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Sample records for abilify aripiprazole metabolic

  1. Aripiprazole

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... legs difficulty breathing or swallowing tightening of the neck muscles tightness in the throat Aripiprazole may cause ... aripiprazole solution 6 months after you open the bottle or when the expiration date marked on the ...

  2. Aripiprazole: a review of its use in the management of schizophrenia in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croxtall, Jamie D

    2012-02-01

    Oral aripiprazole (Abilify®) is an atypical antipsychotic agent that is approved worldwide for use in adult patients with schizophrenia. It is a quinolinone derivative that has a unique receptor binding profile as it exhibits both partial agonist activity at dopamine D(2) receptors and serotonin 5-HT(1A) receptors and antagonist activity at 5-HT(2A) receptors. In several well designed, randomized, clinical trials of 4-6 weeks duration, aripiprazole provided symptomatic control for patients with acute, relapsing schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. Furthermore, following 26 weeks' treatment, the time to relapse was significantly longer for patients with chronic, stabilized schizophrenia receiving aripiprazole compared with those receiving placebo. Using a variety of efficacy outcomes, aripiprazole showed a mixed response when evaluated against other antipsychotic agents in randomized clinical trials. Longer-term data showed that improvements in remission rates and response rates favoured aripiprazole over haloperidol, although, the time to failure to maintain a response was not significantly different between the treatment arms. On the other hand, improvements in positive and negative symptom scores mostly favoured olanzapine over aripiprazole, although, the time to all-cause treatment discontinuation was not significantly different between the two treatments. Several open-label, switching trials showed that aripiprazole provided continued control of symptoms in patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. Using a variety of efficacy outcomes or quality-of-life scores, longer-term treatment generally favoured patients switched to receive aripiprazole compared with standard-of-care oral antipsychotics. Aripiprazole was generally well tolerated in patients with schizophrenia. In particular, its use seems to be associated with a lower incidence of extrapyramidal symptoms than haloperidol and fewer weight-gain issues than olanzapine. Aripiprazole also

  3. Aripiprazole Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... mixed with water (Abilify Maintena) and as a suspension (liquid) (Aristada) to be injected into a muscle ... decisions, and react quickly. Do not drive a car or operate machinery until you know how this ...

  4. Neurological, Metabolic, and Psychiatric Adverse Events in Children and Adolescents Treated With Aripiprazole

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Klaus Damgaard; Bruhn, Christina Hedegaard; Pagsberg, Anne-Katrine;

    2016-01-01

    insomnia, Parkinsonism, behavioral changes psychoses, and weight gain, whereas the adverse effects in the PS group was predominantly anxiety, convulsions, and neuroleptic malignant syndrome. Although aripiprazole is considered safe and well tolerated in children and adolescents, severe adverse events...... as neuroleptic malignant syndrome, extreme insomnia, and suicidal behavior has been reported to health authorities. Clinicians should pay attention to these possible hazards when prescribing aripiprazole to this vulnerable group of patients....

  5. Neurological, Metabolic, and Psychiatric Adverse Events in Children and Adolescents Treated With Aripiprazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsen, Klaus Damgaard; Bruhn, Christina Hedegaard; Pagsberg, Anne-Katrine; Fink-Jensen, Anders; Nielsen, Jimmi

    2016-10-01

    Aripiprazole is a partial dopamine agonist with only minor neurological and psychiatric adverse effects, making it a potential first-line drug for the treatment of psychiatric disorders. However, the evidence of its use in children and adolescents is rather sparse. The aim of this case study is to discuss adverse drug reaction (ADR) reports concerning aripiprazole-associated neurological and psychiatric events in children and adolescents. The ADR report database at Danish Medicines Agency was searched for all ADRs involving children and adolescents (disorders (PS group) and nonpsychotic disorders (non-PS group). The PS group consisted of 5 patients with schizophrenia and psychoses, not otherwise specified; and the non-PS group consisted of fourteen cases including autism spectrum disorders, attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and Tourette syndrome. The main reported adverse effects in the non-PS group were chronic insomnia, Parkinsonism, behavioral changes psychoses, and weight gain, whereas the adverse effects in the PS group was predominantly anxiety, convulsions, and neuroleptic malignant syndrome. Although aripiprazole is considered safe and well tolerated in children and adolescents, severe adverse events as neuroleptic malignant syndrome, extreme insomnia, and suicidal behavior has been reported to health authorities. Clinicians should pay attention to these possible hazards when prescribing aripiprazole to this vulnerable group of patients. PMID:27504593

  6. Aripiprazole salts. II. Aripiprazole perchlorate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire, Eleonora; Polla, Griselda; Baggio, Ricardo

    2012-06-01

    The molecular structure of aripiprazole perchlorate (systematic name: 4-(2,3-dichlorophenyl)-1-{4-[(2-oxo-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinolin-7-yl)oxy]butyl}piperazin-1-ium perchlorate), C(23)H(28)Cl(2)N(3)O(2)(+)·ClO(4)(-), does not differ substantially from the recently published structure of aripiprazole nitrate [Freire, Polla & Baggio (2012). Acta Cryst. C68, o170-o173]. Both compounds have almost identical bond distances, bond angles and torsion angles. The two different counter-ions occupy equivalent places in the two structures, giving rise to very similar first-order `packing motifs'. However, these elemental arrangements interact with each other in different ways in the two structures, leading to two-dimensional arrays with quite different organizations.

  7. Role of aripiprazole in treatment-resistant schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mossaheb N

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Nilufar Mossaheb,1 Rainer M Kaufmann21Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 2Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Medical University, Vienna, AustriaAbstract: About one third of patients with schizophrenia respond unsatisfactorily to antipsychotic treatment and are termed “treatment-resistant”. Clozapine is still the gold standard in these cases. However, 40%–70% of patients do not improve sufficiently on clozapine either. In the search for more efficacious strategies for treatment-resistant schizophrenia, drugs with different pharmacological profiles seem to raise new hopes, but are they valid? The aim of this review was to evaluate the evidence for aripiprazole as a potential strategy in monotherapy or combination therapy for patients with treatment-resistant schizophrenia. The evidence for aripiprazole monotherapy and for the combination of aripiprazole with psychotropics other than clozapine is scant, and no recommendation can be made on the basis of the currently available data. More effort has been made in describing combinations of aripiprazole and clozapine. Most of the open-label and case studies as well as case reports have shown positive effects of this combination on overall psychopathology and to some extent on negative symptoms. Several reports describe the possibility of dose reduction for clozapine in combination with aripiprazole, a strategy that might help so-called “treatment-intolerant” patients. The findings of four randomized controlled trials with respect to changes in psychopathology seem less conclusive. The most commonly found beneficial effects are better metabolic outcomes and indicators of the possibility of reducing the clozapine dose. However, other side effects, such as akathisia, are repeatedly reported. Further, none of the studies report longer-term outcomes. In the absence of alternatives, polypharmacy is a common strategy in clinical practice. Combining aripiprazole with clozapine in

  8. Comparison the effectiveness of aripiprazole and risperidone for the treatment of acute bipolar mania

    OpenAIRE

    Amir Akhavan Rezayat; Paria Hebrani; Fatemeh Behdani; Mohamad Salaran; Majid Nabizadeh Marvast

    2014-01-01

    Background: Second-generation antipsychotics, approved for the treatment of mania, are associated with adverse effects such as weight gain and metabolic disorders. Aripiprazole, a recently introduced second-generation antipsychotic, are thought to account for its low propensity for weight gain, metabolic disturbances and sedation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of risperidone versus aripiprazole in the treatment of acute mania. Materials and Methods: Fifty patients wi...

  9. Study on metabolic risk of first-episode acute schizophrenia patients treated with aripiprazole%阿立哌唑对首发急性精神分裂症患者代谢风险的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴小立; 文飞; 钟智勇; 韩自力

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨阿立哌唑对首发急性期精神分裂症患者的代谢影响.方法:31例首发急性期精神分裂症患者入选病例组接受阿立哌唑治疗,治疗前后各测量一次体重、腰围、腰臀比、血清TC、TG、高密度脂蛋白(HDL)、低密度脂蛋白(LDL)、载脂蛋白A1(Apo-A1)、载脂蛋白B(Apo B100)、脂蛋白a(LPa)、空腹血糖(FBS)、空腹胰岛素(INS)、C肽(C-P),并分别计算出BMI、胰岛素抵抗指数(HOMA-IR).另设健康对照组44例,同法测量上述指标.将病例组与健康对照组、病例组治疗前后各项指标进行比较分析.结果:病例组INS、C-P及HOMA-IR均高于正常对照组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);病例组治疗后体重、BMI、腰围、腰臀比均较治疗前增加,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);治疗后:病例组TG、INS、C-P、HOMA-IR均高于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);且aPOA1低于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论:精神分裂症患者本身可能存在有代谢异常;非典型抗精神病药物(APS)阿立哌唑对患者血糖、血脂代谢相对影响较小.%AIM: To study the metabolic risk of first-episode acute schizophrenia patients trea ted with aripiprazole.METHODS: 31 first-episode acute patients with schizophrenic were enrolled into case group and 44 healthy subjects were enrolled into controle group, all cases accepted treatment with oral aripiprazole.At the baseline and at the end, all patients were checked or tested for weight, waist circumference, waist-to-hipratio(WHR), TC, TG, high density lipoprotein(HDL), low density lipoprotein(LDL), apolipoprotein A1 ( Apo Al), apolipoprotein B (Apo-B100), lipoprotein a (LPa),fasting blood glucose (FBS), fasting insulin (INS)and c-peptide(C-P),respectively.The BMI and insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR) were calculated.All indexes were compared and analysed between the case group and controle group,pre and post treatment in the case group.RESULTS:The INS, C-P and HOMA

  10. Antipsychotic treatments for the elderly: efficacy and safety of aripiprazole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izchak Kohen

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Izchak Kohen1, Paula E Lester2, Sum Lam31Division of Geriatric Psychiatry, Zucker-Hillside Hospital, Glen Oaks, NY, USA; 2Division of Geriatric Medicine, Winthrop University Hospital, Mineola, NY, USA; 3Division of Pharmacy and Geriatrics, St. John’s University College of Pharmacy and Allied Health Professions, Queens, NY, USAAbstract: Delusions, hallucinations and other psychotic symptoms can accompany a number of conditions in late life. As such, elderly patients are commonly prescribed antipsychotic medications for the treatment of psychosis in both acute and chronic conditions. Those conditions include schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, depression and dementia. Elderly patients are at an increased risk of adverse events from antipsychotic medications because of age-related pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic changes as well as polypharmacy. Drug selection should be individualized to the patient’s previous history of antipsychotic use, current medical conditions, potential drug interactions, and potential side effects of the antipsychotic. Specifically, metabolic side effects should be closely monitored in this population. This paper provides a review of aripiprazole, a newer second generation antipsychotic agent, for its use in a variety of psychiatric disorders in the elderly including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, dementia, Parkinson’s disease and depression. We will review the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of aripiprazole as well as dosing, diagnostic indications, efficacy studies, and tolerability including its metabolic profile. We will also detail patient focused perspectives including quality of life, patient satisfaction and adherence.Keywords: aripiprazole, antipsychotics, elderly, adverse drug reaction

  11. The effects of aripiprazole,risperidone and clozapine administrated for schizophrenia treatment on glucose and lipid metabolism%阿立哌唑、利培酮和氯氮平治疗精神分裂症对糖脂代谢的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马达休; 李永华; 冉庆国; 陈大坤; 周琳钧

    2011-01-01

    Objective To compare the effects of aripiprazole, risperidone and clozapine used for treating schizophrenia on serum glucose and lipids of patients. Methods 270 patients with schizophrenia were divided randomly into 3 groups of 90 patients each; aripiprazole group, risperidone group and clozapine group, and aripiprazole, risperidone and clozapine were administrated for 12 weeks,respectively. Levels of fast blood glucose (FBG) ,total cholesterol (TC) ,triglycericle(TG) and body mass index (BMX) before and after treatment were compared. Results FBG levels of patients in 3 groups after treatment were increased as compared to those before treatment(P0. 05) ,all those in risperidone and clozapine groups increased after treatment as compared with treatment before(P<0. 05) ,and those in clozapine group increased greater than in risperidone group(P<0. 05). Conclusion Aripiprazole,risperidone and clozapine used for schizophrenia treatment can lead to adverse effects of glucose and lipid metabolism which are relatively milder for aripiprazole.%目的 比较阿立哌唑、利培酮和氯氮平治疗精神分裂症对患者血糖、血脂影响.方法 将270例精神分裂症患者随机分为3组:阿立哌唑组、利培酮组及氯氮平组(各90例),分别给予口服阿立哌唑、利培酮及氯氮平治疗12周.比较治疗前后空腹血糖(FBG)、总胆固醇(TC)、三酰甘油(TG),体质量指数(BMI)的变化.结果 3组患者治疗后,FBG较治疗前增高(P<0.05),氯氮平组增高最明显;阿立哌唑组治疗后TC、TG,BMI值较治疗前差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);利培酮及氯氮平组治疗后TC、TG、BMI较治疗前均有升高(P<0.05),且氯氮平组增高大于利培酮组(P<0.05).结论 阿立哌唑、利培酮及氯氮平治疗精神分裂症均可导致糖脂代谢异常的不良反应,阿立哌唑的不良反应相对较小.

  12. Comparison the effectiveness of aripiprazole and risperidone for the treatment of acute bipolar mania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Akhavan Rezayat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Second-generation antipsychotics, approved for the treatment of mania, are associated with adverse effects such as weight gain and metabolic disorders. Aripiprazole, a recently introduced second-generation antipsychotic, are thought to account for its low propensity for weight gain, metabolic disturbances and sedation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of risperidone versus aripiprazole in the treatment of acute mania. Materials and Methods: Fifty patients with acute episodes of mania were enrolled in this study, and they were randomly assigned into a risperidone group of 24 cases and an aripiprazole group of 26 cases. In group A, aripiprazole with a dose of 5-30 mg/day and in group B, risperidone with a dose of 2-8 mg/day was given to patients. The average dose of aripiprazole was 27 mg/day, and the average dose of risperidone was 6 mg/day. The effects of each drug for the treatment of acute mania were assessed on the 1 st day of admission and on days 2, 4, 6, 8 and at weeks 2, 4 and 6 after therapy using the young mania rating scale (YMRS and at the baseline and on weeks 3 and 6 after admission using the clinical global impression (CGI scale. Results: The mean age of the group of risperidone was 34 ± 8.6 years and in a group of aripiprazole it was 34 ± 9.1 years (P = 0.83. Comparison of YMRS scores over the period of 6 weeks revealed a statistically significant difference in both groups (P < 0.0001.There was also a statistically significant difference in YMRS scores between risperidone and aripiprazole at day 8 (P = 0.026 and weeks 2 (P = 0.035 and 4 (P = 0.042. There was also a statistically significant difference in CGI-Severity scale score at weeks 3 (P = 0.003 and 6 (P = 0.000 and in CGI-Improvement scale score at weeks 3 (P = 0.005 and 6 (P = 0.002. The most common side-effect observed in both groups was headache (0%15/4 in aripiprazole vs. %16/7 in risperidone Conclusion: Aripiprazole that is readily

  13. Adjunctive Aripiprazole Treatment for Risperidone-Induced Hyperprolactinemia: An 8-Week Randomized, Open-Label, Comparative Clinical Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingyuan Zhao

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of adjunctive aripiprazole treatment in schizophrenia patients with risperidone-induced hyperprolactinemia.One hundred and thirteen patients who were receiving a stable dose of risperidone were randomly assigned to either adjunctive aripiprazole treatment (10 mg/day (aripiprazole group or no additional treatment (control group at a 1:1 ratio for 8 weeks. Schizophrenia symptoms were measured using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS. Rating scales and safety assessments (RSESE, BARS, UKU were performed at baseline and at weeks 4 and 8. Serum levels of prolactin were determined at baseline and at weeks 2, 4, 6 and 8. Metabolic parameters were determined at baseline and again at weeks 4 and 8.One hundred and thirteen patients were enrolled in this study, and 107 patients completed the study (54 in the aripiprazole group, and 53 in the control group. PANSS-total scores in the aripiprazole group decreased significantly at week 4 (P = 0.003 and week 8 (P = 0.007 compared with the control group. PANSS-negative scores in the aripiprazole group also decreased significantly at week 4 (P = 0.005 and week 8 (P< 0.001 compared with the control group. Serum levels of prolactin in the aripiprazole group decreased significantly at week 2 (P< 0.001, week 4 (P< 0.001, week 6 (P< 0.001 and week 8 (P< 0.001 compared with the control group. There were no significant differences in changes of Fasting Plasma Glucose, Total cholesterol, Triglycerides and High Density Lipoprotein within each group at week 4 and 8 execpt low density lipoproteins. There was no significant difference in the incidence of adverse reactions between the two groups.Adjunctive aripiprazole treatment may be beneficial in reducing serum levels of prolactin and improving negative symptoms in schizophrenia patients with risperidone-induced hyperprolactinemia.chictr.org ChiCTR-IOR-15006278.

  14. 换用阿立哌唑对精神分裂症患者代谢的影响%Metabolic effects in treating schizophrenia patients after switching to aripiprazole

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程群; 朱怀轩

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨换用阿立哌唑治疗后精神分裂症患者各项代谢指标的改善情况. 方法:选择43例换用阿立哌唑治疗的精神分裂症患者,分别在换药前和换药12周对患者的血糖、血脂和体质量等代谢指标进行检测. 结果:换用阿立哌唑12周,患者的体质量(t=3.38,P<0.01)和体质量指数(t=3.07,P<0.01)显著改善,空腹血糖(t=2.96,P<0.01)、2h血糖(=2.58,P<0.01)、糖化血红蛋白(t=3.50,P<0.01)、空腹胰岛素(t=19.71,P<0.01)、和稳态模型评估的胰岛素抵抗系数(t=2.70,P<0.05)均较治疗前显著降低,总胆固醇(t=2.78,P<0.01)、三酰甘油(t=4.38,P<0.01)和低密度脂蛋白(=2.81,P<0.01)亦有显著降低,代谢综合征的患病率(x2=19.07,P<0.01)显著降低. 结论:换用阿立哌唑治疗对精神分裂症患者的代谢有显著改善作用.%Objective: To evaluate extensively the metabolic improvements of switching to aripirzazole in the treatment of schizophrenia. Method :43 patients who had successfully switched to aripirazole with a schizophrenia diagnosis went through an extensive metabolic evaluation, including blood glucose, blood lipids and body weight test at baseline and at 12 weeks post switch. Results: There was significant decreases in body weight(t=3. 38, P< 0.01), body mass index(t =3. 07,P <0. 01) .fasting glucose(t =2. 96,P <0. 01) .glucose at 2 h(t = 2. 58,P<0. 01) .glycated hemoglobin(t = 3. 50, P < 0.01) .fasting insulin(t = 19. 71,P< 0.01),insulin resistance index(t =2. 70,P<0.05) .total cholesterol (t =2. 78,P <0.01), triglycerides (t = 4. 38,P<0.01) and low-density lipoprotein (t =2. 81 ,P<0.01) levels. There was also a significant reduction in the prevalence of metabolic syndrome(χ 2 = 19.07,P <0.01). Conclusion: Switching to aripiprazole can significantly improve metabolic abnormalities in treating schizophrenia.

  15. Augmentation of Clozapine with Aripiprazole in Severe Psychotic Bipolar and Schizoaffective Disorders: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedetti, Alessandra; Di Paolo, Antonello; Lastella, Marianna; Casamassima, Francesco; Candiracci, Chiara; Litta, Antonella; Ciofi, Laura; Danesi, Romano; Lattanzi, Lorenzo; Del Tacca, Mario; Cassano, Giovanni Battista

    2010-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of the augmentation of clozapine with aripiprazole in patients with treatment-resistant schizoaffective and psychotic bipolar disorders in a retrospective manner. Pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic interactions between the two drugs were also investigated. Patients: Three men and 4 women (median age 36 and 40 years, respectively) who had mean scores at BPRS and CGI-Severity of 59.1±12.0 and 5.4±0.5, respectively, were treated with clozapine (mean dose 292.9±220.7 mg/day). Patients received an adjunctive treatment with aripiprazole (mean dose 6.8 ± 3.7 mg/day). Clozapine, norclozapine and aripiprazole plasma levels were measured by means of a high performance liquid chromatograpy with UV detection. Results: Total scores at BPRS decreased significantly (from 59.1±12.0 to 51.1±15.6, p=0.007) after aripirazole augmentation. In particular, the factors “thought disorder” (from 10.4±4.4 to 9.0±4.5, p=.047) and “anergia” (from 10.0±2.7 to 8.0±2.4, p=.018) significantly improved. Concomitant administration of aripiprazole and clozapine did not result in an increase in side effects over the period of treatment. Dose-normalized plasma levels of both clozapine and norclozapine and the clozapine/norclozapine metabolic ratio in all patients did not vary as well. Conclusion: The augmentation of clozapine with aripirazole was safe and effective in severe psychotic schizoaffective and bipolar disorders which failed to respond to atypical antipsychotics. A possible pharmacokinetic interaction between clozapine and aripiprazole does not account for the improved clinical benefit obtained after aripiprazole augmentation. PMID:20648219

  16. Aripiprazole Can Improve Apraxia of Eyelid Opening in Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokisato, Kaori; Fukunaga, Kimiko; Tokunaga, Makoto; Watanabe, Susumu; Nakanishi, Ryoji; Yamanaga, Hiroaki

    2015-01-01

    We herein report three cases of Parkinson's disease associated with difficulty in eyelid opening, referred to as apraxia of eyelid opening (AEO), which improved after aripiprazole treatment. In case 1, aripiprazole was administered as a psychiatric treatment. It proved to be effective in AEO with blepharospasm. In case 2 and case 3, the patients experienced AEO without blepharospasm, and a significant improvement was observed after aripiprazole treatment. In this study, the aripiprazole dosage ranged between 3 and 9 mg/day. This is the first report of aripiprazole as a potentially effective treatment for AEO in Parkinson's disease. PMID:26631893

  17. Normalization of Risperidone-Induced Hyperprolactinemia with the Addition of Aripiprazole

    OpenAIRE

    Shores, Larry E.

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to monitor metabolic changes, including hyperprolactinemia, in adolescents medicated with atypical antipsychotics, especially when polypharmacy is involved. This study specifically followed risperidone-induced hyperprolactinemia in adolescents (14 male patients and 2 female patients) after aripiprazole was added to begin transitioning to another atypical antipsychotic. No other changes were made in the medication regimen. Risperidone was continued at the previo...

  18. Mania/hipomania induzida por aripiprazol Manic/hypomanic symptoms induced by aripiprazole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Gerhardt Soeiro de Souza

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aripiprazol é um antipsicótico atípico (AAt frequentemente indicado para o tratamento agudo da mania, assim como para quadros mistos de transtorno bipolar (TB tipo I e para o tratamento de manutenção do TB tipo I. A potencial ação antidepressiva dos AAts possibilita que medicamentos dessa classe aumentem as chances do aparecimento de mania em indivíduos suscetíveis. Com o objetivo de sumarizar evidência que possibilite a discussão técnica desse tópico, aqui relatamos três casos de pacientes com TB com mania induzida por aripiprazol. Pacientes tinham diagnósticos e comorbidades diferentes e estavam em regime terapêutico também diferente. Mania foi temporalmente associada à introdução de aripiprazol. Melhora considerável aconteceu após a retirada do fármaco. Sugerimos que o aripiprazol, por meio da sua ação antidepressiva, seja fator de risco para virada maníaca e hipomaníaca. Recomendamos o uso associado de estabilizador de humor com potencial antimaníaco para prevenir eventual inversão de fase. Sugere-se, ainda, a provável eficácia antidepressiva do aripiprazol.Aripiprazole is an atypical antipsychotic often used as monotherapy or as add-on therapy in patients with manic episodes, as well as for bipolar disorders. The antidepressive effect of the atypical antipsychotic medications raises the possibility that these drugs may increase the risk of mania in susceptible individuals. With the aim of providing further evidence on this subject, herein we reported three patients with bipolar disorder and mania induced by aripiprazole. Patients had different final diagnosis as well as different comorbidities. Their therapeutic regimen was different as well. Onset of manias was temporarily associated with aripiprazole use and important improvement happened after the discontinuation of this drug. We suggest that aripiprazole, due to its antidepressant properties, is a risk factor for mania and hypomania. Mood stabilizer is

  19. Aripiprazole-Induced Parkinsonism: Report of Two Cases

    OpenAIRE

    Çetin Kürşad Akpınar; Dursun Aygün; Hakan Doğru

    2015-01-01

    Aripiprazole is one of the recently introduced atypical antipsychotics used in the treatment of psychosis related to schizophrenia, depression, bipolar disorder, and Parkinson’s disease. Well-documented side effects associated with the use of aripiprazole include insomnia, anxiety, headache, nausea, vomiting, and somnolence. Aripiprazole is associated with infrequent extrapyramidal side effects. Parkinsonism is caused by some drugs that block dopamine receptors. The sign of dru...

  20. Two Cases of Hypersexuality Probably Associated with Aripiprazole

    OpenAIRE

    Cheon, EunJin; Koo, Bon-Hoon; Seo, Sang Soo; Lee, Jun-Yeob

    2013-01-01

    Sexual dysfunction is a common side effect in patients treated with antipsychotics but significant differences exist across different compounds. We report hypersexuality symptoms in two female patients with schizophrenia who were receiving treatment with aripiprazole. The patients experienced more frequent sexual desire and greater sexual preoccupation after taking aripiprazole. We discuss the potential neuro-chemical mechanisms for this and argue that aripiprazole's unique pharmacological pr...

  1. Effect of lower dose clozapine plus aripiprazole on body weight, glucose and lipid metabolism in patients with schizophrenia%较低剂量氯氮平合并阿立哌唑对精神分裂症患者体质量及糖脂代谢的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王小红; 王艳婷; 周云云; 兰润林; 侯春兰; 侯凌峰; 董继学; 李俊福

    2013-01-01

    目的:探讨较低剂量氯氮平合并阿立哌唑对精神分裂症患者体质量及糖脂代谢的影响.方法:选取2008年3月至2010年3月我院住院精神分裂症患者92例,随机分为研究组和对照组,研究组给予较低剂量氯氮平合并阿立哌唑治疗,对照组给予单纯氯氮平治疗.两组观察疗程24周.两组患者分别在治疗前、治疗12周及24周对其体质量、身高、血糖、餐后2h血糖、三酰甘油及胆固醇进行测定,并做统计分析. 结果:与对照组相比,研究组治疗前后体质量及糖脂代谢变化显著较小(P均<0.01).研究组体质量、血糖及三酰甘油异常率明显低于对照组(P均<0.01). 结论:较低剂量氯氮平合并阿立哌唑治疗与单用较高剂量氯氮平相比,对精神分裂症患者体质量及糖脂代谢影响较小.%Objective: To investigate effect of the lower dose of clozapine plus aripiprazole on body weight,glucose and lipid metabolism in patients with schizophrenia. Method:92 schizophrenic patients from our hospital March,2008 to March,2010 were randomly divided into study group and control group,the study group was given a low dose clozapine combined with aripiprazole and the control group was given clozapine treatment for 24 weeks. The body mass, height, blood glucose, postprandial 2 hour blood glucose, cholesterol and tri-glyceride were measured before treatment, week 12 and 24. Results: Compared with the control group, the study group showed fewer changes on body weight and metabolism of glucose and lipid between before and after the treatment (all P<0.01), and abnormal rates of body mass, glucose and triglyceride (all P<0.01). Conclusion: Lower dose clozapine plus aripiprazole have less impact on the body mass and glucose metabolism than only high doses clozapine in the treatment of schizophrenia.

  2. Comparison of Short-term Metabolic Risk in First-episode Young-adult Schizophrenia Treated with Aripiprazole and Olanzapine%阿立哌唑与奥氮平对首发年轻成人精神分裂症患者短期内代谢风险的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴小立; 魏钦令; 钟智勇; 张晋碚

    2011-01-01

    摘要:[目的]比较阿立哌唑与奥氮平对首发年轻成人精神分裂症患者短期内的代谢风险.[方法]采用开放对照的临床观察方法,对符合美国精神障碍诊断与统计手册第4版(DSM-Ⅳ)精神分裂症诊断标准的首发住院精神分裂症患者,分别使用阿立哌唑(21例)和奥氮平(42例)治疗,自然观察时间不低于2周,不大于4周,于治疗前后各检测一次体质量、腰围、空腹血脂血糖及胰岛素、C肽.[结果]观察结束时:阿立哌唑组的体质量、体质量指数(BMI)、腰围、腰臀比均有增高(P<0.05),糖脂改变无统计学差异,男女患者间各项代谢指标的变化无统计学差异(P>0.05);奥氮平组的体质量、体质量指数(BMI)、腰围、腰臀比、甘油三酯(TG)、总胆固醇(TC)、高密度脂蛋白(HDL)、低密度脂蛋白(LDL)、载脂蛋白AI和B100及脂蛋白LPa较治疗前增高(P<0.0l),且胰岛素(INS)水平和胰岛素抵抗指数(IR)增高(P<0.05),多元逐步回归分析显示胰岛素抵抗与甘油三脂的增高有关(R2 =0.107,P=0.007);奥氛平组男性患者的空腹胰岛素和C肽、胰岛素抵抗指数均增高(P<0.05),女性患者则没有.[结论]阿立哌唑和奥氮平对首发年轻成人精神分裂症患者短期内的代谢风险即有差异,性别差异可能影响着非典型抗精神病药物的代谢风险.%[Objective] To compare the short-term metabolic risk in the first-episode young-adult schizophrenia treated with Aripiprazole and Olanzapine. [ Methods] The open-lable, natural observed, compared method was designed for this study. All of these cases were diagnosed as first-episode schizophrenia in accordance with the DSM-IV diagnosis criteria and respectively allocated into two groups for either Aripiprazole or Olanzapine treatment. The natural observed period was from two weeks to four weeks. Weight, waist circumference, fasting glucose, and lipid concentration, fasting insulin and C peptide

  3. Adjunctive Aripiprazole Treatment for Risperidone-Induced Hyperprolactinemia: An 8-Week Randomized, Open-Label, Comparative Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jingyuan; Song, Xueqin; Ai, Xiaoqing; Gu, Xiaojing; Huang, Guangbiao; Li, Xue; Pang, Lijuan; Ding, Minli; Ding, Shuang; Lv, Luxian

    2015-01-01

    Objective The present study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of adjunctive aripiprazole treatment in schizophrenia patients with risperidone-induced hyperprolactinemia. Methods One hundred and thirteen patients who were receiving a stable dose of risperidone were randomly assigned to either adjunctive aripiprazole treatment (10 mg/day) (aripiprazole group) or no additional treatment (control group) at a 1:1 ratio for 8 weeks. Schizophrenia symptoms were measured using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). Rating scales and safety assessments (RSESE, BARS, UKU) were performed at baseline and at weeks 4 and 8. Serum levels of prolactin were determined at baseline and at weeks 2, 4, 6 and 8. Metabolic parameters were determined at baseline and again at weeks 4 and 8. Results One hundred and thirteen patients were enrolled in this study, and 107 patients completed the study (54 in the aripiprazole group, and 53 in the control group). PANSS-total scores in the aripiprazole group decreased significantly at week 4 (P = 0.003) and week 8 (P = 0.007) compared with the control group. PANSS-negative scores in the aripiprazole group also decreased significantly at week 4 (P = 0.005) and week 8 (P< 0.001) compared with the control group. Serum levels of prolactin in the aripiprazole group decreased significantly at week 2 (P< 0.001), week 4 (P< 0.001), week 6 (P< 0.001) and week 8 (P< 0.001) compared with the control group. There were no significant differences in changes of Fasting Plasma Glucose, Total cholesterol, Triglycerides and High Density Lipoprotein within each group at week 4 and 8 execpt low density lipoproteins. There was no significant difference in the incidence of adverse reactions between the two groups. Conclusions Adjunctive aripiprazole treatment may be beneficial in reducing serum levels of prolactin and improving negative symptoms in schizophrenia patients with risperidone-induced hyperprolactinemia. Trial Registration chictr.org Chi

  4. Low-dose aripiprazole for refractory burning mouth syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umezaki, Yojiro; Takenoshita, Miho; Toyofuku, Akira

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of refractory burning mouth syndrome (BMS) ameliorated with low dose of aripiprazole. The patient was a 66-year-old female who had suffered from chronic burning pain in her tongue for 13 months. No abnormality associated with the burning sensation was detected in the laboratory tests and the oral findings. Considering the clinical feature and the history together, we diagnosed the burning sensation as BMS. The BMS pain was decreased by aripiprazole (powder) 1.0 mg/d, though no other antidepressants had satisfying pain relief. It could be supposed that the efficacy of aripiprazole is caused by dopamine stabilization in this case, and BMS might have a subtype that is reactive to aripiprazole. Further studies are needed to confirm the efficacy of aripiprazole for BMS. PMID:27279742

  5. Effects of switching to aripiprazole from current atypical antipsychotics on subsyndromal symptoms and tolerability in patients with bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Young Sup; Bahk, Won-Myong; Park, Young-Min; Chung, Sangkeun; Yoon, Bo-Hyun; Won, Seunghee; Lee, Jeong Goo; Lee, Hwang-Bin; Kim, Won; Jeong, Jong-Hyun; Lee, Kwanghun; Kim, Moon-Doo

    2016-09-01

    We evaluated the effectiveness of aripiprazole among bipolar patients who had switched to this medication as a result of difficulty maintaining on their prestudy atypical antipsychotics (AAPs) because of subsyndromal mood symptoms or intolerance. This study included 77 bipolar patients who were in syndromal remission with an AAP as monotherapy or with an AAP combined with a mood stabilizer(s) who needed to switch from their present AAP because of subsyndromal symptoms or intolerance. At 24 weeks after switching to aripiprazole, the remission rates on the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) and on both the MADRS and the Young Mania Rating Scale were increased significantly in the full sample and in the inefficacy subgroup. In the inefficacy subgroup, the MADRS score change was significant during the 24 weeks of study. Total cholesterol and prolactin decreased significantly after switching to aripiprazole. The proportion of patients who had abnormal values for central obesity and hypercholesterolemia decreased significantly from baseline to week 24. These findings suggest that a change from the current AAP to aripiprazole was associated with improvement in subsyndromal mood symptoms and several lipid/metabolic or safety profile parameters in patients with bipolar disorder with tolerability concerns or subsyndromal mood symptoms. PMID:27487259

  6. Behandling af Tourettes syndrom med aripiprazol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenstrøm, Anne Dorte; Sindø, Ingrid

    2008-01-01

    Tourette's syndrome (TS) is a motoric disorder characterised by multiple motor and vocal tics. The treatment for patients with moderate to severe TS includes antipsychotic medication. A case report is described in which a 20 year-old male had taken antipsychotic medication since the age of five......, due to TS. The initial treatment consisted of pimozide and risperidone, both of which had an unsatisfactorily efficacy on tics and side effects in the form of weight gain and sedation. The patient is now treated with aripiprazole and there is a marked reduction of tics and no side effects...

  7. Treatment of refractory catatonic schizophrenia with low dose aripiprazole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasaki Tsuyoshi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This case is of 54-year-old female with catatonic schizophrenia, characterized by treatment resistance to the pharmacotherapy with olanzapine, risperidone, flunitrazepam, and ECT. Olanzapine and risperidone and flunitrazepam did not improve her catatonic and psychotic symptoms, and induced the extrapyramidal symptoms. The effects of ECT did not continue even for a month. However, the treatment with low-dose aripiprazole dramatically improved the patient’s psychotic symptoms and extrapyramidal symptoms. The mechanisms underlying the effects of low-dose aripiprazole in this case remain unclear, but unlike other antipsychotics, aripiprazole is a dopamine D2 partial agonist. In this regard, our results suggest that aripiprazole has numerous advantages, especially in cases of stuporous catatonia and a defective general status.

  8. Low-dose aripiprazole for refractory burning mouth syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umezaki Y

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Yojiro Umezaki,1 Miho Takenoshita,2 Akira Toyofuku2 1Psychosomatic Dentistry Clinic, Dental Hospital, 2Psychosomatic Dentistry, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo, Japan Abstract: We report a case of refractory burning mouth syndrome (BMS ameliorated with low dose of aripiprazole. The patient was a 66-year-old female who had suffered from chronic burning pain in her tongue for 13 months. No abnormality associated with the burning sensation was detected in the laboratory tests and the oral findings. Considering the clinical feature and the history together, we diagnosed the burning sensation as BMS. The BMS pain was decreased by aripiprazole (powder 1.0 mg/d, though no other antidepressants had satisfying pain relief. It could be supposed that the efficacy of aripiprazole is caused by dopamine stabilization in this case, and BMS might have a subtype that is reactive to aripiprazole. Further studies are needed to confirm the efficacy of aripiprazole for BMS. Keywords: burning mouth syndrome, low-dose aripiprazole, chronic pain

  9. Salivary and serum biomarkers for the study of side effects of aripiprazole coprescribed with mirtazapine in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdan, Maria; Silosi, Isabela; Surlin, Petra; Tica, Andrei Adrian; Tica, Oana Sorina; Balseanu, Tudor-Adrian; Rauten, Anne-Marie; Camen, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether the co-administration of aripiprazole and mirtazapine could determine weight gain and lipid metabolism disorders in Wistar rats, compared to the same side effects produced by mirtazapine alone, and the risk of hepatotoxicity due to the combination of the two substances. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), liver fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP/FABP1) and repulsive guidance molecule C/hemojuvelin (RGM-C/HJV) levels were determined in serum and in saliva. Also, serum levels for total cholesterol (TC), low and high-density lipoprotein (LDL, HDL), triglycerides (TG), aspartate aminotransferase (ASAT) and alanine amino transferase (ALAT) were assessed. We found positive and statistically significant correlations between serum and salivary levels of TNF-α, L-FABP/FABP1 and RGM-C/HJV. Mirtazapine determined significantly differences of TNF-α and L-FABP serum levels; final body weight; TC and LDL levels, leading to higher concentrations than its association with aripiprazole. Although not statistically significant, mirtazapine group experienced higher values for salivary levels of TNF-α, TG and ASAT, and lower values for HDL, compared to aripiprazole + mirtazapine group. The results suggest that aripiprazole might improve some of the disturbances caused by mirtazapine, and that the two drugs combination cause no additional alterations in liver function. Also, the findings indicate that TNF-α, L-FABP/FABP1 and RGM-C/HJV levels can be helpful as biomarkers for metabolic disturbances and impaired function of hepatocytes, and that their salivary determination can replace serum determination. PMID:26221370

  10. Salivary and serum biomarkers for the study of side effects of aripiprazole coprescribed with mirtazapine in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdan, Maria; Silosi, Isabela; Surlin, Petra; Tica, Andrei Adrian; Tica, Oana Sorina; Balseanu, Tudor-Adrian; Rauten, Anne-Marie; Camen, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether the co-administration of aripiprazole and mirtazapine could determine weight gain and lipid metabolism disorders in Wistar rats, compared to the same side effects produced by mirtazapine alone, and the risk of hepatotoxicity due to the combination of the two substances. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), liver fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP/FABP1) and repulsive guidance molecule C/hemojuvelin (RGM-C/HJV) levels were determined in serum and in saliva. Also, serum levels for total cholesterol (TC), low and high-density lipoprotein (LDL, HDL), triglycerides (TG), aspartate aminotransferase (ASAT) and alanine amino transferase (ALAT) were assessed. We found positive and statistically significant correlations between serum and salivary levels of TNF-α, L-FABP/FABP1 and RGM-C/HJV. Mirtazapine determined significantly differences of TNF-α and L-FABP serum levels; final body weight; TC and LDL levels, leading to higher concentrations than its association with aripiprazole. Although not statistically significant, mirtazapine group experienced higher values for salivary levels of TNF-α, TG and ASAT, and lower values for HDL, compared to aripiprazole + mirtazapine group. The results suggest that aripiprazole might improve some of the disturbances caused by mirtazapine, and that the two drugs combination cause no additional alterations in liver function. Also, the findings indicate that TNF-α, L-FABP/FABP1 and RGM-C/HJV levels can be helpful as biomarkers for metabolic disturbances and impaired function of hepatocytes, and that their salivary determination can replace serum determination.

  11. [Hypersexuality associated with aripiprazole: a new case and review of the literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrignaud, Laura; Aouille, Jerémie; Mallaret, Michel; Durrieu, Geneviève; Jonville-Béra, Annie-Pierre

    2014-01-01

    We report the case of a patient with hypersexuality while he was treated with aripiprazole since 6 months. Clinical manifestations were an increased libido, unusual frequent masturbation and sexual instincts. All have resolved upon discontinuation of aripiprazole, and recurred after it was restarted. The partial dopaminergic agonist effect of aripiprazole could probably explain the occurrence of this compulsive behaviour. PMID:25293487

  12. Aripiprazole Improved Obsessive Compulsive Symptoms in Asperger's Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, Gonca; Tahiroglu, Aysegul Yolga; Firat, Sunay; Avci, Ayşe

    2011-12-01

    There are many comorbid disorders associated with autism spectrum disorders in child and adolescent population. Although obsessive compulsive disorder and autism spectrum disorders (ASD) comorbidity has common in clinical practice, there are few reports about psychopharmacological treatment for obsessive compulsive symptoms in children with ASD in the literacy. We report a successful treatment case with aripiprazole in Asperger's Disorder with obsessive compulsive symptoms. The Yale Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale was performed to assess symptom variety. This case report supports the effectiveness of aripiprazole in treatment of obsessive compulsive symptoms in Asperger's Disorder or ASDs. Aripiprazole may be beneficial to obsessive compulsive disorder comorbid autism spectrum disorders in child and adolescent age group. PMID:23429759

  13. 阿立哌唑联合氯氮平对精神分裂症患者糖脂代谢与睡眠及体重的影响%Effect of aripiprazole combined with clozapine on glucolipid metabolism, sleep and body mass in patients with schizophrenia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖鹏; 孙晓花

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinical effect of aripiprazole combined with clozapine on glucolipid metabolism , sleep quality and body mass in patients with schizophrenia .Methods Seventy -six pa-tients with schizophrenia were divided into treatment group and control group , each group 38 cases.Control group was given clozapine 400-500 mg・ d -1 .Treatment group was given aripiprazole 30 mg・ d-1 combined clozapine 200-300 mg・ d-1 .The course of treatment was 6 months. The changes of blood glucose and lipid levels , sleep quality , body mass and clinical symptoms were compared in two groups before and after treatment.The clinical efficacy and adverse drug reactions in two groups were observed.Results After treatment, the self-rating scale of sleep ( SRSS ) and pittsburgh sleep quality index ( PSQI ) in treatment group were (15.74 ±3.21), (2.42 ±0.45), significantly lower than (20.45 ±4.67) ,(6.43 ±0.78) in control group(P<0.05).The levels of fasting blood glucose , postprandial 2 h blood glucose, triacylglycerol and cholesterol levels in control group were (5.64 ±0.57), (9.75 ±0.66), (1.57 ±0.18), (5.67 ±0.53) mmol・ L-1, signifi-cantly higher than (4.57 ±0.45), (7.89 ±0.55), (1.03 ±0.13),(4.54 ±0.46) mmol・ L-1 in treatment group ( P <0.05 ) .Body mass and body mass index in control group were ( 68.32 ±4.12 ) kg and ( 26.17 ±4.05 ) kg・ m-2 , significantly higher than (57.56 ±3.63 ) kg and (22.07 ±3.44 ) kg・ m-2 in treatment group ( P<0.05 ) . The total effective rate of treatment group was 92.11%, significantly higher than 76.32%in control group ( P<0.05 ) . The incidence rate of adverse drug reactions in treatment group was 15.79%, obviously lower than 39.47%in control group (P<0.05).Conclusion Aripiprazole combined with clozapine can be beneficial to glucose metabolism and body mass of patients in a stable state in the treatment of patients with schizophrenia , and can improve sleep condition and clinical symptoms of patients , and had

  14. Cognitive-enhancing effects of aripiprazole: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galderisi Silvana

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Patients with schizophrenia often present mild to severe cognitive deficits which contribute to their social disability. Second-generation antipsychotics have shown only mild to moderate beneficial effects on cognition. The present case report suggests cognitive enhancing effects of aripiprazole, a dopamine partial agonist, shown to increase dopamine release in prefrontal cortex in animal studies. The patient was in his first-episode of schizophrenia, and had no previous exposure to first-generation antipsychotics. Before schizophrenia onset his cognitive functioning was poor and he could not attend regular courses to reach his high school degree; he started but was not able to attend the University courses for several years. After schizophrenia onset, he was treated, in sequence, with olanzapine, amisulpride and aripiprazole. During treatment with the first two second-generation antipsychotics, positive symptoms markedly improved while cognitive functioning remained poor. During treatment with aripiprazole, clinical remission was obtained and the patient was able to attend university courses and pass several examinations. Social functioning was markedly improved. Aripiprazole demonstrated cognitive enhancing effects in this patient. These effects were long-lasting and paralleled by a positive impact on social functioning.

  15. Adjunctive treatment with aripiprazole for risperidone-induced hyperprolactinemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjbar F

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Fatemeh Ranjbar,1 Homayoun Sadeghi-Bazargani,2,3 Parisa Niari Khams,1 Asghar Arfaie,1 Azim Salari,4 Mostafa Farahbakhsh1 1Clinical Psychiatry Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, East Azerbaijan, Iran; 2Road Traffic Injury Research Center, Department of Statistics & Epidemiology, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran; 3World Health Organization Collaborating Center on Community Safety Promotion, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden; 4Emam Khomeini Hospital, Naghadeh, West Azerbaijan, Iran Background: Antipsychotics have been used for more than 50 years in the treatment of schizophrenia and many other psychiatric disorders. Prolactin levels usually increase in patients treated with risperidone. Aripiprazole, which has a unique effect as an antipsychotic, is a D2 receptor partial agonist. It is an atypical antipsychotic with limited extrapyramidal symptoms. Since it acts as an antagonist in hyperdopaminergic conditions and as an agonist in hypodopaminergic conditions, it does not have adverse effects on serum prolactin levels. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of aripiprazole on risperidone-induced hyperprolactinemia. Methods: This before-and-after clinical trial was performed in 30 patients. Baseline prolactin levels were measured in all patients who were candidates for treatment with risperidone. In subjects with elevated serum prolactin, aripiprazole was added to their treatment. Serum prolactin levels were measured during the first week, second week, and monthly thereafter for at least 3 months or until prolactin levels became normal. The data were analyzed using Stata version 11 software. Survival analysis and McNemar’s test were also performed. Results: The mean age of the participants was 30.8 years. Prolactin levels normalized in 23 (77% participants during the study, and menstrual disturbances normalized in 25 (83.3%. Prolactin levels normalized in most patients between days 50

  16. Salivary and serum biomarkers for the study of side effects of aripiprazole coprescribed with mirtazapine in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Bogdan, Maria; SILOSI, Isabela; SURLIN, PETRA; Tica, Andrei Adrian; Tica, Oana Sorina; Balseanu, Tudor-Adrian; Rauten, Anne-Marie; Camen, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether the co-administration of aripiprazole and mirtazapine could determine weight gain and lipid metabolism disorders in Wistar rats, compared to the same side effects produced by mirtazapine alone, and the risk of hepatotoxicity due to the combination of the two substances. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), liver fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP/FABP1) and repulsive guidance molecule C/hemojuvelin (RGM-C/HJV) levels were determined in serum an...

  17. Effect of aripiprazole on mismatch negativity (MMN in schizophrenia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenhe Zhou

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cognitive deficits are considered core symptoms of the schizophrenia. Cognitive function has been found to be a better predictor of functional outcome than symptom levels. Changed mismatch negativity (MMN reflects abnormalities of early auditory processing in schizophrenia. Up to now, no studies for the effects of aripiprazole on MMN in schizophrenia have been reported. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Subjects included 26 patients with schizophrenia, and 26 controls. Psychopathology was rated in patients with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS at baseline, after 4- and 8-week treatments with aripiprazole. Auditory stimuli for ERP consisted of 100 millisecond/1000 Hz standards, intermixed with 100 millisecond/1500 Hz frequency deviants and 250 millisecond/1000 Hz duration deviants. EEG was recorded at Fz. BESA 5.1.8 was used to perform data analysis. MMN waveforms were obtained by subtracting waveforms elicited by standards from waveforms elicited by frequency- or duration-deviant stimuli. Aripiprazole decreased all PANSS. Patients showed smaller mean amplitudes of frequency and duration MMN at baseline than did controls. A repeated measure ANOVA with sessions (i.e., baseline, 4- and 8-week treatments and MMN type (frequency vs. duration as within-subject factors revealed no significant MMN type or MMN type × session main effect for MMN amplitudes. Session main effect was significant. LSD tests demonstrated significant differences between MMN amplitudes at 8 weeks and those at both baseline and 4 weeks. There was significant negative correlation between changes in amplitudes of frequency and duration MMN and changes in PANSS total scores at baseline and follow-up periods. CONCLUSIONS: Aripiprazole improved the amplitudes of MMN. MMN offers objective evidence that treatment with the aripiprazole may ameliorate preattentive deficits in schizophrenia.

  18. Aripiprazole Augmentation in Treatment of Resistant Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

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    Karim Abdel Aziz

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Aripiprazole is a novel antipsychotic medication that has been tried in the treatment of several psychiatric disorders. In an open clinical study, we evaluated the safety and efficacy of aripiprazole in patients with obsessive compulsive disorder resistant to normal regimen of treatment. Method: A total of nine hundred and sixty one patients were admitted over three year period of time (January 2012- December 2014 to the psychiatric department of Al Ain hospital, United Arab Emirates. All patients whose been fulfilled DSM-IV diagnosis of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD (36 patients screened for further assessment. Patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia (22 patients and one patient with eating disorder were excluded. Thirteen patients were contacted to be involved in the study. Participants were unstable although they were adherent to their medications (SSRIs when seen in the outpatient clinic two weeks after their discharge. One patient refused to participate in the study. A final number of 12 agreed to participate in the study. twelve patients aged 22 to 65 years who had DSM-IV diagnosis of OCD were treated with aripiprazole besides their normal treatment for a period of three months with daily doses ranging from ten to 20 mg daily. Results: a positive clinical response was noted in eight of the 12 patients within three months of study recruitment according to the Clinical Global Impression-Improvement scale. Aripiprazole was well tolerated by most of the patients. The most commonly reported side effect was headache. Conclusion: our findings suggest that aripiprazole may be an effective adjuvant and safe treatment for resistant OCD.

  19. Aripiprazole-induced Hyperprolactinemia in a Young Female with Delusional Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Sam Padamadan

    2016-01-01

    Hyperprolactinemia is a common adverse effect of antipsychotic medication. Switching over to aripiprazole or adjunctive aripiprazole has been advocated for optimal management of antipsychotic-induced hyperprolactinemia. Adjunctive treatment with aripiprazole has been shown to normalize prolactin levels without affecting already achieved improvements in psychotic symptoms. However, here, we present the case of a 36 year old female with delusional disorder who developed symptomatic hyperprolactinemia while on aripiprazole treatment. Dopamine acts as a tonic inhibitor of prolactin secretion through the tubero-infundibular dopaminergic system. Aripiprazole being a partial agonist has a lower intrinsic activity at the D2 receptor than dopamine, allowing it to act as both, a functional agonist and antagonist, depending on the surrounding levels of dopamine. Hence, in the absence of a competing D2 antagonist and the presence of dopamine (the natural agonist), aripiprazole could act as a functional antagonist and thus elevate prolactin levels. PMID:27335526

  20. Aripiprazole-induced hyperprolactinemia in a young female with delusional disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Sam Padamadan Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Hyperprolactinemia is a common adverse effect of antipsychotic medication. Switching over to aripiprazole or adjunctive aripiprazole has been advocated for optimal management of antipsychotic-induced hyperprolactinemia. Adjunctive treatment with aripiprazole has been shown to normalize prolactin levels without affecting already achieved improvements in psychotic symptoms. However, here, we present the case of a 36 year old female with delusional disorder who developed symptomatic hyperprolact...

  1. The prescribing pattern of a new antipsychotic: A descriptive study of aripiprazole for psychiatric in-patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, M.; Manniche, C.; Andersen, Stig Ejdrup

    2008-01-01

    (range 0-8) psychoactive drugs parallel with aripiprazole. This study demonstrates reality in psychopharmacology and quote aripiprazole as example. In day-to-day practice, aripiprazole is used as part of highly individualized regimens comprising polypharmacy and excessive dosing. Although theoretically......In June 2004, aripiprazole was marketed as a second-generation antipsychotic with an entire new mechanism of action. The objective of this descriptive study is to examine the day-to-day prescriptions of aripiprazole to an unselected population of psychiatric in-patients. From 1 February to 1 May...... 2006, present and former in-patients treated with aripiprazole were identified. Prescriptions of aripiprazole and psychoactive comedication were collected retrospectively from the patient records. Seventy-one patients, mainly schizophrenic, received aripiprazole 2.5 to 55 mg/day for median 350 days...

  2. Successful treatment of a prolactinoma with the antipsychotic drug aripiprazole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilse C A Bakker

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this report, we describe a female patient with both prolactinoma and psychotic disorder who was successfully treated with aripiprazole, a partial dopamine 2 receptor agonist. During the follow-up of more than 10 years, her psychotic symptoms improved considerably, prolactin levels normalised and the size of the prolactinoma decreased. This observation may be of clinical relevance in similar patients who often are difficult to treat with the regular dopaminergic drugs.

  3. Successful treatment of a prolactinoma with the antipsychotic drug aripiprazole

    OpenAIRE

    Bakker, Ilse C A; Schubart, Chris D.; Zelissen, Pierre M J

    2016-01-01

    Summary In this report, we describe a female patient with both prolactinoma and psychotic disorder who was successfully treated with aripiprazole, a partial dopamine 2 receptor agonist. During the follow-up of more than 10 years, her psychotic symptoms improved considerably, prolactin levels normalised and the size of the prolactinoma decreased. This observation may be of clinical relevance in similar patients who often are difficult to treat with the regular dopaminergic drugs. Learning poin...

  4. Neurobehavioral and genotoxic parameters of antipsychotic agent aripiprazole in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jaqueline Nascimento PICADA; Viviane Minuzzo PONTES; Patrícia PEREIRA; Bruna de Jesus Neto DOS SANTOS; Franciele CELSO; Jéssica Dias MONTEIRO; Kelly Morais DA ROSA; Leandro Rosa CAMACHO; Luciana Rodrigues VIEIRA; Taís Madelon FREITAS; Tatiana Grasiela DASILVA

    2011-01-01

    Aim:Aripiprazole is an antipsychotic agent to treat schizophrenia,which acts through dopamine D2 partial agonism,serotonin 5-HT1A partial agonism and 5-HT2A antagonism.This study was designed to evaluate the neurobehavioral effects and genotoxic/mutagenic activities of the agent,as well as its effects on lipoperoxidation.Methods:Open field and inhibitory avoidance tasks were used.Thirty min before performing the behavioral tasks,adult male CF-1 mice were administered aripiprazole (1,3 or 10 mg/kg,ip) once for the acute treatment,or the same doses for 5 d for the subchronic treatment.Genotoxic effects were assessed using comet assay in the blood and brain tissues.Mutagenic effects were evaluated using bone marrow micronucleus test.Lipoperoxidation was assessed with thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS).Results:Acute and subchronic treatments significantly decreased the number of crossing and rearing in the open field task.Acute treatment significantly increased the step-down latency for both the short- and long-term memory in the inhibitory avoidance task.Subchronic treatments with aripiprazole (3 and 10 mg/kg) caused significant DNA strain-break damage in peripheral blood but not in the brain.Mutagenic effect was not detected in the acute and subchronic treatments.Nor TBARS levels in the liver were affected.Conclusion:Aripiprazole improved memory,but could impair motor activities in mice.The drug increased DNA damage in blood,but did not show mutagenic effects,suggesting that it might affect long-term genomic stability.

  5. Aripiprazole Improved Obsessive Compulsive Symptoms in Asperger's Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Celik, Gonca; Tahiroglu, Aysegul Yolga; Firat, Sunay; AVCI, Ayşe

    2011-01-01

    There are many comorbid disorders associated with autism spectrum disorders in child and adolescent population. Although obsessive compulsive disorder and autism spectrum disorders (ASD) comorbidity has common in clinical practice, there are few reports about psychopharmacological treatment for obsessive compulsive symptoms in children with ASD in the literacy. We report a successful treatment case with aripiprazole in Asperger's Disorder with obsessive compulsive symptoms. The Yale Brown Obs...

  6. Aripiprazole alone or in combination for acute mania

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Rachel; Taylor, Matthew; Geddes, John

    2013-01-01

    BackgroundBipolar disorder is a mental disorder characterised by episodes of elevated or irritable mood (manic or hypomanic episodes) and episodes of low mood and loss of energy (depressive episodes). Drug treatment is the first-line treatment for acute mania with the initial aim of rapid control of agitation, aggression and dangerous behaviour. Aripiprazole, an atypical antipsychotic, is used in the treatment of mania both as monotherapy and combined with other medicines. The British Associa...

  7. Aripiprazole-associated tic in a schizophrenia patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo X

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Xieli Guo,1,2,* Dali Lu,3,* Yugang Jiang1 1Department of Neurosurgery, Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Neurosurgery, Jinjiang Hospital of Quanzhou Medical College, Jinjiang, Fujian, People’s Republic of China; 3Department of Psychiatry, Xiamen Xianyue Hospital, Xiamen, Fujian, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Tic disorder, characterized by the presence of both motor and vocal tics is common in adolescents and adults. Antipsychotics including typical antipsychotics and atypical antipsychotics are generally recognized by experts as the most effective pharmacological treatment for tics. However, previous studies suggest that tic-like symptoms might manifest during treatment with atypical antipsychotics such as clo­zapine, quetiapine, but not aripiprazole. We present the first case, to our knowledge, of an adult schizophrenia patient who developed tics during treatment with aripiprazole. Keywords: aripiprazole, antipsychotics, tic, schizophrenia, side effect

  8. Aripiprazole for acute mania in an elderly person

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    Balaji Bharadwaj

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available New-onset bipolar disorder is rare in the elderly. Symptom profile is similar to that in young adults but the elderly are more likely to have neurological co-morbidities. There are no case reports of elderly mania being treated with aripiprazole, an atypical antipsychotic. A 78-year-old gentleman presented to us with symptoms suggestive of mania of 1 month′s duration. He had similar history 3 years ago and a family history of postpartum psychosis in his mother. There were no neurological signs on examination and work-up for an organic etiology was negative except for age-related cerebral atrophy. He improved with aripiprazole and tolerated the medications well. The use of psychotropic medications in the elderly is associated with side-effects of sedation, increased cardiovascular risk, and greater risk of extra-pyramidal side-effects. The use of partial dopaminergic antagonists like aripiprazole may be useful in the balancing of effects and side-effects.

  9. The cardiac safety of aripiprazole treatment in patients at high risk for torsade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Polcwiartek, Christoffer; Sneider, Benjamin; Graff, Claus;

    2015-01-01

    reviewed and cardiac safety data were extracted. Continuous and dichotomous QTc data were used in the meta-analysis. RESULTS: Preclinical studies suggested that aripiprazole has limited affinity for the delayed rectifier potassium current. TdP was reported in two case reports and SCD was reported in one...... case report and one case series. No clinical studies assessing aripiprazole's cardiac safety in patients at high risk for torsade were found. No thorough QT (TQT) study with aripiprazole was found. The meta-analysis revealed that the mean ΔQTc interval was decreased with aripiprazole and QTc...... factors. OBJECTIVES: Aripiprazole's cardiac safety has not been assessed in patients at high risk for torsade, where QTc prolongation risk is highly increased. METHODS: MEDLINE, Embase, and The Cochrane Library were searched for preclinical, clinical, and epidemiological studies. Eligible studies were...

  10. Adjunctive aripiprazole versus placebo for antipsychotic-induced hyperprolactinemia: meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianbin Li

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare the safety and efficacy of adjunctive aripiprazole versus placebo for antipsychotic-induced hyperprolactinemia. METHODS: POPULATION: adult patients presenting with antipsychotic-induced hyperprolactinemia diagnosed by prolactin level with or without prolactin-related symptoms. INTERVENTIONS: adjunctive aripiprazole vs. adjunctive placebo. OUTCOME MEASURES: adverse events and efficacy of treatment. STUDIES: randomized controlled trials. RESULTS: Five randomized controlled trials with a total of 639 patients (326 adjunctive aripiprazole, 313 adjunctive placebo met the inclusion criteria. Adjunctive aripiprazole was associated with a 79.11% (125/158 prolactin level normalization rate. Meta-analysis of insomnia, headache, sedation, psychiatric disorder, extrapyramidal symptom, dry mouth, and fatigue showed no significant differences in the adjunctive aripiprazole treatment group compared with the placebo group (risk difference (Mantel-Haenszel, random or fixed -0.05 to 0.04 (95% confidence interval -0.13 to 0.16; I(2 =0% to 68%, P=0.20 to 0.70. However, sedation, insomnia, and headache were more frequent when the adjunctive aripiprazole dose was higher than 15 mg/day. Meta-analysis of the prolactin level normalization indicated adjunctive aripiprazole was superior to placebo (risk difference (Mantel-Haenszel, random 0.76 (95% confidence interval 0.67 to 0.85; I(2 =43%, P<0.00001. The subgroup analysis confirmed that the subjects who received adjunctive aripiprazole 5 mg/day showed a degree of prolactin normalization similar to that of all participants. No significant differences between groups in discontinuation and improvements of psychiatric symptoms. CONCLUSION: Adjunctive aripiprazole is both safe and effective as a reasonable choice treatment for patients with antipsychotic-induced hyperprolactinemia. The appropriate dose of adjunctive aripiprazole may be 5 mg/day.

  11. Effects of aripiprazole on caffeine-induced hyperlocomotion and neural activation in the striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, Luara A; Viana, Thércia G; Silveira, Vívian T; Aguiar, Daniele C; Moreira, Fabrício A

    2016-01-01

    Aripiprazole is an antipsychotic that acts as a partial agonist at dopamine D2 receptors. In addition to its antipsychotic activity, this compound blocks the effects of some psychostimulant drugs. It has not been verified, however, if aripiprazole interferes with the effects of caffeine. Hence, this study tested the hypothesis that aripiprazole prevents caffeine-induced hyperlocomotion and investigated the effects of these drugs on neural activity in the striatum. Male Swiss mice received injections of vehicle or antipsychotic drugs followed by vehicle or caffeine. Locomotion was analyzed in a circular arena and c-Fos protein expression was quantified in the dorsolateral, dorsomedial, and ventrolateral striatum, and in the core and shell regions of nucleus accumbens. Aripiprazole (0.1, 1, and 10 mg/kg) prevented caffeine (10 mg/kg)-induced hyperlocomotion at doses that do not change basal locomotion. Haloperidol (0.01, 0.03, and 0.1 mg/kg) also decreased caffeine-induced hyperlocomotion at all doses, although at the two higher doses, this compound reduced basal locomotion. Immunohistochemistry analysis showed that aripiprazole increases c-Fos protein expression in all regions studied, whereas caffeine did not alter c-Fos protein expression. Combined treatment of aripiprazole and caffeine resulted in a decrease in the number of c-Fos positive cells as compared to the group receiving aripiprazole alone. In conclusion, aripiprazole prevents caffeine-induced hyperlocomotion and increases neural activation in the striatum. This latter effect is reduced by subsequent administration of caffeine. These results advance our understanding on the pharmacological profile of aripiprazole.

  12. Adjunctive Aripiprazole Treatment for Risperidone-Induced Hyperprolactinemia: An 8-Week Randomized, Open-Label, Comparative Clinical Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Jingyuan Zhao; Xueqin Song; Xiaoqing Ai; Xiaojing Gu; Guangbiao Huang; Xue Li; Lijuan Pang; Minli Ding; Shuang Ding; Luxian Lv

    2015-01-01

    Objective The present study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of adjunctive aripiprazole treatment in schizophrenia patients with risperidone-induced hyperprolactinemia. Methods One hundred and thirteen patients who were receiving a stable dose of risperidone were randomly assigned to either adjunctive aripiprazole treatment (10 mg/day) (aripiprazole group) or no additional treatment (control group) at a 1:1 ratio for 8 weeks. Schizophrenia symptoms were measured using the Positive an...

  13. Aripiprazole Improves Depressive Symptoms and Immunological Response to Antiretroviral Therapy in an HIV-Infected Subject with Resistant Depression

    OpenAIRE

    Chiara Cecchelli; Giacomo Grassi; Stefano Pallanti

    2010-01-01

    Aripiprazole is the first medication approved by the FDA as an add-on treatment for MDD. The impact of aripiprazole on the response to HIV is unknown. The patient we report on was diagnosed HIV-positive in 1997 and has been treated with antiretroviral therapy since then. In 2008, we diagnosed resistant major depression, hypochondria, and panic disorder. On that occasion, blood tests showed a significantly reduced CD4 count and a positive viral load. We treated this patient with aripiprazole...

  14. [Application of HPLC-UV method for aripiprazole determination in serum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Synowiec, Anna; Gomółka, Ewa; Zyss, Tomasz; Zieba, Andrzej; Florek, Ewa; Piekoszewski, Wojciech

    2012-01-01

    Aripiprazole is a new drug applied in schizophrenia treatment. There are not strict indications for aripiprazole therapeutic drug monitoring. Despite, serum aripiprazole measuring would help control the drug doses effectiveness. The drug monitoring can eliminate overdosing, adverse effects and let control proper drug ingestion. The aim of the paper was to develop a simple method for aripiprazole determination in serum for therapeutic drug monitoring. High performance liquid chromatography with spectrophotometric detection (HPLC-UV) was used. Resolution was performed on LC-8 column; moving phase was solution 0,025M trimethylammonium buffer: acetonitrile (62:38). Isocratic flow was 1,2 ml/min; internal standard (IS) was promazine; monitored wavelength was lambda=214 nm. The validation parameters were: limits of linearity (LOL) 100-800 ng/ml, limit of detection (LOD) 10 ng/ml, limit of quantity (LOQ) 100 ng/ml. Coefficient of variation (CV) describing accuracy and precision didn't cross 10%. The method was useful for therapeutic drug monitoring in serum of patients treated with aripiprazole. PMID:23421079

  15. Pregnancy exposure to olanzapine, quetiapine, risperidone, aripiprazole and risk of congenital malformations. A systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ennis, Zandra Nymand; Damkier, Per

    2015-01-01

    To review available data on first-trimester exposure to olanzapine, quetiapine, risperidone and aripiprazole and risk of congenital malformations. We performed a systematic literature search in accordance with PRISMA guidelines identifying studies containing original data on first....../22 (5.1%) and 100/5 (5.0%), respectively. Relative risk estimates and 95% confidence intervals were 1.0 (0.7-1.4) (olanzapine), 1.0 (0.6-1.7) (quetiapine), 1.5 (0.9-2.2) (risperidone) and 1.4 (0.5-3.1) (aripiprazole). First-trimester exposure to olanzapine is not associated with an increased risk...... of congenital malformation. Data for quetiapine and risperidone do not suggest a substantially increased risk, while the risk estimate for aripiprazole remains imprecise owing to a low amount of data....

  16. Low dosage of aripiprazole induced neuroleptic malignant syndrome after interaction with other neuroleptic drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albino Petrone

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Aripiprazole is a 2nd generation antipsychotic medication, atypical neuroleptic used for treatment of schizophrenia improving symptoms such as hallucinations, delusions, and disorganized thinking. A potentially fatal symptom complex sometimes referred to as neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS has been reported in association with administration of antipsychotic drugs, including aripiprazole. Rare cases of NMS occurred during aripiprazole treatment in the worldwide clinical database. The disease is characterized by a distinctive clinical syndrome of mental status change, rigidity, fever, and dysautonomia. We report on a 63-year old woman with depression syndrome who developed neuroleptic malignant syndrome after twelve days of aripripazole 5 mg per day. Our case is added to the small number already described and suggests the need for caution when aripripazole is added to increase the effect of other antipsychotics.

  17. Aripiprazole in the acute and maintenance phase of bipolar I disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zupancic M

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Melanie Zupancic1, Misty L Gonzalez2,31Southern Illinois University School of Medicine, 2Division of Medicine Psychiatry, Southern Illinois University School of Medicine, 3Southern Illinois University Edwardsville School of Pharmacy, Southern Illinois University Edwardsville, Springfield, IL, USAAbstract: Bipolar affective disorder is a disabling illness with substantial morbidity and many management challenges. Traditional mood stabilizers such as lithium, valproate, and carbamazepine are often inadequate in controlling symptoms both during the acute and maintenance phase of treatment. Aripiprazole is a second-generation antipsychotic with a unique mechanism of action. Evidence suggests that it is effective in acute manic and mixed states. There are limited data to suggest its efficacy as a maintenance agent. Future studies will be needed to better define the role of aripiprazole relative to other traditional pharmacologic agents.Keywords: aripiprazole, bipolar disorder, acute treatment, maintenance treatment

  18. Aripiprazole as augmentation therapy in bipolar patients with current minor or subsyndromal mood symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    Schweitzer, Isaac; Sarris, Jerome; Tuckwell, Virginia; Maguire, Kay; Smith, Deidre; Ng, Chee

    2013-01-01

    Background This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of aripiprazole augmentation of maintenance treatment for bipolar disorder in patients with minor or subsyndromal mood episodes while on a stable dose of a mood stabiliser and/or antidepressant. Methods All subjects had a diagnosis of bipolar I or II disorder (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-4th Edition, Text Revision). Open-label aripiprazole was given over 8 weeks initially. The starting dose was 5 to 15 mg/day w...

  19. Aripiprazole blocks acute self-administration of cocaine and is not self-administered in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Gunnar; Sager, Thomas N; Petersen, Jørgen H;

    2008-01-01

    RATIONALE: The novel antipsychotic aripiprazole in use for treatment of schizophrenia is a partial agonist at dopamine D(2) receptors with actions at a variety of other receptors as well. Cocaine is believed to exert an important part of its rewarding effect by increasing extracellular levels...

  20. The Treatment of Adult Bipolar Disorder with Aripiprazole: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muneer, Ather

    2016-01-01

    Bipolar disorder is characterized by exacerbations of opposite mood polarity, ranging from manic to major depressive episodes. In the current nosological system of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual - 5(th) edition (DSM-5), it is conceptualized as a spectrum disorder consisting of bipolar disorder type I, bipolar disorder type II, cyclothymic disorder, and bipolar disorder not otherwise specified. Treatment of all phases of this disorder is primarily with mood stabilizers, but many patients either show resistance to the conventional mood stabilizing medications or are intolerant to their side-effects. In this setting, second-generation antipsychotics have gained prominence as many bipolar subjects who are otherwise treatment refractory show response to these agents. Aripiprazole is a novel antipsychotic initially approved for the treatment of schizophrenia but soon found to be effective in bipolar disorder. This drug is well studied, as randomized controlled trials have been conducted in various phases of bipolar disorders. Aripiprazole exhibits the pharmacodynamic properties of partial agonism, functional selectivity, and serotonin-dopamine activity modulation - the new exemplars in the treatment of major psychiatric disorders. It is the first among a new series of psychotropic medications, which now also include brexpiprazole and cariprazine. The current review summarizes the data from controlled trials regarding the efficacy and safety of aripiprazole in adult bipolar patients. On the basis of this evidence, aripiprazole is found to be efficacious in the treatment and prophylaxis of manic and mixed episodes but has no effectiveness in acute and recurrent bipolar depression. PMID:27190727

  1. Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... also influenced by body composition — people with more muscle and less fat generally have higher BMRs. previous continue Things That Can Go Wrong With Metabolism Most of the time your metabolism works effectively ...

  2. Metabolism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    2008255 Serum adiponectin level declines in the elderly with metabolic syndrome.WU Xiaoyan(吴晓琰),et al.Dept Geriatr,Huashan Hosp,Fudan UnivShanghai200040.Chin J Geriatr2008;27(3):164-167.Objective To investigate the correlation between ser-um adiponectin level and metabolic syndrome in the elderly·Methods Sixty-one subjects with metabolic syndrome and140age matched subjects without metabolic

  3. Profile of aripiprazole in the treatment of bipolar disorder in children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirino E

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Eiji Kirino1–3 1Department of Psychiatry, Juntendo University School of Medicine, 2Department of Psychiatry, Juntendo University Shizuoka Hospital, 3Juntendo Institute of Mental Health, Shizuoka, Japan Abstract: Bipolar disorder is a pernicious illness. Compared with the later-onset form, early onset bipolar disorder is associated with worse psychosocial outcomes, and is characterized by rapid cycling and increased risks of substance abuse and suicide attempts. Controlling mood episodes and preventing relapse in this group of pediatric patients requires careful treatment. Here, we review the effectiveness of aripiprazole for bipolar disorder in children and adolescents, with discussion of this drug's unique pharmacological profile and various clinical study outcomes. Aripiprazole acts as a serotonin 5-HT2A receptor antagonist, as well as a partial agonist of the serotonin 5-HT1A and dopamine D2 receptors. It can be safely used in children and adolescents, as it is highly tolerated and shows lower rates of the side effects typically observed with other antipsychotic drugs, including sedation, weight gain, hyperprolactinemia, and extrapyramidal syndrome. The presently reviewed randomized controlled trials (RCTs and non-RCTs generally reported aripiprazole to be effective and well-tolerated in children and adolescents with bipolar disorder. However, due to the limited number of RCTs, the present conclusions must be evaluated cautiously. Furthermore, aripiprazole cannot yet be considered a preferred treatment for children and adolescents with bipolar disorder, as there is not yet evidence that aripiprazole shows greater efficacy compared to other second-generation antipsychotics. Additional data are needed from future head-to-head comparison studies. Keywords: child, mania, mixed state

  4. Aripiprazole and Risperidone for Treatment of Methamphetamine-Associated Psychosis in Chinese Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gang; Zhang, Yao; Zhang, Sheng; Chen, Huijing; Xu, Zaifeng; Schottenfeld, Richard S; Hao, Wei; Chawarski, Marek Cezary

    2016-03-01

    We evaluated tolerability and efficacy of aripiprazole and risperidone for treatment of methamphetamine (METH) associated psychotic symptoms in China. Patients with acute METH-associated psychotic symptoms (N=42) and with Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) total score between 60 and 120 were randomized to aripiprazole (initial dose 5-10mg per day followed by flexible doses 5-15 mg per day) or risperidone (initial dose 2-4 mg per day followed by flexible doses 4-6 mg per day) from day 3 to 25 of inpatient hospital stay. Outcome measures included PANSS and Clinical Global Impressions-Severity of Illness scale (CGI-S), METH craving Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), Simpson Angus Scale (SAS), Barnes Assessments Akathasia Rating Scale (BARS), and self-reported adverse effects evaluated during treatment. Retention was evaluated using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and the MIXED models procedure was used to compare the groups on measures of psychotic and extra-pyramidal symptoms. Patients in both aripiprazole and risperidone groups showed statistically significant reductions in psychotic symptomatology from baseline during treatment (p<0.001) with no statistically significant differences between the treatment groups (p=0.73 and p=0.15, respectively). Risperidone-treated patients reported significantly greater METH craving reductions (p<0.001). Overall, 71% of patients completed the entire study, but the aripiprazole group had a significantly lower retention than the risperidone group (p=0.007), primarily due to medication related adverse effects. Aripiprazole-treated patients also had significantly more akathisia (p=0.03) and agitation (p=0.02) than risperidone-treated patients. Patients in both groups who tolerated their medications and completed the entire study achieved comparable reductions of psychotic symptoms. PMID:26733277

  5. Aripiprazole Improves Depressive Symptoms and Immunological Response to Antiretroviral Therapy in an HIV-Infected Subject with Resistant Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Cecchelli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aripiprazole is the first medication approved by the FDA as an add-on treatment for MDD. The impact of aripiprazole on the response to HIV is unknown. The patient we report on was diagnosed HIV-positive in 1997 and has been treated with antiretroviral therapy since then. In 2008, we diagnosed resistant major depression, hypochondria, and panic disorder. On that occasion, blood tests showed a significantly reduced CD4 count and a positive viral load. We treated this patient with aripiprazole and citalopram. Mood, somatic symptoms, and occupational functioning progressively improved. The last blood examination showed an increase in the CD4 count and a negative viral load. On the basis of the present case study and the review of the literature concerning the effects of psychotropic agents on viral replication, we suggest that the use of aripiprazole in HIV-infected subjects warrants further research.

  6. Low-dose aripiprazole resolved complex hallucinations in the left visual field after right occipital infarction (Charles Bonnet syndrome).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Cheng-Che; Liu, Hsing-Cheng

    2011-06-01

    We reported a patient who suffered from complex visual hallucinations with left homonymous hemianopsia. Brain imaging showed an acute haemorrhage infarct at the right occipital lobe. Charles Bonnet syndrome (CBS) was suspected and aripiprazole was prescribed at 5 mg daily. After 3 weeks, the symptoms of hallucinations and anxiety were relieved. Although some CBS patients might be self-limited without discomfort, low-dose aripiprazole can be considered as a safe medication for significantly anxious patients with CBS.

  7. No difference in frontal cortical activity during an executive functioning task after acute doses of aripiprazole and haloperidol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingeborg eBolstad

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Aripiprazole is an atypical antipsychotic drug that is characterized by partial dopamine D2 receptor agonism. Its pharmacodynamic profile is proposed to be beneficial in the treatment of cognitive impairment, which is prevalent in psychotic disorders. This study compared brain activation characteristics produced by aripiprazole with that of haloperidol, a typical D2 receptor antagonist, during a task targeting executive functioning.Methods: Healthy participants received an acute oral dose of haloperidol, aripiprazole or placebo before performing an executive functioning task while blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI was carried out. Results: There was a tendency towards reduced performance in the aripiprazole group compared to the two other groups. The image analysis yielded a strong task-related BOLD-fMRI response within each group. An uncorrected between-group analysis showed that aripiprazole challenge resulted in stronger activation in the frontal and temporal gyri and the putamen compared with haloperidol challenge, but after correcting for multiple testing there was no significant group difference. Conclusion: No significant group differences between aripiprazole and haloperidol in frontal cortical activation were obtained when corrected for multiple comparisons.This study is registered in ClinicalTrials.gov (identifier: 2009-016222-14; https://clinicaltrials.gov/.

  8. TARDIVE DYSKINESIA AND OTHER EXTRAPYRAMIDAL SYMPTOMS ASSOCIATED WITH ARIPIPRAZOLE: A CASE SERIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayana Sanjay

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Aripiprazole is a third generation antipsychotic introduced in 2004 for treatment of Schizophrenia and bipolar disorders. It has partial agonist activity at dopamine D2 receptor and D2 antagonist activity under hyperdopaminergic condition. In addition, it is a partial agonist at serotonin 5HT1A receptor and antagonist at 5HT2A receptor. Because its pharmacological profile differs from other atypical antipsychotics, it was initially thought to produce lesser side effects and movement disorders. But over the years, there is a growing body of evidence in the form of case reports and case series of Aripiprazole induced movement disorders like Tardive dyskinesia, Parkinsonism, akathisia and dystonia. Of late it has been advocated for irritability associated with autism and as an augmenter for depressive disorder. It has lower potential for weight gain and sedation, as it has relatively low affinity for H1 [Histamine] receptor compared to clozapine, olanzapine and quetiapine. Based on this unique mechanism, it is claimed to have minimal or non-significant motor side effects like Tardive dyskinesia. We document a case series of 8 patients who developed Tardive dyskinesia, Parkinsonism and akathisia following treatment with Aripiprazole (ARP. METHODS This is both retrospective and observational study. Patients from outpatient and inpatient department of a tertiary psychiatric teaching hospital with an ICD-10 diagnosis of psychiatric disorder, who has experienced movement disorder while on treatment with Aripiprazole are included in this report. All these patients were under the care of authors as treating Psychiatrists. Rating scales like Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale (AIMS, Naranjo’s Causality Scale, Barnes Akathisia Rating Scale (BARS and Simpson Angus extrapyramidal Scale (SAS were used. RESULTS Total of eight patients presented with various movement disorders associated with Aripiprazole, out of which three patients with tardive

  9. Aripiprazole Improves Associated Comorbid Conditions in Addition to Tics in Adult Patients with Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerasch, Sarah; Kanaan, Ahmad Seif; Jakubovski, Ewgeni; Müller-Vahl, Kirsten R

    2016-01-01

    Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome (GTS) is characterized by motor and vocal tics, as well as associated comorbid conditions including obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), depression, and anxiety which are present in a substantial number of patients. Although randomized controlled trials including a large number of patients are still missing, aripiprazole is currently considered as a first choice drug for the treatment of tics. The aim of this study was to further investigate efficacy and safety of aripiprazole in a group of drug-free, adult patients. Specifically, we investigated the influence of aripiprazole on tic severity, comorbidities, premonitory urge (PU), and quality of life (QoL). Moreover, we were interested in the factors that influence a patient's decision in electing for-or against- pharmacological treatment. In this prospective uncontrolled open-label study, we included 44 patients and used a number of rating scales to assess tic severity, PU, comorbidities, and QoL at baseline and during treatment with aripiprazole. Eighteen out of fortyfour patients decided for undergoing treatment for their tics with aripiprazole and completed follow-up assessments after 4-6 weeks. Our major findings were (1) aripiprazole resulted in significant reduction of tics, but did not affect PU; (2) aripiprazole significantly improved OCD and showed a trend toward improvement of other comorbidities including depression, anxiety, and ADHD; (3) neither severity of tics, nor PU or QoL influenced patients' decisions for or against treatment of tics with aripiprazole; instead patients with comorbid OCD tended to decide in favor of, while patients with comorbid ADHD tended to decide against tic treatment; (4) most frequently reported adverse effects were sleeping problems; (5) patients' QoL was mostly impaired by comorbid depression. Our results suggest that aripiprazole may improve associated comorbid conditions in addition to tics

  10. A retrospective study of predictive factors for effective aripiprazole augmentation of antidepressant therapy in treatment-resistant depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugawara H

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Hiroko Sugawara,1,2 Kaoru Sakamoto,1 Tsuyoto Harada,3 Satoru Shimizu,4 Jun Ishigooka1 1Department of Psychiatry, Tokyo Women’s Medical University, 2Support Center for Women Health Care Professionals and Researchers, Tokyo Women’s Medical University, Shinjuku-ku, 3Department of Psychiatry, Tokyo Women’s Medical University Medical Center East, Arakawa-ku, 4Department of Research, Medical Research Institute, Tokyo Women’s Medical University, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo, Japan Background: Several studies have evaluated the efficacy and tolerability of aripiprazole for augmentation of antidepressant therapy for treatment-resistant depression (TRD. Here, we investigated the efficacy of aripiprazole augmentation for TRD including both major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder and the clinical predictors of treatment efficacy in a Japanese population.  Methods: Eighty-five depressed Japanese patients who underwent aripiprazole augmentation therapy after failing to respond satisfactorily to antidepressant monotherapy were included in the study. Treatment responses were evaluated based on Clinical Global Impression Improvement scores assessed 8 weeks after initiation of aripiprazole administration. We compared demographic and diagnostic variables, psychiatric medication variables, and clinical variables between remission and nonremission groups.  Results: The aripiprazole augmentation remission rate was 36.5%. Multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that aripiprazole augmentation was significantly more effective for bipolar depression than for major depressive disorder, and both absence of comorbid anxiety disorders and current episode duration >3 months were significantly associated with the efficacy of aripiprazole augmentation.  Conclusion: Polarity of depression, comorbidity of anxiety disorders, and current episode duration may predict the efficacy of aripiprazole augmentation for TRD including both major depressive disorder and

  11. Aripiprazole Improves Associated Comorbid Conditions in Addition to Tics in Adult Patients with Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerasch, Sarah; Kanaan, Ahmad Seif; Jakubovski, Ewgeni; Müller-Vahl, Kirsten R

    2016-01-01

    Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome (GTS) is characterized by motor and vocal tics, as well as associated comorbid conditions including obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), depression, and anxiety which are present in a substantial number of patients. Although randomized controlled trials including a large number of patients are still missing, aripiprazole is currently considered as a first choice drug for the treatment of tics. The aim of this study was to further investigate efficacy and safety of aripiprazole in a group of drug-free, adult patients. Specifically, we investigated the influence of aripiprazole on tic severity, comorbidities, premonitory urge (PU), and quality of life (QoL). Moreover, we were interested in the factors that influence a patient's decision in electing for-or against- pharmacological treatment. In this prospective uncontrolled open-label study, we included 44 patients and used a number of rating scales to assess tic severity, PU, comorbidities, and QoL at baseline and during treatment with aripiprazole. Eighteen out of fortyfour patients decided for undergoing treatment for their tics with aripiprazole and completed follow-up assessments after 4-6 weeks. Our major findings were (1) aripiprazole resulted in significant reduction of tics, but did not affect PU; (2) aripiprazole significantly improved OCD and showed a trend toward improvement of other comorbidities including depression, anxiety, and ADHD; (3) neither severity of tics, nor PU or QoL influenced patients' decisions for or against treatment of tics with aripiprazole; instead patients with comorbid OCD tended to decide in favor of, while patients with comorbid ADHD tended to decide against tic treatment; (4) most frequently reported adverse effects were sleeping problems; (5) patients' QoL was mostly impaired by comorbid depression. Our results suggest that aripiprazole may improve associated comorbid conditions in addition to tics

  12. Aripiprazole Improves Associated Comorbid Conditions in Addition to Tics in Adult Patients with Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerasch, Sarah; Kanaan, Ahmad Seif; Jakubovski, Ewgeni; Müller-Vahl, Kirsten R.

    2016-01-01

    Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome (GTS) is characterized by motor and vocal tics, as well as associated comorbid conditions including obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), depression, and anxiety which are present in a substantial number of patients. Although randomized controlled trials including a large number of patients are still missing, aripiprazole is currently considered as a first choice drug for the treatment of tics. The aim of this study was to further investigate efficacy and safety of aripiprazole in a group of drug-free, adult patients. Specifically, we investigated the influence of aripiprazole on tic severity, comorbidities, premonitory urge (PU), and quality of life (QoL). Moreover, we were interested in the factors that influence a patient's decision in electing for-or against- pharmacological treatment. In this prospective uncontrolled open-label study, we included 44 patients and used a number of rating scales to assess tic severity, PU, comorbidities, and QoL at baseline and during treatment with aripiprazole. Eighteen out of fortyfour patients decided for undergoing treatment for their tics with aripiprazole and completed follow-up assessments after 4–6 weeks. Our major findings were (1) aripiprazole resulted in significant reduction of tics, but did not affect PU; (2) aripiprazole significantly improved OCD and showed a trend toward improvement of other comorbidities including depression, anxiety, and ADHD; (3) neither severity of tics, nor PU or QoL influenced patients' decisions for or against treatment of tics with aripiprazole; instead patients with comorbid OCD tended to decide in favor of, while patients with comorbid ADHD tended to decide against tic treatment; (4) most frequently reported adverse effects were sleeping problems; (5) patients' QoL was mostly impaired by comorbid depression. Our results suggest that aripiprazole may improve associated comorbid conditions in addition to tics

  13. Aripiprazole augmentation in poor insight obsessive-compulsive disorder: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinciguerra Valentina

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obsessive-compulsive disorder is associated with a relevant impairment in social and interpersonal functioning and severe disability. This seems to be particularly true for the poor insight subtype, characterised by a lack of consciousness of illness and, consequently, compliance with treatment. Poor responsiveness to serotonergic drugs in poor insight obsessive-compulsive patients may also require an augmentation therapy with atypical antipsychotics. Methods We reviewed a case in which a patient with a long history of poor insight obsessive-compulsive disorder was treated with a high dosage of serotonin reuptake inhibitors. Results The treatment resulted in a poor outcome. This patient was therefore augmentated with aripiprazole. Conclusion Doctors should consider aripiprazole as a possible augmentation strategy for serotonergic poor responder obsessive-compulsive patients, but further research on these subjects is needed.

  14. Verbessert sich das Gedächtnis euthymer bipolarer Patienten durch die Behandlung mit Aripiprazol?

    OpenAIRE

    Bellmann, Katharina

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Medical treatment in bipolar disorder has been more focused on dealing with the acute phase of the illness and preventing future relapse rather than treating cognitive dysfunctions. Cognitive impairment in bipolar patients is related to the central vulnerability of the dopaminergic and serotonergic system. Aripiprazole as a partial agonist at D2/D3- and 5HT1A- receptors includes activity in the dopaminergic and serotonergic systems. Previous studies on animals and schizophrenic pa...

  15. Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a particular food provides to the body. A chocolate bar has more calories than an apple, so ... More Common in People With Type 1 Diabetes Metabolic Syndrome Your Child's Weight Healthy Eating Endocrine System Blood ...

  16. Effects of amisulpride and aripiprazole on progressive-ratio schedule performance: comparison with clozapine and haloperidol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    den Boon, F S; Body, S; Hampson, C L; Bradshaw, C M; Szabadi, E; de Bruin, N

    2012-09-01

    Clozapine and some other atypical antipsychotics (e.g. quetiapine, olanzapine) have been found to exert a characteristic profile of action on operant behaviour maintained by progressive-ratio schedules, as revealed by Killeen's Mathematical Principles of Reinforcement model of schedule-controlled behaviour. These drugs increase the value of a parameter that expresses the 'incentive value' of the reinforcer (a) and a parameter that is inversely related to the organism's 'motor capacity' (δ). This experiment examined the effects of two further atypical antipsychotics, aripiprazole and amisulpride, on progressive-ratio schedule performance in rats; the effects of clozapine and a conventional antipsychotic, haloperidol, were also examined. In agreement with previous findings, clozapine (4, 8 mg kg⁻¹) increased a and δ, whereas haloperidol (0.05, 0.1 mg kg⁻¹) reduced a and increased δ. Aripiprazole (3,30 mg kg⁻¹) increased δ but did not affect a. Amisulpride (5, 50 mg kg⁻¹) had a delayed and protracted effect: δ was increased 3-6 hours after treatment; a was increased 1.5 hours, and reduced 12-24 hours after treatment. Interpretation based on Killeen's model suggests that aripiprazole does not share clozapine's ability to enhance reinforcer value. Amisulpride produced a short-lived enhancement, followed by a long-lasting reduction, of reinforcer value. Both drugs impaired motor performance.

  17. Successful treatment of catatonic syndrome in bipolar I disorder adding aripiprazole to ECT: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Hidalgo, MD

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Catatonic syndrome is a condition presenting in multiple ways, sharing many of them with the neuroleptic malignant syndrome and other diseases. This diagnostic challenge is the main cause of keep treating catatonic syndromes without neuroleptics. Methods: Review of the literature and a case report. Results: We present the case of a 19 years old bipolar I patient with a severe catatonic syndrome, with a torpid clinical evolution, partial response to benzodiazepines and ECT, which successfully resolved with intramuscular aripiprazole. We found through a systematic review (PubMed 2005-2010 that there are few but significant case reports of catatonic syndromes treated with new second generation antipsychotics for different reasons with good outcomes as ours. The pharmacological profile of aripiprazole and the low incidence of NMS reported make it a suitable option in treating this syndrome. Conclusions: We think that this case report could contribute to add more evidence for aripiprazole to be considered a good third-line option in the treatment of catatonic syndrome. However, this would require randomized controlled trials to confirm its effectiveness and safety.

  18. Combination of omega-3 Fatty acids, lithium, and aripiprazole reduces oxidative stress in brain of mice with mania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arunagiri, Pandiyan; Rajeshwaran, Krishnamoorthy; Shanthakumar, Janakiraman; Tamilselvan, Thangavel; Balamurugan, Elumalai

    2014-09-01

    Manic episode in bipolar disorder (BD) was evaluated in the present study with supplementation of omega-3 fatty acids in combination with aripiprazole and lithium on methylphenidate (MPD)-induced manic mice model. Administration of MPD 5 mg/kg bw intraperitoneally (i.p.) caused increase in oxidative stress in mice brain. To retract this effect, supplementation of omega-3 fatty acids 1.5 ml/kg (p.o.), aripiprazole 1.5 mg/kg bw (i.p.), and lithium 50 mg/kg bw (p.o) were given to mice. Omega-3 fatty acids alone and in combination with aripiprazole- and lithium-treated groups significantly reduced the levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and lipid peroxidation products (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances) in the brain. MPD treatment significantly decreased the reduced glutathione (GSH) level and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity, and they were restored by supplementation of omega-3 fatty acids with aripiprazole and lithium. There is no remarkable difference in the effect of creatine kinase (CK) activity between MPD-induced manic model and the treatment groups. Therefore, our results demonstrate that oxidative stress imbalance and mild insignificant CK alterations induced by administration of MPD can be restored back to normal physiological levels through omega-3 fatty acids combined with lithium and aripiprazole that attributes to effective prevention against mania in adult male Swiss albino mice.

  19. Clinical Usefulness of Aripiprazole and Lamotrigine in Schizoaffective Presentation of Tuberous Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung-Yup; Min, Jung-Ah; Lee, In Goo; Kim, Jung Jin

    2016-01-01

    Tuberous sclerosis is not as rare as once thought and has high psychiatric comorbidities. However, bipolar or psychotic features associated with tuberous sclerosis have been rarely reported. This report first presents a tuberous sclerosis patient, resembling a schizoaffective disorder of bipolar type. A patient with known tuberous sclerosis displayed mood fluctuation and psychotic features. Her symptoms did not remit along with several psychiatric medications. After hospitalization, the patient responded well with lamotrigine and aripiprazole without exacerbation. As demonstrated in this case, tuberous sclerosis may also encompass bipolar affective or psychotic features. We would like to point out the necessity to consider bipolarity in evaluating and treating tuberous sclerosis. PMID:27489387

  20. Add-on effects of a low-dose aripiprazole in resolving hyperprolactinemia induced by risperidone or paliperidone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Ying; Yang, Fuzhong; Li, Chunbo; Guo, Qian; Wen, Hui; Zhu, Suoyu; Ouyang, Qiong; Shen, Weidi; Sheng, Jianhua

    2016-03-30

    This study investigated the effects of a low-dose aripiprazole adjunctive treatment for risperidone- or paliperidone-induced hyperprolactinemia in Han Chinese women with schizophrenia. After 4 weeks of risperidone or paliperidone treatment, 60 out of 66 patients improved significantly and experienced hyperprolactinemia. They were randomly assigned to the treatment group (aripiprazole adjunctive treatment) (n=30) or control group (non-adjunctive treatment) (n=30). The dosage of risperidone and paliperidone were maintained; and aripiprazole was maintained at 5mg/day during the 8-week study period. The prolactin levels at the end of the 8th week were significantly lower in the treatment group than in the control group. The estradiol level correlated negatively with serum prolactin level both in the treatment group and the control group at the end of the 8th week and the 4th week respectively. The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale score improved significantly during the 8-week study period in both groups. The incidence of treatment-emergent adverse event was similar in two groups. Low-dose aripiprazole adjunctive treatment is effective in relieving risperidone- and paliperidone-induced hyperprolactinemia in female schizophrenic patients without increasing adverse event. PMID:26921057

  1. A Placebo-Controlled, Fixed-Dose Study of Aripiprazole in Children and Adolescents with Irritability Associated with Autistic Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, Ronald N.; Owen, Randall; Kamen, Lisa; Manos, George; McQuade, Robert D.; Carson, William H.; Aman, Michael G.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the short-term efficacy and safety of aripiprazole in the treatment of irritability in children and adolescents with autistic disorder. Method: Two hundred eighteen children and adolescents (aged 6-17 years) with a diagnosis of autistic disorder, and with behaviors such as tantrums, aggression, self-injurious behavior, or a…

  2. Neural correlates of delusional infestation responding to aripiprazole monotherapy: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ponson L

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Laura Ponson,1,2 Frédéric Andersson,1 Wissam El-Hage1,2 1Université François-Rabelais de Tours, Inserm, Imagerie et Cerveau UMR U930, Tours, France, 2CHRU de Tours, Clinique Psychiatrique Universitaire, Tours, France Background: The pathophysiology and appropriate pharmacological interventions for delusional infestation remain unknown.Case presentation: Here, we report a case of primary delusional infestation successfully treated with aripiprazole. We performed functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI to investigate brain structures and functional modifications. Before antipsychotic treatment, pre- versus post-treatment fMRI images revealed a marked increase in brain activation in the supplementary motor area (SMA.Conclusion: Our results highlight the efficacy and safety of aripiprazole in the treatment of delusional infestation and the possible role of SMA dysfunction in delusional infestation. Indeed, our results suggest that psychiatric improvement of delusional infestation is associated with normalization of brain activity, particularly in the SMA. Keywords: supplementary motor area, antipsychotics, fMRI

  3. Determining Whether a Definitive Causal Relationship Exists Between Aripiprazole and Tardive Dyskinesia and/or Dystonia in Patients With Major Depressive Disorder, Part 3: Clinical Trial Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preskorn, Sheldon H; Macaluso, Matthew

    2016-03-01

    This series of columns has 3 main goals: (1) to explain class warnings as used by the United States Food and Drug Administration, (2) to increase awareness of movement disorders that may occur in patients treated with antipsychotic medications, and (3) to understand why clinicians should refrain from immediately assuming a diagnosis of tardive dyskinesia/dystonia (TD) in patients who develop abnormal movements during treatment with antipsychotics. The first column in the series presented a patient who developed abnormal movements while being treated with aripiprazole as an augmentation strategy for major depressive disorder (MDD) and reviewed data concerning the historical background, incidence, prevalence, and risk factors for tardive and spontaneous dyskinesias, the clinical presentations of which closely resemble each other. The second column in the series reviewed the unique mechanism of action of aripiprazole and preclinical studies and an early-phase human translational study that suggest a low, if not absent, risk of TD with aripiprazole. This column reviews clinical trial data to assess whether those data support the conclusion that aripiprazole has a low to absent risk of causing TD when used as an augmentation strategy to treat MDD. To date, no randomized, placebo-controlled trials have established a definitive link between exposure to aripiprazole and TD in patients with MDD. One long-term, open-label, safety trial examined aripiprazole as an augmentation strategy in individuals with MDD and found a rare occurrence (4/987, 0.4%, the confidence interval of which overlaps with zero) of an adverse event termed TD. In all 4 cases, the observed movements resolved within weeks of aripiprazole discontinuation, suggesting that they were either amenable to treatment or represented an acute syndrome rather than TD. No cases of TD were reported in the registration trials for the MDD indication for aripiprazole. These data were presented in a pooled analysis of

  4. Effects of acute and chronic aripiprazole treatment on choice between cocaine self-administration and food under a concurrent schedule of reinforcement in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Morgane; Fink-Jensen, Anders; Woldbye, David;

    2008-01-01

    the hypothesis that aripiprazole, both as acute and as chronic treatment, would preferentially decrease cocaine self-administration while sparing behavior maintained by a natural reinforcer, resulting in a shift in the allocation of behavior from cocaine-taking towards the alternative reinforcer. MATERIALS...... performance in the choice procedure was assessed daily. RESULTS: An intermediate dose of aripiprazole decreased cocaine self-administration and shifted the cocaine choice curve to the right as an acute treatment. However, as a chronic treatment, aripiprazole failed to decrease cocaine self-administration...... or cocaine choice, despite a dose-dependent decrease in overall response rates and food-maintained behavior. CONCLUSIONS: Our results confirm and extend earlier findings and indicate that acute administration of aripiprazole can decrease cocaine self-administration. However, based on the present data...

  5. No negative symptoms in healthy volunteers after single doses of amisulpride, aripiprazole, and haloperidol: a double-blind placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chul-Hyun; Park, Tae-Won; Yang, Jong-Chul; Lee, Keon-Hak; Huang, Guang-Biao; Tong, Zhao; Park, Myung-Sook; Chung, Young-Chul

    2012-03-01

    Noncompliance and poor outcome in patients with schizophrenia are closely related to the negative symptoms secondary to antipsychotics. No controlled study has evaluated whether amisulpride and aripiprazole induce negative symptoms. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of single doses of amisulpride, aripiprazole, haloperidol, and risperidone in healthy volunteers. Seventy-eight young volunteers took part in this double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel study of four antipsychotics: 400 mg amisulpride, 10 mg aripiprazole, 3 mg haloperidol, and 2 mg risperidone. Assessments of negative symptoms were done 4 h after administration using both subjective rating scales (Neuroleptic Induced Deficit Syndrome Scale and Subjective Deficit Syndrome Scale) and an objective rating scale (Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms). Risperidone only produced significant increases on the avolition score of the Neuroleptic Induced Deficit Syndrome Scale and blunted affect and alogia scores of the Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms compared with placebo. The effect on blunted affect persisted after controlling for mental sedation. Amisulpride, aripiprazole, and haloperidol did not induce negative symptoms. Aripiprazole and risperidone induced mild extrapyramidal symptoms. The most common adverse events were somnolence and cognitive slowing. These data indicate that a single risperidone dose induces negative symptoms in normal volunteers, whereas amisulpride, aripiprazole, and haloperidol do not. These characteristics of antipsychotics should be considered when choosing optimal drugs for patients with psychosis.

  6. Determining Whether a Definitive Causal Relationship Exists Between Aripiprazole and Tardive Dyskinesia and/or Dystonia in Patients With Major Depressive Disorder, Part 4: Case Report Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macaluso, Matthew; Flynn, Alexandra; Preskorn, Sheldon

    2016-05-01

    This series of columns has 3 main goals: (1) to explain class warnings as used by the United States Food and Drug Administration, (2) to increase awareness of movement disorders that may occur in patients treated with antipsychotic medications, and (3) to understand why clinicians should refrain from immediately assuming a diagnosis of tardive dyskinesia/dystonia (TD) in patients who develop abnormal movements during treatment with antipsychotics. The first column in the series presented a patient who developed abnormal movements while being treated with aripiprazole as an augmentation strategy for major depressive disorder and reviewed data concerning the historical background, incidence, prevalence, and risk factors for tardive and spontaneous dyskinesias, the clinical presentations of which closely resemble each other. The second column in the series reviewed the unique mechanism of action of aripiprazole and reviewed preclinical studies and an early-phase human translational study that suggest a low, if not absent, risk of TD with aripiprazole. The third column in this series reviewed the registration trial data for aripiprazole across all of its indications and found a raw incidence of TD ranging from 0.004 (4 out of 987) in long-term studies of the drug as an augmentation strategy for major depressive disorder to 0.0016 (19 out of 11,897) based on all short-term (ie, weeks to <6 mo) and long-term (6 mo to 1 y) studies combined. This fourth column in the series reviews the "real-world" data on aripiprazole and assesses whether these data also support the conclusion that aripiprazole has a low to absent risk of causing TD. The "real-world" data consist of case reports from the medical literature and the United States Food and Drug Administration Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS). We found 37 cases in the medical literature reporting what was termed TD in association with aripiprazole treatment as well as 27 case reports suggesting improvement in

  7. Safety and efficacy of aripiprazole for the treatment of pediatric Tourette syndrome and other chronic tic disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cox JH

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Joanna H Cox,1 Stefano Seri,2,3 Andrea E Cavanna,2,4,5 1Heart of England NHS Foundation Trust, 2School of Life and Health Sciences, Aston Brain Centre, Aston University, 3Children’s Epilepsy Surgery Programme, The Birmingham Children’s Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, 4Department of Neuropsychiatry, Birmingham and Solihull Mental Health NHS Foundation Trust, Birmingham, 5Sobell Department of Motor Neuroscience and Movement Disorders, Institute of Neurology and UCL, London, UK Abstract: Tourette syndrome is a childhood-onset chronic tic disorder characterized by multiple motor and vocal tics and often accompanied by specific behavioral symptoms ranging from obsessionality to impulsivity. A considerable proportion of patients report significant impairment in health-related quality of life caused by the severity of their tics and behavioral symptoms and require medical intervention. The most commonly used medications are antidopaminergic agents, which have been consistently shown to be effective for tic control, but are also associated with poor tolerability because of their adverse effects. The newer antipsychotic medication aripiprazole is characterized by a unique mechanism of action (D2 partial agonism, and over the last decade has increasingly been used for the treatment of tics. We conducted a systematic literature review to assess the available evidence on the efficacy and safety of aripiprazole in pediatric patients with Tourette syndrome and other chronic tic disorders (age range: 4–18 years. Our search identified two randomized controlled trials (involving 60 and 61 participants and ten open-label studies (involving between six and 81 participants. The majority of these studies used two validated clinician-rated instruments (Yale Global Tic Severity Scale and Clinical Global Impression scale as primary outcome measures. The combined results from randomized controlled trials and open-label studies showed that aripiprazole is an

  8. Dilemma of prescribing aripiprazole under the Taiwan health insurance program: a descriptive study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsu YC

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Yi-Chien Hsu,1,2 Yu-Ching Chou,3 Hsin-An Chang,1,2,4 Yu-Chen Kao,1,2,5 San-Yuan Huang,1,2 Nian-Sheng Tzeng1,2,4 1Department of Psychiatry, Tri-Service General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan; 2School of Medicine, 3School of Public Health, 4Student Counseling Center, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan; 5Department of Psychiatry, Tri-Service General Hospital, Song-Shan Branch, Taipei, Taiwan Objectives: Refractory major depressive disorder (MDD is a serious problem leading to a heavy economic burden. Antipsychotic augmentation treatment with aripiprazole and quetiapine is approved for MDD patients and can achieve a high remission rate. This study aimed to examine how psychiatrists in Taiwan choose medications and how that choice is influenced by health insurance payments and administrative policy.Design: Descriptive study.Outcome measures: Eight questions about the choice of treatment strategy and atypical antipsychotics, and the reason to choose aripiprazole.Intervention: We designed an augmentation strategy questionnaire for psychiatrists whose patients had a poor response to antidepressants, and handed it out during the annual meeting of the Taiwanese Society of Psychiatry in October 2012. It included eight questions addressing the choice of treatment strategy and atypical antipsychotics, and the reason whether or not to choose aripiprazole as the augmentation antipsychotic.Results: Choosing antipsychotic augmentation therapy or switching to other antidepressant strategies for MDD patients with an inadequate response to antidepressants was common with a similar probability (76.1% vs 76.4%. The most frequently used antipsychotics were aripiprazole and quetiapine, however a substantial number of psychiatrists chose olanzapine, risperidone, and sulpiride. The major reason for not choosing aripiprazole was cost (52.1%, followed by insurance official policy audit and deletion in the claims review system (30.1%.Conclusion: The prescribing

  9. Enhancement of encapsulation efficiency of nanoemulsion-containing aripiprazole for the treatment of schizophrenia using mixture experimental design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fard Masoumi HR

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Hamid Reza Fard Masoumi, Mahiran Basri, Wan Sarah Samiun, Zahra Izadiyan, Chaw Jiang Lim Nanodelivery Group, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia Abstract: Aripiprazole is considered as a third-generation antipsychotic drug with excellent therapeutic efficacy in controlling schizophrenia symptoms and was the first atypical anti­psychotic agent to be approved by the US Food and Drug Administration. Formulation of nanoemulsion-containing aripiprazole was carried out using high shear and high pressure homo­genizers. Mixture experimental design was selected to optimize the composition of nanoemulsion. A very small droplet size of emulsion can provide an effective encapsulation for delivery system in the body. The effects of palm kernel oil ester (3–6 wt%, lecithin (2–3 wt%, Tween 80 (0.5–1 wt%, glycerol (1.5–3 wt%, and water (87–93 wt% on the droplet size of aripiprazole nanoemulsions were investigated. The mathematical model showed that the optimum formulation for preparation of aripiprazole nanoemulsion having the desirable criteria was 3.00% of palm kernel oil ester, 2.00% of lecithin, 1.00% of Tween 80, 2.25% of glycerol, and 91.75% of water. Under optimum formulation, the corresponding predicted response value for droplet size was 64.24 nm, which showed an excellent agreement with the actual value (62.23 nm with residual standard error <3.2%. Keywords: schizoaffective disorder, antipsychotic drug, bipolar I disorder, D-optimal mixture design, optimization formulation

  10. Switching to Aripiprazole as a Strategy for Weight Reduction: A Meta-Analysis in Patients Suffering from Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoram Barak

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Weight gain is one of the major drawbacks associated with the pharmacological treatment of schizophrenia. Existing strategies for the prevention and treatment of obesity amongst these patients are disappointing. Switching the current antipsychotic to another that may favorably affect weight is not yet fully established in the psychiatric literature. This meta-analysis focused on switching to aripiprazole as it has a pharmacological and clinical profile that may result in an improved weight control. Nine publications from seven countries worldwide were analyzed. These encompassed 784 schizophrenia and schizoaffective patients, 473 (60% men and 311 (40% women, mean age 39.4±7.0 years. The major significant finding was a mean weight reduction by −2.55±1.5 kgs following the switch to aripiprazole (<.001. Switching to an antipsychotic with a lower propensity to induce weight gain needs be explored as a strategy. Our analysis suggests aripiprazole as a candidate for such a treatment strategy.

  11. Aripiprazole Lauroxil Long-Acting Injectable: The Latest Addition to Second-Generation Long-Acting Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Arpit; Gopalakrishna, Ganesh; Lauriello, John

    2016-01-01

    Antipsychotics have long been the mainstay for the treatment of schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders. Long-acting injectables (LAI) of antipsychotics-provided once every two weeks to once every three months-promise to reduce the incidence of nonadherence. ARISTADA(™) (aripiprazole lauroxil; ALLAI) extended-release injectable suspension was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration in October 2015 for the treatment of schizophrenia, and is the newest entrant in the LAI market. ALLAI is available as a single-use, pre-filled syringe, can be started in three different dosages, and also has the option of every six-week dosing. Treatment with oral aripiprazole is recommended for the first twenty-one days after the first ALLAI injection, which is a potential disadvantage. Adverse effects include sensitivity to extrapyramidal symptoms, especially akathisia, which is well documented in other aripiprazole preparations. There is no available data comparing ALLAI to other antipsychotics, and more head-to-head trials comparing different LAI formulations are needed. Based on the available data, ALLAI is an effective and safe option for treatment of schizophrenia. Further studies and post-marketing data will provide better understanding of this formulation. PMID:27074333

  12. SPE-UPLC-MS/MS method for sensitive and rapid determination of aripiprazole in human plasma to support a bioequivalence study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Daxesh P; Sharma, Primal; Sanyal, Mallika; Shrivastav, Pranav S

    2013-04-15

    An improved and rugged UPLC-MS/MS method has been developed and validated for sensitive and rapid determination of aripiprazole in human plasma using aripiprazole-d8 as the internal standard (IS). The analyte and IS were extracted from 100 μL of human plasma by solid-phase extraction using Phenomenex Strata-X (30 mg, 1 cc) cartridges. Chromatography was achieved on an Acquity UPLC BEH C18 (50 mm × 2.1 mm, 1.7 μm) analytical column using methanol: 10mM ammonium formate (85:15, v/v) as the mobile phase with isocratic elution. Quantitation was done using multiple reaction monitoring in the positive ionization mode. The linearity of the method was established in the concentration range 0.05-80 ng/mL. The mean extraction recovery was greater than 96% across QC levels, while intra- and inter batch accuracy and precision (% CV) values ranged from 97.4 to 101.9% and from 1.20 to 3.72% respectively. The relative matrix effect in eight different lots of plasma samples, expressed as % CV for the calculated slopes of calibration curves was 1.08%. The stability of aripiprazole was studied under different storage conditions. The validated method was used to support a bioequivalence study of 10mg aripiprazole formulation in 36 healthy Indian subjects. PMID:23510852

  13. Aripiprazole in the maintenance treatment of bipolar disorder: a critical review of the evidence and its dissemination into the scientific literature.

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    Alexander C Tsai

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Aripiprazole, a second-generation antipsychotic medication, has been increasingly used in the maintenance treatment of bipolar disorder and received approval from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for this indication in 2005. Given its widespread use, we sought to critically review the evidence supporting the use of aripiprazole in the maintenance treatment of bipolar disorder and examine how that evidence has been disseminated in the scientific literature. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We systematically searched multiple databases to identify double-blind, randomized controlled trials of aripiprazole for the maintenance treatment of bipolar disorder while excluding other types of studies, such as open-label, acute, and adjunctive studies. We then used a citation search to identify articles that cited these trials and rated the quality of their citations. Our evidence search protocol identified only two publications, both describing the results of a single trial conducted by Keck et al., which met criteria for inclusion in this review. We describe four issues that limit the interpretation of that trial as supporting the use of aripiprazole for bipolar maintenance: (1 insufficient duration to demonstrate maintenance efficacy; (2 limited generalizability due to its enriched sample; (3 possible conflation of iatrogenic adverse effects of abrupt medication discontinuation with beneficial effects of treatment; and (4 a low overall completion rate. Our citation search protocol yielded 80 publications that cited the Keck et al. trial in discussing the use of aripiprazole for bipolar maintenance. Of these, only 24 (30% mentioned adverse events reported and four (5% mentioned study limitations. CONCLUSIONS: A single trial by Keck et al. represents the entirety of the literature on the use of aripiprazole for the maintenance treatment of bipolar disorder. Although careful review identifies four critical limitations to the trial's interpretation

  14. Combining moderators to identify clinical profiles of patients who will, and will not, benefit from aripiprazole augmentation for treatment resistant late-life major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smagula, Stephen F; Wallace, Meredith L; Anderson, Stewart J; Karp, Jordan F; Lenze, Eric J; Mulsant, Benoit H; Butters, Meryl A; Blumberger, Daniel M; Diniz, Breno S; Lotrich, Francis E; Dew, Mary Amanda; Reynolds, Charles F

    2016-10-01

    Personalizing treatment for late-life depression requires identifying and integrating information from multiple factors that influence treatment efficacy (moderators). We performed exploratory moderator analyses using data from a multi-site, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial of aripiprazole augmentation. Patients (n = 159) aged ≥60 years had major depressive disorder that failed to remit with venlafaxine monotherapy. We examined effect sizes of 39 potential moderators of aripiprazole (vs. placebo) augmentation efficacy using the outcome of percentage reduction in depressive symptom after 12 weeks. We then incorporated information from the individually relevant variables in combined moderators. A larger aripiprazole treatment effect was related to: white race, better physical function, better performance on Trail-Making, attention, immediate, and delayed memory tests, greater psychomotor agitation and suicidality symptoms, and a history of adequate antidepressant pharmacotherapy. A smaller aripiprazole treatment effect was observed in patients with: more pain and more work/activity impairment and libido symptoms. Combining information from race and Trail-Making test performance (base combined moderator (Mb*)) produced a larger effect size (Spearman effect size = 0.29 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.15, 0.42)) than any individual moderator. Adding other individually relevant moderators in the full combined moderator (Mf*) further improved effect size (Spearman effect size = 0.39 (95% CI: 0.25, 0.52)) and identified a sub-group benefiting more from placebo plus continuation venlafaxine monotherapy than adjunctive aripiprazole. Combining moderators can help clinicians personalize depression treatment. We found the majority of our patients benefited from adjunctive aripiprazole, but a smaller subgroup that is identifiable using clinical measures appeared to benefit more from continuation venlafaxine plus placebo. PMID:27438687

  15. The effect of antipsychotic medication on sexual function and serum prolactin levels in community-treated schizophrenic patients: results from the Schizophrenia Trial of Aripiprazole (STAR study (NCT00237913

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    Pans Miranda

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this paper is to evaluate the effect of antipsychotics for the treatment of schizophrenia in a community based study on sexual function and prolactin levels comparing the use of aripiprazole and standard of care (SOC, which was a limited choice of three widely used and available antipsychotics (olanzapine, quetiapine or risperidone (The Schizophrenia Trial of Aripiprazole [STAR] study [NCT00237913]. Method This open-label, 26-week, multi-centre, randomised study compared aripiprazole to SOC (olanzapine, quetiapine or risperidone in patients with schizophrenia (DSM-IV-TR criteria. The primary effectiveness variable was the mean total score of the Investigator Assessment Questionnaire (IAQ at Week 26. The outcome research variables included the Arizona Sexual Experience scale (ASEX. This along with the data collected on serum prolactin levels at week 4, 8, 12, 18 and 26 will be the focus of this paper. Results A total of 555 patients were randomised to receive aripiprazole (n = 284 or SOC (n = 271. Both treatment groups experienced improvements in sexual function from baseline ASEX assessments. However at 8 weeks the aripiprazole treatment group reported significantly greater improvement compared with the SOC group (p = 0.007; OC. Although baseline mean serum prolactin levels were similar in the two treatment groups (43.4 mg/dL in the aripiprazole group and 42.3 mg/dL in the SOC group, p = NS at Week 26 OC, mean decreases in serum prolactin were 34.2 mg/dL in the aripiprazole group, compared with 13.3 mg/dL in the SOC group (p Conclusion The study findings suggest that aripiprazole has the potential to reduce sexual dysfunction, which in turn might improve patient compliance.

  16. Efficacy and tolerability of aripiprazole once monthly for schizophrenia: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

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    Oya K

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Kazuto Oya, Taro Kishi, Nakao Iwata Department of Psychiatry, Fujita Health University School of Medicine, Toyoake, Aichi, Japan Objective: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of the efficacy of aripiprazole once monthly (AOM for schizophrenia.Methods: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs on AOM, published until June 25, 2015, were retrieved from PubMed, Cochrane, and PsycINFO databases. Relative risk (RR, standardized mean difference (SMD, 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs, and numbers needed to treat/harm (NNT/NNH were calculated.Results: We identified four relevant RCTs (total n=1,860, two placebo-controlled trials, one noninferiority trial comparing AOM to oral aripiprazole (OA, and one including therapeutic doses of AOM and OA, as well as an AOM dose below therapeutic threshold (control arm. AOM was superior to placebo for decreasing Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS total scores (SMD =-0.65, 95% CI =-0.90 to -0.41, n=1,126. However, PANSS total scores did not differ significantly between pooled AOM and OA groups. The pooled AOM group showed significantly lower incidence of all-cause discontinuation (RR =0.54, 95% CI =0.41–0.71, n=1,139, NNH =4 and inefficacy (RR =0.28, 95% CI =0.21–0.38, n=1,139, NNH =5 than placebo, but was not superior to placebo regarding discontinuation due to adverse events (AEs or death. The AOM group exhibited a lower incidence of all-cause discontinuation than OA (RR =0.78, 95% CI =0.64–0.95, n=986, NNH =14, but there were no intergroup differences in discontinuation due to inefficacy, AEs, or death. There were no significant differences in extrapyramidal symptoms scale scores between AOM and placebo or between AOM and OA. AOM resulted in higher weight gain than placebo (SMD =0.41, 95% CI =0.18–0.64, n=734 but lower than OA (SMD =-0.16, 95% CI =-0.29 to -0.02, n=847.Conclusion: AOM has antipsychotic efficacy and low risk of discontinuation due to AEs. Keywords: schizophrenia

  17. Determining Whether a Definitive Causal Relationship Exists Between Aripiprazole and Tardive Dyskinesia and/or Dystonia in Patients With Major Depressive Disorder, Part 2: Preclinical and Early Phase Human Proof of Concept Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macaluso, Matthew; Flynn, Alexandra; Preskorn, Sheldon

    2016-01-01

    This series of columns has 3 main goals: (1) to explain class warnings as used by the United States Food and Drug Administration, (2) to increase awareness of movement disorders that may occur in patients treated with antipsychotic medications, and (3) to understand why clinicians should refrain from immediately assuming a diagnosis of tardive dyskinesia/dystonia (TD) in patients treated with antipsychotics. The first column in this series began with the case of a 76-year-old man with major depressive disorder who developed orofacial dyskinesias while being treated with aripiprazole as an antidepressant augmentation strategy. It was alleged that a higher than intended dose of aripiprazole (ie, 20 mg/d for 2 wk followed by 10 mg/d for 4 wk instead of the intended dose of 2 mg/d) was the cause of the dyskinetic movements in this man, and the authors were asked to review the case and give their opinion. The principal basis for this theory of causation was the class warning about TD in the package insert for aripiprazole. The rationale for concluding aripiprazole caused TD in the 76-year-old man led to this series of columns about aripiprazole, its potential--if any--to cause TD, and the presence of a class warning about TD in its package insert. The central point is to illustrate why class warnings exist and their implications for practice. The first column in this series focused on the historical background, incidence, prevalence, risk factors, and clinical presentations of tardive and spontaneous dyskinesias and concluded with a discussion of diagnostic considerations explaining why clinicians should avoid making a diagnosis of TD until a thorough differential diagnosis has been considered. This second column in the series reviews the pharmacology of aripiprazole and the preclinical and phase I translational human studies that suggest aripiprazole should have a low to nonexistent risk of causing TD compared with other antipsychotics. The third column in the series

  18. Usability of a novel digital medicine system in adults with schizophrenia treated with sensor-embedded tablets of aripiprazole

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    Peters-Strickland T

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Timothy Peters-Strickland,1 Linda Pestreich,1 Ainslie Hatch,2 Shashank Rohatagi,1 Ross A Baker,1 John P Docherty,2 Lada Markovtsova,1 Praveen Raja,3 Peter J Weiden,4 David P Walling5 1Otsuka Pharmaceutical Development & Commercialization, Inc., 2ODH, Inc., Princeton, NJ, 3Proteus Digital Health, Inc., Redwood City, CA, 4Department of Psychiatry, University of Illinois, Chicago, IL, 5CNS Network, LLC, Long Beach, CA, USA Objective: Digital medicine system (DMS is a novel drug–device combination that objectively measures and reports medication ingestion. The DMS consists of medication embedded with an ingestible sensor (digital medicine, a wearable sensor, and software applications. This study evaluated usability of the DMS in adults with schizophrenia rated by both patients and their health care providers (HCPs during 8-week treatment with prescribed doses of digital aripiprazole.Methods: Six US sites enrolled outpatients into this Phase IIa, open-label study (NCT02219009. The study comprised a screening phase, a training phase (three weekly site visits, and a 5-week independent phase. Patients and HCPs independently rated usability of and satisfaction with the DMS.Results: Sixty-seven patients were enrolled, and 49 (73.1% patients completed the study. The mean age (SD of the patients was 46.6 years (9.7 years; the majority of them were male (74.6%, black (76.1%, and rated mildly ill on the Clinical Global Impression – Severity scale (70.1%. By the end of week 8 or early termination, 82.1% (55/67 of patients had replaced the wearable sensor independently or with minimal assistance, based on HCP rating. The patients used the wearable sensor for a mean (SD of 70.7% (24.7% and a median of 77.8% of their time in the trial. The patients contacted a call center most frequently at week 1. At the last visit, 78% (47/60 of patients were somewhat satisfied/satisfied/extremely satisfied with the DMS.Conclusion: A high proportion of patients with

  19. Medication adherence and utilization in patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder receiving aripiprazole, quetiapine, or ziprasidone at hospital discharge: A retrospective cohort study

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    Berger Ariel

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Schizophrenia and bipolar disorder are chronic debilitating disorders that are often treated with second-generation antipsychotic agents, such as aripiprazole, quetiapine, and ziprasidone. While patients who are hospitalized for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder often receive these agents at discharge, comparatively little information exists on subsequent patterns of pharmacotherapy. Methods Using a database linking hospital admission records to health insurance claims, we identified all patients hospitalized for schizophrenia (ICD-9-CM diagnosis code 295.XX or bipolar disorder (296.0, 296.1, 296.4-296.89 between January 1, 2001 and September 30, 2008 who received aripiprazole, quetiapine, or ziprasidone at discharge. Patients not continuously enrolled for 6 months before and after hospitalization (“pre-admission” and “follow-up”, respectively were excluded. We examined patterns of use of these agents during follow-up, including adherence with treatment (using medication possession ratios [MPRs] and cumulative medication gaps [CMGs] and therapy switching. Analyses were undertaken separately for patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, respectively. Results We identified a total of 43 patients with schizophrenia, and 84 patients with bipolar disorder. During the 6-month period following hospitalization, patients with schizophrenia received an average of 101 therapy-days with the second-generation antipsychotic agent prescribed at discharge; for patients with bipolar disorder, the corresponding value was 68 therapy-days. Mean MPR at 6 months was 55.1% for schizophrenia patients, and 37.3% for those with bipolar disorder; approximately one-quarter of patients switched to another agent over this period. Conclusions Medication compliance is poor in patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder who initiate treatment with aripiprazole, quetiapine, or ziprasidone at hospital discharge.

  20. Influence of aripiprazole, risperidone, and amisulpride on sensory and sensorimotor gating in healthy 'low and high gating' humans and relation to psychometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csomor, Philipp A; Preller, Katrin H; Geyer, Mark A; Studerus, Erich; Huber, Theodor; Vollenweider, Franz X

    2014-09-01

    Despite advances in the treatment of schizophrenia spectrum disorders with atypical antipsychotics (AAPs), there is still need for compounds with improved efficacy/side-effect ratios. Evidence from challenge studies suggests that the assessment of gating functions in humans and rodents with naturally low-gating levels might be a useful model to screen for novel compounds with antipsychotic properties. To further evaluate and extend this translational approach, three AAPs were examined. Compounds without antipsychotic properties served as negative control treatments. In a placebo-controlled, within-subject design, healthy males received either single doses of aripiprazole and risperidone (n=28), amisulpride and lorazepam (n=30), or modafinil and valproate (n=30), and placebo. Prepulse inhibiton (PPI) and P50 suppression were assessed. Clinically associated symptoms were evaluated using the SCL-90-R. Aripiprazole, risperidone, and amisulpride increased P50 suppression in low P50 gaters. Lorazepam, modafinil, and valproate did not influence P50 suppression in low gaters. Furthermore, low P50 gaters scored significantly higher on the SCL-90-R than high P50 gaters. Aripiprazole increased PPI in low PPI gaters, whereas modafinil and lorazepam attenuated PPI in both groups. Risperidone, amisulpride, and valproate did not influence PPI. P50 suppression in low gaters appears to be an antipsychotic-sensitive neurophysiologic marker. This conclusion is supported by the association of low P50 suppression and higher clinically associated scores. Furthermore, PPI might be sensitive for atypical mechanisms of antipsychotic medication. The translational model investigating differential effects of AAPs on gating in healthy subjects with naturally low gating can be beneficial for phase II/III development plans by providing additional information for critical decision making.

  1. Determining Whether a Definitive Causal Relationship Exists Between Aripiprazole and Tardive Dyskinesia and/or Dystonia in Patients With Major Depressive Disorder: Part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preskorn, Sheldon; Flynn, Alexandra; Macaluso, Matthew

    2015-09-01

    This series of columns has 2 main goals: (1) to explain the use of class warnings by the US Food and Drug Administration and (2) to increase clinicians' awareness of movement disorders that may occur in patients being treated with antipsychotic medications and why it is appropriate and good practice to refrain from immediately assuming the diagnosis is tardive dyskinesia/dystonia (TD). This first column in the series will focus on the second goal, which will then serve as a case example for the first goal. Clinicians should refrain from jumping to a diagnosis of TD because a host of other causes need to be ruled out first before inferring iatrogenic causation. The causal relationship between chronic treatment with dopamine antagonists and TD is based on pharmacoepidemiology (ie, the prevalence of such movement disorders is higher in individuals receiving chronic treatment with such agents than in a control group). There is nothing pathognomonic about movement disorders, nor is there any test that can currently prove a drug caused a movement disorder in a specific individual. Another goal of this series is to describe the types of research that would be needed to establish whether a specific agent has a meaningful risk of causing TD. In this first column of the series, we present the case of a patient who developed orofacial dyskinesia while being treated with aripiprazole. In this case, the movement disorder was prematurely called TD, which led to a malpractice lawsuit. This case highlights a number of key questions clinicians are likely to encounter in day-to-day practice. We then review data concerning the historical background, incidence, prevalence, and risk factors for 2 movement disorders, TD and spontaneous dyskinesia. Subsequent columns in this series will review: (1) unique aspects of the psychopharmacology of aripiprazole, (2) the limited and inconsistent data in the literature concerning the causal relationship between aripiprazole and TD, (3) the use of

  2. 阿立哌唑治疗精神分裂症老年患者临床疗效观察%OBSERVATION ON THE CLINIC EFFICACY OF ARIPIPRAZOLE IN THE TREATMENT OF THE ELDERLY PATIENTS WITH SCHIZOPHRENIA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阿怀红

    2011-01-01

    [目的] 研究阿立哌唑治疗精神分裂症老年患者的临床疗效和不良反应,为临床提供依据.[方法] 选择符合CCMD-3精神分裂症诊断标准、简明精神疾病评定量表(BPRS)>35分、年龄≥65岁的病例共60例.随机分为阿立哌唑组与奋乃静组各30例.治疗前及治疗8周后分别用简明精神病评定量表(BPRS)及阳性和阴性综合征量表(PANSS)评定疗效,用副反应量表(TESS)评定不良反应.[结果] 阿立哌唑在治疗精神分裂症老年患者总疗效和对情感障碍、意志障碍的改善明显优于奋乃静.阿立哌唑在行为毒性、神经系和植物神经系的副作用明显低于奋乃静.阿立哌唑副反应轻且相对安全、依从性高.[结论] 阿立哌唑治疗精神分裂症老年患者效果确切、安全性强、依从性高,能全面提高患者生活质量.%[Objective] To study the efficacy and side effect of aripiprazole in the treatment of the elderly patients with schizophrenia, and to provide the basis for the clinical. [Methodsl According to CCMD-3, 65 patients with BPRS score over 35 and aged above 60 years old were selected and randomly divided into two groups: 30 patients had heen given aripiprazole for 8 weeks, and 30 patients had been given perphenazine for 8 weeks, then all patients were assessed by BPRS, PANSS and TESS. [ Results) Both aripiprazole and perphenazine had same effect on Psychiatric symptams. Aripiprazole were much better than perphenazine in these respects: anxiety, depression and exceasive activity. Aripiprazole has less side effecta than perphenazine. Aripiprazole was Side-Light and relatively safe and high compliance. [Conclusion] Aripiprazole is an effective trealment of the elderly patients with schizophrenia, strong security and , high compliance, we can improve the overall quality of life of patients.

  3. Quetiapine versus aripiprazole in children and adolescents with psychosis - protocol for the randomised, blinded clinical Tolerability and Efficacy of Antipsychotics (TEA) trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pagsberg, Anne Katrine; Jeppesen, Pia; Klauber, Dea Gowers;

    2014-01-01

    weeks after randomisation. The primary outcome is change in the positive symptom score of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. The recruitment period is 2010-2014. DISCUSSION: Antipsychotics are currently the only available pharmacologic treatments for psychotic disorders. However, information......BACKGROUND: The evidence for choices between antipsychotics for children and adolescents with schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders is limited. The main objective of the Tolerability and Efficacy of Antipsychotics (TEA) trial is to compare the benefits and harms of quetiapine versus...... aripiprazole in children and adolescents with psychosis in order to inform rational, effective and safe treatment selections. METHODS/DESIGN: The TEA trial is a Danish investigator-initiated, independently funded, multi-centre, randomised, blinded clinical trial. Based on sample size estimation, 112 patients...

  4. Rationale and design of an independent randomised controlled trial evaluating the effectiveness of aripiprazole or haloperidol in combination with clozapine for treatment-resistant schizophrenia

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    Piantato Ennio

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One third to two thirds of people with schizophrenia have persistent psychotic symptoms despite clozapine treatment. Under real-world circumstances, the need to provide effective therapeutic interventions to patients who do not have an optimal response to clozapine has been cited as the most common reason for simultaneously prescribing a second antipsychotic drug in combination treatment strategies. In a clinical area where the pressing need of providing therapeutic answers has progressively increased the occurrence of antipsychotic polypharmacy, despite the lack of robust evidence of its efficacy, we sought to implement a pre-planned protocol where two alternative therapeutic answers are systematically provided and evaluated within the context of a pragmatic, multicentre, independent randomised study. Methods/Design The principal clinical question to be answered by the present project is the relative efficacy and tolerability of combination treatment with clozapine plus aripiprazole compared with combination treatment with clozapine plus haloperidol in patients with an incomplete response to treatment with clozapine over an appropriate period of time. This project is a prospective, multicentre, randomized, parallel-group, superiority trial that follow patients over a period of 12 months. Withdrawal from allocated treatment within 3 months is the primary outcome. Discussion The implementation of the protocol presented here shows that it is possible to create a network of community psychiatric services that accept the idea of using their everyday clinical practice to produce randomised knowledge. The employed pragmatic attitude allowed to randomly allocate more than 100 individuals, which means that this study is the largest antipsychotic combination trial conducted so far in Western countries. We expect that the current project, by generating evidence on whether it is clinically useful to combine clozapine with aripiprazole

  5. Rationale and design of an independent randomised controlled trial evaluating the effectiveness of aripiprazole or haloperidol in combination with clozapine for treatment-resistant schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosè, Michela; Accordini, Simone; Artioli, Paola; Barale, Francesco; Barbui, Corrado; Beneduce, Rossella; Berardi, Domenico; Bertolazzi, Gerardo; Biancosino, Bruno; Bisogno, Alfredo; Bivi, Raffaella; Bogetto, Filippo; Boso, Marianna; Bozzani, Alberto; Bucolo, Piera; Casale, Marcello; Cascone, Liliana; Ciammella, Luisa; Cicolini, Alessia; Cipresso, Gabriele; Cipriani, Andrea; Colombo, Paola; Dal Santo, Barbara; De Francesco, Michele; Di Lorenzo, Giorgio; Di Munzio, Walter; Ducci, Giuseppe; Erlicher, Arcadio; Esposito, Eleonora; Ferrannini, Luigi; Ferrato, Farida; Ferro, Antonio; Fragomeno, Nicoletta; Parise, Vincenzo Fricchione; Frova, Maria; Gardellin, Francesco; Garzotto, Nicola; Giambartolomei, Andrea; Giupponi, Giancarlo; Grassi, Luigi; Grazian, Natalia; Grecu, Lorella; Guerrini, Gualtiero; Laddomada, Francesco; Lazzarin, Ermanna; Lintas, Camilla; Malchiodi, Francesca; Malvini, Lara; Marchiaro, Livio; Marsilio, Alessandra; Mauri, Massimo Carlo; Mautone, Antonio; Menchetti, Marco; Migliorini, Giuseppe; Mollica, Marco; Moretti, Daniele; Mulè, Serena; Nicholau, Stylianos; Nosè, Flavio; Occhionero, Guglielmo; Pacilli, Anna Maria; Pecchioli, Stefania; Percudani, Mauro; Piantato, Ennio; Piazza, Carlo; Pontarollo, Francesco; Pycha, Roger; Quartesan, Roberto; Rillosi, Luciana; Risso, Francesco; Rizzo, Raffella; Rocca, Paola; Roma, Stefania; Rossattini, Matteo; Rossi, Giuseppe; Rossi, Giovanni; Sala, Alessandra; Santilli, Claudio; Saraò, Giuseppe; Sarnicola, Antonio; Sartore, Francesca; Scarone, Silvio; Sciarma, Tiziana; Siracusano, Alberto; Strizzolo, Stefania; Tansella, Michele; Targa, Gino; Tasser, Annamarie; Tomasi, Rodolfo; Travaglini, Rossana; Veronese, Antonio; Ziero, Simona

    2009-01-01

    Background One third to two thirds of people with schizophrenia have persistent psychotic symptoms despite clozapine treatment. Under real-world circumstances, the need to provide effective therapeutic interventions to patients who do not have an optimal response to clozapine has been cited as the most common reason for simultaneously prescribing a second antipsychotic drug in combination treatment strategies. In a clinical area where the pressing need of providing therapeutic answers has progressively increased the occurrence of antipsychotic polypharmacy, despite the lack of robust evidence of its efficacy, we sought to implement a pre-planned protocol where two alternative therapeutic answers are systematically provided and evaluated within the context of a pragmatic, multicentre, independent randomised study. Methods/Design The principal clinical question to be answered by the present project is the relative efficacy and tolerability of combination treatment with clozapine plus aripiprazole compared with combination treatment with clozapine plus haloperidol in patients with an incomplete response to treatment with clozapine over an appropriate period of time. This project is a prospective, multicentre, randomized, parallel-group, superiority trial that follow patients over a period of 12 months. Withdrawal from allocated treatment within 3 months is the primary outcome. Discussion The implementation of the protocol presented here shows that it is possible to create a network of community psychiatric services that accept the idea of using their everyday clinical practice to produce randomised knowledge. The employed pragmatic attitude allowed to randomly allocate more than 100 individuals, which means that this study is the largest antipsychotic combination trial conducted so far in Western countries. We expect that the current project, by generating evidence on whether it is clinically useful to combine clozapine with aripiprazole rather than with haloperidol

  6. Not all partial dopamine D2 receptor agonists are the same in treating schizophrenia. Exploring the effects of bifeprunox and aripiprazole using a computer model of a primate striatal dopaminergic synapse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athan Spiros

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Athan Spiros1, Robert Carr1, Hugo Geerts1,21In Silico Biosciences, Berwyn, PA, USA; 2School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, PA, USAAbstract: Species differences in physiology and unique active human metabolites contribute to the limited predictive value of preclinical rodent models for many central nervous system (CNS drugs. In order to explore possible drivers for this translational disconnect, we developed a computer model of a dopaminergic synapse that simulates the competition among three agents and their binding to pre- and postsynaptic receptors, based on the affinities for their targets and their actual concentrations. The model includes presynaptic autoreceptor effects on neurotransmitter release and modulation by presynaptic firing frequency and is calibrated with actual experimental data on free dopamine levels in the striatum of the rodent and the primate. Using this model, we simulated the postsynaptic dopamine D2 receptor activation levels of bifeprunox and aripiprazole, two relatively similar dopamine D2 receptor agonists. The results indicate a substantial difference in dose–response for the two compounds when applying primate calibration parameters as opposed to rodent calibration parameters. In addition, when introducing the major human and rodent metabolites of aripiprazole with their specific pharmacological activities, the model predicts that while bifeprunox would result in a higher postsynaptic D2 receptor antagonism in the rodent, aripiprazole would result in a higher D2 receptor antagonism in the primate model. Furthermore, only the highest dose of aripiprazole, but not bifeprunox, reaches postsynaptic functional D2 receptor antagonism similar to 4 mg haloperidol in the primate model. The model further identifies a limited optimal window of functionality for dopamine D2 receptor partial agonists. These results suggest that computer modeling of key CNS processes, using well-validated calibration paradigms, can

  7. 阿立哌唑的药理作用及治疗精神分裂症的疗效观察%Observation of the Curative Effect of Pharmacological Effects and Treatment of Mental Aripiprazole Schizophrenia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘丽红

    2015-01-01

    目的:分析阿立哌唑的药理作用,探究其治疗精神分裂症疗效。方法将67例患者分为治疗组34例和对照组33例,分别经阿立哌唑、利培酮治疗。结果两组治疗效果、PANSS评分对比(P>0.05),治疗组不良反应低于对照组(P<0.05)。结论阿立哌唑可有效治疗精神分裂症。%Objective Pharmacological analysis of aripiprazole, explore the treatment effect of schizophrenia. Methods 67 patients were divided into treatment group 34 cases and control group 33 cases, respectively, by aripiprazole risperidone in the treatment of. Results The effect of PANSS treatment, scores of two groups were compared (P>0.05), adverse reaction in the treatment group than in the control group (P<0.05). Conclusion Aripiprazole is more effective in the treatment of schizophrenia.

  8. Interaction of aripiprazole combined with clozapine in treatment of schizophrenia%阿立哌唑与氯氮平联合治疗精神分裂症的交互作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈波; 黄华利; 李玲

    2014-01-01

    Objective To discuss the interaction of aripiprazole combined with clozapine in treatment of schizo-phrenia ,in order to make suitable dose of this combination therapy explicit .Methods A total of 97 cases of schizo-phrenia diagnosed in our hospital between Oct .,2011 and May ,2013 were divided into 4 groups(low dose of aripi-prazole combined with low dose of clozapine ,low dose of aripiprazole combined with high dose of clozapine ,high dose of aripiprazole combined with low dose of clozapine ,high dose of aripiprazole combined with high dose of clozapine ) . The results of efficacy and side effects were all recorded and analyzed .Results In treatment efficacy ,high dose of aripiprazole and clozapine was the best ,when compared with other 3 groups(P<0 .05) ,low dose of aripiprazole and clozapine was the worst (P<0 .05) .On the other hand ,the incidence of side effects was highest in group of high dose of aripiprazole and clozapine ,group of high dose of aripiprazole combined with low dose of clozapine and group of low dose of aripiprazole and clozapine were better than others in safety .Conclusion The efficacy and side effects of aripi-prazole and clozapine are dose dependent ,when using these two medicines to treat schizophrenia ,the doses should be suitable to make good efficacy and avoid side effects .If the side effects are obvious ,the dose of clozapine should be de-creased ,however ,the dose of aripiprazole can be decreased extenuatorily ;If the patients can tolerate the treatment ,the doses of these two medicine can be increased .%目的:探讨阿立哌唑与氯氮平联合治疗精神分裂症的交互作用,以明确两种药物联合治疗精神分裂症时的合适剂量。方法将2011年10月至2013年5月于重庆市黔江中心医院诊治为精神分裂症的97例患者随机分为4组(低剂量阿立哌唑+低剂量氯氮平组、低剂量阿立哌唑+高剂量氯氮平组、高剂量阿立哌唑+低剂量氯氮平组、高剂量阿立

  9. Metabolic acidosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acidosis - metabolic ... Metabolic acidosis occurs when the body produces too much acid. It can also occur when the kidneys are not ... the body. There are several types of metabolic acidosis. Diabetic acidosis develops when acidic substances, known as ...

  10. 阿立哌唑与氯丙嗪治疗精神分裂症的安全性系统评价%Systematic review the safety of aripiprazole versus clorpromazine in the treatment of schizophrenia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜彪; 李庆平; 母波; 刘福; 周春阳

    2012-01-01

    目的 评价阿立哌唑与氯丙嗪治疗精神分裂症的不良反应的差异.方法 检索国内阿立哌唑与氯丙嗪对照研究治疗精神分裂症的文献,用系统评价方法对10篇文献评估.结果 药物不良反应发生率2组差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).其中,发生头痛、失眠,阿立哌唑组明显比氯丙嗪组多(P<0.05);发生口干、震颤、静坐不能、肌强直、便秘、肝功能异常、心动过速、体重增加、直立性低血压、视物模糊、嗜睡、心电图异常、月经失调、溢乳不良反应,氯丙嗪组明显比阿立哌唑组多(P<0.05).结论 阿立哌唑组发生不良反应的总体风险低于氯丙嗪.%Objective To study the difference in adverse drug reaction ( ADR) between aripiprazole and clorpromazine in the treatment of schizophrenia. Methods A total of 10 paper about control study comparing aripiprazole with clorpromazine in treatment of schizophrenia retrieved were subjected to system evaluation. Results There was significant difference in ADR incidences between the two groups ( P < 0. 05 ). The incidences of ADR ( such as headache insomnia) in aripiprazole group were significantly higher than in clorpromazine group (P < 0. 05 ). The incidences of ADR ( such as dry mouth, tremor, akathisia, rigidity, constipation, abnormal, liver function, tachycardia, weight gain, orthostatic hypotension, blurred vision, drowsiness, menstruation disturbance syndrome) in clorpromazine group were significantly higher than in aripiprazole group ( P < 0. 05 ). Conclusion Aripiprazole has less overall risk of ADR than clorpromazine for the treatment of schizophrenia.

  11. 氨磺必利与阿立哌唑治疗首发精神分裂症对照研究%A Comparative Study of Amisulpride and Aripiprazole in the Treatment of First Episode Schizophrenia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    仇红杰

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨氨磺必利与阿立哌唑治疗首发精神分裂症的临床疗效与安全性。方法:将75例首发精神分裂症患者按照随机数字表法分成两组,氨磺必利组37例,阿立哌唑组38例,治疗8周。采用阳性与阴性症状量表(PANSS)评定疗效,采用治疗中出现的症状量表(TESS)评定不良反应。结果:氨磺必利组的治疗总有效率为89.19%,阿立哌唑组为92.11%,两组比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05)。治疗第4、6、8周PANSS总分及各因子评分两组比较差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05)。结论:氨磺必利与阿立哌唑治疗首发精神分裂症均有良好效果,不良反应均较少。%Objective:To investigate the efficacy and safety of Amisulpride and Aripiprazole in the treatment of first episode schizophrenia. Method:75 patients of first opisode schizoprenia were randomly divided into two groups(amisulpride 37,aripiprazole 38).Both of the amisulpride and aripiprazole were administered to two groups respectively for 8 weeks. Their symptoms were assessed with PANSS and their side effects were assessed with TESS before and after the treatment. Result:The total cure rates were 89.19%in amisulpride group and 92.11%in aripiprazole group,with no significant difference between the two groups(P>0.05). PANSS score and each factor score in treatment of 4,6,8 weeks between the two groups had no statistical significance(P>0.05). Conclusion:Both of the amisulpride and aripiprazole have notable curative effect with less side-effect in the treatment of first episode schizophrenia.

  12. A controlled study between Aripiprazole combined with low-Dose of Clozapine and single Aripiprazole in the Treatment of Female Chronic Schizophrenia%阿立哌唑合用小剂量氯氮平与阿立哌唑单用治疗女性慢性精神分裂症对照研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆德青; 肖刚

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinical efficacy and adverse reaction of aripiprazole combined with low- dose of clozapine in the treatment of female patients with chronic schizophrenia.Methods The Study Group 20 cases were treated by aripiprazole combined with low-dose of clozapine treatment,20 cases in the control group only treated with aripiprazole,analyzed the assessment efficacy with the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale(BPRS)and Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms(SANS),applied the Treatment Emergent Symptom Scale(TESS)to analyze their adverse reactions.Results There was no significant difference between the BPRS scores of the two groups before treatment.After treatment,it showed Significant diference in depression and anxiety and thought disorder(P<0.05), in the activity and total scores,it showed a very significant difference(P<0.01);The same group before and after treatment,the difference is very significant(P<0.01).SANS scores of the two groups had no sign- ificant difference before treatment,After treatment,in lack of interest/social lack had significant differences(P<0.05); The same group before and after treatment,the difference is very significant(P<0.01).TESS statistics showed that two groups’Side reaction occurred with the same frequency.Conclusion Regardless of aripiprazole combined with smal dose of clozapine or single use of aripiprazole in female patients with chronic schizophrenia had a definite effect,aripiprazole combined with smal dose of clozapine has advantages in improvement activities,improve interest/social and so on ,and the adverse reactions were not increased.%目的:探讨阿立哌唑合用小剂量氯氮平与阿立哌唑单用治疗女性慢性精神分裂症患者的临床疗效和不良反应。方法研究组20例应用阿立哌唑合用小剂量氯氮平治疗,对照组20例仅应用阿立哌唑单独治疗,应用简明精神病评定量表(BPRS)和阴性症状量表(SANS)评定疗效,应用副反应

  13. 阿立哌唑与喹硫平治疗精神分裂症的疗效和安全性%Efficacy and safety of aripiprazole and quetiapine in the treatment of schizophrenia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王占敏; 宓为峰; 王晓志; 卢天兰; 付艺; 王雪芹; 郝晓楠; 李玲芝; 张鸿燕

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinical efficacy and safety of aripiprazole and quetiapine in the treatment of schizophrenia. Methods A randomized, controlled clinical trial was designed. One hundred and sixty - nine patients with schizophrenia were randomized into aripiprazole group (n = 79, 8 weeks, 10 -30 mg ? D-1) and quetiapine group (n = 90, 8 weeks, 400 - 750 mg ? D -1 ). The positive and negative syndrome scale (PANSS) and response rate were mainly used to evaluate efficacy. The safety was assessed by using the laboratory examination, vital signs and electrocardiogram ( ECG) at the baseline, week 4, 8. Results Compared with the baseline, total scores of PANSS in both groups decreased significantly at week 4 and week 8 ( P < 0. 01 ). At week 8 of treatment the mean reduction scores of PANSS and the clinical response rates were approximate, there were no significant differences between both groups. The incidence of adverse drug reactions related to the drugs 25. 3% (20/79) in aripiprazole and 17. 7% ( 16/90) in quetiapine treatment was approximate in both groups, with lower liability for heart rate in aripiprazole than in quetiapine treatment. The triglyceride(TG) and QRS interval in aripiprazole group showed more significant differences at week 8 than the baseline ( P < 0. 05 ). But the heart rate, body mass, body mass index ( BMI) , hemoglobin ( HGB ) , total cholesterol ( TC ) and low density lipoprotein ( LDL) in quetiapine group different significantly when compared with those at baseline (P < 0. 01). Conclusion Aripiprazole and quetiapine both have good efficacy in the treatment of schizophrenia. They have similar incidence of adverse drug reaction related to the drugs.%目的 评价阿立哌唑与喹硫平治疗精神分裂症的疗效及安全性.方法 169例符合DSM-Ⅳ(第4版)精神分裂症患者,阿立哌唑组79例,剂量10~30mg·d-1;喹硫平组90例,剂量400~ 750 mg·d-1,疗程均8周.治疗前,治疗第4,8周用阳性和阴性症状

  14. Simultaneously Determination of Sertraline and Aripiprazole in Human Plasma by HPLC with UV Detection%高效液相色谱法同时测定人血浆中舍曲林与阿立哌唑浓度

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘文宪; 陈清霞; 周桂成; 刘伟忠; 温预关; 王广发

    2011-01-01

    目的 建立同时测定人血浆中舍曲林、阿立哌唑浓度的反相高效液相色谱法.方法 以DiamonsilTM C18反相柱(150 mm×4.6 mm,5 μm)为色谱柱,流动相为0.03 mol·L-1醋酸铵-甲醇(18:82);流速:0.8 mL·min-1;柱温:40 ℃; 检测波长:220 nm.以乙酸乙酯-二氯甲烷(80:20)为提取剂.结果 舍曲林在20.0~640.0 ng·mL-1、阿立哌唑在25.0~1 000.0 ng·mL-1浓度范围内,峰面积与其浓度呈良好线性关系;舍曲林、阿立哌唑的低、中、高3种浓度相对平均回收率分别为101.30%,98.14%,97.92%和101.60%,97.75%,98.16%;提取回收率分别为70.56%,73.87%,76.45%和71.66%,74.12%,75.26%;日内、日间RSD均<10%,分析方法的检测限10.0 ng·mL-1.舍曲林线性方程:Y=92.251X+1.61,r=0.998 6(n=7);阿立哌唑线性方程:Y=85.489X+1.27,r=0.998 9(n=7).结论 该方法灵敏、准确、简单、快速,可用于临床血浆舍曲林与阿立哌唑浓度的监测和药动学研究.%Objective To establish a method for determining the concentration of sertraline and aripiprazole in human plasma by HPLC. Methods The C18 column( 150 mmx4. 6 mm,5 |xm )was used in the reversed HPLC system, the mobile phase consisted of 0.03 mol ■ L" ammonioum-methanol( 18 '. 82 ); the flow rate was 0. 8 mL ■ min ; the detection wavelength was at 220 nm. Ethyl acetate-dichloromethane( 80 '. 20 )were used as extracting solvent. Results The calibration curves were linear in the range of 20. 0-640. 0 ng ■ mL" for sertraline,25. 0-1 000. 0 ng ■ mL" for aripiprazole,respectively. The average recoveries of sertraline and aripiprazole at low,middle and high concentrations were 101. 30% ,98. 14% ,97. 92% and 101. 60% , 97.75% ,98. 16% .respectively; the extraction recovery were 70. 56% ,73. 87% ,76. 45% and 71. 66% ,74. 12% ,75. 26% , respectively. The intra-day and inter-day variations ( RSD ) were both less than 10% ( n = 5 ). The minimum detectable concentration of method was 10.0 ng ? mL"1. The calibration

  15. A clinical comparative study in first-onset schizophrenia patients treated with Aripiprazole and Quetiapine%阿立哌唑与喹硫平治疗首发精神分裂症的临床对照研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘娜

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study the clinical effects of Aripiprazole and Quetiapine in the treatment of first -onset schizophrenia. Methods 63 adult patients who were diagnosed as schizophreniain accordance with the CCMD-3 diagnosis standard were recruited in this study. All the cases were randomized into two groups and were treated with Aripiprazole and Quetiapine for 8 weeks. The positive and negative syndrome scale (PANSS) and treatment emergent side effect scale (TESS) were used to evaluate efficacy and adverse effects respectively. Results The significant efficacy rates of Aripiprazole was 93.55%, Quetiapine was 90.63%, there was no significant difference (P > 0.05). Before and after treatment between Aripiprazole group and Quetiapine group, the PANSS score had no significant difference (P > 0.05). The level of LEP and TG was elevated which were treated by Aripiprazole, the difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05). The level of LEP, PRL, BG and TG was elevated which were treated by Quetiapine, the difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05). Conclusion The curative effect of first-onset schizophrenia between Aripiprazole and Quetiapine is quite, but the adverse reactions are different, the former is better than the latter.%目的 探讨阿立哌唑与喹硫平治疗首发精神分裂症的临床疗效.方法 63例首发精神分裂症患者,符合CCMD-3精神分裂症诊断标准,随机分成两组,分别使用阿立哌唑和喹硫平治疗,疗程共8周.采用阳性和阴性症状量表(PANSS)和不良反应症状量表(TESS)进行副反应评定.结果 阿立哌唑组总有效率为93.55%,喹硫平组总有效率为90.63%,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).阿立哌唑组和喹硫平组两组患者治疗前后PANSS量表评分,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);阿立哌唑组治疗前后相比,瘦素和三酰甘油水平升高,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),喹硫平组治疗前后瘦素、催乳素、血糖和三酰甘油水平升

  16. Metabolic Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as your liver, muscles, and body fat. A metabolic disorder occurs when abnormal chemical reactions in your body ... that produce the energy. You can develop a metabolic disorder when some organs, such as your liver or ...

  17. Rationale and Baseline Characteristics of PREVENT: A Second-Generation Intervention Trial in Subjects At-Risk (Prodromal) of Developing First-Episode Psychosis Evaluating Cognitive Behavior Therapy, Aripiprazole, and Placebo for the Prevention of Psychosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechdolf, Andreas; Müller, Hendrik; Stützer, Hartmut; Wagner, Michael; Maier, Wolfgang; Lautenschlager, Marion; Heinz, Andreas; de Millas, Walter; Janssen, Birgit; Gaebel, Wolfgang; Michel, Tanja Maria; Schneider, Frank; Lambert, Martin; Naber, Dieter; Brüne, Martin; Krüger-Özgürdal, Seza; Wobrock, Thomas; Riedel, Michael; Klosterkötter, Joachim

    2011-01-01

    Antipsychotics, cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), and omega-3-fatty acids have been found superior to control conditions as regards prevention of psychosis in people at-risk of first-episode psychosis. However, no large-scale trial evaluating the differential efficacy of CBT and antipsychotics has been performed yet. In PREVENT, we evaluate CBT, aripiprazole, and clinical management (CM) as well as placebo and CM for the prevention of psychosis in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial with regard to the antipsychotic intervention and a randomized controlled trial with regard to the CBT intervention with blinded ratings. The hypotheses are first that CBT and aripiprazole and CM are superior to placebo and CM and second that CBT is not inferior to aripiprazole and CM combined. The primary outcome is transition to psychosis. By November 2010, 156 patients were recruited into the trial. The subjects were substantially functionally compromised (Social and Occupational Functioning Assessment Scale mean score 52.5) and 78.3% presented with a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition axis I comorbid diagnosis. Prior to randomization, 51.5% of the participants preferred to be randomized into the CBT arm, whereas only 12.9% preferred pharmacological treatment. First, assessments of audiotaped treatment sessions confirmed the application of CBT-specific skills in the CBT condition and the absence of those in CM. The overall quality rating of the CBT techniques applied in the CBT condition was good. When the final results of the trial are available, PREVENT will substantially expand the current limited evidence base for best clinical practice in people at-risk (prodromal) of first-episode psychosis. PMID:21860040

  18. Clinical efficacy comparison of escitalopram treatment combined with aripiprazole on obsessive compulsive disorder%艾司西酞普兰联合阿立哌唑治疗强迫症患者的疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜涛

    2011-01-01

    Objective; To investigate the effectiveness and safety of escitalopram with or without aripi-prazole in the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder. Method;60 patients with obsessive compulsive disorder were randomly assigned to receive escitalopram with or without aripiprazole. Effectiveness and adverse effect were assessed by Yale-Brown obsessive compulsive scale (Y-BOCS) and treatment emergent symptom scale ( TESS) , respectively. Results; Patients both received escitalopram and escitalopram with aripiprazole showed significant improvement by Y-BOCS scores after treatment,while the combination group showed a better outcome. There was no significant difference in TESS evaluation between the two groups. Conclusion; Escitalopram could effectively treat obsessive-compulsive disorder, while escitalopram combined with aripiprazole is more effective.%目的:探讨艾司西酞普兰与阿立哌唑联合治疗强迫症的疗效及不良反应.方法:对60例强迫症患者随机分为单用艾司西酞普兰组(单用组)及艾司西酞普兰与阿立哌唑联合用药组(合用组)治疗强迫症患者各30例进行开放、随机、对照研究,通过耶鲁布朗强迫量表(Y-BOCS)评定疗效,治疗中出现的症状量表(TESS)评定不良反应. 结果:艾司西酞普兰治疗后显著改善强迫症状,艾司西酞普兰联合阿立哌唑也能显著改善强迫症状,后者改善效果更好;两组不良反应轻微.结论:艾司西酞普兰联合阿立哌唑较单用艾司西酞普兰的抗强迫效果更好.

  19. A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials of treatments for clozapine-induced obesity and metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimbron, Jorge; Khandaker, Golam M; Toschi, Chiara; Jones, Peter B; Fernandez-Egea, Emilio

    2016-09-01

    Metabolic complications are commonly found in people treated with clozapine. Reviews on the management of this problem have generally drawn conclusions by grouping different types of studies involving patients treated with various different antipsychotics. We carried out a systematic review and meta-analysis of pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments for clozapine-induced obesity or metabolic syndrome. Two researchers independently searched PubMed and Embase for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of treatments for clozapine-induced obesity or metabolic syndrome. All other types of studies were excluded. We only included RCTs where more than 50% of participants were taking clozapine. We identified 15 RCTs. Effective pharmacological treatments for clozapine-induced obesity and metabolic syndrome include metformin, aripiprazole, and Orlistat (in men only). Meta-analysis of three studies showed a robust effect of metformin in reducing body mass index and waist circumference but no effects on blood glucose, triglyceride levels, or HDL levels. In addition, there is limited evidence for combined calorie restriction and exercise as a non-pharmacological alternative for the treatment of clozapine-induced obesity, but only in an in-patient setting. Rosiglitazone, topiramate, sibutramine, phenylpropanolamine, modafinil, and atomoxetine have not shown to be beneficial, despite reports of efficacy in other populations treated with different antipsychotics. We conclude that randomised-controlled trial data support the use of metformin, aripiprazole, and Orlistat (in men only) for treating clozapine-induced obesity. Calorie restriction in combination with an exercise programme may be effective as a non-pharmacological alternative. Findings from trials in different populations should not be extrapolated to people being treated with clozapine. PMID:27496573

  20. The comparison of blood prolactin in the female patients with psychosis treated by aripiprazole and Sulpiride%阿立哌唑与舒必利对女性患者血清催乳素影响的对照研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祖鑫

    2013-01-01

    目的:探讨阿立哌唑与舒必利对女性患者血清催乳素的影响。方法:将64例精神分裂症女性患者随机分为阿立哌唑组和舒必利组,比较两组治疗前后的血清催乳素变化。结果:阿立哌唑与舒必利对女性患者血清催乳素的影响有显著差异。结论:阿立哌唑对女性患者血清催乳素的影响较舒必利不明显。%Objective:To investigate the change of blood prolactin in female patients with p sychosis treated by aripiprazole and Sulpiride .Methods:64 female patients with schizophrenia or schizophrenia form psychosis were randomized to aripiprazole and Sulpiride .The blood prolactin at the baseline and after treatment were compared.Results:There were significant differences in the blood prolactin after treatment between aripiprazole and Sulpiride groups . Conclusions:The change of blood prolactin in the female patients with psychosis caused by aripiprazole was little then Sulpiride .

  1. Nucleotide Metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinussen, Jan; Willemoës, M.; Kilstrup, Mogens

    2011-01-01

    Metabolic pathways are connected through their utilization of nucleotides as supplier of energy, allosteric effectors, and their role in activation of intermediates. Therefore, any attempt to exploit a given living organism in a biotechnological process will have an impact on nucleotide metabolism....... The aim of this article is to provide knowledge of nucleotide metabolism and its regulation to facilitate interpretation of data arising from genetics, proteomics, and transcriptomics in connection with biotechnological processes and beyond....

  2. Metabolic ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphries, Murray M; McCann, Kevin S

    2014-01-01

    Ecological theory that is grounded in metabolic currencies and constraints offers the potential to link ecological outcomes to biophysical processes across multiple scales of organization. The metabolic theory of ecology (MTE) has emphasized the potential for metabolism to serve as a unified theory of ecology, while focusing primarily on the size and temperature dependence of whole-organism metabolic rates. Generalizing metabolic ecology requires extending beyond prediction and application of standardized metabolic rates to theory focused on how energy moves through ecological systems. A bibliometric and network analysis of recent metabolic ecology literature reveals a research network characterized by major clusters focused on MTE, foraging theory, bioenergetics, trophic status, and generalized patterns and predictions. This generalized research network, which we refer to as metabolic ecology, can be considered to include the scaling, temperature and stoichiometric models forming the core of MTE, as well as bioenergetic equations, foraging theory, life-history allocation models, consumer-resource equations, food web theory and energy-based macroecology models that are frequently employed in ecological literature. We conclude with six points we believe to be important to the advancement and integration of metabolic ecology, including nomination of a second fundamental equation, complementary to the first fundamental equation offered by the MTE. PMID:24028511

  3. 阿立哌唑与喹硫平治疗精神分裂症的疗效与安全性%Efficacy and safety of aripiprazole and quetiapine in treatment of schizophrenia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘永桥; 杜波; 宓为峰; 王晓志; 施莹; 李玲芝; 马文斌; 金超; 杨勇峰; 张鸿燕

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the efficacy and safety of quetiapine and aripiprazole on patients with schizophrenia.Methods The random-ized, open, multi-center trial recruited 168 patients with schizophrenia , who received a 8-week treatment of aripiprazole (n=79, 10-30 mg· d -1 ) or quetiapine ( n=89 , 400-800 mg · d -1 ).The psychotic syn-dromes were rated with the positive and negative syndrome scale ( PAN-SS)at the baseline, the end of the fourth week and the eighth week.The disease severity was evaluated by the Clinical global impression -severity scale ( CGI-S ) and the Clinical global impression -improvement scale ( CGI-I).The safety was evaluated based on the incidences of adverse events and the comparison of laboratory or electrocardiography examina-tions prior and post the treatment.Results The response rates of aripi-prazole and quetiapine were 71.4%and 72.9%.There was no statistical difference ( P>0.05 ).The incidence rates of adverse events related to aripiprazole and quetiapine were 54.05% and 41.77%.The incidence rate of extrapyramidal symptoms ( EPS ) of the two groups were 36.7%and 4.6%( P<0.001 ).Conclusion Aripiprazole and quetiapine both show similar efficacy in the treatment of schizophrenia.The incidence rates of adverse events are similar but with different profiles.%目的:评价阿立哌唑与喹硫平治疗精神分裂症的疗效和安全性。方法用随机、开放、多中心的研究方法。入选精神分裂症患者168例,随机分入阿立哌唑组79例,剂量10~30 mg· d-1;喹硫平组89例,剂量400~800 mg· d-1,疗程均8周。在基线,4,8周末,用阳性症状与阴性症状量表(PANSS)评价精神病性症状,以临床总体印象量表-严重程度(CGI-S)、疗效总评(CGI-I)评价疾病严重程度;以不良事件、实验室检查、心电图检查等评价安全性。结果阿立哌唑组与喹硫平组有效率分别为71.4%和72.9%,2组差异无统计学意义( P>0.05)。

  4. E fficacy of Aripiprazole and Risperidone on Memory Function in Patients with Schizophrenia%阿立哌唑和利培酮对首发精神分裂症患者记忆功能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡茂荣; 姜淑珍; 占海燕; 胡斌; 鲍成; 余斌; 周朝雄; 吴慧玲

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the efficacy of aripiprazole and risperidone on memory function in patients with schizophrenia. Methods 112 first-episode patients with schizophrenia were random-ized to aripiprazole group(n=56) and risperidone group(n=56). All subjects were assessed with the Wechsler Memory Scale-ⅢSpatial Span Task(WMS-Ⅲ SST), the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Re-vised (HVLT-R) and The Brief Visuospatial Memory Test-Revised (BVMT-R).Results Both groups showed no statistical significance in WMS-Ⅲ SST, HVLT-R and BVMT-R scores in the baseline (P>0.05).The performances after 12 weeks of treatment in the both groups was higher than those in the baseline in all tests(P0.05).Aripiprazole group was increased significantly compared with before treatment after treatment WMS-Ⅲ SST score (P<0.05), and after treatment there was a statistical significance between the two groups (P<0.05).Conclusion Memory impairments in the patients with first-episode schizophrenia was im-proved by aripiprazole and risperidone, and effect of aripiprazole on certain memory functions was better than those of risperidone.%目的:探讨阿立哌唑和利培酮对首发精神分裂症患者记忆功能的影响。方法112例首发精神分裂症患者随机分成阿立哌唑组和利培酮组,每组56例。在治疗前和治疗12周末采用韦氏记忆量表-第三版的空间广度测验(WMS-Ⅲ SST)、霍普金斯词汇学习测验-修订版(HVLT-R)、简单视觉空间记忆测验-修订版(BVMT-R)分别对工作记忆、言语记忆和视觉记忆领域进行评定。结果在治疗前,两组的WMS-Ⅲ SST HVLT-R 和BVMT-R得分比较均无统计学意义(P>0.05)。在治疗12周后,两组的HVLT-R 和BVMT-R得分较治疗前比较均有统计学意义(P<0.05)而治疗后两组间比较无统计学意义(P>0.05);阿立哌唑组在治疗后的WMS-Ⅲ SST得分较治疗前显著增加(P<0.05),且治疗后两组间比较有统计学意义(P<0.05

  5. Metabolic encephalopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angel, Michael J; Young, G Bryan

    2011-11-01

    Kinnier Wilson coined the term metabolic encephalopathy to describe a clinical state of global cerebral dysfunction induced by systemic stress that can vary in clinical presentation from mild executive dysfunction to deep coma with decerebrate posturing; the causes are numerous. Some mechanisms by which cerebral dysfunction occurs in metabolic encephalopathies include focal or global cerebral edema, alterations in transmitter function, the accumulation of uncleared toxic metabolites, postcapillary venule vasogenic edema, and energy failure. This article focuses on common causes of metabolic encephalopathy, and reviews common causes, clinical presentations and, where relevant, management.

  6. Metabolic Impairments Precede Changes in Hunger and Food Intake Following Short-Term Administration of Second-Generation Antipsychotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teff, Karen L; Rickels, Karl; Alshehabi, Erica; Rickels, Michael R

    2015-10-01

    The second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) are associated with weight gain and an increased incidence of metabolic diseases. The metabolic impairments are assumed a consequence of increased body adiposity secondary to central nervous system-associated increases in food intake. We have previously reported that, independent of weight gain, 9 days of olanzapine administration to control subjects is associated with insulin resistance and increases in postprandial levels of insulin and glucagon-like peptide 1 to a mixed meal challenge. This current report describes previously unpublished data on the effects of the SGAs olanzapine and aripiprazole compared with placebo on detailed hunger and satiety responses over the 12-day inpatient evaluation as well as postprandial ghrelin and leptin responses prior to and following administration of the 2 SGAs. We found no changes in hunger, fullness, or in the orexigenic hormone ghrelin or satiety hormone leptin, consistent with our previous report indicating no change in weight during this study. The results indicate that the SGAs are associated with metabolic changes prior to changes in hunger, satiety, and food intake, and this temporal separation suggests that there are differential mechanisms mediating SGA-associated changes in metabolism and food intake.

  7. A Treatment-control Study of Aripiprazole and Ziprasidone in Female First-onset Schizophrenia%阿立哌唑与齐拉西酮治疗女性首发精神分裂症对照研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许爱琴; 尤加永; 赵长银

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the efficacy and adverse reactions of aripiprazole and ziprasidone in female first-onset schizophrenia.Method:31 female first-onset schizophrenia patients met the CCMD-3 diagnosis of schizophrenia were randomly assigned to aripiprazole group (36 patients) and ziprasidone group (35 cases). Positive symptoms and negative syndrome scale(PANSS) and treatment Emergent Symptom Scale(TESS) were used to evaluate the efficacy and safety.Result:There was no significant difference in PANSS scores(P>0.05) before and after 2,4,8 week’treatment between two groups. The two groups had no serious adverse reactions.Conclusion:Aripiprazole and ziprasidone were effective and less adverse reactions in treatment of female first-onset schizophrenia.%目的:评价齐拉西酮与阿立哌唑治疗女性首发精神分裂症的疗效与不良反应。方法:31例符合CCMD-3精神分裂症诊断标准的女性首发患者随机分为阿立哌唑(博思清)组(36例)和齐拉西酮(思贝格)组(35例),采用阳性症状与阴性症状量表(positive symptoms and negative symptoms scale,PANSS)评定疗效,副反应量表(treatment Emergent Symptom Scale,TESS)评价药物安全性。结果:两组患者治疗前及治疗后2、4、8 PANSS评分差异无显著性(P>0.05),两组均无严重不良反应。结论:阿立哌唑和齐拉西酮治疗女性首发精神分裂症有效,且不良反应少。

  8. A control study of duloxetine combined with aripiprazol in the treatment of treatment-resistant depression%度洛西汀联合阿立哌唑治疗难治性抑郁症对照研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓良华; 莫翠英; 吴廷娟; 杨子民

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the efficacy and safety of duloxetine combined with aripiprazol in the treatment of treatment-resistant depression (TRD) .Meth-ods Ninety-three TRD patients were randomly divided into two groups ,research group (n=47) was trea-ted with oral duloxetine plus aripiprazol and control group (n=46) with single duloxetine for 8 weeks . Clinical efficacies were assessed with the Hamilton Depression Scale (HAMD) and adverse reactions with the Treatment Emergent Symptom Scale (TESS) .Results At the end of the 8th week ,obvious effective and effective rate were respectively 59 .1% and 77 .3% in research and 31 .1% and 42 .2% in control group , the former was significantly than the latter (χ2 = 7 .04 ,11 .35 ;P0 .05) .Conclusion Duloxetine plus aripiprazol takes effect more rapidly and has an evident effect and higher safety compared with single duloxetine in the treatment of T RD .%目的:探讨度洛西汀联合阿立哌唑治疗难治性抑郁症的临床疗效和安全性。方法将93例难治性抑郁症患者随机分为两组,研究组口服度洛西汀联合阿立哌唑治疗,对照组单用度洛西汀治疗,观察8周。采用汉密顿抑郁量表评定临床疗效,副反应量表评定不良反应。结果治疗8周末研究组显效率59.1%、有效率77.3%,对照组分别为31.1%、42.2%,研究组显效率、有效率均显著高于对照组(χ2=7.04、11.35,P<0.01)。两组不良反应较轻微,发生率比较差异无显著性(P>0.05)。结论度洛西汀联合阿立哌唑治疗难治性抑郁症起效快,疗效显著,安全性高,显著优于单用度洛西汀治疗。

  9. 阿立哌唑应用于老年精神分裂症临床治疗的疗效和安全性%The clinical therapeutic effect and safety of aripiprazole in clinical treatment of senile schizophrenia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王琪

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨阿立哌唑应用于老年精神分裂症临床治疗效果及安全性,总结其治疗经验。方法:2010年1月-2013年10月收治老年精神分裂症患者40例,采用阿立哌唑治疗,平均治疗剂量(18.5±5.5)mg/d,治疗8周后采用简明精神病评定量表(BPRS)评定临床疗效,不良反应量表(TESS)评定安全性。结果:显效率70.0%,有效率87.5%,无明显锥体外系反应,不良反应轻。结论:阿立哌唑应用于老年精神分裂症患者的治疗依从性好、安全性高,可以有效缓解老年精神分裂症的精神病症状,值得临床推广应用。%Objective:To explore the clinical therapeutic effect and safety of aripiprazole in clinical treatment of senile schizophrenia,to summarize the treatment experience.Methods:40 elderly patients with schizophrenia were selected from January 2010 to October 2013.They were treated with aripiprazole.Average dose was (18.5 ± 5.5)mg/day.At 8 weeks after treatment,the clinical efficacy was assessed by the brief psychiatric rating scale(BPRS),and security was assessed by side effects scale(TESS). Results:The significant efficiency rate was 70%,and the efficiency was 87.5%.There was no obvious extrapyramidal reaction,and adverse reaction was light.Conclusion:Treatment compliance of application of aripiprazole in clinical treatment of senile schizophrenia is good,and security is high.It can effectively alleviate psychotic symptoms of senile schizophrenia,and it is worth the clinical promotion.

  10. Metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gogia Atul

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available The Metabolic syndrome is a widely prevalent and multi-factorial disorder. The syndrome has been given several names, including- the metabolic syndrome, the insulin resistance syndrome, the plurimetabolic syndrome, and the deadly quartet. With the formulation of NCEP/ATP III guidelines, some uniformity and standardization has occurred in the definition of metabolic syndrome and has been very useful for epidemiological purposes. The mechanisms underlying the metabolic syndrome are not fully known; however resistance to insulin stimulated glucose uptake seems to modify biochemical responses in a way that predisposes to metabolic risk factors. The clinical relevance of the metabolic syndrome is related to its role in the development of cardiovascular disease. Management of the metabolic syndrome involves patient-education and intervention at various levels. Weight reduction is one of the main stays of treatment. In this article we comprehensively discuss this syndrome- the epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical relevance and management. The need to do a comprehensive review of this particular syndrome has arisen in view of the ever increasing incidence of this entitiy. Soon, metabolic syndrome will overtake cigarette smoking as the number one risk factor for heart disease among the US population. Hardly any issue of any primary care medical journal can be opened without encountering an article on type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia or hypertension. It is rare to see type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, obesity or hypertension in isolation. Insulin resistance and resulting hyperinsulinemia have been implicated in the development of glucose intolerance (and progression to type 2 diabetes, hypertriglyceridemia, hypertension, polycystic ovary yndrome, hypercoagulability and vascular inflammation, as well as the eventual development of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease manifested as myocardial infarction, stroke and myriad end organ diseases. Conversely

  11. Lipid Metabolism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    2008393 Effects of angiotensin Ⅱ type 1 receptor blocker on triglyceride metabolism in the liver: experiment with Zucker fatty rats. RAN Jianmin(冉建民), et al. Dept Endocrinol, Guangzhou Red Cross Hosp, 4th Hosp Med Coll, Jinan Univ, Guangzhou 510220. Natl Med J China 2008;88(22):1557-1561. Objective To investigate the effects of angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) on triglyceride (TG) metabolism and mechanism thereof.

  12. Animal metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies on placental transport included the following: clearance of tritiated water as a baseline measurement for transport of materials across perfused placentas; transport of organic and inorganic mercury across the perfused placenta of the guinea pig in late gestation; and transport of cadmium across the perfused placenta of the guinea pig in late gestation. Studies on cadmium absorption and metabolism included the following: intestinal absorption and retention of cadmium in neonatal rats; uptake and distribution of an oral dose of cadmium in postweanling male and female, iron-deficient and normal rats; postnatal viability and growth in rat pups after oral cadmium administration during gestation; and the effect of calcium and phosphorus on the absorption and toxicity of cadmium. Studies on gastrointestinal absorption and mineral metabolism included: uptake and distribution of orally administered plutonium complex compounds in male mice; gastrointestinal absorption of 144Ce in the newborn mouse, rat, and pig; and gastrointestinal absorption of 95Nb by rats of different ages. Studies on iodine metabolism included the following: influence of thyroid status and thiocyanate on iodine metabolism in the bovine; effects of simulated fallout radiation on iodine metabolism in dairy cattle; and effects of feeding iodine binding agents on iodine metabolism in the calf

  13. Comparative Study on Aripiprazole and Risperidone in the Treatment of Schizophrenia%阿立哌唑与利培酮治疗精神分裂症的对照研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭红波

    2013-01-01

    目的比较阿立哌唑和利培酮对精神分裂症的疗效,为临床用药提供参考。方法以我院2011年1月~2012年9月收治的120例精神分裂症患者为研究对象,将患者随机分为治疗组和对照组,每组60例。对照组患者应用利培酮,治疗组患者服用阿立哌唑。观察两组的治疗效果以及不良反应。结果治疗组总有效率高于对照组,但是差异不具有统计学意义( P>0.05);两组患者PANSS总分、阳性症状分、阴性症状分、一般精神病理分治疗后明显比治疗前降低(P<0.05),但是组间比较差异不具有统计学意义(P>0.05);治疗组不良反应发生率明显低于对照组(P<0.05)。结论临床对精神分裂症采用阿立哌唑和利培酮治疗效果均较显著,两种药物疗效相似;但是采用阿立哌唑治疗的不良反应发生率少,因此阿立哌唑治可作为临床的首要选择。%Objective Objective To analyze effect of aripiprazole and risperidone in the treatment of schizo-phrenia ,and provide reference for clinical medication choice .Methods 120 cases with schizophrenia from in-patient department in January 2011 to September 2012 were selected .These patients were randomly di-vided into treatment group and control group , 60 cases in each group .Control group received risperidone , and treatment group received aripiprazole .Curative effect and adverse reaction for two groups were observed and compared .Results Total effective rate for treatment group was obviously higher than control group , but there were no significant difference ( P>0 .05 ) .PANSS score , positive symptoms score , negative symp-toms score and general psychopathology score after treatment were obviously lower than the score before treatment ( P0 .05 ) .Incidence of adverse effect was obviously lower than control group ( P<0.05 ) .Conclusion herapeutic effects of aripiprazole and risperi-done in the treatment of

  14. 阿立哌唑和利培酮治疗女性精神分裂症对照研究%Aripiprazole and Risperidone in the Treatment of Female Schizophrenia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜丽艳

    2014-01-01

    目的:研究女性精神分裂症患者运用阿立哌唑和利培酮治疗的临床效果。方法2012年4月~2013年4月间诊治的160例女性精神分裂症患者,将其分为两组,组1使用阿立哌唑进行治疗,组2使用利培酮进行治疗,比较两组患者的临床效果。结果通过对两组患者进行比较,组1有效率为87.5%,组2为90.0%,两组患者临床效果未见明…显差异,无统计学意义(P >0.05);但组2患者的体质量增加情况、椎体外系反应的发生率、泌乳以及月经紊乱情况均比组1高,两组患者差异显著,有统计学意义(P <0.05)。结论对于女性精神分裂症治疗上效果上阿立哌唑和利培酮基本一致,但是阿立哌唑更适合用于女性精神分裂症患者。%Objective To study the clinical effect of female schizophrenia with aripiprazole and risperidone in the treatment of patients with. Methods 160 cases of female spirit in 2012 April ~2013 April in the diagnosis and treatment of patients with schizophrenia,it is divided into two groups, group 1 were treated by aripiprazole risperidone group, 2 were treated by comparison of the clinical effects of two groups of patients. Results The two groups of patients were compared, the group has an efficiency of 1 for 87.5%, group 2 to 90%,The patients in the two groups no significant differences in clinical effect, no statistical significance (P>0.05), but the group of 2 patients with body mass increase, extrapyramidal reaction rate, lactation and menstrual disorders are 1 higher than group, the differences between the two groups were significant, with statistical significance (P<0.05). Conclusion For the treatment of female schizophrenia aripiprazole and risperidone effect on basically the same,but aripiprazole is more suitable for female patients with schizophrenia.

  15. Efficacy and safety of aripiprazole in treating negative symptoms of schizophrenia%阿立哌唑与利培酮治疗精神分裂症阴性症状的疗效和安全性观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾天成

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨阿立哌唑治疗精神分裂症阴性症状的疗效和安全性。方法80名精神分裂症患者随机分为研究组(阿立哌唑治疗)和对照组(利培酮治疗),每组40例,在治疗前及治疗的2、4、8周末分别采用潘氏阳性与阴性症状量表(PANSS)、阴性症状评定量表(SANS)评分,并记录治疗期间发生的不良反应。结果两组患者治疗后的 PANSS 量表总分及 SANS 总分均明显降低(P <0.05),但同一时期,两组患者间的 PANSS 量表总分及 SANS 量表评分差异无统计学意义(P >0.05)。在治疗后第4、8周,研究组患者“思维贫乏”及“意志缺乏”的因子分较对照组明显下降(P <0.05),而对照组患者“兴趣/社交缺乏”的评分则明显低于同期的研究组患者(P <0.05)。阿立哌唑不良反应发生率小于利培酮(P <0.05)。结论阿立哌唑与利培酮均能改善精神分裂症患者的阴性症状,且总体疗效相似,但阿立哌唑更善于改善患者的情感与认知症状,而利培酮则对患者的情感与行为症状更有效。阿立哌唑的用药安全性总体上优于利培酮。%Objective To explore the efficacy and safety of aripiprazole in treating negtive symptoms of schizophrenia.Methods Eighty patients with schizophrenia were randomly assigned to the experimental group(treated with aripiprazole)and the control group(treated with risperidone),with 40 cases in each group.Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale(PANSS)and Scale for Assessment of Negative Symptoms(SANS)were used before treatment,and at the weekend of 2nd,4th,8th after treatment respectively.Results The scores of PANSS and SANS in both groups were decreased in comparison with those pretreatment(P 0.05).At the 4th,8th weekends of post-treatment,the scores of“poverty of thought”and“abulia”in experimental group were decreased in comparison with those in the control group(P 0.05).The

  16. To observe the clinical effect of aripiprazole and risperidone in the treatment of female schizophrenia%阿立哌唑与利培酮治疗女性精神分裂症的临床效果探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚日东; 黄书梅

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinical effect of aripiprazole and risperidone in the treatment of female schizophrenia. Methods 100 cases of female spirit admitted in our hospital in 2012 January to 2014 January between the schizophrenia patients for clinical research,The patients were randomly divided into aripiprazole group and risperidone group, compared two groups of patients with clinical curative effect. Results In the two groups before treatment PANSS clinical psychopathology, negative symptoms, positive symptoms and score of contrast was no significant statistical difference (P>0.05), the clinical treatment for 2 weeks, 4 weeks of treatment and 8 weeks after the treatment, PANSS psychopathology, negative symptoms, positive symptoms and total score compared with the statistically significant difference (P0.05),临床治疗2周、治疗4周和治疗8周后PANSS精神病理、阴性症状、阳性症状和总分对比差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05)。两组女性精神分裂症患者临床治疗的总有效率和不良反应发生率对比差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论该次医学研究结果证实,阿立哌唑用于女性精神分裂症的临床治疗,具有更高的有效率和安全性,因而临床推广和应用价值更高。

  17. Metabolic microspheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Sidney W.

    1980-08-01

    A systematic review of catalytic activities in thermal proteinoids and microspheres aggregated therefrom yields some new inferences on the origins and evolution of metabolism. Experiments suggest that, instead of being inert, protocells were already biochemically and cytophysically competent. The emergence and refinement of metabolism ab initio is thus partly traced conceptually. When the principle of molecular self-instruction, as of amino acids in peptide synthesis, is taken into account as a concomitant of natural selection, an expanded theory of organismic evolution, including saltations, emerges.

  18. Comparison of Efficacy and Prolactin Concentrations between Aripiprazole and Risperidone Treat-ments in Patients with Schizophrenia%阿立哌唑替换利培酮治疗对精神分裂症患者血清催乳素水平的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马筠; 李轶琛; 李毅; 房茂胜; 钟宝亮

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To compare the prolactin concentrations between aripiprazole and risperidone treatment in patients with schizophrenia. Methods: One hundred and twenty-eight schizophrenic patients with hy-perprolactinemia were randomly divided into risperidone group and aripiprazole group. Patients in the risperidone group were treated with risperidone and in the aripiprazole group were treated with aripiprazol instead of risperidone for 8 weeks. The prolactin concentrations were assessed and compared between two groups at weeks 0, 1,2, 4, 6, and 8. The clinical status was assessed by using the positive and negative syndrome scale (PANSS) and the clinical global impressions scale (CGIS) atweeks0 and 8. Results: Fifty-three in the risperidone group and 48 in the aripiprazole group were available for analyzing. Shift risperidone to aripiprazole was effective in reducing serum prolactin levels. The serum prolactin levels in the risperidone group was significantly lower than that in the aripiprazole group at week 8 (P<0.001). No significant changes was found in the PANSS and CGI-S scores between the two groups. Conclusion: Shift risperidone to aripiprazole was effective in reducing serum prolactin levels of schizophrenia patients with hyperprolactinemia.%目的:研究阿立哌唑替换利培酮治疗对精神分裂症患者血清催乳素水平的影响.方法:伴有高催乳素血症的精神分裂症患者128 例,随机分为利培酮组(维持利培酮治疗)和阿立哌唑(阿立哌唑替代利培酮治疗)组,治疗8 周.于第0、1、2、4、6 及8 周测血清催乳素水平及身体质量指数(BMI);在入组时和治疗8 周时采用阳性与阴性症状量表(PANSS)和临床总体印象量表(CGIS)测定疗效.结果:可用于评估的数据101 例,利培酮组53 例,阿立哌唑组48 例.阿立哌唑组替换治疗后第1 周血清催乳素水平即明显下降,第8 周时,显著低于利培酮组(P<0.001);2 组BMI 、PANSS 及CGIS 评分及变化差异无统计

  19. Metabolic Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... If you already have metabolic syndrome, making these healthy lifestyle choices can help reduce your risk of heart disease and other health problems. If lifestyle changes alone can’t control your ... to help. Maintain a healthy weight Your doctor can measure your body mass ...

  20. Metabolic syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Charles Shaeffer

    2004-01-01

    @@ The emergence of cardiac disease as the number one world-wide cause of death justifies efforts to identify individuals at higher risk for preventive therapy. The metabolic syndrome, originally described by Reaven, 1 has been associated with higher cardiovascular disease risk. 2 Type Ⅱ diabetes is also a frequent sequela. 3

  1. Metabolic Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metabolic syndrome is a group of conditions that put you at risk for heart disease and diabetes. These conditions are High blood pressure High blood glucose, or blood sugar, levels High levels of triglycerides, a type of fat, in your blood Low ...

  2. Endocrine and Metabolic Adverse Effects of Psychotropic Drugs in Children and Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evrim Aktepe

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Much as an increase in the use of psychotropic drugs is observed in children and adolescents over the last decade, the endocrine and metabolic side effects of these drugs can limit their use. Atypical antipsychotics can cause many side effects, which are not suitable for the developmental periods of children and adolescents, such as those related with thyroid, blood sugar, level of sex hormones, growth rate and bone metabolism. Children are under a more serious risk regarding the weight increasing effects of atypical antipsychotics and weight gain that is not proportionate with age is especially important due to the association between glucose or lipid abnormalities and cardiovascular mortality. Aripiprazole and ziprasidone are the least risky antipsychotic drugs when it comes to metabolic side affects. The antipsychotic drug that is associated with weight increase and diabetes in children and adolescents most is olanzapine. Even though there are no comparative long-term data concerning children, it is suggested by the currently available information that metabolic side effects including dyslipidemia and impaired glucose tolerance are at an alarming level when it comes to long-term treatment with antipsychotics. The most risky agents in terms of hyperglycemia and glucosuria development are olanzapine and clozapine. Use of risperidone and haloperidol should be undertaken with caution since it may bring about the risk of hyperprolactinemia. Among the antidepressants associated with weight loss and suppression of appetite are selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, bupropion and venlafaxine. Thyroid functions can be affected by lithium, carbamazepine and valproate treatments. It is reported that the side effect most frequently associated with valproate is weight increase. The relationship between valproate treatment and the development of hyperandrogenism and polycystic ovary syndrome in young women should also be kept in mind. [TAF Prev

  3. 博思清与氯氮平治疗单纯型精神分裂症疗效与安全性评价%Efficacy and safety evaluation of aripiprazole and clozapine in the treatment of simple type schizophrenia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毕见好; 高丽静

    2015-01-01

    AIM:To evaluate the efficacy and safety of aripi-prazole and clozapine in the treatment of simple type schizophreni-a.METHODS:100 cases of simple type schizophrenia meeting ICD-10 criteria were analyzed in our hospital from November 2008 to December 2014,and they were divided randomly into two groups.Aripiprazole group was treated with aripiprazol,while clozapine group was treated with clozapine.PANSS reducing rates were used to evaluate the curative effect after 3 months and half a year,and the difference treatment effect and adverse reaction of two groups were analyzed.RESULTS:The total effective rate of two groups was comparative after 3 months (P >0.05);and the total effective rate of aripiprazole group was better than clozapine group after half a year (P <0.05).The incidence of adverse reac-tion of two groups had significant difference,and the incidence of adverse reaction of aripiprazole is lower than clozapine group's (P <0.05).CONCLUSION:The effect is relatively in recent of aripiprazole and clozapine in the treatment of simple type schiz-ophrenia,but aripiprazole has obvious advantages for the long-term efficacy and safety.Its security is greater,and is worthy of promotion.%目的:对博思清与氯氮平治疗单纯型精神分裂症疗效与安全性进行评价.方法:研究对象选取本院2008-11/2014-12收治的100例符合 ICD-10单纯型精神分裂症诊断标准的患者,按随机方法分为两组.博思清组患者采用博思清治疗,氯氮平组患者给予氯氮平治疗.治疗3个月和6个月分别采用 PANSS 量表减分率评价疗效,对比分析两组患者治疗效果和不良反应的差异性.结果:经过3个月治疗后氯氮平组患者总有效率与博思清组相当(P >0.05);而治疗6个月后博思清组治疗总有效率明显优于氯氮平组(P <0.05);两组患者治疗期间不良反应发生率有显著差异,博思清组发生率明显低于氯氮平组(P <0.05)

  4. Effect of aripiprazole combined with clozapine on quality of life in patients with schizophrenia%阿立哌唑合并氯氮平对精神分裂症患者生活质量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王小红; 周云云; 兰润林; 侯凌峰; 董继雪; 武建斌

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the effect of aripiprazole combined with clozapine on quality of life in patients with schizophrenia.Method:According to the therapeutic schedule,78 recurrent patients with schizophrenics who were clinical recovery or remarkable progress by the acute treatment were divided into the study group (38 cases) and control group (40 cases).The maintenance treatment was aripiprazole combined with lower dose clozapine in study group and single clozapine in control group.The quality of life was evaluated by scale of general quality of life (GQOL1-74) in the two groups before and after 6,12 months of maintenance treatment,respectively.The results were compared.Results:After 6 and 12 months of maintenance treatment,the scores of GQOL1-74 in in the two groups were significantly increased than before maintenance treatment,and the improvement of score in the study group was more obvious (P <0.01 or P <0.001).The scores of physical function dimension,social function dimension,self-esteem score in psychological functions dimensions in the study group were significantly higher than those in the control group (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01).Conclusion:The quality of life is better in patients with schizophrenia who had the maintenance treatment with aripiprazole combined lower dose clozapine than those with purely clozapine.%目的:探讨阿立哌唑合并氯氮平对精神分裂症患者生活质量的影响. 方法:将78例经急性期治疗达临床痊愈及显著进步的复发性精神分裂症患者按治疗方案分为研究组(38例)和对照组(40例),分别给予阿立哌唑合并低剂量氯氮平及氯氮平单药维持治疗.分别在维持治疗前、6及12个月时采用生活质量综合评定问卷(GQOLl-74)对两组患者生活质量进行评定和比较. 结果:维持治疗6及12个月时,两组GQOLl-74总分较维持治疗前显著提高,且研究组更显著(P<0.01或P<0.001);研究组的躯体功能、社会功能维度评分以及

  5. Aripiprazole combined with clozapine in the treatment of refractory schizophrenia%阿立哌唑合并氯氮平治疗难治性精神分裂症对照研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹永珍

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨阿立哌唑合并氯氮平治疗难治性精神分裂症的临床疗效及安全性。方法:将68例难治性精神分裂症患者随机分为两组,组34例,研究组口服阿立哌唑联合氯氮平治疗,对照组单用氯氮平治疗,观察8周,于治疗前及治疗第2周,第4周,第8周末采用阳性与阴性症状量表及副反应量表评定临床疗效和不良反应。结果:两组治疗2周末起阳性与阴性症状量表评分均较治疗前有显著下(P<0.05),研究同期两组间比较均无显著性差异(P>0.05),治疗8周末研究组有效率为63.48%,对照组为51.73%,两组无显著性差异(P>0.05),研究组不良反应发生率为31.23%,对照组为57.27%,研究组显著低于对照组(P<0.05),研究组主要表现为静坐不能、震颤、体重增加。对照组主要为流涎、心电图异常、肝功能异常、白细胞减少、嗜睡、头昏、体重增加等。结论:阿立哌唑联合氯氮平治疗难治性精神分裂症疗效显著,安全性高,依从性好。%ObjectiveThe clinical efficacy and safety of aripiprazole combined with clozapine in the treatment of refractory schizophrenia.Methods68 patients with refractory schizophrenia were randomly divided into two groups, each group have 34 cases,the study group use aripiprazole combined with clozapine to treatment, the control group used clozapine treatment, observe 8 weeks, before treatment and second weeks, fourth weeks and eighth weeks using the positive and negative symptoms scale and side effects scale to evaluated the clinical efficacy and adverse reactions.Results The positive and negative symptom scale scores of the two groups after 2 weeks treatment were significantly lower (P 0.05), after 8 weeks the studygroup effective rate was 63.48%, the control group is 51.73%, the two groups was not statistically significant difference (P> 0.05), the incidence of adverse reactions was 31.23% in

  6. Clinical Observation on Fluvoxamine and Aripiprazole as Adjunctive Therapy in the Treatment of Obsessive-compulsive Disorders%阿立哌唑辅助氟伏沙明治疗强迫障碍的临床观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏宏强; 康瑞; 李爱玲; 赵秀娟

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To explore the efficacy and safety of fluvoxamine and aripiprazole as adjunctive therapy in the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorders patients.Method:Total 54 obsessive-compulsive disorders patients were randomly divided into two groups:Fluvoxamine(250-300 mg/d)auxiliaried by aripiprazole(2.5-10 mg/d)group(study group)and fluvoxamine(250-300 mg/d)group(contral group),27 for each. Each group had a 8-week treatment.The efficacy were assessed and analyzed by Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale(Y-BOCS) at baseline and at week 2,4,6 and 8. The side effects were assessed by Treatment Emergent Syptom Scale(TESS)during the treatment. Result:Study group and contral group had 1,2 case being off respectively. The obsession and compulsion scores of study group had all statistical difference at baseline and week 2,4 ,6,8 each other(P0.05). At week 4,in both groups,the compulsion scores had statistical difference(P0.05). Conclusion:Fluvoxamine and aripiprazole as adjunctive therapy can effectively continue to improve the compulsive symptoms in the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorders patients,the rate of side effects is similar to that of simple fluvoxamine therapy.%  目的:探讨阿立哌唑辅助氟伏沙明治疗强迫障碍的临床疗效及安全性.方法:将54例强迫障碍患者随机分为两组(各27例):阿立哌唑(2.5~10 mg/d)辅助氟伏沙明(250~300 mg/d)组(研究组)、氟伏沙明(250~300 mg/d)组(对照组),治疗观察期均为8周.两组患者于基线及治疗2、4、6、8周末分别评定Yale-Brown强迫量表(Y-BOCS),并采用副反应量表(TESS)评定治疗期间的不良反应.结果:研究组、对照组分别脱落1例、2例.研究组的强迫思维和强迫行为评分在基线及2、4、6、8周末时点间比较差异均有统计学意义(P0.05);4周末时,两组间的强迫行为评分比较差异有统计学意义(P0.05).结论:阿立哌唑辅助氟伏沙明可有效、持续地改善强迫障

  7. A Comparative Study on Aripiprazole and Sulpiride in Treating Schizophrenia Negative Symptoms%阿立哌唑与舒必利治疗精神分裂症阴性症状对照研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈妙扬; 肖垚南; 陈丁玲; 黎艳芳

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the efficacy and safety of aripiprazole and sulpiride in treatment of schizophrenia negative symptoms. Methods 120 cases of schizophrenia whose predominant clin-ical features were negative symptoms were randomly assigned to treat with either aripiprezole or sulpiride for 3 months each. They were all assessed by SANS and TESS. Results There was a significant difference in efficacy between the groups assessed by SANS. Side effects of aripiprezole were significantly fewer than sulpiride assessed by TESS. Conclusions Aripiprazole has better ef-fect on schizophrenia whose negative symptoms as target symptom and less side effects.%目的:比较阿立哌唑与舒必利治疗精神分裂症阴性症状的疗效和安全性。方法选取120例符合中国精神疾病诊断标准(CCMD3)诊断为精神分裂症且以阴性症状为主的患者,根据随机对照的方法分为研究组(60例)和对照组(60例),研究组应用阿立哌唑治疗,对照组舒必利治疗,疗程均为3个月;用阴性症状评定量表(SANS)、用药物副反应量表(TESS)进行评定。结果两组治疗前后1个月比较有显著性差异(P<0.05),治疗后2、3个月与治疗前比较亦有显著性差异(P<0.05);两组药物副反应比较,阿立哌唑组明显舒必利组少,有显著性差异(P<0.05)。结论阿立哌唑对分裂症阴性症状有较好的治疗效果,药物副反应少,使用安全较高。

  8. Blueberries and Metabolic Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metabolic Syndrome is a cluster of metabolic disorders that increase the risk of cardiovascular diseases. Type 2 diabetes, elevated blood pressure, and atherogenic dyslipidemia are among the metabolic alterations that predispose the individual to several adverse cardiovascular complications. The hea...

  9. Carbohydrate Metabolism Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you eat. Food is made up of proteins, carbohydrates, and fats. Chemicals in your digestive system (enzymes) ... metabolic disorder, something goes wrong with this process. Carbohydrate metabolism disorders are a group of metabolic disorders. ...

  10. Relationship between serum concentration and clinical efficacy of aripiprazole in the treatment of patients with schizophrenia%阿立派唑治疗精神分裂症的血药浓度与临床效应关系研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李建华; 钟华; 沈卫民; 孙菊水; 陈海支; 范振国; 卢桂华

    2011-01-01

    目的:研究阿立哌唑治疗精神分裂症的血药浓度与临床效应之间关系,探索阿立哌唑血药浓度的治疗窗.方法:采用前瞻性研究方法,应用非固定剂量药物治疗8周.以高效液相色谱仪测定阿立哌唑的谷浓度,阳性和阴性症状量表(PANSS),临床总体印象-病情严重程度量表(CGI-SI)评定疗效,治疗时出现的症状量表(TESS)评定不良反应.采用受试者运筹特征曲线(ROC曲线)获得血药浓度的最佳截断值,结合四分位间距法推测阿立哌唑血药浓度的治疗窗.并分析血药浓度与药物剂量、临床疗效、不良反应等之间的相关性.结果:入组80例患者,治疗有效47例、无效29例,另外4例脱落.总的不良反应发生率为32.5%.阿立哌唑血药浓度与药物剂量、PANSS减分率及TESS分值间呈正相关,与CGI-SI分值呈负相关.药物剂量与疗效无相关性.最低有效血药浓度为363 μg/L,发生不良反应的血药浓度阈值为540 μg/L.有效组血药浓度的四分位间距为348~623 μg/L.血药浓度在350~540 μg/L的范围内疗效较好,副反应较轻.结论:阿立哌唑治疗精神分裂症的血药浓度与临床效应之间存在相关性,较适宜的治疗窗是350~540 μg/L.%AIM: To explore the relationship between serum concentration and clinical efficacy of aripiprazole in the treatment of patients with schizophrenia, and the suitable therapeutic window of aripiprazole. METHODS: Prospective study method was adopted. The dosages of aripiprazole were unfixed for eight weeks. The trough serum concentrations were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The clinical efficacy was evaluated with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and the Clinical Global Impression-Severity of Illnes (CGI-SI), side effects were done with the Treatment Emergent Symptom Scale (TESS). The optimized cutoff value of serum concentration was procured by the receiver operator curve (ROC), and the

  11. Effects of long-term use of aripiprazole and clozapine on myo-cardial enzymes of patients with schizophrenia%长期服用阿立哌唑与氯氮平对精神分裂症患者血清心肌酶的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王冬梅; 李素芝; 王新红

    2016-01-01

    Objective To explore the effects of long‐term use of aripiprazole and clozapine on myocardial enzymes of patients with schizophrenia .Methods Serum myocardial enzymes lev‐els were detected and analyzed in 84 schizophrenics on aripiprazole and 85 ones on clozapine > 3 years ,in‐dexes consisted of creatine kinase (CK) ,creatine kinase isoenzyme MB (CK‐MB) ,lactate dehydrogenase ( LDH) and aspertate aminotransferase (AST ) .Results The CK ,CK‐MB and LDH levels of both groups were all higher than normal value ,but those significantly higher in clizapine than in aripiprazole group (P<0 .05 or 0 .01);AST levels of both groups had no significant difference from normal value . Conclusion Long‐term use of aripiprazole or clozapine could induce the increases of serum myocardial en‐zymes levels in schizophrenics in different degrees ,especially clozapine ,as should be paid attention to .%目的:探讨长期服用阿立哌唑与氯氮平对精神分裂症患者血清心肌酶水平的影响。方法对84例服用阿立哌唑及85例服用氯氮平治疗时间>3 a的精神分裂症患者进行血清心肌酶水平检测分析,指标包括肌酸激酶、肌酸激酶同工酶MB亚型、乳酸脱氢酶和天门冬氨酸氨基转移酶。结果两组肌酸激酶、肌酸激酶同工酶MB亚型、乳酸脱氢酶水平均高于正常值,但氯氮平组显著高于阿立哌唑组( P<0.05或0.01);两组天门冬氨酸氨基转移酶水平与正常值比较均无明显变化。结论精神分裂症患者长期服用阿立哌唑与氯氮平治疗均可导致血清心肌酶水平不同程度的升高,氯氮平升高更为显著,应引起临床医师的关注。

  12. 阿立哌唑联合利培酮治疗慢性精神分裂症对照研究%A controlled study on aripiprazole combined with risperidone in the treatment of chronic schizophrenia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨永秀; 陈斌华; 徐小杰; 陶云海; 施剑飞

    2013-01-01

    目的 评价阿立哌唑联合利培酮治疗慢性精神分裂症的疗效和安全性.方法 212例慢性精神分裂症患者随机分为阿立哌唑联合利培酮组(治疗组,105例)和利培酮组(对照组,107例).分别于治疗前及治疗后第2,4,8周末用阳性症状和阴性症状量表(PANSS)评价疗效,副反应量表(TESS)评价药物不良反应.结果 治疗组完成105例,对照组完成104例.治疗组有效率为92.38%,显著率为77.14%;对照组有效率为85.58%,显著率为66.35%,2组疗效差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).PANSS总分减分及PANSS阴性因子减分在第2,4,8周末治疗组均优于对照组(P <0.05或P<0.01).2组药物不良反应均较轻微,经对症处理大多能缓解,其中在震颤、静坐不能、体重增加及泌乳、月经紊乱等发生率,治疗组明显低于对照组(P<0.05).结论 利培酮联合阿立哌唑治疗慢性精神分裂症疗效良好,不良反应小,患者治疗依从性好.%Objective To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of aripiprazole combined risperidone in the treatment of chronic schizophrenia.Methods A total of 212 patients diagnosed as chronic schizophrenia were randomly divided into aripiprazole combined risperidone group (treatment group,n =105) and risperidone group (control group,n =107).Clinical effectiveness was assessed with the positive and negative syndrome scale(PANSS)and adverse reactions with the treatment emergent symptom scale (TESS) before treatment and at the end of the 2,4,8 week.Results One hundred and five patients of the treatment group and 104 patients of the control group had completed the course.The effective rate and the apparent effect rate in treatment group was 92.38% and 77.14%,whereas that was 85.58% and 66.35% in control group.There was no significant difference between two groups (P > 0.05).Effectiveness of treatment group was superior to control group at the end of the 2,4,8 week by PANSS total scores'subtraction and

  13. 氨磺必利与阿立哌唑治疗首发精神分裂症对照研究%A controlled study of amisulpride vs aripiprazole in the first-episode schizophrenia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆强

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the efficacy and safety of amisulpride and aripi‐prazole in the treatment of first‐episode schizophrenia .Methods Using randomized ,double‐blind ,double‐dummy parallel controlled method 124 first‐episode schizophrenics were assigned to two groups taking o‐rally amisulpride and aripiprazole respectively for 8 weeks .Efficacies were assessed with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and Clinical Global Impression (CGI) and adverse reactions with the Treatment Emergent Symptom Scale (TESS) .Results After treatment the PANSS and CGI scores of both groups lowered more significantly compared with pretreatment (P 0 .05) .Ad‐verse reactions were mild ,there were no group significant difference in incidence of adverse reaction (P>0 .05) .Conclusion Both amisulpride and aripiprazole have an equivalent evident effect in first‐episode schizophrenia ,take effect rapidly ,and have higher safety and better compliance .%目的:探讨氨磺必利与阿立哌唑治疗首发精神分裂症的疗效及安全性。方法将124例首发精神分裂症患者按随机数字表分为两组,采用双盲、双模拟平行对照的方法分别口服氨磺必利和阿立哌唑治疗,观察8周。采用阳性与阴性症状量表、临床疗效总评量表评定临床疗效,副反应量表评定不良反应。结果治疗后两组阳性与阴性症状量表和临床疗效总评量表评分均较治疗前显著性下降( P<0.05或0.01);治疗8周末氨磺必利组显效率63.3%、总有效率88.3%,阿立哌唑组分别为64.4%、91.5%,两组比较差异无显著性(χ2=0.01、0.33,P>0.05)。不良反应均较轻微,发生率比较差异无显著性(P>0.05)。结论氨磺必利与阿立哌唑治疗首发精神分裂症疗效显著,总体疗效相当,起效快,安全性高,依从性好。

  14. 阿立哌唑治疗双相障碍躁狂发作的临床疗效及安全性%The effects and safety of aripiprazole in the treatment of bipolar disorder typelmanic episode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋正伟

    2016-01-01

    目的 探讨阿立哌唑治疗双相障碍躁狂发作的临床疗效及安全性.方法 选取 2014 年 1 月—2015年 1 月在徐州精神病院治疗的 94 例双相障碍躁狂发作患者,按照治疗药物的不同分为对照组 40 例和研究组 54 例,对照组患者采用丙戊酸钠缓释片治疗,研究组患者采用阿立派唑治疗,比较两组患者的临床疗效及不良反应发生情况.结果 杨氏躁狂评定量表(YMRS)评分时间和方法无交互作用(P > 0. 05),时间间比较,差异有统计学意义(P 0. 05),时间间比较,差异有统计学意义(P 0. 05),治疗 7、14d 两组患者 YMRS 和 CIG - S - BP 评分比较,差异有统计学意义(P 0. 05),comparison between time,the differences were statistically significant(P 0. 05),comparison between time,the differences were statistically significant(P 0. 05),7,14d after treatment YMRS and CGI - S - BP scores between the two groups showed significant differences(P < 0. 05). The incidence of extrapyramidal symptoms between the two groups showed significant differences(P < 0. 05). Conclusion Aripiprazole has sure effect in the treatment of bipolar disorder typelmanic episode,and has good safety

  15. A control study of influence of amisulpride,clozapine and aripiprazole on electrocardiogram and serum levels of myocardial enzymogram in patients with schizophrenia%氨磺必利与氯氮平、阿立哌唑对精神分裂症患者心肌酶和心电图影响的对比研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常学润; 张敬悬; 何云鹏

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study the influence of amisulpride,clozapine and aripiprazole on electrocardiogram and serum levels of myocardial enzymogram in patients with schizophrenia.Methods 180 schizophrenic patients were randomly divided into amisulpride group (n =60),clozapine group (n =60)and aripiprazole group (n =60)treated with amisulpride,clozapine and aripiprazole respectively.The electrocardiogram and serum levels of myocardial enzymogram including AST,CK,CK-MB, LDH,α-HBDH were measured at baseline and at the end of the 2nd ,4th ,8th and 12th week of the treatment.Results (1)At the end of the 8th week,serum level of AST in aripiprazole group,as well as serum levels of CK-MB and LDH in amisulpride group were significantly higher than those at baseline (P <0.05 ).Serum levels of CK and α-HBDH in 3 groups were significantly higher at the 4th,8th and 12th week of the treatment than those at baseline (P <0.05).(2)There was significant difference in incidence of abnormal T wave among 3 groups at the 12th week (P <0.05).The incidence of abnormal T wave in clozapine group was significantly higher than that in amisulpride group and aripiprazole group (P <0.05).(3)The incidence rate of abnormal electrocardiogram showed significant difference among 3 groups at the 12th week (P <0.01 ),and was significantly higher in clozapine group than that in amisulpride group and aripiprazole group (P <0.05).Inner-group comparison showed that incidence rates of abnormal electrocardiogram in amisulpride group and aripiprazole group were significantly lower at the end of the 12th week than that at the end of the 2nd week respectively (P <0.05).Conclusion Amisulpride,clozapine and aripiprazole can cause a certain adverse effects on electrocardiogram and myocardial enzymogram in patients with schizophrenia. The influence on electrocardiogram is relatively more obvious in clozapine treated patients and is likely to be more serious with the progress of treatment.%目的:比较氨磺必利与氯

  16. 首发精神分裂症患者使用阿立哌唑后血清IL-2、IL-4水平变化的探讨%Explore the level changes of IL-2,IL-4 in the first-episode schizophrenia after the treatment of arip-iprazole

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘倩倩; 李亚飞; 朱祥路; 蒋天玉

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the differences of serum IL-2 ,IL-4 in the first-episode schizo-phrenia and healthy controls were explored ,and to compare the changes of symptoms before and after aripiprazole treatment and the changes of serum IL-2 ,IL-4 .Methods Serum of IL-2 ,IL-4 was exam-ined with Flow Cytometry in 35 healthy volunteers and 35 first episode patients .The symptoms of pa-tients were evaluated with Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale .Results There were no statistical sig-nificantly differents in the serum of IL-2 ,IL-4 in the first-episode schizophrenia than normal .controls (P>0 .05) .The serum levels of IL-4 was lower in patients with first-episode schizophrenia after aripi-prazole treatment (P<0 .01) .IL-2 and IL-4 levels were increased in positive symptoms of schizophre-nia patients before aripiprazole treatment (positive symptoms) than normal controls (P<0 .05) .IL-2 and IL-4 levels were different in positive symptoms of schizophrenia patients before and after aripi-prazole treatment (P<0 .05) .Conclusion The patients with schizophrenia have immune dysfunction ;Aripiprazole of antipsychotics have lowered the level of IL-2 ,IL-4 and positive symptoms also im-proved .Conclusion.%目的:探讨首发精神分裂症患者血清细胞因子IL-2、IL-4与正常人的差异,比较分析首发精神分裂症患者经过阿立哌唑治疗前后症状改变及细胞因子IL-2、IL-4的变化。方法选择35例首发精神分裂症患者作为研究组,35例健康志愿者作为对照组,通过流式细胞学技术测定血清标本中IL-2、IL-4的水平,用PANSS量表评定精神症状。结果(1)首发精神分裂症患者IL-2、IL-4水平与正常对照组相比,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05)。(2)首发精神分裂症患者阿立哌唑治疗后较治疗前IL-4水平降低,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01)。(3)首发精神分裂症阳性症状患者血清IL-2、IL-4水平在治疗前均高于对照组(P<0.05

  17. 氨磺必利与阿立哌唑口崩片治疗以阴性症状为主的精神分裂症的临床对照研究%A controlled clinical study of amisulpride and aripiprazole orally disintegrating tablets in treatment of negative schizophrenia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓

    2014-01-01

    目的:比较氨磺必利和阿立哌唑口崩片治疗以阴性症状为主的精神分裂症的临床疗效和安全性。方法采用随机对照研究,将64例符合《中国精神障碍分类与诊断标准(第3版)》(CCMD-3)诊断标准的以阴性症状为主的精神分裂症患者按照入组先后顺序分为氨磺必利组(研究组)和阿立哌唑口崩片组(对照组)各32例,疗程8周,采用阳性和阴性症状量表( PANSS)评定疗效,采用副反应量表( TESS)评定不良反应。结果治疗8周后,两组PANSS评分均下降(P>0.05),氨磺必利组和阿立哌唑口崩片组有效率分别为90.63%,87.5%,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05)。两组TESS评分分别为(3.98±1.03)分、(4.07±1.89)分,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05)。结论氨磺必利与阿立哌唑口崩片治疗以阴性症状为主的精神分裂症疗效相当,不良反应轻。%Objective To compare the efficacy and safety between amisulpride and aripiprazole in treatment of negative schizo-phrenia. Methods Using randomized controlled trials in this study, 64 patients diagnosed with negative schizophrenia were randomly divided into amisulpride group (study group) and aripiprazole orally disintegrating tablets group (control group). The positive and negative scale ( PANSS) was used to evaluate the efficacy, and treatment emergent side effect scale ( TESS) was used to evaluate the advese reactions. The course of treatment was eight weeks. Results PANSS(P>0. 05) scores of the two groups were both significant-ly decreased after 8 weeks, the efficacy rates of amisulpride group and aripiprazole orally disintegrating tablets group were 90. 63% and 87. 5%, which two groups showed no significant difference fromχ2 test (P>0. 05). The TESS scores of amisulpride group and aripi-prazole group were(3. 98 ± 1. 03)and(4. 07 ± 1. 89), The TESS scores of two groups also showed no significant difference by t-test (P>0. 05). Conclusion Amisulpride are as effective as Aripiprazole orally

  18. 阿立哌唑与利培酮治疗痴呆精神行为症状的疗效及安全性比较%Comparison of Efifcacy and Safety of Aripiprazole and Risperidone Treating Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李洪涛

    2015-01-01

    目的:通过临床试验对阿立哌唑和利培酮对于痴呆精神行为的疗效和安全性进行观察和探讨。方法将本科室近来收治的有痴呆精神行为症状的患者72人进行随机分组,每组36人,并分别用阿立哌唑(A组)和利培酮来(B组)对患者进行为期8 w的治疗,在治疗之前以及治疗的第2、4以及第8周的最后一天对72名患者采用BEHAV-AD对患者的病理行为进行评定,以此来对两种药物的有效性进行对比;同时采用TESS(不良反应检测表)来对药物的安全性进行分析和比较。结果通过阿立哌唑和利培酮进行治疗的两组患者在治疗后BEHAV-AD评分较治疗之前有了明显的降低,A、B两组患者的治疗之前与治疗之后的BEHAV-AD评分相比较具有较为明显的统计学差异(P<0.05)。另外服用阿立哌唑的A组患者的不良反应发生率明显比服用利培酮的B组患者的不良反应发生率低,通过对差异进行分析发现,此差异同样具有统计学意义(P<0.01)。结论阿立哌唑和利培酮对于痴呆精神行为都具有较为明显的疗效,但是利培酮的安全性相比阿立哌唑较差。%Objective Observe and investigate the efficacy and safety of aripiprazole and risperidone for spirit behavior of dementia. Methods 72 patients with behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia were randomly assigned into two groups, 36 people in each group , they were treated with aripiprazole (A group) and risperidone to (group B) respectively for a period of 8 w, assessed the behavior of the patients by BEHAV-AD at the points of prior to treatment, treatment of 2, 4 and 8 weeks , and the last day, compared the effectiveness of the two drugs, at the same time using the TESS (adverse reaction detection table) to assess the safety of the drugs. Results After the treatment of aripiprazole and risperidone, BEHAV-AD score signiifcantly reduced in two groups, there were

  19. Clinical efficacy and safety of lithium carbonate combined with aripiprazole in treatment of bipolar depression%碳酸锂联合阿立哌唑治疗双相障碍抑郁发作的疗效和安全性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    粟幼嵩; 陈俊; 李则挚; 王勇; 黄佳; 方贻儒; 王祖承

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨碳酸锂联合阿立哌唑治疗双相障碍抑郁发作的疗效和安全性.方法 81例双相障碍抑郁发作患者随机分为联合用药组(n=42)和锂盐组(n=39),分别给予碳酸锂联合阿立哌唑治疗或单用碳酸锂治疗,持续8周.在基线期及治疗第1、2、4、8周末,采用17项汉密顿抑郁量表(HAMD-17)和Young躁狂评定量表(YMRS)评定疗效,计算治疗有效率,采用治疗时出现的症状量表(TESS)评定不良反应.结果 基线期两组HAMD-17评分差异无统计学意义(P>0.05),治疗第1、2、4周末联合用药组HAMD-17评分显著低于锂盐组(P<0.05或P<0.01);治疗第8周末联合用药组HAMD-17评分低于锂盐组,但差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).两组基线期及治疗各阶段的YMRS评分均<7.两组治疗有效率和不良反应发生率比较差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论 与单用碳酸锂比较,碳酸锂联合阿立哌唑治疗双相障碍抑郁发作起效快,疗效相似,不良反应无明显增加.%Objective To investigate the clinical efficacy and safety of lithium carbonate combined with aripiprazole in treatment of bipolar depression. Methods Eighty-one patients with bipolar depression were randomly divided into lithium carbonate combined with aripiprazole group (re = 42) or lithium carbonate group ( n = 39), and were treated with lithium carbonate combined with aripiprazole and lithium carbonate for 8 weeks respectively. At the baseline and the end of fthe irst, second, fourth and eighth week of treatment, Hamilton Depression Scale-17 ( HAMD-17) and Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) were employed to evaluate the clinical efficacy, the effective rates were calculated, and Treatment Emergent Symptom Scale (TESS) was adopted to assess the side effects. Results There was no significant difference in HAMD-17 score between two group at the baseline (P>0.05), while HAMD-17 scores at the end of first, second and fourth week of treatment in lithium

  20. Comprehensive metabolic panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metabolic panel - comprehensive; Chem-20; SMA20; Sequential multi-channel analysis with computer-20; SMAC20; Metabolic panel 20 ... values for glucose and creatinine can vary with age. Normal value ranges for all tests may vary ...

  1. Amino Acid Metabolism Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metabolism is the process your body uses to make energy from the food you eat. Food is ... One group of these disorders is amino acid metabolism disorders. They include phenylketonuria (PKU) and maple syrup ...

  2. Inborn errors of metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metabolism - inborn errors of ... Bodamer OA. Approach to inborn errors of metabolism. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap 205. Rezvani I, Rezvani G. An ...

  3. Lipid Metabolism Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metabolism is the process your body uses to make energy from the food you eat. Food is ... disorder, something goes wrong with this process. Lipid metabolism disorders, such as Gaucher disease and Tay-Sachs ...

  4. Cancer stem cell metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Peiris-Pagès, Maria; Martinez-Outschoorn, Ubaldo E.; Pestell, Richard G.; Sotgia, Federica; Lisanti, Michael P

    2016-01-01

    Cancer is now viewed as a stem cell disease. There is still no consensus on the metabolic characteristics of cancer stem cells, with several studies indicating that they are mainly glycolytic and others pointing instead to mitochondrial metabolism as their principal source of energy. Cancer stem cells also seem to adapt their metabolism to microenvironmental changes by conveniently shifting energy production from one pathway to another, or by acquiring intermediate metabolic phenotypes. Deter...

  5. Metabolic Syndrome and Migraine

    OpenAIRE

    Sachdev, Amit; Marmura, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Migraine and metabolic syndrome are highly prevalent and costly conditions. The two conditions coexist, but it is unclear what relationship may exist between the two processes. Metabolic syndrome involves a number of findings, including insulin resistance, systemic hypertension, obesity, a proinflammatory state, and a prothrombotic state. Only one study addresses migraine in metabolic syndrome, finding significant differences in the presentation of metabolic syndrome in migraineurs. However, ...

  6. Metabolic Engineering X Conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flach, Evan [American Institute of Chemical Engineers

    2015-05-07

    The International Metabolic Engineering Society (IMES) and the Society for Biological Engineering (SBE), both technological communities of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE), hosted the Metabolic Engineering X Conference (ME-X) on June 15-19, 2014 at the Westin Bayshore in Vancouver, British Columbia. It attracted 395 metabolic engineers from academia, industry and government from around the globe.

  7. Engineering Cellular Metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens; Keasling, Jay

    2016-01-01

    of metabolic engineering and will discuss how new technologies can enable metabolic engineering to be scaled up to the industrial level, either by cutting off the lines of control for endogenous metabolism or by infiltrating the system with disruptive, heterologous pathways that overcome cellular regulation.......Metabolic engineering is the science of rewiring the metabolism of cells to enhance production of native metabolites or to endow cells with the ability to produce new products. The potential applications of such efforts are wide ranging, including the generation of fuels, chemicals, foods, feeds...

  8. Integrative metabolic engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George H McArthur IV

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in experimental and computational synthetic biology are extremely useful for achieving metabolic engineering objectives. The integration of synthetic biology and metabolic engineering within an iterative design-build-test framework will improve the practice of metabolic engineering by relying more on efficient design strategies. Computational tools that aid in the design and in silico simulation of metabolic pathways are especially useful. However, software helpful for constructing, implementing, measuring and characterizing engineered pathways and networks should not be overlooked. In this review, we highlight computational synthetic biology tools relevant to metabolic engineering, organized in the context of the design-build-test cycle.

  9. 阿立哌唑与利培酮治疗痴呆精神行为症状的疗效及安全性比较%Comparison of efficacy and safety of aripiprazole and risperidone treating behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗克勇; 刘克祥; 王瑞超; 付华斌

    2013-01-01

    目的 观察阿立哌唑和利培酮治疗老年痴呆精神行为症状的疗效及安全性.方法 采用随机对照研究,将具有精神行为症状的痴呆患者68例完全随机分为阿立哌唑组及利培酮组,各34例.阿立哌唑组患者服用阿立哌唑,起始剂量2.5 mg/d,最大剂量不超过15 mg/d;利培酮组患者口服利培酮,起始剂量0.5 mg/d,最大剂量不超过3 mg/d.疗程均为8周.治疗前和治疗第2、4、8周末采用痴呆病理分析评定量表(BEHAVE-AD)评定疗效,用副反应量表(TESS)评定不良反应,并于入组时和治疗第8周末分别检测2组患者空腹血糖、餐后2h血糖、TC、TG、LDL-C、HDL-C及体重.结果 阿立哌唑组和利培酮组患者治疗2、4、8周后BEHAVE-AD评分均明显低于治疗前[阿立哌唑组:(14.8±4.2)、(10.2±3.6)、(6.8±2.8)分比(16.4±4.6)分;利培酮组:(15.2±3.9)、(11.8±3.8)、(7.2±3.0)分比(17.2±5.0)分,P <0.05或P<0.01].2组患者间治疗前及治疗后BEHAVE-AD评分比较,差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05).2组不良反应发生率均为8.8% (3/34),差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).利培酮组治疗8周末体重较治疗前增加明显[(71±6)kg比(66±6) kg,P<0.05],TG及LDL-C升高[分别为(1.62±0.46) mmol/L比(0.96±0.29) mmol/L,(3.82±0.86) mmol/L比(3.08±0.74) mmol/L],而阿立哌唑组则改变不明显(均P>0.05).结论 阿立哌唑治疗老年痴呆精神行为症状总体疗效、安全性与利培酮相当,但阿立哌唑对患者血糖、血脂及体重影响小于利培酮.%Objective To assess the effect and safety of aripiprazole and risperidone in the treatment of behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD).Methods All 68 dementia were randomly divided into aripiprazole group (n =34) and risperidone group (n =34) with a course of 8 weeks.Aripiprazole was administered by patients in aripiprazole group with a starting dose of 2.5 mg/d and less than the maximum dose 15 mg/d,risperidone was administered

  10. 阿立哌唑合并氯氮平对难治性精神分裂症疗效和认知功能影响的研究%A self-controlled study of aripiprazole combined with clozapine on efficacy and cognitive function in patients with treatment-resistant schizophrenia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    司桂梅; 王爱波; 秦爱玲

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore the effects of aripiprazole combined with clozapine on efficacy and cognitive function for patients with treatment-resistant schizophrenia. Methods A total of 45 treatment-resistant schizophrenic patients treated with clozapine were combined with aripiprazole (10-30mg/d) for 12 weeks,at the same time clozapine was lowered to maintenance does within 2 weeks. The efficacy and side effects were assessed with Positive and Negative Symptom Scale (PANSS) and Treatment Emergent Symptoms Scale (TESS) ,the cognitive function were measured with Wisconsion Card Sorting Test (WCST) and Continuous Performance Test (CPT) at baseline and at the 12th weekend of the treatment. Results At the end of the treatment, scores of PANSS and TESS decreased significantly, and each parameters of cognitive function was significantly improved when compared with those at baseline. Conclusion Aripiprazole combined with clozapine can effectively improve the negative symptoms and cognitive functions in patients with treatment-resistant schizophrenia with few side effects.%目的 探讨阿立哌唑合并氯氮平对难治性精神分裂症疗效及认知功能的影响.方法 对45例原服用氯氮平治疗的难治性精神分裂症患者合并阿立哌唑( 10~30) mg/d治疗12周,同时2周内将氯氮平减量至维持剂量后不再变化,并于合并治疗前及治疗后12周末用阳性与阴性症状量表( PA NSS)、副反应量表(TESS)评定疗效和副反应,以威斯康星卡片(WCST)和连续作业测验(CPT)评定患者的认知功能.结果 合并阿立哌唑治疗后12周末PANSS总分和TESS评分较合并前有明显差异(P<0.01,P<0.05),各项认知功能指标均有不同程度改善.结论 阿立哌唑合并氯氮平对难治性精神分裂症阴性症状及认知功能的改善明显,副反应减少.

  11. 阿立哌唑合并康复训练改善精神分裂症患者生活质量的临床研究%Clinical Study of Aripiprazole Combined with Rehabilitation Training to Improve the Quality of Life in Patients with Schizophrenia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程闯; 张新风

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To explore the effect of aripiprazole combined with rehabilitation training in patients with schizophrenia quality of life of the spirit.Method:Met the Chinese classification and diagnostic criteria of mental disorders Third Edition(CCMD-3)criteria for the diagnosis of 90 patients with schizophrenia were randomly divided into two groups,aripiprazole and clozapine in the treatment of,a total of 8 weeks,two groups were psychiatric rehabilitation training. The positive and negative symptoms scale before and after treatment(PANSS)was introduced in June to assess the efficacy,the side effects scale(TESS)assessment of adverse reactions,the WHO quality of life scale(WHOQOL-100)assessment of quality of life.Result:Aripiprazole group and clozapine group markedly effective rate were 73.3%and 75.6%,with no significant difference between two groups(P>0.05);4,8 weeks after treatment,two groups of PANSS scale scores were decreased than that before treatment(P0.05);治疗后4、8周,两组PANSS量表各项因子分均较治疗前下降(P<0.05),但治疗后8周阿立哌唑组阴性症状及一般精神病理分较氯氮平组差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);阿立哌唑组不良反应发生率显著低于氯氮平组(P<0.05);治疗6个月后两组在(WHOQOL-100)量表各领域均较治疗前有统计学意义(P<0.05),但阿立哌唑组在生理领域、心理领域、社会关系领域、精神支柱、生活质量方面较氯氮平组差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论:阿立哌唑治疗精神分裂症疗效与氯氮平相仿,不良反应少,合并精神康复治疗可显著改善精神分裂症患者的生活质量。

  12. 阿立哌唑合并抗抑郁药治疗抑郁症的临床疗效及安全性研究%Study on the clinical effect and safety of aripiprazole combined with antidepressants in the treatment of depression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜美俊

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨阿立哌唑合并抗抑郁药(三环类抗抑郁剂阿米替林)治疗抑郁症的临床疗效及安全性。方法选择120例抑郁症患者随机分为研究组和对照组。对照组给予常规抗抑郁药物治疗,研究组在常规抗抑郁治疗基础上给予阿立哌唑。采用汉密尔顿抑郁量表和副反应量表对两组患者治疗前和治疗后进行评定。结果研究组治疗后的第1、2、4、6周汉密尔顿抑郁量表评分分别与对照组同期比较,差异有统计学意义(P0.05)。结论阿立哌唑能够提高抗抑郁药(三环类抗抑郁剂阿米替林)治疗抑郁症的临床治疗效果,可作为临床抗抑郁治疗的一种增效手段。%Objective To study clinical effect and safety of aripiprazole combined with antidepressants(tricyclic antidepressants amitriptyline) in the treatment of depression. Methods From January 2010 to December 2013, 120 patients with depression patients were selected and randomly divided into study group and control group , control group was given regular treatment of antidepressant drugs, study group was given aripiprazole combined with antidepressants(tricyclic antidepressants amitriptyline). The Hamilton Depression Scale (HAMD) and Treatment Emergent Symptom Scale (TESS) were used in the two group s of patients before and after treatment. Results Hamilton Depression Scale scores in the study group after treatment of the first week, second week, fourth week and sixth week of study group was compared with those in control group , the difference was statistically significant(P0.05). Conclusion Aripiprazole can improve the clinical efficacy of antidepressants (tricyclic antidepressants amitriptyline) in the treatment of depression, which can be one of the augmentations in the treatment of depression.

  13. Metabolic enzymes link morphine withdrawal with metabolic disorder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xi Jiang; Jing Li; Lan Ma

    2007-01-01

    @@ Energy metabolism is a fundamental biological process that is vital for the survival of all species. Disorders in the metabolic system result in deficiency or redundancy of certain nutrients, including carbohydrates, lipids, amino acids, etc. Abnormality of the energy metabolism system leads to a number of metabolic diseases, such as the metabolic syndrome. Broadly speaking, the term "metabolic diseases" now tends to be widened to the category that refers to all diseases with metabolism disorder.

  14. Metabolic syndrome and migraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit eSachdev

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Migraine and metabolic syndrome are highly prevaleirnt and costly conditions.The two conditions coexist, but it is unclear what relationship may exist between the two processes. Metabolic syndrome involves a number of findings, including insulin resistance, systemic hypertension, obesity, a proinflammatory state, and a prothrombotic state. Only one study addresses migraine in metabolic syndrome, finding significant differences in the presentation of metabolic syndrome in migraineurs. However, controversy exists regarding the contribution of each individual risk factor to migraine pathogensis and prevalence. It is unclear what treatment implications, if any, exist as a result of the concomitant diagnosis of migraine and metabolic syndrome. The cornerstone of migraine and metabolic syndrome treatments is prevention, relying heavily on diet modification, sleep hygiene, medication use, and exercise.

  15. Inflammasomes and metabolic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henao-Mejia, Jorge; Elinav, Eran; Thaiss, Christoph A; Flavell, Richard A

    2014-01-01

    Innate immune response pathways and metabolic pathways are evolutionarily conserved throughout species and are fundamental to survival. As such, the regulation of whole-body and cellular metabolism is intimately integrated with immune responses. However, the introduction of new variables to this delicate evolutionarily conserved physiological interaction can lead to deleterious consequences for organisms as a result of inappropriate immune responses. In recent decades, the prevalence and incidence of metabolic diseases associated with obesity have dramatically increased worldwide. As a recently acquired human characteristic, obesity has exposed the critical role of innate immune pathways in multiple metabolic pathophysiological processes. Here, we review recent evidence that highlights inflammasomes as critical sensors of metabolic perturbations in multiple tissues and their role in the progression of highly prevalent metabolic diseases. PMID:24274736

  16. Mevalonate metabolism in cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruenbacher, Georg; Thurnher, Martin

    2015-01-28

    Cancer cells are characterized by sustained proliferative signaling, insensitivity to growth suppressors and resistance to apoptosis as well as by replicative immortality, the capacity to induce angiogenesis and to perform invasive growth. Additional hallmarks of cancer cells include the reprogramming of energy metabolism as well as the ability to evade immune surveillance. The current review focuses on the metabolic reprogramming of cancer cells and on the immune system's capacity to detect such changes in cancer cell metabolism. Specifically, we focus on mevalonate metabolism, which is a target for drug and immune based cancer treatment. PMID:24467965

  17. Mathematical modelling of metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gombert, Andreas Karoly; Nielsen, Jens

    2000-01-01

    Mathematical models of the cellular metabolism have a special interest within biotechnology. Many different kinds of commercially important products are derived from the cell factory, and metabolic engineering can be applied to improve existing production processes, as well as to make new processes...... available. Both stoichiometric and kinetic models have been used to investigate the metabolism, which has resulted in defining the optimal fermentation conditions, as well as in directing the genetic changes to be introduced in order to obtain a good producer strain or cell line. With the increasing...... availability of genomic information and powerful analytical techniques, mathematical models also serve as a tool for understanding the cellular metabolism and physiology....

  18. 阿立哌唑与奥氮平治疗老年期痴呆精神行为症状的效果观察%Effect observation on senile dementia with behavioral and psychological symptoms in the treatment with Aripiprazole and olanzapine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦素萍

    2012-01-01

    Objective To Investigate the clinical efficacy on senile dementia with behavioral and psychological symptoms in the treatment with Aripiprazole and Olanzapine. Methods 84 patients with senile dementia associated with behavioral and psychiatric symptoms were selected in the hospital from March 2009 to December 2011, who were divided into two groups randomly. 42 patients who used Olanzapine treatment were as the control group. 42 patients who used Aripiprazole in the treatment were as the observation group. The course of treatment was 8 weeks. After treatment of 1 weeks, 2 weeks, 4 weeks, 8 weeks, AD behavioral pathology In scale (BEHAVE-AD), treatment emergent symptom scale (TESS) of patients were performed. Before the treatment and after treatment of 8 weeks, minimum mental state examination was performed. Results After treatment, AD behavioral pathology in scale total score and each factor scores in the control group and observation group decreased significantly. The incidence rate of adverse drug reactions (19.0%) in the observation group was significantly lower than that In the control group (45.2%), the differences were statistically significant (P < 0.05). Minimum mental state examination scores in the control group and observation group evaluated. Total efficiency of AD behavioral pathology In scale score and minimum mental state examination score In the observation group was slightly higher than those In the control group, while there were no significant differences between them (P > 0.05}. Conclusion Aripiprazole and Olanzapine in the treatment of senile dementia with behavioral and psychological symptoms have equivalent clinical efficacy. But Aripiprazole has better security, which is more suitable for clinical use.%目的 探讨阿立哌唑与奥氮平治疗老年期痴呆的精神行为症状的临床疗效.方法 选取我院2009年3月~2011年12月收治的老年期痴呆伴精神行为症状患者84例,随机分为两

  19. Therapeutic effects of aripiprazole and olanzapine on the patients with first-episode acute schizophrenia and their influence on plasma prolactin level%阿立哌唑与奥氮平对首发精神分裂症 急性期疗效及对催乳素的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴小立; 王继辉; 钟智勇; 韩自力

    2011-01-01

    AIM:To study the efficacy on first-episode acute schizophrenia treated with aripiprazole and olanzapine and the effect on plasma prolactin level. METHODS: 65 inpatients with first-episode acute schizophrenia were divided into either olanzapine group [n = 42, M21, F21; age(23. 9±6. 6)year] or aripiprazole group[(n=23, M1l, F12; age (23. 7 ± 7. 2) year] for 4 week treatment. The plasma prolactin level, the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and clinical global impressionglobal improvement (CGI-I) were measured before and after 4 week treatment. RESULTS: The score of PANSS (59 ± 13) after therapy in olanzapine group was significantly lower than that before therapy (103+15) (P 0.05) in the CGI-I score between the two groups. The difference of negative symptoms and general psychopathological sub-scale scoreschanging from base to end between the two groups was statistically significant (P<0. 01). Compared with the prolactin baseline level (547 ±382) uIu/mL,the plasma prolactin level (418 ±362) ulu/mL in olanzapine group was significantly decreased after treatment, and there was no difference. Compared with the prolactin baseline level (351 ±299) ulu/mL, the plasma prolactin level (123 ±114) ulu/mL in aripiprazole group was significantly decreased after treatment, and there was significant difference ( P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: The therapeutic effects were similar in the aripiprazole and olanzapine group for first-episode acute schizophrenia. Olanzapine is better for the general psychopathological symptoms, and aripiprazole is better for the negative symptoms. Aripiprazole maybe decrease the plasma prolactin level of first-episode acute schizophrenia.%目的:研究奥氮平和阿立哌唑对首发精神分裂症患者急性期疗效及对血中催乳素(PRI)水平的影响.方法:65例首发精神分裂症患者分为奥氮平组42例[男21例,女21例;年龄(23.9±6.6)岁]和阿立哌唑组23例[男11例,女12例;年龄(23.7±7.2)岁].分别给予奥

  20. Cold-induced metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lichtenbelt, W. van Marken; Daanen, H.A.M.

    2003-01-01

    Purpose of review Cold response can be insulative (drop in peripheral temperature) or metabolic (increase in energy expenditure). Nonshivering thermogenesis by sympathetic, norepinephrine-induced mitochondrial heat production in brown adipose tissue is a well known component of this metabolic respon

  1. Circadian Systems and Metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roenneberg, Till; Merrow, Martha

    1999-01-01

    Circadian systems direct many metabolic parameters and, at the same time, they appear to be exquisitely shielded from metabolic variations. Although the recent decade of circadian research has brought insights into how circadian periodicity may be generated at the molecular level, little is known ab

  2. Metabolic syndrome and menopause

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jouyandeh Zahra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The metabolic syndrome is defined as an assemblage of risk factors for cardiovascular diseases, and menopause is associated with an increase in metabolic syndrome prevalence. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its components among postmenopausal women in Tehran, Iran. Methods In this cross-sectional study in menopause clinic in Tehran, 118 postmenopausal women were investigated. We used the adult treatment panel 3 (ATP3 criteria to classify subjects as having metabolic syndrome. Results Total prevalence of metabolic syndrome among our subjects was 30.1%. Waist circumference, HDL-cholesterol, fasting blood glucose, diastolic blood pressure ,Systolic blood pressure, and triglyceride were significantly higher among women with metabolic syndrome (P-value Conclusions Our study shows that postmenopausal status is associated with an increased risk of metabolic syndrome. Therefore, to prevent cardiovascular disease there is a need to evaluate metabolic syndrome and its components from the time of the menopause.

  3. Disorders of fructose metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froesch, E R

    1976-11-01

    There are fundamental differences between the metabolic fate of fructose and of glucose. Whereas the metabolism of glucose is controlled by hormones such as insulin, fructose uptake and phosphorylation in the liver occurs independently of hormones and its ultimate metabolic fate is unpredictable. Essential fructosuria, a harmless inherited anomaly of fructose metabolism, is the least harmful of the disorders of fructose metabolism. Hereditary fructose intolerance and fructose-1,6-diphosphatase deficiency are discussed in greater detail with regard to biochemical abnormalities and clinical aspects. HFI is most serious in bottle-fed infants who cannot reject their sucrose-containing diet. Patients with HFI will have no clinical symptoms if kept on a fructose-free diet. In contrast, patients with fructose-1,6-diphosphatase deficiency can tolerate frucose. However, severe infections precipitate attacks of hypoglycaemia and lactic acidosis.

  4. Metabolic Engineering VII Conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin Korpics

    2012-12-04

    The aims of this Metabolic Engineering conference are to provide a forum for academic and industrial researchers in the field; to bring together the different scientific disciplines that contribute to the design, analysis and optimization of metabolic pathways; and to explore the role of Metabolic Engineering in the areas of health and sustainability. Presentations, both written and oral, panel discussions, and workshops will focus on both applications and techniques used for pathway engineering. Various applications including bioenergy, industrial chemicals and materials, drug targets, health, agriculture, and nutrition will be discussed. Workshops focused on technology development for mathematical and experimental techniques important for metabolic engineering applications will be held for more in depth discussion. This 2008 meeting will celebrate our conference tradition of high quality and relevance to both industrial and academic participants, with topics ranging from the frontiers of fundamental science to the practical aspects of metabolic engineering.

  5. Efeitos adversos metabólicos de antipsicóticos e estabilizadores de humor Metabolic side effects of antipsychotics and mood stabilizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo José Ribeiro Teixeira

    2006-08-01

    use of lithium and valproic acid once again directed the attention to their metabolic effects. This study aims to review the medical literature with regard to metabolic side effects associated with the use of antipsychotics and mood stabilizers. METHOD: Research was carried out at MEDLINE and LILACS through October 2005. CONCLUSION: Metabolic side effects remain a major concern for psychopharmacology. Clinically relevant weight gain occurs frequently in patients taking antipsychotics and mood stabilizers, particularly clozapine, olanzapine, lithium, and valproic acid. Clozapine and olanzapine are also associated with higher incidence of diabetes mellitus and dyslipidemias, either due to weight gain or because of a direct deleterious action on glucose metabolism. Incidence of obesity and other metabolic disorders is lower with risperidone when compared to olanzapine or clozapine. Carbamazepine is associated with lower weight gain when compared to lithium or valproic acid. Drugs such as haloperidol, ziprasidone, aripiprazole and lamotrigine are not associated with significant weight gain or with higher incidence of diabetes mellitus. They are alternatives for patients more likely to develop these adverse effects.

  6. Metabolic disorders in menopause

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Stachowiak

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic disorders occurring in menopause, including dyslipidemia, disorders of carbohydrate metabolism (impaired glucose tolerance – IGT, type 2 diabetes mellitus – T2DM or components of metabolic syndrome, constitute risk factors for cardiovascular disease in women. A key role could be played here by hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance and visceral obesity, all contributing to dyslipidemia, oxidative stress, inflammation, alter coagulation and atherosclerosis observed during the menopausal period. Undiagnosed and untreated, metabolic disorders may adversely affect the length and quality of women’s life. Prevention and treatment preceded by early diagnosis should be the main goal for the physicians involved in menopausal care. This article represents a short review of the current knowledge concerning metabolic disorders (e.g. obesity, polycystic ovary syndrome or thyroid diseases in menopause, including the role of a tailored menopausal hormone therapy (HT. According to current data, HT is not recommend as a preventive strategy for metabolic disorders in menopause. Nevertheless, as part of a comprehensive strategy to prevent chronic diseases after menopause, menopausal hormone therapy, particularly estrogen therapy may be considered (after balancing benefits/risks and excluding women with absolute contraindications to this therapy. Life-style modifications, with moderate physical activity and healthy diet at the forefront, should be still the first choice recommendation for all patients with menopausal metabolic abnormalities.

  7. Regulation of lipid metabolism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng LI

    2011-01-01

    @@ Lipids including cholesterol, phospholipids, fatty acids and triacylglycerols are important cellular constituents involved in membrane structure, energy homeostasis and many biological processes such as signal transduction, organelle development and cell differentiation.Recently, the area of lipid metabolism has drawn a great deal of attention due to its emerging role in the development of metabolic disorders such as obesity, diabetes, atherosclerosis and liver steatosis.We decided to organize a special issue of Frontiers in Biology focusing on our current understanding of lipid metabolism.

  8. A Metabolic Switch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Poul G.

    Our muscles are metabolically flexible, i.e., they are capable of `switching' between two types of oxidation: (1) when fasting, a predominantly lipid oxidation with high rates of fatty acid uptake, and (2) when fed, suppression of lipid oxidation in favour of increased glucose uptake, oxidation...... and storage, in response to insulin. One of the many manifestations of obesity and Type 2 diabetes is an insulin resistance of the skeletal muscles, which suppresses this metabolic switch. This talk describes recent development of a low-dimensional system of ODEs that model the metabolic switch, displaying...

  9. Fundamentals of cancer metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBerardinis, Ralph J; Chandel, Navdeep S

    2016-05-01

    Tumors reprogram pathways of nutrient acquisition and metabolism to meet the bioenergetic, biosynthetic, and redox demands of malignant cells. These reprogrammed activities are now recognized as hallmarks of cancer, and recent work has uncovered remarkable flexibility in the specific pathways activated by tumor cells to support these key functions. In this perspective, we provide a conceptual framework to understand how and why metabolic reprogramming occurs in tumor cells, and the mechanisms linking altered metabolism to tumorigenesis and metastasis. Understanding these concepts will progressively support the development of new strategies to treat human cancer. PMID:27386546

  10. Sirtuins, Metabolism and Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara eMartinez-Pastor

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available More than a decade ago, sirtuins were discovered as a highly conserved family of NAD+-dependent enzymes that extend lifespan in lower organisms. In mammals, sirtuins are key regulators of stress responses and metabolism, influencing a range of diseases, including diabetes, neurodegeneration and cancer. In recent years, new functions of sirtuins have been characterized, uncovering the underlying mechanisms of their multifaceted role in metabolism. Here, we specifically review recent progress on the role of sirtuins in DNA repair and energy metabolism, further discussing the implication of sirtuins in the biology of cancer.

  11. Epigenetics and Cellular Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wenyi; Wang, Fengzhong; Yu, Zhongsheng; Xin, Fengjiao

    2016-01-01

    Living eukaryotic systems evolve delicate cellular mechanisms for responding to various environmental signals. Among them, epigenetic machinery (DNA methylation, histone modifications, microRNAs, etc.) is the hub in transducing external stimuli into transcriptional response. Emerging evidence reveals the concept that epigenetic signatures are essential for the proper maintenance of cellular metabolism. On the other hand, the metabolite, a main environmental input, can also influence the processing of epigenetic memory. Here, we summarize the recent research progress in the epigenetic regulation of cellular metabolism and discuss how the dysfunction of epigenetic machineries influences the development of metabolic disorders such as diabetes and obesity; then, we focus on discussing the notion that manipulating metabolites, the fuel of cell metabolism, can function as a strategy for interfering epigenetic machinery and its related disease progression as well. PMID:27695375

  12. What is Nutrition & Metabolism?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feinman Richard D

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A new Open Access journal, Nutrition & Metabolism (N&M will publish articles that integrate nutrition with biochemistry and molecular biology. The open access process is chosen to provide rapid and accessible dissemination of new results and perspectives in a field that is of great current interest. Manuscripts in all areas of nutritional biochemistry will be considered but three areas of particular interest are lipoprotein metabolism, amino acids as metabolic signals, and the effect of macronutrient composition of diet on health. The need for the journal is identified in the epidemic of obesity, diabetes, dyslipidemias and related diseases, and a sudden increase in popular diets, as well as renewed interest in intermediary metabolism.

  13. Metabolism and Endocrinology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    2012040 Analysis of risk factors of metabolic syndrome in obese subjects:a follow-up study. ZHU Lüyun(朱旅云),et al.Dept Endocrinol,Bethune Internatl Peace Hosp,PLA,Shijiazhuang 050082.Chin JEndocrinol

  14. What is Metabolic Syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... becoming more common due to a rise in obesity rates among adults. In the future, metabolic syndrome may overtake smoking as the leading risk factor for heart disease. It is possible to prevent or delay ...

  15. Engineering of metabolic control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, James C.

    2006-10-17

    The invention features a method of producing heterologous molecules in cells under the regulatory control of a metabolite and metabolic flux. The method can enhance the synthesis of heterologous polypeptides and metabolites.

  16. Metabolism. Part III: Lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodner, George M.

    1986-01-01

    Describes the metabolic processes of complex lipids, including saponification, activation and transport, and the beta-oxidation spiral. Discusses fatty acid degradation in regard to biochemical energy and ketone bodies. (TW)

  17. Epigenetics and Cellular Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wenyi; Wang, Fengzhong; Yu, Zhongsheng; Xin, Fengjiao

    2016-01-01

    Living eukaryotic systems evolve delicate cellular mechanisms for responding to various environmental signals. Among them, epigenetic machinery (DNA methylation, histone modifications, microRNAs, etc.) is the hub in transducing external stimuli into transcriptional response. Emerging evidence reveals the concept that epigenetic signatures are essential for the proper maintenance of cellular metabolism. On the other hand, the metabolite, a main environmental input, can also influence the processing of epigenetic memory. Here, we summarize the recent research progress in the epigenetic regulation of cellular metabolism and discuss how the dysfunction of epigenetic machineries influences the development of metabolic disorders such as diabetes and obesity; then, we focus on discussing the notion that manipulating metabolites, the fuel of cell metabolism, can function as a strategy for interfering epigenetic machinery and its related disease progression as well.

  18. Metabolic Engineering of Bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Ravi R.; Prasad, Satish

    2011-01-01

    Yield and productivity are critical for the economics and viability of a bioprocess. In metabolic engineering the main objective is the increase of a target metabolite production through genetic engineering. Metabolic engineering is the practice of optimizing genetic and regulatory processes within cells to increase the production of a certain substance. In the last years, the development of recombinant DNA technology and other related technologies has provided new tools for approaching yield...

  19. Tobacco and metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yatan Pal Singh Balhara

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco is a leading contributor to morbidity and mortality globally. Metabolic syndrome is a constellation of abdominal obesity, atherogenic dyslipidemia, raised blood pressure, insulin resistance (with and without glucose intolerance, pro-inflammatory state, and pro-thrombotic state. Tobacco use is associated with various core components of metabolic syndrome. It has been found to play a causal role in various pathways leading on to development this condition, the current article discusses various facets of this association.

  20. Obesity, metabolism, and hypertension.

    OpenAIRE

    Landsberg, L

    1989-01-01

    The relationship between obesity and hypertension is complex and poorly understood. A developing body of information suggests that metabolic factors related to the obese state are importantly involved. The pertinent observations include: (1) Diet influences sympathetic nervous system activity. Fasting suppresses, while carbohydrate and fat feeding stimulate, sympathetic activity. (2) Dietary-induced changes in sympathetic activity contribute to the changes in metabolic rate that accompany cha...

  1. Oxidative metabolism in muscle.

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrari, M; Binzoni, T.; Quaresima, V.

    1997-01-01

    Oxidative metabolism is the dominant source of energy for skeletal muscle. Near-infrared spectroscopy allows the non-invasive measurement of local oxygenation, blood flow and oxygen consumption. Although several muscle studies have been made using various near-infrared optical techniques, it is still difficult to interpret the local muscle metabolism properly. The main findings of near-infrared spectroscopy muscle studies in human physiology and clinical medicine are summarized. The advantage...

  2. Tumor cell metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Garcia, Susana; Lopez-Gonzalez, Jose Sullivan; B´ez-Viveros, José Luis; Aguilar-Cazares, Dolores

    2011-01-01

    Cancer is a genetic disease that is caused by mutations in oncogenes, tumor suppressor genes and stability genes. The fact that the metabolism of tumor cells is altered has been known for many years. However, the mechanisms and consequences of metabolic reprogramming have just begun to be understood. In this review, an integral view of tumor cell metabolism is presented, showing how metabolic pathways are reprogrammed to satisfy tumor cell proliferation and survival requirements. In tumor cells, glycolysis is strongly enhanced to fulfill the high ATP demands of these cells; glucose carbons are the main building blocks in fatty acid and nucleotide biosynthesis. Glutaminolysis is also increased to satisfy NADPH regeneration, whereas glutamine carbons replenish the Krebs cycle, which produces metabolites that are constantly used for macromolecular biosynthesis. A characteristic feature of the tumor microenvironment is acidosis, which results from the local increase in lactic acid production by tumor cells. This phenomenon is attributed to the carbons from glutamine and glucose, which are also used for lactic acid production. Lactic acidosis also directs the metabolic reprogramming of tumor cells and serves as an additional selective pressure. Finally, we also discuss the role of mitochondria in supporting tumor cell metabolism. PMID:22057267

  3. Hereditary and metabolic myelopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedera, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Hereditary and metabolic myelopathies are a heterogeneous group of neurologic disorders characterized by clinical signs suggesting spinal cord dysfunction. Spastic weakness, limb ataxia without additional cerebellar signs, impaired vibration, and positional sensation are hallmark phenotypic features of these disorders. Hereditary, and to some extent, metabolic myelopathies are now recognized as more widespread systemic processes with axonal loss and demyelination. However, the concept of predominantly spinal cord disorders remains clinically helpful to differentiate these disorders from other neurodegenerative conditions. Furthermore, metabolic myelopathies are potentially treatable and an earlier diagnosis increases the likelihood of a good clinical recovery. This chapter reviews major types of degenerative myelopathies, hereditary spastic paraplegia, motor neuron disorders, spastic ataxias, and metabolic disorders, including leukodystrophies and nutritionally induced myelopathies, such as vitamin B12, E, and copper deficiencies. Neuroimaging studies usually detect a nonspecific spinal cord atrophy or demyelination of the corticospinal tracts and dorsal columns. Brain imaging can be also helpful in myelopathies caused by generalized neurodegeneration. Given the nonspecific nature of neuroimaging findings, we also review metabolic or genetic assays needed for the specific diagnosis of hereditary and metabolic myelopathies. PMID:27430441

  4. Aripiprazole in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Deyn, P.P.; Drenth, Annemieke F. J.; Kremer, B.P.; Oude Voshaar, R.C.; Van Dam, D.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Psychosis is a common and difficult to treat symptom in Alzheimer's disease (AD). It is a cause of diminished quality of life and care-giver distress. Atypical antipsychotics are frequently used for the treatment of dementia-related psychosis, despite FDA warnings because of increased

  5. Aripiprazole in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deyn, P.P. de; Drenth, A.F.; Kremer, B.; Oude Voshaar, R.C.; Dam, D. Van

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Psychosis is a common and difficult to treat symptom in Alzheimer's disease (AD). It is a cause of diminished quality of life and caregiver distress. Atypical antipsychotics are frequently used for the treatment of dementia-related psychosis, despite FDA warnings because of increased m

  6. 喹硫平利培酮阿立哌唑对精神分裂症患者认知功能的影响%The effect of quetiapine,risperidone and aripiprazole on cog-nitive function of schizophrenia patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鞠康; 陈思路; 谢茹韵; 高炬; 孙祝平; 季卫东

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨喹硫平、利培酮和阿立哌唑对精神分裂症患者临床疗效及认知功能的影响。方法将154例精神分裂症患者分为3组,分别口服喹硫平(65例)、利培酮(47例)和阿立哌唑(42例)治疗,观察24周。采用阳性与阴性症状量表评定临床疗效,重复性成套神经心理状态测验评定认知功能。结果治疗24周末3组阳性与阴性症状量表评分均有显著改善,但喹硫平组改善阳性症状显著优于利培酮组和阿立哌唑组(P<0.05);3组重复性成套神经心理状态测验的9个因子分比较差异有显著性( P<0.05或0.01),阿立哌唑组对8个因子分的改善优于其他2组。不同性别、文化程度患者的认知功能改善有显著性差异(P<0.05)。合并躯体疾病患者认知功能的改善显著差于单纯精神分裂症患者(P<0.05)。结论喹硫平、利培酮和阿立哌唑均能显著改善精神分裂症患者的各种精神症状及认知功能;合并躯体疾病的患者认知功能改善差于单纯精神分裂症患者,性别、文化程度是影响认知功能改变的重要因素。%Objective To explore the efficacy of quetiapine ,risperidone and aripiprazole in schizophrenia patients and their effects on cognitive functions .Methods A total of 154 schizophrenics were assigned to three groups taking orally quetiapine (n=65) ,risperidone (n=47) or aripiprazole (n=42) for 24 weeks . Efficacies were assessed with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and cognitive functions with the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS) .Results In the 24th week the PANSS scores of 3 groups improved more significantly ,so did that in quetiapine than risperi‐done and aripiprazole group (P<0 .05);there were significant differences in 9 factor scores of the RBANS among 3 groups (P<0 .05 or 0 .01) ,8 factor scores improved more significantly in

  7. Evolutionary dynamics of metabolic adaptation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hoek, M.J.A.

    2008-01-01

    In this thesis we study how organisms adapt their metabolism to a changing environment. Metabolic adaptation occurs at different timescales. Organisms adapt their metabolism via metabolic regulation, which happens in the order of minutes to hours and via evolution, which takes many generations. Here

  8. Primary Metabolic Pathways and Metabolic Flux Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villadsen, John

    2015-01-01

    his chapter introduces the metabolic flux analysis (MFA) or stoichiometry-based MFA, and describes the quantitative basis for MFA. It discusses the catabolic pathways in which free energy is produced to drive the cell-building anabolic pathways. An overview of these primary pathways provides...... the reader who is primarily trained in the engineering sciences with atleast a preliminary introduction to biochemistry and also shows how carbon is drained off the catabolic pathways to provide precursors for cell mass building and sometimes for important industrial products. The primary pathways...

  9. Nutrition and metabolic syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albornoz López, Raúl

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The metabolic syndrome comprises a cluster of metabolic abnormalities that increase the risk for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus. The exact etiology is unclear, although it is known thatthere is a complex interaction between genetic, metabolic and environmental factors. Among the environmental factors, dietary habits play an important role in the treatment and prevention of this condition. General classic recommendations include control of obesity, increased physical activity, decreased intake of saturated fat and cholesterol, reduced intake of simple sugars and increased intake of fruits and vegetables. It has been studied the influence of diets low in carbohydrates, diets rich in polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fatty acids, fiber intake, the Mediterranean diet and the glycemic index in relation to metabolic syndrome.Other nutrients recently studied are the micronutrients (magnesium and calcium, soy and other phytochemicals. Evidence suggests that a healthy diet like the Mediterranean protects against metabolic syndrome,caracterized for a low content in saturated and trans fat, high in monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids, balanced intake of carbohydrates and high in fiber, fruits and vegetables. There is more controversy about the type of diet of choice for the control ofmetabolic syndrome (low-carbohydrate diets or lowfat, needing more studies on the role of soy and other phytochemicals.

  10. Robustness of metabolic networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Hawoong

    2009-03-01

    We investigated the robustness of cellular metabolism by simulating the system-level computational models, and also performed the corresponding experiments to validate our predictions. We address the cellular robustness from the ``metabolite''-framework by using the novel concept of ``flux-sum,'' which is the sum of all incoming or outgoing fluxes (they are the same under the pseudo-steady state assumption). By estimating the changes of the flux-sum under various genetic and environmental perturbations, we were able to clearly decipher the metabolic robustness; the flux-sum around an essential metabolite does not change much under various perturbations. We also identified the list of the metabolites essential to cell survival, and then ``acclimator'' metabolites that can control the cell growth were discovered. Furthermore, this concept of ``metabolite essentiality'' should be useful in developing new metabolic engineering strategies for improved production of various bioproducts and designing new drugs that can fight against multi-antibiotic resistant superbacteria by knocking-down the enzyme activities around an essential metabolite. Finally, we combined a regulatory network with the metabolic network to investigate its effect on dynamic properties of cellular metabolism.

  11. Apelin and energy metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chantal eBertrand

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A wide range of adipokines identified over the past years has allowed considering white adipose tissue as a secretory organ closely integrated into overall physiological and metabolic control. Apelin, an ubiquitous peptide was known to exert different physiological effects mainly on the cardiovascular system and the regulation of fluid homeostasis until its identification as an adipokine. This has increased its broad range of action and apelin now appears clearly as a new player in energy metabolism alongside leptin and adiponectin. Apelin has been shown to act on glucose and lipid metabolism but also to modulate insulin secretion. Moreover, different studies in both animals and humans have shown that plasma apelin concentrations are usually increased during obesity and type 2 diabetes. This mini-review will focus on the various systemic apelin effects on energy metabolism by addressing its mechanisms of action. The advances concerning the role of apelin in metabolic diseases in relation with the recent reports on apelin concentrations in obese and/or diabetic subjects will also be discussed.

  12. 喹硫平、阿立哌唑与氨磺必利治疗精神分裂症的疗效与安全性研究%Efficacy and safety of quetiapine,aripiprazole and amisulpride in the treatment of schizophrenia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张智勇; 谢玲银; 黄伟波

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study the antipsychotic efficacy and safety of three kinds of drugs on patients with schizophrenia. Methods Patients with schizophrenia in our hospital from January to October in 2014 were selected and randomly divided into three groups,quetiapine group (n=98)accepted quetiapine 400 ~800 (512 ± 128)mg/d,aripi-prazole group (n=100) accepted aripiprazole 10~30 (20 ±6) mg/d,amisulpride group (n=102) accepted amisul-pride 400~800(635 ± 147) mg/d respectively for eight weeks. The efficacy and adverse reactions were evaluated by PANSS and TESS,and the social function was evaluated by PSP before and after 4 and 8 weeks of treatment. Results The total effective rate of quetiapine group,aripiprazole group and amisulpride group was 68. 4%,70.0% and 69. 6%respectively,there was no significant difference among the three groups(P>0.05). The score of CGI and PSP of each group increased significantly. Conclusion Quetiapine,aripiprazole and amisulpride have similar efficiency in the treat-ment of schizophrenic patients,but the adverse reactions features are different.%目的 研究喹硫平、阿立哌唑与氨磺必利治疗精神分裂症的疗效与安全性. 方法 选择2014年1-10月在我院精神科住院的300例精神分裂症患者,随机分为喹硫平组、阿立哌唑组、氨磺必利组,分别给予喹硫平[400~800 mg/d,平均(512 ±128)mg/d]、阿立哌唑[10~30 mg/d,平均(20 ±6)mg/d]、氨磺必利[400~800 mg/d,平均(635 ± 147)mg/d]治疗8周. 于分组前及治疗后4、8周用评估阳性和阴性症状量表(PANSS)、不良反应量表( TESS)评定疗效和不良反应,用社会功能量表( PSP)评定患者的社会功能. 结果 喹硫平组总有效率为68. 4%,阿立哌唑组总有效率为70.0%,氨磺必利组总有效率为69. 6%,三组总有效率比较,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);三组患者CGI评分及PSP评分均显著增加. 结论 喹硫平、阿立哌唑与氨磺必利治疗精神分裂症的疗效相当,但不良反应特点不同.

  13. 舍曲林联合阿立哌唑口腔崩解片治疗难治性抑郁症患者的临床效果%Clinical effects of Sertraline combined with Aripiprazole orally disintegrating tablets in treatment of treatment-resistant depression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王绍臣; 杨静娟; 敖瑞

    2015-01-01

    目的::观察舍曲林联合小剂量阿立哌唑口腔崩解片治疗难治性抑郁症患者的疗效。方法:将76难治性抑郁症患者随机分成治疗组40例、对照组36例。治疗组患者用舍曲林联合小剂量阿立哌唑口腔崩解片治疗,对照组患者单用舍曲林治疗,观察8周。分别于治疗前及治疗后第1、2、4、8周末采用HAMD(汉密尔顿抑郁量表)评定疗效,用TESS(副反应量表)观察不良反应。结果:经8周治疗后,两组患者经Ridit评分,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。 HAMD评分第1、2、4周末两组患者有显著性差异(P<0.01~0.05),两组患者的不良反应均较低。结论:舍曲林联合小剂量阿立哌唑口腔崩解片治疗难治性抑郁症患者的疗效肯定,不良反应轻微。%Objective:To observe clinical effects of Sertraline combined with small-dose Aripiprazole orally disintegrating tab-lets in treatment of treatment-resistant depression. Methods:76 patients with treatment-resistant depression were randomly assigned into research group (40 patients) and control group (36 patients). Research group received Sertraline combine with small-dose Aripi-prazole ODT for 8 weeks and control group accepted Sertraline alone for 8 weeks. The efficacy and adverse reactions before the treat-ment and at the end of 1st, 2nd, 4th and 8th week of treatment were measured by Hamilton depression scale (HAMD) and treatment emergent symptom scale ( TESS) . Results:There were significant differences of HAMD scores between the two groups at the end of 1st, 2nd, and 4th week of the treatment (P<0. 01~0. 05), and there were also statistical differences of Ridit scores between the two groups patients at the end of 8th week of treatment. The two groups both had fewer adverse reactions. Conclusions: Sertraline com-bined with small-dose Aripiprazole ODT has a certain efficacy in the treatment of treatment-resistant depression with mild adverse re-actions.

  14. Study on the escitalopram combined with low dose of aripiprazole in the treatment of depression with somatic symptoms%艾司西酞普兰联合小剂量阿立哌唑治疗伴躯体症状抑郁症的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏金校; 姚华华; 王一冰; 曹世林; 甘建光; 段迪; 吕柏军

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To explore the clinical efficacy of escitalopram combined with low dose of aripiprazole in the treatment of depression with somatic symptoms. METHODS: Eighty patients suffering from depression with somatic symptoms were randomly divided into study group (n = 41) and control group (n = 39), who received either escitalopram combined with low dose of aripiprazole or escitalopram only, respectively. The clinical efficacy and safety were evaluated with Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD), Self-rating Depression Scale (SDS), Clinical Global Impression (CGD , Treatment E-mergent Symptom Scale (TESS) and Dysfunctional Attitudes Scales (DAS) at the point of baseline and the 1st, 2nd, 4th and 8th weekend. Meanwhile, the medication compliance andsymptom recrudescence rate of two groups were also assessed in 3 months. RESULTS: Scores of HAMD, SDS and CGI decreased in both groups, but more significantly and quickly in study group. There was no difference between two groups in TESS. Patients in study group had better compliance, fewer symptom recrudescence rate and lower scores in DAS in 3 months, compared with control group. CONCLUSION: Escitalopram combined with low dose of aripiprazole works better in the treatment of depression with somatic symptoms than using escitalopram only.%目的:观察艾司西酞普兰联合小剂量阿立哌唑治疗伴躯体症状抑郁症的临床疗效.方法:将80例伴躯体症状抑郁症患者随机分为服用艾司西酞普兰联合小剂量阿立哌唑(简称观察组)41例和单用艾司西酞普兰(简称对照组)39例.从药物起效、症状改善时间,治疗1、2、4及8周末汉密尔顿抑郁量表(HAMD)、抑郁自评量表(SDS)、临床疗效总评量表(CGI)有不良反应量表(TESS)评定,3个月内服药依从性、症状复燃率及DAS评定.结果:治疗后两组HAMD、SDS、CGI分值较治疗前均有显著下降,观察组下降更明显,起效与症状改善上观察组均较对照组快,两组的TESS评分差

  15. A control study of SVSRT plus aripiprazole in the treatment of manic episode of bipolar disorder%丙戊酸钠缓释片联合阿立哌唑治疗双相障碍躁狂发作对照研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李菲; 谭柏坚; 郭彦杨

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨丙戊酸钠缓释片联合阿立哌唑治疗双相障碍躁狂发作的疗效和安全性。方法将81例双相障碍躁狂发作患者按照治疗方法不同分为观察组42例,对照组39例,均口服丙戊酸钠缓释片治疗,观察组联合阿立哌唑治疗,对照组联合喹硫平治疗,观察8周。采用Young躁狂评定量表评定躁狂状况、健康调查简表评定生活质量、匹兹堡睡眠质量指数量表评定睡眠质量、副反应量表评定不良反应。结果治疗后两组Young躁狂评定量表总分及匹兹堡睡眠质量指数量表各维度评分均较治疗前显著下降(P<0.01),观察组显著低于对照组(P<0.01);两组健康调查简表各维度评分均较治疗前显著升高(P<0.01),观察组显著高于对照组(P<0.01)。两组不良反应均较轻微,发生率比较差异无显著性(P>0.05)。结论丙戊酸钠缓释片联合阿立哌唑治疗双相障碍躁狂发作疗效显著,能有效改善患者的生活质量及睡眠质量,安全性高。%Objective To explore the efficacy and safety of sodium valproate sus‐tained release tablets (SVSRT ) plus aripiprazole in the treatment of manic episode of bipolar disorder . Methods Eighty‐one patients with manic episodes of bipolar disorder were assigned to observation (n=42) and control group (n=39) according to different treatment methods ,both groups took orally SVSRT , observation was plus aripiprazole and control group plus quetiapine for 8 weeks .Manic states were as‐sessed with Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) ,qualities of life with the Short Form 36 Health Survey Questionnaire (SF‐36) ,sleep qualities with the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) ,and adverse reac‐tions with the Treatment Emergent Symptom Scale (TESS) .Results After treatment the total score of the YMRS and each dimension score of the PSQI of both groups lowered more significantly (P0 .05) .Conclusion SVSRT

  16. Analytics for Metabolic Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petzold, Christopher J; Chan, Leanne Jade G; Nhan, Melissa; Adams, Paul D

    2015-01-01

    Realizing the promise of metabolic engineering has been slowed by challenges related to moving beyond proof-of-concept examples to robust and economically viable systems. Key to advancing metabolic engineering beyond trial-and-error research is access to parts with well-defined performance metrics that can be readily applied in vastly different contexts with predictable effects. As the field now stands, research depends greatly on analytical tools that assay target molecules, transcripts, proteins, and metabolites across different hosts and pathways. Screening technologies yield specific information for many thousands of strain variants, while deep omics analysis provides a systems-level view of the cell factory. Efforts focused on a combination of these analyses yield quantitative information of dynamic processes between parts and the host chassis that drive the next engineering steps. Overall, the data generated from these types of assays aid better decision-making at the design and strain construction stages to speed progress in metabolic engineering research.

  17. Depleted uranium: Metabolic disruptor?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The presence of uranium in the environment can lead to long-term contamination of the food chain and of water intended for human consumption and thus raises many questions about the scientific and societal consequences of this exposure on population health. Although the biological effects of chronic low-level exposure are poorly understood, results of various recent studies show that contamination by depleted uranium (DU) induces subtle but significant biological effects at the molecular level in organs including the brain, liver, kidneys and testicles. For the first time, it has been demonstrated that DU induces effects on several metabolic pathways, including those metabolizing vitamin D, cholesterol, steroid hormones, acetylcholine and xenobiotics. This evidence strongly suggests that DU might well interfere with many metabolic pathways. It might thus contribute, together with other man-made substances in the environment, to increased health risks in some regions. (authors)

  18. Endocannabinoids and Metabolic Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatta-Cherifi, Blandine; Cota, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    The endocannabinoid system (ECS) is known to exert regulatory control on essentially every aspect related to the search for, and the intake, metabolism and storage of calories, and consequently it represents a potential pharmacotherapeutic target for obesity, diabetes and eating disorders. While the clinical use of the first generation of cannabinoid type 1 (CB(1)) receptor blockers has been halted due to the psychiatric side effects that their use occasioned, recent research in animals and humans has provided new knowledge on the mechanisms of actions of the ECS in the regulation of eating behavior, energy balance, and metabolism. In this review, we discuss these recent advances and how they may allow targeting the ECS in a more specific and selective manner for the future development of therapies against obesity, metabolic syndrome, and eating disorders. PMID:26408168

  19. Nitrile Metabolizing Yeasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhalla, Tek Chand; Sharma, Monica; Sharma, Nitya Nand

    Nitriles and amides are widely distributed in the biotic and abiotic components of our ecosystem. Nitrile form an important group of organic compounds which find their applications in the synthesis of a large number of compounds used as/in pharmaceutical, cosmetics, plastics, dyes, etc>. Nitriles are mainly hydro-lyzed to corresponding amide/acid in organic chemistry. Industrial and agricultural activities have also lead to release of nitriles and amides into the environment and some of them pose threat to human health. Biocatalysis and biotransformations are increasingly replacing chemical routes of synthesis in organic chemistry as a part of ‘green chemistry’. Nitrile metabolizing organisms or enzymes thus has assumed greater significance in all these years to convert nitriles to amides/ acids. The nitrile metabolizing enzymes are widely present in bacteria, fungi and yeasts. Yeasts metabolize nitriles through nitrilase and/or nitrile hydratase and amidase enzymes. Only few yeasts have been reported to possess aldoxime dehydratase. More than sixty nitrile metabolizing yeast strains have been hither to isolated from cyanide treatment bioreactor, fermented foods and soil. Most of the yeasts contain nitrile hydratase-amidase system for metabolizing nitriles. Transformations of nitriles to amides/acids have been carried out with free and immobilized yeast cells. The nitrilases of Torulopsis candida>and Exophiala oligosperma>R1 are enantioselec-tive and regiospecific respectively. Geotrichum>sp. JR1 grows in the presence of 2M acetonitrile and may have potential for application in bioremediation of nitrile contaminated soil/water. The nitrilase of E. oligosperma>R1 being active at low pH (3-6) has shown promise for the hydroxy acids. Immobilized yeast cells hydrolyze some additional nitriles in comparison to free cells. It is expected that more focus in future will be on purification, characterization, cloning, expression and immobilization of nitrile metabolizing

  20. Endocrinology and Metabolism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    2014429 Impact of obesity-related gene polymorphism on risk of obesity and metabolic disorder in childhood.ZHANG Meixian(张美仙),et al.Dept Epidemiol,Capital Instit Pediatrics,Beijing 100020.Chin J Prev Med 2014;48(9):776-783.Objective To examine the impact of single nucleotide polymorphisms in obesity-related genes on risk of obesity and metabolic disorder in childhood.Methods A total of 3 503 Chinese children aged 6 to 18 years participated in the study,including 1 229 obese,655 overweight and 1 619 normal weight children(diagnosed by

  1. Hypothyroidism in metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Kumar Kota

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Metabolic syndrome (MetS and hypothyroidism are well established forerunners of atherogenic cardiovascular disease. Considerable overlap occurs in the pathogenic mechanisms of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease by metabolic syndrome and hypothyroidism. Insulin resistance has been studied as the basic pathogenic mechanism in metabolic syndrome. [1] This cross sectional study intended to assess thyroid function in patients with metabolic syndrome and to investigate the association between hypothyroidism and metabolic syndrome. Materials and Methods: One hundred patients with metabolic syndrome who fulfilled the National Cholesterol Education Program- Adult Treatment Panel (NCEP-ATP III criteria [ 3 out of 5 criteria positive namely blood pressure ≥ 130/85 mm hg or on antihypertensive medications, fasting plasma glucose > 100 mg/dl or on anti-diabetic medications, fasting triglycerides > 150 mg/dl, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C 102 cms in men and 88 cms in women] were included in the study group. [2] Fifty patients who had no features of metabolic syndrome (0 out of 5 criteria for metabolic syndrome were included in the control group. Patients with liver disorders, renal disorders, congestive cardiac failure, pregnant women, patients on oral contraceptive pills, statins and other medications that alter thyroid functions and lipid levels and those who are under treatment for any thyroid related disorder were excluded from the study. Acutely ill patients were excluded taking into account sick euthyroid syndrome. Patients were subjected to anthropometry, evaluation of vital parameters, lipid and thyroid profile along with other routine laboratory parameters. Students t-test, Chi square test and linear regression, multiple logistic regression models were used for statistical analysis. P value < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: Of the 100 patients in study group, 55 were females (55% and 45 were males (45%. Of the 50

  2. Metabolic Factors in Fatigue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mark Hargreaves

    2006-01-01

    Increased non-oxidative and oxidative ATP production via metabolic pathways in skeletal muscle is essential for the maintenance of force and power production during exercise. However, substrate depletion and accumulation of metabolic byproducts are potential causes of fatigue. Reduced PCr availability can limit power production during sprint exercise, whereas carbohydrate depletion is a major limitation to endurance performance. During sprint exercise increased Pi and H+ may contribute to fatigue, and during prolonged strenuous exercise, the accumulation of NH3, reactive oxygen species, and heat can limit performance. Appropriate training programs and nutritional interventions are potential strategies to enhance fatigue resistance and exercise performance.

  3. Toxic and Metabolic Myelopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramalho, Joana; Nunes, Renato Hoffmann; da Rocha, Antonio José; Castillo, Mauricio

    2016-10-01

    Myelopathy describes any neurologic deficit related to the spinal cord. It is most commonly caused by its compression by neoplasms, degenerative disc disease, trauma, or infection. Less common causes of myelopathy include spinal cord tumors, infection, inflammatory, neurodegenerative, vascular, toxic, and metabolic disorders. Conditions affecting the spinal cord must be recognized as early as possible to prevent progression that may lead to permanent disability. Biopsy is rarely performed, thus the diagnosis and management rely on patient׳s history, physical examination, laboratory results, and imaging findings. Here we review the clinical presentations, pathophysiological mechanisms, and magnetic resonance imaging findings of myelopathies related to metabolic or toxic etiologies. PMID:27616316

  4. Sleep and Metabolism: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Sharma

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Sleep and its disorders are increasingly becoming important in our sleep deprived society. Sleep is intricately connected to various hormonal and metabolic processes in the body and is important in maintaining metabolic homeostasis. Research shows that sleep deprivation and sleep disorders may have profound metabolic and cardiovascular implications. Sleep deprivation, sleep disordered breathing, and circadian misalignment are believed to cause metabolic dysregulation through myriad pathways involving sympathetic overstimulation, hormonal imbalance, and subclinical inflammation. This paper reviews sleep and metabolism, and how sleep deprivation and sleep disorders may be altering human metabolism.

  5. Metabolism at Evolutionary Optimal States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iraes Rabbers

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Metabolism is generally required for cellular maintenance and for the generation of offspring under conditions that support growth. The rates, yields (efficiencies, adaptation time and robustness of metabolism are therefore key determinants of cellular fitness. For biotechnological applications and our understanding of the evolution of metabolism, it is necessary to figure out how the functional system properties of metabolism can be optimized, via adjustments of the kinetics and expression of enzymes, and by rewiring metabolism. The trade-offs that can occur during such optimizations then indicate fundamental limits to evolutionary innovations and bioengineering. In this paper, we review several theoretical and experimental findings about mechanisms for metabolic optimization.

  6. Macrophage Polarization in Metabolism and Metabolic Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Meiliana

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obesity is now recognized as the main cause of the worldwide epidemic of type 2 diabetes. Obesity-associated chronic inflammation is a contributing key factor for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Numbers of studies have clearly demonstrated that the immune system and metabolism are highly integrated. CONTENT: Macrophages are an essential component of innate immunity and play a central role in inflammation and host defense. Moreover, these cells have homeostatic functions beyond defense, including tissue remodeling in ontogenesis and orchestration of metabolic functions. Diversity and plasticity are hallmarks of cells of the monocyte-macrophage lineage. In response to interferons (IFNs, toll-like receptor (TLR, or interleukin (IL-4/IL-13 signals, macrophages undergo M1 (classical or M2 (alternative activation. Progress has now been made in defining the signaling pathways, transcriptional networks, and epigenetic mechanisms underlying M1, M2 or M2-like polarized activation. SUMMARY: In response to various signals, macrophages may undergo classical M1 activation (stimulated by TLR ligands and IFN-γ or alternative M2 activation (stimulated by IL-4/IL-13; these states mirror the T helper (Th1–Th2 polarization of T cells. Pathology is frequently associated with dynamic changes in macrophage activation, with classically activated M1 cells implicate in initiating and sustaining inflammation, meanwhile M2 or M2-like activated cells associated with resolution or smoldering chronic inflammation. Identification of the mechanisms and molecules that are associated with macrophage plasticity and polarized activation provides a basis for macrophage centered diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. KEYWORDS: obesity, adipose tissue, inflammation, macrophage polarization.

  7. Glial metabolism of valine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murín, Radovan; Mohammadi, Ghasem; Leibfritz, Dieter; Hamprecht, Bernd

    2009-07-01

    The three essential amino acids, valine, leucine and isoleucine, constitute the group of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs). BCAAs are rapidly taken up into the brain parenchyma, where they serve several distinct functions including that as fuel material in brain energy metabolism. As one function of astrocytes is considered the production of fuel molecules that support the energy metabolism of adjacent neural cells in brain. Astroglia-rich primary cultures (APC) were shown to rapidly dispose of the BCAAs, including valine, contained in the culture medium. While the metabolisms of leucine and isoleucine by APC have already been studied in detail, some aspects of valine metabolism remained to be determined. Therefore, in the present study an NMR analysis was performed to identify the (13)C-labelled metabolites that are generated by APC during catabolism of [U-(13)C]valine and that are subsequently released into the incubation medium. The results presented show that APC (1) are potently disposing of the valine contained in the incubation medium; (2) are capable of degrading valine to the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle member succinyl-CoA; and (3) release into the extracellular milieu valine catabolites and compounds generated from them such as [U-(13)C]2-oxoisovalerate, [U-(13)C]3-hydroxyisobutyrate, [U-(13)C]2-methylmalonate, [U-(13)C]isobutyrate, and [U-(13)C]propionate as well as several TCA cycle-dependent metabolites including lactate.

  8. Starch metabolism in leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orzechowski, Sławomir

    2008-01-01

    Starch is the most abundant storage carbohydrate produced in plants. The initiation of transitory starch synthesis and degradation in plastids depends mainly on diurnal cycle, post-translational regulation of enzyme activity and starch phosphorylation. For the proper structure of starch granule the activities of all starch synthase isoenzymes, branching enzymes and debranching enzymes are needed. The intensity of starch biosynthesis depends mainly on the activity of AGPase (adenosine 5'-diphosphate glucose pyrophosphorylase). The key enzymes in starch degradation are beta-amylase, isoamylase 3 and disproportionating enzyme. However, it should be underlined that there are some crucial differences in starch metabolism between heterotrophic and autotrophic tissues, e.g. is the ability to build multiprotein complexes responsible for biosynthesis and degradation of starch granules in chloroplasts. The observed huge progress in understanding of starch metabolism was possible mainly due to analyses of the complete Arabidopsis and rice genomes and of numerous mutants with altered starch metabolism in leaves. The aim of this paper is to review current knowledge on transient starch metabolism in higher plants. PMID:18787712

  9. Methanogenesis: Syntrophic metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sieber, J.R.; McInerney, M.J.; Plugge, C.M.; Schink, B.; Gunsales, R.P.

    2009-01-01

    "Water is life!" All active cellular systems require water as the medium and solvent of their metabolic activities. Hydrophobic compounds and structures, which tend to exclude water, though providing inter alia excellent sources of energy and a means of biological compartmentalization, present probl

  10. ENDOCRINOLOGY AND METABOLISM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    2006162 Change of vascular endothelial function in patients with disorders of glucose metabolism. ZHANG Songjing,(张松菁),et al. Dept Endocrinol ,1st Hosp, Fujian Med Univ ,Fuzhou 350005. Chin J Endocrinol Metab 2006;22(1): 11 - 14. Objective: To observe the changes of the endothelium - dependent vasodilation ( EDF) and serum superoxide

  11. METABOLIC CORRECTIONOFNEUROLOGICALCOMPLICATIONS OFDIABETES MELLITUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sof'ya Alekseevna Rumyantseva

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The concepts of the metabolic and vascular mechanisms responsible for the occurrence and progression of neurological complications of diabetes mellitus are presented. The results of some investigations demonstrating the efficacy of actovegin in the treatment of diabetic polyneuropathy, encephalopathy, and diabetic foot syndrome are given.

  12. Prebiotic metabolic networks?

    OpenAIRE

    Luisi, Pier Luigi

    2014-01-01

    A prebiotic origin of metabolism has been proposed as one of several scenarios for the origin of life. In their recent work, Ralser and colleagues (Keller et al, 2014) observe an enzyme‐free, metabolism‐like reaction network under conditions reproducing a possible prebiotic environment.

  13. Sucrose Metabolism in Plastids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerrits, N.; Turk, S.C.H.J.; Dun, van K.P.M.; Hulleman, H.D.; Visser, R.G.F.; Weisbeek, P.J.; Smeekens, S.C.M.

    2001-01-01

    The question whether sucrose (Suc) is present inside plastids has been long debated. Low Suc levels were reported to be present inside isolated chloroplasts, but these were argued to be artifacts of the isolation procedures used. We have introduced Suc-metabolizing enzymes in plastids and our experi

  14. Sterol metabolism of insects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ritter, F.J.; Wientjens, W.H.J.M.

    1967-01-01

    This article surveys the present knowledge of the sterol metabolism of insects. It is emphasized that a high degree of purity of the dietary sterols and the climination of the influence of symbionts are essential to present ambiguity in interpreting results. It is pointed out that a sharp distinctio

  15. Metabolism and Endocrinology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    2010410 Association of liver fat content with insulin resistance and islet β cell function in individuals with various statuses of glucose metabolism.BIAN Hua(卞华), etal.Dept Endocrinol & Metab, Zhongshan Hosp,Fudan Univ, Shanghai 200032.Chin J Endocrinol Metab 2010;26(7):535-540.

  16. Autophagy research: Lessons from metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J. Meijer

    2009-01-01

    Autophagy research continues to expand exponentially. Clearly autophagy and metabolism are intimately connected; however, the rapid expansion of research into this topic inevitably brings the risk that important basic knowledge of metabolism will be overlooked when considering experimental data. Unf

  17. How Is Metabolic Syndrome Treated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. How Is Metabolic Syndrome Treated? Heart-healthy lifestyle changes are the first line of treatment for metabolic syndrome. If heart-healthy lifestyle changes aren’t enough, ...

  18. SIRT1 and energy metabolism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaoling Li

    2013-01-01

    Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) is the most conserved mammalian NAD+-dependent protein deacetylase that has emerged as a key metabolic sensor in various metabolic tissues.In response to different environmental stimuli,SIRT1 directly links the cellular metabolic status to the chromatin structure and the regulation of gene expression,thereby modulating a variety of cellular processes such as energy metabolism and stress response.Recent studies have shown that SIRT1 controls both glucose and lipid metabolism in the liver,promotes fat mobilization and stimulates brown remodeling of the white fat in white adipose tissue,controls insulin secretion in the pancreas,senses nutrient availability in the hypothalamus,influences obesityinduced inflammation in macrophages,and modulates the activity of circadian clock in metabolic tissues.This review focuses on the role of SIRT1 in regulating energy metabolism at different metabolic tissues.

  19. Metabolism of hyperthermophiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönheit, P; Schäfer, T

    1995-01-01

    Hyperthermophiles are characterized by a temperature optimum for growth between 80 and 110°C. They are considered to represent the most ancient phenotype of living organisms and thus their metabolic design might reflect the situation at an early stage of evolution. Their modes of metabolism are diverse and include chemolithoautotrophic and chemoorganoheterotrophic. No extant phototrophic hyperthermophiles are known. Lithotrophic energy metabolism is mostly anaerobic or microaerophilic and based on the oxidation of H2 or S coupled to the reduction of S, SO inf4 (sup2-) , CO2 and NO inf3 (sup-) but rarely to O2. the substrates are derived from volcanic activities in hyperthermophilic habitats. The lithotrophic energy metabolism of hyperthermophiles appears to be similar to that of mesophiles. Autotrophic CO2 fixation proceeds via the reductive citric acid cycle, considered to be one of the first metabolic cycles, and via the reductive acetyl-CoA/carbon monoxide dehydrogenase pathway. The Calvin cycle has not been found in hyperthermophiles (or any Archaea). Organotrophic metabolism mainly involves peptides and sugars as substrates, which are either oxidized to CO2 by external electron acceptors or fermented to acetate and other products. Sugar catabolism in hyperthermophiles involves non-phosphorylated versions of the Entner-Doudoroff pathway and modified versions of the Embden-Meyerhof pathway. The 'classical' Embden-Meyerhof pathway is present in hyperthermophilic Bacteria (Thermotoga) but not in Archaea. All hyperthermophiles (and Archaea) tested so far utilize pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase for acetyl-CoA formation from pyruvate. Acetyl-CoA oxidation in anaerobic sulphur-reducing and aerobic hyperthermophiles proceeds via the citric acid cycle; in the hyperthermophilic sulphate-reducer Archaeoglobus an oxidative acetyl-CoA/carbon monoxide dehydrogenase pathway is operative. Acetate formation from acetyl-CoA in Archaea, including hyperthermophiles, is

  20. 帕罗西汀合并不同剂量阿立哌唑治疗强迫症的临床观察%Observing the effect of Paroxetine combined with different doses of ariPiPrazole on obsessive-comPulsive disorder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱立毛; 舒菊红; 戴升太

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the effectiveness and safety of paroxetine combined with different doses of aripiprazole on obsessive-compulsive disorder. Method:One hundred and sixty-four patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder were randomly divided into 2 groups:the paroxetine only group( n = 33),the 2. 2 mg/ d group(n = 32),the 2 mg/ d group(n = 34),the 7. 2mg group(n = 32),the 10 mg/ d group(n = 33). Each group was treated with paroxetine 40 mg/ d combined with corresponding doses of aripiprazole for 8 weeks. Effectiveness and adverse effect were assessed respectively by Yale-Brown obsessive compulsive scale( Y-BOCS)and treatment emergent symptom scale(TESS). Results:After 8 weeks treatment,in the five groups, the scores of Y-BOCS significantly decreased(P ﹤ 0. 02 or P ﹤ 0. 01),the 2. 2 mg/ d group and the 2 mg group were more obvious(all P ﹤ 0. 01). The decreased score rate of Y-BOCS were significantly different between the paroxetine only group and the 2. 2 mg/ d group or the 2 mg group(all P ﹤ 0. 02). After 8 weeks treatment,no significant difference was found in the rates of adverse effect in 2. 2 mg/ d group and 2 mg/ d group compared with paroxetine only group;but in 7. 2 mg/ d group and 10 mg/ d group were sifnificantly higher than paroxetine only group(P ﹤ 0. 02 or P ﹤ 0. 01). Conclusion:The paroxetine combined the 2. 2-2 mg/ d aripiprazole trea-ting patients with obsessive compulsive disorder is more effective than the paroxetine combined the 7. 2-10 mg/d aripiprazole and paroxetine only.%目的:探讨盐酸帕罗西汀联合不同剂量阿立哌唑治疗强迫症的疗效及安全性。方法:164例强迫症患者随机分为帕罗西汀治疗(单药)组及帕罗西汀+阿立哌唑2.2 mg/ d 组、2 mg/ d 组、7.2 mg/d 组及10 mg/ d 组,每组给予帕罗西汀40 mg/ d 及相应剂量的阿立哌唑治疗8周。治疗前后进行耶鲁布朗强迫量表(Y-BOCS)及治疗过程中出现的症状量表

  1. Analysis of the contrast effect of aripiprazole, risperidone and clozapine in patients with schizophrenia%阿立哌唑、利培酮和氯氮平治疗精神分裂症的临床效果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾荟宇

    2015-01-01

    ObjectiveTo analyze the clinical effect and the damage of cognitive function of aripiprazole, risperidone and clozapine in treatment of patients with schizophrenia.Methods 234 patients with schizophrenia diagnosed and treated in our hospital from September 2011 to October 2013 were randomly divided into three groups A, B and C, 78 cases in each group. Group A received therapy of aripiprazole oral, group B received treatment of risperidone oral, Group C received oral clozapine treatment, after treatment, the clinical efficacy among the three groups were compared, the changes of positive and negative syndrome scale (PANSS) score, the Wechsler adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS-RC) of the total IQ score points and Clinical memory Scale (CMS) score were compared between before and after treatment.ResultsBefore treatment, PANSS, WAIS-RC, CMS scores of A, B, C three groups, the difference was not statistically significant (P>0.05), indicating a good comparability between the three groups. After treatment, A, B, C three groups PANSS, WAIS-RC scores were compared, without statistically significant differences (P>0.05). CMS score of group A after treatment was significantly higher than that of B, C groups, the difference was statistically significant (P0.05). A, B, C three groups after treatment PANSS scores were significantly higher than the scores before treatment (P0.05). Conclusion Aripiprazole compared with risperidone and clozapine, aripiprazole has better clinical efficacy.%目的:分析阿立哌唑、利培酮和氯氮平在精神分裂症患者临床治疗效果及对认知功能的损害情况。方法将我院2011年9月~2013年10月确诊并收治的234例精神分裂症患者随机分为甲、乙、丙三组,每组78例。甲组应用阿立哌唑实施口服治疗,乙组应用利培酮实施口服治疗,丙组应用氯氮平实施口服治疗,治疗结束后比照三组临床疗效,治疗前后的阳性和阴性症状量表(PANSS)评分、韦氏

  2. Impaired nitrazepam metabolism in hypothyroidism.

    OpenAIRE

    Kenny, R. A.; Kafetz, K; Cox, M; Timmers, J.; Impallomeni, M

    1984-01-01

    Delayed metabolism of a number of drugs has been described in hypothyroid patients. We report an elderly hypothyroid female who had prolonged delay in the metabolism of a commonly-used sedative, nitrazepam, and discuss the importance of delayed drug metabolism in hypothyroidism.

  3. Links between metabolism and cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Dang, Chi V.

    2012-01-01

    Excessive caloric intake is associated with increased risk for cancer, while the nonobese state may be protective through mechanisms that reduce oxidative stress. In this review, Dang discusses the links between metabolism and cancer, which range from the low incidence of cancer in large mammals with low specific metabolic rates to altered cancer cell metabolism resulting from mutated enzymes or cancer genes.

  4. Surfactant phospholipid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agassandian, Marianna; Mallampalli, Rama K

    2013-03-01

    Pulmonary surfactant is essential for life and is composed of a complex lipoprotein-like mixture that lines the inner surface of the lung to prevent alveolar collapse at the end of expiration. The molecular composition of surfactant depends on highly integrated and regulated processes involving its biosynthesis, remodeling, degradation, and intracellular trafficking. Despite its multicomponent composition, the study of surfactant phospholipid metabolism has focused on two predominant components, disaturated phosphatidylcholine that confers surface-tension lowering activities, and phosphatidylglycerol, recently implicated in innate immune defense. Future studies providing a better understanding of the molecular control and physiological relevance of minor surfactant lipid components are needed. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Phospholipids and Phospholipid Metabolism. PMID:23026158

  5. Nuclear Sphingolipid Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucki, Natasha C.; Sewer, Marion B.

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear lipid metabolism is implicated in various processes, including transcription, splicing, and DNA repair. Sphingolipids play roles in numerous cellular functions, and an emerging body of literature has identified roles for these lipid mediators in distinct nuclear processes. Different sphingolipid species are localized in various subnuclear domains, including chromatin, the nuclear matrix, and the nuclear envelope, where sphingolipids exert specific regulatory and structural functions. Sphingomyelin, the most abundant nuclear sphingolipid, plays both structural and regulatory roles in chromatin assembly and dynamics in addition to being an integral component of the nuclear matrix. Sphingosine-1-phosphate modulates histone acetylation, sphingosine is a ligand for steroidogenic factor 1, and nuclear accumulation of ceramide has been implicated in apoptosis. Finally, nuclear membrane–associated ganglioside GM1 plays a pivotal role in Ca2+ homeostasis. This review highlights research on the factors that control nuclear sphingolipid metabolism and summarizes the roles of these lipids in various nuclear processes. PMID:21888508

  6. Genetics of metabolic resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Otto; Langemann, Dirk; Beffa, Roland

    2016-09-01

    Herbicide resistance has become a major issue for many weeds. Metabolic resistance refers to the biochemical processes within organisms that degrade herbicides to less toxic compounds, resulting in a shift of the dose response curve. This type of resistance involves polygenic inheritance. A model is presented linking the biochemical pathway of amino acid synthesis and the detoxifying pathway of an inhibitor of the key enzyme ALS. From this model, resistance factors for each biotype are derived, which are then applied to a polygenic population genetic model for an annual weed plant. Polygenic inheritance is described by a new approach based on tensor products of heredity matrices. Important results from the model are that low dose regimes favour fast emergence of resistant biotypes and that the emergence of resistant biotypes occurs as abrupt outbreaks. The model is used to evaluate strategies for the management of metabolic resistance. PMID:27424952

  7. Sleep and metabolic function

    OpenAIRE

    Morselli, Lisa L.; Guyon, Aurore; Spiegel, Karine

    2011-01-01

    Evidence for the role of sleep on metabolic and endocrine function has been reported more than four decades ago. In the past 30 years, the prevalence of obesity and diabetes has greatly increased in industrialized countries, and self-imposed sleep curtailment, now very common, is starting to be recognized as a contributing factor, alongside with increased caloric intake and decreased physical activity. Furthermore, obstructive sleep apnea, a chronic condition characterized by recurrent upper ...

  8. Autophagy, Metabolism, and Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Eileen; Mehnert, Janice M; Chan, Chang S

    2015-11-15

    Macroautophagy (autophagy hereafter) captures intracellular proteins and organelles and degrades them in lysosomes. The degradation breakdown products are released from lysosomes and recycled into metabolic and biosynthetic pathways. Basal autophagy provides protein and organelle quality control by eliminating damaged cellular components. Starvation-induced autophagy recycles intracellular components into metabolic pathways to sustain mitochondrial metabolic function and energy homeostasis. Recycling by autophagy is essential for yeast and mammals to survive starvation through intracellular nutrient scavenging. Autophagy suppresses degenerative diseases and has a context-dependent role in cancer. In some models, cancer initiation is suppressed by autophagy. By preventing the toxic accumulation of damaged protein and organelles, particularly mitochondria, autophagy limits oxidative stress, chronic tissue damage, and oncogenic signaling, which suppresses cancer initiation. This suggests a role for autophagy stimulation in cancer prevention, although the role of autophagy in the suppression of human cancer is unclear. In contrast, some cancers induce autophagy and are dependent on autophagy for survival. Much in the way that autophagy promotes survival in starvation, cancers can use autophagy-mediated recycling to maintain mitochondrial function and energy homeostasis to meet the elevated metabolic demand of growth and proliferation. Thus, autophagy inhibition may be beneficial for cancer therapy. Moreover, tumors are more autophagy-dependent than normal tissues, suggesting that there is a therapeutic window. Despite these insights, many important unanswered questions remain about the exact mechanisms of autophagy-mediated cancer suppression and promotion, how relevant these observations are to humans, and whether the autophagy pathway can be modulated therapeutically in cancer. See all articles in this CCR Focus section, "Cell Death and Cancer Therapy."

  9. Scaling metabolic rate fluctuations

    OpenAIRE

    Labra, Fabio A.; Marquet, Pablo A.; Bozinovic, Francisco

    2007-01-01

    Complex ecological and economic systems show fluctuations in macroscopic quantities such as exchange rates, size of companies or populations that follow non-Gaussian tent-shaped probability distributions of growth rates with power-law decay, which suggests that fluctuations in complex systems may be governed by universal mechanisms, independent of particular details and idiosyncrasies. We propose here that metabolic rate within individual organisms may be considered as an example of an emerge...

  10. Surfactant phospholipid metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Agassandian, Marianna; Mallampalli, Rama K.

    2012-01-01

    Pulmonary surfactant is essential for life and is comprised of a complex lipoprotein-like mixture that lines the inner surface of the lung to prevent alveolar collapse at the end of expiration. The molecular composition of surfactant depends on highly integrated and regulated processes involving its biosynthesis, remodeling, degradation, and intracellular trafficking. Despite its multicomponent composition, the study of surfactant phospholipid metabolism has focused on two predominant compone...

  11. Iron and Iron Metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Melike Sezgin Evim; Birol Baytan; Adalet Meral Güneş

    2012-01-01

    Iron is an essential element for almost all living organisms except some bacteria. A great number of new articles related to the iron metabolism have been published in recent years explaining new findings. Hepsidine, a peptide hormon, that is recently found, regulates iron methabolism by effecting iron absorbsion from gut, secreting iron from hepatic store and flows iron from macrophages. Hepsidin blockes to effluxe iron from cells by bounding to ferroportin and by inducing ferroportin destru...

  12. Connecting Myokines and Metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Ahima, Rexford S.; Park, Hyeong-Kyu

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal muscle is the largest organ of the body in non-obese individuals and is now considered to be an endocrine organ. Hormones (myokines) secreted by skeletal muscle mediate communications between muscle and liver, adipose tissue, brain, and other organs. Myokines affect muscle mass and myofiber switching, and have profound effects on glucose and lipid metabolism and inflammation, thus contributing to energy homeostasis and the pathogenesis of obesity, diabetes, and other diseases. In thi...

  13. Metabolic syndrome in children

    OpenAIRE

    Melinda Morea; Nicolae Miu

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome (MS) in children. Material and methods: We performed a cross sectional, retrospective study. A total of 395 children aged between 2-19 years old were examined.. The children have undergone physical examination; weight, height, waist circumference, blood pressure (BP) were measured. The nutritional status of the children was assessed by body mass index (BMI) and laboratory tests needed to diagnose MS were performed. IDF ...

  14. Obesity and metabolic inflammation

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Haiyan

    2013-01-01

    Obesity epidemics affect 35.7% of adults and approximately 17% of children in the United States. Obesity has been associated with several health disorders, such as type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, fatty liver disease, and certain forms of cancer. Medical costs associated with obesity were estimated at $147 billion in 2008. Chronic tissue inflammation, particularly in adipose tissue, has been considered as a key underlying mechanism for the development of obesity-related metabolic syn...

  15. Metabolic Model Generalization

    OpenAIRE

    Zhukova, Anna

    2013-01-01

    International audience Genome-scale metabolic models for new organisms include thousands of reactions that are generated automatically: by inferring them from databases of reactions and pathways, existing models for similar organisms, etc. This process includes several iterations of the draft model analysis, error detection, and improvement; starting from more general issues and going deeper into details. Especially in the first iterations model evaluation by a human expert is important. B...

  16. Analytics for metabolic engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J Petzold

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Realizing the promise of metabolic engineering has been slowed by challenges related to moving beyond proof-of-concept examples to robust and economically viable systems. Key to advancing metabolic engineering beyond trial-and-error research is access to parts with well-defined performance metrics that can be readily applied in vastly different contexts with predictable effects. As the field now stands, research depends greatly on analytical tools that assay target molecules, transcripts, proteins, and metabolites across different hosts and pathways. Screening technologies yield specific information for many thousands of strain variants while deep omics analysis provide a systems-level view of the cell factory. Efforts focused on a combination of these analyses yield quantitative information of dynamic processes between parts and the host chassis that drive the next engineering steps. Overall, the data generated from these types of assays aid better decision-making at the design and strain construction stages to speed progress in metabolic engineering research.

  17. Deprescription: The prescription metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivagnanam, Gurusamy

    2016-01-01

    Deprescribing is a structured approach to drug discontinuation. An alternative suggested term is "prescription metabolism." The major aim of deprescription is to purge the drug(s) considered unwanted in a given patient, especially in the elderly patients with multiple comorbidities or in those suffering from chronic disease. Like drug metabolism, prescription metabolism is a way of eliminating unwanted, troublesome, or cost-ineffective medications. The removal of such drugs has been found to decrease the incidence of adverse drug reactions and improves the rate of medication adherence, thereby reducing the economic burden on the patient as well as on the health care providers. Certain categories of drugs are to be tapered rather than abruptly stopped. Despite the availability of many tools to minimize drug therapy-related problems, there is little guidance for the process of deprescribing in general clinical practice. Various methods to reduce the risks of polypharmacy include patient education, physician education, and regulatory intervention. The suggested S and S approach (seek and screen, save and severe, sensitize and supervise) may be tried for deprescribing in general practice. More research on deprescribing is the need of the hour in almost all branches of clinical medicine which may pave the way for the betterment of health care. PMID:27651709

  18. Analytics for Metabolic Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petzold, Christopher J.; Chan, Leanne Jade G.; Nhan, Melissa; Adams, Paul D.

    2015-01-01

    Realizing the promise of metabolic engineering has been slowed by challenges related to moving beyond proof-of-concept examples to robust and economically viable systems. Key to advancing metabolic engineering beyond trial-and-error research is access to parts with well-defined performance metrics that can be readily applied in vastly different contexts with predictable effects. As the field now stands, research depends greatly on analytical tools that assay target molecules, transcripts, proteins, and metabolites across different hosts and pathways. Screening technologies yield specific information for many thousands of strain variants, while deep omics analysis provides a systems-level view of the cell factory. Efforts focused on a combination of these analyses yield quantitative information of dynamic processes between parts and the host chassis that drive the next engineering steps. Overall, the data generated from these types of assays aid better decision-making at the design and strain construction stages to speed progress in metabolic engineering research. PMID:26442249

  19. Origins of metabolic profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Arthur B; Robinson, Noah E

    2011-01-01

    Quantitative metabolic profiling originated as a 10-year project carried out between 1968 and 1978 in California. It was hypothesized and then demonstrated that quantitative analysis of a large number of metabolites - selected by analytical convenience and evaluated by computerized pattern recognition - could serve as a useful method for the quantitative measurement of human health. Using chromatographic and mass spectrometric methods to measure between 50 and 200 metabolites in more than 15,000 human specimens, statistically significant and diagnostically useful profiles for several human diseases and for other systematic variables including age, diet, fasting, sex, and other variables were demonstrated. It was also shown that genetically distinct metabolic profiles for each individual are present in both newborn infants and adults. In the course of this work, the many practical and conceptual problems involved in sampling, analysis, evaluation of results, and medical use of quantitative metabolic profiling were considered and, for the most part, solved. This article is an account of that research project. PMID:21207281

  20. Dysregulated lipid metabolism in cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Alteration of lipid metabolism has been increasingly recognized as a hallmark of cancer cells. The changes of expression and activity of lipid metabolizing enzymes are directly regulated by the activity of oncogenic signals. The dependence of tumor cells on the dysregulated lipid metabolism suggests that proteins involved in this process are excellent chemotherapeutic targets for cancer treatment. There are currently several drugs under development or in clinical trials that are based on specifically targeting the altered lipid metabolic pathways in cancer cells. Further understanding of dysregulated lipid metabolism and its associated signaling pathways will help us to better design efficient cancer therapeutic strategy.

  1. Tumor Metabolism of Malignant Gliomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ru, Peng; Williams, Terence M.; Chakravarti, Arnab; Guo, Deliang, E-mail: deliang.guo@osumc.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center & Arthur G James Cancer Hospital, Columbus, OH 43012 (United States)

    2013-11-08

    Constitutively activated oncogenic signaling via genetic mutations such as in the EGFR/PI3K/Akt and Ras/RAF/MEK pathways has been recognized as a major driver for tumorigenesis in most cancers. Recent insights into tumor metabolism have further revealed that oncogenic signaling pathways directly promote metabolic reprogramming to upregulate biosynthesis of lipids, carbohydrates, protein, DNA and RNA, leading to enhanced growth of human tumors. Therefore, targeting cell metabolism has become a novel direction for drug development in oncology. In malignant gliomas, metabolism pathways of glucose, glutamine and lipid are significantly reprogrammed. Moreover, molecular mechanisms causing these metabolic changes are just starting to be unraveled. In this review, we will summarize recent studies revealing critical gene alterations that lead to metabolic changes in malignant gliomas, and also discuss promising therapeutic strategies via targeting the key players in metabolic regulation.

  2. Tumor Metabolism of Malignant Gliomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deliang Guo

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Constitutively activated oncogenic signaling via genetic mutations such as in the EGFR/PI3K/Akt and Ras/RAF/MEK pathways has been recognized as a major driver for tumorigenesis in most cancers. Recent insights into tumor metabolism have further revealed that oncogenic signaling pathways directly promote metabolic reprogramming to upregulate biosynthesis of lipids, carbohydrates, protein, DNA and RNA, leading to enhanced growth of human tumors. Therefore, targeting cell metabolism has become a novel direction for drug development in oncology. In malignant gliomas, metabolism pathways of glucose, glutamine and lipid are significantly reprogrammed. Moreover, molecular mechanisms causing these metabolic changes are just starting to be unraveled. In this review, we will summarize recent studies revealing critical gene alterations that lead to metabolic changes in malignant gliomas, and also discuss promising therapeutic strategies via targeting the key players in metabolic regulation.

  3. Role of Dopamine 2 Receptor in Impaired Drug-Cue Extinction in Adolescent Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zbukvic, Isabel C; Ganella, Despina E; Perry, Christina J; Madsen, Heather B; Bye, Christopher R; Lawrence, Andrew J; Kim, Jee Hyun

    2016-06-01

    Adolescent drug users display resistance to treatment such as cue exposure therapy (CET), as well as increased liability to relapse. The basis of CET is extinction learning, which involves dopamine signaling in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). This system undergoes dramatic alterations during adolescence. Therefore, we investigated extinction of a cocaine-associated cue in adolescent and adult rats. While cocaine self-administration and lever-alone extinction were not different between the two ages, we observed that cue extinction reduced cue-induced reinstatement in adult but not adolescent rats. Infusion of the selective dopamine 2 receptor (D2R)-like agonist quinpirole into the infralimbic cortex (IL) of the mPFC prior to cue extinction significantly reduced cue-induced reinstatement in adolescents. This effect was replicated by acute systemic treatment with the atypical antipsychotic aripiprazole (Abilify), a partial D2R-like agonist. These data suggest that adolescents may be more susceptible to relapse due to a deficit in cue extinction learning, and highlight the significance of D2R signaling in the IL for cue extinction during adolescence. These findings inspire new tactics for improving adolescent CET, with aripiprazole representing an exciting potential pharmacological adjunct for behavioral therapy. PMID:26946126

  4. Metabolic Burden: Cornerstones in Synthetic Biology and Metabolic Engineering Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Gang; Yan, Qiang; Jones, J Andrew; Tang, Yinjie J; Fong, Stephen S; Koffas, Mattheos A G

    2016-08-01

    Engineering cell metabolism for bioproduction not only consumes building blocks and energy molecules (e.g., ATP) but also triggers energetic inefficiency inside the cell. The metabolic burdens on microbial workhorses lead to undesirable physiological changes, placing hidden constraints on host productivity. We discuss cell physiological responses to metabolic burdens, as well as strategies to identify and resolve the carbon and energy burden problems, including metabolic balancing, enhancing respiration, dynamic regulatory systems, chromosomal engineering, decoupling cell growth with production phases, and co-utilization of nutrient resources. To design robust strains with high chances of success in industrial settings, novel genome-scale models (GSMs), (13)C-metabolic flux analysis (MFA), and machine-learning approaches are needed for weighting, standardizing, and predicting metabolic costs. PMID:26996613

  5. Gut microbiome and metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazidi, Mohsen; Rezaie, Peyman; Kengne, Andre Pascal; Mobarhan, Majid Ghayour; Ferns, Gordon A

    2016-01-01

    The gut microbiome contributes approximately 2kg of the whole body weight, and recent studies suggest that gut microbiota has a profound effect on human metabolism, potentially contributing to several features of the metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome is defined by a clustering of metabolic disorders that include central adiposity with visceral fat accumulation, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, dysglycemia and non-optimal blood pressure levels. Metabolic syndrome is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes. It is estimated that around 20-25 percent of the world's adult population has metabolic syndrome. In this manuscript, we have reviewed the existing data linking gut microbiome with metabolic syndrome. Existing evidence from studies both in animals and humans support a link between gut microbiome and various components of metabolic syndrome. Possible pathways include involvement with energy homeostasis and metabolic processes, modulation of inflammatory signaling pathways, interferences with the immune system, and interference with the renin-angiotensin system. Modification of gut microbiota via prebiotics, probiotics or other dietary interventions has provided evidence to support a possible beneficial effect of interventions targeting gut microbiota modulation to treat components or complications of metabolic syndrome.

  6. Metal metabolism and toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research focuses on the role of pregnancy and lactation in susceptibility to the toxic effects of cadmium and lead. Responses under investigation include lead-induced changes in pathways for vitamin D and calcium metabolism and cadmium-induced alterations in kidney function and skeletal structure. The second area focuses on the gastrointestinal absorption of plutonium and other actinide elements. Studies currently being conducted in nonhuman primates to develop a procedure to determine GI absorption values of uranium and plutonium that does not require sacrifice of the animal. 6 refs

  7. Metabolism and Endocrinology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    2009039 A survey of glucose and lipid metabolism and concomitant diseases among inpatients in Guangdong province. TANG Kuanxiao(唐宽晓), et al. Dept Endocrinol, 3rd Affili Hosp, Sun Yat-sen Univ, Guangzhou 510630. Chin J Intern Med 2009;48(3):196-200. Objectives To investigate the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of dyslipidemia as well as its treatment and influence on accompanying diseases in impaired glucose status among inpatients. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted among the inpatients registered in ten university hospitals of Guangdong, China during the week before the Diabetes Day in 2004.

  8. Metabolic impact of shift work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimberg, Ioná Zalcman; Fernandes Junior, Silvio A; Crispim, Cibele Aparecida; Tufik, Sergio; de Mello, Marco Tulio

    2012-01-01

    In developing countries, shift work represents a considerable contingent workforce. Recently, studies have shown that overweight and obesity are more prevalent in shift workers than day workers. In addition, shift work has been associated with a higher propensity for the development of many metabolic disorders, such as insulin resistance, diabetes, dislipidemias and metabolic syndrome. Recent data have pointed that decrease of the sleep time, desynchronization of circadian rhythm and alteration of environmental aspects are the main factors related to such problems. Shortened or disturbed sleep is among the most common health-related effects of shift work. The plausible physiological and biological mechanisms are related to the activation of the autonomic nervous system, inflammation, changes in lipid and glucose metabolism, and related changes in the risk for atherosclerosis, metabolic syndrome, and type II diabetes. The present review will discuss the impact of shift work on obesity and metabolic disorders and how disruption of sleep and circadian misalignment may contribute to these metabolic dysfunctions.

  9. [Heme metabolism and oxidative stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaliman, P A; Barannik, T B

    2001-01-01

    The role of heme metabolism in oxidative stress development and defense reactions formation in mammals under different stress factors are discussed in the article. Heme metabolism is considered as the totality of synthesis, degradation, transport and exchange processes of exogenous heme and heme liberated from erythrocyte hemoglobin under erythrocyte aging and hemolysis. The literature data presented display normal heme metabolism including mammals heme-binding proteins and intracellular free heme pool and heme metabolism alterations under oxidative stress development. The main attention is focused to the prooxidant action of heme, the interaction of heme transport and lipid exchange, and to the heme metabolism key enzymes (delta-aminolevulinate synthase and heme oxygenase), serum heme-binding protein hemopexin and intracellular heme-binding proteins participating in metabolism adaptation under the action of factors, which cause oxidative stress. PMID:11599427

  10. Metabolic Syndrome: Hyperlipidemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragg, Dee Ann Stults; Walling, Anne

    2015-08-01

    Metabolic syndrome is associated with an elevated risk of cardiovascular disease and premature mortality. When metabolic syndrome includes lipid abnormalities, management goals are weight loss and cardiovascular risk management through lifestyle modifications (eg, diet, exercise), and, when appropriate, lowering of lipid levels with pharmacotherapy. Healthy diets are recommended, particularly the Mediterranean diet. Patients also should set a goal of at least 30 minutes of moderate to vigorous exercise on most, preferably all, days of the week. Guidelines provide criteria for statin treatment based on overall cardiovascular risk. High-intensity statin treatment (eg, rosuvastatin 20 to 40 mg, atorvastatin 40 to 80 mg) typically is recommended unless the patient cannot tolerate therapy. Approximately 5% of patients experience statin-induced myalgia, in which case moderate-intensity treatment can be tried. Lipid levels should be reevaluated 4 to 12 weeks after initiating therapy; lipid levels can be measured without fasting. A lack of improvement often indicates nonadherence. Bile acid sequestrants, fibric acids, and niacin can be used if other drugs are not tolerated. The evidence to support use of integrative medicine is limited, but the strongest evidence of benefit is for garlic (Allium sativum). PMID:26280341

  11. Metabolic topography of Parkinsonism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae Seung [Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-04-15

    Parkinson's disease is one of the most frequent neurodegenerative diseases, which mainly affects the elderly. Parkinson's disease is often difficult to differentiate from atypical parkinson disorder such as progressive supranuclear palsy, multiple system atrophy, dementia with Lewy body, and corticobasal ganglionic degeneration, based on the clinical findings because of the similarity of phenotypes and lack of diagnostic markers. The accurate diagnosis of Parkinson's disease and atypical Parkinson disorders is not only important for deciding on treatment regimens and providing prognosis, but also it is critical for studies designed to investigate etiology and pathogenesis of parkinsonism and to develop new therapeutic strategies. Although degeneration of the nigrostriatal dopamine system results in marked loss of striatal dopamine content in most of the diseases causing parkinsonism, pathologic studies revealed different topographies of the neuronal cell loss in Parkinsonism. Since the regional cerebral glucose metabolism is a marker of integrated local synaptic activity and as such is sensitive to both direct neuronal/synaptic damage and secondary functional disruption at synapses distant from the primary site of pathology, and assessment of the regional cerebral glucose metabolism with F-18 FDG PET is useful in the differential diagnosis of parkinsonism and evaluating the pathophysiology of Parkinsonism.

  12. Metabolic topography of Parkinsonism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parkinson's disease is one of the most frequent neurodegenerative diseases, which mainly affects the elderly. Parkinson's disease is often difficult to differentiate from atypical parkinson disorder such as progressive supranuclear palsy, multiple system atrophy, dementia with Lewy body, and corticobasal ganglionic degeneration, based on the clinical findings because of the similarity of phenotypes and lack of diagnostic markers. The accurate diagnosis of Parkinson's disease and atypical Parkinson disorders is not only important for deciding on treatment regimens and providing prognosis, but also it is critical for studies designed to investigate etiology and pathogenesis of parkinsonism and to develop new therapeutic strategies. Although degeneration of the nigrostriatal dopamine system results in marked loss of striatal dopamine content in most of the diseases causing parkinsonism, pathologic studies revealed different topographies of the neuronal cell loss in Parkinsonism. Since the regional cerebral glucose metabolism is a marker of integrated local synaptic activity and as such is sensitive to both direct neuronal/synaptic damage and secondary functional disruption at synapses distant from the primary site of pathology, and assessment of the regional cerebral glucose metabolism with F-18 FDG PET is useful in the differential diagnosis of parkinsonism and evaluating the pathophysiology of Parkinsonism

  13. Biochemical Hypermedia: Galactose Metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.K. Sugai

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Animations of biochemical processes and virtual laboratory environments lead to true molecular simulations. The use of interactive software’s in education can improve cognitive capacity, better learning and, mainly, it makes information acquisition easier. Material and Methods: This work presents the development of a biochemical hypermedia to understanding of the galactose metabolism. It was developed with the help of concept maps, ISIS Draw, ADOBE Photoshop and FLASH MX Program. Results and Discussion: A step by step animation process shows the enzymatic reactions of galactose conversion to glucose-1-phosphate (to glycogen synthesis, glucose-6-phosphate (glycolysis intermediary, UDP-galactose (substrate to mucopolysaccharides synthesis and collagen’s glycosylation. There are navigation guide that allow scrolling the mouse over the names of the components of enzymatic reactions of via the metabolism of galactose. Thus, explanatory text box, chemical structures and animation of the actions of enzymes appear to navigator. Upon completion of the module, the user’s response to the proposed exercise can be checked immediately through text box with interactive content of the answer. Conclusion: This hypermedia was presented for undergraduate students (UFSC who revealed that it was extremely effective in promoting the understanding of the theme.

  14. Arginine metabolism in wounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arginine metabolism in wounds was investigated in the rat in 1) lambda-carrageenan-wounded skeletal muscle, 2) Schilling chambers, and 3) subcutaneous polyvinyl alcohol sponges. All showed decreased arginine and elevated ornithine contents and high arginase activity. Arginase could be brought to the wound by macrophages, which were found to contain arginase activity. However, arginase was expressed by macrophages only after cell lysis and no arginase was released by viable macrophages in vitro. Thus the extracellular arginase of wounds may derive from dead macrophages within the injured tissue. Wound and peritoneal macrophages exhibited arginase deiminase activity as demonstrated by the conversion of [guanido-14C]arginine to radiolabeled citrulline during culture, the inhibition of this reaction by formamidinium acetate, and the lack of prokaryotic contamination of the cultures. These findings and the known metabolic fates of the products of arginase and arginine deiminase in the cellular populations of the wound suggest the possibility of cooperativity among cells for the production of substrates for collagen synthesis

  15. Posttransplant Metabolic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Shadab Siddiqui

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome (MS is a cluster of metabolic derangements associated with insulin resistance and an increased risk of cardiovascular mortality. MS has become a major health concern worldwide and is considered to be the etiology of the current epidemic of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. In addition to cardiovascular disease, the presence of MS is also closely associated with other comorbidities including nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. The prevalence of MS in patients with cirrhosis and end-stage liver disease is not well established and difficult to ascertain. Following liver transplant, the prevalence of MS is estimated to be 44–58%. The main factors associated with posttransplant MS are posttransplant diabetes, obesity, dyslipidemia, and hypertension. In addition to developing NAFLD, posttransplant MS is associated with increased cardiovascular mortality that is 2.5 times that of the age- and sex-matched individuals. Additionally, the presence of posttransplant MS has been associated with rapid progression to fibrosis in individuals transplanted for HCV cirrhosis. There is an urgent need for well-designed prospective studies to fully delineate the natural history and risk factors associated with posttransplant MS. Until then, early recognition, prevention, and treatment of its components are vital in improving outcomes in liver transplant recipients.

  16. [Metabolic bone disease osteomalacia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuss-Borst, M A

    2014-05-01

    Osteomalacia is a rare disorder of bone metabolism leading to reduced bone mineralization. Underlying vitamin D deficiency and a disturbed phosphate metabolism (so-called hypophosphatemic osteomalacia) can cause the disease. Leading symptoms are dull localized or generalized bone pain, muscle weakness and cramps as well as increased incidence of falls. Rheumatic diseases, such as polymyalgia rheumatica, rheumatoid arthritis, myositis and fibromyalgia must be considered in the differential diagnosis. Alkaline phosphatase (AP) is typically elevated in osteomalacia while serum phosphate and/or 25-OH vitamin D3 levels are reduced. The diagnosis of osteomalacia can be confirmed by an iliac crest bone biopsy. Histological correlate is reduced or deficient mineralization of the newly synthesized extracellular matrix. Treatment strategies comprise supplementation of vitamin D and calcium and for patients with intestinal malabsorption syndromes vitamin D and calcium are also given parenterally. In renal phosphate wasting syndromes substitution of phosphate is the treatment of choice, except for tumor-induced osteomalacia when removal of the tumor leads to a cure in most cases. PMID:24811356

  17. Metabolic flexibility and insulin resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Galgani, Jose E.; Moro, Cedric; Ravussin, Eric

    2008-01-01

    Metabolic flexibility is the capacity for the organism to adapt fuel oxidation to fuel availability. The inability to modify fuel oxidation in response to changes in nutrient availability has been implicated in the accumulation of intramyocellular lipid and insulin resistance. The metabolic flexibility assessed by the ability to switch from fat to carbohydrate oxidation is usually impaired during a hyperinsulinemic clamp in insulin-resistant subjects; however, this “metabolic inflexibility” i...

  18. Tumor Metabolism of Malignant Gliomas

    OpenAIRE

    Deliang Guo; Arnab Chakravarti; Williams, Terence M.; Peng Ru

    2013-01-01

    Constitutively activated oncogenic signaling via genetic mutations such as in the EGFR/PI3K/Akt and Ras/RAF/MEK pathways has been recognized as a major driver for tumorigenesis in most cancers. Recent insights into tumor metabolism have further revealed that oncogenic signaling pathways directly promote metabolic reprogramming to upregulate biosynthesis of lipids, carbohydrates, protein, DNA and RNA, leading to enhanced growth of human tumors. Therefore, targeting cell metabolism has become a...

  19. Gut Microbiota and Metabolic Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyu Yeon Hur

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Gut microbiota plays critical physiological roles in the energy extraction and in the control of local or systemic immunity. Gut microbiota and its disturbance also appear to be involved in the pathogenesis of diverse diseases including metabolic disorders, gastrointestinal diseases, cancer, etc. In the metabolic point of view, gut microbiota can modulate lipid accumulation, lipopolysaccharide content and the production of short-chain fatty acids that affect food intake, inflammatory tone, or insulin signaling. Several strategies have been developed to change gut microbiota such as prebiotics, probiotics, certain antidiabetic drugs or fecal microbiota transplantation, which have diverse effects on body metabolism and on the development of metabolic disorders.

  20. Metabolic Adaptation to Muscle Ischemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, Marco E.; Coon, Jennifer E.; Kalhan, Satish C.; Radhakrishnan, Krishnan; Saidel, Gerald M.; Stanley, William C.

    2000-01-01

    Although all tissues in the body can adapt to varying physiological/pathological conditions, muscle is the most adaptable. To understand the significance of cellular events and their role in controlling metabolic adaptations in complex physiological systems, it is necessary to link cellular and system levels by means of mechanistic computational models. The main objective of this work is to improve understanding of the regulation of energy metabolism during skeletal/cardiac muscle ischemia by combining in vivo experiments and quantitative models of metabolism. Our main focus is to investigate factors affecting lactate metabolism (e.g., NADH/NAD) and the inter-regulation between carbohydrate and fatty acid metabolism during a reduction in regional blood flow. A mechanistic mathematical model of energy metabolism has been developed to link cellular metabolic processes and their control mechanisms to tissue (skeletal muscle) and organ (heart) physiological responses. We applied this model to simulate the relationship between tissue oxygenation, redox state, and lactate metabolism in skeletal muscle. The model was validated using human data from published occlusion studies. Currently, we are investigating the difference in the responses to sudden vs. gradual onset ischemia in swine by combining in vivo experimental studies with computational models of myocardial energy metabolism during normal and ischemic conditions.

  1. 六种非经典抗精神病药对首发精神分裂症患者代谢的影响%Influences of six atypical antipsychotics on metabolism in the treatment for patients with first-episode schizophrenia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    亓高超

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore the influences of 6 atypical antipsychotics on blood triglyceride (TG), high density lipoproteins (HDL), glucose, glycohemoglobin (HbAlC) and body weight in the treatment for patients with frist-episode schizophrenia. Methods A total of 210 patients with frist-episode schizophrenia were divided into clozapine group ( 38 cases) , olanzapine group (34 cases) , quetiapine group ( 32 cases ) , risperidone group ( 37 cases ) , amisulpride group (33 cases) and aripiprazole group (36 cases) for 8 weeks treatment. The blood TG, HDL, glucose, HbA1C and body weight were measured at baseline and at the end of the treatment. Results Compared with the baseline, there were no significant differences in blood level of TG, HDL, glucose, HbAlC and body weight of patients in aripiprazole group after the 8-week treatment. All the indexes mentioned above in clozapine group and olanzapine group increased significantly after the treatment (P <0. 05 or P <0. 01). Body weight increased significantly after the treatment in patients in quetiapine group, risperidone group and amisulpride group (P<0.01), however, no significant differences were found on TG, HDL, glucose and HbA1C in the 3 groups after the treatment compared with the baseline. Conclusion Aripiprazole has no effect on metabolic markers in patients with schizophrenia, but clozapine and olanzapine can heighten the blood TG, HDL, glucose, HbAlC and body weight. Quetiapine, risperidone, amisulpride only result in body weight gain in schizophrenic patients.%目的 探讨非经典抗精神病药对精神分裂症患者血甘油三酯(TG)、高密度脂蛋白(HDL)、血糖、糖化血红蛋白(HbA1C)和体质量的影响.方法 将210例精神分裂症患者分为氯氮平组38例、奥氮平组34例、喹硫平组32例、利培酮组37例、氨磺必利组33例、阿立哌唑组36例,治疗8周.于治疗前和治疗8周测量空腹血TG、HDL、血糖、HbA1C和体质量.结果 治疗前后

  2. Quantification of folate metabolism using transient metabolic flux analysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tedeschi, P.M.; Johnson-Farley, N.; Lin, H.; Shelton, L.M.; Ooga, T.; Mackay, G.; Broek, N. Van Den; Bertino, J.R.; Vazquez, A.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Systematic quantitative methodologies are needed to understand the heterogeneity of cell metabolism across cell types in normal physiology, disease, and treatment. Metabolic flux analysis (MFA) can be used to infer steady state fluxes, but it does not apply for transient dynamics. Kineti

  3. Metabolic flexibility and insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galgani, Jose E; Moro, Cedric; Ravussin, Eric

    2008-11-01

    Metabolic flexibility is the capacity for the organism to adapt fuel oxidation to fuel availability. The inability to modify fuel oxidation in response to changes in nutrient availability has been implicated in the accumulation of intramyocellular lipid and insulin resistance. The metabolic flexibility assessed by the ability to switch from fat to carbohydrate oxidation is usually impaired during a hyperinsulinemic clamp in insulin-resistant subjects; however, this "metabolic inflexibility" is mostly the consequence of impaired cellular glucose uptake. Indeed, after controlling for insulin-stimulated glucose disposal rate (amount of glucose available for oxidation), metabolic flexibility is not altered in obesity regardless of the presence of type 2 diabetes. To understand how intramyocellular lipids accumulate and cause insulin resistance, the assessment of metabolic flexibility to high-fat diets is more relevant than metabolic flexibility during a hyperinsulinemic clamp. An impaired capacity to upregulate muscle lipid oxidation in the face of high lipid supply may lead to increased muscle fat accumulation and insulin resistance. Surprisingly, very few studies have investigated the response to high-fat diets. In this review, we discuss the role of glucose disposal rate, adipose tissue lipid storage, and mitochondrial function on metabolic flexibility. Additionally, we emphasize the bias of using the change in respiratory quotient to calculate metabolic flexibility and propose novel approaches to assess metabolic flexibility. On the basis of current evidence, one cannot conclude that impaired metabolic flexibility is responsible for the accumulation of intramyocellular lipid and insulin resistance. We propose to study metabolic flexibility in response to high-fat diets in individuals having contrasting degree of insulin sensitivity and/or mitochondrial characteristics. PMID:18765680

  4. Collagen Homeostasis and Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnusson, S Peter; Heinemeier, Katja M; Kjaer, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The musculoskeletal system and its collagen rich tissue is important for ensuring architecture of skeletal muscle, energy storage in tendon and ligaments, joint surface protection, and for ensuring the transfer of muscular forces into resulting limb movement. Structure of tendon is stable and the metabolic activity is low, but mechanical loading and subsequent mechanotransduction and molecular anabolic signaling can result in some adaptation of the tendon especially during youth and adolescence. Within short time, tendon will get stiffer with training and lack of mechanical tissue loading through inactivity or immobilization of the human body will conversely result in a dramatic loss in tendon stiffness and collagen synthesis. This illustrates the importance of regular mechanical load in order to preserve the stabilizing role of the connective tissue for the overall function of the musculoskeletal system in both daily activity and exercise. Adaptive responses may vary along the tendon, and differ between mid-substance and insertional areas of the tendon. PMID:27535245

  5. Metabolism during hypodynamia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federov, I. V.

    1980-01-01

    Physical immobilization, inaction due to space travel, a sedentary occupation, or bed confinement due to a chronic illness elicit similar alternations in the metabolism of man and animals (rat, rabbit, dog, mouse). After a preliminary period of weight loss, there is eventually weight gain due to increased lipid storage. Protein catabolism is enhanced and anabolism depressed, with elevated urinary excretion of amino acids, creatine, and ammonia. Glycogen stores are depleted and glyconeogenesis is accelerated. Polyuria develops with subsequent redistribution of body fluids in which the blood volume of the systemic circulation is decreased and that of pulmonary circulation increased. This results in depressed production of vasopressin by the posterior pituitary which further enhances urinary water and salt loss.

  6. [Regulation of terpene metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croteau, R.

    1989-11-09

    Terpenoid oils, resins, and waxes from plants are important renewable resources. The objective of this project is to understand the regulation of terpenoid metabolism using the monoterpenes (C[sub 10]) as a model. The pathways of monoterpene biosynthesis and catabolism have been established, and the relevant enzymes characterized. Developmental studies relating enzyme levels to terpene accumulation within the oil gland sites of synthesis, and work with bioregulators, indicate that monoterpene production is controlled by terpene cyclases, the enzymes catalyzing the first step of the monoterpene pathway. As the leaf oil glands mature, cyclase levels decline and monoterpene biosynthesis ceases. Yield then decreases as the monoterpenes undergo catabolism by a process involving conversion to a glycoside and transport from the leaf glands to the root. At this site, the terpenoid is oxidatively degraded to acetate that is recycled into other lipid metabolites. During the transition from terpene biosynthesis to catabolism, the oil glands undergo dramatic ultrastructural modification. Degradation of the producing cells results in mixing of previously compartmentized monoterpenes with the catabolic enzymes, ultimately leading to yield decline. This regulatory model is being applied to the formation of other terpenoid classes (C[sub 15] C[sub 20], C[sub 30], C[sub 40]) within the oil glands. Preliminary investigations on the formation of sesquiterpenes (C[sub 15]) suggest that the corresponding cyclases may play a lesser role in determining yield of these products, but that compartmentation effects are important. From these studies, a comprehensive scheme for the regulation of terpene metabolism is being constructed. Results from this project wail have important consequences for the yield and composition of terpenoid natural products that can be made available for industrial exploitation.

  7. Selected Metabolic Responses to Skateboarding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetzler, Ronald K.; Hunt, Ian; Stickley, Christopher D.; Kimura, Iris F.

    2011-01-01

    Despite the popularity of skateboarding worldwide, the authors believe that no previous studies have investigated the metabolic demands associated with recreational participation in the sport. Although metabolic equivalents (METs) for skateboarding were published in textbooks, the source of these values is unclear. Therefore, the rise in…

  8. Lysophosphatidylinositol Signalling and Metabolic Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arifin, Syamsul A; Falasca, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Metabolism is a chemical process used by cells to transform food-derived nutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates and fats, into chemical and thermal energy. Whenever an alteration of this process occurs, the chemical balance within the cells is impaired and this can affect their growth and response to the environment, leading to the development of a metabolic disease. Metabolic syndrome, a cluster of several metabolic risk factors such as abdominal obesity, insulin resistance, high cholesterol and high blood pressure, and atherogenic dyslipidaemia, is increasingly common in modern society. Metabolic syndrome, as well as other diseases, such as diabetes, obesity, hyperlipidaemia and hypertension, are associated with abnormal lipid metabolism. Cellular lipids are the major component of cell membranes; they represent also a valuable source of energy and therefore play a crucial role for both cellular and physiological energy homeostasis. In this review, we will focus on the physiological and pathophysiological roles of the lysophospholipid mediator lysophosphatidylinositol (LPI) and its receptor G-protein coupled receptor 55 (GPR55) in metabolic diseases. LPI is a bioactive lipid generated by phospholipase A (PLA) family of lipases which is believed to play an important role in several diseases. Indeed LPI can affect various functions such as cell growth, differentiation and motility in a number of cell-types. Recently published data suggest that LPI plays an important role in different physiological and pathological contexts, including a role in metabolism and glucose homeostasis. PMID:26784247

  9. Obesity, metabolic syndrome and adipocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obesity and metabolic syndrome are examples whereby excess energy consumption and energy flux disruptions are causative agents of increased fatness. Because other, as yet elucidated, cellular factors may be involved and because potential treatments of these metabolic problems involve systemic agents...

  10. [Hypertension and the metabolic syndrome.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Michael; Jeppesen, Jørgen; Larsen, Mogens

    2009-01-01

    The metabolic syndrome is a relatively prevalent condition characterized by co-existence of several metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors including hypertension. Patients with hypertension have an increased risk of developing the metabolic syndrome which, in turn, increases the cardiovascular...... risk associated with increased blood pressure. As the definition of the metabolic syndrome is based on dichotomization of cardiovascular risk factors with a continuously increasing risk, it cannot match risk stratification tools like the HeartScore for calculation of prognosis. However, the metabolic...... syndrome is of clinical importance as it makes the treating physician test for other elements of the syndrome in patients with one of the elements, e.g. hypertension. Udgivelsesdato: 2009-Jun-15...

  11. [Metabolic syndrome--psychosomatic associations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolesnikov, D B; Rapoport, S I

    2008-01-01

    According to epidemiological investigations data, 10 to 35% of all population suffers from metabolic syndrome. However, until now, in spite of researches, metabolic syndrome remains little-studied complex problem. The aim of the review is summarized analysis of the researches results, going out the limits of internal diseases clinics and reflecting more complicated, psychosomatic mechanisms of the syndrome development. The data of literature indicate the row of patterns in development of psyche and metabolic processes disturbances. Analysis of various directions in study of metabolic syndrome with concomitant mental disturbances is represented in the article. The authors propose to perform further investigation subject to "multisectorality" of the disease, marking out prevailing mechanisms of development of metabolic syndrome subject to somatic and mental factors. PMID:18368784

  12. Lipid Chaperones and Metabolic Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masato Furuhashi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decade, a large body of evidence has emerged demonstrating an integration of metabolic and immune response pathways. It is now clear that obesity and associated disorders such as insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes are associated with a metabolically driven, low-grade, chronic inflammatory state, referred to as “metaflammation.” Several inflammatory cytokines as well as lipids and metabolic stress pathways can activate metaflammation, which targets metabolically critical organs and tissues including adipocytes and macrophages to adversely affect systemic homeostasis. On the other hand, inside the cell, fatty acid-binding proteins (FABPs, a family of lipid chaperones, as well as endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress, and reactive oxygen species derived from mitochondria play significant roles in promotion of metabolically triggered inflammation. Here, we discuss the molecular and cellular basis of the roles of FABPs, especially FABP4 and FABP5, in metaflammation and related diseases including obesity, diabetes, and atherosclerosis.

  13. MicroRNAs in Metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vienberg, Sara; Geiger, Julian; Madsen, Søren;

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have within the past decade emerged as key regulators of metabolic homeostasis. Major tissues in intermediary metabolism important during development of the metabolic syndrome, such as β-cells, liver, skeletal and heart muscle as well as adipose tissue have all been shown...... roles in cholesterol and lipid metabolism, whereas miR-103 and -107 regulates hepatic insulin sensitivity. In muscle tissue a defined number of miRNAs (miR-1, miR-133, mir-206) control myofiber type switch and induce myogenic differentiation programs. Similarly, in adipose tissue a defined number of mi......RNAs control white to brown adipocyte conversion or differention (miR-365, miR-133, miR-455). The discovery of circulating miRNAs in exosomes emphasizes their importance as both endocrine signaling molecules and potentially disease markers. Their dysregulation in metabolic diseases, such as obesity, type 2...

  14. Ethnic Considerations for Metabolic Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, John Magaña

    2016-06-01

    Obesity and diabetes represent twin health concerns in the developed world. Metabolic surgery has emerged as an established and enduring treatment for both obesity and diabetes. As the burden of obesity and diabetes varies upon the basis of ethnicity, it is also apparent that there may be differences for indications and outcomes for different ethnic groups after metabolic surgery. Whereas there appears to be evidence for variation in weight loss and complications for different ethnic groups, comorbidity remission particularly for diabetes appears to be free of ethnic disparity after metabolic surgery. The impacts of access, biology, culture, genetics, procedure, and socioeconomic status upon metabolic surgery outcomes are examined. Further refinement of the influence of ethnicity upon metabolic surgery outcomes is likely imminent. PMID:27222553

  15. Metabolic exchanges within tumor microenvironment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiarugi, Paola; Cirri, Paolo

    2016-09-28

    Tumor progression toward malignancy often requires a metabolic rewiring of cancer cells to meet changes in metabolic demand to forefront nutrient and oxygen withdrawal, together with strong anabolic requests to match high proliferation rate. Tumor microenvironment highly contributes to metabolic rewiring of cancer cells, fostering complete nutrient exploitation, favoring OXPHOS of lipids and glutamine at the expense of glycolysis and enhancing exchanges via extracellular microvesicles or exosomes of proteins, lipids and small RNAs among tumor and stromal cells. Noteworthy, the same molecular drivers of metabolic reprogramming within tumor and stroma are also able to elicit motility, survival and self-renewal on cancer cells, thereby sustaining successful escaping strategies to circumvent the hostile hypoxic, acidic and inflammatory environment. This review highlights the emerging role of nutrients and vesicle-mediated exchanges among tumor and stromal cells, defining their molecular pathways and offering new perspectives to develop treatments targeting this complex metabolic rewiring. PMID:26546872

  16. Retinoid Metabolism and Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun-Jung Rhee

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Retinoid acid is a metabolite of vitamin A and functions as an important factor in cell survival, differentiation and death. Most previous studies on retinoid metabolism have focused on its association with cancer, hematologic and dermatologic disorders. Given the special concern over the recent increase in the prevalence of diabetes worldwide, the role of retinoid metabolism on glucose metabolism and insulin resistance in the human body is of marked importance. Therefore, in this issue, we review the literature on the association of retinoid metabolism with glucose tolerance, with regard to insulin secretion, pancreatic autoimmunity, insulin sensitivity and lipid metabolism. Further, we tried to assess the possibility of using retinoids as a novel therapeutic strategy for diabetes.

  17. Fetal Programming and Metabolic Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaudo, Paolo; Wang, Erica

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome is reaching epidemic proportions, particularly in developing countries. In this review, we explore the concept—based on the developmental-origin-of-health-and-disease hypothesis—that reprogramming during critical times of fetal life can lead to metabolic syndrome in adulthood. Specifically, we summarize the epidemiological evidence linking prenatal stress, manifested by low birth weight, to metabolic syndrome and its individual components. We also review animal studies that suggest potential mechanisms for the long-term effects of fetal reprogramming, including the cellular response to stress and both organ- and hormone-specific alterations induced by stress. Although metabolic syndrome in adulthood is undoubtedly caused by multiple factors, including modifiable behavior, fetal life may provide a critical window in which individuals are predisposed to metabolic syndrome later in life. PMID:21910625

  18. Metabolic reprogramming during neuronal differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostini, M; Romeo, F; Inoue, S; Niklison-Chirou, M V; Elia, A J; Dinsdale, D; Morone, N; Knight, R A; Mak, T W; Melino, G

    2016-09-01

    Newly generated neurons pass through a series of well-defined developmental stages, which allow them to integrate into existing neuronal circuits. After exit from the cell cycle, postmitotic neurons undergo neuronal migration, axonal elongation, axon pruning, dendrite morphogenesis and synaptic maturation and plasticity. Lack of a global metabolic analysis during early cortical neuronal development led us to explore the role of cellular metabolism and mitochondrial biology during ex vivo differentiation of primary cortical neurons. Unexpectedly, we observed a huge increase in mitochondrial biogenesis. Changes in mitochondrial mass, morphology and function were correlated with the upregulation of the master regulators of mitochondrial biogenesis, TFAM and PGC-1α. Concomitant with mitochondrial biogenesis, we observed an increase in glucose metabolism during neuronal differentiation, which was linked to an increase in glucose uptake and enhanced GLUT3 mRNA expression and platelet isoform of phosphofructokinase 1 (PFKp) protein expression. In addition, glutamate-glutamine metabolism was also increased during the differentiation of cortical neurons. We identified PI3K-Akt-mTOR signalling as a critical regulator role of energy metabolism in neurons. Selective pharmacological inhibition of these metabolic pathways indicate existence of metabolic checkpoint that need to be satisfied in order to allow neuronal differentiation. PMID:27058317

  19. Metabolic syndrome and eye diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poh, Stanley; Mohamed Abdul, Riswana Banu Binte; Lamoureux, Ecosse L; Wong, Tien Y; Sabanayagam, Charumathi

    2016-03-01

    Metabolic syndrome is becoming a worldwide medical and public health challenge as it has been seen increasing in prevalence over the years. Age-related eye diseases, the leading cause of blindness globally and visual impairment in developed countries, are also on the rise due to aging of the population. Many of the individual components of the metabolic syndrome have been shown to be associated with these eye diseases. However, the association of metabolic syndrome with eye diseases is not clear. In this review, we reviewed the evidence for associations between metabolic syndrome and certain ocular diseases in populations. We also reviewed the association of individual metabolic syndrome components with ocular diseases due to a paucity of research in this area. Besides, we also summarised the current understanding of etiological mechanisms of how metabolic syndrome or the individual components lead to these ocular diseases. With increasing evidence of such associations, it may be important to identify patients who are at risk of developing metabolic syndrome as prompt treatment and intervention may potentially decrease the risk of developing certain ocular diseases.

  20. Xenobiotic Metabolism and Gut Microbiomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Anubhav; Srinivasan, Meenakshi; Ghosh, Tarini Shankar; Mande, Sharmila S.

    2016-01-01

    Humans are exposed to numerous xenobiotics, a majority of which are in the form of pharmaceuticals. Apart from human enzymes, recent studies have indicated the role of the gut bacterial community (microbiome) in metabolizing xenobiotics. However, little is known about the contribution of the plethora of gut microbiome in xenobiotic metabolism. The present study reports the results of analyses on xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes in various human gut microbiomes. A total of 397 available gut metagenomes from individuals of varying age groups from 8 nationalities were analyzed. Based on the diversities and abundances of the xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes, various bacterial taxa were classified into three groups, namely, least versatile, intermediately versatile and highly versatile xenobiotic metabolizers. Most interestingly, specific relationships were observed between the overall drug consumption profile and the abundance and diversity of the xenobiotic metabolizing repertoire in various geographies. The obtained differential abundance patterns of xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes and bacterial genera harboring them, suggest their links to pharmacokinetic variations among individuals. Additional analyses of a few well studied classes of drug modifying enzymes (DMEs) also indicate geographic as well as age specific trends. PMID:27695034

  1. Martial Arts and Metabolic Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidetaka Hamasaki

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Different forms of martial arts are practiced worldwide, each with various intensities of physical activity. These disciplines are potentially an effective exercise therapy for metabolic diseases. Tai chi is the most well-studied style of martial arts and has shown evidence of its effect on metabolic diseases; however, little evidence is available regarding the association between other styles of martial arts and metabolic health. To summarize and evaluate the effects of martial arts on metabolic diseases, eligible articles were searched by using Pubmed. To date, systematic reviews provide no definite conclusion on the effectiveness of tai chi for treating metabolic diseases because of a small numbers of subjects, short durations of clinical trials, and some biases involved in testing. However, there are several clinical studies on subjects with metabolic diseases, which show that tai chi improves obesity, glycemic control, blood pressure control, and lipid profiles. Currently, some limited evidence suggests that other martial arts, such as kung fu and karate, may be beneficial for body composition, glycemic control, and arterial stiffness. To clarify the effectiveness of martial arts for treating metabolic diseases, well-designed prospective studies, preferably with a larger number of subjects and of longer duration, are warranted.

  2. [Regulation of terpene metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croteau, R.

    1991-01-01

    During the last grant period, we have completed studies on the key pathways of monoterpene biosynthesis and catabolism in sage and peppermint, and have, by several lines of evidence, deciphered the rate-limiting step of each pathway. We have at least partially purified and characterized the relevant enzymes of each pathway. We have made a strong case, based on analytical, in vivo, and in vitro studies, that terpene accumulation depends upon the balance between biosynthesis and catabolism, and provided supporting evidence that these processes are developmentally-regulated and very closely associated with senescence of the oil glands. Oil gland ontogeny has been characterized at the ultrastructural level. We have exploited foliar-applied bioregulators to delay gland senescence, and have developed tissue explant and cell culture systems to study several elusive aspects of catabolism. We have isolated pure gland cell clusters and localized monoterpene biosynthesis and catabolism within these structures, and have used these preparations as starting materials for the purification to homogeneity of target regulatory'' enzymes. We have thus developed the necessary background knowledge, based on a firm understanding of enzymology, as well as the necessary experimental tools for studying the regulation of monoterpene metabolism at the molecular level. Furthermore, we are now in a position to extend our systematic approach to other terpenoid classes (C[sub 15]-C[sub 30]) produced by oil glands.

  3. Carbohydrate metabolism in catfish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiolabeled (U- 14C)-glucose was incorporated in diets and forced-fed to channel catfish and was observed for a 24 hour period. About 95% of fed labeled (U-14C)-glucose was absorbed by catfish, showing a high digestibility of glucose. The amounts of 14C excreted over 24 h as carbon dioxide were 49% and amounts excreted in urine were 3.5%. The amount retained as protein, fat glycogen and other organic compounds were 8.2, 1.2, 6.5 and 32.1 % respectively, for the 24 hour period. The blood concentration of 14 C reached a maximum 2.5 hour after feeding (U-14C)-glucose, then gradually decreased. Based on tissue concentrations of 14C, glycogen was an immediate storage site for absorbed glucose, but 14C- glycogen in liver decreased rapidly. Glucose was quickly and heavily converted into triglyceride, indicating that fat is an important intermediate in the metabolism of glucose in channel catfish. 14C-fat in the serum and liver were transferred to the adipose tissue in the muscle and mesentery about 10 hours after feeding. (Author)

  4. Equine metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, R; Keen, J; McGowan, C

    2015-08-15

    Laminitis is one of the most common and frustrating clinical presentations in equine practice. While the principles of treatment for laminitis have not changed for several decades, there have been some important paradigm shifts in our understanding of laminitis. Most importantly, it is essential to consider laminitis as a clinical sign of disease and not as a disease in its own right. Once this shift in thinking has occurred, it is logical to then question what disease caused the laminitis. More than 90 per cent of horses presented with laminitis as their primary clinical sign will have developed it as a consequence of endocrine disease; most commonly equine metabolic syndrome (EMS). Given the fact that many horses will have painful protracted and/or chronic recurrent disease, a good understanding of the predisposing factors and how to diagnose and manage them is crucial. Current evidence suggests that early diagnosis and effective management of EMS should be a key aim for practising veterinary surgeons to prevent the devastating consequences of laminitis. This review will focus on EMS, its diagnosis and management. PMID:26273009

  5. 'Sarcobesity': a metabolic conundrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parr, Evelyn B; Coffey, Vernon G; Hawley, John A

    2013-02-01

    Two independent but inter-related conditions that have a growing impact on healthy life expectancy and health care costs in developed nations are an age-related loss of muscle mass (i.e., sarcopenia) and obesity. Sarcopenia is commonly exacerbated in overweight and obese individuals. Progression towards obesity promotes an increase in fat mass and a concomitant decrease in muscle mass, producing an unfavourable ratio of fat to muscle. The coexistence of diminished muscle mass and increased fat mass (so-called 'sarcobesity') is ultimately manifested by impaired mobility and/or development of life-style-related diseases. Accordingly, the critical health issue for a large proportion of adults in developed nations is how to lose fat mass while preserving muscle mass. Lifestyle interventions to prevent or treat sarcobesity include energy-restricted diets and exercise. The optimal energy deficit to reduce body mass is controversial. While energy restriction in isolation is an effective short-term strategy for rapid and substantial weight loss, it results in a reduction of both fat and muscle mass and therefore ultimately predisposes one to an unfavourable body composition. Aerobic exercise promotes beneficial changes in whole-body metabolism and reduces fat mass, while resistance exercise preserves lean (muscle) mass. Current evidence strongly supports the inclusion of resistance and aerobic exercise to complement mild energy-restricted high-protein diets for healthy weight loss as a primary intervention for sarcobesity. PMID:23201324

  6. Regulation of sphingomyelin metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bienias, Kamil; Fiedorowicz, Anna; Sadowska, Anna; Prokopiuk, Sławomir; Car, Halina

    2016-06-01

    Sphingolipids (SFs) represent a large class of lipids playing diverse functions in a vast number of physiological and pathological processes. Sphingomyelin (SM) is the most abundant SF in the cell, with ubiquitous distribution within mammalian tissues, and particularly high levels in the Central Nervous System (CNS). SM is an essential element of plasma membrane (PM) and its levels are crucial for the cell function. SM content in a cell is strictly regulated by the enzymes of SM metabolic pathways, which activities create a balance between SM synthesis and degradation. The de novo synthesis via SM synthases (SMSs) in the last step of the multi-stage process is the most important pathway of SM formation in a cell. The SM hydrolysis by sphingomyelinases (SMases) increases the concentration of ceramide (Cer), a bioactive molecule, which is involved in cellular proliferation, growth and apoptosis. By controlling the levels of SM and Cer, SMSs and SMases maintain cellular homeostasis. Enzymes of SM cycle exhibit unique properties and diverse tissue distribution. Disturbances in their activities were observed in many CNS pathologies. This review characterizes the physiological roles of SM and enzymes controlling SM levels as well as their involvement in selected pathologies of the Central Nervous System, such as ischemia/hypoxia, Alzheimer disease (AD), Parkinson disease (PD), depression, schizophrenia and Niemann Pick disease (NPD). PMID:26940196

  7. Metabolic inflexibility: when mitochondrial indecision leads to metabolic gridlock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muoio, Deborah M

    2014-12-01

    Normal energy metabolism is characterized by periodic shifts in glucose and fat oxidation, as the mitochondrial machinery responsible for carbon combustion switches freely between alternative fuels according to physiological and nutritional circumstances. These transitions in fuel choice are orchestrated by an intricate network of metabolic and cell signaling events that enable exquisite crosstalk and cooperation between competing substrates to maintain energy and glucose homeostasis. By contrast, obesity-related cardiometabolic diseases are increasingly recognized as disorders of metabolic inflexibility, in which nutrient overload and heightened substrate competition result in mitochondrial indecision, impaired fuel switching, and energy dysregulation. This Perspective offers a speculative view on the molecular origins and pathophysiological consequences of metabolic inflexibility. PMID:25480291

  8. Metabolic Inflexibility: When Mitochondrial Indecision Leads to Metabolic Gridlock

    OpenAIRE

    Muoio, Deborah M.

    2014-01-01

    Normal energy metabolism is characterized by periodic shifts in glucose and fat oxidation, as the mitochondrial machinery responsible for carbon combustion switches freely between alternative fuels according to physiological and nutritional circumstances. These transitions in fuel choice are orchestrated by an intricate network of metabolic and cell signaling events that enable exquisite crosstalk and cooperation between competing substrates to maintain energy and glucose homeostasis. By cont...

  9. A randomized,controlled study of lithium carbonate monotheraPy or combined ariPiPrazole theraPy in Patients with biPolar disorder tyPe I manic ePisode%碳酸锂单用与合并阿立哌唑治疗双相障碍I型躁狂发作患者的随机对照研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋振华; 粟幼嵩; 王勇; 黄佳; 季曹珺; 吴彦; 王祖承

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨碳酸锂单用及合并阿立哌唑治疗双相障碍 I 型躁狂发作患者的疗效和安全性。方法:86例门诊双相障碍 I 型躁狂发作患者被随机分为联合组(碳酸锂+阿立哌唑治疗)和单药组(碳酸锂单药治疗),疗程8周。分别在治疗前、治疗2、4、8周进行杨氏躁狂量表(YMRS)和汉密顿抑郁量表(HAMD)-17项评定,采用治疗中出现的症状量表( TESS)评定不良反应。结果:治疗前两组YMRS 评分差异无统计学意义;治疗2、4、8周后联合组 YMRS 减分值明显高于对照组(P ﹤0.05或 P ﹤0.01);治疗前后两组 HAMD 均﹤7分;两组 TESS 评分差异无统计学意义。结论:碳酸锂联合阿立哌唑治疗双相障碍 I 型躁狂发作较单用碳酸锂起效快,症状改善更明显,且未见不良反应明显增加。%To investigate the clinical efficacy and safety of lithium carbonate monotherapy or combined aripiprazole therapy in patients with bipolar disorder type I manic episode. Method:Eighty-six out-patients with bipolar disorder type I manic episode were randomly divided into combining therapy group( trea-ted with lithium carbonate + aripiprazole)and monotherapy guoup(treated with lithium carbonate only),the course was 8 weeks. The patients were assessed by Young′s manic scale(YMRS)and Hamilton depression scale items(HAMD)-17 before treatment and 2,4,8 weeks after treatment. The adverse reaction was evaluated by treatment emergent symptoms scale(TESS). Results:Before treatment,the score of YMRS between the two groups was not significantly different. At 2,4,8 weeks after treatment the subtraction scores of YMRS in the combining therapy group were more obvious than the monotherapy guoup(P ﹤ 0. 05 or P ﹤ 0. 01). The scores of HAMD at each time point in the both groups were ﹤ 7. The score of TESS between the two groups was not signifi-cantly different. Conclusion:Compared lithium carbonate monotherapy

  10. Redesigned Human Metabolic Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffield, Bruce; Jeng, Frank; Lange, Kevin

    2008-01-01

    A design has been formulated for a proposed improved version of an apparatus that simulates atmospheric effects of human respiration by introducing controlled amounts of carbon dioxide, water vapor, and heat into the air. Denoted a human metabolic simulator (HMS), the apparatus is used for testing life-support equipment when human test subjects are not available. The prior version of the HMS, to be replaced, was designed to simulate the respiratory effects of as many as four persons. It exploits the catalytic combustion of methyl acetate, for which the respiratory quotient (the molar ratio of carbon dioxide produced to oxygen consumed) is very close to the human respiratory quotient of about 0.86. The design of the improved HMS provides for simulation of the respiratory effects of as many as eight persons at various levels of activity. The design would also increase safety by eliminating the use of combustion. The improved HMS (see figure) would include a computer that would exert overall control. The computer would calculate the required amounts of oxygen removal, carbon dioxide addition, water addition, and heat addition by use of empirical equations for metabolic profiles of respiration and heat. A blower would circulate air between the HMS and a chamber containing a life-support system to be tested. With the help of feedback from a mass flowmeter, the blower speed would be adjusted to regulate the rate of flow according to the number of persons to be simulated and to a temperature-regulation requirement (the air temperature would indirectly depend on the rate of flow, among other parameters). Oxygen would be removed from the circulating air by means of a commercially available molecular sieve configured as an oxygen concentrator. Oxygen, argon, and trace amounts of nitrogen would pass through a bed in the molecular sieve while carbon dioxide, the majority of nitrogen, and other trace gases would be trapped by the bed and subsequently returned to the chamber. If

  11. [Metabolic intolerance to exercise].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arenas, J; Martín, M A

    2003-01-01

    Exercise intolerance (EI) is a frequent cause of medical attention, although it is sometimes difficult to come to a final diagnosis. However, there is a group of patients in whom EI is due to a metabolic dysfunction. McArdle's disease (type V glucogenosis) is due to myophosphorylase (MPL) deficiency. The ischemic exercise test shows a flat lactate curve. The most frequent mutations in the PYGM gene (MPL gene) in Spanish patients with MPL deficiency are R49X and W797R. Carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT) II deficiency is invariably associated to repetitive episodes of myoglobinuria triggered by exercise, cold, fever or fasting. The diagnosis depends on the demonstration of CPT II deficiency in muscle. The most frequent mutation in the CPT2 gene is the S113L. Patients with muscle adenylate deaminase deficiency usually show either a mild myopathy or no symptom. The diagnosis is based on the absence of enzyme activity in muscle and the lack of rise of ammonia in the forearm ischemic exercise test. The mutation Q12X in the AMPD1 gene is strongly associated with the disease. Exercise intolerance is a common complaint in patients with mitochondrial respiratory chain (MRC) deficiencies, although it is often overshadowed by other symptoms and signs. Only recently we have come to appreciate that exercise intolerance can be the sole presentation of defects in the mtDNA, particularly in complex I, complex III, complex IV, or in some tRNAs. In addition, myoglobinuria can be observed in patients under statin treatment, particularly if associated with fibrates, due to an alteration in the assembly of the complex IV of the MRC. PMID:12838448

  12. Glycogen metabolism in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeva-Andany, María M; González-Lucán, Manuel; Donapetry-García, Cristóbal; Fernández-Fernández, Carlos; Ameneiros-Rodríguez, Eva

    2016-06-01

    In the human body, glycogen is a branched polymer of glucose stored mainly in the liver and the skeletal muscle that supplies glucose to the blood stream during fasting periods and to the muscle cells during muscle contraction. Glycogen has been identified in other tissues such as brain, heart, kidney, adipose tissue, and erythrocytes, but glycogen function in these tissues is mostly unknown. Glycogen synthesis requires a series of reactions that include glucose entrance into the cell through transporters, phosphorylation of glucose to glucose 6-phosphate, isomerization to glucose 1-phosphate, and formation of uridine 5'-diphosphate-glucose, which is the direct glucose donor for glycogen synthesis. Glycogenin catalyzes the formation of a short glucose polymer that is extended by the action of glycogen synthase. Glycogen branching enzyme introduces branch points in the glycogen particle at even intervals. Laforin and malin are proteins involved in glycogen assembly but their specific function remains elusive in humans. Glycogen is accumulated in the liver primarily during the postprandial period and in the skeletal muscle predominantly after exercise. In the cytosol, glycogen breakdown or glycogenolysis is carried out by two enzymes, glycogen phosphorylase which releases glucose 1-phosphate from the linear chains of glycogen, and glycogen debranching enzyme which untangles the branch points. In the lysosomes, glycogen degradation is catalyzed by α-glucosidase. The glucose 6-phosphatase system catalyzes the dephosphorylation of glucose 6-phosphate to glucose, a necessary step for free glucose to leave the cell. Mutations in the genes encoding the enzymes involved in glycogen metabolism cause glycogen storage diseases. PMID:27051594

  13. Testosterone and metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenn R Cunningham

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Controversies surround the usefulness of identifying patients with the metabolic syndrome (MetS. Many of the components are accepted risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD. Although the MetS as defined includes many men with insulin resistance, insulin resistance is not universal. The low total testosterone (TT and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG levels in these men are best explained by the hyperinsulinism and increased inflammatory cytokines that accompany obesity and increased waist circumference. It is informative that low SHBG levels predict future development of the MetS. Evidence is strong relating low TT levels to CVD in men with and without the MetS; however, the relationship may not be causal. The recommendations of the International Diabetes Federation for managing the MetS include cardiovascular risk assessment, lifestyle changes in diet, exercise, weight reduction and treatment of individual components of the MetS. Unfortunately, it is uncommon to see patients with the MetS lose and maintain a 10% weight loss. Recent reports showing testosterone treatment induced dramatic changes in weight, waist circumference, insulin sensitivity, hemoglobin A1c levels and improvements in each of the components of the MetS are intriguing. While some observational studies have reported that testosterone replacement therapy increases cardiovascular events, the Food and Drug Administration in the United States has reviewed these reports and found them to be seriously flawed. Large, randomized, placebo-controlled trials are needed to provide more definitive data regarding the efficacy and safety of this treatment in middle and older men with the MetS and low TT levels.

  14. Metabolic Syndrome in Nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Escasany

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To estimate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS in female nurses in the Hospital Juan A. Fernandez (HJAF, Buenos Aires, Argentina, and to determine whether work, rest, diet, and health, are predictive of it.Materials and methods: For the first objective, a descriptive, observational and cross-sectional study was conducted, and for the second, a multivariate cross-sectional observational multivariate analysis was made comparing independent samples. A total of 192 nurses were studied between October 2008 and March 2009. They completed a questionnaire that include indicators that could be predictors of MS. Anthropometric measurements, including blood pressure were taken, was well as a blood sample to analyze fasting glucose, HDL-C and plasma triglycerides.Results: It was found that 35% and 41% of nurses were overweight and obese, respectively. A total of 92% had centro-abdominal obesity. The prevalence of MS found was 33.3% (95%CI, 26.7 to 40.5. Those who had this disease were between 53±9 years. Statistically significant differences were found in the bivariate analysis between MS and the variables, age, length of service, time worked during night shift, and academic studies.Conclusions: The prevalence of MS was 64/192 in HJAF nurses (33.3% I 95%CI, 26.7-40.5. There were no statistically significant differences with the indicators of, age, “time worked during night shift”, and “studies”. These results suggest that age is the most important variable in predicting the onset of MS in the population of nurses.

  15. Metabolism and biochemistry in hypogravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, Carolyn S.

    1991-01-01

    The headward shift of body fluid and increase in stress-related hormones that occur in hypogravity bring about a number of changes in metabolism and biochemistry of the human body. Such alterations may have important effects on health during flight and during a recovery period after return to earth. Body fluid and electrolytes are lost, and blood levels of several hormones that control metabolism are altered during space flight. Increased serum calcium may lead to an increased risk of renal stone formation during flight, and altered drug metabolism could influence the efficacy of therapeutic agents. Orthostatic intolerance and an increased risk of fracturing weakened bones are concerns at landing. It is important to understand biochemistry and metabolism in hypogravity so that clinically important developments can be anticipated and prevented or ameliorated.

  16. Complex systems in metabolic engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, James D; Erickson, Keesha; Choudhury, Alaksh; Halweg-Edwards, Andrea L; Gill, Ryan T

    2015-12-01

    Metabolic engineers manipulate intricate biological networks to build efficient biological machines. The inherent complexity of this task, derived from the extensive and often unknown interconnectivity between and within these networks, often prevents researchers from achieving desired performance. Other fields have developed methods to tackle the issue of complexity for their unique subset of engineering problems, but to date, there has not been extensive and comprehensive examination of how metabolic engineers use existing tools to ameliorate this effect on their own research projects. In this review, we examine how complexity affects engineering at the protein, pathway, and genome levels within an organism, and the tools for handling these issues to achieve high-performing strain designs. Quantitative complexity metrics and their applications to metabolic engineering versus traditional engineering fields are also discussed. We conclude by predicting how metabolic engineering practices may advance in light of an explicit consideration of design complexity. PMID:26319897

  17. Metabolic Resistance in Bed Bugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omprakash Mittapalli

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Blood-feeding insects have evolved resistance to various insecticides (organochlorines, pyrethroids, carbamates, etc. through gene mutations and increased metabolism. Bed bugs (Cimex lectularius are hematophagous ectoparasites that are poised to become one of the major pests in households throughout the United States. Currently, C. lectularius has attained a high global impact status due to its sudden and rampant resurgence. Resistance to pesticides is one factor implicated in this phenomenon. Although much emphasis has been placed on target sensitivity, little to no knowledge is available on the role of key metabolic players (e.g., cytochrome P450s and glutathione S-transferases towards pesticide resistance in C. lectularius. In this review, we discuss different modes of resistance (target sensitivity, penetration resistance, behavioral resistance, and metabolic resistance with more emphasis on metabolic resistance.

  18. Adipose Tissue Metabolism During Hypobaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. P. Chattopadhyay

    1974-10-01

    Full Text Available Possible factors affecting the metabolism of adipose tissue under hypobaric conditions have been reviewed. The hormonal changes brought into play under hypoxic stress generally stress generally increase the adipose tissue lipolysis.

  19. Context-dependent metabolic networks

    CERN Document Server

    Beguerisse-Díaz, Mariano; Oyarzún, Diego; Picó, Jesús; Barahona, Mauricio

    2016-01-01

    Cells adapt their metabolism to survive changes in their environment. We present a framework for the construction and analysis of metabolic reaction networks that can be tailored to reflect different environmental conditions. Using context-dependent flux distributions from Flux Balance Analysis (FBA), we produce directed networks with weighted links representing the amount of metabolite flowing from a source reaction to a target reaction per unit time. Such networks are analyzed with tools from network theory to reveal salient features of metabolite flows in each biological context. We illustrate our approach with the directed network of the central carbon metabolism of Escherichia coli, and study its properties in four relevant biological scenarios. Our results show that both flow and network structure depend drastically on the environment: networks produced from the same metabolic model in different contexts have different edges, components, and flow communities, capturing the biological re-routing of metab...

  20. Gut Microbiota and Metabolic Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Kyu Yeon Hur; Myung-Shik Lee

    2015-01-01

    Gut microbiota plays critical physiological roles in the energy extraction and in the control of local or systemic immunity. Gut microbiota and its disturbance also appear to be involved in the pathogenesis of diverse diseases including metabolic disorders, gastrointestinal diseases, cancer, etc. In the metabolic point of view, gut microbiota can modulate lipid accumulation, lipopolysaccharide content and the production of short-chain fatty acids that affect food intake, inflammatory tone, or...

  1. Metabolic syndrome in androgenic alopecia

    OpenAIRE

    Hima Gopinath; Gatha M Upadya

    2016-01-01

    Background: Androgenic alopecia has been associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease in various studies. The relationship between androgenic alopecia and metabolic syndrome, a known risk factor for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, is still poorly understood. Aim: To study the association between metabolic syndrome and early-onset androgenic alopecia. Methods: A hospital-based analytical cross-sectional study was done on men in the age group of 18–55 years. Eighty five c...

  2. Intermediary metabolism of the lung.

    OpenAIRE

    Fisher, A B

    1984-01-01

    The lung is a metabolically active organ that is engaged in secretion, clearance and other maintenance functions that require reducing potential, energy and substrates for biosynthesis. These metabolic requirements are met in part through uptake and catabolism of glucose which represents the major fuel utilized by lung tissues. Gluconeogenesis does not occur, and glycogen stores are limited so that the lung depends on the circulation for its glucose requirement. Other substrates can be metabo...

  3. Phase II metabolism of benzene.

    OpenAIRE

    Schrenk, D.; Orzechowski, A.; Schwarz, L R; Snyder, R.; Burchell, B; Ingelman-Sundberg, M; K. W. DE BOCK

    1996-01-01

    The hepatic metabolism of benzene is thought to be a prerequisite for its bony marrow toxicity. However, the complete pattern of benzene metabolites formed in the liver and their role in bone marrow toxicity are not fully understood. Therefore, benzene metabolism was studied in isolated rodent hepatocytes. Rat hepatocytes released benzene-1,2-dihydrodiol, hydroquinone (HQ), catechol (CT), phenol (PH), trans-trans-muconic acid, and a number of phase II metabolites such as PH sulfate and PH glu...

  4. Tailoring the metabolism against mutations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulbahce, Natali; Motter, Adilson E.; Almaas, Eivind; Barabasi, Albert Laszlo

    2008-03-01

    In the post-genomic era, organisms can be modelled at the whole-cell level in silico via steady state methods to describe their metabolic capabilities. We use two such methods, Flux Balance Analysis and Minimization of Metabolic Adjustment to explore the behavior of cells (of E. coli and S. cerevisiae) after severe mutations. We propose experimentally feasible ways of modifying the underlying biochemical reaction network of a mutant cell such that cell functionality, in particular growth rate, is significantly improved.

  5. Oxygen Regulates Tissue Nitrite Metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Curtis, Erin; Hsu, Lewis L.; Noguchi, Audrey C.; Geary, Lisa; Shiva, Sruti

    2012-01-01

    Aims: Once dismissed as an inert byproduct of nitric oxide (NO) auto-oxidation, nitrite (NO2-) is now accepted as an endocrine reservoir of NO that elicits biological responses in major organs. While it is known that tissue nitrite is derived from NO oxidation and the diet, little is known about how nitrite is metabolized by tissue, particularly at intermediate oxygen tensions. We investigated the rates and mechanisms of tissue nitrite metabolism over a range of oxygen concentrations. Results...

  6. Mitochondria in Cancer Energy Metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Aekyong

    2015-01-01

    Cancer is a disease characterized by uncontrolled growth. Metabolic demands to sustain rapid proliferation must be compelling since aerobic glycolysis is the first as well as the most commonly shared characteristic of cancer. During the last decade, the significance of metabolic reprogramming of cancer has been at the center of attention. Nonetheless, despite all the knowledge gained on cancer biology, the field is not able to reach agreement on the issue of mitochondria: Are damaged mitochon...

  7. [Metabolic therapy for heart failure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loiacono, Ferdinando; Alberti, Luca; Lauretta, Ludovica; Puccetti, Patrizia; Silipigni, Carmen; Margonato, Alberto; Fragasso, Gabriele

    2014-01-01

    Heart failure may promote metabolic changes such as insulin resistance, in part through neurohumoral activation, and determining an increased utilization of non-carbohydrate substrates for energy production. In fact, fasting blood ketone bodies as well as fat oxidation have been shown to be increased in patients with heart failure. The result is depletion of myocardial ATP, phosphocreatine and creatine kinase with decreased efficiency of mechanical work. A direct approach to manipulate cardiac energy metabolism consists in modifying substrate utilization by the failing heart. To date, the most effective metabolic treatments include several pharmacological agents that directly inhibit fatty acid oxidation. The results of current research are supporting the concept that shifting the energy substrate preference away from fatty acid metabolism and toward glucose metabolism could be an effective adjunctive treatment in patients with heart failure. Trimetazidine is the most studied drug in this context. Several small studies have evidenced the usefulness of such additional therapeutic tools for heart failure. More specifically, recent meta-analyses and a multicenter retrospective study have shown that additional use of trimetazidine in patients with heart failure, along with symptoms and cardiac function improvement, also provides a significant protective effect on all-cause mortality, cardiovascular events and hospitalization due to cardiac causes. Nevertheless, the exact role of metabolic therapy in heart failure is yet to be established, and a large multicenter randomized trial is necessary. PMID:25072544

  8. Metabolic syndrome, inflammation and atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Paoletti

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Rodolfo Paoletti1,2, Chiara Bolego1, Andrea Poli2, Andrea Cignarella1,31Department of Pharmacological Sciences, University of Milan, Italy; 2Nutrition Foundation of Italy (NFI, Milan; 3Department of Pharmacology and Anesthesiology, University of Padova, ItalyAbstract: The inflammatory component of atherogenesis has been increasingly recognized over the last decade. Inflammation participates in all stages of atherosclerosis, not only during initiation and during evolution of lesions, but also with precipitation of acute thrombotic complications. The metabolic syndrome is associated with increased risk for development of both cardiovascular disease and type-2 diabetes in humans. Central obesity and insulin resistance are thought to represent common underlying factors of the syndrome, which features a chronic low-grade inflammatory state. Diagnosis of the metabolic syndrome occurs using defined threshold values for waist circumference, blood pressure, fasting glucose and dyslipidemia. The metabolic syndrome appears to affect a significant proportion of the population. Therapeutic approaches that reduce the levels of proinflammatory biomarkers and address traditional risk factors are particularly important in preventing cardiovascular disease and, potentially, diabetes. The primary management of metabolic syndrome involves healthy lifestyle promotion through moderate calorie restriction, moderate increase in physical activity and change in dietary composition. Treatment of individual components aims to control atherogenic dyslipidemia using fibrates and statins, elevated blood pressure, and hyperglycemia. While no single treatment for the metabolic syndrome as a whole yet exists, emerging therapies offer potential as future therapeutic approaches.Keywords: metabolic syndrome, systemic inflammation, coronary artery disease

  9. Metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah M Alshehri

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The constellation of dyslipidemia (hypertriglyceridemia and low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, elevated blood pressure, impaired glucose tolerance, and central obesity is now classified as metabolic syndrome, also called syndrome X. In the past few years, several expert groups have attempted to set forth simple diagnostic criteria for use in clinical practice to identify patients who manifest the multiple components of the metabolic syndrome. These criteria have varied somewhat in specific elements, but in general, they include a combination of multiple and metabolic risk factors. The most widely recognized of the metabolic risk factors are atherogenic dyslipidemia, elevated blood pressure, and elevated plasma glucose. Individuals with these characteristics, commonly manifest a prothrombotic state as well as and a proinflammatory state. Atherogenic dyslipidemia consists of an aggregation of lipoprotein abnormalities including elevated serum triglyceride and apolipoprotein B (apoB, increased small LDL particles, and a reduced level of HDL cholesterol (HDL-C. The metabolic syndrome is often referred to as if it were a discrete entity with a single cause. Available data suggest that it truly is a syndrome, ie, a grouping of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD risk factors, that probably has more than one cause. Regardless of cause, the syndrome identifies individuals at an elevated risk for ASCVD. The magnitude of the increased risk can vary according to the components of the syndrome present as well as the other, non-metabolic syndrome risk factors in a particular person.

  10. Symptoms and Diagnosis of Metabolic Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tools & Resources Stroke More Symptoms and Diagnosis of Metabolic Syndrome Updated:Aug 30,2016 What are the symptoms ... content was last reviewed on 05/14/2014. Metabolic Syndrome • Home • About Metabolic Syndrome • Why Metabolic Syndrome Matters • ...

  11. Clinical effect and influence in cognitive function of aripiprazole and risperidone in patients with schizophrenia%阿立哌唑与利培酮对精神分裂症患者的临床疗效及认知功能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘旭; 程哲; 杨芳; 程传宝

    2013-01-01

    [Objective]To explore the clinical effect and safety of aripiprazole and risperidone in patients with schizophrenia, and the influence in cognitive function of patients. [ Methods] 156 schizophrenia patients were randomly divided into two groups, 78 cases in each group. The research group was treated with aripiprazole orally, and the control group was given risperidone, for 8 weeks. Before treatment and at the end of the 4th and 8th week of treatment, the clinical effect was assessed with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and the Clinical Global Impression ( CGIS) , and the adverse reactions were evaluated with the Treatment Emergent Symptom Scale (TESS). Before treatment and at the end of the 8th week of treatment, the cognitive functions of patients was assessed with the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) , the Wechsler memory scale (WMS) and the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST). The evaluation results of two groups were analyzed and compared. [ Results] At the end of 4th week of treatment, the total and each factors scores of PANSS, as well as CGIS score decreased significantly as compared with those before treatment (P 0.05). At the end of 8th week of treatment, the obvious effective rate and effective rate in the research group was 73.08% and 96.15% respectively, and that in the control group was 71. 79% and 92. 31% respectively, which showed no significantly difference (X2 = 0. 032, 0. 806,P >0.05). At the end of 8th week, the error answers and non-persistent error of WCST of two groups decreased significantly than those before treatment, while factor scores of WMS in the recognition, regeneration, comprehension, memory quotient were significantly higher than those before treatment (P 0.05). Adverse reactions of both groups were mild, and appeared at the beginning of treatment. The incidence rates of extrapyramidal reactions, menstrual disorders, lactation and weight gain in the research group were significantly lower than those in the

  12. Analog regulation of metabolic demand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muskhelishvili Georgi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The 3D structure of the chromosome of the model organism Escherichia coli is one key component of its gene regulatory machinery. This type of regulation mediated by topological transitions of the chromosomal DNA can be thought of as an analog control, complementing the digital control, i.e. the network of regulation mediated by dedicated transcription factors. It is known that alterations in the superhelical density of chromosomal DNA lead to a rich pattern of differential expressed genes. Using a network approach, we analyze these expression changes for wild type E. coli and mutants lacking nucleoid associated proteins (NAPs from a metabolic and transcriptional regulatory network perspective. Results We find a significantly higher correspondence between gene expression and metabolism for the wild type expression changes compared to mutants in NAPs, indicating that supercoiling induces meaningful metabolic adjustments. As soon as the underlying regulatory machinery is impeded (as for the NAP mutants, this coherence between expression changes and the metabolic network is substantially reduced. This effect is even more pronounced, when we compute a wild type metabolic flux distribution using flux balance analysis and restrict our analysis to active reactions. Furthermore, we are able to show that the regulatory control exhibited by DNA supercoiling is not mediated by the transcriptional regulatory network (TRN, as the consistency of the expression changes with the TRN logic of activation and suppression is strongly reduced in the wild type in comparison to the mutants. Conclusions So far, the rich patterns of gene expression changes induced by alterations of the superhelical density of chromosomal DNA have been difficult to interpret. Here we characterize the effective networks formed by supercoiling-induced gene expression changes mapped onto reconstructions of E. coli's metabolic and transcriptional regulatory network. Our

  13. Metabolic syndrome in androgenic alopecia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hima Gopinath

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Androgenic alopecia has been associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease in various studies. The relationship between androgenic alopecia and metabolic syndrome, a known risk factor for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, is still poorly understood. Aim: To study the association between metabolic syndrome and early-onset androgenic alopecia. Methods: A hospital-based analytical cross-sectional study was done on men in the age group of 18–55 years. Eighty five clinically diagnosed cases with early-onset (<35 years androgenic alopecia of Norwood grade III or above, and 85 controls without androgenic alopecia were included. Data collected included anthropometric measurements, arterial blood pressure and history of chronic diseases. Fasting blood and lipid profile were determined. Metabolic syndrome was diagnosed as per the new International Diabetes Federation criteria. Chi-square and Student's t-test were used for statistical analysis using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS version 17.00. Results: Metabolic syndrome was seen in 19 (22.4% patients with androgenic alopecia and 8 (9.4% controls (P = 0.021. Abdominal obesity, hypertension and lowered high-density lipoprotein were significantly higher in patients with androgenic alopecia versus their respective controls. Limitations: The limitations of our study include small sample size in subgroups and the lack of evidence of a temporal relationship between metabolic syndrome and androgenic alopecia. Conclusion: A higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome is seen in men with early-onset androgenic alopecia. Early screening for metabolic syndrome and its components is beneficial in patients with early-onset androgenic alopecia.

  14. Flux-balance modelling of plant metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Lee James Sweetlove; R. George eRatcliffe

    2011-01-01

    Flux-balance modelling of plant metabolic networks provides an important complement to 13C-based metabolic flux analysis. Flux-balance modelling is a constraints-based approach in which steady-state fluxes in a metabolic network are predicted by using optimisation algorithms within an experimentally bounded solution space. In the last two years several flux-balance models of plant metabolism have been published including genome-scale models of Arabidopsis metabolism. In this review we conside...

  15. Mathematical Modeling of Cellular Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berndt, Nikolaus; Holzhütter, Hermann-Georg

    2016-01-01

    Cellular metabolism basically consists of the conversion of chemical compounds taken up from the extracellular environment into energy (conserved in energy-rich bonds of organic phosphates) and a wide array of organic molecules serving as catalysts (enzymes), information carriers (nucleic acids), and building blocks for cellular structures such as membranes or ribosomes. Metabolic modeling aims at the construction of mathematical representations of the cellular metabolism that can be used to calculate the concentration of cellular molecules and the rates of their mutual chemical interconversion in response to varying external conditions as, for example, hormonal stimuli or supply of essential nutrients. Based on such calculations, it is possible to quantify complex cellular functions as cellular growth, detoxification of drugs and xenobiotic compounds or synthesis of exported molecules. Depending on the specific questions to metabolism addressed, the methodological expertise of the researcher, and available experimental information, different conceptual frameworks have been established, allowing the usage of computational methods to condense experimental information from various layers of organization into (self-) consistent models. Here, we briefly outline the main conceptual frameworks that are currently exploited in metabolism research.

  16. Cancer Metabolism: A Modeling Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghaffari, Pouyan; Mardinoglu, Adil; Nielsen, Jens

    2015-01-01

    requires both the advancement of experimental technologies for more comprehensive measurement of omics as well as the advancement of robust computational methods for accurate analysis of the generated data. Here, we review cancer-associated reprogramming of metabolism and highlight the capability of genome...... suggest that utilization of amino acids and lipids contributes significantly to cancer cell metabolism. Also recent progresses in our understanding of carcinogenesis have revealed that cancer is a complex disease and cannot be understood through simple investigation of genetic mutations of cancerous cells....... Cancer cells present in complex tumor tissues communicate with the surrounding microenvironment and develop traits which promote their growth, survival, and metastasis. Decoding the full scope and targeting dysregulated metabolic pathways that support neoplastic transformations and their preservation...

  17. DNA methylation in metabolic disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barres, Romain; Zierath, Juleen R

    2011-01-01

    DNA methylation is a major epigenetic modification that controls gene expression in physiologic and pathologic states. Metabolic diseases such as diabetes and obesity are associated with profound alterations in gene expression that are caused by genetic and environmental factors. Recent reports...... have provided evidence that environmental factors at all ages could modify DNA methylation in somatic tissues, which suggests that DNA methylation is a more dynamic process than previously appreciated. Because of the importance of lifestyle factors in metabolic disorders, DNA methylation provides...... a mechanism by which environmental factors, including diet and exercise, can modify genetic predisposition to disease. This article considers the current evidence that defines a role for DNA methylation in metabolic disorders....

  18. Dynamic Metabolism in Immune Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hommrani, Mazen; Chakraborty, Paramita; Chatterjee, Shilpak; Mehrotra, Shikhar

    2016-01-01

    Cell, the basic unit of life depends for its survival on nutrients and thereby energy to perform its physiological function. Cells of lymphoid and myeloid origin are key in evoking an immune response against “self” or “non-self” antigens. The thymus derived lymphoid cells called T cells are a heterogenous group with distinct phenotypic and molecular signatures that have been shown to respond against an infection (bacterial, viral, protozoan) or cancer. Recent studies have unearthed the key differences in energy metabolism between the various T cell subsets, natural killer cells, dendritic cells, macrophages and myeloid derived suppressor cells. While a number of groups are dwelling into the nuances of the metabolism and its role in immune response at various strata, this review focuses on dynamic state of metabolism that is operational within various cellular compartments that interact to mount an effective immune response to alleviate disease state.

  19. Cellular compartmentalization of secondary metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Corby eKistler

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Fungal secondary metabolism is often considered apart from the essential housekeeping functions of the cell. However, there are clear links between fundamental cellular metabolism and the biochemical pathways leading to secondary metabolite synthesis. Besides utilizing key biochemical precursors shared with the most essential processes of the cell (e.g. amino acids, acetyl CoA, NADPH, enzymes for secondary metabolite synthesis are compartmentalized at conserved subcellular sites that position pathway enzymes to use these common biochemical precursors. Co-compartmentalization of secondary metabolism pathway enzymes also may function to channel precursors, promote pathway efficiency and sequester pathway intermediates and products from the rest of the cell. In this review we discuss the compartmentalization of three well-studied fungal secondary metabolite biosynthetic pathways for penicillin G, aflatoxin and deoxynivalenol, and summarize evidence used to infer subcellular localization. We also discuss how these metabolites potentially are trafficked within the cell and may be exported.

  20. Public goods and metabolic strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, Herwig; Bruggeman, Frank J; Molenaar, Douwe; Branco Dos Santos, Filipe; Teusink, Bas

    2016-06-01

    Microbial growth can be characterized by a limited set of macroscopic parameters such as growth rate, biomass yield and substrate affinity. Different culturing protocols for laboratory evolution have been developed to select mutant strains that have one specific macroscopic growth parameter improved. Some of those mutant strains display tradeoffs between growth parameters and changed metabolic strategies, for example, a shift from respiration to fermentation. Here we discuss recent studies suggesting that metabolic strategies and growth parameter tradeoffs originate from a common set of physicochemical and cellular constraints, associated with the allocation of intracellular resources over biosynthetic processes, mostly protein synthesis. This knowledge will give insight in ecological and biological concepts and can be used for metabolic and evolutionary engineering strategies.

  1. Novel genes in LDL metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Mette; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne

    2015-01-01

    transporters G5 and G8, Niemann-Pick C1-Like protein 1, sortilin-1, ABO blood-group glycosyltransferases, myosin regulatory light chain-interacting protein and cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase have all consistently been associated with LDL cholesterol levels and/or coronary artery disease in GWAS. Whole...... of these findings still require independent replications and/or functional studies to confirm the exact role in LDL metabolism and the clinical implications for human health. SUMMARY: GWAS, exome sequencing studies, and recently 'exome chip' studies have suggested several novel genes with effects on LDL cholesterol....... Novel genes in LDL metabolism will improve our understanding of mechanisms in LDL metabolism, and may lead to the identification of new drug targets to reduce LDL cholesterol levels....

  2. Metabolism of phthalates in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Hanne; Skakkebaek, Niels E; Andersson, Anna-Maria

    2007-01-01

    on the foetal testis and they are similar to those seen in humans with testicular dysgenesis syndrome. Therefore, exposure of the human foetus and infants to phthalates via maternal exposure is a matter of concern. The metabolic pathways of phthalate metabolites excreted in human urine are partly known for some...... phthalates, but our knowledge about metabolic distribution in the body and other biological fluids, including breast milk, is limited. Compared to urine, human breast milk contains relatively more of the hydrophobic phthalates, such as di-n-butyl phthalate and the longer-branched, di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate...

  3. [Metabolic therapy of postperitoneal intoxication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlasov, A P; Anaskin, S G; Vlasova, T I; Chivisov, S M; Shibitov, V A; Potyanova, I V; Selentsov, P V

    2012-01-01

    This clinico-laboratory study showed that antihypoxant remaxol promoted normalization of lipid metabolism in acute peritonitis and significantly reduced membrane-destabilizing events. This resulted in rapid elimination of the inflammatory process in the abdominal cavity and lowering of the intensity of endogenous intoxication. This beneficial effect decreased the severity of myocardial lesions and resulted in the normalization of erythrocyte function. It is concluded that the regulatory action of remaxol on lipid metabolism is due to its ability to control free radicals in lipid peroxidation and reduce phospholipase A2 activity. PMID:23285765

  4. Metabolic phenotype of bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massari, Francesco; Ciccarese, Chiara; Santoni, Matteo; Iacovelli, Roberto; Mazzucchelli, Roberta; Piva, Francesco; Scarpelli, Marina; Berardi, Rossana; Tortora, Giampaolo; Lopez-Beltran, Antonio; Cheng, Liang; Montironi, Rodolfo

    2016-04-01

    Metabolism of bladder cancer represents a key issue for cancer research. Several metabolic altered pathways are involved in bladder tumorigenesis, representing therefore interesting targets for therapy. Tumor cells, including urothelial cancer cells, rely on a peculiar shift to aerobic glycolysis-dependent metabolism (the Warburg-effect) as the main energy source to sustain their uncontrolled growth and proliferation. Therefore, the high glycolytic flux depends on the overexpression of glycolysis-related genes (SRC-3, glucose transporter type 1 [GLUT1], GLUT3, lactic dehydrogenase A [LDHA], LDHB, hexokinase 1 [HK1], HK2, pyruvate kinase type M [PKM], and hypoxia-inducible factor 1-alpha [HIF-1α]), resulting in an overproduction of pyruvate, alanine and lactate. Concurrently, bladder cancer metabolism displays an increased expression of genes favoring the pentose phosphate pathway (glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase [G6PD]) and the fatty-acid synthesis (fatty acid synthase [FASN]), along with a decrease of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and Krebs cycle activities. Moreover, the PTEN/PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway, hyper-activated in bladder cancer, acts as central regulator of aerobic glycolysis, hence contributing to cancer metabolic switch and tumor cell proliferation. Besides glycolysis, glycogen metabolism pathway plays a robust role in bladder cancer development. In particular, the overexpression of GLUT-1, the loss of the tumor suppressor glycogen debranching enzyme amylo-α-1,6-glucosidase, 4-α-glucanotransferase (AGL), and the increased activity of the tumor promoter enzyme glycogen phosphorylase impair glycogen metabolism. An increase in glucose uptake, decrease in normal cellular glycogen storage, and overproduction of lactate are consequences of decreased oxidative phosphorylation and inability to reuse glucose into the pentose phosphate and de novo fatty acid synthesis pathways. Moreover, AGL loss determines augmented levels of the serine-to-glycine enzyme

  5. Epigenetic regulation of skeletal muscle metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howlett, Kirsten F; McGee, Sean L

    2016-07-01

    Normal skeletal muscle metabolism is essential for whole body metabolic homoeostasis and disruptions in muscle metabolism are associated with a number of chronic diseases. Transcriptional control of metabolic enzyme expression is a major regulatory mechanism for muscle metabolic processes. Substantial evidence is emerging that highlights the importance of epigenetic mechanisms in this process. This review will examine the importance of epigenetics in the regulation of muscle metabolism, with a particular emphasis on DNA methylation and histone acetylation as epigenetic control points. The emerging cross-talk between metabolism and epigenetics in the context of health and disease will also be examined. The concept of inheritance of skeletal muscle metabolic phenotypes will be discussed, in addition to emerging epigenetic therapies that could be used to alter muscle metabolism in chronic disease states. PMID:27215678

  6. SIRT1 and metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Mac-Marcjanek

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Both obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus, two major components of metabolic syndrome, become healthepidemics in the world. Over the past decade, advances in understanding the role of some regulators participatingin lipid and carbohydrate homeostasis have been made.Of them, SIRT1, the mammalian orthologue of the yeast Sir2 protein has been identified. SIRT1 is a nuclearNAD+-dependent deacetylase that targets many transcriptional modulators, including PPAR-α and -γ (peroxisomeproliferator-activated receptors α and γ, PGC-1α (PPAR-γ coactivator-1α, FOXO (forkhead box O proteins,and nuclear factor κB (NF-κB, thereby this enzyme mediates a wide range of physiological processes like apoptosis,fat metabolism, glucose homeostasis, and neurodegeneration.In this article, we discuss how SIRT1 regulates lipid and carbohydrate metabolism, and insulin secretion indifferent metabolic organs/tissue, including liver, muscle, pancreas, and fat. Additionally, the role of this enzymein reduction of inflammatory signalling is highlighted.

  7. Genetic determinants for metabolic abnormalities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Risselada, A.J.

    2012-01-01

    Psychiatric patients often use psychotropic drugs. Apart from frequent problems regarding lack of efficacy, use of these drugs also often results in (severe) adverse effects. The use of (atypical) antipsychotic drugs in particular can give rise to weight gain and metabolic deregulation regarding glu

  8. Metabolic engineering in methanotrophic bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalyuzhnaya, MG; Puri, AW; Lidstrom, ME

    2015-05-01

    Methane, as natural gas or biogas, is the least expensive source of carbon for (bio)chemical synthesis. Scalable biological upgrading of this simple alkane to chemicals and fuels can bring new sustainable solutions to a number of industries with large environmental footprints, such as natural gas/petroleum production, landfills, wastewater treatment, and livestock. Microbial biocatalysis with methane as a feedstock has been pursued off and on for almost a half century, with little enduring success. Today, biological engineering and systems biology provide new opportunities for metabolic system modulation and give new optimism to the concept of a methane-based bio-industry. Here we present an overview of the most recent advances pertaining to metabolic engineering of microbial methane utilization. Some ideas concerning metabolic improvements for production of acetyl-CoA and pyruvate, two main precursors for bioconversion, are presented. We also discuss main gaps in the current knowledge of aerobic methane utilization, which must be solved in order to release the full potential of methane-based biosystems. (C) 2015 International Metabolic Engineering Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Metabolic vulnerabilities in endometrial cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Frances L; Poon, Ivan K H; Modesitt, Susan C; Tomsig, Jose L; Chow, Jenny D Y; Healy, Marin E; Baker, William D; Atkins, Kristen A; Lancaster, Johnathan M; Marchion, Douglas C; Moley, Kelle H; Ravichandran, Kodi S; Slack-Davis, Jill K; Hoehn, Kyle L

    2014-10-15

    Women with metabolic disorders, including obesity and diabetes, have an increased risk of developing endometrial cancer. However, the metabolism of endometrial tumors themselves has been largely understudied. Comparing human endometrial tumors and cells with their nonmalignant counterparts, we found that upregulation of the glucose transporter GLUT6 was more closely associated with the cancer phenotype than other hallmark cancer genes, including hexokinase 2 and pyruvate kinase M2. Importantly, suppression of GLUT6 expression inhibited glycolysis and survival of endometrial cancer cells. Glycolysis and lipogenesis were also highly coupled with the cancer phenotype in patient samples and cells. To test whether targeting endometrial cancer metabolism could be exploited as a therapeutic strategy, we screened a panel of compounds known to target diverse metabolic pathways in endometrial cells. We identified that the glycolytic inhibitor, 3-bromopyruvate, is a powerful antagonist of lipogenesis through pyruvylation of CoA. We also provide evidence that 3-bromopyruvate promotes cell death via a necrotic mechanism that does not involve reactive oxygen species and that 3-bromopyruvate impaired the growth of endometrial cancer xenografts. PMID:25205105

  10. Ensemble Modeling of Cancer Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahmineh eKhazaei

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The metabolic behaviour of cancer cells is adapted to meet their proliferative needs, with notable changes such as enhanced lactate secretion and glucose uptake rates. In this work, we use the Ensemble Modeling (EM framework to gain insight and predict potential drug targets for tumour cells. EM generates a set of models which span the space of kinetic parameters that are constrained by thermodynamics. Perturbation data based on known targets are used to screen the entire ensemble of models to obtain a sub-set, which is increasingly predictive. EM allows for incorporation of regulatory information and captures the behaviour of enzymatic reactions at the molecular level by representing reactions in the elementary reaction form. In this study, a metabolic network consisting of 58 reactions is considered and accounts for glycolysis, the pentose phosphate pathway, lipid metabolism, amino acid metabolism, and includes allosteric regulation of key enzymes. Experimentally measured intracellular and extracellular metabolite concentrations are used for developing the ensemble of models along with information on established drug targets. The resulting models predicted transaldolase (TALA and succinyl-CoA ligase (SUCOAS1m to cause a significant reduction in growth rate when repressed, relative to currently known drug targets. Furthermore, the results suggest that the synergetic repression of transaldolase and glycine hydroxymethyltransferase (GHMT2r will lead to a three-fold decrease in growth rate compared to the repression of single enzyme targets.

  11. Antihypertensive drugs and glucose metabolism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Christos; V; Rizos; Moses; S; Elisaf

    2014-01-01

    Hypertension plays a major role in the development and progression of micro-and macrovascular disease.Moreover,increased blood pressure often coexists with additional cardiovascular risk factors such as insulin resistance.As a result the need for a comprehensive management of hypertensive patients is critical.However,the various antihypertensive drug categories have different effects on glucose metabolism.Indeed,angiotensin receptor blockers as well as angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors have been associated with beneficial effects on glucose homeostasis.Calcium channel blockers(CCBs)have an overall neutral effect on glucose metabolism.However,some members of the CCBs class such as azelnidipine and manidipine have been shown to have advantageous effects on glucose homeostasis.On the other hand,diuretics andβ-blockers have an overall disadvantageous effect on glucose metabolism.Of note,carvedilol as well as nebivolol seem to differentiate themselves from the rest of theβ-blockers class,being more attractive options regarding their effect on glucose homeostasis.The adverse effects of some blood pressure lowering drugs on glucose metabolism may,to an extent,compromise their cardiovascular protective role.As a result the effects on glucose homeostasis of the various blood pressure lowering drugs should be taken into account when selecting an antihypertensive treatment,especially in patients which are at high risk for developing diabetes.

  12. Alcohol abuse and glycoconjugate metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylwia Chojnowska

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between alcohol consumption and glycoconjugate metabolism is complex and multidimensional. This review summarizes the advances in basic and clinical research on the molecular and cellular events involved in the metabolic effects of alcohol on glycoconjugates (glycoproteins, glycolipids, and proteoglycans. We summarize the action of ethanol, acetaldehyde, reactive oxygen species (ROS, nonoxidative metabolite of alcohol — fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs, and the ethanol-water competition mechanism, on glycoconjugate biosynthesis, modification, transport and secretion, as well as on elimination and catabolism processes. As the majority of changes in the cellular metabolism of glycoconjugates are generally ascribed to alterations in synthesis, transport, glycosylation and secretion, the degradation and elimination processes, of which the former occurs also in extracellular matrix, seem to be underappreciated. The pathomechanisms are additionally complicated by the fact that the effect of alcohol intoxication on the glycoconjugate metabolism depends not only on the duration of ethanol exposure, but also demonstrates dose- and regional-sensitivity. Further research is needed to bridge the gap in transdisciplinary research and enhance our understanding of alcohol- and glycoconjugate-related diseases.

  13. Vitamin D metabolism and function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeLuca, H.F.

    1978-05-15

    A general review of the biological functions of vitamin D and the metabolism of vitamin D are given in order to elucidate the biochemical possibilities of calcipdiol. The biochemical mechanisms of calcipdiol use in the treatment of skeletal system diseases are discussed. (DS)

  14. Conducting the metabolic syndrome orchestra

    OpenAIRE

    Civelek, Mete; Lusis, Aldons J.

    2011-01-01

    Genetic and gene expression studies have suggested an important role for KLF14 in metabolic disease. A new study now identifies a network of genes whose expression is associated with KLF14 variation in trans, providing a framework for understanding how KLF14 influences disease risk.

  15. Metabolic Acceleration in Human Evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isler, Karin

    2016-07-12

    Humans stand out among other primates by an unusual combination of a very large brain and high fertility. Pontzer et al. (2016a) present new data on daily energy expenditure in great apes and show that the metabolic rate increased during human evolution. PMID:27411003

  16. Can you boost your metabolism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... motivation to eat, energy intake or food choice? Sports Med . 2011;41(6):507-521. PMID: 21615191 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21615191 . Jeukendrup AE, Randell R. Fat burners: nutrition supplements that increase fat metabolism. Obes Rev . 2011;12( ...

  17. Metabolic diversity in apple germplasm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khan, S.A.; Tikunov, Y.M.; Chibon, P.Y.F.R.P.; Maliepaard, C.A.; Beekwilder, M.J.; Jacobsen, E.; Schouten, H.J.

    2014-01-01

    We analysed metabolic diversity in apples from wild species, elite material and a F1 population, using liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC-QTOF-MS). The evaluated elite material appeared to have strongly reduced levels of phenolic compounds, down to 1% of the concentrations in the investigat

  18. Metabolic polymorphisms and cancer susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, G; Stanley, L A; Sim, E; Strange, R C; Wolf, C R

    1995-01-01

    The vast majority of cancers arise as a consequence of exposure to environmental agents that are toxic or mutagenic. In response to this, all higher organisms have evolved complex mechanisms by which they can protect themselves from environmental challenge. In many cases, this involves an adaptive response in which the levels of expression of enzymes active in the metabolism and detoxification of the foreign chemical are induced. The best characterized of these enzyme systems are the cytochrome P450s, the GSTs and the NATs. An unfortunate consequence of many of these reactions, however, is the creation of a toxic or mutagenic reaction product from chemicals that require metabolic activation before realizing their full carcinogenic potential. Altered expression of one or more of these drug metabolizing enzymes can therefore be predicted to have profound toxicological consequences. Genetic polymorphisms with well defined associated phenotypes have now been characterized in P450, GST and NAT genes. Indeed, many of these polymorphisms have been associated with decreased or increased metabolism of many tumour promoters and chemical carcinogens and hence offer protection against or increased susceptibility to many distinct tumour types.

  19. Histone variants and lipid metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borghesan, Michela; Mazzoccoli, Gianluigi; Sheedfar, Fareeba; Oben, Jude; Pazienza, Valerio; Vinciguerra, Manlio

    2014-01-01

    Within nucleosomes, canonical histones package the genome, but they can be opportunely replaced with histone variants. The incorporation of histone variants into the nucleosome is a chief cellular strategy to regulate transcription and cellular metabolism. In pathological terms, cellular steatosis i

  20. Alcohol Metabolism and Epigenetics Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakhari, Samir

    2013-01-01

    Metabolites, including those generated during ethanol metabolism, can impact disease states by binding to transcription factors and/or modifying chromatin structure, thereby altering gene expression patterns. For example, the activities of enzymes involved in epigenetic modifications such as DNA and histone methylation and histone acetylation, are influenced by the levels of metabolites such as nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD), adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and S-adenosylmethionine (SAM). Chronic alcohol consumption leads to significant reductions in SAM levels, thereby contributing to DNA hypomethylation. Similarly, ethanol metabolism alters the ratio of NAD+ to reduced NAD (NADH) and promotes the formation of reactive oxygen species and acetate, all of which impact epigenetic regulatory mechanisms. In addition to altered carbohydrate metabolism, induction of cell death, and changes in mitochondrial permeability transition, these metabolism-related changes can lead to modulation of epigenetic regulation of gene expression. Understanding the nature of these epigenetic changes will help researchers design novel medications to treat or at least ameliorate alcohol-induced organ damage. PMID:24313160

  1. Does Metabolically Healthy Obesity Exist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Garach, Araceli; Cornejo-Pareja, Isabel; Tinahones, Francisco J.

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between obesity and other metabolic diseases have been deeply studied. However, there are clinical inconsistencies, exceptions to the paradigm of “more fat means more metabolic disease”, and the subjects in this condition are referred to as metabolically healthy obese (MHO).They have long-standing obesity and morbid obesity but can be considered healthy despite their high degree of obesity. We describe the variable definitions of MHO, the underlying mechanisms that can explain the existence of this phenotype caused by greater adipose tissue inflammation or the different capacity for adipose tissue expansion and functionality apart from other unknown mechanisms. We analyze whether these subjects improve after an intervention (traditional lifestyle recommendations or bariatric surgery) or if they stay healthy as the years pass. MHO is common among the obese population and constitutes a unique subset of characteristics that reduce metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors despite the presence of excessive fat mass. The protective factors that grant a healthier profile to individuals with MHO are being elucidated. PMID:27258304

  2. Urban metabolism: a review of research methodologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan

    2013-07-01

    Urban metabolism analysis has become an important tool for the study of urban ecosystems. The problems of large metabolic throughput, low metabolic efficiency, and disordered metabolic processes are a major cause of unhealthy urban systems. In this paper, I summarize the international research on urban metabolism, and describe the progress that has been made in terms of research methodologies. I also review the methods used in accounting for and evaluating material and energy flows in urban metabolic processes, simulation of these flows using a network model, and practical applications of these methods. Based on this review of the literature, I propose directions for future research, and particularly the need to study the urban carbon metabolism because of the modern context of global climate change. Moreover, I recommend more research on the optimal regulation of urban metabolic systems.

  3. Species differences in the metabolism of benzene.

    OpenAIRE

    Henderson, R F

    1996-01-01

    The pathways of metabolism of benzene appear to be qualitatively similar in all species studied thus far. However, there are quantitative differences in the fraction of benzene metabolized by the different pathways. These species differences become important for risk assessments based on animal data. Mice have a greater overall capacity to metabolize benzene than rats or primates, based on mass balance studies conducted in vivo using radiolabled benzene. Mice and monkeys metabolize more of th...

  4. Indolealkylamine metabolism: synthesis of deuterated indolealkylamines as metabolic probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The synthesis of the deuterium labeled, endogenously occurring, indolealkylamine hallucinogens N,N-dimethyltryptamine and 5-methoxy-N, N-dimethyltryptamine via reduction of amide intermediates with lithium aluminum deuteride is described. The compounds were characterized with 1H, 2H and 13C NMR. These compounds were synthesized for use as probes for investigating the metabolism of these compounds by MAO via the in vivo kinetic isotope effect. (Author)

  5. It must be my metabolism: Metabolic control of mind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana M Small

    2014-07-01

    relationship between the reinforcing potency of sugared solutions and the metabolic effects that follow their consumption (16, also see the abstract of I. de Araujo. We therefore hypothesized that metabolic response provides the critical signal necessary to condition preference. To test this prediction in humans we designed a flavor nutrient conditioning study in which participants first rated their liking for novel flavored beverages and then, over a three week-long conditioning protocol, alternately ingested one of the flavored beverages with 112.5 kcal from maltodextrin, a tasteless and odorless polysaccharide that breaks down into glucose, and another flavored beverage with no calories added. Plasma glucose was measured before and after each of the drinks’ consumption as a proxy measure of metabolic response, assuming that glucose oxidation depends upon the level of circulating glucose. For each participant flavor-calorie pairings were held constant but the identity of the conditioned flavors were counterbalanced across participants. Following the exposure phase, participants’ liking of, and brain responses to, non-caloric versions of the flavors were assessed. We predicted that change in plasma glucose produced by beverage consumption during the exposure sessions would be associated with neural responses in dopamine source and target regions to the calorie predictive flavor. As predicted, response in the ventral striatum and hypothalamus to the calorie-predictive flavor (CS+ vs. non the noncaloric-predictive flavor (CS- was strongly associated with the changes in plasma glucose levels produced by ingestion of these same beverages when consumed previously either with (CS+ or without (CS- calories (17. Specifically, the greater the increase in circulating glucose occurring post ingestion of the beverage containing 112.5 kcal from maltodextrin versus the noncaloric drink, the stronger was the brain response to the CS+ compared to the CS- flavor. Importantly, because each

  6. Can resveratrol help to maintain metabolic health?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrauwen, P.; Timmers, S.

    2014-01-01

    The number of people suffering from metabolic diseases is dramatically increasing worldwide. This stresses the need for new therapeutic strategies to combat this growing epidemic of metabolic diseases. A reduced mitochondrial function is one of the characteristics of metabolic diseases and therefore

  7. The metabolic syndrome among Danish seafarers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Jørgen Riis; Rasmussen, Hanna B.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The metabolic syndrome (MS) represents a cluster of risk factors related to insulin resistance. Metabolic syndrome is a strong risk factor for chronic metabolic and cardiovascular diseases and is related to nutritional factors, sleep patterns, work-related stress, fatigue, and physical...

  8. Ketone body metabolism and cardiovascular disease

    OpenAIRE

    Cotter, David G.; Schugar, Rebecca C.; Crawford, Peter A.

    2013-01-01

    Ketone bodies are metabolized through evolutionarily conserved pathways that support bioenergetic homeostasis, particularly in brain, heart, and skeletal muscle when carbohydrates are in short supply. The metabolism of ketone bodies interfaces with the tricarboxylic acid cycle, β-oxidation of fatty acids, de novo lipogenesis, sterol biosynthesis, glucose metabolism, the mitochondrial electron transport chain, hormonal signaling, intracellular signal transduction pathways, and the microbiome. ...

  9. Spontaneous emergence of a metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagley, R.J.; Farmer, J.D. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA) Santa Fe Inst., NM (USA))

    1990-01-01

    Networks of catalyzed reactions with nonlinear feedback have been proposed to play an important role in the origin of life. We investigate this possibility in a polymer chemistry with catalyzed cleavage and condensation reactions. We study the properties of a well-stirred reactor driven away from equilibrium by the flow of mass. Under appropriate non-equilibrium conditions. The nonlinear feedback of the reaction network focuses the material of the system into a few specific polymer species. The network of catalytic reactions digests'' the material of its environment, incorporating it into its own form. We call the result an autocatalytic metabolism. Under some variations it persists almost unchanged, while in other cases it dies. We argue that the dynamical stability of autocatalytic metabolisms gives them regenerative properties that allow them to repair themselves and to propagate through time. 43 refs., 16 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. PET Metabolic Biomarkers for Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croteau, Etienne; Renaud, Jennifer M.; Richard, Marie Anne; Ruddy, Terrence D.; Bénard, François; deKemp, Robert A.

    2016-01-01

    The body’s main fuel sources are fats, carbohydrates (glucose), proteins, and ketone bodies. It is well known that an important hallmark of cancer cells is the overconsumption of glucose. Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging using the glucose analog 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) has been a powerful cancer diagnostic tool for many decades. Apart from surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy represent the two main domains for cancer therapy, targeting tumor proliferation, cell division, and DNA replication—all processes that require a large amount of energy. Currently, in vivo clinical imaging of metabolism is performed almost exclusively using PET radiotracers that assess oxygen consumption and mechanisms of energy substrate consumption. This paper reviews the utility of PET imaging biomarkers for the detection of cancer proliferation, vascularization, metabolism, treatment response, and follow-up after radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and chemotherapy-related side effects.

  11. Asparagine Metabolic Pathways in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaufichon, Laure; Rothstein, Steven J; Suzuki, Akira

    2016-04-01

    Inorganic nitrogen in the form of ammonium is assimilated into asparagine via multiple steps involving glutamine synthetase (GS), glutamate synthase (GOGAT), aspartate aminotransferase (AspAT) and asparagine synthetase (AS) in Arabidopsis. The asparagine amide group is liberated by the reaction catalyzed by asparaginase (ASPG) and also the amino group of asparagine is released by asparagine aminotransferase (AsnAT) for use in the biosynthesis of amino acids. Asparagine plays a primary role in nitrogen recycling, storage and transport in developing and germinating seeds, as well as in vegetative and senescence organs. A small multigene family encodes isoenzymes of each step of asparagine metabolism in Arabidopsis, except for asparagine aminotransferase encoded by a single gene. The aim of this study is to highlight the structure of the genes and encoded enzyme proteins involved in asparagine metabolic pathways; the regulation and role of different isogenes; and kinetic and physiological properties of encoded enzymes in different tissues and developmental stages. PMID:26628609

  12. Metabolism of phthalates in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Hanne; Skakkebaek, Niels E; Andersson, Anna-Maria

    2007-01-01

    Phthalates are synthetic compounds widely used as plasticisers, solvents and additives in many consumer products. Several animal studies have shown that some phthalates possess endocrine disrupting effects. Some of the effects of phthalates seen in rats are due to testosterone lowering effects...... on the foetal testis and they are similar to those seen in humans with testicular dysgenesis syndrome. Therefore, exposure of the human foetus and infants to phthalates via maternal exposure is a matter of concern. The metabolic pathways of phthalate metabolites excreted in human urine are partly known for some...... phthalates, but our knowledge about metabolic distribution in the body and other biological fluids, including breast milk, is limited. Compared to urine, human breast milk contains relatively more of the hydrophobic phthalates, such as di-n-butyl phthalate and the longer-branched, di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate...

  13. Polyol metabolism by Rhizobium trifolii.

    OpenAIRE

    Primrose, S. B.; Ronson, C W

    1980-01-01

    In Rhizobium trifolii 7000, the polyols myo-inositol, xylitol, ribitol, D-arabitol, D-mannitol, D-sorbital, and dulcitol are metabolized by inducible nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-dependent polyol dehydrogenases. Five different polyol dehydrogenases were recognized: inositol dehydrogenase, specific for inositil; ribitol dehydrogenase, specific for ribitol; D-arabitol dehydrogenase, which oxidized D-arabitol, D-mannitol, and D-sorbitol; xylitol dehydrogenase, which oxidized xylitol and D-s...

  14. [Metabolic disorders under antipsychotic treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffenhagen, N; Rummel-Kluge, C; Himmerich, H

    2012-03-01

    Patients with severe mental illness, such as schizophrenia, depression or bipolar disorder, are more likely to be overweight and to suffer from dyslipidaemia, diabetes or cardiovascular disease. Unhealthy lifestyles, including poor diet and sedentary behaviour, but also pharmacotherapy contribute to the adverse risk profile. This article reviews the epidemiology and pharmacodynamics of metabolic abnormalities in psychiatric patients treated with antipsychotics, focusing on substance-specific differences. PMID:21206997

  15. NAD metabolism in Vibrio cholerae.

    OpenAIRE

    Foster, J. W.; Brestel, C

    1982-01-01

    Extracts of Vibrio cholerae were assayed for various enzymatic activities associated with pyridine nucleotide cycle metabolism. The activities measured include NAD glycohydrolase, nicotinamide deamidase, nicotinamide mononucleotide deamidase, and nicotinic acid phosphoribosyltransferase. The results obtained demonstrate the existence in V. cholerae of the five-membered pyridine nucleotide cycle and the potential for a four-membered pyridine nucleotide cycle. The data presented also suggest th...

  16. Zinc metabolism in thyroid disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Nishi, Y.; Kawate, R.; Usui, T

    1980-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the zinc metabolism in adults of both sexes with thyroid disease. Plasma and erythrocyte zinc concentration and urinary zinc excretion were investigated. The mean concentration of plasma zinc in hypothyroid patients and in euthyroid patients, previously either hyperthyroid or hypothyroid, was lower than that of control subjects, whereas no statistically significant differences were observed in plasma zinc values between hyperthyroid patients and control sub...

  17. Metabolism of pantethine in cystinosis.

    OpenAIRE

    Wittwer, C T; Gahl, W.A.; Butler, J D; Zatz, M; Thoene, J G

    1985-01-01

    D-Pantethine is a conjugate of the vitamin pantothenic acid and the low-molecular-weight aminothiol cysteamine. Pantethine is an experimental hypolipemic agent and has been suggested as a source of cysteamine in the treatment of nephropathic cystinosis. We treated four cystinotic children with 70-1,000 mg/kg per d oral D-pantethine and studied its metabolism. Pantethine was rapidly hydrolyzed to pantothenic acid and cysteamine; we could not detect pantethine in plasma after oral administratio...

  18. The cradle of metabolic disease

    OpenAIRE

    Galjaard, Sander

    2015-01-01

    Summary -Vascular development and FETAL body composition during pregnancy- The effects of maternal adiposity (high body mass index - high BMI -), nutrient intake and storage (gestational weight gain - GWG -) and (abnormal) glucose tolerance (gestational diabetes - GDM - ) are regarded important cornerstones in metabolic research in pregnancy. In Chapter 1, I explained, that they play an important role in the development of complications in the mother and the fetus, both short- and long-ter...

  19. Metabolic engineering in methanotrophic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalyuzhnaya, Marina G; Puri, Aaron W; Lidstrom, Mary E

    2015-05-01

    Methane, as natural gas or biogas, is the least expensive source of carbon for (bio)chemical synthesis. Scalable biological upgrading of this simple alkane to chemicals and fuels can bring new sustainable solutions to a number of industries with large environmental footprints, such as natural gas/petroleum production, landfills, wastewater treatment, and livestock. Microbial biocatalysis with methane as a feedstock has been pursued off and on for almost a half century, with little enduring success. Today, biological engineering and systems biology provide new opportunities for metabolic system modulation and give new optimism to the concept of a methane-based bio-industry. Here we present an overview of the most recent advances pertaining to metabolic engineering of microbial methane utilization. Some ideas concerning metabolic improvements for production of acetyl-CoA and pyruvate, two main precursors for bioconversion, are presented. We also discuss main gaps in the current knowledge of aerobic methane utilization, which must be solved in order to release the full potential of methane-based biosystems. PMID:25825038

  20. Mitochondrial Metabolism in Aging Heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesnefsky, Edward J; Chen, Qun; Hoppel, Charles L

    2016-05-13

    Altered mitochondrial metabolism is the underlying basis for the increased sensitivity in the aged heart to stress. The aged heart exhibits impaired metabolic flexibility, with a decreased capacity to oxidize fatty acids and enhanced dependence on glucose metabolism. Aging impairs mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, with a greater role played by the mitochondria located between the myofibrils, the interfibrillar mitochondria. With aging, there is a decrease in activity of complexes III and IV, which account for the decrease in respiration. Furthermore, aging decreases mitochondrial content among the myofibrils. The end result is that in the interfibrillar area, there is ≈50% decrease in mitochondrial function, affecting all substrates. The defective mitochondria persist in the aged heart, leading to enhanced oxidant production and oxidative injury and the activation of oxidant signaling for cell death. Aging defects in mitochondria represent new therapeutic targets, whether by manipulation of the mitochondrial proteome, modulation of electron transport, activation of biogenesis or mitophagy, or the regulation of mitochondrial fission and fusion. These mechanisms provide new ways to attenuate cardiac disease in elders by preemptive treatment of age-related defects, in contrast to the treatment of disease-induced dysfunction. PMID:27174952

  1. Identification of Metabolic Pathway Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sepideh eDolatshahi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The estimation of parameters in even moderately large biological systems is a significant challenge. This challenge is greatly exacerbated if the mathematical formats of appropriate process descriptions are unknown. To address this challenge, the method of dynamic flux estimation (DFE was proposed for the analysis of metabolic time series data. Under ideal conditions, the first phase of DFE yields numerical representations of all fluxes within a metabolic pathway system, either as values at each time point or as plots against their substrates and modulators. However, this numerical result does not reveal the mathematical format of each flux. Thus, the second phase of DFE selects functional formats that are consistent with the numerical trends obtained from the first phase. While greatly facilitating metabolic data analysis, DFE is only directly applicable if the pathway system contains as many dependent variables as fluxes. Because most actual systems contain more fluxes than metabolite pools, this requirement is seldom satisfied. Auxiliary methods have been proposed to alleviate this issue, but they are not general. Here we propose strategies that extend DFE toward general, slightly underdetermined pathway systems.

  2. Intestinal Microbiota Metabolism and Atherosclerosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tian-Xing Liu; Hai-Tao Niu; Shu-Yang Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Objective:This review aimed to summarize the relationship between intestinal microbiota metabolism and cardiovascular disease (CVD) and to propose a novel CVD therapeutic target.Data Sources:This study was based on data obtained from PubMed and EMBASE up to June 30,2015.Articles were selected using the following search temps:"Intestinal microbiota","trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO)","trimethylamine (TMA)","cardiovascular",and "atherosclerosis".Study Selection:Studies were eligible if they present information on intestinal microbiota metabolism and atherosclerosis.Studies on TMA-containing nutrients were also included.Results:A new CVD risk factor,TMAO,was recently identified.It has been observed that several TMA-containing compounds may be catabolized by specific intestinal microbiota,resulting in TMA release.TMA is subsequently converted to TMAO in the liver.Several preliminary studies have linked TMAO to CVD,particularly atherosclerosis;however,the details of this relationship remain unclear.Conclusions:Intestinal microbiota metabolism is associated with atherosclerosis and may represent a promising therapeutic target with respect to CVD management.

  3. Identification of Metabolic Pathway Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolatshahi, Sepideh; Voit, Eberhard O

    2016-01-01

    The estimation of parameters in even moderately large biological systems is a significant challenge. This challenge is greatly exacerbated if the mathematical formats of appropriate process descriptions are unknown. To address this challenge, the method of dynamic flux estimation (DFE) was proposed for the analysis of metabolic time series data. Under ideal conditions, the first phase of DFE yields numerical representations of all fluxes within a metabolic pathway system, either as values at each time point or as plots against their substrates and modulators. However, this numerical result does not reveal the mathematical format of each flux. Thus, the second phase of DFE selects functional formats that are consistent with the numerical trends obtained from the first phase. While greatly facilitating metabolic data analysis, DFE is only directly applicable if the pathway system contains as many dependent variables as fluxes. Because most actual systems contain more fluxes than metabolite pools, this requirement is seldom satisfied. Auxiliary methods have been proposed to alleviate this issue, but they are not general. Here we propose strategies that extend DFE toward general, slightly underdetermined pathway systems.

  4. Metabolic aspects of bacterial persisters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel ePrax

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Persister cells form a multi-drug tolerant subpopulation within an isogenic culture of bacteria that are genetically susceptible to antibiotics. Studies with different Gram negative and Gram positive bacteria have identified a large number of genes associated with the persister state. In contrast, the revelation of persister metabolism has only been addressed recently. We here summarize metabolic aspects of persisters, which includes an overview about the bifunctional role of selected carbohydrates as both triggers for the exit from the drug tolerant state and metabolites which persisters feed on. Also alarmones as indicators for starvation have been shown to influence persister levels via different signaling cascades involving the activation of toxin-antitoxin systems and other regulatory factors. Finally, recent data obtained by 13C-isotopologue profiling demonstrated an active amino acid anabolism in Staphylococcus aureus cultures challenged with high drug concentrations. Understanding the metabolism of persister cells poses challenges but also paves the way for the development of anti-persister compounds.

  5. Immunometabolism: Cellular Metabolism Turns Immune Regulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loftus, Róisín M; Finlay, David K

    2016-01-01

    Immune cells are highly dynamic in terms of their growth, proliferation, and effector functions as they respond to immunological challenges. Different immune cells can adopt distinct metabolic configurations that allow the cell to balance its requirements for energy, molecular biosynthesis, and longevity. However, in addition to facilitating immune cell responses, it is now becoming clear that cellular metabolism has direct roles in regulating immune cell function. This review article describes the distinct metabolic signatures of key immune cells, explains how these metabolic setups facilitate immune function, and discusses the emerging evidence that intracellular metabolism has an integral role in controlling immune responses. PMID:26534957

  6. Lipid metabolism in experimental animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez-Muñiz, Francisco J.

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available Publications are scarce in the way in chich metabolic processes are affected by the ingestion of heated fats used to prepare food. Similarly studies measuring metabolic effects of the consumption on fried food are poorly known. The purpose of this presentation is to summarize information on frying fats and frying foods upon lipid metabolism in experimental animals. Food consumption is equivalent or even higher when oils or the fat content of frying foods are poorly alterated decreasing their acceptability when their alteration degree increase. After 4hr. experiment the digestibility and absorption coefficients of a single dosis of thermooxidized oils were significantly decreased in rats, however the digestive utilization of frying thermooxidized oils included in diets showed very little change in comparison with unused oils by feeding trials on rats. Feeding rats different frying fats induced a slight hypercholesterolemic effect being the magnitude of this effect related to the linoleic decrease in diet produced by frying. However HDL, the main rat-cholesterol carrier, also increased, thus the serum cholesterol/HDL-cholesterol ratio did not change. Results suggest that rats fed frying fats adapt their lipoprotein metabolism increasing the number of HDL particles. Deep fat frying deeply changed the fatty acid composition of foods, being possible to increase their n-9 or n-6 fatty acid and to decrease the saturated fatty acid contents by frying. When olive oil-and sunflower oil-fried sardines were used as the only protein and fat sources of rats-diets in order to prevent the dietary hypercholesterolemia it was provided that both fried-sardine diets showed a powerful check effect on the cholesterol raising effect induced by dietary cholesterol. The negative effect of feeding rats cholesterol plus bovine bile to induce hypercholesterolemia on some cell-damage markers such as lactate dehydrogenase, transaminases, alkaline phosphatase, was

  7. Genome-scale modeling for metabolic engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simeonidis, E; Price, ND

    2015-01-13

    We focus on the application of constraint-based methodologies and, more specifically, flux balance analysis in the field of metabolic engineering, and enumerate recent developments and successes of the field. We also review computational frameworks that have been developed with the express purpose of automatically selecting optimal gene deletions for achieving improved production of a chemical of interest. The application of flux balance analysis methods in rational metabolic engineering requires a metabolic network reconstruction and a corresponding in silico metabolic model for the microorganism in question. For this reason, we additionally present a brief overview of automated reconstruction techniques. Finally, we emphasize the importance of integrating metabolic networks with regulatory information-an area which we expect will become increasingly important for metabolic engineering-and present recent developments in the field of metabolic and regulatory integration.

  8. METABOLISM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    7.1 Nutritional disorder2003038 An epidemiological study on vitamin K deficiency bleeding in infants under six months. ZHOU Fengrong(周凤荣), et al.Dept Child Health, Shandong Prov Matern Childed Health Instit, Jinan 250014. Chin J Prev Med 2002;36(5):305 - 307.Objective: To understand the incidence and relevant affecting factors of infant vitamin K deficiency bleeding

  9. METABOLISM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    4.1 Nutritional disorder2003271 Iron status and effect of early iron supplementation of sub-clinical iron deficiency in rural school-age children from mountainous areas of Beijing.LIN Xiaoming(林晓明),et al.Dept Nutr & Food Hyg, Public Health Sch Peking Univ, Beijing 100083. Chin J Prev Med 2003;37(2): 115-118.

  10. Metabolism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    4.1 Nutrition imbalance 2006024 Effect of multiple micronutrients supplementation on anti - oxidative activity and oxidized DNA damage of lymphocytes in children ZHANG Ming ( 张明), Nutrit Dept, Weifang People Hosp, Weifang 261041. Chin J Epidemiol 2005 ;26(4) :268 -272. Objective:To examine the effect of multiple micronutrients supplementation on anti - oxidative activity and decreasing oxidized DNA damage of lymphocytes in Chinese children. Methods:82 healthy children in rural areas, aged 9-11 years, were selected and randomized into group receiving supplements and control group with 41 in

  11. Metabolic fingerprint of dimethyl sulfone (DMSO2) in microbial-mammalian co-metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xuan; Slupsky, Carolyn M

    2014-12-01

    There is growing awareness that intestinal microbiota alters the energy harvesting capacity of the host and regulates metabolism. It has been postulated that intestinal microbiota are able to degrade unabsorbed dietary components and transform xenobiotic compounds. The resulting microbial metabolites derived from the gastrointestinal tract can potentially enter the circulation system, which, in turn, affects host metabolism. Yet, the metabolic capacity of intestinal microbiota and its interaction with mammalian metabolism remains largely unexplored. Here, we review a metabolic pathway that integrates the microbial catabolism of methionine with mammalian metabolism of methanethiol (MT), dimethyl sulfide (DMS), and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), which together provide evidence that supports the microbial origin of dimethyl sulfone (DMSO2) in the human metabolome. Understanding the pathway of DMSO2 co-metabolism expends our knowledge of microbial-derived metabolites and motivates future metabolomics-based studies on ascertaining the metabolic consequences of intestinal microbiota on human health, including detoxification processes and sulfur xenobiotic metabolism.

  12. Metabolic cartography: experimental quantification of metabolic fluxes from isotopic labelling studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Grady, John; Schwender, Jörg; Shachar-Hill, Yair; Morgan, John A

    2012-03-01

    For the past decade, flux maps have provided researchers with an in-depth perspective on plant metabolism. As a rapidly developing field, significant headway has been made recently in computation, experimentation, and overall understanding of metabolic flux analysis. These advances are particularly applicable to the study of plant metabolism. New dynamic computational methods such as non-stationary metabolic flux analysis are finding their place in the toolbox of metabolic engineering, allowing more organisms to be studied and decreasing the time necessary for experimentation, thereby opening new avenues by which to explore the vast diversity of plant metabolism. Also, improved methods of metabolite detection and measurement have been developed, enabling increasingly greater resolution of flux measurements and the analysis of a greater number of the multitude of plant metabolic pathways. Methods to deconvolute organelle-specific metabolism are employed with increasing effectiveness, elucidating the compartmental specificity inherent in plant metabolism. Advances in metabolite measurements have also enabled new types of experiments, such as the calculation of metabolic fluxes based on (13)CO(2) dynamic labelling data, and will continue to direct plant metabolic engineering. Newly calculated metabolic flux maps reveal surprising and useful information about plant metabolism, guiding future genetic engineering of crops to higher yields. Due to the significant level of complexity in plants, these methods in combination with other systems biology measurements are necessary to guide plant metabolic engineering in the future.

  13. Metabolic cartography: experimental quantification of metabolic fluxes from isotopic labelling studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Grady J.; Schwender J.; Shachar-Hill, Y.; Morgan, J. A.

    2012-03-01

    For the past decade, flux maps have provided researchers with an in-depth perspective on plant metabolism. As a rapidly developing field, significant headway has been made recently in computation, experimentation, and overall understanding of metabolic flux analysis. These advances are particularly applicable to the study of plant metabolism. New dynamic computational methods such as non-stationary metabolic flux analysis are finding their place in the toolbox of metabolic engineering, allowing more organisms to be studied and decreasing the time necessary for experimentation, thereby opening new avenues by which to explore the vast diversity of plant metabolism. Also, improved methods of metabolite detection and measurement have been developed, enabling increasingly greater resolution of flux measurements and the analysis of a greater number of the multitude of plant metabolic pathways. Methods to deconvolute organelle-specific metabolism are employed with increasing effectiveness, elucidating the compartmental specificity inherent in plant metabolism. Advances in metabolite measurements have also enabled new types of experiments, such as the calculation of metabolic fluxes based on {sup 13}CO{sub 2} dynamic labelling data, and will continue to direct plant metabolic engineering. Newly calculated metabolic flux maps reveal surprising and useful information about plant metabolism, guiding future genetic engineering of crops to higher yields. Due to the significant level of complexity in plants, these methods in combination with other systems biology measurements are necessary to guide plant metabolic engineering in the future.

  14. Metabolic cartography: experimental quantification of metabolic fluxes from isotopic labelling studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Grady, J; Schwender, J; Shachar-Hill, Y; Morgan, JA

    2012-03-26

    For the past decade, flux maps have provided researchers with an in-depth perspective on plant metabolism. As a rapidly developing field, significant headway has been made recently in computation, experimentation, and overall understanding of metabolic flux analysis. These advances are particularly applicable to the study of plant metabolism. New dynamic computational methods such as non-stationary metabolic flux analysis are finding their place in the toolbox of metabolic engineering, allowing more organisms to be studied and decreasing the time necessary for experimentation, thereby opening new avenues by which to explore the vast diversity of plant metabolism. Also, improved methods of metabolite detection and measurement have been developed, enabling increasingly greater resolution of flux measurements and the analysis of a greater number of the multitude of plant metabolic pathways. Methods to deconvolute organelle-specific metabolism are employed with increasing effectiveness, elucidating the compartmental specificity inherent in plant metabolism. Advances in metabolite measurements have also enabled new types of experiments, such as the calculation of metabolic fluxes based on (CO2)-C-13 dynamic labelling data, and will continue to direct plant metabolic engineering. Newly calculated metabolic flux maps reveal surprising and useful information about plant metabolism, guiding future genetic engineering of crops to higher yields. Due to the significant level of complexity in plants, these methods in combination with other systems biology measurements are necessary to guide plant metabolic engineering in the future.

  15. Interaction between vitamin B6 metabolism, nitrogen metabolism and autoimmunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colinas, Maite; Fitzpatrick, Teresa B

    2016-01-01

    The essential micronutrient vitamin B6 is best known in its enzymatic cofactor form, pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP). However, vitamin B6 comprises the amine pyridoxamine 5'-phosphate (PMP) and the alcohol pyridoxine 5'-phosphate (PNP) in addition to PLP, as well as their corresponding non-phosphorylated forms. The different B6 forms (called vitamers) are enzymatically interconverted in a ubiquitous salvage pathway. Recently, we have shown that balancing the ratio of the different B6 vitamers in particular PMP by the PMP/PNP oxidase PDX3 is essential for growth and development in Arabidopsis thaliana. Intriguingly, nitrate to ammonium conversion is impaired in pdx3 mutants, such that the mutants become ammonium-dependent, suggesting an interaction between vitamin B6 and nitrogen metabolism. In addition, we found a strong up-regulation of genes related to plant defense. Here, we further show that pdx3 mutants display a temperature-sensitive phenotype that is typical of autoimmune mutants and is possibly connected to the impaired nitrogen metabolism. PMID:27018849

  16. Ensemble Kinetic Modeling of Metabolic Networks from Dynamic Metabolic Profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gengjie Jia

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Kinetic modeling of metabolic pathways has important applications in metabolic engineering, but significant challenges still remain. The difficulties faced vary from finding best-fit parameters in a highly multidimensional search space to incomplete parameter identifiability. To meet some of these challenges, an ensemble modeling method is developed for characterizing a subset of kinetic parameters that give statistically equivalent goodness-of-fit to time series concentration data. The method is based on the incremental identification approach, where the parameter estimation is done in a step-wise manner. Numerical efficacy is achieved by reducing the dimensionality of parameter space and using efficient random parameter exploration algorithms. The shift toward using model ensembles, instead of the traditional “best-fit” models, is necessary to directly account for model uncertainty during the application of such models. The performance of the ensemble modeling approach has been demonstrated in the modeling of a generic branched pathway and the trehalose pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae using generalized mass action (GMA kinetics.

  17. Anaerobic metabolism in Brassica seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Myoung-Ryoul; Hasenstein, Karl H.

    Germination typically depends on oxidative respiration. The lack of convection under space conditions may create hypoxic or conditions during seed germination. We investigated the effect of reduced oxygen on seed germination and metabolism to understand how metabolic constraints affect seed growth and responsiveness to reorientation. Germination was completely inhibited when seeds were imbibed in the absence of oxygen; germination occurred at 5% oxygen and higher levels. Adding oxygen after 72 h resulted in immediate germination (protrusion of the radicle). Hypoxia typically activates alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH, EC 1.1.1.1) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, EC 1.1.1.27) which produce ethanol and/or L-lactate, respectively. We report on the expression of ADH1 and LDH1, and changes in total soluble sugars, starch, pH, and L-lactate in seedlings grown at 28°C in 0, 2.5, 5, 10% and ambient (21%) oxygen conditions as controls. The highest consumption (lowest level) of sugars was seen at 0% oxygen but the lowest level of starch occurred 24 h after imbibition under ambient condition. Expression levels of ADH1 in ambient oxygen condition increased within 24 h but increased threefold under hypoxic conditions; LDH1 increased up to 8-fold under hypoxia compared to controls but ADH1 and LDH1 were less expressed as the oxygen levels increased. The intracellular pH of seeds decreased as the content of L-lactate increased for all oxygen concentrations. These results indicate that germination of Brassica is sensitive to oxygen levels and that oxygen availability during germination is an important factor for metabolic activities. (Supported by NASA grant NNX10AP91G)

  18. Metabolic consequences of intermittent hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Christopher P

    2007-01-01

    Insulin resistance is being recognized increasingly as the basis for the constellation of metabolic abnormalities that make up the metabolic syndrome, or Syndrome X. Insulin resistance is also the primary risk factor for the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus, which is currently reaching epidemic proportions by affecting more than 170 million people worldwide. A combination of environmental and genetic factors have led to a dramatic rise in visceral adiposity, the predominant factor causing insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Visceral adiposity is also the major risk factor for the development of Sleep Apnea (SA)--an association that has fueled interest in the co-morbidity of SA and the metabolic syndrome, but hampered attempts to ascribe an independent causative role for Sleep Apnea in the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Numerous population and clinic-based epidemiologic studies have shown associations, often independent of obesity, between SA (or surrogates such as snoring) and measures of glucose dysregulation or type 2 diabetes. However, treatment of SA with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) has not been conclusive in demonstrating improvements in insulin resistance, perhaps due to the overwhelming effects of obesity. Here we show that in lean, otherwise healthy mice that exposure to intermittent hypoxia produced whole-body insulin resistance as determined by the hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp and reduced glucose utilization in oxidative muscle fibers, but did not cause a change in hepatic glucose output. Furthermore, the increase in insulin resistance was not affected by blockade of the autonomic nervous system. We conclude that intermittent hypoxia can cause acute insulin resistance in otherwise lean healthy animals, and the response occurs independent of activation of the autonomic nervous system. PMID:18269187

  19. Adenosine, Energy Metabolism, and Sleep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarja Porkka-Heiskanen

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available While the exact function of sleep remains unknown, it is evident that sleep was developed early in phylogenesis and represents an ancient and vital strategy for survival. Several pieces of evidence suggest that the function of sleep is associated with energy metabolism, saving of energy, and replenishment of energy stores. Prolonged wakefulness induces signs of energy depletion in the brain, while experimentally induced, local energy depletion induces increase in sleep, similarly as would a period of prolonged wakefulness. The key molecule in the induction of sleep appears to be adenosine, which induces sleep locally in the basal forebrain.

  20. Glucose metabolism in ischemic myocardium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We determined the myocardial metabolic rate for glucose (MMRGlc) in the ischemic or infarcted myocardium using 18-F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18-FDG) with positron emission tomography (PET), and studied energy metabolism in the ischemic myocardium. In some cases, we compared glucose metabolism images by 18-FDG with myocardial blood flow images using 15-oxygen water. Two normal subjects, seven patients with myocardial infarction and four patients with angina pectoris were studied. Coronary angiography was performed within two weeks before or after the PET study to detect ischemic areas. PET studies were performed for patients who did not eat for 5 to 6 hours after breakfast. Cannulation was performed in the pedal artery to measure free fatty acid, blood sugar, and insulin. After recording the transmission scan for subsequent correction of photon attenuation, blood pool images were recorded for two min. after the inhalation of carbon monoxide (oxygen-15) which labeled the red blood cells in vivo. After 20 min., oxygen-15 water (15 to 20 mCi) was injected for dynamic scans, and flow images were obtained. Thirty min. after this procedure, 18-FDG (5 to 6 mCi) was injected, and 60 min later, a static scan was performed and glucose metabolism images were obtained. Arterial blood sampling for the time activity curve of the tracer was performed at the same time. According to the method of Phelps et al, MMRGlc was calculated in each of the region of interest (ROI) which was located in the left ventricular wall. MMRGlc obtained from each ROI was 0 to 17 mg/100 ml/min. In normal subjects MMRGlc was 0.4 to 7.3 mg/100 ml/min. In patients with myocardial infarction, it ranged from 3 to 5 mg/100 ml/min in the infarcted lesion. In patients with angina pectoris and subendocardial infarction, MMRGlc was 7 to 17 mg/100 ml/min in the ischemic lesion. In this lesion, myocardial blood flow was relatively low by oxygen-15 imagings (so-called mismatch). (J.P.N.)

  1. Thiophene metabolism by E. coli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, D.P.

    1990-01-01

    The objective of this project is to investigate the mechanism of degradation of sulfur containing heterocyclic molecules such as those found in coal, by mutants of Escherichia coli K-12. We previously isolated multiple mutants of E. coli which were selected for improved oxidation of furan and thiophene derivatives. We have focused on the thdA mutation in our subsequent research as it appears to be of central importance in thiophene oxidation. We hope that analysis of the thd genes of E. coli will lead to improvement of our thiophene metabolizing bacterial strains. 1 tab.

  2. Sulfonates and Organotrophic Sulfite Metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Cook, Alasdair M.; Theo H. M. Smits; Denger, Karin

    2007-01-01

    One is used to considering sulfite oxidation as part of a lithotrophic process (e.g. SorAB or Sox system), much of which involves neutral or ionic inorganic sulfur species on the outer surface of the cytoplasmic membrane. In contrast, the processes referred to in this chapter involve organic compounds, which (1) include a highly stable sulfonate substituent (C−SO3−), (2) are involved in the organotrophic growth of the organism and (3) much of whose metabolism takes place in the cytoplasm. Man...

  3. C. elegans Metabolic Gene Regulatory Networks Govern the Cellular Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Emma; Walhout, Albertha J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Diet greatly impacts metabolism in health and disease. In response to the presence or absence of specific nutrients, metabolic gene regulatory networks sense the metabolic state of the cell and regulate metabolic flux accordingly, for instance by the transcriptional control of metabolic enzymes. Here we discuss recent insights regarding metazoan metabolic regulatory networks using the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans as a model, including the modular organization of metabolic gene regulatory networks, the prominent impact of diet on the transcriptome and metabolome, specialized roles of nuclear hormone receptors in responding to dietary conditions, regulation of metabolic genes and metabolic regulators by microRNAs, and feedback between metabolic genes and their regulators. PMID:24731597

  4. Adolescent Catatonia Successfully Treated with Lorazepam and Aripiprazole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron J. Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Catatonia is especially concerning in children and adolescents. It leads to significant impairment, including emotional distress, difficulty communicating, and other debilitating symptoms. In this case report, we discuss a patient with no previous history of neuroleptic medication or psychotic symptoms, presenting with first-episode catatonia in the presence of disorganized, psychotic thoughts. We then review the catatonia syndrome, citing examples in the literature supporting its underdiagnosis in children and adolescents, and discuss successful treatment modalities. It is important to diagnose and treat catatonia as efficiently as possible, to limit functional and emotional distress to the patient.

  5. Role of aripiprazole in treatment-resistant schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Mossaheb N; Kaufmann RM

    2012-01-01

    Nilufar Mossaheb,1 Rainer M Kaufmann21Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 2Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Medical University, Vienna, AustriaAbstract: About one third of patients with schizophrenia respond unsatisfactorily to antipsychotic treatment and are termed “treatment-resistant”. Clozapine is still the gold standard in these cases. However, 40%–70% of patients do not improve sufficiently on clozapine either. In the search for more e...

  6. Metabolic flux rewiring in mammalian cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Jamey D

    2013-12-01

    Continuous cell lines (CCLs) engage in 'wasteful' glucose and glutamine metabolism that leads to accumulation of inhibitory byproducts, primarily lactate and ammonium. Advances in techniques for mapping intracellular carbon fluxes and profiling global changes in enzyme expression have led to a deeper understanding of the molecular drivers underlying these metabolic alterations. However, recent studies have revealed that CCLs are not necessarily entrenched in a glycolytic or glutaminolytic phenotype, but instead can shift their metabolism toward increased oxidative metabolism as nutrients become depleted and/or growth rate slows. Progress to understand dynamic flux regulation in CCLs has enabled the development of novel strategies to force cultures into desirable metabolic phenotypes, by combining fed-batch feeding strategies with direct metabolic engineering of host cells. PMID:23726154

  7. RNA Regulation of Lipotoxicity and Metabolic Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caputa, George; Schaffer, Jean E

    2016-07-01

    Noncoding RNAs are an emerging class of nonpeptide regulators of metabolism. Metabolic diseases and the altered metabolic environment induce marked changes in levels of microRNAs and long noncoding RNAs. Furthermore, recent studies indicate that a growing number of microRNAs and long noncoding RNAs serve as critical mediators of adaptive and maladaptive responses through their effects on gene expression. The metabolic environment also has a profound impact on the functions of classes of noncoding RNAs that have been thought primarily to subserve housekeeping functions in cells-ribosomal RNAs, transfer RNAs, and small nucleolar RNAs. Evidence is accumulating that these RNAs are also components of an integrated cellular response to the metabolic milieu. This Perspective discusses the different classes of noncoding RNAs and their contributions to the pathogenesis of metabolic stress. PMID:27288006

  8. ER Stress and Lipid Metabolism in Adipocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beth S. Zha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress is a rapidly emerging field of interest in the pathogenesis of metabolic diseases. Recent studies have shown that chronic activation of ER stress is closely linked to dysregulation of lipid metabolism in several metabolically important cells including hepatocytes, macrophages, β-cells, and adipocytes. Adipocytes are one of the major cell types involved in the pathogenesis of the metabolic syndrome. Recent advances in dissecting the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in the regulation of adipogenesis and lipid metabolism indicate that activation of ER stress plays a central role in regulating adipocyte function. In this paper, we discuss the current understanding of the potential role of ER stress in lipid metabolism in adipocytes. In addition, we touch upon the interaction of ER stress and autophagy as well as inflammation. Inhibition of ER stress has the potential of decreasing the pathology in adipose tissue that is seen with energy overbalance.

  9. Preventing Allograft Rejection by Targeting Immune Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Fang Lee

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Upon antigen recognition and co-stimulation, T lymphocytes upregulate the metabolic machinery necessary to proliferate and sustain effector function. This metabolic reprogramming in T cells regulates T cell activation and differentiation but is not just a consequence of antigen recognition. Although such metabolic reprogramming promotes the differentiation and function of T effector cells, the differentiation of regulatory T cells employs different metabolic reprogramming. Therefore, we hypothesized that inhibition of glycolysis and glutamine metabolism might prevent graft rejection by inhibiting effector generation and function and promoting regulatory T cell generation. We devised an anti-rejection regimen involving the glycolytic inhibitor 2-deoxyglucose (2-DG, the anti-type II diabetes drug metformin, and the inhibitor of glutamine metabolism 6-diazo-5-oxo-L-norleucine (DON. Using this triple-drug regimen, we were able to prevent or delay graft rejection in fully mismatched skin and heart allograft transplantation models.

  10. Metabolic remodeling in chronic heart failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing WANG; Tao GUO

    2013-01-01

    Although the management of chronic heart failure (CHF) has made enormous progress over the past decades,CHF is still a tremendous medical and societal burden.Metabolic remodeling might play a crucial role in the pathophysiology of CHF.The characteristics and mechanisms of metabolic remodeling remained unclear,and the main hypothesis might include the changes in the availability of metabolic substrate and the decline of metabolic capability.In the early phases of the disease,metabolism shifts toward carbohydrate utilization from fatty acids (FAs) oxidation.Along with the progress of the disease,the increasing level of the hyperadrenergic state and insulin resistance cause the changes that shift back to a greater FA uptake and oxidation.In addition,a growing body of experimental and clinical evidence suggests that the improvement in the metabolic capability is likely to be more significant than the selection of the substrate.

  11. Deciphering transcriptional and metabolic networks associated with lysine metabolism during Arabidopsis seed development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelovici, Ruthie; Fait, Aaron; Zhu, Xiaohong; Szymanski, Jedrzej; Feldmesser, Ester; Fernie, Alisdair R; Galili, Gad

    2009-12-01

    In order to elucidate transcriptional and metabolic networks associated with lysine (Lys) metabolism, we utilized developing Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) seeds as a system in which Lys synthesis could be stimulated developmentally without application of chemicals and coupled this to a T-DNA insertion knockout mutation impaired in Lys catabolism. This seed-specific metabolic perturbation stimulated Lys accumulation starting from the initiation of storage reserve accumulation. Our results revealed that the response of seed metabolism to the inducible alteration of Lys metabolism was relatively minor; however, that which was observable operated in a modular manner. They also demonstrated that Lys metabolism is strongly associated with the operation of the tricarboxylic acid cycle while largely disconnected from other metabolic networks. In contrast, the inducible alteration of Lys metabolism was strongly associated with gene networks, stimulating the expression of hundreds of genes controlling anabolic processes that are associated with plant performance and vigor while suppressing a small number of genes associated with plant stress interactions. The most pronounced effect of the developmentally inducible alteration of Lys metabolism was an induction of expression of a large set of genes encoding ribosomal proteins as well as genes encoding translation initiation and elongation factors, all of which are associated with protein synthesis. With respect to metabolic regulation, the inducible alteration of Lys metabolism was primarily associated with altered expression of genes belonging to networks of amino acids and sugar metabolism. The combined data are discussed within the context of network interactions both between and within metabolic and transcriptional control systems.

  12. Metabolic Syndrome: Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortada, Rami; Williams, Tracy

    2015-08-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a heterogeneous condition characterized by androgen excess, ovulatory dysfunction, and polycystic ovaries. It is the most common endocrinopathy among women of reproductive age, affecting between 6.5% and 8% of women, and is the most common cause of infertility. Insulin resistance is almost always present in women with PCOS, regardless of weight, and they often develop diabetes and metabolic syndrome. The Rotterdam criteria are widely used for diagnosis. These criteria require that patients have at least two of the following conditions: hyperandrogenism, ovulatory dysfunction, and polycystic ovaries. The diagnosis of PCOS also requires exclusion of other potential etiologies of hyperandrogenism and ovulatory dysfunction. The approach to PCOS management differs according to the presenting symptoms and treatment goals, particularly the patient's desire for pregnancy. Weight loss through dietary modifications and exercise is recommended for patients with PCOS who are overweight. Oral contraceptives are the first-line treatment for regulating menstrual cycles and reducing manifestations of hyperandrogenism, such as acne and hirsutism. Clomiphene is the first-line drug for management of anovulatory infertility. Metformin is recommended for metabolic abnormalities such as prediabetes, and a statin should be prescribed for cardioprotection if the patient meets standard criteria for statin therapy. PMID:26280343

  13. Artificial Promoters for Metabolic Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter Ruhdal; Hammer, Karin

    1998-01-01

    In this article, we review some of the expression systems that are available for Metabolic Control Analysis and Metabolic Engineering, and examine their advantages and disadvantages in different contexts. In a recent approach, artificial promoters for modulating gene expression in micro-organisms...... level is then, in principle, ready for use in the industrial fermentation process; another advantage is that the system can be used to optimize the expression of different enzymes within the same cell. (C) 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc....... of activity change. Promoter libraries generated by this approach allow for optimization of gene expression and for experimental control analysis in a wide range of biological systems by choosing from the promoter library promoters giving, e.g., 25%, 50%, 200%, and 400% of the normal expression level...... of the gene in question. If the relevant variable (e.g., the flux or yield) is then measured with each of these constructs, then one can calculate the control coefficient and determine the optimal expression level. One advantage of the method is that the construct which is found to have the optimal expression...

  14. Benzodiazepine metabolism: an analytical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandrioli, Roberto; Mercolini, Laura; Raggi, Maria Augusta

    2008-10-01

    Benzodiazepines are currently among the most frequently prescribed drugs all over the world. They act as anxiolytics, sedatives, hypnotics, amnesics, antiepileptics and muscle relaxants. Despite their common chemical scaffold, these drugs differ in their pharmacokinetic and metabolic properties. In particular, they are biotransformed by different cytochrome P450 isoforms and also by different UDP-glucuronosyltransferase subtypes. The most important studies on the metabolic characteristics of several 1,4-benzodiazepines, carried out from 1998 onwards, are reported and briefly discussed in this review. Moreover, the analytical methods related to these studies are also described and commented upon and their most important characteristics are highlighted. Most methods are based on liquid chromatography, which provides wide applicability and good analytical performance granting high precision, accuracy and feasibility. Mass spectrometry is gaining widespread acceptance, particularly if the matrix is very complex and variable, such as human or animal blood. However, spectrophotometric detection is still used for this purpose and can grant sufficient selectivity and sensitivity when coupled to suitable sample pre-treatment procedures. A monograph is included for each of the following benzodiazepines: alprazolam, bromazepam, brotizolam, clotiazepam, diazepam, etizolam, flunitrazepam, lorazepam, midazolam, oxazepam and triazolam. PMID:18855614

  15. Carbohydrate metabolism in Spirochaeta stenostrepta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hespell, R B; Canale-Parola, E

    1970-07-01

    The pathways of carbohydrate metabolism in Spirochaeta stenostrepta, a free-living, strictly anaerobic spirochete, were studied. The organism fermented glucose to ethyl alcohol, acetate, lactate, CO(2), and H(2). Assays of enzymatic activities in cell extracts, and determinations of radioactivity distribution in products formed from (14)C-labeled glucose indicated that S. stenostrepta degraded glucose via the Embden-Meyerhof pathway. The spirochete utilized a clostridial-type clastic reaction to metabolize pyruvate to acetyl-coenzyme A, CO(2), and H(2), without production of formate. Acetyl-coenzyme A was converted to ethyl alcohol by nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-dependent acetaldehyde and alcohol dehydrogenase activities. Phosphotransacetylase and acetate kinase catalyzed the formation of acetate from acetyl-coenzyme A. Hydrogenase and lactate dehydrogenase activities were detected in cell extracts. A rubredoxin was isolated from cell extracts of S. stenostrepta. Preparations of this rubredoxin stimulated acetyl phosphate formation from pyruvate by diethylaminoethyl cellulose-treated extracts of S. stenostrepta, an indication that rubredoxin may participate in pyruvate cleavage by this spirochete. Nutritional studies showed that S. stenostrepta fermented a variety of carbohydrates, but did not ferment amino acids or other organic acids. An unidentified growth factor present in yeast extract was required by the organism. Exogenous supplements of biotin, riboflavin, and vitamin B(12) were either stimulatory or required for growth. PMID:5423371

  16. Metabolic syndrome in bipolar disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Grover

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available To review the data with respect to prevalence and risk factors of metabolic syndrome (MetS in bipolar disorder patients. Electronic searches were done in PUBMED, Google Scholar and Science direct. From 2004 to June 2011, 34 articles were found which reported on the prevalence of MetS. The sample size of these studies varied from 15 to 822 patients, and the rates of MetS vary widely from 16.7% to 67% across different studies. None of the sociodemographic variable has emerged as a consistent risk factor for MetS. Among the clinical variables longer duration of illness, bipolar disorder- I, with greater number of lifetime depressive and manic episodes, and with more severe and difficult-to-treat index affective episode, with depression at onset and during acute episodes, lower in severity of mania during the index episode, later age of onset at first manic episode, later age at first treatment for the first treatment for both phases, less healthy diet as rated by patients themselves, absence of physical activity and family history of diabetes mellitus have been reported as clinical risk factors of MetS. Data suggests that metabolic syndrome is fairly prevalent in bipolar disorder patients.

  17. Metabolism of phthalates in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederiksen, Hanne; Skakkebaek, Niels E; Andersson, Anna-Maria

    2007-07-01

    Phthalates are synthetic compounds widely used as plasticisers, solvents and additives in many consumer products. Several animal studies have shown that some phthalates possess endocrine disrupting effects. Some of the effects of phthalates seen in rats are due to testosterone lowering effects on the foetal testis and they are similar to those seen in humans with testicular dysgenesis syndrome. Therefore, exposure of the human foetus and infants to phthalates via maternal exposure is a matter of concern. The metabolic pathways of phthalate metabolites excreted in human urine are partly known for some phthalates, but our knowledge about metabolic distribution in the body and other biological fluids, including breast milk, is limited. Compared to urine, human breast milk contains relatively more of the hydrophobic phthalates, such as di-n-butyl phthalate and the longer-branched, di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and di-iso-nonyl phthalate (DiNP); and their monoester metabolites. Urine, however, contains relatively more of the secondary metabolites of DEHP and DiNP, as well as the monoester phthalates of the more short-branched phthalates. This differential distribution is of special concern as, in particular, the hydrophobic phthalates and their metabolites are shown to have adverse effects following in utero and lactational exposures in animal studies.

  18. Bone metabolism in thyroidectomized patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The bone mineral content in the patients who had undergone operation for thyroid carcinoma was measured by quantitative CT. Thirty-eight cases were enrolled as the subjects. All cases were papillary adenocarcinoma of the thyroid. The totally thyroidectomized group consisted of 3 males and 14 females, and the non-totally thyroidectomized group (post-lobectomy) 3 males and 18 females. Thirty-eight healthy males and females were assigned to the control group. For evaluation of bone mineral content, quantitative CT was used and bone mineral content in the patient's lumbar vertebrae was measured. Concurrently, bone metabolic parameter in serum was determined. No significant difference was observed in the mean bone mineral content among the above three groups. To make correction by sex and age, BMC-index was defined as the value that the bone mineral content in each case was divided by the standard mean by the same age and sex. No significant difference was observed in BMC-index among the above three groups. No significant correlation was observed in serum calcitonin level with the bone mineral content and BMC-index. It suggests that no influence is exerted on bone metabolism if serum calcitonin is maintained in the physiological level. (author)

  19. Metabolic syndrome and major depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marazziti, Donatella; Rutigliano, Grazia; Baroni, Stefano; Landi, Paola; Dell'Osso, Liliana

    2014-08-01

    Major depression is associated with a 4-fold increased risk for premature death, largely accounted by cardiovascular disease (CVD). The relationship between depression and CVD is thought to be mediated by the so-called metabolic syndrome (MeS). Epidemiological studies have consistently demonstrated a co-occurrence of depression with MeS components, ie, visceral obesity, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, and hypertension. Although the exact mechanisms linking MeS to depression are unclear, different hypotheses have been put forward. On the one hand, MeS could be the hallmark of the unhealthy lifestyle habits of depressed patients. On the other, MeS and depression might share common alterations of the stress system, including the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, the autonomic nervous system, the immune system, and platelet and endothelial function. Both the conditions induce a low grade chronic inflammatory state that, in turn, leads to increased oxidative and nitrosative (O&NS) damage of neurons, pancreatic cells, and endothelium. Recently, neurobiological research revealed that peripheral hormones, such as leptin and ghrelin, which are classically involved in homeostatic energy balance, may play a role in mood regulation. Metabolic risk should be routinely assessed in depressed patients and taken into account in therapeutic decisions. Alternative targets should be considered for innovative antidepressant agents, including cytokines and their receptors, intracellular inflammatory mediators, glucocorticoids receptors, O&NS pathways, and peripheral mediators.

  20. METABOLIC SYNDROME – THEORY AND PRACTICE

    OpenAIRE

    Ramic, Enisa; Prasko, Subhija; Mujanovic, Olivera Batic; Gavran, Larisa

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Due to sedentary lifestyles and excessive calorie intake, metabolic syndrome is becoming increasingly common health problem in the world, as well as in our country, and it is estimated to occur in 30% of the population of middle and older age. The metabolic syndrome is a combination of disorders that include: obesity, insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, impaired regulation of body fat and high blood pressure. Complications resulting from metabolic syndrome significantly red...

  1. Metabolic consequences of sleep and circadian disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Depner, Christopher M.; Stothard, Ellen R.; Wright, Kenneth P.

    2014-01-01

    Sleep and circadian rhythms modulate or control daily physiological patterns with importance for normal metabolic health. Sleep deficiencies associated with insufficient sleep schedules, insomnia with short-sleep duration, sleep apnea, narcolepsy, circadian misalignment, shift work, night eating syndrome and sleep-related eating disorder may all contribute to metabolic dysregulation. Sleep deficiencies and circadian disruption associated with metabolic dysregulation may contribute to weight g...

  2. Controlling fluxes for microbial metabolic engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Sachdeva, Gairik

    2014-01-01

    This thesis presents novel synthetic biology tools and design principles usable for microbial metabolic engineering. Controlling metabolic fluxes is essential for biological manufacturing of fuels, materials, and high value chemicals. Insulating the flow of metabolites is a successful natural strategy for metabolic flux regulation. Recently, approaches using scaffolds, both in vitro and in vivo, to spatially co-localize enzymes have reported significant gains in product yields. RNA is suitabl...

  3. Metabolism and metabolites of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)

    OpenAIRE

    Grimm, FA; Hu, D.; Kania-Korwel, I.; Lehmler, HJ; Ludewig, G; Hornbuckle, KC; Duffel, MW; Bergman, A; Robertson, LW

    2015-01-01

    The metabolism of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) is complex and has an impact on toxicity and thereby assessment of PCB risks. A large number of reactive and stable metabolites are formed in the processes of biotransformation in biota in general and in humans in particular. The aim of this document is to provide an overview of PCB metabolism and to identify metabolites of concern and their occurrence. Emphasis is given to mammalian metabolism of PCBs and their hydroxyl, methylsulfonyl, and ...

  4. Regional myocardial free fatty acid metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experimental evidence to date has confirmed the potential value of radioactive labelled free fatty acid (FFA) and their analogs for the assessment of regional myocardial FFA metabolism despite a number of current limitations. It is emphasized that with these agents only one specific aspect of myocardial metabolism, that of FFA, can be tested and that with these compounds information on the overall metabolic state cannot always be obtained. (WU)

  5. Scaling of Metabolic Scaling within Physical Limits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas S. Glazier

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Both the slope and elevation of scaling relationships between log metabolic rate and log body size vary taxonomically and in relation to physiological or developmental state, ecological lifestyle and environmental conditions. Here I discuss how the recently proposed metabolic-level boundaries hypothesis (MLBH provides a useful conceptual framework for explaining and predicting much, but not all of this variation. This hypothesis is based on three major assumptions: (1 various processes related to body volume and surface area exert state-dependent effects on the scaling slope for metabolic rate in relation to body mass; (2 the elevation and slope of metabolic scaling relationships are linked; and (3 both intrinsic (anatomical, biochemical and physiological and extrinsic (ecological factors can affect metabolic scaling. According to the MLBH, the diversity of metabolic scaling relationships occurs within physical boundary limits related to body volume and surface area. Within these limits, specific metabolic scaling slopes can be predicted from the metabolic level (or scaling elevation of a species or group of species. In essence, metabolic scaling itself scales with metabolic level, which is in turn contingent on various intrinsic and extrinsic conditions operating in physiological or evolutionary time. The MLBH represents a “meta-mechanism” or collection of multiple, specific mechanisms that have contingent, state-dependent effects. As such, the MLBH is Darwinian in approach (the theory of natural selection is also meta-mechanistic, in contrast to currently influential metabolic scaling theory that is Newtonian in approach (i.e., based on unitary deterministic laws. Furthermore, the MLBH can be viewed as part of a more general theory that includes other mechanisms that may also affect metabolic scaling.

  6. Fifteen years experience: Egyptian metabolic lab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekram M. Fateen

    2014-10-01

    Conclusion: This study illustrates the experience of the reference metabolic lab in Egypt over 15 years. The lab began metabolic disorder screening by using simple diagnostic techniques like thin layer chromatography and colored tests in urine which by time updated and upgraded the methods to diagnose a wide range of disorders. This study shows the most common diagnosed inherited inborn errors of metabolism among the Egyptian population.

  7. Neuroprotection in Metabolism-Based Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Hartman, Adam L.

    2011-01-01

    Metabolism-based therapy has been used successfully in the treatment of seizures but study of its use in other neurodegenerative disorders is growing. Data demonstrating the use of different forms of metabolism-based therapy in human trials of Alzheimer disease and Parkinson disease are discussed. Animal and in vitro studies have shed light on metabolism-based therapy’s mechanisms in these diseases, as well as ALS, aging, ischemia, trauma and mitochondrial cytopathies. Additional insights may...

  8. Highly optimised global organisation of metabolic networks

    OpenAIRE

    Tanaka, R.; Csete, M.; Doyle, J.

    2005-01-01

    High-level, mathematically precise descriptions of the global organisation of complex metabolic networks are necessary for understanding the global structure of metabolic networks, the interpretation and integration of large amounts of biologic data (sequences, various -omics) and ultimately for rational design of therapies for disease processes. Metabolic networks are highly organised to execute their function efficiently while tolerating wide variation in their environment. These network...

  9. Metabolic Flexibility: Hibernation, Torpor, and Estivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staples, James F

    2016-04-01

    Many environmental conditions can constrain the ability of animals to obtain sufficient food energy, or transform that food energy into useful chemical forms. To survive extended periods under such conditions animals must suppress metabolic rate to conserve energy, water, or oxygen. Amongst small endotherms, this metabolic suppression is accompanied by and, in some cases, facilitated by a decrease in core body temperature-hibernation or daily torpor-though significant metabolic suppression can be achieved even with only modest cooling. Within some ectotherms, winter metabolic suppression exceeds the passive effects of cooling. During dry seasons, estivating ectotherms can reduce metabolism without changes in body temperature, conserving energy reserves, and reducing gas exchange and its inevitable loss of water vapor. This overview explores the similarities and differences of metabolic suppression among these states within adult animals (excluding developmental diapause), and integrates levels of organization from the whole animal to the genome, where possible. Several similarities among these states are highlighted, including patterns and regulation of metabolic balance, fuel use, and mitochondrial metabolism. Differences among models are also apparent, particularly in whether the metabolic suppression is intrinsic to the tissue or depends on the whole-animal response. While in these hypometabolic states, tissues from many animals are tolerant of hypoxia/anoxia, ischemia/reperfusion, and disuse. These natural models may, therefore, serve as valuable and instructive models for biomedical research. PMID:27065167

  10. Supply–demand balance and metabolic scaling

    OpenAIRE

    Banavar, Jayanth R.; Damuth, John; Maritan, Amos; Rinaldo, Andrea

    2002-01-01

    It is widely accepted that metabolic rates scale across species approximately as the 3/4 power of mass in most if not all groups of organisms. Metabolic demand per unit mass thus decreases as body mass increases. Metabolic rates reflect both the ability of the organism's transport system to deliver metabolites to the tissues and the rate at which the tissues use them. We show that the ubiquitous 3/4 power law for interspecific metabolic scaling arises from simple, general geometric properties...

  11. Evolutionary models of metabolism, behaviour and personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, Alasdair I

    2010-12-27

    I explore the relationship between metabolism and personality by establishing how selection acts on metabolic rate and risk-taking in the context of a trade-off between energy and predation. Using a simple time budget model, I show that a high resting metabolic rate is not necessarily associated with a high daily energy expenditure. The metabolic rate that minimizes the time spent foraging does not maximize the net gain rate while foraging, and it is not always advantageous for animals to have a higher metabolic rate when food availability is high. A model based on minimizing the ratio of mortality rate to net gain rate is used to determine how a willingness to take risks should be correlated with metabolic rate. My results establish that it is not always advantageous for animals to take greater risks when metabolic rate is high. When foraging intensity and metabolic rate coevolve, I show that in a particular case different combinations of foraging intensity and metabolic rate can have equal fitness.

  12. Metabolic modeling of muscle metabolism identifies key reactions linked to insulin resistance phenotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Nogiec

    2015-03-01

    Conclusions: Our results indicate that complex interactions between multiple biochemical reactions contribute to metabolic perturbations observed in human IR, and that the PDH complex plays a key role in these metabolic phenotypes.

  13. Metabolism of stem tissue during growth and its inhibition. III. Nitrogen metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christiansen, G.S.; Thimann, K.V.

    1950-01-01

    The nitrogen metabolism of isolated pea stem sections as affected by arsenite, fluoride, and iodoacetate growth inhibitors in auxin solutions was studied. The changes in growth and metabolism caused by these inhibitors are discussed.

  14. Microbial Metabolism in Serpentinite Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo-Medina, M.; Brazelton, W. J.; Twing, K. I.; Kubo, M.; Hoehler, T. M.; Schrenk, M. O.

    2013-12-01

    Serpentinization is the process in which ultramafic rocks, characteristic of the upper mantle, react with water liberating mantle carbon and reducing power to potenially support chemosynthetic microbial communities. These communities may be important mediators of carbon and energy exchange between the deep Earth and the surface biosphere. Our work focuses on the Coast Range Ophiolite Microbial Observatory (CROMO) in Northern California where subsurface fluids are accessible through a series of wells. Preliminary analyses indicate that the highly basic fluids (pH 9-12) have low microbial diversity, but there is limited knowledge about the metabolic capabilities of these communties. Metagenomic data from similar serpentine environments [1] have identified Betaproteobacteria belonging to the order Burkholderiales and Gram-positive bacteria from the order Clostridiales as key components of the serpentine microbiome. In an effort to better characterize the microbial community, metabolism, and geochemistry at CROMO, fluids from two representative wells (N08B and CSWold) were sampled during recent field campaigns. Geochemical characterization of the fluids includes measurements of dissolved gases (H2, CO, CH4), dissolved inorganic and organic carbon, volatile fatty acids, and nutrients. The wells selected can be differentiated in that N08B had higher pH (10-11), lower dissolved oxygen, and cell counts ranging from 105-106 cells mL-1 of fluid, with an abundance of the betaproteobacterium Hydrogenophaga. In contrast, fluids from CSWold have slightly lower pH (9-9.5), DO, and conductivity, as well as higher TDN and TDP. CSWold fluid is also characterized for having lower cell counts (~103 cells mL-1) and an abundance of Dethiobacter, a taxon within the phylum Clostridiales. Microcosm experiments were conducted with the purpose of monitoring carbon fixation, methanotrophy and metabolism of small organic compounds, such as acetate and formate, while tracing changes in fluid

  15. AMPKα in Exercise-Induced Substrate Metabolism and Exercise Training-Induced Metabolic and Mitochondrial Adaptations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fentz, Joachim

    metabolic capacity through several mechanisms. Some of the most important are increases in muscle capillarization and in expression of metabolic and mitochondrial proteins that transport and metabolize glucose and fatty acids. The protein AMPK is a trimeric protein composed of an  α-, β- and a y...

  16. A compendium of inborn errors of metabolism mapped onto the human metabolic network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Swagatika; Franzson, Leifur; Jonsson, Jon J; Thiele, Ines

    2012-10-01

    Inborn errors of metabolism (IEMs) are hereditary metabolic defects, which are encountered in almost all major metabolic pathways occurring in man. Many IEMs are screened for in neonates through metabolomic analysis of dried blood spot samples. To enable the mapping of these metabolomic data onto the published human metabolic reconstruction, we added missing reactions and pathways involved in acylcarnitine (AC) and fatty acid oxidation (FAO) metabolism. Using literary data, we reconstructed an AC/FAO module consisting of 352 reactions and 139 metabolites. When this module was combined with the human metabolic reconstruction, the synthesis of 39 acylcarnitines and 22 amino acids, which are routinely measured, was captured and 235 distinct IEMs could be mapped. We collected phenotypic and clinical features for each IEM enabling comprehensive classification. We found that carbohydrate, amino acid, and lipid metabolism were most affected by the IEMs, while the brain was the most commonly affected organ. Furthermore, we analyzed the IEMs in the context of metabolic network topology to gain insight into common features between metabolically connected IEMs. While many known examples were identified, we discovered some surprising IEM pairs that shared reactions as well as clinical features but not necessarily causal genes. Moreover, we could also re-confirm that acetyl-CoA acts as a central metabolite. This network based analysis leads to further insight of hot spots in human metabolism with respect to IEMs. The presented comprehensive knowledge base of IEMs will provide a valuable tool in studying metabolic changes involved in inherited metabolic diseases. PMID:22699794

  17. Skeletal muscle metabolism in hypokinetic rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tischler, Marc E.

    1993-01-01

    This grant focused on the mechanisms of metabolic changes associated with unweighting atrophy and reduced growth of hind limb muscles of juvenile rats. Metabolic studies included a number of different areas. Amino acid metabolic studies placed particular emphasis on glutamine and branched-chain amino acid metabolism. These studies were an outgrowth of understanding stress effects and the role of glucocorticoids in these animals. Investigations on protein metabolism were largely concerned with selective loss of myofibrillar proteins and the role of muscle proteolysis. These investigations lead to finding important differences from denervation and atrophy and to define the roles of cytosolic versus lysosomal proteolysis in these atrophy models. A major outgrowth of these studies was demonstrating an ability to prevent atrophy of the unweighted muscle for at least 24 hours. A large amount of work concentrated on carbohydrate metabolism and its regulation by insulin and catecholamines. Measurements focused on glucose transport, glycogen metabolism, and glucose oxidation. The grant was used to develop an important new in situ approach for studying protein metabolism, glucose transport, and hormonal effects which involves intramuscular injection of various agents for up to 24 hours. Another important consequence of this project was the development and flight of Physiological-Anatomical Rodent Experiment-1 (PARE-1), which was launched aboard Space Shuttle Discovery in September 1991. Detailed descriptions of these studies can be found in the 30 peer-reviewed publications, 15 non-reviewed publications, 4 reviews and 33 abstracts (total 82 publications) which were or are scheduled to be published as a result of this project. A listing of these publications grouped by area (i.e. amino acid metabolism, protein metabolism, carbohydrate metabolism, and space flight studies) are included.

  18. Relationship Between Metabolic Syndrome and Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serkan Bas

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Metabolic syndrome has gained increased attention in the last century after researchers identified its important role in cardiovascular mortality and morbidity in developed countries. Despite limited research into the relationship between metabolic syndrome and prostate cancer (PCa, the precise relationship has not been elucidated due to lack of research into the specific factors associated with PCa. To fill this research gap, we evaluated the incidence of PCa in patients with metabolic syndrome and the relationship between metabolic syndrome and the parameters of PCa. Material and Method: We retrospectively evaluated the biochemical analyses of the serum parameters and pathological reports of 102 PCa patients diagnosed by transrectal ultrasound. After determining the incidence of metabolic syndrome in patients with PCa, we divided the patients into two groups, those with and without a diagnosis of metabolic syndrome. We then compared the serum PSA level, age, total prostate volume, Gleason score, triglyceride (TG level, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level (HDL-C, blood pressure, and fasting glucose level of the two groups. Results: We included 102 patients with a diagnosis of prostate cancer in the present study. Among the 102 patients, 18 (17.6% were diagnosed with metabolic syndrome. While the PSA levels of the PCa patients were found to be significantly lower in those with metabolic syndrome compared to those without metabolic syndrome (P=0.04, no difference was found between the groups regarding the other components of PCa (P>0.05. Discussion: Serum PSA level was found to be significantly lower in those with metabolic syndrome. This result leads us to consider whether prostate biopsy should be performed in patients with metabolic syndrome who have lower PSA levels than the levels currently specified for biopsy. Further research into the parameters of PCa needs to be conducted to confirm our findings.

  19. Metabolic scaling: consensus or controversy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wheatley Denys N

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The relationship between body mass (M and standard metabolic rate (B among living organisms remains controversial, though it is widely accepted that in many cases B is approximately proportional to the three-quarters power of M. Results The biological significance of the straight-line plots obtained over wide ranges of species when B is plotted against log M remains a matter of debate. In this article we review the values ascribed to the gradients of such graphs (typically 0.75, according to the majority view, and we assess various attempts to explain the allometric power-law phenomenon, placing emphasis on the most recent publications. Conclusion Although many of the models that have been advanced have significant attractions, none can be accepted without serious reservations, and the possibility that no one model can fit all cases has to be more seriously entertained.

  20. Metabolic syndrome in South Asians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaushik Pandit

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available South Asia is home to one of the largest population of people with metabolic syndrome (MetS. The prevalence of MetS in South Asians varies according to region, extent of urbanization, lifestyle patterns, and socioeconomic/cultural factors. Recent data show that about one-third of the urban population in large cities in India has the MetS. All classical risk factors comprising the MetS are prevalent in Asian Indians residing in India. The higher risk in this ethnic population necessitated a lowering of the cut-off values of the risk factors to identify and intervene for the MetS to prevent diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Some pharmacological and nonpharmacological interventions are underway in MetS to assess the efficacy in preventing the diabetes and cardiovascular disease in this ethnic population.

  1. Metabolic hypothesis for human altriciality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunsworth, Holly M.; Warrener, Anna G.; Deacon, Terrence; Ellison, Peter T.; Pontzer, Herman

    2012-01-01

    The classic anthropological hypothesis known as the “obstetrical dilemma” is a well-known explanation for human altriciality, a condition that has significant implications for human social and behavioral evolution. The hypothesis holds that antagonistic selection for a large neonatal brain and a narrow, bipedal-adapted birth canal poses a problem for childbirth; the hominin “solution” is to truncate gestation, resulting in an altricial neonate. This explanation for human altriciality based on pelvic constraints persists despite data linking human life history to that of other species. Here, we present evidence that challenges the importance of pelvic morphology and mechanics in the evolution of human gestation and altriciality. Instead, our analyses suggest that limits to maternal metabolism are the primary constraints on human gestation length and fetal growth. Although pelvic remodeling and encephalization during hominin evolution contributed to the present parturitional difficulty, there is little evidence that pelvic constraints have altered the timing of birth. PMID:22932870

  2. Metabolic effects of smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Kindred K; Zopey, Mohan; Friedman, Theodore C

    2016-05-01

    Smoking continues to be the leading cause of preventable death in the USA, despite the vast and widely publicized knowledge about the negative health effects of tobacco smoking. Data show that smoking cessation is often accompanied by weight gain and an improvement in insulin sensitivity over time. However, paradoxically, post-cessation-related obesity might contribute to insulin resistance. Furthermore, post-cessation weight gain is reportedly the number one reason why smokers, especially women, fail to initiate smoking cessation or relapse after initiating smoking cessation. In this Review, we discuss the metabolic effects of stopping smoking and highlight future considerations for smoking cessation programs and therapies to be designed with an emphasis on reducing post-cessation weight gain.

  3. [Liver cirrhosis in metabolic disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tazawa, Y

    1994-01-01

    The most early cirrhosis is observed in newborns with neonatal hemachromatosis. Early cirrhosis occurs in hereditary tyrosinemia type I, peroxisomal diseases and glycogen storage disease (type IV). In Wilson's disease, a case complicated with cirrhosis was reported in a 4-year-old patient. Slowly progressive cirrhosis is seen in patients with familial progressive intrahepatic cholestasis. Focal biliary cirrhosis is found in cystic fibrosis of the pancreas. Moreover, many other metabolic disorders, except for urea cycle disorders, are occasionally or rarely complicated with cirrhosis. Early diagnosis and proper management could prevent the development of cirrhosis in patients with galactosemia, hereditary fructose intolerance, etc. The occurrence of hepatoma must be monitored in these patients. Liver transplantation is indicated in a part of the patients with cirrhosis. PMID:8114297

  4. Metabolic effects of smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Kindred K; Zopey, Mohan; Friedman, Theodore C

    2016-05-01

    Smoking continues to be the leading cause of preventable death in the USA, despite the vast and widely publicized knowledge about the negative health effects of tobacco smoking. Data show that smoking cessation is often accompanied by weight gain and an improvement in insulin sensitivity over time. However, paradoxically, post-cessation-related obesity might contribute to insulin resistance. Furthermore, post-cessation weight gain is reportedly the number one reason why smokers, especially women, fail to initiate smoking cessation or relapse after initiating smoking cessation. In this Review, we discuss the metabolic effects of stopping smoking and highlight future considerations for smoking cessation programs and therapies to be designed with an emphasis on reducing post-cessation weight gain. PMID:26939981

  5. Mammalian aquaglyceroporin function in metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laforenza, Umberto; Bottino, Cinzia; Gastaldi, Giulia

    2016-01-01

    Aquaglyceroporins are integral membrane proteins that are permeable to glycerol as well as water. The movement of glycerol from a tissue/organ to the plasma and vice versa requires the presence of different aquaglyceroporins that can regulate the entrance or the exit of glycerol across the plasma membrane. Actually, different aquaglyceroporins have been discovered in the adipose tissue, small intestine, liver, kidney, heart, skeletal muscle, endocrine pancreas and capillary endothelium, and their differential expression could be related to obesity and the type 2 diabetes. Here we describe the expression and function of different aquaglyceroporins in physiological condition and in obesity and type 2 diabetes, suggesting they are potential therapeutic targets for metabolic disorders. PMID:26456554

  6. Metabolic Fate of Hallucinogenic NBOMes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leth-Petersen, Sebastian; Gabel-Jensen, Charlotte; Gillings, Nic; Lehel, Szabolzs; Hansen, Hanne D; Knudsen, Gitte M; Kristensen, Jesper L

    2016-01-19

    2,5-Dimethoxy-N-benzylphenethylamines (NBOMes) are very potent 5-HT2AR agonists. Illicit use of these psychedelic compounds has emerged in recent years, and several fatalities have been linked to their recreational use. In its [(11)C]-labeled form, one NBOMe (25B-NBOMe) was recently developed as a PET-ligand for clinical investigations of 5HT2AR ([(11)C]Cimbi-36). Herein, we have identified the phase I and phase II metabolites of 25B-NBOMe in pigs as well as in humans. We find that the primary route of metabolism is 5'-demethylation, followed by conjugation to glucuronic acid. Carbon-11 labeling of 25B-NBOMe in three different positions followed by in vivo evaluation in pigs and humans corroborated these findings.

  7. Metabolic syndrome and gallstone disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-Ying Chen; Qiao-Hua Qiao; Shan-Chun Zhang; Yu-Hao Chen; Guan-Qun Chao; Li-Zheng Fang

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To investigate the association between metabolic syndrome (MetS) and the development of gallstone disease (GSD).METHODS:A cross-sectional study was conducted in 7570 subjects (4978 men aged 45.0 ± 8.8 years,and 2592 women aged 45.3 ± 9.5 years) enrolled from the physical check-up center of the hospital.The subjects included 918 patients with gallstones (653 men and 265 women) and 6652 healthy controls (4325 men and 2327 women) without gallstones.Body mass index (BMI),waist circumference,blood pressure,fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and serum lipids and lipoproteins levels were measured.Colorimetric method was used to measure cholesterol,high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C).Dextrose oxidizing enzyme method was used to measure FPG.Subjects were asked to complete a questionnaire that enquired about the information on demographic data,age,gender,histories of diabetes mellitus,hypertension,and chronic liver disease and so on.Metabolic syndrome was diagnosed according to the Adult Treatment Panel Ⅲ (ATP Ⅲ) criteria.Gallstones were defined by the presence of strong intraluminal echoes that were gravity-dependent or attenuated ultrasound transmission.RESULTS:Among the 7570 subjects,the prevalence of the gallstone disease was 12.1% (13.1% in men and 10.2% in women).BMI,waist circumference,systolic blood pressure,diastolic blood pressure,fasting blood glucose and serum triglyceride (TG) in cases group were higher than in controls,while serum high-density lipid was lower than in controls.There were significant differences in the waist circumference,blood pressure,FPG and TG between cases and controls.In an ageadjusted logistic regression model,metabolic syndrome was associated with gallstone disease.The age-adjusted odds ratio of MetS for GSD in men was 1.29 [95%confidence interval (CI),1.09-1.52; P =0.0030],and 1.68 (95% CI,1.26-2.25; P =0.0004) in women; the overall age-adjusted odds ratio of MetS for

  8. Phytosterols, Phytostanols, and Lipoprotein Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Gylling

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of phytosterols and phytostanols added to foods and food supplements to obtain significant non-pharmacologic serum and low density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol reduction is well documented. Irrespective of age, gender, ethnic background, body weight, background diet, or the cause of hypercholesterolemia and, even added to statin treatment, phytosterols and phytostanols at 2 g/day significantly lower LDL cholesterol concentration by 8%–10%. They do not affect the concentrations of high density lipoprotein cholesterol, lipoprotein (a or serum proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9. In some studies, phytosterols and phytostanols have modestly reduced serum triglyceride levels especially in subjects with slightly increased baseline concentrations. Phytosterols and phytostanols lower LDL cholesterol by displacing cholesterol from mixed micelles in the small intestine so that cholesterol absorption is partially inhibited. Cholesterol absorption and synthesis have been carefully evaluated during phytosterol and phytostanol supplementation. However, only a few lipoprotein kinetic studies have been performed, and they revealed that LDL apoprotein B-100 transport rate was reduced. LDL particle size was unchanged, but small dense LDL cholesterol concentration was reduced. In subjects with metabolic syndrome and moderate hypertriglyceridemia, phytostanols reduced not only non- high density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol concentration but also serum triglycerides by 27%, and reduced the large and medium size very low density lipoprotein particle concentrations. In the few postprandial studies, the postprandial lipoproteins were reduced, but detailed studies with apoprotein B-48 are lacking. In conclusion, more kinetic studies are required to obtain a more complete understanding of the fasting and postprandial lipoprotein metabolism caused by phytosterols and phytostanols. It seems obvious, however, that the most atherogenic lipoprotein

  9. [Carotenoids: 1. Metabolism and physiology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faure, H; Fayol, V; Galabert, C; Grolier, P; Le Moël, G; Steghens, J P; Van Kappel, A; Nabet, F

    1999-01-01

    Carotenoids are a family of pigments with at least 600 members. They derive from lycopene after steps of cyclisation, dehydrogenation and oxidation. It is their chemical structure that determines their physiochemical properties and, in part, their biological activities. About 50 carotenoids can be found in human diet and about 20 of them have been found in plasma and tissues. There is no RDA (Recommended Daily Allowance) for carotenoids. Quantities of carotenoids in diet are difficult to estimate, partly because methods used for the establishment of food composition tables were not specific and sensitive enough. Also, given values do not always take into account variations due to season and region of culture. Absorption of beta-carotene in humans has been the subject of numerous studies but only very little is known about other carotenoids. In general, absorption depends on bioavailability from the food matrix and solubility in micelles. After absorption through passive diffusion, carotenoids follow the chylomicrons metabolism. They are taken up by the liver and released in the blood stream in lipoproteins (VLDL). Carotenoids with no-substituted beta-ionone cycles (alpha and beta-carotene and beta-cryptoxanthin) have provitamin A activity. Highest activity has been found for all-trans beta-carotene. Not all steps of vitamin A biosynthesis and metabolism of other carotenoids have been clarified yet. Besides their provitamin A activity, carotenoids have numerous biological functions. They are efficient scavengers of free radicals, particularly of 1O2. In vitro they have been shown to protect LDL. However, results in vivo are inconsistent. Other functions include enhancement of gap junctions, immunomodulation and regulation of enzyme activity involved in carcinogenesis. PMID:10210743

  10. Metabolism of stromal and immune cells in health and disease

    OpenAIRE

    Ghesquière, Bart; Wong, Brian W.; Kuchnio, Anna; Carmeliet, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Cancer cells have been at the centre of cell metabolism research, but the metabolism of stromal and immune cells has received less attention. Nonetheless, these cells influence the progression of malignant, inflammatory and metabolic disorders. Here we discuss the metabolic adaptations of stromal and immune cells in health and disease, and highlight how metabolism determines their differentiation and function.

  11. Adaptations in the energy metabolism of parasites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Grinsven, K.W.A.

    2009-01-01

    For this thesis fundamental research was performed on the metabolic adaptations found in parasites. Studying the adaptations in parasite metabolisms leads to a better understanding of parasite bioenergetics and can also result in the identification of new anti-parasitic drug targets. We focussed on

  12. Topics and Problems in Metabolic P Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Manca, Vincenzo; Research Group on Natural Computing (Universidad de Sevilla) (Coordinador)

    2006-01-01

    P metabolic systems are a special class of P systems which seem to be adequate for expressing biological phenomena related to metabolism and signaling transduction in biological systems. We give the basic motivation for their introduction and some ideas about their applicability and development.

  13. Synthetic cannabimimetic agents metabolized by carboxylesterases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Ragnar; Nielsen, Line M; Holm, Niels B;

    2015-01-01

    , the metabolism of two indazole carboxamide derivatives, AB-PINACA and AB-FUBINACA, was investigated by using human liver microsomes (HLM). For both compounds, a major metabolic pathway was the enzymatic hydrolysis of the primary amide, resulting in the major metabolites AB-PINACA-COOH and AB-FUBINACA-COOH. Other...

  14. Relation of adipose tissue to metabolic flexibility

    OpenAIRE

    Sparks, Lauren M.; Ukropcova, Barbara; Smith, Jana; Pasarica, Magdalena; Hymel, David; Xie, Hui; Bray, George A.; Miles, John M.; Smith, Steven R.

    2008-01-01

    Metabolic flexibility is the capacity for skeletal muscle to shift reliance between lipids and glucose during fasting or in response to insulin. We hypothesized that body fat, adipose tissue characteristics, e.g. larger adipocytes, presence of inflammatory gene markers and impaired suppression of non-esterified fatty acids (NEFAs) during insulin infusion might be related to metabolic flexibility.

  15. Medical management of metabolic dysfunction in PCOS

    OpenAIRE

    Duleba, Antoni J.

    2011-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with metabolic derangements including insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, systemic inflammation and endothelial dysfunction. There is a growing need to develop pharmacologic interventions to improve metabolic function in women with PCOS. Medications that have been tested in patients with PCOS include metformin, thiazolidinediones, acarbose, naltrexone, orlistat, vitamin D and statins.

  16. Optimization of cardiac metabolism in heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagoshi, Tomohisa; Yoshimura, Michihiro; Rosano, Giuseppe M C; Lopaschuk, Gary D; Mochizuki, Seibu

    2011-12-01

    The derangement of the cardiac energy substrate metabolism plays a key role in the pathogenesis of heart failure. The utilization of non-carbohydrate substrates, such as fatty acids, is the predominant metabolic pathway in the normal heart, because this provides the highest energy yield per molecule of substrate metabolized. In contrast, glucose becomes an important preferential substrate for metabolism and ATP generation under specific pathological conditions, because it can provide greater efficiency in producing high energy products per oxygen consumed compared to fatty acids. Manipulations that shift energy substrate utilization away from fatty acids toward glucose can improve the cardiac function and slow the progression of heart failure. However, insulin resistance, which is highly prevalent in the heart failure population, impedes this adaptive metabolic shift. Therefore, the acceleration of the glucose metabolism, along with the restoration of insulin sensitivity, would be the ideal metabolic therapy for heart failure. This review discusses the therapeutic potential of modifying substrate utilization to optimize cardiac metabolism in heart failure. PMID:21933140

  17. Towards a metabolic therapy of cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Martina; Ottaviani, Laura; Bianchi, Massimiliano G; Franchi-Gazzola, Renata; Bussolati, Ovidio

    2012-12-01

    It is increasingly appreciated that cancer cells must be endowed with specific metabolic adaptations to support enhanced growth and to ensure survival under stressful conditions. On the other hand, many oncogenic mutations of protooncogenes and tumor suppressor genes directly cause metabolic derangements and, conversely, mutations of enzymes have been found to underlie several forms of cancer. Thus, cancer-specific metabolic alterations are now considered among the hallmarks of malignant tumors. Most commonly, cancer cells exhibit enhanced glycolysis under aerobic conditions (the Warburg effect) but alterations in the metabolism of amino acids, such as glutamine, serine and proline are increasingly described as important metabolic features of selected tumor types. In theory, all these deranged cancer-specific metabolic pathways may constitute novel therapeutic targets, although the only "metabolic" drug in clinical use is still represented by the enzyme L-asparaginase. However, the increasing amount of experimental evidence, as well as the number of trials in progress, suggests that metabolic drugs will soon complement standard anti-cancer chemotherapy and modern biological drugs. PMID:23762991

  18. Swimming Performance and Metabolism of Golden Shiners

    Science.gov (United States)

    The swimming ability and metabolism of golden shiners, Notemigonus crysoleucas, was examined using swim tunnel respirometery. The oxygen consumption and tail beat frequencies at various swimming speeds, an estimation of the standard metabolic rate, and the critical swimming speed (Ucrit) was determ...

  19. Correlated FLIM and PLIM for cell metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rück, A.; Breymayer, J.; Kalinina, S.

    2016-03-01

    Correlated imaging of phosphorescence and fluorescence lifetime parameters of metabolic markers is a challenge for direct investigating mechanisms related to cell metabolism and oxygen tension. A large variety of clinical phenotypes is associated with mitochondrial defects accomplished with changes in cell metabolism. In many cases the hypoxic microenvironment of cancer cells shifts metabolism from oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) to anaerobic or aerobic glycolysis, a process known as "Warburg" effect. Also during stem cell differentiation a switch in cell metabolism is observed. A defective mitochondrial function associated with hypoxia has been invoked in many complex disorders such as type 2 diabetes, Alzheimers disease, cardiac ischemia/reperfusion injury, tissue inflammation and cancer. Cellular responses to oxygen tension have been studied extensively, optical imaging techniques based on time correlated single photon counting (TCSPC) to detect the underlying metabolic mechanisms are therefore of prominent interest. They offer the possibility by inspecting fluorescence decay characteristics of intrinsic coenzymes to directly image metabolic pathways. Moreover oxygen tension can be determined by considering the phosphorescence lifetime of a phosphorescent probe. The combination of both fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM) of coenzymes like NADH and FAD and phosphorescence lifetime (PLIM) of phosphorescent dyes could provide valuable information about correlation of metabolic pathways and oxygen tension.

  20. Metabolic aspects of acromegaly and its treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quabbe, H J; Plöckinger, U

    1996-08-01

    Growth hormone (GH) affects virtually all facets of metabolism. This review concentrates on the effects of GH excess on carbohydrate, lipid, and bone metabolism, and on body composition. The effect of treatment with the somatostatin analog, octreotide, on the gastrointestinal-pancreatic axis is also discussed.

  1. Impaired glucose metabolism treatment and carcinogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    MATYSZEWSKI, ARTUR; Czarnecka, Anna; Kawecki, Maciej; KORZEŃ, PIOTR; SAFIR, ILAN J.; Kukwa, Wojciech; SZCZYLIK, CEZARY

    2015-01-01

    Carbohydrate metabolism disorders increase the risk of carcinogenesis. Diabetes mellitus alters numerous physiological processes that may encourage cancer growth. However, treating impaired glucose homeostasis may actually promote neoplasia; maintaining proper glucose plasma concentrations reduces metabolic stresses, however, certain medications may themselves result in oncogenic effects. A number of previous studies have demonstrated that metformin reduces the cancer risk. However, the use o...

  2. Gene therapy in disorders of lipoprotein metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaessen, Stefan F C; Twisk, Jaap; Kastelein, John J P; Kuivenhoven, Jan Albert

    2007-01-01

    Current pharmacologic interventions in lipid metabolism are insufficient in a subset of patients at increased risk of cardiovascular disease. In particular, several monogenetic disorders of lipid metabolism with diverse clinical complications are beyond treatment to date. Somatic gene transfer is a

  3. Regulation of intermediary metabolism by protein acetylation

    OpenAIRE

    Guan, Kun-Liang; Xiong, Yue

    2010-01-01

    Extensive studies during the past four decades have identified important roles for lysine acetylation in the regulation of nuclear transcription. Recent proteomic analyses on protein acetylation uncovered a large number of acetylated proteins in the cytoplasm and mitochondria, including most enzymes involved in intermediate metabolism. Acetylation regulates metabolic enzymes by multiple mechanisms, including via enzymatic activation or inhibition, and by influencing protein stability. Convers...

  4. Circadian rhythms in liver metabolism and disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica M. Ferrell

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Mounting research evidence demonstrates a significant negative impact of circadian disruption on human health. Shift work, chronic jet lag and sleep disturbances are associated with increased incidence of metabolic syndrome, and consequently result in obesity, type 2 diabetes and dyslipidemia. Here, these associations are reviewed with respect to liver metabolism and disease.

  5. Aspects of plasma triglyceride metabolism in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.P. Forget

    1975-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis aimed at investigating some aspects of plasma triglyceride metabolism in children. In the introduction general aspects of plasma triglyceride metabolism are presented. Chapter 1 reviews recent litterature data on the intravenous fat tolerance test and on plasma postheparin li

  6. Central nervous system control of triglyceride metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geerling, Johanna Janetta (Janine)

    2013-01-01

    This thesis describes the role of the brain in the regulation of peripheral triglyceride metabolism, in the context of the metabolic syndrome. Based on various pharmacological studies we described the role of two hormones, insulin and glucagon-like peptide-1, in the production and clearance of trigl

  7. Glycogen metabolism in aerobic mixed cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dircks, Klaus; Beun, J.J.; van Loosdrecht, M.C.M.;

    2001-01-01

    In this study, the metabolism of glycogen storage and consumption in mixed cultures under aerobic conditions is described. The experimental results are used to calibrate a metabolic model, which as sole stoichiometric variables has the efficiency of oxidative phosphorylation (delta) and maintenan...

  8. Metabolism and cancer mix in Madrid

    OpenAIRE

    Shaw, Reuben J.

    2010-01-01

    The CNIO Cancer Conference ‘The Energy of Cancer' was a bridge between metabolic and cancer research, emphasizing the interdisciplinary nature of the field. The outlines of the main pathways involved in coordinating nutrient uptake and metabolism with cell growth have begun to emerge.

  9. Progress in Metabolic Engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    OpenAIRE

    Nevoigt, Elke

    2008-01-01

    Summary: The traditional use of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae in alcoholic fermentation has, over time, resulted in substantial accumulated knowledge concerning genetics, physiology, and biochemistry as well as genetic engineering and fermentation technologies. S. cerevisiae has become a platform organism for developing metabolic engineering strategies, methods, and tools. The current review discusses the relevance of several engineering strategies, such as rational and inverse metabolic...

  10. Textbook Errors & Misconceptions in Biology: Cell Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storey, Richard D.

    1991-01-01

    The idea that errors and misconceptions in biology textbooks are often slow to be discovered and corrected is discussed. Selected errors, misconceptions, and topics of confusion about cell metabolism are described. Fermentation, respiration, Krebs cycle, pentose phosphate pathway, uniformity of catabolism, and metabolic pathways as models are…

  11. Marxism, social metabolism, and ecologically unequal exchange

    OpenAIRE

    MARTÍNEZ ALIER, Joan

    2004-01-01

    Authors working on "industrial metabolism" or "social metabolism" look at the economy in terms of flows of energy and materials. Together with the ecological economists, they see the economy as a subsystem of a larger physical system. Marx and Engels followed with a few years' delay many of the remarkable scientific and technical novelties of their time.

  12. The metabolic syndrome - background and treatment

    OpenAIRE

    van Zwieten, P. A.

    2006-01-01

    The metabolic syndrome (MBS) is characterised by a clustering of cardiovascular and metabolic risk factors. This syndrome is now widely recognised as a distinct pathological entity, and it is receiving a great deal of attention in the medical literature but also in the lay press.

  13. VITAMIN D AND THE METABOLIC SYNDROME

    Science.gov (United States)

    The identification of vitamin D receptor (VDR) expression in different tissues suggests a widespread role for vitamin D action beyond its classical function in bone and mineral metabolism. Recently, the importance of vitamin D status as a risk factor in the development of metabolic syndrome has been...

  14. Cardiac manifestations of inborn errors of metabolism.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evangeliou, A.; Papadopoulou-Legbelou, K.; Daphnis, E.; Ganotakis, E.; Vavouranakis, I.; Michailidou, H.; Hitoglou-Makedou, A.; Nicolaidou, P.; Wevers, R.A.; Varlamis, G.

    2007-01-01

    AIM: The aim of the study was to investigate the frequency and type of cardiac manifestations in a defined group of patients with inborn errors of metabolism. This paper also explores the key role of cardiac manifestations in the diagnosis of inborn errors of metabolism in daily practice. METHODS: O

  15. Mediterranean diet and the metabolic syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, M.B.

    2009-01-01

    Mediterranean diet and the metabolic syndrome Background: The metabolic syndrome refers to a clustering of risk factors including abdominal obesity, hyperglycaemia, low HDL-cholesterol, hypertriglyceridaemia, and hypertension and it is a risk factor for diabetes mellitus type 2 and cardiovascula

  16. Querying metabolism under different physiological constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakmak, Ali; Ozsoyoglu, Gultekin; Hanson, Richard W

    2010-04-01

    Metabolism is a representation of the biochemical principles that govern the production, consumption, degradation, and biosynthesis of metabolites in living cells. Organisms respond to changes in their physiological conditions or environmental perturbations (i.e. constraints) via cooperative implementation of such principles. Querying inner working principles of metabolism under different constraints provides invaluable insights for both researchers and educators. In this paper, we propose a metabolism query language (MQL) and discuss its query processing. MQL enables researchers to explore the behavior of the metabolism with a wide-range of predicates including dietary and physiological condition specifications. The query results of MQL are enriched with both textual and visual representations, and its query processing is completely tailored based on the underlying metabolic principles. PMID:20401946

  17. [Abnormality in bone metabolism after burn].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, X; Xie, W G

    2016-08-20

    Burn causes bone metabolic abnormality in most cases, including the changes in osteoblasts and osteoclasts, bone mass loss, and bone absorption, which results in decreased bone mineral density. These changes are sustainable for many years after burn and even cause growth retardation in burned children. The mechanisms of bone metabolic abnormality after burn include the increasing glucocorticoids due to stress response, a variety of cytokines and inflammatory medium due to inflammatory response, vitamin D deficiency, hypoparathyroidism, and bone loss due to long-term lying in bed. This article reviews the pathogenesis and regularity of bone metabolic abnormality after burn, the relationship between bone metabolic abnormality and burn area/depth, and the treatment of bone metabolic abnormality, etc. and discusses the research directions in the future. PMID:27562160

  18. VISCOSITY DICTATES METABOLIC ACTIVITY of Vibrio ruber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja eBoric

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about metabolic activity of bacteria, when viscosity of their environment changes. In this work, bacterial metabolic activity in media with viscosity ranging from 0.8 to 29.4 mPas was studied. Viscosities up to 2.4 mPas did not affect metabolic activity of Vibrio ruber. On the other hand, at 29.4 mPas respiration rate and total dehydrogenase activity increased 8 and 4-fold, respectively. The activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase increased up to 13-fold at higher viscosities. However, intensified metabolic activity did not result in faster growth rate. Increased viscosity delayed the onset as well as the duration of biosynthesis of prodigiosin. As an adaptation to viscous environment V. ruber increased metabolic flux through the pentose phosphate pathway and reduced synthesis of a secondary metabolite. In addition, V. ruber was able to modify the viscosity of its environment.

  19. FXR: a metabolic regulator and cell protector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan-Dong Wang; Wei-Dong Chen; David D Moore; Wendong Huang

    2008-01-01

    Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily of ligand-activated transcription fac-tors. As a metabolic regulator, FXR plays key roles in bile acid, cholesterol, lipid, and glucose metabolism. Therefore, FXR is a potential drug target for a number of metabolic disorders, especially those related to the metabolic syn-drome. More recently, our group and others have extended the functions of FXR to more than metabolic regulation, which include anti-bacterial growth in intestine, liver regeneration, and hepatocarcinogenesis. These new findings suggest that FXR has much broader roles than previously thought, and also higl light FXR as a drug target for mul-tiple diseases. This review summarizes the basic information of FXR but focuses on its new functions.

  20. Enzyme clustering can induce metabolic channeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellana, Michele

    2015-03-01

    Direct channeling of intermediates via a physical tunnel between enzyme active sites is an established mechanism to improve metabolic efficiency. In this talk, I will present a theoretical model that demonstrates that coclustering multiple enzymes into proximity can yield the full efficiency benefits of direct channeling. The model predicts the separation and size of coclusters that maximize metabolic efficiency, and this prediction is in agreement with the spacing between coclusters in yeast and mammalian cells. The model also predicts that enzyme agglomerates can regulate steady-state flux division at metabolic branch points: we experimentally test this prediction for a fundamental branch point in Escherichia coli, and the results confirm that enzyme colocalization within an agglomerate can accelerate the processing of a shared intermediate by one branch. Our studies establish a quantitative framework to understand coclustering-mediated metabolic channeling and its application to both efficiency improvement and metabolic regulation.

  1. Temporal expression-based analysis of metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara B Collins

    Full Text Available Metabolic flux is frequently rerouted through cellular metabolism in response to dynamic changes in the intra- and extra-cellular environment. Capturing the mechanisms underlying these metabolic transitions in quantitative and predictive models is a prominent challenge in systems biology. Progress in this regard has been made by integrating high-throughput gene expression data into genome-scale stoichiometric models of metabolism. Here, we extend previous approaches to perform a Temporal Expression-based Analysis of Metabolism (TEAM. We apply TEAM to understanding the complex metabolic dynamics of the respiratorily versatile bacterium Shewanella oneidensis grown under aerobic, lactate-limited conditions. TEAM predicts temporal metabolic flux distributions using time-series gene expression data. Increased predictive power is achieved by supplementing these data with a large reference compendium of gene expression, which allows us to take into account the unique character of the distribution of expression of each individual gene. We further propose a straightforward method for studying the sensitivity of TEAM to changes in its fundamental free threshold parameter θ, and reveal that discrete zones of distinct metabolic behavior arise as this parameter is changed. By comparing the qualitative characteristics of these zones to additional experimental data, we are able to constrain the range of θ to a small, well-defined interval. In parallel, the sensitivity analysis reveals the inherently difficult nature of dynamic metabolic flux modeling: small errors early in the simulation propagate to relatively large changes later in the simulation. We expect that handling such "history-dependent" sensitivities will be a major challenge in the future development of dynamic metabolic-modeling techniques.

  2. Temporal expression-based analysis of metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Sara B; Reznik, Ed; Segrè, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Metabolic flux is frequently rerouted through cellular metabolism in response to dynamic changes in the intra- and extra-cellular environment. Capturing the mechanisms underlying these metabolic transitions in quantitative and predictive models is a prominent challenge in systems biology. Progress in this regard has been made by integrating high-throughput gene expression data into genome-scale stoichiometric models of metabolism. Here, we extend previous approaches to perform a Temporal Expression-based Analysis of Metabolism (TEAM). We apply TEAM to understanding the complex metabolic dynamics of the respiratorily versatile bacterium Shewanella oneidensis grown under aerobic, lactate-limited conditions. TEAM predicts temporal metabolic flux distributions using time-series gene expression data. Increased predictive power is achieved by supplementing these data with a large reference compendium of gene expression, which allows us to take into account the unique character of the distribution of expression of each individual gene. We further propose a straightforward method for studying the sensitivity of TEAM to changes in its fundamental free threshold parameter θ, and reveal that discrete zones of distinct metabolic behavior arise as this parameter is changed. By comparing the qualitative characteristics of these zones to additional experimental data, we are able to constrain the range of θ to a small, well-defined interval. In parallel, the sensitivity analysis reveals the inherently difficult nature of dynamic metabolic flux modeling: small errors early in the simulation propagate to relatively large changes later in the simulation. We expect that handling such "history-dependent" sensitivities will be a major challenge in the future development of dynamic metabolic-modeling techniques. PMID:23209390

  3. Virocell Metabolism: Metabolic Innovations During Host-Virus Interactions in the Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenwasser, Shilo; Ziv, Carmit; Creveld, Shiri Graff van; Vardi, Assaf

    2016-10-01

    Marine viruses are considered to be major ecological, evolutionary, and biogeochemical drivers of the marine environment, responsible for nutrient recycling and determining species composition. Viruses can re-shape their host's metabolic network during infection, generating the virocell-a unique metabolic state that supports their specific requirement. Here we discuss the concept of 'virocell metabolism' and its formation by rewiring of host-encoded metabolic networks, or by introducing virus-encoded auxiliary metabolic genes which provide the virocell with novel metabolic capabilities. The ecological role of marine viruses is commonly assessed by their relative abundance and phylogenetic diversity, lacking the ability to assess the dynamics of active viral infection. The new ability to define a unique metabolic state of the virocell will expand the current virion-centric approaches in order to quantify the impact of marine viruses on microbial food webs.

  4. Metabolic correlates of learning disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyhan, W L; Wulfeck, B B; Tallal, P; Marsden, D L

    1989-01-01

    To summarize, the neuropsychologic findings in MSUD and MMA children in both groups demonstrated deficits in cognitive/language areas, but interesting individual differences existed. For example, a marked contrast in abilities existed between NT and GV, even taking into account the age difference between these children with MSUD. While NT's general intellectual functioning was within the low-average range, GV was severely impaired. In more specific areas of cognitive functioning, NT had an uneven performance profile with areas of strengths and weaknesses, while GV evidenced a flat profile with significant impairment in all areas. NT demonstrated mild delay in visual-spatial processing, articulation development, motor-speech abilities, and selective attention and concentration; however, his language and psychosocial development were within the broad range of normality. In contrast, GV exhibited severe dysfunction in speech, language, and perceptual/conceptual development. The three children with MMA also exhibited a range of disabilities in cognitive functioning. TJ and SH contrasted in the degree of developmental delay across language and cognitive domains. Both were distractible and exhibited very short attention spans but there was a measurable difference in the extent of their speech, language, visual-spatial development. CH was markedly delayed in all areas of cognitive development, which is consistent with global retardation. The severity of her disease and its probable impact on brain development were undoubtedly related to her intellectual impairment. These datasets illustrate the challenges we face, because within each group we see a range of impairment. Nevertheless, we are optimistic that our efforts to relate metabolic, anatomic and neuropsychologic findings for such children will lead to a better understanding of these disorders. We are hopeful that this will result in new advances in diagnosis and intervention, which will ultimately improve the

  5. Cell biology. Metabolic control of cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Douglas R; Galluzzi, Lorenzo; Kroemer, Guido

    2014-09-19

    Beyond their contribution to basic metabolism, the major cellular organelles, in particular mitochondria, can determine whether cells respond to stress in an adaptive or suicidal manner. Thus, mitochondria can continuously adapt their shape to changing bioenergetic demands as they are subjected to quality control by autophagy, or they can undergo a lethal permeabilization process that initiates apoptosis. Along similar lines, multiple proteins involved in metabolic circuitries, including oxidative phosphorylation and transport of metabolites across membranes, may participate in the regulated or catastrophic dismantling of organelles. Many factors that were initially characterized as cell death regulators are now known to physically or functionally interact with metabolic enzymes. Thus, several metabolic cues regulate the propensity of cells to activate self-destructive programs, in part by acting on nutrient sensors. This suggests the existence of "metabolic checkpoints" that dictate cell fate in response to metabolic fluctuations. Here, we discuss recent insights into the intersection between metabolism and cell death regulation that have major implications for the comprehension and manipulation of unwarranted cell loss.

  6. Metabolism and virulence in Neisseria meningitidis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph eSchoen

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A longstanding question in infection biology addresses the genetic basis for invasive behaviour in commensal pathogens. A prime example for such a pathogen is Neisseria meningitidis. On the one hand it is a harmless commensal bacterium exquisitely adapted to humans, and on the other hand it sometimes behaves like a ferocious pathogen causing potentially lethal disease such as sepsis and acute bacterial meningitis. Despite the lack of a classical repertoire of virulence genes in N. meningitidis separating commensal from invasive strains, molecular epidemiology suggests that carriage and invasive strains belong to genetically distinct populations. In recent years, it has become increasingly clear that metabolic adaptation enables meningococci to exploit host resources, supporting the concept of nutritional virulence as a crucial determinant of invasive capability. Here, we discuss the contribution of core metabolic pathways in the context of colonization and invasion with special emphasis on results from genome-wide surveys. The metabolism of lactate, the oxidative stress response, and, in particular, glutathione metabolism as well as the denitrification pathway provide examples of how meningococcal metabolism is intimately linked to pathogenesis. We further discuss evidence from genome-wide approaches regarding potential metabolic differences between strains from hyperinvasive and carriage lineages and present new data assessing in vitro growth differences of strains from these two populations. We hypothesize that strains from carriage and hyperinvasive lineages differ in the expression of regulatory genes involved particularly in stress responses and amino acid metabolism under infection conditions.

  7. Metabolism and virulence in Neisseria meningitidis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoen, Christoph; Kischkies, Laura; Elias, Johannes; Ampattu, Biju Joseph

    2014-01-01

    A longstanding question in infection biology addresses the genetic basis for invasive behavior in commensal pathogens. A prime example for such a pathogen is Neisseria meningitidis. On the one hand it is a harmless commensal bacterium exquisitely adapted to humans, and on the other hand it sometimes behaves like a ferocious pathogen causing potentially lethal disease such as sepsis and acute bacterial meningitis. Despite the lack of a classical repertoire of virulence genes in N. meningitidis separating commensal from invasive strains, molecular epidemiology suggests that carriage and invasive strains belong to genetically distinct populations. In recent years, it has become increasingly clear that metabolic adaptation enables meningococci to exploit host resources, supporting the concept of nutritional virulence as a crucial determinant of invasive capability. Here, we discuss the contribution of core metabolic pathways in the context of colonization and invasion with special emphasis on results from genome-wide surveys. The metabolism of lactate, the oxidative stress response, and, in particular, glutathione metabolism as well as the denitrification pathway provide examples of how meningococcal metabolism is intimately linked to pathogenesis. We further discuss evidence from genome-wide approaches regarding potential metabolic differences between strains from hyperinvasive and carriage lineages and present new data assessing in vitro growth differences of strains from these two populations. We hypothesize that strains from carriage and hyperinvasive lineages differ in the expression of regulatory genes involved particularly in stress responses and amino acid metabolism under infection conditions. PMID:25191646

  8. Optimal flux patterns in cellular metabolic networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almaas, E

    2007-01-20

    The availability of whole-cell level metabolic networks of high quality has made it possible to develop a predictive understanding of bacterial metabolism. Using the optimization framework of flux balance analysis, I investigate metabolic response and activity patterns to variations in the availability of nutrient and chemical factors such as oxygen and ammonia by simulating 30,000 random cellular environments. The distribution of reaction fluxes is heavy-tailed for the bacteria H. pylori and E. coli, and the eukaryote S. cerevisiae. While the majority of flux balance investigations have relied on implementations of the simplex method, it is necessary to use interior-point optimization algorithms to adequately characterize the full range of activity patterns on metabolic networks. The interior-point activity pattern is bimodal for E. coli and S. cerevisiae, suggesting that most metabolic reaction are either in frequent use or are rarely active. The trimodal activity pattern of H. pylori indicates that a group of its metabolic reactions (20%) are active in approximately half of the simulated environments. Constructing the high-flux backbone of the network for every environment, there is a clear trend that the more frequently a reaction is active, the more likely it is a part of the backbone. Finally, I briefly discuss the predicted activity patterns of the central-carbon metabolic pathways for the sample of random environments.

  9. Quantitation of cellular metabolic fluxes of methionine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shlomi, Tomer; Fan, Jing; Tang, Baiqing; Kruger, Warren D; Rabinowitz, Joshua D

    2014-02-01

    Methionine is an essential proteogenic amino acid. In addition, it is a methyl donor for DNA and protein methylation and a propylamine donor for polyamine biosynthesis. Both the methyl and propylamine donation pathways involve metabolic cycles, and methods are needed to quantitate these cycles. Here, we describe an analytical approach for quantifying methionine metabolic fluxes that accounts for the mixing of intracellular and extracellular methionine pools. We observe that such mixing prevents isotope tracing experiments from reaching the steady state due to the large size of the media pools and hence precludes the use of standard stationary metabolic flux analysis. Our approach is based on feeding cells with (13)C methionine and measuring the isotope-labeling kinetics of both intracellular and extracellular methionine by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). We apply this method to quantify methionine metabolism in a human fibrosarcoma cell line and study how methionine salvage pathway enzyme methylthioadenosine phosphorylase (MTAP), frequently deleted in cancer, affects methionine metabolism. We find that both transmethylation and propylamine transfer fluxes amount to roughly 15% of the net methionine uptake, with no major changes due to MTAP deletion. Our method further enables the quantification of flux through the pro-tumorigenic enzyme ornithine decarboxylase, and this flux increases 2-fold following MTAP deletion. The analytical approach used to quantify methionine metabolic fluxes is applicable for other metabolic systems affected by mixing of intracellular and extracellular metabolite pools.

  10. Computational model for monitoring cholesterol metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvakumar, R; Rashith Muhammad, M; Poornima Devi, G

    2014-12-01

    A non-deterministic finite automaton is designed to observe the cholesterol metabolism with the states of acceptance and rejection. The acceptance state of the automaton depicts the normal level of metabolism and production of good cholesterol as an end product. The rejection state of this machine shows the inhibition of enzymatic activity in cholesterol synthesis and removal of free fatty acids. The deficiency in human cholesterol metabolism pathway results in abnormal accumulation of cholesterol in plasma, arterial tissues leading to diseases such as hypercholesterolemia, atherosclerosis respectively and formation of gallstones. The designed machine can be used to monitor the cholesterol metabolism at molecular level through regulation of enzymes involved in the biosynthesis and metabolism of cholesterol for the treatment of diseases incident due to the respective metabolic disorder. In addition, an algorithm for this machine has been developed to compare the programmed string with the given string. This study demonstrates the construction of a machine that is used for the development of molecular targeted therapy for the disorders in cholesterol metabolism. PMID:26396654

  11. Metabolic Shifts during Aging and Pathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yina; Li, Ji

    2016-01-01

    The heart is a very special organ in the body and has a high requirement for metabolism due to its constant workload. As a consequence, to provide a consistent and sufficient energy a high steady-state demand of metabolism is required by the heart. When delicately balanced mechanisms are changed by physiological or pathophysiological conditions, the whole system’s homeostasis will be altered to a new balance, which contributes to the pathologic process. So it is no wonder that almost every heart disease is related to metabolic shift. Furthermore, aging is also found to be related to the reduction in mitochondrial function, insulin resistance, and dysregulated intracellular lipid metabolism. Adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) functions as an energy sensor to detect intracellular ATP/AMP ratio and plays a pivotal role in intracellular adaptation to energy stress. During different pathology (like myocardial ischemia and hypertension), the activation of cardiac AMPK appears to be essential for repairing cardiomyocyte’s function by accelerating ATP generation, attenuating ATP depletion, and protecting the myocardium against cardiac dysfunction and apoptosis. In this overview, we will talk about the normal heart’s metabolism, how metabolic shifts during aging and different pathologies, and how AMPK regulates metabolic changes during these conditions. PMID:25880509

  12. Relationship between lung function and metabolic syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Liang Chen

    Full Text Available Although the link between impaired lung function and cardiovascular events and type 2 diabetes mellitus has been recognized, the association between impaired lung function and metabolic syndrome has not been comprehensively assessed in the United States (U.S. population. The aim of our study was to explore the association between impaired lung function and metabolic syndrome in a nationally representative sample of men and women. This cross-sectional population-based study included 8602 participants aged 20-65 years in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III. We examined the relationship between the different features of metabolic syndrome and lung function, including forced vital capacity (FVC and forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1. After adjusting for potential confounders such as age, body mass index, inflammatory factors, medical condition, and smoking status, participants with more components of metabolic syndrome had lower predicted values of FVC and FEV1 (p for trend <0.001 for both. Impaired pulmonary function was also associated with individual components of metabolic syndrome, such as abdominal obesity, high blood pressure, high triglycerides, and low high density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol (p<0.05 for all parameters. These results from a nationally representative sample of US adults suggest that a greater number of features of metabolic syndrome is strongly associated with poorer FVC and FEV1. In clinical practice, more comprehensive management strategies to address subjects with metabolic syndrome and impaired lung function need to be developed and investigated.

  13. The molecular clock as a metabolic rheostat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perelis, M; Ramsey, K M; Bass, J

    2015-09-01

    Circadian clocks are biologic oscillators present in all photosensitive species that produce 24-h cycles in the transcription of rate-limiting metabolic enzymes in anticipation of the light-dark cycle. In mammals, the clock drives energetic cycles to maintain physiologic constancy during the daily switch in behavioural (sleep/wake) and nutritional (fasting/feeding) states. A molecular connection between circadian clocks and tissue metabolism was first established with the discovery that 24-h transcriptional rhythms are cell-autonomous and self-sustained in most tissues and comprise a robust temporal network throughout the body. A major window in understanding how the clock is coupled to metabolism was opened with discovery of metabolic syndrome pathologies in multi-tissue circadian mutant mice including susceptibility to diet-induced obesity and diabetes. Using conditional transgenesis and dynamic metabolic testing, we have pinpointed tissue-specific roles of the clock in energy and glucose homeostasis, with our most detailed understanding of this process in endocrine pancreas. Here, we review evidence for dynamic regulation of insulin secretion and oxidative metabolic functions by the clock transcription pathway to regulate homeostatic responses to feeding and fasting. These studies indicate that clock transcription is a determinant of tissue function and provide a reference for understanding molecular pathologies linking circadian desynchrony to metabolic disease.

  14. Molecular interactions between NAFLD and xenobiotic metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adviti eNaik

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD, the hepatic manifestation of the metabolic syndrome, is a complex multifactorial disease characterised by metabolic deregulations that include accumulation of lipids in the liver, lipotoxicity and insulin resistance. The progression of NAFLD to NASH and cirrhosis, and ultimately to carcinomas, is governed by interplay of pro-inflammatory pathways, oxidative stress, as well as fibrogenic and apoptotic cues. As the liver is the major organ of biotransformation, deregulations in hepatic signalling pathways have effects on both, xenobiotic and endobiotic metabolism. Several major nuclear receptors involved in the transcription and regulation of phase I and II drug metabolizing enzymes and transporters also have endobiotic ligands including several lipids. Hence, hepatic lipid accumulation in steatosis and NAFLD, which leads to deregulated activation patterns of nuclear receptors, may result in altered drug metabolism capacity in NAFLD patients. On the other hand, genetic and association studies have indicated that a malfunction in drug metabolism can affect the prevalence and severity of NAFLD. This review focuses on the complex interplay between NAFLD pathogenesis and drug metabolism. A better understanding of these relationships is a prerequisite for developing improved drug dosing algorithms for the pharmacotherapy of patients with different stages of NAFLD.

  15. Purine metabolism in Toxoplasma gondii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krug, E.C.; Marr, J.J.; Berens, R.L.

    1989-06-25

    We have studied the incorporation and interconversion of purines into nucleotides by freshly isolated Toxoplasma gondii. They did not synthesize nucleotides from formate, glycine, or serine. The purine bases hypoxanthine, xanthine, guanine, and adenine were incorporated at 9.2, 6.2, 5.1, and 4.3 pmol/10(7) cells/h, respectively. The purine nucleosides adenosine, inosine, guanosine, and xanthosine were incorporated at 110, 9.0, 2.7, and 0.3 pmol/10(7) cells/h, respectively. Guanine, xanthine, and their respective nucleosides labeled only guanine nucleotides. Inosine, hypoxanthine, and adenine labeled both adenine and guanine nucleotide pools at nearly equal ratios. Adenosine kinase was greater than 10-fold more active than the next most active enzyme in vitro. This is consistent with the metabolic data in vivo. No other nucleoside kinase or phosphotransferase activities were found. Phosphorylase activities were detected for guanosine and inosine; no other cleavage activities were detected. Deaminases were found for adenine and guanine. Phosphoribosyltransferase activities were detected for all four purine nucleobases. Interconversion occurs only in the direction of adenine to guanine nucleotides.

  16. Development, epigenetics and metabolic programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfrey, Keith M; Costello, Paula; Lillycrop, Karen

    2016-01-01

    It is now widely recognised that the environment in early life can have important effects on human growth and development, including the “programming” of far reaching effects on the risk of developing common metabolic and other non-communicable diseases in later life. We have shown that greater childhood adiposity is associated with higher maternal adiposity, low maternal vitamin D status, excessive gestational weight gain, and short duration of breastfeeding; maternal dietary patterns in pregnancy and vitamin D status have been linked with childhood bone mineral content and muscle function. Human studies have identified fetal liver blood flow adaptations and epigenetic changes as potential mechanisms that could link maternal influences with offspring body composition. In experimental studies there is now substantial evidence that the environment during early life induces altered phenotypes through epigenetic mechanisms. Epigenetic processes such as DNA methylation, covalent modifications of histones and non-coding RNAs can induce changes in gene expression without a change in DNA base sequence. Such processes are involved in cell differentiation and genomic imprinting, as well as the phenomenon of developmental plasticity in response to environmental influences. Elucidation of such epigenetic processes may enable early intervention strategies to improve early development and growth. PMID:27088334

  17. Folate Metabolism and Human Reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaler, C. J.

    2014-01-01

    Folate metabolism affects ovarian function, implantation, embryogenesis and the entire process of pregnancy. In addition to its well-established effect on the incidence of neural tube defects, associations have been found between reduced folic acid levels and increased homocysteine concentrations on the one hand, and recurrent spontaneous abortions and other complications of pregnancy on the other. In infertility patients undergoing IVF/ICSI treatment, a clear correlation was found between plasma folate concentrations and the incidence of dichorionic twin pregnancies. In patients supplemented with 0.4 mg/d folic acid undergoing ovarian hyperstimulation and oocyte pick-up, carriers of the MTHFR 677T mutation were found to have lower serum estradiol concentrations at ovulation and fewer oocytes could be retrieved from them. It appears that these negative effects can be compensated for in full by increasing the daily dose of folic acid to at least 0.8 mg. In carriers of the MTHFR 677TT genotype who receive appropriate supplementation, AMH concentrations were found to be significantly increased, which could indicate a compensatory mechanism. AMH concentrations in homozygous carriers of the MTHFR 677TT genotype could even be overestimated, as almost 20 % fewer oocytes are retrieved from these patients per AMH unit compared to MTHFR 677CC wild-type individuals. PMID:25278626

  18. Complex partial seizures: cerebellar metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theodore, W.H.; Fishbein, D.; Deitz, M.; Baldwin, P.

    1987-07-01

    We used positron emission tomography (PET) with (/sup 18/F)2-deoxyglucose to study cerebellar glucose metabolism (LCMRglu) and the effect of phenytoin (PHT) in 42 patients with complex partial seizures (CPS), and 12 normal controls. Mean +/- SD patient LCMRglu was 6.9 +/- 1.8 mg glucose/100 g/min (left = right), significantly lower than control values of 8.5 +/- 1.8 (left, p less than 0.006), and 8.3 +/- 1.6 (right, p less than 0.02). Only four patients had cerebellar atrophy on CT/MRI; cerebellar LCMRglu in these was 5.5 +/- 1.5 (p = 0.054 vs. total patient sample). Patients with unilateral temporal hypometabolism or EEG foci did not have lateralized cerebellar hypometabolism. Patients receiving phenytoin (PHT) at the time of scan and patients with less than 5 years total PHT exposure had lower LCMRglu, but the differences were not significant. There were weak inverse correlations between PHT level and cerebellar LCMRglu in patients receiving PHT (r = -0.36; 0.05 less than p less than 0.1), as well as between length of illness and LCMRglu (r = -0.22; 0.05 less than p less than 0.1). Patients with complex partial seizures have cerebellar hypometabolism that is bilateral and due only in part to the effect of PHT.

  19. Melphalan metabolism in cultured cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Procedures are presented for the adaptation of reversed-phase-HPLC methods to accomplish separation and isolation of the cancer therapeutic drug melphalan (L-phenylalanine mustard) and its metabolic products from whole cells. Five major degradation products of melphalan were observed following its hydrolysis in phosphate buffer in vitro. The two most polar of these products (or modifications of them) were also found in the cytosol of Chinese hamster CHO cells. The amounts of these two polar products (shown not to be mono- or dihydroxymelphalan) were significantly changed by the pretreatment of cells with ZnC12, one being increased in amount while the other was reduced to an insignificant level. In ZnC12-treated cells, there was also an increased binding of melphalan (or its derivatives) to one protein fraction resolved by gel filtration-HPLC. These observations suggest that changes in polar melphalan products, and perhaps their interaction with a protein, may by involved in the reduction of melphalan cytotoxicity observed in ZnC12-treated cells. While ZnC12 is also known to increase the level of glutathione in cells, no significant amounts of glutathione-melphalan derivatives of the type formed non-enzymatically in vitro could be detected in ZnC12-treated or untreated cells. Formation of derivatives of melphalan with glutathione catabolic products in ZnC12-treated cells has not yet been eliminated, however. 17 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  20. Metabolism of technetium in goats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The yield of 99Tc from nuclear fission is in the order of magnitude of the 90Sr and 137Cs yields. The metabolic pathways of this nuclide with its physical half life of 2.1 x 105 yr have, therefore, to be investigated for radioecological assessments; especially with respect to the wide spread application of sup(99m)Tc in nuclear medical diagnosis. Experiments with goats show that sup(99m)Tc given orally as pertechnetate is readily absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract. Excretion in milk is more than 10 times lower than that of radioiodine. The Tc-content of muscular tissues is also low and seems to be of minor importance for the pathway of this element via meat of grazing animals to man. Finally, urinary excretion of Tc in man is 20-100 times higher than in goats. Therefore, the estimation of radiation burden due to Tc-isotopes from extrapolation of radioiodine data is very conservative. (author)