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Sample records for ability results showed

  1. Video game players show more precise multisensory temporal processing abilities.

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    Donohue, Sarah E; Woldorff, Marty G; Mitroff, Stephen R

    2010-05-01

    Recent research has demonstrated enhanced visual attention and visual perception in individuals with extensive experience playing action video games. These benefits manifest in several realms, but much remains unknown about the ways in which video game experience alters perception and cognition. In the present study, we examined whether video game players' benefits generalize beyond vision to multisensory processing by presenting auditory and visual stimuli within a short temporal window to video game players and non-video game players. Participants performed two discrimination tasks, both of which revealed benefits for video game players: In a simultaneity judgment task, video game players were better able to distinguish whether simple visual and auditory stimuli occurred at the same moment or slightly offset in time, and in a temporal-order judgment task, they revealed an enhanced ability to determine the temporal sequence of multisensory stimuli. These results suggest that people with extensive experience playing video games display benefits that extend beyond the visual modality to also impact multisensory processing.

  2. Canonical Wnts, specifically Wnt-10b, show ability to maintain dermal papilla cells

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    Ouji, Yukiteru, E-mail: oujix@naramed-u.ac.jp; Nakamura-Uchiyama, Fukumi; Yoshikawa, Masahide, E-mail: myoshika@naramed-u.ac.jp

    2013-08-30

    Highlights: •First report on effects of various Wnts on DP cells. •Wnt-10b promoted trichogenesis, while Wnt-3a showed to a limited extent. •Canonical Wnts, specifically Wnt-10b, is important for DP cells maintenance. -- Abstract: Although Wnts are expressed in hair follicles (HFs) and considered to be crucial for maintaining dermal papilla (DP) cells, the functional differences among them remain largely unknown. In the present study, we investigated the effects of Wnts (Wnt-3a, 5a, 10b, 11) on the proliferation of mouse-derived primary DP cells in vitro as well as their trichogenesis-promoting ability using an in vivo skin reconstitution protocol. Wnt-10b promoted cell proliferation and trichogenesis, while Wnt-3a showed those abilities to a limited extent, and Wnt-5a and 11 had no effects. Furthermore, we investigated the effects of these Wnts on cultured DP cells obtained from versican-GFP transgenic mice and found that Wnt-10b had a potent ability to sustain their GFP-positivity. These results suggest that canonical Wnts, specifically Wnt-10b, play important roles in the maintenance of DP cells and trichogenesis.

  3. FUNCTIONAL ABILITIES AS PREDICTORS OF PREADOSLESCENT STUDENTS’ ATHLETIC RESULTS OUTCOME

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    Miroljub Ivanović

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this research has been directed to the functional abilities relation testing (as predictors and athletic results (as criterion of students, who are VII and VIII grade of primary school (Χ= 13, 9 years; SD = 1, 17. The research has been conducted in Valjevo during November 2010. on the sample of 108 examinees. Variables’ sample has been assembled from 3 tests for functional abilities (maximal oxygen consumption, pulse frequency and vital lungs capacity evaluation and 4 athletic disciplines (high jump, long jump, shot put and 60 meters low start sprint from current physical education curriculum. Crombah-alfa coefficient values indicate to satisfactory reliability of applied instruments. In data processing canonical correlation analysis and multiple regression analysis have been used. Achieved canonical correlation analysis results showed that functional abilities set is statistically and significantly related to criterion variables set (R=.67, manifesting one canonical factor on the level p<.03. Achieved determination coefficient (R² = .43 indicates to functional abilities prognostic significance of explained variance 46% criterion. Using hierarchy regression model following statistically significant beta coefficient of functional abilities as partial predictors of athletics outcome have been determined: I for vital lungs capacity- high jump (β = .67, p < .01, II for vital lungs capacity- long jump (β = .55, p < .01, III for vital lungs capacity and pulse frequency- shot put (β =.-.34, p < .01; β =.42, p < .02 and IV for vital lungs capacity- 60 meters sprint (β = .-.39. Regression equation calculation of other applied functional abilities preadolescents’ predictor variables has not statistically and significantly contributed to univariance prediction of criterion variable variance

  4. Free-ranging dogs show age related plasticity in their ability to follow human pointing.

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    Bhattacharjee, Debottam; N, Nikhil Dev; Gupta, Shreya; Sau, Shubhra; Sarkar, Rohan; Biswas, Arpita; Banerjee, Arunita; Babu, Daisy; Mehta, Diksha; Bhadra, Anindita

    2017-01-01

    Differences in pet dogs' and captive wolves' ability to follow human communicative intents have led to the proposition of several hypotheses regarding the possession and development of social cognitive skills in dogs. It is possible that the social cognitive abilities of pet dogs are induced by indirect conditioning through living with humans, and studying free-ranging dogs can provide deeper insights into differentiating between innate abilities and conditioning in dogs. Free-ranging dogs are mostly scavengers, indirectly depending on humans for their sustenance. Humans can act both as food providers and as threats to these dogs, and thus understanding human gestures can be a survival need for the free-ranging dogs. We tested the responsiveness of such dogs in urban areas toward simple human pointing cues using dynamic proximal points. Our experiment showed that pups readily follow proximal pointing and exhibit weaker avoidance to humans, but stop doing so at the later stages of development. While juveniles showed frequent and prolonged gaze alternations, only adults adjusted their behaviour based on the reliability of the human experimenter after being rewarded. Thus free-ranging dogs show a tendency to respond to human pointing gestures, with a certain level of behavioural plasticity that allows learning from ontogenic experience.

  5. Very preterm adolescents show gender-dependent alteration of the structural brain correlates of spelling abilities.

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    Scott, Fiona E; Mechelli, Andrea; Allin, Matthew P; Walshe, Muriel; Rifkin, Larry; Murray, Robin M; Nosarti, Chiara

    2011-07-01

    Individuals born very preterm (VPT) are at risk of neurodevelopmental damage and of adverse educational outcomes in childhood and adolescence. The present study used voxel-based morphometry to investigate the association between grey matter and white matter volume and measures of language and executive functioning in VPT born adolescents and term-born controls by gender. VPT individuals (N=218) and controls (N=127) underwent neuropsychological assessment and MRI at age 14-15 as part of a longitudinal study. Differential associations were found between spelling scores and frontal regional grey matter volume when group (VPT and control) and gender (males and females) were investigated. A main effect of group demonstrated a weaker association in VPT adolescents relative to controls between grey matter volume in the left medial and right superior frontal gyri and spelling scores. A main effect of gender revealed spelling scores to be correlated with grey matter volume in the right superior frontal gyrus in females to a greater extent than in males. Furthermore, a significant interaction between group and gender was detected in two regions. Spelling scores showed a stronger association with grey matter volume in a cluster with local maxima in the left medial frontal cortex extending to the caudate nucleus in VPT females than in control females and a weaker association in VPT males compared to control males. In addition, spelling scores showed a stronger association with grey matter volume in left middle frontal gyrus in VPT males compared to control males and a weaker association in VPT females than in control females. When group and gender were investigated, there were no statistically different correlations between structural brain volumes and performance on reading and executive function tests. These data demonstrate that the typical structure-function relationship in respect to spelling abilities appears to be altered in individuals born preterm and the processes

  6. Measurement of ability emotional intelligence: results for two new tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Elizabeth J

    2010-08-01

    Emotional intelligence (EI) has attracted considerable interest amongst both individual differences researchers and those in other areas of psychology who are interested in how EI relates to criteria such as well-being and career success. Both trait (self-report) and ability EI measures have been developed; the focus of this paper is on ability EI. The associations of two new ability EI tests with psychometric intelligence, emotion perception, and the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso EI test (MSCEIT) were examined. The new EI tests were the Situational Test of Emotion Management (STEM) and the Situational Test of Emotional Understanding (STEU). Only the STEU and the MSCEIT Understanding Emotions branch were significantly correlated with psychometric intelligence, suggesting that only understanding emotions can be regarded as a candidate new intelligence component. These understanding emotions tests were also positively correlated with emotion perception tests, and STEM and STEU scores were positively correlated with MSCEIT total score and most branch scores. Neither the STEM nor the STEU were significantly correlated with trait EI tests, confirming the distinctness of trait and ability EI. Taking the present results as a starting-point, approaches to the development of new ability EI tests and models of EI are suggested.

  7. Durum Wheat (Triticum Durum Desf. Lines Show Different Abilities to Form Masked Mycotoxins under Greenhouse Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Cirlini

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Deoxynivalenol (DON is the most prevalent trichothecene in Europe and its occurrence is associated with infections of Fusarium graminearum and F. culmorum, causal agents of Fusarium head blight (FHB on wheat. Resistance to FHB is a complex character and high variability occurs in the relationship between DON content and FHB incidence. DON conjugation to glucose (DON-3-glucoside, D3G is the primary plant mechanism for resistance towards DON accumulation. Although this mechanism has been already described in bread wheat and barley, no data are reported so far about durum wheat, a key cereal in the pasta production chain. To address this issue, the ability of durum wheat to detoxify and convert deoxynivalenol into D3G was studied under greenhouse controlled conditions. Four durum wheat varieties (Svevo, Claudio, Kofa and Neodur were assessed for DON-D3G conversion; Sumai 3, a bread wheat variety carrying a major QTL for FHB resistance (QFhs.ndsu-3B, was used as a positive control. Data reported hereby clearly demonstrate the ability of durum wheat to convert deoxynivalenol into its conjugated form, D3G.

  8. Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms Associated with Reading Ability Show Connection to Socio-Economic Outcomes.

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    Luciano, Michelle; Hagenaars, Saskia P; Cox, Simon R; Hill, William David; Davies, Gail; Harris, Sarah E; Deary, Ian J; Evans, David M; Martin, Nicholas G; Wright, Margaret J; Bates, Timothy C

    2017-09-01

    Impairments in reading and in language have negative consequences on life outcomes, but it is not known to what extent genetic effects influence this association. We constructed polygenic scores for difficulties with language and learning to read from genome-wide data in ~6,600 children, adolescents and young adults, and tested their association with health, socioeconomic outcomes and brain structure measures collected in adults (maximal N = 111,749). Polygenic risk of reading difficulties was associated with reduced income, educational attainment, self-rated health and verbal-numerical reasoning (p intelligence) and 0.70 (educational attainment) with reading ability. Mendelian randomization approaches will be important to dissociate any causal and moderating effects of reading and related traits on social outcomes.

  9. THE "GREATEST SHOW ON EARTH": FOOTBALL AND ITS ABILITY TO BREAK THE LEVELS OF MASS CULTURE

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    Humberto Ivan Keske

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This article examines how the media, especially radio, television and web, strengthen football and give national and international visibility to this sport, within the different levels of culture proposed by Umberto Eco (2004. The text also shows how soccer provides a contextual and dialogical relationship between the different levels of culture, being able to transgress them, rearranging them into a new proposal.

  10. Thyroid-specific questions on work ability showed known-groups validity among Danes with thyroid diseases.

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    Nexo, Mette Andersen; Watt, Torquil; Bonnema, Steen Joop; Hegedüs, Laszlo; Rasmussen, Åse Krogh; Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla; Bjorner, Jakob Bue

    2015-07-01

    We aimed to identify the best approach to work ability assessment in patients with thyroid disease by evaluating the factor structure, measurement equivalence, known-groups validity, and predictive validity of a broad set of work ability items. Based on the literature and interviews with thyroid patients, 24 work ability items were selected from previous questionnaires, revised, or developed anew. Items were tested among 632 patients with thyroid disease (non-toxic goiter, toxic nodular goiter, Graves' disease (with or without orbitopathy), autoimmune hypothyroidism, and other thyroid diseases), 391 of which had participated in a study 5 years previously. Responses to select items were compared to general population data. We used confirmatory factor analyses for categorical data, logistic regression analyses and tests of differential item function, and head-to-head comparisons of relative validity in distinguishing known groups. Although all work ability items loaded on a common factor, the optimal factor solution included five factors: role physical, role emotional, thyroid-specific limitations, work limitations (without disease attribution), and work performance. The scale on thyroid-specific limitations showed the most power in distinguishing clinical groups and time since diagnosis. A global single item proved useful for comparisons with the general population, and a thyroid-specific item predicted labor market exclusion within the next 5 years (OR 5.0, 95 % CI 2.7-9.1). Items on work limitations with attribution to thyroid disease were most effective in detecting impact on work ability and showed good predictive validity. Generic work ability items remain useful for general population comparisons.

  11. Younger Adults Show Long-Term Effects of Cognitive Training on Broad Cognitive Abilities over 2 Years

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    Schmiedek, Florian; Lövdén, Martin; Lindenberger, Ulman

    2014-01-01

    In the COGITO study (Schmiedek, Lövdén, & Lindenberger, 2010), 101 younger adults practiced 12 tests of perceptual speed, working memory, and episodic memory for over 100 daily 1-hr sessions. The intervention resulted in positive transfer to broad cognitive abilities, including reasoning and episodic memory. Here, we examine whether these…

  12. Spatial Thinking Ability Assessment in Rwandan Secondary Schools: Baseline Results

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    Tomaszewski, Brian; Vodacek, Anthony; Parody, Robert; Holt, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses use and modification of Lee and Bednarz's (2012) Spatial Thinking Ability Test (STAT) as a spatial thinking assessment device in Rwandan secondary schools. After piloting and modifying the STAT, 222 students total from our rural and urban test schools and one control school were tested. Statistical analysis revealed that…

  13. Thyroid-specific questions on work ability showed known-groups validity among Danes with thyroid diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nexo, Mette A.; Watt, Torquil; Bonnema, Steen Joop

    2014-01-01

    and interviews with thyroid patients, 24 work ability items were selected from previous questionnaires, revised, or developed anew. Items were tested among 632 patients with thyroid disease (non-toxic goiter, toxic nodular goiter, Graves' disease (with or without orbitopathy), autoimmune hypothyroidism...

  14. THE EFFECTS OF BASIC MOTOR ABILITIES ON DRIBBLING RESULTS IN SOCCER

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    Ismail Selimović

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted on a sample of 100 boys aged 12-14 years, members of Sarajevo soccer school teams; FK "ŽELJEZNIČAR", FK "SARAJEVO", FK "NOVI GRAD" and FK "BOSNA". As a predictive variable system, the 17 variables of basic motor skills were applied, and criteria variable was the level of motor control knowledge of ball dribble in football. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of multiple and partial basic motor abilities on the ball dribbling results. Results of regression analysis showed that the significance of mutual influence and prediction criteria system was p <0.01. Variables for general endurance assessment and variable for agility assessment showed statistically significant positive partial correlation coefficients. The explosive strength assessment variable had a statistically significant partial correlation coefficient, but a statistically significant negative partial correlation coefficient was noticed with the flexibility assessment variable

  15. Plant-Adapted Escherichia coli Show Increased Lettuce Colonizing Ability, Resistance to Oxidative Stress and Chemotactic Response

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    Dublan, Maria de los Angeles; Ortiz-Marquez, Juan Cesar Federico; Lett, Lina; Curatti, Leonardo

    2014-01-01

    Background Escherichia coli is a widespread gut commensal and often a versatile pathogen of public health concern. E. coli are also frequently found in different environments and/or alternative secondary hosts, such as plant tissues. The lifestyle of E. coli in plants is poorly understood and has potential implications for food safety. Methods/Principal Findings This work shows that a human commensal strain of E. coli K12 readily colonizes lettuce seedlings and produces large microcolony-like cell aggregates in leaves, especially in young leaves, in proximity to the vascular tissue. Our observations strongly suggest that those cell aggregates arise from multiplication of single bacterial cells that reach those spots. We showed that E. coli isolated from colonized leaves progressively colonize lettuce seedlings to higher titers, suggesting a fast adaptation process. E. coli cells isolated from leaves presented a dramatic rise in tolerance to oxidative stress and became more chemotactic responsive towards lettuce leaf extracts. Mutant strains impaired in their chemotactic response were less efficient lettuce colonizers than the chemotactic isogenic strain. However, acclimation to oxidative stress and/or minimal medium alone failed to prime E. coli cells for enhanced lettuce colonization efficiency. Conclusion/Significance These findings help to understand the physiological adaptation during the alternative lifestyle of E. coli in/on plant tissues. PMID:25313845

  16. Gun Shows and Gun Violence: Fatally Flawed Study Yields Misleading Results

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    Hemenway, David; Webster, Daniel; Pierce, Glenn; Braga, Anthony A.

    2010-01-01

    A widely publicized but unpublished study of the relationship between gun shows and gun violence is being cited in debates about the regulation of gun shows and gun commerce. We believe the study is fatally flawed. A working paper entitled “The Effect of Gun Shows on Gun-Related Deaths: Evidence from California and Texas” outlined this study, which found no association between gun shows and gun-related deaths. We believe the study reflects a limited understanding of gun shows and gun markets and is not statistically powered to detect even an implausibly large effect of gun shows on gun violence. In addition, the research contains serious ascertainment and classification errors, produces results that are sensitive to minor specification changes in key variables and in some cases have no face validity, and is contradicted by 1 of its own authors’ prior research. The study should not be used as evidence in formulating gun policy. PMID:20724672

  17. Testing Delays Resulting in Increased Identification Accuracy in Line-Ups and Show-Ups.

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    Dekle, Dawn J.

    1997-01-01

    Investigated time delays (immediate, two-three days, one week) between viewing a staged theft and attempting an eyewitness identification. Compared lineups to one-person showups in a laboratory analogue involving 412 subjects. Results show that across all time delays, participants maintained a higher identification accuracy with the showup…

  18. Metacognitive Ability Relationship with Test Result of Senior High School of Biology Teacher Competence in Sijunjung District

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    Ardi, A.; Fadilah, M.; Ichsani, W.

    2018-04-01

    This research aimed to reveal how the relationship between metacognitive ability and the test result of biology teacher competence in Sijunjung District. The population of this descriptive research were all high school biology teachers in Sijunjung District, and sample is all teachers who are members of the population, which is 23 biology teachers. The instrument used in this research are a questionnaire of research on teacher's metacognitive ability and document about teacher competence test result. The questionnaire was validated first by two lecturers of biology and one lecturer of English. Data analysis using Pearson Product Moment's. Based on the results of research and discussion that have been described, it can generally be concluded that there is a low relationship between metacognitive ability with competence test results of high school biology teachers in Sijunjung District. Partially, the relationship of metacognitive ability with the test result of professional competence of biology teacher showed significant result, with correlation coefficient 0,46 and t table 1,72 while titung 2,37. The contribution of metacognitive ability to the competence test result of the teacher is 21.6%, while the other 78.4% have not been revealed in this research.

  19. Immature dendritic cells generated from cryopreserved human monocytes show impaired ability to respond to LPS and to induce allogeneic lymphocyte proliferation.

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    Guilherme Ferreira Silveira

    Full Text Available Dendritic cells play a key role in the immune system, in the sensing of foreign antigens and triggering of an adaptive immune response. Cryopreservation of human monocytes was investigated to understand its effect on differentiation into immature monocyte-derived dendritic cells (imdDCs, the response to inflammatory stimuli and the ability to induce allogeneic lymphocyte proliferation. Cryopreserved (crp-monocytes were able to differentiate into imdDCs, albeit to a lesser extent than freshly (frh-obtained monocytes. Furthermore, crp-imdDCs had lower rates of maturation and cytokine/chemokine secretion in response to LPS than frh-imdDCs. Lower expression of Toll-like receptor 4 (at 24 and 48 h and higher susceptibility to apoptosis in crp-imdDCs than in fresh cells would account for the impaired maturation and cytokine/chemokine secretion observed. A mixed leukocyte reaction showed that lymphocyte proliferation was lower with crp-imdDCs than with frh-imdDCs. These findings suggested that the source of monocytes used to generate human imdDCs could influence the accuracy of results observed in studies of the immune response to pathogens, lymphocyte activation, vaccination and antigen sensing. It is not always possible to work with freshly isolated monocytes but the possible effects of freezing/thawing on the biology and responsiveness of imdDCs should be taken into account.

  20. Cognitive abilities and functional capacity in older adults: results from the modified Scales of Independent Behavior-Revised.

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    Tan, Jing Ee; Hultsch, David F; Strauss, Esther

    2009-04-01

    The relationship between cognitive and functional abilities was examined in a sample of community-dwelling older adults. Self and informant (e.g., spouse) reports of participants' functional status were obtained on the modified Scales of Independent Behavior-Revised (mSIB-R). Participants also completed measures of processing speed, episodic memory, executive functioning, and verbal ability. Results showed that the mSIB-R correlated positively with cognitive variables. Hierarchical regression analyses suggested that each mSIB-R factor is predicted by somewhat different cognitive variables, after adjusting for demographic, health, and motor variables. This report-based measure was as accurate as a performance-based measure in classifying cognitive groups. Informant social/cognitive engagement and self physical/environment engagement factors showed the most promise in this regard. The findings reveal links between cognitive and functional abilities in a sample with varying degrees of cognitive impairment.

  1. THE EFFECTS OF BASIC MOTOR ABILITIES ON DRIBBLING RESULTS IN SOCCER

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    Ismail Selimović; Mehmeti Ejup

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted on a sample of 100 boys aged 12-14 years, members of Sarajevo soccer school teams; FK "ŽELJEZNIČAR", FK "SARAJEVO", FK "NOVI GRAD" and FK "BOSNA". As a predictive variable system, the 17 variables of basic motor skills were applied, and criteria variable was the level of motor control knowledge of ball dribble in football. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of multiple and partial basic motor abilities on the ball dribbling results. Results of regressio...

  2. Ability to analyze the statement of a problem as a metasubject result of learning

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    V.A. Guruzhapov

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We provide with the results of experimental research of younger school students ability to analyze and understand the missing terms of a mathematical problem as one of the components of metasubject educational outcomes. The pupils were offered tasks of the diagnostic technique developed by V.A. Guruzhapov, and aimed at assessing the relationships of varying quantities of items. The sample of subjects was 168 students of forms I-III of two Moscow schools. It was found that this technique can estimate the metasubject component of the educational process in the traditional system of education in terms of the analysis of the adequacy of the object display properties in its model. The validity of the methodology was tested in a training experiment conducted by L.N. Shilenkova. An analysis of tasks of another subject content than what was presented in diagnostic tasks was performed with younger students. After learning, the results of the experimental group students significantly improved. On this basis it is concluded that the proposed diagnostic tasks can be used to assess the ability of younger school students to analyze and understand the missing statements of the problem as one of the components of metasubject educational outcomes. The designed developing educational situation can be used in the practice of modern elementary school to enhance learning.

  3. Comb-push ultrasound shear elastography of breast masses: initial results show promise.

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    Denis, Max; Mehrmohammadi, Mohammad; Song, Pengfei; Meixner, Duane D; Fazzio, Robert T; Pruthi, Sandhya; Whaley, Dana H; Chen, Shigao; Fatemi, Mostafa; Alizad, Azra

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the performance of Comb-push Ultrasound Shear Elastography (CUSE) for classification of breast masses. CUSE is an ultrasound-based quantitative two-dimensional shear wave elasticity imaging technique, which utilizes multiple laterally distributed acoustic radiation force (ARF) beams to simultaneously excite the tissue and induce shear waves. Female patients who were categorized as having suspicious breast masses underwent CUSE evaluations prior to biopsy. An elasticity estimate within the breast mass was obtained from the CUSE shear wave speed map. Elasticity estimates of various types of benign and malignant masses were compared with biopsy results. Fifty-four female patients with suspicious breast masses from our ongoing study are presented. Our cohort included 31 malignant and 23 benign breast masses. Our results indicate that the mean shear wave speed was significantly higher in malignant masses (6 ± 1.58 m/s) in comparison to benign masses (3.65 ± 1.36 m/s). Therefore, the stiffness of the mass quantified by the Young's modulus is significantly higher in malignant masses. According to the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC), the optimal cut-off value of 83 kPa yields 87.10% sensitivity, 82.61% specificity, and 0.88 for the area under the curve (AUC). CUSE has the potential for clinical utility as a quantitative diagnostic imaging tool adjunct to B-mode ultrasound for differentiation of malignant and benign breast masses.

  4. Comb-push ultrasound shear elastography of breast masses: initial results show promise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max Denis

    Full Text Available To evaluate the performance of Comb-push Ultrasound Shear Elastography (CUSE for classification of breast masses.CUSE is an ultrasound-based quantitative two-dimensional shear wave elasticity imaging technique, which utilizes multiple laterally distributed acoustic radiation force (ARF beams to simultaneously excite the tissue and induce shear waves. Female patients who were categorized as having suspicious breast masses underwent CUSE evaluations prior to biopsy. An elasticity estimate within the breast mass was obtained from the CUSE shear wave speed map. Elasticity estimates of various types of benign and malignant masses were compared with biopsy results.Fifty-four female patients with suspicious breast masses from our ongoing study are presented. Our cohort included 31 malignant and 23 benign breast masses. Our results indicate that the mean shear wave speed was significantly higher in malignant masses (6 ± 1.58 m/s in comparison to benign masses (3.65 ± 1.36 m/s. Therefore, the stiffness of the mass quantified by the Young's modulus is significantly higher in malignant masses. According to the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC, the optimal cut-off value of 83 kPa yields 87.10% sensitivity, 82.61% specificity, and 0.88 for the area under the curve (AUC.CUSE has the potential for clinical utility as a quantitative diagnostic imaging tool adjunct to B-mode ultrasound for differentiation of malignant and benign breast masses.

  5. AREVA: Operating performance shows distinct improvement; Results heavily impacted by the cost of remedial measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    The 2015 results illustrate the progress AREVA made in 2015 and open up favorable prospects for 2016 and the following years in view of its fundamentals. The group's competitiveness plan had a very positive impact on its costs and cash, despite the heavy net loss situation which continues and in a market environment that remained difficult in 2015. Half of this loss of 2 billion Euro is due to additional provisions for OL3 and half to provisions for restructuring and impairment related to market conditions. Concerning the group's liquidity, 2016 is funded and the capital increase which will be launched in the coming months will enable AREVA to gradually regain the group's positive profile. A new phase awaits the Group in 2016 with clarity and confidence in the implementation of the restructuring announced in 2015 and in particular the autonomy of AREVA NP and the creation of New AREVA

  6. Results of a "GWAS plus:" general cognitive ability is substantially heritable and massively polygenic.

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    Robert M Kirkpatrick

    Full Text Available We carried out a genome-wide association study (GWAS for general cognitive ability (GCA plus three other analyses of GWAS data that aggregate the effects of multiple single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in various ways. Our multigenerational sample comprised 7,100 Caucasian participants, drawn from two longitudinal family studies, who had been assessed with an age-appropriate IQ test and had provided DNA samples passing quality screens. We conducted the GWAS across ∼ 2.5 million SNPs (both typed and imputed, using a generalized least-squares method appropriate for the different family structures present in our sample, and subsequently conducted gene-based association tests. We also conducted polygenic prediction analyses under five-fold cross-validation, using two different schemes of weighting SNPs. Using parametric bootstrapping, we assessed the performance of this prediction procedure under the null. Finally, we estimated the proportion of variance attributable to all genotyped SNPs as random effects with software GCTA. The study is limited chiefly by its power to detect realistic single-SNP or single-gene effects, none of which reached genome-wide significance, though some genomic inflation was evident from the GWAS. Unit SNP weights performed about as well as least-squares regression weights under cross-validation, but the performance of both increased as more SNPs were included in calculating the polygenic score. Estimates from GCTA were 35% of phenotypic variance at the recommended biological-relatedness ceiling. Taken together, our results concur with other recent studies: they support a substantial heritability of GCA, arising from a very large number of causal SNPs, each of very small effect. We place our study in the context of the literature-both contemporary and historical-and provide accessible explication of our statistical methods.

  7. Reception of Talent Shows in Denmark: First Results from a Trans-National Audience Study of a Global Format Genre

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pia Majbritt

    This paper will discuss the methodology and present the preliminary findings of the Danish part of a trans-national, comparative audience study of the musical talent show genre undertaken in Denmark, Finland, Germany and Great Britain in Spring 2013. Within the international business model...... of format adaptation, the musical talent show genre has been particularly successful in crossing cultural borders. Formats such as Idols, X Factor and Voice have sold to a large variety of countries, covering all continents. Such global reach inevitably raises the question of the genre’s audience appeal......; to what degree its reach has to do with a universal appeal inherent in the genre and/or the innovative character of individual formats, and to what degree its global success is due to local broadcasters’ ability to successfully adapt the formats to local audience tastes. A consensus has developed...

  8. Risk-taking decisions in pathological gamblers is not a result of their impaired inhibition ability.

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    Kertzman, Semion; Lidogoster, Helena; Aizer, Anat; Kotler, Moshe; Dannon, Pinhas N

    2011-06-30

    This work investigates whether inhibition impairments influence the decision making process in pathological gamblers (PGs). The PG (N=51) subjects performed the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT as the measure of the decision making process) and two tests of inhibition: the Stroop (interference inhibition), and the Go/NoGo (response inhibition), and were compared with demographically matched healthy subjects (N=57). Performance in the IGT block 1 and block 2 did not differ between the groups, but the differences between the PGs and healthy controls began to be significant in block 3, block 4 and block 5. PGs learned the IGT task more slowly than the healthy controls and had non-optimal outcomes (more disadvantageous choices). Impaired IGT performance in PGs was not related to an inhibition ability measured by the Stroop (interference response time) and the Go/NoGo (number of commission errors) parameters. Further controlled studies with neuroimaging techniques may help to clarify the particular brain mechanisms underlying the impaired decision making process in PGs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Evaluating the Ability of the PBS Children?s Show Daniel Tiger?s Neighborhood to Teach Skills to Two Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Dotson, Wesley H.; Rasmussen, Eric E; Shafer, Autumn; Colwell, Malinda; Densley, Rebecca L.; Brewer, Adam T.; Alonzo, Marisol C.; Martinez, Laura A.

    2016-01-01

    Daniel Tiger?s Neighborhood is a children?s television show incorporating many elements of video modeling, an intervention that can teach skills to children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). This study evaluated the impact of watching Daniel Tiger?s Neighborhood episodes on the accurate performance of trying new foods and stopping play politely with two five-year-old children with ASD. Both children showed improved performance of skills only following exposure to episodes of Daniel Tiger?...

  10. Evaluating the Ability of the PBS Children's Show Daniel Tiger's Neighborhood to Teach Skills to Two Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotson, Wesley H; Rasmussen, Eric E; Shafer, Autumn; Colwell, Malinda; Densley, Rebecca L; Brewer, Adam T; Alonzo, Marisol C; Martinez, Laura A

    2017-03-01

    Daniel Tiger's Neighborhood is a children's television show incorporating many elements of video modeling, an intervention that can teach skills to children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). This study evaluated the impact of watching Daniel Tiger's Neighborhood episodes on the accurate performance of trying new foods and stopping play politely with two five-year-old children with ASD. Both children showed improved performance of skills only following exposure to episodes of Daniel Tiger's Neighborhood , suggesting that watching episodes can help children with ASD learn specific skills.

  11. Development of Disabled Readers' Metacomprehension Ability through Summarization Training Using Expository Text: Results of Three Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisberg, Renee; Balajthy, Ernest

    1990-01-01

    In the three studies, high school aged disabled readers were taught how to identify passages' main ideas, construct graphic organizers, and write summaries. Study results suggest the need for modeling strategies and consistent feedback and the usefulness of these techniques in helping students monitor their understanding and improve reading…

  12. Experimental results showing the internal three-component velocity field and outlet temperature contours for a model gas turbine combustor

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Meyers, BC

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available by the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Inc. All rights reserved ISABE-2011-1129 EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS SHOWING THE INTERNAL THREE-COMPONENT VELOCITY FIELD AND OUTLET TEMPERATURE CONTOURS FOR A MODEL GAS TURBINE COMBUSTOR BC Meyers*, GC... identifier c Position identifier F Fuel i Index L (Combustor) Liner OP Orifice plate Introduction There are often inconsistencies when comparing experimental and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations for gas turbine combustors [1...

  13. Relations between Anthropometric Characteristics and Motor Abilities of 14 – 15U Female Swimmers on 50m Result for each Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran Dimitrić

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In aim of correlation between antropometric characteristics, motor abilities and results of swimming 50m in all swimming techniques, a group of 22 swimmers (girls of Serbian national team, aged 14-15, underwent some anthropometric measurements as well as some motor abilities. Observed longitudinal dimensions were: body height, body mass, arm span and torax circumference and observed motor abilities were: body strength (arms, legs, stomach and flexibility (trunk and arms. Regression analisys showed that arm span corellated with 50m butterfly and free style score as well as strenght of body and legs corellated with 50m backstroke and free style score. Other measures didn΄t corelatted significantly on this sample. Study results confirms importance of arm span and some segments of body strenhgt of swimmers (girls for successful swimm on 50m in butterfly, backstroke and freestyle techniques in the age 14-15 years.

  14. Effects of requested, forced and denied shift schedule change on work ability and health of nurses in Europe -results from the European NEXT-Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galatsch, Michael; Li, Jian; Derycke, Hanne; Müller, Bernd Hans; Hasselhorn, Hans Martin

    2013-12-05

    Previous cross-sectional findings from the European Nurses Early Exit Study (NEXT) show that nurses who were dissatisfied with their work schedule tended to consider leaving the nursing profession. Mediating factors in this decision process may be caused by self-perceived poor work ability and/or health. The aim of this paper is to investigate changes in work ability and general health among nurses in relation to requested, forced and denied change of shift schedule. Longitudinal data from the NEXT Study was used. In total 11,102 nurses from Belgium, Germany, Finland, the Netherlands, Poland, Slovakia, France and Italy completed both the 'basic questionnaire' (t1) and the '12 month follow-up questionnaire' (t2). To examine the time-effect (repeated measures) and the group-effect of five defined groups of nurses on the Work Ability Index (WAI) and general health (SF36), an adjusted 2-way analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was performed. The nurses who wanted to, but could not change their shifts during the 12 month follow-up had the lowest initial and follow-up scores for WAI (t1: 37.6, t2: 36.6, p work ability and to a lesser comparatively low extent with increased decline in health scores. A forced change of shift against the nurses' will was significantly associated with a deteriorating work ability and health. The findings would suggest that nurses' desire to change their shift patterns may be an indicator for perceived low work ability and/or low health. The results also indicate that fulfilling nurses' wishes with respect to their shift work pattern may improve their personal resources such as work ability and - to somewhat lesser extent - health. Disregarding nurses' preferences, however, bears the risk for further resource deterioration. The findings imply that shift schedule organization may constitute a valuable preventive tool to promote nurses' work ability and - to lesser extent - their perceived health, not least in aging nursing work forces.

  15. Multitasking Abilities in Adolescents With 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome: Results From an Experimental Ecological Paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Maude; Eliez, Stephan; Birr, Julie; Menghetti, Sarah; Debbané, Martin; Van der Linden, Martial

    2016-03-01

    The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) is associated with cognitive and functional impairments and increased risk for schizophrenia. We characterized multitasking abilities of adolescents with 22q11.2DS using an experimental naturalistic setting and examined whether multitasking impairments were associated with real-world functioning and negative symptoms. Thirty-nine adolescents (19 with 22q11.2DS and 20 controls) underwent the Multitasking Evaluation for Adolescents. Real-world functioning and clinical symptoms were assessed in participants with 22q11.2DS. Adolescents with 22q11.2DS performed poorly in the multitasking evaluation. Our data also suggest that multitasking abilities are related to adaptive functioning in the practical domain and negative symptoms. This study shows that adolescents with 22q11.2DS are characterized by multitasking impairments, which may be relevant for several aspects of the clinical phenotype.

  16. Tree Mortality Undercuts Ability of Tree-Planting Programs to Provide Benefits: Results of a Three-City Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Widney

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Trees provide numerous benefits for urban residents, including reduced energy usage, improved air quality, stormwater management, carbon sequestration, and increased property values. Quantifying these benefits can help justify the costs of planting trees. In this paper, we use i-Tree Streets to quantify the benefits of street trees planted by nonprofits in three U.S. cities (Detroit, Michigan; Indianapolis, Indiana, and Philadelphia, Pennsylvania from 2009 to 2011. We also use both measured and modeled survival and growth rates to “grow” the tree populations 5 and 10 years into the future to project the future benefits of the trees under different survival and growth scenarios. The 4059 re-inventoried trees (2864 of which are living currently provide almost $40,000 (USD in estimated annual benefits ($9–$20/tree depending on the city, the majority (75% of which are increased property values. The trees can be expected to provide increasing annual benefits during the 10 years after planting if the annual survival rate is higher than the 93% annual survival measured during the establishment period. However, our projections show that with continued 93% or lower annual survival, the increase in annual benefits from tree growth will not be able to make up for the loss of benefits as trees die. This means that estimated total annual benefits from a cohort of planted trees will decrease between the 5-year projection and the 10-year projection. The results of this study indicate that without early intervention to ensure survival of planted street trees, tree mortality may be significantly undercutting the ability of tree-planting programs to provide benefits to neighborhood residents.

  17. Oral health status and chewing ability is related to mini-nutritional assessment results in an older adult population in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samnieng, Patcharaphol; Ueno, Masayuki; Shinada, Kayoko; Zaitsu, Takashi; Wright, Fredrick Allan Clive; Kawaguchi, Yoko

    2011-01-01

    In a cross-sectional study, we investigated the relationship of Mini-Nutrition Assessment (MNA) results with chewing ability tests and oral examinations (number of teeth present and functional tooth units (FTUs)). The participants were 612 older people (Mean [SD] age: 68.8 [5.9]). According to the MNA score, 25.1% of participants were categorized as having normal nutrition, 67.2% were categorized as at risk of malnourishment, and 7.7% were categorized as having malnutrition. The mean numbers of teeth present and FTUs were [15.5] and [8.9], respectively. The ANCOVA analyses adjusted for age and gender showed that participants with malnutrition had lower numbers of teeth present (8.8), FTUs (8.4), and chewing ability (6.8) than those with normal nutrition (13.3, 10.4 and 7.8) (p Nutritional status was associated with mean numbers of teeth present, FTUs, and chewing ability. Therefore, it was concluded that retention of natural teeth with appropriate numbers of FTUs by replacing missing teeth with dentures and improving chewing ability will help the reduce risk of malnutrition in older adults.

  18. Bilateral femoral neck fractures resulting from pregnancy-associated osteoporosis showed bone marrow edema on magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasahara, Kyoko; Kita, Nobuyuki; Kawasaki, Taku; Morisaki, Shinsuke; Yomo, Hiroko; Murakami, Takashi

    2017-06-01

    Femoral neck fractures resulting from pregnancy-associated osteoporosis is a rare condition. Herein, we report an undoubted case of pregnancy-associated osteoporosis in a 38-year-old primiparous patient with pre-existing anorexia nervosa who suffered bilateral femoral neck fractures in the third trimester and early post-partum period. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed femoral neck fractures as well as diffuse marrow edema involving both femoral heads, which are considered under ordinary circumstances as characteristic imaging findings of transient osteoporosis of the hip. Based on our experience, we propose that pregnancy-associated osteoporosis might be present in femoral neck fractures attributed to transient osteoporosis of the hip in pregnancy. Conversely, bone status should be carefully and accurately estimated in cases of potential transient osteoporosis of the hip in pregnancy to reduce future fracture risk. © 2017 The Authors Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  19. Mars Methane at Gale Crater Shows Strong Seasonal Cycle: Updated Results from TLS-SAM on Curiosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, C. R.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Atreya, S. K.; Flesch, G.; Malespin, C.; McKay, C.; Martinez, G.; Moores, J.; Smith, C. L.; Martin-Torres, F. J.; Gomez-Elvira, J.; Zorzano, M. P.; Wong, M. H.; Trainer, M. G.; Eigenbrode, J. L.; Glavin, D. P.; Steele, A.; Archer, D., Jr.; Sutter, B.; Coll, P. J.; Freissinet, C.; Meslin, P. Y.; Pavlov, A.; Keymeulen, D.; Christensen, L. E.; Gough, R. V.; Schwenzer, S. P.; Navarro-Gonzalez, R.; Pla-García, J.; Rafkin, S. C.; Vicente-Retortillo, Á.; Kahanpää, H.; Viudez-Moreiras, D.; Smith, M. D.; Harri, A. M.; Genzer, M.; Hassler, D.; Lemmon, M. T.; Crisp, J. A.; Zurek, R. W.; Vasavada, A. R.

    2017-12-01

    In situ measurements of atmospheric methane have been made over a 5-year period at Gale Crater on Mars using the Tunable Laser Spectrometer (TLS) instrument in the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) suite on the Curiosity rover. We report two important observations: (i) a background level of mean value of 0.41 ±0.11 (2sem) that is about 5 times lower than some model predictions based on generation from UV degradation of micro-meteorites or interplanetary dust delivered to the martian surface; (ii) "spikes" of elevated levels of 7 ppbv attributed to episodic releases from small local sources, probably to the north of Gale crater1. Reports of plumes, patches or episodic releases of methane in the Martian atmosphere have to date eluded explanation in part because of their lack of repeatability in time or location. Our in situ measurements of the background methane levels exhibit a strong, repeatable seasonal variability. The amplitude of the observed seasonal cycle is 3 times greater than both that expected from the annual sublimation and freezing of polar carbon dioxide and that expected from methane production from ultraviolet (UV) degradation of exogenously-delivered surface material. The observed large seasonal variation in the background, and sporadic observations of higher pulses of 7 ppbv appear consistent with localized small sources of methane release from Martian surface reservoirs that may be occurring throughout the planet. We will present our updated data set, correlations of Mars methane with various other measurements from SAM, REMS, RAD and ChemCam instruments on Curiosity, as well as empirical models of UV surface insolation, and provide preliminary interpretation of results. 1 "Mars Methane Detection and Variability at Gale Crater", C. R. Webster et al., Science, 347, 415-417 (2015) and references therein. The research described here was carried out in part at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with the

  20. Comprehensive monitoring system - essential tool to show the results of the energy audit and voluntary agreement programmes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    Without visible results political support to an energy efficiency programme will dissolve in a few years. Therefore high-quality monitoring and reporting systems are essential to maintain a long-term commitment. Both in Finnish Energy Audit Programme (EAP), began in 1992, and in Voluntary Agreement Scheme (VA), began in 1997, bottom-up monitoring systems have been in place almost since the beginning. These policy measures and their monitoring systems are integrated. For the EAP monitoring system data is collected in three phases: subsidies granted; the energy auditing volumes in different sectors submitted EA reports; proposed measures and saving potentials. VA annual reporting; status of implementation of the proposed measures in EA reports and implementing rate for saving potentials. In VA scheme the companies and communities report annually on their energy consumption and on energy efficiency measures they have implemented or have decided to implement. Information on energy savings in energy units and energy costs as well as the required investment is reported in connection to the presented measures. The collected data is based on engineering calculations by the energy auditors. Since the companies have no incentives to submit exaggerated savings, the reported savings are equal to those figures the companies have used as criteria when deciding on the implementation of the measures. By 2005 these two policy measures have generated about 7 TWh annual savings, representing over 2 % of Finland's total energy end-use. In relation to the magnitude of savings brought in daylight, the investment on monitoring has really paid back.

  1. Balance ability of 7 and 10 year old children in the population: results from a large UK birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphriss, Rachel; Hall, Amanda; May, Margaret; Macleod, John

    2011-01-01

    The literature contains many reports of balance function in children, but these are often on atypical samples taken from hospital-based clinics and may not be generalisable to the population as a whole. The purpose of the present study is to describe balance test results from a large UK-based birth cohort study. Data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) were analysed. A total of 5402 children completed the heel-to-toe walking test at age 7 years. At age 10 years, 6915 children underwent clinical tests of balance including beam-walking, standing heel-to-toe on a beam and standing on one leg. A proportion of the children returned to the clinic for retesting within 3 months allowing test-retest agreement to be measured. Frequency distributions for each of the balance tests are given. Correlations between measures of dynamic balance at ages 7 and 10 years were weak. The static balance of 10 year old children was found to be poorer with eyes closed than with eyes open, and poorer in boys than in girls for all measures. Balance on one leg was poorer than heel-to-toe balance on a beam. A significant learning effect was found when first and second attempts of the tests were compared. Measures of static and dynamic balance appeared independent. Consistent with previous reports in the literature, test-retest reliability was found to be low. This study provides information about the balance ability of children aged 7 and 10 years and provides clinicians with reference data for balance tests commonly used in the paediatric clinic. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The measurement of enhancement in mathematical abilities as a result of joint cognitive trainings in numerical and visual- spatial skills: A preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agus, M; Mascia, M L; Fastame, M C; Melis, V; Pilloni, M C; Penna, M P

    2015-01-01

    A body of literature shows the significant role of visual-spatial skills played in the improvement of mathematical skills in the primary school. The main goal of the current study was to investigate the impact of a combined visuo-spatial and mathematical training on the improvement of mathematical skills in 146 second graders of several schools located in Italy. Participants were presented single pencil-and-paper visuo-spatial or mathematical trainings, computerised version of the above mentioned treatments, as well as a combined version of computer-assisted and pencil-and-paper visuo-spatial and mathematical trainings, respectively. Experimental groups were presented with training for 3 months, once a week. All children were treated collectively both in computer-assisted or pencil-and-paper modalities. At pre and post-test all our participants were presented with a battery of objective tests assessing numerical and visuo-spatial abilities. Our results suggest the positive effect of different types of training for the empowerment of visuo-spatial and numerical abilities. Specifically, the combination of computerised and pencil-and-paper versions of visuo-spatial and mathematical trainings are more effective than the single execution of the software or of the pencil-and-paper treatment

  3. The measurement of enhancement in mathematical abilities as a result of joint cognitive trainings in numerical and visual- spatial skills: A preliminary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agus, M.; Mascia, M. L.; Fastame, M. C.; Melis, V.; Pilloni, M. C.; Penna, M. P.

    2015-02-01

    A body of literature shows the significant role of visual-spatial skills played in the improvement of mathematical skills in the primary school. The main goal of the current study was to investigate the impact of a combined visuo-spatial and mathematical training on the improvement of mathematical skills in 146 second graders of several schools located in Italy. Participants were presented single pencil-and-paper visuo-spatial or mathematical trainings, computerised version of the above mentioned treatments, as well as a combined version of computer-assisted and pencil-and-paper visuo-spatial and mathematical trainings, respectively. Experimental groups were presented with training for 3 months, once a week. All children were treated collectively both in computer-assisted or pencil-and-paper modalities. At pre and post-test all our participants were presented with a battery of objective tests assessing numerical and visuo-spatial abilities. Our results suggest the positive effect of different types of training for the empowerment of visuo-spatial and numerical abilities. Specifically, the combination of computerised and pencil-and-paper versions of visuo-spatial and mathematical trainings are more effective than the single execution of the software or of the pencil-and-paper treatment.

  4. Measuring Creative Imagery Abilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota M. Jankowska

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Over the decades, creativity and imagination research developed in parallel, but they surprisingly rarely intersected. This paper introduces a new theoretical model of creative imagination, which bridges creativity and imagination research, as well as presents a new psychometric instrument, called the Test of Creative Imagery Abilities (TCIA, developed to measure creative imagery abilities understood in accordance with this model. Creative imagination is understood as constituted by three interrelated components: vividness (the ability to create images characterized by a high level of complexity and detail, originality (the ability to produce unique imagery, and transformativeness (the ability to control imagery. TCIA enables valid and reliable measurement of these three groups of abilities, yielding the general score of imagery abilities and at the same time making profile analysis possible. We present the results of eight studies on a total sample of more than 1,700 participants, showing the factor structure of TCIA using confirmatory factor analysis, as well as provide data confirming this instrument’s validity and reliability. The availability of TCIA for interested researchers may result in new insights and possibilities of integrating the fields of creativity and imagination science.

  5. Studying the ability to use basalt in preparing radiation shielding concrete and the properties of the resulted concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alhajali, S.; Yousef, S.; Kanbour, M.; Naoum, B.

    2010-12-01

    Basalt is widespread rocks in the lands of Syria. This kind of rocks has high density relatively, high insulation properties and, mechanical and heat resistance. In this work several kinds of basalt rocks, which were collected from several sites, were studied. The analyses which were done, shows that the basalt rocks collected from Shahba, Nba'a Al-Sakhr and Almana'a mountain are suitable for high efficient gamma radiation shielding, but with low efficiency for neutron shielding, especially for thermal and epithermal neutrons. (author)

  6. Gelling ability of kefiran in the presence of sucrose and fructose and physicochemical characterization of the resulting cryogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavala, Lucía; Roberti, Paula; Piermaria, Judith A; Abraham, Analía G

    2015-08-01

    In this work, the influence of sucrose and fructose on the gel-forming capacity of kefiran was investigated as well as the physicochemical characteristics of the resulting gels. The addition of sugar to gel-forming solutions did not alter the pseudoplastic flow properties of kefiran solutions and after one freeze-thaw cycle translucent gels with high water-holding capability were obtained. A highly porous matrix was revealed by microscopy whose pore size varied with sugar concentration. Sucrose and fructose had different effects on the rheological characteristics of sugar-kefiran gels. An increment in the strength of the gels with progressive concentrations of sucrose was evidenced by an increase in the elastic modulus (G'), indicating that sucrose reinforces the binding interactions between the polymer molecules (p ≤ 0.05). A drastic reduction in elastic modulus occurred, however, when 50.0 % w/w sucrose was added to kefiran gels, resulting in less elasticity. In contrast, when fructose was added to kefiran gels, elastic modulus decreased slightly with progressive sugar concentrations up to 10 %, thereafter increasing up to 50 % (p ≤ 0.05). Supplementation with up to 30 % sugar contributed to water retention and increased the viscous modulus. The relative increment in the elastic and viscous moduli elevated the loss tangent (tanδ) depending on the type and concentration of sugar. Sugars (sucrose, fructose) present in the matrix of the polysaccharide networks modified water-polymer and polymer-polymer interactions and consequently changed the gels' physicochemical characteristics, thus allowing the possibility of selecting the appropriate formulation through tailor-made kefiran cryogels.

  7. Training Lymnaea in the presence of a predator scent results in a long-lasting ability to form enhanced long-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forest, Jeremy; Sunada, Hiroshi; Dodd, Shawn; Lukowiak, Ken

    2016-06-01

    Lymnaea exposed to crayfish effluent (CE) gain an enhanced ability to form long-term memory (LTM). We test the hypothesis that a single CE exposure and operant conditioning training leads to long lasting changes in the capability of snails to form LTM when tested in pond water four weeks later. We trained both juvenile and adult snails with a single 0.5 h training session in CE and show that LTM was present 24 h later. Snails trained in a similar manner in just pond water show no LTM. We then asked if such training in CE conferred enhanced memory forming capabilities on these snails four weeks later. That is, would LTM be formed in these snails four weeks later following a single 0.5 h training session in pond water? We found that both adult and juvenile snails previously trained in CE one month previously had enhanced LTM formation abilities. The injection of a DNA methylation blocker, 5-AZA, prior to training in adult snails blocked enhanced LTM formation four weeks later. Finally, this enhanced LTM forming ability was not passed on to the next generation of snails.

  8. Associations between functional ability and life satisfaction in the oldest old: results from the longitudinal population study Good Aging in Skåne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enkvist Å

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Åsa Enkvist, Henrik Ekström, Sölve ElmståhlDepartment of Health Sciences, Lund University, Malmö University Hospital, Malmö, SwedenObjectives: To describe change in functional ability in the oldest-old population during 3 years and examine its relation to life satisfaction (LS. A total of 681 individuals aged 78 and older from the population-based study Good Aging in Skåne took part.Methods: Functional ability was assessed using Sonn and Åsberg's Activities of Daily Living (ADL scale and related to LS assessed by Neugarten et al's Life Satisfaction Index A (LSI-A.Results: Fifty-one percent of 87–93-year-olds reported ADL decline during 3 years. Individuals reporting impaired ADL had a mean LSI-A value of 23.0 compared to 26.4 in those unchanged. ADL decline had a stronger negative effect on LS in the younger group (78–84 years, r = 0.207, P < 0.001. In a multiple regression model, one score's decline in ADL capacity corresponded to 1.5 scores lower LS (P < 0.001.Discussion: Effort put into keeping the oldest old on a high level of functional ability has the potential to maintain the LS of this population.Keywords: life satisfaction, functional ability, longitudinal, oldest old

  9. PREDICTIVE CONTRIBUTION OF MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS AND MOTOR ABILITIES ON THE RESULT OF RUNNING THE 60m HURDLES IN BOYS AGED 12 - 13 YEARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zana Bujak

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this study is to determine predictive contributions of morphological characteristics and motor abilities on the 60m hurdles, with an aim to form a group of easily applicable field tests so as to identify boys who are talented in hurdl e racing . The subject sample of this study was comprised of 60 boys aged 12 - 13. The variable sample consisted of a 60m hurdles criterion variable and a set of 13 p re dictor variables comprising of morphological characteristics, speed - strength abilities and the subjects' coordina tion qualities . Applying the regression analysis , the predictive contribution of a complete variable s et of morpholog ical characteristics and motor abilities was determined as an above average statistical significance, influencing 60m hurdle outcome. The greatest individual statistically significant predictive contribution was achieved by the variables of speed - strength quality assessment: 20m flying start r ace result with a standing long jump; and only one variable from the field of morphological characteristics: the shin length. The results support the following conclusion: the two specific variables of speed - strength quality, and 20m flying start race results along with standing long jump , can be relevant predictors of successful outcome in hurdle races .

  10. “INFLUENCE OF BASIC MOTOR ABILITIES AND CONOTIVE CRITERION ON RESULTS OF SUCCESS IN SOME SPORTS GAMES FOR STUDENTS OF TEACHING SCHOOL”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Midhat Mekić

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Upon the results of research it is possible to conclude that high level of influence of basic motor abilities and conotive criterion for successive results of sports games. Dominative predictions of values had conatice characteristic (A1,L17 and one test for judgment of explosiveness of lower extremities. For above mentioned results of this research, first of all, main values of defining hypothesis for further research, as well as promotion of education-teaching process of sports games in high schools.

  11. Transgene silencing of the Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome mutation results in a reversible bone phenotype, whereas resveratrol treatment does not show overall beneficial effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strandgren, Charlotte; Nasser, Hasina Abdul; McKenna, Tomás

    2015-01-01

    model to study the possibility of recovering from HGPS bone disease upon silencing of the HGPS mutation, and the potential benefits from treatment with resveratrol. We show that complete silencing of the transgenic expression of progerin normalized bone morphology and mineralization already after 7...... weeks. The improvements included lower frequencies of rib fractures and callus formation, an increased number of osteocytes in remodeled bone, and normalized dentinogenesis. The beneficial effects from resveratrol treatment were less significant and to a large extent similar to mice treated with sucrose...... alone. However, the reversal of the dental phenotype of overgrown and laterally displaced lower incisors in HGPS mice could be attributed to resveratrol. Our results indicate that the HGPS bone defects were reversible upon suppressed transgenic expression and suggest that treatments targeting aberrant...

  12. Associations between cognitive abilities and life satisfaction in the oldest-old. Results from the longitudinal population study Good Aging in Skåne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enkvist Å

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Åsa Enkvist, Henrik Ekström, Sölve Elmståhl Department of Health Sciences, Division of Geriatric Medicine, Lund University, Skåne University Hospital, Malmö, Sweden Introduction: Studies on the associations between cognitive abilities and life satisfaction (LS in the oldest-old are few. The aim of this study was to explore whether abilities in six different cognitive domains could predict LS in the oldest-old 3 years later. Methods: The study population consisted of 681 individuals aged 78–98 years, drawn from the longitudinal population study “Good Aging in Skåne,” which is part of a national survey (The Swedish National Study on Aging and Care. Scores on 13 cognitive tests were related to scores on Neugartens’ LS index A (LSI-A 3 years later. The cognitive tests were added into six different cognitive domains. A multiple regression analysis was constructed for each cognitive domain separately, with scores on the LSI-A as the dependent variable. The model was adjusted stepwise for sex, age, education, functional capacity, and depressive mood. Results: Significant correlations were found between digit cancellation, word recall, verbal fluency (VF A, VF animals, VF occupations, and mental rotations at baseline, as well as LSI-A at follow-up. The domains of spatial abilities (B = 0.453, P = 0.014 and processing speed (B = 0.118, P = 0.020 remained significantly associated with LSI-A 3 years later after adjustment. Conclusion: The cognitive domains of spatial abilities and processing speed predicted LS 3 years later in the oldest-old. Clinical implications are discussed. Keywords: oldest-old, life satisfaction, longitudinal, crystallized and fluid intelligence, cognition

  13. Prospects of an alternative treatment against Trypanosoma cruzi based on abietic acid derivatives show promising results in Balb/c mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmo, F; Guardia, J J; Marin, C; Messouri, I; Rosales, M J; Urbanová, K; Chayboun, I; Chahboun, R; Alvarez-Manzaneda, E J; Sánchez-Moreno, M

    2015-01-07

    Chagas disease, caused by the protozoa parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, is an example of extended parasitaemia with unmet medical needs. Current treatments based on old-featured benznidazole (Bz) and nifurtimox are expensive and do not fulfil the criteria of effectiveness, and a lack of toxicity devoid to modern drugs. In this work, a group of abietic acid derivatives that are chemically stable and well characterised were introduced as candidates for the treatment of Chagas disease. In vitro and in vivo assays were performed in order to test the effectiveness of these compounds. Finally, those which showed the best activity underwent additional studies in order to elucidate the possible mechanism of action. In vitro results indicated that some compounds have low toxicity (i.e. >150 μM, against Vero cell) combined with high efficacy (i.e. <20 μM) against some forms of T. cruzi. Further in vivo studies on mice models confirmed the expectations of improvements in infected mice. In vivo tests on the acute phase gave parasitaemia inhibition values higher those of Bz, and a remarkable decrease in the reactivation of parasitaemia was found in the chronic phase after immunosuppression of the mice treated with one of the compounds. The morphological alterations found in treated parasites with our derivatives confirmed extensive damage; energetic metabolism disturbances were also registered by (1)H NMR. The demonstrated in vivo activity and low toxicity, together with the use of affordable starting products and the lack of synthetic complexity, put these abietic acid derivatives in a remarkable position toward the development of an anti-Chagasic agent. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Rapamycin and chloroquine: the in vitro and in vivo effects of autophagy-modifying drugs show promising results in valosin containing protein multisystem proteinopathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angèle Nalbandian

    Full Text Available Mutations in the valosin containing protein (VCP gene cause hereditary Inclusion body myopathy (hIBM associated with Paget disease of bone (PDB, frontotemporal dementia (FTD, more recently termed multisystem proteinopathy (MSP. Affected individuals exhibit scapular winging and die from progressive muscle weakness, and cardiac and respiratory failure, typically in their 40s to 50s. Histologically, patients show the presence of rimmed vacuoles and TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43-positive large ubiquitinated inclusion bodies in the muscles. We have generated a VCPR155H/+ mouse model which recapitulates the disease phenotype and impaired autophagy typically observed in patients with VCP disease. Autophagy-modifying agents, such as rapamycin and chloroquine, at pharmacological doses have previously shown to alter the autophagic flux. Herein, we report results of administration of rapamycin, a specific inhibitor of the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR signaling pathway, and chloroquine, a lysosomal inhibitor which reverses autophagy by accumulating in lysosomes, responsible for blocking autophagy in 20-month old VCPR155H/+ mice. Rapamycin-treated mice demonstrated significant improvement in muscle performance, quadriceps histological analysis, and rescue of ubiquitin, and TDP-43 pathology and defective autophagy as indicated by decreased protein expression levels of LC3-I/II, p62/SQSTM1, optineurin and inhibiting the mTORC1 substrates. Conversely, chloroquine-treated VCPR155H/+ mice revealed progressive muscle weakness, cytoplasmic accumulation of TDP-43, ubiquitin-positive inclusion bodies and increased LC3-I/II, p62/SQSTM1, and optineurin expression levels. Our in vitro patient myoblasts studies treated with rapamycin demonstrated an overall improvement in the autophagy markers. Targeting the mTOR pathway ameliorates an increasing list of disorders, and these findings suggest that VCP disease and related neurodegenerative multisystem

  15. Impact of Cognitive Abilities and Prior Knowledge on Complex Problem Solving Performance – Empirical Results and a Plea for Ecologically Valid Microworlds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinz-Martin Süß

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The original aim of complex problem solving (CPS research was to bring the cognitive demands of complex real-life problems into the lab in order to investigate problem solving behavior and performance under controlled conditions. Up until now, the validity of psychometric intelligence constructs has been scrutinized with regard to its importance for CPS performance. At the same time, different CPS measurement approaches competing for the title of the best way to assess CPS have been developed. In the first part of the paper, we investigate the predictability of CPS performance on the basis of the Berlin Intelligence Structure Model and Cattell’s investment theory as well as an elaborated knowledge taxonomy. In the first study, 137 students managed a simulated shirt factory (Tailorshop; i.e., a complex real life-oriented system twice, while in the second study, 152 students completed a forestry scenario (FSYS; i.e., a complex artificial world system. The results indicate that reasoning – specifically numerical reasoning (Studies 1 and 2 and figural reasoning (Study 2 – are the only relevant predictors among the intelligence constructs. We discuss the results with reference to the Brunswik symmetry principle. Path models suggest that reasoning and prior knowledge influence problem solving performance in the Tailorshop scenario mainly indirectly. In addition, different types of system-specific knowledge independently contribute to predicting CPS performance. The results of Study 2 indicate that working memory capacity, assessed as an additional predictor, has no incremental validity beyond reasoning. We conclude that (1 cognitive abilities and prior knowledge are substantial predictors of CPS performance, and (2 in contrast to former and recent interpretations, there is insufficient evidence to consider CPS a unique ability construct. In the second part of the paper, we discuss our results in light of recent CPS research, which predominantly

  16. Impact of Cognitive Abilities and Prior Knowledge on Complex Problem Solving Performance – Empirical Results and a Plea for Ecologically Valid Microworlds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Süß, Heinz-Martin; Kretzschmar, André

    2018-01-01

    The original aim of complex problem solving (CPS) research was to bring the cognitive demands of complex real-life problems into the lab in order to investigate problem solving behavior and performance under controlled conditions. Up until now, the validity of psychometric intelligence constructs has been scrutinized with regard to its importance for CPS performance. At the same time, different CPS measurement approaches competing for the title of the best way to assess CPS have been developed. In the first part of the paper, we investigate the predictability of CPS performance on the basis of the Berlin Intelligence Structure Model and Cattell’s investment theory as well as an elaborated knowledge taxonomy. In the first study, 137 students managed a simulated shirt factory (Tailorshop; i.e., a complex real life-oriented system) twice, while in the second study, 152 students completed a forestry scenario (FSYS; i.e., a complex artificial world system). The results indicate that reasoning – specifically numerical reasoning (Studies 1 and 2) and figural reasoning (Study 2) – are the only relevant predictors among the intelligence constructs. We discuss the results with reference to the Brunswik symmetry principle. Path models suggest that reasoning and prior knowledge influence problem solving performance in the Tailorshop scenario mainly indirectly. In addition, different types of system-specific knowledge independently contribute to predicting CPS performance. The results of Study 2 indicate that working memory capacity, assessed as an additional predictor, has no incremental validity beyond reasoning. We conclude that (1) cognitive abilities and prior knowledge are substantial predictors of CPS performance, and (2) in contrast to former and recent interpretations, there is insufficient evidence to consider CPS a unique ability construct. In the second part of the paper, we discuss our results in light of recent CPS research, which predominantly utilizes the

  17. THE LEARNING RESULT DIFFERENCE OF STUDENT TEACH BY USING ENHANCEMENT LEARNING MODEL OF STUDENT’S THINKING ABILITY WITH CONVENSIONAL MODEL FOR FORCE AND NEWTON LAWS MATERIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derlina .

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This research was done to observe the difference of learning achievement between student who have been teach by Enhancement Learning Model of Student’s Thinking Ability and Conventional Model. This research was done at SMP Negeri 2 Gebang. Type of this research is quasi experiment. Research population is every student of grade VIII semester 2 SMP Negeri 2 Gebang. Research sample was taken by random sampling around 2 classes as 34 students for experiment class and 34 students for control class. Learning achievement of test objective 20 of multiple choice was done as an instrument. The experiment result of pretest average is 37.94 for experiment class and 36.82 for control class. Treatment was done to each class, post test average score is 73.38 for experiment class and for student who have been teach by conventional learning is 67.05. Hypothetical testing is tcalculate > ttabe i.e 3.459 > 1.66 with significance standard α = 0.05 and dk = 66. It means that Ha was accepted, so it may conclude that there is a difference of learning achievement between Enhancement Learning Model of Student’s Thinking Ability with Conventional Learning Model for Force and Newton Laws on Grade VIII SMP Negeri 2 Gebang Annual Year 2011/2012.

  18. Storytelling Slide Shows to Improve Diabetes and High Blood Pressure Knowledge and Self-Efficacy: Three-Year Results among Community Dwelling Older African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertera, Elizabeth M.

    2014-01-01

    This study combined the African American tradition of oral storytelling with the Hispanic medium of "Fotonovelas." A staggered pretest posttest control group design was used to evaluate four Storytelling Slide Shows on health that featured community members. A total of 212 participants were recruited for the intervention and 217 for the…

  19. Video Game Players Show More Precise Multisensory Temporal Processing Abilities

    OpenAIRE

    Donohue, Sarah E.; Woldorff, Marty G.; Mitroff, Stephen R.

    2010-01-01

    Recent research has demonstrated enhanced visual attention and visual perception in individuals with extensive experience playing action video games. These benefits manifest in several realms, but much remains unknown about the ways in which video game experience alters perception and cognition. The current study examined whether video game players’ benefits generalize beyond vision to multisensory processing by presenting video game players and non-video game players auditory and visual stim...

  20. The skeletal trauma resulting from a fatal B.A.S.E jump: A case study showing the impact of landing feet-first under extreme vertical deceleration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowbotham, Samantha K; Blau, Soren; Hislop-Jambrich, Jacqueline

    2018-05-01

    The term 'B.A.S.E jump' refers to jumping from a building, antenna, span (i.e., bridge) or earth (i.e., cliff) structure, and parachuting to the ground. There are numerous hazards associated with B.A.S.E jumps which often result in injury and, occasionally, fatality. This case report details the skeletal trauma resulting from a fatal B.A.S.E jump in Australia. In this case, the jumper impacted the ground from a fall of 439m in a feet-first landing position, as a result of a partially deployed parachute, under extreme vertical deceleration. Skeletal trauma was analyzed using full-body post mortem computed tomography (PMCT) and contextual information related to the circumstances of the jump as reported by the Coroner. Trauma to 61 skeletal elements indicates the primary impact was to the feet (i.e., feet-first landing), followed by an anterior impact to the body (i.e., fall forwards). Details of the individual fracture morphologies indicate the various forces and biomechanics involved in this fall event. This case presents the types of fractures that result from a B.A.S.E jump, and highlights the value of using PMCT and coronial data as tools to augment skeletal trauma interpretations. Crown Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Showing results? An analysis of the perceptions of internal and external stakeholders of the public performance communication by the Belgian and Dutch Railways

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gelders, Dave; Galetzka, Mirjam; Verckens, Jan Pieter; Seydel, E.R.

    2008-01-01

    Information Quarterly, 15: 153–156). In Belgium and the Netherlands, one Performance measurement and communicating about it with the broader public is not self-evident if one looks at public services organizations (Hernon, 1998 P. Hernon, The government performance and results act. Government

  2. Cells exposed to a huntingtin fragment containing an expanded polyglutamine tract show no sign of ion channel formation: results arguing against the ion channel hypothesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørremølle, Anne; Grunnet, Morten; Hasholt, Lis

    2003-01-01

    Ion channels formed by expanded polyglutamine tracts have been proposed to play an important role in the pathological processes leading to neurodegeneration in Huntington's disease and other CAG repeat diseases. We tested the capacity of a huntingtin fragment containing an expanded polyglutamine...... in the currents recorded in any of the two expression systems, indicating no changes in ion channel activity. The results therefore argue against the proposed hypothesis of expanded polyglutamines forming ion channels....

  3. How often do German children and adolescents show signs of common mental health problems? Results from different methodological approaches – a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Sauer, Kristin; Barkmann, Claus; Klasen, Fionna; Bullinger, Monika; Glaeske, Gerd; Ravens-Sieberer, Ulrike

    2014-01-01

    Background Child and adolescent mental health problems are ubiquitous and burdensome. Their impact on functional disability, the high rates of accompanying medical illnesses and the potential to last until adulthood make them a major public health issue. While methodological factors cause variability of the results from epidemiological studies, there is a lack of prevalence rates of mental health problems in children and adolescents according to ICD-10 criteria from nationally representative ...

  4. Empty polyetheretherketone (PEEK) cages in anterior cervical diskectomy and fusion (ACDF) show slow radiographic fusion that reduces clinical improvement: results from the prospective multicenter "PIERCE-PEEK" study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suess, Olaf; Schomaker, Martin; Cabraja, Mario; Danne, Marco; Kombos, Theodoros; Hanna, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Anterior cervical diskectomy and fusion (ACDF) is a well-established surgical treatment for radiculopathy and myelopathy. Previous studies showed that empty PEEK cages have lower radiographic fusion rates, but the clinical relevance remains unclear. This paper's aim is to provide high-quality evidence on the outcomes of ACDF with empty PEEK cages and on the relevance of radiographic fusion for clinical outcomes. This large prospective multicenter clinical trial performed single-level ACDF with empty PEEK cages on patients with cervical radiculopathy or myelopathy. The main clinical outcomes were VAS (0-10) for pain and NDI (0-100) for functioning. Radiographic fusion was evaluated by two investigators for three different aspects. The median (range) improvement of the VAS pain score was: 3 (1-6) at 6 months, 3 (2-8) at 12 months, and 4 (2-8) at 18 months. The median (range) improvement of the NDI score was: 12 (2-34) at 6 months, 18 (4-46) at 12 months, and 22 (2-44) at 18 months. Complete radiographic fusion was reached by 126 patients (43%) at 6 months, 214 patients (73%) at 12 months, and 241 patients (83%) at 18 months. Radiographic fusion was a highly significant ( p  PEEK cages is slow and insufficient. Lack of complete radiographic fusion leads to less improvement of pain and disability. We recommend against using empty uncoated pure PEEK cages in ACDF. ISRCTN42774128. Retrospectively registered 14 April 2009.

  5. [First results of a German second opinion program show high patient satisfaction and large discrepancies between initial therapy recommendations and second opinion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weyerstraß, Jan; Prediger, Barbara; Neugebauer, Edmund; Pieper, Dawid

    2018-02-23

    Although legally anchored, there are no empirical results from German second opinion programs. In this study, various aspects within a population of a second opinion program are examined. In this study patients were analyzed who sought a second opinion in the period from August 2011 to December 2016. Differences in patient characteristics, differentiated by agreement of first and second opinion, were analyzed using multivariate logistic regression. Patients' satisfaction and quality of life were examined one, three and six months after obtaining the second opinion. In total, 1,414 patients sought a second opinion. Most frequent medical indications were the knee (38.7 %), the back (26.8 %), the hip (11.7 %), and the shoulder (10.2 %). Except for the indication (p=0.035), no patient characteristic had influence on the conformation of the second opinion. Approximately two out of three initial recommendations were not confirmed by the specialists. 89 % of the patients were satisfied or very satisfied with the second opinion and the service offered. The second opinion offers patients the opportunity to seek an additional independent medical opinion and thus provide support for decision making. Further research is needed to examine the reasons for the high discrepancies between the first and second opinions. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  6. Discourse abilities in the structure of intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voronin A. N.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. This article is devoted to empirical research on discourse abilities within the structure of cognitive abilities. Discourse abilities, as well as linguistic abilities, are part of language abilities, but they are directly linked with discourse practices and a certain communicative situation. Discourse abilities allow a person to effectively initiate, keep, expand, and complete the process of communication, using language appropriate to any given situation. These abilities contribute to making communication more effective and achieving mutual understanding between partners, while at the same time they speed up the process of forming an interaction strategy. the empirical verification of the construct “discourse abilities,” and the design of original diagnostic tests on them, led us to differentiate linguistic and discourse abilities. Objective. However, it is not yet clear what place discourse abilities occupy in the structure of cognitive abilities. This is the primary goal of our research. Method. The design of the study involved group testing (in groups of 15-35 people using the following methods: a discourse abilities test; a short selection test; a social intelligence test, and short variations of Torrance’s and Mednick’s tests. In total, 208 people (133 women and 75 men, ages 17 to 21 years participated in the study, all of them either first year humanities students or high school students from Moscow. Results and Discussion. The research results revealed that discourse abilities relevantly correlate with the majority of indicators of general and social intelligence and creativity (except non-verbal intelligence. Discourse abilities as part of the structure of cognitive capabilities form a discrete factor, and include relevant components such as verbal and general intelligence and indicators of social intelligence, such as the ability to group expressions. Structures indicative of cognitive abilities varied within the

  7. Mental Rotation Ability and Computer Game Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gecu, Zeynep; Cagiltay, Kursat

    2015-01-01

    Computer games, which are currently very popular among students, can affect different cognitive abilities. The purpose of the present study is to examine undergraduate students' experiences and preferences in playing computer games as well as their mental rotation abilities. A total of 163 undergraduate students participated. The results showed a…

  8. The effectiveness of a construction worksite prevention program on work ability, health, and sick leave: Results from a cluster randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Hengel, K.M.; Blatter, B.M.; Molen, H.F. van der; Bongers, P.M.; Beek, A.J. van der

    2013-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of a prevention program on work ability, health, and sick leave targeted at construction worksites. Methods A total of 15 departments (N=297 workers) from 6 construction companies participated in this cluster randomized controlled trial and

  9. Prevention program at construction worksites aimed at improving health and work ability is cost-saving to the employer: Results from an RCT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Hengel, K.M.; Bosmans, J.E.; Dongen, J.M. van; Bongers, P.M.; Beek, A.J. van der; Blatter, B.M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: To prolong sustainable healthy working lives of construction workers, a prevention program was developed which aimed to improve the health and work ability of construction workers. The objective of this study was to analyze the cost-effectiveness and financial return from the employers'

  10. Which factors determine our quality of life, health and ability? Results from a Danish population sample and the Copenhagen perinatal cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventegodt, Søren; Flensborg-Madsen, Trine; Andersen, Niels Jørgen; Merrick, Joav

    2008-07-01

    To examine the statistical associations between Global Quality of Life (QOL) and a series of indicators representing health, ability, philosophy of life, sexuality, quality of working life and other medically relevant aspects of life. Cross-sectional comparative study using the self-administered SEQOL questionnaire. The Quality of Life Research Center, the University Hospital Copenhagen, Denmark. (1) A representative sample of 2,500 Danes (18-88 years) randomly selected from the CPR register, (2) Follow-up survey of members of the Copenhagen Perinatal Birth Cohort, 4,648 Danes (31-33 years). The associations were measured qualitatively as well as quantitatively calculating the difference in percentage and using the method of weight modified linear regression. QOL, measured by SEQOL (self-evaluation of quality of life), containing eight global QOL measures: well-being, life-satisfaction, happiness, fulfillment of needs, experience of temporal and spatial domains, expression of life's potentials and objective factors. Strongest was the association between QOL, overall view of life (41.5% / 59.1%), relationship to self (39.3% / 56.8%), partner (32.2% / 31.7%) and friends (33.3% / 42.7%). Different aspects of physical as well as psychological health were also strongly correlated with QOL: self-perceived physical health (33.2% /29.4%), satisfaction with own health (27.3% / 29.0%), self-perceived mental health (38.4/51.0), number of severe health problems (29.8% / 35.3%). Objective factors such as income, age, sex, weight and social group did not have any noteworthy relationship to QOL, and neither did lifestyle factors such as tobacco and alcohol consumption, drug use, exercise, and diet. It seems that the factors important for present QOL and health is derived from good relations, with the close as well as the distant world, and overall view of life. What one possesses in objective terms--money, status, work--does not seem to be important to global quality of life and

  11. Numerical ability predicts mortgage default.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerardi, Kristopher; Goette, Lorenz; Meier, Stephan

    2013-07-09

    Unprecedented levels of US subprime mortgage defaults precipitated a severe global financial crisis in late 2008, plunging much of the industrialized world into a deep recession. However, the fundamental reasons for why US mortgages defaulted at such spectacular rates remain largely unknown. This paper presents empirical evidence showing that the ability to perform basic mathematical calculations is negatively associated with the propensity to default on one's mortgage. We measure several aspects of financial literacy and cognitive ability in a survey of subprime mortgage borrowers who took out loans in 2006 and 2007, and match them to objective, detailed administrative data on mortgage characteristics and payment histories. The relationship between numerical ability and mortgage default is robust to controlling for a broad set of sociodemographic variables, and is not driven by other aspects of cognitive ability. We find no support for the hypothesis that numerical ability impacts mortgage outcomes through the choice of the mortgage contract. Rather, our results suggest that individuals with limited numerical ability default on their mortgage due to behavior unrelated to the initial choice of their mortgage.

  12. Numerical ability predicts mortgage default

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerardi, Kristopher; Goette, Lorenz; Meier, Stephan

    2013-01-01

    Unprecedented levels of US subprime mortgage defaults precipitated a severe global financial crisis in late 2008, plunging much of the industrialized world into a deep recession. However, the fundamental reasons for why US mortgages defaulted at such spectacular rates remain largely unknown. This paper presents empirical evidence showing that the ability to perform basic mathematical calculations is negatively associated with the propensity to default on one’s mortgage. We measure several aspects of financial literacy and cognitive ability in a survey of subprime mortgage borrowers who took out loans in 2006 and 2007, and match them to objective, detailed administrative data on mortgage characteristics and payment histories. The relationship between numerical ability and mortgage default is robust to controlling for a broad set of sociodemographic variables, and is not driven by other aspects of cognitive ability. We find no support for the hypothesis that numerical ability impacts mortgage outcomes through the choice of the mortgage contract. Rather, our results suggest that individuals with limited numerical ability default on their mortgage due to behavior unrelated to the initial choice of their mortgage. PMID:23798401

  13. Is the association between various emotion-regulation skills and mental health mediated by the ability to modify emotions? Results from two cross-sectional studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berking, Matthias; Poppe, Christine; Luhmann, Maike; Wupperman, Peggilee; Jaggi, Verena; Seifritz, Erich

    2012-09-01

    In order to clarify mechanisms underlying the association between emotion regulation and psychopathology, we tested whether the ability to modify negative emotions mediates the associations of other emotion-regulation skills with psychopathological symptoms in two studies. The first study included 151 college students; the second included 121 psychiatric inpatients. Bootstrapping-enhanced mediation analyses were utilized to assess associations between self-reports of emotion-regulation skills and psychopathology, as well as potential mediation effects. In both samples, the ability to modify emotions completely mediated the association between symptoms and skills for most skills, but not for the skill of accepting/tolerating negative emotions. Major limitations include the use of a cross-sectional design as well as exclusive use of self-report data. The ability to modify negative emotions may be the common pathway by which many emotion-regulation skills exert their influence on mental health; however, the skill of accepting/tolerating negative emotions may be beneficial to mental health regardless of whether or not it facilitates modification of emotions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Early Workplace Intervention to Improve the Work Ability of Employees with Musculoskeletal Disorders in a German University Hospital—Results of a Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Schwarze

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Health promotion is becoming increasingly important in work life. Healthcare workers seem to be at special risk, experiencing musculoskeletal disorders (MSD; their situation is strongly influenced by demographic changes. The aim of this study is to evaluate the feasibility and outcome of a worksite intervention. In a one-group pretest-posttest design, 118 employees of a hospital were recruited from 2010 to 2011. The raised parameters were satisfaction with the program, work ability (Work Ability Index, and sickness absence (provided by human resource management. Patient-reported questionnaire data was raised at baseline (t1 and after three months (t2. Sickness leave was evaluated in the period six months prior to and six months after the intervention. Means, frequencies, standardized effect sizes (SES, analysis of variance, and regression analysis were carried out. Participants were found to be highly satisfied. Work ability increased with moderate effects (SES = 0.34; p < 0.001 and prognosis of gainful employment (SES = −0.19; p ≤ 0.047 with small effects. Days of MSD-related sickness absence were reduced by 38.5% after six months. The worksite intervention program is transferable to a hospital setting and integration in occupational health management is recommended. The use of a control group is necessary to demonstrate the effectiveness.

  15. Company Policies on Working Hours and Night Work in Relation to Older Workers' Work Ability and Work Engagement: Results From a Dutch Longitudinal Study with 2 Year Follow-Up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meer, Laudry; Leijten, Fenna R M; Heuvel, Swenneke G; Ybema, Jan F; de Wind, Astrid; Burdorf, Alex; Geuskens, Goedele A

    2016-06-01

    Purpose To longitudinally investigate (1) whether lower work ability and work engagement predict the use of company policies on reduced working hours and exemption from evening/night work among older workers, and (2) whether using such policies subsequently contribute to higher work ability and work engagement. Methods In total 6922 employees (45-64 years) participating in the first three waves of the Study on Transitions in Employment, Ability and Motivation were included. Participants yearly filled out an online questionnaires. Regression analyses were applied to study the influence of baseline work ability and work engagement on the incident use of policies during the first year of follow-up, and the incident use of these policies on work ability and work engagement during the second year of follow-up. Results Employees with a higher work ability were less likely to start using the policy 'reduced working hours' [OR 0.91 (95 % CI 0.83-0.98)]. Starting to use this policy was in turn related to lower work ability 1 year later [B -0.28 (95 % CI -0.47 to -0.08)]. Starting to use the policy 'exemption from evening/night work' was related to higher work engagement 1 year later [B 0.23 (95 % CI 0.07-0.39)]. Conclusions Low work ability precedes the use of some company policies aiming to support sustainable employability of older workers. Further research is needed to explore whether company policies result in a (longstanding) improvement, or reduced deterioration, of older workers' employability.

  16. Differential associations between dual-task walking abilities and usual gait patterns in healthy older adults-Results from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Seung-Uk; Jerome, Gerald J; Simonsick, Eleanor M; Studenski, Stephanie; Hausdorff, Jeffrey M; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2018-04-27

    It is well established that facing a cognitive challenge while carrying out a motor task interferes with the motor task performance, and in general the ability of handling a dual-task declines progressively with aging. However, the reasons for this decline have not been fully elucidated. Understanding the association between usual-walking gait patterns and dual-task walking performance may provide new insights into the mechanisms that lead to gait deterioration in normal aging and its link to motor and cognitive function. Our aim was to assess usual gait parameters in kinematics and kinetics to understand how these parameters are related with a specific task in dual-task walking. We hypothesized that difficulty in dual-task walking would be associated with gait deteriorations as reflected in range of motion and mechanical work expenditure. We tested this hypothesis by quantifying the gait of 383 participants in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (68% of whom successfully completed the dual-task walk, 21% failed the motor task, and 11% failed the cognitive task). Compared to successful performers, participants who failed the single motor task had slower gait speed, shorter stride length, higher cadence, and lower range of motion in the knee and ankle joints (p task while walking had longer double support time (p = 0.003), and greater knee absorptive mechanical work (p = 0. 001) and lower ankle generative mechanical work (p task walking may be useful for monitoring subtle and diverse gait deteriorations in aging and possibly for designing interventions for maintaining and regaining proper gait patterns in older adults. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salabura Piotr

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available HADES experiment at GSI is the only high precision experiment probing nuclear matter in the beam energy range of a few AGeV. Pion, proton and ion beams are used to study rare dielectron and strangeness probes to diagnose properties of strongly interacting matter in this energy regime. Selected results from p + A and A + A collisions are presented and discussed.

  18. Priming Ability Emotional Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutte, Nicola S.; Malouff, John M.

    2012-01-01

    Two studies examined whether priming self-schemas relating to successful emotional competency results in better emotional intelligence performance. In the first study participants were randomly assigned to a successful emotional competency self-schema prime condition or a control condition and then completed an ability measure of emotional…

  19. IMPROVEMENT OF GRAPH INTERPRETATION ABILITY USING HYPERTEXT-ASSISTED KINEMATIC LEARNING AND FORMAL THINKING ABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. R. Manurung

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of hypertext media in improving graph interpretation ability is investigated in this paper. In addition, joint ability of the formal thinking to improve the graph ability of prospective students is considered. The research design used is the one-group pretest-posttest experimental design is carried out in the research by taking 36 students on from Physics Education Program in one institute for teacher education in Medan. The test consists of graph interpretation ability test in the topic of kinematics and Test of Logical Thinking (TOLT or formal thinking before learning and graph interpretation ability test after learning. The data are then analysed by using SPSS based two ways Analisys of Variance (ANOVA method. The results show that the ability to interpretate graph is significantly improved by using hypertext media assisted kinematic learning.

  20. Videogame interventions and spatial ability interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas S. Redick

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Numerous research studies have been conducted on the use of videogames as tools to improve one’s cognitive abilities. While meta-analyses and qualitative reviews have provided evidence that some aspects of cognition such as spatial imagery are modified after exposure to videogames, other evidence has shown that matrix reasoning measures of fluid intelligence do not show evidence of transfer from videogame training. In the current work, we investigate the available evidence for transfer specifically to nonverbal intelligence and spatial ability measures, given recent research that these abilities may be most sensitive to training on cognitive and working memory tasks. Accordingly, we highlight a few studies that on the surface provide evidence for transfer to spatial abilities, but a closer look at the pattern of data does not reveal a clean interpretation of the results. We discuss the implications of these results in relation to research design and statistical analysis practices.

  1. Videogame interventions and spatial ability interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redick, Thomas S; Webster, Sean B

    2014-01-01

    Numerous research studies have been conducted on the use of videogames as tools to improve one's cognitive abilities. While meta-analyses and qualitative reviews have provided evidence that some aspects of cognition such as spatial imagery are modified after exposure to videogames, other evidence has shown that matrix reasoning measures of fluid intelligence do not show evidence of transfer from videogame training. In the current work, we investigate the available evidence for transfer specifically to nonverbal intelligence and spatial ability measures, given recent research that these abilities may be most sensitive to training on cognitive and working memory tasks. Accordingly, we highlight a few studies that on the surface provide evidence for transfer to spatial abilities, but a closer look at the pattern of data does not reveal a clean interpretation of the results. We discuss the implications of these results in relation to research design and statistical analysis practices.

  2. Changes of the level of high-speed and power abilities of beach handball players of 14–15 years old as a result of the specially selective exercises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Biykova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to determine changes of the level of high-speed and power abilities of beach handball players of 14–15 years old under the influence of the specially selective sets of exercises. Material and Methods: test exercises, one of which is recommended by the training program of CYSS of beach handball, two others were created proceeding from the content of the game activity in beach handball, the analysis of scientific and methodical literature, pedagogical testing, pedagogical experiment, methods of mathematical information processing were used for the definition of the level of development of high-speed and power abilities of beach handball players. Results: the analysis of scientific and methodical literature revealed gaps in questions of training of beach handball players, in particular in physical preparation. It moved us making the use of experience of the educational and training work in beach volleyball, to make sets of exercises, which are aimed at the development high-speed and power abilities of beach handball players. Conclusions: the positive reliable changes are received (t=2,19–2,32 at p≤0,05 of the level of high-speed and power abilities of players of 14-15 years old under the influence of the sets of exercises which are offered by us, allows us to recommend them for use in the educational and training process of beach handball players

  3. Show-Bix &

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The anti-reenactment 'Show-Bix &' consists of 5 dias projectors, a dial phone, quintophonic sound, and interactive elements. A responsive interface will enable the Dias projectors to show copies of original dias slides from the Show-Bix piece ”March på Stedet”, 265 images in total. The copies are...

  4. Showing Value (Editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Koufogiannakis

    2009-06-01

    librarians on student achievement. Todd notes, “If we do not show value, we will not have a future. Evidence-based practice is not about the survival of school librarians, it’s about the survival of our students” (40. In this issue we feature school libraries and their connection to evidence based practice. Former Editor-in-Chief, Lindsay Glynn, began putting the wheels in motion for this feature almost a year ago. She invited Carol Gordon and Ross Todd to act as guest editors of the section, drawing upon their contacts and previous work in this field. The result is an issue with five feature articles exploring different aspects of the connection between school libraries and evidence based practice, from the theoretical to the practical. In addition, there is a thought-provoking Commentary by David Loertscher, asking whether we need the evolutionary model of evidence based practice, or something more revolutionary!In addition to the Feature section, we have a well-rounded issue with articles on the topics of library human resources, and the development of a scholars’ portal. As well, there are a record 10 evidence summaries and our educational EBL101 column. I hope there is something for everyone in this issue of EBLIP – enjoy, and see you soon in Stockholm!

  5. Talking with TV shows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvik, Kjetil; Laursen, Ditte

    2014-01-01

    User interaction with radio and television programmes is not a new thing. However, with new cross-media production concepts such as X Factor and Voice, this is changing dramatically. The second-screen logic of these productions encourages viewers, along with TV’s traditional one-way communication...... mode, to communicate on interactive (dialogue-enabling) devices such as laptops, smartphones and tablets. Using the TV show Voice as our example, this article shows how the technological and situational set-up of the production invites viewers to engage in new ways of interaction and communication...

  6. Ultrasonography-guided core needle biopsy for the thyroid nodule: does the procedure hold any benefit for the diagnosis when fine-needle aspiration cytology analysis shows inconclusive results?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, S Y; Han, B-K; Ko, E Y; Ko, E S

    2013-01-01

    Objective: We evaluated the diagnostic role of ultrasonography-guided core needle biopsy (CNB) according to ultrasonography features of thyroid nodules that had inconclusive ultrasonography-guided fine-needle aspiration (FNA) results. Methods: A total of 88 thyroid nodules in 88 patients who underwent ultrasonography-guided CNB because of previous inconclusive FNA results were evaluated. The patients were classified into three groups based on ultrasonography findings: Group A, which was suspicious for papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC); Group B, which was suspicious for follicular (Hurthle cell) neoplasm; and Group C, which was suspicious for lymphoma. The final diagnoses of the thyroid nodules were determined by surgical confirmation or follow-up after ultrasonography-guided CNB. Results: Of the 88 nodules, the malignant rate was 49.1% in Group A, 12.0% in Group B and 90.0% in Group C. The rates of conclusive ultrasonography-guided CNB results after previous incomplete ultrasonography-guided FNA results were 96.2% in Group A, 64.0% in Group B and 90.0% in Group C (p=0.001). 12 cases with inconclusive ultrasonography-guided CNB results were finally diagnosed as 8 benign lesions, 3 PTCs and 1 lymphoma. The number of previous ultrasonography-guided FNA biopsies was not significantly different between the conclusive and the inconclusive result groups of ultrasonography-guided CNB (p=0.205). Conclusion: Ultrasonography-guided CNB has benefit for the diagnosis of thyroid nodules with inconclusive ultrasonography-guided FNA results. However, it is still not helpful for the differential diagnosis in 36% of nodules that are suspicious for follicular neoplasm seen on ultrasonography. Advances in knowledge: This study shows the diagnostic contribution of ultrasonography-guided CNB as an alternative to repeat ultrasonography-guided FNA or surgery. PMID:23564885

  7. Talk Show Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Mitzi Ruth

    1992-01-01

    Proposes having students perform skits in which they play the roles of the science concepts they are trying to understand. Provides the dialog for a skit in which hot and cold gas molecules are interviewed on a talk show to study how these properties affect wind, rain, and other weather phenomena. (MDH)

  8. Obesity in show cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbee, R J

    2014-12-01

    Obesity is an important disease with a high prevalence in cats. Because obesity is related to several other diseases, it is important to identify the population at risk. Several risk factors for obesity have been described in the literature. A higher incidence of obesity in certain cat breeds has been suggested. The aim of this study was to determine whether obesity occurs more often in certain breeds. The second aim was to relate the increased prevalence of obesity in certain breeds to the official standards of that breed. To this end, 268 cats of 22 different breeds investigated by determining their body condition score (BCS) on a nine-point scale by inspection and palpation, at two different cat shows. Overall, 45.5% of the show cats had a BCS > 5, and 4.5% of the show cats had a BCS > 7. There were significant differences between breeds, which could be related to the breed standards. Most overweight and obese cats were in the neutered group. It warrants firm discussions with breeders and cat show judges to come to different interpretations of the standards in order to prevent overweight conditions in certain breeds from being the standard of beauty. Neutering predisposes for obesity and requires early nutritional intervention to prevent obese conditions. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  9. Honored Teacher Shows Commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratte, Kathy

    1987-01-01

    Part of the acceptance speech of the 1985 National Council for the Social Studies Teacher of the Year, this article describes the censorship experience of this honored social studies teacher. The incident involved the showing of a videotape version of the feature film entitled "The Seduction of Joe Tynan." (JDH)

  10. The energy show

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The Energy Show is a new look at the problems of world energy, where our supplies come from, now and in the future. The programme looks at how we need energy to maintain our standards of living. Energy supply is shown as the complicated set of problems it is - that Fossil Fuels are both raw materials and energy sources, that some 'alternatives' so readily suggested as practical options are in reality a long way from being effective. (author)

  11. Ability Dispersion and Team Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoogendoorn, Sander; Parker, Simon C.; Van Praag, Mirjam

    What is the effect of dispersed levels of cognitive ability of members of a (business) team on their team's performance? This paper reports the results of a field experiment in which 573 students in 49 (student) teams start up and manage real companies under identical circumstances for one year. We...... ensured exogenous variation in otherwise random team composition by assigning students to teams based on their measured cognitive abilities. Each team performs a variety of tasks, often involving complex decision making. The key result of the experiment is that the performance of business teams first...... increases and then decreases with ability dispersion. We seek to understand this finding by developing a model in which team members of different ability levels form sub- teams with other team members with similar ability levels to specialize in different productive tasks. Diversity spreads production over...

  12. The effects of whole body vibration combined biofeedback postural control training on the balance ability and gait ability in stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhm, Yo-Han; Yang, Dae-Jung

    2017-11-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of biofeedback postural control training using whole body vibration in acute stroke patients on balance and gait ability. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty stroke patients participated in this study and were divided into a group of 10, a group for biofeedback postural control training combined with a whole body vibration, one for biofeedback postural control training combined with an aero-step, and one for biofeedback postural control training. Biorescue was used to measure the limits of stability, balance ability, and Lukotronic was used to measure step length, gait ability. [Results] In the comparison of balance ability and gait ability between the groups for before and after intervention, Group I showed a significant difference in balance ability and gait ability compared to Groups II and III. [Conclusion] This study showed that biofeedback postural control training using whole body vibration is effective for improving balance ability and gait ability in stroke patients.

  13. Analogical reasoning abilities of recovering alcoholics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, M K; Clark, E; Bowman, M A; Miller, P J

    1989-08-01

    This study investigated analogical reasoning abilities of alcoholics who had been abstinent from alcohol for at least 1 year. Their performance was compared to that of nonalcoholic controls matched as a group for education, age, and gender. Solution times and error rates were modeled using a regression model. Results showed a nonsignificant trend for alcoholics to be faster, but more error prone, than controls. The same componential model applied to both groups, and fit them equally well. Although differences have been found in analogical reasoning ability between controls and alcoholics immediately following detoxification, we find no evidence of differences after extended periods of sobriety.

  14. Teachers’ ability in using math learning media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masniladevi; Prahmana, R. C. I.; Helsa, Y.; Dalais, M.

    2017-12-01

    The studies aim to enhance teachers’ knowledge and skill in making math instructional media, develop math instructional media, train and assist the use of instructional media in learning math in the classroom. The method used in the activities adopted the pattern of preventive implementation, planning stage, program implementation, observation and evaluation and reflection. The research results show that the evaluation of teachers’ ability is still in average category. The result required more intensive training.

  15. Effect of clinical practice on self-learning development ability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jung Hyun; Yang, Han Joon; Kim, Nak Sang

    2017-01-01

    In order to analyze the degree of self-learning development ability after the clinical training curriculum, the results of 121 questionnaires were analyzed for 3rd and 4th grade students in radiology in the metropolitan area. The overall average of self-learning ability according to gender was 3.07±0.85, which was statistically significant according to gender. However, the results according to educational system showed that the overall average was 3.07±0.85, which was higher than the average level of self-learning development ability. There was no statistically significant difference according to educational system. The results of the self-learning development ability according to the motivation for selecting the department showed that the students who have chosen their department due to their higher employment rate after graduation had high self-development ability level(3.58±0.85) but the students who entered the school due to self-aptitude had relatively lower self-development ability level (2.30±0.40). The overall average of self-learning ability according to direction of career path was 3.08±0.76, which was over-average of self-learning development ability. Thus, there was statistically significant difference according to career path. It is necessary to improve the self-learning ability in clinical practice. In addition, the lack of statistical significance suggests problems and diversity

  16. Effect of clinical practice on self-learning development ability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jung Hyun; Yang, Han Joon [Dept. of International Radiological Science, Hallym University of Graduate Studies, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Nak Sang [Dept. of Radiological Science, Songho College, Hoengseong (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-09-15

    In order to analyze the degree of self-learning development ability after the clinical training curriculum, the results of 121 questionnaires were analyzed for 3rd and 4th grade students in radiology in the metropolitan area. The overall average of self-learning ability according to gender was 3.07±0.85, which was statistically significant according to gender. However, the results according to educational system showed that the overall average was 3.07±0.85, which was higher than the average level of self-learning development ability. There was no statistically significant difference according to educational system. The results of the self-learning development ability according to the motivation for selecting the department showed that the students who have chosen their department due to their higher employment rate after graduation had high self-development ability level(3.58±0.85) but the students who entered the school due to self-aptitude had relatively lower self-development ability level (2.30±0.40). The overall average of self-learning ability according to direction of career path was 3.08±0.76, which was over-average of self-learning development ability. Thus, there was statistically significant difference according to career path. It is necessary to improve the self-learning ability in clinical practice. In addition, the lack of statistical significance suggests problems and diversity.

  17. Readability and Reading Ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Benjamin D.; Stenner, A. Jackson

    This document discusses the measurement of reading ability and the readability of books by application of the Lexile framework. It begins by stating the importance of uniform measures. It then discusses the history of reading ability testing, based on the assumption that no researcher has been able to measure more than one kind of reading ability.…

  18. Dietary fiber showed no preventive effect against colon and rectal cancers in Japanese with low fat intake: an analysis from the results of nutrition surveys from 23 Japanese prefectures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugawara Kazuo

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since Fuchs' report in 1999, the reported protective effect of dietary fiber from colorectal carcinogenesis has led many researchers to question its real benefit. The aim of this study is to evaluate the association between diet, especially dietary fiber and fat and colorectal cancer in Japan. Methods A multiple regression analysis (using the stepwise variable selection method was performed using the standardized mortality ratios (SMRs of colon and rectal cancer in 23 Japanese prefectures as objective variables and dietary fiber, nutrients and food groups as explanatory variables. Results As for colon cancer, the standardized partial correlation coefficients were positively significant for fat (1,13, P = 0.000, seaweeds (0.41, P = 0.026 and beans (0.45, P = 0.017 and were negatively significant for vitamin A (-0.63, P = 0.003, vitamin C (-0.42, P = 0.019 and yellow-green vegetables (-0.37, P = 0.046. For rectal cancer, the standardized partial correlation coefficient in fat (0.60, P = 0.002 was positively significant. Dietary fiber was not found to have a significant relationship with either colon or rectal cancers. Conclusions This study failed to show any protective effect of dietary fiber in subjects with a low fat intake (Japanese in this analysis, which supports Fuchs' findings in subjects with a high fat intake (US Americans.

  19. Nurture affects gender differences in spatial abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Moshe; Gneezy, Uri; List, John A

    2011-09-06

    Women remain significantly underrepresented in the science, engineering, and technology workforce. Some have argued that spatial ability differences, which represent the most persistent gender differences in the cognitive literature, are partly responsible for this gap(.) The underlying forces at work shaping the observed spatial ability differences revolve naturally around the relative roles of nature and nurture. Although these forces remain among the most hotly debated in all of the sciences, the evidence for nurture is tenuous, because it is difficult to compare gender differences among biologically similar groups with distinct nurture. In this study, we use a large-scale incentivized experiment with nearly 1,300 participants to show that the gender gap in spatial abilities, measured by time to solve a puzzle, disappears when we move from a patrilineal society to an adjoining matrilineal society. We also show that about one-third of the effect can be explained by differences in education. Given that none of our participants have experience with puzzle solving and that villagers from both societies have the same means of subsistence and shared genetic background, we argue that these results show the role of nurture in the gender gap in cognitive abilities.

  20. Balance ability and athletic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrysomallis, Con

    2011-03-01

    The relationship between balance ability and sport injury risk has been established in many cases, but the relationship between balance ability and athletic performance is less clear. This review compares the balance ability of athletes from different sports, determines if there is a difference in balance ability of athletes at different levels of competition within the same sport, determines the relationship of balance ability with performance measures and examines the influence of balance training on sport performance or motor skills. Based on the available data from cross-sectional studies, gymnasts tended to have the best balance ability, followed by soccer players, swimmers, active control subjects and then basketball players. Surprisingly, no studies were found that compared the balance ability of rifle shooters with other athletes. There were some sports, such as rifle shooting, soccer and golf, where elite athletes were found to have superior balance ability compared with their less proficient counterparts, but this was not found to be the case for alpine skiing, surfing and judo. Balance ability was shown to be significantly related to rifle shooting accuracy, archery shooting accuracy, ice hockey maximum skating speed and simulated luge start speed, but not for baseball pitching accuracy or snowboarding ranking points. Prospective studies have shown that the addition of a balance training component to the activities of recreationally active subjects or physical education students has resulted in improvements in vertical jump, agility, shuttle run and downhill slalom skiing. A proposed mechanism for the enhancement in motor skills from balance training is an increase in the rate of force development. There are limited data on the influence of balance training on motor skills of elite athletes. When the effectiveness of balance training was compared with resistance training, it was found that resistance training produced superior performance results for

  1. Company Policies on Working Hours and Night Work in Relation to Older Workers' Work Ability and Work Engagement : Results From a Dutch Longitudinal Study with 2 Year Follow-Up

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meer, Laudry; Leijten, Fenna R M; Heuvel, Swenneke G; Ybema, J.F.; de Wind, Astrid; Burdorf, Alex; Geuskens, Goedele A

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To longitudinally investigate (1) whether lower work ability and work engagement predict the use of company policies on reduced working hours and exemption from evening/night work among older workers, and (2) whether using such policies subsequently contribute to higher work ability and work

  2. Company Policies on Working Hours and Night Work in Relation to Older Workers’ Work Ability and Work Engagement: Results From a Dutch Longitudinal Study with 2 Year Follow-Up

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meer, L. van der; Leijten, F.R.; Heuvel, S.G. van den; Ybema, J.F.; Wind, A. de; Burdorf, A.; Geuskens, G.A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To longitudinally investigate (1) whether lower work ability and work engagement predict the use of company policies on reduced working hours and exemption from evening/night work among older workers, and (2) whether using such policies subsequently contribute to higher work ability and work

  3. Discrimination ability of the Energy score

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinson, Pierre; Tastu, Julija

    as appealing since being proper, we show that its discrimination ability may be limited when focusing on the dependence structure of multivariate probabilistic forecasts. For the case of multivariate Gaussian process, a theoretical upper for such discrimination ability is derived and discussed. This limited...... discrimination ability may eventually get compromised by computational and sampling issues, as dimension increases....

  4. Enhanced photocatalytic activity of Te-doped Bi{sub 2}MoO{sub 6} under visible light irradiation: Effective separation of photogenerated carriers resulted from inhomogeneous lattice distortion and improved electron capturing ability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Shuguang, E-mail: csustcsg@yahoo.com; Li, Yuhan; Wu, Zixu; Wu, Baoxin; Li, Haibin; Li, Fujin

    2017-05-15

    Te-doped Bi{sub 2}MoO{sub 6} photocatalyst was hydrothermally synthesized, and nonmetal atoms Te were homogeneously incorporated into Bi{sub 2}MoO{sub 6} lattice with the substitution of Te{sup 4+} to Mo{sup 6+}. With increasing Te-doping concentration in Bi{sub 2}MoO{sub 6}, no detectable band-gap narrowing but more and more severe inhomogeneous lattice distortions were determined. The activity of Bi{sub 2}MoO{sub 6} photocatalyst was evaluated through methylene blue degradation under visible light irradiation (λ>410 nm) and was greatly enhanced by Te-doping. When Te-doped Bi{sub 2}MoO{sub 6} was synthesized at Te/Mo molar ratio of 7.5%, a maximum first-order rate constant of methylene blue degradation was obtained. The inhomogeneous lattice distortion generated an internal dipole moment, and the holes generated with the substitution of Te{sup 4+} to Mo{sup 6+} acted as the capturing centers of photogenerated electrons, thus the effective separation of photogenerated carriers was facilitated to result in a relatively high concentration of holes on the surface of Te-doped Bi{sub 2}MoO{sub 6} to be favorable for the efficient methylene blue degradation. - Graphical abstract: With the substitution of Te{sup 4+} to Mo{sup 6+}, effective separation of photogenerated carriers resulted from inhomogeneous lattice distortion and improved electron capturing ability is achieved to be responsible for enhanced photocatalytic activity of Te-doped Bi{sub 2}MoO{sub 6}. - Highlights: • Nonmetal Te is incorporated into Bi{sub 2}MoO{sub 6} with the substitution of Te{sup 4+} to Mo{sup 6+}. • Revealing inhomogeneous lattice distortion and improved electron capturing ability. • Effective separation of photogenerated carriers in Te-doped Bi{sub 2}MoO{sub 6} is achieved. • The mechanism of methylene blue degradation over Te-doped Bi{sub 2}MoO{sub 6} is proposed.

  5. EFFECT OF PROBLEM BASED LEARNING AND MODEL CRITICAL THINKING ABILITY TO PROBLEM SOLVING SKILLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Unita S. Zuliani Nasution

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purposes of this research were to analyze the different between physic resolving problem ability by using problem based learning model and direct instruction model, the different of physic resolving problem ability between the students that have critical thinking ability upper the average and the students that have critical thinking ability under the average, and the interaction of problem based learning model toward critical thinking ability and students’ physic resolving problem ability. This research was quasy experimental research that use critical thinking ability tests and physic resolving problem ability tests as the instruments. Result of the research showed that the students’ physic resolving problem ability by using problem based learning model was better than by using direct instruction model, students’ physic resolving problem ability and critical thinking ability upper the average showed better different and result than students’ critical thinking ability under the average, besides there was an interaction between problem based learning model and critical thinking ability in improving students’ physic resolving problem ability.

  6. Creativity, visualization abilities, and visual cognitive style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozhevnikov, Maria; Kozhevnikov, Michael; Yu, Chen Jiao; Blazhenkova, Olesya

    2013-06-01

    Despite the recent evidence for a multi-component nature of both visual imagery and creativity, there have been no systematic studies on how the different dimensions of creativity and imagery might interrelate. The main goal of this study was to investigate the relationship between different dimensions of creativity (artistic and scientific) and dimensions of visualization abilities and styles (object and spatial). In addition, we compared the contributions of object and spatial visualization abilities versus corresponding styles to scientific and artistic dimensions of creativity. Twenty-four undergraduate students (12 females) were recruited for the first study, and 75 additional participants (36 females) were recruited for an additional experiment. Participants were administered a number of object and spatial visualization abilities and style assessments as well as a number of artistic and scientific creativity tests. The results show that object visualization relates to artistic creativity and spatial visualization relates to scientific creativity, while both are distinct from verbal creativity. Furthermore, our findings demonstrate that style predicts corresponding dimension of creativity even after removing shared variance between style and visualization ability. The results suggest that styles might be a more ecologically valid construct in predicting real-life creative behaviour, such as performance in different professional domains. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.

  7. Parcels and Land Ownership, The Tax Parcel shows the area and boundary of each property in a seamless layer covering the whole county along with the ability to connect to other matching tables., Published in 2011, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Washington County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Parcels and Land Ownership dataset current as of 2011. The Tax Parcel shows the area and boundary of each property in a seamless layer covering the whole county...

  8. Girls underestimate maths ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-01

    A study by psychologists in the US has found that high-school girls rate their competence in mathematics lower than boys, even for those with similar abilities (Front. Psychol. 10.3389/fpsyg.2017.00386).

  9. SELECTED MACROECONOMIC FACTORS OBSERVATION IMPACT ON THE ECONOMY OF THE REPUBLIC OF SERBIA AND THE WESTERN BALKANS IN THE OBSERVATION PERIOD 2000-2012, SHOWING RESULTS FROM 2008 TO 2012.

    OpenAIRE

    BOGDAN LABAN; ŽELJKO GRUBLJEŠIĆ; VERA POPOVIĆ; VLADIMIR MALETIĆ; VESNA PETROVIĆ

    2017-01-01

    The application of the neoliberal concept in the Western Balkans has had effects on the economies of those countries that can say das resulted in unsustainable economic growth and macroeconomic instability. Besides the application of the same given the developments that had features of weakness especially since 2008., from the onset of the global economic crisis. The consequences of the liberalization of international economic developments have enabled the countries of the West...

  10. One patient with schizophrenia showed reduced drug-induced extrapyramidal symptoms as a result of an alternative regimen of treatment with paliperidone 3 and 6 mg every other day.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Hidenobu; Hibino, Hiroyuki; Inoue, Yuichi; Matsumoto, Hideo; Mikami, Katsunaka

    2017-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a chronic disease that requires long-term management with antipsychotics. Antipsychotic drugs are given by tapering their dose, extending the dosing interval, and so on, as part of a treatment strategy to minimize the adverse effects while at the same time maintaining efficacy. We report the case of one patient with schizophrenia in whom the clinical symptoms were alleviated after treatment with 6 mg paliperidone. However, the patient developed extrapyramidal syndrome, for which 3 and 6 mg paliperidone were administered alternately every other day. Extrapyramidal syndrome was assessed using the Drug-Induced Extrapyramidal Symptoms Scale, Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale, or Barnes Akathisia Scale. There was improvement in Drug-Induced Extrapyramidal Symptoms Scale score and Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale score. However, there was almost no change in the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale total score, positive score, negative score, or general score. The results indicate the possibility of lessened adverse effects as a result of an alternative regimen of treatment with paliperidone 3 and 6 mg every other day in the maintenance phase.

  11. SELECTED MACROECONOMIC FACTORS OBSERVATION IMPACT ON THE ECONOMY OF THE REPUBLIC OF SERBIA AND THE WESTERN BALKANS IN THE OBSERVATION PERIOD 2000-2012, SHOWING RESULTS FROM 2008 TO 2012.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BOGDAN LABAN

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The application of the neoliberal concept in the Western Balkans has had effects on the economies of those countries that can say das resulted in unsustainable economic growth and macroeconomic instability. Besides the application of the same given the developments that had features of weakness especially since 2008., from the onset of the global economic crisis. The consequences of the liberalization of international economic developments have enabled the countries of the Western Balkans obtain foreign investment in the form of foreign direct investment, but their economies have done even more dependent on foreign capital, which is increasingly going in economic activities that have a faster way could fertilize the invested capital.

  12. Shared-environmental contributions to high cognitive ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkpatrick, Robert M; McGue, Matt; Iacono, William G

    2009-07-01

    Using a combined sample of adolescent twins, biological siblings, and adoptive siblings, we estimated and compared the differential shared-environmentality for high cognitive ability and the shared-environmental variance for the full range of ability during adolescence. Estimates obtained via multiple methods were in the neighborhood of 0.20, and suggest a modest effect of the shared environment on both high and full-range ability. We then examined the association of ability with three measures of the family environment in a subsample of adoptive siblings: parental occupational status, parental education, and disruptive life events. Only parental education showed significant (albeit modest) association with ability in both the biological and adoptive samples. We discuss these results in terms of the need for cognitive-development research to combine genetically sensitive designs and modern statistical methods with broad, thorough environmental measurement.

  13. Indicators that influence prospective mathematics teachers representational and reasoning abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darta; Saputra, J.

    2018-01-01

    Representational and mathematical reasoning ability are very important ability as basic in mathematics learning process. The 2013 curriculum suggests that the use of a scientific approach emphasizes higher order thinking skills. Therefore, a scientific approach is required in mathematics learning to improve ability of representation and mathematical reasoning. The objectives of this research are: (1) to analyze representational and reasoning abilities, (2) to analyze indicators affecting the ability of representation and mathematical reasoning, (3) to analyze scientific approaches that can improve the ability of representation and mathematical reasoning. The subject of this research is the students of mathematics prospective teachers in the first semester at Private Higher Education of Bandung City. The research method of this research was descriptive analysis. The research data were collected using reasoning and representation tests on sixty-one students. Data processing was done by descriptive analysis specified based on the indicators of representation ability and mathematical reasoning that influenced it. The results of this first-year study showed that students still had many weaknesses in reasoning and mathematical representation that were influenced by the ability to understand the indicators of both capabilities. After observing the results of the first-year research, then in the second and third year, the development of teaching materials with a scientific approach in accordance with the needs of prospective students was planned.

  14. Development of arithmetical abilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatjana Levstek

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Arithmetic (from the word 'arithmos' which means 'numbers' is an elementary branch of mathematics. Numeracy is essential for understanding mathematics, so the development of arithmetic abilities has been an area of scientific research for a long time. Recent research has shown that the development of arithmetic abilities is not based only on gaining experience and learning. Some arithmetic abilities, especially the sense of quantity, are innate. Even babies are able to distinguish between groups with different number of elements and they perceive numeracy amodally. Six-month-olds distinguish between two groups with the numeracy ratio of 1 : 2. With age this ratio improves rapidly. Five-year-old children already distinguish between groups with the number ratio 7 : 8. The ability to compare two quantities begins to develop after 15 months of age and children learn how to count spontaneously, together with the acquisition of language. Speech enables children to understand number in its abstract, symbolic sense, thus opening the way to symbolic arithmetic. During the preschool period children use intuition when doing calculations, but in school the arithmetic is based on the knowledge of arithmetical algorithms. So, in order to acquire mathematical knowledge, it is necessary to incorporate memory and automate arithmetical processes, without the use of intuition. However, research has shown that intuition is very important and is even a predictive factor for the development of mathematical abilities throughout the schooling process.

  15. Evaluation of real-time data obtained from gravimetric preparation of antineoplastic agents shows medication errors with possible critical therapeutic impact: Results of a large-scale, multicentre, multinational, retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terkola, R; Czejka, M; Bérubé, J

    2017-08-01

    Medication errors are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality especially with antineoplastic drugs, owing to their narrow therapeutic index. Gravimetric workflow software systems have the potential to reduce volumetric errors during intravenous antineoplastic drug preparation which may occur when verification is reliant on visual inspection. Our aim was to detect medication errors with possible critical therapeutic impact as determined by the rate of prevented medication errors in chemotherapy compounding after implementation of gravimetric measurement. A large-scale, retrospective analysis of data was carried out, related to medication errors identified during preparation of antineoplastic drugs in 10 pharmacy services ("centres") in five European countries following the introduction of an intravenous workflow software gravimetric system. Errors were defined as errors in dose volumes outside tolerance levels, identified during weighing stages of preparation of chemotherapy solutions which would not otherwise have been detected by conventional visual inspection. The gravimetric system detected that 7.89% of the 759 060 doses of antineoplastic drugs prepared at participating centres between July 2011 and October 2015 had error levels outside the accepted tolerance range set by individual centres, and prevented these doses from reaching patients. The proportion of antineoplastic preparations with deviations >10% ranged from 0.49% to 5.04% across sites, with a mean of 2.25%. The proportion of preparations with deviations >20% ranged from 0.21% to 1.27% across sites, with a mean of 0.71%. There was considerable variation in error levels for different antineoplastic agents. Introduction of a gravimetric preparation system for antineoplastic agents detected and prevented dosing errors which would not have been recognized with traditional methods and could have resulted in toxicity or suboptimal therapeutic outcomes for patients undergoing anticancer treatment.

  16. Cognitive Abilities of Maltreated Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viezel, Kathleen D.; Freer, Benjamin D.; Lowell, Ari; Castillo, Jenean A.

    2015-01-01

    School psychologists should be aware of developmental risk factors for children who have been abused or neglected. The present study used the "Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, Fourth Edition" to examine the cognitive abilities of 120 children in foster care subsequent to maltreatment. Results indicated that, compared to a…

  17. Ability Dispersion and Team Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoogendoorn, Sander; Parker, Simon C.; Van Praag, Mirjam

    What is the effect of dispersed levels of cognitive ability of members of a (business) team on their team's performance? This paper reports the results of a field experiment in which 573 students in 49 teams start up and manage real companies under identical circumstances. We ensured exogenous va...

  18. Novel recurrent chromosomal aberrations detected in clonal plasma cells of light chain amyloidosis patients show potential adverse prognostic effect: first results from a genome-wide copy number array analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granzow, Martin; Hegenbart, Ute; Hinderhofer, Katrin; Hose, Dirk; Seckinger, Anja; Bochtler, Tilmann; Hemminki, Kari; Goldschmidt, Hartmut; Schönland, Stefan O; Jauch, Anna

    2017-07-01

    Immunoglobulin light chain (AL) amyloidosis is a rare plasma cell dyscrasia characterized by the deposition of abnormal amyloid fibrils in multiple organs, thus impairing their function. In the largest cohort studied up to now of 118 CD138-purified plasma cell samples from previously untreated immunoglobulin light chain amyloidosis patients, we assessed in parallel copy number alterations using high-density copy number arrays and interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (iFISH). We used fluorescence in situ hybridization probes for the IgH translocations t(11;14), t(4;14), and t(14;16) or any other IgH rearrangement as well as numerical aberrations of the chromosome loci 1q21, 8p21, 5p15/5q35, 11q22.3 or 11q23, 13q14, 15q22, 17p13, and 19q13. Recurrent gains included chromosomes 1q (36%), 9 (24%), 11q (24%), as well as 19 (15%). Recurrent losses affected chromosome 13 (29% monosomy) and partial losses of 14q (19%), 16q (14%) and 13q (12%), respectively. In 88% of patients with translocation t(11;14), the hallmark chromosomal aberration in AL amyloidosis, a concomitant gain of 11q22.3/11q23 detected by iFISH was part of the unbalanced translocation der(14)t(11;14)(q13;q32) with the breakpoint in the CCND1/MYEOV gene region. Partial loss of chromosome regions 14q and 16q were significantly associated to gain 1q. Gain 1q21 detected by iFISH almost always resulted from a gain of the long arm of chromosome 1 and not from trisomy 1, whereas deletions on chromosome 1p were rarely found. Overall and event-free survival analysis found a potential adverse prognostic effect of concomitant gain 1q and deletion 14q as well as of deletion 1p. In conclusion, in the first whole genome report of clonal plasma cells in AL amyloidosis, novel aberrations and hitherto unknown potential adverse prognostic effects were uncovered. Copyright© 2017 Ferrata Storti Foundation.

  19. Deafness and motor abilities level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Zwierzchowska

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The audition injury hinders some motor motions and the organised coordination at the higher level and may be a cause of disturbances and disorder in some motor abilities adoption. It was assumed that deafness including its aetiology and injury mechanism may significantly influence the motor development of human being. The study aimed in checking if the deafness, as a result of various unfavourable factors, determines the motor development of children and youngsters. Consequently the dependency between qualitative features i.e.: signed motor level and aetiology, audition injury mechanism and the deafness degree was examined. The mechanism and aetiology of hearing correlated with the motor abilities displayed statistically significant dependencies in few motor trials only. Revealed correlations regarded mostly the coordination trials excluding the flexibility one. Statistically significant dependencies between the audition diminution and the motor abilities level were not found.

  20. Stem cells show promising results for lymphoedema treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toyserkani, Navid Mohamadpour; Quaade, Marlene Louise; Sheikh, Søren Paludan

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Lymphoedema is a debilitating condition, manifesting in excess lymphatic fluid and swelling of subcutaneous tissues. Lymphoedema is as of yet still an incurable condition and current treatment modalities are not satisfactory. The capacity of mesenchymal stem cells to promote angiogenesis......, secrete growth factors, regulate the inflammatory process, and differentiate into multiple cell types make them a potential ideal therapy for lymphoedema. Adipose tissue is the richest and most accessible source of mesenchymal stem cells and they can be harvested, isolated, and used for therapy...... in a single stage procedure as an autologous treatment. The aim of this paper was to review all studies using mesenchymal stem cells for lymphoedema treatment with a special focus on the potential use of adipose-derived stem cells. A systematic search was performed and five preclinical and two clinical...

  1. Early Functional Abilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorentzen, Jakob; Poulsen, Ingrid

    2005-01-01

    Early Functional Abilities (EFA), - en skala til evaluering af behandlingsforløb af svært hjerneskadede patienter i forbindelse med tidlig rehabilitering. Formål At monitorere og dokumentere rehabiliteringsforløbet for svært hjerneskadede patienter, hvor funktionsniveauet endnu ikke kan registreres...

  2. BIBLIOGRAPHY ON MENTAL ABILITY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA. Graduate School of Education.

    THIS BIBLIOGRAPHY LISTS MATERIAL ON VARIOUS ASPECTS OF HUMAN INTELLECT. APPROXIMATELY 50 UNANNOTATED REFERENCES ARE PROVIDED TO DOCUMENTS DATING FROM 1955 TO 1966. BOOKS, REPORTS, JOURNAL MATERIALS, AND SOME UNPUBLISHED TITLES ARE LISTED. SUBJECT AREAS INCLUDED ARE (1) INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENT, (2) ABILITY DIFFERENCES BETWEEN INDIVIDUALS, RACES,…

  3. Conservatism and Cognitive Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stankov, Lazar

    2009-01-01

    Conservatism and cognitive ability are negatively correlated. The evidence is based on 1254 community college students and 1600 foreign students seeking entry to United States' universities. At the individual level of analysis, conservatism scores correlate negatively with SAT, Vocabulary, and Analogy test scores. At the national level of…

  4. Synchronization of Mental Abilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guney, A.

    2008-01-01

    I think it is better to summarize some cognitive issues in relation to this subject; how we learn, how we should organize learning (instructions), knowledge, etc. before treating creativity and rationality. Is it, really, possible to consider creativity without any kind of involvement of the ability

  5. AgrAbility Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cordless Ratchet Wrench ClampTite Wire Clamping Tool iBlue Smart Gate/Door Opener Full Toolbox AT Database Extranet ... in-person NTW - March 19-22, Portland, Maine House and Senate Appropriations Committees recommend restoring AgrAbility funding... ...

  6. Profile of student critical thinking ability on static fluid concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulasih; Suparmi, A.; Sarwanto

    2017-11-01

    Critical thinking ability is an important part of educational goals. It has higher complex processes, such as analyzing, synthesizing and evaluating, drawing conclusion and reflection. This study is aimed to know the critical thinking ability of students in learning static fluids of senior high school students. This research uses the descriptive method which its instruments based on the indicator of critical thinking ability developed according to Ennis. The population of this research is XIth grade science class Public Senior High School, SMA N 1, Sambungmacan, Sragen, Central Java. The static fluid teaching material is delivered using Problem Based Learning Model through class experiment. The results of this study shows that the average student of XIth science class have high critical thinking skills, particularly in the ability of providing simple explanation, build basic skill, and provide advanced explanation, but they do not have high enough in ability of drawing conclusion and strategic and tactical components of critical thinking ability in the study of static fluid teaching material. The average of students critical thinking ability is 72.94, with 27,94% of students are in a low category and 72,22% of students in the high category of critical thinking ability.

  7. The concept of work ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tengland, Per-Anders

    2011-06-01

    The concept of "work ability" is central for many sciences, especially for those related to working life and to rehabilitation. It is one of the important concepts in legislation regulating sickness insurance. How the concept is defined therefore has important normative implications. The concept is, however, often not sufficiently well defined. AIM AND METHOD The objective of this paper is to clarify, through conceptual analysis, what the concept can and should mean, and to propose a useful definition for scientific and practical work. RESULTS Several of the defining characteristics found in the literature are critically scrutinized and discussed, namely health, basic standard competence, occupational competence, occupational virtues, and motivation. These characteristics are related to the work tasks and the work environment. One conclusion is that we need two definitions of work ability, one for specific jobs that require special training or education, and one for jobs that most people can manage given a short period of practice. Having work ability, in the first sense, means having the occupational competence, the health required for the competence, and the occupational virtues that are required for managing the work tasks, assuming that the tasks are reasonable and that the work environment is acceptable. In the second sense, having work ability is having the health, the basic standard competence and the relevant occupational virtues required for managing some kind of job, assuming that the work tasks are reasonable and that the work environment is acceptable. CONCLUSION These definitions give us tools for understanding and discussing the complex, holistic and dynamic aspects of work ability, and they can lay the foundations for the creation of instruments for evaluating work ability, as well as help formulate strategies for rehabilitation.

  8. Evaluation of the combining ability of mutant maize lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Valkova

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The study shows the results of a preliminary evaluation of the combining ability for grain yield of 17 mutant maize lines. For the purpose the top cross method for early testing and the mathematical model of Savchenko for analysis of the general and the specific combining ability were used. The lines were tested on three testers with high general combining ability that belong to two genetic groups: K 46 52 and XM 552 from SSS and N 192 – Lancaster. For the purposes of evaluation of the productive abilities of the received top cross two preliminary varietal experiments were carried out at the experimental field of Maize Research Institute, Knezha As a result of the conducted experimental work and the analysis it was found that the highest general combining ability have lines XM 11 6 and XM 12 1. These lines can be included as components of high-yielding synthetics or as testers in analyzing crosses to determine general combining ability in early stages of the selection process. The above lines with high specific combining ability – XM 11 13 and XM 11 46 are suitable for inclusion in combinations to develop high-yielding hybrids. Three of the tested lines XM 11 7 11 XM 10 and XM 11 11 have both high GCA and SCA. These lines can be used in corresponding breeding in the selection programs.

  9. NASA GIBS Use in Live Planetarium Shows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmart, C. B.

    2015-12-01

    The American Museum of Natural History's Hayden Planetarium was rebuilt in year 2000 as an immersive theater for scientific data visualization to show the universe in context to our planet. Specific astrophysical movie productions provide the main daily programming, but interactive control software, developed at AMNH allows immersive presentation within a data aggregation of astronomical catalogs called the Digital Universe 3D Atlas. Since 2006, WMS globe browsing capabilities have been built into a software development collaboration with Sweden's Linkoping University (LiU). The resulting Uniview software, now a product of the company SCISS, is operated by about fifty planetariums around that world with ability to network amongst the sites for global presentations. Public presentation of NASA GIBS has allowed authoritative narratives to be presented within the range of data available in context to other sources such as Science on a Sphere, NASA Earth Observatory and Google Earth KML resources. Specifically, the NOAA supported World Views Network conducted a series of presentations across the US that focused on local ecological issues that could then be expanded in the course of presentation to national and global scales of examination. NASA support of for GIBS resources in an easy access multi scale streaming format like WMS has tremendously enabled particularly facile presentations of global monitoring like never before. Global networking of theaters for distributed presentations broadens out the potential for impact of this medium. Archiving and refinement of these presentations has already begun to inform new types of documentary productions that examine pertinent, global interdependency topics.

  10. Childhood Cognitive Ability Predicts Adult Financial Well-Being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Furnham

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study set out to investigate to what extent childhood cognitive ability, along with personality traits, education and occupational status, as well as marital status influence adult financial success. Data were drawn from a large, prospective birth cohort in the UK, the National Child Development Study (NCDS. The analytic sample was comprised of 4537 cohort members with data on parental social class (at birth, cognitive ability (at age 11, educational qualifications (at age 33, personality traits (at age 50, current marital status and occupational prestige, and salary/wage earning level (all measured at age 54. Correlational results showed that parental social class, childhood cognitive ability, traits extraversion, emotional stability, conscientiousness, and openness, being married positively, being divorced or separated negatively, education and occupation as well as gender were all significantly associated with adult earning ability (p < 0.05 to p < 0.001. Effect sizes for the relationship between intelligence and income was moderate. Results of a multiple regression analysis showed that childhood cognitive ability, traits conscientiousness and openness, educational qualifications and occupational prestige were significant and independent predictors of adult earning ability accounting for 30% of the total variance. There was also a gender effect on the outcome variable. Numerous limitations are noted.

  11. Multivariate Regression Model of Impedance of Normal and Chemically Irritated Skin Shows Predictive Ability

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Aberg, P

    2001-01-01

    ... before and after application of chemicals on volar forearms of volunteers, Tegobetaine and sodium lauryl sulphate were used to induce the irritations, The spectra were filtered using orthogonal signal correction (OSC...

  12. Retinoblastoma pathway defects show differential ability to activate the constitutive DNA damage response in human tumorigenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tort, F.; Bartkova, J.; Sehested, M.

    2006-01-01

    culture models with differential defects of retinoblastoma pathway components, as overexpression of cyclin D1 or lack of p16(Ink4a), either alone or combined, did not elicit detectable DDR. In contrast, inactivation of pRb, the key component of the pathway, activated the DDR in cultured human or mouse...... with their hierarchical positions along the retinoblastoma pathway. Our data provide new insights into oncogene-evoked DDR in human tumorigenesis, with potential implications for individualized management of tumors with elevated cyclin D1 versus cyclin E, due to their distinct clinical variables and biological behavior....

  13. Functional Ability, Community Reintegration and Participation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: Functional ability which appears to be related to stroke laterality showed positive association with both community reintegration and participation restriction. This suggests that improving the functional ability of the stroke survivors may reduce participation restriction and enhance their reintegration into the ...

  14. A qualitative approach to assessing work ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tengland, Per-Anders

    2013-01-01

    We often need to be able to assess the extent to which individuals have or lack work ability. For this we need instruments. Most of the instruments available have flaws. They either lack validity or they use roundabout methods when collecting information about the individual's work ability. The aim of this paper is to present a conceptual model for constructing a questionnaire that can be used for assessing work ability. The methods used are philosophical, i.e. analytical and deductive. A conceptual theory is provided, and based on the resulting definition of the concept of "work ability" conclusions are drawn regarding how to assess work ability. When constructing quantitative instruments, we can increase validity through using a more strict definition of work ability. However, such an approach will only solve some of the problems noted above. The proposal is, instead, to create a qualitative questionnaire, founded on a definition of "work ability", which focuses on the concrete problems concerning the work ability of the individual. Finally, a sketch of such an instrument is provided, with questions covering all the relevant aspects of work ability. The qualitative questionnaire proposed is believed to be superior to more traditional (quantitative) instruments for assessing a person's work ability, as well as for finding solutions to her problems concerning work ability.

  15. Glass forming ability of calcium aluminosilicate melts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moesgaard, Mette; Yue, Yuanzheng

    2011-01-01

    The glass forming ability (GFA) of two series of calcium aluminosilicate melts is studied by measuring their viscous behavior and crystallization tendency. The first series consists of five compositions on the joining line between the eutectic point of anorthite-wollastonite-tridymite and that of......The glass forming ability (GFA) of two series of calcium aluminosilicate melts is studied by measuring their viscous behavior and crystallization tendency. The first series consists of five compositions on the joining line between the eutectic point of anorthite......-wollastonite-tridymite and that of anorthite-wollastonite-gehlenite. The series includes the eutectic compositions as end members. The second series consists of five compositions on a line parallel to the joining line on the alumina rich side. In the present work, GFA is described in terms of glass stability, i.e., the ability of a glass...... to resist crystallization during reheating. In addition, the fragility index (m) is derived by fitting the viscosity data with the Avramov-Milchev equation. The results show that m is inversely proportional to the glass stability for the two series of melts, implying that m is an indirect measure of GFA...

  16. Gender and age do not influence the ability to work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padula, Rosimeire Simprini; da Silva Valente, Luciana do Socorro; de Moraes, Mônica Vasconcelos; Chiavegato, Luciana Dias; Cabral, Cristina Maria Nunes

    2012-01-01

    Work capacity is related to physical, environmental and psychosocial factors and is influenced by individual characteristics and occupations. The aim of this study was to evaluated the relationship between work capacity, gender and age. 360 people employed at an institution of higher education of both genders and similar age were asked to participate in this study. The ability to work was analyzed using Work Ability Index (WAI). Descriptive statistical, Pearson correlations and ANOVA test was applied. Of these, 197 workers who participated in the study completed and returned the questionnaire. The results show there weren't any significant differences between work ability in relation to gender and age, but we observed an increase variability of responses for WAI score in older workers. No significant differences in the perception of the ability of work between men and women..

  17. Language Ability and Adjustment: Western Expatriates in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selmer, Jan

    2006-01-01

    was directed to Western business expatriates assigned to China. Controlling for the time expatriates had spent in China, results showed that their language ability had a positive association with their sociocultural adjustment. Not surprisingly, this positive relationship was strongest for interaction...... adjustment and weakest for work adjustment. The straightforward implications of these clear findings are discussed in detail....

  18. Ability Grouping in Social Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Social Education, 1992

    1992-01-01

    Presents a position statement of the National Council for the Social Studies (NCSS). Reports that the NCSS objects to ability grouping in social studies. Argues that ability grouping disadvantages minority, handicapped, and low ability students. Suggests that ability grouping undermines the democratic ideals that should be the basis of the social…

  19. Efficient evaluation of hearing ability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2009-01-01

    A system for establishing a hearing ability model of a hearing ability of a person, includes a data storage configured to store a representation of a distribution of a hearing ability of a population of individuals, and a processor configured to establish a hearing ability model representing a

  20. Risk Aversion Relates to Cognitive Ability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Ola; Holm, Håkan J.; Tyran, Jean-Robert Karl

    2016-01-01

    Recent experimental studies suggest that risk aversion is negatively related to cognitive ability. In this paper we report evidence that this relation might be spurious. We recruit a large subject pool drawn from the general Danish population for our experiment. By presenting subjects with choice...... tasks that vary the bias induced by random choices, we are able to generate both negative and positive correlations between risk aversion and cognitive ability. Structural estimation allowing for heterogeneity of noise yields no significant relation between risk aversion and cognitive ability. Our...... results suggest that cognitive ability is related to random decision making, rather than to risk preferences....

  1. Risk aversion relates to cognitive ability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Ola; Holm, Håkan J.; Tyran, Jean-Robert Karl

    Recent experimental studies suggest that risk aversion is negatively related to cognitive ability. In this paper we report evidence that this relation might be spurious. We recruit a large subject pool drawn from the general Danish population for our experiment. By presenting subjects with choice...... tasks that vary the bias induced by random choices, we are able to generate both negative and positive correlations between risk aversion and cognitive ability. Structural estimation allowing for heterogeneity of noise yields no significant relation between risk aversion and cognitive ability. Our...... results suggest that cognitive ability is related to random decision making rather than to risk preferences....

  2. Work ability, effort-reward imbalance and disability pension claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wienert, J; Spanier, K; Radoschewski, F M; Bethge, M

    2017-12-30

    Effort-reward imbalance (ERI) and self-rated work ability are known independent correlates and predictors of intended disability pension claims. However, little research has focused on the interrelationship between the three and whether self-rated work ability mediates the relationship between ERI and intended disability pension claims. To investigate whether self-rated work ability mediates the association between ERI and intended disability pension claims. Baseline data from participants of the Third German Sociomedical Panel of Employees, a 5-year cohort study that investigates determinants of work ability, rehabilitation utilization and disability pensions in employees who have previously received sickness benefits, were analysed. We tested direct associations between ERI with intended disability pension claims (Model 1) and self-rated work ability (Model 2). Additionally, we tested whether work ability mediates the association between ERI and intended disability pension claims (Model 3). There were 2585 participants. Model 1 indicated a significant association between ERI and intended disability pension claims. Model 2 showed a significant association between ERI and self-rated work ability. The mediation in Model 3 revealed a significant indirect association between ERI and intended disability pension claims via self-rated work ability. There was no significant direct association between ERI and intended disability pension claims. Our results support the adverse health-related impact of ERI on self-rated work ability and intended disability pension claims. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  3. Validation of the NOSCA - nurses' observation scale of cognitive abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persoon, Anke; Schoonhoven, Lisette; Melis, Rene J F; van Achterberg, Theo; Kessels, Roy P C; Rikkert, Marcel G M Olde

    2012-11-01

    To examine the psychometric properties of the Nurses' Observation Scale for Cognitive Abilities. Nurses' Observation Scale for Cognitive Abilities is a behavioural rating scale comprising eight subscales that represent different cognitive domains. It is based on observations during contact between nurse and patient. Observational study. A total of 50 patients from two geriatric wards in acute care hospitals participated in this study. Reliability was examined via internal consistency and inter-rater reliability. Construct validity of the Nurses' Observation Scale for Cognitive Abilities and its subscales were explored by means of convergent and divergent validity and post hoc analyses for group differences. Cronbach's αs of the total Nurses' Observation Scale for Cognitive Abilities and its subscales were 0·98 and 0·66-0·93, respectively. The item-total correlations were satisfactory (overall > 0·4). The intra-class coefficients were good (37 of 39 items > 0·4). The convergent validity of the Nurses' Observation Scale for Cognitive Abilities against cognitive ratings (MMSE, NOSGER) and severity of dementia (Clinical Dementia Rating) demonstrated satisfactory correlations (0·59-0·70, p 0·05). The divergent validity of the Nurses' Observation Scale for Cognitive Abilities against depressive symptoms was low (0·12, p > 0·05). The construct validity of the Nurses' Observation Scale for Cognitive Abilities subscales against 13 specific neuropsychological tests showed correlations varying from poor to fair (0·18-0·74; 10 of 13 correlations p Validity and reliability of the total Nurses' Observation Scale for Cognitive Abilities are excellent. The correlations between the Nurses' Observation Scale for Cognitive Abilities subscales and standard neuropsychological tests were moderate. More conclusive results may be found if the Nurses' Observation Scale for Cognitive Abilities subscales were to be validated using more ecologically valid tests and in a patient

  4. The Long-Term Effects of Childhood Music Instruction on Intelligence and General Cognitive Abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa-Giomi, Eugenia

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews research on the effects of music instruction on general cognitive abilities. The review of more than 75 reports shows (1) the consistency in results pertaining to the short-term effects of music instruction on cognitive abilities and the lack of clear evidence on the long-term effects on intelligence; (2) the complex nature of…

  5. The Integral Abilities of the Personality as the Subject Matt er of Psychological Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoly V. Karpov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses some key methodological and theoretical issues of the fundamental,common psychological problem of abilities. It shows that there is a lackof modern ideas about the content of the subject matter of the psychology ofabilities and, therefore, a need for enrichment. In this conceptual expansion itis necessary to differentiate a special, qualitatively specific class of abilities – theintegral abilities of the individual. All these abilities are differentiated on the basisof the most promising paradigm in the development of the ability problem– thefunctional-genetic paradigm – and are related to one of the basic classes of mentalprocesses – the integral mental processes (goal formation, anticipation, decisionmaking, programming, prognosis, planning, control, self-control. In the article adetailed psychological characteristic of the basic integral abilities is presented, asa result of which the correspondence of these abilities to all features and criteriaof abilities as such is proved. The necessity of using the structural-level approachin relation to the ability problem is shown, and a holistic, generalized hierarchy ofthe basic ability classes is proposed. This hierarchy has three main levels. At thehighest level the general abilities are located; at the basic level are the specificabilities of a person. The integral abilities are located between these two levelsand thus form a mesolevel in the general hierarchical organization of the abilitiesof the individual.

  6. Auditory Perceptual Abilities Are Associated with Specific Auditory Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yael Zaltz

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The extent to which auditory experience can shape general auditory perceptual abilities is still under constant debate. Some studies show that specific auditory expertise may have a general effect on auditory perceptual abilities, while others show a more limited influence, exhibited only in a relatively narrow range associated with the area of expertise. The current study addresses this issue by examining experience-dependent enhancement in perceptual abilities in the auditory domain. Three experiments were performed. In the first experiment, 12 pop and rock musicians and 15 non-musicians were tested in frequency discrimination (DLF, intensity discrimination, spectrum discrimination (DLS, and time discrimination (DLT. Results showed significant superiority of the musician group only for the DLF and DLT tasks, illuminating enhanced perceptual skills in the key features of pop music, in which miniscule changes in amplitude and spectrum are not critical to performance. The next two experiments attempted to differentiate between generalization and specificity in the influence of auditory experience, by comparing subgroups of specialists. First, seven guitar players and eight percussionists were tested in the DLF and DLT tasks that were found superior for musicians. Results showed superior abilities on the DLF task for guitar players, though no difference between the groups in DLT, demonstrating some dependency of auditory learning on the specific area of expertise. Subsequently, a third experiment was conducted, testing a possible influence of vowel density in native language on auditory perceptual abilities. Ten native speakers of German (a language characterized by a dense vowel system of 14 vowels, and 10 native speakers of Hebrew (characterized by a sparse vowel system of five vowels, were tested in a formant discrimination task. This is the linguistic equivalent of a DLS task. Results showed that German speakers had superior formant

  7. Risk Aversion in Game Shows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Harrison, Glenn W.; Lau, Morten I.

    2008-01-01

    We review the use of behavior from television game shows to infer risk attitudes. These shows provide evidence when contestants are making decisions over very large stakes, and in a replicated, structured way. Inferences are generally confounded by the subjective assessment of skill in some games......, and the dynamic nature of the task in most games. We consider the game shows Card Sharks, Jeopardy!, Lingo, and finally Deal Or No Deal. We provide a detailed case study of the analyses of Deal Or No Deal, since it is suitable for inference about risk attitudes and has attracted considerable attention....

  8. Measuring performance at trade shows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kåre

    2004-01-01

    Trade shows is an increasingly important marketing activity to many companies, but current measures of trade show performance do not adequately capture dimensions important to exhibitors. Based on the marketing literature's outcome and behavior-based control system taxonomy, a model is built...... that captures a outcome-based sales dimension and four behavior-based dimensions (i.e. information-gathering, relationship building, image building, and motivation activities). A 16-item instrument is developed for assessing exhibitors perceptions of their trade show performance. The paper presents evidence...

  9. Social problem solving ability predicts mental health among undergraduate students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansour Ranjbar

    2013-01-01

    Methods : In this correlational- descriptive study, 369 (208 female and 161 male from, Mazandaran University of Medical Science were selected through stratified random sampling method. In order to collect the data, the social problem solving inventory-revised and general health questionnaire were used. Data were analyzed through SPSS-19, Pearson′s correlation, t test, and stepwise regression analysis. Results : Data analysis showed significant relationship between social problem solving ability and mental health (P < 0.01. Social problem solving ability was significantly associated with the somatic symptoms, anxiety and insomnia, social dysfunction and severe depression (P < 0.01. Conclusions: The results of our study demonstrated that there is a significant correlation between social problem solving ability and mental health.

  10. Number sense in infancy predicts mathematical abilities in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starr, Ariel; Libertus, Melissa E; Brannon, Elizabeth M

    2013-11-05

    Human infants in the first year of life possess an intuitive sense of number. This preverbal number sense may serve as a developmental building block for the uniquely human capacity for mathematics. In support of this idea, several studies have demonstrated that nonverbal number sense is correlated with mathematical abilities in children and adults. However, there has been no direct evidence that infant numerical abilities are related to mathematical abilities later in childhood. Here, we provide evidence that preverbal number sense in infancy predicts mathematical abilities in preschool-aged children. Numerical preference scores at 6 months of age correlated with both standardized math test scores and nonsymbolic number comparison scores at 3.5 years of age, suggesting that preverbal number sense facilitates the acquisition of numerical symbols and mathematical abilities. This relationship held even after controlling for general intelligence, indicating that preverbal number sense imparts a unique contribution to mathematical ability. These results validate the many prior studies purporting to show number sense in infancy and support the hypothesis that mathematics is built upon an intuitive sense of number that predates language.

  11. [Person-organization fit and work ability].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merecz, Dorota; Andysz, Aleksandra

    2011-01-01

    Person-environment issue has long been in focus of researchers who explore the area of human labor. It is known that the level of fit is a predictor of many phenomena related to health and attitude to work. The aim of this study was to explore the association between the level of person- organization fit (P-O fit) and work ability, including indicators of somatic and mental health. Research was conducted on a representative sample of 600 Polish men and women at working age. The Person-Organization Fit Questionnaire was used to assess three dimensions of P-O fit (supplementary fit, complementary fit and identification with organization); mental health status was measured by GHQ-28; the number of diagnosed diseases was taken as an index of somatic health; work ability, ability to physical and mental efforts were measured by three items from the Work Ability Index. A significant relationship between P-O fit level and work ability was found. In men, work ability predictors were: age, supplementary fit and mental health status, which explained 25% of the variance in work ability. In women, work ability predictors were: the number of diagnosed somatic diseases, supplementary fit, age and complementary fit, which explained 27% of the variance in work ability. Some gender-related differences in the predictive value of variables under the study were also found. The results of this study indicate the importance of P-O fit in shaping the sense of work ability, a recognized predictor of workers' occupational activity and the frequency of taking sick leave in subsequent years. Therefore, this result may be a useful argument to motivate employers to employ workers adequately to their abilities and preferences.

  12. Correlation Between Ability on Playing Tetris and GPA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aprilia Ratna Christanti

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study is to determine the correlation between ability on playing Tetris and GPA of Soegijapranata Catholic University, Department of Information System students against the dexterity in playing Tetris. The research has been done using experiment method on ten Information System students who have various grade points. They played Tetris, 30 minutes each, for three consecutive days. The results showed that: First, eight out of the ten students improved their agility. It can be seen from the increasing scores and levels; Second, the coefficient correlation between student grade point and dexterity in playing Tetris is by 62%. Keywords Ability, grade point average, Tetris

  13. Tokyo Motor Show 2003; Tokyo Motor Show 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joly, E.

    2004-01-01

    The text which follows present the different techniques exposed during the 37. Tokyo Motor Show. The report points out the great tendencies of developments of the Japanese automobile industry. The hybrid electric-powered vehicles or those equipped with fuel cells have been highlighted by the Japanese manufacturers which allow considerable budgets in the research of less polluting vehicles. The exposed models, although being all different according to the manufacturer, use always a hybrid system: fuel cell/battery. The manufacturers have stressed too on the intelligent systems for navigation and safety as well as on the design and comfort. (O.M.)

  14. Cognitive Ability, Principled Reasoning and Political Tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hebbelstrup Rye Rasmussen, Stig; Nørgaard, Asbjørn Sonne

    Individuals are not equally politically tolerant. To explain why, individual differences in emotions and threat have received much scholarly attention in recent years. However, extant research also shows that psychological dispositions, habitual cognitive styles, ideological orientation...... and ‘principled reasoning’ influence political tolerance judgments. The extent to which cognitive ability plays a role has not been entertained even if the capacity to think abstractly, comprehend complex ideas and apply abstract ideas to concrete situations is inherent to both principled tolerance judgment...... and cognitive ability. Cognitive ability, we argue and show, adds to the etiology of political tolerance. In Danish and American samples cognitive ability strongly predicts political tolerance after taking habitual cognitive styles (as measured by personality traits), education, social ideology, and feelings...

  15. Cultural Capital and Teaching Ability Rating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jæger, Mads Meier

    do not possess cultural capital. This paper uses extremely rich longitudinal data that provides a better basis than previous studies for holding ‘everything else’ constant. In addition to children and parents’ cultural capital, I control for children’s actual academic ability, physical appearance......, health impairments, social behaviour, antenatal influences, and many family background characteristics. My analysis shows, first, that both children and parents’ cultural capital have independent effects on teacher ability ratings. Second, for oral ability I find that parents’ cultural capital ‘protects...

  16. Information Processing and Human Abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, John R.; Das, J. P.

    1978-01-01

    The simultaneous and successive processing model of cognitive abilities was compared to a traditional primary mental abilities model. Simultaneous processing was found to be primarily related to spatial ability; and to a lesser extent, to memory and inductive reasoning. Subjects were 104 fourth-grade urban males. (Author/GD C)

  17. Ability or Finances as Constraints to Entrepreneurship?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Meisner Nielsen, Kasper

    have significantly lower survival rates and are less profitable than are those of unconstrained entrepreneurs. Collectively, these results suggest that constrained entrepreneurs have lower entrepreneurial ability and that capital markets work sufficiently well in funding individuals who have worthy...

  18. Behavioural motivations and abilities in broilers

    OpenAIRE

    Bokkers, E.A.M.

    2004-01-01

    Broilers are chickens kept commercially under intensive husbandry conditions for poultry meat production. They grow to a slaughterweight of approximately 2.2 kg in 6 weeks. Broilers show a pronounced decrease in behavioural activity during their short life. The aim of this thesis was to gain more insight into the influence of both motivation and ability on behavioural activity in broilers. The distinction between motivation and ability is relevant for the interpretation of behavioural activit...

  19. Reality show: um paradoxo nietzschiano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilana Feldman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available

    O fenômeno dos reality shows - e a subseqüente relação entre imagem e verdade - assenta-se sobre uma série de paradoxos. Tais paradoxos podem ser compreendidos à luz do pensamento do filósofo alemão Friedrich Nietzsche, que, através dos usos de formulações paradoxais, concebia a realidade como um mundo de pura aparência e a verdade como um acréscimo ficcional, como um efeito. A ficção é então tomada, na filosofia de Nietzsche, não em seu aspecto falsificante e desrealizador - como sempre pleiteou nossa tradição metafísica -, mas como condição necessária para que certa espécie de invenção possa operar como verdade. Sendo assim, a própria expressão reality show, através de sua formulação paradoxal, engendra explicitamente um mundo de pura aparência, em que a verdade, a parte reality da proposição, é da ordem do suplemento, daquilo que se acrescenta ficcionalmente - como um adjetivo - a show. O ornamento, nesse caso, passa a ocupar o lugar central, apontando para o efeito produzido: o efeito-de-verdade. Seguindo, então, o pensamento nietzschiano e sua atualização na contemporaneidade, investigaremos de que forma os televisivos “shows de realidade” operam paradoxalmente, em consonância com nossas paradoxais práticas culturais.

  20. Control coordination abilities in shock combat sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya Boychenko

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: optimize the process control level of coordination abilities in martial arts. Material and Methods: analysis and compilation of scientific and methodological literature, interviews with coaches of drum martial arts, video analysis techniques, teacher observations. Results: identified specific types of coordination abilities in shock combat sports. Pod branny and offered specific and nonspecific tests to monitor the level of species athletes coordination abilities. Conclusion: it is determined that in order to achieve victory in the fight martial artists to navigate the space to be able to assess and manage dynamic and spatio-temporal parameters of movements, maintain balance, have a high coordination of movements. The proposed tests to monitor species coordination abilities athletes allow an objective assessment of not only the overall level of coordination, and the level of specific types of manifestations of this ability.

  1. [Adverse events prevention ability].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aparo, Ugo Luigi; Aparo, Andrea

    2007-03-01

    The issue of how to address medical errors is the key to improve the health care system performances. Operational evidence collected in the last five years shows that the solution is only partially linked to future technological developments. Cultural and organisational changes are mandatory to help to manage and drastically reduce the adverse events in health care organisations. Classical management, merely based on coordination and control, is inadequate. Proactive, self-organising network based structures must be put in place and managed using adaptive, fast evolving management tools.

  2. Parkinson's disease and driving ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rajiv; Pentland, Brian; Hunter, John; Provan, Frances

    2007-01-01

    Objectives To explore the driving problems associated with Parkinson's disease (PD) and to ascertain whether any clinical features or tests predict driver safety. Methods The driving ability of 154 individuals with PD referred to a driving assessment centre was determined by a combination of clinical tests, reaction times on a test rig and an in‐car driving test. Results The majority of cases (104, 66%) were able to continue driving although 46 individuals required an automatic transmission and 10 others needed car modifications. Ability to drive was predicted by the severity of physical disease, age, presence of other associated medical conditions, particularly dementia, duration of disease, brake reaction, time on a test rig and score on a driving test (all pautomatic transmission. A combination of clinical tests and in‐car driving assessment will establish safety to drive, and a number of clinical correlates can be shown to predict the likely outcome and may assist in the decision process. This is the largest series of consecutive patients seen at a driving assessment centre reported to date, and the first to devise a scoring system for on‐road driving assessment. PMID:17178820

  3. TIE: An Ability Test of Emotional Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Śmieja, Magdalena; Orzechowski, Jarosław; Stolarski, Maciej S.

    2014-01-01

    The Test of Emotional Intelligence (TIE) is a new ability scale based on a theoretical model that defines emotional intelligence as a set of skills responsible for the processing of emotion-relevant information. Participants are provided with descriptions of emotional problems, and asked to indicate which emotion is most probable in a given situation, or to suggest the most appropriate action. Scoring is based on the judgments of experts: professional psychotherapists, trainers, and HR specialists. The validation study showed that the TIE is a reliable and valid test, suitable for both scientific research and individual assessment. Its internal consistency measures were as high as .88. In line with theoretical model of emotional intelligence, the results of the TIE shared about 10% of common variance with a general intelligence test, and were independent of major personality dimensions. PMID:25072656

  4. TIE: an ability test of emotional intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Śmieja, Magdalena; Orzechowski, Jarosław; Stolarski, Maciej S

    2014-01-01

    The Test of Emotional Intelligence (TIE) is a new ability scale based on a theoretical model that defines emotional intelligence as a set of skills responsible for the processing of emotion-relevant information. Participants are provided with descriptions of emotional problems, and asked to indicate which emotion is most probable in a given situation, or to suggest the most appropriate action. Scoring is based on the judgments of experts: professional psychotherapists, trainers, and HR specialists. The validation study showed that the TIE is a reliable and valid test, suitable for both scientific research and individual assessment. Its internal consistency measures were as high as .88. In line with theoretical model of emotional intelligence, the results of the TIE shared about 10% of common variance with a general intelligence test, and were independent of major personality dimensions.

  5. TIE: an ability test of emotional intelligence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Śmieja

    Full Text Available The Test of Emotional Intelligence (TIE is a new ability scale based on a theoretical model that defines emotional intelligence as a set of skills responsible for the processing of emotion-relevant information. Participants are provided with descriptions of emotional problems, and asked to indicate which emotion is most probable in a given situation, or to suggest the most appropriate action. Scoring is based on the judgments of experts: professional psychotherapists, trainers, and HR specialists. The validation study showed that the TIE is a reliable and valid test, suitable for both scientific research and individual assessment. Its internal consistency measures were as high as .88. In line with theoretical model of emotional intelligence, the results of the TIE shared about 10% of common variance with a general intelligence test, and were independent of major personality dimensions.

  6. PRAGMATIC ABILITIES OF PUPILS WITH MILD INTELLECTUAL DISABILITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateja SHILC

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The research analyses characteristics of pragmatic abilities of storytelling of pupils with mild intellectual disabilities (MID, in the light of vocabulary characteristics, grammar structure and substantive structure of a story, considering their age and gender. The sample consists of 60 pupils with MID, aged 7 to 9, who attend special school. Child’s pragmatic abilities are assessed with The Storytelling Test. The research results reveal considerable progress of the older group in vocabulary, whereas the progress in grammatical and substantive structure was less substantial. When comparing achievements of pupils with MID according to the vocabulary, grammatical and substantive story structure, no gender differences are determined. A comparison of pragmatic abilities of younger and older groups of pupils with MID with the norms for peers with typical development shows minor deviation of the younger group. The research results reveal characteristics of pragmatic abilities of pupils with MID and can provide insights to speech therapists, teachers, special education teachers and counsellors when considering profiles of individuals that are taken as a basis for designing intervention programs. By implementing such program, we would encourage development of pragmatic abilities of pupils, thus affecting their academic achievements, communication competency and social skills.

  7. Using science digital storytelling to increase students’ cognitive ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewi, N. R.; Savitri, E. N.; Taufiq, M.; Khusniati, M.

    2018-04-01

    The purpose of this research is to understand whether or not science digital storytelling can improve cognitive ability. The research design used in this study was one shoot case study. The population of the research was seventh-grade students of junior high school. The number of samples involved in this study was two classes with a total of 68 students. Data of students' cognitive ability were collected using a test. The data that has been collected were then analyzed using N-gain test. Results of data analysis showed that N-gain values of experimental groups are equal to 0.48 and 0.42 which are categorized into medium category. This finding indicates that science digital storytelling can improve students' cognitive ability.

  8. No Circadian Variation in Surgeons' Ability to Diagnose Acute Appendicitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anders Bech; Amirian, Ilda; Kehlet Watt, Sara

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine if there were circadian variations in surgeons' ability to diagnose acute appendicitis. DESIGN: Retrospective database study of all patients admitted to an acute surgical procedure under the potential diagnosis of acute appendicitis in a 4-year period. The day was divided...... patients were included. There were no age limitations or selection in sex. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in the ability to diagnose appendicitis in day-evening hours vs night hours (p = 0.391), nor was any significant difference found on weekdays (Monday-Thursday) vs weekends (Friday...... of imaging had no effect on the ability to diagnose appendicitis. Male sex showed a higher probability of the diagnosis being appendicitis compared with other or no pathology (odds ratio: 3.094; p

  9. Specific Abilities May Increment Psychometric g for High Ability Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-14

    tend to sort themselves into jobs that are commensurate with their ability level ( McCormick , DeNisi, & Staw, 1979; McCormick , Jeanneret, & Mecham...of Genetic Psychology, 153, 229-230. Specific abilities, g, & high ability populations 14 McCormick , E. J., DeNisi, A. S., & Shaw, J. B... McCormick , E. J., Jeanneret, P. R., & Mecham, R. C. (1972). A study of job characteristics and job dimensions as based on the Position Analysis Questionnaire

  10. Biomass route shows lower cost

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taffe, P

    1980-11-21

    There has been much discussion concerning the economics of using biomass for the production of substitute fuels and it has been argued that the net energy gain could be small or even negative. The development of the ATPAL process is described and it is claimed that only one quarter of the energy equivalent contained in the alcohol will be consumed in the total process. Both the pilot plant and a commercial scale plant with some modifications are described. The most significant advantage claimed for the ATPAL process is in its low process energy savings resulting from mechanical vapour recompression, recycling the heat and production of a low volume of effluent.

  11. High Ability and Learner Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huda Hindal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The outstandingly able learner has been conceptualised, in terms of test and examination performance, as the learner showing superior academic performance which is markedly better than that of peers and in ways regarded as of value by wider society. In Kuwait, such superior examination performance leads to a classification regarded as being ‘gifted’. This study looks at the inter-correlations between performance in various subjects in examinations and then considers how examination performance correlates with measures of working memory capacity, extent of field dependency, extent of divergency and visual-spatial abilities. A very large sample of grade 7 Kuwaiti students (aged ~13 was involved, the sample being selected in such a way that it contained a high proportion of those regarded as ‘gifted’ under the procedures used in Kuwait. While specific learner characteristics have been related to examination performance, this study brings four different characteristics together to gain a picture of the way these characteristics may be seen in those who perform extremely well in examinations. Principal components analysis using varimax rotation, was used to look at the examination data and one factor accounted for 87% of the variance. A consideration of the examination papers led to the conclusion that the national examinations tested only recall-recognition. It was also found that those who performed best in all six subjects tended to be those who are highly divergent and strongly visual-spatial as well as those tending to have higher working memory capacities and being more field independent. The inter-correlations between the various learner characteristics are explained in terms of the way the brain is known to process information. The implications of the findings for assessment and for the way high ability is considered are discussed.

  12. Work ability assessment in a worker population: comparison and determinants of Work Ability Index and Work Ability score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Fassi, Mehdi; Bocquet, Valery; Majery, Nicole; Lair, Marie Lise; Couffignal, Sophie; Mairiaux, Philippe

    2013-04-08

    Public authorities in European countries are paying increasing attention to the promotion of work ability throughout working life and the best method to monitor work ability in populations of workers is becoming a significant question. The present study aims to compare the assessment of work ability based on the use of the Work Ability Index (WAI), a 7-item questionnaire, with another one based on the use of WAI's first item, which consists in the worker's self-assessment of his/her current work ability level as opposed to his/her lifetime best, this single question being termed "Work Ability score" (WAS). Using a database created by an occupational health service, the study intends to answer the following questions: could the assessment of work ability be based on a single-item measure and which are the variables significantly associated with self-reported work ability among those systematically recorded by the occupational physician during health examinations? A logistic regression model was used in order to estimate the probability of observing "poor" or "moderate" WAI levels depending on age, gender, body mass index, smoking status, position held, firm size and diseases reported by the worker in a population of workers aged 40 to 65 and examined between January 2006 and June 2010 (n=12389). The convergent validity between WAS and WAI was statistically significant (rs=0.63). In the multivariable model, age (pwork ability. A work position characterized by the predominance of mental activity (OR=0.71, 95%CI [0.61-0.84]) had a favourable impact on work ability. These relations were observed regardless of the work ability measurement tool used. The convergent validity and the similarity in results between WAI and WAS observed in a large population of employed workers should thus foster the use of WAS for systematic screening of work ability. Ageing, overweight, decline in health status, holding a mostly physical job and working in a large-sized firm increase the

  13. Organization and ELISA-Based Results of the First Proficiency Testing to Evaluate the Ability of European Union Laboratories to Detect Staphylococcal Enterotoxin Type B (SEB in Buffer and Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yacine Nia

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to organize the first proficiency test (PT dedicated to staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB detection in milk and buffer solutions. This paper describes the organization of the PT trial according to EN ISO 17043 requirements. Characterization of the SEB stock solution was performed using SDS-PAGE and SE-specific ELISA, and amino acid analysis was used to assign its protein concentration. The solution was then used to prepare six PT materials (four milk and two buffer batches at a ng/g toxin level, which included one blank and one SEA-containing milk as specificity control. Suitable material homogeneity and stability were assessed using screening and quantitative ELISAs. Among the methods used by the participants, ELISA-based methods demonstrated their efficiency for the detection of SEB in both simple and complex matrices. The results serve as a basis for further improving the detection capabilities in expert laboratories and can therefore be considered as a contribution to biopreparedness.

  14. Visual statistical learning is related to natural language ability in adults: An ERP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daltrozzo, Jerome; Emerson, Samantha N; Deocampo, Joanne; Singh, Sonia; Freggens, Marjorie; Branum-Martin, Lee; Conway, Christopher M

    2017-03-01

    Statistical learning (SL) is believed to enable language acquisition by allowing individuals to learn regularities within linguistic input. However, neural evidence supporting a direct relationship between SL and language ability is scarce. We investigated whether there are associations between event-related potential (ERP) correlates of SL and language abilities while controlling for the general level of selective attention. Seventeen adults completed tests of visual SL, receptive vocabulary, grammatical ability, and sentence completion. Response times and ERPs showed that SL is related to receptive vocabulary and grammatical ability. ERPs indicated that the relationship between SL and grammatical ability was independent of attention while the association between SL and receptive vocabulary depended on attention. The implications of these dissociative relationships in terms of underlying mechanisms of SL and language are discussed. These results further elucidate the cognitive nature of the links between SL mechanisms and language abilities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Profile of mathematical reasoning ability of 8th grade students seen from communicational ability, basic skills, connection, and logical thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumarsih; Budiyono; Indriati, D.

    2018-04-01

    This research aims to understand the students’ weaknesses in mathematical reasoning ability in junior secondary school. A set of multiple choice tests were used to measure this ability involve components mathematical communication, basic skills, connection, and logical thinking. A total of 259 respondents were determined by stratified cluster random sampling. Data were analyzed using one-way Anova test with Fobs = 109.5760 and F = 3.0000. The results show that students’ ability from schools with high National Exam in mathematics category was the best and followed by medium and low category. Mathematical connection is the most difficult component performed by students. In addition, most students also have difficulty in expressing ideas and developing logical arguments.

  16. Historical Evolution of Spatial Abilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ardila

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Historical evolution and cross-cultural differences in spatial abilities are analyzed. Spatial abilities have been found to be significantly associated with the complexity of geographical conditions and survival demands. Although impaired spatial cognition is found in cases of, exclusively or predominantly, right hemisphere pathology, it is proposed that this asymmetry may depend on the degree of training in spatial abilities. It is further proposed that spatial cognition might have evolved in a parallel way with cultural evolution and environmental demands. Contemporary city humans might be using spatial abilities in some new, conceptual tasks that did not exist in prehistoric times: mathematics, reading, writing, mechanics, music, etc. Cross-cultural analysis of spatial abilities in different human groups, normalization of neuropsychological testing instruments, and clinical observations of spatial ability disturbances in people with different cultural backgrounds and various spatial requirements, are required to construct a neuropsychological theory of brain organization of spatial cognition.

  17. Psychological Measures of Spatial Abilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurel Ion Clinciu

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Spatial abilities are divided into three categories: mental rotation, spatial relation and visualization. Several tests are cited in foreign literature that are frequently used in order to assess these abilities, but for Romanian specialists they are not on hand. The present paper is introducing new assessment tools for static spatial abilities that were successfully used along with already validated instruments. Data on statistical qualities of the new instruments are also discussed.

  18. Language mastery, narrative abilities and oral expression abilities in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The importance of language and language mastery for science learning has been the object of extensive investigation in recent decades, leading to ample recognition. However, specific focus on the role of narrative abilities is still scarce. This work focuses on the relevance of narrative abilities for chemistry learning.

  19. The ability to mentally represent action is associated with low motor ability in children: a preliminary investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbard, Carl; Caçola, Priscila; Bobbio, Tatiana

    2012-05-01

    Theory and anatomical research suggest that the ability to mentally represent intended actions affect level of execution. This study presents preliminary data examining the association between children's ability to mentally represent action and general motor ability. Children aged 7- to 10 years were assessed for motor imagery ability using a simulation of reach task and motor ability via the Movement ABC-2. Motor ability values, based on percentile rank, ranged from 2 to 91, with a mean of 36. The overall correlation between mental representation and motor ability yielded a moderately positive relationship (r = .39). Interestingly, when looking at motor ability subcategories, only Balance was significant in the model, explaining 20% of the variance. These results provide preliminary evidence that children's motor ability and the ability to mentally represent action are associated in a positive direction. Furthermore, given the results for Balance, we speculate that there are clinical implications regarding work with potentially at-risk children. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. Evidence for shared genetic risk between ADHD symptoms and reduced mathematics ability: a twin study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greven, Corina U; Kovas, Yulia; Willcutt, Erik G; Petrill, Stephen A; Plomin, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and mathematics ability are associated, but little is known about the genetic and environmental influences underlying this association. Data came from more than 6,000 twelve-year-old twin pairs from the UK population-representative Twins Early Development Study. Parents rated each twin's behaviour using a DSM-IV-based 18-item questionnaire of inattentive and hyperactive-impulsive ADHD symptoms. Mathematics tests based on the UK National Curriculum were completed by each twin. The twins also completed standardised tests of reading and general cognitive ability. Multivariate twin model fitting was applied. Inattentive and hyperactive-impulsive ADHD symptoms were highly heritable (67% and 73% respectively). Mathematics ability was moderately heritable (46%). Mathematics ability and inattentiveness showed a significantly greater phenotypic correlation (r(p) = -.26) and genetic correlation (r(A) = -.41) than mathematics ability and hyperactivity-impulsivity (r(p) = -.18; r(A) = -.22). The genetic correlation between inattentiveness and mathematics ability was largely independent from hyperactivity-impulsivity, and was only partially accounted for by genetic influences related to reading and general cognitive ability. Results revealed the novel finding that mathematics ability shows significantly stronger phenotypic and genetic associations with inattentiveness than with hyperactivity-impulsivity. Genetic associations between inattentiveness and mathematics ability could only partially be accounted for by hyperactivity-impulsivity, reading and general cognitive ability. Results suggest that mathematics ability is associated with ADHD symptoms largely because it shares genetic risk factors with inattentiveness, and provide further evidence for considering inattentiveness and hyperactivity-impulsivity separately. DNA markers for ADHD symptoms (especially inattentiveness) may also be candidate risk factors for

  1. Environmental change enhances cognitive abilities in fish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Kotrschal

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Flexible or innovative behavior is advantageous, especially when animals are exposed to frequent and unpredictable environmental perturbations. Improved cognitive abilities can help animals to respond quickly and adequately to environmental dynamics, and therefore changing environments may select for higher cognitive abilities. Increased cognitive abilities can be attained, for instance, if environmental change during ontogeny triggers plastic adaptive responses improving the learning capacity of exposed individuals. We tested the learning abilities of fishes in response to experimental variation of environmental quality during ontogeny. Individuals of the cichlid fish Simochromis pleurospilus that experienced a change in food ration early in life outperformed fish kept on constant rations in a learning task later in life--irrespective of the direction of the implemented change and the mean rations received. This difference in learning abilities between individuals remained constant between juvenile and adult stages of the same fish tested 1 y apart. Neither environmental enrichment nor training through repeated neural stimulation can explain our findings, as the sensory environment was kept constant and resource availability was changed only once. Instead, our results indicate a pathway by which a single change in resource availability early in life permanently enhances the learning abilities of animals. Early perturbations of environmental quality may signal the developing individual that it lives in a changing world, requiring increased cognitive abilities to construct adequate behavioral responses.

  2. Cognitive abilities in children in contexts of poverty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvina Cohen Imach

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A series of studies of cognitive abilities were conducted on a group of children at a context of poverty, in reason of learning about the quality of such capabilities, and in direct relationship to low school performance and subsequent risk of academic underachievement. Fifty three 4th year EGB-2 (Elementary School children of both sexes participated. They attend a suburban school outside the city of San Miguel de Tucumán, Argentina. Tests of Analogies and Building with Cubes of Wechsler ́s Intelligence Scale III (WISCIII were used in the process. Additionally, a register protocol was prepared by the research team. Outcomes were articulated with a demographic poll inquiring on the social-economic context of the children. Results reveal a proportion of 18.9 % of the children showing below standard records in cognitive abilities related to the aptitude in forming verbal concepts, and of 13.2 % in non- verbal concepts. Verbal abilities refer to the faculty of classifying and categorizing, for which the subject needs to organize, abstract and find relationship between facts or ideas and the comprehension of oral/audio assignments. Non- verbal abilities submit to the aptitude of making processes of analysis- synthesis and applying non- verbal reasoning to spatial relationships. This group of children was selected to receive – in second stage- training in these abilities through the Instrumental Enrichment Program. 

  3. Short Circuits or Superconductors? Examining Factors That Encourage or Undermine Group Learning and Collaboration among High-Ability Students. CSE Technical Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Noreen M.; Welner, Mari; Zuniga, Stephen

    This study investigated the effects of group ability composition (homogeneous versus heterogeneous) on group processes and outcomes for high ability students completing science performance assessments. Participants were 99 seventh and eighth graders from 9 classes in 2 schools. The results show that group ability composition does not have…

  4. Assessment of the relationship between physical working conditions and different levels of work ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attarchi, Mirsaeed; Ghaffari, Mostafa; Abdi, Alireza; Mirzamohammadi, Elham; Seyedmehdi, Seyed Mohammad; Rahimpour, Farzaneh; Fazlalizadeh, Maryam; Mohammadi, Saber

    2014-04-20

    Early leaving of workplace by work forces is one of the fundamental problems worldwide. Maintenance and enhancement of employees work ability are important for raising productivity. This study investigated the relationship between work ability index and physical working conditions and was carried out in 2013 on 641 workers at a manufacturing plant in Tehran. Work ability was assessed by the questionnaire of work ability index and the participants were classified into four work ability groups of poor, moderate, good, and excellent. Physical working conditions were evaluated by the MUSIC-Norrtalje questionnaire and the participants were classified into two groups with proper and poor physical working conditions. The mean score of work ability questionnaire was 42.40; and 2.5% (16 persons), 9.2% (59 persons), 38.2% (245 persons), and 50.1% (321 persons) of the participants were in poor, moderate, good, and excellent work ability groups, respectively. The mean score of physical working conditions questionnaire was 20.06. The results of logistic regression analysis showed that even after adjusting the confounding variables, a significant correlation existed between work ability and physical working conditions (p working conditions such as awkward postures, repetitive movements, load lifting, exposure to whole body vibration and so on with work ability. Therefore it seems that enhancement of the quality of physical working conditions may increase work ability.

  5. The Use of "Literary Fiction" to Promote Mentalizing Ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pino, Maria Chiara; Mazza, Monica

    2016-01-01

    Empathy is a multidimensional process that incorporates both mentalizing and emotional sharing dimensions. Empathic competencies are important for creating interpersonal relationships with other people and developing adequate social behaviour. The lack of these social components also leads to isolation and exclusion in healthy populations. However, few studies have investigated how to improve these social skills. In a recent study, Kidd and Castano (2013) found that reading literary fiction increases mentalizing ability and may change how people think about other people's emotions and mental states. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effects of reading literary fiction, compared to nonfiction and science fiction, on empathic abilities. Compared to previous studies, we used a larger variety of empathy measures and utilized a pre and post-test design. In all, 214 healthy participants were randomly assigned to read a book representative of one of three literary genres (literary fiction, nonfiction, science fiction). Participants were assessed before and after the reading phase using mentalizing and emotional sharing tests, according to Zaki and Ochsner' s (2012) model. Comparisons of sociodemographic, mentalizing, and emotional sharing variables across conditions were conducted using ANOVA. Our results showed that after the reading phase, the literary fiction group showed improvement in mentalizing abilities, but there was no discernible effect on emotional sharing abilities. Our study showed that the reading processes can promote mentalizing abilities. These results may set important goals for future low-cost rehabilitation protocols for several disorders in which the mentalizing deficit is considered central to the disease, such as Autism Spectrum Disorders and Schizophrenia.

  6. Mnemonic abilities of primary school children with delayed mental development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murafa S.V.

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of research regarding the mnemonic abilities of primary school children with developmental delays. Empirical studies of impaired mental development offer an opportunity to elucidate the psychological mechanisms underlying the process of normal development and enable us to consider at a micro level the formation of mental processes in ontogeny, which would, under normal conditions, be nondescript and not always amenable to psychological analysis. The research addresses an experimental investigation of productivity and qualitative characteristics of mnemonic abilities among primary school students with developmental delays. V.D. Shadrikov’s Theory of Abilities, developed in a systemic approach framework, is the theoretical basis of the research. The method of deploying a memorization activity, as elaborated by V.D. Shadrikov and L.V. Cheremoshkina, was the investigation tool used. The sample included students in grades 1 to 4 between ages 7 to 12 and included a total of 100 children (66 boys and 34 girls. The control group of primary school students with typical development included 105 children (50 boys and 55 girls. The research consisted of several stages: a pilot study, experimental research (the test task was to memorize card #1; the basic task was to memorize cards #2 and #3; to reproduce cards #2 and #3; and to poll the students, mathematical data processing, and a description of the levels of mnemonic ability development among primary students with developmental delays. The following procedures were employed during statistical analysis: Spearman r3, Mann-Whitney U-test, Jonckheere-Terpstra test, and Kruskal-Wallis test. The structure of mnemonic abilities in primary schoolchildren with developmental delays was determined to vary according to the underdevelopment of their operational mechanisms. For example, memory functions are based on the use of inborn mechanisms, and a portion of children differ in the

  7. Verbal Ability and Teacher Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew, Michael D.; Cobb, Casey D.; Giampietro, Peter J.

    2005-01-01

    Critics of traditional teacher education programs have suggested that verbal ability along with subject knowledge is sufficient for measuring good teaching. A small group of research studies is called upon to support this contention. This article reviews these studies, analyzes the role of verbal ability in teaching, and presents research…

  8. Efficient evaluation of hearing ability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method of establishing a hearing ability model for a person, the method including providing a representation of the distribution of hearing ability for a population of individuals. The method may comprise the steps) performing a hearing evaluation event, comprising

  9. Readability, Reading Ability, and Readership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Richard P.; And Others

    This paper presents data describing large differences between the reading difficulty levels of printed materials used in certain military occupational specialties (MOSs) and the relatively lower reading ability levels of men assigned to these MOSs. Initial data explore the relationship between reading ability and utilization of printed materials…

  10. Mind-Reading ability and structural connectivity changes in aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monia eCabinio

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The Mind-Reading ability through the eyes is an important component of the affective Theory of Mind (ToM, which allows people to infer the other’s mental state from the eye gaze. The aim of the present study was to investigate to which extent age-associated structural brain changes impact this ability and to determine if this association is related to executive functions in elderly subjects. For this purpose, Magnetic Resonance Imaging was used to determine both gray matter and white matter areas associated with aging. The resulting areas have been included in a subsequent correlation analysis to detect the brain regions whose structure was associated with the Mind-Reading ability through the eyes, assessed with the Italian version of the Reading the Mind in the Eyes (RME test, in a sample of 36 healthy subjects ranging from 24 to 79 years of age. The analysis resulted in three important findings: 1 the performance to the RME test is relatively stable across the decades 20-70 (despite a slight decrease of this ability with aging and independent from executive functions; 2 structural brain imaging demonstrated the involvement of a great number of cortical ToM areas for the execution of the RME test: the bilateral precentral gyrus, the bilateral posterior insula, the left superior temporal gyrus and the left inferior frontal gyrus, which also showed a significant volume decrease with age; 3 an age and task-related decline in white matter connectivity on left fronto-temporal portion of the brain. Our results confirm the age-related structural modifications of the brain and show that these changes have an influence on the Mind-Reading ability through the eyes.

  11. The geometry ability of junior high school students in Karanganyar based on the Hoffer’s theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurwijayanti, A.; Budiyono; Fitriana, L.

    2018-03-01

    Geometry ability is the aspect which underlay students to solve the geometry problems. However, some studies suggests the difficulty students when learning geometry. This leads to the ability of the geometri students difficult to develop. There are five the geometry ability based the Hoffer’s theory, namely visual, verbal, drawing, logical, and applied. These five aspects are basic geometry ability to be mastered by Junior High School students level. This study aimed to describe the students’ geometry ability according to the Hoffer’s theory. The participants of this study are six students from 9th grade in State Junior High School 1 Jaten at Karanganyar that consisted of three categories, namely higher ability, moderate ability, and lower ability students. The data collection methods used are geometry test and in-depth interview and than analyzed using triangulation. The result of the study showed that the ability of those three categories is different. Each of the students' geometry ability can be described as follows. (1) On visual skill, higher ability and moderate ability students could mention the elements of the geometrical shapes correctly based on its shapes obtained. However, lower ability students were unable to mention it specifically; (2) On verbal skill, moderate ability students were able to link the relationship among shapes based on the characteristics correctly, despite that the higher ability and lower ability seemed to have difficulty; (3) On drawing skill, higher ability students could construct the shapes based on the relationship among shapes well, but moderate ability and lower ability students continually faced difficulty; (4) On logical skill, both higher ability, and moderate ability students were able to determine the formula of a particular geometrical shape based on the relationship among the elements of the shape well, while the lower ability students were unable to; (5) On applied skill, higher ability, and moderate ability

  12. Improving the EFL Learners’ Speaking Ability through Interactive Storytelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzuki Marzuki

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This present research was aimed to improve the EFL learners’ speaking ability and their classroom activities through the implementation of Interactive Storytelling Strategy. Therefore, this study was directed to explore the beneficial of Interactive Storytelling that closely related to the EFL learners’ everyday activities at their home and school. The subject consisted of 22 of Junior High of Indonesian EFL learners. A Classroom Action Research in two cycles had been conducted within 6 meetings for every cycle. The meetings were focused on the interactivity and communicative ability among learners. The research result showed that the learners’ speaking ability improved from 17 or 72,27% passed in Cycle 1 to 22 or 100% passed the criteria of success in Cycle 2. It also showed that their classroom activities improved from 8 or 36,36% who were very active (VA and 14 or 63,64% who were active (A to 18 or 81,82% were very active (VA and 4 or 18,18% were active (A. In conclusion, the implementation of Interactive Storytelling Strategy increased the EFL learners’ speaking ability and their classroom activities.

  13. The work ability index and functional capacity among older workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosimeire S. Padula

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Decreases in functional ability due to aging can impair work capacity and productivity among older workers. OBJECTIVE: This study compares the sociodemographics, health conditions, and physical functioning abilities of young and old workers as well as correlates of physical functioning capacity with the work ability index (WAI. METHOD: This exploratory, cross-sectional study examined employees of a higher education institution (HEI and those of a metallurgical industry. Older workers (50 years old or above were matched for gender and occupation type with younger workers (less than 50 years old. The following evaluations were applied: the multidimensional assessment questionnaire (which included sociodemographic, clinical, health perception, and physical health indices, the WAI, and a battery of physical functional tests. RESULTS: Diseases and regularly used medications were more common among the group of aging workers. The WAI did not differ between groups (p=0.237. Both groups showed similar physical functional capacity performances with regard to walking speed, muscle strength, and lower limb physical functioning. Aging workers showed a poorer performance on a test of right-leg support (p=0.004. The WAI was moderately correlated with the sit-to-stand test among older female workers (r=0.573, p=0.051. CONCLUSIONS: Unfavorable general health conditions did not affect the assessment of work ability or most of the tests of physical functional capacity in the aging group.

  14. Correlation of Cognitive Abilities Level, Age and Ranks in Judo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kraček Stanislav

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to ascertain the correlation between selected cognitive abilities, age and performance of judokas according to ranking. The study group consisted of judokas in the age group 18 ± 2.4 years. The Stroop Color-Word Test - Victoria Version (VST was the instrument used to determine the level of cognitive abilities. The data obtained were measured by the Pearson Correlation (r correlation test. The results of the study show an associative relationship of indirect correlation (p < 0.01 between age and all of the three categories of the Stroop test. This is an indirect correlation, so the higher the age, the lower the time (better performance of the probands in the Stroop test. There was no statistically significant correlation between performance in the categories of the Stroop test and rankings. The outcomes show that the level of selected cognitive abilities depends on age, but the level of the selected cognitive abilities does not affect the ranking of the judokas.

  15. Connectivity patterns in cognitive control networks predict naturalistic multitasking ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Tanya; Liu, De-Cyuan; Hsieh, Shulan

    2018-06-01

    Multitasking is a fundamental aspect of everyday life activities. To achieve a complex, multi-component goal, the tasks must be subdivided into sub-tasks and component steps, a critical function of prefrontal networks. The prefrontal cortex is considered to be organized in a cascade of executive processes from the sensorimotor to anterior prefrontal cortex, which includes execution of specific goal-directed action, to encoding and maintaining task rules, and finally monitoring distal goals. In the current study, we used a virtual multitasking paradigm to tap into real-world performance and relate it to each individual's resting-state functional connectivity in fMRI. While did not find any correlation between global connectivity of any of the major networks with multitasking ability, global connectivity of the lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC) was predictive of multitasking ability. Further analysis showed that multivariate connectivity patterns within the sensorimotor network (SMN), and between-network connectivity of the frontoparietal network (FPN) and dorsal attention network (DAN), predicted individual multitasking ability and could be generalized to novel individuals. Together, these results support previous research that prefrontal networks underlie multitasking abilities and show that connectivity patterns in the cascade of prefrontal networks may explain individual differences in performance. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. The role of auditory abilities in basic mechanisms of cognition in older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo eGrassi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess age-related differences between young and older adults in auditory abilities and to investigate the relationship between auditory abilities and basic mechanisms of cognition in older adults. Although there is a certain consensus that the participant’s sensitivity to the absolute intensity of sounds (such as that measured via pure tone audiometry explains his/her cognitive performance, there is not yet much evidence that the participant’s auditory ability (i.e., the whole supra-threshold processing of sounds explains his/her cognitive performance. Twenty-eight young adults (age < 35, 26 young-old adults (65 ≤ age ≤75 and 28 old-old adults (age > 75 were presented with a set of tasks estimating several auditory abilities (i.e., frequency discrimination, intensity discrimination, duration discrimination, timbre discrimination, gap detection, amplitude modulation detection, and the absolute threshold for a 1 kHz pure tone and the participant’s working memory, cognitive inhibition, and processing speed. Results showed an age-related decline in both auditory and cognitive performance. Moreover, regression analyses showed that a subset of the auditory abilities (i.e., the ability to discriminate frequency, duration, timbre, and the ability to detect amplitude modulation explained a significant part of the variance observed in processing speed in older adults. Overall, the present results highlight the relationship between auditory abilities and basic mechanisms of cognition.

  17. Students’ Self-Monitoring on Mathematics Ability: Cube and Cuboid Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lusiana, N. T.; Lukito, A.; Khabibah, S.

    2018-01-01

    This study aims at describing students’ activity to understand the behaviors processes called self-monitoring in a cube and cuboid problem solving viewed from mathematics ability. The subjects were eight graders of junior high school who studied surface area and volume of cube and cuboid clussified into high, average and low mathematics abilities. Mathematics ability test to select the subjects the study. Data were collected through self-monitoring task and interviews. Data triangulation was used to verify the credibillity findings. Data analysis was done by data condensation, data display and conclusion drawing and verification. Results showed that students’ self-monitoring with high math ability is more fullfilled self-monitoring components. Students with average and low math abilities not fullfilled the component that covers verifying the results during solving the problem. It is expected that teachers must provide different learning treatments to improve students’ self-monitoring for better learning outcomes.

  18. The role of trait and ability emotional intelligence in bulimic symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Kathryn Jane; Quinton, Stephanie; Qualter, Pamela

    2014-04-01

    Bulimia is characterized by poor affect regulation, yet the role of emotional intelligence (EI) is little understood. This study examined associations between EI and bulimic symptoms using 235 women from community and student populations. They completed measures of trait and ability EI, and the Eating Disorders Diagnostic Scale. Results showed that deficiencies in different aspects of trait EI and/or ability EI are a function of symptom type: binge eating, compensatory behaviours or weight and shape concerns. Consistent with affect regulation models, self-regulatory aspects of trait EI were related to two bulimic symptoms: binge eating and weight and shape concerns. Ability-based self-emotion management was not important, and explanatory power of lower-level EI facets (traits or abilities) was not superior to more broadly defined EI factors. Results support the conclusion that trait and ability EI may maintain subclinical levels of bulimic symptoms but have different paths. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Individual differences in episodic memory abilities predict successful prospective memory output monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter Ball, B; Pitães, Margarida; Brewer, Gene A

    2018-02-07

    Output monitoring refers to memory for one's previously completed actions. In the context of prospective memory (PM) (e.g., remembering to take medication), failures of output monitoring can result in repetitions and omissions of planned actions (e.g., over- or under-medication). To be successful in output monitoring paradigms, participants must flexibly control attention to detect PM cues as well as engage controlled retrieval of previous actions whenever a particular cue is encountered. The current study examined individual differences in output monitoring abilities in a group of younger adults differing in attention control (AC) and episodic memory (EM) abilities. The results showed that AC ability uniquely predicted successful cue detection on the first presentation, whereas EM ability uniquely predicted successful output monitoring on the second presentation. The current study highlights the importance of examining external correlates of PM abilities and contributes to the growing body of research on individual differences in PM.

  20. THE OSMOREGULATORY ABILITY OF THREE GRAPSOID CRAB ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    in the upper reaches of estuaries. C.lIl111&1lltlll was shown to be capable of maintainios its baemolymph osmotic pressure above that of tile environmental medium in loweRd salinities, but without the desrcc of constancy cbaracteristic of the two Se6tlntlll species. It does, however. show a marked ability to tolerate lowered ...

  1. Interplay of Cognitive Efficiency, Cognitive Ability and Motivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Piks

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The current body of research often focuses on the problem of cognitive decline through ageing. People adapt to these changes of cognitive resources by using brain reserve. An overview of results of different studies on how cognitive abilities of older adults decline highlights high variability of conclusions and sometimes contradiction but it has been shown older adults can be as good as or even better than younger participants in specific domains. Among others, personal meaningfulness of a situation and closeness to the researcher can be strong factors when assessing cognitive abilities and the aim of this paper was to research how these effect cognitive efficiency. In the pilot study we eliminated the factor of laboratory setting and checked how cognitive efficiency and abilities change in relation to motivation. Forty-eight participants, divided into two age groups, were asked to pass a proverb interpretation test. The results showed that participant’s subjective view on the researcher, perceived closeness, correlated with the adequacy in proverb interpretation. Both groups scored higher on adequacy of interpretation when they perceived to be close to the researcher. The younger adults outperformed the older but those in the older adults’ group, who felt to be close to the researcher scored as well as younger adults who didn’t perceived to be close to the researcher. This motivational reserve might play a role in assessing cognitive abilities and pathologies that affect the outcome of neuropsychological tests.

  2. Individual differences in multitasking ability and adaptability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Brent; D'Mello, Sidney; Abbott, Robert; Radvansky, Gabriel; Haass, Michael; Tamplin, Andrea

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the cognitive factors that predictability and adaptability during multitasking with a flight simulator. Multitasking has become increasingly prevalent as most professions require individuals to perform multiple tasks simultaneously. Considerable research has been undertaken to identify the characteristics of people (i.e., individual differences) that predict multitasking ability. Although working memory is a reliable predictor of general multitasking ability (i.e., performance in normal conditions), there is the question of whether different cognitive faculties are needed to rapidly respond to changing task demands (adaptability). Participants first completed a battery of cognitive individual differences tests followed by multitasking sessions with a flight simulator. After a baseline condition, difficulty of the flight simulator was incrementally increased via four experimental manipulations, and performance metrics were collected to assess multitasking ability and adaptability. Scholastic aptitude and working memory predicted general multitasking ability (i.e., performance at baseline difficulty), but spatial manipulation (in conjunction with working memory) was a major predictor of adaptability (performance in difficult conditions after accounting for baseline performance). Multitasking ability and adaptability may be overlapping but separate constructs that draw on overlapping (but not identical) sets of cognitive abilities. The results of this study are applicable to practitioners and researchers in human factors to assess multitasking performance in real-world contexts and with realistic task constraints. We also present a framework for conceptualizing multitasking adaptability on the basis of five adaptability profiles derived from performance on tasks with consistent versus increased difficulty.

  3. Abilities of preschoolers: comparing different tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiappedi Matteo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a strong need for studies evaluating tests in terms both of psychometric properties (i.e. their efficacy or ability to be helpful in reaching a diagnosis and of their cost-effectiveness (i.e. their efficiency. These data are essential for planning a correct evaluation to identify children's needs (both educational and abilitative. Methods We evaluated 58 children attending for the first time the last year of the Scuola dell'Infanzia. Parental view was obtained with Child Behaviour Check-List and Conners' Rating Scales - Revised, and family socio-economic status was evaluated using Hollingshead's Four Factor Index; teacher compiled the IPDA questionnaire; children were administered Raven's Progressive Matrices, Modified Bell Cancellation Test, BVN 5-11 (a neuropsychological battery. Results A correlational analysis was conducted using Spearman's Rho (since variables were not normally distributed. These asymptomatic children show a good global cognitive functioning, but also a deficit of attention and of Executive Functions. Some of the tests used seem more cost-effective than others and there are some redundancies in information obtained. Conclusions Our data show that there are significant correlations between different neuropsychological and behavioural measures. It is therefore possible to rationalize diagnostic protocols without a significant information reduction. A deeper analysis will require a preliminary definition of the psychometric properties of used tools.

  4. Sex Differences in Fluid Reasoning: Manifest and Latent Estimates from the Cognitive Abilities Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joni M. Lakin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The size and nature of sex differences in cognitive ability continues to be a source of controversy. Conflicting findings result from the selection of measures, samples, and methods used to estimate sex differences. Existing sex differences work on the Cognitive Abilities Test (CogAT has analyzed manifest variables, leaving open questions about sex differences in latent narrow cognitive abilities and the underlying broad ability of fluid reasoning (Gf. This study attempted to address these questions. A confirmatory bifactor model was used to estimate Gf and three residual narrow ability factors (verbal, quantitative, and figural. We found that latent mean differences were larger than manifest estimates for all three narrow abilities. However, mean differences in Gf were trivial, consistent with previous research. In estimating group variances, the Gf factor showed substantially greater male variability (around 20% greater. The narrow abilities varied: verbal reasoning showed small variability differences while quantitative and figural showed substantial differences in variance (up to 60% greater. These results add precision and nuance to the study of the variability and masking hypothesis.

  5. High ability: Giftedness and talent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Dolores Prieto Sánchez

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This special issue of the journal aims at putting together national and international research on high abilities, and is divided into three sections: 1 Roles and cognitive, emotional and professional competences of high ability students’ teachers, 2 Identification and assessment of high ability students, 3 Analysis of practices, programs and mentoring of high ability students’ attention to diversity.The articles are authored by scholars from nine different countries (Spain, Argentina, UK, USA, Russia, Brazil, Saudi Arabia, Portugal and Poland, from sixteen different Spanish and international universities: Alicante (Spain, Autónoma de Barcelona (Spain, Málaga (Spain, Murcia (Spain, Navarra (Spain, Oviedo (Spain, Tufts University (USA, Yale University (USA, Moscow State University (Russia, Nacional de La Plata (Argentina, University of Connecticut (USA, Universidade do Minho (Portugal, Universidade da Beira Interior (Portugal, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (Brazil, King Faisal University (Saudi Arabia and Universidad de Szczecin (Poland.

  6. Active explorers show low learning performance in a social insect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eve UDINO; Margot PEREZ; Claudio CARERE; Patrizia d'ETTORRE

    2017-01-01

    An intriguing question in behavioral biology is whether consistent individual differences (called animal personalities) relate to variation in cognitive performance because commonly measured personality traits may be associated with risk-reward trade-offs.Social insects,whose learning abilities have been extensively characterized,show consistent behavioral variability,both at colony and at individual level.We investigated the possible link between personality traits and learning performance in the carpenter ant Camponotus aethiops.Exploratory activity,sociability,and aggression were assessed twice in ant foragers.Behaviors differed among individuals,they were partly repeatable across time and exploratory activity correlated positively with aggression.Learning abilities were quantified by differential conditioning of the maxilla-labium extension response,a task that requires cue perception and information storage.We found that exploratory activity of individual ants significantly predicted learning performance:"active-explorers" were slower in learning the task than "inactive-explorers".The results suggest for the first time a link between a personality trait and cognitive performance in eusocial insects,and that the underlying individual variability could affect colony performance and success.

  7. Role of implicit learning abilities in metaphor understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drouillet, Luc; Stefaniak, Nicolas; Declercq, Christelle; Obert, Alexandre

    2018-05-01

    Although the use of metaphors is a central component of language, the processes that sustain their comprehension have yet to be specified. Work in the fields of both metaphors and implicit learning suggests that implicit learning abilities facilitate the comprehension of metaphors. However, to date, no study has directly explored the relationships between the understanding of metaphors and so-called implicit learning tasks. We used a meaning decision task comparing literal, metaphorical and meaningless expressions to assess metaphor understanding and a probabilistic serial reaction time task for assessing implicit learning. Our results show that implicit learning positively predicts the time gap between responses to literal and metaphorical expressions and negatively predicts the difference between metaphorical and meaningless expressions. Thus, when confronted with novel metaphors, participants with higher implicit learning abilities are better able to identify that the expressions have some meaning. These results are interpreted in the context of metaphor understanding and psycholinguistic theories. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Error Argumentation Enhance Adaptability in Adults With Low Motor Ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chi-Mei; Bo, Jin

    2016-01-01

    The authors focused on young adults with varying degrees of motor difficulties and examined their adaptability in a visuomotor adaptation task where the visual feedback of participants' movement error was presented with either 1:1 ratio (i.e., regular feedback schedule) or 1:2 ratio (i.e., enhanced feedback schedule). Within-subject design was used with two feedback schedules counter-balanced and separated for 10 days. Results revealed that participants with greater motor difficulties showed less adaptability than those with normal motor abilities in the regular feedback schedule; however, all participants demonstrated similar level of adaptability in the enhanced feedback schedule. The results suggest that error argumentation enhances adaptability in adults with low motor ability.

  9. Interaction of lifestyle and work ability index in blue collar workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Saber; Ghaffari, Mostafa; Abdi, Alireza; Bahadori, Baharak; Mirzamohammadi, Elham; Attarchi, Mirsaeed

    2014-11-17

    Early labor force exit is one of the major problems worldwide. The present study investigates the relationship between work ability and lifestyle. This study was conducted at a manufacturing plant in Tehran in 2012. All 851 male workers in this plant were included into the study and their work ability was assessed using the Work Ability Index (WAI). Based on the obtained scores, the participants were then classified into four work ability groups (poor, moderate, good, or excellent). Moreover, the participants' lifestyles were studied in three areas, including physical activity, cigarette smoking, and Body Mass Index (BMI). The average work ability index score was 42.07, ranging from 7-48. Among the participants, 6.4% (43), 6.5% (44), 38.3% (259), and 48.8% (330) were in the groups with poor, moderate, good, and excellent work ability, respectively. The results of logistic regression analysis showed that there is a significant relationship between work ability and lifestyle (cigarette smoking, BMI, and physical activity) even after adjustment for confounding variables (Pwork ability and lifestyle (physical activity, BMI, cigarette smoking). Therefore, it is recommended to implement a lifestyle quality enhancement program to improve work ability in working environments.

  10. P300 correlates with learning & memory abilities and fluid intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Hafeez Ullah; Malik, Aamir Saeed; Kamel, Nidal; Chooi, Weng-Tink; Hussain, Muhammad

    2015-09-23

    Educational psychology research has linked fluid intelligence with learning and memory abilities and neuroimaging studies have specifically associated fluid intelligence with event related potentials (ERPs). The objective of this study is to find the relationship of ERPs with learning and memory recall and predict the memory recall score using P300 (P3) component. A sample of thirty-four healthy subjects between twenty and thirty years of age was selected to perform three tasks: (1) Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices (RAPM) test to assess fluid intelligence; (2) learning and memory task to assess learning ability and memory recall; and (3) the visual oddball task to assess brain-evoked potentials. These subjects were divided into High Ability (HA) and Low Ability (LA) groups based on their RAPM scores. A multiple regression analysis was used to predict the learning & memory recall and fluid intelligence using P3 amplitude and latency. Behavioral results demonstrated that the HA group learned and recalled 10.89 % more information than did the LA group. ERP results clearly showed that the P3 amplitude of the HA group was relatively larger than that observed in the LA group for both the central and parietal regions of the cerebrum; particularly during the 300-400 ms time window. In addition, a shorter latency for the P3 component was observed at Pz site for the HA group compared to the LA group. These findings agree with previous educational psychology and neuroimaging studies which reported an association between ERPs and fluid intelligence as well as learning performance. These results also suggest that the P3 component is associated with individual differences in learning and memory recall and further indicate that P3 amplitude might be used as a supporting factor in standard psychometric tests to assess an individual's learning & memory recall ability; particularly in educational institutions to aid in the predictability of academic skills.

  11. Measuring Work Ability with Its Antecedents: Evaluation of the Work Ability Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voltmer, Jan-Bennet; Deller, Jürgen

    2017-07-24

    Purpose The revised version of the Work Ability Survey (WAS-R) assesses work ability on several sub-scales at the intersection of personal and organizational capacity, thus adding to the measurement of work ability by integrating the holistic model. It, therefore, improves on two features of the current standard measurement tool of work ability, the Work Ability Index (WAI): (1) a ceiling effect and (2) limited detail due to a focus on physical health and personal capacity. Method In two samples (n 1  = 1093, n 2  = 359), psychometric properties and the structure of the WAS-R were analyzed. To evaluate construct validity, inter-correlations of the WAS-R and WAI, sickness absence, expected and desired retirement age, and post-retirement work intention were calculated. Results The WAS-R was found to be distributed closer to normality than the WAI. The structural analyses yielded acceptable results for the hypothesized model. The WAS-R was adequately correlated with the WAI, negatively with sickness absence, and positively with desired retirement age. Conclusions The WAS-R extends the measurement of work ability, reflecting organizations' work demands. Its broad sub-scales lead to high acceptance of the results within the participating companies. In particular, the organizational capacity scales can be used to guide interventions aiming at organizational characteristics to improve work ability.

  12. Lifestyle index and work ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaleta, Dorota; Makowiec-Dabrowska, Teresa; Jegier, Anna

    2006-01-01

    In many countries around the world, negative changes in lifestyles are observed. The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of selected lifestyle indicators on work ability among professionally active individuals. The study was performed in the randomly selected group of full-time employees (94 men and 93 women) living in the city of Lódź. Work ability was measured with the work ability index and lifestyle characteristic was assessed with the healthy lifestyle index. We analyzed four lifestyle indicators: non-smoking, healthy weight, fiber intake per day, and regular physical activity. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals to control the effects of lifestyle and work ability. The analysis of lifestyle index indicated that 27.7, 30.9, 27.7 and 11.7% of men and 15.1, 21.5, 35.5 and 26.9% of women scored 0, 1, 2, 3 points, respectively. Only 2.1% of men and 1.1% of women met the criteria for the healthy lifestyle (score 4). Work ability was excellent, good and moderate in 38.3, 46.8 and 14.9% of men, and in 39.8, 14.9 and 19.3% of women, respectively. Poor work ability was found in 9.7% women. Work ability was strongly associated with lifestyle in both men and women. Among men with index score = 0, the risk of moderate work ability was nearly seven times higher than in men whose lifestyle index score exceeded 1 or more points (OR = 6.67; 95% CI: 1.94-22.90). Among women with lifestyle index score = 0, the risk of moderate or lower work ability was also highly elevated as compared to those with lifestyle index = 1 or higher (OR = 14.44; 95% CI: 3.53-59.04). Prophylactic schedules associated with the improvement of lifestyles should be addressed to all adults. Future programs aimed at increasing work ability should consider work- and lifestyle-related factors.

  13. Children with Williams syndrome: Developmental trajectories for intellectual abilities, vocabulary abilities, and adaptive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mervis, Carolyn B; Pitts, C Holley

    2015-06-01

    To examine longitudinal trajectories of intellectual abilities, single-word vocabulary abilities, and adaptive behavior for 76 children with Williams syndrome (WS) aged 4-15 years, we compared their standard scores (SSs) at two time points approximately 3 years apart on the same standardized measures. At the group level, mean SS declined significantly for 8 of the 12 measures and showed a slight (nonsignificant) increase or decrease for 4 measures. However, for most measures significant changes in SS were found for only a small proportion of the children, with some children evidencing significant declines and a smaller proportion evidencing significant increases. Significant SS changes were most common for adaptive behavior. For all measures, the mean magnitude of SS change was smaller for older children (>7.5 years at Time 1) than for younger children (general population peers who earned the same SS at Time 1, there was little evidence either of regression (loss of skills) or stagnation (failure to increase raw scores). The relations of these results to those of previous smaller-sample longitudinal studies of children with WS and the implications of the findings are considered. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Relationships between declarative pointing and theory of mind abilities in 3-to 4-year-olds

    OpenAIRE

    Cochet , Hélène; Jover , Marianne; Rizzo , Cécile; Vauclair , Jacques

    2016-01-01

    International audience; The current study explored the relationships between declarative pointing and theory of mind abilities in 30 children between 3 and 4 years of age. Measures used to examine theory of mind (ToM) included a parental questionnaire and the Scaling of Theory of Mind Tasks. Results showed a dissociation between expressive and informative pointing, which have been regarded as two subcategories of the declarative function. ToM abilities were signi cantly related to the product...

  15. A case study of analyzing 11th graders’ problem solving ability on heat and temperature topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yulianawati, D.; Muslim; Hasanah, L.; Samsudin, A.

    2018-05-01

    Problem solving ability must be owned by students after the process of physics learning so that the concept of physics becomes meaningful. Consequently, the research aims to describe their problem solving ability. Metacognition is contributed to physics learning to the success of students in solving problems. This research has already been implemented to 37 science students (30 women and 7 men) of eleventh grade from one of the secondary schools in Bandung. The research methods utilized the single case study with embedded research design. The instrument is Heat and Temperature Problem Solving Ability Test (HT-PSAT) which consists of twelve questions from three context problems. The result shows that the average value of the test is 8.27 out of the maximum total value of 36. In conclusion, eleventh graders’ problem-solving ability is still under expected. The implication of the findings is able to create learning situations which are probably developing students to embrace better problem solving ability.

  16. Developing entrepreneurship ability of pre-service mathematics teachers through GSSM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohaeti, E. E.; Afrilianto, M.; Primandhika, R. B.

    2018-01-01

    This research aimed to describe mathematical entrepreneurship ability of 136 mathematics education students through Gerakan STKIP Siliwangi Mengajar (GSSM) that was conducted in 7 districts (of 17 villages) in West Java. GSSM was a programme that combines devotion to the society and college student internships activity at several schools within three months. The data was obtained through observation towards the activities performed by the students during GSSM. The questionnaire to measure the mathematical entrepreneurship ability of students. The results showed that 1) there were three activities that encourage the mathematical entrepreneurship ability of students; such as tutoring post, teaching practices in school and entrepreneurial activities in society, 2) through those three activities, students can develop their entrepreneurial spirit well and grow creativity, innovation and calculation take risk ability, 3) there was medium-association between student mathematical concept mastery that supports entrepreneurship with their mathematical entrepreneurship ability.

  17. INFLUENCE MOTIVATION, ABILITY, AND DISCIPLINE ON PERFORMACE EMPLOYEE DEPARTMENT SALES DAN MARKETING PT PIONIRBETON INDUSTRY JAKARTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okiy Hartato

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the research are to: 1 Test empirically influence of working motivation on performance employee, 2 Test empirically influence of working ability on performance employee, 3 Test empirically influence of working discipline on performance employee, 4 Test empirically influence of working motivation, ability, discipline on performance employee. This study used multiple regression analysis. The research was conducted in Sales and Marketing Department of PT Pionirbeton Industry with population of 43 workers, while the data collecting technique used questionnaire and SPSS version 20.0 for data processing. The result show a significant influence of working motivation on performance employee, working ability on performance employee, working discipline on performance employee. Working motivation, working ability, and working discipline on performance employee, The study found that a of the performance employee as dependent variable is influenced by motivation, ability, and discipline.

  18. Relationship between Work Ability Index and Cognitive Failure among Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Milad; Zakerian, Abolfazl; Kolahdouzi, Malihe; Mehri, Ahmad; Akbarzadeh, Arash; Ebrahimi, Mohammad Hossein

    2016-03-01

    Frequent nursing errors are considered as factors that affect the quality of healthcare of patients. Capable nurses who are compatible with work conditions are more focused on their tasks, and this reduces their errors and cognitive failures. Therefore, this study was conducted with the aim of investigating the relationship between work ability index (WAI) and cognitive failures (CFs) as well as some factors that affect them in nurses working in the ICU, CCU, and emergency wards. This descriptive-analytical and cross-sectional study was conducted with 750 nurses at educational hospitals affiliated with the Tehran University of Medical Sciences in 2015. A questionnaire of work ability index and cognitive failures was used to collect data. The data were analyzed using SPSS 20 and the Pearson and Spearman correlation coefficients, chi-squared, ANOVA, and the Kruskal-Wallis tests. Using the Pearson correlation test, the results of this study showed that there is a significant, inverse relationship between WAI, personal prognosis of work ability, and mental resources with CFs along with all its subscales in nurses (p work impairment due to diseases (p work experience, and body mass index (BMI) (p working units (p work ability of nurses be improved and that their CFs be reduced through various measures, including pre-employment examinations, proper management of work-shift conditions, and using engineering and administrative strategies to ensure the safety of hospitalized patients.

  19. Assessing visuospatial abilities in healthy aging: A novel visuomotor task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie eDe Bruin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the efficacy of a novel reaching-and-grasping task in determining visuospatial abilities across adulthood. The task required male and female young (18-25 years and older adults (60-82 years to replicate a series of complex models by locating and retrieving the appropriate building blocks from an array. The task allows visuospatial complexity to be manipulated independently from the visuomotor demands. Mental rotation and spatial visualisation abilities were assessed. The results showed that the time taken to complete the tasks increased with increased mental rotation complexity. Patterns of hand use were also influenced by the complexity of the models being constructed with right hand use being greater for the less complex models. In addition, although older adults consistently performed the visuomotor tasks slower than the younger adults, their performance was comparable when expressed as the percent change in task demands. This is suggestive that spatial abilities are preserved in older adults. Given the ecologically validity, the described task is an excellent candidate for investigating (1 developmental, (2 sex-based and (3 pathology-based differences in spatial abilities in the visuomotor domain.

  20. Spatial ability in computer-aided design courses

    OpenAIRE

    Torner Ribé, Jordi; Alpiste Penalba, Francesc; Brigos Hermida, Miguel Ángel

    2014-01-01

    Many studies have demonstrated that spatial ability is an important factor in the study of Industrial Engineering. Spatial ability is fundamentally important to the work of an engineer, as it is vital for project design. Among other elements, spatial ability correlates with factors such as good academic results and a natural ability to learn how to use I.T systems and computer programs. Furthermore, the new framework drawn up by the European Higher Education Area (EHEA) guides us as to the...

  1. An Experimental Study Related to Planning Abilities of Gifted and Average Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilena Z. Leana-Taşcılar

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Gifted students differ from their average peers in psychological, social, emotional and cognitive development. One of these differences in the cognitive domain is related to executive functions. One of the most important executive functions is planning and organization ability. The aim of this study was to compare planning abilities of gifted students with those of their average peers and to test the effectiveness of a training program on planning abilities of gifted students and average students. First, students’ intelligence and planning abilities were measured and then assigned to either experimental or control group. The groups were matched by intelligence and planning ability (experimental: (13 gifted and 8 average; control: 14 gifted and 8 average. In total 182 students (79 gifted and 103 average participated in the study. Then, a training program was implemented in the experimental group to find out if it improved students’ planning ability. Results showed that boys had better planning abilities than girls did, and gifted students had better planning abilities than their average peers did. Significant results were obtained in favor of the experimental group in the posttest scores

  2. Abacus Training Affects Math and Task Switching Abilities and Modulates Their Relationships in Chinese Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunjie; Geng, Fengji; Yao, Yuan; Weng, Jian; Hu, Yuzheng; Chen, Feiyan

    2015-01-01

    Our previous work demonstrated that abacus-based mental calculation (AMC), a traditional Chinese calculation method, could help children improve their math abilities (e.g. basic arithmetical ability) and executive function (e.g. working memory). This study further examined the effects of long-term AMC training on math ability in visual-spatial domain and the task switching component of executive function. More importantly, this study investigated whether AMC training modulated the relationship between math abilities and task switching. The participants were seventy 7-year-old children who were randomly assigned into AMC and control groups at primary school entry. Children in AMC group received 2-hour AMC training every week since primary school entry. On the contrary, children in the control group had never received any AMC training. Math and task switching abilities were measured one year and three years respectively after AMC training began. The results showed that AMC children performed better than their peers on math abilities in arithmetical and visual-spatial domains. In addition, AMC group responded faster than control group in the switching task, while no group difference was found in switch cost. Most interestingly, group difference was present in the relationships between math abilities and switch cost. These results implied the effect of AMC training on math abilities as well as its relationship with executive function.

  3. Abacus Training Affects Math and Task Switching Abilities and Modulates Their Relationships in Chinese Children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunjie Wang

    Full Text Available Our previous work demonstrated that abacus-based mental calculation (AMC, a traditional Chinese calculation method, could help children improve their math abilities (e.g. basic arithmetical ability and executive function (e.g. working memory. This study further examined the effects of long-term AMC training on math ability in visual-spatial domain and the task switching component of executive function. More importantly, this study investigated whether AMC training modulated the relationship between math abilities and task switching. The participants were seventy 7-year-old children who were randomly assigned into AMC and control groups at primary school entry. Children in AMC group received 2-hour AMC training every week since primary school entry. On the contrary, children in the control group had never received any AMC training. Math and task switching abilities were measured one year and three years respectively after AMC training began. The results showed that AMC children performed better than their peers on math abilities in arithmetical and visual-spatial domains. In addition, AMC group responded faster than control group in the switching task, while no group difference was found in switch cost. Most interestingly, group difference was present in the relationships between math abilities and switch cost. These results implied the effect of AMC training on math abilities as well as its relationship with executive function.

  4. Is there a relationship between ultrasound scanning ability (sonography) and visuospatial perception or psychomotor ability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, Suzanne; Gallagher, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Background Competent sonography is thought to include a unique combination of skills not yet fully defined. This presents challenges when recruiting the correct people for training. Skills are thought to include visuospatial perception and psychomotor skills, but little is known about the relationship between these aptitudes and scanning ability. This feasibility study explored such relationships, to identify evaluation techniques which may improve selection and recruitment. Methods A sample of 30 experienced ultrasound practitioners and 30 trainees at commencement and on completion of training were administered eight tests. Results No significant relationships between experienced practitioners’ or trainees’ visuospatial abilities or psychomotor abilities and scanning abilities were found. Results demonstrated that two of the visuospatial perception tests were not influenced by training and therefore, may be measuring the innate skills of ultrasound practitioners. As ultrasound practitioners had not performed any of the tests previously, ranges of scores for each of the eight tests were established for this group. This included measures for psychomotor skills which added to the current body of knowledge for sonography. Conclusions Although no significant correlations were found between participants’ visuospatial perception or psychomotor abilities and scanning ability, performance on the Obstetric Structured Assessment Test (combining all the skills required) pre-training gave the best indication of post-training scanning performance. The Obstetric Structured Assessment Test may prove a useful tool for initial assessment of potential trainees but abilities will require further investigation. PMID:27847536

  5. Evaluation of nuclear power plant operator's ability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Li; He Xuhong; Zhao Bingquan

    2004-01-01

    Based on the quantitative research on nuclear power plant (NPP) operator's psychological characteristics and performance, the Borda's method of fuzzy mathematics combined with the character of operator's task is used to evaluate their abilities. The result provides the reference for operator's reliability research and psychological evaluation. (author)

  6. Preservice Agricultural Education Teachers' Mathematics Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stripling, Christopher T.; Roberts, T. Grady

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the mathematics ability of the nation's preservice agricultural education teachers. Based on the results of this study, preservice teachers were not proficient in solving agricultural mathematics problems, and agricultural teacher education programs require basic and intermediate mathematics as their…

  7. Host country language ability and expatriate adjustment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selmer, Jan; Lauring, Jakob

    2015-01-01

    countries, one with an easy, relatively simple language and the other with a difficult, highly complex language. Consistent with Goal-Setting Theory, results indicated a relative advantage of expatriates’ language ability in terms of their adjustment in the host country with the difficult language...

  8. Impact of product development efforts on product introduction and product customization abilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chaudhuri, Atanu; Dawar, Saloni

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of efforts in new product development-manufacturing integration (NPDMI) on new product introduction (NPI) and product customization (PC) abilities and the moderating effects of product design complexity and importance of new product development order winners...... (NPIOW) on the above relationships. The results from the data on 136 Indian manufacturing plants show that NPDMI, product design complexity and NPIOW all have significant positive impact on NPI and PC abilities. Importance of NPIOW has a positive moderating effect on the relationship between NPDMI and PC...... ability change but product design complexity demonstrate no such effect on the above relationships....

  9. The etiology of mathematical and reading (dis)ability covariation in a sample of Dutch twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markowitz, Ezra M; Willemsen, Gonneke; Trumbetta, Susan L; van Beijsterveldt, Toos C E M; Boomsma, Dorret I

    2005-12-01

    The genetic etiology of mathematical and reading (dis)ability has been studied in a number of distinct samples, but the true nature of the relationship between the two remains unclear. Data from the Netherlands Twin Register was used to determine the etiology of the relationship between mathematical and reading (dis)ability in adolescent twins. Ratings of mathematical and reading problems were obtained from parents of over 1500 twin pairs. Results of bivariate structural equation modeling showed a genetic correlation around .60, which explained over 90% of the phenotypic correlation between mathematical and reading ability. The genetic model was the same for males and females.

  10. Core Abilities Evaluation Index System Exploration and Empirical Study on Distributed PV-Generation Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin He

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In line with the constraints of environmental problems and economic development, large-scale renewable-generation projects have been planned and constructed in recent years. In order to achieve sustainable power development and improve the power supply structure, China’s government has focused on distributed photovoltaic (PV generation projects due to their advantages of clean emission and local consumption. However, their unstable output power still brings a series of problems concerning reliability, investment income, and available substitution proportion to traditional power, and so on. Therefore, it is imperative to understand the competitive development abilities of distributed PV generation projects and measure them effectively. First, through various investigation methods such as literature reviews, feasibility report analysis and expert interviews, the factors that influence the core abilities of distributed PV-generation projects were explored based on the micro-grid structure. Then, with the indexed exploration results, the factors were classified into 6 dimensions, i.e., investment and earning ability, production and operation ability, power-grid coordination ability, energy-conservation and emission-reduction ability, sustainable development ability, and society-serving ability. Meanwhile, an evaluation index system for core abilities of distributed PV-generation project was constructed using all quantitative indicators. Third, for examining the availability of the evaluation index system, combination weighting and techniques for order preference by similarity to an ideal solution (TOPSIS methods were adopted to assess the practical distributed PV-generation projects. The case study results showed that installed capacity, local economy development, and grid-connected power quantity will influence the core abilities of distributed PV-generation project, obviously. The conclusions of the evaluation analysis on core abilities can

  11. Improving Students' Speaking Ability through Scaffolding Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gede Ginaya

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Students often got confused and felt hesitant when they speak English. This situation had caused poor speaking ability, which then lead to serious problem in the teaching-learning process.  The application of scaffolding technique in the EFL learning might be the ideal solution; it had some principles that could improve the students’ speaking ability. This research is aimed at finding out the effect of the implementing Scaffolding Technique towards the students’ speaking ability. Participants were 50 (27 males and 23 females third-semester students, enrolled in a three-year diploma program in Travel and Tourism Business, State Polytechnic of Bali in 2017/2018 academic year. The students in the experimental group were given communicative activities such as brainstorming, business games, simulation, WebQuest, problem-solving, which were carefully designed to necessitate the implementation of the scaffolding technique. The students in the control group were taught by the deductive method of the lesson book. The students’ performance in the post-test was compared for both groups in order to determine whether there were significant differences between the groups in relation to the treatment. Significant differences occurring in the experimental group’s post-test speaking performance when compared to the pre-test indicate that the implementation of scaffolding technique can improve students’ speaking ability. The result of this study indicates scaffolding technique has the potential for use in promoting students’ speaking ability

  12. Cognitive ability and the demand for redistribution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Mollerstrom

    Full Text Available Empirical research suggests that the cognitively able are politically more influential than the less able, by being more likely to vote and to assume leadership positions. This study asks whether this pattern matters for public policy by investigating what role a person's cognitive ability plays in determining his preferences for redistribution of income among citizens in society. To answer this question, we use a unique Swedish data set that matches responses to a tailor-made questionnaire to administrative tax records and to military enlistment records for men, with the latter containing a measure of cognitive ability. On a scale of 0 to 100 percent redistribution, a one-standard-deviation increase in cognitive ability reduces the willingness to redistribute by 5 percentage points, or by the same amount as a $35,000 increase in mean annual income. We find support for two channels mediating this economically strong and statistically significant relation. First, higher ability is associated with higher income. Second, ability is positively correlated with the view that economic success is the result of effort, rather than luck. Both these factors are, in turn, related to lower demand for redistribution.

  13. STUDENTS’ SELF ESTEEM IN SPEAKING ABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvira Rosyida MR

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available One of principle of communicative competence is the students know how to uselanguage according to the setting and the participants. Actually, to be able to speaktarget language, the students ar not only expected to have a great ability in grammar,vocabulary, or writing, but how brave they express their idea and use target languageto others. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate students’ self esteem to theirspeaking ability This study was carried out at Hadist major at the fourth semester ofIAIN Raden Intan Lampung. The researcher used questionnaire, test, and interview.The data collected were analyzed quantitatively, and described to know clearly theprocess which was occurred during the research. The results indicate that students’self esteem influence their speaking ability.Key Words: speaking, self esteem, communicative competence

  14. Attentional ability among survivors of leukaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, J; Horrocks, J; Britton, P G; Kernahan, J

    1999-04-01

    Attentional ability in 19 survivors of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia and 19 sibling controls was assessed using a neuropsychological model of attention. Analysis revealed that children who had received treatment for leukaemia exhibited significantly poorer performance on measures of the "focus encode" and "focus execute" elements of attention and on measures of the ability to respond to external cues and feedback. No significant differences in performance were found for measures of sustained attention and the ability to shift attention. These results indicate that children who have received treatment for leukaemia may experience highly specific attentional deficits that could have an impact on academic performance, particularly mathematical and reading skills. It is suggested that this underlying attentional deficit might be the source of the neuropsychological sequelae associated with the disease. Future attempts at remediation should incorporate activities specifically designed to ameliorate focusing difficulties.

  15. Beyond fluid intelligence and personality traits in social support: the role of ability based emotional intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabio, Annamaria Di

    2015-01-01

    Social support represents an important individual resource that has been associated with multiple indices of adaptive functioning and resiliency. Existing research has also identified an association between emotional intelligence (EI) and social support. The present study builds on prior research by investigating the contributions of ability based EI to social support, beyond the effects of fluid intelligence and personality traits. The Advanced Progressive Matrices, the Big Five Questionnaire, the Mayer Salovey Caruso EI test (MSCEIT), and the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support were administered to 149 Italian high school students. The results showed that ability based EI added significant incremental variance in explaining perceived social support, beyond the variance due to fluid intelligence and personality traits. The results underline the role of ability based EI in relation to perceived social support. Since ability based EI can be increased through specific training, the results of the present study highlight new possibilities for research and intervention in a preventive framework.

  16. Anterior Temporal Lobe Morphometry Predicts Categorization Ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcin, Béatrice; Urbanski, Marika; Thiebaut de Schotten, Michel; Levy, Richard; Volle, Emmanuelle

    2018-01-01

    Categorization is the mental operation by which the brain classifies objects and events. It is classically assessed using semantic and non-semantic matching or sorting tasks. These tasks show a high variability in performance across healthy controls and the cerebral bases supporting this variability remain unknown. In this study we performed a voxel-based morphometry study to explore the relationships between semantic and shape categorization tasks and brain morphometric differences in 50 controls. We found significant correlation between categorization performance and the volume of the gray matter in the right anterior middle and inferior temporal gyri. Semantic categorization tasks were associated with more rostral temporal regions than shape categorization tasks. A significant relationship was also shown between white matter volume in the right temporal lobe and performance in the semantic tasks. Tractography revealed that this white matter region involved several projection and association fibers, including the arcuate fasciculus, inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, uncinate fasciculus, and inferior longitudinal fasciculus. These results suggest that categorization abilities are supported by the anterior portion of the right temporal lobe and its interaction with other areas.

  17. Anterior Temporal Lobe Morphometry Predicts Categorization Ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Béatrice Garcin

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Categorization is the mental operation by which the brain classifies objects and events. It is classically assessed using semantic and non-semantic matching or sorting tasks. These tasks show a high variability in performance across healthy controls and the cerebral bases supporting this variability remain unknown. In this study we performed a voxel-based morphometry study to explore the relationships between semantic and shape categorization tasks and brain morphometric differences in 50 controls. We found significant correlation between categorization performance and the volume of the gray matter in the right anterior middle and inferior temporal gyri. Semantic categorization tasks were associated with more rostral temporal regions than shape categorization tasks. A significant relationship was also shown between white matter volume in the right temporal lobe and performance in the semantic tasks. Tractography revealed that this white matter region involved several projection and association fibers, including the arcuate fasciculus, inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, uncinate fasciculus, and inferior longitudinal fasciculus. These results suggest that categorization abilities are supported by the anterior portion of the right temporal lobe and its interaction with other areas.

  18. Childhood Mental Ability and Lifetime Psychiatric Contact: A 66-Year Follow-Up Study of the 1932 Scottish Mental Ability Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Nicholas P.; McConville, Pauline M; Hunter, David; Deary, Ian J.; Whalley, Lawrence J.

    2002-01-01

    Tested the hypothesis that intelligence is related to the risk of mental illness by linking childhood mental ability data to registers of psychiatric contact in a stable population of 4,199 adults in Scotland. Findings show intelligence to be an independent predictor of psychiatric contact, with each standard deviation decrease in IQ resulting in…

  19. The age-related changes in figural perceptual abilities of pupils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nešić Blagoje V.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a part of a broader research in the field of development of different intellectual abilities in primary schools. Using a transverse - longitudinal research strategy, the pupils from nine to fifteen years of age are observed in order to find answers to the following questions: 1 Do the important developmental changes in the figural-perceptual abilities occur in this developmental period? 2 Is the pace of changes in these abilities the same at all ages, grades? 3 Do the developmental changes in these abilities depend on the type of tests, that is, mental operations which register the applied tests? Figural-perceptual abilities are defined as the ability to identify the elements in space, to imagine and transform the elements in space, the ability for spatial reasoning, perceptual shaping flexibility, the ability of eduction of relations and correlates, the ability to identify the elements that are injected into the right material, the ability to notice the difference in the forms and dimensions of the characters, speed observations of similarities and differences between elements in the field of perception. The measurement (assessment of these abilities was performed with the help of 11 tests of intellectual abilities of the figural content. The individual progresses as baseline data were used for the data analysis. The progresses of the subjects were compared with the analysis and the results are the following: 1 The pupils from third to eighth grade showed positive changes in the figurative perceptive abilities. This is shown in all the tests that were used and progresses are statistically significant in all tests 2 There is a tendency that the pupils in the sixth grade made the best progress, and the seventh-grade pupils made the least progress. 3 However, when the progresses are compared in certain tests, then significant differences in the pace of development of these abilities are determined. Namely, the pupils in the higher

  20. Early but not late blindness leads to enhanced arithmetic and working memory abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dormal, Valérie; Crollen, Virginie; Baumans, Christine; Lepore, Franco; Collignon, Olivier

    2016-10-01

    Behavioural and neurophysiological evidence suggest that vision plays an important role in the emergence and development of arithmetic abilities. However, how visual deprivation impacts on the development of arithmetic processing remains poorly understood. We compared the performances of early (EB), late blind (LB) and sighted control (SC) individuals during various arithmetic tasks involving addition, subtraction and multiplication of various complexities. We also assessed working memory (WM) performances to determine if they relate to a blind person's arithmetic capacities. Results showed that EB participants performed better than LB and SC in arithmetic tasks, especially in conditions in which verbal routines and WM abilities are needed. Moreover, EB participants also showed higher WM abilities. Together, our findings demonstrate that the absence of developmental vision does not prevent the development of refined arithmetic skills and can even trigger the refinement of these abilities in specific tasks. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Competence: Commodification of Human Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Soonghee

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to analyze the meaning and presumptions of competence in the concrete context of knowledge capitalism. First, the nature of competence as a "commodification of human ability" that obtains a standardized monetary value to sell in the labor market, is elucidated by applying Karl Marx's critical theory. Second, it is…

  2. An Alternative to Ability Grouping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlinson, Carol Ann

    2006-01-01

    Ability grouping is a common approach to dealing with student variance in learning. In general, findings suggest that such an approach to dealing with student differences is disadvantageous to students who struggle in school and advantageous to advanced learners. The concept of differentiation suggests that there is another alternative to…

  3. Learning Anatomy Enhances Spatial Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorstenbosch, Marc A. T. M.; Klaassen, Tim P. F. M.; Donders, A. R. T.; Kooloos, Jan G. M.; Bolhuis, Sanneke M.; Laan, Roland F. J. M.

    2013-01-01

    Spatial ability is an important factor in learning anatomy. Students with high scores on a mental rotation test (MRT) systematically score higher on anatomy examinations. This study aims to investigate if learning anatomy also oppositely improves the MRT-score. Five hundred first year students of medicine ("n" = 242, intervention) and…

  4. Technology and Motor Ability Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin; Lang, Yong; Luo, Zhongmin

    2014-01-01

    As a new member joining the technology family, active video games have been developed to promote physical exercise. This working-in-progress paper shares an ongoing project on examining the basic motor abilities that are enhanced through participating in commercially available active video games. [For the full proceedings see ED557181.

  5. Subjective workload and individual differences in information processing abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damos, D. L.

    1984-01-01

    This paper describes several experiments examining the source of individual differences in the experience of mental workload. Three sources of such differences were examined: information processing abilities, timesharing abilities, and personality traits/behavior patterns. On the whole, there was little evidence that individual differences in information processing abilities or timesharing abilities are related to perceived differences in mental workload. However, individuals with strong Type A coronary prone behavior patterns differed in both single- and multiple-task performance from individuals who showed little evidence of such a pattern. Additionally, individuals with a strong Type A pattern showed some dissociation between objective performance and the experience of mental workload.

  6. Profile of Scientific Ability of Chemistry Education Students in Basic Physics Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suastika, K. G.; Sudyana, I. N.; Lasiani, L.; Pebriyanto, Y.; Kurniawati, N.

    2017-09-01

    The weakness of scientific ability of students in college has been being a concern in this case, especially in terms of laboratory activities to support Laboratory Based Education. Scientific ability is a basic ability that must be dominated by students in basic physics lecturing process as a part of scientific method. This research aims to explore the indicators emergence of the scientific ability of students in Chemistry Education of Study Program, Faculty of Teaching and Education University of Palangka Raya through Inquiry Based Learning in basic physics courses. This research is a quantitative research by using descriptive method (descriptive-quantitative). Students are divided into three categories of group those are excellent group, low group, and heterogeneous group. The result shows that the excellent group and low group have same case that were occured decreasing in the percentage of achievement of scientific ability, while in heterogeneous group was increased. The differentiation of these results are caused by enthusiastic level of students in every group that can be seen in tables of scientific ability achievement aspects. By the results of this research, hoping in the future can be a references for further research about innovative learning strategies and models that can improve scientific ability and scientific reasoning especially for science teacher candidates.

  7. Chrysanthemum cutting productivity and rooting ability are improved by grafting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Chen, Sumei; Liu, Ruixia; Jiang, Jiafu; Chen, Fadi; Fang, Weimin

    2013-01-01

    Chrysanthemum has been commercially propagated by rooting of cuttings, whereas the quality will decline over multiple collections from a single plant. Therefore, we compared the vigour, rooting ability, and some physiological parameters between cuttings harvested from nongrafted "Jinba" (non-grafted cuttings) with those collected from grafted "Jinba" plants onto Artemisia scoparia as a rootstock (grafted cuttings). The yield, length, node number, stem diameter, fresh weight, and dry weight of the grafted cuttings were superior to the non-grafted cuttings. Also grafted cuttings "Jinba" rooted 1 day earlier, but showing enhanced rooting quality including number, length, diameter, and dry weight of roots, where compared to the non-grafted. The physiological parameters that indicated contents of soluble protein, peroxidase activity, soluble sugar, and starch, ratios of soluble sugar/nitrogen ratio, and carbohydrate/nitrogen (C/N), as well as contents of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and abscisic acid (ABA), and IAA/ABA ratio were significantly increased in the grafted cuttings. This suggested their important parts in mediating rooting ability. Results from this study showed that grafting improved productivity and rooting ability related to an altered physiology, which provide a means to meet the increasing demand.

  8. Analysis of graphic representation ability in oscillation phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewi, A. R. C.; Putra, N. M. D.; Susilo

    2018-03-01

    This study aims to investigates how the ability of students to representation graphs of linear function and harmonic function in understanding of oscillation phenomena. Method of this research used mix methods with concurrent embedded design. The subjects were 35 students of class X MIA 3 SMA 1 Bae Kudus. Data collection through giving essays and interviews that lead to the ability to read and draw graphs in material of Hooke's law and oscillation characteristics. The results of study showed that most of the students had difficulty in drawing graph of linear function and harmonic function of deviation with time. Students’ difficulties in drawing the graph of linear function is the difficulty of analyzing the variable data needed in graph making, confusing the placement of variable data on the coordinate axis, the difficulty of determining the scale interval on each coordinate, and the variation of how to connect the dots forming the graph. Students’ difficulties in representing the graph of harmonic function is to determine the time interval of sine harmonic function, the difficulty to determine the initial deviation point of the drawing, the difficulty of finding the deviation equation of the case of oscillation characteristics and the confusion to different among the maximum deviation (amplitude) with the length of the spring caused the load.Complexity of the characteristic attributes of the oscillation phenomena graphs, students tend to show less well the ability of graphical representation of harmonic functions than the performance of the graphical representation of linear functions.

  9. Are you a good mimic? Neuro-acoustic signatures for speech imitation ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Maria Reiterer

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We investigated individual differences in speech imitation ability in late bilinguals using a neuro-acoustic approach. 138 German-English bilinguals matched on various behavioral measures were tested for speech imitation ability in a foreign language, Hindi, and categorised into high and low ability groups. Brain activations and speech recordings were obtained from 26 participants from the two extreme groups as they performed a functional neuroimaging experiment which required them to imitate sentences in three conditions: (A German, (B English and (C German with fake English accent. We used recently developed novel acoustic analysis, namely the ‘articulation space’ as a metric to compare speech imitation abilities of the two groups. Across all three conditions, direct comparisons between the two groups, revealed brain activations (FWE corrected, p< 0.05 that were more widespread with significantly higher peak activity in the left supramarginal gyrus and postcentral areas for the low ability group. The high ability group, on the other hand showed significantly larger articulation space in all three conditions. In addition, articulation space also correlated positively with imitation ability (Pearson’s r=0.7, p<0.01. Our results suggest that an expanded articulation space for high ability individuals allows access to a larger repertoire of sounds, thereby providing skilled imitators greater flexibility in pronunciation and language learning.

  10. Self-reported work ability and work performance in workers with chronic nonspecific musculoskeletal pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Haitze J; Reneman, Michiel F; Groothoff, Johan W; Geertzen, Jan H B; Brouwer, Sandra

    2013-03-01

    To assess self-reported work ability and work performance of workers who stay at work despite chronic nonspecific musculoskeletal pain (CMP), and to explore which variables were associated with these outcomes. In a cross-sectional study we assessed work ability (Work Ability Index, single item scale 0-10) and work performance (Health and Work Performance Questionnaire, scale 0-10) among 119 workers who continued work while having CMP. Scores of work ability and work performance were categorized into excellent (10), good (9), moderate (8) and poor (0-7). Hierarchical multiple regression and logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the relation of socio-demographic, pain-related, personal- and work-related variables with work ability and work performance. Mean work ability and work performance were 7.1 and 7.7 (poor to moderate). Hierarchical multiple regression analysis revealed that higher work ability scores were associated with lower age, better general health perception, and higher pain self-efficacy beliefs (R(2) = 42 %). Higher work performance was associated with lower age, higher pain self-efficacy beliefs, lower physical work demand category and part-time work (R(2) = 37 %). Logistic regression analysis revealed that work ability ≥8 was significantly explained by age (OR = 0.90), general health perception (OR = 1.04) and pain self-efficacy (OR = 1.15). Work performance ≥8 was explained by pain self-efficacy (OR = 1.11). Many workers with CMP who stay at work report poor to moderate work ability and work performance. Our findings suggest that a subgroup of workers with CMP can stay at work with high work ability and performance, especially when they have high beliefs of pain self-efficacy. Our results further show that not the pain itself, but personal and work-related factors relate to work ability and work performance.

  11. The Relationship between Cognitive Reserve and Math Abilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio Arcara

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive Reserve is the capital of knowledge and experiences that an individual acquires over their life-span. Cognitive Reserve is strictly related to Brain Reserve, which is the ability of the brain to cope with damage. These two concepts could explain many phenomena such as the modality of onset in dementia or the different degree of impairment in cognitive abilities in aging. The aim of this study is to verify the effect of Cognitive Reserve, as measured by a questionnaire, on a variety of numerical abilities (number comprehension, reading and writing numbers, rules and principles, mental calculations and written calculations, in a group of healthy older people (aged 65–98 years. Sixty older individuals were interviewed with the Cognitive Reserve Index questionnaire (CRIq, and assessed with the Numerical Activities of Daily Living battery (NADL, which included formal tasks on math abilities, an informal test on math, one interview with the participant, and one interview with a relative on the perceived math abilities. We also took into account the years of education, as another proxy for Cognitive Reserve. In the multiple regression analyses on all formal tests, CRIq scores did not significantly predict math performance. Other variables, i.e., years of education and Mini-Mental State Examination score, accounted better for math performance on NADL. Only a subsection of CRIq, CRIq-Working-activity, was found to predict performance on a NADL subtest assessing informal use of math in daily life. These results show that education might better explain abstract math functions in late life than other aspects related to Cognitive Reserve, such as lifestyle or occupational attainment.

  12. The Relationship between Cognitive Reserve and Math Abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcara, Giorgio; Mondini, Sara; Bisso, Alice; Palmer, Katie; Meneghello, Francesca; Semenza, Carlo

    2017-01-01

    Cognitive Reserve is the capital of knowledge and experiences that an individual acquires over their life-span. Cognitive Reserve is strictly related to Brain Reserve, which is the ability of the brain to cope with damage. These two concepts could explain many phenomena such as the modality of onset in dementia or the different degree of impairment in cognitive abilities in aging. The aim of this study is to verify the effect of Cognitive Reserve, as measured by a questionnaire, on a variety of numerical abilities (number comprehension, reading and writing numbers, rules and principles, mental calculations and written calculations), in a group of healthy older people (aged 65-98 years). Sixty older individuals were interviewed with the Cognitive Reserve Index questionnaire (CRIq), and assessed with the Numerical Activities of Daily Living battery (NADL), which included formal tasks on math abilities, an informal test on math, one interview with the participant, and one interview with a relative on the perceived math abilities. We also took into account the years of education, as another proxy for Cognitive Reserve. In the multiple regression analyses on all formal tests, CRIq scores did not significantly predict math performance. Other variables, i.e., years of education and Mini-Mental State Examination score, accounted better for math performance on NADL. Only a subsection of CRIq, CRIq-Working-activity, was found to predict performance on a NADL subtest assessing informal use of math in daily life. These results show that education might better explain abstract math functions in late life than other aspects related to Cognitive Reserve, such as lifestyle or occupational attainment.

  13. Musical, language and reading abilities in early Portuguese readers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer eZuk

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Early language and reading abilities have been shown to correlate with a variety of musical skills and elements of music perception in children. It has also been shown that reading impaired children can show difficulties with music perception. However, it is still unclear to what extent different aspects of music perception are associated with language and reading abilities. Here we investigated the relationship between cognitive-linguistic abilities and a music discrimination task that preserves an ecologically valid musical experience. Forty-three Portuguese-speaking students from an elementary school in Brazil participated in this study. Children completed a comprehensive cognitive-linguistic battery of assessments. The music task was presented live in the music classroom, and children were asked to code sequences of four sounds on the guitar. Results show a strong relationship between performance on the music task and a number of linguistic variables. A Principle Component Analysis of the cognitive-linguistic battery revealed that the strongest component (Prin1 accounted for 33% of the variance and Prin1 was significantly related to the music task. Highest loadings on Prin1 were found for reading measures such as Reading Speed and Reading Accuracy. Interestingly, twenty-two children recorded responses for more than four sounds within a trial on the music task, which was classified as Superfluous Responses (SR. SR was negatively correlated with a variety of linguistic variables and showed a negative correlation with Prin1. When analyzing children with and without SR separately, only children with SR showed a significant correlation between Prin1 and the music task. Our results provide implications for the use of an ecologically valid music-based screening tool for the early identification of reading disabilities in a classroom setting.

  14. The Relationship Between Utilization of Computer Games and Spatial Abilities Among High School Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Motamedi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at investigating the relationship between computer game use and spatial abilities among high school students. The sample consisted of 300 high school male students selected through multi-stage cluster sampling. Data gathering tools consisted of a researcher made questionnaire (to collect information on computer game usage and the Newton and Bristol spatial ability questionnaire with reliability value of .85. Data were analyzed using Pearson’s correlation coefficient. Results showed that there was a meaningful relationship between the use of computer games and spatial ability (r = .59 and p = 00.00, there was a meaningful relationship between the use of computer games and the spatial perceived ability (r = .60 and p = .00, there was a meaningful relationship between the use of computer games and mental rotation ability (r = .48 and p = .00 and there was a meaningful relationship between computer game use and spatial visualization ability (r = .48 and p = .00. In general, the findings showed there was a positive and a significant relationship between the use of computer games and spatial abilities in students.

  15. Mixed cultures of Kimchi lactic acid bacteria show increased cell ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ufuoma

    anaerobic organisms that are highly resistant to salts. Probiotic cultures for use in ... kimchi have a superior ability to decompose and utilize nutrients, and show ... citrate, 5 g sodium acetate, 1 g Tween, 2 g K2HPO4, 0.2 g. MgSO4•7H2O, 0.2 g ...

  16. Online Italian fandoms of American TV shows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Benecchi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Internet has changed media fandom in two main ways: it helps fans connect with each other despite physical distance, leading to the formation of international fan communities; and it helps fans connect with the creators of the TV show, deepening the relationship between TV producers and international fandoms. To assess whether Italian fan communities active online are indeed part of transnational online communities and whether the Internet has actually altered their relationship with the creators of the original text they are devoted to, qualitative analysis and narrative interviews of 26 Italian fans of American TV shows were conducted to explore the fan-producer relationship. Results indicated that the online Italian fans surveyed preferred to stay local, rather than using geography-leveling online tools. Further, the sampled Italian fans' relationships with the show runners were mediated or even absent.

  17. A comprehensive test of evolutionarily increased competitive ability in a highly invasive plant species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Srijana; Gruntman, Michal; Bilton, Mark; Seifan, Merav; Tielbörger, Katja

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims A common hypothesis to explain plants' invasive success is that release from natural enemies in the introduced range selects for reduced allocation to resistance traits and a subsequent increase in resources available for growth and competitive ability (evolution of increased competitive ability, EICA). However, studies that have investigated this hypothesis have been incomplete as they either did not test for all aspects of competitive ability or did not select appropriate competitors. Methods Here, the prediction of increased competitive ability was examined with the invasive plant Lythrum salicaria (purple loosestrife) in a set of common-garden experiments that addressed these aspects by carefully distinguishing between competitive effect and response of invasive and native plants, and by using both intraspecific and interspecific competition settings with a highly vigorous neighbour, Urtica dioica (stinging nettle), which occurs in both ranges. Key Results While the intraspecific competition results showed no differences in competitive effect or response between native and invasive plants, the interspecific competition experiment revealed greater competitive response and effect of invasive plants in both biomass and seed production. Conclusions The use of both intra- and interspecific competition experiments in this study revealed opposing results. While the first experiment refutes the EICA hypothesis, the second shows strong support for it, suggesting evolutionarily increased competitive ability in invasive populations of L. salicaria. It is suggested that the use of naturally co-occurring heterospecifics, rather than conspecifics, may provide a better evaluation of the possible evolutionary shift towards greater competitive ability. PMID:25301818

  18. Development of early numerical abilities of Spanish-speaking Mexican preschoolers: A new assessment tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrán-Navarro, Beatriz; Abreu-Mendoza, Roberto A; Matute, Esmeralda; Rosselli, Monica

    2018-01-01

    This article presents a tool for assessing the early numerical abilities of Spanish-speaking Mexican preschoolers. The Numerical Abilities Test, from the Evaluación Neuropsicológica Infantil-Preescolar (ENI-P), evaluates four core abilities of number development: magnitude comparison, counting, subitizing, and basic calculation. We evaluated 307 Spanish-speaking Mexican children aged 2 years 6 months to 4 years 11 months. Appropriate internal consistency and test-retest reliability were demonstrated. We also investigated the effect of age, children's school attendance, maternal education, and sex on children's numerical scores. The results showed that the four subtests captured development across ages. Critically, maternal education had an impact on children's performance in three out of the four subtests, but there was no effect associated with children's school attendance or sex. These results suggest that the Numerical Abilities Test is a reliable instrument for Spanish-speaking preschoolers. We discuss the implications of our outcomes for numerical development.

  19. CONNECTION OF FUNCTIONAL ABILITIES WITH JUMPING AND THROWING ATHLETIC DISCIPLINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Stanojević

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the connection between functional abilities with results of jumping and throwing athletic disciplines with athletes. The sample was taken from a population of elementary school students from Prokuplje region, 13 and 14 old, included in regular physical education classes. The sample consisted of 200 male athletes involved in the training process in sports clubs at least three times a week in addition to physical education classes. For assessment of functional abilities six functional tests were used: resting heart rate, Cooper test, heart rate in the first minute after Cooper test, heart rate in the second minute after Cooper test, systolic arterial blood pressure, diastolic arterial blood pressure. For assessment of jumping and throwing athletic disciplines four tests were used: long jump, high jump, shot put and javelin. Data analysis was performed with canonical correlation and regression analysis. The results showed a statistically significant correlation between functional abilities with all of tests in jumping and throwing athletic disciplines.

  20. INDIVIDUAL ABILITIES AND LIFELONG LEARNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleksandr Yu. Burov

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes new and emerging technologies in education, learning environments and methods that have to satisfy lifelong learning, from school age to retirement, on the basis of the psychophysiological model of the cognitive abilities formation. It covers such topics as: evaluation of a human (accounting schoolchildren, youth and adults features abilities and individual propensities, individual trajectory of learning, adaptive learning strategy and design, recommendation on curriculum design, day-to-day support for individual’s learning, assessment of a human learning environment and performance, recommendation regards vocational retraining and/or further carrier etc.. The specific goal is to facilitate a broader understanding of the promise and pitfalls of these technologies and working (learning/teaching environments in global education/development settings, with special regard to the human as subject in the system and to the collaboration of humans and technical, didactic and organizational subsystems.

  1. Implicit learning as an ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Scott Barry; Deyoung, Colin G; Gray, Jeremy R; Jiménez, Luis; Brown, Jamie; Mackintosh, Nicholas

    2010-09-01

    The ability to automatically and implicitly detect complex and noisy regularities in the environment is a fundamental aspect of human cognition. Despite considerable interest in implicit processes, few researchers have conceptualized implicit learning as an ability with meaningful individual differences. Instead, various researchers (e.g., Reber, 1993; Stanovich, 2009) have suggested that individual differences in implicit learning are minimal relative to individual differences in explicit learning. In the current study of English 16-17year old students, we investigated the association of individual differences in implicit learning with a variety of cognitive and personality variables. Consistent with prior research and theorizing, implicit learning, as measured by a probabilistic sequence learning task, was more weakly related to psychometric intelligence than was explicit associative learning, and was unrelated to working memory. Structural equation modeling revealed that implicit learning was independently related to two components of psychometric intelligence: verbal analogical reasoning and processing speed. Implicit learning was also independently related to academic performance on two foreign language exams (French, German). Further, implicit learning was significantly associated with aspects of self-reported personality, including intuition, Openness to Experience, and impulsivity. We discuss the implications of implicit learning as an ability for dual-process theories of cognition, intelligence, personality, skill learning, complex cognition, and language acquisition. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Glass-Forming Ability of Soda Lime Borate Liquids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, Qiuju; Mauro, J.C.; Smedskjær, Morten Mattrup

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the composition dependence of glass-forming ability (GFA) of a series of iron-containing soda lime borate liquids by substituting Na2O for B2O3. We have characterized GFA by measuring the glass stability against crystallization using a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC......). The results show that the GFA decreases when substituting Na2O for B2O3. Moreover, we find that there is no direct link between the kinetic fragility and GFA for the soda lime borate series studied herein. We have also discovered and clarified a striking thermal history dependence of the glass stability...

  3. Development and Validation of a Multimedia-based Assessment of Scientific Inquiry Abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Che-Yu; Wu, Hsin-Kai; Jen, Tsung-Hau; Hsu, Ying-Shao

    2015-09-01

    The potential of computer-based assessments for capturing complex learning outcomes has been discussed; however, relatively little is understood about how to leverage such potential for summative and accountability purposes. The aim of this study is to develop and validate a multimedia-based assessment of scientific inquiry abilities (MASIA) to cover a more comprehensive construct of inquiry abilities and target secondary school students in different grades while this potential is leveraged. We implemented five steps derived from the construct modeling approach to design MASIA. During the implementation, multiple sources of evidence were collected in the steps of pilot testing and Rasch modeling to support the validity of MASIA. Particularly, through the participation of 1,066 8th and 11th graders, MASIA showed satisfactory psychometric properties to discriminate students with different levels of inquiry abilities in 101 items in 29 tasks when Rasch models were applied. Additionally, the Wright map indicated that MASIA offered accurate information about students' inquiry abilities because of the comparability of the distributions of student abilities and item difficulties. The analysis results also suggested that MASIA offered precise measures of inquiry abilities when the components (questioning, experimenting, analyzing, and explaining) were regarded as a coherent construct. Finally, the increased mean difficulty thresholds of item responses along with three performance levels across all sub-abilities supported the alignment between our scoring rubrics and our inquiry framework. Together with other sources of validity in the pilot testing, the results offered evidence to support the validity of MASIA.

  4. The Data Set on the Multiple Abilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klynge, Alice Heegaard

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a data set on multiple abilities. The abilities cover the Literacy and Math Ability, the Creative and Innovative Ability, the Learning Ability, the Communication Ability, the Social Competency, the Self-Management Ability, the Environmental Awareness, the Civic Competency......, the Intercultural Awareness, and the Health Awareness. The data stems from a unique cross-sectional survey carried out for the adult population in Denmark. Several dimensions and many questions pinpoint and measure every ability. The dimensions cover areas such as the individual behavior at work, the individual...... behavior in leisure, the motivation for using an ability, the working conditions for using an ability, and the educational conditions for using an ability. The paper defines every ability and describes the dimensions and the questions underlying the abilities. It reports the categories of answers...

  5. Laterality, spatial abilities, and accident proneness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voyer, Susan D; Voyer, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Although handedness as a measure of cerebral specialization has been linked to accident proneness, more direct measures of laterality are rarely considered. The present study aimed to fill that gap in the existing research. In addition, individual difference factors in accident proneness were further examined with the inclusion of mental rotation and navigation abilities measures. One hundred and forty participants were asked to complete the Mental Rotations Test, the Santa Barbara Sense of Direction scale, the Greyscales task, the Fused Dichotic Word Test, the Waterloo Handedness Questionnaire, and a grip strength task before answering questions related to number of accidents in five areas. Results indicated that handedness scores, absolute visual laterality score, absolute response time on the auditory laterality index, and navigation ability were significant predictors of the total number of accidents. Results are discussed with respect to cerebral hemispheric specialization and risk-taking attitudes and behavior.

  6. On the Origins of Calculation Abilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ardila

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available A historical review of calculation abilities is presented. Counting, starting with finger sequencing, has been observed in different ancient and contemporary cultures, whereas number representation and arithmetic abilities are found only during the last 5000–6000 years. The rationale for selecting a base of ten in most numerical systems and the clinical association between acalculia and finger agnosia are analyzed. Finger agnosia (as a restricted form of autotopagnosia, right–left discrimination disturbances, semantic aphasia, and acalculia are proposed to comprise a single neuropsychological syndrome associated with left angular gyrus damage. A classification of calculation disturbances resulting from brain damage is presented. It is emphasized that using historical/anthropological analysis, it becomes evident that acalculia, finger agnosia, and disorders in right–left discrimination (as in general, in the use of spatial concepts must constitute a single clinical syndrome, resulting from the disruption of some common brain activity and the impairment of common cognitive mechanisms.

  7. Investigation of the Relationship between Work Ability and Work-related Quality of Life in Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Milad; Zakerian, Abolfazl; Akbarzade, Arash; Dinarvand, Nader; Ghaljahi, Maryam; Poursadeghiyan, Mohsen; Ebrahimi, Mohammad Hossein

    2017-10-01

    Work ability of nurses is an index of their job satisfaction and is a crucial factor in job quality and security. This study aimed to investigate the association between work ability and quality of working life and to determine the effective demographic and background variables, among nurses. The present study was conducted among nurses, working in educational hospitals under the supervision of Tehran University of Medical Sciences in 2014. Work Ability Index (WAI) and Work-related Quality of Life (WRQoL) were used. The mean WAI was significantly associated with total WRQoL score and the two of its sub-items including Stress at Work, and General Well-Being ( P -value=0.001). Moreover, the results showed a significant correlation between total WRQoL and WAI Subscales including mental resources ( P -value=0.001), number of current diseases ( P- value=0.02), and work ability in relation to the job demands ( P -value=0.04). The WRQoL and WAI showed significant associations with age and job experience ( P -value=0.001). The average score of WAI and WRQoL was statistically different among various working units ( P -value=0.001). Overall, results support the association between nurses work ability and WRQoL. Monitoring the WRQoL and work ability of employees would help organizations to know their status and take measures to ameliorate the working conditions.

  8. The impact of depression on musical ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reker, Paul; Domschke, Katharina; Zwanzger, Peter; Evers, Stefan

    2014-03-01

    While there is sustained effort to refine the models and to further decrypt the neuronal underpinnings of cerebral music perception, empirical investigations on the associations of music perception with diagnoses others than focal brain damage need to be amplified. In the present study, a validated and standardized clinical test of musical ability was applied to a sample of severely depressed patients. Basic musical capacities of rhythm, melody and pitch perception, recognition of emotions, and musical memory were evaluated and compared to matched healthy controls and reassessed in a follow-up examination after clinical remission. We enroled 21 in-patients with major depression according to ICD-10 (F32 and F33). The score in the test of musical ability (maximum score 70) was 52.3±7.8 for the patient group and 57.8±4.3 for the control group (p=0.010). In particular, melody comparison, rhythm perception, and emotional categorising of music were impaired in patients. In the longitudinal study, patients improved from 53.6±7.8 to 56.2±6.7 (p=0.038); this improvement could be related to clinical improvement on the Hamilton Depression Scale. The sample size is small, in particular in the follow-up study. The results clearly revealed a significant reduction of musical ability in patients with depression. A part of the patients could even be diagnosed with a clinically relevant amusia. Along with significant decrease of depressive symptoms, the patients significantly improved with respect to musical ability. These findings suggest a systematic impact of depression on musical ability, they are of importance for the application of music therapy in depressive patients and for the function of music to improve their quality of life. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The genetic basis of music ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yi Ting; McPherson, Gary E.; Peretz, Isabelle; Berkovic, Samuel F.; Wilson, Sarah J.

    2014-01-01

    Music is an integral part of the cultural heritage of all known human societies, with the capacity for music perception and production present in most people. Researchers generally agree that both genetic and environmental factors contribute to the broader realization of music ability, with the degree of music aptitude varying, not only from individual to individual, but across various components of music ability within the same individual. While environmental factors influencing music development and expertise have been well investigated in the psychological and music literature, the interrogation of possible genetic influences has not progressed at the same rate. Recent advances in genetic research offer fertile ground for exploring the genetic basis of music ability. This paper begins with a brief overview of behavioral and molecular genetic approaches commonly used in human genetic analyses, and then critically reviews the key findings of genetic investigations of the components of music ability. Some promising and converging findings have emerged, with several loci on chromosome 4 implicated in singing and music perception, and certain loci on chromosome 8q implicated in absolute pitch and music perception. The gene AVPR1A on chromosome 12q has also been implicated in music perception, music memory, and music listening, whereas SLC6A4 on chromosome 17q has been associated with music memory and choir participation. Replication of these results in alternate populations and with larger samples is warranted to confirm the findings. Through increased research efforts, a clearer picture of the genetic mechanisms underpinning music ability will hopefully emerge. PMID:25018744

  10. Resource function of conceptual and metacognitive abilities in adolescents with different forms of dysontogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kholodnaya, M.

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the level of conceptual and metacognitive abilities and their interaction in adolescents with different forms of dysontogenesis. The total sample (N= 173 included four groups of young adolescents (11-12 years old: with normal development, with infantile cerebral palsy (CP, with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, and with delayed intellectual development (DID. We measured the adolescents’ performance on tests of conceptual abilities (the use of categories at different grades of generalization, the discovery of abstract meaning and implicit connections between concepts and metacognitive abilities (attention selectivity, as measured by Mtinsterberg’s test and the understanding of hidden pictures, and attention organization, as measured by indices of cognitive styles. The results showed, first, that in comparison with normal adolescents, the adolescents with CP and ADHD had a deficit of metacognitive abilities, but they did not differ in rates of conceptual abilities. As for adolescents with DID, even though they had lower rates of conceptual abilities and attention selectivity, they did not differ from the “norm” group on some indices of attention organization. Second, a tendency for the disintegration of conceptual and metacognitive abilities (as measured by correlation and factor analysis was most clearly seen in the adolescents with ADHD and DID. The adolescents with CP and ADHD had conceptual (categorial and generative abilities as a mental resource, and the adolescents with DID had metacognitive abilities as a mental resource. The resource function of conceptual and metacognitive abilities was determined not only by their level but also by the extent of their interaction (integration.

  11. Work ability of Chinese migrant workers: the influence of migration characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Lu; Shi, Leiyu; Lu, Liming; Ling, Li

    2014-04-13

    Migrant workers have become a vital labor supply to China's economy. Their migration process and work conditions may influence their health and work ability. The work ability of migrant workers in China and the influence of the migration process on work ability have not been explored extensively in previous studies. The objective of this study is to evaluate the association of migration characteristics and work-related factors with work ability among migrant workers in the Pearl River Delta. In this cross-sectional survey, the study population consisted of 907 migrant workers from ten factories in the Pearl River Delta who were exposed to organic solvents during work. The primary dependent variable of the study was work ability, measured by the Work Ability Index (WAI). The independent variables were individual characteristics, migration characteristics, and work-related factors. Logistic regression models were used to determine the influence of different factors on work ability and three dimensions of WAI. The result shows that among migration characteristics, social support was significantly associated with all three dimensions of the work ability index. Permanent migration intention and longer length of migration were negatively associated with the mental resource dimension of WAI. WAI was also influenced by individual and work-related factors. The findings of this study suggest that expanding migrants' social networks and social support systems in their work place or living community, (i.e. expanding the functions of labor unions) would be an effective way to improve migrant workers' work ability. Improving of migrant workers' physical and psychosocial related work environments would also increase their work ability.

  12. Teachers of high ability pupils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cándido Genovard

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article we analyze the characteristics of gifted and talented students’ expert teachers. The subject background and the specific proprieties of the instructional process to meet gifted students’ educational needs are analyzed. The value of teacher-student interactions and of teaching and learning styles are highlighted. Also, we include different action guidelines and instructional resources to use in the classroom to teach these students. There is not an ideal teacher for high ability students. However, teachers must know what the teaching-learning processes are and how these work, and the diverse psychological, content and contextual variables involved in such processes.

  13. Do motor ability and handwriting kinematic measures predict organizational ability among children with Developmental Coordination Disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblum, Sara

    2015-10-01

    Children with Developmental Coordination Disorders (DCD) exhibit deficient daily performance concealed in their perception-action mechanism. The aim of this study was to analyze behavior organization of children with DCD, in varied tasks that require generating and monitoring mental representations related to space and time inputs/requirements, for achieving better insight about their perception-action mechanism. Participants included 42 children aged 7-10, half of whom were defined with DCD and half were typically developing (TD). The children were matched for age, gender and school. They were evaluated using the Movement-ABC and performed three handwriting tasks on an electronic tablet that is part of a computerized system (ComPET - Computerized Penmanship Evaluation Tool). In addition, their teachers completed the Questionnaire for Assessing Students' Organizational Abilities-Teachers (QASOA-T) to assess the children's daily organizational ability. Significant group differences (DCD versus controls) were found for all handwriting kinematic measures across the three handwriting tasks and for the children's organizational abilities. Motor ability predicted a considerable percentage of the variance of the kinematic handwriting measures (30-37%), as well as a high percentage of the variance of their organizational abilities (67%). The coefficient of variance of the pen tilt added an additional 3% to the prediction of their organizational abilities. The results of this study exhibited deficient ability among children with DCD in organizing their behavior in varied real-world tasks requiring generation and monitoring representation related to space and time. The significance of the results to understanding the performance mechanism and implication to the clinical field are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Combining Ability for Germination Traits in Jatropha curcas L.

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    A. K. M. Aminul Islam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Six parents of Jatropha curcas were crossed in half diallel fashion, and the F1s were evaluated to determine the combining ability for nine germination parameters. The ratio between general combining ability (GCA and specific combining ability (SCA variances indicated preponderance of additive gene action for all the characters except germination percentage, time of 50% germination, seedling length, and seedling vigor index. The parents P1 and P2 were the best general combiner for most of the characters studied. The cross P1×P5 was the best specific combiner for speed of emergence, germination percentage, germination energy, germination index, and seedling vigor index, the cross P2×P5 for mean germination time, time of 50% germination, and seedling length, and the cross P4×P5 for number of days to first germination. The germination percentage varied from 58.06 to 92.76% among the parents and 53.43 to 98.96% among the hybrids. The highest germination (98.96% was observed in hybrid P2×P4, and none of the hybrids or parents showed 100% germination. The highest germination index (GI and seedling vigor index (SVI were found in hybrid P1×P5 and P2×P5, respectively. The results of this study provide clue for the improvement of Jatropha variety through breeding program.

  15. Scientific Creativity and High Ability: Gender and academic level differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Javier ESPARZA MOLINA

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available  The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of gender and educational level on scientific creativity among gifted/talented students. A cohort of creatividad científica y alta habilidad: diferencias de género y nivel educativo 78 secondary school students from 12 to 16 years old participated in this research. The scientific creativity was measured using the Creative Scientific Ability Test (Sak & Ayas, 2011 designed for secondary school students from 11 to 14 years old. Its theoretical framework sets up the measurement of a three dimensional structure: general creative abilities (fluency, flexibility and creativity, scientific creative abilities (hypothesis generation, hypothesis testing and evidence evaluation and scientific knowledge. This test has the right adequate psychometric properties with a Cronbach’s alpha coefficient of 0.848 (Sak & Ayas, 2013. Results indicated that male students scored significantly higher in a task named Interaction Graph which measures hypothesis generation in interdisciplinary science. The analysis also showed that students involved in upper education levels scores significantly higher in general fluency and in the task called The Food Chain which measures evidence evaluation in the area of ecology.

  16. Utilization of Illustrations during Learning of Science Textbook Passages among Low- and High-Ability Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannus; Hyönä

    1999-04-01

    Effects of illustrations on learning authentic textbook materials were studied among 10-year-old elementary school children of high and low intellectual ability. Experiment 1 showed that the presence of illustrations improved learning of illustrated text content, but not that of nonillustrated text content. Comprehension scores were improved by the presence of illustrations for high-ability children, but not for low-ability children. In Experiment 2, children's eye movements were measured during learning of illustrated textbook passages to study how children divide their attention between text and illustrations. The results suggest that learning is heavily driven by the text and that children inspect illustrations only minimally. High-ability students were more strategic in processing in the sense that they spent relatively more time on pertinent segments of text and illustrations. It is concluded that the learning of illustrated science textbook materials involves requirements that may be more readily met by more intellectually capable students. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  17. The influence of mathematics learning using SAVI approach on junior high school students’ mathematical modelling ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khusna, H.; Heryaningsih, N. Y.

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this research was to examine mathematical modeling ability who learn mathematics by using SAVI approach. This research was a quasi-experimental research with non-equivalent control group designed by using purposive sampling technique. The population of this research was the state junior high school students in Lembang while the sample consisted of two class at 8th grade. The instrument used in this research was mathematical modeling ability. Data analysis of this research was conducted by using SPSS 20 by Windows. The result showed that students’ ability of mathematical modeling who learn mathematics by using SAVI approach was better than students’ ability of mathematical modeling who learn mathematics using conventional learning.

  18. Effects of different tillage and transplanting methods on rice rooting ability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren Wanjun; Yang Wenyu; Fan Gaoqiong; Wu Jinxiu; Wang Lihong

    2007-01-01

    Effects of different tillage and transplanting methods on rice rooting ability were studied with the methods of water culture and 3 H labeling. The results showed that the dynamic curve of rooting ability had single peak during growth period, and the peak of root length per plant, root number and root dry weight appeared at booting. With conventional tillage and transplanting method, the rice plant had the strongest rooting ability, under non-tillage treatment (BCSNT), the rooting ability was the lowest during elongating to heading. After 10d of heading, the dry weight and 3 H specific activity of BCSNT was higher than other treatments, at the same time, the percentage of 3 H assimilate at new root was the highest. Dry weight was positively correlated with percentage of 3 H assimilate of new root, while negatively with percentage of 3 H assimilate of panicle. (authors)

  19. K-11 students’ creative thinking ability on static fluid: a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanni, I. U.; Muslim; Hasanah, L.; Samsudin, A.

    2018-05-01

    Creative thinking is one of the fundamental components of 21st-century education that needs to be possessed and developed in students. Thus, the students have the ability to find many alternative solutions to solve problems in physics learning. The study aimed at providing the students’ creative thinking ability on Static Fluid. A case study has been implemented through a single case, namely embedded design. Participants in this study are 27 K-11 students. The instrument utilized is Test for Creative Thinking-Static Fluid (TCT-SF) which has been validated by the experts. The result shows that 10.74 (approximately 35.8%) of the maximum scores. In conclusion, students’ creative thinking ability on Static Fluid is still stumpy, hence, it is needed to develop creative thinking ability in K-11 students’ context.

  20. The relationship between face recognition ability and socioemotional functioning throughout adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turano, Maria Teresa; Viggiano, Maria Pia

    2017-11-01

    The relationship between face recognition ability and socioemotional functioning has been widely explored. However, how aging modulates this association regarding both objective performance and subjective-perception is still neglected. Participants, aged between 18 and 81 years, performed a face memory test and completed subjective face recognition and socioemotional questionnaires. General and social anxiety, and neuroticism traits account for the individual variation in face recognition abilities during adulthood. Aging modulates these relationships because as they age, individuals that present a higher level of these traits also show low-level face recognition ability. Intriguingly, the association between depression and face recognition abilities is evident with increasing age. Overall, the present results emphasize the importance of embedding face metacognition measurement into the context of these studies and suggest that aging is an important factor to be considered, which seems to contribute to the relationship between socioemotional and face-cognitive functioning.

  1. Implicit theories and ability emotional intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabello, Rosario; Fernández-Berrocal, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has shown that people differ in their implicit theories about the essential characteristics of intelligence and emotions. Some people believe these characteristics to be predetermined and immutable (entity theorists), whereas others believe that these characteristics can be changed through learning and behavior training (incremental theorists). The present study provides evidence that in healthy adults (N = 688), implicit beliefs about emotions and emotional intelligence (EI) may influence performance on the ability-based Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT). Adults in our sample with incremental theories about emotions and EI scored higher on the MSCEIT than entity theorists, with implicit theories about EI showing a stronger relationship to scores than theories about emotions. Although our participants perceived both emotion and EI as malleable, they viewed emotions as more malleable than EI. Women and young adults in general were more likely to be incremental theorists than men and older adults. Furthermore, we found that emotion and EI theories mediated the relationship of gender and age with ability EI. Our findings suggest that people’s implicit theories about EI may influence their emotional abilities, which may have important consequences for personal and professional EI training. PMID:26052309

  2. Implicit theories and ability emotional intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROSARIO eCABELLO

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has shown that people differ in their implicit theories about the essential characteristics of intelligence and emotions. Some people believe these characteristics to be predetermined and immutable (entity theorists, whereas others believe that these characteristics can be changed through learning and behavior training (incremental theorists. The present study provides evidence that in healthy adults (N = 688, implicit beliefs about emotions and emotional intelligence (EI may influence performance on the ability-based Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT. Adults in our sample with incremental theories about emotions and EI scored higher on the MSCEIT than entity theorists, with implicit theories about EI showing a stronger relationship to scores than theories about emotions. Although our participants perceived both emotion and EI as malleable, they viewed emotions as more malleable than EI. Women and young adults in general were more likely to be incremental theorists than men and older adults. Furthermore, we found that emotion and EI theories mediated the relationship of gender and age with ability EI. Our findings suggest that people’s implicit theories about EI may influence their emotional abilities, which may have important consequences for personal and professional EI training.

  3. Assessment of motor imagery ability and training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luiz Felix Rodacki

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate changes in motor imagery ability in response to a specific dart throwing training. Twelve subjects (17-22 years with no previous experience in dart throwing or imagery agreed to participate. Changes in imagery ability were assessed using the Sports Imagery Questionnaire before (pretreatment and after (post-treatment an imagery training program consisting of 10 sessions. Retention (RET was assessed 2 weeks after training. The program included mental exercises designed to develop vivid images, to control one’s own images, and to increase perception about performance. Comparison of the imagery training conditions (training alone, training accompanied, observing a colleague, and during assessment showed no differences between the pretreatment, post-treatment and RET evaluations. Although imagery ability did not respond to training, significant differences between imagery domains (visual, auditory, kinesthetic, and animic were found (p<0.05, except between the visual and animic domains (p=0.58. These differences might be related to subject’s domain preference subject during the imagery process and to the nature of the task in which the skill technique used seems to be a relevant aspect.

  4. Strains of the soil fungus Mortierella show different degradation potentials for the phenylurea herbicide diuron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellegaard-Jensen, Lea; Aamand, Jens; Kragelund, Birthe B; Johnsen, Anders H; Rosendahl, Søren

    2013-11-01

    Microbial pesticide degradation studies have until now mainly focused on bacteria, although fungi have also been shown to degrade pesticides. In this study we clarify the background for the ability of the common soil fungus Mortierella to degrade the phenylurea herbicide diuron. Diuron degradation potentials of five Mortierella strains were compared, and the role of carbon and nitrogen for the degradation process was investigated. Results showed that the ability to degrade diuron varied greatly among the Mortierella strains tested, and the strains able to degrade diuron were closely related. Degradation of diuron was fastest in carbon and nitrogen rich media while suboptimal nutrient levels restricted degradation, making it unlikely that Mortierella utilize diuron as carbon or nitrogen sources. Degradation kinetics showed that diuron degradation was followed by formation of the metabolites 1-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-3-methylurea, 1-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)urea and an hitherto unknown metabolite suggested to be 1-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-3-methylideneurea.

  5. Strains of the soil fungus Mortierella show different degradation potentials for the phenylurea herbicide diuron

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellegaard-Jensen, Lea; Aamand, Jens; Kragelund, Birthe Brandt

    2013-01-01

    Microbial pesticide degradation studies have until now mainly focused on bacteria, although fungi have also been shown to degrade pesticides. In this study we clarify the background for the ability of the common soil fungus Mortierella to degrade the phenylurea herbicide diuron. Diuron degradation...... potentials of five Mortierella strains were compared, and the role of carbon and nitrogen for the degradation process was investigated. Results showed that the ability to degrade diuron varied greatly among the Mortierella strains tested, and the strains able to degrade diuron were closely related....... Degradation of diuron was fastest in carbon and nitrogen rich media while suboptimal nutrient levels restricted degradation, making it unlikely that Mortierella utilize diuron as carbon or nitrogen sources. Degradation kinetics showed that diuron degradation was followed by formation of the metabolites 1...

  6. Evaluating the psycholegal abilities of young offenders with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLachlan, Kaitlyn; Roesch, Ronald; Viljoen, Jodi L; Douglas, Kevin S

    2014-02-01

    Individuals with a diagnosis of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) experience a range of physical, cognitive, and behavioral deficits thought to interfere with their ability to competently navigate the arrest, interrogation, and trial process. This study examined the psycholegal abilities of young offenders with FASD, including their understanding and appreciation of Miranda rights, and adjudication capacities (factual knowledge of criminal procedure, appreciation of the nature and object of the proceedings, ability to participate in a defense and communicate with counsel). Two groups of young offenders (50 with FASD and 50 without prenatal alcohol exposure) completed Grisso's Instruments for Assessing Understanding and Appreciation of Miranda rights and the Fitness Interview Test-Revised to assess overall rates of impairment in youth with FASD, as well as differences between the groups. Potentially important predictors of psycholegal abilities were also evaluated. Results indicated the majority of young offenders with FASD (90%) showed impairment in at least one psycholegal ability, and rates of impairment were significantly higher than the comparison group. However, considerable within-group variability was observed. IQ and reading comprehension emerged as robust predictors of participants' psycholegal abilities, while the FASD diagnosis differentiated participants' scores on the FIT-R. These findings underscore the importance of individualized and comprehensive forensic assessments of psycholegal abilities in this population when warranted. Additional system level strains for this population are discussed, including problems in approaching competency remediation, and the potentially growing need for accommodation and forensic assessments in the face of limited financial and professional resources in legal settings.

  7. Cabri 3D - assisted collaborative learning to enhance junior high school students’ spatial ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muntazhimah; Miatun, A.

    2018-01-01

    The main purpose of this quasi-experimental study was to determine the enhancement of spatial ability of junior high school students who learned through Cabri-3D assisted collaborative learning. The methodology of this study was the nonequivalent group that was conducted to students of the eighth grade in a junior high school as a population. Samples consisted one class of the experimental group who studied with Cabri-3D assisted collaborative learning and one class as a control group who got regular learning activity. The instrument used in this study was a spatial ability test. Analyzing normalized gain of students’ spatial ability based on mathemathical prior knowledge (MPK) and its interactions was tested by two-way ANOVA at a significance level of 5% then continued with using Post Hoc Scheffe test. The research results showed that there was significant difference in enhancement of the spatial ability between students who learnt with Cabri 3D assisted collaborative learning and students who got regular learning, there was significant difference in enhancement of the spatial ability between students who learnt with cabri 3D assisted collaborative learning and students who got regular learning in terms of MPK and there is no significant interaction between learning (Cabri-3D assisted collaborative learning and regular learning) with students’ MPK (high, medium, and low) toward the enhancement of students’ spatial abilities. From the above findings, it can be seen that cabri-3D assisted collaborative learning could enhance spatial ability of junior high school students.

  8. Emotional Intelligence and its Relationship with Gender, Academic Performance and Intellectual Abilities of Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valadez Sierra, Maria de los Dolores; Borges del Rosal, Maria Africa; Ruvalcaba Romero, Norma; Villegas, Karina; Lorenzo, Maryurena

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Emotional intelligence has been linked to several variables, such as gender, and academic performance. In the area of high intellectual abilities, the literature shows controversy, without a unanimous result on the relationship between both variables. In the present study we analyzed the modulatory effect has academic performance in…

  9. Incorporating Learning Motivation and Self-Concept in Mathematical Communicative Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajagukguk, Waminton

    2016-01-01

    This research is trying to determine of the mathematical concepts, instead by integrating the learning motivation (X[subscript 1]) and self-concept (X[subscript 2]) can contribute to the mathematical communicative ability (Y). The test instruments showed the following results: (1) simple regressive equation Y on X[subscript 1] was Y = 32.891 +…

  10. The relation between specialty choice of psychology students and their interests, personality, and cognitive abilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wicherts, J.M.; Vorst, H.C.M.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this longitudinal study was to investigate differences in interests, personality, and cognitive abilities between students majoring in the six specialties of psychology at the University of Amsterdam. Results show that students at Social Psychology and Work and Organizational Psychology

  11. At the Interface between Language Testing and Second Language Acquisition: Language Ability and Context of Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Lin

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between latent components of academic English language ability and test takers' study-abroad and classroom learning experiences through a structural equation modeling approach in the context of TOEFL iBT® testing. Data from the TOEFL iBT public dataset were used. The results showed that test takers'…

  12. The Relation between Specialty Choice of Psychology Students and Their Interests, Personality, and Cognitive Abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicherts, Jelte M.; Vorst, Harrie C. M.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this longitudinal study was to investigate differences in interests, personality, and cognitive abilities between students majoring in the six specialties of psychology at the University of Amsterdam. Results show that students at Social Psychology and Work and Organizational Psychology were on average more extraverted than students of…

  13. The Effects of Schooling and Cognitive Ability on Smoking and Marijuana Use by Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, William

    1998-01-01

    Estimates effects of schooling, cognitive ability, and time preference on the probability that young adults smoke cigarettes or use marijuana, using data from the "High School and Beyond 1980 Study." Results show that all three variables affect the likelihood of smoking. Schooling and time preference have modest effects on using marijuana when…

  14. Workplace interventions to improve work ability: A systematic review and meta-analysis of their effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakman, Jodi; Neupane, Subas; Proper, Karin I; Kinsman, Natasha; Nygård, Clas-Håkan

    2018-03-01

    Objective Extended working lives due to an ageing population will necessitate the maintenance of work ability across the life course. This systematic review aimed to analyze whether workplace interventions positively impact work ability. Methods We searched Medline, PsycINFO, CINAHL and Embase databases using relevant terms. Work-based interventions were those focused on individuals, the workplace, or multilevel (combination). Work ability - measured using the work ability index (WAI) or the single-item work ability score (WAS) - was the outcome measure. Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development & Evaluation (GRADE) criteria was used to assess evidence quality, and impact statements were developed to synthesize the results. Meta-analysis was undertaken where appropriate. Results We reviewed 17 randomized control trials (comprising 22 articles). Multilevel interventions (N=5) included changes to work arrangements and liaisons with supervisors, whilst individual-focused interventions (N=12) involved behavior change or exercise programs. We identified only evidence of a moderate quality for either individual or multilevel interventions aiming to improve work ability. The meta-analysis of 13 studies found a small positive significant effect for interventions on work ability [overall pooled mean 0.12, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.03-0.21] with no heterogeneity for the effect size (Chi 2 =11.28, P=0.51; I 2 =0%). Conclusions The meta-analysis showed a small positive effect, suggesting that workplace interventions might improve work ability. However, the quality of the evidence base was only moderate, precluding any firm conclusion. Further high quality studies are require to establish the role of interventions on work ability.

  15. ANS acuity and mathematics ability in preschoolers from low-income homes: contributions of inhibitory control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuhs, Mary Wagner; McNeil, Nicole M

    2013-01-01

    Recent findings by Libertus, Feigenson, and Halberda (2011) suggest that there is an association between the acuity of young children's approximate number system (ANS) and their mathematics ability before exposure to instruction in formal schooling. The present study examined the generalizability and validity of these findings in a sample of preschoolers from low-income homes. Children attending Head Start (N = 103) completed measures to assess ANS acuity, mathematics ability, receptive vocabulary, and inhibitory control. Results showed only a weak association between ANS acuity and mathematics ability that was reduced to non-significance when controlling for a direct measure of receptive vocabulary. Results also revealed that inhibitory control plays an important role in the relation between ANS acuity and mathematics ability. Specifically, ANS acuity accounted for significant variance in mathematics ability over and above receptive vocabulary, but only for ANS acuity trials in which surface area conflicted with numerosity. Moreover, this association became non-significant when controlling for inhibitory control. These results suggest that early mathematical experiences prior to formal schooling may influence the strength of the association between ANS acuity and mathematics ability and that inhibitory control may drive that association in young children. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. Pragmatic Abilities of Children with Williams Syndrome: A Longitudinal Examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela E. John

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Although prior research has indicated that pragmatics is an area of particular weakness for individuals with Williams syndrome (WS, the relations among different pragmatic abilities and the relations between pragmatic ability and expressive vocabulary ability have yet to be addressed. In addition, analyses of the relations between the same type of pragmatic ability over time have not been reported. The present study was designed to address these questions. We considered the pragmatic language abilities of 14 children with WS at two time points: as 4-year-olds during a 30-minute play-session with their mothers (Time 1 and an average of 5.87 years later during a one-on-one conversation with a familiar researcher (Time 2. Children’s intellectual and expressive vocabulary abilities were assessed at both time points. Results indicated that the ability to verbally contribute information beyond what was required in response to a question was significantly related to the ability to verbally contribute new information in the absence of a question both at age 4 years and during primary school. At age 4, both the ability to pair verbalizations with eye contact (intersubjectivity and expressive vocabulary ability were related to the ability to verbally contribute information beyond what was expected within a social interaction. Finally, the ability to verbally contribute new information to a social interaction beyond what was required to answer a question and the ability to pair verbalizations with eye contact (intersubjectivity at age 4 years predicted the ability to verbally contribute new information beyond what was required to answer a question at age 9 – 12 years. The theoretical implications of our findings and the importance of early pragmatic language intervention for children who have WS are discussed.

  17. Rhythm perception and production predict reading abilities in developmental dyslexia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena eFlaugnacco

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Rhythm organizes events in time and plays a major role in music, but also in the phonology and prosody of a language. Interestingly, children with developmental dyslexia - a learning disability that affects reading acquisition despite normal intelligence and adequate education - have a poor rhythmic perception. It has been suggested that an accurate perception of rhythmical/metrical structure, that requires accurate perception of rise time, may be critical for phonological development and subsequent literacy. This hypothesis is mostly based on results showing a high degree of correlation between phonological awareness and metrical skills, using a very specific metrical task. We present new findings from the analysis of a sample of 48 children with a diagnosis of dyslexia, without comorbidities. These children were assessed with neuropsychological tests, as well as specifically-devised psychoacoustic and musical tasks mostly testing temporal abilities. Associations were tested by multivariate analyses including data mining strategies, correlations and most importantly logistic regressions to understand to what extent the different auditory and musical skills can be a robust predictor of reading and phonological skills. Results show a strong link between several temporal skills and phonological and reading abilities. These findings are discussed in the framework of the neuroscience literature comparing music and language processing, with a particular interest in the links between rhythm processing in music and language.

  18. Comparison of Measures of Ability in Adolescents with Intellectual Disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mungkhetklang, Chantanee; Crewther, Sheila G; Bavin, Edith L; Goharpey, Nahal; Parsons, Carl

    2016-01-01

    Finding the most appropriate intelligence test for adolescents with Intellectual Disability (ID) is challenging given their limited language, attention, perceptual, and motor skills and ability to stay on task. The study compared performance of 23 adolescents with ID on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition (WISC-IV), one of the most widely used intelligence tests, and three non-verbal IQ tests, the Raven's Colored Progressive Matrices (RCPM), the Test of Non-verbal Intelligence-Fourth Edition and the Wechsler Non-verbal test of Ability. Results showed that the WISC-IV Full Scale IQ raw and scaled scores were highly correlated with total scores from the three non-verbal tests, although the correlations were higher for raw scores, suggesting they may lead to better understanding of within group differences and what individuals with ID can do at the time of assessment. All participants attempted more questions on the non-verbal tests than the verbal. A preliminary analysis showed that adolescents with ID without ASD (n = 15) achieved higher scores overall than those presenting with ID+ASD (n = 8). Our findings support the view that short non-verbal tests are more likely to give a similar IQ result as obtained from the WISC-IV. In terms of the time to administer and the stress for participants, they are more appropriate for assessing adolescents with ID.

  19. Benthic communities under anthropogenic pressure show resilience across the Quaternary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinelli, Julieta C; Soto, Luis P; González, Jorge; Rivadeneira, Marcelo M

    2017-09-01

    The Southeast Pacific is characterized by rich upwelling systems that have sustained and been impacted by human groups for at least 12 ka. Recent fishing and aquaculture practices have put a strain on productive coastal ecosystems from Tongoy Bay, in north-central Chile. We use a temporal baseline to determine whether potential changes to community structure and composition over time are due to anthropogenic factors, natural climatic variations or both. We compiled a database ( n  = 33 194) with mollusc species abundances from the Mid-Pleistocene, Late Pleistocene, Holocene, dead shell assemblages and live-sampled communities. Species richness was not significantly different, neither were diversity and evenness indices nor rank abundance distributions. There is, however, an increase in relative abundance for the cultured scallop Argopecten , while the previously dominant clam Mulinia is locally very rare. Results suggest that impacts from both natural and anthropogenic stressors need to be better understood if benthic resources are to be preserved. These findings provide the first Pleistocene temporal baseline for the south Pacific that shows that this highly productive system has had the ability to recover from past alterations, suggesting that if monitoring and management practices continue to be implemented, moderately exploited communities from today have hopes for recovery.

  20. Benthic communities under anthropogenic pressure show resilience across the Quaternary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinelli, Julieta C.; Soto, Luis P.; González, Jorge; Rivadeneira, Marcelo M.

    2017-09-01

    The Southeast Pacific is characterized by rich upwelling systems that have sustained and been impacted by human groups for at least 12 ka. Recent fishing and aquaculture practices have put a strain on productive coastal ecosystems from Tongoy Bay, in north-central Chile. We use a temporal baseline to determine whether potential changes to community structure and composition over time are due to anthropogenic factors, natural climatic variations or both. We compiled a database (n = 33 194) with mollusc species abundances from the Mid-Pleistocene, Late Pleistocene, Holocene, dead shell assemblages and live-sampled communities. Species richness was not significantly different, neither were diversity and evenness indices nor rank abundance distributions. There is, however, an increase in relative abundance for the cultured scallop Argopecten, while the previously dominant clam Mulinia is locally very rare. Results suggest that impacts from both natural and anthropogenic stressors need to be better understood if benthic resources are to be preserved. These findings provide the first Pleistocene temporal baseline for the south Pacific that shows that this highly productive system has had the ability to recover from past alterations, suggesting that if monitoring and management practices continue to be implemented, moderately exploited communities from today have hopes for recovery.

  1. This research is to study the factors which influence the business success of small business ‘processed rotan’. The data employed in the study are primary data within the period of July to August 2013, 30 research observations through census method. Method of analysis used in the study is multiple linear regressions. The results of analysis showed that the factors of labor, innovation and promotion have positive and significant influence on the business success of small business ‘processed rotan’ simultaneously. The analysis also showed that partially labor has positive and significant influence on the business success, yet innovation and promotion have insignificant and positive influence on the business success.

    OpenAIRE

    Nasution, Inggrita Gusti Sari; Muchtar, Yasmin Chairunnisa

    2013-01-01

    This research is to study the factors which influence the business success of small business ‘processed rotan’. The data employed in the study are primary data within the period of July to August 2013, 30 research observations through census method. Method of analysis used in the study is multiple linear regressions. The results of analysis showed that the factors of labor, innovation and promotion have positive and significant influence on the business success of small busine...

  2. Adaptively evolved yeast mutants on galactose show trade-offs in carbon utilization on glucose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hong, Kuk-Ki; Nielsen, Jens

    2013-01-01

    the molecular mechanisms. In this study, adaptively evolved yeast mutants with improved galactose utilization ability showed impaired glucose utilization. The molecular genetic basis of this trade-off was investigated using a systems biology approach. Transcriptional and metabolic changes resulting from...... the improvement of galactose utilization were found maintained during growth on glucose. Moreover, glucose repression related genes showed conserved expression patterns during growth on both sugars. Mutations in the RAS2 gene that were identified as beneficial for galactose utilization in evolved mutants...

  3. Numerical approximation abilities correlate with and predict informal but not formal mathematics abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libertus, Melissa E; Feigenson, Lisa; Halberda, Justin

    2013-12-01

    Previous research has found a relationship between individual differences in children's precision when nonverbally approximating quantities and their school mathematics performance. School mathematics performance emerges from both informal (e.g., counting) and formal (e.g., knowledge of mathematics facts) abilities. It remains unknown whether approximation precision relates to both of these types of mathematics abilities. In the current study, we assessed the precision of numerical approximation in 85 3- to 7-year-old children four times over a span of 2years. In addition, at the final time point, we tested children's informal and formal mathematics abilities using the Test of Early Mathematics Ability (TEMA-3). We found that children's numerical approximation precision correlated with and predicted their informal, but not formal, mathematics abilities when controlling for age and IQ. These results add to our growing understanding of the relationship between an unlearned nonsymbolic system of quantity representation and the system of mathematics reasoning that children come to master through instruction. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Assessing Algebraic Solving Ability: A Theoretical Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Lim Hooi; Yew, Wun Thiam

    2012-01-01

    Algebraic solving ability had been discussed by many educators and researchers. There exists no definite definition for algebraic solving ability as it can be viewed from different perspectives. In this paper, the nature of algebraic solving ability in terms of algebraic processes that demonstrate the ability in solving algebraic problem is…

  5. Event segmentation ability uniquely predicts event memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargent, Jesse Q; Zacks, Jeffrey M; Hambrick, David Z; Zacks, Rose T; Kurby, Christopher A; Bailey, Heather R; Eisenberg, Michelle L; Beck, Taylor M

    2013-11-01

    Memory for everyday events plays a central role in tasks of daily living, autobiographical memory, and planning. Event memory depends in part on segmenting ongoing activity into meaningful units. This study examined the relationship between event segmentation and memory in a lifespan sample to answer the following question: Is the ability to segment activity into meaningful events a unique predictor of subsequent memory, or is the relationship between event perception and memory accounted for by general cognitive abilities? Two hundred and eight adults ranging from 20 to 79years old segmented movies of everyday events and attempted to remember the events afterwards. They also completed psychometric ability tests and tests measuring script knowledge for everyday events. Event segmentation and script knowledge both explained unique variance in event memory above and beyond the psychometric measures, and did so as strongly in older as in younger adults. These results suggest that event segmentation is a basic cognitive mechanism, important for memory across the lifespan. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Ancient bacteria show evidence of DNA repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnson, Sarah Stewart; Hebsgaard, Martin B; Christensen, Torben R

    2007-01-01

    -term survival of bacteria sealed in frozen conditions for up to one million years. Our results show evidence of bacterial survival in samples up to half a million years in age, making this the oldest independently authenticated DNA to date obtained from viable cells. Additionally, we find strong evidence...... geological timescales. There has been no direct evidence in ancient microbes for the most likely mechanism, active DNA repair, or for the metabolic activity necessary to sustain it. In this paper, we couple PCR and enzymatic treatment of DNA with direct respiration measurements to investigate long...... that this long-term survival is closely tied to cellular metabolic activity and DNA repair that over time proves to be superior to dormancy as a mechanism in sustaining bacteria viability....

  7. Myopes show increased susceptibility to nearwork aftereffects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciuffreda, K J; Wallis, D M

    1998-09-01

    Some aspects of accommodation may be slightly abnormal (or different) in myopes, compared with accommodation in emmetropes and hyperopes. For example, the initial magnitude of accommodative adaptation in the dark after nearwork is greatest in myopes. However, the critical test is to assess this initial accommodative aftereffect and its subsequent decay in the light under more natural viewing conditions with blur-related visual feedback present, if a possible link between this phenomenon and clinical myopia is to be considered. Subjects consisted of adult late- (n = 11) and early-onset (n = 13) myopes, emmetropes (n = 11), and hyperopes (n = 9). The distance-refractive state was assessed objectively using an autorefractor immediately before and after a 10-minute binocular near task at 20 cm (5 diopters [D]). Group results showed that myopes were most susceptible to the nearwork aftereffect. It averaged 0.35 D in initial magnitude, with considerably faster posttask decay to baseline in the early-onset (35 seconds) versus late-onset (63 seconds) myopes. There was no myopic aftereffect in the remaining two refractive groups. The myopes showed particularly striking accommodatively related nearwork aftereffect susceptibility. As has been speculated and found by many others, transient pseudomyopia may cause or be a precursor to permanent myopia or myopic progression. Time-integrated increased retinal defocus causing axial elongation is proposed as a possible mechanism.

  8. THE EFFECT OF BASIC MOTOR ABILITIES ON DRIBBLING SPEED AND PRECISION IN SOCCER GAME

    OpenAIRE

    Ismail Selimović; Mehmeti Ejup

    2011-01-01

    Effects of basic motor skills on situational-motor abilities for speed dribble and ball control precision assessment in soccer game at boys aged 12-14 years were analyzed with regression analysis. For this purpose, 17 variables for basic motor parameters were selected, as well as three situational tests. In every example of the regression analysis results, the results obtained showed confirmation of the hypothesis of significant effects of the morphological characteristics on the results in a...

  9. Resultados histológicos e detecção do HPV em mulheres com células escamosas atípicas de significado indeterminado e lesão escamosa intra-epitelial de baixo grau na colpocitologia oncológica Histological results and HPV detection in women with pap smear showing atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance and low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luis Ferreira Santos

    2004-07-01

    cells of unknown significance (ASCUS or low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL. METHODS: a cross-sectional study comprising 161 women referred to the Taubaté University Hospital due to ASCUS/LSIL, between August 2000 and September 2002. All women responded to a questionnaire regarding sociodemographic and reproductive characteristics and were subjected to gynecological examination with specimen collection for Pap test and HCII, along with colposcopy and eventual cervical biopsy. The relationship between HCII results and age, use of condom, oral hormonal contraception, and smoking were evaluated by the chi-square test. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of both Pap test and HCII were calculated. All calculations were performed within 95% confidence intervals. RESULTS: sixty-seven percent of the women that tested positive for HPV were less than 30 years old. Pap smear and HCII showed the same 82% sensitivity in detecting CIN2/3 when the threshold for a positive Pap result was ASCUS, LSIL or HSIL. Pap smear specificity and positive predictive values were substantially increased when only HSIL results were considered as positive (from 29 to 95% and 12 to 50%, respectively. These figures were superior to those of HCII, but at the expense of an expressive loss of sensitivity (from 82% to 41%. CONCLUSIONS: our results substantiate the potential of HCII in detecting CIN2/3 among women referred due to ASCUS/LSIL.

  10. Maximizing Reading Narrative Text Ability by Probing Prompting Learning Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiwied Pratiwi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to know whether Probing Prompting Learning Technique can be used to get the maximum effect of students’ reading narrative ability in teaching and learning process. This research was applied collaborative action reEsearch, this research was done in two cycle. The subject of this research was 23 students at tenth grade of SMA Kartikatama Metro. The result of the research showed that the Probing Prompting Learning Technique is useful and effective to help students get maximum effect of their reading. Based on the results of the questionnaire obtained an average percentage of 95%, it indicated that application of Probing Prompting Learning Technique in teaching l reading was appropriately applied. In short that students’ responses toward Probing Prompting Learning Technique in teaching reading was positive. In conclusion, Probing Prompting Learning Technique can get maximum effect of students’ reading ability. In relation to the result of the reserach, some suggestion are offered to english teacher, that  the use of Probing Prompting learning Technique in teaching reading will get the maximum effect of students’ reading abilty.

  11. Attachment style moderates theory of mind abilities in depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koelkebeck, Katja; Liedtke, Carla; Kohl, Waldemar; Alferink, Judith; Kret, Mariska Esther

    2017-04-15

    Being able to understand other people's emotions and intentions is crucial for social interactions and well-being. Deficits in theory of mind (ToM) functioning hamper this ability and have been observed in depression and other neuropsychiatric disorders. However, results of previous research in depression have been inconclusive, possibly due to the presence of comorbid disorders and the disregarding of other modulating factors. Thirty-eight patients with a major depressive disorder (MDD) and forty healthy matched controls were assessed with a ToM task using animated triangles. Results were correlated with attachment styles, empathy abilities and neurocognitive performance. Our findings show that 1) healthy female controls performed significantly stronger on the ToM task than female MDD patients, 2) these performance differences were driven by attachment styles and 3) depression severity did not impact task performance. The pharmacological treatment of the majority of patients might limit the generalizability of this study. Results indicate a gender-specific impact of attachment styles on ToM performance. Future studies should investigate whether impairments in social cognitive tasks pose a risk factor for depression and/or interactional styles or vice versa. Moreover, with regard to remediation programs gender-specific needs should be taken into account. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Functional architecture of visual emotion recognition ability: A latent variable approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Gary J; Lefevre, Carmen E; Young, Andrew W

    2016-05-01

    Emotion recognition has been a focus of considerable attention for several decades. However, despite this interest, the underlying structure of individual differences in emotion recognition ability has been largely overlooked and thus is poorly understood. For example, limited knowledge exists concerning whether recognition ability for one emotion (e.g., disgust) generalizes to other emotions (e.g., anger, fear). Furthermore, it is unclear whether emotion recognition ability generalizes across modalities, such that those who are good at recognizing emotions from the face, for example, are also good at identifying emotions from nonfacial cues (such as cues conveyed via the body). The primary goal of the current set of studies was to address these questions through establishing the structure of individual differences in visual emotion recognition ability. In three independent samples (Study 1: n = 640; Study 2: n = 389; Study 3: n = 303), we observed that the ability to recognize visually presented emotions is based on different sources of variation: a supramodal emotion-general factor, supramodal emotion-specific factors, and face- and within-modality emotion-specific factors. In addition, we found evidence that general intelligence and alexithymia were associated with supramodal emotion recognition ability. Autism-like traits, empathic concern, and alexithymia were independently associated with face-specific emotion recognition ability. These results (a) provide a platform for further individual differences research on emotion recognition ability, (b) indicate that differentiating levels within the architecture of emotion recognition ability is of high importance, and (c) show that the capacity to understand expressions of emotion in others is linked to broader affective and cognitive processes. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Spatial Visualization ability improves with and without studying Technical Drawing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, María José; Escrig, Rebeca; Prieto, Gerardo; Elosúa, M Rosa

    2018-03-27

    The results of several studies suggest that spatial ability can be improved through direct training with tasks similar to those integrated in the tests used to measure the ability. However, there is a greater interest in analyzing the effectiveness of indirect training such as games or of learning subjects that involve spatial processes to a certain extent. Thus, the objective of the present study was to analyze whether the indirect training in Technical Drawing improved the Spatial Visualization ability of Architecture students. For this purpose, a group of students enrolled in Fundamentals of Architecture were administered two tests, a Spatial Visualization task and an Abstract Reasoning task, at the beginning and the end of a semester, after having received training through the subjects "Technical Drawing I: Geometry and Perception" and "Projects I." The results of this group were compared with those of a control group of students enrolled in a Mathematics degree, who were also pre-post evaluated but had not received the training in Technical Drawing. The study showed a significant pre-post improvement in both, Visualization and reasoning. However, this improvement occurred in both groups, thereby concluding that this improvement was not due to indirect training. Furthermore, no significant differences were found between men and women in any of the groups or conditions. These results clarify those of an earlier study where improvement in Visualization after training in Technical Drawing was found but did not include a comparison with a control condition. The control condition has proved to be important in order to consider the limitations of the effect of Technical Drawing on said improvement.

  14. What the Nose Knows: Olfaction and Cognitive Abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danthiir, Vanessa; Roberts, Richard D.; Pallier, Gerry; Stankov, Lazar

    2001-01-01

    Studied the role of olfactory processes within the theory of fluid and crystallized intelligence by testing 107 Australian college students with a battery of psychometric and olfactory tests. Results indicate the likely existence of an olfactory memory ability that is structurally independent of established higher-order abilities and not related…

  15. The Stability of Individual Differences in Mental Ability from Childhood to Old Age: Follow-up of the 1932 Scottish Mental Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deary, Ian J.; Whalley, Lawrence J.; Lemmon, Helen; Crawford, J. R.; Starr, John M.

    2000-01-01

    Tested 101 adults, aged 77, who had completed psychometric intelligence testing in 1932, with the same test of mental ability. Results of this study, the longest follow-up study reported to date, show substantial stability in mental ability differences from childhood to late life. (SLD)

  16. The Effects of Plyometric Training on Change-of-Direction Ability: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadi, Abbas; Arazi, Hamid; Young, Warren B; Sáez de Villarreal, Eduardo

    2016-07-01

    To show a clear picture about the possible variables of enhancements of change-of-direction (COD) ability using longitudinal plyometric-training (PT) studies and determine specific factors that influence the training effects. A computerized search was performed, and 24 articles with a total of 46 effect sizes (ESs) in an experimental group and 25 ESs in a control group were reviewed to analyze the role of various factors on the impact of PT on COD performance. The results showed that participants with good fitness levels obtained greater improvements in COD performance (P plyometric exercises such as drop jumps + vertical jumps + standing long jumps is better than 1 form of exercise. It is apparent that PT can be effective at improving COD ability. The loading parameters are essential for exercise professionals, coaches, and strength and conditioning professionals with regard to the most appropriate dose-response trends to optimize plyometric-induced COD-ability gains.

  17. Functional communication ability in frontotemporal lobar degeneration and Alzheimer's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Albuquerque M. de Carvalho

    Full Text Available Abstract Functional communication is crucial for independent and efficient communicative behavior in response to every day activities. In the course of dementia progression, cognitive losses may impair these abilities. For this reason, functional communication assessment should be part of a formal assessment to quantify and qualify the impact of deficiency on patients' lives. Objective: To compare functional communication abilities in fronto-temporal lobar degeneration (FLTD and Alzheimer's disease (AD. Methods: Six AD patients (mean age: 82.50±2.66 years; mean education: 5.67±3.61 years, and eight FTLD patients (mean age: 57.13±9.63 years; mean education: 10.86±6.91 years had their close relatives answer the Functional Assessment of Communication Skills for Adults (Asha-facs . Statistical analyses correlated the performance on each of the Asha-facs domains (social communication, communication of basic needs; reading, writing, number concept and daily planning between both groups. Results: Analyses showed that functional communication was similar for AD and FTLD patients. Only two items had statistical difference, namely 'Comprehension of inference' (AD 6.7±1.33; FTLD 2.43±2.30, p=0.017 and 'capacity to make basic money transactions' (AD 2.17±2.04; FTLD 4.00±0.90, p=0.044. Comparison among the four domains' mean scores revealed no significant difference. Conclusion: The Asha-facs is a useful instrument to characterize functional communication abilities in both FTLD and AD. Nevertheless, the analysis presented for this sample showed that the Asha-facs could not discriminate which aspects of the FTLD and AD differed.

  18. The influence of spatial ability and experience on performance during spaceship rendezvous and docking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xiaoping; Zhang, Yijing; Tian, Yu; Huang, Weifen; Wu, Bin; Zhang, Jingyu

    2015-01-01

    Manual rendezvous and docking (manual RVD) is a challenging space task for astronauts. Previous research showed a correlation between spatial ability and manual RVD skills among participants at early stages of training, but paid less attention to experts. Therefore, this study tried to explore the role of spatial ability in manual RVD skills in two groups of trainees, one relatively inexperienced and the other experienced operators. Additionally, mental rotation has been proven essential in RVD and was tested in this study among 27 male participants, 15 novices, and 12 experts. The participants performed manual RVD tasks in a high fidelity simulator. Results showed that experience moderated the relation between mental rotation ability and manual RVD performance. On one hand, novices with high mental rotation ability tended to perform that RVD task more successfully; on the other hand, experts with high mental rotation ability showed not only no performance advantage in the final stage of the RVD task, but had certain disadvantages in their earlier processes. Both theoretical and practical implications were discussed.

  19. The Influence of Spatial Ability and Experience on Spacecraft Rendezvous and Docking Operation Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoping eDu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Manual rendezvous and docking (manual RVD is a challenging space task for astronauts. Previous research showed a correlation between spatial ability and manual RVD skills among participants at early stages of training, but paid less attention to experts. Therefore, this study tried to explore the role of spatial ability in manual RVD skills in two groups of trainees, one relatively inexperienced and the other experienced operators. Additionally, mental rotation has been proven essential in RVD and was tested in this study among 27 male participants, 15 novices and 12 experts. The participants performed manual RVD tasks in a high fidelity simulator. Results showed that experience moderated the relation between mental rotation ability and manual RVD performance. On one hand, novices with high mental rotation ability tended to perform that RVD task more successfully; on the other hand, experts with high mental rotation ability showed not only no performance advantage in the final stage of the RVD task, but had certain disadvantages in their earlier processes. Both theoretical and practical implications were discussed.

  20. The influence of spatial ability and experience on performance during spaceship rendezvous and docking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xiaoping; Zhang, Yijing; Tian, Yu; Huang, Weifen; Wu, Bin; Zhang, Jingyu

    2015-01-01

    Manual rendezvous and docking (manual RVD) is a challenging space task for astronauts. Previous research showed a correlation between spatial ability and manual RVD skills among participants at early stages of training, but paid less attention to experts. Therefore, this study tried to explore the role of spatial ability in manual RVD skills in two groups of trainees, one relatively inexperienced and the other experienced operators. Additionally, mental rotation has been proven essential in RVD and was tested in this study among 27 male participants, 15 novices, and 12 experts. The participants performed manual RVD tasks in a high fidelity simulator. Results showed that experience moderated the relation between mental rotation ability and manual RVD performance. On one hand, novices with high mental rotation ability tended to perform that RVD task more successfully; on the other hand, experts with high mental rotation ability showed not only no performance advantage in the final stage of the RVD task, but had certain disadvantages in their earlier processes. Both theoretical and practical implications were discussed. PMID:26236252

  1. Profiling Online Poker Players: Are Executive Functions Correlated with Poker Ability and Problem Gambling?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiavella, Mauro; Pelagatti, Matteo; Westin, Jerker; Lepore, Gabriele; Cherubini, Paolo

    2018-01-12

    Poker playing and responsible gambling both entail the use of the executive functions (EF), which are higher-level cognitive abilities. This study investigated if online poker players of different ability showed different performances in their EF and if so, which functions were the most discriminating for their playing ability. Furthermore, it assessed if the EF performance was correlated to the quality of gambling, according to self-reported questionnaires (PGSI, SOGS, GRCS). Three poker experts evaluated anonymized poker hand history files and, then, a trained professional administered an extensive neuropsychological test battery. Data analysis determined which variables of the tests correlated with poker ability and gambling quality scores. The highest correlations between EF test results and poker ability and between EF test results and gambling quality assessment showed that mostly different clusters of executive functions characterize the profile of the strong(er) poker player and those ones of the problem gamblers (PGSI and SOGS) and the one of the cognitions related to gambling (GRCS). Taking into consideration only the variables overlapping between PGSI and SOGS, we found some key predictive factors for a more risky and harmful online poker playing: a lower performance in the emotional intelligence competences (Emotional Quotient inventory Short) and, in particular, those grouped in the Intrapersonal scale (emotional self-awareness, assertiveness, self-regard, independence and self-actualization).

  2. The Relationship between Occupational Stress and Work Ability among Midwives in Mashhad, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoumeh Kordi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Occupational stress is one of the key factors in reducing staff productivity in organizations with physical and psychological impacts on employees. Nursing and midwifery are among the most stressful professions. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the relationship between occupational stress and work ability of midwives in Mashhad, Iran in 2011. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried on 123 midwives employed in the public hospitals and health centres in Mashhad, Iran using two-stage sampling method. Demographic and work-related data were obtained through a self-structured questionnaire. Occupational stress and work ability were measured using Occupational Stress Assessment Questionnaire (OSAQ and Work Ability Index Questionnaire (WAIQ. The statistical analysis was performed using student’s t-test, One Way ANOVA, correlation coefficient, and linear regression model through SPSS statistical software (version 11.5.   Results: The results showed that the mean score of occupational stress and work ability was 149 ± 0.01 and 38.81±0.05, respectively. There was a negative correlation between job-related stress and work ability. Midwives with higher occupational stress experienced poorer work ability (P=0.021, r=-0.061.   Conclusion: Sever work stress is associated with reduced work ability. So it is recommended to eliminate or decrease occupational stress and increase work ability among Iranian midwives using preventive measures, although identification of sources of occupational stress seems necessary in order to adopt appropriate stress management strategies.

  3. Giant pandas failed to show mirror self-recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaozan; Jin, Yuan; Luo, Bo; Zhang, Guiquan; Wei, Rongping; Liu, Dingzhen

    2015-05-01

    Mirror self-recognition (MSR), i.e., the ability to recognize oneself in a mirror, is considered a potential index of self-recognition and the foundation of individual development. A wealth of literature on MSR is available for social animals, such as chimpanzees, Asian elephants and dolphins, yet little is known about MSR in solitary mammalian species. We aimed to evaluate whether the giant panda can recognize itself in the mirror, and whether this capacity varies with age. Thirty-four captive giant pandas (F:M = 18:16; juveniles, sub-adults and adults) were subjected to four mirror tests: covered mirror tests, open mirror tests, water mark control tests, and mark tests. The results showed that, though adult, sub-adult and juvenile pandas exposed to mirrors spent similar amounts of time in social mirror-directed behaviors (χ(2) = 0.719, P = 0.698), none of them used the mirror to touch the mark on their head, a self-directed behavior suggesting MSR. Individuals of all age groups initially displayed attacking, threatening, foot scraping and backwards walking behaviors when exposed to their self-images in the mirror. Our data indicate that, regardless of age, the giant pandas did not recognize their self-image in the mirror, but instead considered the image to be a conspecific. Our results add to the available information on mirror self-recognition in large mammals, provide new information on a solitary species, and will be useful for enclosure design and captive animal management.

  4. Human-directed social behaviour in dogs shows significant heritability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, M E; Roth, L S V; Johnsson, M; Wright, D; Jensen, P

    2015-04-01

    Through domestication and co-evolution with humans, dogs have developed abilities to attract human attention, e.g. in a manner of seeking assistance when faced with a problem solving task. The aims of this study were to investigate within breed variation in human-directed contact seeking in dogs and to estimate its genetic basis. To do this, 498 research beagles, bred and kept under standardized conditions, were tested in an unsolvable problem task. Contact seeking behaviours recorded included both eye contact and physical interactions. Behavioural data was summarized through a principal component analysis, resulting in four components: test interactions, social interactions, eye contact and physical contact. Females scored significantly higher on social interactions and physical contact and age had an effect on eye contact scores. Narrow sense heritabilities (h(2) ) of the two largest components were estimated at 0.32 and 0.23 but were not significant for the last two components. These results show that within the studied dog population, behavioural variation in human-directed social behaviours was sex dependent and that the utilization of eye contact seeking increased with age and experience. Hence, heritability estimates indicate a significant genetic contribution to the variation found in human-directed social interactions, suggesting that social skills in dogs have a genetic basis, but can also be shaped and enhanced through individual experiences. This research gives the opportunity to further investigate the genetics behind dogs' social skills, which could also play a significant part into research on human social disorders such as autism. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  5. Structural studies of some activated carbons with different radon adsorption ability by X-ray diffraction techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Qingbo; Qu Jingyuan; Zhu Wenkai; Cheng Jinxing; Zhou Baichang

    2010-01-01

    Four different activated carbons with different radon adsorption ability were analyzed by X-ray diffraction techniques. Micro crystal parameters were calculated by Scherrer and Hirsch equations. The results show that the activated carbon with micro crystal parameters at =1.7 nm, =1.9 nm, average layers =4 has the stronger adsorption ability in the for carbon samples, which can be referred when developing activated carbons for radon adsorption. (authors)

  6. Mathematical Problem Solving Ability of Junior High School Students through Ang’s Framework for Mathematical Modelling Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasni, N.; Turmudi, T.; Kusnandi, K.

    2017-09-01

    This research background of this research is the importance of student problem solving abilities. The purpose of this study is to find out whether there are differences in the ability to solve mathematical problems between students who have learned mathematics using Ang’s Framework for Mathematical Modelling Instruction (AFFMMI) and students who have learned using scientific approach (SA). The method used in this research is a quasi-experimental method with pretest-postest control group design. Data analysis of mathematical problem solving ability using Indepent Sample Test. The results showed that there was a difference in the ability to solve mathematical problems between students who received learning with Ang’s Framework for Mathematical Modelling Instruction and students who received learning with a scientific approach. AFFMMI focuses on mathematical modeling. This modeling allows students to solve problems. The use of AFFMMI is able to improve the solving ability.

  7. PROTOTIPE VIDEO EDITOR DENGAN MENGGUNAKAN DIRECT X DAN DIRECT SHOW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djoni Haryadi Setiabudi

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Technology development had given people the chance to capture their memorable moments in video format. A high quality digital video is a result of a good editing process. Which in turn, arise the new need of an editor application. In accordance to the problem, here the process of making a simple application for video editing needs. The application development use the programming techniques often applied in multimedia applications, especially video. First part of the application will begin with the video file compression and decompression, then we'll step into the editing part of the digital video file. Furthermore, the application also equipped with the facilities needed for the editing processes. The application made with Microsoft Visual C++ with DirectX technology, particularly DirectShow. The application provides basic facilities that will help the editing process of a digital video file. The application will produce an AVI format file after the editing process is finished. Through the testing process of this application shows the ability of this application to do the 'cut' and 'insert' of video files in AVI, MPEG, MPG and DAT formats. The 'cut' and 'insert' process only can be done in static order. Further, the aplication also provide the effects facility for transition process in each clip. Lastly, the process of saving the new edited video file in AVI format from the application. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Perkembangan teknologi memberi kesempatan masyarakat untuk mengabadikan saat - saat yang penting menggunakan video. Pembentukan video digital yang baik membutuhkan proses editing yang baik pula. Untuk melakukan proses editing video digital dibutuhkan program editor. Berdasarkan permasalahan diatas maka pada penelitian ini dibuat prototipe editor sederhana untuk video digital. Pembuatan aplikasi memakai teknik pemrograman di bidang multimedia, khususnya video. Perencanaan dalam pembuatan aplikasi tersebut dimulai dengan pembentukan

  8. [Ability of typical greenery shrubs of Beijing to adsorb and arrest PM2.5 ].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Dan; Wang, Bin; Wang, Yun-qi; Zhang, Hui-lan; Yang, Song-nan; Li, Ang

    2014-09-01

    Four typical types of green shrubs of Beijing (Euonymus japonicus, Buxus microphylla, Berberis thunbergii cv. atropurpurea, Taxus cuspidate cv. nana) were selected to study their capacities in adsorbing and arresting PM2.5 using both field observations and air chamber simulations. Concurrently, in order to analyze the pollution characteristics of Beijing in winter and spring, the PM2.5 concentrations of December 2012 to May 2013 were collected. Experimental results showed that: From the gas chamber experiments, the ability to adsorb and arrest PM2.5 was in the order of Berberis thunbergii cv. atropurpurea > Buxus microphylla > Taxus cuspidate cv. nana > Euonymus japonicus, mainly due to the differences in leaf characteristics; Outside measurement results showed that the ability to adsorb and arrest PM2.5 was ranked as Buxus microphylla > Berberis thunbergii cv. atropurpurea > Taxus cuspidate cv. nana > Euonymus japonicus. Chamber simulation and outdoor observation showed that Buxus microphylla and Berberis thunbergii cv. atropurpurea had strong ability to adsorb and arrest PM2.5; Meanwhile, the slight differences between the chamber simulation and outdoor observation results might be related to plant structure. Compared to tree species, the planting condition of shrub species was loose, and it greened quickly; By analyzing the Beijing PM2.5 concentration values in winter and spring, it was found that the PM2.5 concentration was particularly high in the winter of Beijing, and evergreen shrubs maintained the ability to adsorb and arrest PM2.5.

  9. Effect on work ability after team evaluation of functioning regarding pain, self-rated disability, and work ability assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norrefalk, Jan-Rickard; Littwold-Pöljö, Agneta; Ryhle, Leif; Jansen, Gunilla Brodda

    2010-08-26

    To evaluate the effect of a 1-2 week multiprofessional team assessment, without a real rehabilitation effort, 60 patients suffering from long-standing pain and on long-lasting time on sick leave were studied. A questionnaire concerning their daily activities, quality of life, pain intensity, sick-leave level, and their work state was filled out by all patients before starting the assessment and at a 1-year follow-up. The results from the assessment period and the multiprofessional team decision of the patient's working ability were compared with the actual working rate after 1 year. The follow-up showed a significant reduction of sick leave and a higher level of activity (P work. However, the team evaluation of the patient's work ability did not correlate to predict the actual outcome. The patient's pain intensity, life satisfaction, gender, age, ethnic background, and time absent from work before the start of the evaluation showed no correlation to reduction on time on sickness benefit level. These parameters could not be used as predictors in this study.

  10. Basic timing abilities stay intact in patients with musician's dystonia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M C van der Steen

    Full Text Available Task-specific focal dystonia is a movement disorder that is characterized by the loss of voluntary motor control in extensively trained movements. Musician's dystonia is a type of task-specific dystonia that is elicited in professional musicians during instrumental playing. The disorder has been associated with deficits in timing. In order to test the hypothesis that basic timing abilities are affected by musician's dystonia, we investigated a group of patients (N = 15 and a matched control group (N = 15 on a battery of sensory and sensorimotor synchronization tasks. Results did not show any deficits in auditory-motor processing for patients relative to controls. Both groups benefited from a pacing sequence that adapted to their timing (in a sensorimotor synchronization task at a stable tempo. In a purely perceptual task, both groups were able to detect a misaligned metronome when it was late rather than early relative to a musical beat. Overall, the results suggest that basic timing abilities stay intact in patients with musician's dystonia. This supports the idea that musician's dystonia is a highly task-specific movement disorder in which patients are mostly impaired in tasks closely related to the demands of actually playing their instrument.

  11. Basic Timing Abilities Stay Intact in Patients with Musician's Dystonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Steen, M. C.; van Vugt, Floris T.; Keller, Peter E.; Altenmüller, Eckart

    2014-01-01

    Task-specific focal dystonia is a movement disorder that is characterized by the loss of voluntary motor control in extensively trained movements. Musician's dystonia is a type of task-specific dystonia that is elicited in professional musicians during instrumental playing. The disorder has been associated with deficits in timing. In order to test the hypothesis that basic timing abilities are affected by musician's dystonia, we investigated a group of patients (N = 15) and a matched control group (N = 15) on a battery of sensory and sensorimotor synchronization tasks. Results did not show any deficits in auditory-motor processing for patients relative to controls. Both groups benefited from a pacing sequence that adapted to their timing (in a sensorimotor synchronization task at a stable tempo). In a purely perceptual task, both groups were able to detect a misaligned metronome when it was late rather than early relative to a musical beat. Overall, the results suggest that basic timing abilities stay intact in patients with musician's dystonia. This supports the idea that musician's dystonia is a highly task-specific movement disorder in which patients are mostly impaired in tasks closely related to the demands of actually playing their instrument. PMID:24667273

  12. The Examination of Self - Talk Ability of Elite Fencers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf BARSBUĞA

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to measure and evaluate self - talk ability. 100 athletes ch osen randomly from 23 countries , who attended the Heracles Junior World Cup competition (29 held in Budapest, Hungary between the dates of 15 - 16/02/2014, junior and cadet fencing championship held in Plovdiv, Bulgaria (38 between the dates of 3 - 12/04/2014 which was included in the 2014 activity calendar of FIE (International Fencing Federation and athletes among elite fencers (33 representing our country abroad attended in our research. In this performed study based on the scanning (survey method; the Self - Talk Questionnaire (S - TQ which was improved by Zervas, Stavrau and Psychountaki (2007 , whose validity and reliability in Turkish were performed by Engür (2011 , was used . In order to evaluat e the data and find the estimated values, the SPSS 16.0 statistical package program was used. The data were summarised giving averages and standard deviations. Since the data show ed a normal distribution , for the dual group comparisons, independent group t - test was used for the determination of the difference between independent parameters, the error level was regarded to be 0,05 in this study. Within the result s of the survey, no statistically meaningful difference s were observed. When the sub - dimensions of both motivational function s were evaluated in terms of age and experience time concerning self - talk abilities in the athletes attended in the survey . When self - talk ability was eval u ated due to the gender parameter; while not seeing a sta tistically meaningful difference in the cognitive , functional sub - dimension among the athletes, a statistically meaningful difference was observed on the motivational , functional sub - dimension in favor of sportswoman . Furthermore , there was not a signifi cant difference when comparing the self - talk ability of Turkish athletes and other countries' athletes who attended in the research in

  13. Investigating Primary School Mathematics Teachers’ Deductive Reasoning Ability through Varignon’s Theorem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jupri, A.

    2017-09-01

    The responsibility to promote the growth of deductive reasoning ability of school students through learning mathematics is in the hand of mathematics teachers and particularly primary school mathematics teachers. However, how we can make sure whether teachers are able to do so. To investigate this issue, we conducted a three-step of an exploratory survey study. First, we designed tasks from the Varignon’s theorem. Second, we administered an individual written test involving twenty master students of primary education program, in which they are prospective of and primary school mathematics teachers. Finally, we address the results in the light of Van Hiele theory. The results showed that participated students lack of deductive reasoning ability in the context of geometry. For further research, we wonder whether the designed tasks are also applicable to assess student deductive reasoning ability if the students have acquired appropriate teaching.

  14. Improvement of metacognitive skills and students’ reasoning ability through problem-based learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haryani, S.; Masfufah; Wijayati, N.; Kurniawan, C.

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this research is to know the influence of PBL application to the improvement of metacognitive skill and students’ reasoning ability on Constanta solubility product (Ksp). The research used mix method with concurrent triangulation strategy and pretest-posttest control group design. Metacognitive skills are known from the results of written tests and questionnaires with N-Gain analysis, t-test, whereas reasoning ability is known from observations and interviews with descriptive analysis. The results showed that the N-Gain effect of PBL on metacognitive skills is 0,59 with medium category and N-Gain value of PBL influence on reasoning ability is 0.71 with the high category. The steps in the PBL affect the metacognitive skills and can train learners to develop their reasoning skills in the solving problems.

  15. Emergent name-writing abilities of preschool-age children with language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabell, Sonia Q; Justice, Laura M; Zucker, Tricia A; McGinty, Anita S

    2009-01-01

    The 2 studies reported in this manuscript collectively address 3 aims: (a) to characterize the name-writing abilities of preschool-age children with language impairment (LI), (b) to identify those emergent literacy skills that are concurrently associated with name-writing abilities, and (c) to compare the name-writing abilities of children with LI to those of their typical language (TL) peers. Fifty-nine preschool-age children with LI were administered a battery of emergent literacy and language assessments, including a task in which the children were asked to write their first names. A subset of these children (n=23) was then compared to a TL-matched sample to characterize performance differences. Results showed that the name-writing abilities of preschoolers with LI were associated with skills in alphabet knowledge and print concepts. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis indicated that only alphabet knowledge uniquely contributed to the variance in concurrent name-writing abilities. In the matched comparison, the TL group demonstrated significantly more advanced name-writing representations than the LI group. Children with LI lag significantly behind their TL peers in name-writing abilities. Speech-language pathologists are encouraged to address the print-related skills of children with LI within their clinical interventions.

  16. Implicit and Explicit Gender Beliefs in Spatial Ability: Stronger Stereotyping in Boys than Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vander Heyden, Karin M; van Atteveldt, Nienke M; Huizinga, Mariette; Jolles, Jelle

    2016-01-01

    Sex differences in spatial ability are a seriously debated topic, given the importance of spatial ability for success in the fields of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) and girls' underrepresentation in these domains. In the current study we investigated the presence of stereotypic gender beliefs on spatial ability (i.e., "spatial ability is for boys") in 10- and 12-year-old children. We used both an explicit measure (i.e., a self-report questionnaire) and an implicit measure (i.e., a child IAT). Results of the explicit measure showed that both sexes associated spatial ability with boys, with boys holding more male stereotyped attitudes than girls. On the implicit measure, boys associated spatial ability with boys, while girls were gender-neutral. In addition, we examined the effects of gender beliefs on spatial performance, by experimentally activating gender beliefs within a pretest-instruction-posttest design. We compared three types of instruction: boys are better, girls are better, and no sex differences. No effects of these gender belief instructions were found on children's spatial test performance (i.e., mental rotation and paper folding). The finding that children of this age already have stereotypic beliefs about the spatial capacities of their own sex is important, as these beliefs may influence children's choices for spatial leisure activities and educational tracks in the STEM domain.

  17. Implicit and Explicit Gender Beliefs in Spatial Ability: Stronger Stereotyping in Boys than Girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Vander Heyden

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Sex differences in spatial ability are a seriously debated topic, given the importance of spatial ability for success in the fields of science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM and girls’ underrepresentation in these domains. In the current study we investigated the presence of stereotypic gender beliefs on spatial ability (i.e., ‘spatial ability is for boys’ in 10- and 12-year-old children. We used both an explicit measure (i.e., a self-report questionnaire and an implicit measure (i.e., a child IAT. Results of the explicit measure showed that both sexes associated spatial ability with boys, with boys holding more male stereotyped attitudes than girls. On the implicit measure, boys associated spatial ability with boys, while girls were gender-neutral. In addition, we examined the effects of gender beliefs on spatial performance, by experimentally activating gender beliefs within a pretest – instruction – posttest design. We compared three types of instruction: boys are better, girls are better, and no sex differences. No effects of these gender belief instructions were found on children’s spatial test performance (i.e., mental rotation and paper folding. The finding that children of this age already have stereotypic beliefs about the spatial capacities of their own sex is important, as these beliefs may influence children’s choices for spatial leisure activities and educational tracks in the STEM domain.

  18. The effectiveness of the developed program of 10-13 years girls' coordinative abilities who are going in for calisthenics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belokopitova G. A.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available It's developed and practically based the program on developing coordinative abilities according to the age group of 10-13 years old gymnastics. This program is for special stage of training and it is aimed for developing coordinating abilities connected to individual-psychological peculiarities of girls going for gymnastics. It was shown that sport result of 10-13 years girls' influences on index of psycho-moving futures - abilities for correction of their actions to free mobilization and moving coordination during performing fast work. It can be explained that index which is being expected shows the set of time-hour moves and allows evaluating gymnasts moves.

  19. The effectiveness of the developed program of 10-13 years girls' coordinative abilities going in for calisthenics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belokopitova G.A.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available It's developed and practically based the program on developing coordinative abilities according to age group of 10-13 years old gymnastics. This program is for special stage of training and it is aimed for developing coordinating abilities connected to individual-psychological peculiarities of girls going for gymnastics. It was shown that sport result of 10-13 years girls' influences on index of psycho-moving futures - abilities for correction of their actions to free mobilization and moving coordination during performing fast work. It can be explained that index which is being expected shows the set of time-hour moves and allows evaluating gymnasts moves.

  20. A COGNITIVE-BEHAVIOURAL GROUP TREATMENT IMPROVED WORK ABILITY IN PATIENTS WITH SEVERE FUNCTIONAL SOMATIC SYNDROMES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, Andreas; Ørnbøl, Eva; Jensen, Jens Søndergaard

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Functional somatic syndromes (FSS) such as fibromyalgia, irritable bowel and chronic fatigue syndrome often disrupt employment and may lead to long-term dependence on social benefits and permanently reduced work ability. Cognitive-behavioural treatments (CBT) relief symptoms and improve...... before to 3 years after treatment by means of random effects modelling allowing individual levels and slopes. Results: Compared with the general population, FSS patients showed a continuous decline in self-support, leading to markedly reduced work ability at trial entry. In the following years, EUC...

  1. EFFECT OF TEACHERS’ ABILITIES ON STUDENTS’ MOTIVATION WITH VARYING LEVELS OF INTELLECTUAL ABILITIES IN THE ECONOMICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BERKOVÁ, Kateřina

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Intelligence and motivation are two crucial components of the education process that can significantly influence its efficiency. The level of intelligence determines our ability to learn from experience and to solve a problem successfully, whereas motivational processes energize and organize our behavior to reach our goals. This paper is connected to our previous article focused on the influence of teachers’ abilities on secondary business schools’ students’ motivation in the Economics. In our current study, we monitored the motivational potential of teachers’ abilities in a connection with students’ level of intelligence, measured by Vienna Matrices Test. As we would expect according to the results of our previous study, the expertise of teachers has the most important influence in the groups of both the above-average intelligent and the average intelligent students. Nevertheless, we found some differences in other preferences of both groups: except the teachers’ expertise, the average intelligent students refer to be motivated mostly by exposition of curriculum and ability to develop thinking, whereas above-average students refer only about the exposition of curriculum (except the teachers’ expertise. The next factor that we observed in our study is an amount of time that students spend on preparation to school.

  2. Learning-Ability Relations in Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hultsch, David F.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Two successive recall tasks and eight ability measures were presented to women of five age groups to investigate the changing relation between performance and ability measures at various stages of the learning process during adulthood. (MS)

  3. A practice course to cultivate students' comprehensive ability of photoelectricity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Yong; Liu, Yang; Niu, Chunhui; Liu, Lishuang

    2017-08-01

    After the studying of many theoretical courses, it's important and urgent for the students from specialty of optoelectronic information science and engineering to cultivate their comprehensive ability of photoelectricity. We set up a comprehensive practice course named "Integrated Design of Optoelectronic Information System" (IDOIS) for the purpose that students can integrate their knowledge of optics, electronics and computer programming to design, install and debug an optoelectronic system with independent functions. Eight years of practice shows that this practice course can train students' ability of analysis, design/development and debugging of photoelectric system, improve their ability in document retrieval, design proposal and summary report writing, teamwork, innovation consciousness and skill.

  4. Topographical ability in Developmental Prosopagnosia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klargaard, Solja; Starrfelt, Randi; Petersen, Anders

    2016-01-01

    and topographical short-term memory (2 sec delay). The stimulus material consisted of computer-generated mountain landscapes shown from seven different viewpoints. In comparison with controls, the individuals with DP had no difficulty in perceiving the spatial aspects of the landscapes, but some were impaired...... in the short-term retention of these mountain landscapes. No systematic relationship (correlation) was found between recognition memory for faces and landscapes. Indeed, three cases with DP showed a statistically significant classical dissociation between these domains. Additional testing revealed...... that the deficit in topographical memory did not relate systematically to impaired visual short-term memory or recognition of more complex material. In conclusion, some individuals with DP show subtle deficits in topographical memory. Importantly, the deficits in topographical memory and face recognition do...

  5. Judging the Ability of Friends and Foes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Jennifer L; Murphy, Jennifer; Bird, Geoffrey

    2016-10-01

    Collaboration leads us to judge our own ability to be more similar to our collaborators and their ability to be more similar to our own, while competition leads us to exaggerate the gap between our abilities. How does this happen and what does it mean? Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Relationship between reflection ability and clinical performance: a cross-sectional and retrospective-longitudinal correlational cohort study in midwifery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Embo, M; Driessen, E; Valcke, M; van der Vleuten, C P M

    2015-01-01

    increasingly, reflection is highlighted as integral to core practice competencies but empirical research into the relationship between reflection and performance in the clinical workplace is scarce. this study investigated the relationship between reflection ability and clinical performance. we designed a cross-sectional and a retrospective-longitudinal cohort study. Data from first, second and third year midwifery students were collected to study the variables 'clinical performance' and 'reflection ability'. Data were analysed with SPSS for Windows, Release 20.0. Descriptive statistics, Pearson׳s Product Moment Correlation Coefficients (r) and r² values were computed to investigate associations between the research variables. the results showed a moderate observed correlation between reflection ability and clinical performance scores. When adopting a cross-sectional perspective, all correlation values were significant (p0.6). The results based on the retrospective-longitudinal data set explained a moderate proportion of the variance after correction for attenuation. Finally, the results indicate that 'reflection ability' scores of earlier years are significant related with 'clinical performance' scores of subsequent years. These results suggest that (1) reflection ability is linked to clinical performance; (2) that written reflections are an important, but not the sole way to assess professional competence and that (3) reflection is a contributor to clinical performance improvement. the data showed a moderate but significant relationship between 'reflection ability' and 'clinical performance' scores in clinical practice of midwifery students. Reflection therefore seems an important component of professional competence. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Video game training does not enhance cognitive ability: A comprehensive meta-analytic investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sala, Giovanni; Tatlidil, K Semir; Gobet, Fernand

    2018-02-01

    As a result of considerable potential scientific and societal implications, the possibility of enhancing cognitive ability by training has been one of the most influential topics of cognitive psychology in the last two decades. However, substantial research into the psychology of expertise and a recent series of meta-analytic reviews have suggested that various types of cognitive training (e.g., working memory training) benefit performance only in the trained tasks. The lack of skill generalization from one domain to different ones-that is, far transfer-has been documented in various fields of research such as working memory training, music, brain training, and chess. Video game training is another activity that has been claimed by many researchers to foster a broad range of cognitive abilities such as visual processing, attention, spatial ability, and cognitive control. We tested these claims with three random-effects meta-analytic models. The first meta-analysis (k = 310) examined the correlation between video game skill and cognitive ability. The second meta-analysis (k = 315) dealt with the differences between video game players and nonplayers in cognitive ability. The third meta-analysis (k = 359) investigated the effects of video game training on participants' cognitive ability. Small or null overall effect sizes were found in all three models. These outcomes show that overall cognitive ability and video game skill are only weakly related. Importantly, we found no evidence of a causal relationship between playing video games and enhanced cognitive ability. Video game training thus represents no exception to the general difficulty of obtaining far transfer. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Self-directed questions to improve students' ability in solving chemical problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanjaya, Rahmat Eko; Muna, Khairiatul; Suharto, Bambang; Syahmani

    2017-12-01

    Students' ability in solving chemical problems is seen from their ability to solve chemicals' non-routine problems. It is due to learning faced directly on non-routine problems will generate a meaningful learning for students. Observations in Banjarmasin Public High School 1 (SMA Negeri 1 Banjarmasin) showed that students did not give the expected results when they were given the non-routine problems. Learning activities by emphasizing problem solving was implemented based on the existence of knowledge about cognition and regulation of cognition. Both of these elements are components of metacognition. The self-directed question is a strategy that involves metacognition in solving chemical problems. This research was carried out using classroom action research design in two cycles. Each cycle consists of four stages: planning, action, observation and reflection. The subjects were 34 students of grade XI-4 at majoring science (IPA) of SMA Negeri 1 Banjarmasin. The data were collected using tests of the students' ability in problem solving and non-tests instrument to know the process of implementation of the actions. Data were analyzed with descriptivequantitativeand qualitative analysis. The ability of students in solving chemical problems has increased from an average of 37.96 in cycle I became 61.83 in cycle II. Students' ability to solve chemical problems is viewed based on their ability to answer self-directed questions. Students' ability in comprehension questions increased from 73.04 in the cycle I became 96.32 in cycle II. Connection and strategic questions increased from 54.17 and 16.50 on cycle I became 63.73 and 55.23 on cycle II respectively. In cycle I, reflection questions were 26.96 and elevated into 36.27 in cycle II. The self-directed questions have the ability to help students to solve chemical problems through metacognition questions. Those questions guide students to find solutions in solving chemical problems.

  9. Cognitive Abilities, Monitoring Confidence, and Control Thresholds Explain Individual Differences in Heuristics and Biases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Simon A; Kleitman, Sabina; Howie, Pauline; Stankov, Lazar

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate whether individual differences in performance on heuristic and biases tasks can be explained by cognitive abilities, monitoring confidence, and control thresholds. Current theories explain individual differences in these tasks by the ability to detect errors and override automatic but biased judgments, and deliberative cognitive abilities that help to construct the correct response. Here we retain cognitive abilities but disentangle error detection, proposing that lower monitoring confidence and higher control thresholds promote error checking. Participants ( N = 250) completed tasks assessing their fluid reasoning abilities, stable monitoring confidence levels, and the control threshold they impose on their decisions. They also completed seven typical heuristic and biases tasks such as the cognitive reflection test and Resistance to Framing. Using structural equation modeling, we found that individuals with higher reasoning abilities, lower monitoring confidence, and higher control threshold performed significantly and, at times, substantially better on the heuristic and biases tasks. Individuals with higher control thresholds also showed lower preferences for risky alternatives in a gambling task. Furthermore, residual correlations among the heuristic and biases tasks were reduced to null, indicating that cognitive abilities, monitoring confidence, and control thresholds accounted for their shared variance. Implications include the proposal that the capacity to detect errors does not differ between individuals. Rather, individuals might adopt varied strategies that promote error checking to different degrees, regardless of whether they have made a mistake or not. The results support growing evidence that decision-making involves cognitive abilities that construct actions and monitoring and control processes that manage their initiation.

  10. Cognitive abilities, monitoring, and control explain individual differences in heuristics and biases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Anthony Jackson

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we investigate whether individual differences in performance on heuristic and biases tasks can be explained by cognitive abilities, monitoring confidence and control thresholds. Current theories explain individual differences in these tasks by the ability to detect errors and override automatic but biased judgements, and deliberative cognitive abilities that help to construct the correct response. Here we retain cognitive abilities but disentangle error detection, proposing that lower monitoring confidence and higher control thresholds promote error checking. Participants (N = 250 completed tasks assessing their fluid reasoning abilities, stable monitoring confidence levels, and the control threshold they impose on their decisions. They also completed seven typical heuristic and biases tasks such as the cognitive reflection test and resistance to framing. Using structural equation modelling, we found that individuals with higher reasoning abilities, lower monitoring confidence and higher control threshold performed significantly and, at times, substantially better on the heuristic and biases tasks. Individuals with higher control thresholds also showed lower preferences for risky alternatives in a gambling task. Furthermore, residual correlations among the heuristic and biases tasks were reduced to null, indicating that cognitive abilities, monitoring confidence and control thresholds accounted for their shared variance. Implications include the proposal that the capacity to detect errors does not differ between individuals. Rather, individuals might adopt varied strategies that promote error checking to different degrees, regardless of whether they have made a mistake or not. The results support growing evidence that decision making involves cognitive abilities that construct actions and monitoring and control processes that manage their initiation.

  11. Enhancing inferential abilities in adolescence: new hope for students in poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamino, Jacquelyn F; Motes, Michael M; Riddle, Russell; Lyon, G Reid; Spence, Jeffrey S; Chapman, Sandra B

    2014-01-01

    The ability to extrapolate essential gist through the analysis and synthesis of information, prediction of potential outcomes, abstraction of ideas, and integration of relationships with world knowledge is critical for higher-order learning. The present study investigated the efficacy of cognitive training to elicit improvements in gist reasoning and fact recall ability in 556 public middle school students (grades seven and eight), vs. a sample of 357 middle school students who served as a comparison group, to determine if changes in gist reasoning and fact recall were demonstrated without cognitive training. The results showed that, in general, cognitive training increased gist reasoning and fact recall abilities in students from families in poverty as well as students from families living above poverty. However, the magnitude of gains in gist reasoning varied as a function of gender and grade level. Our primary findings were that seventh and eighth grade girls and eighth grade boys showed significant increases in gist reasoning after training regardless of socioeconomic status (SES). There were no significant increases in gist reasoning or fact recall ability for the 357 middle school students who served as a comparison group. We postulate that cognitive training in middle school is efficacious for improving gist reasoning ability and fact recall in students from all socioeconomic levels.

  12. Enhancing Inferential Abilities in Adolescence: New Hope for Students in Poverty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacquelyn F Gamino

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The ability to extrapolate essential gist through the analysis and synthesis of information, prediction of potential outcomes, abstraction of ideas, and integration of relationships with world knowledge is critical for higher-order learning. The present study investigated the efficacy of cognitive training to elicit improvements in gist-reasoning and fact recall ability in 556 public middle-school students (grades seven and eight, versus a sample of 357 middle school students who served as a comparison group, to determine if changes in gist-reasoning and fact recall were demonstrated without cognitive training. The results showed that, in general, cognitive training increased gist-reasoning and fact recall abilities in students from families in poverty as well as students from families living above poverty. However, the magnitude of gains in gist-reasoning varied as a function of gender and grade-level. Our primary findings were that seventh and eighth grade girls and eighth grade boys showed significant increases in gist-reasoning after training regardless of socioeconomic status. There were no significant increases in gist-reasoning or fact recall ability for the 357 middle school students who served in the comparison group. We postulate that cognitive training in middle school is efficacious for improving gist-reasoning ability and fact recall in students from all socioeconomic levels.

  13. Structure of Cognitive Abilities and Skills of Lifeguards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milovan Ljubojević

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The presence of lifeguard service on beaches greatly contributes to reducing the number of accidents in and around the water. The lifeguard can be a person with good motor, but also cognitive skills and abilities. In addition to good swimming skills, lifeguard must be able to quickly detect and recognize the accident, and also to be able to timely and correctly act in case of accident in water, but also at the beach. The goal of this study is to determine the structure of cognitive abilities and skills with the sample of lifeguards that work on Montenegrin beaches. Battery KOG-3 was applied on the sample of 40 lifeguards. The collected and achieved results lead to following conclusion: the subjects have good ability to determine relation between elements of a structure and lower characteristics of that structure; subjects have good ability to assess the efficiency of serial processor; and subjects have good ability to assess efficiency of perceptive processor.

  14. The relationship between attachment, mentalization, and intellectual abilities in adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banjac Sonja

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explored the relationship between attachment, mentalization, and intelligence as it occurs in adolescence. Study participants were 345 students (123 males in their third year of high school. Participants were administered three standard tests of intelligence, the SM-ECR-R, and the recently developed Mentalization Questionnaire (MQ. The study also utilized earlier collected data from a sample of 284 employed adults. In line with our research hypothesis, attachment security and mentalization were positively related, with correlations ranging from small to moderate depending on the dimension inspected. Attachment anxiety was found to be higher in the adolescent than in the adult sample, and contrary to expectations was not significantly related to intelligence in the former group. Attachment avoidance did not correlate with intelligence in the total student sample, but did show a small negative association with analogical reasoning and the g-factor when the intellectually gifted were excluded from analyses. This latter group, as well as males from the student sample scored significantly higher on attachment avoidance than their respective comparison groups - intellectually average and female adolescents. Finally, mentalization was found to be positively related to intellectual ability and higher in a gifted than average-ability girls, b girls than boys, and c adults than adolescents. The results are discussed as shedding light on the peculiarities of the attachment system in adolescence, revealing specific associations between attachment avoidance, mentalization, and intellectual ability, highlighting gender differences in both attachment and mentalization, and adding to our understanding of the socioemotional characteristics of intellectually gifted students.

  15. Engineering Play: Exploring Associations with Executive Function, Mathematical Ability, and Spatial Ability in Preschool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Zachary Samuel

    Engineering play is a new perspective on preschool education that views constructive play as an engineering design process that parallels the way engineers think and work when they develop engineered solutions to human problems (Bairaktarova, Evangelou, Bagiati, & Brophy, 2011). Early research from this perspective supports its use in framing play as a key learning context. However, no research to date has examined associations between engineering play and other factors linked with early school success, such as executive function, mathematical ability, and spatial ability. Additionally, more research is needed to further validate a new engineering play observational measure. This study had two main goals: (1) to gather early validity data on the engineering play measure as a potentially useful instrument for documenting the occurrence of children's engineering play behaviors in educational contexts, such as block play. This was done by testing the factor structure of the engineering play behaviors in this sample and their association with preschoolers' planning, a key aspect of the engineering design process; (2) to explore associations between preschoolers' engineering play and executive function, mathematical ability, and spatial ability. Participants included 110 preschoolers (62 girls; 48 boys; M = 58.47 months) from 10 classrooms in the Midwest United States coded for their frequency of engagement in each of the nine engineering play behaviors. A confirmatory factor analysis resulted in one engineering play factor including six of the engineering play behaviors. A series of marginal regression models revealed that the engineering play factor was significantly and positively associated with the spatial horizontal rotation transformation. However, engineering play was not significantly related to planning ability, executive function, informal mathematical abilities, or other spatial transformation skills. Follow-up analyses revealed significant positive

  16. Pattern of mathematic representation ability in magnetic electricity problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hau, R. R. H.; Marwoto, P.; Putra, N. M. D.

    2018-03-01

    The mathematic representation ability in solving magnetic electricity problem gives information about the way students understand magnetic electricity. Students have varied mathematic representation pattern ability in solving magnetic electricity problem. This study aims to determine the pattern of students' mathematic representation ability in solving magnet electrical problems.The research method used is qualitative. The subject of this study is the fourth semester students of UNNES Physics Education Study Program. The data collection is done by giving a description test that refers to the test of mathematical representation ability and interview about field line topic and Gauss law. The result of data analysis of student's mathematical representation ability in solving magnet electric problem is categorized into high, medium and low category. The ability of mathematical representations in the high category tends to use a pattern of making known and asked symbols, writing equations, using quantities of physics, substituting quantities into equations, performing calculations and final answers. The ability of mathematical representation in the medium category tends to use several patterns of writing the known symbols, writing equations, using quantities of physics, substituting quantities into equations, performing calculations and final answers. The ability of mathematical representations in the low category tends to use several patterns of making known symbols, writing equations, substituting quantities into equations, performing calculations and final answer.

  17. High ability education in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Poul; Baltzer, Kirsten; Kyed, Ole

    2007-01-01

    Chapter in peer refereed book on gifted education. The chapter offers a state of the art review on gifted education literature, and reports the results from a Danish study on giftedness revealing that 42 % had more problems and far more problems than typically reported by children and adolescents...

  18. The Effect of Learning Method and Confidence Level on the Ability of Interpreting Religious Poem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinayati Djojosuroto

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to determine the effect of the learning method (expository and authentic and the level of confidence in the ability of religious poetry interpretation of the students of the third semester, majoring in the Indonesian Language and Literature Education of Universitas Negeri Manado. The method used is the quasi-experimental method with 2 x 2 factorial designs. The measurement of Y variable (ability to interpret the religious poetry uses the writing test and the level of confidence uses a questionnaire. Data analysis technique in this study is analysis of variance (ANOVA followed by two lanes and Tuckey test to look at the interaction of the group. Before the test, the hypothesis is that analysis requirements normality data test using Liliefors test and homogeneity test data using Bartlett test. The results show differences in the ability to explain the religious poetry among students who study with the expository method and the students who study with the authentic method. That is, overall, the expository method is better than the authentic method to improve the ability of the students. To improve the ability of the students to interpret the religious poetry, it is better to use the authentic method for the group that has a lower level of confidence. There is the influence of the interaction between learning method (expository and authentic and the level of confidence in the ability of religious poetry interpretation. Based on these results, it can be concluded that: First, lecturers can determine what materials and method that can be used to enhance the ability to interpret religious poetry when the level of confidence of the students has been known. Second, expository teaching methods and authentic teaching method for group of students with different level of confidence will give you different result on the ability of that group of students to interpret religious poetry as well. Third, the increase of the ability to interpret

  19. Improving University Students' Perception of Mathematics and Mathematics Ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelly L. Wismath

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Although mathematical and quantitative reasoning skills are an essential part of adult life in our society, many students arrive at post-secondary education without such skills. Taking a standard mathematics course such as calculus may do little to improve those skills. Using a modification of the Tapia & Marsh questionnaire, we surveyed 62 students taking a broad quantitative reasoning course designed to develop quantitative skills, with respect to two broad attitudinal areas: students’ perception of their own ability, confidence and anxiety, and their perception of the value of mathematics in their studies and their lives. Pre- to post-course comparisons were done by both paired t-tests and Wilcoxon signed-rank tests. Our results showed a significant increase in confidence and decrease in anxiety, while perception of the value of mathematics was already high and changed little by the end of the course.

  20. Evolution of prehension ability in an anthropomorphic neurorobotic arm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluca Massera

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we show how a simulated anthropomorphic robotic arm controlled by an artificial neural network can develop effective reaching and grasping behaviour through a trial and error process in which the free parameters encode the control rules which regulate the fine-grained interaction between the robot and the environment and variations of the free parameters are retained or discarded on the basis of their effects at the level of the global behaviour exhibited by the robot situated in the environment. The obtained results demonstrate how the proposed methodology allows the robot to produce effective behaviours thanks to its ability to exploit the morphological properties of the robot's body (i.e. its anthropomorphic shape, the elastic properties of its muscle-like actuators and the compliance of its actuated joints and the properties which arise from the physical interaction between the robot and the environment mediated by appropriate control rules.

  1. Human development of the ability to learn from bad news

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moutsiana, Christina; Garrett, Neil; Clarke, Richard C.; Lotto, R. Beau; Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne; Sharot, Tali

    2013-01-01

    Humans show a natural tendency to discount bad news while incorporating good news into beliefs (the “good news–bad news effect”), an effect that may help explain seemingly irrational risk taking. Understanding how this bias develops with age is important because adolescents are prone to engage in risky behavior; thus, educating them about danger is crucial. We reveal a striking valence-dependent asymmetry in how belief updating develops with age. In the ages tested (9–26 y), younger age was associated with inaccurate updating of beliefs in response to undesirable information regarding vulnerability. In contrast, the ability to update beliefs accurately in response to desirable information remained relatively stable with age. This asymmetry was mediated by adequate computational use of positive but not negative estimation errors to alter beliefs. The results are important for understanding how belief formation develops and might help explain why adolescents do not respond adequately to warnings. PMID:24019466

  2. UV Photography Shows Hidden Sun Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... mcat1=de12", ]; for (var c = 0; c UV photography shows hidden sun damage A UV photograph gives ... developing skin cancer and prematurely aged skin. Normal photography UV photography 18 months of age: This boy's ...

  3. Natural science modules with SETS approach to improve students’ critical thinking ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budi, A. P. S.; Sunarno, W.; Sugiyarto

    2018-05-01

    SETS (Science, Environment, Technology and Society) approach for learning is important to be developed for middle school, since it can improve students’ critical thinking ability. This research aimed to determine feasibility and the effectiveness of Natural Science Module with SETS approach to increase their critical thinking ability. The module development was done by invitation, exploration, explanation, concept fortifying, and assessment. Questionnaire and test performed including pretest and posttest with control group design were used as data collection technique in this research. Two classes were selected randomly as samples and consisted of 32 students in each group. Descriptive data analysis was used to analyze the module feasibility and t-test was used to analyze their critical thinking ability. The results showed that the feasibility of the module development has a very good results based on assessment of the experts, practitioners and peers. Based on the t-test results, there was significant difference between control class and experiment class (0.004), with n-gain score of control and the experiment class respectively 0.270 (low) and 0.470 (medium). It showed that the module was more effective than the textbook. It was able to improve students’ critical thinking ability and appropriate to be used in learning process.

  4. Artificial intelligence model for sustain ability measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navickiene, R.; Navickas, K.

    2012-01-01

    The article analyses the main dimensions of organizational sustain ability, their possible integrations into artificial neural network. In this article authors performing analyses of organizational internal and external environments, their possible correlations with 4 components of sustain ability, and the principal determination models for sustain ability of organizations. Based on the general principles of sustainable development organizations, a artificial intelligence model for the determination of organizational sustain ability has been developed. The use of self-organizing neural networks allows the identification of the organizational sustain ability and the endeavour to explore vital, social, antropogenical and economical efficiency. The determination of the forest enterprise sustain ability is expected to help better manage the sustain ability. (Authors)

  5. Mobility scooter driving ability in visually impaired individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordes, Christina; Heutink, Joost; Brookhuis, Karel A; Brouwer, Wiebo H; Melis-Dankers, Bart J M

    2018-06-01

    To investigate how well visually impaired individuals can learn to use mobility scooters and which parts of the driving task deserve special attention. A mobility scooter driving skill test was developed to compare driving skills (e.g. reverse driving, turning) between 48 visually impaired (very low visual acuity = 14, low visual acuity = 10, peripheral field defects = 11, multiple visual impairments = 13) and 37 normal-sighted controls without any prior experience with mobility scooters. Performance on this test was rated on a three-point scale. Furthermore, the number of extra repetitions on the different elements were noted. Results showed that visually impaired participants were able to gain sufficient driving skills to be able to use mobility scooters. Participants with visual field defects combined with low visual acuity showed most problems learning different skills and needed more training. Reverse driving and stopping seemed to be most difficult. The present findings suggest that visually impaired individuals are able to learn to drive mobility scooters. Mobility scooter allocators should be aware that these individuals might need more training on certain elements of the driving task. Implications for rehabilitation Visual impairments do not necessarily lead to an inability to acquire mobility scooter driving skills. Individuals with peripheral field defects (especially in combination with reduced visual acuity) need more driving ability training compared to normal-sighted people - especially to accomplish reversing. Individual assessment of visually impaired people is recommended, since participants in this study showed a wide variation in ability to learn driving a mobility scooter.

  6. The work ability divide: holistic and reductionistic approaches in Swedish interdisciplinary rehabilitation teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ståhl, Christian; Svensson, Tommy; Petersson, Gunilla; Ekberg, Kerstin

    2009-09-01

    Stakeholder cooperation in return to work has been increasingly emphasised in research, while studies on how such cooperation works in practise are scarce. This article investigates the relationship between professionals in Swedish interdisciplinary rehabilitation teams, and the aim of the article is to determine the participants' definitions and uses of the concept of work ability. The methods chosen were individual interviews with primary health care centre managers and focus groups with twelve interdisciplinary teams including social insurance officers, physicians, physiotherapists, occupational therapists, medical social workers and coordinators. The results show that the teams have had problems with reaching a common understanding of their task, due to an inherent tension between the stakeholders. This tension is primarily a result of two factors: divergent perspectives on work ability between the health professionals and the Social Insurance Agency, and different approaches to cooperative work among physicians. Health professionals share a holistic view on work ability, relating it to a variety of factors. Social insurance officers, on the other hand, represent a reductionistic stance, where work ability is reduced to medical status. Assessments of work ability therefore tend to become a negotiation between insurance officers and physicians. A suggestion from the study is that the teams, with proper education, could be used as an arena for planning and coordinating return-to-work, which would strengthen their potential in managing the prevention of work disability.

  7. THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN "IDEAL TEAMS" TWO GENERATION OF FOOTBALLERS IN MOTOR ABILITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Tomić

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Good knowledge of athletes and their abilities, that achieve superior results may be a landmark and milestone in what direction should be focused on selection and training process. The various disciplines determine the development of various motor abilities, and be for each sport to define their standards. Motor abilities are subject to weather changes, due to which standards have limited time. "Ideal team" is a set of best individuals in the starting lineup in a given season competition. The aim of this research was to perform the difference between "ideal teams" two generation of footballers in motor abilities. The sample comprised 54 players age 23.74 years, who are members of FK Vojvodina Novi Sad divided into two groups. The first group consists of 26 players aged 24.57±2,55 years from the season 2004/2005, while the second group of 28 players aged 22.96±2,86 years from the season 2010/2011. Sample measures for the evaluation of motor abilities are: deep forward bend, Abalakov test, push-ups and raising troops. To determine the difference between the two groups of players applied the t-test. Based on the conducted this study show that the two groups of respondents players statistically significantly different only in the test deep forward bend on the bench and better overall results achieved less more successful generation of footballers.

  8. Analysis on the science literacy ability of vocational school physics teacher using NOSLiT indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahayu, P. P.; Masykuri, M.; Soeparmi

    2018-04-01

    Professional Physics teacher must be able to manage science learning process by associating science itself with the daily life. At first the teacher must have competency in the ability of science literacy. The target of this research is vocational school Physics teachers for the purpose to describe their ability on science literacy. This research is a survey research using test method. The test instrument is The NOSLiT by Wenning.Research results are: 1) Scientific Nomenclature : 38.46 %, 2) Basic experimental and observational abilities : 38.46 %, 3) Rules of scientific evidence : 0%, 4) Postulate science: 15.38%, 5) scientific disposition: 7. 69%.Conclusion: The result of each indicator shows that the ability of science literacy of vocational school Physics teachers has not met the expectations yet. It’s can be used as the reflection for education experts to improve their science literacy ability so that can be applied to the learning process that directly or indirectly will have an impact on improving the students’ science literacy.

  9. Work ability and stress in a bus transportation company in Belo Horizonte, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampaio, Rosana Ferreira; Coelho, Cecília Martins; Barbosa, Fábio Bonfim; Mancini, Marisa Cotta; Parreira, Verônica Franco

    2009-01-01

    Demographic, occupational and psychosocial characteristics affect the health and occupational performance of workers. The objective of the present study was to elaborate a profile of the work ability and factors that affect it in a bus transportation company in Belo Horizonte, Brazil. The instruments used included a socio-demographic and occupational questionnaire, the Work Ability Index and the Job Stress Scale. Demographic information revealed that 85.7% of the 126 employees of the company were active workers, 98% were males, with an average of 39 years of age (SD= 10) and 79 months working in the company (SD= 68); more than half reported having a low schooling level. In terms of personal habits, 88% were exposed to one or more risk factors, especially a sedentary lifestyle. The average strain value (as a consequence of stress) was 0.78 (SD= 0.2) and 75.3% reported episodes of violence at the workplace. The work ability was good to excellent among 89% of the workers. Results from the logistic regression analysis showed that strain was the only significant variable in relation to the Work Ability Index, (estimated odds ratio of 0.02). The results suggest that psychosocial factors presented the greatest association with work ability, and preventive and/or corrective measures should be implemented.

  10. Interactions between Levels of Attention Ability and Levels of Bilingualism in Children’s Executive Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorge, Geoff B.; Toplak, Maggie E.; Bialystok, Ellen

    2016-01-01

    Attention difficulty is associated with poor performance on executive functioning (EF) tasks, yet EF is enhanced in bilingual children. However, no research to date has investigated the possible interaction between bilingualism and attention ability in children to determine the consequences for EF when both are present. We assessed a sample of typically-developing children who were 8- to 11-years old for their ability in attention control and level of bilingualism on the basis of questionnaires completed by parents and teachers. Children performed three tasks requiring aspects of EF: stop signal task (inhibition), flanker task (interference control), and frogs matrices task (spatial working memory). Results from hierarchical regressions confirmed that both attention ability and bilingualism contributed to performance on the EF tasks. Where interaction effects were significant, they showed that attention ability was a stronger predictor for an inhibition task, namely stop signal, and bilingualism a stronger predictor for an interference task, namely flanker. Furthermore, these results allow us to discuss the relation between EF and attention ability. PMID:26875024

  11. Song and speech: examining the link between singing talent and speech imitation ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiner, Markus; Reiterer, Susanne M.

    2013-01-01

    In previous research on speech imitation, musicality, and an ability to sing were isolated as the strongest indicators of good pronunciation skills in foreign languages. We, therefore, wanted to take a closer look at the nature of the ability to sing, which shares a common ground with the ability to imitate speech. This study focuses on whether good singing performance predicts good speech imitation. Forty-one singers of different levels of proficiency were selected for the study and their ability to sing, to imitate speech, their musical talent and working memory were tested. Results indicated that singing performance is a better indicator of the ability to imitate speech than the playing of a musical instrument. A multiple regression revealed that 64% of the speech imitation score variance could be explained by working memory together with educational background and singing performance. A second multiple regression showed that 66% of the speech imitation variance of completely unintelligible and unfamiliar language stimuli (Hindi) could be explained by working memory together with a singer's sense of rhythm and quality of voice. This supports the idea that both vocal behaviors have a common grounding in terms of vocal and motor flexibility, ontogenetic and phylogenetic development, neural orchestration and auditory memory with singing fitting better into the category of “speech” on the productive level and “music” on the acoustic level. As a result, good singers benefit from vocal and motor flexibility, productively and cognitively, in three ways. (1) Motor flexibility and the ability to sing improve language and musical function. (2) Good singers retain a certain plasticity and are open to new and unusual sound combinations during adulthood both perceptually and productively. (3) The ability to sing improves the memory span of the auditory working memory. PMID:24319438

  12. Song and speech: examining the link between singing talent and speech imitation ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiner, Markus; Reiterer, Susanne M

    2013-01-01

    In previous research on speech imitation, musicality, and an ability to sing were isolated as the strongest indicators of good pronunciation skills in foreign languages. We, therefore, wanted to take a closer look at the nature of the ability to sing, which shares a common ground with the ability to imitate speech. This study focuses on whether good singing performance predicts good speech imitation. Forty-one singers of different levels of proficiency were selected for the study and their ability to sing, to imitate speech, their musical talent and working memory were tested. Results indicated that singing performance is a better indicator of the ability to imitate speech than the playing of a musical instrument. A multiple regression revealed that 64% of the speech imitation score variance could be explained by working memory together with educational background and singing performance. A second multiple regression showed that 66% of the speech imitation variance of completely unintelligible and unfamiliar language stimuli (Hindi) could be explained by working memory together with a singer's sense of rhythm and quality of voice. This supports the idea that both vocal behaviors have a common grounding in terms of vocal and motor flexibility, ontogenetic and phylogenetic development, neural orchestration and auditory memory with singing fitting better into the category of "speech" on the productive level and "music" on the acoustic level. As a result, good singers benefit from vocal and motor flexibility, productively and cognitively, in three ways. (1) Motor flexibility and the ability to sing improve language and musical function. (2) Good singers retain a certain plasticity and are open to new and unusual sound combinations during adulthood both perceptually and productively. (3) The ability to sing improves the memory span of the auditory working memory.

  13. Song and speech: examining the link between singing talent and speech imitation ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus eChristiner

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In previous research on speech imitation, musicality and an ability to sing were isolated as the strongest indicators of good pronunciation skills in foreign languages. We, therefore, wanted to take a closer look at the nature of the ability to sing, which shares a common ground with the ability to imitate speech. This study focuses on whether good singing performance predicts good speech imitation. Fourty-one singers of different levels of proficiency were selected for the study and their ability to sing, to imitate speech, their musical talent and working memory were tested. Results indicated that singing performance is a better indicator of the ability to imitate speech than the playing of a musical instrument. A multiple regression revealed that 64 % of the speech imitation score variance could be explained by working memory together with educational background and singing performance. A second multiple regression showed that 66 % of the speech imitation variance of completely unintelligible and unfamiliar language stimuli (Hindi could be explained by working memory together with a singer’s sense of rhythm and quality of voice. This supports the idea that both vocal behaviors have a common grounding in terms of vocal and motor flexibility, ontogenetic and phylogenetic development, neural orchestration and sound memory with singing fitting better into the category of "speech" on the productive level and "music" on the acoustic level. As a result, good singers benefit from vocal and motor flexibility, productively and cognitively, in three ways. 1. Motor flexibility and the ability to sing improve language and musical function. 2. Good singers retain a certain plasticity and are open to new and unusual sound combinations during adulthood both perceptually and productively. 3. The ability to sing improves the memory span of the auditory short term memory.

  14. Research on evaluation methods for water regulation ability of dams in the Huai River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, G. H.; Lv, S. F.; Ma, K.

    2016-08-01

    Water environment protection is a global and urgent problem that requires correct and precise evaluation. Evaluation methods have been studied for many years; however, there is a lack of research on the methods of assessing the water regulation ability of dams. Currently, evaluating the ability of dams has become a practical and significant research orientation because of the global water crisis, and the lack of effective ways to manage a dam's regulation ability has only compounded this. This paper firstly constructs seven evaluation factors and then develops two evaluation approaches to implement the factors according to the features of the problem. Dams of the Yin Shang ecological control section in the Huai He River basin are selected as an example to demonstrate the method. The results show that the evaluation approaches can produce better and more practical suggestions for dam managers.

  15. Resting-state functional connectivity and pitch identification ability in non-musicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiancheng eHou

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have used task-related fMRI to investigate the neural basis of pitch identification (PI, but no study has examined the associations between resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC and PI ability. Using a large sample of Chinese non-musicians (N = 320, with 56 having prior musical training, the current study examined the associations among musical training, PI ability, and RSFC. Results showed that musical training was associated with increased RSFC within the networks for multiple cognitive functions (such as vision, phonology, semantics, auditory encoding, and executive functions. PI ability was associated with RSFC with regions for perceptual and auditory encoding for participants with musical training, and with RSFC with regions for short-term memory, semantics, and phonology for participants without musical training.

  16. The Effect of Using Cooking Academy Game towards Students’ Writing Ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nofrika Sari

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This study is an experimental research that discussed the impact of the use of cooking academy game in teaching writing on the students’ ability in writing procedure text at class VII Junior Secondary School I Pangkalan Baru Lima Puluh Kota. This study was aimed to determine the effects of the use of cooking academy game towards the student's ability in writing procedure text. In this study, the population is the students of class VII, while sample are two classes: one class for the experimental class and another class for control. Samples were drawn randomly. Data were collected by giving pre-test and post-test on the sample. Data were, then, analyzed applying t-test formula. The results showed that students who were taught to write text using the procedure of cooking academy game has the ability to write higher than students who are not taught by using games cooking academy.

  17. Promoting middle school students’ abstract-thinking ability through cognitive apprenticeship instruction in mathematics learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusepa, B. G. P.; Kusumah, Y. S.; Kartasasmita, B. G.

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study is to get an in-depth understanding of students’ abstract-thinking ability in mathematics learning. This study was an experimental research with pre-test and post-test control group design. The subject of this study was eighth-grade students from two junior high schools in Bandung. In each schools, two parallel groups were selected and assigned into control and experimental groups. The experimental group was exposed to Cognitive Apprenticeship Instruction (CAI) treatment, whereas the control group was exposed to conventional learning. The results showed that abstract-thinking ability of students in experimental group was better than that of those in control group in which it could be observed from the overall and school level. It could be concluded that CAI could be a good alternative learning model to enhance students’ abstract-thinking ability.

  18. Reading Ability Development from Kindergarten to Junior Secondary: Latent Transition Analyses with Growth Mixture Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Liu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined the reading ability development of children in the large scale Early Childhood Longitudinal Study (Kindergarten Class of 1998-99 data; Tourangeau, Nord, Lê, Pollack, & Atkins-Burnett, 2006 under the dynamic systems. To depict children's growth pattern, we extended the measurement part of latent transition analysis to the growth mixture model and found that the new model fitted the data well. Results also revealed that most of the children stayed in the same ability group with few cross-level changes in their classes. After adding the environmental factors as predictors, analyses showed that children receiving higher teachers' ratings, with higher socioeconomic status, and of above average poverty status, would have higher probability to transit into the higher ability group.

  19. Field dispersal ability and taxis to sex pheromone of irradiated F-1 male Asian corn borer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Huasong; Liu Qiongru; Lu Daguang; Wang Endong; Kang Wen; Li Yongjun; He Qiulan; Hu Jianguo

    1998-01-01

    The dispersal ability of F-1 male Asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenee), irradiated with 100, 150 and 200 Gy Separately in parental generation were tested by marking (with Calco oil red or Sudan blue internally)-releasing-recapturing (with synthesized sex pheromone) method in the field where the farthest distance from release point to pheromone trap was 550 m. The results showed that, as compared with the normal male moths, despite of the fact that a part of the irradiated F-1 males had lost dispersal ability or taxis to sex pheromone, there was no significant difference between the captured rates of irradiated F-1 males and normal males in the trap 550 m from release point, indicated that the dispersal ability or taxis to sex pheromone of irradiated F-1 males arrived at 550 m from release point are still well matched with the normal ones

  20. Educational Outreach: The Space Science Road Show

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, N. L. J.

    2002-01-01

    The poster presented will give an overview of a study towards a "Space Road Show". The topic of this show is space science. The target group is adolescents, aged 12 to 15, at Dutch high schools. The show and its accompanying experiments would be supported with suitable educational material. Science teachers at schools can decide for themselves if they want to use this material in advance, afterwards or not at all. The aims of this outreach effort are: to motivate students for space science and engineering, to help them understand the importance of (space) research, to give them a positive feeling about the possibilities offered by space and in the process give them useful knowledge on space basics. The show revolves around three main themes: applications, science and society. First the students will get some historical background on the importance of space/astronomy to civilization. Secondly they will learn more about novel uses of space. On the one hand they will learn of "Views on Earth" involving technologies like Remote Sensing (or Spying), Communication, Broadcasting, GPS and Telemedicine. On the other hand they will experience "Views on Space" illustrated by past, present and future space research missions, like the space exploration missions (Cassini/Huygens, Mars Express and Rosetta) and the astronomy missions (Soho and XMM). Meanwhile, the students will learn more about the technology of launchers and satellites needed to accomplish these space missions. Throughout the show and especially towards the end attention will be paid to the third theme "Why go to space"? Other reasons for people to get into space will be explored. An important question in this is the commercial (manned) exploration of space. Thus, the questions of benefit of space to society are integrated in the entire show. It raises some fundamental questions about the effects of space travel on our environment, poverty and other moral issues. The show attempts to connect scientific with

  1. Measuring young children's language abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zink, I; Schaerlaekens, A

    2000-01-01

    This article deals with the new challenges put on language diagnosis, and the growing need for good diagnostic instruments for young children. Particularly for Dutch, the original English Reynell Developmental Language Scales were adapted not only to the Dutch idiom, but some general ameliorations and changes in the original scales resulted in a new instrument named the RTOS. The new instrument was standardized on a large population, and psychometrically evaluated. In communicating the experiences with such a language/cultural/psychometric adaptation, we hope that other language-minority groups will be encouraged to undertake similar adaptations.

  2. The ABCs of Math: A Genetic Analysis of Mathematics and Its Links With Reading Ability and General Cognitive Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Sara A.; Petrill, Stephen A.; Thompson, Lee A.; Plomin, Robert

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this first major report from the Western Reserve Reading Project Math component is to explore the etiology of the relationship among tester-administered measures of mathematics ability, reading ability, and general cognitive ability. Data are available on 314 pairs of monozygotic and same-sex dizygotic twins analyzed across 5 waves of assessment. Univariate analyses provide a range of estimates of genetic (h2 = .00 –.63) and shared (c2 = .15–.52) environmental influences across math calculation, fluency, and problem solving measures. Multivariate analyses indicate genetic overlap between math problem solving with general cognitive ability and reading decoding, whereas math fluency shares significant genetic overlap with reading fluency and general cognitive ability. Further, math fluency has unique genetic influences. In general, math ability has shared environmental overlap with general cognitive ability and decoding. These results indicate that aspects of math that include problem solving have different genetic and environmental influences than math calculation. Moreover, math fluency, a timed measure of calculation, is the only measured math ability with unique genetic influences. PMID:20157630

  3. Concept mapping learning strategy to enhance students' mathematical connection ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafiz, M.; Kadir, Fatra, Maifalinda

    2017-05-01

    The concept mapping learning strategy in teaching and learning mathematics has been investigated by numerous researchers. However, there are still less researchers who have scrutinized about the roles of map concept which is connected to the mathematical connection ability. Being well understood on map concept, it may help students to have ability to correlate one concept to other concept in order that the student can solve mathematical problems faced. The objective of this research was to describe the student's mathematical connection ability and to analyze the effect of using concept mapping learning strategy to the students' mathematical connection ability. This research was conducted at senior high school in Jakarta. The method used a quasi-experimental with randomized control group design with the total number was 72 students as the sample. Data obtained through using test in the post-test after giving the treatment. The results of the research are: 1) Students' mathematical connection ability has reached the good enough level category; 2) Students' mathematical connection ability who had taught with concept mapping learning strategy is higher than who had taught with conventional learning strategy. Based on the results above, it can be concluded that concept mapping learning strategycould enhance the students' mathematical connection ability, especially in trigonometry.

  4. 2008 LHC Open Days Physics: the show

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    A host of events and activities await visitors to the LHC Open Days on 5 and 6 April. A highlight will be the physics shows funded by the European Physical Society (EPS), which are set to surprise and challenge children and adults alike! School children use their experience of riding a bicycle to understand how planets move around the sun (Copyright : Circus Naturally) Participating in the Circus Naturally show could leave a strange taste in your mouth! (Copyright : Circus Naturally) The Rino Foundation’s experiments with liquid nitrogen can be pretty exciting! (Copyright: The Rino Foundation)What does a bicycle have in common with the solar system? Have you ever tried to weigh air or visualise sound? Ever heard of a vacuum bazooka? If you want to discover the answers to these questions and more then come to the Physics Shows taking place at the CERN O...

  5. Work ability assessment in a worker population: comparison and determinants of Work Ability Index and Work Ability score

    OpenAIRE

    El Fassi, Mehdi; Bocquet, Valery; Majery, Nicole; Lair, Marie Lise; Couffignal, Sophie; Mairiaux, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Background Public authorities in European countries are paying increasing attention to the promotion of work ability throughout working life and the best method to monitor work ability in populations of workers is becoming a significant question. The present study aims to compare the assessment of work ability based on the use of the Work Ability Index (WAI), a 7-item questionnaire, with another one based on the use of WAI?s first item, which consists in the worker?s self-assessment of his/he...

  6. Pragmatic Abilities of Children with Williams Syndrome: A Longitudinal Examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Angela E.; Dobson, Lauren A.; Thomas, Lauren E.; Mervis, Carolyn B.

    2012-01-01

    Prior research has indicated that pragmatics is an area of particular weakness for individuals with Williams syndrome (WS). To further address this aspect of the WS social phenotype, we used an individual differences approach to consider both cross-sectional and longitudinal relations among different pragmatic abilities for 14 children with WS, taking into account individual differences in non-verbal reasoning abilities. We also considered the relations between pragmatic abilities and expressive vocabulary ability. Participants were tested at two time points: as 4-year-olds during a 30-min play session with their mothers (Time 1) and an average of 5.87 years later during a one-on-one conversation with a familiar researcher (Time 2). Children’s intellectual and expressive vocabulary abilities were assessed at both time points. Results indicated that the ability to verbally contribute information beyond what was required in response to a question (ExtendQ) was significantly related to the ability to verbally contribute new information in the absence of a question (ExtendS) both at age 4 years and during primary school. At age 4, both the ability to pair verbalizations with eye contact in triadic interactions (secondary intersubjectivity) and expressive vocabulary ability were related to both ExtendQ and ExtendS. Finally, both ExtendQ and the ability to pair verbalizations with eye contact (intersubjectivity) at age 4 years predicted ExtendQ at age 9–12 years. The theoretical implications of our findings and the importance of early pragmatic language intervention for children who have WS are discussed. PMID:22719734

  7. A comprehensive test of evolutionarily increased competitive ability in a highly invasive plant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Srijana; Gruntman, Michal; Bilton, Mark; Seifan, Merav; Tielbörger, Katja

    2014-12-01

    A common hypothesis to explain plants' invasive success is that release from natural enemies in the introduced range selects for reduced allocation to resistance traits and a subsequent increase in resources available for growth and competitive ability (evolution of increased competitive ability, EICA). However, studies that have investigated this hypothesis have been incomplete as they either did not test for all aspects of competitive ability or did not select appropriate competitors. Here, the prediction of increased competitive ability was examined with the invasive plant Lythrum salicaria (purple loosestrife) in a set of common-garden experiments that addressed these aspects by carefully distinguishing between competitive effect and response of invasive and native plants, and by using both intraspecific and interspecific competition settings with a highly vigorous neighbour, Urtica dioica (stinging nettle), which occurs in both ranges. While the intraspecific competition results showed no differences in competitive effect or response between native and invasive plants, the interspecific competition experiment revealed greater competitive response and effect of invasive plants in both biomass and seed production. The use of both intra- and interspecific competition experiments in this study revealed opposing results. While the first experiment refutes the EICA hypothesis, the second shows strong support for it, suggesting evolutionarily increased competitive ability in invasive populations of L. salicaria. It is suggested that the use of naturally co-occurring heterospecifics, rather than conspecifics, may provide a better evaluation of the possible evolutionary shift towards greater competitive ability. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Secondary school teachers' attitudes towards and beliefs about ability grouping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallam, Susan; Ireson, Judith

    2003-09-01

    Internationally and historically considerable research has been undertaken regarding the attitudes of secondary school teachers towards different types of ability grouping. There has been no recent research taking account of the changing educational context in the UK. This paper aims to explore secondary school teachers' attitudes and beliefs about ability grouping taking account of school type, gender, experience and qualifications. The sample comprised over 1,500 teachers from 45 schools divided into three groups based on their ability grouping practices in years 7-9 (the students were aged 11-14). The sample included all the lower school teachers of mathematics, science and English and a random sample of teachers from other subjects in each school. Teachers responded to a questionnaire which explored their attitudes towards ability grouping through the use of rating scales and open-ended questions. The findings showed that the teachers' beliefs broadly reflected research findings on the actual effects of ability grouping, although there were significant differences relating to the type of school they taught in and the subject that they taught. Separate analysis of school types showed that length of time teaching, individual school differences and teacher qualifications were also significant predictors of attitudes. Teachers' beliefs about ability grouping are influenced by the type of groupings adopted in the school where they work, the subject that they teach, their experience and qualifications. As pedagogical practices are known to be influenced by beliefs these findings have important implications for teacher training.

  9. Why are they late? Timing abilities and executive control among students with learning disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinblat, Nufar; Rosenblum, Sara

    2016-12-01

    While a deficient ability to perform daily tasks on time has been reported among students with learning disabilities (LD), the underlying mechanism behind their 'being late' is still unclear. This study aimed to evaluate the organization in time, time estimation abilities, actual performance time pertaining to specific daily activities, as well as the executive functions of students with LD in comparison to those of controls, and to assess the relationships between these domains among each group. The participants were 27 students with LD, aged 20-30, and 32 gender and age-matched controls who completed the Time Organization and Participation Scale (TOPS) and the Behavioral Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Adult version (BRIEF-A). In addition, their ability to estimate the time needed to complete the task of preparing a cup of coffee as well as their actual performance time were evaluated. The results indicated that in comparison to controls, students with LD showed significantly inferior organization in time (TOPS) and executive function abilities (BRIEF-A). Furthermore, their time estimation abilities were significantly inferior and they required significantly more time to prepare a cup of coffee. Regression analysis identified the variables that predicted organization in time and task performance time among each group. The significance of the results for both theoretical and clinical implications are discussed. What this paper adds? This study examines the underlying mechanism of the phenomena of being late among students with LD. Following a recent call for using ecologically valid assessments, the functional daily ability of students with LD to prepare a cup of coffee and to organize time were investigated. Furthermore, their time estimation and executive control abilities were examined as a possible underlying mechanism for their lateness. Although previous studies have indicated executive control deficits among students with LD, to our knowledge, this

  10. Learning Abilities and Disabilities: Generalist Genes, Specialist Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovas, Yulia; Plomin, Robert

    2007-10-01

    Twin studies comparing identical and fraternal twins consistently show substantial genetic influence on individual differences in learning abilities such as reading and mathematics, as well as in other cognitive abilities such as spatial ability and memory. Multivariate genetic research has shown that the same set of genes is largely responsible for genetic influence on these diverse cognitive areas. We call these "generalist genes." What differentiates these abilities is largely the environment, especially nonshared environments that make children growing up in the same family different from one another. These multivariate genetic findings of generalist genes and specialist environments have far-reaching implications for diagnosis and treatment of learning disabilities and for understanding the brain mechanisms that mediate these effects.

  11. Social problem solving ability predicts mental health among undergraduate students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjbar, Mansour; Bayani, Ali Asghar; Bayani, Ali

    2013-11-01

    The main objective of this study was predicting student's mental health using social problem solving- ability. In this correlational. descriptive study, 369 (208 female and 161 male) from, Mazandaran University of Medical Science were selected through stratified random sampling method. In order to collect the data, the social problem solving inventory-revised and general health questionnaire were used. Data were analyzed through SPSS-19, Pearson's correlation, t test, and stepwise regression analysis. Data analysis showed significant relationship between social problem solving ability and mental health (P Social problem solving ability was significantly associated with the somatic symptoms, anxiety and insomnia, social dysfunction and severe depression (P social problem solving ability and mental health.

  12. Duchenne muscular dystrophy models show their age

    OpenAIRE

    Chamberlain, Jeffrey S.

    2010-01-01

    The lack of appropriate animal models has hampered efforts to develop therapies for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). A new mouse model lacking both dystrophin and telomerase (Sacco et al., 2010) closely mimics the pathological progression of human DMD and shows that muscle stem cell activity is a key determinant of disease severity.

  13. Show Them You Really Want the Job

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlmutter, David D.

    2012-01-01

    Showing that one really "wants" the job entails more than just really wanting the job. An interview is part Broadway casting call, part intellectual dating game, part personality test, and part, well, job interview. When there are 300 applicants for a position, many of them will "fit" the required (and even the preferred) skills listed in the job…

  14. A Talk Show from the Past.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Arlene F.

    1991-01-01

    Describes a two-day activity in which elementary students examine voting rights, the right to assemble, and women's suffrage. Explains the game, "Assemble, Reassemble," and a student-produced talk show with five students playing the roles of leaders of the women's suffrage movement. Profiles Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Lucretia Mott, Susan…

  15. Laser entertainment and light shows in education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabaratnam, Andrew T.; Symons, Charles

    2002-05-01

    Laser shows and beam effects have been a source of entertainment since its first public performance May 9, 1969, at Mills College in Oakland, California. Since 1997, the Photonics Center, NgeeAnn Polytechnic, Singapore, has been using laser shows as a teaching tool. Students are able to exhibit their creative skills and learn at the same time how lasers are used in the entertainment industry. Students will acquire a number of skills including handling three- phase power supply, operation of cooling system, and laser alignment. Students also acquire an appreciation of the arts, learning about shapes and contours as they develop graphics for the shows. After holography, laser show animation provides a combination of the arts and technology. This paper aims to briefly describe how a krypton-argon laser, galvanometer scanners, a polychromatic acousto-optic modulator and related electronics are put together to develop a laser projector. The paper also describes how students are trained to make their own laser animation and beam effects with music, and at the same time have an appreciation of the operation of a Class IV laser and the handling of optical components.

  16. The Last Great American Picture Show

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elsaesser, Thomas; King, Noel; Horwath, Alexander

    2004-01-01

    The Last Great American Picture Show brings together essays by scholars and writers who chart the changing evaluations of the American cinema of the 1970s, sometimes referred to as the decade of the lost generation, but now more and more recognized as the first New Hollywood, without which the

  17. Human face recognition ability is specific and highly heritable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilmer, Jeremy B; Germine, Laura; Chabris, Christopher F; Chatterjee, Garga; Williams, Mark; Loken, Eric; Nakayama, Ken; Duchaine, Bradley

    2010-03-16

    Compared with notable successes in the genetics of basic sensory transduction, progress on the genetics of higher level perception and cognition has been limited. We propose that investigating specific cognitive abilities with well-defined neural substrates, such as face recognition, may yield additional insights. In a twin study of face recognition, we found that the correlation of scores between monozygotic twins (0.70) was more than double the dizygotic twin correlation (0.29), evidence for a high genetic contribution to face recognition ability. Low correlations between face recognition scores and visual and verbal recognition scores indicate that both face recognition ability itself and its genetic basis are largely attributable to face-specific mechanisms. The present results therefore identify an unusual phenomenon: a highly specific cognitive ability that is highly heritable. Our results establish a clear genetic basis for face recognition, opening this intensively studied and socially advantageous cognitive trait to genetic investigation.

  18. Children show limited movement repertoire when learning a novel motor skill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mei-Hua; Farshchiansadegh, Ali; Ranganathan, Rajiv

    2017-09-27

    Examining age differences in motor learning using real-world tasks is often problematic due to task novelty and biomechanical confounds. Here, we investigated how children and adults acquire a novel motor skill in a virtual environment. Participants of three different age groups (9-year-olds, 12-year-olds, and adults) learned to use their upper body movements to control a cursor on a computer screen. Results showed that 9-year-old and 12-year-old children showed poorer ability to control the cursor at the end of practice. Critically, when we investigated the movement coordination, we found that the lower task performance of children was associated with limited exploration of their movement repertoire. These results reveal the critical role of motor exploration in understanding developmental differences in motor learning. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Socioeconomic Position Across the Life Course and Cognitive Ability Later in Life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foverskov, Else; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Holm, Anders

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Investigate direct and indirect associations between markers of socioeconomic position (SEP) across the life course and midlife cognitive ability while addressing methodological limitations in prior work. METHOD: Longitudinal data from the Danish Metropolit cohort of men born in 1953 ( N......: The impact of adult SEP on later life ability may be exaggerated when not accounting for the stability of individual differences in cognitive ability and measurement error in test scores....... of accounting for childhood ability and measurement error. RESULTS: Associations between adult SEP measures and midlife ability decreased significantly when adjusting for childhood ability and measurement error. The association between childhood and midlife ability was by far the strongest. DISCUSSION...

  20. Emission ability of La-Sc-Mo cathode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Jiancan; Nie Zuoren; Xi Xiaoli; Wang Yiman

    2004-01-01

    In this paper La-Sc-Mo cathode has been prepared and its electron emission ability was measured. This type of cathode shows good electron emission performance that the saturated current density is 6.74 A cm -1 and the work function is about 2.59 eV at 1300 deg. C, which is much lower than thoriated tungsten cathode (Th-W). So it is a potential cathode to replace the Th-W cathode with radioactive pollution. Surface analysis shows that good emission ability due to the 20 nm surplus La layer and the element Sc may do good to the La diffusion to the surface

  1. Genetics and genomics of musical abilities

    OpenAIRE

    Oikkonen, Jaana

    2016-01-01

    Most people have the capacity for music perception and production, but the degree of music competency varies between individuals. In this thesis, I studied abilities to identify pitch, tone duration and sound patterns with Karma s test for auditory structuring (KMT), and Seashore s tests for time (ST) and pitch (SP). These abilities can be considered as basic components of musicality. Additionally, I studied self-reported musical activities, especially composing and arranging. Musical ability...

  2. Reality, ficción o show

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Ruíz Moreno

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Para tener un punto de vista claro y objetivo frente a la polémica establecida en torno al programa “Protagonistas de novela” y la tendiente proliferación de los reality show en las parrillas de programación de la televisión colombiana, se realizó un análisis de texto y contenido de dicho programa, intentando definirlo desde sus posibilidades de realidad, ficción y show. Las unidades de análisis y el estudio de su tratamiento arrojaron un alto contenido que gira en torno a las emociones del ser humano relacionadas con la convivencia, tratadas a manera de show y con algunos aportes textuales de ficción, pero sin su elemento mediador básico, el actor, quitándole toda la posibilidad de tener un tratamiento con la profundidad, distancia y ética que requieren los temas de esta índole. El resultado es un formato que sólo busca altos índices de sintonía y que pertenece más a la denominada televisión “trash”, que a una búsqueda de realidad del hombre y mucho menos de sociedad.

  3. Coordinating abilities in structure of special preparation of combat athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klymenko A.I.

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Development tendency of modern sport assumes high competition and as a result, training and competitive pressure. This requires from the coach to search for new methods of increasing effectiveness of the training process without increasing the pressure volume and intensiveness. One of the ways of solving this problem is the development of a method of increasing coordinating abilities. Several types of coordinating abilities of wrestlers. Deals with methodical peculiarities or perfection and means of increasing coordinating of sambo.

  4. Undergraduate Students’ Initial Ability in Understanding Phylogenetic Tree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sa'adah, S.; Hidayat, T.; Sudargo, Fransisca

    2017-04-01

    The Phylogenetic tree is a visual representation depicts a hypothesis about the evolutionary relationship among taxa. Evolutionary experts use this representation to evaluate the evidence for evolution. The phylogenetic tree is currently growing for many disciplines in biology. Consequently, learning about the phylogenetic tree has become an important part of biological education and an interesting area of biology education research. Skill to understanding and reasoning of the phylogenetic tree, (called tree thinking) is an important skill for biology students. However, research showed many students have difficulty in interpreting, constructing, and comparing among the phylogenetic tree, as well as experiencing a misconception in the understanding of the phylogenetic tree. Students are often not taught how to reason about evolutionary relationship depicted in the diagram. Students are also not provided with information about the underlying theory and process of phylogenetic. This study aims to investigate the initial ability of undergraduate students in understanding and reasoning of the phylogenetic tree. The research method is the descriptive method. Students are given multiple choice questions and an essay that representative by tree thinking elements. Each correct answer made percentages. Each student is also given questionnaires. The results showed that the undergraduate students’ initial ability in understanding and reasoning phylogenetic tree is low. Many students are not able to answer questions about the phylogenetic tree. Only 19 % undergraduate student who answered correctly on indicator evaluate the evolutionary relationship among taxa, 25% undergraduate student who answered correctly on indicator applying concepts of the clade, 17% undergraduate student who answered correctly on indicator determines the character evolution, and only a few undergraduate student who can construct the phylogenetic tree.

  5. Singing abilities in children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvain eCLEMENT

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Specific Language impairment (SLI is a heritable neurodevelopmental disorder diagnosed when a child has difficulties learning to produce and/or understand speech for no apparent reason (Bishop et al., 2012. The verbal difficulties of children with SLI have been largely documented, and a growing number of studies suggest that these children may also have difficulties in processing non-verbal complex auditory stimuli (Brandt et al., 2012; Corriveau et al., 2007. In a recent study, we reported that a large proportion of children with SLI present deficits in music perception (Planchou et al, submitted. Little is known, however, about the singing abilities of children with SLI. In order to investigate whether or not the impairments in expressive language extend to the musical domain, we assessed singing abilities in 8 children with SLI and 15 children with Typical Language Development (TLD matched for age and non-verbal intelligence. To this aim, we designed a ludic activity consisting of two singing tasks: a pitch-matching and a melodic reproduction task. In the pitch-matching task, the children were requested to sing single notes. In the melodic reproduction task, children were asked to sing short melodies that were either familiar (FAM-SONG and FAM-TUNE conditions or unfamiliar (UNFAM-TUNE condition. The analysis showed that children with SLI were impaired in the pitch-matching task, with a mean pitch error of 250 cents (mean pitch error for children with TLD: 154 cents. In the melodic reproduction task, we asked 30 healthy adults to rate the quality of the sung productions of the children on a continuous rating scale. The results revealed that singing of children with SLI received lower mean ratings than the children with TLD. Our findings thus indicate that children with SLI showed impairments in musical production and are discussed in light of a general auditory-motor dysfunction in children with SLI.

  6. Brain metabolite levels and language abilities in preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebel, Catherine; MacMaster, Frank P; Dewey, Deborah

    2016-10-01

    Language acquisition occurs rapidly during early childhood and lays the foundation for future reading success. However, little is known about the brain-language relationships in young children. The goal of this study was to investigate relationships between brain metabolites and prereading language abilities in healthy preschool-aged children. Participants were 67 healthy children aged 3.0-5.4 years scanned on a 3T GE MR750w MRI scanner using short echo proton spectroscopy with a voxel placed in the anterior cingulate gyrus ( n  = 56) and/or near the left angular gyrus ( n  = 45). Children completed the NEPSY-II Phonological Processing and Speeded Naming subtests at the same time as their MRI scan. We calculated glutamate, glutamine, creatine/phosphocreatine, choline, inositol, and NAA concentrations, and correlated these with language skills. In the anterior cingulate, Phonological Processing Scaled Scores were significantly correlated with glutamate, creatine, and inositol concentrations. In the left angular gyrus, Speeded Naming Combined Scaled Scores showed trend correlations with choline and glutamine concentrations. For the first time, we demonstrate relationships between brain metabolites and prereading language abilities in young children. Our results show relationships between language and inositol and glutamate that may reflect glial differences underlying language function, and a relationship of language with creatine. The trend between Speeded Naming and choline is consistent with previous research in older children and adults; however, larger sample sizes are needed to confirm whether this relationship is indeed significant in young children. These findings help understand the brain basis of language, and may ultimately lead to earlier and more effective interventions for reading disabilities.

  7. Assessment of combining ability for yield and quality components in hot pepper (Capsicum annuum L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohini, N.; Lakshmanan, V.; Saraladevi, D.; Amalraj, J.J.; Govindaraju, P.

    2017-07-01

    Six parental genotypes and their thirty F1 hybrids in a full diallel cross system with reciprocals, were used in the present study to estimate combining ability for five quantitative and five qualitative traits in hot pepper. The mean sum of squares due to general combining ability (GCA), specific combining ability (SCA) and reciprocal combining ability (RCA) were significant for all the characters which suggest that these parents could have performed differently in different combinations indicating interallelic interactions. All the traits studied exhibited greater SCA variance than GCA, suggesting that these traits are controlled by non-additive gene action. Analysis of the GCA effects of parents for various traits revealed that LCA625, K1 and PKM1 were the best general combiners for almost all the traits. Estimates of SCA effects showed that the hybrids LCA625 × K1, K1 × Arka LohitandPusa Jwala × PKM1were found to be the best combiners for yield and its attributes. The hybrid K1 × Arka Lohitwas the best reciprocal combiner for quality parameters based on its better mean performance and combining ability. These results suggest that commercial production of hot pepper hybrids and isolation of pure lines from these hybrids is a possible way to enhance the yield and fruit quality.

  8. Effect of a submaximal half-squats warm-up program on vertical jumping ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourgoulis, Vassilios; Aggeloussis, Nickos; Kasimatis, Panagiotis; Mavromatis, Giorgos; Garas, Athanasios

    2003-05-01

    The purpose of the current research was to study the effect of a warm-up program including submaximal half-squats on vertical jumping ability. Twenty physically active men participated in the study. Each subject performed 5 sets of half-squats with 2 repetitions at each of the following intensities: 20, 40, 60, 80, and 90% of the 1 repetition maximum (1RM) load. Prior to the first set and immediately after the end of the last set, the subjects performed 2 countermovement jumps on a Kistler force platform; the primary goal was to jump as high as possible. The results showed that mean vertical jumping ability improved by 2.39% after the warm-up period. Subjects were then divided into 2 groups according to their 1RM values for the half-squat. Subjects with greater maximal strength ability improved their vertical jumping ability (4.01%) more than did subjects with lower maximal strength (0.42%). A warm-up protocol including half-squats with submaximal loads and explosive execution can be used for short-term improvements of vertical jumping performance, and this effect is greater in athletes with a relatively high strength ability.

  9. Cognitive ability predicts motor learning on a virtual reality game in patients with TBI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neil, Rochelle L; Skeel, Reid L; Ustinova, Ksenia I

    2013-01-01

    Virtual reality games and simulations have been utilized successfully for motor rehabilitation of individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Little is known, however, how TBI-related cognitive decline affects learning of motor tasks in virtual environments. To fill this gap, we examined learning within a virtual reality game involving various reaching motions in 14 patients with TBI and 15 healthy individuals with different cognitive abilities. All participants practiced ten 90-second gaming trials to assess various aspects of motor learning. Cognitive abilities were assessed with a battery of tests including measures of memory, executive functioning, and visuospatial ability. Overall, participants with TBI showed both reduced performance and a slower learning rate in the virtual reality game compared to healthy individuals. Numerous correlations between overall performance and several of the cognitive ability domains were revealed for both the patient and control groups, with the best predictor being overall cognitive ability. The results may provide a starting point for rehabilitation programs regarding which cognitive domains interact with motor learning.

  10. Correlation of psychomotor findings and the ability to partially weight bear

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Partial weight bearing is thought to avoid excessive loading that may interfere with the healing process after surgery of the pelvis or the lower extremity. The object of this study was to investigate the relationship between the ability to partially weight bear and the patient's psychomotor skills and an additional evaluation of the possibility to predict this ability with a standardized psychomotor test. Methods 50 patients with a prescribed partial weight bearing at a target load of 15 kg following surgery were verbally instructed by a physical therapist. After the instruction and sufficient training with the physical therapist vertical ground reaction forces using matrix insoles were measured while walking with forearm crutches. Additionally, psychomotor skills were tested with the Motorische Leistungsserie (MLS). To test for correlations Spearman's Rank correlation was used. For further comparison of the two groups a Mann-Withney test was performed using Bonferroni correction. Results The patient's age and body weight significantly correlated with the ability to partially weight bear at a 15 kg target load. There were significant correlations between several subtests of the MLS and ground reaction forces measured while walking with crutches. Patients that were able to correctly perform partial weight bearing showed significant better psychomotor skills especially for those subtests where both hands had to be coordinated simultaneously. Conclusions The ability to partially weight bear is associated with psychomotor skills. The MLS seems to be a tool that helps predicting the ability to keep within the prescribed load limits. PMID:22330655

  11. Correlation of psychomotor findings and the ability to partially weight bear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruckstuhl Thomas

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Partial weight bearing is thought to avoid excessive loading that may interfere with the healing process after surgery of the pelvis or the lower extremity. The object of this study was to investigate the relationship between the ability to partially weight bear and the patient's psychomotor skills and an additional evaluation of the possibility to predict this ability with a standardized psychomotor test. Methods 50 patients with a prescribed partial weight bearing at a target load of 15 kg following surgery were verbally instructed by a physical therapist. After the instruction and sufficient training with the physical therapist vertical ground reaction forces using matrix insoles were measured while walking with forearm crutches. Additionally, psychomotor skills were tested with the Motorische Leistungsserie (MLS. To test for correlations Spearman's Rank correlation was used. For further comparison of the two groups a Mann-Withney test was performed using Bonferroni correction. Results The patient's age and body weight significantly correlated with the ability to partially weight bear at a 15 kg target load. There were significant correlations between several subtests of the MLS and ground reaction forces measured while walking with crutches. Patients that were able to correctly perform partial weight bearing showed significant better psychomotor skills especially for those subtests where both hands had to be coordinated simultaneously. Conclusions The ability to partially weight bear is associated with psychomotor skills. The MLS seems to be a tool that helps predicting the ability to keep within the prescribed load limits.

  12. Application of expert-notice dialogue (END) method to assess students’ science communication ability on biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriyati, S.; Amelia, D. N.; Soniyana, G. T.

    2018-05-01

    Student’s science communication ability can be assessed by the Expert-Notice Dialogue (END) method which focusing on verbal explanations using graphs or images as a tool. This study aims to apply the END method to assess students’ science communication ability. The study was conducted in two high schools with each sample of one class at each school (A and B). The number of experts in class A is 8 students and 7 in class B, the number of notice in class A 24 students and 30 in class B. The material chosen for explanation by expert is Ecosystem in class A and plant classification in class B. Research instruments are rubric of science communication ability, observation rubric, notice concept test and notice questionnaire. The implementation recorded with a video camera and then transcribed based on rubric science communication ability. The results showed that the average of science communication ability in class A and B was 60% and 61.8%, respectively, in enough categories. Mastery of the notice concept is in good category with 79.10 averages in class A and 94.64 in class B. Through the questionnaire notice it is known that the END method generally helps notice in understanding the concept.

  13. Student’s mathematical understanding ability based on self-efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramdhani, M. R.; Usodo, B.; Subanti, S.

    2017-11-01

    Materials in mathematics are provided not only as an ability to memorize, but also to train the ability of mathematical understanding. Students’ mathematical understanding ability is influenced by the students’ belief in solving the given problems. This research aim to determine the mathematical understanding ability of junior high school students. This research is descriptive qualitative research. Data collection was done through a test, questionnaire, and interview. The result showed that students with high self-efficacy category could master the three indicators of students’ mathematical understanding ability well, namely translation, interpretation, and exploration. Students with moderate self-efficacy category can master translation indicator and able to achieve interpretation indicator but they unable to reach exploration indicator. Students with low self-efficacy category only master the translation, but they cannot achieve the interpretation and exploration indicators. So, the students who have high, moderate or low self-efficacy master the indicator of mathematical understanding based on the level of understanding capabilities on each student.

  14. Long-term Results from the Empowering a Multimodal Pathway Toward Healthy Youth Program, a Multimodal School-Based Approach, Show Marked Reductions in Suicidality, Depression, and Anxiety in 6,227 Students in Grades 6–12 (Aged 11–18)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverstone, Peter H.; Bercov, Marni; Suen, Victoria Y. M.; Allen, Andrea; Cribben, Ivor; Goodrick, Jodi; Henry, Stu; Pryce, Catherine; Langstraat, Pieter; Rittenbach, Katherine; Chakraborty, Samprita; Engles, Rutger C.; McCabe, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    Here, we report on findings from a 15-month follow-up of a school-based program called Empowering a Multimodal Pathway Toward Healthy Youth (EMPATHY). This was primarily intended to reduce suicidal thinking in pre-teens, adolescents, and youth students aged 11–18 in middle schools (Grades 6–8) and high SCHOOLS (Grades 9–12). It also aimed to reduce depression and anxiety. The EMPATHY multimodal program consisted of repeated data collection, identification of a high-risk group, a rapid intervention for this high-risk group including offering supervised online cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) program, a universal CBT intervention for those in Grades 6–8, a variety of interactions with trained staff (“Resiliency Coaches”), and referral to external medical and psychiatric services where appropriate. There were four time-points at which assessments were made: baseline, 3, 7, and 15 months. Here, we report cross-sectional findings over 15 months in a total of 6,227 students who were assessed at least once during the study period. Additionally, we report longitudinal findings from the 1,884 students who completed all 4 assessments. Our results found highly statistically significant decreases in suicidality rates, with the percentage of the total school population who were actively suicidal decreasing from 4.4% at baseline (n = 143 of 3,244) to 2.8% at 15 months (n = 125 of 4,496) (p < 0.001). There were also highly statistically significant reductions in depression and anxiety scores at each time-point. Thus, Mean Depression scores at baseline for the entire student population were 3.73 ± 3.87 (n = 3,244) at baseline and decreased to 3.22 ± 3.52 (n = 4,496) (p < 0.001). Since most students were not depressed, whole population changes such as this may indicate impact in many areas. In the longitudinal analysis of students who completed all four assessments, there were also highly statistically significant improvements

  15. Long-term Results from the Empowering a Multimodal Pathway Toward Healthy Youth Program, a Multimodal School-Based Approach, Show Marked Reductions in Suicidality, Depression, and Anxiety in 6,227 Students in Grades 6–12 (Aged 11–18

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter H. Silverstone

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Here, we report on findings from a 15-month follow-up of a school-based program called Empowering a Multimodal Pathway Toward Healthy Youth (EMPATHY. This was primarily intended to reduce suicidal thinking in pre-teens, adolescents, and youth students aged 11–18 in middle schools (Grades 6–8 and high SCHOOLS (Grades 9–12. It also aimed to reduce depression and anxiety. The EMPATHY multimodal program consisted of repeated data collection, identification of a high-risk group, a rapid intervention for this high-risk group including offering supervised online cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT program, a universal CBT intervention for those in Grades 6–8, a variety of interactions with trained staff (“Resiliency Coaches”, and referral to external medical and psychiatric services where appropriate. There were four time-points at which assessments were made: baseline, 3, 7, and 15 months. Here, we report cross-sectional findings over 15 months in a total of 6,227 students who were assessed at least once during the study period. Additionally, we report longitudinal findings from the 1,884 students who completed all 4 assessments. Our results found highly statistically significant decreases in suicidality rates, with the percentage of the total school population who were actively suicidal decreasing from 4.4% at baseline (n = 143 of 3,244 to 2.8% at 15 months (n = 125 of 4,496 (p < 0.001. There were also highly statistically significant reductions in depression and anxiety scores at each time-point. Thus, Mean Depression scores at baseline for the entire student population were 3.73 ± 3.87 (n = 3,244 at baseline and decreased to 3.22 ± 3.52 (n = 4,496 (p < 0.001. Since most students were not depressed, whole population changes such as this may indicate impact in many areas. In the longitudinal analysis of students who completed all four assessments, there were also highly statistically significant

  16. Associations between autistic traits and emotion recognition ability in non-clinical young adults

    OpenAIRE

    Lindahl, Christina

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the associations between emotion recognition ability and autistic traits in a sample of non-clinical young adults. Two hundred and forty nine individuals took part in an emotion recognition test, which assessed recognition of 12 emotions portrayed by actors. Emotion portrayals were presented as short video clips, both with and without sound, and as sound only. Autistic traits were assessed using the Autism Spectrum Quotient (ASQ) questionnaire. Results showed that men ...

  17. Making judgments about ability: the role of implicit theories of ability in moderating inferences from temporal and social comparison information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, R

    2000-05-01

    Two studies examined the novel proposal that implicit theories of intelligence (C. S. Dweck & E. L. Leggett, 1988) moderate both the effects of performance trends on ability inferences and the perceived diagnosticity of temporal versus normative feedback. Results from 613 adolescents and 42 teachers confirmed that entity theorists perceived initial outcome as more diagnostic and inferred higher ability in another (Study 1) and in the self (Study 2) in a declining outcome condition; incremental theorists perceived last outcome as more diagnostic and inferred higher ability in an ascending condition. Experimental induction of beliefs about ability had similar effects. As predicted, self-appraisal was affected more by temporal feedback among incremental theorists and by normative feedback among entity theorists. Results help resolve prior mixed findings regarding order effects and responses to temporal and normative evaluation.

  18. Accommodative Ability in Prepresbyopic Diabetic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Etezad Razavi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: To compare various accommodative parameters in prepresbyopic diabetic patients with age-matched healthy individuals. Materials and Methods: Study populationconsisted of 32 younger-onset diabetic patients (30-40 years of age and 28 age-matched healthy normal individuals. Using the best correction for distance visual acuity (20.20 by Snellen chart, multiple accommodative ability tests such as near point of accommodation, accommodative amplitude, negative or positive accommodative facility and near point of convergence were measured in both groups. Results: Mean near point of accommodation in diabetic patients was significantly greater than the control group (18.5±4.4 centimeters [cm] versus 9.5±2 centimeters, p= 0.000. Mean accommodative amplitude was (5.93±1.75 Diopter (D and (10.95±2.16 Diopter in diabetics and normal individuals, respectively (p=0.000. Mean accommodation facility was (3.19±3.04 cycle/minute [cyl/min] in patients and 10.01±5.09 cycle/minute in the control group (p= 0.000. Mean positive relative accommodation was (–3.37±1.19 D in diabetic and (-2.11±0.99 D in healthy participants (p=0.000. Mean negative relative accommodation was lower in diabetic patients compared with the control group, however, this difference did not reach statistical significance (2.61±0.65 D versus (2.61±0.60 D, p= 0.23. Mean near point of convergence was (8.23±1.43 cm and (7.13±0.67 cm in normal and diabetic groups, respectively which had insignificant difference (p= 0.45. Conclusion: Majority of accommodative ability functions decreased in prepresbyopic diabetic patients. Early detection and rehabilitation of such patients with corrective near spectacles are strongly recommended.

  19. Influences of combined traffic noise on the ability of learning and memory in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-Qing Di

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The present study aimed to evaluate the influences of combined traffic noise (CTN on the ability of learning and memory in mice. Materials and Methods: The Institute of Cancer Research (ICR mice were exposed to CTN from highways and high-speed railways for 42 days, whose day–night equivalent continuous A-weighted sound pressure level (Ldn was 70 dB(A. On the basis of behavioral reactions in Morris water maze (MWM and the concentrations of amino acid neurotransmitters in the hippocampus, the impacts of CTN on learning and memory in mice were examined. Results: The MWM test showed that the ability of learning and memory in mice was improved after short-term exposure (6–10 days, the first batch to 70 dB(A CTN, which showed the excitatory effect of stimuli. Long-term exposure (26–30 days, the third batch; 36–40 days, the fourth batch led to the decline of learning and memory ability, which indicated the inhibitory effect of stimuli. Assays testing amino acid neurotransmitters showed that the glutamate level of the experimental group was higher than that of the control group in the first batch. However, the former was lower than the latter in the third and fourth batches. Both, behavioral reactions and the concentrations of amino acid neurotransmitters, testified that short-term exposure and long-term exposure resulted in excitatory effect and inhibitory effect on the ability of learning and memory, respectively. Conclusion: The effects of 70 dB(A CTN on the ability of learning and memory were closely related to the exposure duration. Furthermore, those effects were regulated and controlled by the level of glutamate in the hippocampus.

  20. The Use of “Literary Fiction” to Promote Mentalizing Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazza, Monica

    2016-01-01

    Empathy is a multidimensional process that incorporates both mentalizing and emotional sharing dimensions. Empathic competencies are important for creating interpersonal relationships with other people and developing adequate social behaviour. The lack of these social components also leads to isolation and exclusion in healthy populations. However, few studies have investigated how to improve these social skills. In a recent study, Kidd and Castano (2013) found that reading literary fiction increases mentalizing ability and may change how people think about other people’s emotions and mental states. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effects of reading literary fiction, compared to nonfiction and science fiction, on empathic abilities. Compared to previous studies, we used a larger variety of empathy measures and utilized a pre and post-test design. In all, 214 healthy participants were randomly assigned to read a book representative of one of three literary genres (literary fiction, nonfiction, science fiction). Participants were assessed before and after the reading phase using mentalizing and emotional sharing tests, according to Zaki and Ochsner’ s (2012) model. Comparisons of sociodemographic, mentalizing, and emotional sharing variables across conditions were conducted using ANOVA. Our results showed that after the reading phase, the literary fiction group showed improvement in mentalizing abilities, but there was no discernible effect on emotional sharing abilities. Our study showed that the reading processes can promote mentalizing abilities. These results may set important goals for future low-cost rehabilitation protocols for several disorders in which the mentalizing deficit is considered central to the disease, such as Autism Spectrum Disorders and Schizophrenia. PMID:27490164

  1. Exploring the association between visual perception abilities and reading of musical notation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Horng-Yih

    2012-06-01

    In the reading of music, the acquisition of pitch information depends primarily upon the spatial position of notes as well as upon an individual's spatial processing ability. This study investigated the relationship between the ability to read single notes and visual-spatial ability. Participants with high and low single-note reading abilities were differentiated based upon differences in musical notation-reading abilities and their spatial processing; object recognition abilities were then assessed. It was found that the group with lower note-reading abilities made more errors than did the group with a higher note-reading abilities in the mental rotation task. In contrast, there was no apparent significant difference between the two groups in the object recognition task. These results suggest that note-reading may be related to visual spatial processing abilities, and not to an individual's ability with object recognition.

  2. EXPERT SYSTEMS SHOW PROMISE FOR CUSTOMER INQUIRIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    This article describes results of an agreement between the North Penn Water Authority in Lansdale, Pa., and the US Environmental Protection Agency, Drinking Water Research Division, Cincinnati, Ohio, to study use of expert systems technology in a water utility. The threeyear stud...

  3. Employee no-shows: managing library absenteeism.

    OpenAIRE

    Wygant, L J

    1988-01-01

    Employee absenteeism is a problem faced by all library administrators. This paper describes the development, implementation, and results of a program to discourage absenteeism at the Moody Medical Library of the University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston. The important role of library administrators and supervisors in controlling absenteeism is emphasized.

  4. Reports show fewer pallets entering landfills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert J. Bush; Philip A. Araman

    2010-01-01

    Information from a series of Virginia Tech studies reveals current trends in core utilization by the pallet industry. The most recent report released this year studied trends from 2006. Virginia Tech researchers compared these results to five previous studies going all the way back to 1992.

  5. Writing abilities in intellectual disabilities: a comparison between Down and Williams syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varuzza, Cristiana; De Rose, Paola; Vicari, Stefano; Menghini, Deny

    2015-02-01

    Writing is a complex task that requires the integration of multiple cognitive, linguistic, and motor abilities. Until now, only a few studies investigated writing abilities in individuals with Intellectual Disability (ID). The aim of the present exploratory study was to provide knowledge on the organization of writing in two populations with ID, Down syndrome (DS) and Williams syndrome (WS), trying to disentangle different components of the process. A battery tapping diverse writing demands as low-level transcription skills as well as high-level writing skills was proposed to 13 individuals with WS, 12 individuals with DS and 11 mental-age-matched typically developing (TD) children. Results showed that the two groups with genetic syndromes did not differ from TD in writing a list of objects placed in bedroom, in the number of errors in the text composition, in a text copying task and in kind of errors made. However, in a word dictation task, individuals with DS made more errors than individuals with WS and TD children. In a pseudoword dictation task, both individuals with DS and WS showed more errors than TD children. Our results showed good abilities in individuals with ID in different aspects of writing, involving not only low-level transcription skills but also high-level composition skills. Contrary to the pessimistic view, considering individuals with ID vulnerable for failure, our results indicate that the presence of ID does not prevent the achievement of writing skills. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Tomato Fruits Show Wide Phenomic Diversity but Fruit Developmental Genes Show Low Genomic Diversity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijee Mohan

    Full Text Available Domestication of tomato has resulted in large diversity in fruit phenotypes. An intensive phenotyping of 127 tomato accessions from 20 countries revealed extensive morphological diversity in fruit traits. The diversity in fruit traits clustered the accessions into nine classes and identified certain promising lines having desirable traits pertaining to total soluble salts (TSS, carotenoids, ripening index, weight and shape. Factor analysis of the morphometric data from Tomato Analyzer showed that the fruit shape is a complex trait shared by several factors. The 100% variance between round and flat fruit shapes was explained by one discriminant function having a canonical correlation of 0.874 by stepwise discriminant analysis. A set of 10 genes (ACS2, COP1, CYC-B, RIN, MSH2, NAC-NOR, PHOT1, PHYA, PHYB and PSY1 involved in various plant developmental processes were screened for SNP polymorphism by EcoTILLING. The genetic diversity in these genes revealed a total of 36 non-synonymous and 18 synonymous changes leading to the identification of 28 haplotypes. The average frequency of polymorphism across the genes was 0.038/Kb. Significant negative Tajima'D statistic in two of the genes, ACS2 and PHOT1 indicated the presence of rare alleles in low frequency. Our study indicates that while there is low polymorphic diversity in the genes regulating plant development, the population shows wider phenotype diversity. Nonetheless, morphological and genetic diversity of the present collection can be further exploited as potential resources in future.

  7. Abstraction ability as an indicator of success for learning object-oriented programming?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennedsen, Jens Benned; Caspersen, Michael Edelgaard

    2006-01-01

    ability is operationalized as stages of cognitive development (for which validated tests exist). Programming ability is operationalized as grade in the final assessment of a model-based objects-first CS1. The validity of the operationalizations is discussed. Surprisingly, our study shows......Computer science educators generally agree that abstract thinking is a crucial component for learning computer science in general and programming in particular. We report on a study to confirm the hypothesis that general abstraction ability has a positive impact on programming ability. Abstraction...... that there is no correlation between stage of cognitive development (abstraction ability) and final grade in CS1 (programming ability). Possible explanations are identified....

  8. Microbiological and environmental issues in show caves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiz-Jimenez, Cesareo

    2012-07-01

    Cultural tourism expanded in the last half of the twentieth century, and the interest of visitors has come to include caves containing archaeological remains. Some show caves attracted mass tourism, and economical interests prevailed over conservation, which led to a deterioration of the subterranean environment and the rock art. The presence and the role of microorganisms in caves is a topic that is often ignored in cave management. Knowledge of the colonisation patterns, the dispersion mechanisms, and the effect on human health and, when present, over rock art paintings of these microorganisms is of the utmost importance. In this review the most recent advances in the study of microorganisms in caves are presented, together with the environmental implications of the findings.

  9. Students’ Cognitive Abilities in Plant Anatomy Practical Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setiono, S.; Rustaman, N. Y.; Rahmat, A.; Anggraeni, S.

    2017-09-01

    Cognitive abilities is fundamental for the students, as it is closely related to higher thinking skills such as the ability to think critically, creatively, and problem solving. This descriptive study aims to investigate the cognitive abilities of biology prospective teachers in the course of Plant Anatomy Practicum based on the cognitive process dimension and dimensions of knowledge the using the framework of Revision of Bloom taxonomy. A number of biology prospective teachers was involved in this study (n=42). The instrument used to collect data for students’ cognitive process mastery in the form of multiple choice with 5 options. Research finding shows that the average student’s cognitive ability is 68.10. The acquisition of knowledge mastery of cognitive ability is still under the criterion of mastery in the course of the Plant Anatomy Practicum (75). Validity and reliability of the instrument (0,71) and (0,81). It is necessary to design lecture programs both in the class and laboratory to develop student’ cognitive abilities.

  10. The Effectiveness of MURDER Cooperative Model towards Students' Mathematics Reasoning Ability and Self Concept of Ten Grade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofan Tri Prasetiyo

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to know the effectiveness of MURDER cooperative model towards students’ mathematics reasoning ability and self concept of ten grade. Population of this research were students of MIA ten grade Senior High School 1 Kebumen in the academic year 2016/1017. Sampling technique using simple random sampling technique. The data collected by the method of documentation, test methods, observation methods, and questionnaire methods. The analyzed of data are used completeness test and average different test. The results showed that: (1 mathematics reasoning ability of students that following MURDER cooperative model have completed individual and classical study completeness; (2 mathematics reasoning ability of students that following MURDER cooperative model better than mathematics reasoning ability of students that following ekspository learning; (3 self concept of students that following MURDER cooperative model better than self concept of students that following ekspository learning.

  11. [Measurement and analysis of micropore aeration system's oxygenating ability under operation condition in waste water treatment plant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yuan-Yuan; Zhou, Xiao-Hong; Shi, Han-Chang; Qiu, Yong

    2013-01-01

    Using the aeration pool in the fourth-stage at Wuxi Lucun Waste Water Treatment Plant (WWTP) as experimental setup, off-gas method was selected to measure the oxygenating ability parameters of micropore aerators in a real WWTP operating condition and these values were compared with those in fresh water to evaluate the performance of the micropore aerators. Results showed that the micropore aerators which were distributed in different galleries of the aeration pool had significantly different oxygenating abilities under operation condition. The oxygenating ability of the micropore aerators distributed in the same gallery changed slightly during one day. Comparing with the oxygenating ability in fresh water, it decreased a lot in the real aeration pool, in more details, under the real WWTP operating condition, the values of oxygen transfer coefficient K(La) oxygenation capacity OC and oxygen utilization E(a) decreased by 43%, 57% and 76%, respectively.

  12. On the nature and nurture of intelligence and specific cognitive abilities: the more heritable, the more culture dependent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Kees-Jan; Wicherts, Jelte M; Dolan, Conor V; van der Maas, Han L J

    2013-12-01

    To further knowledge concerning the nature and nurture of intelligence, we scrutinized how heritability coefficients vary across specific cognitive abilities both theoretically and empirically. Data from 23 twin studies (combined N = 7,852) showed that (a) in adult samples, culture-loaded subtests tend to demonstrate greater heritability coefficients than do culture-reduced subtests; and (b) in samples of both adults and children, a subtest's proportion of variance shared with general intelligence is a function of its cultural load. These findings require an explanation because they do not follow from mainstream theories of intelligence. The findings are consistent with our hypothesis that heritability coefficients differ across cognitive abilities as a result of differences in the contribution of genotype-environment covariance. The counterintuitive finding that the most heritable abilities are the most culture-dependent abilities sheds a new light on the long-standing nature-nurture debate of intelligence.

  13. Spatial Ability Learning through Educational Robotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julià, Carme; Antolí, Juan Òscar

    2016-01-01

    Several authors insist on the importance of students' acquisition of spatial abilities and visualization in order to have academic success in areas such as science, technology or engineering. This paper proposes to discuss and analyse the use of educational robotics to develop spatial abilities in 12 year old students. First of all, a course to…

  14. Work Ability of Finnish Physical Education Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäkelä, Kasper; Hirvensalo, Mirja

    2015-01-01

    In the physical education (PE) teachers' profession, physical tasks comprise a large part of the job. PE teachers identify their health as good, and they are satisfied with their job. Nevertheless, the work ability of PE teachers may be decreasing. Purpose: The purpose of this article was to explore the work ability of Finnish PE teachers. What…

  15. Statistical inference based on latent ability estimates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoijtink, H.J.A.; Boomsma, A.

    The quality of approximations to first and second order moments (e.g., statistics like means, variances, regression coefficients) based on latent ability estimates is being discussed. The ability estimates are obtained using either the Rasch, oi the two-parameter logistic model. Straightforward use

  16. Some procedures for computerized ability testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Linden, Willem J.; Zwarts, Michel A.

    1989-01-01

    For computerized test systems to be operational, the use of item response theory is a prerequisite. As opposed to classical test theory, in item response models the abilities of the examinees and the properties of the items are parameterized separately. Hence, when measuring the abilities of

  17. 45 CFR 1616.7 - Language ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Language ability. 1616.7 Section 1616.7 Public... § 1616.7 Language ability. In areas where a significant number of clients speak a language other than English as their principal language, a recipient shall adopt employment policies that insure that legal...

  18. Improvisation as Ability, Culture, and Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Lee; Mantie, Roger

    2013-01-01

    We argue in this article for greater role for improvisation in the music classroom. Based on an extensive examination of scholarship about improvisational practices, we propose three conceptualizations--ability, culture, experience--that can serve to guide the teaching of improvisation. When considered as an "ability," improvisation is a…

  19. Psycholinguistic Abilities of Children with Williams Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Natalia F.; Heinze, Elena Garayzabal; Giacheti, Celia M.; Goncalves, Oscar F.; Sampaio, Adriana

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the psycholinguistic abilities of children with Williams syndrome (WS) and typically developing children using the Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities (ITPA). Performance on the ITPA was analysed in a group with WS (N=20, mean age=8.5 years, SD=1.62) and two typically developing groups,…

  20. Does Classmate Ability Influence Students' Social Skills?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottfried, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    Empirically, the link between classmate ability and individual-level student achievement has been established. And yet, within the scope of this body of literature, there is a dearth of studies examining if a relationship also persists between classmate ability and non-achievement outcomes--that is, social skills. This article fills this research…

  1. Reading Instruction That Increases Thinking Abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Cathy

    1991-01-01

    Analyzes the effects of eight reading and writing lessons designed to increase adolescent thinking ability. Finds that the lessons increased thinking abilities and scholastic achievement of middle school students. Notes that the lessons positively affect students' self-esteem and communication skills. (RS)

  2. Reading Abilities and Strategies: A Short Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Feng

    2010-01-01

    This paper gives a short analysis of reading abilities and reading strategies. Much research has been done to investigate the nature of reading, though it's had to exactly define reading abilities and strategies. Different kinds of readings are discussed in this paper and distinctions are made between first language reading and second or foreign…

  3. Innovative Tools to Assess Systems Thinking Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    addition to the six cognitive ability constructs, there are two motivational attributes that are highly relevant to systems thinking performance...roles of the habenular complex, the reward system , and the cingulate motor area revealed by functional magnetic resonance imaging. Journal of...Technical Report 1362 Innovative Tools to Assess Systems Thinking Ability Cory Adis Michelle Wisecarver Chelsey Raber Personnel

  4. About Assessment Criteria of Driver's Accidental Abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobanova, Yuliya I.; Glushko, Kirill V.

    2016-01-01

    The article points at the importance of studying the human factor as a cause of accidents of drivers, especially in loosely structured traffic situations. The description of the experiment on the measurement of driver's accidental abilities is given. Under accidental ability is meant the capability to ensure the security of driving as a behavior…

  5. High Ability Students' Voice on Learning Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garn, Alex C.; Jolly, Jennifer L.

    2014-01-01

    This study used a self-determination theory lens to investigate high ability learners' motivational experiences. Participants were 15 high ability youth involved in a summer learning camp for gifted students. Two major themes emerged from qualitative data analysis: (a) "The Fun Factor of Learning" and (b) "The Rewards and Pressures…

  6. Assessing Professional Decision-Making Abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNergney, Robert; Hinson, Stephanie

    1985-01-01

    Describes Teacher Development Decision Exercises, a computer-based method of diagnosing abilities of elementary and secondary school supervisors (principals, staff developers, curriculum coordinators) to make professional preactive or planning decisions. This approval simulates assessment of supervisors' abilities to use professional knowledge to…

  7. Credit Ratings and Bank Monitoring Ability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nakamura, L.I.; Roszbach, K.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we use credit rating data from two Swedish banks to elicit evidence on these banks’ loan monitoring ability. We do so by comparing the ability of bank ratings to predict loan defaults relative to that of public ratings from the Swedish credit bureau. We test the banks’ abilility to

  8. Sensorimotor abilities predict on-field performance in professional baseball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burris, Kyle; Vittetoe, Kelly; Ramger, Benjamin; Suresh, Sunith; Tokdar, Surya T; Reiter, Jerome P; Appelbaum, L Gregory

    2018-01-08

    Baseball players must be able to see and react in an instant, yet it is hotly debated whether superior performance is associated with superior sensorimotor abilities. In this study, we compare sensorimotor abilities, measured through 8 psychomotor tasks comprising the Nike Sensory Station assessment battery, and game statistics in a sample of 252 professional baseball players to evaluate the links between sensorimotor skills and on-field performance. For this purpose, we develop a series of Bayesian hierarchical latent variable models enabling us to compare statistics across professional baseball leagues. Within this framework, we find that sensorimotor abilities are significant predictors of on-base percentage, walk rate and strikeout rate, accounting for age, position, and league. We find no such relationship for either slugging percentage or fielder-independent pitching. The pattern of results suggests performance contributions from both visual-sensory and visual-motor abilities and indicates that sensorimotor screenings may be useful for player scouting.

  9. ODSCC algorithm shows correlation with degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prabhu, P.J.; Rootham, M.W.; Zupetic, N.L.

    1998-01-01

    Over the last few years we have attempted to develop an algorithm to evaluate the impact of secondary water chemistry on tube degradation in PWR steam generators. Effects of individual factors were assessed and then consolidated to form an algorithm for ODSCC propensity. The algorithm utilizes secondary water chemistry data to calculate ODSCC propensity as a variable named Mega PHI. Prior attempts to correlate algorithm calculations with actual degradation in operating steam generators have resulted in very disappointing results. Recent modifications to the algorithm have demonstrated improved correlation between Mega PHI (calculated result from the algorithm) and actual degradation history from operating plants. The recent modifications involve the inclusion of the synergistic effect of boric acid application of secondary water and of high silica concentration in steam generator toward inhibiting ODSCC. Data from several plants with mill annealed alloy 600 tubing in the steam generators and operating with the primary coolant inlet temperature in the range of 608 to 624 degrees F (320 to 329 degrees C) were evaluated and the results compared with actual degradation reported from in-service inspections. The population of plants includes those with very few tubes repaired and those with hundreds of tubes repaired due to ODSCC at tube support plates. The observation of substantial correlation between the algorithm calculation and actual degradation signifies the roles of boric acid and silica in inhibiting ODSCC. It is recommended that further evaluation of the role of these chemical species be performed using more extensive data. The goal is to modify secondary water chemistry guidelines with the ultimate aim of minimizing corrosion of steam generator tubes. (author)

  10. Action time effect of lime on its depressive ability for pyrite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tichang Sun

    2004-01-01

    Two sample groups of bulk concentrates consisting mainly of pyrite and chalcopyrite from Daye and Chenghchao Mines in Hubei Province of China were used to investigate the effect of the action time of lime on its depressive ability for pyrite. The experimental results conducted with different samples and collectors showed that the action time between lime and pyrite markedly influences the depressive ability of lime. The depressive ability of lime increased with the action time increasing. It was also proved that the depressive results obtained at a large lime dosage after a shorter action time are similar to those obtained at a small lime dosage after a longer action time. The increase of depressive ability of lime after a longer action time is because that there are different mechanisms in different action time. The composition on the surface of pyrite acted for different time with lime was studied by using ESCA (Electron Spectroscopic Chemical Analysis). The results showed that iron hydroxide and calcium sulphate formed on the pyrite surface at the presence of lime in the pulp but the amounts of iron hydroxide and calcium sulphate were different at different action time. At the beginning action time the compound formed on the pyrite surface was mainly calcium sulphate and almost no iron hydroxide formed; but with the action time increasing, iron hydroxide formed. The longer the action time, the more iron hydroxide and the less calcium sulphate formed. It was considered that the stronger depressive ability of lime after a longer action time is because more iron hydroxide forms on the pyrite surface.

  11. Validation of the Early Functional Abilities scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Ingrid; Kreiner, Svend; Engberg, Aase W

    2018-01-01

    model item analysis. A secondary objective was to examine the relationship between the Early Functional Abilities scale and the Functional Independence Measurement™, in order to establish the criterion validity of the Early Functional Abilities scale and to compare the sensitivity of measurements using......), facio-oral, sensorimotor and communicative/cognitive functions. Removal of one item from the sensorimotor scale confirmed unidimensionality for each of the 4 subscales, but not for the entire scale. The Early Functional Abilities subscales are sensitive to differences between patients in ranges in which......OBJECTIVE: The Early Functional Abilities scale assesses the restoration of brain function after brain injury, based on 4 dimensions. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the validity, objectivity, reliability and measurement precision of the Early Functional Abilities scale by Rasch...

  12. AN ANALYSIS OF STUDENTS’ SPEAKING ABILITY IN ENGLISH CONVERSATION CLUB (ECC PROGRAM AT THE 3rd SEMESTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Fadhly Farhy Abbas

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This research is based on students’ speaking ability who had followed the EnglishConversation Club (ECC program especially for the third semester of English Department. Thepurpose of this study was to analyze the students’ speaking ability at the 3rd semester in the EnglishConversation Club FKIP UNILAK Pekanbaru. The type of the research was mixed method in typeof explanatory design. The number of participant was 53 students. The researcher used twoinstruments, those were test and interview. In analyzing the data, it used in descriptive statistics.The result of the analysis showed that the average score of 3rd semester students’ speaking abilitywas 45.42. It can be concluded that the students’ speaking ability was categorized into failed . Thescore of Standard Deviation was 7.02, Variance was 49.30, and Range was 36 points . It meansthat the students’ speaking ability was homogeneous. According to the Z-Score, it can be seen that49.06% students’ ability was higher than average and 50.94% students ability was below theaverage. In conclusion, the students’ ability in learning speaking English was failed, it had beenaffected by some factors, those were lack of vocabulary, grammar and motivation. It was supportedby the interview, eventhough the students’ perception to English Conversation Club (ECCprogram was positive, but in fact, the students’ frequency to speak English was seldom, they wereless practice speaking English everyday.Keywords : Speaking , English Conversation Club (ECC

  13. Investigation of basic cognitive predictors of reading and spelling abilities in Tunisian third-grade primary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batnini, Soulef; Uno, Akira

    2015-06-01

    This study investigated first the main cognitive abilities; phonological processing, visual cognition, automatization and receptive vocabulary in predicting reading and spelling abilities in Arabic. Second, we compared good/poor readers and spellers to detect the characteristics of cognitive predictors which contribute to identifying reading and spelling difficulties in Arabic speaking children. A sample of 116 Tunisian third-grade children was tested on their abilities to read and spell, phonological processing, visual cognition, automatization and receptive vocabulary. For reading, phonological processing and automatization uniquely predicted Arabic word reading and paragraph reading abilities. Automatization uniquely predicted Arabic non-word reading ability. For spelling, phonological processing was a unique predictor for Arabic word spelling ability. Furthermore, poor readers had significantly lower scores on the phonological processing test and slower reading times on the automatization test as compared with good readers. Additionally, poor spellers showed lower scores on the phonological processing test as compared with good spellers. Visual cognitive processing and receptive vocabulary were not significant cognitive predictors of Arabic reading and spelling abilities for Tunisian third grade children in this study. Our results are consistent with previous studies in alphabetic orthographies and demonstrate that phonological processing and automatization are the best cognitive predictors in detecting early literacy problems. We suggest including phonological processing and automatization tasks in screening tests and in intervention programs may help Tunisian children with poor literacy skills overcome reading and spelling difficulties in Arabic. Copyright © 2014 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Concurrent Validity of the Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Cognitive Ability with the WISC-R: EMR Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Jack A.; Sanville, David

    1983-01-01

    Administered the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R) and the Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Cognitive Ability (WJTCA) to educable mentally retarded children (N=30). Results showed significant mean differences between WISC-R and WJTCA full-scale standard scores, providing implications for placement of children in classes for the…

  15. Effect of Ability Grouping in Reciprocal Teaching Technique of Collaborative Learning on Individual Achievements and Social Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumadi; Degeng, I Nyoman S.; Sulthon; Waras

    2017-01-01

    This research focused on effects of ability grouping in reciprocal teaching technique of collaborative learning on individual achievements dan social skills. The results research showed that (1) there are differences in individual achievement significantly between high group of homogeneous, middle group of homogeneous, low group of homogeneous,…

  16. Self-estimation of physical ability in stepping over an obstacle is not mediated by visual height perception: a comparison between young and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Ryota; Fujiwara, Yoshinori; Ishihara, Masami; Yasunaga, Masashi; Ogawa, Susumu; Suzuki, Hiroyuki; Imanaka, Kuniyasu

    2017-07-01

    Older adults tend to overestimate their step-over ability. However, it is unclear as to whether this is caused by inaccurate self-estimation of physical ability or inaccurate perception of height. We, therefore, measured both visual height perception ability and self-estimation of step-over ability among young and older adults. Forty-seven older and 16 young adults performed a height perception test (HPT) and a step-over test (SOT). Participants visually judged the height of vertical bars from distances of 7 and 1 m away in the HPT, then self-estimated and, subsequently, actually performed a step-over action in the SOT. The results showed no significant difference between young and older adults in visual height perception. In the SOT, young adults tended to underestimate their step-over ability, whereas older adults either overestimated their abilities or underestimated them to a lesser extent than did the young adults. Moreover, visual height perception was not correlated with the self-estimation of step-over ability in both young and older adults. These results suggest that the self-overestimation of step-over ability which appeared in some healthy older adults may not be caused by the nature of visual height perception, but by other factor(s), such as the likely age-related nature of self-estimation of physical ability, per se.

  17. Worksite adjustments and work ability among employed cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torp, Steffen; Nielsen, Roy A; Gudbergsson, Sævar B; Dahl, Alv A

    2012-09-01

    This study was conducted to determine how many cancer survivors (CSs) make worksite adjustments and what kinds of adjustments they make. Changes in work ability among employed CSs were explored, and clinical, sociodemographic, and work-related factors associated with the current total work ability were studied. CSs of the ten most common invasive types of cancer for men and women in Norway completed a mailed questionnaire 15-39 months after being diagnosed with cancer. Included in the analyses were all participants who worked both at the time of diagnosis and at the time of the survey and who had not changed their labor force status since diagnosis (n = 563). The current total work ability was compared to the lifetime best (0-10 score). Twenty-six percent of the employed CSs had made adjustments at work, and the most common adjustment was changing the number of work hours per week. Despite the fact that 31% and 23% reported reduced physical and mental work abilities, respectively, more than 90% of the CSs reported that they coped well with their work demands. The mean total work ability score was high (8.6) among both men and women. Being self-employed and working part-time at the time of diagnosis showed significant negative correlations with total work ability, while a favorable psychosocial work environment showed a significant positive correlation. CSs with low work ability were more often in contact with the occupational health service and also made more worksite adjustments than others. The prospects of future work life seem optimistic for Norwegian employed CSs who return to work relatively soon after primary treatment.

  18. Analysis of EFL Students' Ability in Reading Vocabulary of Synonyms and Antonyms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vina Fathira

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Reading is an important thing for academic level. Every student must have many vocabularies to encourage her/his reading skill. The aim of this research is to analyze the students' understanding of reading vocabularies of synonyms and antonyms in the higher education level. Synonyms and antonyms are two important things should be mastered to get better reading comprehension. The method used in this research was quantitative with survey design. The population same as the sample of this research was from fifth semester students of STIBA Persada Bunda Pekanbaru. The procedures of the research were divided into 3 parts. First, students were asked to choose the best choice in the multiple choice for synonyms and anton, number and the wrong number, and grouped the wrong number into difficulties level. Last, the researcher analyzed the students' ability in reading vocabulary of synonyms and antonyms and concluded the result of students' ability in reading vocabulary of synonyms and antonyms in elementary, intermediate, and advanced level. The result of this research showed that the students' ability in reading vocabulary of synonyms and antonyms was categorized into "excellent" level with mean score 85. From the three difficulties level of question, the findings of this research were explained every level of question. In synonyms, the mean score of students' ability were 89, 85, and 84 for elementary, intermediate, and advanced level of question. Whereas, in antonyms, the mean score of students' ability were 97, 85, and 69 for elementary, intermediate, and advanced level of question.Keywords: students' ability, reading vocabulary, synonyms and antonyms

  19. Work ability index (WAI) and its association with psychosocial factors in one of the petrochemical industries in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazloumi, Adel; Rostamabadi, Akbar; Nasl Saraji, Gabraeil; Rahimi Foroushani, Abbas

    2012-01-01

    In recent decades, work ability index (WAI) has been a common practical tool to measure individuals' work ability in many European, Asian and South American countries. However, there is no study concerning work ability in Iran. The aim of this study was to determine the work ability index in an Iranian petrochemical job setting and to examine its relationship with psychosocial factors. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 420 male workers in various occupations. Work ability was evaluated using the WAI questionnaire developed by FIOH; the Job content questionnaire (JCQ) was used to assess psychosocial factors. The mean WAI score was 39.1 (SD=5.7) among workers in the studied petrochemical industry. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed a significant association between mean WAI score and age, job tenure, educational level, rest and sleep status and vocational education. Moreover, the results showed that skill discretion, coworker support and supervisor support were positively associated with the mean WAI score. On the other hand, it was inversely associated with job demands, job strain and job insecurity. This study was the first research to determine WAI in an important industry in Iran. Overall, work ability was in the "Good" category among the workers in the studied field. On the basis of the WAI guidelines, this level should be maintained and promoted to excellent level by providing supportive countermeasures. The WAI score was significantly associated with psychosocial factors. The results showed that even in heavy physical work, factors such as job insecurity, skill discretion, job strain and social support play an important role in maintaining work ability. A positive combination of "psychosocial characteristics" of the job with "individual resources" can promote work ability in such occupations.

  20. Pilot evaluation of a media literacy program for tobacco prevention targeting early adolescents shows mixed results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaestle, Christine E; Chen, Yvonnes; Estabrooks, Paul A; Zoellner, Jamie; Bigby, Brandon

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to assess the impact of media literacy for tobacco prevention for youth delivered through a community site. A randomized pretest-posttest evaluation design with matched-contact treatment and control conditions. The pilot study was delivered through the YMCA in a lower-income suburban and rural area of Southwest Virginia, a region long tied, both economically and culturally, to the tobacco industry. Children ages 8 to 14 (76% white, 58% female) participated in the study (n = 38). The intervention was an antismoking media literacy program (five 1-hour lessons) compared with a matched-contact creative writing control program. General media literacy, three domains of tobacco-specific media literacy ("authors and audiences," "messages and meanings," and "representation and reality"), tobacco attitudes, and future expectations were assessed. Multiple regression modeling assessed the impact of the intervention, controlling for pretest measures, age, and sex. General media literacy and tobacco-specific "authors and audiences" media literacy improved significantly for treatment compared with control (p literacy measures and for tobacco attitudes were not significant. Future expectations of smoking increased significantly for treatment participants ages 10 and younger (p literacy are accompanied by an increase in future expectations to smoke for younger children.

  1. Are Corporate Universities (CU possible in emerging countries? A survey conducted in Argentina showed impacting results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro A. Viltard

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available At the time of our investigation, the CU was not a widespread concept in Argentina, being viewed as a “foreign - far long project” (coming from developed countries and standing for the long term. It is suggested that the rate of CU evolution, in emerging countries like Argentina, is more related to mentality issues than to CU strategic or operative limitations. Although the executives who replied to a survey were not the only power factor in their organization, their comments allow us to think that, in those countries, the CU may have a better future perspective. The research used a quali-quantitative methodology, which was based on a survey to top executives of different kinds of companies located in Argentina. The research design was not experimental and transversal, as it was limited to a specific moment in time.

  2. Results from a survey of the South African GISc community show ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Serena Coetzee

    the GISc community fulfil roles of data analysis and interpretation, together with data ... The remainder of the article is structured as follows: related work is briefly ...... 2. Analysis design. 3. Project definition. Geospatial information systems,.

  3. Sustained Attention Ability Affects Simple Picture Naming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne R. Jongman

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Sustained attention has previously been shown as a requirement for language production. However, this is mostly evident for difficult conditions, such as a dual-task situation. The current study provides corroborating evidence that this relationship holds even for simple picture naming. Sustained attention ability, indexed both by participants’ reaction times and individuals’ hit rate (the proportion of correctly detected targets on a digit discrimination task, correlated with picture naming latencies. Individuals with poor sustained attention were consistently slower and their RT distributions were more positively skewed when naming pictures compared to individuals with better sustained attention. Additionally, the need to sustain attention was manipulated by changing the speed of stimulus presentation. Research has suggested that fast event rates tax sustained attention resources to a larger degree than slow event rates. However, in this study the fast event rate did not result in increased difficulty, neither for the picture naming task nor for the sustained attention task. Instead, the results point to a speed-accuracy trade-off in the sustained attention task (lower accuracy but faster responses in the fast than in the slow event rate, and to a benefit for faster rates in the picture naming task (shorter naming latencies with no difference in accuracy. Performance on both tasks was largely comparable, supporting previous findings that sustained attention is called upon during language production.

  4. Decline in Memory, Visuospatial Ability, and Crystalized Cognitive Abilities in Older Adults: Normative Aging or Terminal Decline?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Bendayan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to explore the pattern of change in multiple measures of cognitive abilities in a sample of oldest-old adults, comparing two different time metrics (chronological age and time to death and therefore examining both underlying conceptual assumptions (age-related change and terminal decline. Moreover, the association with individual characteristics as sex, education, and dementia diagnosis was also examined. Measures of cognitive status (Mini-Mental State Examination and the Swedish Clock Test and tests of crystallized (knowledge and synonyms, memory (verbal memory, nonverbal long-term memory, recognition and correspondence, and short-term memory, and visuospatial ability were included. The sample consisted of 671 older Swedish adult participants of the OCTO Twin Study. Linear mixed models with random coefficients were used to analyse change patterns and BIC indexes were used to compare models. Results showed that the time to death model was the best option in analyses of change in all the cognitive measures considered (except for the Information Test. A significant cognitive decline over time was found for all variables. Individuals diagnosed with dementia had lower scores at the study entrance and a faster decline. More educated individuals performed better in all the measures of cognition at study entry than those with poorer education, but no differences were found in the rate of change. Differences were found in age, sex, or time to death at baseline across the different measures. These results support the terminal decline hypothesis when compared to models assuming that cognitive changes are driven by normative aging processes.

  5. Impact of the Curriculum Reform on Problem Solving Ability in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An ex post facto study was conducted to examine the effect of the curriculum reform on 60 Dilla University chemistry education students' problem solving ability. The study shows that the curriculum reform that shifted university introductory courses of the old curriculum into preparatory school levels in the new curriculum ...

  6. Mathematical Profiles and Problem Solving Abilities of Mathematically Promising Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budak, Ibrahim

    2012-01-01

    Mathematically promising students are defined as those who have the potential to become the leaders and problem solvers of the future. The purpose of this research is to reveal what problem solving abilities mathematically promising students show in solving non-routine problems and type of profiles they present in the classroom and during problem…

  7. Rooting ability of native cottonwoods depends on the clone used

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank E. Cunningham

    1953-01-01

    Vegetative propagation of eastern cottonwood (Populus deltoides) from dormant cuttings has generally been considered rather easy. Yet test plantings of unrooted cuttings of this species on the Hopkins Memorial Experimental Forest at Williamstown, Mass., showed considerable variation in rooting ability of the clones used.

  8. Geoscience is Important? Show Me Why

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boland, M. A.

    2017-12-01

    "The public" is not homogenous and no single message or form of messaging will connect the entire public with the geosciences. One approach to promoting trust in, and engagement with, the geosciences is to identify specific sectors of the public and then develop interactions and communication products that are immediately relevant to that sector's interests. If the content and delivery are appropriate, this approach empowers people to connect with the geosciences on their own terms and to understand the relevance of the geosciences to their own situation. Federal policy makers are a distinct and influential subgroup of the general public. In preparation for the 2016 presidential election, the American Geosciences Institute (AGI) in collaboration with its 51 member societies prepared Geoscience for America's Critical Needs: Invitation to a National Dialogue, a document that identified major geoscience policy issues that should be addressed in a national policy platform. Following the election, AGI worked with eight other geoscience societies to develop Geoscience Policy Recommendations for the New Administration and the 115th Congress, which outlines specific policy actions to address national issues. State and local decision makers are another important subgroup of the public. AGI has developed online content, factsheets, and case studies with different levels of technical complexity so people can explore societally-relevant geoscience topics at their level of technical proficiency. A related webinar series is attracting a growing worldwide audience from many employment sectors. Partnering with government agencies and other scientific and professional societies has increased the visibility and credibility of these information products with our target audience. Surveys and other feedback show that these products are raising awareness of the geosciences and helping to build reciprocal relationships between geoscientists and decision makers. The core message of all

  9. Bacteriophages show promise as antimicrobial agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alisky, J; Iczkowski, K; Rapoport, A; Troitsky, N

    1998-01-01

    The emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria has prompted interest in alternatives to conventional drugs. One possible option is to use bacteriophages (phage) as antimicrobial agents. We have conducted a literature review of all Medline citations from 1966-1996 that dealt with the therapeutic use of phage. There were 27 papers from Poland, the Soviet Union, Britain and the U.S.A. The Polish and Soviets administered phage orally, topically or systemically to treat a wide variety of antibiotic-resistant pathogens in both adults and children. Infections included suppurative wound infections, gastroenteritis, sepsis, osteomyelitis, dermatitis, empyemas and pneumonia; pathogens included Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Klebsiella, Escherichia, Proteus, Pseudomonas, Shigella and Salmonella spp. Overall, the Polish and Soviets reported success rates of 80-95% for phage therapy, with rare, reversible gastrointestinal or allergic side effects. However, efficacy of phage was determined almost exclusively by qualitative clinical assessment of patients, and details of dosages and clinical criteria were very sketchy. There were also six British reports describing controlled trials of phage in animal models (mice, guinea pigs and livestock), measuring survival rates and other objective criteria. All of the British studies raised phage against specific pathogens then used to create experimental infections. Demonstrable efficacy against Escherichia, Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas and Staphylococcus spp. was noted in these model systems. Two U.S. papers dealt with improving the bioavailability of phage. Phage is sequestered in the spleen and removed from circulation. This can be overcome by serial passage of phage through mice to isolate mutants that resist sequestration. In conclusion, bacteriophages may show promise for treating antibiotic resistant pathogens. To facilitate further progress, directions for future research are discussed and a directory of authors from the reviewed

  10. Animation, audio, and spatial ability: Optimizing multimedia for scientific explanations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koroghlanian, Carol May

    This study investigated the effects of audio, animation and spatial ability in a computer based instructional program for biology. The program presented instructional material via text or audio with lean text and included eight instructional sequences presented either via static illustrations or animations. High school students enrolled in a biology course were blocked by spatial ability and randomly assigned to one of four treatments (Text-Static Illustration Audio-Static Illustration, Text-Animation, Audio-Animation). The study examined the effects of instructional mode (Text vs. Audio), illustration mode (Static Illustration vs. Animation) and spatial ability (Low vs. High) on practice and posttest achievement, attitude and time. Results for practice achievement indicated that high spatial ability participants achieved more than low spatial ability participants. Similar results for posttest achievement and spatial ability were not found. Participants in the Static Illustration treatments achieved the same as participants in the Animation treatments on both the practice and posttest. Likewise, participants in the Text treatments achieved the same as participants in the Audio treatments on both the practice and posttest. In terms of attitude, participants responded favorably to the computer based instructional program. They found the program interesting, felt the static illustrations or animations made the explanations easier to understand and concentrated on learning the material. Furthermore, participants in the Animation treatments felt the information was easier to understand than participants in the Static Illustration treatments. However, no difference for any attitude item was found for participants in the Text as compared to those in the Audio treatments. Significant differences were found by Spatial Ability for three attitude items concerning concentration and interest. In all three items, the low spatial ability participants responded more positively

  11. To what extent do student teachers develop their mathematical problem solving ability by self-study?

    OpenAIRE

    Kool, Marjolein; Keijzer, Ronald

    2017-01-01

    A primary teacher needs mathematical problem solving ability. That is why Dutch student teachers have to show this ability in a nationwide mathematics test that contains many non-routine problems. Most student teachers prepare for this test by working on their own solving test-like problems. To what extent does these individual problem solving activities really contribute to their mathematical problem solving ability? Developing mathematical problem solving ability requires reflective mathema...

  12. Work ability as prognostic risk marker of disability pension: single-item work ability score versus multi-item work ability index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelen, Corné A M; van Rhenen, Willem; Groothoff, Johan W; van der Klink, Jac J L; Twisk, Jos W R; Heymans, Martijn W

    2014-07-01

    Work ability predicts future disability pension (DP). A single-item work ability score (WAS) is emerging as a measure for work ability. This study compared single-item WAS with the multi-item work ability index (WAI) in its ability to identify workers at risk of DP. This prospective cohort study comprised 11 537 male construction workers, who completed the WAI at baseline and reported DP after a mean 2.3 years of follow-up. WAS and WAI were calibrated for DP risk predictions with the Hosmer-Lemeshow (H-L) test and their ability to discriminate between high- and low-risk construction workers was investigated with the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). At follow-up, 336 (3%) construction workers reported DP. Both WAS [odds ratio (OR) 0.72, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.66-0.78] and WAI (OR 0.57, 95% CI 0.52-0.63) scores were associated with DP at follow-up. The WAS showed miscalibration (H-L model χ (�)=10.60; df=3; P=0.01) and poorly discriminated between high- and low-risk construction workers (AUC 0.67, 95% CI 0.64-0.70). In contrast, calibration (H-L model χ �=8.20; df=8; P=0.41) and discrimination (AUC 0.78, 95% CI 0.75-0.80) were both adequate for the WAI. Although associated with the risk of future DP, the single-item WAS poorly identified male construction workers at risk of DP. We recommend using the multi-item WAI to screen for risk of DP in occupational health practice.

  13. The consideration of emotional intelligence abilities in event volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Andam

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The measurement of emotional intelligence abilities is one of the new subjects and important in human behavior studies. According to this matter, purpose of this research is consideration of emotional intelligence abilities in public sport events volunteers in 2011. For this purpose, Bradbury and Cruise's standard questionnaire was completed by present volunteers in event (n=80. The results indicated that 4 levels of emotional intelligence in volunteers are higher than expectational average significantly (p<0.01. Also, priority of emotional intelligence abilities indicated that self-awareness is first priority and social awareness, relationship management and self-management are second, third and fourth priorities in volunteers. Finally, in the basis of parameter, results stated that there is no difference between male and female volunteers emotional intelligence in first Olympia of public sport. According to results of present research and advantages of attention to emotional intelligence and human behavior in organizations, it recommended sport events managers to be more sensitive relative to human behavior abilities in human behavior abilities in human resource (volunteers under his management. At least, result of this meditation in student's sport is recruitment and development of motivated volunteers for continuous attendance in sport events.

  14. Ability of Cu2+-montmorillonite to accept an toxic pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janikova, V.; Jona, E.; Janik, R.; Pavlik, V.

    2015-01-01

    It is global problem that toxic pollutants are in the permanent contact to people through soil and water. Nowadays, it is important to eliminate these pollutants for future generations and to keep environment in the health condition. In relation to this article, aromatic organic compounds like benzene, phenol and aniline were chosen. These are used in various branches of industry, mainly in rubber industry or for production of dyes and in addition, phenol is commonly used in cosmetics or in food industry. Montmorillonite is clay mineral consisting of 2:1 sheets (tetrahedral:octahedral) and interlayer space where exchangeable cations and water molecules are present. Due to its structure, montmorillonite is able to accept some compounds or pollutants. This is the reason why it is mainly used as the covering material of radioactive waste in order to remove toxic pollutants. For investigation of toxic pollutants removing, XRD powder diffraction, infrared spectroscopy and thermal analysis were used. Our results show that Cu 2+ -montmorillonite is able to accept toxic benzene ring-based pollutants into interlayer. This mentioned ability can be proven on the basis of the investigation results relating to difference of interlayer distance, typical frequencies of -OH group or -NH 2 group, while these results were supplemented by thermal properties. (authors)

  15. [The Impact of Visual Perceptual Abilities on the Performance on the Wechsler Nonverbal Scale of Ability (WNV)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werpup-Stüwe, L; Petermann, F; Daseking, M

    2015-10-01

    The use of psychometric tests in with children and adolescents is especially important in psychological diagnostics. Nonverbal intelligence tests are very often used to diagnose psychological abnormalities and generate developmental prognosis independent of the child´s verbal abilities. The correlation of the German version of the Developmental Test of Visual Perception - Adolescents and Adults (DTVP-A) with the Wechsler Nonverbal Scala of Abilities (WNV) was calculated based on the results of 172 children, adolescents and young adults aged 9-21 years. Furthermore, it was examined if individuals with poor visual perceptual abilities scored lower on the WNV than healthy subjects. The correlations of the results scored on DTVP-A and WNV ranged from moderate to strong. The group with poor visual perceptual abilities scored significantly lower on the WNV than the control group. Nonverbal intelligence tests like the WNV are not reliable for estimating the intelligence of individuals with low visual perceptual abilities. Therefore, the intelligence of these subjects should be tested with a test that also contains verbal subtests. If poor visual perceptual abilities are suspected, then they should be tested. The DTVP-A seems to be the right instrument for achieving this goal. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  16. Mental abilities and performance efficacy under a simulated 480 meters helium-oxygen saturation diving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    gonglin ehou

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Stress in extreme environment severely disrupts human physiology and mental abilities. The present study investigated the cognition and performance efficacy of four divers during a simulated 480 meters helium-oxygen saturation diving. We analyzed the spatial memory, 2D/3D mental rotation functioning, grip strength, and hand-eye coordination ability in four divers during the 0 – 480 meters compression and decompression processes of the simulated diving. The results showed that except for its mild decrease on grip strength, the high atmosphere pressure condition significantly impaired the hand-eye coordination (especially at 300 meters, the reaction time and correct rate of mental rotation, as well as the spatial memory (especially as 410 meters, showing high individual variability. We conclude that the human cognition and performance efficacy are significantly affected during deep water saturation diving.

  17. Volta-Based Cells Materials Chemical Multiple Representation to Improve Ability of Student Representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helsy, I.; Maryamah; Farida, I.; Ramdhani, M. A.

    2017-09-01

    This study aimed to describe the application of teaching materials, analyze the increase in the ability of students to connect the three levels of representation and student responses after application of multiple representations based teaching materials chemistry. The method used quasi one-group pretest-posttest design to 71 students. The results showed the application of teaching materials carried 88% with very good category. A significant increase ability to connect the three levels of representation of students after the application of multiple representations based teaching materials chemistry with t-value > t-crit (11.402 > 1.991). Recapitulation N-gain pretest and posttest showed relatively similar for all groups is 0.6 criterion being achievement. Students gave a positive response to the application of multiple representations based teaching materials chemistry. Students agree teaching materials used in teaching chemistry (88%), and agrees teaching materials to provide convenience in connecting the three levels of representation (95%).

  18. Habitat stability affects dispersal and the ability to track climate change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hof, Christian; Brändle, Martin; Dehling, D. Matthias

    2012-01-01

    Habitat persistence should influence dispersal ability, selecting for stronger dispersal in habitats of lower temporal stability. As standing (lentic) freshwater habitats are on average less persistent over time than running (lotic) habitats, lentic species should show higher dispersal abilities ...... that lentic species track climatic changes more rapidly than lotic species. These results are consistent with the proposed hypothesis that habitat persistence affects the evolution of dispersal....... than lotic species. Assuming that climate is an important determinant of species distributions, we hypothesize that lentic species should have distributions that are closer to equilibrium with current climate, and should more rapidly track climatic changes. We tested these hypotheses using datasets...... from 1988 and 2006 containing all European dragon- and damselfly species. Bioclimatic envelope models showed that lentic species were closer to climatic equilibrium than lotic species. Furthermore, the models over-predicted lotic species ranges more strongly than lentic species ranges, indicating...

  19. Influence of spatial perception abilities on reading in school-age children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaud Saj

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Spatial perception abilities enable individuals to explore a visual field, to detect spatial position and to infer relationships between visual stimuli. Written words and text are conceptualized spatially along a horizontal mental line, but little is known about the way children develop these representations. The exact relationship between visuo-spatial perception and academic achievement has never been directly assessed. Therefore, our aim was to study the developmental trajectory of space perception abilities by assessing perceptual, attentional and memory components, the relationship between these abilities and reading achievement in school-age children. Forty-nine children aged between 6.5 and 11 years old were divided into four age groups and were assessed with visual bisection, visual search and visual memory location tasks. The results showed that the groups of older children, from the age of nine, improved significantly on the bisection and visual search tasks with respect to all visual fields, while the groups of younger children showed more errors in the left visual field (LVF. Performances on these tasks were correlated with reading level and age. Older children with a low reading score showed a LVF bias, similar to the youngest children. These results demonstrate how abnormal space perception might distort space representation and in turn affect reading and learning processes.

  20. The effect of the inspiratory muscle training on functional ability in stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Nam-Jin; Na, Sang-Su; Kim, Seung-Kyu; Hwangbo, Gak

    2017-11-01

    [Purpose] This study was to find out an inspiratory muscle training (IMT) program therapeutic effects on stroke patients' functional ability. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty stroke patients were assigned to one of two groups: inspiratory muscle training (n=10), and control (n=10), randomization. The inspiratory muscle training participants undertook an exercise program for 30 minute per times, 5 times a week for 6 weeks. The investigator measured the patients' trunk impairment scale (TIS) and 6 minute walking test (6MW) for functional ability before and after IMT. [Results] The TIS appeared some significant differences in both groups before and after the training. The 6MW test showed some significant differences in the inspiratory muscle training group, but didn't show any significant difference in the control group. And the differences in both groups after depending the inspiratory muscle training were significantly found in the tests of TIS and 6MW test [Conclusion] The results showed that the inspiratory muscle training in stroke patients are correlated with the trunk stability and locomotion ability, suggesting that physical therapist must take into consideration the inspiratory muscle training, as well as functional training to improve physical function in stroke patients.

  1. The Role of Visual-Spatial Abilities in Dyslexia: Age Differences in Children's Reading?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovagnoli, Giulia; Vicari, Stefano; Tomassetti, Serena; Menghini, Deny

    2016-01-01

    Reading is a highly complex process in which integrative neurocognitive functions are required. Visual-spatial abilities play a pivotal role because of the multi-faceted visual sensory processing involved in reading. Several studies show that children with developmental dyslexia (DD) fail to develop effective visual strategies and that some reading difficulties are linked to visual-spatial deficits. However, the relationship between visual-spatial skills and reading abilities is still a controversial issue. Crucially, the role that age plays has not been investigated in depth in this population, and it is still not clear if visual-spatial abilities differ across educational stages in DD. The aim of the present study was to investigate visual-spatial abilities in children with DD and in age-matched normal readers (NR) according to different educational stages: in children attending primary school and in children and adolescents attending secondary school. Moreover, in order to verify whether visual-spatial measures could predict reading performance, a regression analysis has been performed in younger and older children. The results showed that younger children with DD performed significantly worse than NR in a mental rotation task, a more-local visual-spatial task, a more-global visual-perceptual task and a visual-motor integration task. However, older children with DD showed deficits in the more-global visual-perceptual task, in a mental rotation task and in a visual attention task. In younger children, the regression analysis documented that reading abilities are predicted by the visual-motor integration task, while in older children only the more-global visual-perceptual task predicted reading performances. Present findings showed that visual-spatial deficits in children with DD were age-dependent and that visual-spatial abilities engaged in reading varied across different educational stages. In order to better understand their potential role in affecting reading

  2. Examining the relationship between emotional intelligence and communication ability levels of football arbiters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahit Özdayı

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim:This study was done to determine the relations between emotional intelligence, communication ability and demographic variables for rating and amateur football arbiters in Turkey. Material and Methods: They are from Turkcell super league, Bank Asya 1st league (Ligue1, 2nd League (League 2, 3rd League (League 3 and amateur football matches arbiters in 2010-2011 football season. Study’s samples are consisting of arbiters elected randomly working actively in 2010-2011 football season. In research ‘Communication Abilities Evaluation Scale’ (reliability %89 and Bar-on EQ-i emotional intelligence scale (reliability %93 were used to get data. The collected data were analyzed by statistical pack programme and results were commented. Data frequency, percent analysis, t-test, One way anova(Post-hoc Tukey tests will used. Pearson correlation test was used in examining relation between the parameters. Results:Stress management and interpersonal relations shows difference in p<0.05 level according to arbiters’ rating conditions. Arbiters’ emotional intelligence levels, accordance to others are differentiate meaningfully according to their education variable (p<0.05. Self-awareness, interpersonal relations, accordance to conditions and environment, general mood sub-dimension level show difference meaningfully according to revenue variable (p<0.05. Arbiters’ communication ability levels were found meaningfully different according to their ratings (p<0.05. There is a meaningful positive way relation in %11 level between arbiters’ communication ability levels and emotional sub-dimension stress management level (p<0.05. Arbiters’ stress management levels grow up when their communication ability levels grow up. Conclusion: The referees shouldn’t be educated according to their categories, they should be developed a model and all of them should be educated by that model regularly.

  3. Aging and Work Ability: The Moderating Role of Job and Personal Resources

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    Daniela Converso

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Demographic changes involving western countries and later retirements due to the recent pension reforms induce a gradual aging of the workforce. This imply an increasing number of workers with health problems and a decreasing of ability to work. In this direction, the present study aims at examining the role of job and personal resources between age and work ability within nurses.Method: The study was cross-sectional and not randomized; data were collected by a self-report questionnaire during a multi-center survey conducted in two Italian hospitals in 2016. In this way, 333 nurses were reached.Results: Multiple linear regression showed that age is significantly and negatively associated to work ability, and that job resources (e.g., decision authority and meaning of work and personal resources (e.g., hope and resilience moderate the relationship between age and work ability.Discussion: These results highlight that investing in work and personal resources to support WA is even more relevant for those professions where high physical effort is required.

  4. INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY USERS´ ABILITIES: A CASE STUDY ON COMPUTING LEARNING IN AN UNDERGRADUATE COURSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Maria Martins Judice

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Literature review shows minimum ability levels of Information Technology (IT resources in use are currently essential to administrators and to professionals overall. As effective as Internet may be, new milestones for economic competition and company survival are being created. It is thus required that individual IT abilities are continuously reformulated to be adequately and creatively used, and new information sources and tools actively generated, rather than passively adopted. In evaluating the evolution of the IT abilities’ acquisition in Brazil, students of Business & Administration from a university are investigated. By means of questionnaire and in-depth interview application, data were collected on students’ perceptions of acquired abilities and importance of IT competencies. Together, computing science teachers and a course coordinator views were assessed. Empirical results obtained revealed that students' IT abilities were concentrated on basic computing science functions. The integration of IT learning in classroom practices was deemed poor as compared to importance attributed. Students signalized self-sufficiency or knowledge attitudes which, as tested, have not been actually proved. Low learning results were observed on IT conceptual knowledge, indicating students’ impatience with learning without interaction, as in long-text readings or teacher-centered classes. Strong student resistance to electronic commerce was evidenced and associated to perceived risks on IT evolution.

  5. Singing ability is rooted in vocal-motor control of pitch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchins, Sean; Larrouy-Maestri, Pauline; Peretz, Isabelle

    2014-11-01

    The inability to vocally match a pitch can be caused by poor pitch perception or by poor vocal-motor control. Although previous studies have tried to examine the relationship between pitch perception and vocal production, they have failed to control for the timbre of the target to be matched. In the present study, we compare pitch-matching accuracy with an unfamiliar instrument (the slider) and with the voice, designed such that the slider plays back recordings of the participant's own voice. We also measured pitch accuracy in singing a familiar melody ("Happy Birthday") to assess the relationship between single-pitch-matching tasks and melodic singing. Our results showed that participants (all nonmusicians) were significantly better at matching recordings of their own voices with the slider than with their voice, indicating that vocal-motor control is an important limiting factor on singing ability. We also found significant correlations between the ability to sing a melody in tune and vocal pitch matching, but not pitch matching on the slider. Better melodic singers also tended to have higher quality voices (as measured by acoustic variables). These results provide important evidence about the role of vocal-motor control in poor singing ability and demonstrate that single-pitch-matching tasks can be useful in measuring general singing abilities.

  6. On the relationships between generative encodings, regularity, and learning abilities when evolving plastic artificial neural networks.

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    Paul Tonelli

    Full Text Available A major goal of bio-inspired artificial intelligence is to design artificial neural networks with abilities that resemble those of animal nervous systems. It is commonly believed that two keys for evolving nature-like artificial neural networks are (1 the developmental process that links genes to nervous systems, which enables the evolution of large, regular neural networks, and (2 synaptic plasticity, which allows neural networks to change during their lifetime. So far, these two topics have been mainly studied separately. The present paper shows that they are actually deeply connected. Using a simple operant conditioning task and a classic evolutionary algorithm, we compare three ways to encode plastic neural networks: a direct encoding, a developmental encoding inspired by computational neuroscience models, and a developmental encoding inspired by morphogen gradients (similar to HyperNEAT. Our results suggest that using a developmental encoding could improve the learning abilities of evolved, plastic neural networks. Complementary experiments reveal that this result is likely the consequence of the bias of developmental encodings towards regular structures: (1 in our experimental setup, encodings that tend to produce more regular networks yield networks with better general learning abilities; (2 whatever the encoding is, networks that are the more regular are statistically those that have the best learning abilities.

  7. The Influence of Training Strategy and Physical Condition toward Forehand Drive Ability in Table Tennis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langitan, F. W.

    2018-02-01

    The objective of this research is to find out the influence of training strategy and physical condition toward forehand drive ability in table tennis of student in faculty of sport in university of Manado, department of health and recreation education. The method used in this research was factorial 2x2 design method. The population was taken from the student of Faculty of Sport at Manado State University, Indonesia, in 2017 of 76 students for sample research. The result of this research shows that: In general, this training strategy of wall bounce gives better influence toward forehand drive ability compare with the strategy of pair training in table tennis. For the students who have strong forehand muscle, the wall bounce training strategy give better influence to their ability of forehand drive in table tennis. For the student who have weak forehand muscle, pair training strategy give better influence than wall bound training toward forehand drive ability in table tennis. There is an interaction between training using hand muscle strength to the training result in table tennis using forehand drive.

  8. Effect of chronotype and student learning time on mathematical ability based on self-regulated learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnaningsih, N.; El Akbar, R. R.; Hidayat, E.

    2018-05-01

    One of ways to improve students' learning ability is conduct a research, with purpose to obtain a method to improve students' ability. Research often carried out on the modification of teaching methods, uses of teaching media, motivation, interests and talents of students. Research related to the internal condition of students becomes very interesting to studied, including research on circadian rhythms. Every person in circadian rhythms has its own Chronotype, which divided into two types namely early type and night late type. Chronotype affects the comfort in activity, for example a person with Chronotype category of early type tends to be more comfort in daytime activities. The purpose of this study is to examine the conditions of students, related Chronotype suitable or appropriate for student learning time. This suitability then studied in relation to the ability of learning mathematics with self- regulated learning approach. This study consists of three stages; (i) student Chronotype measurement, (ii) data retrieval, and (iii) analysis of research results. The results show the relationship between the students' learning ability in mathematics to learning time corresponding to Chronotype.

  9. Profile of Cognitive Ability and Multiple Intelligence of Vocational Students in Application of Electric Energy Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurniawan, A.; Rustaman, N. Y.; Kaniawati, I.; Hasanah, L.

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to obtain a profile picture of cognitive ability and multiple intelligence of students on physics learning activities in relation to the discourse of conservation of electrical energy. Research activities are conducted in the even semester of the 2015/2016 school year. The subjects of the study were the students of class XI (36 students) in one of the state vocational schools in Bandung consisting of one class chosen at random (cluster random sampling). Research data in the form of cognitive ability test results and multiple intelligences are analyzed descriptively and qualitatively. Research data is then analyzed and compared with predetermined success indicators. The results showed that the cognitive abilities profile of students in vocational schools in Bandung is still low. This can be seen from the average score of cognitive ability of students in remember (C1) of 57.75, understanding (C2) of 53.50, applying (C3) of 43.75, and analyzing (C4) of 37.75. The multiple intelligence profiles indicate frequency of linguistic intelligence number 9 students, musical intelligence 3 students, logical mathematical intelligence 13 students, spatial intelligence 7 students, kinesthetic intelligence 5 students, intrapersonal intelligence 7 students, interpersonal intelligence 6 students, and naturalistic intelligence 5 students.

  10. Polymorphisms in the AOX2 gene are associated with the rooting ability of olive cuttings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedayati, Vahideh; Mousavi, Amir; Razavi, Khadijeh; Cultrera, Nicolò; Alagna, Fiammetta; Mariotti, Roberto; Hosseini-Mazinani, Mehdi; Baldoni, Luciana

    2015-07-01

    Different rooting ability candidate genes were tested on an olive cross progeny. Our results demonstrated that only the AOX2 gene was strongly induced. OeAOX2 was fully characterised and correlated to phenotypical traits. The formation of adventitious roots is a key step in the vegetative propagation of trees crop species, and this ability is under strict genetic control. While numerous studies have been carried out to identify genes controlling adventitious root formation, only a few loci have been characterised. In this work, candidate genes that were putatively involved in rooting ability were identified in olive (Olea europaea L.) by similarity with orthologs identified in other plant species. The mRNA levels of these genes were analysed by real-time PCR during root induction in high- (HR) and low-rooting (LR) individuals. Interestingly, alternative oxidase 2 (AOX2), which was previously reported to be a functional marker for rooting in olive cuttings, showed a strong induction in HR individuals. From the OeAOX2 full-length gene, alleles and effective polymorphisms were distinguished and analysed in the cross progeny, which were segregated based on rooting. The results revealed a possible correlation between two single nucleotide polymorphisms of OeAOX2 gene and rooting ability.

  11. Associations between musical abilities and precursors of reading in preschool aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degé, Franziska; Kubicek, Claudia; Schwarzer, Gudrun

    2015-01-01

    The association between music and language, in particular, the overlap in their processing results in the possibility to use one domain for the enhancement of the other. Especially in the preschool years music may be a valuable tool to train language abilities (e.g., precursors of reading). Therefore, detailed knowledge about associations between musical abilities and precursors of reading can be of great use for designing future music intervention studies that target language-related abilities. Hence, the present study investigated the association between music perception as well as music production and precursors of reading. Thereby, not only phonological awareness, the mostly studied precursor of reading, was investigated, but also other precursors were examined. We assessed musical abilities (production and perception) and precursors of reading (phonological awareness, working memory, and rapid retrieval from long-term memory) in 55 preschoolers (27 boys). Fluid intelligence was measured and controlled in the analyses. Results showed that phonological awareness, working memory, and rapid retrieval from long-term memory were related to music perception as well as to music production. Our data suggest that several precursors of reading were associated with music perception as well as music production.

  12. Problem solving based learning model with multiple representations to improve student's mental modelling ability on physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haili, Hasnawati; Maknun, Johar; Siahaan, Parsaoran

    2017-08-01

    Physics is a lessons that related to students' daily experience. Therefore, before the students studying in class formally, actually they have already have a visualization and prior knowledge about natural phenomenon and could wide it themselves. The learning process in class should be aimed to detect, process, construct, and use students' mental model. So, students' mental model agree with and builds in the right concept. The previous study held in MAN 1 Muna informs that in learning process the teacher did not pay attention students' mental model. As a consequence, the learning process has not tried to build students' mental modelling ability (MMA). The purpose of this study is to describe the improvement of students' MMA as a effect of problem solving based learning model with multiple representations approach. This study is pre experimental design with one group pre post. It is conducted in XI IPA MAN 1 Muna 2016/2017. Data collection uses problem solving test concept the kinetic theory of gasses and interview to get students' MMA. The result of this study is clarification students' MMA which is categorized in 3 category; High Mental Modelling Ability (H-MMA) for 7Mental Modelling Ability (M-MMA) for 3Mental Modelling Ability (L-MMA) for 0 ≤ x ≤ 3 score. The result shows that problem solving based learning model with multiple representations approach can be an alternative to be applied in improving students' MMA.

  13. Associations between musical abilities and precursors of reading in preschool aged children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franziska eDegé

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The association between music and language, in particular, the overlap in their processing results in the possibility to use one domain for the enhancement of the other. Especially in the preschool years music may be a valuable tool to train language abilities (e.g., precursors of reading. Therefore, detailed knowledge about associations between musical abilities and precursors of reading can be of great use for designing future music intervention studies that target language-related abilities. Hence, the present study investigated the association between music perception as well as music production and precursors of reading. Thereby, not only phonological awareness, the mostly studied precursor of reading, was investigated, but also other precursors were examined. We assessed musical abilities (production and perception and precursors of reading (phonological awareness, working memory, and rapid retrieval from long-term memory in 55 preschoolers (27 boys. Fluid intelligence was measured and controlled in the analyses. Results showed that phonological awareness, working memory, and rapid retrieval from long-term memory were related to music perception as well as to music production. Our data suggest that several precursors of reading were associated with music perception as well as music production.

  14. Showing Emulsion Properties with Common Dairy Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo-Diaz, Carlos; Gonzalez-Romero, Elisa

    1996-09-01

    Foods are mixtures of different chemical compounds, and the quality we sense (taste, texture, color, etc.) are all manifestations of its chemical properties. Some of them can be visualized with the aid of simple, safe and inexpensive experiments using dairy products that can be found in any kitchen and using almost exclusively kitchen utensils. In this paper we propose some of them related with food emulsions. Food emulsions cover an extremely wide area of daily-life applications such as milk, sauces, dressings and beverages. Experimentation with some culinary recipes to prepare them and the analyisis of the observed results is close to ideal subject for the introduction of chemical principles, allowing to discuss about the nature and composition of foods, the effects of additives, etc. At the same time it allows to get insights into the scientific reasons that underlie on the recipes (something that it is not usually found in most cookbooks). For example, when making an emulsion like mayonnaise, why the egg yolks and water are the first materials in the bowl , and the oil is added to them rather than in the other way around? How you can "rescue" separate emulsions (mayonnaise)? Which parameters affect emulsion stability? Since safety, in its broad sense, is the first requisite for any food, concerns about food exist throughout the world and the more we are aware of our everyday life, the more likely we will be to deal productively with the consequences. On the other hand, understanding what foods are and how cooking works destroys no delightful mystery of the art of cuisine, instead the mystery expands.

  15. Testing the "Work Ability House" Model in hospital workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Maria Carmen; Latorre, Maria do Rosário Dias de Oliveira; Fischer, Frida Marina

    2016-01-01

    To test the Work Ability House model, verifying the hierarchy of proposed dimensions, among a group of hospital workers. A cohort study (2009-2011) was conducted with a sample of 599 workers from a hospital in the city of São Paulo. A questionnaire including sociodemographics, lifestyle and working conditions was used. The Brazilian versions of Job Stress Scale, Effort-Reward Imbalance, Work-Related Activities That May Contribute To Job-Related Pain and/or Injury, and the Work Ability Index (WAI) were also used. A hierarchical logistic regression analysis was performed: the independent variables were allocated into levels according to the dimensions of the theoretical model in order to evaluate the factors associated with work ability. Variables associated with impairment of work ability in each dimension were as follows: (a) sociodemographics: age work injuries (p = 0.029), (c) professional competence: low educational level (p = 0.008), (d) values : intensified in overcommitment (p work: intensification of effort-reward imbalance (p = 0.009) and high demands (p = 0.040). The results confirmed the dimensions proposed for the Work Ability House model, indicating that it is valid as a representation of a multidimensional construct of multifactorial determination and can be used in the management of work ability.

  16. Spatial Ability Differences in Athletes and Non-Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Cynthia

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cognitive processes, specifically spatial abilities, are responsible for integration of daily activities. Many factors contribute to the plasticity of the brain which, furthermore, alter the spatial ability. Physical activity, which can be further grouped into sport and exercise, is a modifiable factor that enhances the cognitive processes through a divergent mechanism. This study aimed to gain further understanding on whether sport differs from exercise in altering spatial ability in athletes and non-athletes. Methods: This observational study compared the spatial ability score of athletes of Indonesia National Sport Comitte (Komite Olahraga Nasional Indonesia, KONI in West Java (n= 21 and non-athletes (n= 21. Sampling were performed using stratified random technique and data were collected between August and October 2015 which included spatial scores and demographic of subjects. Results: The difference in spatial scores between athletes and non-athletes were not significant (p=0.432. Conclusions: This study suggests an insignificant difference in spatial ability in athletes performing sport and non-athletes performing exercise. Hence, the cognitive component skills in sport experience do not alter the spatial ability.

  17. Ability to manage everyday technology after acquired brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassberg, Ann-Charlotte; Malinowsky, Camilla; Jacobsson, Lars; Lund, Maria Larsson

    2013-01-01

    To investigate and describe how persons with an acquired brain injury (ABI) manage everyday technology (ET) in their daily activities and to explore whether the ability to manage ET was related to the severity of the disability. Eighty-one persons with ABI were observed while managing ET by using the Management of Everyday Technology Assessment (META). The Glasgow Outcome Scale-Extended (GOSE) was used to assess the severity of disability after the ABI. A computer application of a Rasch measurement model was used to generate measures of the participants' ability to manage ET and the measures were compared groupwise with analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). The degree of severity of disability had a significant main effect on the ability to manage ET. The groups with severe and moderate disability exhibited a significantly lower ability to manage ET compared to the group with good recovery. The result indicates that the ability to manage ET in daily activities can be related to the global severity of disability after ABI. This demonstrates the importance of considering the ability to manage ET to support the performance of activities at home, at work and in society in persons with ABI.

  18. DAST in Flight Showing Diverging Wingtip Oscillations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    normal stiffness. This was done because stiffness requires structural weight but ensures freedom from flutter-an uncontrolled, divergent oscillation of the structure, driven by aerodynamic forces and resulting in structural failure. The program used refined theoretical tools to predict at what speed flutter would occur. It then designed a high-response control system to counteract the motion and permit a much lighter wing structure. The wing had, in effect, 'electronic stiffness.' Flight research with this concept was extremely hazardous because an error in either the flutter prediction or control system implementation would result in wing structural failure and the loss of the vehicle. Because of this, flight demonstration of a sub-scale vehicle made sense from the standpoint of both safety and cost. The program anticipated structural failure during the course of the flight research. The Firebee II was a supersonic drone selected as the DAST testbed because its wing could be easily replaced, it used only tail-mounted control surfaces, and it was available as surplus from the U. S. Air Force. It was capable of 5-g turns (that is, turns producing acceleration equal to 5 times that of gravity). Langley outfitted a drone with an aeroelastic, supercritical research wing suitable for a Mach 0.98 cruise transport with a predicted flutter speed of Mach 0.95 at an altitude of 25,000 feet. Dryden and Langley, in conjunction with Boeing, designed and fabricated a digital flutter suppression system (FSS). Dryden developed an RPRV (remotely piloted research vehicle) flight control system; integrated the wing, FSS, and vehicle systems; and conducted the flight program. In addition to a digital flight control system and aeroelastic wings, each DAST drone had research equipment mounted in its nose and a mid-air retrieval system in its tail. The drones were originally launched from the NASA B-52 bomber and later from a DC-130. The DAST vehicle's flight was monitored from the sky by an F

  19. THE EFFECT OF BASIC MOTOR ABILITIES ON DRIBBLING SPEED AND PRECISION IN SOCCER GAME

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    Ismail Selimović

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Effects of basic motor skills on situational-motor abilities for speed dribble and ball control precision assessment in soccer game at boys aged 12-14 years were analyzed with regression analysis. For this purpose, 17 variables for basic motor parameters were selected, as well as three situational tests. In every example of the regression analysis results, the results obtained showed confirmation of the hypothesis of significant effects of the morphological characteristics on the results in analyzed situational- motor tests.

  20. Peculiarities of adaptive and compensatory abilities of the modern pupils

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    Тетяна Володимирівна Фролова

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In conditions of an intense functioning of child organism an influence of unfavorable factors can result into breakdown of adaptive and compensatory mechanisms and to become a presupposition for forming pathology.Aim: to define peculiarities of adaptive and compensatory abilities of school-aged children during the school year.Methods. 970 children 9-17 years old were examined at the beginning and at the end of school year. Children were divided in 2 groups: I – 673 children with chronic somatic diseases, II – 297 conventionally healthy children.The study of adaptive and compensatory mechanisms was carried out with a glance to vegetative regulation of body functions. Robinson index (IR was used for an express-assessment of somatic health. Statistic data-processing was done according to the requirements of evidence-based medicine.Result. An analysis of an examination results at the beginning of the school year showed that the pupils of the I group have a complex disturbances of vegetative regulation, low level of aerobic abilities of organism. Among the children of the II group no more than 25% have a satisfactory state of adaptive and compensatory mechanisms that ensure an adequate response of child organism on the stress factors of educational process.At the end of the school year the part of children who have a balanced level of neuroreflex systems of organism decreases by 50%, the number of children with an overstrain of regulatory systems of organism increases by 28%, with unsatisfactory state of adaptive and compensatory mechanisms – by 22% that becomes presupposition for formation and chronization of somatic pathology.An examination of pupils health level at the end of the school year showed that the number of conventionally healthy children decreases by 19,2%. The syntropy of pathological states formed in 54,2% of pupils with chronic somatic pathology, in 34,5% of children the functional disturbance transformed into somatic pathology