El Fassi, Mehdi; Bocquet, Valery; Majery, Nicole; Lair, Marie Lise; Couffignal, Sophie; Mairiaux, Philippe
Public authorities in European countries are paying increasing attention to the promotion of work ability throughout working life and the best method to monitor work ability in populations of workers is becoming a significant question. The present study aims to compare the assessment of work ability based on the use of the Work Ability Index (WAI), a 7-item questionnaire, with another one based on the use of WAI's first item, which consists in the worker's self-assessment of his/her current work ability level as opposed to his/her lifetime best, this single question being termed "Work Ability score" (WAS). Using a database created by an occupational health service, the study intends to answer the following questions: could the assessment of work ability be based on a single-item measure and which are the variables significantly associated with self-reported work ability among those systematically recorded by the occupational physician during health examinations? A logistic regression model was used in order to estimate the probability of observing "poor" or "moderate" WAI levels depending on age, gender, body mass index, smoking status, position held, firm size and diseases reported by the worker in a population of workers aged 40 to 65 and examined between January 2006 and June 2010 (n=12389). The convergent validity between WAS and WAI was statistically significant (rs=0.63). In the multivariable model, age (pwork ability. A work position characterized by the predominance of mental activity (OR=0.71, 95%CI [0.61-0.84]) had a favourable impact on work ability. These relations were observed regardless of the work ability measurement tool used. The convergent validity and the similarity in results between WAI and WAS observed in a large population of employed workers should thus foster the use of WAS for systematic screening of work ability. Ageing, overweight, decline in health status, holding a mostly physical job and working in a large-sized firm increase the
Roelen, C.A.M.; Rhenen, van W.; Groothoff, J.W.; Klink, van der J.J.L.; Twisk, W.R.; Heymans, M.W.
Work ability predicts future disability pension (DP). A single-item work ability score (WAS) is emerging as a measure for work ability. This study compared single-item WAS with the multi-item work ability index (WAI) in its ability to identify workers at risk of DP.
Roelen, C.A.M.; van Rhenen, W.; Groothoff, J.W.; van der Klink, J.J.L.; Twisk, J.W.R.; Heymans, M.W.
Objectives Work ability predicts future disability pension (DP). A single-item work ability score (WAS) is emerging as a measure for work ability. This study compared single-item WAS with the multi-item work ability index (WAI) in its ability to identify workers at risk of DP. Methods This
Roelen, Corne A. M.; van Rhenen, Willem; Groothoff, Johan W.; van der Klink, Jac J. L.; Twisk, Jos W. R.; Heymans, Martijn W.
Objectives Work ability predicts future disability pension (DP). A single-item work ability score (WAS) is emerging as a measure for work ability. This study compared single-item WAS with the multi-item work ability index (WAI) in its ability to identify workers at risk of DP. Methods This
El Fassi, Mehdi; Bocquet, Valery; Majery, Nicole; Lair, Marie Lise; Couffignal, Sophie; Mairiaux, Philippe
Background Public authorities in European countries are paying increasing attention to the promotion of work ability throughout working life and the best method to monitor work ability in populations of workers is becoming a significant question. The present study aims to compare the assessment of work ability based on the use of the Work Ability Index (WAI), a 7-item questionnaire, with another one based on the use of WAI?s first item, which consists in the worker?s self-assessment of his/he...
tend to sort themselves into jobs that are commensurate with their ability level ( McCormick , DeNisi, & Staw, 1979; McCormick , Jeanneret, & Mecham...of Genetic Psychology, 153, 229-230. Specific abilities, g, & high ability populations 14 McCormick , E. J., DeNisi, A. S., & Shaw, J. B... McCormick , E. J., Jeanneret, P. R., & Mecham, R. C. (1972). A study of job characteristics and job dimensions as based on the Position Analysis Questionnaire
The importance of language and language mastery for science learning has been the object of extensive investigation in recent decades, leading to ample recognition. However, specific focus on the role of narrative abilities is still scarce. This work focuses on the relevance of narrative abilities for chemistry learning.
Jasinska-Myga, Barbara; Heckman, Michael G; Wider, Christian; Putzke, John D; Wszolek, Zbigniew K; Uitti, Ryan J
Ability to work and live independently is of particular concern for patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). We studied a series of PD patients able to work or live independently at baseline, and evaluated potential risk factors for two separate outcomes: loss of ability to work and loss of ability to live independently. The series comprised 495 PD patients followed prospectively. Ability to work and ability to live independently were based on clinical interview and examination. Cox regression models adjusted for age and disease duration were used to evaluate associations of baseline characteristics with loss of ability to work and loss of ability to live independently. Higher UPDRS dyskinesia score, UPDRS instability score, UPDRS total score, Hoehn and Yahr stage, and presence of intellectual impairment at baseline were all associated with increased risk of future loss of ability to work and loss of ability to live independently (P ≤ 0.0033). Five years after initial visit, for patients ≤70 years of age with a disease duration ≤4 years at initial visit, 88% were still able to work and 90% to live independently. These estimates worsened as age and disease duration at initial visit increased; for patients >70 years of age with a disease duration >4 years, estimates at 5 years were 43% able to work and 57% able to live independently. The information provided in this study can offer useful information for PD patients in preparing for future ability to perform activities of daily living. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Voltmer, Jan-Bennet; Deller, Jürgen
Purpose The revised version of the Work Ability Survey (WAS-R) assesses work ability on several sub-scales at the intersection of personal and organizational capacity, thus adding to the measurement of work ability by integrating the holistic model. It, therefore, improves on two features of the current standard measurement tool of work ability, the Work Ability Index (WAI): (1) a ceiling effect and (2) limited detail due to a focus on physical health and personal capacity. Method In two samples (n 1 = 1093, n 2 = 359), psychometric properties and the structure of the WAS-R were analyzed. To evaluate construct validity, inter-correlations of the WAS-R and WAI, sickness absence, expected and desired retirement age, and post-retirement work intention were calculated. Results The WAS-R was found to be distributed closer to normality than the WAI. The structural analyses yielded acceptable results for the hypothesized model. The WAS-R was adequately correlated with the WAI, negatively with sickness absence, and positively with desired retirement age. Conclusions The WAS-R extends the measurement of work ability, reflecting organizations' work demands. Its broad sub-scales lead to high acceptance of the results within the participating companies. In particular, the organizational capacity scales can be used to guide interventions aiming at organizational characteristics to improve work ability.
Dorota M. Jankowska
Full Text Available Over the decades, creativity and imagination research developed in parallel, but they surprisingly rarely intersected. This paper introduces a new theoretical model of creative imagination, which bridges creativity and imagination research, as well as presents a new psychometric instrument, called the Test of Creative Imagery Abilities (TCIA, developed to measure creative imagery abilities understood in accordance with this model. Creative imagination is understood as constituted by three interrelated components: vividness (the ability to create images characterized by a high level of complexity and detail, originality (the ability to produce unique imagery, and transformativeness (the ability to control imagery. TCIA enables valid and reliable measurement of these three groups of abilities, yielding the general score of imagery abilities and at the same time making profile analysis possible. We present the results of eight studies on a total sample of more than 1,700 participants, showing the factor structure of TCIA using confirmatory factor analysis, as well as provide data confirming this instrument’s validity and reliability. The availability of TCIA for interested researchers may result in new insights and possibilities of integrating the fields of creativity and imagination science.
Wright, Benjamin D.; Stenner, A. Jackson
This document discusses the measurement of reading ability and the readability of books by application of the Lexile framework. It begins by stating the importance of uniform measures. It then discusses the history of reading ability testing, based on the assumption that no researcher has been able to measure more than one kind of reading ability.…
A system for establishing a hearing ability model of a hearing ability of a person, includes a data storage configured to store a representation of a distribution of a hearing ability of a population of individuals, and a processor configured to establish a hearing ability model representing a
For the individual, the workplace and society, there would be considerable gains if the number of people suffering from physical and mental disorders could be reduced. The overall aim of this thesis was to identify determinants for future work ability among gainfully employed women and men, with special reference to promotive factors at work. Work ability is in this thesis defined as the ability to work with respect to demands at work on health and physical and mental reso...
Social Education, 1992
Presents a position statement of the National Council for the Social Studies (NCSS). Reports that the NCSS objects to ability grouping in social studies. Argues that ability grouping disadvantages minority, handicapped, and low ability students. Suggests that ability grouping undermines the democratic ideals that should be the basis of the social…
S. R. Manurung
Full Text Available The effectiveness of hypertext media in improving graph interpretation ability is investigated in this paper. In addition, joint ability of the formal thinking to improve the graph ability of prospective students is considered. The research design used is the one-group pretest-posttest experimental design is carried out in the research by taking 36 students on from Physics Education Program in one institute for teacher education in Medan. The test consists of graph interpretation ability test in the topic of kinematics and Test of Logical Thinking (TOLT or formal thinking before learning and graph interpretation ability test after learning. The data are then analysed by using SPSS based two ways Analisys of Variance (ANOVA method. The results show that the ability to interpretate graph is significantly improved by using hypertext media assisted kinematic learning.
Roelen, Corné A M; van Rhenen, Willem; Groothoff, Johan W; van der Klink, Jac J L; Twisk, Jos W R; Heymans, Martijn W
Work ability predicts future disability pension (DP). A single-item work ability score (WAS) is emerging as a measure for work ability. This study compared single-item WAS with the multi-item work ability index (WAI) in its ability to identify workers at risk of DP. This prospective cohort study comprised 11 537 male construction workers, who completed the WAI at baseline and reported DP after a mean 2.3 years of follow-up. WAS and WAI were calibrated for DP risk predictions with the Hosmer-Lemeshow (H-L) test and their ability to discriminate between high- and low-risk construction workers was investigated with the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). At follow-up, 336 (3%) construction workers reported DP. Both WAS [odds ratio (OR) 0.72, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.66-0.78] and WAI (OR 0.57, 95% CI 0.52-0.63) scores were associated with DP at follow-up. The WAS showed miscalibration (H-L model χ (�)=10.60; df=3; P=0.01) and poorly discriminated between high- and low-risk construction workers (AUC 0.67, 95% CI 0.64-0.70). In contrast, calibration (H-L model χ �=8.20; df=8; P=0.41) and discrimination (AUC 0.78, 95% CI 0.75-0.80) were both adequate for the WAI. Although associated with the risk of future DP, the single-item WAS poorly identified male construction workers at risk of DP. We recommend using the multi-item WAI to screen for risk of DP in occupational health practice.
Gabbard, Carl; Caçola, Priscila; Bobbio, Tatiana
Theory and anatomical research suggest that the ability to mentally represent intended actions affect level of execution. This study presents preliminary data examining the association between children's ability to mentally represent action and general motor ability. Children aged 7- to 10 years were assessed for motor imagery ability using a simulation of reach task and motor ability via the Movement ABC-2. Motor ability values, based on percentile rank, ranged from 2 to 91, with a mean of 36. The overall correlation between mental representation and motor ability yielded a moderately positive relationship (r = .39). Interestingly, when looking at motor ability subcategories, only Balance was significant in the model, explaining 20% of the variance. These results provide preliminary evidence that children's motor ability and the ability to mentally represent action are associated in a positive direction. Furthermore, given the results for Balance, we speculate that there are clinical implications regarding work with potentially at-risk children. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Libertus, Melissa E; Feigenson, Lisa; Halberda, Justin
Previous research has found a relationship between individual differences in children's precision when nonverbally approximating quantities and their school mathematics performance. School mathematics performance emerges from both informal (e.g., counting) and formal (e.g., knowledge of mathematics facts) abilities. It remains unknown whether approximation precision relates to both of these types of mathematics abilities. In the current study, we assessed the precision of numerical approximation in 85 3- to 7-year-old children four times over a span of 2years. In addition, at the final time point, we tested children's informal and formal mathematics abilities using the Test of Early Mathematics Ability (TEMA-3). We found that children's numerical approximation precision correlated with and predicted their informal, but not formal, mathematics abilities when controlling for age and IQ. These results add to our growing understanding of the relationship between an unlearned nonsymbolic system of quantity representation and the system of mathematics reasoning that children come to master through instruction. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Historical evolution and cross-cultural differences in spatial abilities are analyzed. Spatial abilities have been found to be significantly associated with the complexity of geographical conditions and survival demands. Although impaired spatial cognition is found in cases of, exclusively or predominantly, right hemisphere pathology, it is proposed that this asymmetry may depend on the degree of training in spatial abilities. It is further proposed that spatial cognition might have evolved in a parallel way with cultural evolution and environmental demands. Contemporary city humans might be using spatial abilities in some new, conceptual tasks that did not exist in prehistoric times: mathematics, reading, writing, mechanics, music, etc. Cross-cultural analysis of spatial abilities in different human groups, normalization of neuropsychological testing instruments, and clinical observations of spatial ability disturbances in people with different cultural backgrounds and various spatial requirements, are required to construct a neuropsychological theory of brain organization of spatial cognition.
Klynge, Alice Heegaard
This paper presents a data set on multiple abilities. The abilities cover the Literacy and Math Ability, the Creative and Innovative Ability, the Learning Ability, the Communication Ability, the Social Competency, the Self-Management Ability, the Environmental Awareness, the Civic Competency......, the Intercultural Awareness, and the Health Awareness. The data stems from a unique cross-sectional survey carried out for the adult population in Denmark. Several dimensions and many questions pinpoint and measure every ability. The dimensions cover areas such as the individual behavior at work, the individual...... behavior in leisure, the motivation for using an ability, the working conditions for using an ability, and the educational conditions for using an ability. The paper defines every ability and describes the dimensions and the questions underlying the abilities. It reports the categories of answers...
Kirby, John R.; Das, J. P.
The simultaneous and successive processing model of cognitive abilities was compared to a traditional primary mental abilities model. Simultaneous processing was found to be primarily related to spatial ability; and to a lesser extent, to memory and inductive reasoning. Subjects were 104 fourth-grade urban males. (Author/GD C)
The relationship between balance ability and sport injury risk has been established in many cases, but the relationship between balance ability and athletic performance is less clear. This review compares the balance ability of athletes from different sports, determines if there is a difference in balance ability of athletes at different levels of competition within the same sport, determines the relationship of balance ability with performance measures and examines the influence of balance training on sport performance or motor skills. Based on the available data from cross-sectional studies, gymnasts tended to have the best balance ability, followed by soccer players, swimmers, active control subjects and then basketball players. Surprisingly, no studies were found that compared the balance ability of rifle shooters with other athletes. There were some sports, such as rifle shooting, soccer and golf, where elite athletes were found to have superior balance ability compared with their less proficient counterparts, but this was not found to be the case for alpine skiing, surfing and judo. Balance ability was shown to be significantly related to rifle shooting accuracy, archery shooting accuracy, ice hockey maximum skating speed and simulated luge start speed, but not for baseball pitching accuracy or snowboarding ranking points. Prospective studies have shown that the addition of a balance training component to the activities of recreationally active subjects or physical education students has resulted in improvements in vertical jump, agility, shuttle run and downhill slalom skiing. A proposed mechanism for the enhancement in motor skills from balance training is an increase in the rate of force development. There are limited data on the influence of balance training on motor skills of elite athletes. When the effectiveness of balance training was compared with resistance training, it was found that resistance training produced superior performance results for
Kaleta, Dorota; Makowiec-Dabrowska, Teresa; Jegier, Anna
In many countries around the world, negative changes in lifestyles are observed. The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of selected lifestyle indicators on work ability among professionally active individuals. The study was performed in the randomly selected group of full-time employees (94 men and 93 women) living in the city of Lódź. Work ability was measured with the work ability index and lifestyle characteristic was assessed with the healthy lifestyle index. We analyzed four lifestyle indicators: non-smoking, healthy weight, fiber intake per day, and regular physical activity. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals to control the effects of lifestyle and work ability. The analysis of lifestyle index indicated that 27.7, 30.9, 27.7 and 11.7% of men and 15.1, 21.5, 35.5 and 26.9% of women scored 0, 1, 2, 3 points, respectively. Only 2.1% of men and 1.1% of women met the criteria for the healthy lifestyle (score 4). Work ability was excellent, good and moderate in 38.3, 46.8 and 14.9% of men, and in 39.8, 14.9 and 19.3% of women, respectively. Poor work ability was found in 9.7% women. Work ability was strongly associated with lifestyle in both men and women. Among men with index score = 0, the risk of moderate work ability was nearly seven times higher than in men whose lifestyle index score exceeded 1 or more points (OR = 6.67; 95% CI: 1.94-22.90). Among women with lifestyle index score = 0, the risk of moderate or lower work ability was also highly elevated as compared to those with lifestyle index = 1 or higher (OR = 14.44; 95% CI: 3.53-59.04). Prophylactic schedules associated with the improvement of lifestyles should be addressed to all adults. Future programs aimed at increasing work ability should consider work- and lifestyle-related factors.
Gerardi, Kristopher; Goette, Lorenz; Meier, Stephan
Unprecedented levels of US subprime mortgage defaults precipitated a severe global financial crisis in late 2008, plunging much of the industrialized world into a deep recession. However, the fundamental reasons for why US mortgages defaulted at such spectacular rates remain largely unknown. This paper presents empirical evidence showing that the ability to perform basic mathematical calculations is negatively associated with the propensity to default on one's mortgage. We measure several aspects of financial literacy and cognitive ability in a survey of subprime mortgage borrowers who took out loans in 2006 and 2007, and match them to objective, detailed administrative data on mortgage characteristics and payment histories. The relationship between numerical ability and mortgage default is robust to controlling for a broad set of sociodemographic variables, and is not driven by other aspects of cognitive ability. We find no support for the hypothesis that numerical ability impacts mortgage outcomes through the choice of the mortgage contract. Rather, our results suggest that individuals with limited numerical ability default on their mortgage due to behavior unrelated to the initial choice of their mortgage.
Gerardi, Kristopher; Goette, Lorenz; Meier, Stephan
Unprecedented levels of US subprime mortgage defaults precipitated a severe global financial crisis in late 2008, plunging much of the industrialized world into a deep recession. However, the fundamental reasons for why US mortgages defaulted at such spectacular rates remain largely unknown. This paper presents empirical evidence showing that the ability to perform basic mathematical calculations is negatively associated with the propensity to default on one’s mortgage. We measure several aspects of financial literacy and cognitive ability in a survey of subprime mortgage borrowers who took out loans in 2006 and 2007, and match them to objective, detailed administrative data on mortgage characteristics and payment histories. The relationship between numerical ability and mortgage default is robust to controlling for a broad set of sociodemographic variables, and is not driven by other aspects of cognitive ability. We find no support for the hypothesis that numerical ability impacts mortgage outcomes through the choice of the mortgage contract. Rather, our results suggest that individuals with limited numerical ability default on their mortgage due to behavior unrelated to the initial choice of their mortgage. PMID:23798401
Hoogendoorn, Sander; Parker, Simon C.; Van Praag, Mirjam
What is the effect of dispersed levels of cognitive ability of members of a (business) team on their team's performance? This paper reports the results of a field experiment in which 573 students in 49 (student) teams start up and manage real companies under identical circumstances for one year. We...... ensured exogenous variation in otherwise random team composition by assigning students to teams based on their measured cognitive abilities. Each team performs a variety of tasks, often involving complex decision making. The key result of the experiment is that the performance of business teams first...... increases and then decreases with ability dispersion. We seek to understand this finding by developing a model in which team members of different ability levels form sub- teams with other team members with similar ability levels to specialize in different productive tasks. Diversity spreads production over...
Voronin A. N.
Full Text Available Background. This article is devoted to empirical research on discourse abilities within the structure of cognitive abilities. Discourse abilities, as well as linguistic abilities, are part of language abilities, but they are directly linked with discourse practices and a certain communicative situation. Discourse abilities allow a person to effectively initiate, keep, expand, and complete the process of communication, using language appropriate to any given situation. These abilities contribute to making communication more effective and achieving mutual understanding between partners, while at the same time they speed up the process of forming an interaction strategy. the empirical verification of the construct “discourse abilities,” and the design of original diagnostic tests on them, led us to differentiate linguistic and discourse abilities. Objective. However, it is not yet clear what place discourse abilities occupy in the structure of cognitive abilities. This is the primary goal of our research. Method. The design of the study involved group testing (in groups of 15-35 people using the following methods: a discourse abilities test; a short selection test; a social intelligence test, and short variations of Torrance’s and Mednick’s tests. In total, 208 people (133 women and 75 men, ages 17 to 21 years participated in the study, all of them either first year humanities students or high school students from Moscow. Results and Discussion. The research results revealed that discourse abilities relevantly correlate with the majority of indicators of general and social intelligence and creativity (except non-verbal intelligence. Discourse abilities as part of the structure of cognitive capabilities form a discrete factor, and include relevant components such as verbal and general intelligence and indicators of social intelligence, such as the ability to group expressions. Structures indicative of cognitive abilities varied within the
Merecz, Dorota; Andysz, Aleksandra
Person-environment issue has long been in focus of researchers who explore the area of human labor. It is known that the level of fit is a predictor of many phenomena related to health and attitude to work. The aim of this study was to explore the association between the level of person- organization fit (P-O fit) and work ability, including indicators of somatic and mental health. Research was conducted on a representative sample of 600 Polish men and women at working age. The Person-Organization Fit Questionnaire was used to assess three dimensions of P-O fit (supplementary fit, complementary fit and identification with organization); mental health status was measured by GHQ-28; the number of diagnosed diseases was taken as an index of somatic health; work ability, ability to physical and mental efforts were measured by three items from the Work Ability Index. A significant relationship between P-O fit level and work ability was found. In men, work ability predictors were: age, supplementary fit and mental health status, which explained 25% of the variance in work ability. In women, work ability predictors were: the number of diagnosed somatic diseases, supplementary fit, age and complementary fit, which explained 27% of the variance in work ability. Some gender-related differences in the predictive value of variables under the study were also found. The results of this study indicate the importance of P-O fit in shaping the sense of work ability, a recognized predictor of workers' occupational activity and the frequency of taking sick leave in subsequent years. Therefore, this result may be a useful argument to motivate employers to employ workers adequately to their abilities and preferences.
Hagen, Suzanne; Gallagher, Helen
Background Competent sonography is thought to include a unique combination of skills not yet fully defined. This presents challenges when recruiting the correct people for training. Skills are thought to include visuospatial perception and psychomotor skills, but little is known about the relationship between these aptitudes and scanning ability. This feasibility study explored such relationships, to identify evaluation techniques which may improve selection and recruitment. Methods A sample of 30 experienced ultrasound practitioners and 30 trainees at commencement and on completion of training were administered eight tests. Results No significant relationships between experienced practitioners’ or trainees’ visuospatial abilities or psychomotor abilities and scanning abilities were found. Results demonstrated that two of the visuospatial perception tests were not influenced by training and therefore, may be measuring the innate skills of ultrasound practitioners. As ultrasound practitioners had not performed any of the tests previously, ranges of scores for each of the eight tests were established for this group. This included measures for psychomotor skills which added to the current body of knowledge for sonography. Conclusions Although no significant correlations were found between participants’ visuospatial perception or psychomotor abilities and scanning ability, performance on the Obstetric Structured Assessment Test (combining all the skills required) pre-training gave the best indication of post-training scanning performance. The Obstetric Structured Assessment Test may prove a useful tool for initial assessment of potential trainees but abilities will require further investigation. PMID:27847536
Full Text Available Arithmetic (from the word 'arithmos' which means 'numbers' is an elementary branch of mathematics. Numeracy is essential for understanding mathematics, so the development of arithmetic abilities has been an area of scientific research for a long time. Recent research has shown that the development of arithmetic abilities is not based only on gaining experience and learning. Some arithmetic abilities, especially the sense of quantity, are innate. Even babies are able to distinguish between groups with different number of elements and they perceive numeracy amodally. Six-month-olds distinguish between two groups with the numeracy ratio of 1 : 2. With age this ratio improves rapidly. Five-year-old children already distinguish between groups with the number ratio 7 : 8. The ability to compare two quantities begins to develop after 15 months of age and children learn how to count spontaneously, together with the acquisition of language. Speech enables children to understand number in its abstract, symbolic sense, thus opening the way to symbolic arithmetic. During the preschool period children use intuition when doing calculations, but in school the arithmetic is based on the knowledge of arithmetical algorithms. So, in order to acquire mathematical knowledge, it is necessary to incorporate memory and automate arithmetical processes, without the use of intuition. However, research has shown that intuition is very important and is even a predictive factor for the development of mathematical abilities throughout the schooling process.
Aurel Ion Clinciu
Full Text Available Spatial abilities are divided into three categories: mental rotation, spatial relation and visualization. Several tests are cited in foreign literature that are frequently used in order to assess these abilities, but for Romanian specialists they are not on hand. The present paper is introducing new assessment tools for static spatial abilities that were successfully used along with already validated instruments. Data on statistical qualities of the new instruments are also discussed.
Hultsch, David F.; And Others
Two successive recall tasks and eight ability measures were presented to women of five age groups to investigate the changing relation between performance and ability measures at various stages of the learning process during adulthood. (MS)
Navickiene, R.; Navickas, K.
The article analyses the main dimensions of organizational sustain ability, their possible integrations into artificial neural network. In this article authors performing analyses of organizational internal and external environments, their possible correlations with 4 components of sustain ability, and the principal determination models for sustain ability of organizations. Based on the general principles of sustainable development organizations, a artificial intelligence model for the determination of organizational sustain ability has been developed. The use of self-organizing neural networks allows the identification of the organizational sustain ability and the endeavour to explore vital, social, antropogenical and economical efficiency. The determination of the forest enterprise sustain ability is expected to help better manage the sustain ability. (Authors)
We often need to be able to assess the extent to which individuals have or lack work ability. For this we need instruments. Most of the instruments available have flaws. They either lack validity or they use roundabout methods when collecting information about the individual's work ability. The aim of this paper is to present a conceptual model for constructing a questionnaire that can be used for assessing work ability. The methods used are philosophical, i.e. analytical and deductive. A conceptual theory is provided, and based on the resulting definition of the concept of "work ability" conclusions are drawn regarding how to assess work ability. When constructing quantitative instruments, we can increase validity through using a more strict definition of work ability. However, such an approach will only solve some of the problems noted above. The proposal is, instead, to create a qualitative questionnaire, founded on a definition of "work ability", which focuses on the concrete problems concerning the work ability of the individual. Finally, a sketch of such an instrument is provided, with questions covering all the relevant aspects of work ability. The qualitative questionnaire proposed is believed to be superior to more traditional (quantitative) instruments for assessing a person's work ability, as well as for finding solutions to her problems concerning work ability.
Foverskov, Else; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Holm, Anders; Pedersen, Jolene Lee Masters; Osler, Merete; Lund, Rikke
Investigate direct and indirect associations between markers of socioeconomic position (SEP) across the life course and midlife cognitive ability while addressing methodological limitations in prior work. Longitudinal data from the Danish Metropolit cohort of men born in 1953 ( N = 2,479) who completed ability tests at age 12, 18, and 56-58 linked to register-based information on paternal occupational class, educational attainment, and occupational level. Associations were assessed using structural equation models, and different models were estimated to examine the importance of accounting for childhood ability and measurement error. Associations between adult SEP measures and midlife ability decreased significantly when adjusting for childhood ability and measurement error. The association between childhood and midlife ability was by far the strongest. The impact of adult SEP on later life ability may be exaggerated when not accounting for the stability of individual differences in cognitive ability and measurement error in test scores.
McNergney, Robert; Hinson, Stephanie
Describes Teacher Development Decision Exercises, a computer-based method of diagnosing abilities of elementary and secondary school supervisors (principals, staff developers, curriculum coordinators) to make professional preactive or planning decisions. This approval simulates assessment of supervisors' abilities to use professional knowledge to…
Sanbonmatsu, David M.; Strayer, David L.; Medeiros-Ward, Nathan; Watson, Jason M.
The present study examined the relationship between personality and individual differences in multi-tasking ability. Participants enrolled at the University of Utah completed measures of multi-tasking activity, perceived multi-tasking ability, impulsivity, and sensation seeking. In addition, they performed the Operation Span in order to assess their executive control and actual multi-tasking ability. The findings indicate that the persons who are most capable of multi-tasking effectively are ...
Lian, Lim Hooi; Yew, Wun Thiam
Algebraic solving ability had been discussed by many educators and researchers. There exists no definite definition for algebraic solving ability as it can be viewed from different perspectives. In this paper, the nature of algebraic solving ability in terms of algebraic processes that demonstrate the ability in solving algebraic problem is…
Pinson, Pierre; Tastu, Julija
as appealing since being proper, we show that its discrimination ability may be limited when focusing on the dependence structure of multivariate probabilistic forecasts. For the case of multivariate Gaussian process, a theoretical upper for such discrimination ability is derived and discussed. This limited...... discrimination ability may eventually get compromised by computational and sampling issues, as dimension increases....
The present invention relates to a method of establishing a hearing ability model for a person, the method including providing a representation of the distribution of hearing ability for a population of individuals. The method may comprise the steps) performing a hearing evaluation event, comprising
Sanbonmatsu, David M; Strayer, David L; Medeiros-Ward, Nathan; Watson, Jason M
The present study examined the relationship between personality and individual differences in multi-tasking ability. Participants enrolled at the University of Utah completed measures of multi-tasking activity, perceived multi-tasking ability, impulsivity, and sensation seeking. In addition, they performed the Operation Span in order to assess their executive control and actual multi-tasking ability. The findings indicate that the persons who are most capable of multi-tasking effectively are not the persons who are most likely to engage in multiple tasks simultaneously. To the contrary, multi-tasking activity as measured by the Media Multitasking Inventory and self-reported cell phone usage while driving were negatively correlated with actual multi-tasking ability. Multi-tasking was positively correlated with participants' perceived ability to multi-task ability which was found to be significantly inflated. Participants with a strong approach orientation and a weak avoidance orientation--high levels of impulsivity and sensation seeking--reported greater multi-tasking behavior. Finally, the findings suggest that people often engage in multi-tasking because they are less able to block out distractions and focus on a singular task. Participants with less executive control--low scorers on the Operation Span task and persons high in impulsivity--tended to report higher levels of multi-tasking activity.
David M Sanbonmatsu
Full Text Available The present study examined the relationship between personality and individual differences in multi-tasking ability. Participants enrolled at the University of Utah completed measures of multi-tasking activity, perceived multi-tasking ability, impulsivity, and sensation seeking. In addition, they performed the Operation Span in order to assess their executive control and actual multi-tasking ability. The findings indicate that the persons who are most capable of multi-tasking effectively are not the persons who are most likely to engage in multiple tasks simultaneously. To the contrary, multi-tasking activity as measured by the Media Multitasking Inventory and self-reported cell phone usage while driving were negatively correlated with actual multi-tasking ability. Multi-tasking was positively correlated with participants' perceived ability to multi-task ability which was found to be significantly inflated. Participants with a strong approach orientation and a weak avoidance orientation--high levels of impulsivity and sensation seeking--reported greater multi-tasking behavior. Finally, the findings suggest that people often engage in multi-tasking because they are less able to block out distractions and focus on a singular task. Participants with less executive control--low scorers on the Operation Span task and persons high in impulsivity--tended to report higher levels of multi-tasking activity.
Sanbonmatsu, David M.; Strayer, David L.; Medeiros-Ward, Nathan; Watson, Jason M.
The present study examined the relationship between personality and individual differences in multi-tasking ability. Participants enrolled at the University of Utah completed measures of multi-tasking activity, perceived multi-tasking ability, impulsivity, and sensation seeking. In addition, they performed the Operation Span in order to assess their executive control and actual multi-tasking ability. The findings indicate that the persons who are most capable of multi-tasking effectively are not the persons who are most likely to engage in multiple tasks simultaneously. To the contrary, multi-tasking activity as measured by the Media Multitasking Inventory and self-reported cell phone usage while driving were negatively correlated with actual multi-tasking ability. Multi-tasking was positively correlated with participants’ perceived ability to multi-task ability which was found to be significantly inflated. Participants with a strong approach orientation and a weak avoidance orientation – high levels of impulsivity and sensation seeking – reported greater multi-tasking behavior. Finally, the findings suggest that people often engage in multi-tasking because they are less able to block out distractions and focus on a singular task. Participants with less executive control - low scorers on the Operation Span task and persons high in impulsivity - tended to report higher levels of multi-tasking activity. PMID:23372720
This study examined the relative contributions of general cognitive abilities and number abilities to word problem solving, calculation, and arithmetic fact retrieval in a sample of 134 children aged 10 to 13 years. The following tasks were administered: listening span, visual matrix span, verbal fluency, color naming, Raven's Progressive Matrices, enumeration, number line estimation, and digit comparison. Hierarchical multiple regressions demonstrated that number abilities provided an independent contribution to fact retrieval and word problem solving. General cognitive abilities contributed to problem solving and calculation. All three number tasks accounted for a similar amount of variance in fact retrieval, whereas only the number line estimation task contributed unique variance in word problem solving. Verbal fluency and Raven's matrices accounted for an equal amount of variance in problem solving and calculation. The current findings demonstrate, in accordance with Fuchs and colleagues' developmental model of mathematical learning (Developmental Psychology, 2010, Vol. 46, pp. 1731-1746), that both number abilities and general cognitive abilities underlie 10- to 13-year-olds' proficiency in problem solving, whereas only number abilities underlie arithmetic fact retrieval. Thus, the amount and type of cognitive contribution to arithmetic proficiency varies between the different aspects of arithmetic. Furthermore, how closely linked a specific aspect of arithmetic is to the whole number representation systems is not the only factor determining the amount and type of cognitive contribution in 10- to 13-year-olds. In addition, the mathematical complexity of the task appears to influence the amount and type of cognitive support. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
María Dolores Prieto Sánchez
Full Text Available This special issue of the journal aims at putting together national and international research on high abilities, and is divided into three sections: 1 Roles and cognitive, emotional and professional competences of high ability students’ teachers, 2 Identification and assessment of high ability students, 3 Analysis of practices, programs and mentoring of high ability students’ attention to diversity.The articles are authored by scholars from nine different countries (Spain, Argentina, UK, USA, Russia, Brazil, Saudi Arabia, Portugal and Poland, from sixteen different Spanish and international universities: Alicante (Spain, Autónoma de Barcelona (Spain, Málaga (Spain, Murcia (Spain, Navarra (Spain, Oviedo (Spain, Tufts University (USA, Yale University (USA, Moscow State University (Russia, Nacional de La Plata (Argentina, University of Connecticut (USA, Universidade do Minho (Portugal, Universidade da Beira Interior (Portugal, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (Brazil, King Faisal University (Saudi Arabia and Universidad de Szczecin (Poland.
Kern, Richard P.; And Others
This paper presents data describing large differences between the reading difficulty levels of printed materials used in certain military occupational specialties (MOSs) and the relatively lower reading ability levels of men assigned to these MOSs. Initial data explore the relationship between reading ability and utilization of printed materials…
Andersson, Ola; Holm, Håkan J.; Tyran, Jean-Robert Karl
Recent experimental studies suggest that risk aversion is negatively related to cognitive ability. In this paper we report evidence that this relation might be spurious. We recruit a large subject pool drawn from the general Danish population for our experiment. By presenting subjects with choice...... tasks that vary the bias induced by random choices, we are able to generate both negative and positive correlations between risk aversion and cognitive ability. Structural estimation allowing for heterogeneity of noise yields no significant relation between risk aversion and cognitive ability. Our...... results suggest that cognitive ability is related to random decision making, rather than to risk preferences....
Andersson, Ola; Holm, Håkan J.; Tyran, Jean-Robert Karl
Recent experimental studies suggest that risk aversion is negatively related to cognitive ability. In this paper we report evidence that this relation might be spurious. We recruit a large subject pool drawn from the general Danish population for our experiment. By presenting subjects with choice...... tasks that vary the bias induced by random choices, we are able to generate both negative and positive correlations between risk aversion and cognitive ability. Structural estimation allowing for heterogeneity of noise yields no significant relation between risk aversion and cognitive ability. Our...... results suggest that cognitive ability is related to random decision making rather than to risk preferences....
Hart, Sara A.; Petrill, Stephen A.; Thompson, Lee A.; Plomin, Robert
The goal of this first major report from the Western Reserve Reading Project Math component is to explore the etiology of the relationship among tester-administered measures of mathematics ability, reading ability, and general cognitive ability. Data are available on 314 pairs of monozygotic and same-sex dizygotic twins analyzed across 5 waves of assessment. Univariate analyses provide a range of estimates of genetic (h2 = .00 –.63) and shared (c2 = .15–.52) environmental influences across math calculation, fluency, and problem solving measures. Multivariate analyses indicate genetic overlap between math problem solving with general cognitive ability and reading decoding, whereas math fluency shares significant genetic overlap with reading fluency and general cognitive ability. Further, math fluency has unique genetic influences. In general, math ability has shared environmental overlap with general cognitive ability and decoding. These results indicate that aspects of math that include problem solving have different genetic and environmental influences than math calculation. Moreover, math fluency, a timed measure of calculation, is the only measured math ability with unique genetic influences. PMID:20157630
Andrew, Michael D.; Cobb, Casey D.; Giampietro, Peter J.
Critics of traditional teacher education programs have suggested that verbal ability along with subject knowledge is sufficient for measuring good teaching. A small group of research studies is called upon to support this contention. This article reviews these studies, analyzes the role of verbal ability in teaching, and presents research…
Children with Developmental Coordination Disorders (DCD) exhibit deficient daily performance concealed in their perception-action mechanism. The aim of this study was to analyze behavior organization of children with DCD, in varied tasks that require generating and monitoring mental representations related to space and time inputs/requirements, for achieving better insight about their perception-action mechanism. Participants included 42 children aged 7-10, half of whom were defined with DCD and half were typically developing (TD). The children were matched for age, gender and school. They were evaluated using the Movement-ABC and performed three handwriting tasks on an electronic tablet that is part of a computerized system (ComPET - Computerized Penmanship Evaluation Tool). In addition, their teachers completed the Questionnaire for Assessing Students' Organizational Abilities-Teachers (QASOA-T) to assess the children's daily organizational ability. Significant group differences (DCD versus controls) were found for all handwriting kinematic measures across the three handwriting tasks and for the children's organizational abilities. Motor ability predicted a considerable percentage of the variance of the kinematic handwriting measures (30-37%), as well as a high percentage of the variance of their organizational abilities (67%). The coefficient of variance of the pen tilt added an additional 3% to the prediction of their organizational abilities. The results of this study exhibited deficient ability among children with DCD in organizing their behavior in varied real-world tasks requiring generation and monitoring representation related to space and time. The significance of the results to understanding the performance mechanism and implication to the clinical field are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Schultz-Larsen, K; Avlund, K; Kreiner, S
Criterion-related validity of a new measure of functional ability was conducted according to a causal model based on conceptual models employed in the area of rehabilitative and geriatric medicine. The criteria variables included concurrent diagnosed diseases, global self-rated health, drug...... consumption and general practitioner (GP) consultations. The measure of functional ability was developed with the intention of achieving a high degree of discrimination among a group of community dwelling elderly. Data were derived from a sample survey of 70-year-old men and women conducted in 1984...... different unidimensional index scales of functional ability divided into two types, with reduced speed and tiredness as subdimensions. The two scale types were mobility function and lower limb function. Early losses of ability together with global self-rated health were treated as outcome measures...
The concept of "work ability" is central for many sciences, especially for those related to working life and to rehabilitation. It is one of the important concepts in legislation regulating sickness insurance. How the concept is defined therefore has important normative implications. The concept is, however, often not sufficiently well defined. AIM AND METHOD The objective of this paper is to clarify, through conceptual analysis, what the concept can and should mean, and to propose a useful definition for scientific and practical work. RESULTS Several of the defining characteristics found in the literature are critically scrutinized and discussed, namely health, basic standard competence, occupational competence, occupational virtues, and motivation. These characteristics are related to the work tasks and the work environment. One conclusion is that we need two definitions of work ability, one for specific jobs that require special training or education, and one for jobs that most people can manage given a short period of practice. Having work ability, in the first sense, means having the occupational competence, the health required for the competence, and the occupational virtues that are required for managing the work tasks, assuming that the tasks are reasonable and that the work environment is acceptable. In the second sense, having work ability is having the health, the basic standard competence and the relevant occupational virtues required for managing some kind of job, assuming that the work tasks are reasonable and that the work environment is acceptable. CONCLUSION These definitions give us tools for understanding and discussing the complex, holistic and dynamic aspects of work ability, and they can lay the foundations for the creation of instruments for evaluating work ability, as well as help formulate strategies for rehabilitation.
Most people have the capacity for music perception and production, but the degree of music competency varies between individuals. In this thesis, I studied abilities to identify pitch, tone duration and sound patterns with Karma s test for auditory structuring (KMT), and Seashore s tests for time (ST) and pitch (SP). These abilities can be considered as basic components of musicality. Additionally, I studied self-reported musical activities, especially composing and arranging. Musical ability...
Kirkpatrick, Robert M.; McGue, Matt; Iacono, William G.
Using a combined sample of adolescent twins, biological siblings, and adoptive siblings, we estimated and compared the differential shared-environmentality for high cognitive ability and the shared-environmental variance for the full range of ability during adolescence. Estimates obtained via multiple methods were in the neighborhood of 0.20, and suggest a modest effect of the shared environment on both high and full-range ability. We then examined the association of ability with three measur...
... Cordless Ratchet Wrench ClampTite Wire Clamping Tool iBlue Smart Gate/Door Opener Full Toolbox AT Database Extranet ... in-person NTW - March 19-22, Portland, Maine House and Senate Appropriations Committees recommend restoring AgrAbility funding... ...
Werpup-Stüwe, L; Petermann, F; Daseking, M
The use of psychometric tests in with children and adolescents is especially important in psychological diagnostics. Nonverbal intelligence tests are very often used to diagnose psychological abnormalities and generate developmental prognosis independent of the child´s verbal abilities. The correlation of the German version of the Developmental Test of Visual Perception - Adolescents and Adults (DTVP-A) with the Wechsler Nonverbal Scala of Abilities (WNV) was calculated based on the results of 172 children, adolescents and young adults aged 9-21 years. Furthermore, it was examined if individuals with poor visual perceptual abilities scored lower on the WNV than healthy subjects. The correlations of the results scored on DTVP-A and WNV ranged from moderate to strong. The group with poor visual perceptual abilities scored significantly lower on the WNV than the control group. Nonverbal intelligence tests like the WNV are not reliable for estimating the intelligence of individuals with low visual perceptual abilities. Therefore, the intelligence of these subjects should be tested with a test that also contains verbal subtests. If poor visual perceptual abilities are suspected, then they should be tested. The DTVP-A seems to be the right instrument for achieving this goal. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Uhm, Yo-Han; Yang, Dae-Jung
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of biofeedback postural control training using whole body vibration in acute stroke patients on balance and gait ability. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty stroke patients participated in this study and were divided into a group of 10, a group for biofeedback postural control training combined with a whole body vibration, one for biofeedback postural control training combined with an aero-step, and one for biofeedback postural control training. Biorescue was used to measure the limits of stability, balance ability, and Lukotronic was used to measure step length, gait ability. [Results] In the comparison of balance ability and gait ability between the groups for before and after intervention, Group I showed a significant difference in balance ability and gait ability compared to Groups II and III. [Conclusion] This study showed that biofeedback postural control training using whole body vibration is effective for improving balance ability and gait ability in stroke patients.
Torner Ribé, Jordi; Alpiste Penalba, Francesc; Brigos Hermida, Miguel Ángel
Many studies have demonstrated that spatial ability is an important factor in the study of Industrial Engineering. Spatial ability is fundamentally important to the work of an engineer, as it is vital for project design. Among other elements, spatial ability correlates with factors such as good academic results and a natural ability to learn how to use I.T systems and computer programs. Furthermore, the new framework drawn up by the European Higher Education Area (EHEA) guides us as to the...
Gold, Zachary Samuel
Engineering play is a new perspective on preschool education that views constructive play as an engineering design process that parallels the way engineers think and work when they develop engineered solutions to human problems (Bairaktarova, Evangelou, Bagiati, & Brophy, 2011). Early research from this perspective supports its use in framing play as a key learning context. However, no research to date has examined associations between engineering play and other factors linked with early school success, such as executive function, mathematical ability, and spatial ability. Additionally, more research is needed to further validate a new engineering play observational measure. This study had two main goals: (1) to gather early validity data on the engineering play measure as a potentially useful instrument for documenting the occurrence of children's engineering play behaviors in educational contexts, such as block play. This was done by testing the factor structure of the engineering play behaviors in this sample and their association with preschoolers' planning, a key aspect of the engineering design process; (2) to explore associations between preschoolers' engineering play and executive function, mathematical ability, and spatial ability. Participants included 110 preschoolers (62 girls; 48 boys; M = 58.47 months) from 10 classrooms in the Midwest United States coded for their frequency of engagement in each of the nine engineering play behaviors. A confirmatory factor analysis resulted in one engineering play factor including six of the engineering play behaviors. A series of marginal regression models revealed that the engineering play factor was significantly and positively associated with the spatial horizontal rotation transformation. However, engineering play was not significantly related to planning ability, executive function, informal mathematical abilities, or other spatial transformation skills. Follow-up analyses revealed significant positive
Jæger, Mads Meier
do not possess cultural capital. This paper uses extremely rich longitudinal data that provides a better basis than previous studies for holding ‘everything else’ constant. In addition to children and parents’ cultural capital, I control for children’s actual academic ability, physical appearance......, health impairments, social behaviour, antenatal influences, and many family background characteristics. My analysis shows, first, that both children and parents’ cultural capital have independent effects on teacher ability ratings. Second, for oral ability I find that parents’ cultural capital ‘protects...
Klynge, Alice Heegaard
I develop a selection model in which the individual’s supply of ability is endogenous and subject to selection along with occupation. Additionally, I identify and estimate the returns to creative and innovative ability, communication ability, and reading and math ability for white-collar and blue...
Chishun; MA; Jintian; YU
Agricultural technological innovation strategic alliance, as an important form of strategic alliance, has steadily strengthened the collaborative management among organizations and raised competitive power with the backing of improved group innovation ability. This article studies innovation ability from individual innovation ability to the group innovation ability. Firstly, basic connotation of group innovation ability is to be concluded through the comparison of individual and group innovation ability. Secondly, evaluation index system is to be established based on the influencing factors of the group innovation ability of agricultural technological innovation strategic alliance and evaluation is based on three dimensions, namely organization technological innovation ability, alliance collaborative innovation ability as well as innovation environment. Furthermore, basic methods for promoting the group innovation ability of alliance are to be proposed.
Avanesyan, Marina O.
Full Text Available The cognitive processing of metaphor creation has been insufficiently investigated. Creating metaphors requires the ability to work in a fantastic, impossible context, using symbolic and associative means to express oneís thoughts. It has been shown recently that intelligence plays an important role in the creation of metaphors, but it is not the main factor in determining their success. The present research explores the roles of conceptual abilities, categorical abilities, and flexibility (as the factor creativity in metaphor creation. Participants (n = 38 young adults were asked to come up with names for three photos, without any special instruction to create metaphors. To classify conceptual abilities we used ìConceptual Synthesisî (M. A. Kholodnaya, 2012; to measure categorical ability we used the subtest ìSimilaritiesî (D. Wechsler, 1955; to identify the role of creativity in the metaphor process we used the test of ìUnusual Usesî (J. P. Guilford, 1960. The creation of complex metaphorical names was associated with a tendency to create highly organized mental structures and to retain them within the general semantic context (r = 0.344, p < 0.05. The tendency to create single-level situational connections was associated with a tendency to give specific names to photos (r = 0.475, p < 0.01. Photographic images proved out to be fruitful stimuli to investigate the processing of visual information. We developed a preliminary classification of names: 1 concrete; 2 situational; 3 abstract; 4 metaphorical (M1 and M2. We identified two types of metaphorical names — perceptual and complex metaphors — that relate to conceptual abilities in different ways. It is inaccurate to speak about a general concept of ìmetaphorical abilitiesî; we should differentiate the psychological mechanisms that lie at their base.
Cook, Jennifer L; Murphy, Jennifer; Bird, Geoffrey
Collaboration leads us to judge our own ability to be more similar to our collaborators and their ability to be more similar to our own, while competition leads us to exaggerate the gap between our abilities. How does this happen and what does it mean? Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Poulsen, Ingrid; Kreiner, Svend; Engberg, Aase W
model item analysis. A secondary objective was to examine the relationship between the Early Functional Abilities scale and the Functional Independence Measurement™, in order to establish the criterion validity of the Early Functional Abilities scale and to compare the sensitivity of measurements using......), facio-oral, sensorimotor and communicative/cognitive functions. Removal of one item from the sensorimotor scale confirmed unidimensionality for each of the 4 subscales, but not for the entire scale. The Early Functional Abilities subscales are sensitive to differences between patients in ranges in which......OBJECTIVE: The Early Functional Abilities scale assesses the restoration of brain function after brain injury, based on 4 dimensions. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the validity, objectivity, reliability and measurement precision of the Early Functional Abilities scale by Rasch...
Lorentzen, Jakob; Poulsen, Ingrid
Early Functional Abilities (EFA), - en skala til evaluering af behandlingsforløb af svært hjerneskadede patienter i forbindelse med tidlig rehabilitering. Formål At monitorere og dokumentere rehabiliteringsforløbet for svært hjerneskadede patienter, hvor funktionsniveauet endnu ikke kan registreres...
Spatial abilities are used in many aspects of everyday life, thus developing these abilities should be one of the most important goal of Mathematics Education. These abilities should be developed starting with early school years, thus pre-school and primary school teachers have an important role in setting the foundation of these abilities. A…
Conclusion: Functional ability which appears to be related to stroke laterality showed positive association with both community reintegration and participation restriction. This suggests that improving the functional ability of the stroke survivors may reduce participation restriction and enhance their reintegration into the ...
Analyzes the effects of eight reading and writing lessons designed to increase adolescent thinking ability. Finds that the lessons increased thinking abilities and scholastic achievement of middle school students. Notes that the lessons positively affect students' self-esteem and communication skills. (RS)
Full Text Available The audition injury hinders some motor motions and the organised coordination at the higher level and may be a cause of disturbances and disorder in some motor abilities adoption. It was assumed that deafness including its aetiology and injury mechanism may significantly influence the motor development of human being. The study aimed in checking if the deafness, as a result of various unfavourable factors, determines the motor development of children and youngsters. Consequently the dependency between qualitative features i.e.: signed motor level and aetiology, audition injury mechanism and the deafness degree was examined. The mechanism and aetiology of hearing correlated with the motor abilities displayed statistically significant dependencies in few motor trials only. Revealed correlations regarded mostly the coordination trials excluding the flexibility one. Statistically significant dependencies between the audition diminution and the motor abilities level were not found.
Redick, Thomas S; Webster, Sean B
Numerous research studies have been conducted on the use of videogames as tools to improve one's cognitive abilities. While meta-analyses and qualitative reviews have provided evidence that some aspects of cognition such as spatial imagery are modified after exposure to videogames, other evidence has shown that matrix reasoning measures of fluid intelligence do not show evidence of transfer from videogame training. In the current work, we investigate the available evidence for transfer specifically to nonverbal intelligence and spatial ability measures, given recent research that these abilities may be most sensitive to training on cognitive and working memory tasks. Accordingly, we highlight a few studies that on the surface provide evidence for transfer to spatial abilities, but a closer look at the pattern of data does not reveal a clean interpretation of the results. We discuss the implications of these results in relation to research design and statistical analysis practices.
Kirkpatrick, Robert M; McGue, Matt; Iacono, William G
Using a combined sample of adolescent twins, biological siblings, and adoptive siblings, we estimated and compared the differential shared-environmentality for high cognitive ability and the shared-environmental variance for the full range of ability during adolescence. Estimates obtained via multiple methods were in the neighborhood of 0.20, and suggest a modest effect of the shared environment on both high and full-range ability. We then examined the association of ability with three measures of the family environment in a subsample of adoptive siblings: parental occupational status, parental education, and disruptive life events. Only parental education showed significant (albeit modest) association with ability in both the biological and adoptive samples. We discuss these results in terms of the need for cognitive-development research to combine genetically sensitive designs and modern statistical methods with broad, thorough environmental measurement.
Full Text Available Purpose: optimize the process control level of coordination abilities in martial arts. Material and Methods: analysis and compilation of scientific and methodological literature, interviews with coaches of drum martial arts, video analysis techniques, teacher observations. Results: identified specific types of coordination abilities in shock combat sports. Pod branny and offered specific and nonspecific tests to monitor the level of species athletes coordination abilities. Conclusion: it is determined that in order to achieve victory in the fight martial artists to navigate the space to be able to assess and manage dynamic and spatio-temporal parameters of movements, maintain balance, have a high coordination of movements. The proposed tests to monitor species coordination abilities athletes allow an objective assessment of not only the overall level of coordination, and the level of specific types of manifestations of this ability.
Geukes, Marije; van Aalst, Mariëlle P; Nauta, Mary C E; Oosterhof, Henk
Menopause is an important life event that may have a negative influence on quality of life. Work ability, a concept widely used in occupational health, can predict both future impairment and duration of sickness absence. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of menopausal symptoms on work ability. This was a cross-sectional study that used a sample of healthy working Dutch women aged 44 to 60 years. Work ability was measured using the Work Ability Index, and menopausal symptoms were measured using the Greene Climacteric Scale. Stepwise multiple linear regression models were used to examine the relationship between menopausal symptoms and work ability. A total of 208 women were included in this study. There was a significant negative correlation between total Greene Climacteric Scale score and Work Ability Index score. Total Greene Climacteric Scale score predicted 33.8% of the total variance in the Work Ability Index score. Only the psychological and somatic subscales of the Greene Climacteric Scale were significant predictors in multiple linear regression analysis. Together, they accounted for 36.5% of total variance in Work Ability Index score. Menopausal symptoms are negatively associated with work ability and may increase the risk of sickness absence.
Full Text Available Flexible or innovative behavior is advantageous, especially when animals are exposed to frequent and unpredictable environmental perturbations. Improved cognitive abilities can help animals to respond quickly and adequately to environmental dynamics, and therefore changing environments may select for higher cognitive abilities. Increased cognitive abilities can be attained, for instance, if environmental change during ontogeny triggers plastic adaptive responses improving the learning capacity of exposed individuals. We tested the learning abilities of fishes in response to experimental variation of environmental quality during ontogeny. Individuals of the cichlid fish Simochromis pleurospilus that experienced a change in food ration early in life outperformed fish kept on constant rations in a learning task later in life--irrespective of the direction of the implemented change and the mean rations received. This difference in learning abilities between individuals remained constant between juvenile and adult stages of the same fish tested 1 y apart. Neither environmental enrichment nor training through repeated neural stimulation can explain our findings, as the sensory environment was kept constant and resource availability was changed only once. Instead, our results indicate a pathway by which a single change in resource availability early in life permanently enhances the learning abilities of animals. Early perturbations of environmental quality may signal the developing individual that it lives in a changing world, requiring increased cognitive abilities to construct adequate behavioral responses.
van der Linden, Willem J.; Zwarts, Michel A.
For computerized test systems to be operational, the use of item response theory is a prerequisite. As opposed to classical test theory, in item response models the abilities of the examinees and the properties of the items are parameterized separately. Hence, when measuring the abilities of
Full Text Available How has human information behavior evolved? Our paper explores this question in the form of notions, models and theories about the relationship between information behavior and human evolution. Alexander's Ecological Dominance and Social Competition/Cooperation (EDSC model currently provides the most comprehensive overview of human traits in the development of a theory of human evolution and sociality. His model provides a basis for explaining the evolution of human socio-cognitive abilities, including ecological dominance, and social competition/cooperation. Our paper examines the human trait of information behavior as a socio-cognitive ability related to ecological dominance, and social competition/cooperation. The paper first outlines what is meant by information behavior from various interdisciplinary perspectives. We propose that information behavior is a socio-cognitive ability that is related to and enables other socio-cognitive abilities such as human ecological dominance, and social competition/cooperation. The paper reviews the current state of evolutionary approaches to information behavior and future directions for this research
Thomas S. Redick
Full Text Available Numerous research studies have been conducted on the use of videogames as tools to improve one’s cognitive abilities. While meta-analyses and qualitative reviews have provided evidence that some aspects of cognition such as spatial imagery are modified after exposure to videogames, other evidence has shown that matrix reasoning measures of fluid intelligence do not show evidence of transfer from videogame training. In the current work, we investigate the available evidence for transfer specifically to nonverbal intelligence and spatial ability measures, given recent research that these abilities may be most sensitive to training on cognitive and working memory tasks. Accordingly, we highlight a few studies that on the surface provide evidence for transfer to spatial abilities, but a closer look at the pattern of data does not reveal a clean interpretation of the results. We discuss the implications of these results in relation to research design and statistical analysis practices.
Higgins, Lee; Mantie, Roger
We argue in this article for greater role for improvisation in the music classroom. Based on an extensive examination of scholarship about improvisational practices, we propose three conceptualizations--ability, culture, experience--that can serve to guide the teaching of improvisation. When considered as an "ability," improvisation is a…
Shawkat Gaber Radwan
Full Text Available Indicates each of Muhama d Allawi (2002, Essam Abdul Khaliq (2003, and Walf Droge (2002 that the coordination abilities are closely related to the development of technical motor skills, and that pra ctitioner athletic activity which determines the quality of this abilities should be developed, where the player can not master the technical skills in the special activity in case lack of special coordination abilities for this activity. Both Manf red Must er (1986, Jürgen Schmicker (2000, Wolfgang and others (2000 and Wohlgefahrt, Karlheinz (2004 refers that the special coordination abilities for table tennis include each of: 1 - The motor adaptation and adjustment ability, 2 - The ability to differentiat e , 3 - reaction speed ability, 4 - orientation ability, 5 - balance ability, 6 - coupling ability, 7 - The ability to sense the rhythm. The aim of this study is design training program to development the special coordination abilities of table tennis and identi fies the impact of this program on the general skill ability for table tennis juniors under 12 years old. The researcher used the experimental method into two groups one experimental and the other control group the strength of each of them is 8 of table te nnis juniors in Ismailia city in Egypt. The duration of the program is three months, three training units a week the duration of each training unit is 90 minutes. The most important results of this study was the training program led to improvement the spec ial coordination abilities of table tennis for the experimental group, which led to high level of the general skill ability in table tennis for the experimental group more than the control group .
... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Language ability. 1616.7 Section 1616.7 Public... § 1616.7 Language ability. In areas where a significant number of clients speak a language other than English as their principal language, a recipient shall adopt employment policies that insure that legal...
Nakamura, L.I.; Roszbach, K.
In this paper we use credit rating data from two Swedish banks to elicit evidence on these banks’ loan monitoring ability. We do so by comparing the ability of bank ratings to predict loan defaults relative to that of public ratings from the Swedish credit bureau. We test the banks’ abilility to
Yang, Xinwei; Wang, Zhiming; Lan, Yajia; Wang, Mianzhen
This study was conducted to assess occupational stress and work ability. A test of occupational stress and work ability was carry out with revised occupational stress inventory (OSI-R) and work ability index(WAI) for 2270 workers. (1) The occupational stress and strain in male was significantly higher than those in female, but self-care and social support in female werehigher than in male(P < 0.01). The level of occupational stress, strain except interpersonal strain increased with age, while work ability decreased(P < 0.05). (2) Among 6 items of occupational role questionnaire, the score of role boundary and responsibility were obviously higher in college education (P < 0.05). The score of occupational role, psychological strain, physical strain was higher in maried, divorce than unmarried(P < 0.05). (3) The score of occupational role, strain in good work ability category was significantly lower than others, but personal resources were higher(P < 0.05). (4) The correlation of work ability and occupational stress, strain, personal resources were significant(P < 0.01), occupational role and personal strain were positively correlated, both of which correlated negatively to the personal resources(P < 0.01). (5) The major influential factors of personal strain were age, recreation, self-care, social support, rational/cognitive, role insufficiency, role ambiguity and role boundary.
Full Text Available The objective of this study is to analyze the construct of creativity and its relationship with high ability, presenting different definitions, assessment tools and strategies to encourage their development in the school context. The paper is structured into five sections: firstly, we define the concept of creativity. Secondly, we present the most relevant instruments used in the analysis of high ability students’ creativity. Thirdly, we look into several studies on creativity and high abilitiy, highlighting the main limitations of the research carried out. Fourthly, we present principles and strategies in order to foster creativity in the school context. Finally, some conclusions are drawn on the relationship between creativity and high ability.
Hebbelstrup Rye Rasmussen, Stig; Nørgaard, Asbjørn Sonne
Individuals are not equally politically tolerant. To explain why, individual differences in emotions and threat have received much scholarly attention in recent years. However, extant research also shows that psychological dispositions, habitual cognitive styles, ideological orientation...... and ‘principled reasoning’ influence political tolerance judgments. The extent to which cognitive ability plays a role has not been entertained even if the capacity to think abstractly, comprehend complex ideas and apply abstract ideas to concrete situations is inherent to both principled tolerance judgment...... and cognitive ability. Cognitive ability, we argue and show, adds to the etiology of political tolerance. In Danish and American samples cognitive ability strongly predicts political tolerance after taking habitual cognitive styles (as measured by personality traits), education, social ideology, and feelings...
Julià, Carme; Antolí, Juan Òscar
Several authors insist on the importance of students' acquisition of spatial abilities and visualization in order to have academic success in areas such as science, technology or engineering. This paper proposes to discuss and analyse the use of educational robotics to develop spatial abilities in 12 year old students. First of all, a course to…
Demands involving the scheduling and interleaving of multiple activities have become increasingly prevalent, especially for women in both their paid and unpaid work hours. Despite the ubiquity of everyday requirements to multitask, individual and gender-related differences in multitasking have gained minimal attention in past research. In two experiments, participants completed a multitasking session with four gender-fair monitoring tasks and separate tasks measuring executive functioning (working memory updating) and spatial ability (mental rotation). In both experiments, males outperformed females in monitoring accuracy. Individual differences in executive functioning and spatial ability were independent predictors of monitoring accuracy, but only spatial ability mediated gender differences in multitasking. Menstrual changes accentuated these effects, such that gender differences in multitasking (and spatial ability) were eliminated between males and females who were in the menstrual phase of the menstrual cycle but not between males and females who were in the luteal phase. These findings suggest that multitasking involves spatiotemporal task coordination and that gender differences in multiple-task performance reflect differences in spatial ability.
A study by psychologists in the US has found that high-school girls rate their competence in mathematics lower than boys, even for those with similar abilities (Front. Psychol. 10.3389/fpsyg.2017.00386).
Setiono, S.; Rustaman, N. Y.; Rahmat, A.; Anggraeni, S.
Cognitive abilities is fundamental for the students, as it is closely related to higher thinking skills such as the ability to think critically, creatively, and problem solving. This descriptive study aims to investigate the cognitive abilities of biology prospective teachers in the course of Plant Anatomy Practicum based on the cognitive process dimension and dimensions of knowledge the using the framework of Revision of Bloom taxonomy. A number of biology prospective teachers was involved in this study (n=42). The instrument used to collect data for students’ cognitive process mastery in the form of multiple choice with 5 options. Research finding shows that the average student’s cognitive ability is 68.10. The acquisition of knowledge mastery of cognitive ability is still under the criterion of mastery in the course of the Plant Anatomy Practicum (75). Validity and reliability of the instrument (0,71) and (0,81). It is necessary to design lecture programs both in the class and laboratory to develop student’ cognitive abilities.
Full Text Available Intelligence and motivation are two crucial components of the education process that can significantly influence its efficiency. The level of intelligence determines our ability to learn from experience and to solve a problem successfully, whereas motivational processes energize and organize our behavior to reach our goals. This paper is connected to our previous article focused on the influence of teachers’ abilities on secondary business schools’ students’ motivation in the Economics. In our current study, we monitored the motivational potential of teachers’ abilities in a connection with students’ level of intelligence, measured by Vienna Matrices Test. As we would expect according to the results of our previous study, the expertise of teachers has the most important influence in the groups of both the above-average intelligent and the average intelligent students. Nevertheless, we found some differences in other preferences of both groups: except the teachers’ expertise, the average intelligent students refer to be motivated mostly by exposition of curriculum and ability to develop thinking, whereas above-average students refer only about the exposition of curriculum (except the teachers’ expertise. The next factor that we observed in our study is an amount of time that students spend on preparation to school.
Tan, Yi Ting; McPherson, Gary E.; Peretz, Isabelle; Berkovic, Samuel F.; Wilson, Sarah J.
Music is an integral part of the cultural heritage of all known human societies, with the capacity for music perception and production present in most people. Researchers generally agree that both genetic and environmental factors contribute to the broader realization of music ability, with the degree of music aptitude varying, not only from individual to individual, but across various components of music ability within the same individual. While environmental factors influencing music development and expertise have been well investigated in the psychological and music literature, the interrogation of possible genetic influences has not progressed at the same rate. Recent advances in genetic research offer fertile ground for exploring the genetic basis of music ability. This paper begins with a brief overview of behavioral and molecular genetic approaches commonly used in human genetic analyses, and then critically reviews the key findings of genetic investigations of the components of music ability. Some promising and converging findings have emerged, with several loci on chromosome 4 implicated in singing and music perception, and certain loci on chromosome 8q implicated in absolute pitch and music perception. The gene AVPR1A on chromosome 12q has also been implicated in music perception, music memory, and music listening, whereas SLC6A4 on chromosome 17q has been associated with music memory and choir participation. Replication of these results in alternate populations and with larger samples is warranted to confirm the findings. Through increased research efforts, a clearer picture of the genetic mechanisms underpinning music ability will hopefully emerge. PMID:25018744
Full Text Available Empirical research suggests that the cognitively able are politically more influential than the less able, by being more likely to vote and to assume leadership positions. This study asks whether this pattern matters for public policy by investigating what role a person's cognitive ability plays in determining his preferences for redistribution of income among citizens in society. To answer this question, we use a unique Swedish data set that matches responses to a tailor-made questionnaire to administrative tax records and to military enlistment records for men, with the latter containing a measure of cognitive ability. On a scale of 0 to 100 percent redistribution, a one-standard-deviation increase in cognitive ability reduces the willingness to redistribute by 5 percentage points, or by the same amount as a $35,000 increase in mean annual income. We find support for two channels mediating this economically strong and statistically significant relation. First, higher ability is associated with higher income. Second, ability is positively correlated with the view that economic success is the result of effort, rather than luck. Both these factors are, in turn, related to lower demand for redistribution.
... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Application-ability to work. 604.4 Section... ELIGIBILITY FOR UNEMPLOYMENT COMPENSATION § 604.4 Application—ability to work. (a) A State may consider an... all or a portion of the week claimed, provided any limitation on his or her ability to work does not...
Full Text Available Background: Cognitive processes, specifically spatial abilities, are responsible for integration of daily activities. Many factors contribute to the plasticity of the brain which, furthermore, alter the spatial ability. Physical activity, which can be further grouped into sport and exercise, is a modifiable factor that enhances the cognitive processes through a divergent mechanism. This study aimed to gain further understanding on whether sport differs from exercise in altering spatial ability in athletes and non-athletes. Methods: This observational study compared the spatial ability score of athletes of Indonesia National Sport Comitte (Komite Olahraga Nasional Indonesia, KONI in West Java (n= 21 and non-athletes (n= 21. Sampling were performed using stratified random technique and data were collected between August and October 2015 which included spatial scores and demographic of subjects. Results: The difference in spatial scores between athletes and non-athletes were not significant (p=0.432. Conclusions: This study suggests an insignificant difference in spatial ability in athletes performing sport and non-athletes performing exercise. Hence, the cognitive component skills in sport experience do not alter the spatial ability.
Lian, Yulong; Xiao, Jing; Liu, Yan; Ning, Li; Guan, Suzhen; Ge, Hua; Li, Fuye; Liu, Jiwen
The aim of this study was to examine the independent and joint effect of insomnia and objective sleep duration on poor work ability. In this cross-sectional study, a total of 2820 Chinese manufacturing workers were categorized as insomnia patients and individuals with normal sleeping pattern by interview according to DSM-IV criteria. Sleep duration was classified into four categories: ≥7h, 6-7h, 5-6h, and Work ability was assessed using the Chinese Work Ability Index (WAI) questionnaire. Regression analysis examined the independent and joint association of sleep duration and insomnia with poor work ability, after adjusting for various confounding factors. Insomnia and objective short sleep duration were both independently associated with poor work ability. Compared with the normal sleeping and ≥7h sleep duration group, the highest risk of poor work ability was in the insomnia patients with work ability. Objective sleep duration should be taken into consideration when assessing the work ability of people with insomnia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Elvira Rosyida MR
Full Text Available One of principle of communicative competence is the students know how to uselanguage according to the setting and the participants. Actually, to be able to speaktarget language, the students ar not only expected to have a great ability in grammar,vocabulary, or writing, but how brave they express their idea and use target languageto others. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate students’ self esteem to theirspeaking ability This study was carried out at Hadist major at the fourth semester ofIAIN Raden Intan Lampung. The researcher used questionnaire, test, and interview.The data collected were analyzed quantitatively, and described to know clearly theprocess which was occurred during the research. The results indicate that students’self esteem influence their speaking ability.Key Words: speaking, self esteem, communicative competence
Costa, Ranilde Cristiane Cavalcante; Avila, Clara Regina Brandão de
lexical and metaphonological abilities of phonologically disordered preschoolers. to investigate the influence of Phonological Disorder on the lexical and metaphonological abilities of a group of preschoolers and the correlation between them. participants were 56 preschoolers - 32 boys and 24 girls - with ages between 4 years and 6 months and 6 years and 11 months, divided into two different groups: the Research Group, composed of 28 preschoolers with Phonological Disorder, and the Control Group, composed of 28 preschoolers with normal speech and no oral speech-related complaints, paired to the research group by gender and age. All of the participants were initially assessed by the ABFW Test - Phonology. After that, they were assessed on their lexical and metaphonological abilities by the ABFW Test - Vocabulary and phonological awareness test: sequential assessment instrument, CONFIAS - identification tasks and, rhyme and alliteration production, respectively. regarding lexical ability, the preschoolers from both groups presented similar behavior. The disordered preschoolers presented the worst performance on the overall analysis of the metaphonological ability. Age had an influence on the performance of lexical ability for both groups and the metaphonological abilities only for the Control Group. Correlations were identified, mostly positive, good to moderate between lexical and metaphonological abilities. the influence of Phonological Disorder may only be observed on the metaphonological performance. Phonological Disorder did not interfere with the development of the lexical ability of this group of preschoolers. Positive correlations were identified between both abilities in the studied age group.
Kell, Harrison J; Lubinski, David; Benbow, Camilla P; Steiger, James H
In the late 1970s, 563 intellectually talented 13-year-olds (identified by the SAT as in the top 0.5% of ability) were assessed on spatial ability. More than 30 years later, the present study evaluated whether spatial ability provided incremental validity (beyond the SAT's mathematical and verbal reasoning subtests) for differentially predicting which of these individuals had patents and three classes of refereed publications. A two-step discriminant-function analysis revealed that the SAT subtests jointly accounted for 10.8% of the variance among these outcomes (p development of creativity, beyond the roles played by the abilities traditionally measured in educational selection, counseling, and industrial-organizational psychology. Spatial ability plays a key and unique role in structuring many important psychological phenomena and should be examined more broadly across the applied and basic psychological sciences.
Hoijtink, H.J.A.; Boomsma, A.
The quality of approximations to first and second order moments (e.g., statistics like means, variances, regression coefficients) based on latent ability estimates is being discussed. The ability estimates are obtained using either the Rasch, oi the two-parameter logistic model. Straightforward use
Morgan, Brent; D'Mello, Sidney; Abbott, Robert; Radvansky, Gabriel; Haass, Michael; Tamplin, Andrea
The aim of this study was to identify the cognitive factors that predictability and adaptability during multitasking with a flight simulator. Multitasking has become increasingly prevalent as most professions require individuals to perform multiple tasks simultaneously. Considerable research has been undertaken to identify the characteristics of people (i.e., individual differences) that predict multitasking ability. Although working memory is a reliable predictor of general multitasking ability (i.e., performance in normal conditions), there is the question of whether different cognitive faculties are needed to rapidly respond to changing task demands (adaptability). Participants first completed a battery of cognitive individual differences tests followed by multitasking sessions with a flight simulator. After a baseline condition, difficulty of the flight simulator was incrementally increased via four experimental manipulations, and performance metrics were collected to assess multitasking ability and adaptability. Scholastic aptitude and working memory predicted general multitasking ability (i.e., performance at baseline difficulty), but spatial manipulation (in conjunction with working memory) was a major predictor of adaptability (performance in difficult conditions after accounting for baseline performance). Multitasking ability and adaptability may be overlapping but separate constructs that draw on overlapping (but not identical) sets of cognitive abilities. The results of this study are applicable to practitioners and researchers in human factors to assess multitasking performance in real-world contexts and with realistic task constraints. We also present a framework for conceptualizing multitasking adaptability on the basis of five adaptability profiles derived from performance on tasks with consistent versus increased difficulty.
Kim, Jung Hyun; Yang, Han Joon; Kim, Nak Sang
In order to analyze the degree of self-learning development ability after the clinical training curriculum, the results of 121 questionnaires were analyzed for 3rd and 4th grade students in radiology in the metropolitan area. The overall average of self-learning ability according to gender was 3.07±0.85, which was statistically significant according to gender. However, the results according to educational system showed that the overall average was 3.07±0.85, which was higher than the average level of self-learning development ability. There was no statistically significant difference according to educational system. The results of the self-learning development ability according to the motivation for selecting the department showed that the students who have chosen their department due to their higher employment rate after graduation had high self-development ability level(3.58±0.85) but the students who entered the school due to self-aptitude had relatively lower self-development ability level (2.30±0.40). The overall average of self-learning ability according to direction of career path was 3.08±0.76, which was over-average of self-learning development ability. Thus, there was statistically significant difference according to career path. It is necessary to improve the self-learning ability in clinical practice. In addition, the lack of statistical significance suggests problems and diversity
Kim, Jung Hyun; Yang, Han Joon [Dept. of International Radiological Science, Hallym University of Graduate Studies, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Nak Sang [Dept. of Radiological Science, Songho College, Hoengseong (Korea, Republic of)
In order to analyze the degree of self-learning development ability after the clinical training curriculum, the results of 121 questionnaires were analyzed for 3rd and 4th grade students in radiology in the metropolitan area. The overall average of self-learning ability according to gender was 3.07±0.85, which was statistically significant according to gender. However, the results according to educational system showed that the overall average was 3.07±0.85, which was higher than the average level of self-learning development ability. There was no statistically significant difference according to educational system. The results of the self-learning development ability according to the motivation for selecting the department showed that the students who have chosen their department due to their higher employment rate after graduation had high self-development ability level(3.58±0.85) but the students who entered the school due to self-aptitude had relatively lower self-development ability level (2.30±0.40). The overall average of self-learning ability according to direction of career path was 3.08±0.76, which was over-average of self-learning development ability. Thus, there was statistically significant difference according to career path. It is necessary to improve the self-learning ability in clinical practice. In addition, the lack of statistical significance suggests problems and diversity.
Rodgers, J; Horrocks, J; Britton, P G; Kernahan, J
Attentional ability in 19 survivors of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia and 19 sibling controls was assessed using a neuropsychological model of attention. Analysis revealed that children who had received treatment for leukaemia exhibited significantly poorer performance on measures of the "focus encode" and "focus execute" elements of attention and on measures of the ability to respond to external cues and feedback. No significant differences in performance were found for measures of sustained attention and the ability to shift attention. These results indicate that children who have received treatment for leukaemia may experience highly specific attentional deficits that could have an impact on academic performance, particularly mathematical and reading skills. It is suggested that this underlying attentional deficit might be the source of the neuropsychological sequelae associated with the disease. Future attempts at remediation should incorporate activities specifically designed to ameliorate focusing difficulties.
In determining the predictors of occupational health problems, two factors can be distinguished: personal (work ability) factors and work-related factors (burnout, job characteristics). However, these risk factors are hardly ever combined and it is not clear whether burnout or work ability best predicts absenteeism. To relate measures of work ability, burnout and job characteristics to absenteeism as the indicators of occupational health problems. Survey data on work ability, burnout and job characteristics from a Dutch university were related to the absenteeism data from the university's occupational health and safety database in the year following the survey study. The survey contained the Work Ability Index (WAI), Utrecht Burnout Scale (UBOS) and seven job characteristics from the Questionnaire on Experience and Evaluation of Work (QEEW). There were 242 employees in the study group. Logistic regression analyses revealed that job characteristics did not predict absenteeism. Exceptional absenteeism was most consistently predicted by the WAI dimensions 'employees' own prognosis of work ability in two years from now' and 'mental resources/vitality' and the burnout dimension 'emotional exhaustion'. Other significant predictors of exceptional absenteeism frequency included estimated work impairment due to diseases (WAI) and feelings of depersonalization or emotional distance from the work (burnout). Absenteeism among university personnel was best predicted by a combination of work ability and burnout. As a result, measures to prevent absenteeism and health problems may best be aimed at improving an individual's work ability and/or preventing the occurrence of burnout. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Broilers are chickens kept commercially under intensive husbandry conditions for poultry meat production. They grow to a slaughterweight of approximately 2.2 kg in 6 weeks. Broilers show a pronounced decrease in behavioural activity during their short life. The aim of this thesis was to gain more insight into the influence of both motivation and ability on behavioural activity in broilers. The distinction between motivation and ability is relevant for the interpretation of behavioural activit...
Kinnunen, Ulla; Nätti, Jouko
We investigated two single items of the Work Ability Index - work ability score, and future work ability - as predictors of register-based disability pension and long-term sickness absence over a three-year follow-up. Survey responses of 11,131 Finnish employees were linked to pension and long-term (more than 10 days) sickness absence register data by Statistics Finland. Work ability score was divided into poor (0-5), moderate (6-7) and good/excellent (8-10) and future work ability into poor (1-2) and good (3) work ability at baseline. Cox proportional hazard regressions were used in the analysis of disability pension, and a negative binomial model in the analysis of long-term sickness absence. The results were adjusted for several background, work- and health-related covariates. Compared with those with good/excellent work ability scores, the hazard ratios of disability pension after adjusting for all covariates were 9.84 (95% CI 6.68-14.49) for poor and 2.25 (CI 95% 1.51-3.35) for moderate work ability score. For future work ability, the hazard ratio was 8.19 (95% CI 4.71-14.23) among those with poor future work ability. The incidence rate ratios of accumulated long-term sickness absence days were 3.08 (95% CI 2.19-4.32) and 1.59 (95% CI 1.32-1.92) for poor and moderate work ability scores, and 1.51 (95% CI 0.97-2.36) for poor future work ability. The single items of work ability score and future work ability predicted register-based disability pension equally well, but work ability score was a better predictor of register-based long-term sickness absence days than future work ability in a three-year follow-up. Both items seem to be of use especially when examining the risk of poor work ability for disability but also for long sick leave.
Full Text Available The presence of lifeguard service on beaches greatly contributes to reducing the number of accidents in and around the water. The lifeguard can be a person with good motor, but also cognitive skills and abilities. In addition to good swimming skills, lifeguard must be able to quickly detect and recognize the accident, and also to be able to timely and correctly act in case of accident in water, but also at the beach. The goal of this study is to determine the structure of cognitive abilities and skills with the sample of lifeguards that work on Montenegrin beaches. Battery KOG-3 was applied on the sample of 40 lifeguards. The collected and achieved results lead to following conclusion: the subjects have good ability to determine relation between elements of a structure and lower characteristics of that structure; subjects have good ability to assess the efficiency of serial processor; and subjects have good ability to assess efficiency of perceptive processor.
Full Text Available This study is a classroom action research which intended to improve students’ writing ability through Storyboard. The participants were the fourth semester students of English Department of STKIP Muhammadiyah Pringsewu in academic year 2014/ 2015. The instruments used in collecting data were observation, questionnaire, and documents. Observation is used to know what is really happening in the class and the condition when the class activity is taking place. Questionnaire is used to know the students’ perception towards Storyboard in improving their writing ability, and documents is used to get students’ written texts. Then, 1 assembling the data, 2 coding the data, 3 comparing the data, 4 building meanings and interpretations, and 5 reporting the outcomes, are the steps in analyzing the data. Having analyzed the data, it was found that there was improvement of the students’ activeness in writing activity and in writing ability.
Angela E. John
Full Text Available Although prior research has indicated that pragmatics is an area of particular weakness for individuals with Williams syndrome (WS, the relations among different pragmatic abilities and the relations between pragmatic ability and expressive vocabulary ability have yet to be addressed. In addition, analyses of the relations between the same type of pragmatic ability over time have not been reported. The present study was designed to address these questions. We considered the pragmatic language abilities of 14 children with WS at two time points: as 4-year-olds during a 30-minute play-session with their mothers (Time 1 and an average of 5.87 years later during a one-on-one conversation with a familiar researcher (Time 2. Children’s intellectual and expressive vocabulary abilities were assessed at both time points. Results indicated that the ability to verbally contribute information beyond what was required in response to a question was significantly related to the ability to verbally contribute new information in the absence of a question both at age 4 years and during primary school. At age 4, both the ability to pair verbalizations with eye contact (intersubjectivity and expressive vocabulary ability were related to the ability to verbally contribute information beyond what was expected within a social interaction. Finally, the ability to verbally contribute new information to a social interaction beyond what was required to answer a question and the ability to pair verbalizations with eye contact (intersubjectivity at age 4 years predicted the ability to verbally contribute new information beyond what was required to answer a question at age 9 – 12 years. The theoretical implications of our findings and the importance of early pragmatic language intervention for children who have WS are discussed.
Schutte, Nicola S.; Malouff, John M.
Two studies examined whether priming self-schemas relating to successful emotional competency results in better emotional intelligence performance. In the first study participants were randomly assigned to a successful emotional competency self-schema prime condition or a control condition and then completed an ability measure of emotional…
I think it is better to summarize some cognitive issues in relation to this subject; how we learn, how we should organize learning (instructions), knowledge, etc. before treating creativity and rationality. Is it, really, possible to consider creativity without any kind of involvement of the ability
Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA. Graduate School of Education.
THIS BIBLIOGRAPHY LISTS MATERIAL ON VARIOUS ASPECTS OF HUMAN INTELLECT. APPROXIMATELY 50 UNANNOTATED REFERENCES ARE PROVIDED TO DOCUMENTS DATING FROM 1955 TO 1966. BOOKS, REPORTS, JOURNAL MATERIALS, AND SOME UNPUBLISHED TITLES ARE LISTED. SUBJECT AREAS INCLUDED ARE (1) INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENT, (2) ABILITY DIFFERENCES BETWEEN INDIVIDUALS, RACES,…
Two studies examined the novel proposal that implicit theories of intelligence (C. S. Dweck & E. L. Leggett, 1988) moderate both the effects of performance trends on ability inferences and the perceived diagnosticity of temporal versus normative feedback. Results from 613 adolescents and 42 teachers confirmed that entity theorists perceived initial outcome as more diagnostic and inferred higher ability in another (Study 1) and in the self (Study 2) in a declining outcome condition; incremental theorists perceived last outcome as more diagnostic and inferred higher ability in an ascending condition. Experimental induction of beliefs about ability had similar effects. As predicted, self-appraisal was affected more by temporal feedback among incremental theorists and by normative feedback among entity theorists. Results help resolve prior mixed findings regarding order effects and responses to temporal and normative evaluation.
Kovas, Yulia; Plomin, Robert
Twin studies comparing identical and fraternal twins consistently show substantial genetic influence on individual differences in learning abilities such as reading and mathematics, as well as in other cognitive abilities such as spatial ability and memory. Multivariate genetic research has shown that the same set of genes is largely responsible for genetic influence on these diverse cognitive areas. We call these "generalist genes." What differentiates these abilities is largely the environment, especially nonshared environments that make children growing up in the same family different from one another. These multivariate genetic findings of generalist genes and specialist environments have far-reaching implications for diagnosis and treatment of learning disabilities and for understanding the brain mechanisms that mediate these effects.
Gecu, Zeynep; Cagiltay, Kursat
Computer games, which are currently very popular among students, can affect different cognitive abilities. The purpose of the present study is to examine undergraduate students' experiences and preferences in playing computer games as well as their mental rotation abilities. A total of 163 undergraduate students participated. The results showed a…
Garn, Alex C.; Jolly, Jennifer L.
This study used a self-determination theory lens to investigate high ability learners' motivational experiences. Participants were 15 high ability youth involved in a summer learning camp for gifted students. Two major themes emerged from qualitative data analysis: (a) "The Fun Factor of Learning" and (b) "The Rewards and Pressures…
Full Text Available This study set out to investigate to what extent childhood cognitive ability, along with personality traits, education and occupational status, as well as marital status influence adult financial success. Data were drawn from a large, prospective birth cohort in the UK, the National Child Development Study (NCDS. The analytic sample was comprised of 4537 cohort members with data on parental social class (at birth, cognitive ability (at age 11, educational qualifications (at age 33, personality traits (at age 50, current marital status and occupational prestige, and salary/wage earning level (all measured at age 54. Correlational results showed that parental social class, childhood cognitive ability, traits extraversion, emotional stability, conscientiousness, and openness, being married positively, being divorced or separated negatively, education and occupation as well as gender were all significantly associated with adult earning ability (p < 0.05 to p < 0.001. Effect sizes for the relationship between intelligence and income was moderate. Results of a multiple regression analysis showed that childhood cognitive ability, traits conscientiousness and openness, educational qualifications and occupational prestige were significant and independent predictors of adult earning ability accounting for 30% of the total variance. There was also a gender effect on the outcome variable. Numerous limitations are noted.
Full Text Available For estimation of psychomotor and sensor abilities different kinds of tests are used in the form of devices representing different technical devices which help examining sensomotor and psychomotor functions in certain conditions, as well as more complex motor abilities and skills that depend on CNS characteristics, vegetative nervous system and other functional systems and body states. These devices can be used for examining some parameters of psychomotor functions-such as speed of reaction through reactiometer or devices for examining sensor abilities-such as audiometer, ortoriter, color tests etc. In the scope of examining psychomotor skills and abilities, frequently used are different kinds of tests in the forms of devices serving for measuring ocultomotor coordination-such as Omega and Sinusoida, then Tumer`s device for measuring coordination and dissociation of hands` movements with visible control, O-Conor`s dexterimeter and Medeo`s dexterimeter-used for examining dexterity of fingers, Tremometer for examining hand stability and preciseness of movements, Minesota test for examining dexterity of hands and taping tests like “paper-pen” for examining speed and accuracy of simple movements. For examining more complex sensomotor abilities or different motor skills, special tests are used in the form of simulator, simulator and different technical devices, adjusted to specific sports situation. This category of tests includes different kinds of simulators and simulators used for examining certain aspects of sports activity.
Sebring, L. Jr.
This paper reports that the oil-finder must be able to locate and recognize a significant anomaly, and he must be able to get this anomaly tested. A significant anomaly is defined as a trapping anomaly, one that might trap hydrocarbons. So, the oil-finder has a dual job. He must be both a scientist and a salesman, a prospector and a promoter, a researcher and a hustler. He must locate the prospect, and, unless he is financially self-sufficient, he must persuade his management or his investors to test the prospect. One ability is not enough. To be a successful oil-finder he must have both abilities, although not necessarily in equal degree. The truth is self-evident-all geologist are not equal in ability; either as trap locators or as prospect salesmen. Some have considerable ability to locators or a s prospect salesmen. Some have considerable ability to locate anomalies, but have great difficulty in persuading their management or investors to test their prospects. Other have difficulty in recognizing a prospect, but once one is located can easily persuade their management or clients to test it. And some, a truly blessed minority, can not only easily locate the recognize a significant anomaly but can, just as easily, persuade their management or investors to pursue the investigation of this anomaly to its logical conclusion
Gottfried, Michael A.
Empirically, the link between classmate ability and individual-level student achievement has been established. And yet, within the scope of this body of literature, there is a dearth of studies examining if a relationship also persists between classmate ability and non-achievement outcomes--that is, social skills. This article fills this research…
Conservatism and cognitive ability are negatively correlated. The evidence is based on 1254 community college students and 1600 foreign students seeking entry to United States' universities. At the individual level of analysis, conservatism scores correlate negatively with SAT, Vocabulary, and Analogy test scores. At the national level of…
Wienert, J; Spanier, K; Radoschewski, F M; Bethge, M
Effort-reward imbalance (ERI) and self-rated work ability are known independent correlates and predictors of intended disability pension claims. However, little research has focused on the interrelationship between the three and whether self-rated work ability mediates the relationship between ERI and intended disability pension claims. To investigate whether self-rated work ability mediates the association between ERI and intended disability pension claims. Baseline data from participants of the Third German Sociomedical Panel of Employees, a 5-year cohort study that investigates determinants of work ability, rehabilitation utilization and disability pensions in employees who have previously received sickness benefits, were analysed. We tested direct associations between ERI with intended disability pension claims (Model 1) and self-rated work ability (Model 2). Additionally, we tested whether work ability mediates the association between ERI and intended disability pension claims (Model 3). There were 2585 participants. Model 1 indicated a significant association between ERI and intended disability pension claims. Model 2 showed a significant association between ERI and self-rated work ability. The mediation in Model 3 revealed a significant indirect association between ERI and intended disability pension claims via self-rated work ability. There was no significant direct association between ERI and intended disability pension claims. Our results support the adverse health-related impact of ERI on self-rated work ability and intended disability pension claims. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com
Hakkarainen, P; Moilanen, L; Hänninen, V; Heikkinen, J; Räsänen, K
Work ability represents the balance between individual resources, health status and job demands. As far as we are aware, these issues have not been examined in working people with type 1 diabetes (T1D). To examine how work-related and diabetes-related factors are associated with work ability among male and female workers. Questionnaires were mailed to a random sample of 2500 people with T1D from the Medication Reimbursement Register of The Social Insurance Institution of Finland. The associations of the predictors of poor work ability were examined in a logistic regression analysis. The final sample comprised 767 working people aged 18-64 with T1D; overall response rate 49%. One in every three working men and women with T1D had poor work ability. High job demands and low job control were associated with poor work ability in both genders. Physical work and low worktime control were significantly associated with poor work ability in men but not in women with T1D. A self-reported high value of glycosylated haemoglobin was the only diabetes-related variable associated with poor work ability in both men and women. Work-related factors and poor glycaemic control were associated with poor work ability in individuals with T1D. Thus, job control and worktime control should be taken into account in supporting the work ability of workers with T1D. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Wright, Jan; Burrows, Lisette
In this paper we explore how "ability" is currently conceptualised in physical education and with what effects for different groups of young people. We interrogate approaches to theorising ability in physical education that draw on sociological and phenomenological "foundations" together with notions of ability as…
Hau, R. R. H.; Marwoto, P.; Putra, N. M. D.
The mathematic representation ability in solving magnetic electricity problem gives information about the way students understand magnetic electricity. Students have varied mathematic representation pattern ability in solving magnetic electricity problem. This study aims to determine the pattern of students' mathematic representation ability in solving magnet electrical problems.The research method used is qualitative. The subject of this study is the fourth semester students of UNNES Physics Education Study Program. The data collection is done by giving a description test that refers to the test of mathematical representation ability and interview about field line topic and Gauss law. The result of data analysis of student's mathematical representation ability in solving magnet electric problem is categorized into high, medium and low category. The ability of mathematical representations in the high category tends to use a pattern of making known and asked symbols, writing equations, using quantities of physics, substituting quantities into equations, performing calculations and final answers. The ability of mathematical representation in the medium category tends to use several patterns of writing the known symbols, writing equations, using quantities of physics, substituting quantities into equations, performing calculations and final answers. The ability of mathematical representations in the low category tends to use several patterns of making known symbols, writing equations, substituting quantities into equations, performing calculations and final answer.
Lobanova, Yuliya I.; Glushko, Kirill V.
The article points at the importance of studying the human factor as a cause of accidents of drivers, especially in loosely structured traffic situations. The description of the experiment on the measurement of driver's accidental abilities is given. Under accidental ability is meant the capability to ensure the security of driving as a behavior…
This paper gives a short analysis of reading abilities and reading strategies. Much research has been done to investigate the nature of reading, though it's had to exactly define reading abilities and strategies. Different kinds of readings are discussed in this paper and distinctions are made between first language reading and second or foreign…
Alavinia, S M; de Boer, A G E M; van Duivenbooden, J C; Frings-Dresen, M H W; Burdorf, A
Maintaining the ability of workers to cope with physical and psychosocial demands at work becomes increasingly important in prolonging working life. To analyse the effects of work-related factors and individual characteristics on work ability and to determine the predictive value of work ability on receiving a work-related disability pension. A longitudinal study was conducted among 850 construction workers aged 40 years and older, with average follow-up period of 23 months. Disability was defined as receiving a disability pension, granted to workers unable to continue working in their regular job. Work ability was assessed using the work ability index (WAI). Associations between work-related factors and individual characteristics with work ability at baseline were evaluated using linear regression analysis, and Cox regression analysis was used to evaluate the predictive value of work ability for disability. Work-related factors were associated with a lower work ability at baseline, but had little prognostic value for disability during follow-up. The hazard ratios for disability among workers with a moderate and poor work ability at baseline were 8 and 32, respectively. All separate scales in the WAI had predictive power for future disability with the highest influence of current work ability in relation to job demands and lowest influence of diseases diagnosed by a physician. A moderate or poor work ability was highly predictive for receiving a disability pension. Preventive measures should facilitate a good balance between work performance and health in order to prevent quitting labour participation.
Full Text Available The sample included 712 preschool boys and girls at the age of 4 to 7 years (mean 5.96 decimal years and standard deviation .96 from preschool institutions in Novi Sad, Sombor, Sremska Mitrovica and Bačka Palanka. Information concerning 36 indicators of aberrant behavior of the children were supplied by their parents, whereas their cognitive ability was tested by Raven’s progressive colored matrices. Based on factor analysis (promax method, four factors i.e. generators of aberrant behavior in children were singled out: aggression, anxiousness, dissociation, and hysteria, whose relations with cognitive functioning and age were also analyzed by factor analysis. Aberrant behavior and cognitive abilities show significant interrelatedness. Owing to orderly developed cognitive abilities, a child understands essence and reality of problems, realizes possibilities and manners of solving them, and succeeds in realizing successful psycho-social functioning. Developed cognitive abilities enable a child to recognize and understand her/his own reactions in different situations and develop manners of reacting, which leads to strengthening psycho-social safety and adapting behavior in accordance with her/his age and abilities.
Rossi, Natalia F.; Heinze, Elena Garayzabal; Giacheti, Celia M.; Goncalves, Oscar F.; Sampaio, Adriana
The objective of this study was to investigate the psycholinguistic abilities of children with Williams syndrome (WS) and typically developing children using the Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities (ITPA). Performance on the ITPA was analysed in a group with WS (N=20, mean age=8.5 years, SD=1.62) and two typically developing groups,…
Mäkelä, Kasper; Hirvensalo, Mirja
In the physical education (PE) teachers' profession, physical tasks comprise a large part of the job. PE teachers identify their health as good, and they are satisfied with their job. Nevertheless, the work ability of PE teachers may be decreasing. Purpose: The purpose of this article was to explore the work ability of Finnish PE teachers. What…
addition to the six cognitive ability constructs, there are two motivational attributes that are highly relevant to systems thinking performance...roles of the habenular complex, the reward system , and the cingulate motor area revealed by functional magnetic resonance imaging. Journal of...Technical Report 1362 Innovative Tools to Assess Systems Thinking Ability Cory Adis Michelle Wisecarver Chelsey Raber Personnel
Furu, Heidi; Sainio, Markku; Hyvärinen, Hanna-Kaisa; Kaukiainen, Ari
Occupational chronic solvent encephalopathy (CSE), characterized by neurocognitive dysfunction, often leads to early retirement. However, only the more severe cases are diagnosed with CSE, and little is known about the work ability of solvent-exposed workers in general. The aim was to study memory and concentration symptoms, work ability and the effect of both solvent-related and non-occupational factors on work ability, in an actively working solvent-exposed population. A questionnaire on exposure and health was sent to 3640 workers in four solvent-exposed fields, i.e. painters and floor-layers, boat builders, printers, and metal workers. The total number of responses was 1730. We determined the work ability score (WAS), a single question item of the Work Ability Index, and studied solvent exposure, demographic factors, Euroquest memory and concentration symptoms, chronic diseases, and employment status using univariate and multivariate analyses. The findings were compared to those of a corresponding national blue-collar reference population (n = 221), and a small cohort of workers with CSE (n = 18). The proportion of workers with memory and concentration symptoms was significantly associated with solvent exposure. The WAS of solvent-exposed workers was lower than that of the national blue-collar reference group, and the difference was significant in the oldest age group (those aged over 60). Solvent-exposed worker's WAS were higher than those of workers diagnosed with CSE. The WAS were lowest among painters and floor-layers, followed by metal workers and printers, and highest among boat builders. The strongest explanatory factors for poor work ability were the number of chronic diseases, age and employment status. Solvent exposure was a weak independent risk factor for reduced WAS, comparable to a level of high alcohol consumption. Even if memory and concentration symptoms were associated with higher solvent exposure, the effect of solvents on self
Goldman, Ellen; Cahill, Terrence; Filho, Rubens Pessanha
The ability to think strategically is an admired and a sought-after leadership requirement, yet we know little about how it develops. The purpose of this study is to identify specific experiences that contribute to the development of an individual's ability to think strategically. We identified eight work experiences, including different types of organizational projects, processes, and relationships, that contribute to an individual's strategic thinking ability. We also delineate specific characteristics material to each experience. These characteristics indicate that considerable time and focus are required to develop the ability to think strategically. In addition, the experiences are not all accessed equally: Women are less likely to have nonrelational experiences, while chief executive officers are more likely to have the most challenging ones. In addition, we found differences regarding work-related continuing education activities. Respondents rated nonhealthcare conferences and reading behind all other identified experiences that contribute to strategic thinking ability. Individuals can implement several strategies to improve their strategic thinking ability, including deliberately incorporating the requisite experiences into their development plans, ensuring that the experiences incorporate the required characteristics, and improving the benefit received from attending educational programs in nonhealthcare industries. Organizations can implement several strategies to ensure the experiences are as effective as possible, such as appraising gender differences across the experiences and reviewing the organization's strategic planning processes for the characteristics that best encourage strategic thinking.
Patrick C. Kyllonen
Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to review some of the key literature on response time as it has played a role in cognitive ability measurement, providing a historical perspective as well as covering current research. We discuss the speed-level distinction, dimensions of speed and level in cognitive abilities frameworks, speed–accuracy tradeoff, approaches to addressing speed–accuracy tradeoff, analysis methods, particularly item response theory-based, response time models from cognitive psychology (ex-Gaussian function, and the diffusion model, and other uses of response time in testing besides ability measurement. We discuss several new methods that can be used to provide greater insight into the speed and level aspects of cognitive ability and speed–accuracy tradeoff decisions. These include item-level time limits, the use of feedback (e.g., CUSUMs, explicit scoring rules that combine speed and accuracy information (e.g., count down timing, and cognitive psychology models. We also review some of the key psychometric advances in modeling speed and level, which combine speed and ability measurement, address speed–accuracy tradeoff, allow for distinctions between response times on items responded to correctly and incorrectly, and integrate psychometrics with information-processing modeling. We suggest that the application of these models and tools is likely to advance both the science and measurement of human abilities for theory and applications.
Wu, Meng; Liang, Xi; Lu, Shan; Wang, Zhengyan
Although executive function (EF) is widely considered crucial to several aspects of life, the mechanisms underlying EF development remain largely unexplored, especially for infants. From a behavioral or neurodevelopmental perspective, motor and general cognitive abilities are linked with EF. EF development is a multistage process that starts with sensorimotor interactive behaviors, which become basic cognitive abilities and, in turn, mature EF. This study aims to examine how infant motor and general cognitive abilities are linked with their EF at 3 years of age. This work also aims to explore the potential processes of EF development from early movement. A longitudinal study was conducted with 96 infants (55 girls and 41 boys). The infants' motor and general cognitive abilities were assessed at 1 and 2 years of age with Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Second and Third Editions, respectively. Infants' EFs were assessed at 3 years of age with Working Memory Span task, Day-Night task, Wrapped Gift task, and modified Gift-in-Bag task. Children with higher scores for cognitive ability at 2 years of age performed better in working memory, and children with higher scores for gross motor ability at 2 years performed better in cognitive inhibitory control (IC). Motor ability at 1 year and fine/gross motor ability at 2 years indirectly affected cognitive IC via general cognitive ability at 2 years and working memory. EF development is a multistage process that originates from physical movement to simple cognitive function, and then to complex cognitive function. Infants and toddlers can undergo targeted motor training to promote EF development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Students often got confused and felt hesitant when they speak English. This situation had caused poor speaking ability, which then lead to serious problem in the teaching-learning process. The application of scaffolding technique in the EFL learning might be the ideal solution; it had some principles that could improve the students’ speaking ability. This research is aimed at finding out the effect of the implementing Scaffolding Technique towards the students’ speaking ability. Participants were 50 (27 males and 23 females third-semester students, enrolled in a three-year diploma program in Travel and Tourism Business, State Polytechnic of Bali in 2017/2018 academic year. The students in the experimental group were given communicative activities such as brainstorming, business games, simulation, WebQuest, problem-solving, which were carefully designed to necessitate the implementation of the scaffolding technique. The students in the control group were taught by the deductive method of the lesson book. The students’ performance in the post-test was compared for both groups in order to determine whether there were significant differences between the groups in relation to the treatment. Significant differences occurring in the experimental group’s post-test speaking performance when compared to the pre-test indicate that the implementation of scaffolding technique can improve students’ speaking ability. The result of this study indicates scaffolding technique has the potential for use in promoting students’ speaking ability
Dec 13, 2013 ... ability and for geneticists to research the genetic basis of combining ability. [Li L., Sun C., ... population-based NCII designs by a simulation study. J. Genet. ... combining ability could also be applied to other population- based NCII ... was to estimate how different base populations, sample sizes, heritability ...
Lunz, Mary E; Bashook, Philip G
Structured case-based oral examinations are widely used in medical certifying examinations in the USA. These orals assess the candidate's decision-making skills using real or realistic patient cases. Frequently mentioned but not empirically evaluated is the potential bias introduced by the candidate's communication ability. This study aimed to assess the relationship between candidate communication ability and medical certification oral examination scores. Non-doctor communication observers rated a random sample of 90 candidates on communication ability during a medical oral certification examination. The multi-facet Rasch model was used to analyse the communication survey and the oral examination data. The multi-facet model accounts for observer and examiner severity bias. anova was used to measure differences in communication ability between passing and failing candidates and candidates grouped by level of communication ability. Pearson's correlations were used to compare candidate communication ability and oral certification examination performance. Candidate separation reliability values for the communication survey and the oral examination were 0.85 and 0.97, respectively, suggesting accurate candidate measurement. The correlation between communication scores and oral examination scores was 0.10. No significant difference was found between passing and failing candidates for measured communication ability. When candidates were grouped by high, moderate and low communication ability, there was no significant difference in their oral certification examination performance. Candidates' communication ability has little relationship to candidate performance on high-stakes, case-based oral examinations. Examiners for this certifying examination focused on assessing candidate decision-making ability and were not influenced by candidate communication ability.
Vuoksimaa, Eero; Panizzon, Matthew S; Franz, Carol E; Fennema-Notestine, Christine; Hagler, Donald J; Lyons, Michael J; Dale, Anders M; Kremen, William S
Height and general cognitive ability are positively associated, but the underlying mechanisms of this relationship are not well understood. Both height and general cognitive ability are positively associated with brain size. Still, the neural substrate of the height-cognitive ability association is unclear. We used a sample of 515 middle-aged male twins with structural magnetic resonance imaging data to investigate whether the association between height and cognitive ability is mediated by cortical size. In addition to cortical volume, we used genetically, ontogenetically and phylogenetically distinct cortical metrics of total cortical surface area and mean cortical thickness. Height was positively associated with general cognitive ability and total cortical volume and cortical surface area, but not with mean cortical thickness. Mediation models indicated that the well-replicated height-general cognitive ability association is accounted for by individual differences in total cortical volume and cortical surface area (highly heritable metrics related to global brain size), and that the genetic association between cortical surface area and general cognitive ability underlies the phenotypic height-general cognitive ability relationship.
Kaufman, Scott Barry; Deyoung, Colin G; Gray, Jeremy R; Jiménez, Luis; Brown, Jamie; Mackintosh, Nicholas
The ability to automatically and implicitly detect complex and noisy regularities in the environment is a fundamental aspect of human cognition. Despite considerable interest in implicit processes, few researchers have conceptualized implicit learning as an ability with meaningful individual differences. Instead, various researchers (e.g., Reber, 1993; Stanovich, 2009) have suggested that individual differences in implicit learning are minimal relative to individual differences in explicit learning. In the current study of English 16-17year old students, we investigated the association of individual differences in implicit learning with a variety of cognitive and personality variables. Consistent with prior research and theorizing, implicit learning, as measured by a probabilistic sequence learning task, was more weakly related to psychometric intelligence than was explicit associative learning, and was unrelated to working memory. Structural equation modeling revealed that implicit learning was independently related to two components of psychometric intelligence: verbal analogical reasoning and processing speed. Implicit learning was also independently related to academic performance on two foreign language exams (French, German). Further, implicit learning was significantly associated with aspects of self-reported personality, including intuition, Openness to Experience, and impulsivity. We discuss the implications of implicit learning as an ability for dual-process theories of cognition, intelligence, personality, skill learning, complex cognition, and language acquisition. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Zhang, Lei; Huang, Chunping; Lan, Yajia; Wang, Mianzhen; Shu, Liping; Zhang, Wenhui; Yu, Long; Yao, Shengcai; Liao, Yunhua
To assess the impact of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WRMDs) on work ability among workers. A total of 1686 workers in various occupations, such as administration and education, were enrolled as subjects using the random cluster sampling method. The WRMDs and work ability of all subjects were evaluated using standardized Nordic questionnaires for the analysis of musculoskeletal symptoms and the Work Ability Index (WAI) scale, respectively. Comparison of work ability and its classification between the disease group and the non-disease group was performed by paired t test, RxC table χ2 test, and the Wilcoxon rank-sum test. The relationship between work duration and work ability was analyzed by the Spearman correlation test and a multi-level model. (1). The work ability of workers in the disease group was significantly lower than that in the non-disease group (Pwork ability between workers with different work durations (work duration, the work ability of workers declined in both groups, and the work ability of workers in the disease group (Spearman coefficient rs=-0. 172, Pfactors for the decrease in work ability among workers. (3) There were significant differences in constituent ratios and levels of work ability classification between the disease group and the non-disease group (χ2=121.097, Ppoor and medium work ability in the disease group were significantly higher than those in the non-disease group, while the proportion of works with excellent work ability in the disease group was significantly lower than that in the non-disease group. The similar characteristics in constituent ratios and levels of work ability classification could be found between the disease group and the non- disease group in various occupations (Pwork ability of workers, and the work ability of workers substantially declines with the increase in exposure time (work duration).
Starr, Ariel; Libertus, Melissa E; Brannon, Elizabeth M
Human infants in the first year of life possess an intuitive sense of number. This preverbal number sense may serve as a developmental building block for the uniquely human capacity for mathematics. In support of this idea, several studies have demonstrated that nonverbal number sense is correlated with mathematical abilities in children and adults. However, there has been no direct evidence that infant numerical abilities are related to mathematical abilities later in childhood. Here, we provide evidence that preverbal number sense in infancy predicts mathematical abilities in preschool-aged children. Numerical preference scores at 6 months of age correlated with both standardized math test scores and nonsymbolic number comparison scores at 3.5 years of age, suggesting that preverbal number sense facilitates the acquisition of numerical symbols and mathematical abilities. This relationship held even after controlling for general intelligence, indicating that preverbal number sense imparts a unique contribution to mathematical ability. These results validate the many prior studies purporting to show number sense in infancy and support the hypothesis that mathematics is built upon an intuitive sense of number that predates language.
Nešić Blagoje V.
Full Text Available This paper is a part of a broader research in the field of development of different intellectual abilities in primary schools. Using a transverse - longitudinal research strategy, the pupils from nine to fifteen years of age are observed in order to find answers to the following questions: 1 Do the important developmental changes in the figural-perceptual abilities occur in this developmental period? 2 Is the pace of changes in these abilities the same at all ages, grades? 3 Do the developmental changes in these abilities depend on the type of tests, that is, mental operations which register the applied tests? Figural-perceptual abilities are defined as the ability to identify the elements in space, to imagine and transform the elements in space, the ability for spatial reasoning, perceptual shaping flexibility, the ability of eduction of relations and correlates, the ability to identify the elements that are injected into the right material, the ability to notice the difference in the forms and dimensions of the characters, speed observations of similarities and differences between elements in the field of perception. The measurement (assessment of these abilities was performed with the help of 11 tests of intellectual abilities of the figural content. The individual progresses as baseline data were used for the data analysis. The progresses of the subjects were compared with the analysis and the results are the following: 1 The pupils from third to eighth grade showed positive changes in the figurative perceptive abilities. This is shown in all the tests that were used and progresses are statistically significant in all tests 2 There is a tendency that the pupils in the sixth grade made the best progress, and the seventh-grade pupils made the least progress. 3 However, when the progresses are compared in certain tests, then significant differences in the pace of development of these abilities are determined. Namely, the pupils in the higher
Hoffman, Moshe; Gneezy, Uri; List, John A
Women remain significantly underrepresented in the science, engineering, and technology workforce. Some have argued that spatial ability differences, which represent the most persistent gender differences in the cognitive literature, are partly responsible for this gap(.) The underlying forces at work shaping the observed spatial ability differences revolve naturally around the relative roles of nature and nurture. Although these forces remain among the most hotly debated in all of the sciences, the evidence for nurture is tenuous, because it is difficult to compare gender differences among biologically similar groups with distinct nurture. In this study, we use a large-scale incentivized experiment with nearly 1,300 participants to show that the gender gap in spatial abilities, measured by time to solve a puzzle, disappears when we move from a patrilineal society to an adjoining matrilineal society. We also show that about one-third of the effect can be explained by differences in education. Given that none of our participants have experience with puzzle solving and that villagers from both societies have the same means of subsistence and shared genetic background, we argue that these results show the role of nurture in the gender gap in cognitive abilities.
van Muijen, P; Duijts, S F A; Bonefaas-Groenewoud, K; van der Beek, A J; Anema, J R
Workers diagnosed with cancer are at risk for job loss or work disability. To determine predictors of fatigue and work ability at 36 months after diagnosis in a population of cancer survivors. Individuals diagnosed with cancer and who applied for work disability benefit at 24 months of sick leave were surveyed at the time of application and again 12 months later. Fatigue was measured using the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness-Fatigue scale questionnaire and work ability was measured using the work ability index. Linear regression analyses were applied to identify predictors. There were 336 participants. Participants who were divorced or widowed had more physical limitations, more depressive symptoms and were more fatigued at baseline, and who worked in health care demonstrated higher levels of fatigue. Lower fatigue was predicted by having received chemotherapy. A higher level of work ability was predicted by having received chemotherapy, better global health and better work ability at baseline. Lower work ability was predicted by being principal wage earner, insecurity about being free of disease, having more physical limitations and having greater wage loss. Socio-demographic, health- and work-related factors were associated with fatigue and work ability in cancer survivors on long-term sick leave. As fatigue and poor work ability are important risk factors for work disability, addressing the identified predictive factors may assist in mitigation of work disability in cancer survivors. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com
Schonberger, Ann Koch
This three-volume report deals with the hypothesis that males are more successful at solving mathematical and spatial problems than females. The general relationship between visual spatial abilities and mathematical problem-solving ability is also investigated. The research sample consisted of seventh graders. Each pupil took five spatial tests…
Bank, Ilana; Snell, Linda; Bhanji, Farhan
Improved pediatric crisis resource management (CRM) training is needed in emergency medicine residencies because of the variable nature of exposure to critically ill pediatric patients during training. We created a short, needs-based pediatric CRM simulation workshop with postactivity follow-up to determine retention of CRM knowledge. Our aims were to provide a realistic learning experience for residents and to help the learners recognize common errors in teamwork and improve their perceived abilities to manage ill pediatric patients. Residents participated in a 4-hour objectives-based workshop derived from a formal needs assessment. To quantify their subjective abilities to manage pediatric cases, the residents completed a postworkshop survey (with a retrospective precomponent to assess perceived change). Ability to identify CRM errors was determined via a written assessment of scripted errors in a prerecorded video observed before and 1 month after completion of the workshop. Fifteen of the 16 eligible emergency medicine residents (postgraduate year 1-5) attended the workshop and completed the surveys. There were significant differences in 15 of 16 retrospective pre to post survey items using the Wilcoxon rank sum test for non-parametric data. These included ability to be an effective team leader in general (P < 0.008), delegating tasks appropriately (P < 0.009), and ability to ensure closed-loop communication (P < 0.008). There was a significant improvement in identification of CRM errors through the use of the video assessment from 3 of the 12 CRM errors to 7 of the 12 CRM errors (P < 0.006). The pediatric CRM simulation-based workshop improved the residents' self-perceptions of their pediatric CRM abilities and improved their performance on a video assessment task.
Sulasih; Suparmi, A.; Sarwanto
Critical thinking ability is an important part of educational goals. It has higher complex processes, such as analyzing, synthesizing and evaluating, drawing conclusion and reflection. This study is aimed to know the critical thinking ability of students in learning static fluids of senior high school students. This research uses the descriptive method which its instruments based on the indicator of critical thinking ability developed according to Ennis. The population of this research is XIth grade science class Public Senior High School, SMA N 1, Sambungmacan, Sragen, Central Java. The static fluid teaching material is delivered using Problem Based Learning Model through class experiment. The results of this study shows that the average student of XIth science class have high critical thinking skills, particularly in the ability of providing simple explanation, build basic skill, and provide advanced explanation, but they do not have high enough in ability of drawing conclusion and strategic and tactical components of critical thinking ability in the study of static fluid teaching material. The average of students critical thinking ability is 72.94, with 27,94% of students are in a low category and 72,22% of students in the high category of critical thinking ability.
G V Ozhiganova
Full Text Available The self-regulation is considered by the author as a general ability of the person. The levels of self-regulation relating to any professional activity, and corresponding to these levels self-regulatory capacities are distinguished: 1 psychophysiological - the ability for self-regulation of emotional and psycho- physiological states; 2 socio-psychological - the ability for self-regulation in the process of social interaction; 3 psychological (the ability to regulate activities; the capacity for personal self-control;spiritual - the highest capacity for self-regulation due to the higher values and meanings of existence. Self-regulation at the highest spiritual level is considered in this research in connection with the actualization of higher self-regulatory capacities, leading to self-realization of the person including professional activity. Processes, levels, components of self-regulation, associated with different conditions of professional activities (for example, in extreme situations, as well as with different types of professions (teachers, sales managers, etc. are described. A particular attention is given to self- regulation in the teaching activities: levels, techniques of teachers’ self-regulatory skills are presented; the importance of teachers’ personal self-regulation is emphasized, because it determines self-development, self-improvement and self-fulfillment in their chosen profession, and is associated with the manifestation of higher self-regulatory capacities. It is noted that in the process of professional activities different levels and types of self-regulation are demanded. The self-regulation in professional activities is carried out due to various self-regulatory capabilities - from simple to complex, including the highest.
John, Angela E.; Dobson, Lauren A.; Thomas, Lauren E.; Mervis, Carolyn B.
Prior research has indicated that pragmatics is an area of particular weakness for individuals with Williams syndrome (WS). To further address this aspect of the WS social phenotype, we used an individual differences approach to consider both cross-sectional and longitudinal relations among different pragmatic abilities for 14 children with WS, taking into account individual differences in non-verbal reasoning abilities. We also considered the relations between pragmatic abilities and expressive vocabulary ability. Participants were tested at two time points: as 4-year-olds during a 30-min play session with their mothers (Time 1) and an average of 5.87 years later during a one-on-one conversation with a familiar researcher (Time 2). Children’s intellectual and expressive vocabulary abilities were assessed at both time points. Results indicated that the ability to verbally contribute information beyond what was required in response to a question (ExtendQ) was significantly related to the ability to verbally contribute new information in the absence of a question (ExtendS) both at age 4 years and during primary school. At age 4, both the ability to pair verbalizations with eye contact in triadic interactions (secondary intersubjectivity) and expressive vocabulary ability were related to both ExtendQ and ExtendS. Finally, both ExtendQ and the ability to pair verbalizations with eye contact (intersubjectivity) at age 4 years predicted ExtendQ at age 9–12 years. The theoretical implications of our findings and the importance of early pragmatic language intervention for children who have WS are discussed. PMID:22719734
Fante, Cheryl H.
This study was conducted in an attempt to identify any predictor or combination of predictors of a beginning typewriting student's success. Variables of intelligence, rhythmic ability, musical background, and tapping ability were combined to study their relationship to typewriting speed and accuracy. A sample of 109 high school students was…
Kidd, Gary R.
Chuck Watson was among the first in the psychoacoustic community to seriously address the topic of individual differences. At a time when there was little concern with variation among ``normal listeners'' in psychoacoustic research, Watson began a research program to document the range of human auditory abilities. The primary goals were to determine the number of distinct abilities, to specify the nature of each ability, and to document the distribution of these abilities in the general population. Thanks to Watson's talent for organizing and directing large-scale projects and his workmanlike approach to science, a large and valuable body of data on human individual differences has been collected. The research program began about 20 years ago with the study of basic auditory abilities, and it has expanded to include other modalities and cognitive/intellectual abilities in adults and children. A somewhat biased view of the importance of this work will be presented by one of Watson's many colleagues in this endeavor. The talk will provide an overview of this ongoing research program as well as a brief review of some related research by other investigators. New findings from recent extensions of this work will also be discussed.
Alexandra da Costa Souza Martins
Full Text Available This study investigated the desirable educational background for a teacher to work with high ability/gifted students, desirable characteristics these teachers should present and conceptions on high ability/giftedness. The participants were 20 public school teachers from a city surrounding Brasilia. Of this group, ten were elementary school teachers working with initial grades and ten were undergraduate Pedagogy teachers. A qualitative approach was used and data were collected by means of a semi-structured interview. A content analysis was then conducted. In relation to the desirable educational background for a teach of high ability/gifted students, participants indicated the need of continuous training, under graduation curriculum adapted to the theme and graduation courses in the area. The desirable features for teachers of high ability/gifted students were related to personological attributes (personality traits and intellectual ability, as well as professional characteristics. The conceptions on high ability/giftedness presented by the participants were, in general, close to those found in the literature and used as reference for this study. However, there was lack of information on how to apply the theory into real practice, as well as several wrong ideas on the topic.
Kassberg, Ann-Charlotte; Malinowsky, Camilla; Jacobsson, Lars; Lund, Maria Larsson
To investigate and describe how persons with an acquired brain injury (ABI) manage everyday technology (ET) in their daily activities and to explore whether the ability to manage ET was related to the severity of the disability. Eighty-one persons with ABI were observed while managing ET by using the Management of Everyday Technology Assessment (META). The Glasgow Outcome Scale-Extended (GOSE) was used to assess the severity of disability after the ABI. A computer application of a Rasch measurement model was used to generate measures of the participants' ability to manage ET and the measures were compared groupwise with analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). The degree of severity of disability had a significant main effect on the ability to manage ET. The groups with severe and moderate disability exhibited a significantly lower ability to manage ET compared to the group with good recovery. The result indicates that the ability to manage ET in daily activities can be related to the global severity of disability after ABI. This demonstrates the importance of considering the ability to manage ET to support the performance of activities at home, at work and in society in persons with ABI.
Damos, D. L.
This paper describes several experiments examining the source of individual differences in the experience of mental workload. Three sources of such differences were examined: information processing abilities, timesharing abilities, and personality traits/behavior patterns. On the whole, there was little evidence that individual differences in information processing abilities or timesharing abilities are related to perceived differences in mental workload. However, individuals with strong Type A coronary prone behavior patterns differed in both single- and multiple-task performance from individuals who showed little evidence of such a pattern. Additionally, individuals with a strong Type A pattern showed some dissociation between objective performance and the experience of mental workload.
Full Text Available The research analyses characteristics of pragmatic abilities of storytelling of pupils with mild intellectual disabilities (MID, in the light of vocabulary characteristics, grammar structure and substantive structure of a story, considering their age and gender. The sample consists of 60 pupils with MID, aged 7 to 9, who attend special school. Child’s pragmatic abilities are assessed with The Storytelling Test. The research results reveal considerable progress of the older group in vocabulary, whereas the progress in grammatical and substantive structure was less substantial. When comparing achievements of pupils with MID according to the vocabulary, grammatical and substantive story structure, no gender differences are determined. A comparison of pragmatic abilities of younger and older groups of pupils with MID with the norms for peers with typical development shows minor deviation of the younger group. The research results reveal characteristics of pragmatic abilities of pupils with MID and can provide insights to speech therapists, teachers, special education teachers and counsellors when considering profiles of individuals that are taken as a basis for designing intervention programs. By implementing such program, we would encourage development of pragmatic abilities of pupils, thus affecting their academic achievements, communication competency and social skills.
Boschman, J S; Nieuwenhuijsen, K; Frings-Dresen, M H W; Sluiter, J K
A new approach to the study of work ability is an individually oriented approach. This approach increases our understanding of how work ability develops over time among individuals with a different level of work ability. To increase knowledge about individuals' work ability trajectories by studying hospital nurses' development of work ability over a 2 year period and factors associated with these trajectories. We used a data set of a prospective cohort study of hospital nurses, which was surveyed for 2 years by means of three questionnaires on work characteristics, health and work ability. The outcome variable was the general work ability trajectory over the course of 2 years (favourable/unfavourable). The predictors were the individual, physical and mental work ability and health characteristics at baseline. A multivariate backwards stepwise logistic regression analysis was used. Of 572 nurses in the cohort, nearly one-third (31%, 179/572) showed an unfavourable general work ability trajectory. Low physical work ability (odds ratio (OR) 1.82; 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.12-2.95) and high level of fatigue (OR 1.52; 95% CI 0.97-2.40) at baseline were predictors for the unfavourable course of self-reported general work ability. A substantial proportion of this cohort of hospital nurses experienced a reduction in work ability over the course of 2 years. Baseline physical work ability and level of fatigue were related to this. The next step is to address these factors when counselling nurses and evaluate the effect of interventions aimed at improving physical work ability and reducing fatigue. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Gray, Sarah A; Reeve, Robert A
Different number-specific and general cognitive markers have been claimed to underlie preschoolers' math ability. It is unclear, however, whether similar/different cognitive markers, or combinations of them, are associated with different patterns of emerging math abilities (i.e., different patterns of strength and weakness). To examine this question, 103 preschoolers (40-60 months of age) completed six math tasks (count sequence, object counting, give a number, naming numbers, ordinal relations, and arithmetic), three number-specific markers of math ability (dot enumeration, magnitude comparison, and spontaneous focusing on numerosity), and four general markers (working memory, response inhibition, attention, and vocabulary). A three-step latent profile modeling procedure identified five math ability profiles that differed in their patterns of math strengths and weaknesses; specifically, the profiles were characterized by (a) excellent math ability on all math tasks, (b) good arithmetic ability, (c) good math ability but relatively poor count sequence recitation ability, (d) average ability on all math tasks, and (e) poor ability on all math tasks. After controlling for age, only dot enumeration and spontaneous focusing on numerosity were associated with the math ability profiles, whereas vocabulary was also marginally significant, and these markers were differentially associated with different profiles; that is, different cognitive markers were associated with different patterns of strengths and weaknesses in math abilities. Findings are discussed in terms of their implications for the development of math cognition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Abstract. The study shows the results of a preliminary evaluation of the combining ability for grain yield of 17 mutant maize lines. For the purpose the top cross method for early testing and the mathematical model of Savchenko for analysis of the general and the specific combining ability were used. The lines were tested on three testers with high general combining ability that belong to two genetic groups: K 46 52 and XM 552 from SSS and N 192 – Lancaster. For the purposes of evaluation of the productive abilities of the received top cross two preliminary varietal experiments were carried out at the experimental field of Maize Research Institute, Knezha As a result of the conducted experimental work and the analysis it was found that the highest general combining ability have lines XM 11 6 and XM 12 1. These lines can be included as components of high-yielding synthetics or as testers in analyzing crosses to determine general combining ability in early stages of the selection process. The above lines with high specific combining ability – XM 11 13 and XM 11 46 are suitable for inclusion in combinations to develop high-yielding hybrids. Three of the tested lines XM 11 7 11 XM 10 and XM 11 11 have both high GCA and SCA. These lines can be used in corresponding breeding in the selection programs.
Kozhevnikov, Maria; Kozhevnikov, Michael; Yu, Chen Jiao; Blazhenkova, Olesya
Despite the recent evidence for a multi-component nature of both visual imagery and creativity, there have been no systematic studies on how the different dimensions of creativity and imagery might interrelate. The main goal of this study was to investigate the relationship between different dimensions of creativity (artistic and scientific) and dimensions of visualization abilities and styles (object and spatial). In addition, we compared the contributions of object and spatial visualization abilities versus corresponding styles to scientific and artistic dimensions of creativity. Twenty-four undergraduate students (12 females) were recruited for the first study, and 75 additional participants (36 females) were recruited for an additional experiment. Participants were administered a number of object and spatial visualization abilities and style assessments as well as a number of artistic and scientific creativity tests. The results show that object visualization relates to artistic creativity and spatial visualization relates to scientific creativity, while both are distinct from verbal creativity. Furthermore, our findings demonstrate that style predicts corresponding dimension of creativity even after removing shared variance between style and visualization ability. The results suggest that styles might be a more ecologically valid construct in predicting real-life creative behaviour, such as performance in different professional domains. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.
Sumarsih; Budiyono; Indriati, D.
This research aims to understand the students’ weaknesses in mathematical reasoning ability in junior secondary school. A set of multiple choice tests were used to measure this ability involve components mathematical communication, basic skills, connection, and logical thinking. A total of 259 respondents were determined by stratified cluster random sampling. Data were analyzed using one-way Anova test with Fobs = 109.5760 and F = 3.0000. The results show that students’ ability from schools with high National Exam in mathematics category was the best and followed by medium and low category. Mathematical connection is the most difficult component performed by students. In addition, most students also have difficulty in expressing ideas and developing logical arguments.
Park, Kyongok; Hong, Gwi-Ryung Son
Decreased chewing ability in older adults can lead to poor nutritional and physical conditions, and eventually death. The present study examined the relationships between chewing ability and related characteristics (e.g. health promotion habits, health status and functional status), and identified predictors of chewing ability in community-residing older adults. Among the total of 11 542 participants in the 2011 National Survey on Older Adults in Korea, data from 10 543 participants were used for analysis. Chewing ability was evaluated using a self-report of chewing ability. Exercise ability was assessed by objective exercise ability and perceived exercise ability in both the upper and lower extremities. Depression and cognitive functions were measured using the Geriatric Depression Scale-Short Form and the Mini-Mental State Examination, respectively. A total of 56.9% of participants had poor chewing abilities. After adjusting for age and sex, logistic regression analysis showed that depression (OR 1.76, 95% CI 1.60-1.92), cognitive impairment (OR 1.28, 95% CI 1.17-1.40), objective exercise ability (OR 1.24, 95% CI 1.11-1.41), regular exercise habits (OR 1.23, 95% CI 1.13-1.34), medical check-up history (OR 1.17, 95% CI 1.05-1.32), number of chronic diseases (OR 1.12, 95% CI 1.09-1.15) and perceived exercise ability in the lower extremities (OR 1.08, 95% CI 1.05-1.10) were significant predictors of chewing ability. Chewing ability in older adults should be improved in consideration of mental and general health condition. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; 17: 78-84. © 2015 Japan Geriatrics Society.
Edward T. Cokely
Full Text Available Individual differences in cognitive abilities and skills can predict normatively superior and logically consistent judgments and decisions. The current experiment investigates the processes that mediate individual differences in risky choices. We assessed working memory span, numeracy, and cognitive impulsivity and conducted a protocol analysis to trace variations in conscious deliberative processes. People higher in cognitive abilities made more choices consistent with expected values; however, expected-value choices rarely resulted from expected-value calculations. Instead, the cognitive ability and choice relationship was mediated by the number of simple considerations made during decision making --- e.g., transforming probabilities and considering the relative size of gains. Results imply that, even in simple lotteries, superior risky decisions associated with cognitive abilities and controlled cognition can reflect metacognitive dynamics and elaborative heuristic search processes, rather than normative calculations. Modes of cognitive control (e.g., dual process dynamics and implications for process models of risky decision-making (e.g., priority heuristic are discussed.
Vänni, Kimmo; Virtanen, Pekka; Luukkaala, Tiina; Nygård, Clas-Håkan
This paper presents an approach to assessing presenteeism (on-the-job productivity loss) that is related to perceived work ability. The aim of this explorative research was to find out if perceived work ability could be a robust indicator, interchangeable with presenteeism, in Finnish food industry organizations. The developed approach was based on existing presenteeism research as well as on register and survey data. The approach demonstrates that one step downward on the 10-point perceived work ability scale theoretically reduces employees' on-the-job productivity by ˜5 percentage points. At the company level, on-the-job productivity loss was 3.7% (mdn 0), while sickness absence was 5.0% (mdn 2.2). The probability of productivity loss among factory workers was fourfold compared to women in office work. The developed approach makes it possible to assess perceived productivity loss at the level of an individual and an organization. Perceived work ability may, in fact, be a robust indicator for assessing perceived productivity loss.
Peltola, Petteri; Vehkalahti, Miira M
We investigated the chewing ability of 260 (25 percent men) long-term hospitalized elderly patients 60 years of age and older in Laakso hospital, Helsinki, Finland, in relation to their mastication capacity, sore mouth and degree of dependence. The subjects' (mean age 83.3 years, SD = 8.1 years) mastication capacity was determined by a specialist dentist by means of: (a) number of functioning teeth and dentures; (b) modified Eichner Index; and (c) the Eichner Score, based on the index. Based on the information given by the nursing staff, an indicator of chewing ability was created. The chewing ability was poor for 55 percent, limited for 17 percent, moderate for 14 percent and excellent for 14 percent. Excellent or moderate ability to chew was related to a subject's lesser degree of dependence (OR = 1.5; p = 0.02) and higher Eichner Score (OR = 1.3; p = 0.000). More attention should be focused on mastication capacity of the hospitalized elderly.
Gupta, Nidhi; Jensen, Bjørn Søvsø; Søgaard, Karen
with a total of 5,810 h, including 2,640 working hours. RESULTS: A significant moderate correlation between work ability and %HRR was observed among males (R = -0.33, P = 0.005), but not among females (R = 0.11, P = 0.431). In a gender-stratified multi-adjusted logistic regression analysis, males with high...... %HRR were more likely to report a reduced work ability compared to males with low %HRR [OR = 4.75, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) = 1.31 to 17.25]. However, this association was not found among females (OR = 0.26, 95% CI 0.03 to 2.16), and a significant interaction between work ability, %HRR......PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the face validity of the self-reported single item work ability with objectively measured heart rate reserve (%HRR) among blue-collar workers. METHODS: We utilized data from 127 blue-collar workers (Female = 53; Male = 74) aged 18-65 years from...
Ramdhani, M. R.; Usodo, B.; Subanti, S.
Materials in mathematics are provided not only as an ability to memorize, but also to train the ability of mathematical understanding. Students’ mathematical understanding ability is influenced by the students’ belief in solving the given problems. This research aim to determine the mathematical understanding ability of junior high school students. This research is descriptive qualitative research. Data collection was done through a test, questionnaire, and interview. The result showed that students with high self-efficacy category could master the three indicators of students’ mathematical understanding ability well, namely translation, interpretation, and exploration. Students with moderate self-efficacy category can master translation indicator and able to achieve interpretation indicator but they unable to reach exploration indicator. Students with low self-efficacy category only master the translation, but they cannot achieve the interpretation and exploration indicators. So, the students who have high, moderate or low self-efficacy master the indicator of mathematical understanding based on the level of understanding capabilities on each student.
Luursema, J.M.; Verwey, Willem B.; Burie, Remke
Visuospatial ability has been shown to be important to several aspects of laparoscopic performance, including simulator training. Only a limited subset of visuospatial ability factors however has been investigated in such studies. Tests for different visuospatial ability factors differ in stimulus
Sakaguchi, Takashi; Nakajima, Akira; Tsuruta, Takehiko [Miyazaki Medical Coll., Kiyotake (Japan)
Some microorganisms having excellent ability to accumulate uranium were isolated, from soil and water systems in and around the Ningyo-toge Station of Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation. The enhancement of uranium-accumulating ability of microorganisms by electron-beam irradiation was examined, and the ability of JW-046 was increased 3-5% by the irradiation. The irradiation affect the growth of some of microorganisms tested. (author)
Cabello, Rosario; Fernández-Berrocal, Pablo
Previous research has shown that people differ in their implicit theories about the essential characteristics of intelligence and emotions. Some people believe these characteristics to be predetermined and immutable (entity theorists), whereas others believe that these characteristics can be changed through learning and behavior training (incremental theorists). The present study provides evidence that in healthy adults (N = 688), implicit beliefs about emotions and emotional intelligence (EI) may influence performance on the ability-based Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT). Adults in our sample with incremental theories about emotions and EI scored higher on the MSCEIT than entity theorists, with implicit theories about EI showing a stronger relationship to scores than theories about emotions. Although our participants perceived both emotion and EI as malleable, they viewed emotions as more malleable than EI. Women and young adults in general were more likely to be incremental theorists than men and older adults. Furthermore, we found that emotion and EI theories mediated the relationship of gender and age with ability EI. Our findings suggest that people’s implicit theories about EI may influence their emotional abilities, which may have important consequences for personal and professional EI training. PMID:26052309
Full Text Available Previous research has shown that people differ in their implicit theories about the essential characteristics of intelligence and emotions. Some people believe these characteristics to be predetermined and immutable (entity theorists, whereas others believe that these characteristics can be changed through learning and behavior training (incremental theorists. The present study provides evidence that in healthy adults (N = 688, implicit beliefs about emotions and emotional intelligence (EI may influence performance on the ability-based Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT. Adults in our sample with incremental theories about emotions and EI scored higher on the MSCEIT than entity theorists, with implicit theories about EI showing a stronger relationship to scores than theories about emotions. Although our participants perceived both emotion and EI as malleable, they viewed emotions as more malleable than EI. Women and young adults in general were more likely to be incremental theorists than men and older adults. Furthermore, we found that emotion and EI theories mediated the relationship of gender and age with ability EI. Our findings suggest that people’s implicit theories about EI may influence their emotional abilities, which may have important consequences for personal and professional EI training.
Persoon, Anke; Schoonhoven, Lisette; Melis, Rene J F; van Achterberg, Theo; Kessels, Roy P C; Rikkert, Marcel G M Olde
To examine the psychometric properties of the Nurses' Observation Scale for Cognitive Abilities. Nurses' Observation Scale for Cognitive Abilities is a behavioural rating scale comprising eight subscales that represent different cognitive domains. It is based on observations during contact between nurse and patient. Observational study. A total of 50 patients from two geriatric wards in acute care hospitals participated in this study. Reliability was examined via internal consistency and inter-rater reliability. Construct validity of the Nurses' Observation Scale for Cognitive Abilities and its subscales were explored by means of convergent and divergent validity and post hoc analyses for group differences. Cronbach's αs of the total Nurses' Observation Scale for Cognitive Abilities and its subscales were 0·98 and 0·66-0·93, respectively. The item-total correlations were satisfactory (overall > 0·4). The intra-class coefficients were good (37 of 39 items > 0·4). The convergent validity of the Nurses' Observation Scale for Cognitive Abilities against cognitive ratings (MMSE, NOSGER) and severity of dementia (Clinical Dementia Rating) demonstrated satisfactory correlations (0·59-0·70, p 0·05). The divergent validity of the Nurses' Observation Scale for Cognitive Abilities against depressive symptoms was low (0·12, p > 0·05). The construct validity of the Nurses' Observation Scale for Cognitive Abilities subscales against 13 specific neuropsychological tests showed correlations varying from poor to fair (0·18-0·74; 10 of 13 correlations p Validity and reliability of the total Nurses' Observation Scale for Cognitive Abilities are excellent. The correlations between the Nurses' Observation Scale for Cognitive Abilities subscales and standard neuropsychological tests were moderate. More conclusive results may be found if the Nurses' Observation Scale for Cognitive Abilities subscales were to be validated using more ecologically valid tests and in a patient
Gardner, M K; Clark, E; Bowman, M A; Miller, P J
This study investigated analogical reasoning abilities of alcoholics who had been abstinent from alcohol for at least 1 year. Their performance was compared to that of nonalcoholic controls matched as a group for education, age, and gender. Solution times and error rates were modeled using a regression model. Results showed a nonsignificant trend for alcoholics to be faster, but more error prone, than controls. The same componential model applied to both groups, and fit them equally well. Although differences have been found in analogical reasoning ability between controls and alcoholics immediately following detoxification, we find no evidence of differences after extended periods of sobriety.
Boschman, J. S.; Nieuwenhuijsen, K.; Frings-Dresen, M. H. W.; Sluiter, J. K.
A new approach to the study of work ability is an individually oriented approach. This approach increases our understanding of how work ability develops over time among individuals with a different level of work ability. To increase knowledge about individuals' work ability trajectories by studying
Martinez, Maria Carmen; Latorre, Maria do Rosário Dias de Oliveira; Fischer, Frida Marina
To test the Work Ability House model, verifying the hierarchy of proposed dimensions, among a group of hospital workers. A cohort study (2009-2011) was conducted with a sample of 599 workers from a hospital in the city of São Paulo. A questionnaire including sociodemographics, lifestyle and working conditions was used. The Brazilian versions of Job Stress Scale, Effort-Reward Imbalance, Work-Related Activities That May Contribute To Job-Related Pain and/or Injury, and the Work Ability Index (WAI) were also used. A hierarchical logistic regression analysis was performed: the independent variables were allocated into levels according to the dimensions of the theoretical model in order to evaluate the factors associated with work ability. Variables associated with impairment of work ability in each dimension were as follows: (a) sociodemographics: age work injuries (p = 0.029), (c) professional competence: low educational level (p = 0.008), (d) values : intensified in overcommitment (p work: intensification of effort-reward imbalance (p = 0.009) and high demands (p = 0.040). The results confirmed the dimensions proposed for the Work Ability House model, indicating that it is valid as a representation of a multidimensional construct of multifactorial determination and can be used in the management of work ability.
Gorokhovskij, G.A.; Samsonov, G.V.; Gorshunov, V.P.
A relationhsip between the rate of polymer macromolecules absorption on some refractory compounds and the dispersion ability of polymer-abrasive compositions was investigated at various contents of the polymethacrylate polymer in an abrasive composition. The solid phase used was powders of Al 2 O 3 , WC, W 2 B 5 , TiB 2 . It was established that the dispersion ability of the polymer-abrasive compositions was a function not only of the cutting properties of the abrasives and the dispersion ability of the polymers, but also of the adsorption properties of the solid phase and of its capacity to transport macromolecules to the surface being worked
Darta; Saputra, J.
Representational and mathematical reasoning ability are very important ability as basic in mathematics learning process. The 2013 curriculum suggests that the use of a scientific approach emphasizes higher order thinking skills. Therefore, a scientific approach is required in mathematics learning to improve ability of representation and mathematical reasoning. The objectives of this research are: (1) to analyze representational and reasoning abilities, (2) to analyze indicators affecting the ability of representation and mathematical reasoning, (3) to analyze scientific approaches that can improve the ability of representation and mathematical reasoning. The subject of this research is the students of mathematics prospective teachers in the first semester at Private Higher Education of Bandung City. The research method of this research was descriptive analysis. The research data were collected using reasoning and representation tests on sixty-one students. Data processing was done by descriptive analysis specified based on the indicators of representation ability and mathematical reasoning that influenced it. The results of this first-year study showed that students still had many weaknesses in reasoning and mathematical representation that were influenced by the ability to understand the indicators of both capabilities. After observing the results of the first-year research, then in the second and third year, the development of teaching materials with a scientific approach in accordance with the needs of prospective students was planned.
Heggie, Lindsay; Wade-Woolley, Lesly
We examined the relationship between two metalinguistic tasks: prosodic awareness and punctuation ability. Specifically, we investigated whether adults' ability to punctuate was related to the degree to which they are aware of and able to manipulate prosody in spoken language. English-speaking adult readers (n = 115) were administered a receptive…
Danthiir, Vanessa; Roberts, Richard D.; Pallier, Gerry; Stankov, Lazar
Studied the role of olfactory processes within the theory of fluid and crystallized intelligence by testing 107 Australian college students with a battery of psychometric and olfactory tests. Results indicate the likely existence of an olfactory memory ability that is structurally independent of established higher-order abilities and not related…
... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aliens with extraordinary ability. 41.55... IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Business and Media Visas § 41.55 Aliens with extraordinary ability. (a) Requirements for O classification. An alien shall be classifiable under the provisions of INA 101...
Chen, Chwen Jen
This study aims to investigate the effects of virtual reality (VR)-based learning environment on learners of different spatial visualization abilities. The findings of the aptitude-by-treatment interaction study have shown that learners benefit most from the Guided VR mode, irrespective of their spatial visualization abilities. This indicates that…
Nicola J. Pitchford
Full Text Available Fine motor skills have long been recognised as an important foundation for development in other domains. However, more precise insights into the role of fine motor skills, and their relationships to other skills in mediating early educational achievements, are needed to support the development of optimal educational interventions. We explored concurrent relationships between two components of fine motor skills, Fine Motor Precision and Fine Motor Integration, and early reading and maths development in two studies with primary school children of low-to-mid socio-economic status in the U.K. Two key findings were revealed. First, despite being in the first two years of primary school education, significantly better performance was found in reading compared to maths across both studies. This may reflect the protective effects of recent national-level interventions to promote early literacy skills in young children in the U.K. that have not been similarly promoted for maths. Second, fine motor skills were a better predictor of early maths ability than they were of early reading ability. Hierarchical multiple regression revealed that fine motor skills did not significantly predict reading ability when verbal short-term memory was taken into account. In contrast, Fine Motor Integration remained a significant predictor of maths ability, even after the influence of non-verbal IQ had been accounted for. These results suggest that fine motor skills should have a pivotal role in educational interventions designed to support the development of early mathematical skills.
Pitchford, Nicola J.; Papini, Chiara; Outhwaite, Laura A.; Gulliford, Anthea
Fine motor skills have long been recognized as an important foundation for development in other domains. However, more precise insights into the role of fine motor skills, and their relationships to other skills in mediating early educational achievements, are needed to support the development of optimal educational interventions. We explored concurrent relationships between two components of fine motor skills, Fine Motor Precision and Fine Motor Integration, and early reading and maths development in two studies with primary school children of low-to-mid socio-economic status in the UK. Two key findings were revealed. First, despite being in the first 2 years of primary school education, significantly better performance was found in reading compared to maths across both studies. This may reflect the protective effects of recent national-level interventions to promote early literacy skills in young children in the UK that have not been similarly promoted for maths. Second, fine motor skills were a better predictor of early maths ability than they were of early reading ability. Hierarchical multiple regression revealed that fine motor skills did not significantly predict reading ability when verbal short-term memory was taken into account. In contrast, Fine Motor Integration remained a significant predictor of maths ability, even after the influence of non-verbal IQ had been accounted for. These results suggest that fine motor skills should have a pivotal role in educational interventions designed to support the development of early mathematical skills. PMID:27303342
Pitchford, Nicola J; Papini, Chiara; Outhwaite, Laura A; Gulliford, Anthea
Fine motor skills have long been recognized as an important foundation for development in other domains. However, more precise insights into the role of fine motor skills, and their relationships to other skills in mediating early educational achievements, are needed to support the development of optimal educational interventions. We explored concurrent relationships between two components of fine motor skills, Fine Motor Precision and Fine Motor Integration, and early reading and maths development in two studies with primary school children of low-to-mid socio-economic status in the UK. Two key findings were revealed. First, despite being in the first 2 years of primary school education, significantly better performance was found in reading compared to maths across both studies. This may reflect the protective effects of recent national-level interventions to promote early literacy skills in young children in the UK that have not been similarly promoted for maths. Second, fine motor skills were a better predictor of early maths ability than they were of early reading ability. Hierarchical multiple regression revealed that fine motor skills did not significantly predict reading ability when verbal short-term memory was taken into account. In contrast, Fine Motor Integration remained a significant predictor of maths ability, even after the influence of non-verbal IQ had been accounted for. These results suggest that fine motor skills should have a pivotal role in educational interventions designed to support the development of early mathematical skills.
Oleksandr Yu. Burov
Full Text Available This paper describes new and emerging technologies in education, learning environments and methods that have to satisfy lifelong learning, from school age to retirement, on the basis of the psychophysiological model of the cognitive abilities formation. It covers such topics as: evaluation of a human (accounting schoolchildren, youth and adults features abilities and individual propensities, individual trajectory of learning, adaptive learning strategy and design, recommendation on curriculum design, day-to-day support for individual’s learning, assessment of a human learning environment and performance, recommendation regards vocational retraining and/or further carrier etc.. The specific goal is to facilitate a broader understanding of the promise and pitfalls of these technologies and working (learning/teaching environments in global education/development settings, with special regard to the human as subject in the system and to the collaboration of humans and technical, didactic and organizational subsystems.
In the reading of music, the acquisition of pitch information depends primarily upon the spatial position of notes as well as upon an individual's spatial processing ability. This study investigated the relationship between the ability to read single notes and visual-spatial ability. Participants with high and low single-note reading abilities were differentiated based upon differences in musical notation-reading abilities and their spatial processing; object recognition abilities were then assessed. It was found that the group with lower note-reading abilities made more errors than did the group with a higher note-reading abilities in the mental rotation task. In contrast, there was no apparent significant difference between the two groups in the object recognition task. These results suggest that note-reading may be related to visual spatial processing abilities, and not to an individual's ability with object recognition.
Reker, Paul; Domschke, Katharina; Zwanzger, Peter; Evers, Stefan
While there is sustained effort to refine the models and to further decrypt the neuronal underpinnings of cerebral music perception, empirical investigations on the associations of music perception with diagnoses others than focal brain damage need to be amplified. In the present study, a validated and standardized clinical test of musical ability was applied to a sample of severely depressed patients. Basic musical capacities of rhythm, melody and pitch perception, recognition of emotions, and musical memory were evaluated and compared to matched healthy controls and reassessed in a follow-up examination after clinical remission. We enroled 21 in-patients with major depression according to ICD-10 (F32 and F33). The score in the test of musical ability (maximum score 70) was 52.3±7.8 for the patient group and 57.8±4.3 for the control group (p=0.010). In particular, melody comparison, rhythm perception, and emotional categorising of music were impaired in patients. In the longitudinal study, patients improved from 53.6±7.8 to 56.2±6.7 (p=0.038); this improvement could be related to clinical improvement on the Hamilton Depression Scale. The sample size is small, in particular in the follow-up study. The results clearly revealed a significant reduction of musical ability in patients with depression. A part of the patients could even be diagnosed with a clinically relevant amusia. Along with significant decrease of depressive symptoms, the patients significantly improved with respect to musical ability. These findings suggest a systematic impact of depression on musical ability, they are of importance for the application of music therapy in depressive patients and for the function of music to improve their quality of life. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Russo, John; Romano, Flavio; Tanaka, Hajime
Some liquids, if cooled rapidly enough to avoid crystallization, can be frozen into a nonergodic glassy state. The tendency for a material to form a glass when quenched is called "glass-forming ability," and it is of key significance both fundamentally and for materials science applications. Here, we consider liquids with competing orderings, where an increase in the glass-forming ability is signaled by a depression of the melting temperature towards its minimum at triple or eutectic points. With simulations of two model systems where glass-forming ability can be tuned by an external parameter, we are able to interpolate between crystal-forming and glass-forming behavior. We find that the enhancement of the glass-forming ability is caused by an increase in the structural difference between liquid and crystal: stronger competition in orderings towards the melting point minimum makes a liquid structure more disordered (more complex). This increase in the liquid-crystal structure difference can be described by a single adimensional parameter, i.e., the interface energy cost scaled by the thermal energy, which we call the "thermodynamic interface penalty." Our finding may provide a general physical principle for not only controlling the glass-forming ability but also the emergence of glassy behavior of various systems with competing orderings, including orderings of structural, magnetic, electronic, charge, and dipolar origin.
de Croon, E M; Sluiter, J K; Nijssen, T F; Kammeijer, M; Dijkmans, B A C; Lankhorst, G J; Frings-Dresen, M H W
To (i) examine the association between fatigue, psychosocial work characteristics (job control, support, participation in decision making, psychological job demands), and physical work requirements on the one hand and work ability of employees with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) on the other, and (ii) determine the advice that health care professionals give to employees with RA on how to maintain their work ability. Data were gathered from 78 employees with early RA (response = 99%) by telephone interviews and self-report questionnaires. Fatigue, lack of autonomy, low coworker/supervisor support, low participation in decision making, and high physical work requirements (i.e. using manual force) predicted low work ability. High psychological job demands, however, did not predict low work ability. The rheumatologist, occupational physician, occupational therapist, physiotherapist, and psychologist gave advice on how to cope with RA at work to 36, 30, 27, 26, and 17% of the employees, respectively. Advice was directed mainly at factors intrinsic to the employee. Employees expressed a positive attitude towards this advice. Fatigue, lack of support, lack of autonomy, lack of participation in decision making, and using manual force at work (e.g. pushing and pulling) threaten the work ability of employees with RA. According to the employees with RA, involvement of health care professionals from different disciplines and the implementation of organizational and technical interventions would help them to tackle these threats.
Silvina Cohen Imach
Full Text Available A series of studies of cognitive abilities were conducted on a group of children at a context of poverty, in reason of learning about the quality of such capabilities, and in direct relationship to low school performance and subsequent risk of academic underachievement. Fifty three 4th year EGB-2 (Elementary School children of both sexes participated. They attend a suburban school outside the city of San Miguel de Tucumán, Argentina. Tests of Analogies and Building with Cubes of Wechsler ́s Intelligence Scale III (WISCIII were used in the process. Additionally, a register protocol was prepared by the research team. Outcomes were articulated with a demographic poll inquiring on the social-economic context of the children. Results reveal a proportion of 18.9 % of the children showing below standard records in cognitive abilities related to the aptitude in forming verbal concepts, and of 13.2 % in non- verbal concepts. Verbal abilities refer to the faculty of classifying and categorizing, for which the subject needs to organize, abstract and find relationship between facts or ideas and the comprehension of oral/audio assignments. Non- verbal abilities submit to the aptitude of making processes of analysis- synthesis and applying non- verbal reasoning to spatial relationships. This group of children was selected to receive – in second stage- training in these abilities through the Instrumental Enrichment Program.
Brand, Manny; Burnsed, Vernon
This study examined the predictive validity of previous music abilities and experiences of skill in music error detection among undergraduate instrumental music education majors. Results indicated no statistically significant relationships which suggest that the ability to detect music errors may exist independently of other music abilities.…
Mohammadi, Saber; Ghaffari, Mostafa; Abdi, Alireza; Bahadori, Baharak; Mirzamohammadi, Elham; Attarchi, Mirsaeed
Early labor force exit is one of the major problems worldwide. The present study investigates the relationship between work ability and lifestyle. This study was conducted at a manufacturing plant in Tehran in 2012. All 851 male workers in this plant were included into the study and their work ability was assessed using the Work Ability Index (WAI). Based on the obtained scores, the participants were then classified into four work ability groups (poor, moderate, good, or excellent). Moreover, the participants' lifestyles were studied in three areas, including physical activity, cigarette smoking, and Body Mass Index (BMI). The average work ability index score was 42.07, ranging from 7-48. Among the participants, 6.4% (43), 6.5% (44), 38.3% (259), and 48.8% (330) were in the groups with poor, moderate, good, and excellent work ability, respectively. The results of logistic regression analysis showed that there is a significant relationship between work ability and lifestyle (cigarette smoking, BMI, and physical activity) even after adjustment for confounding variables (Pwork ability and lifestyle (physical activity, BMI, cigarette smoking). Therefore, it is recommended to implement a lifestyle quality enhancement program to improve work ability in working environments.
Agrillo, Christian; Miletto Petrazzini, Maria Elena; Bisazza, Angelo
The ability to utilize numerical information can be adaptive in a number of ecological contexts including foraging, mating, parental care, and anti-predator strategies. Numerical abilities of mammals and birds have been studied both in natural conditions and in controlled laboratory conditions using a variety of approaches. During the last decade this ability was also investigated in some fish species. Here we reviewed the main methods used to study this group, highlighting the strengths and weaknesses of each of the methods used. Fish have only been studied under laboratory conditions and among the methods used with other species, only two have been systematically used in fish-spontaneous choice tests and discrimination learning procedures. In the former case, the choice between two options is observed in a biologically relevant situation and the degree of preference for the larger/smaller group is taken as a measure of the capacity to discriminate the two quantities (e.g., two shoals differing in number). In discrimination learning tasks, fish are trained to select the larger or the smaller of two sets of abstract objects, typically two-dimensional geometric figures, using food or social companions as reward. Beyond methodological differences, what emerges from the literature is a substantial similarity of the numerical abilities of fish with those of other vertebrates studied. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The study aims to explore tertiary students’ entrepreneurial ability of entrepreneurship-embedded internship program in education service industry. To achieve this goal, the study uses interviews, and panel discussions to confirm entrepreneurial ability. In addition, the study utilizes transformation of knowledge and ability to select representative knowledge items and to confirm the entrepreneurial ability structure of entrepreneurship-embedded internship program in education service industry through panel discussions. Entrepreneurs in education service industry should have these ten categories, total 42 items, such as essential professional knowledge item; that is, entrepreneurial skills, education ability, marketing ability, computer ability, service ability, and management ability, in order to cultivate entrepreneurs’ abilities of education service industry effectively. Core entrepreneurial ability of education service industry entrepreneurs should include 13 items in total, including entrepreneurial skills, education ability, marketing ability and service ability and so on.
Wang, Dexing; Zhang, Yang; Wang, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Xiaojun; Zhang, Tao; Sun, Peng
The traditional experimental teaching methods have some shortcomings in the training the student innovation ability. In order to improve the student practical ability in the photoelectric technology, in this paper new experimental teaching modes are tried and reformed for cultivating the innovative ability of students in the linear CCD experiment. The photoelectric experiment systems are independently designed and completed by students. Compared with the traditional experimental teaching methods, this new methods have a great role in the development of the ability of creative thinking.
Both groups were administered a pre-test and post-test of academic reading ability. The dependent variable was academic reading ability and the independent variables were matric grade and prior exposure. Two measures of reading ability were used, namely a reading comprehension and a cloze passage. An analysis of ...
The author studied how math anxiety, motivation, and ability group interact to affect performance in college math courses. This clarified the effects of math anxiety and ability grouping on performance. It clarified the interrelationships between math anxiety, motivation, and ability grouping by considering them in a single analysis. It introduces…
This research and analysis drew from the field of Industrial Psychology to determine and ... capital and sound financial structure within farmers' business, market access, ... managerial ability and strong entrepreneurial instinct; ability to handle.
Koroghlanian, Carol May
This study investigated the effects of audio, animation and spatial ability in a computer based instructional program for biology. The program presented instructional material via text or audio with lean text and included eight instructional sequences presented either via static illustrations or animations. High school students enrolled in a biology course were blocked by spatial ability and randomly assigned to one of four treatments (Text-Static Illustration Audio-Static Illustration, Text-Animation, Audio-Animation). The study examined the effects of instructional mode (Text vs. Audio), illustration mode (Static Illustration vs. Animation) and spatial ability (Low vs. High) on practice and posttest achievement, attitude and time. Results for practice achievement indicated that high spatial ability participants achieved more than low spatial ability participants. Similar results for posttest achievement and spatial ability were not found. Participants in the Static Illustration treatments achieved the same as participants in the Animation treatments on both the practice and posttest. Likewise, participants in the Text treatments achieved the same as participants in the Audio treatments on both the practice and posttest. In terms of attitude, participants responded favorably to the computer based instructional program. They found the program interesting, felt the static illustrations or animations made the explanations easier to understand and concentrated on learning the material. Furthermore, participants in the Animation treatments felt the information was easier to understand than participants in the Static Illustration treatments. However, no difference for any attitude item was found for participants in the Text as compared to those in the Audio treatments. Significant differences were found by Spatial Ability for three attitude items concerning concentration and interest. In all three items, the low spatial ability participants responded more positively
Torp, Steffen; Nielsen, Roy A; Gudbergsson, Sævar B; Dahl, Alv A
This study was conducted to determine how many cancer survivors (CSs) make worksite adjustments and what kinds of adjustments they make. Changes in work ability among employed CSs were explored, and clinical, sociodemographic, and work-related factors associated with the current total work ability were studied. CSs of the ten most common invasive types of cancer for men and women in Norway completed a mailed questionnaire 15-39 months after being diagnosed with cancer. Included in the analyses were all participants who worked both at the time of diagnosis and at the time of the survey and who had not changed their labor force status since diagnosis (n = 563). The current total work ability was compared to the lifetime best (0-10 score). Twenty-six percent of the employed CSs had made adjustments at work, and the most common adjustment was changing the number of work hours per week. Despite the fact that 31% and 23% reported reduced physical and mental work abilities, respectively, more than 90% of the CSs reported that they coped well with their work demands. The mean total work ability score was high (8.6) among both men and women. Being self-employed and working part-time at the time of diagnosis showed significant negative correlations with total work ability, while a favorable psychosocial work environment showed a significant positive correlation. CSs with low work ability were more often in contact with the occupational health service and also made more worksite adjustments than others. The prospects of future work life seem optimistic for Norwegian employed CSs who return to work relatively soon after primary treatment.
Osorio-Valencia, Erika; Torres-Sánchez, Luisa; López-Carrillo, Lizbeth; Rothenberg, Stephen J; Schnaas, Lourdes
Psychomotricity plays a very important role in children's development, especially for learning involving reading-writing and mathematical calculations. Evaluate motor development in children 3 years old and its relationship with their cognitive abilities at the age of 5 years. Based on a cohort study, we analyzed the information about motor performance evaluated at 3 years old by Peabody Motor Scale and cognitive abilities at 5 years old. The association was estimated using linear regression models adjusted by mother's intelligence quotient, sex, Bayley mental development index at 18 months, and quality of the environment at home (HOME scale). 148 children whose motor performance was determined at age 3 and was evaluated later at age 5 to determine their cognitive abilities. Cognitive abilities (verbal, quantitative, and memory) measured by McCarthy Scales. Significant positive associations were observed between stationary balance at age 3 with verbal abilities (β = 0.67, p = .04) and memory (β = 0.81, p = .02) at 5 years. Grasping and visual-motor integration were significant and positively associated with quantitative abilities (β = 0.74, p = .005; β = 0.61, p = .01) and memory (β = 2.11, p = .001; β = 1.74, p = .004). The results suggest that early motor performance contributes to the establishment of cognitive abilities at 5 years. Evaluation and early motor stimulation before the child is faced with formal learning likely helps to create neuronal networks that facilitate the acquisition of academic knowledge.
Lee, Dae Soo; Lee, Jong Rim; Kim, Jong Ku [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)
The purpose of this study was to identify methods for improving the construct ability of nuclear power plants. This study reviewed several references of current construction practices of domestic and overseas nuclear plants in order to identify potential methods for improving construct ability. The identified methods for improving construct ability were then evaluated based on the applicability to domestic nuclear plant construction. The selected methods are expected to reduce the construction period, improve the quality of construction, cost, safety, and productivity. Selection of which methods should be implemented will require further evaluation of construction modifications, design changes, contract revisions. Among construction methods studied, platform construction methods can be applied through construction sequence modification without significant design changes, and Over the Top construction method of the NSSS, automatic welding of RCL pipes, CLP modularization, etc., are considered to be applied after design modification and adjustment of material lead time. (author). 49 refs., figs., tabs.
Hafiz, M.; Kadir, Fatra, Maifalinda
The concept mapping learning strategy in teaching and learning mathematics has been investigated by numerous researchers. However, there are still less researchers who have scrutinized about the roles of map concept which is connected to the mathematical connection ability. Being well understood on map concept, it may help students to have ability to correlate one concept to other concept in order that the student can solve mathematical problems faced. The objective of this research was to describe the student's mathematical connection ability and to analyze the effect of using concept mapping learning strategy to the students' mathematical connection ability. This research was conducted at senior high school in Jakarta. The method used a quasi-experimental with randomized control group design with the total number was 72 students as the sample. Data obtained through using test in the post-test after giving the treatment. The results of the research are: 1) Students' mathematical connection ability has reached the good enough level category; 2) Students' mathematical connection ability who had taught with concept mapping learning strategy is higher than who had taught with conventional learning strategy. Based on the results above, it can be concluded that concept mapping learning strategycould enhance the students' mathematical connection ability, especially in trigonometry.
Luisa Carmen Spezzano
Full Text Available Abstract Cognitive Neuropsychology aims to understand the processing mechanisms of normal and injured brain, by means of functional architectural models of information processing. Naming is one of the most important abilities in linguistic processing. Naming of different semantic and grammatical categories differ in their lexical properties and have distinct neuroanatomical substrates. We reviewed literature data on the differences between nouns and verbs in aphasic subjects reported by scientific publications in the form of indexed articles. Studies on naming abilities tended to emphasize the differentiation between nouns and verbs both in their lexical properties and neuroanatomical substrates. Functional neuroimaging studies have improved the state of knowledge regarding category-specific naming abilities, but further studies on different types of aphasia and the use of naming abilities in different contexts are warranted.
Boström, Maria; Holmgren, Kristina; Sluiter, Judith K; Hagberg, Mats; Grimby-Ekman, Anna
The aim of this study was to explore the experiences of and influences on work ability in young workers related to their work and life situation. In a qualitative study of a strategic sample of 12 young female and 12 young male workers, aged 25-30 years, in work or recently left work, recruited from the 5-year follow-up of a Swedish cohort, semi-structured interviews were performed to explore the experiences of work ability in these young workers. Systematic text condensation inspired by phenomenology was used in the analysis. Work ability was experienced as complex, consisting of four themes, each with three subthemes. To be alert and have energy, to possess sufficient education, skills and working life experience and experience meaningfulness and engagement in work, were perceived to be fundamental for work ability and were seen as the worker's own responsibility. Moreover, work ability can be improved or reduced by the psychosocial work climate, the work organization and the private life. Optimal work ability was experienced when all themes integrated in a positive way. Work ability was experienced as the worker's own responsibility that could be influenced by work circumstances and private life. To promote good work ability among young workers, work ability has to be understood in its specific context. Whether the understanding of work ability found in this study is explicit for the group of young adults needs to be explored in a more general population in further research.
Full Text Available This research is a qualitative research with two variables. The classroom action research is conducted at phisics study program of Muhammadiyah University of Metro. The subject of this research is first semester students of physics study program. The number of the students is 22. The objective of this research was to know how cue cards technique improve the students’ writing ability in descriptive text. The researcher choose one class because they have problem in writing ability. This research was conducted in two cycles. Each cycle consisted of planning, acting, observing and reflecting. The data were collected from test (pre test and post test, observation. The result of this research can be seen from the average score of pre test (before treatment was 61,86, in cycle 1 was 70,90 and in post test cycle 2 was 78. That was involved in upgrading maximally. It implied that cue cards technique can improve the students writing ability in descriptive text. In other words, the class had fulfilled criteria success of standard students competency from the school.It was supported by the observation of the students. From the result of the discussion, the researcher concludes that in this research there is an improvement student writing ability in descriptive text using cue cards technique at the students of physics academic year 2015/2016. Key Words : Descriptive Text, Writing Ability, Cue Cards Technique
Lai, Mun Yee; Leung, Frederick Koon Shing
This paper reports an investigation of Chinese-speaking and English-speaking children's general visual perceptual abilities. The Developmental Test of Visual Perception was administered to 41 native Chinese-speaking children of mean age 5 yr. 4 mo. in Hong Kong and 35 English-speaking children of mean age 5 yr. 2 mo. in Melbourne. Of interest were the two interrelated components of visual perceptual abilities, namely, motor-reduced visual perceptual and visual-motor integration perceptual abilities, which require either verbal or motoric responses in completing visual tasks. Chinese-speaking children significantly outperformed the English-speaking children on general visual perceptual abilities. When comparing the results of each of the two different components, the Chinese-speaking students' performance on visual-motor integration was far better than that of their counterparts (ES = 2.70), while the two groups of students performed similarly on motor-reduced visual perceptual abilities. Cultural factors such as written language format may be contributing to the enhanced performance of Chinese-speaking children's visual-motor integration abilities, but there may be validity questions in the Chinese version.
Molitor, Stephen J.; Langberg, Joshuah M.; Bourchtein, Elizaveta; Eddy, Laura D.; Dvorsky, Melissa R.; Evans, Steven W.
Students with ADHD often experience a host of negative academic outcomes and deficits in reading and mathematics abilities contribute to these academic impairments. Students with ADHD may also have difficulties with written expression but there has been minimal research in this area and it is not clear whether written expression abilities uniquely contribute to the academic functioning of students with ADHD. The current study included a sample of 104 middle school students diagnosed with ADHD (grades 6–8). Participants were followed longitudinally to evaluate whether written expression abilities at baseline predicted student GPA and parent ratings of academic impairment 18 months later, after controlling for reading ability and additional relevant covariates. Written expression abilities longitudinally predicted both academic outcomes above and beyond ADHD and ODD symptoms, medication use, reading ability, and baseline values of GPA and parent-rated academic impairment. Follow-up analyses revealed that no single aspect of written expression was demonstrably more impactful on academic outcomes than the others, suggesting that writing as an entire process should be the focus of intervention. PMID:26783650
Hoogendoorn, Sander; Parker, Simon C.; Van Praag, Mirjam
What is the effect of dispersed levels of cognitive ability of members of a (business) team on their team's performance? This paper reports the results of a field experiment in which 573 students in 49 teams start up and manage real companies under identical circumstances. We ensured exogenous va...
Viezel, Kathleen D.; Freer, Benjamin D.; Lowell, Ari; Castillo, Jenean A.
School psychologists should be aware of developmental risk factors for children who have been abused or neglected. The present study used the "Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, Fourth Edition" to examine the cognitive abilities of 120 children in foster care subsequent to maltreatment. Results indicated that, compared to a…
Avlund, K; Holstein, B E
The purpose is to assess the discriminatory power of the Avlund scales: (1) by assessing the ability of the scales to discriminate between three different populations of elderly people, and (2) by studying groups with a poor fit between use of formal home care and functional ability. The study...... included (A) all residents in new sheltered housing facilities (response rate 68%, n = 102), (B) a random sample of users of home care (response rate 67%, n = 435), and (C) a random sample of individuals not using home care (response rate 74%, n = 501). All participants were 60+ years old. Data were...
Moon, Sidney M.
One rationale for failure to address the needs of high-ability students in schools is that high-ability students do not need special services because they do not face any special problems or challenges. A more extreme corollary of this attitude is the notion that high ability is so protective that students with high ability do not face problems or…
Magnago, Tânia Solange Bosi de Souza; de Lima, Ana Cláudia Soares; Prochnow, Andrea; Ceron, Marinez Diniz da Silva; Tavares, Juliana Petri; Urbanetto, Janete de Souza
the aim was to evaluate the association between the intensity of musculoskeletal pain and reduction in work ability among nursing workers. a cross-sectional study, involving 592 nursing staff in a public university hospital in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The Brazilian version of the Finnish questionnaire for calculating Work Ability Index was used, whose score varies from 7 to 49 points. The score was dichotomized as reduced work ability (7 to 36 points) and good/excellent ability (37 to 49 points). The intensity of musculoskeletal pain over the previous week was evaluated, using a numerical pain scale. 43.3% of the participants had reduced work ability and 48.8% reported strong to unbearable pain. Even after adjusting for potentially confounding factors (function and length of service in the function), the workers who mentioned strong to unbearable pain were four times more likely to be classified in the group with reduced work ability. A positive association was determined between intensity of musculoskeletal pain and reduction in work ability. It is necessary to adopt intervention measures in the organizational structure, so as to promote/restore work ability.
Jansson, Inger; Björklund, Anita; Perseius, Kent-Inge; Gunnarsson, A Birgitta
Since work ability is manifested in working life and ``bought'' by employers, employers perceptions of the concept are important to understand. Studies have shown that people with health problems want to take part in the labour market, but experience difficulties in gaining access. Additionally, studies have demonstrated the doubt felt by employers when they consider hiring a person with a disability. The aim was to identify and characterise employers' conceptions of work ability. The study design was qualitative with a phenomenographic approach. Six male and six female employers from various workplaces and geographical areas in Sweden were interviewed. Three domains were identified: employees' contributions to work ability, employers' contributions to work ability and circumstances with limited work ability. Work ability was regarded as a tool in production and its output, production, was the main issue. The employees' commitment and interest could bridge other shortcomings. The employers highlighted their own contributions in shaping work ability in order to fit with work circumstances. Health problems were not the only limiting issues; other circumstances, such as individual characteristics and contextual factors, could limit work ability too. Knowing the importance of commitment and interest is valuable in work rehabilitation.
Hassona, Y; Scully, C; Abu Tarboush, N; Baqain, Z; Ismail, F; Hawamdeh, S; Sawair, F
The purpose of this study is to examine factors that influence the diagnostic ability of dental students with regards to oral cancer and oral potentially malignant disorders. Dental students at different levels of study were directly interviewed to examine their oral cancer knowledge and diagnostic ability using a validated and pre-tested survey instrument containing validated clinical images of oral cancer and oral potentially malignant disorders. An oral cancer knowledge scale (0 to 31) was generated from correct responses on oral cancer general knowledge, and a diagnostic ability scale (0 to 100) was generated from correct selections of suspicious oral lesions. Knowledge scores ranged from 0 to 27 (mean 10.1 ± 6.0); mean knowledge scores increased with year of study; 5th year students had the highest mean knowledge score (19.1 ± 4.0), while 1st year students had the lowest (5.6 ± 3.5). Diagnostic ability scores increased with year of study and ranged from 0 to 88.5 % (mean 41.8 % ± 15.6). The ability to recognize suspicious oral lesions was significantly correlated with knowledge about oral cancer and oral potentially malignant disorders (r = 0.28; P oral cancer education curricula; increasing students' contact with patients who have oral lesions including oral cancer will help to improve their future diagnostic ability and early detection practices.
Full Text Available The measurement of emotional intelligence abilities is one of the new subjects and important in human behavior studies. According to this matter, purpose of this research is consideration of emotional intelligence abilities in public sport events volunteers in 2011. For this purpose, Bradbury and Cruise's standard questionnaire was completed by present volunteers in event (n=80. The results indicated that 4 levels of emotional intelligence in volunteers are higher than expectational average significantly (p<0.01. Also, priority of emotional intelligence abilities indicated that self-awareness is first priority and social awareness, relationship management and self-management are second, third and fourth priorities in volunteers. Finally, in the basis of parameter, results stated that there is no difference between male and female volunteers emotional intelligence in first Olympia of public sport. According to results of present research and advantages of attention to emotional intelligence and human behavior in organizations, it recommended sport events managers to be more sensitive relative to human behavior abilities in human behavior abilities in human resource (volunteers under his management. At least, result of this meditation in student's sport is recruitment and development of motivated volunteers for continuous attendance in sport events.
Mottron, Laurent; Bouvet, Lucie; Bonnel, Anna; Samson, Fabienne; Burack, Jacob A; Dawson, Michelle; Heaton, Pamela
Superior perception, peaks of ability, and savant skills are often observed in the autistic phenotype. The enhanced perceptual functioning model (Mottron et al., 2006a) emphasizes the increased role and autonomy of perceptual information processing in autistic cognition. Autistic abilities also involve enhanced pattern detection, which may develop through veridical mapping across isomorphic perceptual and non-perceptual structures (Mottron et al., 2009). In this paper, we elaborate veridical mapping as a specific mechanism which can explain the higher incidence of savant abilities, as well as other related phenomena, in autism. We contend that savant abilities such as hyperlexia, but also absolute pitch and synaesthesia, involve similar neurocognitive components, share the same structure and developmental course, and represent related ways by which the perceptual brain deals with objective structures under different conditions. Plausibly, these apparently different phenomena develop through a veridical mapping mechanism whereby perceptual information is coupled with homological data drawn from within or across isomorphic structures. The atypical neural connectivity characteristic of autism is consistent with a developmental predisposition to veridical mapping and the resulting high prevalence of savant abilities, absolute pitch, and synaesthesia in autism. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Langlois, Jean; Bellemare, Christian; Toulouse, Josée; Wells, George A
Anatomy knowledge has been found to include both spatial and non-spatial components. However, no systematic evaluation of studies relating spatial abilities and anatomy knowledge has been undertaken. The objective of this study was to conduct a systematic review of the relationship between spatial abilities test and anatomy knowledge assessment. A literature search was done up to March 20, 2014 in Scopus and in several databases on the OvidSP and EBSCOhost platforms. Of the 556 citations obtained, 38 articles were identified and fully reviewed yielding 21 eligible articles and their quality were formally assessed. Non-significant relationships were found between spatial abilities test and anatomy knowledge assessment using essays and non-spatial multiple-choice questions. Significant relationships were observed between spatial abilities test and anatomy knowledge assessment using practical examination, three-dimensional synthesis from two-dimensional views, drawing of views, and cross-sections. Relationships between spatial abilities test and anatomy knowledge assessment using spatial multiple-choice questions were unclear. The results of this systematic review provide evidence for spatial and non-spatial methods of anatomy knowledge assessment. Anat Sci Educ 10: 235-241. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists.
Lichtenberg, Frank R
The objective of this work was the investigation of the extent to which the introduction of new drugs has increased society's ability to produce goods and services by increasing the number of hours worked per member of the working-age population. Econometric models of ability-to-work measures from data on approximately 200,000 individuals with 47 major chronic conditions observed throughout a 15-year period (1982-1996) were estimated. Under very conservative assumptions, the estimates indicate that the value of the increase in ability to work attributable to new drugs is 2.5 times as great as expenditure on new drugs. The potential of drugs to increase employee productivity should be considered in the design of drug-reimbursement policies. Conversely, policies that broadly reduce the development and utilization of new drugs may ultimately reduce our ability to produce other goods and services.
Foverskov, Else; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Holm, Anders
OBJECTIVE: Investigate direct and indirect associations between markers of socioeconomic position (SEP) across the life course and midlife cognitive ability while addressing methodological limitations in prior work. METHOD: Longitudinal data from the Danish Metropolit cohort of men born in 1953 ( N......: The impact of adult SEP on later life ability may be exaggerated when not accounting for the stability of individual differences in cognitive ability and measurement error in test scores....... of accounting for childhood ability and measurement error. RESULTS: Associations between adult SEP measures and midlife ability decreased significantly when adjusting for childhood ability and measurement error. The association between childhood and midlife ability was by far the strongest. DISCUSSION...
Han, Lu; Shi, Leiyu; Lu, Liming; Ling, Li
Migrant workers have become a vital labor supply to China's economy. Their migration process and work conditions may influence their health and work ability. The work ability of migrant workers in China and the influence of the migration process on work ability have not been explored extensively in previous studies. The objective of this study is to evaluate the association of migration characteristics and work-related factors with work ability among migrant workers in the Pearl River Delta. In this cross-sectional survey, the study population consisted of 907 migrant workers from ten factories in the Pearl River Delta who were exposed to organic solvents during work. The primary dependent variable of the study was work ability, measured by the Work Ability Index (WAI). The independent variables were individual characteristics, migration characteristics, and work-related factors. Logistic regression models were used to determine the influence of different factors on work ability and three dimensions of WAI. The result shows that among migration characteristics, social support was significantly associated with all three dimensions of the work ability index. Permanent migration intention and longer length of migration were negatively associated with the mental resource dimension of WAI. WAI was also influenced by individual and work-related factors. The findings of this study suggest that expanding migrants' social networks and social support systems in their work place or living community, (i.e. expanding the functions of labor unions) would be an effective way to improve migrant workers' work ability. Improving of migrant workers' physical and psychosocial related work environments would also increase their work ability.
Vorstenbosch, Marc A. T. M.; Klaassen, Tim P. F. M.; Donders, A. R. T.; Kooloos, Jan G. M.; Bolhuis, Sanneke M.; Laan, Roland F. J. M.
Spatial ability is an important factor in learning anatomy. Students with high scores on a mental rotation test (MRT) systematically score higher on anatomy examinations. This study aims to investigate if learning anatomy also oppositely improves the MRT-score. Five hundred first year students of medicine ("n" = 242, intervention) and…
Tomlinson, Carol Ann
Ability grouping is a common approach to dealing with student variance in learning. In general, findings suggest that such an approach to dealing with student differences is disadvantageous to students who struggle in school and advantageous to advanced learners. The concept of differentiation suggests that there is another alternative to…
Wang, Lin; Lang, Yong; Luo, Zhongmin
As a new member joining the technology family, active video games have been developed to promote physical exercise. This working-in-progress paper shares an ongoing project on examining the basic motor abilities that are enhanced through participating in commercially available active video games. [For the full proceedings see ED557181.
Due to increased economic challenges in the management of hospitals head surgeons do not only need excellent surgical expertise but also significant management qualities. The personality of head surgeons should include authenticity, sincerity, fairness and the ability to cooperate. Visionary leadership, strategic thinking and strategic management of the personnel are further prerequisites for success. Besides good abilities in communication head surgeons need knowledge of the operating figures for interpretation. To keep up with the own capabilities time and self-management is essential. A survival as head surgeon is likely if these qualities and abilities exist.
Ana Azevedo Martins
Full Text Available Recent studies have shown contradictory evidence regarding cognitive abilities differentiation and organization in childhood. Cattell's investment theory postulated that during the early stages of life, the individual begins with a single and general ability (fluid intelligence, in which the relevance tends to decrease during adolescence, due to the appearance of differentiated abilities developed through the process of socialization and associated with the motivations, interests and experiences. This study analyses whether the factorial structure of the results in a battery of tests supports the existence of a general factor or, instead, a structure formed by different specific factors. A sample of 472 Portuguese children, aged between 4 and 10 years old, completed the Cognitive Competencies Scale for Children (ECCOs 4/10, and four subtests of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Third Edition (WISC-III and Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence – Revised (WPPSI-R. The adjustment of some models that reflect different psychometric theories of intelligence was tested by several confirmatory factor analyses (CFA. The implications of the tested models in the organization of cognitive abilities for cognitive development and school learning in childhood are also discussed.
Xiao, Yuanmei; Li, Weijuan; Ren, Qingfeng; Ren, Xiaohui; Wang, Zhiming; Wang, Mianzhen; Lan, Yajia
To investigate the change pattern of primary and secondary school teachers' work ability with the changes in their mental workload. A total of 901 primary and secondary school teachers were selected by random cluster sampling, and then their mental workload and work ability were assessed by National Aeronautics and Space Administration-Task Load Index (NASA-TLX) and Work Ability Index (WAI) questionnaires, whose reliability and validity had been tested. The effects of their mental workload on the work ability were analyzed. Primary and secondary school teachers' work ability reached the highest level at a certain level of mental workload (55.73work ability had a positive correlation with the mental workload. Their work ability increased or maintained stable with the increasing mental workload. Moreover, the percentage of teachers with good work ability increased, while that of teachers with moderate work ability decreased. But when their mental workload was higher than the level, their work ability had a negative correlation with the mental workload. Their work ability significantly decreased with the increasing mental workload (P work ability decreased, while that of teachers with moderate work ability increased (P work ability. Moderate mental workload (55.73∼64.10) will benefit the maintaining and stabilization of their work ability.
Upadyaya, Katja; Eccles, Jacquelynne
This study investigated to what extent primary school teachers' perceptions of their students' ability and effort predict developmental changes in children's self-concepts of ability in math and reading after controlling for students' academic performance and general intelligence. Three cohorts (N?=?849) of elementary school children and their…
Whether responsibility for actions and omissions requires the ability to do otherwise is an important issue in contemporary philosophy. However, a closely related but distinct issue, namely whether doxastic responsibility requires the ability to believe otherwise, has been largely neglected. This
Grundmeier, Todd A.
Explores the problem posing abilities and attitudes towards mathematics of students in a university pre-calculus class and a university mathematical proof class. Reports a significant difference in numeric posing versus non-numeric posing ability in both classes. (Author/MM)
May 5, 2004 ... Objective: To determine nutritional status, food habits and functional abilities of the institutionalised ... with special family work such as caring for young children, food ... The ability to get around in one' s environment is a basic ...
Zbylut, Michelle L; Ward, Jason N
... of innovation and cultural awareness." This paper discussed an innovative training prototype that not only targets the development of interpersonal ability in junior officers, but also incorporates many of the situation elements...
Palermo, Romina; Rossion, Bruno; Rhodes, Gillian; Laguesse, Renaud; Tez, Tolga; Hall, Bronwyn; Albonico, Andrea; Malaspina, Manuela; Daini, Roberta; Irons, Jessica; Al-Janabi, Shahd; Taylor, Libby C; Rivolta, Davide; McKone, Elinor
Diagnosis of developmental or congenital prosopagnosia (CP) involves self-report of everyday face recognition difficulties, which are corroborated with poor performance on behavioural tests. This approach requires accurate self-evaluation. We examine the extent to which typical adults have insight into their face recognition abilities across four experiments involving nearly 300 participants. The experiments used five tests of face recognition ability: two that tap into the ability to learn and recognize previously unfamiliar faces [the Cambridge Face Memory Test, CFMT; Duchaine, B., & Nakayama, K. (2006). The Cambridge Face Memory Test: Results for neurologically intact individuals and an investigation of its validity using inverted face stimuli and prosopagnosic participants. Neuropsychologia, 44(4), 576-585. doi:10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2005.07.001; and a newly devised test based on the CFMT but where the study phases involve watching short movies rather than viewing static faces-the CFMT-Films] and three that tap face matching [Benton Facial Recognition Test, BFRT; Benton, A., Sivan, A., Hamsher, K., Varney, N., & Spreen, O. (1983). Contribution to neuropsychological assessment. New York: Oxford University Press; and two recently devised sequential face matching tests]. Self-reported ability was measured with the 15-item Kennerknecht et al. questionnaire [Kennerknecht, I., Ho, N. Y., & Wong, V. C. (2008). Prevalence of hereditary prosopagnosia (HPA) in Hong Kong Chinese population. American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A, 146A(22), 2863-2870. doi:10.1002/ajmg.a.32552]; two single-item questions assessing face recognition ability; and a new 77-item meta-cognition questionnaire. Overall, we find that adults with typical face recognition abilities have only modest insight into their ability to recognize faces on behavioural tests. In a fifth experiment, we assess self-reported face recognition ability in people with CP and find that some people who expect to
Rohaeti, E. E.; Afrilianto, M.; Primandhika, R. B.
This research aimed to describe mathematical entrepreneurship ability of 136 mathematics education students through Gerakan STKIP Siliwangi Mengajar (GSSM) that was conducted in 7 districts (of 17 villages) in West Java. GSSM was a programme that combines devotion to the society and college student internships activity at several schools within three months. The data was obtained through observation towards the activities performed by the students during GSSM. The questionnaire to measure the mathematical entrepreneurship ability of students. The results showed that 1) there were three activities that encourage the mathematical entrepreneurship ability of students; such as tutoring post, teaching practices in school and entrepreneurial activities in society, 2) through those three activities, students can develop their entrepreneurial spirit well and grow creativity, innovation and calculation take risk ability, 3) there was medium-association between student mathematical concept mastery that supports entrepreneurship with their mathematical entrepreneurship ability.
Firoozeh, Marjan; Saremi, Mahnaz; Kavousi, Amir; Maleki, Azam
Firefighters tackle various stressors that affect their health and job performance; therefore, assessment of their work ability is necessary. This study aimed to investigate the demographic and occupational determinants of the work ability of firemen. In this cross-sectional study, 375 firemen working in Tehran Fire Department were randomly selected. Demographic, occupational, and work ability index (WAI) questionnaires were applied as research tools. The mean firemen's WAI score was relatively high. There were significant relationships between WAI and age, body mass index, work experience, and weekly leisure-time physical exercise hours. Single employees, those who did not have extra jobs and did not smoke, had greater scores compared to their counterparts. Poisson regression revealed that age and weekly leisure-time physical exercise hours could affect WAI significantly. Although Iranian firemen revealed good work ability, recognizing factors affecting this ability and preparing facilities to promote their function is necessary.
Sargent, Jesse Q; Zacks, Jeffrey M; Hambrick, David Z; Zacks, Rose T; Kurby, Christopher A; Bailey, Heather R; Eisenberg, Michelle L; Beck, Taylor M
Memory for everyday events plays a central role in tasks of daily living, autobiographical memory, and planning. Event memory depends in part on segmenting ongoing activity into meaningful units. This study examined the relationship between event segmentation and memory in a lifespan sample to answer the following question: Is the ability to segment activity into meaningful events a unique predictor of subsequent memory, or is the relationship between event perception and memory accounted for by general cognitive abilities? Two hundred and eight adults ranging from 20 to 79years old segmented movies of everyday events and attempted to remember the events afterwards. They also completed psychometric ability tests and tests measuring script knowledge for everyday events. Event segmentation and script knowledge both explained unique variance in event memory above and beyond the psychometric measures, and did so as strongly in older as in younger adults. These results suggest that event segmentation is a basic cognitive mechanism, important for memory across the lifespan. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Chang, Mei Jen; Chang, Ying-Ju; Kuo, Shih-Hsien; Yang, Yi-Hsin; Chou, Fan-Hao
To examine the relationships between critical thinking ability and nursing competence in clinical nurses. There are few evidance-based data related to the relationship between critical thinking ability and nursing competence of clinical nurses. A cross-sectional and correlation research design was used. A total of 570 clinical nurses at a medical centre in southern Taiwan were recruited into this study. Two self-report questionnaires, the Watson-Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal (WGCTA) and the Nursing Competence Scale (NCS), were used to collect data. The critical thinking ability of clinical nurses was at the middle level. The highest score for the subscales of the WGCTA was 'interpretation ability' and the lowest was 'inference ability'. The nursing competence of clinical nurses was at the middle level and above. The highest score for the subscales was 'caring ability' and the lowest was 'research ability'. Critical thinking ability had a significantly positive correlation with nursing competence. Critical thinking, working years, educational levels and position/title were the significant predictors of nursing competence, accounting for 32·9% of the variance. Critical thinking ability had a significantly positive correlation with nursing competence. The critical thinking ability of clinical nurses with a master's degree was significantly better than those with a bachelor's degree or a diploma and nurses with over five working years was significantly better than those with under five years. The findings of this study can further serve as a reference for nursing education to improve nursing curricula and teaching strategies for nurse preparation. It could also be a guideline for nursing administration personnel in on-the-job training and orientation programs for nursing staff. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
McMullan, Miriam; Jones, Ray; Lea, Susan
Nurses need to be able to make drug calculations competently. In this study, involving 229 second year British nursing students, we explored the influence of mathematics anxiety, self-efficacy, and numerical ability on drug calculation ability and determined which factors would best predict this skill. Strong significant relationships (p anxiety, self-efficacy, and ability. Students who failed the numerical and/or drug calculation ability tests were more anxious (p < .001) and less confident (p ≤ .002) in performing calculations than those who passed. Numerical ability made the strongest unique contribution in predicting drug calculation ability (beta = 0.50, p < .001) followed by drug calculation self-efficacy (beta = 0.16, p = .04). Early testing is recommended for basic numerical skills. Faculty are advised to refresh students' numerical skills before introducing drug calculations. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Mervis, Carolyn B; Pitts, C Holley
To examine longitudinal trajectories of intellectual abilities, single-word vocabulary abilities, and adaptive behavior for 76 children with Williams syndrome (WS) aged 4-15 years, we compared their standard scores (SSs) at two time points approximately 3 years apart on the same standardized measures. At the group level, mean SS declined significantly for 8 of the 12 measures and showed a slight (nonsignificant) increase or decrease for 4 measures. However, for most measures significant changes in SS were found for only a small proportion of the children, with some children evidencing significant declines and a smaller proportion evidencing significant increases. Significant SS changes were most common for adaptive behavior. For all measures, the mean magnitude of SS change was smaller for older children (>7.5 years at Time 1) than for younger children (general population peers who earned the same SS at Time 1, there was little evidence either of regression (loss of skills) or stagnation (failure to increase raw scores). The relations of these results to those of previous smaller-sample longitudinal studies of children with WS and the implications of the findings are considered. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
The purpose of this article is to analyze the meaning and presumptions of competence in the concrete context of knowledge capitalism. First, the nature of competence as a "commodification of human ability" that obtains a standardized monetary value to sell in the labor market, is elucidated by applying Karl Marx's critical theory. Second, it is…
Ng, Eunice; Johnston, Venerina; Wibault, Johanna; Löfgren, Håkan; Dedering, Åsa; Öberg, Birgitta; Zsigmond, Peter; Peolsson, Anneli
Cross-sectional study. To investigate the factors associated with work ability in patients undergoing surgery for cervical radiculopathy. Surgery is a common treatment of cervical radiculopathy in people of working age. However, few studies have investigated the impact on the work ability of these patients. Patients undergoing surgery for cervical radiculopathy (n = 201) were recruited from spine centers in Sweden to complete a battery of questionnaires and physical measures the day before surgery. The associations between various individual, psychological, and work-related factors and self-reported work ability were investigated by Spearman rank correlation coefficient, multivariate linear regression, and forward stepwise regression analyses. Factors that were significant (P work ability. Work ability was assessed using the Work Ability Index. The mean Work Ability Index score was 28 (SD, 9.0). The forward stepwise regression analysis revealed 6 factors significantly associated with work ability, which explained 62% of the variance in the Work Ability Index. Factors highly correlated with greater work ability included greater self-efficacy in performing self-cares, lower physical load on the neck at work, greater self-reported chance of being able to work in 6 months' time, greater use of active coping strategies, lower frequency of hand weakness, and higher health-related quality of life. Psychological, work-related and individual factors were significantly associated with work ability in patients undergoing surgery for cervical radiculopathy. High self-efficacy was most associated with greater work ability. Consideration of these factors by surgeons preoperatively may provide optimal return to work outcomes after surgery. 3.
Sokol-Hessner, Peter; Hartley, Catherine A; Hamilton, Jeffrey R; Phelps, Elizabeth A
Emotions have been proposed to inform risky decision-making through the influence of affective physiological responses on subjective value. The ability to perceive internal body states, or "interoception" may influence this relationship. Here, we examined whether interoception predicts participants' degree of loss aversion, which has been previously linked to choice-related arousal responses. Participants performed both a heartbeat-detection task indexing interoception and a risky monetary decision-making task, from which loss aversion, risk attitudes and choice consistency were parametrically measured. Interoceptive ability correlated selectively with loss aversion and was unrelated to the other value parameters. This finding suggests that specific and separable component processes underlying valuation are shaped not only by our physiological responses, as shown in previous findings, but also by our interoceptive access to such signals.
Han, Lu; Shi, Leiyu; Lu, Liming; Ling, Li
Background Migrant workers have become a vital labor supply to China’s economy. Their migration process and work conditions may influence their health and work ability. The work ability of migrant workers in China and the influence of the migration process on work ability have not been explored extensively in previous studies. The objective of this study is to evaluate the association of migration characteristics and work-related factors with work ability among migrant workers in the Pearl Ri...
Hultsch, David F.; And Others
Examines age-related predictive relationships among an array of psychometric intellectual ability markers and text recall performance. Women from three age groups (ranging from 21 to 78 years) read and recalled four narratives at three delay intervals and completed a battery of intellectual ability tests. (Author/CB)
Sypher, Beverly Davenport; Zorn, Theodore E., Jr.
To provide a clearer understanding of the relationship between various communication and communication related abilities and individuals' work performance, a four-year investigation was conducted to examine the relationships among four measures of social cognitive and communication abilities, and the relationships of these measures to job level…
Full Text Available Individuals differ in their ability to learn how to regulate the alpha activity by neurofeedback. This study aimed to investigate whether the resting alpha activity is related to the learning ability of alpha enhancement in neurofeedback and could be used as a predictor. A total of 25 subjects performed 20 sessions of individualized alpha neurofeedback in order to learn how to enhance activity in the alpha frequency band. The learning ability was assessed by three indices respectively: the training parameter changes between two periods, within a short period and across the whole training time. It was found that the resting alpha amplitude measured before training had significant positive correlations with all learning indices and could be used as a predictor for the learning ability prediction. This finding would help the researchers in not only predicting the training efficacy in individuals but also gaining further insight into the mechanisms of alpha neurofeedback.
Burris, Kyle; Vittetoe, Kelly; Ramger, Benjamin; Suresh, Sunith; Tokdar, Surya T; Reiter, Jerome P; Appelbaum, L Gregory
Baseball players must be able to see and react in an instant, yet it is hotly debated whether superior performance is associated with superior sensorimotor abilities. In this study, we compare sensorimotor abilities, measured through 8 psychomotor tasks comprising the Nike Sensory Station assessment battery, and game statistics in a sample of 252 professional baseball players to evaluate the links between sensorimotor skills and on-field performance. For this purpose, we develop a series of Bayesian hierarchical latent variable models enabling us to compare statistics across professional baseball leagues. Within this framework, we find that sensorimotor abilities are significant predictors of on-base percentage, walk rate and strikeout rate, accounting for age, position, and league. We find no such relationship for either slugging percentage or fielder-independent pitching. The pattern of results suggests performance contributions from both visual-sensory and visual-motor abilities and indicates that sensorimotor screenings may be useful for player scouting.
Jensen, Rikke Beck; Juul, Anders; Larsen, Torben
cognitive ability in late adolescence. Full-scale IQ was positively related to head circumference (HC) in adolescence (B: 1.30, 95% CI: 0.32-2.28, p=0.01). HC at birth and three months was positively associated with full-scale IQ. Catch-up growth in the group of SGA children was associated......BACKGROUND: Small size at birth may be associated with impaired cognitive ability later in life. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of being born small for gestational age (SGA), with or without intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) on cognitive ability in late adolescence. STUDY...... with a significantly increased height, larger HC, increased levels of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and increased full-scale IQ compared to those born SGA without catch-up growth. CONCLUSION: SGA and IUGR may not be harmful for adult cognitive ability, at least not in individuals born at near-term. However...
Wilmer, Jeremy B; Germine, Laura; Chabris, Christopher F; Chatterjee, Garga; Williams, Mark; Loken, Eric; Nakayama, Ken; Duchaine, Bradley
Compared with notable successes in the genetics of basic sensory transduction, progress on the genetics of higher level perception and cognition has been limited. We propose that investigating specific cognitive abilities with well-defined neural substrates, such as face recognition, may yield additional insights. In a twin study of face recognition, we found that the correlation of scores between monozygotic twins (0.70) was more than double the dizygotic twin correlation (0.29), evidence for a high genetic contribution to face recognition ability. Low correlations between face recognition scores and visual and verbal recognition scores indicate that both face recognition ability itself and its genetic basis are largely attributable to face-specific mechanisms. The present results therefore identify an unusual phenomenon: a highly specific cognitive ability that is highly heritable. Our results establish a clear genetic basis for face recognition, opening this intensively studied and socially advantageous cognitive trait to genetic investigation.
Ranjbar, Mansour; Bayani, Ali Asghar; Bayani, Ali
The main objective of this study was predicting student's mental health using social problem solving- ability. In this correlational. descriptive study, 369 (208 female and 161 male) from, Mazandaran University of Medical Science were selected through stratified random sampling method. In order to collect the data, the social problem solving inventory-revised and general health questionnaire were used. Data were analyzed through SPSS-19, Pearson's correlation, t test, and stepwise regression analysis. Data analysis showed significant relationship between social problem solving ability and mental health (P Social problem solving ability was significantly associated with the somatic symptoms, anxiety and insomnia, social dysfunction and severe depression (P social problem solving ability and mental health.
Full Text Available Cognitive Reserve is the capital of knowledge and experiences that an individual acquires over their life-span. Cognitive Reserve is strictly related to Brain Reserve, which is the ability of the brain to cope with damage. These two concepts could explain many phenomena such as the modality of onset in dementia or the different degree of impairment in cognitive abilities in aging. The aim of this study is to verify the effect of Cognitive Reserve, as measured by a questionnaire, on a variety of numerical abilities (number comprehension, reading and writing numbers, rules and principles, mental calculations and written calculations, in a group of healthy older people (aged 65–98 years. Sixty older individuals were interviewed with the Cognitive Reserve Index questionnaire (CRIq, and assessed with the Numerical Activities of Daily Living battery (NADL, which included formal tasks on math abilities, an informal test on math, one interview with the participant, and one interview with a relative on the perceived math abilities. We also took into account the years of education, as another proxy for Cognitive Reserve. In the multiple regression analyses on all formal tests, CRIq scores did not significantly predict math performance. Other variables, i.e., years of education and Mini-Mental State Examination score, accounted better for math performance on NADL. Only a subsection of CRIq, CRIq-Working-activity, was found to predict performance on a NADL subtest assessing informal use of math in daily life. These results show that education might better explain abstract math functions in late life than other aspects related to Cognitive Reserve, such as lifestyle or occupational attainment.
Arcara, Giorgio; Mondini, Sara; Bisso, Alice; Palmer, Katie; Meneghello, Francesca; Semenza, Carlo
Cognitive Reserve is the capital of knowledge and experiences that an individual acquires over their life-span. Cognitive Reserve is strictly related to Brain Reserve, which is the ability of the brain to cope with damage. These two concepts could explain many phenomena such as the modality of onset in dementia or the different degree of impairment in cognitive abilities in aging. The aim of this study is to verify the effect of Cognitive Reserve, as measured by a questionnaire, on a variety of numerical abilities (number comprehension, reading and writing numbers, rules and principles, mental calculations and written calculations), in a group of healthy older people (aged 65-98 years). Sixty older individuals were interviewed with the Cognitive Reserve Index questionnaire (CRIq), and assessed with the Numerical Activities of Daily Living battery (NADL), which included formal tasks on math abilities, an informal test on math, one interview with the participant, and one interview with a relative on the perceived math abilities. We also took into account the years of education, as another proxy for Cognitive Reserve. In the multiple regression analyses on all formal tests, CRIq scores did not significantly predict math performance. Other variables, i.e., years of education and Mini-Mental State Examination score, accounted better for math performance on NADL. Only a subsection of CRIq, CRIq-Working-activity, was found to predict performance on a NADL subtest assessing informal use of math in daily life. These results show that education might better explain abstract math functions in late life than other aspects related to Cognitive Reserve, such as lifestyle or occupational attainment.
Full Text Available Football is one of the most famous games that man has invented. It is a complex of collective organization and individual ingenuity. No doubt, top results in sport require a serious base of scientific researches and skills. Certainly, modern top results that have been achieved can be analyzed scientifically. It is exactly the scientific approach that is to establish the characteristics of basic importance to provide success in football. It is in favor of top football game to regularly conduct researches, which, as elements of special interest, would cover the basic motoric and specific motoric abilities with football players.The subject of the research is the motoric and specific motoric abilities with young football players aged from 14 to 16. The goal of the research is to establish how the explosive power influences the dribbling skills. The sample of respondents in the research consists of 39 school children at the age of 14 to 16, who play at FC ”Gjilani” and have attended the club for at least two years. They underwent three tests for assessing the explosive power: 1. Standing long jump; 2. 20-meter running and 3. Sargent test. Along with it, two tests for assessing the specific motorics: 1. Dribbling 20 metres with start from the place and 2. Dribbling 20 metres - fly start. The data obtained from the applied five tests is worked out with basic statistic parameters. The relation between motoric and specific motoric abilities is determined through linear regressive analyzes in manifest space. The results suggest that there is a positive and significant relation between the applied motoric and specific motoric abilities. This confirms the close relation between the explosive power and specific motorics of football players expressed through dribbling. Similar results are obtained in the researches of the following authors: Christou et all., 2006, Kraemer et al., 1998, and Young et al., 2001.
Loveless, Eugene J.
Argues against emphasis on standard curriculum and makes suggestions for providing basis to increase heterogeneity of high level abilities of college students and for allowing highly talented but selectively developed students to gain appropriate training. (IR)
Kali, Yael; Orion, Nir
Characterizes specific spatial abilities required in geology studies through the examination of the performance of high school students in solving structural geology problems on the geologic spatial ability test (GeoSAT). Concludes that visual penetration ability and the ability to perceive the spatial configuration of the structure are…
Shackleton, N L; Campbell, T
Evidence indicates that teachers can judge pupils on the basis of their physical appearance, including their body shape. Teacher bias towards obese pupils has been suggested as a potential pathway through which obese children attain relatively lower academic levels. The aim of this study was to investigate whether teachers' judgements of pupils' ability are influenced by the body shape of the child. The sample includes English, singleton children in state schools from the Millennium Cohort Study. The data were taken from the fourth wave of data collection, when the children were approximately 7 years old. In all, 5086/5072 children had teacher ability ratings of reading and maths. Logistic regression analyses were used to test whether teachers' perceptions of the child's reading and mathematics ability were influenced by the pupil's waist circumference, conditional upon cognitive test scores of reading and maths ability. After adjustment for cognitive test scores, no significant overall relationship was found between the pupil's waist circumference and the teacher's judgements of ability. No statistically significant differences were observed in the probability of being judged as above average after further adjustments were made for potential confounders. There is little evidence that teachers' judgements of pupils' ability are influenced by obesity.
De Toia, Daniela; Klein, Daniel; Weber, Sarah; Wessely, Nicolas; Koch, Benjamin; Tokarski, Walter; Dordel, Sigrid; Struder, Heiko; Graf, Christine
Little is known to date about the relationship between poor motor abilities and overweight or obese pre-school children. Thus, this study examined the association between motor abilities and weight status in 1,228 kindergarten children (45.8% female). Anthropometric data were assessed; age 4.7 + or - 1.0 years; height 108.6 + or - 8.0 cm; weight 19.1 + or - 3.6 kg; BMI 16.1 + or - 1.5 kg/m(2). The modified Karlsruher Motor Ability Screening Test was carried out to determine the motor abilities of speed strength, muscular endurance, coordination, flexibility, and speed. Based on the German BMI reference values, 3.5% of the children were obese, 9.6% overweight, 83.4% normal weight, and 3.5% underweight. During various test tasks, below-average motor abilities were discovered in 44.0-47.3%. In all age groups, overweight and obese children did not differ from their normal and underweight counterparts; except for underweight children which fared worse in flexibility. In contrast to former studies with first graders, overweight or obese pre-school children did not possess worse motor abilities than normal weight children. However, the high number of overweight children and motor deficits suggests that preventive measures should start at this early age. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Cornu, Véronique; Schiltz, Christine; Martin, Romain; Hornung, Caroline
Children's development of verbal number skills (i.e., counting abilities and knowledge of the number names) presents a milestone in mathematical development. Different factors such as visuo-spatial and verbal abilities have been discussed as contributing to the development of these foundational skills. To understand the cognitive nature of verbal number skills in young children, the current study assessed the relation of preschoolers' verbal and visuo-spatial abilities to their verbal number skills. In total, 141 children aged 5 or 6 years participated in the current study. Verbal number skills were regressed on vocabulary, phonological awareness and visuo-spatial abilities, and verbal and visuo-spatial working memory in a structural equation model. Only visuo-spatial abilities emerged as a significant predictor of verbal number skills in the estimated model. Our results suggest that visuo-spatial abilities contribute to a larger extent to children's verbal number skills than verbal abilities. From a theoretical point of view, these results suggest a visuo-spatial, rather than a verbal, grounding of verbal number skills. These results are potentially informative for the conception of early mathematics assessments and interventions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Bobbert, Maarten F.
Vertical jumping ability is of importance for good performance in sports such as basketball and volleyball. Coaches are in need of exercises that consume only little time and still help to improve their players’ jumping ability, without involving a high risk of injury. Drop jumping is assumed to
Kinshuk, Taiyu Lin; McNab, Paul
Researchers have regarded inductive reasoning as one of the seven primary mental abilities that account for human intelligent behaviours. Researchers have also shown that inductive reasoning ability is one of the best predictors for academic performance. Modelling of inductive reasoning is therefore an important issue for providing adaptivity in…
Bennedsen, Jens Benned; Caspersen, Michael Edelgaard
ability is operationalized as stages of cognitive development (for which validated tests exist). Programming ability is operationalized as grade in the final assessment of a model-based objects-first CS1. The validity of the operationalizations is discussed. Surprisingly, our study shows......Computer science educators generally agree that abstract thinking is a crucial component for learning computer science in general and programming in particular. We report on a study to confirm the hypothesis that general abstraction ability has a positive impact on programming ability. Abstraction...... that there is no correlation between stage of cognitive development (abstraction ability) and final grade in CS1 (programming ability). Possible explanations are identified....
Čep, Robert; Janásek, Adam; Čepová, Lenka; Petrů, Jana; Hlavatý, Ivo; Car, Zlatan; Hatala, Michal
The article deals with experimental testing of the cutting ability of exchangeable cutting inserts. Eleven types of exchangeable cutting inserts from five different manufacturers were tested. The tested cutting inserts were of the same shape and were different especially in material and coating types. The main aim was both to select a suitable test for determination of the cutting ability of exchangeable cutting inserts and to design such testing procedure that could make it possible...
The ability to multitask plays a significant role within everyday life. This experiment investigated whether multitasking abilities are impaired in healthy adult ageing. Neuropsychological literature has shown that patients with frontal lobe damage are impaired in their ability to multitask on tests designed to assess cognitive functions used in real-life multitasking situations. Age-related reductions in brain volume are most pronounced in the frontal lobes. Therefore, it’s assumed that olde...
Molenaar, Dylan; Dolan, Conor V.; van der Maas, Han L. J.
In this article we present factor models to test for ability differentiation. Ability differentiation predicts that the size of IQ subtest correlations decreases as a function of the general intelligence factor. In the Schmid-Leiman decomposition of the second-order factor model, we model differentiation by introducing heteroscedastic residuals,…
Juan Antonio Moreno-Murcia
Full Text Available This investigation examined the relationship between implicit ability beliefs and self-determined motivation. The sample was comprised of 775 young athletes between the ages of 12 and 17 competing at national level in Spain. The participants completed the Spanish version of the Conceptions of the Nature of Athletic Ability Questionnaire (CNAAQ-2 and the Sport Motivation Scale (SMS. The results revealed a positive and significant correlation between stable ability beliefs and learning ability, and between self-determined motivation and perceived sports ability. To the contrary, stable entity beliefs were negatively correlated with self-determined motivation. Competitiveness in sports was significantly predicted by self-determined motivation, and the latter, in its turn, was positively predicted by learning belief and negatively by stable entity beliefs.
Calatayud, Joaquin; Jakobsen, Markus D.; Sundstrup, Emil
INTRODUCTION: Regular physical activity is important for longevity and health, but knowledge about the optimal dose of physical activity for maintaining good work ability is unknown. This study investigates the association between intensity and duration of physical activity during leisure time......, lifestyle and chronic disease showed that the duration of high-intensity physical activity during leisure was positively associated with work ability, in a dose-response fashion (p physical activity per week had on average 8 points higher work ability...... than those not performing such activities. The duration of low-intensity leisure-time physical activity was not associated with work ability (p = 0.5668). CONCLUSIONS: The duration of high-intensity physical activity during leisure time is associated in a dose-response fashion with work ability...
Lewis, Gary J; Lefevre, Carmen E; Young, Andrew W
Emotion recognition has been a focus of considerable attention for several decades. However, despite this interest, the underlying structure of individual differences in emotion recognition ability has been largely overlooked and thus is poorly understood. For example, limited knowledge exists concerning whether recognition ability for one emotion (e.g., disgust) generalizes to other emotions (e.g., anger, fear). Furthermore, it is unclear whether emotion recognition ability generalizes across modalities, such that those who are good at recognizing emotions from the face, for example, are also good at identifying emotions from nonfacial cues (such as cues conveyed via the body). The primary goal of the current set of studies was to address these questions through establishing the structure of individual differences in visual emotion recognition ability. In three independent samples (Study 1: n = 640; Study 2: n = 389; Study 3: n = 303), we observed that the ability to recognize visually presented emotions is based on different sources of variation: a supramodal emotion-general factor, supramodal emotion-specific factors, and face- and within-modality emotion-specific factors. In addition, we found evidence that general intelligence and alexithymia were associated with supramodal emotion recognition ability. Autism-like traits, empathic concern, and alexithymia were independently associated with face-specific emotion recognition ability. These results (a) provide a platform for further individual differences research on emotion recognition ability, (b) indicate that differentiating levels within the architecture of emotion recognition ability is of high importance, and (c) show that the capacity to understand expressions of emotion in others is linked to broader affective and cognitive processes. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
van Schaaijk, A; Boschman, J S; Frings-Dresen, M H W; Sluiter, J K
To gain insight into which job-specific health requirements relate to work ability, the following two research questions were formulated: Which job-specific health requirements are associated with the appraisal of work ability in ambulance drivers and paramedics? How are appraisals of physical and mental work ability associated with the appraisal of overall work ability in ambulance drivers and paramedics? Workers Health Surveillance cross-sectional data of 506 ambulance workers (236 drivers and 270 paramedics) were used. The tests for specific job requirements were divided into six categories. Work ability was appraised as overall, physical and mental/emotional. Multiple linear stepwise regression analyses were used to model the associations. Outcomes in 'raised alertness and judgment ability' (R 2 = 0.09), 'job-specific physical abilities' (R 2 = 0.10) and 'emotional peak load' (R 2 = 0.07) significantly explained appraised overall, physical and mental/emotional work ability. Physical and mental/emotional work ability together explained 48.3% of the variance of overall work ability. The explained variance by physical and mental/emotional work ability was almost 4% higher in drivers than in paramedics. Overall work ability was significantly explained by outcomes in 'raised alertness and judgment ability' and 'emotional peak load.' Physical work ability was significantly explained by 'job-specific physical abilities' and 'raised alertness and judgment ability' outcomes, while 'emotional peak load' and 'raised alertness and judgment ability' outcomes significantly explained mental/emotional work ability. Physical and mental/emotional work ability explains the same proportion of variance in overall work ability.
Moesgaard, Mette; Yue, Yuanzheng
The glass forming ability (GFA) of two series of calcium aluminosilicate melts is studied by measuring their viscous behavior and crystallization tendency. The first series consists of five compositions on the joining line between the eutectic point of anorthite-wollastonite-tridymite and that of......The glass forming ability (GFA) of two series of calcium aluminosilicate melts is studied by measuring their viscous behavior and crystallization tendency. The first series consists of five compositions on the joining line between the eutectic point of anorthite......-wollastonite-tridymite and that of anorthite-wollastonite-gehlenite. The series includes the eutectic compositions as end members. The second series consists of five compositions on a line parallel to the joining line on the alumina rich side. In the present work, GFA is described in terms of glass stability, i.e., the ability of a glass...... to resist crystallization during reheating. In addition, the fragility index (m) is derived by fitting the viscosity data with the Avramov-Milchev equation. The results show that m is inversely proportional to the glass stability for the two series of melts, implying that m is an indirect measure of GFA...
André Luiz Felix Rodacki
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate changes in motor imagery ability in response to a specific dart throwing training. Twelve subjects (17-22 years with no previous experience in dart throwing or imagery agreed to participate. Changes in imagery ability were assessed using the Sports Imagery Questionnaire before (pretreatment and after (post-treatment an imagery training program consisting of 10 sessions. Retention (RET was assessed 2 weeks after training. The program included mental exercises designed to develop vivid images, to control one’s own images, and to increase perception about performance. Comparison of the imagery training conditions (training alone, training accompanied, observing a colleague, and during assessment showed no differences between the pretreatment, post-treatment and RET evaluations. Although imagery ability did not respond to training, significant differences between imagery domains (visual, auditory, kinesthetic, and animic were found (p<0.05, except between the visual and animic domains (p=0.58. These differences might be related to subject’s domain preference subject during the imagery process and to the nature of the task in which the skill technique used seems to be a relevant aspect.
van Vianen, Annelies E. M.; Klehe, Ute-Christine; Koen, Jessie; Dries, Nicky
The Career Adapt-Abilities Scale (CAAS)--Netherlands Form consists of four scales, each with six items, which measure concern, control, curiosity, and confidence as psychosocial resources for managing occupational transitions, developmental tasks, and work traumas. Internal consistency estimates for the subscale and total scores ranged from…
Foster, Jeffrey L.; Harrison, Tyler L.; Hicks, Kenny L.; Draheim, Christopher; Redick, Thomas S.; Engle, Randall W.
There is a debate about the ability to improve cognitive abilities such as fluid intelligence through training on tasks of working memory capacity. The question addressed in the research presented here is who benefits the most from training: people with low cognitive ability or people with high cognitive ability? Subjects with high and low working…
Yang Jiancan; Nie Zuoren; Xi Xiaoli; Wang Yiman
In this paper La-Sc-Mo cathode has been prepared and its electron emission ability was measured. This type of cathode shows good electron emission performance that the saturated current density is 6.74 A cm -1 and the work function is about 2.59 eV at 1300 deg. C, which is much lower than thoriated tungsten cathode (Th-W). So it is a potential cathode to replace the Th-W cathode with radioactive pollution. Surface analysis shows that good emission ability due to the 20 nm surplus La layer and the element Sc may do good to the La diffusion to the surface
Rani, K. V.
Reasoning ability is the 'problem solving skills' or 'analytical ability' or 'deductive and inductive reasoning'. Academic achievement is the total score one achieved at school, college, or university from class, laboratory, library, or field work. The objectives of the study were to explore the relationship between reasoning ability and academic…
Sato, Atsuko; Morone, Mieko; Azuma, Yutaka
The aims of this study were to assess the basic academic ability of freshmen with regard to chemistry and implement suitable educational guidance measures. At Tohoku Pharmaceutical University, basic academic ability examinations are conducted in chemistry for freshmen immediately after entrance into the college. From 2003 to 2009, the examination was conducted using the same questions, and the secular changes in the mean percentage of correct response were statistically analyzed. An experience survey was also conducted on 2007 and 2009 freshmen regarding chemical experiments at senior high school. Analysis of the basic academic ability examinations revealed a significant decrease in the mean percentage of correct responses after 2007. With regard to the answers for each question, there was a significant decrease in the percentage of correct answers for approximately 80% of questions. In particular, a marked decrease was observed for calculation questions involving percentages. A significant decrease was also observed in the number of students who had experiences with chemical experiments in high school. However, notable results have been achieved through the implementation of practice incorporating calculation problems in order to improve calculation ability. Learning of chemistry and a lack of experimental experience in high school may be contributory factors in the decrease in chemistry academic ability. In consideration of the professional ability demanded of pharmacists, the decrease in calculation ability should be regarded as a serious issue and suitable measures for improving calculation ability are urgently required.
Analysis of variance revealed that mean squares due to genotypes, parents and crosses were highly significant (P<0.01) for all the traits except for 100 kernel weight that were significant for crosses. Mean squares due to general combining ability (GCA) and specific combining ability (SCA) were highly significant for all ...
Fancovicova, Jana; Prokop, Pavol
Children's ability to identify common plants is a necessary prerequisite for learning botany. However, recent work has shown that children lack positive attitudes toward plants and are unable to identify them. We examined children's (aged 10-17) ability to discriminate between common toxic and non-toxic plants and their mature fruits presented in…
Kusumaningsih, W.; Darhim; Herman, T.; Turmudi
This study aimed to conduct a gender study on students' algebraic thinking ability in solving a mathematics problem, polyhedron concept, for grade VIII. This research used a qualitative method. The data was collected using: test and interview methods. The subjects in this study were eight male and female students with different level of abilities. It was found that the algebraic thinking skills of male students reached high group of five categories. They were superior in terms of reasoning and quick understanding in solving problems. Algebraic thinking ability of high-achieving group of female students also met five categories of algebraic thinking indicators. They were more diligent, tenacious and thorough in solving problems. Algebraic thinking ability of male students in medium category only satisfied three categories of algebraic thinking indicators. They were sufficient in terms of reasoning and understanding in solving problems. Algebraic thinking ability group of female students in medium group also satisfied three categories of algebraic thinking indicators. They were fairly diligent, tenacious and meticulous on working on the problems.
The use of computer software such as Cabri 3D for learning activities is very unlimited. Students can adjust their learning speed according to their level of ability. Open-ended approach strongly supports the use of computer software in learning, because the goal of open-ended learning is to help developing creative activities and mathematical mindset of students through problem solving simultaneously. In other words, creative activities and mathematical mindset of students should be developed as much as possible in accordance with the ability of spatial ability of each student. Spatial ability is the ability of students in constructing and representing geometry models. This study aims to determine the improvement of spatial ability of junior high school students who obtained learning with open-ended approach aided by Cabri 3D. It adopted a quasi-experimental method with the non-randomized control group pretest-posttest design and the 2×3 factorial model. The instrument of the study is spatial ability test. Based on analysis of the data, it is found that the improvement of spatial ability of students who received open-ended learning aided by Cabri 3D was greater than students who received expository learning, both as a whole and based on the categories of students’ initial mathematical ability.
Hebbelstrup Rye Rasmussen, Stig
This article examines the impact of cognitive ability on ideological voting. We find, using a US sample and a Danish sample, that the effect of cognitive ability rivals the effect of the traditionally strongest predicter of ideological voting political sophistication. Furthermore, the results...... are consistent with the effect of cognitive ability being partly mediated by political sophistication. Much of the effect of cognitive ability remains however and is not explained by differences in education or Openness to experience either. The implications of these results for democratic theory are discussed....
Unita S. Zuliani Nasution
Full Text Available The purposes of this research were to analyze the different between physic resolving problem ability by using problem based learning model and direct instruction model, the different of physic resolving problem ability between the students that have critical thinking ability upper the average and the students that have critical thinking ability under the average, and the interaction of problem based learning model toward critical thinking ability and students’ physic resolving problem ability. This research was quasy experimental research that use critical thinking ability tests and physic resolving problem ability tests as the instruments. Result of the research showed that the students’ physic resolving problem ability by using problem based learning model was better than by using direct instruction model, students’ physic resolving problem ability and critical thinking ability upper the average showed better different and result than students’ critical thinking ability under the average, besides there was an interaction between problem based learning model and critical thinking ability in improving students’ physic resolving problem ability.
Viljaranta, Jaana; Kiuru, Noona; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina; Silinskas, Gintautas; Poikkeus, Anna-Maija; Nurmi, Jari-Erik
The majority of previous research on academic skills, self-concept of ability and interest has deployed the variable-oriented approach and focused on self-concept, or ability, or interest only. This study examined the patterns and dynamics of pattern change in Finnish children's word reading skill, self-concept of ability and interest from…
Spanier, K; Radoschewski, F M; Gutenbrunner, C; Bethge, M
Organizational justice (OJ), involving transparent workplace procedures and treating staff members with respect, has been of growing concern in recent epidemiological research as a determinant of health-related outcomes. To examine the factorial validity of the German version of Moorman's Organizational Justice Questionnaire (OJQ), to investigate the direct cross-sectional effect of OJ on self-rated work ability and to analyse if there is an additional indirect effect of OJ on work ability mediated by effort-reward imbalance. An analysis of cross-sectional data from the Second German Sociomedical Panel of Employees, involving white-collar workers employed at least half time. We performed confirmatory factor analyses to test the factorial validity of the OJQ and analysed the direct and indirect associations of OJ and self-rated work ability by path model analysis. Of the 1217 participants (47% female; mean age: 51) 36% had poor work ability. Factor analyses confirmed the two-factor structure of the German OJQ. Work ability was explained directly by OJ (β = 0.30) and effort-reward imbalance (β = -0.27). Additionally, we identified an indirect effect of OJ that was mediated by effort-reward imbalance (β = 0.14). The total effect of OJ on work ability was remarkably strong (β = 0.44). Associations remained unchanged after adjustment for socio-demographic parameters. This study showed the importance of considering additional indirect pathways when examining the impact of OJ on the work ability of employees. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Full Text Available In this work surveys of latent motility abilities and skills of school children are shown. The sample for this survey was consisted of two subsamples. First one has consisted of deaf children N=29, and the second one has consisted hearing children of same age N=69. Subsamples of deaf is chosen according to model of applied sample, and subsample is chosen randomly, so two stages group sample N=90 has been created. After quantitative differences have been discovered between subsamples, hearing pupils have shown statistically better results at motility skills and techniques than deaf children and cumulative results have been subjected to inter correlation of variables. The target of using this method was determination of saturation of common variability through saturation of variables and their correlation by Ortoblique rotation for determination of latent information that are going to serve as practical guides at education and deaf children treatment, because of improvement of their motility abilities and skills according to hearing children. Three factors have been singled out as main preview of measurement on manifest variables. According to first review of measuring it has been established that at deaf children is needed to work on improving of physical abilities and mobility and then developed motility abilities and skills. Their information has been gained most probably by non system fluctuations as information about ability of balance maintaining which is most probably non dependable of motility abilities and skills as at deaf and hearing children too. According to this survey by entering the structure of measuring instrument it is possible to create programs for improving motility abilities and skills at deaf children.
Davis, Oliver S P; Haworth, Claire M A; Plomin, Robert
The new view of cognitive neuropsychology that considers not just case studies of rare severe disorders but also common disorders, as well as normal variation and quantitative traits, is more amenable to recent advances in molecular genetics, such as genome-wide association studies, and advances in quantitative genetics, such as multivariate genetic analysis. A surprising finding emerging from multivariate quantitative genetic studies across diverse learning abilities is that most genetic influences are shared: they are "generalist", rather than "specialist". We exploited widespread access to inexpensive and fast Internet connections in the United Kingdom to assess over 5000 pairs of 12-year-old twins from the Twins Early Development Study (TEDS) on four distinct batteries: reading, mathematics, general cognitive ability (g) and, for the first time, language. Genetic correlations remain high among all of the measured abilities, with language as highly correlated genetically with g as reading and mathematics. Despite developmental upheaval, generalist genes remain important into early adolescence, suggesting optimal strategies for molecular genetic studies seeking to identify the genes of small effect that influence learning abilities and disabilities.
Pardeller, Silvia; Frajo-Apor, Beatrice; Kemmler, Georg; Hofer, Alex
In order to expand on previous research, this cross-sectional study investigated the relationship between Emotional Intelligence (EI) and cognitive abilities in healthy adults with a special focus on potential sex differences. EI was assessed by means of the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso-Emotional-Intelligence Test (MSCEIT), whereas cognitive abilities were investigated using the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS), which measures key aspects of cognitive functioning, i.e. verbal memory, working memory, motor speed, verbal fluency, attention and processing speed, and reasoning and problem solving. 137 subjects (65% female) with a mean age of 38.7 ± 11.8 years were included into the study. While males and females were comparable with regard to EI, men achieved significantly higher BACS composite scores and outperformed women in the BACS subscales motor speed, attention and processing speed, and reasoning and problem solving. Verbal fluency significantly predicted EI, whereas the MSCEIT subscale understanding emotions significantly predicted the BACS composite score. Our findings support previous research and emphasize the relevance of considering cognitive abilities when assessing ability EI in healthy individuals.
Singh, Rajiv; Pentland, Brian; Hunter, John; Provan, Frances
Objectives To explore the driving problems associated with Parkinson's disease (PD) and to ascertain whether any clinical features or tests predict driver safety. Methods The driving ability of 154 individuals with PD referred to a driving assessment centre was determined by a combination of clinical tests, reaction times on a test rig and an in‐car driving test. Results The majority of cases (104, 66%) were able to continue driving although 46 individuals required an automatic transmission and 10 others needed car modifications. Ability to drive was predicted by the severity of physical disease, age, presence of other associated medical conditions, particularly dementia, duration of disease, brake reaction, time on a test rig and score on a driving test (all pautomatic transmission. A combination of clinical tests and in‐car driving assessment will establish safety to drive, and a number of clinical correlates can be shown to predict the likely outcome and may assist in the decision process. This is the largest series of consecutive patients seen at a driving assessment centre reported to date, and the first to devise a scoring system for on‐road driving assessment. PMID:17178820
Shiv Mohan Singh,
Full Text Available Many filamentous fungi were isolated from the soils of Ny-Ålesund, Spitsbergen, Svalbard, and were screened in vitro for their phosphate solubilizing ability. Two strains of Aspergillus niger showed good tricalcium phosphate (TCP solubilizing ability in Pikovskaya's medium. The TCP solubilization index was calculated at varying levels of pH and temperatures. The ability of Aspergillus niger strain-1 to solubilize and release inorganic-P was 285 µg ml–1, while Aspergillus niger strain-2 solubilized 262 µg ml–1 from 0.5% TCP after seven days. This is the first report of TCP solubilization by Arctic strains that may serve as very good phosphate solubilizers in the form of biofertilizer.
Full Text Available This paper presents the results of research regarding the mnemonic abilities of primary school children with developmental delays. Empirical studies of impaired mental development offer an opportunity to elucidate the psychological mechanisms underlying the process of normal development and enable us to consider at a micro level the formation of mental processes in ontogeny, which would, under normal conditions, be nondescript and not always amenable to psychological analysis. The research addresses an experimental investigation of productivity and qualitative characteristics of mnemonic abilities among primary school students with developmental delays. V.D. Shadrikov’s Theory of Abilities, developed in a systemic approach framework, is the theoretical basis of the research. The method of deploying a memorization activity, as elaborated by V.D. Shadrikov and L.V. Cheremoshkina, was the investigation tool used. The sample included students in grades 1 to 4 between ages 7 to 12 and included a total of 100 children (66 boys and 34 girls. The control group of primary school students with typical development included 105 children (50 boys and 55 girls. The research consisted of several stages: a pilot study, experimental research (the test task was to memorize card #1; the basic task was to memorize cards #2 and #3; to reproduce cards #2 and #3; and to poll the students, mathematical data processing, and a description of the levels of mnemonic ability development among primary students with developmental delays. The following procedures were employed during statistical analysis: Spearman r3, Mann-Whitney U-test, Jonckheere-Terpstra test, and Kruskal-Wallis test. The structure of mnemonic abilities in primary schoolchildren with developmental delays was determined to vary according to the underdevelopment of their operational mechanisms. For example, memory functions are based on the use of inborn mechanisms, and a portion of children differ in the
Augusto, Viviane Gontijo; Sampaio, Rosana Ferreira; Ferreira, Fabiane Ribeiro; Kirkwood, Renata Noce; César, Cibele Comini
Work ability depends on a balance between individual resources and work demands. This study evaluated factors that are associated with inadequate work ability among workers in the clothing industry. We conducted a cross-sectional observational study of 306 workers in 40 small and medium-sized enterprises. We assessed work ability, individual resources, physical and psychosocial demands, and aspects of life outside work using a binary logistic regression model with hierarchical data entry. The mean work ability was 42.5 (SD=3.5); when adjusted for age, only 11% of the workers showed inadequate work ability. The final model revealed that smoking, high isometric physical load, and poor physical environmental conditions were the most significant predictors of inadequate work ability. Good working conditions and worker education must be implemented to eliminate factors that can be changed and that have a negative impact on work ability. These initiatives include anti-smoking measures, improved postures at work, and better physical environmental conditions.
Full Text Available The present study investigated the role of early language abilities in the development of math skills among Chinese K-3 students. About 2000 children in China, who were on average aged 6 years, were assessed for both informal math (e.g., basic number concepts such as counting objects and formal math (calculations including addition and subtraction skills, language abilities and nonverbal intelligence.Correlation analysis showed that language abilities were more strongly associated with informal than formal math skills, and regression analyses revealed that children's language abilities could uniquely predict both informal and formal math skills with age, gender, and nonverbal intelligence controlled. Mediation analyses demonstrated that the relationship between children's language abilities and formal math skills was partially mediated by informal math skills.The current findings indicate 1 Children's language abilities are of strong predictive values for both informal and formal math skills; 2 Language abilities impacts formal math skills partially through the mediation of informal math skills.
Nowakowski, Matilda E.; Cunningham, Charles E.; McHolm, Angela E.; Evans, Mary Ann; Edison, Shannon; St. Pierre, Jeff; Boyle, Michael H.; Schmidt, Louis A.
We examined receptive language and academic abilities in children with selective mutism (SM; n = 30; M age = 8.8 years), anxiety disorders (n = 46; M age = 9.3 years), and community controls (n = 27; M age = 7.8 years). Receptive language and academic abilities were assessed using standardized tests completed in the laboratory. We found a…
Ashem, Beatrice; Janes, Margaret D.
In order to determine the effects of malnutrition on children's cognitive abilities, the McCarthy Scale of Abilities was administered to 118 Nigerian children between the ages of 2 1/2 and 6 years who came from "well-to-do" urban and "poor" urban and rural environments. Scores of malnourished children were lower than those of…
Voyer, Susan D; Voyer, Daniel
Although handedness as a measure of cerebral specialization has been linked to accident proneness, more direct measures of laterality are rarely considered. The present study aimed to fill that gap in the existing research. In addition, individual difference factors in accident proneness were further examined with the inclusion of mental rotation and navigation abilities measures. One hundred and forty participants were asked to complete the Mental Rotations Test, the Santa Barbara Sense of Direction scale, the Greyscales task, the Fused Dichotic Word Test, the Waterloo Handedness Questionnaire, and a grip strength task before answering questions related to number of accidents in five areas. Results indicated that handedness scores, absolute visual laterality score, absolute response time on the auditory laterality index, and navigation ability were significant predictors of the total number of accidents. Results are discussed with respect to cerebral hemispheric specialization and risk-taking attitudes and behavior.
Marilena Z. Leana-Taşcılar
Full Text Available Gifted students differ from their average peers in psychological, social, emotional and cognitive development. One of these differences in the cognitive domain is related to executive functions. One of the most important executive functions is planning and organization ability. The aim of this study was to compare planning abilities of gifted students with those of their average peers and to test the effectiveness of a training program on planning abilities of gifted students and average students. First, students’ intelligence and planning abilities were measured and then assigned to either experimental or control group. The groups were matched by intelligence and planning ability (experimental: (13 gifted and 8 average; control: 14 gifted and 8 average. In total 182 students (79 gifted and 103 average participated in the study. Then, a training program was implemented in the experimental group to find out if it improved students’ planning ability. Results showed that boys had better planning abilities than girls did, and gifted students had better planning abilities than their average peers did. Significant results were obtained in favor of the experimental group in the posttest scores
Full Text Available Objective: The paper aims to analyse theoretically and empirically the development of social entrepreneurship in Poland and Lithuania, emphasizing the development of appropriate skills and abilities gained at university as entrepreneurial opportunity. Research Design & Methods: The research undertaken for the purposes of the paper is based on a literature review and empirical research partly devoted to a situational analysis of social entrepreneurship in Poland, as well as a pilot survey of target groups pertaining to the entrepreneurial skills and abilities as entrepreneurial opportunity of Lithuanian and Polish students as potential social entrepreneurs. Findings: The main research findings imply that despite the existence of entrepreneurial opportunity as education at university, social entrepreneurship is increasingly important in Poland. Overall support is needed for the creation of social enterprises and attracting young people to them. Empirical research based on Lithuanian and Polish students’ perception of acquiring entrepreneurial skills and abilities at university can be entrepreneurial opportunity for social entrepreneurship. Implications & Recommendations: Implementing further research in the field, as empirical this research was just a pilot one. Research can be developed by taking into account more respondents in both countries. Contribution & Value Added: The study provides empirical evidence entrepreneurial skills and abilities gained/developed at university are a possible entrepreneurial opportunity for exploiting and creating social enterprises.
Godinho, Marluce Rodrigues; Greco, Rosangela Maria; Teixeira, Maria Teresa Bustamante; Teixeira, Liliane Reis; Guerra, Maximiliano Ribeiro; Chaoubah, Alfredo
Studies about work ability have grown in importance owing to the worldwide aging of active populations. Research has shown that measuring work ability has a predictive value in cases of long-term sickness absence and early retirement. Our goal was to analyze the work ability and associated factors of civil servants from a higher education institution in Brazil. The participants in this cross-sectional study were 600 technical-administrative workers at a public university. Work ability was measured using the work ability index. The participants were as follows: 51.8% male; mean age of 45 years (SD = ±11); married or in a stable union (61.5%); holding a graduate degree (56.7%); having only one job (83.3%), working 40 h a week or less (78.6%); not working evenings (79.8%); and having direct contact with the public (58.3%). The prevalence of reduced work ability was 13.9%. The following factors were found to be associated with reduced work ability: age 50 years old or above (PR = 2.58; 95% CI 1.25-5.09); female (PR = 2.77; 95% CI 1.25-3.60); education up to secondary school (PR = 2.37; 95% CI 1.13-3.59); overall poor self-assessed health (PR = 2.96; 95% CI 1.32-3.93); signs and symptoms of depression (PR = 4.86; 95% CI 2.23-6.55); sedentariness (PR = 3.00; 95% CI 1.38-4.68) and poor social support at work (PR = 4.01; 95% CI 1.66-4.37). Most of the participants showed good work ability, but some subjects had reduced work ability. This study makes a contribution to expanding the discussion about the factors associated with work ability toward proposing actions for maintaining that ability or helping recovery in the case of diminished ability. Such actions can help reduce work absenteeism and early retirement, both of which have a social and economic impact in Brazil. Studying the determinants of work ability and recommendations to address those determinants will help efforts to improve the quality of life of individuals, both at work and personally, and promote healthy
Hatch, D J; Freude, G; Martus, P; Rose, U; Müller, G; Potter, G G
The ageing of the US labour force highlights the need to examine older adults' physical and psychological ability to work, under varying levels of occupational burnout. To examine how age and burnout interact in predicting physical and psychological work ability. Using a cohort of actively working nurses, we assessed factors on the Work Ability Index at 12-month follow-up and determined how these were related to age and exhaustion-related burnout at baseline. The study group consisted of 402 nurses aged 25-67 (mean = 41.7). Results indicated age by burnout interactions in which decrements in physical work ability with greater age were observed at all but the lowest level of burnout (1.5 SD below mean: β = -0.14, 95% CI -0.36, 0.07; 1 SD below: β = -0.23, 95% CI -0.39, -0.06; mean: β = -0.39, 95% CI -0.50, -0.29; 1 SD above: β = -0.56, 95% CI -0.70, -0.42; 1.5 SD above: β = -0.64, 95% CI -0.83, -0.46). In contrast, we observed decrements in psychological work ability with age at higher levels of burnout only (1 SD above: β = -0.20, 95% CI -0.35, -0.05; 1.5 SD above: β = -0.30, 95% CI -0.49, -0.11); at lower levels of burnout, older age was associated with improvements in this (1 SD below: β = 0.19, 95% CI 0.03, 0.35; 1.5 SD below: β = 0.29, 95% CI 0.08, 0.50). Findings indicated physical and psychological dimensions of work ability that differed by age and occupational burnout. This emphasizes the need for interventions to reduce burnout and to address age-related strengths and vulnerabilities relating to physical and psychological work ability.
Hallam, Susan; Ireson, Judith
Internationally and historically considerable research has been undertaken regarding the attitudes of secondary school teachers towards different types of ability grouping. There has been no recent research taking account of the changing educational context in the UK. This paper aims to explore secondary school teachers' attitudes and beliefs about ability grouping taking account of school type, gender, experience and qualifications. The sample comprised over 1,500 teachers from 45 schools divided into three groups based on their ability grouping practices in years 7-9 (the students were aged 11-14). The sample included all the lower school teachers of mathematics, science and English and a random sample of teachers from other subjects in each school. Teachers responded to a questionnaire which explored their attitudes towards ability grouping through the use of rating scales and open-ended questions. The findings showed that the teachers' beliefs broadly reflected research findings on the actual effects of ability grouping, although there were significant differences relating to the type of school they taught in and the subject that they taught. Separate analysis of school types showed that length of time teaching, individual school differences and teacher qualifications were also significant predictors of attitudes. Teachers' beliefs about ability grouping are influenced by the type of groupings adopted in the school where they work, the subject that they teach, their experience and qualifications. As pedagogical practices are known to be influenced by beliefs these findings have important implications for teacher training.
Austin, Elizabeth J
Emotional intelligence (EI) has attracted considerable interest amongst both individual differences researchers and those in other areas of psychology who are interested in how EI relates to criteria such as well-being and career success. Both trait (self-report) and ability EI measures have been developed; the focus of this paper is on ability EI. The associations of two new ability EI tests with psychometric intelligence, emotion perception, and the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso EI test (MSCEIT) were examined. The new EI tests were the Situational Test of Emotion Management (STEM) and the Situational Test of Emotional Understanding (STEU). Only the STEU and the MSCEIT Understanding Emotions branch were significantly correlated with psychometric intelligence, suggesting that only understanding emotions can be regarded as a candidate new intelligence component. These understanding emotions tests were also positively correlated with emotion perception tests, and STEM and STEU scores were positively correlated with MSCEIT total score and most branch scores. Neither the STEM nor the STEU were significantly correlated with trait EI tests, confirming the distinctness of trait and ability EI. Taking the present results as a starting-point, approaches to the development of new ability EI tests and models of EI are suggested.
McGarry, Brian E; Tempkin-Greener, Helena; Grabowski, David C; Chapman, Benjamin P; Li, Yue
To determine the impact of consumer decision-making abilities on making a long-term care insurance (LTCi) purchasing decision that is consistent with normative economic predictions regarding policy ownership. Using data from the Health and Retirement Study, multivariate analyses are implemented to estimate the effect of decision-making ability factors on owning LTCi. Stratified multivariate analyses are used to examine the effect of decision-making abilities on the likelihood of adhering to economic predictions of LTCi ownership. In the full sample, better cognitive capacity was found to significantly increase the odds of ownership. When the sample was stratified based on expected LTCi ownership status, cognitive capacity was positively associated with ownership among those predicted to own and negatively associated with ownership among those predicted not to own who could likely afford a policy. Consumer decision-making abilities, specifically cognitive capacity, are an important determinant of LTCi decision outcomes. Deficits in this ability may prevent individuals from successfully preparing for future long-term care expenses. Policy makers should consider changes that reduce the cognitive burden of this choice, including the standardization of the LTCi market, the provision of consumer decision aids, and alternatives to voluntary and private insuring mechanisms.
Boulet-Craig, Aubrée; Robaey, Philippe; Lacourse, Karine; Jerbi, Karim; Oswald, Victor; Krajinovic, Maja; Laverdière, Caroline; Sinnett, Daniel; Jolicoeur, Pierre; Lippé, Sarah
Previous research suggests visual short-term memory (VSTM) capacity and mathematical abilities are significantly related. Moreover, both processes activate similar brain regions within the parietal cortex, in particular, the intraparietal sulcus; however, it is still unclear whether the neuronal underpinnings of VSTM directly correlate with mathematical operation and reasoning abilities. The main objective was to investigate the association between parieto-occipital brain activity during the retention period of a VSTM task and performance in mathematics. The authors measured mathematical abilities and VSTM capacity as well as brain activity during memory maintenance using magnetoencephalography (MEG) in 19 healthy adult participants. Event-related magnetic fields (ERFs) were computed on the MEG data. Linear regressions were used to estimate the strength of the relation between VSTM related brain activity and mathematical abilities. The amplitude of parieto-occipital cerebral activity during the retention of visual information was related to performance in 2 standardized mathematical tasks: mathematical reasoning and calculation fluency. The findings show that brain activity during retention period of a VSTM task is associated with mathematical abilities. Contributions of VSTM processes to numerical cognition should be considered in cognitive interventions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Padula, Rosimeire Simprini; da Silva Valente, Luciana do Socorro; de Moraes, Mônica Vasconcelos; Chiavegato, Luciana Dias; Cabral, Cristina Maria Nunes
Work capacity is related to physical, environmental and psychosocial factors and is influenced by individual characteristics and occupations. The aim of this study was to evaluated the relationship between work capacity, gender and age. 360 people employed at an institution of higher education of both genders and similar age were asked to participate in this study. The ability to work was analyzed using Work Ability Index (WAI). Descriptive statistical, Pearson correlations and ANOVA test was applied. Of these, 197 workers who participated in the study completed and returned the questionnaire. The results show there weren't any significant differences between work ability in relation to gender and age, but we observed an increase variability of responses for WAI score in older workers. No significant differences in the perception of the ability of work between men and women..
Thrane, Lars Nyholm
The Nordic mini-seminar “Form Filling Ability of Self-Compacting Concrete” took place on 3-4 November 2003 at the Danish Technological Institute in Taastrup, Denmark. The mini-seminar gathered 12 participants from Finland, Sweden, Norway and Denmark. The objective was to present and discuss recent...... developments of Self-Compacting Concrete in the Nordic countries. In general, the seminar included results and observations on the effect of fresh concrete behaviour, casting technique, and organisation on site on the filling ability, passing ability, and surface quality. The seminar had participants from...
The definition of covariances of half- and full sibs, and hence that of variances of general and specific combining ability with regard to a quantitative character, is extended to take into account the respective covariances between a pair of characters. The interpretation of the dispersion and correlation matrices of general and specific combining ability is discussed by considering a set of single, three- and four-way crosses, made using diallel and line × tester mating systems in Pennisetum typhoides. The general implications of the concept of covariance of combining ability in plant breeding are discussed.
Dewi, N. R.; Savitri, E. N.; Taufiq, M.; Khusniati, M.
The purpose of this research is to understand whether or not science digital storytelling can improve cognitive ability. The research design used in this study was one shoot case study. The population of the research was seventh-grade students of junior high school. The number of samples involved in this study was two classes with a total of 68 students. Data of students' cognitive ability were collected using a test. The data that has been collected were then analyzed using N-gain test. Results of data analysis showed that N-gain values of experimental groups are equal to 0.48 and 0.42 which are categorized into medium category. This finding indicates that science digital storytelling can improve students' cognitive ability.
Full Text Available Swimming is an important source of physical activity and a life skill to prevent drowning. However, little research has been conducted to understand predictors of swimming ability. The purpose of this study was to understand factors that predict swimming ability among children and adolescents in the United States (US. This was a cross-sectional survey conducted between February and April of 2017 across five geographically diverse cities. Participants were accessed through the Young Christian Men’s Association (YMCA and included parents of children aged 4–11 years old and adolescents aged 12–17 years old. Independent t-test, analysis of variance (ANOVA, and univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted. Several factors were significant (p ≤ 0.05 predictors of swimming ability and explained 53% of the variance in swimming ability. Variables that were positively associated with swimming ability included: ability of parent(s to swim, child/adolescent age, a best friend who enjoys swimming, water-safety knowledge, pool open all year, and encouragement to swim from parent(s. Variables that were negatively associated with swimming ability included: fear of drowning, being African American, and being female. Interventions and programs to improve the swimming ability of children and adolescents could be developed with these predictors in mind.
Pasque, Penny A.; Vargas, Juanita Gamez
This chapter explores the various performances of activism by students through sound, silence, gender, and dis/ability and how these performances connect to social change efforts around issues such as human trafficking, homeless children, hunger, and children with varying abilities.
Dittmann-Kohli, F.; Heijden, B.I.J.M. van der
Internal and external factors affecting ability and performance of older employees are being analyzed in a short literature review. Internal factors like physical capacity, sensory capacity, cognitive abilities and general health are reduced with ageing; their effect on performance, however, depends
Højland, Torben; Babu, Bolle Ravindra; Bryld, Torsten
We present our studies on the ability of several different nucleotide analogs as triplex-forming oligonucleotides. The modifications tested include 4'-C-hydroxymethyl, LNA, 2'-amino-LNA and N2'-functionalized 2'-amino-LNA. Triplexes containing monomers of N2'-glycyl-functionalized 2'-amino-LNA ar...
Stripling, Christopher T.; Roberts, T. Grady
The purpose of this study was to examine the mathematics ability of the nation's preservice agricultural education teachers. Based on the results of this study, preservice teachers were not proficient in solving agricultural mathematics problems, and agricultural teacher education programs require basic and intermediate mathematics as their…
Nielsen, Louise Møldrup; Maribo, Thomas; Nielsen, Hanne Grethe
from the hospital expressed a need for a fast and simple screening tool to identify those in need of further rehabilitation and care after discharge. Participants from the municipality expressed a need for a more detailed assessment tool to capture information about patients’ ability to perform daily...
Kim, Eun-Kyong; Lee, Sung Kook; Choi, Youn-Hee; Tanaka, Makiko; Hirotsu, Kimiko; Kim, Hyeon Chang; Lee, Hee-Kyung; Jung, Yun-Sook; Amano, Atsuo
Relationship between masticatory function and cognitive impairment had been suggested but still understudied. We investigated the association between chewing ability and cognitive impairment among the elderly living in a rural region. A total of 295 elderly individuals aged ≥70 years in a rural city of Korea participated in a cross-sectional study. Trained nurses conducted interviews and assessed chewing ability using gum that changed color based on chewing performance. Cognitive impairment was assessed using the Mini-Mental State Examination for Dementia Screening (MMSE-DS) of Korean vesrsion. Socio-demographic characteristics, activities of daily living (ADL), Mini-Nutritional Assessment (MNA) were also assessed using questionnaires as potential confounders. The mean age of the participants was 81.4 (ranged 70-102) years and 67.8% of them were female. Participants with low chewing ability were significantly older, dependent, and had lower MNA and MMSE-DS scores. The elderly with middle or low chewing ability had significantly higher risk for having cognitive impairment than those with higher chewing ability. Our findings suggest that poor chewing ability is associated with cognitive impairment or dementia in the elderly living in rural area. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The current body of research often focuses on the problem of cognitive decline through ageing. People adapt to these changes of cognitive resources by using brain reserve. An overview of results of different studies on how cognitive abilities of older adults decline highlights high variability of conclusions and sometimes contradiction but it has been shown older adults can be as good as or even better than younger participants in specific domains. Among others, personal meaningfulness of a situation and closeness to the researcher can be strong factors when assessing cognitive abilities and the aim of this paper was to research how these effect cognitive efficiency. In the pilot study we eliminated the factor of laboratory setting and checked how cognitive efficiency and abilities change in relation to motivation. Forty-eight participants, divided into two age groups, were asked to pass a proverb interpretation test. The results showed that participant’s subjective view on the researcher, perceived closeness, correlated with the adequacy in proverb interpretation. Both groups scored higher on adequacy of interpretation when they perceived to be close to the researcher. The younger adults outperformed the older but those in the older adults’ group, who felt to be close to the researcher scored as well as younger adults who didn’t perceived to be close to the researcher. This motivational reserve might play a role in assessing cognitive abilities and pathologies that affect the outcome of neuropsychological tests.
Foley, Kelly; Gallipoli, Giovanni; Green, David
of the factor model set out in Carneiro, Hansen, and Heckman (2003). Specically, we consider the impact of cognitive and non-cognitive ability and the value that parents place on education. Our results support three main conclusions. First, cognitive ability at age 15 has a substantial impact on dropping out....... Second, parental valuation of education has an impact of approximately the same size as cognitive ability e ects for medium and low ability teenagers. A low ability teenager has a probability of dropping out of approximately .03 if his parents place a high value on education but .36 if their education......We use a large, rich Canadian micro-level dataset to examine the channels through which family socio-economic status and unobservable characteristics a ect children's decisions to drop out of high school. First, we document the strength of observable socio-economic factors: our data suggest...
Lusiana, N. T.; Lukito, A.; Khabibah, S.
This study aims at describing students’ activity to understand the behaviors processes called self-monitoring in a cube and cuboid problem solving viewed from mathematics ability. The subjects were eight graders of junior high school who studied surface area and volume of cube and cuboid clussified into high, average and low mathematics abilities. Mathematics ability test to select the subjects the study. Data were collected through self-monitoring task and interviews. Data triangulation was used to verify the credibillity findings. Data analysis was done by data condensation, data display and conclusion drawing and verification. Results showed that students’ self-monitoring with high math ability is more fullfilled self-monitoring components. Students with average and low math abilities not fullfilled the component that covers verifying the results during solving the problem. It is expected that teachers must provide different learning treatments to improve students’ self-monitoring for better learning outcomes.
Full Text Available A historical review of calculation abilities is presented. Counting, starting with finger sequencing, has been observed in different ancient and contemporary cultures, whereas number representation and arithmetic abilities are found only during the last 5000–6000 years. The rationale for selecting a base of ten in most numerical systems and the clinical association between acalculia and finger agnosia are analyzed. Finger agnosia (as a restricted form of autotopagnosia, right–left discrimination disturbances, semantic aphasia, and acalculia are proposed to comprise a single neuropsychological syndrome associated with left angular gyrus damage. A classification of calculation disturbances resulting from brain damage is presented. It is emphasized that using historical/anthropological analysis, it becomes evident that acalculia, finger agnosia, and disorders in right–left discrimination (as in general, in the use of spatial concepts must constitute a single clinical syndrome, resulting from the disruption of some common brain activity and the impairment of common cognitive mechanisms.
With the increasingly frequent international exchanges,English,as an international language,has been attached greater importance.The oral English ability of junior high school students plays an indispensable role in their everyday study and social interaction,and it is the present junior school study that can lay a solid foundation for their future study and life. Therefore,to comprehensively improve their oral English ability is in urgent need and of paramount significance.This paper focuses on analyzing the external and internal factors influencing the cultivation of junior high school students' oral English ability,and put forwards the corresponding cultivating strategies of the oral English ability of junior high school students.
With the increasingly frequent international exchanges,English,as an international language,has been attached greater importance.The oral English ability of junior high school students plays an indispensable role in their everyday study and social interaction,and it is the present junior school study that can lay a solid foundation for their future study and life.Therefore,to comprehensively improve their oral English ability is in urgent need and of paramount significance.This paper focuses on analyzing the external and internal factors influencing the cultivation of junior high school students’oral English ability,and put forwards the corresponding cultivating strategies of the oral English ability of junior high school students.
Emberland, Jan S.; Knardahl, Stein
Objective: To determine the contribution of specific psychological, social, and mechanical work exposures to the self-reported low level of work ability. Methods: Employees from 48 organizations were surveyed over a 2-year period (n = 3779). Changes in 16 work exposures and 3 work ability measures?the work ability index score, perceived current, and future work ability?were tested with Spearman rank correlations. Binary logistic regressions were run to determine contribution of work exposures...
Full Text Available This present research was aimed to improve the EFL learners’ speaking ability and their classroom activities through the implementation of Interactive Storytelling Strategy. Therefore, this study was directed to explore the beneficial of Interactive Storytelling that closely related to the EFL learners’ everyday activities at their home and school. The subject consisted of 22 of Junior High of Indonesian EFL learners. A Classroom Action Research in two cycles had been conducted within 6 meetings for every cycle. The meetings were focused on the interactivity and communicative ability among learners. The research result showed that the learners’ speaking ability improved from 17 or 72,27% passed in Cycle 1 to 22 or 100% passed the criteria of success in Cycle 2. It also showed that their classroom activities improved from 8 or 36,36% who were very active (VA and 14 or 63,64% who were active (A to 18 or 81,82% were very active (VA and 4 or 18,18% were active (A. In conclusion, the implementation of Interactive Storytelling Strategy increased the EFL learners’ speaking ability and their classroom activities.
Farley Simon Nobre
Full Text Available This research investigates antecedents, developments and consequences of dynamic capabilities in an organization. It contributes by searching theoretical and empirical answers to the questions: (a What are the antecedents which can provide an organization with dynamic and ordinary capabilities?; (b How do these antecedents contribute to create capabilities in an organization?; (c How do they affect an organization’s competitive advantage?; (d Can we assess and measure the antecedents and consequences to an organization? From a first (theoretical perspective, this paper searches answers to the first, second and third questions by reviewing concepts of an ability-based view of organizations that involves the abilities of cognition, intelligence, autonomy, learning and knowledge management, and which contributes to explain the dynamic behavior of the firm in the pursuit of competitive advantage. From a second (empirical perspective, this paper reinforces and delivers findings to the second, third and fourth questions by presenting a case study that evidences the ability-based view in action in a software corporation, where it contributes by investigating: (a the development of organizational capabilities; (b the effects of the new capabilities on the organization; and (c the assessment and measurement of the abilities and consequences.
Wegman, J.B.T.; Fonteijn, H.M.; Ekert, J. van; Tyborowska, A.B.; Jansen, C.; Janzen, G.
Humans differ widely in their navigational abilities. Studies have shown that self-reports on navigational abilities are good predictors of performance on navigation tasks in real and virtual environments. The caudate nucleus and medial temporal lobe regions have been suggested to subserve different
Pino, Maria Chiara; Mazza, Monica
Empathy is a multidimensional process that incorporates both mentalizing and emotional sharing dimensions. Empathic competencies are important for creating interpersonal relationships with other people and developing adequate social behaviour. The lack of these social components also leads to isolation and exclusion in healthy populations. However, few studies have investigated how to improve these social skills. In a recent study, Kidd and Castano (2013) found that reading literary fiction increases mentalizing ability and may change how people think about other people's emotions and mental states. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effects of reading literary fiction, compared to nonfiction and science fiction, on empathic abilities. Compared to previous studies, we used a larger variety of empathy measures and utilized a pre and post-test design. In all, 214 healthy participants were randomly assigned to read a book representative of one of three literary genres (literary fiction, nonfiction, science fiction). Participants were assessed before and after the reading phase using mentalizing and emotional sharing tests, according to Zaki and Ochsner' s (2012) model. Comparisons of sociodemographic, mentalizing, and emotional sharing variables across conditions were conducted using ANOVA. Our results showed that after the reading phase, the literary fiction group showed improvement in mentalizing abilities, but there was no discernible effect on emotional sharing abilities. Our study showed that the reading processes can promote mentalizing abilities. These results may set important goals for future low-cost rehabilitation protocols for several disorders in which the mentalizing deficit is considered central to the disease, such as Autism Spectrum Disorders and Schizophrenia.
Full Text Available Specific physical preparation affects the development of motor abilities required for execution of specific movements in judo. When selecting proper specific exercises for judo for a target motor ability, it is necessary to precede it with the study of the structure of specific judo techniques and activities of individual muscle groups engaged for execution of the technique. On the basis of this, one can understand which muscles are most engaged during realization of individual techniques, which serves as a standpoint for selection of a particular complex of specific exercises to produce the highest effects. In addition to the development of particular muscle groups, the means of specific preparation will take effect on the development of those motor abilities which are evaluated as the indispensable for the development of particular qualities which are characteristic for judo. This paper analyses the relationship between judo techniques field and specific motor abilities.
Riley, Julia L; Noble, Daniel W A; Byrne, Richard W; Whiting, Martin J
Early developmental environment can have profound effects on individual physiology, behaviour, and learning. In birds and mammals, social isolation during development is known to negatively affect learning ability; yet in other taxa, like reptiles, the effect of social isolation during development on learning ability is unknown. We investigated how social environment affects learning ability in the family-living tree skink (Egernia striolata). We hypothesized that early social environment shapes cognitive development in skinks and predicted that skinks raised in social isolation would have reduced learning ability compared to skinks raised socially. Offspring were separated at birth into two rearing treatments: (1) raised alone or (2) in a pair. After 1 year, we quantified spatial learning ability of skinks in these rearing treatments (N = 14 solitary, 14 social). We found no effect of rearing treatment on learning ability. The number of skinks to successfully learn the task, the number of trials taken to learn the task, the latency to perform the task, and the number of errors in each trial did not differ between isolated and socially reared skinks. Our results were unexpected, yet the facultative nature of this species' social system may result in a reduced effect of social isolation on behaviour when compared to species with obligate sociality. Overall, our findings do not provide evidence that social environment affects development of spatial learning ability in this family-living lizard.
Liu, Andrew M.; Oman, Charles M.; Galvan, Raquel; Natapoff, Alan
Our goal was to determine whether existing tests of spatial ability can predict an astronaut's qualification test performance after robotic training. Because training astronauts to be qualified robotics operators is so long and expensive, NASA is interested in tools that can predict robotics performance before training begins. Currently, the Astronaut Office does not have a validated tool to predict robotics ability as part of its astronaut selection or training process. Commonly used tests of human spatial ability may provide such a tool to predict robotics ability. We tested the spatial ability of 50 active astronauts who had completed at least one robotics training course, then used logistic regression models to analyze the correlation between spatial ability test scores and the astronauts' performance in their evaluation test at the end of the training course. The fit of the logistic function to our data is statistically significant for several spatial tests. However, the prediction performance of the logistic model depends on the criterion threshold assumed. To clarify the critical selection issues, we show how the probability of correct classification vs. misclassification varies as a function of the mental rotation test criterion level. Since the costs of misclassification are low, the logistic models of spatial ability and robotic performance are reliable enough only to be used to customize regular and remedial training. We suggest several changes in tracking performance throughout robotics training that could improve the range and reliability of predictive models.
Godskesen, Mirjam Irene
The Belbin method has been applied at the education in Arctic Technology in Greenland as a way of improving the student’s teamwork abilities. The feedback from the students is that Belbin is a meaningful and relevant tool and they are very engaged during the teamwork exercises. They get...
Elling, Sanne; Lentz, Leo; de Jong, Menno D.T.
Web sites increasingly encourage users to provide comments on the quality of the content by clicking on a feedback button and filling out a feedback form. Little is known about users’ abilities to provide such feedback. To guide the development of evaluation tools, this study examines to what extent
Hansen, Sofie M; Hetland, Merete Lund; Pedersen, Jacob
Objectives: The aim was to study work ability in patients with RA compared with the general population by investigating the rates and risks of long-term sickness absence, unemployment and disability pension, and the chance of returning to work and the changes in these risks over time (1994-2011)....
This theoretical paper begins with a reflection on the dominant conceptions of "high ability", based on psychometrics, and examines claims that the ethos of a particular cultural heritage is essential to what "high ability" signifies. The article semantically distinguishes "giftedness" from "ability", using…
Tuomi, K; Eskelinen, L; Toikkanen, J; Jarvinen, E; Ilmarinen, J; Klockars, M
The effects of work stressors, individual characteristics, symptoms, and diseases on work ability were studied among 4255 municipal employees. Work ability was assessed by a work ability index in two cross-sectional inquiries, one in 1981 and the other in 1985. The most impairing for work ability were mental symptoms and musculoskeletal disease. Among the work stressors, high physical demands at work, poor physical work environment, and lack of freedom were associated with impaired work ability. Muscular work, disturbing temperatures at the workplace, and lack of freedom particularly affected employees with disease, whereas poor work postures and role conflicts at work were particularly injurious for healthy employees. The worst situation was observed when a worker with many symptoms and disease was exposed to many different work stressors. Life satisfaction, sitting work posture, a good basic education, and physical exercise during leisure time were associated with good work ability.
Gardner, Kathryn Jane; Quinton, Stephanie; Qualter, Pamela
Bulimia is characterized by poor affect regulation, yet the role of emotional intelligence (EI) is little understood. This study examined associations between EI and bulimic symptoms using 235 women from community and student populations. They completed measures of trait and ability EI, and the Eating Disorders Diagnostic Scale. Results showed that deficiencies in different aspects of trait EI and/or ability EI are a function of symptom type: binge eating, compensatory behaviours or weight and shape concerns. Consistent with affect regulation models, self-regulatory aspects of trait EI were related to two bulimic symptoms: binge eating and weight and shape concerns. Ability-based self-emotion management was not important, and explanatory power of lower-level EI facets (traits or abilities) was not superior to more broadly defined EI factors. Results support the conclusion that trait and ability EI may maintain subclinical levels of bulimic symptoms but have different paths. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Argyropoulos, Vassilios; Masoura, Elvira; Tsiakali, Thomai K; Nikolaraizi, Magda; Lappa, Christina
This study investigated the relationship between working memory (WM) and reading abilities among students with visual impairment (VI). Seventy-five students with VI (visually impairment and blindness), aged 10-15 years old participated in the study, of whom 44 were visually impaired and 31 were blind. The participants' reading ability was assessed with the standardized reading ability battery Test-A (Padeliadu & Antoniou, 2008) and their verbal working memory ability was assessed with the listening recall task from the Working Memory Test Battery for Children (Pickering et al., 2001). Data analysis indicated a strong correlation between verbal WM and decoding, reading comprehension and overall reading ability among the participants with VI, while no correlation was found between reading fluency and verbal WM. The present study points out the important role of verbal WM in reading among students who are VI and carries implications for the education of those individuals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
The osmoregulatory abilities of the grapsoid crabs Cyclograpsus punctata, Sesarma catenata and Sesarma eulimene were studied comparatively in an attempt to explain, at least in part, their distribution in estuaries. Both survival and haemorymph osmotic pressure were used as indices of hyperosmotic regulatory ability.
Alavinia, S. M.; de Boer, A. G. E. M.; Van Duivenbooden, J. C.; Frings-Dresen, M. H. W.; Burdorf, A.
Background Maintaining the ability of workers to cope with physical and psychosocial demands at work becomes increasingly important in prolonging working life. Aims To analyse the effects of work-related factors and individual characteristics on work ability and to determine the predictive value of
Borda-De-Água, Luís; Whittaker, Robert James; Cardoso, Pedro
with computer simulations, low dispersal ability species generate a hump for intermediate abundance classes earlier than the distributions of high dispersal ability species. Importantly, when plotted as function of sample size, the raw moments of the SADs of arthropods have a power law pattern similar...
Carmen Martinez, Maria; da Silva Alexandre, Tiago; Dias de Oliveira Latorre, Maria do Rosario; Marina Fischer, Frida
This study sought to assess associations between work stressors and work ability in a cohort (2009-2012) of 498 hospital workers. Time-dependent variables associated with the Work Ability Index (WAI) were evaluated using general linear mixed models. Analyses included effects of individual and work characteristics. Except for work demands, the work stressors (job control, social support, effort-reward imbalance, overcommitment and work-related activities that cause pain/injury) were associated with WAI (p work and morning shift work were associated with decreased WAI (p Work stressors negatively affected work ability over time independently of other variables.
Sanjaya, Rahmat Eko; Muna, Khairiatul; Suharto, Bambang; Syahmani
Students' ability in solving chemical problems is seen from their ability to solve chemicals' non-routine problems. It is due to learning faced directly on non-routine problems will generate a meaningful learning for students. Observations in Banjarmasin Public High School 1 (SMA Negeri 1 Banjarmasin) showed that students did not give the expected results when they were given the non-routine problems. Learning activities by emphasizing problem solving was implemented based on the existence of knowledge about cognition and regulation of cognition. Both of these elements are components of metacognition. The self-directed question is a strategy that involves metacognition in solving chemical problems. This research was carried out using classroom action research design in two cycles. Each cycle consists of four stages: planning, action, observation and reflection. The subjects were 34 students of grade XI-4 at majoring science (IPA) of SMA Negeri 1 Banjarmasin. The data were collected using tests of the students' ability in problem solving and non-tests instrument to know the process of implementation of the actions. Data were analyzed with descriptivequantitativeand qualitative analysis. The ability of students in solving chemical problems has increased from an average of 37.96 in cycle I became 61.83 in cycle II. Students' ability to solve chemical problems is viewed based on their ability to answer self-directed questions. Students' ability in comprehension questions increased from 73.04 in the cycle I became 96.32 in cycle II. Connection and strategic questions increased from 54.17 and 16.50 on cycle I became 63.73 and 55.23 on cycle II respectively. In cycle I, reflection questions were 26.96 and elevated into 36.27 in cycle II. The self-directed questions have the ability to help students to solve chemical problems through metacognition questions. Those questions guide students to find solutions in solving chemical problems.
Loat, C S; Craig, G; Plomin, R; Craig, I W
The FMR1 gene contains a trinucleotide repeat tract which can expand from a normal size of around 30 repeats to over 200 repeats, causing mental retardation (Fragile X Syndrome). Evidence suggests that premutation males (55-200 repeats) are susceptible to a late-onset tremor/ataxia syndrome and females to premature ovarian failure, and that intermediate alleles ( approximately 41-55 repeats) and premutations may be in excess in samples with special educational needs. We explored the relationship between FMR1 allele length and cognitive ability in 621 low ability and control children assessed at 4 and 7 years, as well as 122 students with high IQ. The low and high ability and control samples showed no between-group differences in incidence of longer alleles. In males there was a significant negative correlation between allele length and non-verbal ability at 4 years (p = 0.048), academic achievement in maths (p = 0.003) and English (p = 0.011) at 7 years, and IQ in the high ability group (p = 0.018). There was a significant negative correlation between allele length and a standardised score for IQ and general cognitive ability at age 7 in the entire male sample (p = 0.002). This suggests that, within the normal spectrum of allele length, increased repeat numbers may have a limiting influence on cognitive performance.
Cowan, Richard; Hurry, Jane; Midouhas, Emily
Three relationships between learning mathematics and general cognitive ability have been hypothesized: The educational hypothesis that learning mathematics develops general cognitive skills, the psychometric hypothesis that differences in general cognitive ability cause differences in mathematical attainment, and the reciprocal influence hypothesis that developments in mathematical ability and general cognitive ability influence each other. These hypotheses are assessed with a sample of 948 children from the Twins Early Development Study who were assessed at 7, 9, and 10 years on mathematics, English, and general cognitive ability. A cross-lagged path analysis with mathematics and general cognitive ability measures supports the reciprocal influence hypothesis between 7 and 9 and between 9 and 10. A second analysis including English assessments only provides evidence of a reciprocal relationship between 7 and 9. Statement of Contribution What is already known on this subject? The correlations between mathematical attainment, literacy, and measures of general cognitive skills are well established. The role of literacy in developing general cognitive skills is emerging. What the present study adds? Mathematics contributes to the development of general cognitive skills. General cognitive ability contributes to mathematical development between 7 and 10. These findings support the hypothesis of reciprocal influence between mathematics and general cognitive ability, at least between 7 and 9. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.
Susanne Maria Reiterer
Full Text Available We investigated individual differences in speech imitation ability in late bilinguals using a neuro-acoustic approach. 138 German-English bilinguals matched on various behavioral measures were tested for speech imitation ability in a foreign language, Hindi, and categorised into high and low ability groups. Brain activations and speech recordings were obtained from 26 participants from the two extreme groups as they performed a functional neuroimaging experiment which required them to imitate sentences in three conditions: (A German, (B English and (C German with fake English accent. We used recently developed novel acoustic analysis, namely the ‘articulation space’ as a metric to compare speech imitation abilities of the two groups. Across all three conditions, direct comparisons between the two groups, revealed brain activations (FWE corrected, p< 0.05 that were more widespread with significantly higher peak activity in the left supramarginal gyrus and postcentral areas for the low ability group. The high ability group, on the other hand showed significantly larger articulation space in all three conditions. In addition, articulation space also correlated positively with imitation ability (Pearson’s r=0.7, p<0.01. Our results suggest that an expanded articulation space for high ability individuals allows access to a larger repertoire of sounds, thereby providing skilled imitators greater flexibility in pronunciation and language learning.
Marunic, Gordana; Glazar, Vladimir
Spatial ability has been confirmed to be of particular importance for successful engineering graphics education and to be a component of human intelligence that can be improved through instruction and training. Consequently, the creation and communication by means of graphics demand careful development of spatial skills provided by the balanced…
Strekas, Amy; Ratner, Nan Bernstein; Berl, Madison; Gaillard, William D.
Background: There is a noticeable publication gap in the speech-language pathology literature regarding the language abilities of children with common types of epilepsy. This paper reviews studies that suggest a high frequency of undetected language problems in this population, and it proposes the need for pragmatically based assessment of…
Mallik, Kalisankar, Ed.; Shaver, Elaine M., Ed.
This document contains 16 papers that were scheduled to be presented at a conference (which was canceled) on approaches and programs for helping developmentally disabled persons to be more self-sufficient. The book is divided into three sections: (1) unmasking vocational abilities, (2) enhancing functional independence, and (3) medical and…
Differences between questionnaire-and interview-based measures of activities of daily living (ADL) ability and their association with observed ADL ability in women with rheumatoid arthritis, knee osteoarthritis, and fibromyalgia
Wæhrens, E. E.; Bliddal, Henning; Danneskiold-Samsøe, Bente
Objectives: Although self-report based on questionnaire is the common method to obtain information about activities of daily living (ADL) ability in rheumatic diseases, little is known about the relationship between measures of ADL ability based on questionnaire, interview, and observation. The p...... of self-reported ADL ability based on either questionnaire or interview have limited relationship to each other or to observed performance of ADL tasks....... the relationships between self-reported and observed ADL ability. Method: The 47 ADL tasks of the ADL taxonomy were used to evaluate self-reported ADL ability based on questionnaire (ADL-Q) and interview (ADL-I), and the Assessment of Motor and Process Skills (AMPS) was used to obtain measures of observed ADL......Objectives: Although self-report based on questionnaire is the common method to obtain information about activities of daily living (ADL) ability in rheumatic diseases, little is known about the relationship between measures of ADL ability based on questionnaire, interview, and observation...
Kim, Du Gyu; Lee, JaeMu
This study examined an instruction method for the improvement of information processing abilities in elementary school students. Current elementary students are required to develop information processing abilities to create new knowledge for this digital age. There is, however, a shortage of instruction strategies for these information processing…
te Wierike, Sanne C. M.; de Jong, Mark C.; Tromp, Eveline J. Y.; Vuijk, Pieter J.; Lemmink, Koen A. P. M.; Malina, Robert M.; Elferink-Gemser, Marije T.; Visscher, Chris
te Wierike, SCM, de Jong, MC, Tromp, EJY, Vuijk, PJ, Lemmink, KAPM, Malina, RM, Elferink-Gemser, MT, and Visscher, C. Development of repeated sprint ability in talented youth basketball players. J Strength Cond Res 28(4): 928-934, 2014-Factors affecting repeated sprint ability (RSA) were evaluated
Cabell, Sonia Q; Justice, Laura M; Zucker, Tricia A; McGinty, Anita S
The 2 studies reported in this manuscript collectively address 3 aims: (a) to characterize the name-writing abilities of preschool-age children with language impairment (LI), (b) to identify those emergent literacy skills that are concurrently associated with name-writing abilities, and (c) to compare the name-writing abilities of children with LI to those of their typical language (TL) peers. Fifty-nine preschool-age children with LI were administered a battery of emergent literacy and language assessments, including a task in which the children were asked to write their first names. A subset of these children (n=23) was then compared to a TL-matched sample to characterize performance differences. Results showed that the name-writing abilities of preschoolers with LI were associated with skills in alphabet knowledge and print concepts. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis indicated that only alphabet knowledge uniquely contributed to the variance in concurrent name-writing abilities. In the matched comparison, the TL group demonstrated significantly more advanced name-writing representations than the LI group. Children with LI lag significantly behind their TL peers in name-writing abilities. Speech-language pathologists are encouraged to address the print-related skills of children with LI within their clinical interventions.
Guo, Jian-Wen; Cao, Xiao-Chang; Xie, Li; Jin, Jian-Jun; Wang, Chu-Diao
Students majoring in engineering is required by the emerging engineering education (3E) in the aspect of their ability of engineering drawing. This paper puts forward training mode of engineering drawing ability for 3E. This mode consists of three kinds of training including training in courses, training in competitions and training in actual demand. We also design the feasible implementation plan and supplies viable references to carry out the mode.
(CCL), Center for Creative Leadership
Active listening is a person's willingness and ability to hear and understand. At its core, active listening is a state of mind that involves paying full and careful attention to the other person, avoiding premature judgment, reflecting understanding, clarifying information, summarizing, and sharing. By learning and committing to the skills and behaviors of active listening, leaders can become more effective listeners and, over time, improve their ability to lead.
Krinzinger, Helga; Kaufmann, Liane; Willmes, Klaus
Mathematical learning disabilities (MLDs) are often associated with math anxiety, yet until now, very little is known about the causal relations between calculation ability and math anxiety during early primary school years. The main aim of this study was to longitudinally investigate the relationship between calculation ability, self-reported evaluation of mathematics, and math anxiety in 140 primary school children between the end of first grade and the middle of third grade. Structural equation modeling revealed a strong influence of calculation ability and math anxiety on the evaluation of mathematics but no effect of math anxiety on calculation ability or vice versa—contrasting with the frequent clinical reports of math anxiety even in very young MLD children. To summarize, our study is a first step toward a better understanding of the link between math anxiety and math performance in early primary school years performance during typical and atypical courses of development. PMID:20401159
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to ascertain the correlation between selected cognitive abilities, age and performance of judokas according to ranking. The study group consisted of judokas in the age group 18 ± 2.4 years. The Stroop Color-Word Test - Victoria Version (VST was the instrument used to determine the level of cognitive abilities. The data obtained were measured by the Pearson Correlation (r correlation test. The results of the study show an associative relationship of indirect correlation (p < 0.01 between age and all of the three categories of the Stroop test. This is an indirect correlation, so the higher the age, the lower the time (better performance of the probands in the Stroop test. There was no statistically significant correlation between performance in the categories of the Stroop test and rankings. The outcomes show that the level of selected cognitive abilities depends on age, but the level of the selected cognitive abilities does not affect the ranking of the judokas.
Nurulloev, M.; Narziev, B.N.; Islomov, Z.; Fayzieva, M.
The influence of nature of the assistant is investigated in work, it is quantity and a site on proton donor and proton acceptor abilities. A-H containing organic connections and ways, of definition of these abilities are developed by the method, of IR spectroscopy. It is developed model and it offered a technique of definition of these abilities. It is shown that the proton donor and proton acceptor is abilities of molecules as constants, are one of individual physical and chemical characteristics A-H of containing organic connections. These sizes determine the abilities of molecules, to form the intermolecular hydrogen connections, disabilities of the H-complexes formed in condensed, environments concerning to the non replaced molecule
Conclusion: VRWii training is as beneficial as TE in improving walking abilities, sensory integration ability, and muscle strength in patients with PD, and such improvements persisted for at least for 1 month. VRWii training is thus suggested to be implemented in patients with PD.
Kelly, Walter F., Jr.
Published articles on spatial ability can be found in the fields of psychology and graphics education. In the "Engineering Design Graphics Journal" for 1936-1978, six articles concerning visualization (spatial ability) were listed. As published graphics research increased, the journal (1975-1996) listed 28 articles in the visualization…
Experiments were conducted to study the downstream migratory behavior and effects of weight on osmoregulation ability of hatchery-reared Rutilus frisii kutum fingerlings during adaptation to the seawater. Accordingly, blood osmotic pressure regulation ability in kutum fingerlings with weights of 1, 3, 5 and 7 g in three ...
Krinzinger, Helga; Kaufmann, Liane; Willmes, Klaus
Mathematical learning disabilities (MLDs) are often associated with math anxiety, yet until now, very little is known about the causal relations between calculation ability and math anxiety during early primary school years. The main aim of this study was to longitudinally investigate the relationship between calculation ability, self-reported…
Connolly, Patrick E.
There has been a significant history of research on spatial ability and visualization improvement and related curriculum content presented by members of the Engineering Design Graphics Division over the past decade. Recently, interest in this topic has again been heightened thanks to the work of several division members on research such as the…
Hou, Yongping; Chen, Yuan; Xue, Yan; Zheng, Yongmei; Jiang, Lei
Since the water-collecting ability of the wetted cribellate spider capture silk is the result of a unique fiber structure, bioinspired fibers have been researched significantly so as to expose a new water-acquiring route in fogging-collection projects. However, the design of the geometry of bioinspired fiber is related to the ability of hanging drops, which has not been investigated in depth so far. Here, we fabricate bioinspired fibers to investigate the water collection behavior and the influence of geometry (i.e., periodicity of spindle knot) on the hanging-drop ability. We especially discuss water collection related to the periodicity of geometry on the bioinspired fiber. We reveal the length of the three phase contact line (TCL) at threshold conditions in conjunction with the maximal volume of a hanging drop at different modes. The study demonstrates that the geometrical structure of bioinspired fiber induces much stronger water hanging ability than that of uniform fiber, attributed to such special geometry that offers effectively an increasing TCL length or limits the contact length to be shorted. In addition, the geometry also improves the fog-collection efficiency by controlling tiny water drops to be collected in the large water drops at a given location.
The purpose of this study was to describe the elementary school teachers' mathematical ability (1) to develop students’ activities which constructed longer than, shorter than, and as long as concepts, (2) to develop students’ activities which constructed standard unit on the length measurement, and (3) to develop a problem which used by student to construct why a conversion activity on the unit of the length was useful in the daily life after they have participated in the Realistic Mathematics Education (RME) workshops. Curry and Outhread said if teachers knew more about the growth of students’ conceptual understanding of the length, they would be better able to teach that topic . Therefore, in the workshop, teachers were asked to learn more on the stages of the measurement teaching and learning process and why each stage was important. This capability was described by the results of a test which was content of four problems given to teachers after they have attended the workshop. Research subjects in this study were 14 elementary school teachers at Yogyakarta. The results of the study were as follows: (1) only four of 14 teachers who had the first ability; (2) all teachers had the second ability; and (3) all the teachers did not have the third ability.
Full Text Available Aim of this research has been directed to the functional abilities relation testing (as predictors and athletic results (as criterion of students, who are VII and VIII grade of primary school (Χ= 13, 9 years; SD = 1, 17. The research has been conducted in Valjevo during November 2010. on the sample of 108 examinees. Variables’ sample has been assembled from 3 tests for functional abilities (maximal oxygen consumption, pulse frequency and vital lungs capacity evaluation and 4 athletic disciplines (high jump, long jump, shot put and 60 meters low start sprint from current physical education curriculum. Crombah-alfa coefficient values indicate to satisfactory reliability of applied instruments. In data processing canonical correlation analysis and multiple regression analysis have been used. Achieved canonical correlation analysis results showed that functional abilities set is statistically and significantly related to criterion variables set (R=.67, manifesting one canonical factor on the level p<.03. Achieved determination coefficient (R² = .43 indicates to functional abilities prognostic significance of explained variance 46% criterion. Using hierarchy regression model following statistically significant beta coefficient of functional abilities as partial predictors of athletics outcome have been determined: I for vital lungs capacity- high jump (β = .67, p < .01, II for vital lungs capacity- long jump (β = .55, p < .01, III for vital lungs capacity and pulse frequency- shot put (β =.-.34, p < .01; β =.42, p < .02 and IV for vital lungs capacity- 60 meters sprint (β = .-.39. Regression equation calculation of other applied functional abilities preadolescents’ predictor variables has not statistically and significantly contributed to univariance prediction of criterion variable variance
Juanda, D.; Sambodo Daru, G.
The improvement of flow ability characteristics of uranium dioxide powder has been done using sol-gel process. To anticipate a pellet mass production with uniform pellet dimension, the uranium dioxide powder must be have a spherical form. Uranium dioxide spherical powder has been diluted in acid transformed into sol colloidal solution. To obtain uranium dioxide spherical form, the uranium sol-colloidal solution has been dropped in a hot paraffin ( at the temperature of 90 0 C) to form gelatinous colloid and then dried at 800 0 C, and sintered at the temperature of 1700 0 C. The flow ability of spherical uranium dioxide powder has been examined by using Flowmeter Hall (ASTM. B. 213-46T). The measurement result reveals that the spherical uranium dioxide powder has a flow ability twice than that of unprocessed uranium dioxide powder
Tanggaard, Lene; Nielsen, Klaus; Helms Jørgensen, Christian
Since 2007, it has been mandatory for all vocational schools in Denmark to assess the prior qualifications of all students when they begin at the school and to use this assessment to divide students into different ability-based courses (streaming) with the aim of increasing the retention of stude......Since 2007, it has been mandatory for all vocational schools in Denmark to assess the prior qualifications of all students when they begin at the school and to use this assessment to divide students into different ability-based courses (streaming) with the aim of increasing the retention...... of students. The purpose of this paper is to explore students’ experiences of being placed on a low-ability course by using case studies of two classes from separate vocational schools in Denmark with different practices regarding the streaming of students....
de Jong, Peter F.; van der Leij, Aryan
Examines specific effects of phonological abilities and linguistic comprehension on the development of word-decoding ability and reading comprehension, respectively, of 141 Dutch children from the end of first grade to the end of third grade. Finds that partly different determinants underlie the development of word-decoding ability and reading…
Hoefkens, Christine; Hung, Yung; Hieke, Sophie
Introduction: Health claims promise health benefits beyond basic nutrition, but their impact on food choices is largely determined by consumers’ motivation and ability to process these claims. Objectives: This study aimed at investigating the role of consumers’ motivation and ability to process....... Moreover, participants with greater objective knowledge were found to be less able to process health claims. Both types of objective knowledge were positively related. Conclusions: Motivation rather than the ability determines European consumers’ use of health claims. Therefore, food and nutrition policy...... European countries: United Kingdom, Germany, The Netherlands, Spain, Slovenia, Czech Republic, France, Denmark, Greece and Lithuania (n=5,337). Structural equation modelling was used to simultaneously estimate the strength and direction of relationships between motivation and ability to process, various...
Gow, Alan John; Avlund, Kirsten; Mortensen, Erik L
Although activity participation is promoted as cognitively protective, critical questions of causality remain. In a cohort followed every 5 years from age 75 to 85 years, potential reciprocal associations between level and change in leisure activity participation and level and change in cognitive...... abilities were examined. Participants in the Glostrup 1914 Cohort, a longitudinal study of aging, completed standardized cognitive ability tests and reported their leisure activity participation (11 activities defined a leisure activity score) at ages 75, 80, and 85. Higher leisure activity was associated...... with higher cognitive ability (significant correlations ranged from 0.15 to 0.31, p cognitive ability declined significantly. Growth curve models, which provided latent variables for level of and 10-year change in both leisure activity...
Lv, Yong; Liu, Yang; Niu, Chunhui; Liu, Lishuang
After the studying of many theoretical courses, it's important and urgent for the students from specialty of optoelectronic information science and engineering to cultivate their comprehensive ability of photoelectricity. We set up a comprehensive practice course named "Integrated Design of Optoelectronic Information System" (IDOIS) for the purpose that students can integrate their knowledge of optics, electronics and computer programming to design, install and debug an optoelectronic system with independent functions. Eight years of practice shows that this practice course can train students' ability of analysis, design/development and debugging of photoelectric system, improve their ability in document retrieval, design proposal and summary report writing, teamwork, innovation consciousness and skill.
This thesis was submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy and awarded by Brunel University. This thesis explores how notions of ability are socially constructed, defined and experienced within physical education (PE). Pierre Bourdieu’s concepts are used to examine the processes through an acknowledgement and consideration of the culture where pupils’ and teachers’ notions of ability are configured, reconfigured, and experienced. The study covered one academic school year in a North ...
Mascret, Nicolas; Falconetti, Jean-Louis; Cury, François
International audience; People may endorse two conceptions of the nature of sport ability: an entity theory (sport ability is considered innate, stable, a gift, a talent) and an incremental theory (sport ability is improvable, linked to training and effort). Previous studies (e. g., Biddle et al., 2003) have used explicit methods to assess these beliefs. Using an implicit measure (ST-IAT, Single-Target Implicit Association Test) in order to overcome the social desirability which might be indu...
Anatoly V. Karpov
Full Text Available This article discusses some key methodological and theoretical issues of the fundamental,common psychological problem of abilities. It shows that there is a lackof modern ideas about the content of the subject matter of the psychology ofabilities and, therefore, a need for enrichment. In this conceptual expansion itis necessary to differentiate a special, qualitatively specific class of abilities – theintegral abilities of the individual. All these abilities are differentiated on the basisof the most promising paradigm in the development of the ability problem– thefunctional-genetic paradigm – and are related to one of the basic classes of mentalprocesses – the integral mental processes (goal formation, anticipation, decisionmaking, programming, prognosis, planning, control, self-control. In the article adetailed psychological characteristic of the basic integral abilities is presented, asa result of which the correspondence of these abilities to all features and criteriaof abilities as such is proved. The necessity of using the structural-level approachin relation to the ability problem is shown, and a holistic, generalized hierarchy ofthe basic ability classes is proposed. This hierarchy has three main levels. At thehighest level the general abilities are located; at the basic level are the specificabilities of a person. The integral abilities are located between these two levelsand thus form a mesolevel in the general hierarchical organization of the abilitiesof the individual.
Chen, Qunlin; Beaty, Roger E; Wei, Dongtao; Yang, Junyi; Sun, Jiangzhou; Liu, Wei; Yang, Wenjing; Zhang, Qinglin; Qiu, Jiang
Creative cognition is important to academic performance and career success during late adolescence and adulthood. However, there is a lack of longitudinal data on whether brain structural development could predict improvements in creative thinking, and how such changes interact with other cognitive abilities to support creative performance. Here we examined longitudinal alterations of brain structure and their relation to creative cognitive ability in a sample of 159 healthy young adults who were scanned using magnetic resonance imaging 2-3 times over the course of 3 years. The most robust predictor of future creative ability was the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), which in conjunction with baseline creative capacity showed a 31% prediction rate. Longitudinal analysis revealed that slower decreases in gray matter density within left frontoparietal and right frontotemporal clusters predicted enhanced creative ability. Moreoever, the relationship between longitudinal alterations within frontal-related clusters and improved creative ability was moderated by the right DLPFC and working memory ability. We conclude that continuous goal-directed planning and accumulated knowledge are implemented in the right DLPFC and temporal areas, respectively, which in turn support longitudinal gains in creative cognitive ability. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Juandi, D.; Priatna, N.
The main goal of this study is to improve the mathematical visual thinking ability of high school student through implementation the Discovery Learning Model with Geogebra Assisted. This objective can be achieved through study used quasi-experimental method, with non-random pretest-posttest control design. The sample subject of this research consist of 62 senior school student grade XI in one of school in Bandung district. The required data will be collected through documentation, observation, written tests, interviews, daily journals, and student worksheets. The results of this study are: 1) Improvement students Mathematical Visual Thinking Ability who obtain learning with applied the Discovery Learning Model with Geogebra assisted is significantly higher than students who obtain conventional learning; 2) There is a difference in the improvement of students’ Mathematical Visual Thinking ability between groups based on prior knowledge mathematical abilities (high, medium, and low) who obtained the treatment. 3) The Mathematical Visual Thinking Ability improvement of the high group is significantly higher than in the medium and low groups. 4) The quality of improvement ability of high and low prior knowledge is moderate category, in while the quality of improvement ability in the high category achieved by student with medium prior knowledge.
Suastika, K. G.; Sudyana, I. N.; Lasiani, L.; Pebriyanto, Y.; Kurniawati, N.
The weakness of scientific ability of students in college has been being a concern in this case, especially in terms of laboratory activities to support Laboratory Based Education. Scientific ability is a basic ability that must be dominated by students in basic physics lecturing process as a part of scientific method. This research aims to explore the indicators emergence of the scientific ability of students in Chemistry Education of Study Program, Faculty of Teaching and Education University of Palangka Raya through Inquiry Based Learning in basic physics courses. This research is a quantitative research by using descriptive method (descriptive-quantitative). Students are divided into three categories of group those are excellent group, low group, and heterogeneous group. The result shows that the excellent group and low group have same case that were occured decreasing in the percentage of achievement of scientific ability, while in heterogeneous group was increased. The differentiation of these results are caused by enthusiastic level of students in every group that can be seen in tables of scientific ability achievement aspects. By the results of this research, hoping in the future can be a references for further research about innovative learning strategies and models that can improve scientific ability and scientific reasoning especially for science teacher candidates.
Åkerström, Mona-Lisa; Grimby-Ekman, Anna; Lundberg, Mari
The purpose of this study was to investigate how kinesiophobia fluctuates in patients over a four weeks multimodal rehabilitation program and to study the relationship between work ability and kinesiophobia. The study included 112 patients (94 women, 18 men). Measurements were made before, directly after, 2 months after, and 12 months after the program. The level of work ability was rated by the patients on a scale from 0% to 100%, and kinesiophobia was measured by the Swedish version of the Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia (TSK-SV). Kinesiophobia decreased between the start of the multimodal rehabilitation program and the follow-up periods. Work ability increased over time, but not between baseline and the 2-month follow-up. Decreases in the TSK-SV score between baseline and the 2-month follow-up were related to the increased probability of improved work ability at the 12-month follow-up. In conclusion, a decrease in kinesiophobia seems to be related to increased work ability of patients participating in a 4-week multimodal rehabilitation program.
da Silva, Fabio José; Felli, Vanda Elisa Andres; Martinez, Maria Carmen; Mininel, Vivian Aline; Ratier, Ana Paula Pelegrini
Impaired work ability is associated with work-related illnesses, early retirement and rising pension costs. To investigate the association between work ability and fatigue in nursing workers. Cross-sectional study conducted with 100 nursing workers from two inpatient units at a public teaching hospital in Sao Paulo, Brazil. The data were collected by means of a socio-demographic profile questionnaire, Work Ability Index (WAI) and Chalder Fatigue Scale. The data were analyzed by means of descriptive and analytical statistical methods, tests of association and multiple linear regression. The study population was mainly composed of women (88% ), exhibited a high educational level (76% ), average age 39.4 years old (SD = 9.5) and 15 years of professional experience, on average. The average score on WAI was good (39.4 points, SD = 6.0) but surprisingly, 35% of the participants exhibited moderate to poor work ability. Fatigue was found in 52% of the participants. The score on WAI decreased in association with fatigue (p work in the same workplace (p = 0.001), as well as among nursing technicians compared to nurses (p = 0.040). Fatigue, longer length of work in the same workplace and work category nursing technician were associated with decreased work ability, which emphasizes the need for investment in health and quality of work life.
Wendelken, Carter; Ferrer, Emilio; Whitaker, Kirstie J; Bunge, Silvia A
The goal of this fMRI study was to examine how well developmental improvements in reasoning ability can be explained by changes in functional connectivity between specific nodes in prefrontal and parietal cortices. To this end, we examined connectivity within the lateral fronto-parietal network (LFPN) and its relation to reasoning ability in 132 children and adolescents aged 6-18 years, 56 of whom were scanned twice over the course of 1.5 years. Developmental changes in strength of connections within the LFPN were most prominent in late childhood and early adolescence. Reasoning ability was related to functional connectivity between left rostrolateral prefrontal cortex (RLPFC) and inferior parietal lobule (IPL), but only among 12-18-year olds. For 9-11-year olds, reasoning ability was most strongly related to connectivity between left and right RLPFC; this relationship was mediated by working memory. For 6-8-year olds, significant relationships between connectivity and performance were not observed; in this group, processing speed was the primary mediator of improvement in reasoning ability. We conclude that different connections best support reasoning at different points in development and that RLPFC-IPL connectivity becomes an important predictor of reasoning during adolescence. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
This can be emotionally ... Keywords: Rape victims; Court referral; Psycho-legal assessment; Ability to testify in court; .... specifically been assessed and no psychometric intelligence .... abilities and self-esteem become compromised and their.
Full Text Available This essay is an attempt at investigating visible forms of complex, indeed controversial embodiment, with the specific intention of concentrating on the ways they interrogate delicate issues such as disability, masculinity and prosthetic sport performance. I intend to sound the shifting boundaries between dis-ability and super-ability as manifested in iconic figures such as Stelarc and, in other fields, Oscar Pistorius, whose unsteady position as privileged/disabled bladerunner seems to require – and indeed to gather – particularly intense scrutiny. I shall introduce a few contemporary discourses on corporeality and embodiment, which focus on the ‘troubling’ nature of auxiliary organs Freud refers to in the much contended paragraph I adopt as epigraph and guiding procedural light; I shall move from Butler and Giddens to Jean-Luc Nancy’s work on transplants and/as prostheses to include theoretical debates on disintegrating embodiment and disability studies, in order to proceed towards an analysis of the short-circuiting of allegedly secure practices of (masculine embodiment in sport culture and theory.
Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to find out the relationship between psychological variables and soccer playing ability among the university level male players. 42 soccer players representing different universities who participated in inter university competitions were selected as the subjects of the study. The dependent variable was soccer playing ability and independent variables were the selected psychological variables. Soccer playing ability was determined through a 10 point scale at the time of competitions. Psychological variables included achievement motivation, anxiety, self-concept and aggression. The data was statistically analyzed using Karl Pearson’s correlation coefficient and multiple regression analysis using SPSS. It was concluded that soccer playing ability has a positive correlation with achievement motivation and self-concept whereas anxiety and aggression have a negative correlation with soccer playing ability.
Willis, S L; Schaie, K W
We examined the effects of cognitive training with elderly participants from the Seattle Longitudinal Study. Subjects were classified as having remained stable or having declined over the previous 14-year interval on each of two primary abilities, spatial orientation and inductive reasoning. Subjects who had declined on one of these abilities received training on that ability; subjects who had declined on both abilities or who had remained stable on both were randomly assigned to the spatial orientation or inductive reasoning training programs. Training outcomes were examined within an ability-measurement framework with empirically determined factorial structure. Significant training effects, at the level of the latent ability constructs, occurred for both spatial orientation and inductive reasoning. These effects were general, in that no significant interactions with decline status or gender were found. Thus, training interventions were effective both in remediating cognitive decline on the target abilities and in improving the performance of stable subjects.
McGonagle, Alyssa K; Fisher, Gwenith G; Barnes-Farrell, Janet L; Grosch, James W
Perceived work ability refers to a worker's assessment of his or her ability to continue working in his or her job, given characteristics of the job along with his or her resources. Perceived work ability is a critical variable to study in the United States, given an aging workforce, trends to delay retirement, and U.S. policy considerations to delay the age at which full Social Security retirement benefits may be obtained. Based on the job demands-resources model, cognitive appraisal theory of stress, and push/pull factors related to retirement, we proposed and tested a conceptual model of antecedents and outcomes of perceived work ability using 3 independent samples of U.S. working adults. Data regarding workers' job characteristics were from self-report and Occupational Information Network measures. Results from relative importance analysis indicated that health and sense of control were consistently and most strongly related to work ability perceptions relative to other job demands and job and personal resources when perceived work ability was measured concurrently or 2 weeks later in samples with varying occupations. Job demands (along with health and sense of control) were most strongly related to work ability perceptions when perceived work ability was measured in a manufacturing worker sample 1.6 years later. Perceived work ability also predicted lagged labor force outcomes (absence, retirement, and disability leave) while controlling for other known predictors of each. Consistent indirect effects were observed from health status and sense of control to all 3 of these outcomes via perceived work ability. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.
Full Text Available This paper presents the results of analyzing the relation between visual acuity and developmental abilities (perceptive functions, verbal and non-verbal abilities in younger school children. The sample consists of 1165 children from urban, suburban, and rural parts of Belgrade, of both genders, aged between 7.5 and 11. American 'Lighthouse' Optotype was used for screening assessment of visual acuity. Mild visual impairment, i.e. near visual acuity in the better eye ranging from 0.3 to 0.7, was detected in 7.9% of the pupils. ACADIA test of developmental abilities was used for the assessment of developmental abilities. When compared to the examinees with visual acuity in the better eye ranging from 0.3 to 0.7 (mild amblyopia, the examinees with normal visual acuity achieved better results in visuomotor coordination, non-verbal reasoning (Visual Association subtest, and concept formation in non-verbal domain (Sequence and Coding subtest. No significant differences were determined in constructive praxis (Drawing Shapes subtest and representational dimension of a drawing (Drawing subtest. According to the criterion of age standard deviation, a statistically significant difference was determined between the examinees with mild visual impairment and the examinees with normal vision (χ2=13,425, df=2, p=0,001; ρ=0,103, p≤0,000. The results of 24.8% of the examinees with mild visual impairment deviate from age norms in one or two SD (14.9% in one SD, and 9.9% in two SD. In the group of examinees with normal vision 12.5% of the results deviate from age norms in one or two SD (8.7% in one SD, and 3.8% in two SD.
Simon Anthony Jackson
Full Text Available In this paper, we investigate whether individual differences in performance on heuristic and biases tasks can be explained by cognitive abilities, monitoring confidence and control thresholds. Current theories explain individual differences in these tasks by the ability to detect errors and override automatic but biased judgements, and deliberative cognitive abilities that help to construct the correct response. Here we retain cognitive abilities but disentangle error detection, proposing that lower monitoring confidence and higher control thresholds promote error checking. Participants (N = 250 completed tasks assessing their fluid reasoning abilities, stable monitoring confidence levels, and the control threshold they impose on their decisions. They also completed seven typical heuristic and biases tasks such as the cognitive reflection test and resistance to framing. Using structural equation modelling, we found that individuals with higher reasoning abilities, lower monitoring confidence and higher control threshold performed significantly and, at times, substantially better on the heuristic and biases tasks. Individuals with higher control thresholds also showed lower preferences for risky alternatives in a gambling task. Furthermore, residual correlations among the heuristic and biases tasks were reduced to null, indicating that cognitive abilities, monitoring confidence and control thresholds accounted for their shared variance. Implications include the proposal that the capacity to detect errors does not differ between individuals. Rather, individuals might adopt varied strategies that promote error checking to different degrees, regardless of whether they have made a mistake or not. The results support growing evidence that decision making involves cognitive abilities that construct actions and monitoring and control processes that manage their initiation.
Full Text Available The Mind-Reading ability through the eyes is an important component of the affective Theory of Mind (ToM, which allows people to infer the other’s mental state from the eye gaze. The aim of the present study was to investigate to which extent age-associated structural brain changes impact this ability and to determine if this association is related to executive functions in elderly subjects. For this purpose, Magnetic Resonance Imaging was used to determine both gray matter and white matter areas associated with aging. The resulting areas have been included in a subsequent correlation analysis to detect the brain regions whose structure was associated with the Mind-Reading ability through the eyes, assessed with the Italian version of the Reading the Mind in the Eyes (RME test, in a sample of 36 healthy subjects ranging from 24 to 79 years of age. The analysis resulted in three important findings: 1 the performance to the RME test is relatively stable across the decades 20-70 (despite a slight decrease of this ability with aging and independent from executive functions; 2 structural brain imaging demonstrated the involvement of a great number of cortical ToM areas for the execution of the RME test: the bilateral precentral gyrus, the bilateral posterior insula, the left superior temporal gyrus and the left inferior frontal gyrus, which also showed a significant volume decrease with age; 3 an age and task-related decline in white matter connectivity on left fronto-temporal portion of the brain. Our results confirm the age-related structural modifications of the brain and show that these changes have an influence on the Mind-Reading ability through the eyes.
Julyana Gomes Freitas
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to assess the ability of mothers to take care of children exposed to HIV, using the Assessment Scale of Care Skills for Children Exposed to HIV at Birth and to check the association between the scale dimensions and maternal characteristics. METHOD: this cross-sectional study involved 62 HIV+ mothers whose children of up to one year old had been exposed to the virus at birth. The Assessment Scale of Care Skills for Children Exposed to HIV at Birth consists of 52 items and five dimensions, indicating high, moderate or low care ability. RESULTS: 72.7% of the mothers appropriately offered zidovudine syrup; 86.0% were highly skilled to prepare and administer milk formula; 44.4% were moderately able to prepare and administer complementary feeding; 76.5% revealed high ability to administer prophylactic treatment against pneumonia and 95.3% demonstrated high abilities for clinical monitoring and immunization. Significant associations were found between some maternal variables and the scale dimensions. CONCLUSION: the scale permits the assessment of maternal care delivery to these children and the accomplishment of specific child health interventions.
Harris, Kira; Kehr, Heather; Ford, Carolyn; Lane, Daniel C.; Nuzum, Donald S.; Compton, Cynthia; Gibson, Whitney
Objective. To determine if an educational intervention in a doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) degree program increases pharmacy students’ ability to identify plagiarism. Methods. First-year (P1), second-year (P2), and third-year (P3) pharmacy students attended an education session during which types of plagiarism and methods for avoiding plagiarism were reviewed. Students completed a preintervention assessment immediately prior to the session and a postintervention assessment the following semester to measure their ability. Results. Two hundred fifty-two students completed both preintervention and postintervention assessments. There was a 4% increase from preintervention to postintervention in assessment scores for the overall student sample (pplagiarism can significantly improve students’ ability to identify plagiarism. PMID:24672066
Degeeter, Michelle; Harris, Kira; Kehr, Heather; Ford, Carolyn; Lane, Daniel C; Nuzum, Donald S; Compton, Cynthia; Gibson, Whitney
Objective. To determine if an educational intervention in a doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) degree program increases pharmacy students' ability to identify plagiarism. Methods. First-year (P1), second-year (P2), and third-year (P3) pharmacy students attended an education session during which types of plagiarism and methods for avoiding plagiarism were reviewed. Students completed a preintervention assessment immediately prior to the session and a postintervention assessment the following semester to measure their ability. Results. Two hundred fifty-two students completed both preintervention and postintervention assessments. There was a 4% increase from preintervention to postintervention in assessment scores for the overall student sample (pplagiarism can significantly improve students' ability to identify plagiarism.
Methods : In this correlational- descriptive study, 369 (208 female and 161 male from, Mazandaran University of Medical Science were selected through stratified random sampling method. In order to collect the data, the social problem solving inventory-revised and general health questionnaire were used. Data were analyzed through SPSS-19, Pearson′s correlation, t test, and stepwise regression analysis. Results : Data analysis showed significant relationship between social problem solving ability and mental health (P < 0.01. Social problem solving ability was significantly associated with the somatic symptoms, anxiety and insomnia, social dysfunction and severe depression (P < 0.01. Conclusions: The results of our study demonstrated that there is a significant correlation between social problem solving ability and mental health.
Full Text Available The basic aim of this research is to point to the possible language, logical and knowledge problems in interpretation and understanding of basic concepts in theories of motor abilities (TMA. Such manner of review is not directed only to 'mere understanding', it can lead to a new growth of scientific knowledge. Accordingly, the research question is set, i.e. the research issue: Is there a language, logical and knowledge agreement between basic concepts in the theories of human motor abilities? The answer to the set question direct that a more complete agreement between the basic concepts in the theories of human motor abilities should be searched in a scientific dialog between researchers of various beliefs.
Aprilia Ratna Christanti
Full Text Available The goal of this study is to determine the correlation between ability on playing Tetris and GPA of Soegijapranata Catholic University, Department of Information System students against the dexterity in playing Tetris. The research has been done using experiment method on ten Information System students who have various grade points. They played Tetris, 30 minutes each, for three consecutive days. The results showed that: First, eight out of the ten students improved their agility. It can be seen from the increasing scores and levels; Second, the coefficient correlation between student grade point and dexterity in playing Tetris is by 62%. Keywords Ability, grade point average, Tetris
Andersen, Steffen; Meisner Nielsen, Kasper
have significantly lower survival rates and are less profitable than are those of unconstrained entrepreneurs. Collectively, these results suggest that constrained entrepreneurs have lower entrepreneurial ability and that capital markets work sufficiently well in funding individuals who have worthy...
Andersen, Kenneth Jay; Friborg, Maria Kristine; Sjøgaard, Gisela
Musculoskeletal pain and stress-related disorders are leading causes of impaired work ability, sickness absences and disability pensions. However, knowledge about the combined detrimental effect of pain and stress on work ability is lacking. This study investigates the association between pain...... in the neck-shoulders, perceived stress, and work ability. In a cross-sectional survey at a large pharmaceutical company in Denmark 473 female laboratory technicians replied to questions about stress (Perceived Stress Scale), musculoskeletal pain intensity (scale 0-10) of the neck and shoulders, and work...... ability (Work Ability Index). General linear models tested the association between variables. In the multi-adjusted model, stress (p work ability index score, and there was no significant stress by pain interaction (p = 0.32). Work ability...
Jay, Kenneth; Friborg, Maria Kristine; Sjøgaard, Gisela
Musculoskeletal pain and stress-related disorders are leading causes of impaired work ability, sickness absences and disability pensions. However, knowledge about the combined detrimental effect of pain and stress on work ability is lacking. This study investigates the association between pain...... in the neck-shoulders, perceived stress, and work ability. In a cross-sectional survey at a large pharmaceutical company in Denmark 473 female laboratory technicians replied to questions about stress (Perceived Stress Scale), musculoskeletal pain intensity (scale 0-10) of the neck and shoulders, and work...... ability (Work Ability Index). General linear models tested the association between variables. In the multi-adjusted model, stress (p work ability index score, and there was no significant stress by pain interaction (p = 0.32). Work ability...
Jorge Luis Dahik Cabrera
Full Text Available In this investigation, the necessary factors are determined to structure a drawing representing an object, a brief description of the functions of the cerebral hemispheres, the theory of multiple bits of intelligence Gardner, capacities of representation and perception involved in the skill is reviewed and ability to draw. This work aims to be the beginning of a larger study, where they plan to measure the ability to draw in students, in order to experiment with alternative methodologies for teaching drawing.
Reliance on moral principles and professional codes has given nurses direction for ethical decision-making. However, rational models do not capture the emotion and reality of human choice. Intuitive response must be considered. Supporting intuition as an important ethical decision-making tool for nurses, the aim of this study was to determine relationships between intuition, years of worked nursing experience, and perceived ethical decision-making ability. A secondary aim explored the relationships between rational thought to years of worked nursing experience and perceived ethical decision-making ability. A non-experimental, correlational research design was used. The Rational Experiential Inventory measured intuition and rational thought. The Clinical Decision Making in Nursing Scale measured perceived ethical decision-making ability. Pearson's r was the statistical method used to analyze three primary and two secondary research questions. A sample of 182 emergency nurses was recruited electronically through the Emergency Nurses Association. Participants were self-selected. Approval to conduct this study was obtained by the Adelphi University Institutional Review Board. A relationship between intuition and perceived ethical decision-making ability (r = .252, p = .001) was a significant finding in this study. This study is one of the first of this nature to make a connection between intuition and nurses' ethical decision-making ability. This investigation contributes to a broader understanding of the different thought processes used by emergency nurses to make ethical decisions. © The Author(s) 2016.
TAO Guang-Can; TIAN Shu-Jun; CAI Miao-Ying; XIE Guang-Hui
Microorganisms capable of solubilizing and mineralizing phosphorus (P) pools in soils are considered vital in promoting P bioavailability. The study was conducted to screen and isolate inorganic P-solubilizing bacteria (IPSB) and organic P-mineralizing bacteria (OPMB) in soils taken from subtropical flooded and temperate non-flooded soils, and to compare inorganic P-solubilizing and organic P-solubilizing abilities between IPSB and OPMB. Ten OPMB strains were isolated and identified as Bacillus cereus and Bacillus megaterium, and five IPSB strains as B. megaterium, Burkholderia caryophylli,Pseudomonas ciehorii, and Pseudomonas syringae. P-solubilizing and -mineralizing abilities of the strains were measured using the methods taking cellular P into account. The IPSB strains exhibited inorganic P-sohibilizing abilities ranging between 25.4-41.7 μg P mL-1 and organic P-mineralizing abilities between 8.2-17.8 μg P mL-1. Each of the OPMB strains also exhibited both solubilizing and mineralizing abilities varying from 4.4 to 26.5 μg P mL-1 and from 13.8 to 62.8 μg P mL-1, respectively. For both IPSB and OPMB strains, most of the P mineralized from the organic P source was incorporated into the bacterial cells as cellular P. A significantly negative linear correlation (P < 0.05) was found between culture pH and P solubilized from inorganic P by OPMB strains. The results suggested that P solubilization and mineralization could coexist in the same bacterial strain.
Bathelt, Joe; de Haan, Michelle; Salt, Alison; Dale, Naomi Jane
The role of vision and vision deprivation in the development of executive function (EF) abilities in childhood is little understood; aspects of EF such as initiative, attention orienting, inhibition, planning and performance monitoring are often measured through visual tasks. Studying the development and integrity of EF abilities in children with congenital visual impairment (VI) may provide important insights into the development of EF and also its possible relationship with vision and non-visual senses. The current study investigates non-visual EF abilities in 18 school-age children of average verbal intelligence with VI of differing levels of severity arising from congenital disorders affecting the eye, retina, or anterior optic nerve. Standard auditory neuropsychological assessments of sustained and divided attention, phonemic, semantic and switching verbal fluency, verbal working memory, and ratings of everyday executive abilities by parents were undertaken. Executive skills were compared to age-matched typically-sighted (TS) typically-developing children and across levels of vision (mild to moderate VI [MVI] or severe to profound VI [SPVI]). The results do not indicate significant differences or deficits on direct assessments of verbal and auditory EF between the groups. However, parent ratings suggest difficulties with everyday executive abilities, with the greatest difficulties in those with SPVI. The findings are discussed as possibly reflecting increased demands of behavioral executive skills for children with VI in everyday situations despite auditory and verbal EF abilities in the typical range for their age. These findings have potential implications for clinical and educational practices.
Geukes, Marije; van Aalst, Mariëlle P; Robroek, Suzan J W; Laven, Joop S E; Oosterhof, Henk
To measure the impact of menopause on work ability in women with severe menopausal symptoms. This cross-sectional study compared the work ability of a sample of otherwise healthy employed Dutch women (n=205) with that of a sample of first-time attendees of a menopause clinic (n=60); both groups were aged 44-60 years. Self-reported questionnaire data assessing work ability (Work Ability Index; WAI) and menopausal symptoms (Greene Climacteric Scale; GCS) were used. Logistic regression analyses were used to examine whether women with severe menopausal symptoms were more likely to have low work ability (defined as a score work ability than their healthy counterparts: 76.7% versus 30.2% (OR 8.4, 95% CI 4.1-17.2). Over three-quarters of symptomatic menopausal women report serious problems in dealing with the physical and mental demands of their work (recorded here as low work ability); hence these women might be at risk of prolonged sickness absence from work. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Nurwijayanti, A.; Budiyono; Fitriana, L.
Geometry ability is the aspect which underlay students to solve the geometry problems. However, some studies suggests the difficulty students when learning geometry. This leads to the ability of the geometri students difficult to develop. There are five the geometry ability based the Hoffer’s theory, namely visual, verbal, drawing, logical, and applied. These five aspects are basic geometry ability to be mastered by Junior High School students level. This study aimed to describe the students’ geometry ability according to the Hoffer’s theory. The participants of this study are six students from 9th grade in State Junior High School 1 Jaten at Karanganyar that consisted of three categories, namely higher ability, moderate ability, and lower ability students. The data collection methods used are geometry test and in-depth interview and than analyzed using triangulation. The result of the study showed that the ability of those three categories is different. Each of the students' geometry ability can be described as follows. (1) On visual skill, higher ability and moderate ability students could mention the elements of the geometrical shapes correctly based on its shapes obtained. However, lower ability students were unable to mention it specifically; (2) On verbal skill, moderate ability students were able to link the relationship among shapes based on the characteristics correctly, despite that the higher ability and lower ability seemed to have difficulty; (3) On drawing skill, higher ability students could construct the shapes based on the relationship among shapes well, but moderate ability and lower ability students continually faced difficulty; (4) On logical skill, both higher ability, and moderate ability students were able to determine the formula of a particular geometrical shape based on the relationship among the elements of the shape well, while the lower ability students were unable to; (5) On applied skill, higher ability, and moderate ability
Musch, Jochen; Ehrenberg, Katja
According to the probability misjudgment account of paranormal belief (Blackmore & Troscianko, 1985), believers in the paranormal tend to wrongly attribute remarkable coincidences to paranormal causes rather than chance. Previous studies have shown that belief in the paranormal is indeed positively related to error rates in probabilistic reasoning. General cognitive ability could account for a relationship between these two variables without assuming a causal role of probabilistic reasoning in the forming of paranormal beliefs, however. To test this alternative explanation, a belief in the paranormal scale (BPS) and a battery of probabilistic reasoning tasks were administered to 123 university students. Confirming previous findings, a significant correlation between BPS scores and error rates in probabilistic reasoning was observed. This relationship disappeared, however, when cognitive ability as measured by final examination grades was controlled for. Lower cognitive ability correlated substantially with belief in the paranormal. This finding suggests that differences in general cognitive performance rather than specific probabilistic reasoning skills provide the basis for paranormal beliefs.
Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Flensborg-Madsen, Trine; Molbo, Drude
The aim of the article is to analyze associations between sex, age, education, and social class and cognitive ability in late midlife and to evaluate differences in cognitive ability among the three Copenhagen Aging and Midlife Biobank (CAMB) cohorts....
Klaczynski, Paul A
In Stanovich's (2009a, 2011) dual-process theory, analytic processing occurs in the algorithmic and reflective minds. Thinking dispositions, indexes of reflective mind functioning, are believed to regulate operations at the algorithmic level, indexed by general cognitive ability. General limitations at the algorithmic level impose constraints on, and affect the adequacy of, specific strategies and abilities (e.g., numeracy). In a study of 216 undergraduates, the hypothesis that thinking dispositions and general ability moderate the relationship between numeracy (understanding of mathematical concepts and attention to numerical information) and normative responses on probabilistic heuristics and biases (HB) problems was tested. Although all three individual difference measures predicted normative responses, the numeracy-normative response association depended on thinking dispositions and general ability. Specifically, numeracy directly affected normative responding only at relatively high levels of thinking dispositions and general ability. At low levels of thinking dispositions, neither general ability nor numeric skills related to normative responses. Discussion focuses on the consistency of these findings with the hypothesis that the implementation of specific skills is constrained by limitations at both the reflective level and the algorithmic level, methodological limitations that prohibit definitive conclusions, and alternative explanations.
Paul A Klaczynski
Full Text Available In Stanovich's (2009a, 2011 dual-process theory, analytic processing occurs in the algorithmic and reflective minds. Thinking dispositions, indexes of reflective mind functioning, are believed to regulate operations at the algorithmic level, indexed by general cognitive ability. General limitations at the algorithmic level impose constraints on, and affect the adequacy of, specific strategies and abilities (e.g., numeracy. In a study of 216 undergraduates, the hypothesis that thinking dispositions and general ability moderate the relationship between numeracy (understanding of mathematical concepts and attention to numerical information and normative responses on probabilistic heuristics and biases problems was tested. Although all three individual difference measures predicted normative responses, the numeracy-normative response association depended on thinking dispositions and general ability. Specifically, numeracy directly affected normative responding only at relatively high levels of thinking dispositions and general ability. At low levels of thinking dispositions, neither general ability nor numeric skills related to normative responses. Discussion focuses on the consistency of these findings with the hypothesis that the implementation of specific skills is constrained by limitations at both the reflective level and the algorithmic level, methodological limitations that prohibit definitive conclusions, and alternative explanations.
Royle, Natalie A.; Booth, Tom; Valdés Hernández, Maria C.; Penke, Lars; Murray, Catherine; Gow, Alan J.; Maniega, Susana Muñoz; Starr, John; Bastin, Mark E.; Deary, Ian J.; Wardlaw, Joanna M.
Brain tissue deterioration is a significant contributor to lower cognitive ability in later life; however, few studies have appropriate data to establish how much influence prior brain volume and prior cognitive performance have on this association. We investigated the associations between structural brain imaging biomarkers, including an estimate of maximal brain volume, and detailed measures of cognitive ability at age 73 years in a large (N = 620), generally healthy, community-dwelling population. Cognitive ability data were available from age 11 years. We found positive associations (r) between general cognitive ability and estimated brain volume in youth (male, 0.28; females, 0.12), and in measured brain volume in later life (males, 0.27; females, 0.26). Our findings show that cognitive ability in youth is a strong predictor of estimated prior and measured current brain volume in old age but that these effects were the same for both white and gray matter. As 1 of the largest studies of associations between brain volume and cognitive ability with normal aging, this work contributes to the wider understanding of how some early-life factors influence cognitive aging. PMID:23850342
Branoff, T. J.; Dobelis, M.
Spatial abilities have been used as a predictor of success in several engineering and technology disciplines (Strong & Smith, 2001). In engineering graphics courses, scores on spatial tests have also been used to predict success (Adanez & Velasco, 2002; Leopold, Gorska, & Sorby, 2001). Other studies have shown that some type of…
Camerino, Donatella; Conway, Paul Maurice; Van der Heijden, Beatrice Isabella Johanna Maria
This paper reports a study exploring nurses' perceived work ability and its associations with age and intention to leave nursing in a representative sample of registered nurses in 10 european countries.......This paper reports a study exploring nurses' perceived work ability and its associations with age and intention to leave nursing in a representative sample of registered nurses in 10 european countries....
Jørgensen, Anders Bech; Amirian, Ilda; Kehlet Watt, Sara
OBJECTIVE: To examine if there were circadian variations in surgeons' ability to diagnose acute appendicitis. DESIGN: Retrospective database study of all patients admitted to an acute surgical procedure under the potential diagnosis of acute appendicitis in a 4-year period. The day was divided...... patients were included. There were no age limitations or selection in sex. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in the ability to diagnose appendicitis in day-evening hours vs night hours (p = 0.391), nor was any significant difference found on weekdays (Monday-Thursday) vs weekends (Friday...... of imaging had no effect on the ability to diagnose appendicitis. Male sex showed a higher probability of the diagnosis being appendicitis compared with other or no pathology (odds ratio: 3.094; p
Turvey, Michael T; Sheya, Adam
The sciences of development and learning have been slow to acknowledge that absence of an identifiable experience that relates straightforwardly to a given perception-action ability need not mean that experience per se is irrelevant to the emergence of that ability. A recent study reveals that a difference in diet (plain vs. energy rich) leads to a difference in how rats navigate (use of geometry vs. use of features, respectively). It is a good example of how a seemingly unrelated experience (e.g., what the rats eat) can be a non-obvious yet crucial determiner of perception-action modes. We situate this finding in the broader context of the related conceptions of Schneirla's and Lehrman's Developmental Systems Theory, Gottlieb's Probabilistic Epigenesis, and Bolles's Structure of Learning (see article for references). In doing so we highlight that such phenomena may be the norm, both in development and learning, rather than the exception.
Full Text Available Within the disability evaluation process, three different and potentially conflicting roles for the clinician become clear: patient advocate, provider of information, and medical adjudicator. It is important to understand the requirements of each of these roles so that the patient can best be served. The working ability evaluation is a process of numerous examinations, measurements and estimates that are done by a team of medical and other experts. It is utterly unacceptable to think that the opinion about someone’s working ability is given by some individual specialist of any expert domain especially regarding the invalids category since this can lead to either confusion or undesired conflicts between the patient and those who are professionally and legally qualified to evaluate his working ability. In order to carry out the medical part of the expertise for evaluating the working ability it is necessary have an accurate diagnosis of particular disease, an opinion whether the process is define or can be improved by and adequate therapy in addition to the state of morphology and function of all the organs and systems essential for responding to the biological requirements of the working operations at a given job as well as the estimate of the functional ability of the organs or system. The practical evaluation of the working ability also has to include the professional utilization factor, that is, it is necessary to determine the working operations requirements as well as the conditions in which they are performed at a given job. Within the working ability it is necessary to take into consideration the psychosocial structure of the sick person, years of age, qualification and professional degree as well as the society’s position to accept the proposal made by the medical and other experts. In judging the working ability of the patients having a cardiac disease it is indispensable to view every case separately since it always implies its own
Notenbomer, A.; Groothoff, J. W.; van Rhenen, W.; Roelen, C. A. M.
Background Reduced work ability is related to long-term sickness absence. The relationship between work ability and frequent sickness absence has not previously been investigated. It is important to distinguish between frequent and long-term sickness absence as they are outcomes of different
Bohlken, M.M.; Brouwer, R.M.; Mandl, R.C.W.; van Haren, N.E.M.; Brans, R.G.H.; van Baal, G.C.M.; de Geus, E.J.C.; Boomsma, D.I.; Kahn, R.S.; Hulshoff Pol, H.E.
It has been shown that brain volume and general intellectual ability are to a significant extent influenced by the same genetic factors. Several cortical regions of the brain also show a genetic correlation with intellectual ability, demonstrating that intellectual functioning is probably
Boor-Klip, H.J.; Cillessen, A.H.N.; Hell, J.G. van
Despite its importance in social development, social understanding has hardly been studied in high-ability children. This study explores differences in social understanding between children in high-ability and regular classrooms, specifically theory of mind (ToM) and perception accuracy, as well as
Zhang, Lei; Huang, Chunping; Lan, Yajia; Wang, Mianzhen
To analyze the correlation between population characteristics and work ability of employees with a multilevel model, to investigate the important influencing factors for work ability, and to provide a basis for improvement in work ability. Work ability index (WAI)was applied to measure the work ability of 1686 subjects from different companies (n=6). MLwi N2.0 software was applied for two-level variance component model fitting. The WAI of employees showed differences between various companies (χ2=3.378 6, P=0.0660); working years was negatively correlated with WAI (χ2=38.229 2, P=0.0001), and the WAI of the employees with 20 or more working years was 1.63 lower than that of the employees with less than 20 working years; the work ability of manual workers was lower than that of mental-manual workers (χ2=8.2726, P=0.0040), and the work ability showed no significant difference between mental workers and mental-manual workers (χ2=2.086 0, P=0.148 7). From the perspective of probability, the multilevel model analysis reveals the differences in work ability of employees between different companies, and suggests that company, work type, and working years are the important influencing factors for work ability of employees. These factors should be improved and adjusted to protect or enhance the work ability of employees.
Attarchi, Mirsaeed; Ghaffari, Mostafa; Abdi, Alireza; Mirzamohammadi, Elham; Seyedmehdi, Seyed Mohammad; Rahimpour, Farzaneh; Fazlalizadeh, Maryam; Mohammadi, Saber
Early leaving of workplace by work forces is one of the fundamental problems worldwide. Maintenance and enhancement of employees work ability are important for raising productivity. This study investigated the relationship between work ability index and physical working conditions and was carried out in 2013 on 641 workers at a manufacturing plant in Tehran. Work ability was assessed by the questionnaire of work ability index and the participants were classified into four work ability groups of poor, moderate, good, and excellent. Physical working conditions were evaluated by the MUSIC-Norrtalje questionnaire and the participants were classified into two groups with proper and poor physical working conditions. The mean score of work ability questionnaire was 42.40; and 2.5% (16 persons), 9.2% (59 persons), 38.2% (245 persons), and 50.1% (321 persons) of the participants were in poor, moderate, good, and excellent work ability groups, respectively. The mean score of physical working conditions questionnaire was 20.06. The results of logistic regression analysis showed that even after adjusting the confounding variables, a significant correlation existed between work ability and physical working conditions (p working conditions such as awkward postures, repetitive movements, load lifting, exposure to whole body vibration and so on with work ability. Therefore it seems that enhancement of the quality of physical working conditions may increase work ability.
Lee, Sang Ah; Ju, Yeong Jun; Han, Kyu-Tae; Choi, Jae Woo; Yoon, Hyo Jung; Park, Eun-Cheol
Work-related factors are one of the known risk factors for depression. Given that the ability to work is considered an important aspect of well-being and health status, we investigated the association between the loss of work ability and depression. We further examined the association stratified by employment status. We used data from the Korea Welfare Panel Study. The dependent variable of the present study was depression, which is measured by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. Work ability transition from the previous year was divided into three categories: maintained, loss, and complete loss. A linear mixed-effects model was performed for the analysis. The work ability loss group (β = 2.071, p work ability completely loss group (β = 2.651, p = 0.015) had higher depression scores compared to those who maintained their work ability from the previous year. Specifically, those who lost their work ability and their job (β = 3.685, p = 0.0068) had the highest depression scores compared to those who maintained their work ability and job. We found that those who lost their ability to work may be at risk of depression, and this finding was particularly prominent among those who also became unemployed. Therefore, psychological support is needed for these individuals to overcome the negative influence of the loss of work ability.
Martinez, Maria Carmen; Latorre, Maria do Rosário Dias de Oliveira; Fischer, Frida Marina
To evaluate the validity and reliability of the Portuguese language version of a work ability index. Cross sectional survey of a sample of 475 workers from an electrical company in the state of Sao Paulo, Southeastern Brazil (spread across ten municipalities in the Campinas area), carried out in 2005. The following aspects of the Brazilian version of the Work Ability Index were evaluated: construct validity, using factorial exploratory analysis, and discriminant capacity, by comparing mean Work Ability Index scores in two groups with different absenteeism levels; criterion validity, by determining the correlation between self-reported health and Work Ability Index score; and reliability, using Cronbach's alpha to determine the internal consistency of the questionnaire. Factorial analysis indicated three factors in the work ability construct: issues pertaining to 'mental resources' (20.6% of the variance), self-perceived work ability (18.9% of the variance), and presence of diseases and health-related limitations (18.4% of the variance). The index was capable of discriminating workers according to levels of absenteeism, identifying a significantly lower (pindex and all dimensions of health status analyzed (pindex was high, with a Cronbach's alpha of 0.72. The Brazilian version of the Work Ability Index showed satisfactory psychometric properties with respect to construct validity, thus constituting an appropriate option for evaluating work ability in both individual and population-based settings.
Natalie eDe Bruin
Full Text Available This study examined the efficacy of a novel reaching-and-grasping task in determining visuospatial abilities across adulthood. The task required male and female young (18-25 years and older adults (60-82 years to replicate a series of complex models by locating and retrieving the appropriate building blocks from an array. The task allows visuospatial complexity to be manipulated independently from the visuomotor demands. Mental rotation and spatial visualisation abilities were assessed. The results showed that the time taken to complete the tasks increased with increased mental rotation complexity. Patterns of hand use were also influenced by the complexity of the models being constructed with right hand use being greater for the less complex models. In addition, although older adults consistently performed the visuomotor tasks slower than the younger adults, their performance was comparable when expressed as the percent change in task demands. This is suggestive that spatial abilities are preserved in older adults. Given the ecologically validity, the described task is an excellent candidate for investigating (1 developmental, (2 sex-based and (3 pathology-based differences in spatial abilities in the visuomotor domain.
Ren Wanjun; Yang Wenyu; Fan Gaoqiong; Wu Jinxiu; Wang Lihong
Effects of different tillage and transplanting methods on rice rooting ability were studied with the methods of water culture and 3 H labeling. The results showed that the dynamic curve of rooting ability had single peak during growth period, and the peak of root length per plant, root number and root dry weight appeared at booting. With conventional tillage and transplanting method, the rice plant had the strongest rooting ability, under non-tillage treatment (BCSNT), the rooting ability was the lowest during elongating to heading. After 10d of heading, the dry weight and 3 H specific activity of BCSNT was higher than other treatments, at the same time, the percentage of 3 H assimilate at new root was the highest. Dry weight was positively correlated with percentage of 3 H assimilate of new root, while negatively with percentage of 3 H assimilate of panicle. (authors)
Turano, Maria Teresa; Viggiano, Maria Pia
The relationship between face recognition ability and socioemotional functioning has been widely explored. However, how aging modulates this association regarding both objective performance and subjective-perception is still neglected. Participants, aged between 18 and 81 years, performed a face memory test and completed subjective face recognition and socioemotional questionnaires. General and social anxiety, and neuroticism traits account for the individual variation in face recognition abilities during adulthood. Aging modulates these relationships because as they age, individuals that present a higher level of these traits also show low-level face recognition ability. Intriguingly, the association between depression and face recognition abilities is evident with increasing age. Overall, the present results emphasize the importance of embedding face metacognition measurement into the context of these studies and suggest that aging is an important factor to be considered, which seems to contribute to the relationship between socioemotional and face-cognitive functioning.
Hunter Ball, B; Pitães, Margarida; Brewer, Gene A
Output monitoring refers to memory for one's previously completed actions. In the context of prospective memory (PM) (e.g., remembering to take medication), failures of output monitoring can result in repetitions and omissions of planned actions (e.g., over- or under-medication). To be successful in output monitoring paradigms, participants must flexibly control attention to detect PM cues as well as engage controlled retrieval of previous actions whenever a particular cue is encountered. The current study examined individual differences in output monitoring abilities in a group of younger adults differing in attention control (AC) and episodic memory (EM) abilities. The results showed that AC ability uniquely predicted successful cue detection on the first presentation, whereas EM ability uniquely predicted successful output monitoring on the second presentation. The current study highlights the importance of examining external correlates of PM abilities and contributes to the growing body of research on individual differences in PM.
Ana Cláudia de Souza
Full Text Available This study investigates the following early reading assessment instruments: “Bateria de Recepção e Produção da Linguagem Verbal” (SCLIAR-CABRAL, 2003a and “Teste de Competência de Leitura de Palavras e Pseudopalavras” (SEABRA; CAPOVILLA, 2010. The main research goal is to analyze in each one of these reading assessment instruments some of the multiple cognitive processes and basic low-level abilities involved in reading. In this sense, decoding, word recognition, lexical access, syntactic and textual processing, and comprehension are the cognitive processes taken into account. With regard to the basic reading abilities, accuracy and fluency (rhythm, prosody and speed are considered. The results indicate that each one of the analyzed reading assessment instruments assesses different aspects of the reading processes and abilities, mainly through off-line measures. ScliarCabral’s assessment battery allows the researcher or the teacher to evaluate the following processes: perception of the grapheme opposition in minimal pairs of words and in sentences, difficulties in sentence processing, skills in decoding the graphemic-phonemic relationship, and textual comprehension. In its turn, the reading assessment instrument proposed by Seabra e Capovilla allows one to evaluate student’s reading development level, by classifying the kind of processing as logographic, alphabetic or orthographic.
Full Text Available Most perceived parameters of sound (e.g. pitch, duration, timbre can also be imagined in the absence of sound. These parameters are imagined more veridically by expert musicians than non-experts. Evidence for whether loudness is imagined, however, is conflicting. In music, the question of whether loudness is imagined is particularly relevant due to its role as a principal parameter of performance expression. This study addressed the hypothesis that the veridicality of imagined loudness improves with increasing musical expertise. Experts, novices and non-musicians imagined short passages of well-known classical music under two counterbalanced conditions: 1 while adjusting a slider to indicate imagined loudness of the music and 2 while tapping out the rhythm to indicate imagined timing. Subtests assessed music listening abilities and working memory span to determine whether these factors, also hypothesised to improve with increasing musical expertise, could account for imagery task performance. Similarity between each participant's imagined and listening loudness profiles and reference recording intensity profiles was assessed using time series analysis and dynamic time warping. The results suggest a widespread ability to imagine the loudness of familiar music. The veridicality of imagined loudness tended to be greatest for the expert musicians, supporting the predicted relationship between musical expertise and musical imagery ability.
Bishop, Laura; Bailes, Freya; Dean, Roger T
Most perceived parameters of sound (e.g. pitch, duration, timbre) can also be imagined in the absence of sound. These parameters are imagined more veridically by expert musicians than non-experts. Evidence for whether loudness is imagined, however, is conflicting. In music, the question of whether loudness is imagined is particularly relevant due to its role as a principal parameter of performance expression. This study addressed the hypothesis that the veridicality of imagined loudness improves with increasing musical expertise. Experts, novices and non-musicians imagined short passages of well-known classical music under two counterbalanced conditions: 1) while adjusting a slider to indicate imagined loudness of the music and 2) while tapping out the rhythm to indicate imagined timing. Subtests assessed music listening abilities and working memory span to determine whether these factors, also hypothesised to improve with increasing musical expertise, could account for imagery task performance. Similarity between each participant's imagined and listening loudness profiles and reference recording intensity profiles was assessed using time series analysis and dynamic time warping. The results suggest a widespread ability to imagine the loudness of familiar music. The veridicality of imagined loudness tended to be greatest for the expert musicians, supporting the predicted relationship between musical expertise and musical imagery ability.
Simic, Nevena; Khan, Sarah; Rovet, Joanne
Individuals with congenital hypothyroidism (CH), even those diagnosed and treated early, experience selective cognitive deficits, the most striking of which involves the visuocognitive domain. However, the range and nature of their visuocognitive disturbances is not fully understood. We assessed a range of higher-order visuocognitive abilities in 19 children and adolescents with CH and 19 age- and sex-matched typically developing peers (TD) using a battery of neuropsychological tests and a novel self-report measure of sense of direction. CH scored lower than TD on direct tests of visuocognitive function (judging line orientation, parts-to-whole localization, copying three-dimensional block towers, discriminating designs, and matching unfamiliar faces in ¾ profile-view) as well as on self-reported problems in spatial ability. Visuocognitive problems were not global as CH and TD did not differ at copying two-dimensional block designs, mentally rotating and matching abstract shapes, or at matching unfamiliar front-view faces, design features, or designs that engaged either figure-ground segregation, visual constancy, or closure. Early and concurrent thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels were associated with visuocognitive ability, although attention and working memory were not. Individuals with CH exhibit selective visuocognitive weaknesses, some of which are related to early and concurrent TSH levels.
Full Text Available Complex problem solving (CPS has emerged over the past several decades as an important construct in education and in the workforce. We examine the relationship between CPS and general fluid ability (Gf both conceptually and empirically. A review of definitions of the two factors, prototypical tasks, and the information processing analyses of performance on those tasks suggest considerable conceptual overlap. We review three definitions of CPS: a general definition emerging from the human problem solving literature; a more specialized definition from the “German School” emphasizing performance in many-variable microworlds, with high domain-knowledge requirements; and a third definition based on performance in Minimal Complex Systems (MCS, with fewer variables and reduced knowledge requirements. We find a correlation of 0.86 between expert ratings of the importance of CPS and Gf across 691 occupations in the O*NET database. We find evidence that employers value both Gf and CPS skills, but CPS skills more highly, even after controlling for the importance of domain knowledge. We suggest that this may be due to CPS requiring not just cognitive ability but additionally skill in applying that ability in domains. We suggest that a fruitful future direction is to explore the importance of domain knowledge in CPS.
Flouri, Eirini; Mavroveli, Stella; Tzavidis, Nikos
To examine if cognitive ability moderates the effect of area (neighborhood) deprivation on young children's problem behavior. Data from the first two sweeps of the Millennium Cohort Study (MCS) in the UK were used. Children were clustered in small areas in nine strata in the UK and were aged 9 months at Sweep 1 and 3 years at Sweep 2. Neighborhood deprivation was measured with the Index of Multiple Deprivation at Sweep 1. Overall and specific problem behavior was measured with the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire at Sweep 2. To explore moderator specificity we used three indices of ability (verbal cognitive ability, non-verbal cognitive ability, and attainment of developmental milestones). Adjustment was made for child's age and sex, and for Sweep 1 family adversity (number of adverse life events), family structure, mother's social class and psychological distress, and family socio-economic disadvantage. We found both support for our main hypothesis, and evidence for specificity. Neighborhood deprivation was, even after adjustment for covariates, significantly associated with children's peer problems. However, verbal and non-verbal cognitive ability moderated this association. Neighborhood deprivation was related to peer problems even at preschool age. Although the effect of neighborhood deprivation on externalizing problems was mediated by family poverty and parental socio-economic position and although its effect on internalizing problems was mediated by parental mental health, its effect on difficulties with peers was independent of both parental and child characteristics. Cognitive ability moderated the effect of neighborhood deprivation on preschoolers' peer relationships difficulties.
Selmer, Jan; Lauring, Jakob
countries, one with an easy, relatively simple language and the other with a difficult, highly complex language. Consistent with Goal-Setting Theory, results indicated a relative advantage of expatriates’ language ability in terms of their adjustment in the host country with the difficult language...
Empathy is a multidimensional process that incorporates both mentalizing and emotional sharing dimensions. Empathic competencies are important for creating interpersonal relationships with other people and developing adequate social behaviour. The lack of these social components also leads to isolation and exclusion in healthy populations. However, few studies have investigated how to improve these social skills. In a recent study, Kidd and Castano (2013) found that reading literary fiction increases mentalizing ability and may change how people think about other people’s emotions and mental states. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effects of reading literary fiction, compared to nonfiction and science fiction, on empathic abilities. Compared to previous studies, we used a larger variety of empathy measures and utilized a pre and post-test design. In all, 214 healthy participants were randomly assigned to read a book representative of one of three literary genres (literary fiction, nonfiction, science fiction). Participants were assessed before and after the reading phase using mentalizing and emotional sharing tests, according to Zaki and Ochsner’ s (2012) model. Comparisons of sociodemographic, mentalizing, and emotional sharing variables across conditions were conducted using ANOVA. Our results showed that after the reading phase, the literary fiction group showed improvement in mentalizing abilities, but there was no discernible effect on emotional sharing abilities. Our study showed that the reading processes can promote mentalizing abilities. These results may set important goals for future low-cost rehabilitation protocols for several disorders in which the mentalizing deficit is considered central to the disease, such as Autism Spectrum Disorders and Schizophrenia. PMID:27490164
Vance, Victor S.; Schlechty, Phillip C.
Data indicate that teaching attracts and retains a disproportionately high percentage of those with low measured academic ability and fails to attract and retain those with high ability. If policy makers wish to change this situation, they must be prepared to pay the price. (Author)
Mehrdad, R; Mazloumi, A; Arshi, S; Kazemi, Z
Work ability is an important issue from a social point of view, as it is essential for workers health and welfare. This study aimed to determine work ability among healthcare personnel and to investigate its relationship with demographic and lifestyle-related factors. Data were collected using the Work Ability Index (WAI) questionnaire among 517 personnel of a hospital in Tehran, Iran. Findings showed a mean WAI of 40.3 (±5.2) for the study population. Work ability was significantly lower in the older personnel and higher for men. A significant correlation was observed between BMI and exercise activity and WAI score. Moreover, employees with experience of less than five years had significant higher work ability than those with 16-20 years of service. Considering the young study population, it seems the mean WAI is not as desirable. The use of lifestyle promoting programs, besides workplace interventions, can be an effective strategy to increase work ability among healthcare workers.
Cabello, Rosario; Sorrel, Miguel A; Fernández-Pinto, Irene; Extremera, Natalio; Fernández-Berrocal, Pablo
The goal of the current investigation was to analyze ability emotional intelligence (EI) in a large cross-sectional sample of Spanish adults (N = 12,198; males, 56.56%) aged from 17 to 76 years (M = 37.71, SD = 12.66). Using the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT), which measures ability EI according to the 4 branches of the Mayer and Salovey EI model. The authors examined effects of gender on ability EI, as well as the linear and quadratic effects of age. Results suggest that gender affects the total ability EI score as well as scores on the 4 EI branches. Ability EI was greater in women than men. Ability EI varied with age according to an inverted-U curve: Younger and older adults scored lower on ability EI than middle-aged adults, except for the branch of understanding emotions. These findings strongly support the idea that both gender and age significantly influence ability EI during aging. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
naming (i.e., the Boston Naming Test (BNT in a nonclinical sample of Italian primary school children was conducted (n=126, testing them at the end of each school year, to assess nonverbal intelligence, confrontation naming, and reading abilities. Results. Performance on the BNT emerged as a function of IQ and SES. Significant correlations between confrontation naming and reading abilities, especially comprehension, were found; BNT scores correlated better with reading fluency than with reading accuracy. Conclusions. The longitudinal data obtained in this study are discussed with regard to reading abilities, intelligence, age, gender, and socioeconomic status.
Gazes, Yunglin; Bowman, F DuBois; Razlighi, Qolamreza R; O'Shea, Deirdre; Stern, Yaakov; Habeck, Christian
Previous studies investigating the relationship of white matter (WM) integrity to cognitive abilities and aging have either focused on a global measure or a few selected WM tracts. Ideally, contribution from all of the WM tracts should be evaluated at the same time. However, the high collinearity among WM tracts precludes systematic examination of WM tracts simultaneously without sacrificing statistical power due to stringent multiple-comparison corrections. Multivariate covariance techniques enable comprehensive simultaneous examination of all WM tracts without being penalized for high collinearity among observations. In this study, Scaled Subprofile Modeling (SSM) was applied to the mean integrity of 18 major WM tracts to extract covariance patterns that optimally predicted four cognitive abilities (perceptual speed, episodic memory, fluid reasoning, and vocabulary) in 346 participants across ages 20 to 79years old. Using expression of the covariance patterns, age-independent effects of white matter integrity on cognition and the indirect effect of WM integrity on age-related differences in cognition were tested separately, but inferences from the indirect analyses were cautiously made given that cross-sectional data set was used in the analysis. A separate covariance pattern was identified that significantly predicted each cognitive ability after controlling for age except for vocabulary, but the age by WM covariance pattern interaction was not significant for any of the three abilities. Furthermore, each of the patterns mediated the effect of age on the respective cognitive ability. A distinct set of WM tracts was most influential in each of the three patterns. The WM covariance pattern accounting for fluid reasoning showed the most number of influential WM tracts whereas the episodic memory pattern showed the least number. Specific patterns of WM tracts make significant contributions to the age-related differences in perceptual speed, episodic memory, and
Jacquelyn F Gamino
Full Text Available The ability to extrapolate essential gist through the analysis and synthesis of information, prediction of potential outcomes, abstraction of ideas, and integration of relationships with world knowledge is critical for higher-order learning. The present study investigated the efficacy of cognitive training to elicit improvements in gist-reasoning and fact recall ability in 556 public middle-school students (grades seven and eight, versus a sample of 357 middle school students who served as a comparison group, to determine if changes in gist-reasoning and fact recall were demonstrated without cognitive training. The results showed that, in general, cognitive training increased gist-reasoning and fact recall abilities in students from families in poverty as well as students from families living above poverty. However, the magnitude of gains in gist-reasoning varied as a function of gender and grade-level. Our primary findings were that seventh and eighth grade girls and eighth grade boys showed significant increases in gist-reasoning after training regardless of socioeconomic status. There were no significant increases in gist-reasoning or fact recall ability for the 357 middle school students who served in the comparison group. We postulate that cognitive training in middle school is efficacious for improving gist-reasoning ability and fact recall in students from all socioeconomic levels.
Gamino, Jacquelyn F; Motes, Michael M; Riddle, Russell; Lyon, G Reid; Spence, Jeffrey S; Chapman, Sandra B
The ability to extrapolate essential gist through the analysis and synthesis of information, prediction of potential outcomes, abstraction of ideas, and integration of relationships with world knowledge is critical for higher-order learning. The present study investigated the efficacy of cognitive training to elicit improvements in gist reasoning and fact recall ability in 556 public middle school students (grades seven and eight), vs. a sample of 357 middle school students who served as a comparison group, to determine if changes in gist reasoning and fact recall were demonstrated without cognitive training. The results showed that, in general, cognitive training increased gist reasoning and fact recall abilities in students from families in poverty as well as students from families living above poverty. However, the magnitude of gains in gist reasoning varied as a function of gender and grade level. Our primary findings were that seventh and eighth grade girls and eighth grade boys showed significant increases in gist reasoning after training regardless of socioeconomic status (SES). There were no significant increases in gist reasoning or fact recall ability for the 357 middle school students who served as a comparison group. We postulate that cognitive training in middle school is efficacious for improving gist reasoning ability and fact recall in students from all socioeconomic levels.
To investigate the relationships between the ability of mastication and physical fitness, and between the ability of mastication and dietary behaviour in children, I examined these parameters using the data of sugar elution rate, physical fitness and athletic ability survey and self-administered questionnaire on dietary behaviour on 171 sixth grade children (88 boys and 83 girls). The sugar elution rate was the index of the ability of mastication and was evaluated by the chewing gum method. The results of self-administered questionnaire on dietary behaviour were used as an index of dietary behaviour. Physical fitness was evaluated by the physical fitness and athletic ability survey of the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan. Regression analysis revealed that the sugar elution rate had significantly positive correlations with the mean grip strength, sit-up, sit-and-reach, repetition side steps and ball throw. The results of self-administered questionnaire on dietary behaviour revealed that the sugar elution rate was significantly higher in children, who had high expectation of food intake and high frequency of vegetable intake, than those with lower parameters. These results suggest that the ability of mastication correlates with physical fitness and dietary behaviour in children. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.
Winda, A.; Sufyani, P.; Elah, N.
Lack of creative mathematical thinking ability can lead to not accustomed with open ended problem. Students’ creative mathematical thinking ability in the first grade at one of junior high school in Tangerang City is not fully developed. The reason of students’ creative mathematical thinking ability is not optimally developed is so related with learning process which has done by the mathematics teacher, maybe the learning design that teacher use is unsuitable for increasing students’ activity in the learning process. This research objective is to see the differences in students’ ways of answering the problems in terms of students’ creative mathematical thinking ability during the implementation of Model Eliciting Activities (MEAs). This research use post-test experimental class design. The indicators for creative mathematical thinking ability in this research arranged in three parts, as follow: (1) Fluency to answer the problems; (2) Flexibility to solve the problems; (3) Originality of answers. The result of this research found that by using the same learning model and same instrument from Model Eliciting Activities (MEAs) there are some differences in the way students answer the problems and Model Eliciting Activities (MEAs) can be one of approach used to increase students’ creative mathematical thinking ability.
Kutner, Nancy G; Zhang, Rebecca
Enabling patient ability to work was a key rationale for enacting the United States (US) Medicare program that provides financial entitlement to renal replacement therapy for persons with end-stage kidney disease (ESKD). However, fewer than half of working-age individuals in the US report the ability to work after starting maintenance hemodialysis (HD). Quality improvement is a well-established objective in oversight of the dialysis program, but a more patient-centered quality assessment approach is increasingly advocated. The ESKD Quality Incentive Program (QIP) initiated in 2012 emphasizes clinical performance indicators, but a newly-added measure requires the monitoring of patient depression-an issue that is important for work ability and employment. We investigated depression scores and four dialysis-specific QIP measures in relation to work ability reported by a multi-clinic cohort of 528 working-age maintenance HD patients. The prevalence of elevated depression scores was substantially higher among patients who said they were not able to work, while only one of the four dialysis-specific clinical measures differed for patients able/not able to work. Ability to work may be among patients' top priorities. As the parameters of quality assessment continue to evolve, increased attention to patient priorities might facilitate work ability and employment outcomes.
Varnum, Michael E W; Hampton, Ryan S
The present study (N = 55) used an event-related potential paradigm to investigate whether cultures differ in the ability to upregulate affective responses. Using stimuli selected from the International Affective Picture System, we found that European-Americans (N = 29) enhanced central-parietal late positive potential (LPP) (400-800 ms post-stimulus) responses to affective stimuli when instructed to do so, whereas East Asians (N = 26) did not. We observed cultural differences in the ability to enhance central-parietal LPP responses for both positively and negativelyvalenced stimuli, and the ability to enhance these two types of responses was positively correlated for Americans but negatively for East Asians. These results are consistent with the notion that cultural variations in norms and values regarding affective expression and experiences shape how the brain regulates emotions.
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Full Text Available The extent to which auditory experience can shape general auditory perceptual abilities is still under constant debate. Some studies show that specific auditory expertise may have a general effect on auditory perceptual abilities, while others show a more limited influence, exhibited only in a relatively narrow range associated with the area of expertise. The current study addresses this issue by examining experience-dependent enhancement in perceptual abilities in the auditory domain. Three experiments were performed. In the first experiment, 12 pop and rock musicians and 15 non-musicians were tested in frequency discrimination (DLF, intensity discrimination, spectrum discrimination (DLS, and time discrimination (DLT. Results showed significant superiority of the musician group only for the DLF and DLT tasks, illuminating enhanced perceptual skills in the key features of pop music, in which miniscule changes in amplitude and spectrum are not critical to performance. The next two experiments attempted to differentiate between generalization and specificity in the influence of auditory experience, by comparing subgroups of specialists. First, seven guitar players and eight percussionists were tested in the DLF and DLT tasks that were found superior for musicians. Results showed superior abilities on the DLF task for guitar players, though no difference between the groups in DLT, demonstrating some dependency of auditory learning on the specific area of expertise. Subsequently, a third experiment was conducted, testing a possible influence of vowel density in native language on auditory perceptual abilities. Ten native speakers of German (a language characterized by a dense vowel system of 14 vowels, and 10 native speakers of Hebrew (characterized by a sparse vowel system of five vowels, were tested in a formant discrimination task. This is the linguistic equivalent of a DLS task. Results showed that German speakers had superior formant
Anbazhagan, Suguna; Ramesh, Naveen; Surekha, A; Fathima, Farah N; Melina; Anjali
Work capacity is the ability to perform real physical work, and work ability is a result of interaction of worker to his or her work that is how good a worker is at present, in near future, and how able is he or she to do his or her work with respect to work demands and health and mental resources. To assess the work capacity and work ability and to study the factors associated with work capacity and work ability of workers at a tea plantation in South India. A cross-sectional study was conducted at a tea plantation in Annamalai, South India, from March to May 2015. Data were collected using a structured interview schedule comprising of three parts as follows: sociodemographic data, work ability questionnaire, and work capacity assessment. Of the 199 subjects participated in the study, majority [90 (45.3%)] were in the age group of 46-55 years, and 128 (64.3%) were females. Of the 199 workers, 12.6% had poor aerobic capacity (by Harvard Step test), 88.4% had an endurance of more than 1 h, 70.9% had better work productivity and energetic efficiency, and the voluntary activity workers spent most time on household chores. Of the 199 workers assessed, only 9.6% had good work ability. There is negative correlation between work ability and body mass index (BMI). Our study found 12.6% workers with poor aerobic capacity and 9.6% of workers with good work ability. Periodic health examinations and other screening procedures should be made as routine in workplace to improve work ability and capacity.
Degé, Franziska; Kubicek, Claudia; Schwarzer, Gudrun
The association between music and language, in particular, the overlap in their processing results in the possibility to use one domain for the enhancement of the other. Especially in the preschool years music may be a valuable tool to train language abilities (e.g., precursors of reading). Therefore, detailed knowledge about associations between musical abilities and precursors of reading can be of great use for designing future music intervention studies that target language-related abiliti...
Von Ah, Diane; Storey, Susan; Crouch, Adele; Johns, Shelley A; Dodson, Jill; Dutkevitch, Sarah
Breast cancer survivors (BCSs) have identified attentional fatigue, a decrease in the ability to focus, as a persistent daily challenge; however, little is known regarding its impact on work ability. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between attentional fatigue and perceived work ability in BCSs controlling for the known covariates of age, education, household income, and time posttreatment. A cross-sectional, descriptive design was used. Breast cancer survivors who were currently employed and at least 1 year post-adjuvant treatment participated. Breast cancer survivors completed the Attentional Function Index and Work Ability Index questionnaires. Descriptive statistics, linear regression, and Fisher exact test were used for analysis. Sixty-eight female BCSs, ranging from 29 to 68 years of age (mean, 52.1 [SD, 8.6]) and on average 4.97 (SD, 3.36) years posttreatment, participated. More than one-fourth of BCSs (26.5%) reported poor to moderate perceived work ability, indicating substantial concerns regarding work performance. Attentional fatigue was found to significantly predict perceived work ability (P work ability. Attentional fatigue is a prevalent symptom posttreatment that is negatively related to perceived work ability in BCSs. Nurses are in a prime position to assess and intervene to alleviate attentional fatigue to improve work ability. Findings suggest a need for individual, comprehensive survivorship care plans to effectively address symptoms that impact work ability and, ultimately, the quality of life of cancer survivors.
Lazarević, Sanja Brekalo; Pranjić, Nurka; Selmanović, Senada; Grbović, Mensur
Depression seriously affects one's ability to perform work tasks and function at work. We studied the impact of both the individual and work factors on work ability index in patients suffering from depression. The prospective study, which was conducted by using questionnaires, included 210 patients with depression, who had been on sick leave from 60 to 360 days. The individual factors were evaluated by the standardized abridged form of Occupational Stress Questionnaire, while the work place factors in relation to work ability were evaluated by the work ability index. Poor work ability was observed in 151 (71%) of subjects suffering from depression. All workplace stresses, lack of support by colleagues and supervisors, ergonomically not adjusted work and huge work load are statistically associated with poor work ability index (P=0.001). More than 95% of variables of the evaluated work ability index are the result of varying in the group of stresses at work place (R2=0.95). Perception of bad health condition (Rsq=0.412, P=0.001), low level of life satisfaction (Rsq=0.309, P=0.001), low level of motivation and work knowledge (Rsq=0.309, P=0.001) are predictors for poor work ability. The work ability cannot be related with age and sex. The key activities for maintaining the work ability at the times when epidemic of depression emerges, as it is nowadays, are timely carrying out the psycho-treatments, mental and professional rehabilitation, occupational therapy and adapted work place.
Boor-Klip, Henrike J.; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.; van Hell, Janet G.
Despite its importance in social development, social understanding has hardly been studied in high-ability children. This study explores differences in social understanding between children in high-ability and regular classrooms, specifically theory of mind (ToM) and perception accuracy, as well as associations between individual characteristics…
Wei Li; He Xuhong; Zhao Bingquan
Based on the quantitative research on nuclear power plant (NPP) operator's psychological characteristics and performance, the Borda's method of fuzzy mathematics combined with the character of operator's task is used to evaluate their abilities. The result provides the reference for operator's reliability research and psychological evaluation. (author)
Dohn, Anders; Garza-Villarreal, Eduardo A.; Ribe, Lars Riisgaard
Absolute pitch (AP) is the ability to identify or produce pitches of musical tones without an external reference. Active AP (i.e., pitch production or pitch adjustment) and passive AP (i.e., pitch identification) are considered to not necessarily coincide, although no study has properly compared...
McLachlan, Kaitlyn; Roesch, Ronald; Viljoen, Jodi L; Douglas, Kevin S
Individuals with a diagnosis of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) experience a range of physical, cognitive, and behavioral deficits thought to interfere with their ability to competently navigate the arrest, interrogation, and trial process. This study examined the psycholegal abilities of young offenders with FASD, including their understanding and appreciation of Miranda rights, and adjudication capacities (factual knowledge of criminal procedure, appreciation of the nature and object of the proceedings, ability to participate in a defense and communicate with counsel). Two groups of young offenders (50 with FASD and 50 without prenatal alcohol exposure) completed Grisso's Instruments for Assessing Understanding and Appreciation of Miranda rights and the Fitness Interview Test-Revised to assess overall rates of impairment in youth with FASD, as well as differences between the groups. Potentially important predictors of psycholegal abilities were also evaluated. Results indicated the majority of young offenders with FASD (90%) showed impairment in at least one psycholegal ability, and rates of impairment were significantly higher than the comparison group. However, considerable within-group variability was observed. IQ and reading comprehension emerged as robust predictors of participants' psycholegal abilities, while the FASD diagnosis differentiated participants' scores on the FIT-R. These findings underscore the importance of individualized and comprehensive forensic assessments of psycholegal abilities in this population when warranted. Additional system level strains for this population are discussed, including problems in approaching competency remediation, and the potentially growing need for accommodation and forensic assessments in the face of limited financial and professional resources in legal settings.
Kuo, Che-Yu; Wu, Hsin-Kai; Jen, Tsung-Hau; Hsu, Ying-Shao
The potential of computer-based assessments for capturing complex learning outcomes has been discussed; however, relatively little is understood about how to leverage such potential for summative and accountability purposes. The aim of this study is to develop and validate a multimedia-based assessment of scientific inquiry abilities (MASIA) to cover a more comprehensive construct of inquiry abilities and target secondary school students in different grades while this potential is leveraged. We implemented five steps derived from the construct modeling approach to design MASIA. During the implementation, multiple sources of evidence were collected in the steps of pilot testing and Rasch modeling to support the validity of MASIA. Particularly, through the participation of 1,066 8th and 11th graders, MASIA showed satisfactory psychometric properties to discriminate students with different levels of inquiry abilities in 101 items in 29 tasks when Rasch models were applied. Additionally, the Wright map indicated that MASIA offered accurate information about students' inquiry abilities because of the comparability of the distributions of student abilities and item difficulties. The analysis results also suggested that MASIA offered precise measures of inquiry abilities when the components (questioning, experimenting, analyzing, and explaining) were regarded as a coherent construct. Finally, the increased mean difficulty thresholds of item responses along with three performance levels across all sub-abilities supported the alignment between our scoring rubrics and our inquiry framework. Together with other sources of validity in the pilot testing, the results offered evidence to support the validity of MASIA.
Full Text Available Nobelist TD Lee scientist cooperation network (TDLSCN and their innovation ability are studied. It is found that the TDLSCN not only has the common topological properties both of scale-free and small-world for a general scientist cooperation networks, but also appears the creation multiple-peak phenomenon for number of published paper with year evolution, which become Nobelist TD Lee’s significant mark distinguished from other scientists. This new phenomenon has not been revealed in the scientist cooperation networks before. To demonstrate and explain this new finding, we propose a theoretical model for a nature scientist and his/her team innovation ability. The theoretical results are consistent with the empirical studies very well. This research demonstrates that the model has a certain universality and can be extended to estimate innovation ability for any nature scientist and his/her team. It is a better method for evaluating scientist innovation ability and his/her team for the academic profession and is of application potential.
Liang, Wenchi; Wang, Judy; Chen, Mei-Yuh; Feng, Shibao; Yi, Bin; Mandelblatt, Jeanne S
Mammography screening rates among Chinese American women have been reported to be low. This study examines whether and how culture views and language ability influence mammography adherence in this mostly immigrant population. Asymptomatic Chinese American women (n = 466) aged 50 and older, recruited from the Washington, D.C. area, completed a telephone interview. Regular mammography was defined as having two mammograms at age-appropriate recommended intervals. Cultural views were assessed by 30 items, and language ability measured women's ability in reading, writing, speaking, and listening to English. After controlling for risk perception, worry, physician recommendation, family encouragement, and access barriers, women holding a more Chinese/Eastern cultural view were significantly less likely to have had regular mammograms than those having a Western cultural view. English ability was positively associated with mammography adherence. The authors' results imply that culturally sensitive and language-appropriate educational interventions are likely to improve mammography adherence in this population.
Osler, Merete; Mortensen, Erik L; Christensen, Kaare
Aim: To investigate the bidirectional association between cognitive ability in young adulthood and epilepsy. Methods: This cohort study included 1 159 076 men enrolled in the mandatory conscription board examination from the Danish Conscription Database (DCD; 658 465 men examined 1957-84), the Da......Aim: To investigate the bidirectional association between cognitive ability in young adulthood and epilepsy. Methods: This cohort study included 1 159 076 men enrolled in the mandatory conscription board examination from the Danish Conscription Database (DCD; 658 465 men examined 1957...... with epilepsy before conscription, and they had about 0.25 standard deviation (SD) lower cognitive scores than men without epilepsy. The largest difference in cognition was seen for those with the largest number of hospital contacts. A total of 22 364 (1.9%) men developed epilepsy, and cognitive ability......: The cognitive impairment seen in adults with epilepsy seems to reflect combined effects of epileptic processes and lower premorbid cognitive ability....
Full Text Available One of the capabilities that separates humans from computers has been the ability to exercise "reason / judgment". Computers and computerized devices have provided excellent platforms for following rules. Computer programs provide the scripts for processing the rules. The exercise of reason, however, is more of an image processing function than a function composed of a series of rules. The exercise of reason is more right brain than left brain. It involves the interpretation of information and balancing inter-related alternatives. This paper will discuss a new way to define and process information that will give devices the ability to exercise human-like reasoning and judgment. The paper will discuss the characteristics of a "dynamic graphical language" in the context of addressing judgment, since judgment is often required to adjust rules when operating in a dynamic environment. The paper will touch on architecture issues and how judgment is integrated with rule processing.
Plumley, Leah; Armstrong, Ryan; De Ribaupierre, Sandrine; Eagleson, Roy
Neuroanatomy is one of the most challenging sections of anatomy to learn, partially related to the intricate relation of multiple 3D structures. As part of the medical student curriculum, it is usually taught in 2D using illustrations and plastinated brain section, since the number of hours devoted to anatomy have dropped in the curriculum, making the dissection of brain too time-consuming to be done. In this study we are analyzing the role of innate spatial ability of novices in learning some basic structures and placing them back in a 3D volumetric brain. Two tasks are performed after a short training session: the first one is to localize the ventricular tip as would be required during a temporal lobectomy, and the second task requires that the subject 'reconstruct' 3D anatomical structures within the context of our 3D brain model. We report our findings on the performance scores obtained from a population of subjects of differing backgrounds and spatial abilities.
GEJÃO, Mariana Germano; FERREIRA, Amanda Tragueta; SILVA, Greyce Kelly; ANASTÁCIO-PESSAN, Fernanda da Luz; LAMÔNICA, Dionísia Aparecida Cusin
ABSTRACT The Neonatal Screening for Inborn Errors of Metabolism of the Association of Parents and Friends of Special Needs Individuals (APAE) - Bauru, Brazil, was implanted and accredited by the Brazilian Ministry of Health in 1998. It covers about 286 cities of the Bauru region and 420 collection spots. Their activities include screening, diagnosis, treatment and assistance to congenital hypothyroidism (CH) and phenylketonuria (PKU), among others. In 2005, a partnership was established with the Department of Speech-Language Pathology and Audiology, Bauru School of Dentistry, University of São Paulo, Bauru, seeking to characterize and to follow, by means of research studies, the development of the communicative abilities of children with CH and PKU. Objective: The aim of this study was to describe communicative and psycholinguistic abilities in children with CH and PKU. Materials and Methods: Sixty-eight children (25 children aged 1 to 120 months with PKU and 43 children aged 1 to 60 months with CH) participated in the study. The handbooks were analyzed and different instruments were applied (Observation of Communication Behavior, Early Language Milestone Scale, Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, Gesell & Amatruda's Behavioral Development Scale, Portage Operation Inventory, Language Development Evaluation Scale, Denver Developmental Screening Test, ABFW Child Language Test-phonology and Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities), according to the children's age group and developmental level. Results: It was observed that the children with PKU and CH at risk for alterations in their developmental abilities (motor, cognitive, linguistic, adaptive and personal-social), mainly in the first years of life. Alterations in the psycholinguistic abilities were also found, mainly after the preschool age. Attention deficits, language and cognitive alterations were more often observed in children with CH, while attention deficits with hyperactivity and alterations in the
Mariana Germano Gejão
Full Text Available The Neonatal Screening for Inborn Errors of Metabolism of the Association of Parents and Friends of Special Needs Individuals (APAE - Bauru, Brazil, was implanted and accredited by the Brazilian Ministry of Health in 1998. It covers about 286 cities of the Bauru region and 420 collection spots. Their activities include screening, diagnosis, treatment and assistance to congenital hypothyroidism (CH and phenylketonuria (PKU, among others. In 2005, a partnership was established with the Department of Speech-Language Pathology and Audiology, Bauru School of Dentistry, University of São Paulo, Bauru, seeking to characterize and to follow, by means of research studies, the development of the communicative abilities of children with CH and PKU. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to describe communicative and psycholinguistic abilities in children with CH and PKU. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty-eight children (25 children aged 1 to 120 months with PKU and 43 children aged 1 to 60 months with CH participated in the study. The handbooks were analyzed and different instruments were applied (Observation of Communication Behavior, Early Language Milestone Scale, Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, Gesell & Amatruda's Behavioral Development Scale, Portage Operation Inventory, Language Development Evaluation Scale, Denver Developmental Screening Test, ABFW Child Language Test-phonology and Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities, according to the children's age group and developmental level. RESULTS: It was observed that the children with PKU and CH at risk for alterations in their developmental abilities (motor, cognitive, linguistic, adaptive and personal-social, mainly in the first years of life. Alterations in the psycholinguistic abilities were also found, mainly after the preschool age. Attention deficits, language and cognitive alterations were more often observed in children with CH, while attention deficits with hyperactivity and alterations in the
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess age-related differences between young and older adults in auditory abilities and to investigate the relationship between auditory abilities and basic mechanisms of cognition in older adults. Although there is a certain consensus that the participant’s sensitivity to the absolute intensity of sounds (such as that measured via pure tone audiometry explains his/her cognitive performance, there is not yet much evidence that the participant’s auditory ability (i.e., the whole supra-threshold processing of sounds explains his/her cognitive performance. Twenty-eight young adults (age < 35, 26 young-old adults (65 ≤ age ≤75 and 28 old-old adults (age > 75 were presented with a set of tasks estimating several auditory abilities (i.e., frequency discrimination, intensity discrimination, duration discrimination, timbre discrimination, gap detection, amplitude modulation detection, and the absolute threshold for a 1 kHz pure tone and the participant’s working memory, cognitive inhibition, and processing speed. Results showed an age-related decline in both auditory and cognitive performance. Moreover, regression analyses showed that a subset of the auditory abilities (i.e., the ability to discriminate frequency, duration, timbre, and the ability to detect amplitude modulation explained a significant part of the variance observed in processing speed in older adults. Overall, the present results highlight the relationship between auditory abilities and basic mechanisms of cognition.
Popowczak, M; Struzik, A; Rokita, A; Pietraszewski, B
Coordinative abilities play a very important role in sport. Unfortunately, researchers do not confine appropriate attention to this issue. Therefore, the aim of this study was an attempt at analysing results of the selected coordinative motor abilities: kinesthetic differentiation, quick reaction and spatial orientation. It was intended to find out whether the results of trials determining manifestations of the particular coordinative abilities exhibit any mutual relationships. Forasmuch as a static torque is a parameter determining the level of force components of the ability of kinaesthetic differentiation, it would like to find out whether its maximum level influences the final result. Research was carried out on 20 young basketball players with the use of a torque meter and Fusion Smart Speed System. It was noticed a lack of statistically significant relationships between the results of trials assessing manifestations of the ability of kinaesthetic differentiation, quick reaction and spatial orientation. However, it was noted statistically significant correlation between the maximum static torque and the accuracy of releasing a particular value of a static torque. The accuracy of releasing a particular value of a static torque ought to be classified as a comprehensive ability that comprises manifestations of strength abilities and kinaesthetic differentiation. Presented trials to evaluation manifestations of the selected coordinative abilities could be used by coaches during a training process. Coaches should also focus on the development of muscle strength of the upper body and upper limbs of basketball players.
Full Text Available Background and Aim: Occupational stress is one of the key factors in reducing staff productivity in organizations with physical and psychological impacts on employees. Nursing and midwifery are among the most stressful professions. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the relationship between occupational stress and work ability of midwives in Mashhad, Iran in 2011. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried on 123 midwives employed in the public hospitals and health centres in Mashhad, Iran using two-stage sampling method. Demographic and work-related data were obtained through a self-structured questionnaire. Occupational stress and work ability were measured using Occupational Stress Assessment Questionnaire (OSAQ and Work Ability Index Questionnaire (WAIQ. The statistical analysis was performed using student’s t-test, One Way ANOVA, correlation coefficient, and linear regression model through SPSS statistical software (version 11.5. Results: The results showed that the mean score of occupational stress and work ability was 149 ± 0.01 and 38.81±0.05, respectively. There was a negative correlation between job-related stress and work ability. Midwives with higher occupational stress experienced poorer work ability (P=0.021, r=-0.061. Conclusion: Sever work stress is associated with reduced work ability. So it is recommended to eliminate or decrease occupational stress and increase work ability among Iranian midwives using preventive measures, although identification of sources of occupational stress seems necessary in order to adopt appropriate stress management strategies.
Vilà Giménez, Ingrid
There is consensus evidence that gestures and prosody are important precursors of children’s early language abilities and development. Previous literature has investigated the beneficial role of beat gestures in the recall of information by preschoolers (Igualada, Esteve-Gibert, & Prieto, under review; Austin & Sweller, 2014). However, to our knowledge, little is known about whether the use of beat gestures can promote children’s later linguistic abilities and specifically whether training wi...
To help students develop the scientific abilities desired in the 21st century workplace, four different types of student design tasks—observation, verification, application, and investigation experiments—have been developed and implemented in our calculus-based introductory courses. Students working in small groups are engaged in designing and conducting their own experiments to observe some physical phenomena, test a physical principle, build a real-life device, solve a complex problem, or conduct an open-inquiry investigation. A preliminary study has shown that, probed by a performance-based task, the identified scientific abilities are more explicitly demonstrated by design-lab students than non-design lab students. In this paper, detailed examples of the design tasks and assessment results will be reported.
Anbazhagan, Suguna; Ramesh, Naveen; Surekha, A; Fathima, Farah N.; Melina,; Anjali,
Background: Work capacity is the ability to perform real physical work, and work ability is a result of interaction of worker to his or her work that is how good a worker is at present, in near future, and how able is he or she to do his or her work with respect to work demands and health and mental resources. Objective: To assess the work capacity and work ability and to study the factors associated with work capacity and work ability of workers at a tea plantation in South India. Materials ...
Martens, Marilee A; Reutens, David C; Wilson, Sarah J
Individuals with Williams syndrome (WS) have been shown to have atypical morphology in the auditory cortex, an area associated with aspects of musicality. Some individuals with WS have demonstrated specific musical abilities, despite intellectual delays. Primary auditory cortex and planum temporale volumes were manually segmented in 25 individuals with WS and 25 control participants, and the participants also underwent testing of musical abilities. Left and right planum temporale volumes were significantly larger in the participants with WS than in controls, with no significant difference noted between groups in planum temporale asymmetry or primary auditory cortical volumes. Left planum temporale volume was significantly increased in a subgroup of the participants with WS who demonstrated specific musical strengths, as compared to the remaining WS participants, and was highly correlated with scores on a musical task. These findings suggest that differences in musical ability within WS may be in part associated with variability in the left auditory cortical region, providing further evidence of cognitive and neuroanatomical heterogeneity within this syndrome. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sehulster, J R
The notion of a person's memory style (elaborated in Sehulster, 1988) was investigated as it relates to the presentation of self. A memory style is defined as a combination of a subject's (perceived) ability in verbal memory, auto- biographical memory, and prospective memory, as measured by the Memory Scale (Sehulster, 1981b). In addition to filling out the Memory Scale, 325 subjects completed a 72-item questionnaire that tapped descriptions of abilities and experiences. The range of abilities and experiences was drawn loosely from Gardner's (1985) notion of multiple intelligences. Distinct patterns of self-report were observed for different memory styles. For instance, a love of listening to music was associated with the memory style that is high in both verbal and autobiographical memory but low in prospective memory; a love for numbers and mathematics was associated with the memory style that is high in both verbal and prospective memory but low in autobiographical memory. The results suggest broad individual differences in information processing. Gender differences are discussed in relation to memory styles.
Dmitry Aleksandrovich Pokrovsky
Full Text Available This paper is addressed to explanation of differentiation of economics in structure of labor market and income distribution. In order to this aim the author develops a model of endogenous formation of entrepreneurship in economics with heterogeneous agents. The nature of heterogeneity is non- trivial distribution of entrepreneurial abilities across individuals. The impact of form and support of distribution of abilities as well as structure of preferences are studied. The key result is impact of an elasticity of substitution and an elasticity of distribution function on share of entrepreneurs and income inequality in opposite way. This effect must be taken into account when arbitrary economic policy is developed. Also author consider two transformation of support of distribution of entrepreneurial abilities: 1 tension and compression, 2 shift. Economies which are equivalence in sense of first type of support transformation have the same share of entrepreneurs in population and the same level of income inequality. In the second case economy with less able individuals in average has bigger share of entrepreneurs in population and it is more differentiated in income
Luo, Wenshu; Lee, Kerry; Ng, Pak Tee; Ong, Joanne Xiao Wei
This study investigated the relationships of students' incremental beliefs of math ability to their achievement emotions, classroom engagement and math achievement. A sample of 273 secondary students in Singapore were administered measures of incremental beliefs of math ability, math enjoyment, pride, boredom and anxiety, as well as math classroom…
Norrefalk, Jan-Rickard; Littwold-Pöljö, Agneta; Ryhle, Leif; Jansen, Gunilla Brodda
To evaluate the effect of a 1-2 week multiprofessional team assessment, without a real rehabilitation effort, 60 patients suffering from long-standing pain and on long-lasting time on sick leave were studied. A questionnaire concerning their daily activities, quality of life, pain intensity, sick-leave level, and their work state was filled out by all patients before starting the assessment and at a 1-year follow-up. The results from the assessment period and the multiprofessional team decision of the patient's working ability were compared with the actual working rate after 1 year. The follow-up showed a significant reduction of sick leave and a higher level of activity (P work. However, the team evaluation of the patient's work ability did not correlate to predict the actual outcome. The patient's pain intensity, life satisfaction, gender, age, ethnic background, and time absent from work before the start of the evaluation showed no correlation to reduction on time on sickness benefit level. These parameters could not be used as predictors in this study.
Mahmud, Zamalia; Ramli, Wan Syahira Wan; Sapri, Shamsiah; Ahmad, Sanizah
Measuring students' ability and performance are important in assessing how well students have learned and mastered the statistical courses. Any improvement in learning will depend on the student's approaches to learning, which are relevant to some factors of learning, namely assessment methods carrying out tasks consisting of quizzes, tests, assignment and final examination. This study has attempted an alternative approach to measure students' ability in an undergraduate statistical course based on the Rasch probabilistic model. Firstly, this study aims to explore the learning outcome patterns of students in a statistics course (Applied Probability and Statistics) based on an Entrance-Exit survey. This is followed by investigating students' perceived learning ability based on four Course Learning Outcomes (CLOs) and students' actual learning ability based on their final examination scores. Rasch analysis revealed that students perceived themselves as lacking the ability to understand about 95% of the statistics concepts at the beginning of the class but eventually they had a good understanding at the end of the 14 weeks class. In terms of students' performance in their final examination, their ability in understanding the topics varies at different probability values given the ability of the students and difficulty of the questions. Majority found the probability and counting rules topic to be the most difficult to learn.
Ben Bouallègue, Zied; Pinson, Pierre; Friederichs, Petra
While probabilistic forecast verification for categorical forecasts is well established, some of the existing concepts and methods have not found their equivalent for the case of continuous variables. New tools dedicated to the assessment of forecast discrimination ability and forecast value are ...... is illustrated based on synthetic datasets, as well as for the case of global radiation forecasts from the high resolution ensemble COSMO-DE-EPS of the German Weather Service....
Fehr, Stephanie; Downs, Jenny; Ho, Gladys; de Klerk, Nick; Forbes, David; Christodoulou, John; Williams, Simon; Leonard, Helen
Functional abilities in the CDKL5 disorder have been described as severely impaired, yet some individuals are able to run and use phrases for speech. Our study investigated gross motor, hand function, and expressive communication abilities in individuals with the CDKL5 disorder. Data for 108 females and 16 males registered with the International CDKL5 disorder database and with a pathogenic CDKL5 mutation were analyzed. Relationships between functional abilities, age, genotype, and gender were analyzed using regression models. Over half of the females could sit on the floor and nearly a quarter could walk 10 steps. Fewer males could complete these tasks although one boy was able to sit, walk, and run. Most females and few males were able to pick up a large object. Females mostly used gestures to communicate while males mostly used other forms of non-verbal communication. Compared to those with no functional CDKL5 protein, individuals with truncating variants after aa 781 were more likely to be able to stand (OR 5.7, 95%CI 1.2, 26.6) or walk independently (4.3, 95%CI 0.9, 20.5), and use more advanced communication methods such as words (OR 6.1, 95%CI 1.5-24.2). Although abilities were markedly impaired for the majority with the CDKL5 disorder, some females and a few males had better functional abilities. This variability may be related to underlying gene variants, with females with a late truncating variant having better levels of ability than those with no functional protein. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Wheelock, Anne; Hawley, Willis D.
Suggests ways to eliminate ability grouping in the schools, and explores new alternatives to improve schooling for all students. Specific guidelines are given for the development of academically and racially heterogeneous schooling. The elimination of grouping practices that deny equal access to education is a goal worth pursuing. (SLD)
Habeck, C; Gazes, Y; Razlighi, Q; Steffener, J; Brickman, A; Barulli, D; Salthouse, T; Stern, Y
Analyses of large test batteries administered to individuals ranging from young to old have consistently yielded a set of latent variables representing reference abilities (RAs) that capture the majority of the variance in age-related cognitive change: Episodic Memory, Fluid Reasoning, Perceptual Processing Speed, and Vocabulary. In a previous paper (Stern et al., 2014), we introduced the Reference Ability Neural Network Study, which administers 12 cognitive neuroimaging tasks (3 for each RA) to healthy adults age 20-80 in order to derive unique neural networks underlying these 4 RAs and investigate how these networks may be affected by aging. We used a multivariate approach, linear indicator regression, to derive a unique covariance pattern or Reference Ability Neural Network (RANN) for each of the 4 RAs. The RANNs were derived from the neural task data of 64 younger adults of age 30 and below. We then prospectively applied the RANNs to fMRI data from the remaining sample of 227 adults of age 31 and above in order to classify each subject-task map into one of the 4 possible reference domains. Overall classification accuracy across subjects in the sample age 31 and above was 0.80±0.18. Classification accuracy by RA domain was also good, but variable; memory: 0.72±0.32; reasoning: 0.75±0.35; speed: 0.79±0.31; vocabulary: 0.94±0.16. Classification accuracy was not associated with cross-sectional age, suggesting that these networks, and their specificity to the respective reference domain, might remain intact throughout the age range. Higher mean brain volume was correlated with increased overall classification accuracy; better overall performance on the tasks in the scanner was also associated with classification accuracy. For the RANN network scores, we observed for each RANN that a higher score was associated with a higher corresponding classification accuracy for that reference ability. Despite the absence of behavioral performance information in the
Schulz, Wiebke; Schunck, Reinhard; Diewald, Martin; Johnson, Wendy
Educational attainment in adolescence is of paramount importance for attaining higher education and for shaping subsequent life chances. Sociological accounts focus on the role of differences in socioeconomic resources in intergenerational reproduction of educational inequalities. These often disregard the intergenerational transmission of cognitive ability and the importance of children's cognitive ability to educational attainment. Psychological perspectives stress the importance of cognitive ability for educational attainment but underemphasize potentially different roles of specific socioeconomic resources in shaping educational outcomes, as well as individual differences in cognitive ability. By integrating two strands of research, a clearer picture of the pathways linking the family of origin, cognitive ability, and early educational outcomes can be reached. Using the population-based TwinLife study in Germany, we investigated multidimensional pathways linking parental socioeconomic position to their children's cognitive ability and academic track attendance in the secondary school. The sample included twins (N = 4008), respectively ages 11 and 17, and siblings (N = 801). We observed strong genetic influences on cognitive ability, whereas shared environmental influences were much more important for academic tracking. In multilevel analyses, separate dimensions of socioeconomic resources influenced child cognitive ability, controlling parental cognitive ability. Controlling adolescent cognitive ability and parental cognitive ability, parental socioeconomic resources also directly affected track attendance. This indicated that it is crucial to investigate the intertwined influences on educational outcomes in adolescence of both cognitive ability and the characteristics of the family of origin.
Tat'yana V. Petrovskaya
Full Text Available The article considers some methodological aspects of the development of creative abilities of schoolchildren in the course of poetry study in elementary and primary schools. The development of creative and imaginative abilities and tropology of junior schoolchildren along with reading and artworks analysis is disclosed. The types of perception of poetic texts by children are studied. The work of teacher in the classes of the "Poetics" course, using study guides for the lower school is presented.The analysis of the studied data enabled to examine the problem of schoolchildren’s creative abilities development more thoroughly and to identify the possible prospects.
Chen, Lung Hung; Chen, Mei-Yen; Lin, Meng-Shyan; Kee, Ying Hwa; Kuo, Chin Fang; Shui, Shang-Hsueh
Self-handicapping is a maladaptive behavior which undermines students' achievements, but the antecedents of self-handicapping are not well studied in physical education. The aim was to examine the relations of implicit theory of abilities and self-handicapping in physical education. 264 college students, whose mean age was 20.3 yr. (SD = 1.7), completed the Conceptions of the Nature of Athletic Ability Questionnaire-2 and Self-handicapping Scale for Sport. Analysis indicated entity beliefs positively predicted reduced effort and making excuses. Also, incremental beliefs negatively predicted reduced effort. Results are discussed in terms of implicit theory of ability and self-handicapping. Directions for research and implications are stated.
Hutchins, Sean; Larrouy-Maestri, Pauline; Peretz, Isabelle
The inability to vocally match a pitch can be caused by poor pitch perception or by poor vocal-motor control. Although previous studies have tried to examine the relationship between pitch perception and vocal production, they have failed to control for the timbre of the target to be matched. In the present study, we compare pitch-matching accuracy with an unfamiliar instrument (the slider) and with the voice, designed such that the slider plays back recordings of the participant's own voice. We also measured pitch accuracy in singing a familiar melody ("Happy Birthday") to assess the relationship between single-pitch-matching tasks and melodic singing. Our results showed that participants (all nonmusicians) were significantly better at matching recordings of their own voices with the slider than with their voice, indicating that vocal-motor control is an important limiting factor on singing ability. We also found significant correlations between the ability to sing a melody in tune and vocal pitch matching, but not pitch matching on the slider. Better melodic singers also tended to have higher quality voices (as measured by acoustic variables). These results provide important evidence about the role of vocal-motor control in poor singing ability and demonstrate that single-pitch-matching tasks can be useful in measuring general singing abilities.
Wen, Tanya; Liu, De-Cyuan; Hsieh, Shulan
Multitasking is a fundamental aspect of everyday life activities. To achieve a complex, multi-component goal, the tasks must be subdivided into sub-tasks and component steps, a critical function of prefrontal networks. The prefrontal cortex is considered to be organized in a cascade of executive processes from the sensorimotor to anterior prefrontal cortex, which includes execution of specific goal-directed action, to encoding and maintaining task rules, and finally monitoring distal goals. In the current study, we used a virtual multitasking paradigm to tap into real-world performance and relate it to each individual's resting-state functional connectivity in fMRI. While did not find any correlation between global connectivity of any of the major networks with multitasking ability, global connectivity of the lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC) was predictive of multitasking ability. Further analysis showed that multivariate connectivity patterns within the sensorimotor network (SMN), and between-network connectivity of the frontoparietal network (FPN) and dorsal attention network (DAN), predicted individual multitasking ability and could be generalized to novel individuals. Together, these results support previous research that prefrontal networks underlie multitasking abilities and show that connectivity patterns in the cascade of prefrontal networks may explain individual differences in performance. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available This study investigated the level of conceptual and metacognitive abilities and their interaction in adolescents with different forms of dysontogenesis. The total sample (N= 173 included four groups of young adolescents (11-12 years old: with normal development, with infantile cerebral palsy (CP, with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, and with delayed intellectual development (DID. We measured the adolescents’ performance on tests of conceptual abilities (the use of categories at different grades of generalization, the discovery of abstract meaning and implicit connections between concepts and metacognitive abilities (attention selectivity, as measured by Mtinsterberg’s test and the understanding of hidden pictures, and attention organization, as measured by indices of cognitive styles. The results showed, first, that in comparison with normal adolescents, the adolescents with CP and ADHD had a deficit of metacognitive abilities, but they did not differ in rates of conceptual abilities. As for adolescents with DID, even though they had lower rates of conceptual abilities and attention selectivity, they did not differ from the “norm” group on some indices of attention organization. Second, a tendency for the disintegration of conceptual and metacognitive abilities (as measured by correlation and factor analysis was most clearly seen in the adolescents with ADHD and DID. The adolescents with CP and ADHD had conceptual (categorial and generative abilities as a mental resource, and the adolescents with DID had metacognitive abilities as a mental resource. The resource function of conceptual and metacognitive abilities was determined not only by their level but also by the extent of their interaction (integration.
Tavakoli-Fard, Negah; Mortazavi, Seyed-Alireza; Kuhpayehzadeh, Jalil; Nojomi, Marzieh
Work ability may be considered as an important aspect of well-being and health status. One of the most important factors in association with work ability is health-related quality of life (HRQoL). The aim of this study has been to determine the association between work ability, individual characteristics and HRQoL of female workers. The design of this study has been cross-sectional. The work ability index (WAI) and Short-Form General Health Survey (SF-12) questionnaires were used to collect data. Three hundred and twenty female workers were selected from food supplier factories in Karaj. One-way analysis of variance, Pearson's correlation analysis, independent sample t-test and multiple linear regression methods were used to analyze data. Mean (M) and standard deviation (SD) of the WAI stood at 35.02 and 5.57, respectively. The categories of the WAI for women being as follows: 8.8% poor, 62% moderate, 25.4% good and 3.7% excellent. Mean±SD for the physical component summary (PCS) and mental component summary (MCS) of quality of life was 58.84±11.12 and 57.45±9.94, respectively. There was a positive significant association between the PCS and MCS with the WAI (p = 0.0001). Workers with higher education had a better work ability (p = 0.002) and shift-work workers had a worse work ability (p = 0.03). Work ability of majority of women was moderate. Considering mean age of studied women (27.6 years old), this work ability is not satisfactory. Physical and mental components of the HRQoL were the important factors associated with work ability. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.
Özok, A.R.; van der Sluis, L.W.M.; Wu, M.K.; Wesselink, P.R.
We tested the null hypothesis that there is no difference in the sealing ability of GuttaFlow, RoekoSeal, and AH26 in root canals. Sixty extracted mandibular premolars were filled with AH26 (lateral compaction), RoekoSeal, or GuttaFlow (modified single-cone). The sealing ability of the root canal
Ozok, Ahmet R.; van der Sluis, Lucas W. M.; Wu, Min-Kai; Wesselink, Paul R.
We tested the null hypothesis that there is no difference in the sealing ability of GuttaFlow, RoekoSeal, and AH26 in root canals. Sixty extracted mandibular premolars were filled with AH26 (lateral compaction), RoekoSeal, or GuttaFlow (modified single-cone). The sealing ability of the root canal
The combined effects of seasonal variation in rainfall and the presence or absence of under-canopy vegetation on soil moisture content may have a negative or positive impact on the ability to debark eucalypts. A study was initiated to investigate these interactions on the ability to debark Eucalyptus grandis x E.
Ommundsen, Yngvar; Haugen, Richard; Lund, Thorleif
The purpose of the present study is to explore how academic self-concept and implicit theories of ability are related to four self-regulation strategies--motivation/diligence, concentration, information processing, and self-handicapping. The hypothesis is that academic self-concept and an incremental theory of ability are (1) positively related to…
Alloway, Tracy Packiam; Horton, John; Alloway, Ross G.; Dawson, Clare
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the impact of social networking sites (SNS) on cognitive abilities and reported levels of social connectedness in adolescents. In order to provide a reliable measure of cognitive skills, standardized tests of verbal ability, working memory, and academic attainment were administered. Students also…
de Vries, Haitze J; Reneman, Michiel F; Groothoff, Johan W; Geertzen, Jan H B; Brouwer, Sandra
To assess self-reported work ability and work performance of workers who stay at work despite chronic nonspecific musculoskeletal pain (CMP), and to explore which variables were associated with these outcomes. In a cross-sectional study we assessed work ability (Work Ability Index, single item scale 0-10) and work performance (Health and Work Performance Questionnaire, scale 0-10) among 119 workers who continued work while having CMP. Scores of work ability and work performance were categorized into excellent (10), good (9), moderate (8) and poor (0-7). Hierarchical multiple regression and logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the relation of socio-demographic, pain-related, personal- and work-related variables with work ability and work performance. Mean work ability and work performance were 7.1 and 7.7 (poor to moderate). Hierarchical multiple regression analysis revealed that higher work ability scores were associated with lower age, better general health perception, and higher pain self-efficacy beliefs (R(2) = 42 %). Higher work performance was associated with lower age, higher pain self-efficacy beliefs, lower physical work demand category and part-time work (R(2) = 37 %). Logistic regression analysis revealed that work ability ≥8 was significantly explained by age (OR = 0.90), general health perception (OR = 1.04) and pain self-efficacy (OR = 1.15). Work performance ≥8 was explained by pain self-efficacy (OR = 1.11). Many workers with CMP who stay at work report poor to moderate work ability and work performance. Our findings suggest that a subgroup of workers with CMP can stay at work with high work ability and performance, especially when they have high beliefs of pain self-efficacy. Our results further show that not the pain itself, but personal and work-related factors relate to work ability and work performance.
Libertus, Melissa E; Feigenson, Lisa; Halberda, Justin
Previous research shows a correlation between individual differences in people's school math abilities and the accuracy with which they rapidly and nonverbally approximate how many items are in a scene. This finding is surprising because the Approximate Number System (ANS) underlying numerical estimation is shared with infants and with non-human animals who never acquire formal mathematics. However, it remains unclear whether the link between individual differences in math ability and the ANS depends on formal mathematics instruction. Earlier studies demonstrating this link tested participants only after they had received many years of mathematics education, or assessed participants' ANS acuity using tasks that required additional symbolic or arithmetic processing similar to that required in standardized math tests. To ask whether the ANS and math ability are linked early in life, we measured the ANS acuity of 200 3- to 5-year-old children using a task that did not also require symbol use or arithmetic calculation. We also measured children's math ability and vocabulary size prior to the onset of formal math instruction. We found that children's ANS acuity correlated with their math ability, even when age and verbal skills were controlled for. These findings provide evidence for a relationship between the primitive sense of number and math ability starting early in life. 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Midouhas, Emily; Kokosi, Theodora; Flouri, Eirini
This study examined outdoor and indoor air quality at ages 9 months and 3 years and their association with cognitive ability at age 3 in England and Wales. Data from 8198 Millennium Cohort Study children were analysed using multilevel regression. Outdoor air quality was assessed with mean annual estimates of nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) levels within a standard small area (ward). Indoor air quality was measured with parent-reports of damp or condensation in the home and exposure to secondhand smoke in the home. Cognitive ability was assessed with the British Ability Scales Naming Vocabulary subscale and the Bracken School Readiness Assessment. In adjusted models, consistent exposure to high levels of NO 2 at age 9 months and age 3 years was associated with lower verbal ability at age 3 years. Damp/condensation and secondhand smoke in the home at either age or at both ages were correlated with lower school readiness at age 3 years. Exposures to damp/condensation at age 3 years or at both ages and secondhand smoke at either age or at both ages were associated with lower verbal ability at age 3 years. Young children's exposures to indoor damp or condensation and secondhand smoke are likely to be detrimental for their cognitive outcomes. However, there do not appear to be any short-term effects of NO 2 . Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Anuar, Nurwina; Williams, Sarah E; Cumming, Jennifer
The present study aimed to examine whether physical and environment elements of PETTLEP imagery relate to the ability to image five types of sport imagery (i.e. skill, strategy, goal, affect and mastery). Two hundred and ninety participants (152 males, 148 females; M age = 20.24 years, SD = 4.36) from various sports completed the Sport Imagery Ability Questionnaire (SIAQ), and a set of items designed specifically for the study to assess how frequently participants incorporate physical (e.g. 'I make small movements or gestures during the imagery') and environment (e.g. 'I image in the real training/competition environment') elements of PETTLEP imagery. Structural equation modelling tested a hypothesised model in which imagery priming (i.e. the best fitting physical and environment elements) significantly and positively predicted imagery ability of the different imagery types (skill, β = 0.38; strategy, β = 0.23; goal, β = 0.21; affect, β = 0.25; mastery, β = 0.22). The model was a good fit to the data: χ 2 (174) = 263.87, p environment elements is associated with better skill, strategy, goal, affect and mastery imagery ability. The findings extend models of imagery use by indicating that how athletes images may influence their imagery ability.
Bonny, Justin W; Lindberg, Jenna C; Pacampara, Marc C
Expertise within gaming (e.g., chess, video games) and kinesthetic (e.g., sports, classical dance) activities has been found to be linked with specific cognitive skills. Some of these skills, working memory, mental rotation, problem solving, are linked to higher performance in science, technology, math, and engineering (STEM) disciplines. In the present study, we examined whether experience in a different activity, hip hop dance, is also linked to cognitive abilities connected with STEM skills as well as social cognition ability. Dancers who varied in hip hop and other dance style experience were presented with a set of computerized tasks that assessed working memory capacity, mental rotation speed, problem solving efficiency, and theory of mind. We found that, when controlling for demographic factors and other dance style experience, those with greater hip hop dance experience were faster at mentally rotating images of hands at greater angle disparities and there was a trend for greater accuracy at identifying positive emotions displayed by cropped images of human faces. We suggest that hip hop dance, similar to other more technical activities such as video gameplay, tap some specific cognitive abilities that underlie STEM skills. Furthermore, we suggest that hip hop dance experience can be used to reach populations who may not otherwise be interested in other kinesthetic or gaming activities and potentially enhance select sociocognitive skills.
Viola, Fiorella; Larese Filon, Francesca
Job satisfaction and work ability are important in the nursing profession to ensure good working conditions and to reduce work-related diseases and illness. Psychosocial factors such as social support and decision latitude (autonomy) could have a role in cardiovascular diseases, low back pain, injuries and sick leave. To evaluate work ability, job satisfaction, psychosocial factors and diseases in 10 departments of the Monfalcone Hospital. The Work Ability Index (WAI) questionnaire and Karasek Job Content Questionnaire with other questions related to working conditions and diseases were administered to 160 nurses working in 10 departments. The response rate was 90%. SPSS Statistic packaging was used for statistical analysis. The study population had a mean age of 41.1 ± 7 years and the majority were female (81.25%). WAI gave a rating of over 37 points (good and excellent) for 86.4%, with an average of 39.9 ± 5.9 in women and 40.6 ± 6.4 in men. The WAI differences between the departments were significant with Medicine and Surgery showing lower values (p=0.012). WAI was significantly lower in subjects with sick leave higher than 10 days per year (p=0.000) and in subjects with cardiovascular diseases (p=0.031). Our study showed very good working conditions for nurses. A follow-up of the analyzed population over time will add further information on this aspect.
Majchrzak, Dorota; Eberhard, Julia; Kalaus, Barbara; Wagner, Karl-Heinz
It is well known that visually impaired people perform better in orientation by sound than sighted individuals, but it is not clear whether this enhanced awareness also extends to other senses. Therefore, the aim of this study was to observe whether visually impaired subjects develop superior abilities in olfactory perception to compensate for their lack of vision. We investigated the odor perception of visually impaired individuals aged 7 to 89 ( n = 99; 52 women, 47 men) and compared them with subjects of a control group aged 8 to 82 years ( n = 100; 45 women, 55 men) without any visual impairment. The participants were evaluated by Sniffin' Sticks odor identification and discrimination test. Identification ability was assessed for 16 common odors presented in felt-tip pens. In the odor discrimination task, subjects had to determine which of three pens in 16 triplets had a different odor. The median number of correctly identified odorant pens in both groups was the same, 13 of the offered 16. In the discrimination test, there was also no significant difference observed. Gender did not influence results. Age-related changes were observed in both groups with olfactory perception decreasing after the age of 51. We could not confirm that visually impaired people were better in smell identification and discrimination ability than sighted individuals.
Justin W Bonny
Full Text Available Expertise within gaming (e.g., chess, video games and kinesthetic (e.g., sports, classical dance activities has been found to be linked with specific cognitive skills. Some of these skills, working memory, mental rotation, problem solving, are linked to higher performance in science, technology, math, and engineering (STEM disciplines. In the present study, we examined whether experience in a different activity, hip hop dance, is also linked to cognitive abilities connected with STEM skills as well as social cognition ability. Dancers who varied in hip hop and other dance style experience were presented with a set of computerized tasks that assessed working memory capacity, mental rotation speed, problem solving efficiency, and theory of mind. We found that, when controlling for demographic factors and other dance style experience, those with greater hip hop dance experience were faster at mentally rotating images of hands at greater angle disparities and there was a trend for greater accuracy at identifying positive emotions displayed by cropped images of human faces. We suggest that hip hop dance, similar to other more technical activities such as video gameplay, tap some specific cognitive abilities that underlie STEM skills. Furthermore, we suggest that hip hop dance experience can be used to reach populations who may not otherwise be interested in other kinesthetic or gaming activities and potentially enhance select sociocognitive skills.
Decker, Lone; Träger, Conny; Miskowiak, Kamilla
in the community. While participants reported decreased ADL ability, especially within instrumental ADL, they had a tendency towards evaluating themselves as more competent than what was observed. No relationships between measures of observed and self-reported ADL ability were found. Conclusion: Overall, patients......ABSTRACT Aims: Patients with bipolar disorder often experience disability in terms of cognitive impairments and activity limitations even in remission. However, knowledge is sparse concerning the ability to perform Activities of Daily Living (ADL) during remission. The aim of this study was to (1......) investigate the observed and self-reported ability to perform ADL tasks and (2) examine the association between observed and self-reported ability to perform ADL in patients with bipolar disorder in remission. Methods: The observed ADL ability was assessed with the Assessment of Motor and Process Skills...
Yenileidys Lorenzo Cabezas
Full Text Available The process of formation of research - labor abilities in th e students of the Accounting and Finance s career, presents inadequacies in its conception and this leads to the fact that the performance of this professional is not in correspondence with the requirements and necessities of the society; therefore, his behavior won't be in correspondence with the performance sphere in which should be inserted. So, the work was directed to support the stages through which the Accounting and Finances students go through in the formation of research - labor abilities from the curricular dimension.
Full Text Available New parameter of geoecological protective ability of construction materials and articles is suggested. Effect is based on the fact that any solid surface possess centers of adsorption. It is shown that Broensted basic surface centers are active in adsorption of heavy metal ions from water solutions and materials having such centers on their surface are able to remove heavy metal ions from water and thus to protect soil from contamination with such ions. For example, foam concrete with ability to adsorb heavy metal ions may be used to protect soil near railway tracks.
Utter, Jennifer; Denny, Simon; Lucassen, Mathijs; Dyson, Ben
To determine the relationship between cooking and selected indicators of diet quality, mental well-being, and family relationships. Data were collected as part of Youth'12, a nationally representative health and well-being survey. Secondary schools in New Zealand. A total of 8,500 students. Cooking ability and frequency of cooking, nutritional behaviors, mental well-being, depressive symptoms, and family connections. Multiple regression analyses were conducted to examine the relationships between cooking ability/frequency and indicators of health and well-being, controlling for the sociodemographic characteristics of students. Approximately 80% of students reported that they can cook a meal from basic ingredients either fairly or very easily. Reported cooking ability was positively associated with better nutritional indicators, better mental health indicators, and stronger family connections (P = .01). For example, adolescents reporting the greatest cooking abilities were approximately twice as likely to meet the recommendations for fruits and vegetables (odds ratio, 2.1; 95% confidence interval, 1.6-2.8). Likewise, adolescents reporting the greatest cooking abilities also reported lower levels of depressive symptoms (P cooking ability. However, greater cooking ability was also associated with higher body mass index (P cooking, although not for young people who cook most days. Learning to cook and having the opportunity to cook may provide a unique means for adolescents to develop life skills and contribute positively to their families. Future research examining the relationships between cooking and health may include measures beyond nutrition, such as social relationships and emotional well-being. Copyright © 2016 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.