R.; Greer, E.I.; Ingersoll, C.G.; Rabeni, C.F.

    1999-01-01

    Standard methods for conducting toxicity tests imply that the condition of test organisms can be established using reference toxicity tests. However, only a limited number of studies have evaluated whether reference toxicity tests can actually be used to determine if organisms are in good condition at the start of a test. We evaluated the ability of reference toxicants to identify stress associated with starvation in laboratory populations of the amphipod Hyalella azteca using acute toxicity tests and four reference toxicants: KCl, CdCl2, sodium pentachlorophenate (NaPCP), and carbaryl. Stress associated with severe starvation was observed with exposure of amphipods to carbaryl or NaPCP but not with exposure to KCl or CdCl2 (i.e., lower LC50 with severe starvation). Although the LC50s for NaPCP and carbaryl were statistically different between starved and fed amphipods, this difference may not be biologically significant given the variability expected in acute lethality tests. Stress associated with sieving, heat shock, or cold shock of amphipods before the start of a test was not evident with exposure to carbaryl or KCl as reference toxicants. The chemicals evaluated in this study provided minimal information about the condition of the organisms used to start a toxicity test. Laboratories should periodically perform reference toxicity tests to assess the sensitivity of life stages or strains of test organisms. However, use of other test acceptability criteria required in standard methods such as minimum survival, growth, or reproduction of organisms in the control treatment at the end of a test, provides more useful information about the condition of organisms used to start a test compared to data generated from reference toxicity tests.

  7. A test of the effect of advance organizers and reading ability on seventh-grade science achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underhill, Patricia Annette

    The use of advance organizers was first introduced by Ausubel in his learning theory of meaningful learning. Subsequent research focused on the efficacy of advance organizers. Although, earlier research produced inconclusive results, more recent research suggests advance organizers do facilitate recall. However, the bulk of the research focused on older subjects (students in high school and college and adults). Prior research did not consider that a subject's reading ability may affect the effectiveness of an advance organizer. The purposes of this study were to investigate whether (1) an advance organizer facilitates both immediate and delayed recall, (2) the reading ability of students and the type of pre-instructional material they receive effect recall, and (3) reading ability has an effect on recall with younger students. Seventy-five seventh-grade students were divided into three groups. One group received a written organizer, one group received a graphic organizer, and one group received an introductory passage before reading a learning passage. After completing the reading passage, all subjects received an immediate posttest. Fourteen days later, subjects received the same posttest incorporated in an end-of-the-chapter test. Results of the study indicate the following: (1) no significant difference in immediate and delayed recall of learning material between students who received a written organizer, a graphic organizer, or an introductory passage, (2) there was a main effect for time of testing and a main effect for reading ability, and (3) there was not an interaction between reading ability and the type of pre-instructional material. These findings did not support previous research.

  8. On the effect of test head sound fields on the ability to detect faults in plating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erhard, A.; Seidel, A.; Boehm, R.; Wuestenberg, H.; Bidois, H.

    1995-01-01

    Ferritic reactor pressure vessels and some ferritic pipelines are protected by Austentic plating. In connection with discussions on possible corrosive attack on this plating, the occurrence and growth of cracks, processes for testing this plating have come to the fore again. Apart from the qualification of eddy current processes, such as the pulse eddy current process for example, ultrasonic test techniques are also required. In order to be able to compare measured results from different platings with one another, running time rosettes wer measured. Characteristic sound field data can be determined from this. One tried to derive criteria for the detectability of groove-like faults from this information and to examine them for their applicability in practice. This evaluation of results was supported by statistical methods. (orig.) [de

  9. Relationship Between Jumping Ability, Agility and Sprint Performance of Elite Young Basketball Players: A Field-Test Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Abbas Asadi

    2016-01-01

    DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2016v18n2p177   The purpose of this study was to determine the relationships between sprint, agility and jump performance of elite young basketball players. Sixteen elite national level young male basketball players participated in this study. The jumping ability of each player was determined using countermovement jump (CMJ), and broad long jump (BLJ). The agility T test (TT) and Illinois agility test (IAT) were assessed to determine the agilit...

  10. [Spanish versions of the Simplified Motor Score and the Glasgow Coma Scale in out-of-hospital treatment of head injury in adults: a preliminary study of each scale's ability to predict adverse events].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roca, Guillem; Mayol, Sergi; García, Esteban; Casajuana, Edgar; Quintana, Salvador

    2015-06-01

    To determine the ability of the modified (Spanish) version of the Simplified Motor Score (mSMS) to predict adverse events during hospitalization and to compare its predictive ability to that of the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) in adults with head injuries treated outside the hospital. Observational study of retrospective cohorts including all patients over the age of 14 years attended for head injuries occurring within 24 hours of treatment by an advanced life-support unit staffed by nurses between May 1, 2013, and May 1, 2014. The mSMS was a translation of the English original, created through a process of discussions of direct and back translations to arrive at consensus. Out-of-hospital patient records were searched to find GCS and mSMS scores. To predict the ability of each scale to predict brain injuries, neurosurgery, intubation, and/or inhospital death, we calculated the area under the receiving operator characteristic curves (AUCs). Of the total of 115 head-injury patients attended, 64 met the inclusion criteria. The mean (SD) age was 47 (24) years. Twelve (18.8%) patients developed some form of adverse event during hospitalization; 91.6% had brain damage, 58.3% required intubation, 8.3% required surgery, and 41.6% died. The AUC for the GCS was 0.907 (95% CI, 0.81-1.00; P<.001); the AUC for the mSMS was 0.796 (95% CI, 0.64-0.95; P=.001). Although the ability of the mSMS to predict in-hospital adverse outcomes is good, it is inferior to the GCS in adults with head injuries attended outside the hospital.

  11. Interlaboratory validation of the in vitro eye irritation tests for cosmetic ingredients. (1) Overview of the validation study and Draize scores for the evaluation of the tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, Y; Kaneko, T; Inoue, T; Morikawa, Y; Yoshida, T; Fujii, A; Masuda, M; Ohno, T; Hayashi, M; Momma, J; Uchiyama, T; Chiba, K; Ikeda, N; Imanishi, Y; Itakagaki, H; Kakishima, H; Kasai, Y; Kurishita, A; Kojima, H; Matsukawa, K; Nakamura, T; Ohkoshi, K; Okumura, H; Saijo, K; Sakamoto, K; Suzuki, T; Takano, K; Tatsumi, H; Tani, N; Usami, M; Watanabe, R

    1999-02-01

    A three-step interlaboratory validation of alternative methods to the Draize eye irritation test (Draize test) was conducted by the co-operation of 27 organizations including national research institutes, universities, cosmetic industries, kit suppliers and others. Twelve alternative methods were evaluated using 38 cosmetic ingredients and isotonic sodium chloride solution. Draize tests were conducted according to the OECD guidelines using the same lot of test substances as was evaluated in the alternative tests. Results were as follows. (1) Variation in Draize scores was large near the critical range (maximal average Draize total scores (MAS)=15-50) for the evaluation of cosmetic ingredients. (2) Interlaboratory variation was relatively small for the alternative tests. The mean coefficients of variation (CV%) were less than 50 for all assays except for the hen's egg-chorioallantoic membrane test (HET-CAM), chorioallantoic membrane-trypan blue staining test (CAM-TB) and haemoglobin denaturation test (HD). The CV% of these three methods came into the same range as the other tests when non-irritants were excluded from the data analysis. (3) Results for acids (pH of 10% solution 11.5) and alcohols (lower mono-ol) in cytotoxicity tests clearly deviated from the other samples in the comparison of cytotoxicity with Draize results. (4) Pearson's correlation coefficients (r) between results from cytotoxicity tests using serum and MAS were -0.86 to -0.92 for samples excluding acids, alkalis and alcohols. (5) When the samples were divided into liquids and powders, r of CAM-TB increased from 0.71 for all samples to 0.80 and 0.92, respectively. (6) Spearman's rank correlation coefficients between the results of alternative methods and MAS were relatively high (r>0.8) in the case of HET-CAM and CAM-TB. Those for cytotoxicity tests were high if the data for acids, alkalis and alcohols were excluded (SIRC-CVS: r=0.945, SIRC-NRU: r=0.931, HeLa-MTT: r=0.926, CHL-CVS: r=0

  12. Common Variance Among Three Measures of Nonverbal Cognitive Ability: WISC-R Performance Scale, WJPB-TCA Reasoning Cluster, and Halstead Category Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telzrow, Cathy F.; Harr, Gale A.

    1987-01-01

    Examined the relationships among two psychometric measures of nonverbal cognitive ability - The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R) and the Woodcock-Johnson Psychoeducational Battery-Tests of Cognitive Ability (WJPB-TCA) and a neuropsychological test of abstract reasoning and concept formation (Halstead Category Test) in 25…

  13. SCORE TEST PARA EL EFECTO DEL COEFICIENTE DE SOLAPAMIENTO EN MODELOS DE SUPERFICIES DE RESPUESTA DE PRIMER Y SEGUNDO ORDEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ENRIQUE DARGHAN

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo ha sido propuesto un test para el coeficiente de solapamiento para el modelo de Draper y Guttman utilizando modelos de superficies de respuesta de primer y segundo orden. El test está basado en el test de score de Rao y hace uso de la teoría de operadores de proyección perpendicular. El test puede utilizarse en diferentes patrones de vecindad siempre y cuando se considere al vecino más cercano como la unidad experimental directamente afectada por los tratamientos y los modelos de la superficie sean de primero y segundo orden. El método es simple de adoptar y puede implementarse en el campo de la agronomía o en la investigación de mercados, pues su naturaleza asintótica está en concordancia con el gran número de unidades experimentales generalmente presentes en este tipo de investigaciones.

  14. Test-retest reliability and minimal detectable change scores for sit-to-stand-to-sit tests, the six-minute walk test, the one-leg heel-rise test, and handgrip strength in people undergoing hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segura-Ortí, Eva; Martínez-Olmos, Francisco José

    2011-08-01

    Determining the relative and absolute reliability of outcomes of physical performance tests for people undergoing hemodialysis is necessary to discriminate between the true effects of exercise interventions and the inherent variability of this cohort. The aims of this study were to assess the relative reliability of sit-to-stand-to-sit tests (the STS-10, which measures the time [in seconds] required to complete 10 full stands from a sitting position, and the STS-60, which measures the number of repetitions achieved in 60 seconds), the Six-Minute Walk Test (6MWT), the one-leg heel-rise test, and the handgrip strength test and to calculate minimal detectable change (MDC) scores in people undergoing hemodialysis. This study was a prospective, nonexperimental investigation. Thirty-nine people undergoing hemodialysis at 2 clinics in Spain were contacted. Study participants performed the STS-10 (n=37), the STS-60 (n=37), and the 6MWT (n=36). At one of the settings, the participants also performed the one-leg heel-rise test (n=21) and the handgrip strength test (n=12) on both the right and the left sides. Participants attended 2 testing sessions 1 to 2 weeks apart. High intraclass correlation coefficients (≥.88) were found for all tests, suggesting good relative reliability. The MDC scores at 90% confidence intervals were as follows: 8.4 seconds for the STS-10, 4 repetitions for the STS-60, 66.3 m for the 6MWT, 3.4 kg for handgrip strength (force-generating capacity), 3.7 repetitions for the one-leg heel-rise test with the right leg, and 5.2 repetitions for the one-leg heel-rise test with the left leg. Limitations A limited sample of patients was used in this study. The STS-16, STS-60, 6MWT, one-leg heel rise test, and handgrip strength test are reliable outcome measures. The MDC scores at 90% confidence intervals for these tests will help to determine whether a change is due to error or to an intervention.

  15. Reliability, precision, and measurement in the context of data from ability tests, surveys, and assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, W P Jr; Elbaum, B; Coulter, A

    2010-01-01

    Reliability coefficients indicate the proportion of total variance attributable to differences among measures separated along a quantitative continuum by a testing, survey, or assessment instrument. Reliability is usually considered to be influenced by both the internal consistency of a data set and the number of items, though textbooks and research papers rarely evaluate the extent to which these factors independently affect the data in question. Probabilistic formulations of the requirements for unidimensional measurement separate consistency from error by modelling individual response processes instead of group-level variation. The utility of this separation is illustrated via analyses of small sets of simulated data, and of subsets of data from a 78-item survey of over 2,500 parents of children with disabilities. Measurement reliability ultimately concerns the structural invariance specified in models requiring sufficient statistics, parameter separation, unidimensionality, and other qualities that historically have made quantification simple, practical, and convenient for end users. The paper concludes with suggestions for a research program aimed at focusing measurement research more on the calibration and wide dissemination of tools applicable to individuals, and less on the statistical study of inter-variable relations in large data sets.

  16. Relationship Between Jumping Ability, Agility and Sprint Performance of Elite Young Basketball Players: A Field-Test Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Asadi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2016v18n2p177   The purpose of this study was to determine the relationships between sprint, agility and jump performance of elite young basketball players. Sixteen elite national level young male basketball players participated in this study. The jumping ability of each player was determined using countermovement jump (CMJ, and broad long jump (BLJ. The agility T test (TT and Illinois agility test (IAT were assessed to determine the agility, and 20-m sprint time was also measured to determine sprint performance. The results of Pearson Product Moment Correlation analysis indicated moderate correlation between training age and IAT (r = -0.57; p = 0.021. Strong correlations were found between CMJ and BLJ (r = 0.71; p = 0.002, and between TT and IAT (r = 0.70; p = 0.002. Similarly, 20-m sprint time was strong correlated with CMJ (r = -0.61; p = 0.011, BLJ (r = -0.76; p = 0.001, TT (r = 0.77; p = 0.001, and IAT (r = 0.68; p = 0.003. In addition, CMJ was strongly correlated with TT (r = -0.60; p = 0.013, and IAT (r = -0.64; p = 0.007, and also strong correlation between BLJ with TT (r = -0.85; p = 0.001 and IAT (r = -0.76; p = 0.001. The findings of the present study indicated significant correlation between sprint and agility, jumping ability and sprint performance and between jumping ability and agility performance in basketball players. Therefore, the results suggest that sprint, agility and jumping ability share common physiological and biomechanical determinants.

  17. C-reactive protein level is a prognostic indicator for survival and improves the predictive ability of the R-IPI score in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troppan, K T; Schlick, K; Deutsch, A; Melchardt, T; Egle, A; Stojakovic, T; Beham-Schmid, C; Weiss, L; Neureiter, D; Wenzl, K; Greil, R; Neumeister, P; Pichler, M

    2014-07-08

    High levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), an acute phase protein, proofed being associated with decreased clinical outcome in small-scale studies in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic impact of pretreatment CRP levels on overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) in a large bicentre study of DLBCL patients. Data from 477 DLBCL patients, diagnosed and treated between 2004 and 2013 at two Austrian centres, were evaluated retrospectively. The prognostic influence of CRP and other factors, including age, tumour stage, and revised International Prognostic Index (R-IPI) on 5-year OS and 5-year DFS, were studied by Kaplan-Meier curves as well as univariate and multivariate Cox regression models. Influence of CRP on the predictive accuracy of the R-IPI score was determined by the Harrell concordance index. Kaplan-Meier curves revealed elevated CRP as a factor for decreased 5-year OS and DFS in DLBCL patients (PIPI score and 0.79 when CRP was added. In the present study, we demonstrated high CRP levels at diagnosis of DLBCL as an independent poor prognostic factor for clinical outcome. Adding CRP to the well-established prognostic models such as the R-IPI score might improve their predictive ability.

  18. Cognitive capacity: no association with recovery of sensibility by Semmes Weinstein test score after peripheral nerve injury of the forearm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boender, Z J; Ultee, J; Hovius, S E R

    2010-02-01

    In the recovery process of sensibility after repair of a peripheral nerve injury of the forearm, not only age but also surgical repair techniques are of importance. If regenerating axons are misdirected, reorganisation or other adaptic processes are needed at the level of the somatosensory brain cortex. These processes are thought to be dependent on the patient's cognitive capacity. We conducted a prospective multicentre study to assess the association between cognitive capacity and recovery of sensibility after peripheral nerve damage of the forearm. Patients with a traumatic peripheral nerve lesion of the forearm and consecutive surgical repair were included. After 12 months, the patients were assessed with respect to recovery of sensibility (Semmes-Weinstein monofilaments) and cognitive capacity, with four tests assessing different aspects of cognitive functioning. Twenty-eight patients (25 male, three female; median age: 28.5 years; range: 15-79 years) with median and/or ulnar nerve injury of the forearm were included in the study. Younger age showed a positive association with sensory recovery (beta =-0.845, 95% CI: -1.456 to -0.233; p=0.01). No association was found between the cognitive-capacity tests used and sensory recovery. The present prospective study did not reveal any association between recovery of sensibility measured by Semmes-Weinstein test score and cognitive capacity. Further studies should be performed to confirm these results. 2008 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A little bias goes a long way: the effects of feedback on the strategic regulation of accuracy on formula-scored tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Michelle M; Higham, Philip A; Martín-Luengo, Beatriz

    2013-12-01

    Under formula-scoring rules for multiple-choice exams, a penalty is applied to incorrect responses to reduce noise in the observed score. To avoid the penalty individuals are allowed to "pass," and therefore they must be able to strategically regulate the accuracy of their reporting by deciding which and how many questions to answer. To investigate the effect of bias within this framework, Higham (2007) introduced bias profiles, which show the score obtained under formula scoring (corrected score) as a function of the omission rate. Bias profiles estimate the optimal number of questions that should be answered to maximize the corrected score (i.e., optimal bias). Our initial research showed that individuals tend to be too conservative when setting reporting criteria, "omitting" too many answers. The present three experiments introduced a feedback manipulation whereby participants were informed of the optimal omission rate after completing a test and asked to alter their reporting decisions accordingly. This feedback and concomitant alteration of reporting decisions led to improved corrected scores on true/false (Experiment 1), 2-alternative tests (Experiments 2), and 4-alternative tests (Experiment 3). Importantly, corrected scores at optimal bias also were higher than at forced-report for both true/false and 2-alternative tests. Furthermore, in Experiment 3, feedback based on one test improved scores on a second test, and participants were more likely to perform optimally on a third test without feedback. These effects suggest that optimal-bias feedback may have long-term effects and generalize to new tests. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  20. Prognostic ability of EndoPredict compared to research-based versions of the PAM50 risk of recurrence (ROR) scores in node-positive, estrogen receptor-positive, and HER2-negative breast cancer. A GEICAM/9906 sub-study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Miguel; Brase, Jan C; Ruiz, Amparo; Prat, Aleix; Kronenwett, Ralf; Calvo, Lourdes; Petry, Christoph; Bernard, Philip S; Ruiz-Borrego, Manuel; Weber, Karsten E; Rodriguez, César A; Alvarez, Isabel M; Segui, Miguel A; Perou, Charles M; Casas, Maribel; Carrasco, Eva; Caballero, Rosalía; Rodriguez-Lescure, Alvaro

    2016-02-01

    There are several prognostic multigene-based tests for managing breast cancer (BC), but limited data comparing them in the same cohort. We compared the prognostic performance of the EndoPredict (EP) test (standardized for pathology laboratory) with the research-based PAM50 non-standardized qRT-PCR assay in node-positive estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) and HER2-negative (HER2-) BC patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy followed by endocrine therapy (ET) in the GEICAM/9906 trial. EP and PAM50 risk of recurrence (ROR) scores [based on subtype (ROR-S) and on subtype and proliferation (ROR-P)] were compared in 536 ER+/HER2- patients. Scores combined with clinical information were evaluated: ROR-T (ROR-S, tumor size), ROR-PT (ROR-P, tumor size), and EPclin (EP, tumor size, nodal status). Patients were assigned to risk-categories according to prespecified cutoffs. Distant metastasis-free survival (MFS) was analyzed by Kaplan-Meier. ROR-S, ROR-P, and EP scores identified a low-risk group with a relative better outcome (10-year MFS: ROR-S 87 %; ROR-P 89 %; EP 93 %). There was no significant difference between tests. Predictors including clinical information showed superior prognostic performance compared to molecular scores alone (10-year MFS, low-risk group: ROR-T 88 %; ROR-PT 92 %; EPclin 100 %). The EPclin-based risk stratification achieved a significantly improved prediction of MFS compared to ROR-T, but not ROR-PT. All signatures added prognostic information to common clinical parameters. EPclin provided independent prognostic information beyond ROR-T and ROR-PT. ROR and EP can reliably predict risk of distant metastasis in node-positive ER+/HER2- BC patients treated with chemotherapy and ET. Addition of clinical parameters into risk scores improves their prognostic ability.

  1. Predictive value of grade point average (GPA), Medical College Admission Test (MCAT), internal examinations (Block) and National Board of Medical Examiners (NBME) scores on Medical Council of Canada qualifying examination part I (MCCQE-1) scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Banibrata; Ripstein, Ira; Perry, Kyle; Cohen, Barry

    2016-01-01

    To determine whether the pre-medical Grade Point Average (GPA), Medical College Admission Test (MCAT), Internal examinations (Block) and National Board of Medical Examiners (NBME) scores are correlated with and predict the Medical Council of Canada Qualifying Examination Part I (MCCQE-1) scores. Data from 392 admitted students in the graduating classes of 2010-2013 at University of Manitoba (UofM), College of Medicine was considered. Pearson's correlation to assess the strength of the relationship, multiple linear regression to estimate MCCQE-1 score and stepwise linear regression to investigate the amount of variance were employed. Complete data from 367 (94%) students were studied. The MCCQE-1 had a moderate-to-large positive correlation with NBME scores and Block scores but a low correlation with GPA and MCAT scores. The multiple linear regression model gives a good estimate of the MCCQE-1 (R2 =0.604). Stepwise regression analysis demonstrated that 59.2% of the variation in the MCCQE-1 was accounted for by the NBME, but only 1.9% by the Block exams, and negligible variation came from the GPA and the MCAT. Amongst all the examinations used at UofM, the NBME is most closely correlated with MCCQE-1.

  2. Ability of immunodiagnostic tests to differentiate between dogs naturally infected with Leishmania infantum and Leishmune(®)-vaccinated dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, R A N; Teixeira-Neto, R G; Belo, V S; Ferreira, E C; Schallig, H D F H; Silva, E S

    2015-06-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a serious chronic disease with a lethality rate of up to 10% in humans. In urban areas of Brazil, dogs are the main reservoirs of the etiological agent (Leishmania infantum) of VL, and the Brazilian Ministry of Health recommends the euthanasia of animals that are seropositive in both the immunochromatographic dual path platform rapid test (DPP(®); Bio-Manguinhos) and the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with an L. major-like antigen (Bio-Manguinhos). Vaccination is an additional tool in the control of canine VL, but the use of Leishmune(®) (Zoetis Indústria de Produtos Veterinários, São Paulo, SP, Brazil), which contains the fucose mannose ligand (FML) isolated from L. donovani, is not currently recommended by the Brazilian Ministry of Health because vaccinated animals may exhibit positive serology and there are reservations regarding the efficacy of the vaccine. The aims of the present study were: (i) to verify the abilities of the fast agglutination screening test (FAST), the direct agglutination test (DAT), the indirect fluorescent-antibody test (IFAT), the DPP rapid test, and ELISA tests with L. major-like and FML antigens to differentiate between L. infantum-infected and Leishmune(®)-vaccinated dogs, and (ii) to analyze the sensitivities and specificities of the different methods. The reactivities to these tests of Leishmune(®)-vaccinated dogs (n = 71), asymptomatic (n = 20) and symptomatic (n = 20) naturally infected dogs, and unvaccinated healthy control dogs (n = 5) were compared. None of the Leishmune(®)-vaccinated dogs tested seropositive in FAST and DAT, although one dog was reactive to DPP and four dogs to ELISA/L. major-like and IFAT tests. While 69 (97%) of vaccinated dogs reacted to ELISA/FML, only one was seropositive in both ELISA/L. major-like and IFAT tests. Individually, all immunodiagnostic tests presented high specificities and positive likelihood ratios (LR+), and high specificity values were

  3. ASSESSING INTER-EFFORT RECOVERY AND CHANGE OF DIRECTION ABILITY WITH THE 30-15 INTERMITTENT FITNESS TEST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bachar Haydar

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to propose a new and simple field assessment of inter-effort recovery and change of direction (COD ability based on performance during the 30-15 Intermittent Fitness Test (30-15IFT, an intermittent, incremental shuttle-run test using three different protocols. Forty team-sport players (22 ± 2 years performed either (group A; n = 16 the original 30-15IFT and two modified versions, one without a rest period (i.e. continuous run, 30-15IFT-CONT and one without COD (30-15IFT-LINE, or (group B; n = 24 the original 30-15IFT and a modified version with more COD (28-m shuttle instead of 40-m, 30- 15IFT-28m. Heart rate (HR, blood lactate concentration ([La]b, rating of perceived exertion (RPE and maximal running speed were recorded for all tests. There was no statistical difference in either maximal HR (A: p = 0.07 and B: p = 0.94 or RPE (A: p = 0.10 and B: p = 0.97 between tests. Compared with the 30-15IFT (12.3 ± 2.5, p < 0.01 and 30-15IFT-LINE (11.3 ± 2.6, p = 0.07, ES = 0.61, [La]b was lower for 30-15IFT-CONT (9.6 ± 3.3 mmol.L-1. Compared with 30-15IFT, maximal running speed was higher for 30-15IFT-LINE (103.1 ± 1.7%, p < 0.001 and lower for 30-15IFT-CONT (93.2 ± 1.4%, p < 0.001, while it was similar for 30-15IFT-28m (99.7 ± 3.6%, p = 0.62. Maximal speeds reached after the four tests were significantly but not perfectly correlated (r = 0.74 to 95, all p < 0.001. Present results show that differences in the maximal running speed reached following different versions of the 30-15IFT can be used by coaches to isolate and evaluate inter- effort recovery (i.e. 30-15IFT vs. 30-15IFT-CONT and COD (i.e., 30-15IFT vs. 30-15IFT-LINE abilities in the field. Additionally, COD ability as evaluated here appears to be independent of shuttle-length

  4. Level of Intrauterine Cocaine Exposure and Neuropsychological Test Scores in Preadolescence: Subtle Effects on Auditory Attention and Narrative Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeghly, Marjorie; Rose-Jacobs, Ruth; Martin, Brett M.; Cabral, Howard J.; Heeren, Timothy C.; Frank, Deborah A.

    2014-01-01

    Neuropsychological processes such as attention and memory contribute to children's higher-level cognitive and language functioning and predict academic achievement. The goal of this analysis was to evaluate whether level of intrauterine cocaine exposure (IUCE) alters multiple aspects of preadolescents' neuropsychological functioning assessed using a single age-referenced instrument, the NEPSY: A Developmental Neuropsychological Assessment (NEPSY) [71], after controlling for relevant covariates. Participants included 137 term 9.5-year-old children from low-income urban backgrounds (51% male, 90% African American/Caribbean) from an ongoing prospective longitudinal study. Level of IUCE was assessed in the newborn period using infant meconium and maternal report. 52% of the children had IUCE (65% with lighter IUCE, and 35% with heavier IUCE), and 48% were unexposed. Infants with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome, HIV seropositivity, or intrauterine exposure to illicit substances other than cocaine and marijuana were excluded. At the 9.5-year follow-up visit, trained examiners masked to IUCE and background variables evaluated children's neuropsychological functioning using the NEPSY. The association between level of IUCE and NEPSY outcomes was evaluated in a series of linear regressions controlling for intrauterine exposure to other substances and relevant child, caregiver, and demographic variables. Results indicated that level of IUCE was associated with lower scores on the Auditory Attention and Narrative Memory tasks, both of which require auditory information processing and sustained attention for successful performance. However, results did not follow the expected ordinal, dose-dependent pattern. Children's neuropsychological test scores were also altered by a variety of other biological and psychosocial factors. PMID:24978115

  5. Level of intrauterine cocaine exposure and neuropsychological test scores in preadolescence: subtle effects on auditory attention and narrative memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeghly, Marjorie; Rose-Jacobs, Ruth; Martin, Brett M; Cabral, Howard J; Heeren, Timothy C; Frank, Deborah A

    2014-01-01

    Neuropsychological processes such as attention and memory contribute to children's higher-level cognitive and language functioning and predict academic achievement. The goal of this analysis was to evaluate whether level of intrauterine cocaine exposure (IUCE) alters multiple aspects of preadolescents' neuropsychological functioning assessed using a single age-referenced instrument, the NEPSY: A Developmental Neuropsychological Assessment (NEPSY) (Korkman et al., 1998), after controlling for relevant covariates. Participants included 137 term 9.5-year-old children from low-income urban backgrounds (51% male, 90% African American/Caribbean) from an ongoing prospective longitudinal study. Level of IUCE was assessed in the newborn period using infant meconium and maternal report. 52% of the children had IUCE (65% with lighter IUCE, and 35% with heavier IUCE), and 48% were unexposed. Infants with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome, HIV seropositivity, or intrauterine exposure to illicit substances other than cocaine and marijuana were excluded. At the 9.5-year follow-up visit, trained examiners masked to IUCE and background variables evaluated children's neuropsychological functioning using the NEPSY. The association between level of IUCE and NEPSY outcomes was evaluated in a series of linear regressions controlling for intrauterine exposure to other substances and relevant child, caregiver, and demographic variables. Results indicated that level of IUCE was associated with lower scores on the Auditory Attention and Narrative Memory tasks, both of which require auditory information processing and sustained attention for successful performance. However, results did not follow the expected ordinal, dose-dependent pattern. Children's neuropsychological test scores were also altered by a variety of other biological and psychosocial factors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Testing the ability of a proposed geotechnical based method to evaluate the liquefaction potential analysis subjected to earthquake vibrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbaszadeh Shahri, A.; Behzadafshar, K.; Esfandiyari, B.; Rajablou, R.

    2010-12-01

    During the earthquakes a number of earth dams have had severe damages or suffered major displacements as a result of liquefaction, thus modeling by computer codes can provide a reliable tool to predict the response of the dam foundation against earthquakes. These modeling can be used in the design of new dams or safety assessments of existing ones. In this paper, on base of the field and laboratory tests and by combination of several software packages a seismic geotechnical based analysis procedure is proposed and verified by comparison with computer model tests, field and laboratory experiences. Verification or validation of the analyses relies to ability of the applied computer codes. By use of Silakhor earthquake (2006, Ms 6.1) and in order to check the efficiency of the proposed framework, the procedure is applied to the Korzan earth dam of Iran which is located in Hamedan Province to analyze and estimate the liquefaction and safety factor. Design and development of a computer code by authors which named as “Abbas Converter” with graphical user interface which operates as logic connecter function that can computes and models the soil profiles is the critical point of this study and the results are confirm and proved the ability of the generated computer code on evaluation of soil behavior under the earthquake excitations. Also this code can make and render facilitate this study more than previous have done, and take over the encountered problem.

  7. Can the ability to adapt to exercise be considered a talent-and if so, can we test for it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, Craig; Kiely, John

    2017-11-29

    Talent identification (TI) is a popular and hugely important topic within sports performance, with an ever-increasing amount of resources dedicated to unveiling the next sporting star. However, at present, most TI processes appear to select high-performing individuals at the present point in time, as opposed to identifying those individuals with the greatest capacity to improve. This represents a potential inefficiency within the TI process, reducing its effectiveness. In this article, we discuss whether the ability to adapt favorably, and with a large magnitude, to physical training can be considered a talent, testing it against proposed criteria. We also discuss whether, if such an ability can be considered a talent, being able to test for it as part of the TI process would be advantageous. Given that such a capacity is partially heritable, driven by genetic variation between individuals that mediate the adaptive response, we also explore whether the information gained from genetic profiling can be used to identify those with the greatest capacity to improve. Although there are some ethical hurdles which must be considered, the use of genetic information to identify those individuals with the greatest capacity appears to hold promise and may improve both the efficiency and effectiveness of contemporary TI programmes.

  8. The ability of modified star excursion balance test to differentiate between women athletes with and without chronic ankle instability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asma Razeghi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT is one functional clinical test that widely used to assess dynamic balance in patients with ankle injuries. Since the ability of this test to detect impairments between athletes with and without chronic ankle instability(CAI is not clear, the aim of present study was to determine if the modified SEBT could detect reach deficits in patients with unilateral CAI. A convenience sample of thirty elite and sub elite women athletes were selected and assigned into two groups: CAI group (Mean ± SD: age: 25±3.5 years; height: 1.68±0.09 m; weight: 62.7±7.3kg, and healthy controls (Mean ± SD: age: 26±4.2 years; height: 1.69±0.05 m; weigh t: 62.7±7.3 kg.The dynamic balance test was obtained using modified SEBT from both limbs of each participant. The independent sample t-test was used for both between group and within group inter-limb comparisons. There was no significant difference in any directions of modified SEBT between two groups in both limbs. No significant interlimb differences were also observed within both groups. The modified SEBT may not enough sensitive to differentiate between athletes with and without CAI. Other factors such as ankle range of motion, muscle strength and pain intensity should be considered for better interpretation of the SEBT results.

  9. Comparison of visual motor development in Hong Kong and the USA assessed on the Qualitative Scoring System for the Modified Bender-Gestalt test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, P W

    2001-02-01

    This study compared the visuomotor development of young children in Hong Kong and the USA assessed on the Qualitative Scoring System for the Modified Bender-Gestalt test. 744 children aged 4:6 to 8:5 years from 6 kindergartens and 6 primary schools in Hong Kong were administered the Modified Bender-Gestalt test. The Qualitative Scoring System was used to measure the children's visuomotor development. Their visuomotor scores were then compared with norms for children in the USA. Analysis indicated significant differences across all age groups of 4:6 to 8:5 years in 6-mo. units. Consistent with previous research, children in Hong Kong outperformed their western peers. Percentile scores and T scores for children in Hong Kong in each age group were reported.

  10. An Argument against Using Standardized Test Scores for Placement of International Undergraduate Students in English as a Second Language (ESL) Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokhan, Kateryna

    2013-01-01

    Development and administration of institutional ESL placement tests require a great deal of financial and human resources. Due to a steady increase in the number of international students studying in the United States, some US universities have started to consider using standardized test scores for ESL placement. The English Placement Test (EPT)…

  11. Parkinson's disease and driving ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rajiv; Pentland, Brian; Hunter, John; Provan, Frances

    2007-04-01

    To explore the driving problems associated with Parkinson's disease (PD) and to ascertain whether any clinical features or tests predict driver safety. The driving ability of 154 individuals with PD referred to a driving assessment centre was determined by a combination of clinical tests, reaction times on a test rig and an in-car driving test. The majority of cases (104, 66%) were able to continue driving although 46 individuals required an automatic transmission and 10 others needed car modifications. Ability to drive was predicted by the severity of physical disease, age, presence of other associated medical conditions, particularly dementia, duration of disease, brake reaction, time on a test rig and score on a driving test (all pfeatures in distinguishing safety to drive were severe physical disease (Hoehn and Yahr stage 3), reaction time, moderate disease associated with another medical condition and high score on car testing. Most individuals with PD are safe to drive, although many benefit from car modifications or from using an automatic transmission. A combination of clinical tests and in-car driving assessment will establish safety to drive, and a number of clinical correlates can be shown to predict the likely outcome and may assist in the decision process. This is the largest series of consecutive patients seen at a driving assessment centre reported to date, and the first to devise a scoring system for on-road driving assessment.

  12. Towards reporting standards for neuropsychological study results: A proposal to minimize communication errors with standardized qualitative descriptors for normalized test scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenberg, Mike R; Rum, Ruba S

    2017-11-01

    Rapid, clear and efficient communication of neuropsychological results is essential to benefit patient care. Errors in communication are a lead cause of medical errors; nevertheless, there remains a lack of consistency in how neuropsychological scores are communicated. A major limitation in the communication of neuropsychological results is the inconsistent use of qualitative descriptors for standardized test scores and the use of vague terminology. PubMed search from 1 Jan 2007 to 1 Aug 2016 to identify guidelines or consensus statements for the description and reporting of qualitative terms to communicate neuropsychological test scores was conducted. The review found the use of confusing and overlapping terms to describe various ranges of percentile standardized test scores. In response, we propose a simplified set of qualitative descriptors for normalized test scores (Q-Simple) as a means to reduce errors in communicating test results. The Q-Simple qualitative terms are: 'very superior', 'superior', 'high average', 'average', 'low average', 'borderline' and 'abnormal/impaired'. A case example illustrates the proposed Q-Simple qualitative classification system to communicate neuropsychological results for neurosurgical planning. The Q-Simple qualitative descriptor system is aimed as a means to improve and standardize communication of standardized neuropsychological test scores. Research are needed to further evaluate neuropsychological communication errors. Conveying the clinical implications of neuropsychological results in a manner that minimizes risk for communication errors is a quintessential component of evidence-based practice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Ability or Access-Ability: Differential Item Functioning of Items on Alternate Performance-Based Assessment Tests for Students with Visual Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zebehazy, Kim T.; Zigmond, Naomi; Zimmerman, George J.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: This study investigated differential item functioning (DIF) of test items on Pennsylvania's Alternate System of Assessment (PASA) for students with visual impairments and severe cognitive disabilities and what the reasons for the differences may be. Methods: The Wilcoxon signed ranks test was used to analyze differences in the scores…

  14. Do Neurocognitive SCAT3 Baseline Test Scores Differ Between Footballers (Soccer) Living With and Without Disability? A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiler, Richard; van Mechelen, Willem; Fuller, Colin; Ahmed, Osman Hassan; Verhagen, Evert

    2018-01-01

    To determine if baseline Sport Concussion Assessment Tool, third Edition (SCAT3) scores differ between athletes with and without disability. Cross-sectional comparison of preseason baseline SCAT3 scores for a range of England international footballers. Team doctors and physiotherapists supporting England football teams recorded players' SCAT 3 baseline tests from August 1, 2013 to July 31, 2014. A convenience sample of 249 England footballers, of whom 185 were players without disability (male: 119; female: 66) and 64 were players with disability (male learning disability: 17; male cerebral palsy: 28; male blind: 10; female deaf: 9). Between-group comparisons of median SCAT3 total and section scores were made using nonparametric Mann-Whitney-Wilcoxon ranked-sum test. All footballers with disability scored higher symptom severity scores compared with male players without disability. Male footballers with learning disability demonstrated no significant difference in the total number of symptoms, but recorded significantly lower scores on immediate memory and delayed recall compared with male players without disability. Male blind footballers' scored significantly higher for total concentration and delayed recall, and male footballers with cerebral palsy scored significantly higher on balance testing and immediate memory, when compared with male players without disability. Female footballers with deafness scored significantly higher for total concentration and balance testing than female footballers without disability. This study suggests that significant differences exist between SCAT3 baseline section scores for footballers with and without disability. Concussion consensus guidelines should recognize these differences and produce guidelines that are specific for the growing number of athletes living with disability.

  15. Montreal Cognitive Assessment for screening mild cognitive impairment: variations in test performance and scores by education in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Tze Pin; Feng, Lei; Lim, Wee Shiong; Chong, Mei Sian; Lee, Tih Shih; Yap, Keng Bee; Tsoi, Tung; Liew, Tau Ming; Gao, Qi; Collinson, Simon; Kandiah, Nagaendran; Yap, Philip

    2015-01-01

    The Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) was developed as a screening instrument for mild cognitive impairment (MCI). We evaluated the MoCA's test performance by educational groups among older Singaporean Chinese adults. The MoCA and Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) were evaluated in two independent studies (clinic-based sample and community-based sample) of MCI and normal cognition (NC) controls, using receiver operating characteristic curve analyses: area under the curve (AUC), sensitivity (Sn), and specificity (Sp). The MoCA modestly discriminated MCI from NC in both study samples (AUC = 0.63 and 0.65): Sn = 0.64 and Sp = 0.36 at a cut-off of 28/29 in the clinic-based sample, and Sn = 0.65 and Sp = 0.55 at a cut-off of 22/23 in the community-based sample. The MoCA's test performance was least satisfactory in the highest (>6 years) education group: AUC = 0.50 (p = 0.98), Sn = 0.54, and Sp = 0.51 at a cut-off of 27/28. Overall, the MoCA's test performance was not better than that of the MMSE. In multivariate analyses controlling for age and gender, MCI diagnosis was associated with a education was associated with a 3- to 5-point decrement (η(2) = 0.115 and η(2) = 0.162, respectively). The MoCA's ability to discriminate MCI from NC was modest in this Chinese population, because it was far more sensitive to the effect of education than MCI diagnosis. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Quantification of Emphysema with a Three-Dimensional Chest CT Scan: Correlation with the Visual Emphysema Scoring on Chest CT, Pulmonary Function Tests and Dyspnea Severity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hyun Jeong; Hwang, Jung Hwa

    2011-01-01

    We wanted to prospectively evaluate the correlation between the quantification of emphysema using 3D CT densitometry with the visual emphysema score, pulmonary function tests (PFT) and the dyspnea score in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Non-enhanced chest CT with 3D reconstruction was performed in 28 men with COPD (age 54-88 years). With histogram analysis, the total lung volume, mean lung density and proportion of low attenuation lung volume below predetermined thresholds were measured. The CT parameters were compared with the visual emphysema score, the PFT and the dyspnea score. A low attenuation lung volume below -950 HU was well correlated with the DLco and FEV 1 /FVC. A Low attenuation lung volume below -950 HU and -930 HU was correlated with visual the emphysema score. A low attenuation lung volume below -950 HU was correlated with the dyspnea score, although the correlations between the other CT parameters and the dyspnea score were not significant. Objective quantification of emphysema using 3D CT densitometry was correlated with the visual emphysema score. A low attenuation lung volume below -950 HU was correlated with the DLco, the FEV 1 /FVC and the dyspnea score.

  17. Quantification of Emphysema with a Three-Dimensional Chest CT Scan: Correlation with the Visual Emphysema Scoring on Chest CT, Pulmonary Function Tests and Dyspnea Severity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hyun Jeong; Hwang, Jung Hwa [Dept. of Radiology, Soonchunhyang University Seoul Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-09-15

    We wanted to prospectively evaluate the correlation between the quantification of emphysema using 3D CT densitometry with the visual emphysema score, pulmonary function tests (PFT) and the dyspnea score in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Non-enhanced chest CT with 3D reconstruction was performed in 28 men with COPD (age 54-88 years). With histogram analysis, the total lung volume, mean lung density and proportion of low attenuation lung volume below predetermined thresholds were measured. The CT parameters were compared with the visual emphysema score, the PFT and the dyspnea score. A low attenuation lung volume below -950 HU was well correlated with the DLco and FEV{sub 1}/FVC. A Low attenuation lung volume below -950 HU and -930 HU was correlated with visual the emphysema score. A low attenuation lung volume below -950 HU was correlated with the dyspnea score, although the correlations between the other CT parameters and the dyspnea score were not significant. Objective quantification of emphysema using 3D CT densitometry was correlated with the visual emphysema score. A low attenuation lung volume below -950 HU was correlated with the DLco, the FEV{sub 1}/FVC and the dyspnea score.

  18. Reformulation of the Children's Eating Attitudes Test (ChEAT): factor structure and scoring method in a non-clinical population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton, S D; Han, H; Newton, R L; Martin, C K; York-Crowe, E; Stewart, T M; Williamson, D A

    2006-12-01

    The primary aims of this study were to empirically test the factor structure of the Children's Eating Attitudes Test (ChEAT) through both exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses and to interpret the factor structure of the ChEAT within the context of a new scoring method. The ChEAT was administered to 728 children in the 2nd through 6th grades (from five schools) at two different time points. Exactly half the students were male and half were female. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to empirically test the merits of an alternative 6-point scoring system as compared to the traditionally used 4-point scoring system. With the new scoring procedure, the skewness for all factor scores decreased, which resulted in increased variance in the item scores, as well as the total ChEAT score. Since the internal consistency of two factors in a recently proposed model was not acceptable (ChEAT reported by previous investigations. Intercorrelations among the factors suggested three higher order constructs. These findings indicate that the ChEAT subscales may be sufficiently stable to allow use in non-clinical samples of children.

  19. Parental expectations, physical punishment, and violence among adolescents who score positive on a psychosocial screening test in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohene, Sally-Ann; Ireland, Marjorie; McNeely, Clea; Borowsky, Iris Wagman

    2006-02-01

    We sought to examine the relationship between perceived and stated parental expectations regarding adolescents' use of violence, parental use of physical punishment as discipline, and young adolescents' violence-related attitudes and involvement. Surveys were completed by 134 youth and their parents attending 8 pediatric practices. All youth were 10 to 15 years of age and had scored positive on a psychosocial screening test. Multivariate analyses revealed that perceived parental disapproval of the use of violence was associated with a more prosocial attitude toward interpersonal peer violence and a decreased likelihood of physical fighting by the youth. Parental report of whether they would advise their child to use violence in a conflict situation (stated parental expectations) was not associated with the adolescents' attitudes toward interpersonal peer violence, intentions to fight, physical fighting, bullying, or violence victimization. Parental use of corporal punishment as a disciplining method was inversely associated with a prosocial attitude toward interpersonal peer violence among the youth and positively correlated with youths' intentions to fight and fighting, bullying, and violence victimization. Perceived parental disapproval of the use of violence may be an important protective factor against youth involvement in violence, and parental use of physical punishment is associated with both violence perpetration and victimization among youth. Parents should be encouraged to clearly communicate to their children how to resolve conflicts without resorting to violence and to model these skills themselves by avoiding the use of physical punishment.

  20. Qualitative Radiogenomics: Association between Oncotype DX Test Recurrence Score and BI-RADS Mammographic and Breast MR Imaging Features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodard, Genevieve A; Ray, Kimberly M; Joe, Bonnie N; Price, Elissa R

    2018-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the association between Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) mammographic and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging features and breast cancer recurrence risk in patients with estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer who underwent the Oncotype DX assay. Materials and Methods In this institutional review board-approved and HIPAA-compliant protocol, 408 patients diagnosed with invasive breast cancer between 2004 and 2013 who underwent the Oncotype DX assay were identified. Mammographic and MR imaging features were retrospectively collected according to the BI-RADS lexicon. Linear regression assessed the association between imaging features and Oncotype DX test recurrence score (ODxRS), and post hoc pairwise comparisons assessed ODxRS means by using imaging features. Results Mammographic breast density was inversely associated with ODxRS (P ≤ .05). Average ODxRS for density category A was 24.4 and that for density category D was 16.5 (P BI-RADS features of mammographic breast density, calcification morphology, mass margins at mammography and MR imaging, and nonmass enhancement at MR imaging have the potential to serve as imaging biomarkers of breast cancer recurrence risk. Further prospective studies involving larger patient cohorts are needed to validate these preliminary findings. © RSNA, 2017 Online supplemental material is available for this article.

  1. Correlation between the concentration of serum polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in pregnant cynomolgus monkeys and their offspring's behavioral scores in eye-contact test and finger maze learning test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Negishi, T. [Aoyama Gakuin Univ., Kanagawa (Japan); Takasuga, T. [Shimadzu Techno-Research Inc., Kyoto (Japan); Kawasaki, K. [Hoshi Univ., Tokyo (Japan); Kuroda, Y. [CREST Japan Science and Technology Corp., Saitama (Japan); Yoshikawa, Y. [The Univ. of Tokyo (Japan)

    2004-09-15

    A recent review suggested that pre- or perinatal exposure of developing fetuses to dioxins, the widespread environmental contaminants, such as polychrorinated biphenlys (PCBs), induce the irreversible abnormalities in the functions of central nervous system (CNS) in human. These chemicals can be transferred to each fetus and naonate transplacentally and lactationally in rhesus monkey. Several studies also reported the adverse effect of PCB on CNS development in rodents and monkeys as well as on behavior in rodents and monkeys. In the present study, we show a preliminary data about the correlation between the serum concentrations of PCBs in pregnant cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) and the scores of two behavioral tests, eye-contact test and four-step finger maze test, which evaluate consciousness against human observer and learning ability, respectively, in their offspring. This experimental surveillance system using non-human primates would be useful to predict the risk of PCBs exposure in human fetuses because of the similarities of cynomolgus monkey to human with regard to reproduction, developmental parameter, and others.

  2. Two-colour chewing gum mixing ability test for evaluating masticatory performance in children with mixed dentition: validity and reliability study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, M S; Güçlü, B; Schimmel, M; Akyüz, S

    2017-11-01

    The unappealing taste of the chewing material and the time-consuming repetitive task in masticatory performance tests using artificial foodstuff may discourage children from performing natural chewing movements. Therefore, the aim was to determine the validity and reliability of a two-colour chewing gum mixing ability test for masticatory performance (MP) assessment in mixed dentition children. Masticatory performance was tested in two groups: systemically healthy fully dentate young adults and children in mixed dentition. Median particle size was assessed using a comminution test, and a two-colour chewing gum mixing ability test was applied for MP analysis. Validity was tested with Pearson correlation, and reliability was tested with intra-class correlation coefficient, Pearson correlation and Bland-Altman plots. Both comminution and two-colour chewing gum mixing ability tests revealed statistically significant MP differences between children (n = 25) and adults (n = 27, both P tests was positive and significant (r = 0·418, P = 0·002). Correlations for interobserver reliability and test-retest values were significant (r = 0·990, P = 0·0001 and r = 0·995, P = 0·0001). Although both methods could discriminate MP differences, the comminution test detected these differences generally in a wider range compared to two-colour chewing gum mixing ability test. However, considering the high reliability of the results, the two-colour chewing gum mixing ability test can be used to assess masticatory performance in children, especially at non-clinical settings. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Development and pilot testing of a questionnaire to determine the ability and willingness of health personnel accompanying perinatal bereavement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mª José Domínguez Santarén

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The care that parents receive around the time of a loss has a huge impact on their perception of what happened and on their ability to cope. Good care cannot remove the pain and devastation that the loss of a pregnancy or the death of a baby can bring, but can promote healing.Methodology: Creation and pilot study for a questionnaire to determinate the capacity and willingness of perinatal bereavement support from staff in hospitalization and delivery room services in Zaragoza and Jaca who care for couples with a perinatal death.Statistical analysis. Qualitative analysis is made of the difficulties and limitations of this support staff is performing. Psychometric tests were conducted to determine the reliability and validity of the questionnaire by calculating Cronbach´s alpha and the intraclass correlation coefficient. For the analysis of construct validity, we performed the principal components factorial analysis (PCFA through the Varimax rotation system.Results. The qualitative analysis of open-ended responses indicates a lack of knowledge about this type of mourning and social and communication tools that often precludes effective accompaniment. We obtained a Cronbach alpha value of 0.835 overall questionnaire, which indicates high internal consistency or coherence among the items and relatively high CCI indicates good stability over time with significance p<,001. Making appropriate modifications could assess the ability and willingness of workers.

  4. Test for antioxidant ability by scavenging long-lived mutagenic radicals in mammalian cells and by blood test with intentional radicals: an application of gallic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumagai, Jun; Kawaura, Tomoko; Miyazaki, Tetsuo; Prost, Michel; Prost, Emmanuelle; Watanabe, Masami; Quetin-Leclercq, J.Joeelle

    2003-01-01

    Antioxidant ability of gallic acid (GA) are determined both by electron spin resonance measurement of long-lived radicals produced in γ-ray irradiated Syrian golden hamster embryo cells with GA and by hemolysis measurement with GA when blood cells are submitted to radicals. Scavenging properties of GA are determined by the reaction rate constant with long-lived mutagenic radicals in the cells while the blood test allows to analyze the global effects of this compound: radical scavenger+metal ion chelator+regeneration of intra- and extra-cellular antioxidant

  5. Improving personality facet scores with multidimensional computer adaptive testing: an illustration with the Neo Pi-R

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Makransky, Guido; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Glas, Cornelis A.W.

    2013-01-01

    Narrowly defined personality facet scores are commonly reported and used for making decisions in clinical and organizational settings. Although these facets are typically related, scoring is usually carried out for a single facet at a time. This method can be ineffective and time consuming when

  6. What Specific Science Abilities and Skills Are Romanian Students Developing during Primary Education? A Comparison with the Abilities Tested by the TIMSS 2011 Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciascai, Liliana; Dulama, Maria-Eliza

    2013-01-01

    The results of Romanian students at international comparative TIMSS and PISA tests have constantly proven to be unsatisfactory. The present paper aims at analyzing the school syllabi "Mathematics and Environment exploration", "Environmental Education" and "Natural Sciences" studied during primary education in Romania…

  7. Evaluation of the ability of people with intellectual disabilities to 'weigh up' information in two tests of financial reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willner, P; Bailey, R; Parry, R; Dymond, S

    2010-04-01

    An assessment of mental capacity includes an evaluation of the ability to 'weigh up' information, but how to do this is uncertain. We have previously used a laboratory decision-making task, temporal discounting, which involves a trade-off between the value and the delay of expected rewards. Participants with intellectual disabilities (ID) showed very little evidence of 'weighing up' of information: only a third of participants showed consistent temporal discounting performance, and when present, consistent performance was usually impulsive; and the ability to perform consistently was more strongly related to executive functioning than to IQ. The aim of the present study was to replicate these observations and extend them to a more realistic financial decision-making task. We administered a temporal discounting task and a financial decision-making task, as well as tests of executive functioning and IQ, to 20 participants who attended day services for people with learning disabilities (mean Full-Scale IQ = 59), and to 10 staff members. Performance in both decision-making tasks was related more strongly to executive functioning than to IQ. In both tasks, decisions by service users were made largely on the basis of a single item of information: there was very little evidence in either task that information from two sources was being 'weighed'. The results suggest that difficulty in 'weighing up' information may be a general problem for people with ID, pointing to a need for psycho-educational remediation strategies to address this issue. The importance of executive functioning in decision-making by people with ID is not recognized in the legal test for mental capacity, which in practice includes a possibly irrelevant IQ criterion.

  8. Greater years of maternal schooling and higher scores on academic achievement tests are independently associated with improved management of child diarrhea by rural Guatemalan mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Aimee L; Ramakrishnan, Usha; Stein, Aryeh D; Sellen, Daniel W; Merchant, Moeza; Martorell, Reynaldo

    2010-09-01

    Appropriate home management can alleviate many of the consequences of diarrhea including malnutrition, impaired development, growth faltering, and mortality. Maternal cognitive ability, years of schooling, and acquired academic skills are hypothesized to improve child health by improving maternal child care practices, such as illness management. Using information collected longitudinally in 1996-1999 from 466 rural Guatemalan women with children schooling, academic skills, and scores on the Raven's Progressive Matrices and an illness management index (IMI). Women scoring in the lowest and middle tertiles of academic skills scored lower on the IMI compared to women in the highest tertile (-0.24 [95% CI: -0.54, 0.07]; -0.30 [95% CI: -0.54, -0.06], respectively) independent of sociodemographic factors, schooling, and Raven's scores. Among mothers with less than 1 year of schooling, scoring in the lowest tertile on the Raven's Progressive Matrices compared to the highest was significantly associated with scoring one point lower on the IMI (-1.18 [95% CI: -2.20, -0.17]). Greater academic skills were independently associated with maternal care during episodes of infant diarrhea. Schooling of young girls and/or community based programs that provide women with academic skills such as literacy, numeracy and knowledge could potentially improve mothers' care giving practices.

  9. Teachers' perceptions of the effectiveness of an urban health sciences curriculum in closing the Black-White test score gap: A participatory case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, Joan Marie

    1999-12-01

    Over the past years, progress in Black academic achievement, particularly in the area of science, has generally slowed or ceased. According to the 1994 NAEP assessment, twelfth-grade Black students are performing at the level of White eighth-grade students in the discipline of science (Department of Education, 1996). These students, in their last year of required schooling, are about to graduate, yet they lag at least four years behind their white counterparts in science achievement. Despite the establishment and implementation of numerous science intervention programs, Black students still suffer from a disparate gap in standardized test score achievement. The purpose of this research is to investigate teachers' perceptions of the effectiveness of an urban sciences intervention tool that was designed to assist in narrowing the Black-White science academic achievement gap. Specifically, what factors affect teachers' personal sense of instructional efficacy, and how does this translate into their outcome expectancy for student academic success? A multiple-case, replicative design, grounded in descriptive theory, was selected for the study. Multiple sources of evidence were queried to provide robust findings. These sources included a validated health sciences self-efficacy instrument, an interview protocol, a classroom observation, and a review of archival material that included case study participants' personnel files and meeting minutes. A cross-comparative analytic approach was selected for interpretation (Yin, 1994). Findings indicate that teachers attribute the success or failure of educational intervention tools in closing the Black-White test score gap to a variety of internal and external factors. These factors included a perceived lack of both monetary and personal support by the school leadership, as well as a perceived lack of parental involvement which impacted negatively on student achievement patterns. The case study participants displayed a depressed

  10. Investigating the Value of Section Scores for the "TOEFL iBT"® Test. "TOEFL iBT"® Research Report. TOEFL iBT-21. ETS Research Report RR-13-35

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawaki, Yasuyo; Sinharay, Sandip

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the value of reporting the reading, listening, speaking, and writing section scores for the "TOEFL iBT"® test, focusing on 4 related aspects of the psychometric quality of the TOEFL iBT section scores: reliability of the section scores, dimensionality of the test, presence of distinct score profiles, and the…

  11. Unexplained Graft Dysfunction after Heart Transplantation—Role of Novel Molecular Expression Test Score and QTc-Interval: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khurram Shahzad

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the current era of immunosuppressive medications there is increased observed incidence of graft dysfunction in the absence of known histological criteria of rejection after heart transplantation. A noninvasive molecular expression diagnostic test was developed and validated to rule out histological acute cellular rejection. In this paper we present for the first time, longitudinal pattern of changes in this novel diagnostic test score along with QTc-interval in a patient who was admitted with unexplained graft dysfunction. Patient presented with graft failure with negative findings on all known criteria of rejection including acute cellular rejection, antibody mediated rejection and cardiac allograft vasculopathy. The molecular expression test score showed gradual increase and QTc-interval showed gradual prolongation with the gradual decline in graft function. This paper exemplifies that in patients presenting with unexplained graft dysfunction, GEP test score and QTc-interval correlate with the changes in the graft function.

  12. The Effect of Music on the Test Scores of the Students in Limits and Derivatives Subject in the Mathematics Exams Done with Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesan, Cenk; Ozkalkan, Zuhal; Iric, Hamdullah; Kaya, Deniz

    2012-01-01

    In the exams based on limits and derivatives, in this study, it was tried to determine that if there was any difference in students' test scores according to the type of music listened to and environment without music. For this purpose, the achievement test including limits and derivatives and whose reliability coefficient of Cronbach Alpha is…

  13. Use of Verbal Descriptors, Thermal Scores and Electrical Pulp Testing Scores as Predictors of Tooth Pain Before and After Application of Benzocaine Gels into Cavities of Teeth with Pulpitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangarosa, Louis P.; Ciarlone, Alfred E.; Neaverth, Elmer J.; Johnston, Carey A.; Snowden, J. Douglas; Thompson, William O.

    1989-01-01

    A double-blind pilot study was conducted on 27 consenting human volunteers who had irreversible pulpitis associated with persistent toothache pain from open carious lesions. Formulations tested contained either 0, 10%, or 20% benzocaine and were identified only by a numbered code. Before the experiment started, a small amount of a known 5% benzocaine gel was placed for 1 minute on the tongue of each patient to assure a sensation of numbness within the oral cavity. Then the test tooth was washed with a gentle stream of warm water and dried with gauze. A randomly selected test medication was placed into the open cavity and around the gingival margins for 5 minutes. Pre- and posttreatment tests were conducted at the following timed intervals: 0, 5, 15, 30, 45, 60, 75 and 90 minutes. The tests included degree of pain (rated: 0 = none, 1 = mild, 2 = moderate, 3 = severe); electrical pulp testing (EPT) by a modified, voltage-ramping instrument; and ice water testing (0.5 mL directed quickly onto sound enamel of the tooth and rated: 0 to 4, with 4 being intolerable). After testing, or when pain returned to baseline, endodontic procedures were performed. There was a significant increase (p pulpitis and control teeth, 3) there were no correlations between direction of EPT scores and pain relief, 4) cold water testing was a good predictor of whether or not a tooth had pulpitis, and 5) changes in cold water testing scores after treatment could not be correlated to relief of pain according to verbal descriptors. The effectiveness of benzocaine in relieving toothache pain verifies previous studies; however, a difference between 10% and 20% benzocaine could not be demonstrated probably because of two factors: 1) the present experiment had a small sample size, and 2) there was no direct measurement of duration of local anesthesia. PMID:2490060

  14. Visual scoring of non-cavitated caries lesions and clinical trial efficiency, testing xylitol in caries active adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, JP; Amaechi, BT; Bader, JD; Gilbert, GH; Makhija, SK; Lozano-Pineda, J; Leo, MC; Chuhe, C; Vollmer, WM

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To better understand the effectiveness of xylitol in caries prevention in adults, and to attempt improved clinical trial efficiency. Methods As part of the Xylitol for Adult Caries Trial (X-ACT), non-cavitated and cavitated caries lesions were assessed in subjects who were experiencing the disease. The trial was a test of the effectiveness of 5 grams/day of xylitol, consumed by dissolving in the mouth five 1 gram lozenges spaced across each day, compared with a sucralose placebo. For this analysis, seeking trial efficiency, 538 subjects aged 21–80, with complete data for four dental examinations were selected from the 691 randomized into the three year trial, conducted at three sites. Acceptable inter and intra examiner reliability before and during the trial was quantified using the kappa statistic. Results The mean annualized non-cavitated plus cavitated lesion transition scores in coronal and root surfaces, from sound to carious favoured xylitol over placebo, during the three cumulative periods of 12, 24, and 33 months, but these clinically and statistically non-significant differences declined in magnitude over time. Restricting the present assessment to those subjects with a higher baseline lifetime caries experience showed possible but inconsistent benefit. Conclusions There was no clear and clinically relevant preventive effect of xylitol on caries in adults with adequate fluoride exposure when non-cavitated plus cavitated lesions were assessed. This conformed to the X-ACT trial result assessing cavitated lesions. Including non-cavitated lesion assessment in this full scale, placebo controlled, multi site, randomized, double blinded clinical trial in adults experiencing dental caries, did not achieve added trial efficiency or demonstrate practical benefit of xylitol. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.Gov NCT00393055 PMID:24205951

  15. Visual scoring of non cavitated caries lesions and clinical trial efficiency, testing xylitol in caries-active adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, John P; Amaechi, Bennett T; Bader, James D; Gilbert, Gregg H; Makhija, Sonia K; Lozano-Pineda, Juanita; Leo, Michael C; Chen, Chuhe; Vollmer, William M

    2014-06-01

    To better understand the effectiveness of xylitol in caries prevention in adults and to attempt improved clinical trial efficiency. As part of the Xylitol for Adult Caries Trial (X-ACT), non cavitated and cavitated caries lesions were assessed in subjects who were experiencing the disease. The trial was a test of the effectiveness of 5 g/day of xylitol, consumed by dissolving in the mouth five 1 g lozenges spaced across each day, compared with a sucralose placebo. For this analysis, seeking trial efficiency, 538 subjects aged 21-80, with complete data for four dental examinations, were selected from the 691 randomized into the 3-year trial, conducted at three sites. Acceptable inter- and intra-examiner reliability before and during the trial was quantified using the kappa statistic. The mean annualized noncavitated plus cavitated lesion transition scores in coronal and root surfaces, from sound to carious favoured xylitol over placebo, during the three cumulative periods of 12, 24, and 33 months, but these clinically and statistically nonsignificant differences declined in magnitude over time. Restricting the present assessment to those subjects with a higher baseline lifetime caries experience showed possible but inconsistent benefit. There was no clear and clinically relevant preventive effect of xylitol on caries in adults with adequate fluoride exposure when non cavitated plus cavitated lesions were assessed. This conformed to the X-ACT trial result assessing cavitated lesions. Including non cavitated lesion assessment in this full-scale, placebo-controlled, multisite, randomized, double-blinded clinical trial in adults experiencing dental caries did not achieve added trial efficiency or demonstrate practical benefit of xylitol. ClinicalTrials.Gov NCT00393055. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Expanding Talent Search Procedures by Including Measures of Spatial Ability: CTY's Spatial Test Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stumpf, Heinrich; Mills, Carol J.; Brody, Linda E.; Baxley, Philip G.

    2013-01-01

    The importance of spatial ability for success in a variety of domains, particularly in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM), is widely acknowledged. Yet, students with high spatial ability are rarely identified, as Talent Searches for academically talented students focus on identifying high mathematical and verbal abilities.…

  17. Evaluation of the reliability of preoperative descriptive airway assessment tests in prediction of the Cormack-Lehane score: A prospective randomized clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvi, Onur; Kahraman, Tugce; Senturk, Ozgur; Tulgar, Serkan; Serifsoy, Ercan; Ozer, Zeliha

    2017-02-01

    In this study we investigated and compared the predictive values of different airway assessments tests including thyromental height measurement test, which has been recently suggested, in difficult laryngoscopy (Cormack and Lehane [C-L] scores 3 and 4). In addition, we compared the effectiveness of methods and C-L scores, by IDS, in terms of predicting difficult intubation. Prospective, blinded study. Maltepe University. Four hundred fifty-one patients selected randomly who underwent general anesthesia. In this study we compared predictive value of thyromental height measurement test (TMH), which has been recently suggested, modified Mallampati test (MMT), upper lip bite test (ULBT), and thyromental distance measurement test (TMD) in difficult laryngoscopy. Final C-L scores were compared with intubation difficulty scale (IDS) in terms of predicting difficult intubation. Patient's American Society of Anesthesiology score, age and weight were recorded. TMH, TMD, MMT, ULBT, IDS and C-L scores were measured and determined. The optimal cut-off point for TMH for predicting difficult laryngoscopy was 43.5 mm and for TMD was 82.06 mm. Use of TMH <43.5 with MMT has the highest sensitivity for predicting difficult intubation (78.38) with 75.36% specificity and 97.50% negative predictive value. TMH showed sensitivity of 91.89% and specificity 52.17% at 50 mm cut-off value. In the comparison of the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve values, none of the tests came forth individually or in combination with MMT test. The present study demonstrates the practicality of TMH as a digitalized test however the clinical benefits of TMH in daily medical practice are drawn into question. The additional variable of race may have had some bearing on this and further studies, larger in patient sample size, may need to use different methodology concerning age-, sex-, and race-dependent variables in evaluating these tests. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Co-norming the WAIS-III and WMS-III: Is there a test-order effect on IQ and memory scores?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, J; Tulsky, D S

    2000-11-01

    Test-order effect on the WAIS-III and WMS-III scores was evaluated using the WMS-III standardization sample. Participants completed the standardization editions of the WAIS-III and WMS-III in one session, with the tests administered in roughly counterbalanced order. Repeated measure MANOVA analyses were conducted to determine if there was an overall test-order effect for subtest, index, or IQ scores. No significant test-order effects were found for either the WAIS-III index or IQ scores or for the WMS-III index scores. At the subtest level, the majority of the WAIS-III and WMS-III subtests did not show a significant test-order effect. The exceptions were Digit Span and Digit Symbol-Coding on the WAIS-III and Faces II and Logical Memory II on the WMS-III. Although statistically significant test-order effects were found on these subtests, the effect sizes were small. This study indicates that the test-order effect is not a potential threat to the internal validity of the WAIS-III and WMS-III normative data. The practical implications of the current study are discussed.

  19. Testing the hypothesis on cognitive evolution of modern humans' learning ability: current status of past-climatic approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoneda, Minoru; Abe-Ouchi, Ayako; Kawahata, Hodaka; Yokoyama, Yusuke; Oguchi, Takashi

    2014-05-01

    The impact of climate change on human evolution is important and debating topic for many years. Since 2010, we have involved in a general joint project entitled "Replacement of Neanderthal by Modern Humans: Testing Evolutional Models of Learning", which based on a theoretical prediction that the cognitive ability related to individual and social learning divide fates of ancient humans in very unstable Late Pleistocene climate. This model predicts that the human populations which experienced a series of environmental changes would have higher rate of individual learners, while detailed reconstructions of global climate change have reported fluent and drastic change based on ice cores and stalagmites. However, we want to understand the difference between anatomically modern human which survived and the other archaic extinct humans including European Neanderthals and Asian Denisovans. For this purpose the global synchronized change is not useful for understanding but the regional difference in the amplitude and impact of climate change is the information required. Hence, we invited a geophysicist busing Global Circulation Model to reconstruct the climatic distribution and temporal change in a continental scale. At the same time, some geochemists and geographers construct a database of local climate changes recorded in different proxies. At last, archaeologists and anthropologists tried to interpret the emergence and disappearance of human species in Europe and Asia on the reconstructed past climate maps using some tools, such as Eco-cultural niche model. Our project will show the regional difference in climate change and related archaeological events and its impact on the evolution of learning ability of modern humans.

  20. Test del PWC 170 adaptado para determinar la capacidad de trabajo especial en beisbolistas escolares / Adapted PWC 170 test to determine special work abilities in school baseball players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadiel López-Leal

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Resumen Se adaptó el test de PWC 170, según el método de Karpman modificado para el bateo, con el propósito de determinar la capacidad de trabajo especial durante este ejercicio en beisbolistas de la categoría 9-10 años del área deportiva Julio Antonio Mella, ciudad de Camagüey, Cuba. Se estudiaron 15 atletas. Como métodos se emplearon la revisión bibliográfica sobre el proceso de control de preparación del deportista y el control médico deportivo, además se realizó la entrevista a entrenadores y la observación de clases. De su aplicación se obtuvo como resultado una alta correlación entre ambas experiencias y buena estabilidad, además de positivas valoraciones de todos los indicadores por parte de los entrenadores; de ahí que consideren efectiva esta prueba para evaluar objetivamente la capacidad de trabajo especial en beisbolistas escolares de Camagüey. Abstract The PWC 170 test was adapted, according to Karpman’s model modified for batting, with the purpose of determining special work abilities during the game in 9-10 years old baseball players of Julio Antonio Mella sports area, Camagüey city, Cuba. The sample was of 15 athletes. Some of the scientific methods used were bibliographic revision on the control process of the athletes training, coach interviews and class observation. As a result the author detected a high correlation of experiences, good stability and positive coach assessment on every indicator. Therefore, this test was considered effective to objectively evaluate special work abilities in school baseball players from Camagüey.