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Sample records for abies

  1. Cytotoxic terpenes from Abies sibirica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gui Rong Wang; Yong Li Li; Wei Dong Zhang; Xian Wen Yang; Wen Cong Liu; Ji Ye; Zhi Jun Zhu; Hong Chen

    2012-01-01

    One new and 16 known compounds were isolated from Abies sibirica.Their structures were assigned mainly on the basis ofNMR and MS spectroscopic data.In bioassay for anti-proliferative activity against four human tumor cells,compound 7 exhibitedselective anti-proliferative activity against COLO-205 rumor cell with an IC50 value of 0.9 μg/mL.

  2. Potential of AbiS as defence mechanism determined by conductivity measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holubová, Jitka; Josephsen, Jytte

    2007-01-01

    Aim: To compare pH and conductivity used in the determination of growth in reconstituted skim milk (RSM), to determine whether the presence of one or two plasmids in Lactococcus lactis had any influence on growth, and whether AbiS improved bacteriophages resistance of L. lactis. Methods and Results......: Conductivity and pH were used to determine growth in RSM. A small increase in the generation time was found with increasing number of plasmids, while their size was unimportant. The introduction of a plasmid-encoding AbiS did only enhance the level of phage resistance significant when other plasmids encoding...... either AbiS1 or the restriction modification system LlaBIII was present. Conclusions: The earliest detection of growth was observed by measuring pH, rather than conductance. The plasmid-encoded AbiS system has a potential to be used as a phage resistance mechanisms in L. lactis during milk fermentations...

  3. The conserved splicing factor SUA controls alternative splicing of the developmental regulator ABI3 in Arabidopsis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sugliani, M.; Brambilla, V.; Clerkx, E.J.M.; Koornneef, M.; Soppe, W.J.J.

    2010-01-01

    ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE3 (ABI3) is a major regulator of seed maturation in Arabidopsis thaliana. We detected two ABI3 transcripts, ABI3- and ABI3-ß, which encode full-length and truncated proteins, respectively. Alternative splicing of ABI3 is developmentally regulated, and the ABI3-ß transcript a

  4. Somatic Embryogenesis of Abies cephalonica Loud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajňáková, Jana; Häggman, Hely

    2016-01-01

    Greek fir (Abies cephalonica Loudon) belongs to the Mediterranean fir species and is widely distributed in the mountains of Central and Southern Greece. Considering a climatic scenario, infestation by pathogens or insects and fire episodes, it has been proposed that Mediterranean firs could be in danger in some parts of their present range but, on the other hand, could also replace other species in more northern zones with temperate humid climates (e.g., silver fir, Abies alba Mill.). As fir species are generally highly productive and therefore important for commercial forestry, they have traditionally been involved in conventional tree improvement programs. A lot of effort has been put into the development of vegetative propagation methods for firs, in order to rapidly gain the benefits of traditional breeding to be utilized in reforestation. The present paper provides up to date information on protocols for somatic embryogenesis (i.e., the most promising in vitro method for vegetative propagation) of Greek fir. Moreover, the protocols for cryopreservation and long-term storage of embryogenic material are described as well. PMID:26619877

  5. THERMO-VACUUM MODIFICATION OF SPRUCE (PICEA ABIES KARST. AND FIR (ABIES ALBA MILL. WOOD

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    Ottaviano Allegretti,

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The study presents results of the characterization of Norway spruce (Picea abies Karst. and fir (Abies alba Mill. wood thermally modified by TERMOVUOTO® technology at temperatures in the range of 160 to 220°C in vacuum conditions. Sixteen thermo-vacuum treatment tests were carried out using a pilot laboratory unit on 30-mm-thick spruce and fir boards in various combinations of the process parameters, i.e. temperature (T, duration (t, and pressure (p. The treated material was characterized to reveal the changes of the physical-mechanical properties including color and durability. The treated wood showed an improved performance with relation to the dimensional stability and durability. The measured mechanical properties did not show any significant decrease. Analytical models, based on the existing correlations between wood properties and process parameters, were assessed, thus allowing the control of the process.

  6. Comparison between oscillometric- and Doppler-ABI in elderly individuals

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    Takahashi I

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Ikuno Takahashi,1,3 Kyoji Furukawa,2 Waka Ohishi,1 Tetsuya Takahashi,3 Masayasu Matsumoto,3 Saeko Fujiwara11Department of Clinical Studies, 2Department of Statistics, Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF, Hiroshima, Japan; 3Department of Clinical Neuroscience and Therapeutics, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima, JapanAbstract: Peripheral arterial disease (PAD generally remains under-recognized, mainly due to the specialized technical skills required to detect the low values of the ankle-brachial index (ABI. As a simpler and faster alternative to the standard method using continuous-wave Doppler ultrasound, we evaluated automated oscillometric ABI measurement by VP-2000 with an elderly cohort of 113 subjects (age range, 61 to 88 years. The standard deviation in ABIs measured by the Doppler method was statistically greater than that measured by the oscillometric method for each of the two legs (P < 0.001. Correlations in ABIs between the two methods were 0.46 for the left leg and 0.61 for the right leg; this result appears to have been caused by interobserver variation in the Doppler ABI measurements. While the trend showing greater differences between average oscillometric- and Doppler-ABIs was significant at the lower ABI ranges, there was little indication of differences in measurements having an average ABI > 1.1. The difference between the methods was suggestively larger in subjects who were smokers than in non-smokers (P = 0.09, but the difference was not affected by other potential atherosclerotic risk factors, including age at examination (P > 0.50. A larger difference at lower ABIs led to better PAD detection by the Doppler method compared to the oscillometric method (sensitivity = 50%, specificity = 100%, although the overall agreement was not small (Cohen's Kappa = 0.65. Our findings indicate that oscillometric devices can provide more accurate estimation of the prevalence of PAD in elderly individuals than the conventional Doppler

  7. An ABI3-interactor of conifers responds to multiple hormones

    OpenAIRE

    Zeng, Ying; Zhao, Tiehan; Allison R Kermode

    2013-01-01

    CnAIP2 (Callitropsis nootkatensis ABI3-Interacting Protein 2) was previously identified as a protein that interacts with the yellow-cedar ABI3 protein. CnAIP2 plays important roles during several key transitions of the plant lifecycle and acts as a global regulator with functions opposite to those of ABI3 proteins. Here we report that the CnAIP2 gene promoter is strongly upregulated by all of the major plant hormones. Young Arabidopsis seedlings expressing a chimeric CnAIP2pro-GUS construct w...

  8. ABI3 ectopic expression reduces in vitro and in vivo cell growth properties while inducing senescence

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    Riggins Gregory J

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mounting evidence has indicated that ABI3 (ABI family member 3 function as a tumor suppressor gene, although the molecular mechanism by which ABI3 acts remains largely unknown. Methods The present study investigated ABI3 expression in a large panel of benign and malignant thyroid tumors and explored a correlation between the expression of ABI3 and its potential partner ABI3-binding protein (ABI3BP. We next explored the biological effects of ABI3 ectopic expression in thyroid and colon carcinoma cell lines, in which its expression was reduced or absent. Results We not only observed that ABI3 expression is reduced or lost in most carcinomas but also that there is a positive correlation between ABI3 and ABI3BP expression. Ectopic expression of ABI3 was sufficient to lead to a lower transforming activity, reduced tumor in vitro growth properties, suppressed in vitro anchorage-independent growth and in vivo tumor formation while, cellular senescence increased. These responses were accompanied by the up-regulation of the cell cycle inhibitor p21 WAF1 and reduced ERK phosphorylation and E2F1 expression. Conclusions Our result links ABI3 to the pathogenesis and progression of some cancers and suggests that ABI3 or its pathway might have interest as therapeutic target. These results also suggest that the pathways through which ABI3 works should be further characterized.

  9. ABI3 ectopic expression reduces in vitro and in vivo cell growth properties while inducing senescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mounting evidence has indicated that ABI3 (ABI family member 3) function as a tumor suppressor gene, although the molecular mechanism by which ABI3 acts remains largely unknown. The present study investigated ABI3 expression in a large panel of benign and malignant thyroid tumors and explored a correlation between the expression of ABI3 and its potential partner ABI3-binding protein (ABI3BP). We next explored the biological effects of ABI3 ectopic expression in thyroid and colon carcinoma cell lines, in which its expression was reduced or absent. We not only observed that ABI3 expression is reduced or lost in most carcinomas but also that there is a positive correlation between ABI3 and ABI3BP expression. Ectopic expression of ABI3 was sufficient to lead to a lower transforming activity, reduced tumor in vitro growth properties, suppressed in vitro anchorage-independent growth and in vivo tumor formation while, cellular senescence increased. These responses were accompanied by the up-regulation of the cell cycle inhibitor p21 WAF1 and reduced ERK phosphorylation and E2F1 expression. Our result links ABI3 to the pathogenesis and progression of some cancers and suggests that ABI3 or its pathway might have interest as therapeutic target. These results also suggest that the pathways through which ABI3 works should be further characterized

  10. Fossil history and modern distribution of the genus Abies (Pinaceae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIANG Xiaoguo; CAO Ming; ZHOU Zhekun

    2007-01-01

    The plants of the genus Abies are dominant and key species in the dark coniferous forest in the Northern Hemisphere.There are 52 species,one subspecies and 12 varieties in the genus Abies in the world.The history and modern distribution of Abies were discussed.The genus has three modern distribution centers:South Europe,North America and East Asia.These areas are also rich in fossil records.The vertical distribution regions of Abies are from sea level to an elevation of 4,700 m,concentrated in 1,000-2,000 m(15 species).In China,the genus distributes in 20 provinces,especially abundant in the Hengduan Mountains.Meanwhile,endemic and relic phenomena are obvious in this genus.There are seven relic species with both limited individuals and limited distributed regions.Based on the fossil records and the latest phylogenetic data,the following hypothesis was proposed:Abies originated from the middle and high altitudes of the Northern Hemisphere in the middle Cretaceous and it was dispersed southward in the Eocene due to global climate cooling down.The distribution of Abies was deeply influenced by geological events such as the uplift of Himalaya,the Alps,the Rocky Mountains,the occurrence of the Asian Monsoon as well as the Quaternary glaciers.Finally,the current distribution pattern appeared in the Quaternary.The genus Abies has a fossil history and modern distribution pattern similar to that of Cathaya and Pseudolarix.

  11. Psühhiaatrilise abi osutamise problemaatika Eestis / Mari Amos

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Amos, Mari

    2008-01-01

    ÜRO piinamise ning muu julma, ebainimliku või inimväärikust alandava kohtlemise ja karistamise vastasest konventsioonist, millega Eesti ühines 1. juunil 2002. Kaasaegne ja asjakohane psüühilise abi osutamise regulatsioon Eestis puudub

  12. The Arabidopsis CROWDED NUCLEI genes regulate seed germination by modulating degradation of ABI5 protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wenming; Guan, Chunmei; Feng, Jian; Liang, Yan; Zhan, Ni; Zuo, Jianru; Ren, Bo

    2016-07-01

    In Arabidopsis, the phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) plays a vital role in inhibiting seed germination and in post-germination seedling establishment. In the ABA signaling pathway, ABI5, a basic Leu zipper transcription factor, has important functions in the regulation of seed germination. ABI5 protein localizes in nuclear bodies, along with AFP, COP1, and SIZ1, and was degraded through the 26S proteasome pathway. However, the mechanisms of ABI5 nuclear body formation and ABI5 protein degradation remain obscure. In this study, we found that the Arabidopsis CROWDED NUCLEI (CRWN) proteins, predicted nuclear matrix proteins essential for maintenance of nuclear morphology, also participate in ABA-controlled seed germination by regulating the degradation of ABI5 protein. During seed germination, the crwn mutants are hypersensitive to ABA and have higher levels of ABI5 protein compared to wild type. Genetic analysis suggested that CRWNs act upstream of ABI5. The observation that CRWN3 colocalizes with ABI5 in nuclear bodies indicates that CRWNs might participate in ABI5 protein degradation in nuclear bodies. Moreover, we revealed that the extreme C-terminal of CRWN3 protein is necessary for its function in the response to ABA in germination. Our results suggested important roles of CRWNs in ABI5 nuclear body organization and ABI5 protein degradation during seed germination. PMID:26564029

  13. TRYPANOCIDAL ACTIVE COMPOUNDS FROM SCOTTISH ABIES NOBILIS AND PINUS SYLVESTRIS

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    Veronique Seidel

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Three active compounds obtained from the aerial parts of Abies nobilis and Pinus sylvestris isolated by different chromatographic techniques. Their structures were identified by NMR (1H, 13C, COSY, HMBC spectroscopic and mass spectrometric data and established as catechin, dehydroabietic acid and Dihydroconiferyl alcohol. The isolated compounds were exhibited activity against blood stream form of parasite Trypanosoma brucei brucei (S 427.

  14. ABI3 mediates dehydration stress recovery response in Arabidopsis thaliana by regulating expression of downstream genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedi, Sonia; Sengupta, Sourabh; Ray, Anagh; Nag Chaudhuri, Ronita

    2016-09-01

    ABI3, originally discovered as a seed-specific transcription factor is now implicated to act beyond seed physiology, especially during abiotic stress. In non-seed plants, ABI3 is known to act in desiccation stress signaling. Here we show that ABI3 plays a role in dehydration stress response in Arabidopsis. ABI3 gene was upregulated during dehydration stress and its expression was maintained during subsequent stress recovery phases. Comparative gene expression studies in response to dehydration stress and stress recovery were done with genes which had potential ABI3 binding sites in their upstream regulatory regions. Such studies showed that several genes including known seed-specific factors like CRUCIFERIN1, CRUCIFERIN3 and LEA-group of genes like LEA76, LEA6, DEHYDRIN LEA and LEA-LIKE got upregulated in an ABI3-dependent manner, especially during the stress recovery phase. ABI3 got recruited to regions upstream to the transcription start site of these genes during dehydration stress response through direct or indirect DNA binding. Interestingly, ABI3 also binds to its own promoter region during such stress signaling. Nucleosomes covering potential ABI3 binding sites in the upstream sequences of the above-mentioned genes alter positions, and show increased H3 K9 acetylation during stress-induced transcription. ABI3 thus mediates dehydration stress signaling in Arabidopsis through regulation of a group of genes that play a role primarily during stress recovery phase. PMID:27457990

  15. Combination of pulse volume recording (PVR) parameters and ankle-brachial index (ABI) improves diagnostic accuracy for peripheral arterial disease compared with ABI alone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Tomoko; Ichihashi, Shigeo; Iwakoshi, Shinichi; Kichikawa, Kimihiko

    2016-06-01

    The ankle-brachial index (ABI) measurement is widely used as a screening tool to detect peripheral arterial disease (PAD). With the advent of the oscillometric ABI device incorporating a system for the measurement of pulse volume recording (PVR), not only ABI but also other parameters, such as the percentage of mean arterial pressure (%MAP) and the upstroke time (UT), can be obtained automatically. The purpose of the present study was to compare the diagnostic accuracy for PAD with ABI alone with that of a combination of ABI, %MAP and UT. This study included 108 consecutive patients on whom 216 limb measurements were performed. The sensitivity, specificity and positive and negative predictive values of ABI, %MAP, UT and their combination were evaluated and compared with CT angiography that was used as a gold standard for the detection of PAD. The diagnostic accuracy as well as the optimal cutoff values of %MAP and UT were evaluated using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. The combination of ABI, %MAP and UT achieved higher sensitivity, negative predictive value and accuracy than ABI alone, particularly for mild stenosis. The areas under the ROC curve for the detection of 50% stenosis with UT and %MAP were 0.798 and 0.916, respectively. The optimal UT and %MAP values to detect ≧50% stenosis artery were 183 ms and 45%, respectively. The combination of ABI, %MAP and UT contributed to the improvement of the diagnostic accuracy for PAD. Consideration of the values of %MAP and UT in addition to ABI may have a significant impact on the detection of early PAD lesions.

  16. ABI3 controls embryo degreening through Mendel's I locus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delmas, Frédéric; Sankaranarayanan, Subramanian; Deb, Srijani; Widdup, Ellen; Bournonville, Céline; Bollier, Norbert; Northey, Julian G B; McCourt, Peter; Samuel, Marcus A

    2013-10-01

    Chlorophyll (chl) is essential for light capture and is the starting point that provides the energy for photosynthesis and thus plant growth. Obviously, for this reason, retention of the green chlorophyll pigment is considered a desirable crop trait. However, the presence of chlorophyll in mature seeds can be an undesirable trait that can affect seed maturation, seed oil quality, and meal quality. Occurrence of mature green seeds in oil crops such as canola and soybean due to unfavorable weather conditions during seed maturity is known to cause severe losses in revenue. One recently identified candidate that controls the chlorophyll degradation machinery is the stay-green gene, SGR1 that was mapped to Mendel's I locus responsible for cotyledon color (yellow versus green) in peas. A defect in SGR1 leads to leaf stay-green phenotypes in Arabidopsis and rice, but the role of SGR1 in seed degreening and the signaling machinery that converges on SGR1 have remained elusive. To decipher the gene regulatory network that controls degreening in Arabidopsis, we have used an embryo stay-green mutant to demonstrate that embryo degreening is achieved by the SGR family and that this whole process is regulated by the phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) through ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE 3 (ABI3); a B3 domain transcription factor that has a highly conserved and essential role in seed maturation, conferring desiccation tolerance. Misexpression of ABI3 was sufficient to rescue cold-induced green seed phenotype in Arabidopsis. This finding reveals a mechanistic role for ABI3 during seed degreening and thus targeting of this pathway could provide a solution to the green seed problem in various oil-seed crops. PMID:24043799

  17. Henri Frankfort, Aby Warburg and “Mythopoeic Thought”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Taylor

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This is the text of a lunchtime lecture given at the Warburg Institute in the spring of 2004. It formed part of a series concerned with past Warburg scholars, and was devoted to the work of Henri Frankfort, Director of the Institute from 1949 to 1954. The first third of the lecture was a rapid account of his career; the remainder of the lecture was an analysis and criticism of the concept of ‘primitive thinking’ in the work of Frankfort and Aby Warburg.

  18. Aby Warburg, Images and Exhibitions. Aby Warburg, Bilderreihen und Ausstellungen edited by Uwe Fleckner and Isabelle Woldt, Akademie Verlag, 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Rampley

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews the latest volume in the collected works of Aby Warburg published by Akademie Verlag. The volume consists of exhibitions and plates of images Warburg compiled to illustrate lectures in the period between 1925-1929. The review focuses on two key issues raised by the publication: the light it casts on the Mnemosyne Atlas Warburg was working on at the same time, and, in particular, how it helps shape perceptions of the broader intellectual direction of Warburg's thinking in the final half decade of his life.

  19. The complete chloroplast genome sequence of Abies nephrolepis (Pinaceae: Abietoideae

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    Dong-Keun Yi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The plant chloroplast (cp genome has maintained a relatively conserved structure and gene content throughout evolution. Cp genome sequences have been used widely for resolving evolutionary and phylogenetic issues at various taxonomic levels of plants. Here, we report the complete cp genome of Abies nephrolepis. The A. nephrolepis cp genome is 121,336 base pairs (bp in length including a pair of short inverted repeat regions (IRa and IRb of 139 bp each separated by a small single copy (SSC region of 54,323 bp (SSC and a large single copy region of 66,735 bp (LSC. It contains 114 genes, 68 of which are protein coding genes, 35 tRNA and four rRNA genes, six open reading frames, and one pseudogene. Seventeen repeat units and 64 simple sequence repeats (SSR have been detected in A. nephrolepis cp genome. Large IR sequences locate in 42-kb inversion points (1186 bp. The A. nephrolepis cp genome is identical to Abies koreana’s which is closely related to taxa. Pairwise comparison between two cp genomes revealed 140 polymorphic sites in each. Complete cp genome sequence of A. nephrolepis has a significant potential to provide information on the evolutionary pattern of Abietoideae and valuable data for development of DNA markers for easy identification and classification.

  20. Seasonal fluctuation in concentrations and content of sugar, starch and nutrient in nordmanns fir (Abies nordmannia) Christmas tree

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lars Bo; Christensen, Claus Jerram

    Seasonal fluctuation in concentrations and content of sugar, starch and nutrient in nordmanns fir (Abies nordmannia) Christmas tree......Seasonal fluctuation in concentrations and content of sugar, starch and nutrient in nordmanns fir (Abies nordmannia) Christmas tree...

  1. Composition of essential oils from seeds of Abies koreana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wajs-Bonikowska, Anna; Olejnik, Karol; Bonikowski, Radosław; Banaszczak, Piotr

    2013-02-01

    The essential oils from seeds of nine Abies koreana specimens have been studied using GC-MS-FID and NMR methods, leading to the determination of 96 volatiles, which constituted over 99% of the oils. The hydrodistilled oils of fresh, resinous scent were isolated with yields in the range of 3.8-8.5%. The results showed that the essential oil of Korean fir seeds contained 70-95% monoterpenes and 1-20% oxygenated monoterpenes as the dominant groups. The numerous sesquiterpenes, diterpenes and their oxygenated derivatives constituted only 2-8% of the oil. The major component of the seed essential oil was limonene (41-72 g/100g); the laevorotary form of this terpene predominated. A. koreana seeds seem to be a rich source of both essential oil and (-)-limonene, whose average enantiomeric excess was above 95%. PMID:23513736

  2. Diterpenoids from the branch and leaf of Abies fargesii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wen-Ming; Liu, Ye; Chen, Xu; Jin, An; Zhou, Ming; Tian, Tian; Ruan, Han-Li

    2016-04-01

    Five new abietane diterpenoids, named abifadines A-E (1-5), and nine known ones (6-14), together with two known podocarpenes (15 and 16), were isolated from the branch and leaf of Abies fargesii. Their structures including the relative configurations were established on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analyses. The absolute configuration of 1 was determined through single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis with Cu Kα irradiation. All the isolates were evaluated for their in vitro cytotoxicities. Only compounds 5 and 12 exhibited weak anti-proliferative effects against three cancer cell lines (B16, MCF7, and HepG2) with IC50 values range from 14.8 to 42.8 μM. The antimicrobial activities against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Monilia albicans of all compounds were also tested, but none of them showed significant activities. PMID:26969787

  3. Epimeric spirolactone-type triterpenoids from Abies faxoniana Rehd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guo-Wei; Lv, Chao; Jin, Hui-Zi; Shen, Yun-Heng; Zhang, Wei-Dong

    2016-09-01

    Phytochemical investigation of Abies faxoniana Rehd. led to the isolation of two pairs of new epimeric spirolactone-type triterpenoids (1/1' and 2/2') and 11 known terpenoids (3-13). Compounds 1/1' and 2/2' were isolated as epimeric mixtures due to the C-23 ketal tautomerism in their spirolactone structures. The dynamic HPLC manifested that the C-23 epimeric mixtures interconverted into each other in solution. Structure determinations were based on extensive NMR and HRESIMS spectroscopic analysis. Meanwhile, their cytotoxic activities were tested by MTT method. Compound 5 showed cytotoxicities against MCF-7 and A549 cells with IC50 values of 6.5 and 5.7μM, respectively. Compounds 1/1' had IC50 values of 10.0 and 12.3μM for Huh7 and SMMC7721 cells, respectively. PMID:27431772

  4. The lactococcal abortive infection protein AbiP is membrane-anchored and binds nucleic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingues, Susana; McGovern, Stephen; Plochocka, Danuta; Santos, Mário A; Ehrlich, S Dusko; Polard, Patrice; Chopin, Marie-Christine

    2008-03-30

    AbiP, a lactococcal abortive phage infection system, has previously been shown to arrest phage bIL66M1 DNA replication around 10 min after infection and to inhibit the switch off of phage early transcripts. We report here the functional characterization and implication in the abortive infection phenotype of two domains identified in the AbiP sequence. We show that AbiP is a protein anchored to the membrane by an N-terminal membrane-spanning domain. Our results further suggest that membrane localization may be required for the anti-phage activity of AbiP. The remainder of the protein, which contains a putative nucleic acid binding domain, is shown to be located on the cytosolic side. Purified AbiP is shown to bind nucleic acids with an approximately 10-fold preference for RNA relative to ssDNA. AbiP interaction with both ssDNA and RNA molecules occurs in a sequence-independent manner. We have analyzed the effect of substitutions of aromatic and basic residues on the surface of the putative binding fold. In vitro and in vivo studies of these AbiP derivatives indicate that the previously reported effects on phage development might be dependent on the nucleic acid binding activity displayed by the membrane-bound protein.

  5. Genome-Wide Analysis of the bZIP Gene Family Identifies Two ABI5-Like bZIP Transcription Factors, BrABI5a and BrABI5b, as Positive Modulators of ABA Signalling in Chinese Cabbage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yili Bai

    Full Text Available bZIP (basic leucine zipper transcription factors coordinate plant growth and development and control responses to environmental stimuli. The genome of Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa encodes 136 putative bZIP transcription factors. The bZIP transcription factors in Brassica rapa (BrbZIP are classified into 10 subfamilies. Phylogenetic relationship analysis reveals that subfamily A consists of 23 BrbZIPs. Two BrbZIPs within subfamily A, Bra005287 and Bra017251, display high similarity to ABI5 (ABA Insensitive 5. Expression of subfamily A BrbZIPs, like BrABI5a (Bra005287/BrbZIP14 and BrABI5b (Bra017251/BrbZIP13, are significantly induced by the plant hormone ABA. Subcellular localization assay reveal that both BrABI5a and BrABI5b have a nuclear localization. BrABI5a and BrABI5b could directly stimulate ABA Responsive Element-driven HIS (a HIS3 reporter gene, which confers His prototrophy or LUC (LUCIFERASE expression in yeast and Arabidopsis protoplast. Deletion of the bZIP motif abolished BrABI5a and BrABI5b transcriptional activity. The ABA insensitive phenotype of Arabidopsis abi5-1 is completely suppressed in transgenic lines expressing BrABI5a or BrABI5b. Overall, these results suggest that ABI5 orthologs, BrABI5a and BrABI5b, have key roles in ABA signalling in Chinese cabbage.

  6. Genome-Wide Analysis of the bZIP Gene Family Identifies Two ABI5-Like bZIP Transcription Factors, BrABI5a and BrABI5b, as Positive Modulators of ABA Signalling in Chinese Cabbage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaochen; Sun, Congcong; Li, Yanlin; Wang, Dandan; Wang, Qinhu; Pei, Guoliang; Zhang, Yanfeng; Guo, Aiguang; Zhao, Huixian; Lu, Haibin; Mu, Xiaoqian; Hu, Jingjiang; Zhou, Xiaona; Xie, Chang Gen

    2016-01-01

    bZIP (basic leucine zipper) transcription factors coordinate plant growth and development and control responses to environmental stimuli. The genome of Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa) encodes 136 putative bZIP transcription factors. The bZIP transcription factors in Brassica rapa (BrbZIP) are classified into 10 subfamilies. Phylogenetic relationship analysis reveals that subfamily A consists of 23 BrbZIPs. Two BrbZIPs within subfamily A, Bra005287 and Bra017251, display high similarity to ABI5 (ABA Insensitive 5). Expression of subfamily A BrbZIPs, like BrABI5a (Bra005287/BrbZIP14) and BrABI5b (Bra017251/BrbZIP13), are significantly induced by the plant hormone ABA. Subcellular localization assay reveal that both BrABI5a and BrABI5b have a nuclear localization. BrABI5a and BrABI5b could directly stimulate ABA Responsive Element-driven HIS (a HIS3 reporter gene, which confers His prototrophy) or LUC (LUCIFERASE) expression in yeast and Arabidopsis protoplast. Deletion of the bZIP motif abolished BrABI5a and BrABI5b transcriptional activity. The ABA insensitive phenotype of Arabidopsis abi5-1 is completely suppressed in transgenic lines expressing BrABI5a or BrABI5b. Overall, these results suggest that ABI5 orthologs, BrABI5a and BrABI5b, have key roles in ABA signalling in Chinese cabbage. PMID:27414644

  7. Genome-Wide Analysis of the bZIP Gene Family Identifies Two ABI5-Like bZIP Transcription Factors, BrABI5a and BrABI5b, as Positive Modulators of ABA Signalling in Chinese Cabbage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yili; Zhu, Wenbo; Hu, Xiaochen; Sun, Congcong; Li, Yanlin; Wang, Dandan; Wang, Qinhu; Pei, Guoliang; Zhang, Yanfeng; Guo, Aiguang; Zhao, Huixian; Lu, Haibin; Mu, Xiaoqian; Hu, Jingjiang; Zhou, Xiaona; Xie, Chang Gen

    2016-01-01

    bZIP (basic leucine zipper) transcription factors coordinate plant growth and development and control responses to environmental stimuli. The genome of Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa) encodes 136 putative bZIP transcription factors. The bZIP transcription factors in Brassica rapa (BrbZIP) are classified into 10 subfamilies. Phylogenetic relationship analysis reveals that subfamily A consists of 23 BrbZIPs. Two BrbZIPs within subfamily A, Bra005287 and Bra017251, display high similarity to ABI5 (ABA Insensitive 5). Expression of subfamily A BrbZIPs, like BrABI5a (Bra005287/BrbZIP14) and BrABI5b (Bra017251/BrbZIP13), are significantly induced by the plant hormone ABA. Subcellular localization assay reveal that both BrABI5a and BrABI5b have a nuclear localization. BrABI5a and BrABI5b could directly stimulate ABA Responsive Element-driven HIS (a HIS3 reporter gene, which confers His prototrophy) or LUC (LUCIFERASE) expression in yeast and Arabidopsis protoplast. Deletion of the bZIP motif abolished BrABI5a and BrABI5b transcriptional activity. The ABA insensitive phenotype of Arabidopsis abi5-1 is completely suppressed in transgenic lines expressing BrABI5a or BrABI5b. Overall, these results suggest that ABI5 orthologs, BrABI5a and BrABI5b, have key roles in ABA signalling in Chinese cabbage. PMID:27414644

  8. Portugal palus ELilt abi põlengutega võitlemiseks / Kajar Kase

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kase, Kajar

    2005-01-01

    Sellel aastal on Portugali metsatulekahjudes hukkunud juba 15 inimest ja hetkel on kahjustatud 140 000 hektarit metsa. Appi on tõtanud Prantsusmaa, Saksamaa, Itaalia, Hispaania ja Hollandi helikopterid ja lennukid. Kaart: Abi Portugalile

  9. Composition and antibacterial activity of Abies balsamea essential oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichette, André; Larouche, Pierre-Luc; Lebrun, Maxime; Legault, Jean

    2006-05-01

    The antibacterial activity of the essential oil of Abies balsamea (balsam fir) was evaluated against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. The essential oil of A. balsamea was found to be inactive against E. coli (>100 microg/mL) and active against S. aureus, with an MIC of 56 microg/mL. The oil composition was analysed by GC-MS and the antibacterial activity of each oil constituent was determined. The essential oil of A. balsamea is essentially constituted of monoterpenes (>96%) and some sesquiterpenes. beta-pinene (29.9%), delta-3-carene (19.6%) and alpha-pinene (14.6%) were the major components. beta-pinene and delta-3-carene were found inactive against both bacteria strains. However, three constituents of the essential oil were active against S. aureus: alpha-pinene, beta-caryophyllene (0.4%) and alpha-humulene (0.2%) with MIC values of 13.6 microg/mL, 5.1 microg/mL and 2.6 microg/mL, respectively. PMID:16619365

  10. Future ofAbies pindrow in Swat district, northern Pakistan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kishwar Ali; Habib Ahmad; Nasrullah Khan; Stephen Jury

    2014-01-01

    Swat district is a biodiversity hub of Pakistan. The plant species, especially trees, in the Swat District are exposed to extinction threat from global climate change. Maximum entropy (MaxEnt) modelling of species distribution, using HADCM3 A2a global climate change scenario, pre-dicted a considerable change in the future distribution ofAbies pindrow (Royle ex D.Don) Royle. AUC (area under the curve)values of 0.972 and 0.983 were significant for the present and future distribution models of the species, respectively. It is clear that bioclimatic variables such as the mean temperature of the warmest quarter (bio_10) and the annual temperature range (bio_7) contribute significantly to the model and thus affect the predicted distribution and density of the species. The future model predicts that by the year 2080 population density will have decreased significantly. The highest density of the species is recorded in the eastern and western borders of the Valley in the areas of Sulatanr and Mankial. The changes in density and distribution of the species can have considerable impact, not only on the tree species itself, but on the associated subflora as well.

  11. Springtime resumption of photosynthesis in balsam fir (Abies balsamea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodine, G K; Lavigne, M B; Krasowski, M J

    2008-07-01

    Photosynthesis in balsam fir (Abies balsamea (L.) Mill.) was measured in the field at two locations in New Brunswick, Canada from late winter to late spring in 2004 and 2005. No photosynthesis was detectable while the soil remained below 0 degrees C throughout the rooting zone. In both years, photosynthesis began once soil temperature rose to 0 degrees C. In potted seedlings in growth chambers, there was no photosynthesis at an air temperature of 10 degrees C if the pots were frozen. These findings suggest that, once air temperatures permit photosynthesis, it is the availability of unfrozen soil water that triggers the onset of photosynthesis. In the field, full recovery of photosynthetic capacity following the onset of soil thaw was dependent on air temperature and took 5 weeks in 2005, but 10 weeks in 2004. There were two substantial frost events during the recovery period in 2004 that may explain the extended recovery period. In 2005, recovery was complete after the accumulation of 200 growing degree days above 0 degrees C after the start of soil thaw. PMID:18450571

  12. Delphinella Shoot Blight on Abies lasiocarpa Provenances in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venche Talgø

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Delphinella shoot blight (Delphinella abietis attacks true firs (Abies spp. in Europe and North America. Especially subalpine fir (A. lasiocarpa, one of the main Christmas tree species in Norway, is prone to the disease. The fungus kills current year needles, and in severe cases entire shoots. Dead needles become covered with black fruiting bodies, both pycnidia and pseudothecia. Delphinella shoot blight has mainly been a problem in humid, coastal regions in the northwestern part of Southern Norway, but, probably due to higher precipitation in inland regions during recent years, heavy attacks were found in 2011 in a field trial with 76 provenances of subalpine fir in Southeastern Norway. However, the amount of precipitation seemed less important once the disease had established in the field. Significant differences in susceptibility between provenances were observed. In general, the more bluish the foliage was, the healthier the trees appeared. The analysis of provenance means indicated that, at least for the southern range, the disease ratings were correlated with foliage color. This study also includes isolation, identification, a pathogenicity test, a seed test and electron microscopy of the wax layer on the needles. The fungus was identified based on the morphology of spores and by sequencing the Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS regions of the ribosomal DNA. Koch’s postulates were fulfilled. The fungus was found present on newly harvested seeds and may therefore spread via international seed trade. When comparing the wax layers on green and blue needles, those of the latter were significantly thicker, a factor that may be involved in disease resistance.

  13. Plastic responses of Abies pinsapo xylogenesis to drought and competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linares, Juan Carlos; Camarero, J Julio; Carreira, José Antonio

    2009-12-01

    Radial growth and xylogenesis were studied to investigate the influence of climate variability and intraspecific competition on secondary growth in Abies pinsapo Boiss., a relic Mediterranean fir. We monitored the responses to three thinning treatments (unthinned control -C-, 30% -T30- and 60% -T60- of basal area removed) to test the hypothesis that they may improve the adaptation capacity of tree growth to climatic stress. We also assessed whether xylogenesis was differentially affected by tree-to-tree competition. Secondary growth was assessed using manual band dendrometers from 2005 to 2007. In 2006, xylogenesis (phases of tracheid formation) was also investigated by taking microcores and performing histological analyses. Seasonal dynamics of radial increment were modeled using Gompertz functions and correlations with microclimate and radiation were performed. Histological analyses revealed it as fundamental to calibrate the dendrometer estimates of radial increment and to establish the actual onset and end dates of tracheid production. The lower radial-increment rates and number of produced tracheids were observed in the trees subjected to high competition in the unthinned plots. The growing season differed among the plots, and its duration ranged from an average of 78 days in unthinned plots to 115 days in thinned ones (T60). Variations in the beginning of the growing season (13 April to 22 May) and earlywood-latewood transition (early August) were mainly determined by the temperature pattern, while the onset and the end of the growing season were related to both annual precipitation and tree-to-tree competition. The tracheid-formation phases of radial enlargement and cell-wall thickening showed similar patterns in the trees from thinned and unthinned plots subjected to low and high competition, respectively, but the mean number of tracheids in each phase was always higher in the trees from the thinned plots. The reduction of competition through thinning

  14. Ecological environment analysis of Abies holophylla plantations under different cutting systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Different types of plantations were observed in Baishilazi National Nature Reserve, Liaoning Province,for 34 a. The environmental quality of Abies holophylla plantations was analyzed under different cutting systems.Analysis factors included soil erosion rate, humification degree of litters, and water hold capacity. The surface soil loss of clear cutting area was 19 000 t·km-2·a-1 more than that of selective cutting area. The content of soil organic matter in board-leaved-Abies holophylla forest was 4.62% more than that in pure stand, and the water hold capacity of the mixed forest was 1.43 time of that of pure stand. The mixed forest of board-leaved--Abies holophylla by selective cutting can upgrade the ecological environment quality.

  15. Differential regulation of macropinocytosis by Abi1/Hssh3bp1 isoforms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrycja M Dubielecka

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Macropinocytosis, which is a constitutive cellular process of fluid and macromolecule uptake, is regulated by actin cytoskeleton rearrangements near the plasma membrane. Activation of Rac1, which is proposed to act upstream of the actin polymerization regulatory Wave 2 complex, has been found to correlate with enhanced macropinocytosis. One of the components of the Wave 2 complex is Abi1. Multiple, alternatively spliced isoforms of Abi1 are expressed in mammalian cells, but the functional significance of the various isoforms is unknown. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, using flow cytometric assay analysis for Alexa Fluor 647, we demonstrate that Abi1 isoforms 2 and 3 differentially regulate macropinocytosis. LNCaP cells expressing isoform 3 had increased macropinocytic uptake that correlated with enhanced cell spreading and higher Rac1 activation in comparison to cells expressing isoform 2. Isoform 2 expressing cells had decreased macropinocytic uptake, but demonstrated greater sensitivity to Rac1 activation. Moreover, more isoform 2 was localized within the cytoplasm in comparison to isoform 3, which was more associated with the plasma membrane. Activated Rac1 was found to specifically bind to a site in exon 10 of isoform 2 in vitro. Because of alternative mRNA splicing, exon 10 is absent from isoform 3, precluding similar binding of activated Rac1. Both isoforms, however, bound to inactive Rac1 through the same non-exon 10 site. Thus, Abi1 isoform 3-containing Wave 2 complex exhibited a differential binding to activated vs. inactive Rac1, whereas isoform 2-containing Wave 2 complex bound activated or inactive Rac1 comparably. CONCLUSION: Based on these observations, we postulate that Abi1 isoforms differentially regulate macropinocytosis as a consequence of their different relative affinities for activated Rac1 in Wave 2 complex. These findings also raise the possibility that isoform-specific roles occur in other Abi1 functions.

  16. Estructura del bosque y arquitectura de brinzales de Abies religiosa en Tlaxco, Tlaxcala.

    OpenAIRE

    Bautista Sampayo, Carolina

    2013-01-01

    Se realizó un estudio de estructura y arquitectura de brinzales en bosques de Abies religiosa y Pinus patula en la región de Tlaxco, Tlaxcala. La estructura fue enfocada a la composición de especies y distribución diamétrica en dos localidades de Abies religiosa con historias de manejo contrastantes en términos de aprovechamientos comerciales. San José el Manantial (SJM) está sujeto a Manejo Forestal persistente a través de cortas de selección; mientras que el área estudiada en el Ejido de Ma...

  17. Radical Scavenging Activity of the Essential Oil of Silver Fir (Abies alba)

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Seun-Ah; Jeon, Sang-Kyung; Lee, Eun-Jung; Im, Nam-Kyung; Jhee, Kwang-Hwan; Lee, Sam-Pin; Lee, In-Seon

    2009-01-01

    The essential oil of silver fir (Abies alba) is known to help respiratory system and have easing and soothing effect for muscle. In the present study, we investigated the chemical composition, cytotoxicity and its biological activities of silver fir (Abies alba) essential oil. The composition of the oil was analyzed by GC-MS and bornyl acetate (30.31%), camphene (19.81%), 3-carene (13.85%), tricyclene (12.90%), dl-limonene (7.50%), α-pinene (2.87%), caryophyllene (2.18%), β-phellandrene (2.13...

  18. Análisis estructural y de diversidad en los bosques de Abies de Jalisco, México Structural and diversity analysis of Abies forests from Jalisco, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón Cuevas-Guzmán

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available En 24 parcelas de 0.1 ha, distribuidas en 5 áreas del estado de Jalisco, se determinaron la estructura, composición florística y diversidad de los bosques de Abies, y sus atributos fueron comparados entre áreas. Se registraron 64 especies, 47 géneros y 35 familias. Asteraceae, Pinaceae y Fagaceae y los géneros Quercus, Pinus y Abies fueron los más ricos en especies. El 56% de los individuos tuvo alturas entre 2 y 14 m; las mayores se presentaron en Abies religiosa var. emarginata, A. guatemalensis var. jaliscana, Quercus xalapensis y A. religiosa var. religiosa. Los mayores valores de densidad, área basal, frecuencia y valor de importancia fueron para A. religiosa var. emarginata, A. religiosa var. religiosa, Pinus pseudostrobus y Podocarpus matudae. Los individuos de las especies presentaron una distribución diamétrica en forma de "J" invertida en las 5 zonas estudiadas, mientras que la riqueza y la diversidad de especies no mostraron diferencias estadísticas significativas entre las áreas. La similitud promedio entre las parcelas de las 5 áreas mostró diferencias estadísticas significativas para 4 de ellas. Aunque muy diferentes en su composición florística, los bosques de Abies de Jalisco resultaron similares en riqueza, diversidad y estructura. En las 5 áreas, las comunidades mostraron buena capacidad de recuperación pues en todos los estratos se presentaron individuos altos y árboles emergentes.Structure, floristic composition and diversity in Abies forests were determined in twenty-four 0.1 ha plots in 5 areas in Jalisco State. The resulting attributes were compared between areas. Sixty four species, 47 genera and 35 families were recorded. The families Asteraceae, Pinaceae and Fagaceae, as well as the genera Quercus, Pinus and Abies had the highest species richness. More than half (56% of the individuals had a height ranging between 2 and 14 m, with Abies religiosavar. emarginata, A. guatemalensis var. jaliscana

  19. Seed Source Significantly Influences Growth Rates and Disease Resistance of Abies Lasiocarpa Grown for Ornamental Nursery Stock and Christmas Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trees from six corkbark fir (Abies lasiocarpa var. arizonica) and 10 subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa var. lasiocarpa) seed sources were grown at the University of Idaho (SREC) and three commercial nurseries in northern Idaho and northeastern Oregon. Post transplant mortality was highest during the f...

  20. Cytokinin profiles in the conifer tree Abies nordmanniana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Hanne Nina; Veierskov, Bjarke; Hansen-Møller, Jens;

    2009-01-01

    Abstract  Conifer trees are routinely manipulated hormonally to increase flowering, branching, or adjust crown shape for production purposes. This survey of internal cytokinin levels provides a background for such treatments in Abies nordmanniana, a tree of great economic interest. Reference poin...

  1. Produktvergleich zwischen EBSCO Business Source Premier und ABI/Inform ProQuest

    OpenAIRE

    Katzmayr, Michael; Putz, Michaela; Fessler, Georg

    2005-01-01

    This report outlines a comparison between the two aggregators ABI/Inform ProQuest and EBSCO Business Source Premier. Additionally to an evaluation of the database coverage, the fields indexing, usability and use were considered. Moreover, a user survey and a consulting of experts were conducted.

  2. Pakistan vajab abi - kas maailma tõesti ei huvita? / Urmas Jaagant

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Suurkask, Heiki, 1972-

    2010-01-01

    Pakistan saab igal aastal suurt rahvusvahelist abi. Mitmed riigid on üleujutustes Pakistani toetanud nüüdki kümnete miljonite dollaritega, kuid riikide tahe annetada on erinev, sest mitte iga abidollarit ei suunata Pakistanis sinna, kus seda tegelikult vajatakse

  3. The Classical Classroom: Enhancing Learning for Pupils with Acquired Brain Injury (ABI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Sian A.; Skidmore, David

    2008-01-01

    This paper seeks to draw parallels between different approaches to classroom instruction and two contrasting musical styles and to examine how pupils with Acquired Brain Injuries (ABI) might fare in each. A polyphonic classroom is defined as one where an awareness of multiple layers of meaning are encouraged to enhance the learning opportunities,…

  4. ABI4 regulates primary seed dormancy by regulating the biogenesis of abscisic acid and gibberellins in arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Shu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Seed dormancy is an important economic trait for agricultural production. Abscisic acid (ABA and Gibberellins (GA are the primary factors that regulate the transition from dormancy to germination, and they regulate this process antagonistically. The detailed regulatory mechanism involving crosstalk between ABA and GA, which underlies seed dormancy, requires further elucidation. Here, we report that ABI4 positively regulates primary seed dormancy, while negatively regulating cotyledon greening, by mediating the biogenesis of ABA and GA. Seeds of the Arabidopsis abi4 mutant that were subjected to short-term storage (one or two weeks germinated significantly more quickly than Wild-Type (WT, and abi4 cotyledons greened markedly more quickly than WT, while the rates of germination and greening were comparable when the seeds were subjected to longer-term storage (six months. The ABA content of dry abi4 seeds was remarkably lower than that of WT, but the amounts were comparable after stratification. Consistently, the GA level of abi4 seeds was increased compared to WT. Further analysis showed that abi4 was resistant to treatment with paclobutrazol (PAC, a GA biosynthesis inhibitor, during germination, while OE-ABI4 was sensitive to PAC, and exogenous GA rescued the delayed germination phenotype of OE-ABI4. Analysis by qRT-PCR showed that the expression of genes involved in ABA and GA metabolism in dry and germinating seeds corresponded to hormonal measurements. Moreover, chromatin immunoprecipitation qPCR (ChIP-qPCR and transient expression analysis showed that ABI4 repressed CYP707A1 and CYP707A2 expression by directly binding to those promoters, and the ABI4 binding elements are essential for this repression. Accordingly, further genetic analysis showed that abi4 recovered the delayed germination phenotype of cyp707a1 and cyp707a2 and further, rescued the non-germinating phenotype of ga1-t. Taken together, this study suggests that ABI4 is a key

  5. Hydraulic traits are associated with the distribution range of two closely related Mediterranean firs, Abies alba Mill. and Abies pinsapo Boiss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peguero-Pina, José Javier; Sancho-Knapik, Domingo; Cochard, Hervé; Barredo, Gonzalo; Villarroya, Dido; Gil-Pelegrín, Eustaquio

    2011-10-01

    Abies alba and Abies pinsapo are two closely related fir species that occur in the Iberian Peninsula under very different environmental conditions. Abies alba proliferates in the humid European mountains, including the Spanish Pyrenees. In contrast, A. pinsapo is a relict species that occurs in some restricted areas of the Mediterranean mountain ranges in Spain and Morocco, which experience intense summer drought periods. To cope with the high atmospheric evaporative demand during summer, A. pinsapo may either have a high resistance to xylem cavitation or develop a very efficient conducting system to reduce the soil-to-leaf water potential gradient. To investigate such hypotheses, we measured (i) the xylem vulnerability to cavitation for different populations, and (ii) several anatomical and hydraulic parameters indicating xylem sufficiency for -supplying water to the shoot in two contrasting populations of both species. Our results show that the resistance to cavitation was not different between species or populations. However, hydraulic conductivity (K(h)), specific hydraulic conductivity (K(s)), leaf-specific conductivity (LSC) and whole-shoot hydraulic conductance (K(shoot)) were higher in A. pinsapo, indicating a higher efficiency of water transport, which should contribute to maintaining its xylem tension below the threshold for rapidly increasing cavitation. The higher K(s) in A. pinsapo was largely a result of its wider tracheids, suggesting that this species may be much more vulnerable to freeze-thaw-induced cavitation than A. alba. This is consistent with the absence of A. pinsapo in northern mountain ranges with cooler winters. These physiological differences could partly explain the niche segregation and the geographical separation of these two firs. PMID:21937669

  6. Oxidative stability of cnicken thigh meat after treatment of abies alba essential oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Pavelková

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, the effect of the Abies alba essential oil in two different concentrations on oxidative stability of chicken thigh muscles during chilled storage was investigated. In the experiment were chickens of hybrid combination Cobb 500 after 42 days of the fattening period slaughtered.  All the broiler chickens were fed with the same feed mixtures and were kept under the same conditions. The feed mixtures were produced without any antibiotic preparations and coccidiostatics. After slaughtering was dissection obtained fresh chicken thigh with skin from left half-carcass which were divided into five groups (n = 5: C - control air-packaged group; A1 - vacuum-packaged experimental group; A2 - vacuum-packaged experimental group with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA solution 1.50% w/w; A3 - vacuum-packaged experimental group with Abies alba oil 0.10% v/w and A4 - vacuum-packaged experimental group with Abies alba oil 0.20% v/w. The Abies alba essential oil was applicate on ground chicken things and immediately after dipping, each sample was packaged using a vacuum packaging machine and storage in refrigerate at 4 ±0.5 °C. Thiobarbituric acid (TBA value expressed in number of malondialdehyde was measured in the process of first storage day of 1st, 4th, 8th, 12th and 16th day after slaughtering and expressed on the amount of malondialdehyde (MDA in 1 kg sample. The treatments of chicken things with Abies alba essential oil show statistically significant differences between all testing groups and control group, where higher average value of MDA measured in thigh muscle of broiler chickens was in samples of control group (0.4380 mg.kg-1 compared to experimental groups A1 (0.124 mg.kg-1, A2 (0.086 mg.kg-1, A3 (0.082 mg.kg-1 and A4 (0.077 mg.kg-1 after 16-day of chilled storage. Experiment results show that the treatment of chicken thigh with Abies alba essential oil positively influenced on the reduction of oxidative processes in thigh

  7. Activation of mRNA translation by phage protein and low temperature: the case of Lactococcus lactis abortive infection system AbiD1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehrlich S Dusko

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Abortive infection (Abi mechanisms comprise numerous strategies developed by bacteria to avoid being killed by bacteriophage (phage. Escherichia coli Abis are considered as mediators of programmed cell death, which is induced by infecting phage. Abis were also proposed to be stress response elements, but no environmental activation signals have yet been identified. Abis are widespread in Lactococcus lactis, but regulation of their expression remains an open question. We previously showed that development of AbiD1 abortive infection against phage bIL66 depends on orf1, which is expressed in mid-infection. However, molecular basis for this activation remains unclear. Results In non-infected AbiD1+ cells, specific abiD1 mRNA is unstable and present in low amounts. It does not increase during abortive infection of sensitive phage. Protein synthesis directed by the abiD1 translation initiation region is also inefficient. The presence of the phage orf1 gene, but not its mutant AbiD1R allele, strongly increases abiD1 translation efficiency. Interestingly, cell growth at low temperature also activates translation of abiD1 mRNA and consequently the AbiD1 phenotype, and occurs independently of phage infection. There is no synergism between the two abiD1 inducers. Purified Orf1 protein binds mRNAs containing a secondary structure motif, identified within the translation initiation regions of abiD1, the mid-infection phage bIL66 M-operon, and the L. lactis osmC gene. Conclusion Expression of the abiD1 gene and consequently AbiD1 phenotype is specifically translationally activated by the phage Orf1 protein. The loss of ability to activate translation of abiD1 mRNA determines the molecular basis for phage resistance to AbiD1. We show for the first time that temperature downshift also activates abortive infection by activation of abiD1 mRNA translation.

  8. Lignin distribution in waterlogged archaeological Picea abies (L.) Karst degraded by erosion bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Nanna Bjerregaard; Schmitt, Uwe Schmitt; Koch, Gerald;

    2014-01-01

    The lignin distribution in poles of waterlogged archaeological Picea abies (L.) Karst, which was decayed by erosion bacteria (EB) under anoxic conditions for approximately 400 years, was topochemically identified by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high resolution UV-microspectrophotome......The lignin distribution in poles of waterlogged archaeological Picea abies (L.) Karst, which was decayed by erosion bacteria (EB) under anoxic conditions for approximately 400 years, was topochemically identified by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high resolution UV......-microspectrophotometry (UMSP). Lignin rich cell wall compartments such as cell corner (CC), compound middle lamella (CML), torus, initial pit border and mild compression wood (CW) appeared morphologically well preserved together with S1 and S3 layers and epithelial and ray parenchyma cells. Residual material (RM) from...

  9. Metabolite changes in conifer buds and needles during forced bud break in Norway spruce (Picea abies and European silver fir (Abies alba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka eDhuli

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Environmental changes such as early spring and warm spells induce bud burst and photosynthetic processes in cold-acclimated coniferous trees and consequently, cellular metabolism in overwintering needles and buds. The purpose of the study was to examine metabolism in conifers under forced deacclimation (artificially induced spring by exposing shoots of Picea abies (boreal species and Abies alba (temperate species to a greenhouse environment (22°C, 16/8 h D/N cycle over a nine week period. Each week, we scored bud opening and collected samples for GC/MS–based metabolite profiling. We detected a total of 169 assigned metabolites and 80 identified metabolites, comprising compounds such as mono- and disaccharides, Krebs cycle acids, amino acids, polyols, phenolics and phosphorylated structures. Untargeted multivariate statistical analysis based on PCA and cluster analysis segregated samples by species, tissue type, and stage of tissue deacclimations. Similar patterns of metabolic regulation in both species were observed in buds (amino acids, Krebs cycle acids and needles (hexoses, pentoses, and Krebs cycle acids. Based on correlation of bud opening score with compound levels, distinct metabolites could be associated with bud and shoot development, including amino acids, sugars and acids with known osmolyte function, and secondary metabolites. This study has shed light on how elevated temperature affects metabolism in buds and needles of conifer species during the deacclimation phase, and contributes to the discussion about how phenological characters in conifers may respond to future global warming.

  10. Light acclimation of photosynthesis in two closely related firs (Abies pinsapo Boiss. and Abies alba Mill.): the role of leaf anatomy and mesophyll conductance to CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peguero-Pina, José Javier; Sancho-Knapik, Domingo; Flexas, Jaume; Galmés, Jeroni; Niinemets, Ülo; Gil-Pelegrín, Eustaquio

    2016-03-01

    Leaves growing in the forest understory usually present a decreased mesophyll conductance (gm) and photosynthetic capacity. The role of leaf anatomy in determining the variability in gm among species is known, but there is a lack of information on how the acclimation of gm to shade conditions is driven by changes in leaf anatomy. Within this context, we demonstrated that Abies pinsapo Boiss. experienced profound modifications in needle anatomy to drastic changes in light availability that ultimately led to differential photosynthetic performance between trees grown in the open field and in the forest understory. In contrast to A. pinsapo, its congeneric Abies alba Mill. did not show differences either in needle anatomy or in photosynthetic parameters between trees grown in the open field and in the forest understory. The increased gm values found in trees of A. pinsapo grown in the open field can be explained by occurrence of stomata at both needle sides (amphistomatous needles), increased chloroplast surface area exposed to intercellular airspace, decreased cell wall thickness and, especially, decreased chloroplast thickness. To the best of our knowledge, the role of such drastic changes in ultrastructural needle anatomy in explaining the response of gm to the light environment has not been demonstrated in field conditions. PMID:26543153

  11. Insect assemblages in Norway spruce [Picea abies (L.) Karst.] stumps in the Eastern Sudetes

    OpenAIRE

    Skrzecz, Iwona; Bulka, Maria

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the species composition of insect assemblages colonising stumps of Picea abies (L.) Karst. in mountain conditions. Investigations were carried out in the Eastern Sudetes (south –western Poland) in forest stands situated at 600– 700 m above sea level. The observations were conducted on stumps left behind after felling 70– 90 years old Norway spruces. The analysed stumps were colonised by insects from 21 families of 3 orders: Coleopt...

  12. Abies – Circum-Mediterranean firs in Europe: distribution, habitat, usage and threats

    OpenAIRE

    Caudullo, Giovanni; Tinner, Willy

    2016-01-01

    Most European firs occur predominantly in small to medium-sized populations in the Mediterranean region, sometimes with fragmented and limited distributions, except for silver fir (Abies alba). They all are genetically closely related and can easily hybridise, perhaps as a consequence of late speciation during the late Quaternary. Circum-Mediterranean firs occur principally in mountain areas with medium to high precipitations rates which are mostly concentrated during the winter period. The s...

  13. Oxidative stability of cnicken thigh meat after treatment of abies alba essential oil

    OpenAIRE

    Adriana Pavelková; Marek Bobko; Peter Haščík; Miroslava Kačániová; Jana Tkáčová

    2015-01-01

    In the present work, the effect of the Abies alba essential oil in two different concentrations on oxidative stability of chicken thigh muscles during chilled storage was investigated. In the experiment were chickens of hybrid combination Cobb 500 after 42 days of the fattening period slaughtered.  All the broiler chickens were fed with the same feed mixtures and were kept under the same conditions. The feed mixtures were produced without any antibiotic preparations and c...

  14. Antifungal properties of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) seedling homogenates

    OpenAIRE

    Grzegorz Kozłowski; Jean P. Métraux

    2014-01-01

    The presence of antimicrobials in root, hypocotyl and cotyledon homogenates of Norway spruce was studied using in vitro assays with soil-borne pathogens. For the studies presented here Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) as a typical host and forest tree and Pythium as a typical soil-bome pathogen were used. The highly virulent species Pythium ultimum and the less virulent species Pythium irregulare were chosen for all experiments. They are both the causal agents of damping-off disease, w...

  15. Analysis of the Phialocephala subalpina Transcriptome during Colonization of Its Host Plant Picea abies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Reininger

    Full Text Available Phialocephala subalpina belongs to the Phialocephala fortinii s.l.-Acepphala applanata species complex (PAC forming one of the major groups belonging to the dark septate endophytes (DSE. Depending on the strain, PAC was shown to form neutral to pathogenic associations with its host plant Picea abies. To understand PACs lifestyle we investigated the effect of presence/absence of Picea abies on the transcriptome of strain 6_70_1.PAC strain 6_70_1 was grown in liquid Pachlewski media either induced by its host plant Picea abies or without host plant as a control. Mycelia were harvested in a time course (1, 2, 3, 4, 7, 11, 18 days with and without induction by the host plant and the fungal transcriptome revealed by Illumina sequencing. Differential gene expression analysis over the time course comparing control and treatment at each time point using the 'edgeR glm approach' and a gene enrichment analysis using GO categories were performed.The three main functional groups within differentially expressed genes were 'metabolism', 'transport' and 'cell rescue, defense and virulence'. Additionally, genes especially involved in iron metabolism could be detected by gene set enrichment analysis.In conclusion, we found PAC strain 6_70_1 to be metabolically very active during colonization of its host plant Picea abies. A major shift in functional groups over the time course of this experiment could not be observed but GO categories which were found to be enriched showed different emphasis depending in the day post induction.

  16. Genetic Variation among 11 Abies concolor Populations Based on Allozyme Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Jin-feng; Li Hui; Dong Jian-sheng; Wang Jun-hui

    2005-01-01

    In order to obtain information on the genetic structure of Abies concolor and the genetic variation among 11 populations introduced from America to China, allozyme analysis based on starch gel electrophoresis technology was used. 24 loci of 10allozyme systems were mensurated, and the genetic structure and genetic diversity of the 11 populations of A. concolor evaluated.The results show that the genetic variation among is significant, and the genetic variation within A. concolor populations is more important. In contrast with other conifers, the variation of A. concolor is above the average level of conifers, and higher than the same level ofAbies. The percentage of polymorphic loci (P) was 62.5%, the number of alleles per locus (A) 2.08, the number of effective alleles per locus (Ae) was 1.37, the expected heterozygosity (H) 0.204, and the Shannon information index (I) 0.351 7. There is a short genetic distance (D=0.061) and a low gene flow (Nm=0.839 4) among the 11 introduced populations of A. concolor with high genetic variation. The genetic differentiation coefficient (Gst) was 0.229 5, which is higher than that of the mean in Abies or Pinus.

  17. An SK3 channel/nWASP/Abi-1 complex is involved in early neurogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Liebau

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The stabilization or regulated reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton is essential for cellular structure and function. Recently, we could show that the activation of the SK3-channel that represents the predominant SK-channel in neural stem cells, leads to a rapid local outgrowth of long filopodial processes. This observation indicates that the rearrangement of the actin based cytoskeleton via membrane bound SK3-channels might selectively be controlled in defined micro compartments of the cell. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We found two important proteins for cytoskeletal rearrangement, the Abelson interacting protein 1, Abi-1 and the neural Wiskott Aldrich Syndrome Protein, nWASP, to be in complex with SK3- channels in neural stem cells (NSCs. Moreover, this interaction is also found in spines and postsynaptic compartments of developing primary hippocampal neurons and regulates neurite outgrowth during early phases of differentiation. Overexpression of the proteins or pharmacological activation of SK3 channels induces obvious structural changes in NSCs and hippocampal neurons. In both neuronal cell systems SK3 channels and nWASP act synergistic by strongly inducing filopodial outgrowth while Abi-1 behaves antagonistic to its interaction partners. CONCLUSIONS: Our results give good evidence for a functional interplay of a trimeric complex that transforms incoming signals via SK3-channel activation into the local rearrangement of the cytoskeleton in early steps of neuronal differentiation involving nWASP and Abi-1 actin binding proteins.

  18. Final Scientific/Technical report for "ABI8: Prototype of a novel signaling factor"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finkelstein, Ruth R. [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States)

    2013-02-21

    The Arabidopsis thaliana ABSCISIC ACID-INSENSITIVE8 locus encodes a highly conserved plant-specific protein that mediates abscisic acid (ABA) and sugar responses essential for growth. Although initial database comparisons revealed no domains of predictable function, it has recently been re-annotated as a member of the Glycosyltransferase family A. However, this function has not been demonstrated experimentally and no specific substrates have been identified. Mutations affecting ABI8 are near-lethal due to pleiotropic yet specific effects including altered ABA signaling, sugar transport, cell wall synthesis, root meristem maintenance, vascular patterning, and male sterility. Because the predicted sequence initially provided no clues, we used a guilt by association strategy to address function of this protein by determining its subcellular localization and identifying interacting proteins. Our studies showed that ABI8 is localized to the endomembrane system and may interact with proteins implicated in Golgi trafficking, lignification, and stress signaling. We found that the root meristem arrest reflects decreased auxin accumulation and resulting decreases in regulators required for meristem identity, all of which can be rescued by added glucose. Further studies showed that this glucose-dependence reflects reduced glucose uptake as well as the decreased expression of sugar-mobilizing enzymes. This work suggests that ABI8 may regulate trafficking of membrane proteins such as auxin transporters and cellulose synthase, but this hypothesis has not yet been tested. The altered gene expression is likely to be a secondary or later effect of this pleiotropic mutation.

  19. Arabidopsis YL1/BPG2 Is Involved in Seedling Shoot Response to Salt Stress through ABI4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peng-Cheng; Huang, Jin-Guang; Yu, Shao-Wei; Li, Yuan-Yuan; Sun, Peng; Wu, Chang-Ai; Zheng, Cheng-Chao

    2016-01-01

    The chloroplast-localized proteins play roles in plant salt stress response, but their mechanisms remain largely unknown. In this study, we screened a yellow leaf mutant, yl1-1, whose shoots exhibited hypersensitivity to salt stress. We mapped YL1 to AT3G57180, which encodes a YqeH-type GTPase. YL1, as a chloroplast stroma-localized protein, could be markedly reduced by high salinity. Upon exposure to high salinity, seedling shoots of yl1-1 and yl1-2 accumulated significantly higher levels of Na+ than wild type. Expression analysis of factors involved in plant salt stress response showed that the expression of ABI4 was increased and HKT1 was evidently suppressed in mutant shoots compared with the wild type under normal growth conditions. Moreover, salinity effects on ABI4 and HKT1 were clearly weakened in the mutant shoots, suggesting that the loss of YL1 function impairs ABI4 and HKT1 expression. Notably, the shoots of yl1-2 abi4 double mutant exhibited stronger resistance to salt stress and accumulated less Na+ levels after salt treatment compared with the yl1-2 single mutant, suggesting the salt-sensitive phenotype of yl1-2 seedlings could be rescued via loss of ABI4 function. These results reveal that YL1 is involved in the salt stress response of seedling shoots through ABI4. PMID:27444988

  20. E3B1/ABI-1 Isoforms Are Down-Regulated in Cancers of Human Gastrointestinal Tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafia A. Baba

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The expression of E3B1/ABI-1 protein and its role in cancer progression and prognosis are largely unknown in the majority of solid tumors. In this study, we examined the expression pattern of E3B1/ABI-1 protein in histologically confirmed cases of esophageal (squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma, gastro-esophageal junction, colorectal cancers and corresponding normal tissues freshly resected from a cohort of 135 patients, by Western Blotting and Immunofluorescence Staining. The protein is present in its phosphorylated form in cells and tissues. Depending on the extent of phosphorylation it is either present in hyper-phosphorylated (M. Wt. 72 kDa form or in hypo-phosphorylated form (M. Wt. 68 kDa and 65 kDa. A thorough analysis revealed that expression of E3B1/ABI-1 protein is significantly decreased in esophageal, gastro-esophageal junction and colorectal carcinomas irrespective of age, gender, dietary and smoking habits of the patients. The decrease in expression of E3B1/ABI-1 was consistently observed for all the three isoforms. However, the decrease in the expression of isoforms varied with different forms of cancers. Down-regulation of E3B1/ABI-1 expression in human carcinomas may play a critical role in tumor progression and in determining disease prognosis.

  1. Germination capacity of Picea abies L. seeds from different proveniences after gamma-rays application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seeds of Picea abies L. and Picea jesoensis from different locations were irradiated with gamma-rays (doses of 3,6,9,12,40,80,120 and 160 Gy). Seeds irradiated with 9 Gy had the best germination capacity (89.7%) from among all doses. A stimulation effect of the irradiation dose 9 Gy was found in seeds from location Zvolen (Slovak Republic) (L3) and the irradiation dose 12 Gy in seeds of Picea jesoensis (location Kamcatka (Siberia, Russia)). Irradiation with a dose of 40 Gy reduced the germination capacity by about 24%. A dose of 160 Gy drastically decreased germination of seeds to 1.1%

  2. Electron probe microanalysis of fluorine in polluted needle sections of Abies alba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrec, J.P.; Lhoste, A.M.

    1976-01-01

    After fumigation with hydrogen fluoride, sections of needles of Abies alba were studied by electron probe microanalysis. The levels of fluoride vary in different tissues: most fluoride was found in the spongy mesophyll and the palisade tissues as a function of the distance from the cells of entry and the paths of translocation of fluoride. These results support the view that the differential responses of various tissues of a leaf to fumigation with HF depend on the localization of the tissues rather than on a specific response by a particular tissue to fluoride. 15 references, 6 figures.

  3. Ectomycorrhizal fungal assemblages of Abies alba Mill. outside its native range in Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Rudawska, Maria; Pietras, Marcin; Smutek, Iwona; Strzeliński, Paweł; Leski, Tomasz

    2015-01-01

    Abies alba (Mill.) is an important forest tree species, native to the mountainous regions of Europe but has been also widely introduced in the lowlands outside its native range. Like most forest tree species, A. alba forms obligate mutualisms with ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi. This investigation sought to examine ECM fungal communities of A. alba when the species grows 400 km north of its native range in the region of Pomerania in Poland. We surveyed for ECM fungi by sampling live roots from f...

  4. The afterlife of antiquity and modern art: Aby Warburg on Manet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios Latsis

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aby Warburg’s manuscript on Édouard Manet – unpublished during his lifetime and presented here for the first time in English – constitutes one of his rare, substantial commentaries on nineteenth century art. Using “Le Déjeuner sur l’herbe” as a departure point, Warburg proceeds from his customary meticulous investigation of the central motif’s “visual archeology,” to a larger reflection on the evolution of the representation of nature in art and the image of antiquity that modernity has created for itself.

  5. ELi abi ettevõtjale lükkub osaliselt edasi / Silva Männik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Männik, Silva, 1974-

    2004-01-01

    Eesti ettevõtjatele lubatud Euroopa Liidu tõukefondide raha taotlemine Ettevõtluse Arendamise Sihtasutuses viibib majandusministeeriumis vastuvõtmata määruste tõttu. Diagrammid: Struktuurifondidest saadava abi kõrval peab Eesti liikmemaksu tasuma; EAS plaanis jagada tänavu ligi 800 miljonit krooni struktuurifondide raha. Nimekiri: Põhiosa euroabist läheb töötajate arengusse ja transporti. 5 prioriteeti. Vt. samas: Raha venimine kõige hullem. AS-i E-Arsenal juht Jüri Tümanok rahade viibimisest

  6. The Andean Biotic Index (ABI): revised tolerance to pollution values for macroinvertebrate families and index performance evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ríos-Touma, Blanca; Acosta, Raúl; Prat, Narcís

    2014-04-01

    Score-based biotic indices are widely used to evaluate the water quality of streams and rivers. Few adaptations of these indices have been done for South America because there is a lack of knowledge on macroinvertebrate taxonomy, distribution and tolerance to pollution in the region. Several areas in the Andes are densely populated and there is need for methods to assess the impact of increasing human pressures on aquatic ecosystems. Considering the unique ecological and geographical features of the Andes, macroinvertebrate indices used in other regions must be adapted with caution. Here we present a review of the literature on macroinvertebrate distribution and tolerance to pollution in Andean areas above 2,000 masl. Using these data, we propose an Andean Biotic Index (ABI), which is based on the BMWP index. In general, ABI includes fewer macroinvertebrate families than in other regions of the world where the BMWP index has been applied because altitude restricts the distribution of several families. Our review shows that in the high Andes, the tolerance of several macroinvertebrate families to pollution differs from those reported in other areas. We tested the ABI index in two basins in Ecuador and Peru, and compared it to other BMWP adaptations using the reference condition approach. The ABI index is extremely useful for detecting the general impairment of rivers but class quality boundaries should be defined independently for each basin because reference conditions may be different. The ABI is widely used in Ecuador and Peru, with high correlations with land-use pressures in several studies. The ABI index is an integral part of the new multimetric index designed for high Andean streams (IMEERA).

  7. A weeding-duration model for Abies sachalinensis plantations in Hokkaido, northern Japan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Masahiko Nakagawa

    2013-01-01

    I developed a weeding-duration model for Sakhalin fir (Abies sachalinensis (Fr.Schmidt) Masters) plantations that employs a generalized linear model.The number of years following planting that weeding is necessary is the response variable,and elevation,slope steepness,maximum snow depth,annual precipitation,geology,soil,site index,slope aspect,and vegetation type are explanatory variables.Among the explanatory variables,geology,soil,slope aspect,and vegetation type are categorical data.A Poisson distribution is assumed for the response variable,with a log-link function.Elevation,slope steepness,maximum snow depth,annual precipitation,site index,and vegetation type had a significant effect on weeding duration.Among the eight models with the smallest Akaike information criterion (AIC),I chose the model with no multicollinearity among the explanatory variables.The weeding-duration model includes site index,maximum snow depth,slope steepness (angle)and vegetation type as explanatory variables; elevation and annual precipitation were not included in the selected model because of multicollinearity with maximum snow depth.This model is useful for cost-benefit analyses of afforestation or reforestation with Abies sachalinensis.

  8. Modelling initial mortality of Abies religiosa in a crown fire in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salomé Temiño-Villota

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: The objectives of this work were to determine which morphological and fire severity variables may help explain the mortality of adult Abies religiosa (Kunth Schltdl. & Cham., to model the probability of this species after being affected by crown fire, and to obtain more elements to classify the sacred fir in terms of fire resistance. This type of studies are relevant to estimate the impact of crown fires on the climax forests that forms this species.Area of study: The burned forest was located in the southern Mexico City, borough.Material and methods: Morphological variables and fire severity indicators were collected for 335 Abies religiosa trees burned by a mixed severity fire. Logistic regression was used to analyze data and develop models that best explained tree mortality.Main results: Survival was 26.9%. The models for height (p≤0.0001, diameter at breast height (p=0.0082, crown length (p≤0.0001 and crown base height (p≤0.0001 were significant, with a negative relationship between each one of these variables and probability of mortality. The significant severity variables were lethal scorch height (p≤0.0001 and crown kill (p≤ 0.0001, which have a direct relationship with probability of mortality.Highlights: This species is moderately fire-resistant. Crown kill ≥ 70% markedly increases mortality. Silvicultural activities such as pruning, thinning and fuel management can reduce the risk of crown fires.

  9. Ectomycorrhizal fungal assemblages of Abies alba Mill. outside its native range in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudawska, Maria; Pietras, Marcin; Smutek, Iwona; Strzeliński, Paweł; Leski, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    Abies alba (Mill.) is an important forest tree species, native to the mountainous regions of Europe but has been also widely introduced in the lowlands outside its native range. Like most forest tree species, A. alba forms obligate mutualisms with ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi. This investigation sought to examine ECM fungal communities of A. alba when the species grows 400 km north of its native range in the region of Pomerania in Poland. We surveyed for ECM fungi by sampling live roots from four mature forest stands where the A. alba component ranged from 20 to 100%. Ectomycorrhizal fungal symbionts were identified based on morphotyping and sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) of nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA). Thirty-five ECM fungal taxa were distinguished on root tips of A. alba from all tested stands with 22 to 27 ECM fungal taxa in the individual stand. The diversity and similarity metrics revealed a lack of statistical differences in the structure of the ECM fungal community between stands varying in overstory tree composition. Cenococcum geophilum was the most common fungal species at all investigated A. alba stands, with an abundance of 50 to 70%. The ECM community was characterized by the lack of Abies-specific fungal symbionts and a rich and diverse suite of host-generalist mycobionts that seem to be sufficient for successful growth and development of A. alba outside of its native range. PMID:26071873

  10. Kinetic modeling of the ultrasound-assisted extraction of polyphenols from Picea abies bark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazar, Liliana; Talmaciu, Adina Iulia; Volf, Irina; Popa, Valentin I

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, the kinetics of polyphenols extraction from spruce bark (Picea abies) under ultrasounds action was investigated. Studies were performed in order to express the effect of some specific parameters (as: ultrasounds, surface contact between solvent and solid, extraction time and temperature) on the total phenolic content (TPC). Experiments were performed in the presence and absence of ultrasounds, using different contact surfaces between solvent and solid, for times from 5 to 75min and temperatures of 318, 323 and 333K. All these factors have a positive influence on the process, enhancing the extraction rate by recovering higher amounts of polyphenols. The process takes place in two stages: a fast one in the first 20-30min (first stage), followed by a slow one approaching to an equilibrium concentration after 40min (second stage). In these conditions, the second-order kinetic model was successfully developed for describing the mechanism of ultrasound-assisted extraction of polyphenols from P. abies bark. Based on this model, values of second-order extraction rate constant (k), initial extraction rate (h), saturation concentration (Cs) and activation energy (Ea) could be predicted. Model validation was done by plotting experimental and predicted values of TPC's, revealing a very good correlation between the obtained data (R(2)>0.98). PMID:27150760

  11. Antifungal properties of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L. Karst. seedling homogenates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Kozłowski

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The presence of antimicrobials in root, hypocotyl and cotyledon homogenates of Norway spruce was studied using in vitro assays with soil-borne pathogens. For the studies presented here Norway spruce (Picea abies (L. Karst. as a typical host and forest tree and Pythium as a typical soil-bome pathogen were used. The highly virulent species Pythium ultimum and the less virulent species Pythium irregulare were chosen for all experiments. They are both the causal agents of damping-off disease, which can affect plants at a very early stage. The strongest antimicrobial effect was observed using medium prepared from older seedlings and containing extracts from cotyledons. The influence of various treatments on antimicrobials accumulation in spruce extracts was also tested. Seed coat shedding was observed to affect mortality of Picea abies seedlings infected by Pythium. Seedlings which had shed their seed coats were more resistant to Pythium attack. This phenomenon could be correlated with antimicrobial production in well developed cotyledons.

  12. Improvement of grafting procedures for the ornamental species: II. Abies concolor [(Gord. & Glend. Lindl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Blada

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The achieved results concerning the grafting silver-fir - Abies concolor [(Gord. & Glend. Lindl] scions on white-fir (Abies alba Mill. rootstocks are reporting in this article. The double-side-veneer grafting method and the plastic tape and the ecological CeraltinŽ wax were applied in four experimental variants. The side-veneer-grafting method and the classic materials, such as raffia and the hot wax were used at the two controls involved in this experiment. The grafting success expressed in percents, were transformed in arcsin square root of percent values, and a two-way analysis of variance was performed. Highly significant (p < 0.001 statistical differences were found between grafting variants, including controls. The Duncan Multiple Range Test showed that the four experimental grafting variants were highly significantly (p < 0.01 be-tter than the two controls. The grafting success of the best experimental variant has surpassed the two controls by 129 and 153%, respectively. Consequently, the double-side-veneer grafting method, the new developed plastic tape and the ecological CeraltinŽ wax have contributed to this grafting success owing to which they are recommended to be used for grafting silver-fir ornamental trees.

  13. Nuevos genes reguladores de la tolerancia a estrés abiótico en Arabidopsis.

    OpenAIRE

    MARTÍNEZ MACÍAS, FÉLIX

    2015-01-01

    Martínez Macías, F. (2015). Nuevos genes reguladores de la tolerancia a estrés abiótico en Arabidopsis [Tesis doctoral no publicada]. Universitat Politècnica de València. doi:10.4995/Thesis/10251/48560.

  14. Koolieeliku hirmudega toimetulek kui oma probleemidega toimetuleku õppimine ja lähedaste abi selles / Merle Taimalu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Taimalu, Merle

    2001-01-01

    Eestis ja Soomes 1993-1994.a. läbi viidud ühisuurimusest laste turvalisuse kohta, kus üheks eesmärgiks oli välja selgitada, kuidas koolieelikud oma hirmudega toime tulevad ja kuivõrd nad saavad ja kasutavad lähedaste täiskasvanute abi

  15. CITOGENETICS EFFECTS INDUCED BY THE ASCORBIC ACID TREATMENT OF LARIX DECIDUA MILL. SSP. CARPATICA AND PICEA ABIES (L. KARST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Ieremia

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper present the influence of ascorbic acid upon the mitotic division of Larix decidua Mill ssp. carpatica and Picea abies (L. Karst. The treatment is applied of two variants, germinated seed in ascorbic acid (variantAand germinated seeds in disttilate water, than treated with ascorbic acid in 3 concentrations (variant B.

  16. Fruiting characteristics and seed germination capacity of Abies fargesii in Shennongjia Nature Reserve

    OpenAIRE

    Li Zou; Qingmei Li; Zongqiang Xie

    2008-01-01

    We investigated cone traits of Abies fargesii including length, width, fresh weight, seed numbers per cone, and seed traits including length, width, thickness, seed mass and seed germination capacity. The results showed that the average length and width of the cone were 5.37 ± 0.75 cm and 3.01 ± 0.32 cm, respectively, and its fresh weight was 18.93 ± 6.06 g, the seed number per cone was 59–567. The length, width and thickness of seeds were 1.08–8.68 mm, 1.16–6.42 mm and 0.66–3.48 mm, respecti...

  17. Serendipitous Meta-Transcriptomics: The Fungal Community of Norway Spruce (Picea abies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Delhomme

    Full Text Available After performing de novo transcript assembly of >1 billion RNA-Sequencing reads obtained from 22 samples of different Norway spruce (Picea abies tissues that were not surface sterilized, we found that assembled sequences captured a mix of plant, lichen, and fungal transcripts. The latter were likely expressed by endophytic and epiphytic symbionts, indicating that these organisms were present, alive, and metabolically active. Here, we show that these serendipitously sequenced transcripts need not be considered merely as contamination, as is common, but that they provide insight into the plant's phyllosphere. Notably, we could classify these transcripts as originating predominantly from Dothideomycetes and Leotiomycetes species, with functional annotation of gene families indicating active growth and metabolism, with particular regards to glucose intake and processing, as well as gene regulation.

  18. Serendipitous Meta-Transcriptomics: The Fungal Community of Norway Spruce (Picea abies).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delhomme, Nicolas; Sundström, Görel; Zamani, Neda; Lantz, Henrik; Lin, Yao-Cheng; Hvidsten, Torgeir R; Höppner, Marc P; Jern, Patric; Van de Peer, Yves; Lundeberg, Joakim; Grabherr, Manfred G; Street, Nathaniel R

    2015-01-01

    After performing de novo transcript assembly of >1 billion RNA-Sequencing reads obtained from 22 samples of different Norway spruce (Picea abies) tissues that were not surface sterilized, we found that assembled sequences captured a mix of plant, lichen, and fungal transcripts. The latter were likely expressed by endophytic and epiphytic symbionts, indicating that these organisms were present, alive, and metabolically active. Here, we show that these serendipitously sequenced transcripts need not be considered merely as contamination, as is common, but that they provide insight into the plant's phyllosphere. Notably, we could classify these transcripts as originating predominantly from Dothideomycetes and Leotiomycetes species, with functional annotation of gene families indicating active growth and metabolism, with particular regards to glucose intake and processing, as well as gene regulation. PMID:26413905

  19. Growing trees on completed sanitary landfills. [Nyssa sylvatica, Picea abies, Ginkgo biloba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leone, I.A.; Gilman, E.F.; Flower, F.B.

    1983-01-01

    A 10-year old completed landfill in New Jersey consisting of 9 m (depth) of refuse covered with 15-25 cm of soil was cleared of debris and vegetation and covered with 30 cm of subsoil and 15-25 cm of topsoil. Nineteen coniferous and broadleaved species were planted on the landfill and on a control site in 1975, and trees were maintained and growth and condition monitored over 4 years. On the basis of shoot length and stem area increase, the most successful of the surviving trees were Nyssa sylvatica, Picea abies and Ginkgo biloba, in decreasing order of tolerance. Tolerance of landfill conditions appeared to be greatest in those species with low water requirements, a slow growth rate, high acid tolerance and a shallow root system. (Refs. 11).

  20. Climatic significance of stable carbon isotope in tree rings of Abies spectabibis in southeastern Tibet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xiaohong; Qin Dahe; SHAO Xuemei; CHEN Tuo; REN Jiawen

    2003-01-01

    The annually cross-dated stable carbon isotope of tree-ring α-cellulose of Abies spectabibis collected from the southeastern Tibetan Plateau is used to examine its relationship with climatic parameters. The residual △13C series in treerings is constructed after removing the effects of age trend and rising CO2. We found a close relationship between △13C in tree rings and the relative humidity of September-November of the previous year measured at the nearby Nyingchi Meteorological Station, albeit a strong "lagged effect". Thus we developed a transfer function to reconstruct the autumn relative humidity for the Nyingchi region, which explained 37.9% of the total variance (p < 0.001). Our results suggest a high frequency and moderate amplitude variance of the relative humidity before 1800, and the variance reversed afterwards.

  1. Diterpenes from the Trunk of Abies holophylla and Their Potential Neuroprotective and Anti-inflammatory Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chung Sub; Subedi, Lalita; Kim, Sun Yeou; Choi, Sang Un; Kim, Ki Hyun; Lee, Kang Ro

    2016-02-26

    Eleven new abietane-type diterpenes, holophyllins D-N (1-11), and 17 known analogues (12-28), were isolated from a MeOH extract of the trunk of Abies holophylla. The chemical structures of 1-11 were determined through spectroscopic data analysis, including NMR ((1)H and (13)C NMR, DEPT, (1)H-(1)H COSY, HMQC, HMBC, and NOESY) and HRFABMS methods. All isolated compounds (1-28) were evaluated for their cytotoxicity against four human tumor cell lines (A549, SK-OV-3, SK-MEL-2, and HCT-116), for their potential neuroprotective effects through induction of nerve growth factor in C6 glioma cells, and for their effects on nitric oxide levels in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated murine microglia BV2 cells. PMID:26812172

  2. Ekonomiczne perspektywy rozwoju obszaru działalności Unii Izb Łaby/Odry

    OpenAIRE

    Bräuninger, Michael; Stiller, Silvia; Teuber, Mark; Wedemeier, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Unia Izb Łaby/Odry to związek 15 niemieckich, 6 polskich i 9 czeskich izb przemysłowo-handlowych, który za cel stawia sobie wspólne reprezentowanie interesów przedsiębiorstw z tego obszaru na szczeblu krajowym i europejskim. W roku 2010 na obszarach działalności poszczególnych Izb mieszkało 37 mln osób, co odpowiada 7,5 % ludności Unii Europejskiej (EU). Produkt krajowy brutto (PKB) Regionu wyniósł w 2008 roku 718 mld EUR, co stanowi 6 % PKB Unii Europejskiej. The Elbe/Oder Chamber Union (...

  3. The effect of precommercial thinning on the incidence of Heterobasidion annosum in planted Picea abies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vollbrecht, G.; Gemmel, P. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Alnarp (Sweden). Southern Sweden Forest Research Centre; Pettersson, Nils [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Garpenberg (Sweden). Dept. of Forest Yield Research

    1995-05-01

    Evaluation was made of the effect of precommercial thinning in 13-15 year old Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Kars.), on the incidence of Heterobasidion annosum in residual trees, more than 20 years after thinning. Five sites in southern Sweden were studied with the following treatments at each site: unthinned plot and plots thinned to 600, 1000, 1400, 1800 and 2500 stems ha{sup -1}. Only three trees out of 450 investigated, were found to be decayed. None of these trees were found to be infected by H. annosum as an effect of precommercial thinning. Control measures to prevent decay caused by H. annosum in residual trees do not appear warranted for precommercial thinning of young, planted, Norway spruce stands. 52 refs, 1 fig, 2 tabs

  4. An experimental study on the effects of exhaust gas on spruce (Picea abies L. Karst.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hautala, E.L.; Holopainen, J.; Kaerenlampi, L. [Kuopio Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Ecology and Environmental Science; Surakka, J.; Ruuskanen, J. [Kuopio Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Environmental Sciences

    1995-12-31

    Motor vehicle exhausts are significant contributors to air pollution. Besides fine particles and inorganic gases, like CO, SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}, exhaust gas contains a large group of aromatic hydrocarbon compounds, many of which are phytotoxic. In field studies, exhausts are found to have both direct and indirect harmful effects on roadside plants. However, only few experimental studies have been made about the effects of exhaust gas emissions on coniferous trees. The aim of this study was to survey the effects of exhausts on spruce (Picea abies L. Karst.) in standardized conditions. The concentrations of major exhaust gas components in the chamber atmosphere were detected simultaneously. The effects of exhaust on epistomatal waxes of first-year spruce needles are described. (author)

  5. Regulation of actin cytoskeleton architecture by Eps8 and Abi1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miller Jeffrey R

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The actin cytoskeleton participates in many fundamental processes including the regulation of cell shape, motility, and adhesion. The remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton is dependent on actin binding proteins, which organize actin filaments into specific structures that allow them to perform various specialized functions. The Eps8 family of proteins is implicated in the regulation of actin cytoskeleton remodeling during cell migration, yet the precise mechanism by which Eps8 regulates actin organization and remodeling remains elusive. Results Here, we show that Eps8 promotes the assembly of actin rich filopodia-like structures and actin cables in cultured mammalian cells and Xenopus embryos, respectively. The morphology of actin structures induced by Eps8 was modulated by interactions with Abi1, which stimulated formation of actin cables in cultured cells and star-like structures in Xenopus. The actin stars observed in Xenopus animal cap cells assembled at the apical surface of epithelial cells in a Rac-independent manner and their formation was accompanied by recruitment of N-WASP, suggesting that the Eps8/Abi1 complex is capable of regulating the localization and/or activity of actin nucleators. We also found that Eps8 recruits Dishevelled to the plasma membrane and actin filaments suggesting that Eps8 might participate in non-canonical Wnt/Polarity signaling. Consistent with this idea, mis-expression of Eps8 in dorsal regions of Xenopus embryos resulted in gastrulation defects. Conclusion Together, these results suggest that Eps8 plays multiple roles in modulating actin filament organization, possibly through its interaction with distinct sets of actin regulatory complexes. Furthermore, the finding that Eps8 interacts with Dsh and induced gastrulation defects provides evidence that Eps8 might participate in non-canonical Wnt signaling to control cell movements during vertebrate development.

  6. Radical Scavenging Activity of the Essential Oil of Silver Fir (Abies alba).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Seun-Ah; Jeon, Sang-Kyung; Lee, Eun-Jung; Im, Nam-Kyung; Jhee, Kwang-Hwan; Lee, Sam-Pin; Lee, In-Seon

    2009-05-01

    The essential oil of silver fir (Abies alba) is known to help respiratory system and have easing and soothing effect for muscle. In the present study, we investigated the chemical composition, cytotoxicity and its biological activities of silver fir (Abies alba) essential oil. The composition of the oil was analyzed by GC-MS and bornyl acetate (30.31%), camphene (19.81%), 3-carene (13.85%), tricyclene (12.90%), dl-limonene (7.50%), alpha-pinene (2.87%), caryophyllene (2.18%), beta-phellandrene (2.13%), borneol (1.74%), bicyclo[2.2.1]hept-2-ene,2,3-dimethyl (1.64%) and alpha-terpinene (1.24%) were the major components in the oil. The results tested by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay indicated that the oil showed no cytotoxic effect, at concentrations of 1 and 5%, for as long as 24 and 3 h, respectively. The antiradical capacity was evaluated by measuring the scavenging activity of the essential oil on the 2,20-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azino-bis 3-ethyl benzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radicals. The oil was able to reduce the both radicals dose-dependently, and the concentration required for 50% reduction (RC(50)) against DPPH radicals (2.7 +/- 0.63%) was lower than ABTS radicals (8.5 +/- 0.27%). The antibacterial activity of the oil was also evaluated using disc diffusion method against Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus mutans, Listeria monocytogenes, Acinetobacter baumannii, Escherichia coli, and Vibrio parahaemolyticcus. The oil exhibited no antibacterial activity against all the bacterial strains tested except S. aureus of mild activity. PMID:19430614

  7. Genetic diversity of Norway spruce [Picea abies (L. Karst.] in Romanian Carpathians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul Gheorghe Radu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The genetic diversity of Romanian most important coniferous tree species, the Norway spruce, was estimated by means of allozyme markers. A total of 695 adult trees sampled from eleven populations grouped in six mountainous areas in the Romanian Carpathians were analyzed. In three metapopulations (Maramureş, Postăvar and Parâng, to evaluate the influence of altitudinal gradient on genetic diversity, samples were collected from populations located at high and low altitude. At other location (ApuseniMountains we compared the narrow-crown biotype (Picea abies var. columnaris and the pyramidal crown biotype (Picea abies var. pyramidalis and explored the genetic structure of peat bog ecotype. By analyzing 7 enzyme systems and 12 enzyme coding loci, a total of 38 allelic variants have been detected. The mean value of polymorphic loci for the six sites was 86.1%, ranging between 83.3% and 91.7% and the mean expected heterozygosity was 0.115, resulting in a moderate level of genetic diversity. The highest genetic diversity (He = 0.134 was found in the narrow-crown spruce population. Apuseni metapopulation showed the highest genetic diversity (He = 0.125, being the most valuable for conservation of genetic resources. The small value of fixation index (FST = 0.009 indicates a low genetic differentiation between the six sites and AMOVA test revealed a very high level of genetic diversity within population (99%. Comparative analysis of genetic parameters showed small differences between high and low altitude populations at each site, probably due to the neutral character of the markers analyzed and the effect of gene flow between gradiental populations.

  8. Effect of light regime on the natural regeneration of silver fir (Abies alba, Calabria, Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercurio R

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this study is to analyse the effect of light environment on dynamics of natural regeneration of silver fir. The study areas were located in natural silver fir (Abies alba Mill. stands of Serra San Bruno Forests (Archiforo in the Calabrian Apennine. Measurements of the Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR - radiation in the 0.4-0.7 µm waveband were collected with a ceptometer (AccuPAR Decagon Devices, USA. PAR was measured monthly during the growing season. Measurements were taken: under canopy, inside natural gaps and in correspondence of escarps along forestry roads. After each measurement for each sampling point the PAR transmittance was calculated. Seedlings density was estimated in each position. Each of these seedlings was identified by species, total height was measured and the age was visually determined. Seedlings were distributed in three classes: (a class 0: to natural regeneration absence and height 10 seedlings m-2 and height between 0.30 and 1 m; (c class 2: to density > 10 seedlings m-2 and height > 1 m. Level of PAR transmittance was higher inside the gaps where a good seedlings density was observed. Further seedling density was higher in correspondence of escarps. Under canopy, seedlings were absent due to low levels of light (1.3 < T < 3.7. The results showed a diverse ecological behaviour to light environment of silver fir of Serra San Bruno compared with central-northern Abies alba population. Some comments about silvicultural treatment of silver fir stand in the Calabrian Apennine are provided, according to dynamics of natural regeneration.

  9. Throughfall nutrients in a degraded indigenous Fagus orientalis forest and a Picea abies plantation in the of North of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parisa Abbasian

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: The objective of this study was to compare the quantity and quality of TF (throughfall in an indigenous, but degraded, stand of Fagus orientalis and Picea abies plantation.Area of study: Forests of Kelar-Dasht region located in Mazandaran province, northern Iran.Material and Methods: TF measured by twenty collectors that were distributed randomly underneath each stand. For 21 storms sampled in 2012 (August-December and 2013 (April-June, we analyzed pH, EC, Ca2+, Mg2+, K+, NO3-, and P of  gross rainfall (GR and TF.Main results: Cumulative interception (I for F. orientalis and P. abies were 114.2 mm and 194.8 mm of the total GR, respectively. The amount of K+ (13.4 mg L-1 and Ca2+ (0.9 mg L-1 were higher (for both elements, p = 0.001 in the TF of P. abies compared to those of F. orientalis (6.8 and 0.5, mg L-1, respectively and GR (3.2 and 0.37 mg L-1, respectively. Conversely, mean P concentration was doubled (p = 0.022 in the TF of F. orientalis (11.1 mg L-1 compared to GR (5.8 mg L-1.Research highlights: P. abies plantations may provide a solution for reforestation of degraded F. orientalis forests of northern Iran, yet how P. abies plantations differentially affect the quality and quantity of rainfall reaching subcanopy soils (TF compared to F. orientalis is unknown. Understanding the connection between hydrological processes and nutrient cycling in forest ecosystems is crucial for choosing the appropriate species to rehabilitate the degraded indigenous forests with nonindigenous species.  Keywords: concentration; hydrological process; interception; reforestation.

  10. Genetic and environmental characterization of Abies alba Mill. populations at its western rear edge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sancho-Knapik, D.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The genetic structure of ten Abies alba populations at the western rear edge in the Spanish Pyrenees was characterized and compared with two German populations, looking for the role of climatic factors in the fir decline. Growth, defoliation, aridity and cumulative summer water deficit summer were also characterized. Spanish populations show a lower genetic diversity and a high genetic differentiation than German ones, mainly established by an East (higher diversity-West (lower diversity gradient. The three defoliated populations are the western ones, with higher summer aridity. Contrastingly, the southern population (Guara shows climatic variables close to western sites but without defoliation and with a higher genetic diversity, indicating a possible adaptation to the sub-Mediterranean conditions. Silver fir in the Spanish Pyrenees constitutes a “stable” rear edge because of their isolation, small sized and small genetic diversity. Western Pyrenean sites subjected to dryer conditions and presenting lower genetic diversity are prone to drought-induced mortality in the context of global warming.Se ha caracterizado la estructura genética de diez poblaciones de Abies alba en la retaguardia occidental de su distribución en el Pirineo español en comparación con dos poblaciones de Alemania, buscando la influencia de factores climáticos en el decaimiento del abeto. También se caracterizó crecimiento, defoliación, aridez y déficit acumulado de agua durante el verano. Las poblaciones españolas mostraron una menor diversidad genética y una mayor diferenciación genética que las poblaciones alemanas, establecida principalmente a través de un eje Este (mayor diversidad-Oeste (menor diversidad. Las tres poblaciones con defoliación son las del suroeste, con mayor aridez estival. Por el contrario, la población más meridional (Guara muestra variables climáticas cercanas a estas poblaciones del suroeste pero sin defoliación y con mayor

  11. Plastic and locally adapted phenology in cambial seasonality and production of xylem and phloem cells in Picea abies from temperate environments

    OpenAIRE

    Gričar, Jožica; Stapleton, Larry; Prislan, Peter; Duffy, D.; Gryc, Vidmar; Lakov, D; Vavrčík, Hanuš; Jordanova, M.; Lyng, M.; de Luis, Martin; Čufar, Katarina

    2014-01-01

    Despite its major economic importance and the vulnerability of Picea abies (L.) H. Karst. to climate change, how its radial growth at intra-annual resolution is influenced by weather conditions in forest stands with a high production capacity has scarcely been explored. Between 2009 and 2011, phenological variation in seasonal cambial cell production (CP) was analysed in adult P. abies trees from three contrasting sites, differing in altitude and latitude. The results indicate that the timing...

  12. The influence of Ceratocystis polonica inoculation and methyl jasmonate application on terpene chemistry of Norway spruce, Picea abies

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Tao; Krokene, Paal; Björklund, Niklas; Långström, Bo; Solheim, Halvor; Christiansen, Erik; Borg-Karlson, Anna-Karin

    2010-01-01

    Constitutive and inducible terpene production is involved in conifer resistance against bark beetles and their associated fungi. In this study 72 Norway spruce (Picea abies) were randomly assigned to methyl jasmonate (MJ) application, inoculation with the bluestain fungus Ceratocystis polonica, or no-treatment control. We investigated terpene levels in the stem bark of the trees before treatment, 30 days and one year after treatment using GC-MS and two-dimensional GC (2D-GC) with a chiral col...

  13. Evaluationsmethoden zur Bewertung von Aggregatordatenbanken am Beispiel von ProQuest ABI/Inform und EBSCO Business Source Premier

    OpenAIRE

    Katzmayr, Michael; Putz, Michaela; Fessler, Georg

    2005-01-01

    At the library of the Vienna University of Economics and Business Administration a comparison was made between the database vendors ABI/Inform ProQuest and EBSCO Business Source Premier. This article provides the results and a practical oriented concept for the evaluation of full-text aggregator databases in relation to the library’s serial holdings. Firstly, the characteristics of full-text aggregator databases (e.g. embargoes) are outlined. This is followed by a description of quantitative ...

  14. Profil hlapljivih tvari hrvatskih medova lipe (Tilia sp.), medljikovca jele (Abies alba) i meda kadulje (Salvia officinalis)

    OpenAIRE

    Lušić, Dražen; Koprivnjak, Olivera; Ćurić, Duška; Sabatini, Anna G.; Conte, Lanfranco S.

    2007-01-01

    Profili hlapljivih tvari meda lipe (Tilia sp.), medljikovca jele (Abies alba) i meda kadulje (Salvia officinalis), proizvedeni u Hrvatskoj, istraživani su najprije metodom mikroekstrakcije na čvrstoj fazi (head space solid phase microextraction, HS-SPME), a zatim s plinskom kromatografijom i masenom spektrometrijom (gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, GC-MS). Botaničko porijeklo uzoraka meda potvrđeno je melisopalinološkom i senzorskom analizom. Prvi su put opisana senzorska svojstva meda o...

  15. Tree-ring growth and climate response of silver fir (Abies alba Mill. in Basilicata (Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todaro L

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available A dendroclimatic study on silver fir (Abies alba Mill. was carried out in the Abetina of Ruoti (PZ, Basilicata - southern Italy, a nearly natural mixed Quercus cerris - Silver fir forest. Observations were made on twenty-three large size dominant silver fir trees and dendroecological analyses performed for the period 1866-2007. Results show that late spring/summer precipitations, rather than temperatures, are the most critical factor affecting silver fir growth in this area.

  16. Static and dynamic bending has minor effects on xylem hydraulics of conifer branches (Picea abies, Pinus sylvestris)

    OpenAIRE

    Mayr, Stefan; Bertel, Clara; Dämon, Birgit; Beikircher, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    The xylem hydraulic efficiency and safety is usually measured on mechanically unstressed samples, although trees may be exposed to combined hydraulic and mechanical stress in the field. We analysed changes in hydraulic conductivity and vulnerability to drought-induced embolism during static bending of P icea abies and P inus sylvestris branches as well as the effect of dynamic bending on the vulnerability. We hypothesized this mechanical stress to substantially impair xylem hydraulics. Intens...

  17. Regulation of somatic embryo development in Norway spruce (Picea abies). A molecular approach to the characterization of specific developmental stages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabala, I. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Forest Genetics

    1998-12-31

    Embryo development is a complex process involving a set of strictly regulated events. The regulation of these events is poorly understood especially during the early stages of embryo development. Somatic embryos go through the same developmental stages as zygotic embryos making them an ideal model system for studying the regulation of embryo development. We have used embryogenic cultures of Picea abies to study some aspects of the regulation of embryo development in gymnosperms. The bottle neck during somatic embryogenesis is the switch from the proliferation stage to the maturation stage. This switch is initiated by giving somatic embryos a maturation treatment i.e. the embryos are treated with abscisic acid (ABA). Somatic embryos which respond to ABA by forming mature somatic embryos were stimulated to secret a 70 kDa protein, AF70. The af70 gene was isolated and characterised. The expression of the af70 gene was constitutive in embryos but was highly ABA-induced in seedlings. Moreover, expression of this gene was stimulated during cold acclimation of Picea abies seedlings. A full length Picea abies cDNA clone Pa18, encoding a protein with the characteristics of plant lipid transfer proteins (LTPs), was isolated and characterised. The Pa18 gene is constitutively expressed in embryogenic cultures of Picea abies representing different stages of development as well as in nonembryogenic callus and seedlings. In situ hybridization showed that Pa18 gene is expressed in all embryonic cells of proliferating somatic embryos but the expression of the gene in mature somatic and zygotic embryos is restricted to the outer cell layer. Southern blot analysis at different stringencies was consistent with a single gene. An alteration in expression of Pa18 causes disturbance in the formation of the proper outer cell layer in the maturing somatic embryos. In addition to its influence on embryo development the Pa18 gene product also inhibits growth of Agrobacterium tumefaciens 195

  18. Factors Influencing Understory Seedling Establishment of Engelmann Spruce (Picea engelmannii) and Subalpine Fir (Abies lasiocarpa) in Southeast Wyoming

    OpenAIRE

    Knapp, Alan K; Smith, William K.

    1982-01-01

    Although trees of Picea engelmannii were more abundant and had a greater basal area in the overstorey than those of Abies lasiocarpa at two study sites, saplings and seedlings of A. lasioscarpa were more numerous in the understorey. Field measurements in the Medicine Bow Mountains of southeast Wyoming showed that seedlings of A. lasiocarpa had greater photosynthetic rates at low understorey light levels and required lower levels of incident radiation for saturation of photosynthesis than thos...

  19. Static and dynamic bending has minor effects on xylem hydraulics of conifer branches (Picea abies, Pinus sylvestris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayr, Stefan; Bertel, Clara; Dämon, Birgit; Beikircher, Barbara

    2014-09-01

    The xylem hydraulic efficiency and safety is usually measured on mechanically unstressed samples, although trees may be exposed to combined hydraulic and mechanical stress in the field. We analysed changes in hydraulic conductivity and vulnerability to drought-induced embolism during static bending of Picea abies and Pinus sylvestris branches as well as the effect of dynamic bending on the vulnerability. We hypothesized this mechanical stress to substantially impair xylem hydraulics. Intense static bending caused an only small decrease in hydraulic conductance (-19.5 ± 2.4% in P. abies) but no shift in vulnerability thresholds. Dynamic bending caused a 0.4 and 0.8 MPa decrease of the water potential at 50 and 88% loss of conductivity in P. sylvestris, but did not affect vulnerability thresholds in P. abies. With respect to applied extreme bending radii, effects on plant hydraulics were surprisingly small and are thus probably of minor eco-physiological importance. More importantly, results indicate that available xylem hydraulic analyses (of conifers) sufficiently reflect plant hydraulics under field conditions. PMID:24697679

  20. Developmental and stress regulation on expression of a novel miRNA, Fan-miR73, and its target ABI5 in strawberry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dongdong; Mou, Wangshu; Luo, Zisheng; Li, Li; Limwachiranon, Jarukitt; Mao, Linchun; Ying, Tiejin

    2016-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is a critical plant hormone for fruit ripening and adaptive stress responses in strawberry. Previous high-throughput sequencing results indicated that ABA-insensitive (ABI)5, an important transcription factor in the ABA signaling pathway, was a target for a novel microRNA (miRNA), Fan-miR73. In the present study, exogenous ABA treatment was found to accelerate fruit ripening through differentially regulating the transcripts of ABA metabolism and signal transduction related genes, including NCED1, PYR1, ABI1, and SnRK2.2. Expression of Fan-miR73 was down-regulated in response to exogenous ABA treatment in a dosage-dependent manner, which resulted in an accumulation of ABI5 transcripts in the ripening-accelerated fruits. In addition, both UV-B radiation and salinity stress reduced the transcript levels of Fan-miR73, whereas promoted ABI5 expression. Furthermore, high negative correlations between the transcriptional abundance of Fan-miR73 and ABI5 were observed during ripening and in response to stress stimuli. These results enriched the possible regulatory role of miRNA involved in the post-transcriptional modification of ABI5 during strawberry ripening, as well as responses to environmental stresses. PMID:27325048

  1. Propagation of Abies beshanzuensis by Water Cultured Medium%极度濒危植物百山祖冷杉水培繁殖

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    饶龙兵; 吴友贵

    2009-01-01

    [Objective] The experiment aimed to explore the influences of phytohormones (ABT and IAA) and nutrient solution on rooting of Abies beshanzuensis M.H.Wu by water cultured medium. [Method] The Abies beshanzuensis M.H.Wu were treated by water (CK), 10 mg/L ABT+ water, 10 mg/L IAA+ water, 10 mg/L ABT+ hoagland solution, 10 mg/L IAA+ hoagland solution, then the rooting process was observed and the formation rate of callus, rooting rate, number of rooting, and root length were investigated and analyzed. [Result] ABT and IAA had obvious influences on callus induction, rooting rate and the number of root of Abies beshanzuensis M.H.Wu by water culture, so they were suitable to be used in water propagation of Abies beshanzuensis M.H.Wu. The treatments of phytohormones had no regular influences on the longest root length and average root length. The nutrient solutions would not generate obvious influence on propagation of Abies beshanzuensis M.H.Wu at firstly stage, but they generated influence on root growth after rooting. [Conclusion] The research provided new ideas for propagation of Abies beshanzuensis M.H.Wu, which could make it out of endangerment situation quickly.

  2. Resonance wood [Picea abies (L.) Karst.]--evaluation and prediction of violin makers' quality-grading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buksnowitz, Christoph; Teischinger, Alfred; Müller, Ulrich; Pahler, Andreas; Evans, Robert

    2007-04-01

    The definition of quality in the field of resonance wood for musical instrument making has attracted considerable interest over decades but has remained incomplete. The current work compares the traditional knowledge and practical experience of violin makers with a material-science approach to objectively characterize the properties of resonance wood. Norway spruce [Picea abies (L.) Karst.] has earned a very high reputation for the construction of resonance tops of stringed instruments and resonance boards of keyboard instruments, and was therefore chosen as the focus of the investigation. The samples were obtained from numerous renowned resonance wood regions in the European Alps and cover the whole range of available qualities. A set of acoustical, anatomical, mechanical and optical material properties was measured on each sample. These measurements were compared with subjective quality grading by violin makers, who estimated the acoustical, optical and overall suitability for violin making. Multiple linear regression models were applied to evaluate the predictability of the subjective grading using the measured material characteristics as predictors. The results show that luthiers are able to estimate wood quality related to visible features, but predictions of mechanical and acoustical properties proved to be very poor. PMID:17471750

  3. Experimental versus modelled water use in mature Norway spruce (Picea abies exposed to elevated CO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian eLeuzinger

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Rising levels of atmospheric CO2 have often been reported to reduce plant water use. Such behaviour is also predicted by standard equations relating photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, and atmospheric CO2 concentration, which form the core of global dynamic vegetation models (DGVMs. Here, we provide first results from a free air CO2 enrichment (FACE experiment with naturally growing, mature (35 m Picea abies (L. (Norway spruce and compare them to simulations by the DGVM LPJ-GUESS. We monitored sap flow, stem water deficit, stomatal conductance, leaf water potential and soil moisture in five 35-40 m tall CO2-treated (550 ppm trees over two seasons. Using LPJ-GUESS, we simulated this experiment using climate data from a nearby weather station. While the model predicted a stable reduction of transpiration of between 9 and 18 % (at concentrations of 550-700ppm atmospheric CO2, the combined evidence from various methods characterising water use in our experimental trees suggest no changes in response to future CO2 concentrations. The discrepancy between the modelled and the experimental results may be a scaling issue: while dynamic vegetation models correctly predict leaf-level responses, they may not sufficiently account for the processes involved at the canopy and ecosystem scale, which could mitigate the first-order stomatal response.

  4. Vertical foliage distribution determines the radial pattern of sap flux density in Picea abies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiora, Alessandro; Cescatti, Alessandro

    2008-09-01

    Understanding the causes determining the radial pattern of sap flux density is important both for improving knowledge of sapwood functioning and for up-scaling sap flow measurements to canopy transpiration and ecosystem water use. To investigate the anatomical connection between whorls and annual sapwood rings, pruning-induced variation in the radial pattern of sap flux density was monitored with Granier probes in a 35-year-old Picea abies (L.) Karst tree that was pruned from the crown bottom up. Modifications in the radial pattern of sap flux density were quantified by a shape index (SI), which varies with the relative contribution of the outer and inner sapwood to tree transpiration. The SI progressively diminished during bottom up pruning, indicating a significant reduction in sap flow contribution of the inner sapwood. Results suggest that the radial pattern of sap flux density depends mainly on the vertical distribution of foliage in the crown, with lower shaded branches hydraulically connected with inner sapwood and upper branches connected with the outer rings.

  5. Extraction and structural characteristics of pectic polysaccharides from Abies sibirica L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakhmatov, Evgeny G; Udoratina, Elena V; Atukmaev, Konstantin V; Makarova, Elena N

    2015-06-01

    Structurally different pectins were isolated from the wood greenery of Abies sibirica L. by the sequential extraction with water (ASW), HCl solution (pH∼4) (ASA), and NH3 solution (pH∼8.5) (ASN). The GalA/Rha molar ratios for the ASW (15), ASA (8.9), and ASN (3.9) polysaccharides diminish in the order ASW>ASA>ASN, indicating a decrease in homogalacturonans and increase in rhamnogalacturonan I in this series. The ASWH, ASAH, and ASNH homogalacturonans derived by acid hydrolysis of ASW, ASA, and ASN have similar Mw 23.8, 21.1, and 18.9kDa, respectively, corresponding to a mean polymerization degree of 97-122 for the GalA residue. The macromolecule backbone of ASN was represented mainly by moieties of partially methylesterified homogalacturonan and partially 2-O- and/or 3-O-acetylated rhamnogalacturonan I. The carbohydrate side chains of the branched region are primarily made up of terminal, 1,5-O-, 1,3,5-di-O- and 1,2,3,5-tri-O-substituted α-L-Araf residues and terminal, 1,3-O- and 1,3,6-di-O-substituted β-D-Galp residues. The currently known pectin models were refined. PMID:25843854

  6. Groundwater quality assessment using geoelectrical and geochemical approaches: case study of Abi area, southeastern Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebong, Ebong D.; Akpan, Anthony E.; Emeka, Chimezie N.; Urang, Job G.

    2016-06-01

    The electrical resistivity technique which involved the Schlumberger depth sounding method and geochemical analyses of water samples collected from boreholes was used to investigate the suitability of groundwater aquifers in Abi for drinking and irrigation purposes. Fifty randomly located electrical resistivity data were collected, modeled, and interpreted after calibration with lithologic logs. Ten borehole water samples were collected and analysed to determine anion, cation concentrations and some physical and chemical parameters, such as water colour, temperature, total dissolved solids, and electrical conductivity. The results show that the lithostratigraphy of the study area is composed of sands, sandstones (fractured, consolidated and loosed), siltstones, shales (compacted and fractured) of the Asu River Group, Eze-Aku Formation which comprises the aquifer units, and the Nkporo Shale Formation. The aquifer conduits are known to be rich in silicate minerals, and the groundwater samples in some locations show a significant amount of Ca2+, Mg2+, and Na+. These cations balanced the consumption of H+ during the hydrolytic alteration of silicate minerals. The geochemical analysis of groundwater samples revealed dominant calcium-magnesium-carbonate-bicarbonate water facies. Irrigation water quality parameters, such as sodium absorption ratio, percentage of sodium, and permeability index, were calculated based on the physico-chemical analyses. The groundwater quality was observed to be influenced by the interaction of some geologic processes but was classified to be good to excellent, indicating its suitability for domestic and irrigation purposes.

  7. Norway spruce (Picea abies) laccases: characterization of a laccase in a lignin-forming tissue culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutaniemi, Sanna; Malmberg, Heli A; Simola, Liisa K; Teeri, Teemu H; Kärkönen, Anna

    2015-04-01

    Secondarily thickened cell walls of water-conducting vessels and tracheids and support-giving sclerenchyma cells contain lignin that makes the cell walls water impermeable and strong. To what extent laccases and peroxidases contribute to lignin biosynthesis in muro is under active evaluation. We performed an in silico study of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) laccases utilizing available genomic data. As many as 292 laccase encoding sequences (genes, gene fragments, and pseudogenes) were detected in the spruce genome. Out of the 112 genes annotated as laccases, 79 are expressed at some level. We isolated five full-length laccase cDNAs from developing xylem and an extracellular lignin-forming cell culture of spruce. In addition, we purified and biochemically characterized one culture medium laccase from the lignin-forming cell culture. This laccase has an acidic pH optimum (pH 3.8-4.2) for coniferyl alcohol oxidation. It has a high affinity to coniferyl alcohol with an apparent Km value of 3.5 μM; however, the laccase has a lower catalytic efficiency (V(max)/K(m)) for coniferyl alcohol oxidation compared with some purified culture medium peroxidases. The properties are discussed in the context of the information already known about laccases/coniferyl alcohol oxidases of coniferous plants.

  8. Pre-growth mortality of Abies cilicica trees and mortality models performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carus, Serdar

    2010-05-01

    In this study, we compared tree-growth rates (basal area increment) from recently dead and living Taurus fir (Abies cilicica Carr.) trees in the Kovada lake Forest of Isparta, Turkey. For each dead tree, tree-growth rates were analyzed for the presence of pre-death growth depressions in the study area (number of sample plots = 11) in 2006. However, we compared both the magnitude and rate of growth prior to death to a control (living) group of trees. Basal area increment (BAI) averaged substantially less during the last 10 years before death than for control trees. Trees that died started diverging in growth, on average, 50-60 years before death. About 18% of trees that died had chronically slow growth, 46% had pronounced declines in growth, whereas 36% had good growth up to death. However, tree-ring-based growth patterns of dead and living Taurus fir trees were compared and used 12 mortality models that were derived using logistic regression from growth patterns of tree-ring series as predictor variables. The four models with the highest overall performance correctly classified 43.8-56.3% of all dead trees and 75.0-87.5% of all living trees, and they predicted 25.0-43.8% of all dead trees to die within 0-15 years prior to the actual year of death.

  9. Analysis of volatile components, fatty acids, and phytosterols of Abies koreana growing in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wajs-Bonikowska, Anna; Olejnika, Karol; Bonikowski, Radosław; Banaszczakb, Piotr

    2013-09-01

    Extracts and essential oils from seeds as well as essential oils from cone scales and needles with twigs of the Abies koreana population were studied. An analysis of Korean fir essential oils allowed us to determine 147 volatile compounds. The identified compounds constituted 97-99% of the seed, cone and needle oils. The main volatile in the seed and needle oils was limonene (56.6% and 23.4%, respectively), while the predominant volatile in cone oils was alpha-pinene (51.2%). Korean fir seeds provided a rich source of both essential oil (3.8-8.5%) and extract, which was isolated with a 24.5% yield and contained numerous groups of fatty acids and phytosterols (414 microg/100g extract). The most prominent fatty acids were unsaturated, among which linoleic (41.2%) and oleic (31.2%) fatty acid were the main ones while the dominant sterols were isomers of ergostadienol and beta-sitosterol. A. koreana seeds, cones and needles are a source of many volatile bioactive compounds while the seed extract, with a pleasant scent, contained not only volatiles, but also fractions rich in fatty acids and phytosterols. These facts make A. koreana essential oils and especially the seed extract potential components of cosmetics. PMID:24273870

  10. Chemical analysis of volatile oils from West Himalayan Pindrow Fir Abies pindrow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padalia, Rajendra C; Verma, Ram S; Chauhan, Amit; Goswami, Prakash; Chanotiya, Chandan S

    2014-08-01

    The essential oil composition of needle and stem oils of Abies pindrow (Royle ex D.Don) Royle, commonly known as Pindrow or West Himalayan Fir, were analyzed by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Fifty-six constituents, accounting for 96.0% of needle and 83.5% of stem oil composition, were identified. The oils were characterized by a high content of monoterpenoids (68.9%-79.9%), mainly comprised by limonene (21.0%-34.4%), camphene (0.5%-19.9%), alpha-pinene (13.8%-16.8%), myrcene (6.7%-8.3%) and beta-pinene (6.5%-8.6%). Monoterpene hydrocarbons were predominant in both oils, but the quantitative and qualitative composition of the volatile constituents was specific for each part of the tree; and considerable variations in their terpenoid production pattern were also noticed. Results were compared with earlier reported fir species from different geographic regions. PMID:25233604

  11. KNOWLEDGE OF THE SOIL CHEMICAL COMPOSITION IN AREAS OF ECOLOGICAL SUCCESSION FOREST FIR (Abies guatemalensis REHDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Vicente Martínez-Arévalo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Chemical composition ( pH , elements major and minor , % S.B., CIC , % M.O. and N.T on soils in open areas and forest fir (Abies guatemalensis Rehder in a successional gradient was studied. These results were related to vegetation through correlation analysis and Canonical Correspondence analysis. The aim was to show the relationships present between vegetation and soil chemistry through ecological succession in areas of cold climate. The results indicate that the vegetation is composed of 82 species of which 20 are the lower herbaceous layer, 34 the herbaceous layer of the upper, 21 shrubs and seven trees. The chemical characteristics of the soil through five successional stages have only few significant differences and not show a clear tendency to increase according to the degree of ecosystem development. A low percentage of correlations between vegetation and soil chemical characteristics are presented. The correspondence canonical analysis shows that the features that correlate with sites through vegetation are the K, and % S.B. and CIC. One can conclude that the approach of the study of the chemical composition of soils in areas of ecological sequence is complex, especially in high regions where, besides other factors, the temperature and humidity play an important role on the soil-vegetation dynamic.

  12. Experimental vs. modeled water use in mature Norway spruce (Picea abies) exposed to elevated CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuzinger, Sebastian; Bader, Martin K.-F.

    2012-01-01

    Rising levels of atmospheric CO2 have often been reported to reduce plant water use. Such behavior is also predicted by standard equations relating photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, and atmospheric CO2 concentration, which form the core of dynamic global vegetation models (DGVMs). Here, we provide first results from a free air CO2 enrichment (FACE) experiment with naturally growing, mature (35 m) Picea abies (L.) (Norway spruce) and compare them to simulations by the DGVM LPJ-GUESS. We monitored sap flow, stem water deficit, stomatal conductance, leaf water potential, and soil moisture in five 35–40 m tall CO2-treated (550 ppm) trees over two seasons. Using LPJ-GUESS, we simulated this experiment using climate data from a nearby weather station. While the model predicted a stable reduction of transpiration of between 9% and 18% (at concentrations of 550–700 ppm atmospheric CO2), the combined evidence from various methods characterizing water use in our experimental trees suggest no changes in response to future CO2 concentrations. The discrepancy between the modeled and the experimental results may be a scaling issue: while dynamic vegetation models correctly predict leaf-level responses, they may not sufficiently account for the processes involved at the canopy and ecosystem scale, which could offset the first-order stomatal response. PMID:23087696

  13. Analysis of volatile components, fatty acids, and phytosterols of Abies koreana growing in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wajs-Bonikowska, Anna; Olejnika, Karol; Bonikowski, Radosław; Banaszczakb, Piotr

    2013-09-01

    Extracts and essential oils from seeds as well as essential oils from cone scales and needles with twigs of the Abies koreana population were studied. An analysis of Korean fir essential oils allowed us to determine 147 volatile compounds. The identified compounds constituted 97-99% of the seed, cone and needle oils. The main volatile in the seed and needle oils was limonene (56.6% and 23.4%, respectively), while the predominant volatile in cone oils was alpha-pinene (51.2%). Korean fir seeds provided a rich source of both essential oil (3.8-8.5%) and extract, which was isolated with a 24.5% yield and contained numerous groups of fatty acids and phytosterols (414 microg/100g extract). The most prominent fatty acids were unsaturated, among which linoleic (41.2%) and oleic (31.2%) fatty acid were the main ones while the dominant sterols were isomers of ergostadienol and beta-sitosterol. A. koreana seeds, cones and needles are a source of many volatile bioactive compounds while the seed extract, with a pleasant scent, contained not only volatiles, but also fractions rich in fatty acids and phytosterols. These facts make A. koreana essential oils and especially the seed extract potential components of cosmetics.

  14. Effects of Temperature on Photosynthetic Rates in Korean Fir (Abies koreana) between Healthy and Dieback Population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Su Young Woo; Jong-Hwan Lim; Don Koo Lee

    2008-01-01

    The present study was carried out on natural Korean fir forests (Abies koreana) growing In Mount Halla in Jeju Island, Korea (33°13-36′ N and 126° 12-57′ E). Mount Halla is the highest mountain (1950 m a.s.l.) in South Korea. On the Korean fir forests near the top of Mount Halla in Korea, we established permanent plots between dieback and healthy population. Each permanent plot includes both dieback and relatively healthy Korean fir individuals. Three sites in this study showed similar altitude, topographic position, aspects, slope, diameter at breast height, average height and ages. Net photosynthetic rates (PN) on different temperature regimes were evaluated to explain the forest dieback phenomenon on Korean fir populations. Light response curves were determined on three different temperature regimes: 15℃, 20℃and 25℃. The Irradiance response curve showed higher values in lower air temperatures. Generally, Irradiance response curves of healthy Korean fir populations were higher than the dieback population at all sites.

  15. Incidence of root and butt rot in consecutive rotations of Picea abies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roennberg, Jonas [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Alnarp (Sweden). Southern Swedish Forest Research Centre; Joergensen, B.B. [Danish Forest and Landscape Research Inst., Hoersholm (Denmark)

    2000-07-01

    The incidence of butt rot in two consecutive rotations of Norway spruce [Picea abies (L.) Karst.] in 28 permanent sample plots at four different sites in Denmark was evaluated. Incidence of butt rot was estimated by visual examination of stumps at final felling of the previous rotation and by examination of bore cores taken at the butt from a random sample of trees before first thinning of the subsequent rotation. There was no correlation between the incidence of butt rot at final felling of the previous rotation of Norway spruce and the incidence of butt rot at first thinning of the subsequent rotation of Norway spruce. The incidence of butt rot at final felling was between 19 and 100%, and at first thinning between 0 and 20%. The S-form of Heterobasidion annosum (Fr.) Bref. was the most commonly found decay-causing organism at all sites. Root systems of 28 trees without decay at stump height in the present rotation were excavated to estimate the incidence of root rot. Heterobasidion annosum was found in only one root. Resinicium bicolor (Alb. and Schw. ex Fr.) Parm. was found in 25% of the excavated root systems. The result of the study shows that the incidence of butt rot at first thinning of Norway spruce is not necessarily higher on sites where the previous rotation was heavily infected than on sites where infection in the previous rotation was low.

  16. Regulation of Water Use in the Southernmost European Fir (Abies pinsapo Boiss.: Drought Avoidance Matters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Sánchez-Salguero

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The current scenario of global warming has resulted in considerable uncertainty regarding the capacity of forest trees to adapt to increasing drought. Detailed ecophysiological knowledge would provide a basis to forecast expected species dynamics in response to climate change. Here, we compare the water balance (stomatal conductance, xylem water potential, needle osmotic adjustment of Abies pinsapo, a relict drought-sensitive Mediterranean fir, along an altitudinal gradient. We related these variables to soil water and nutrient availability, air temperature, atmospheric water potential, and vapour pressure deficit during two consecutive years. Our results indicate that A. pinsapo closed stomata rapidly over a very narrow range of soil water availability and atmospheric dryness. This isohydric response during water stress suggests that this relict conifer relied on the plant hormone abscisic acid to maintain closed stomata during sustained drought, instead of needle desiccation to passively drive stomatal closure, needle osmotic adjustment or a plastic response of the xylem to different levels of water availability. Both the soil and foliar nutrient contents suggest that the studied populations are not limited by nutrient deficiencies, and drought was stronger in the warmer low-elevation areas.

  17. Regeneration of Abies cephalonica Loudon after a Large Fire in Central Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yannis Raftoyannis

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Abies cephalonica Loudon (Greek fir is a dominant tree species of the mountainous Greece that forms productive forests. Wildfires in fir forests were not considered a major threat but in recent decades, fir ecosystems in Greece have experienced large crown fires with subsequent ecological and economical losses. Materials and Methods: This study was designed to aid our understanding of Greek fir recovery after fire. In Central Greece, 12 years after a large fire, fir regeneration and site factors were studied in 143 sampling plots located in 10 transects. Results: Fir regeneration density decreased abruptly with distance from the remnant stands and followed the negative exponential curve with decreasing regeneration abundance from the border of the unburned zone. Abiotic factors such as elevation, aspect, slope steepness and ground cover type could not significantly explain any variability in fir regeneration density. Conclusions: Our results showed that distance from a seed source was the most important variable in explaining fir regeneration. Moreover, the density of fir regeneration seemed adequate to provide stocking for a future fir forest.

  18. Growth and Wood/Bark Properties of Abies faxoniana Seedlings as Affected by Elevated CO2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yun-Zhou Qiao; Yuan-Bin Zhang; Kai-Yun Wang; Qian Wang; Qi-Zhuo Tian

    2008-01-01

    Growth and wood and bark properties of Abies faxoniana seedlings after one year's exposure to elevated CO2 concentration (ambient + 350 (=1= 25) μmol/mol) under two planting densities (28 or 84 plants/mz) were investigated in closed-top chambers. Tree height, stem diameter and cross-sectional area, and total biomass were enhanced under elevated CO2 concentration, and reduced under high planting density. Most traits of stem bark were improved under elevated CO2 concentration and reduced under high planting density. Stem wood production was significantly increased in volume under elevated CO2 concentration under both densities, and the stem wood density decreased under elevated CO2 concentration and increased under high planting density. These results suggest that the response of stem wood and bark to elevated CO2 concentration is density dependent. This may be of great importance in a future CO2 enriched world in natural forests where plant density varies considerably. The results also show that the bark/wood ratio in diameter, stem cross-sectional area and dry weight are not proportionally affected by elevated CO2 concentration under the two contrasting planting densities. This indicates that the response magnitude of stem bark and stem wood to elevated CO2 concentration are different but their response directions are the same.

  19. Growth rhythm and frost hardiness dynamics in Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westin, Johan [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Umeaa (Sweden). Dept. of Forest Genetics and Plant Physiology

    1999-07-01

    The seasonal growth rhythm and frost hardiness development of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) in Northern Sweden were characterised in trees from local seed sources and transferred seed sources of natural and selected origins. The main aim was to clarify whether the growth performance of selected populations of local origin had a similar physiological basis to the growth performance of southern natural populations. Populations of southern origins tended to initiate growth and dehardening later in spring, and start growth cessation and hardening later in autumn, than populations of northern origins. Populations transferred more than approximately 3 deg in latitude showed poor growth performances due to lower numbers of stem-units. Southern populations showed prolonged apical mitotic activity compared with those of northern and local origins. Progenies of selected plus-trees showed a later start of growth and slightly later dehardening in spring. Growth cessation occurred later in juvenile seedlings of selected populations than in natural populations of similar origin. Furthermore, in non-juvenile trees of selected populations prolonged mitotic activity was observed. Needle frost hardiness levels in selected populations were similar to those of natural populations of similar origin. Selected populations of northern origins tended to produce more stem-units than natural populations of similar origin. Throughout the studies, variation in duration of mitotic activity appeared to be unrelated to the number of stem-units produced. This was evident both among populations and among clones of similar origins. Furthermore, variation in the ability to produce stem-units could not explain variation in accumulated height growth among natural populations. Growth and hardiness performances of southern populations and of selected populations of local origin appeared, at least in part, to have a similar physiological basis i.e. delayed spring and autumn phenology.

  20. In Planta Localization of Stilbenes within Picea abies Phloem1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Katsushi; Pranovich, Andrey; Roig-Juan, Sílvia; Aoki, Dan

    2016-01-01

    Phenolic stilbene glucosides (astringin, isorhapontin, and piceid) and their aglycons commonly accumulate in the phloem of Norway spruce (Picea abies). However, current knowledge about the localization and accumulation of stilbenes within plant tissues and cells remains limited. Here, we used an innovative combination of novel microanalytical techniques to evaluate stilbenes in a frozen-hydrated condition (i.e. in planta) and a freeze-dried condition across phloem tissues. Semiquantitative time-of-flight secondary ion-mass spectrometry imaging in planta revealed that stilbenes were localized in axial parenchyma cells. Quantitative gas chromatography analysis showed the highest stilbene content in the middle of collapsed phloem with decreases toward the outer phloem. The same trend was detected for soluble sugar and water contents. The specimen water content may affect stilbene composition; the glucoside-to-aglycon ratio decreased slightly with decreases in water content. Phloem chemistry was correlated with three-dimensional structures of phloem as analyzed by microtomography. The outer phloem was characterized by a high volume of empty parenchyma, reduced ray volume, and a large number of axial parenchyma with porous vacuolar contents. Increasing porosity from the inner to the outer phloem was related to decreasing compactness of stilbenes and possible secondary oxidation or polymerization. Our results indicate that aging-dependent changes in phloem may reduce cell functioning, which affects the capacity of the phloem to store water and sugar, and may reduce the defense potential of stilbenes in the axial parenchyma. Our results highlight the power of using a combination of techniques to evaluate tissue- and cell-level mechanisms involved in plant secondary metabolite formation and metabolism. PMID:27531441

  1. Does carbon availability control temporal dynamics of radial growth in Norway spruce (Picea abies)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberhuber, Walter; Gruber, Andreas; Swidrak, Irene

    2015-04-01

    Intra-annual dynamics of cambial activity and wood formation of coniferous species exposed to soil dryness revealed early culmination of maximum growth in late spring prior to occurrence of more favourable environmental conditions, i.e., repeated high rainfall events during summer (Oberhuber et al. 2014). Because it is well known that plants can adjust carbon allocation patterns to optimize resource uptake under prevailing environmental constraints, we hypothesize that early decrease in radial stem growth is an adaptation to cope with drought stress, which might require an early switch of carbon allocation to belowground organs. Physical blockage of carbon transport in the phloem through girdling causes accumulation and depletion of carbohydrates above and below the girdle, respectively, making this method quite appropriate to investigate carbon relationships in trees. Hence, in a common garden experiment we will manipulate the carbon status of Norway spruce (Picea abies) saplings by phloem blockage at different phenological stages during the growing season. We will present the methodological approach and first results of the study aiming to test the hypothesis that carbon status of the tree affects temporal dynamics of cambial activity and wood formation in conifers under drought. Acknowledgment The research is funded by the Austrian Science Fund (FWF): P25643-B16 "Carbon allocation and growth of Scots pine". Reference Oberhuber W, A Gruber, W Kofler, I Swidrak (2014) Radial stem growth in response to microclimate and soil moisture in a drought-prone mixed coniferous forest at an inner Alpine site. Eur J For Res 133:467-479.

  2. Heterobasidion annosum root rot in Picea abies: Variability in aggressiveness and resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swedjemark, G.

    1995-12-31

    In greenhouse experiments 3-4 year-old plants of Picea abies and Pinus sylvestris were inoculated with the root rot fungus Heterobasidion annosum. The growth rates of 25 S and 14 P isolates of the fungus were measured in the sapwood of about 25 rametes each of 98 Norway spruce clones and in 150 seedlings each of Norway spruce and Scots pine. Correlations were determined between fungal sapwood growth and a variety of variables, i.e. the physical stage, growth rhythm, size and condition of the cuttings, provenance and the growth capacity of the clones estimated in field tests. Genetic parameters such as phenotypic and genotypic variance, genotypic coefficient of variance and broad sense heritability were calculated. H. annosum infection incidence was close to 100 % for inoculated Norway spruce clones, and the mortality rate was about 1 %. Fungal growth in sapwood differed significantly among clones and among fungal isolates. The genotypic correlation coefficient was large (30 %) and broad sense heritability was 0.35. This suggests that good selection progress can be achieved in breeding programs. The physical stage (bud-flush, vegetative and post bud-set stage) of the clones contributed significantly to the total variation in fungal growth. The population structure of H. annosum was studied in two 25-year-old, first generation stands of Norway spruce. The stands had been thinned one and seven years earlier, respectively. All stumps and remaining trees were sampled for H. annosum isolates. The isolates were tested with somatic incompatibility to detect single genets and the distribution of genets in the stand was determined. About 70 % of the 7-year-old thinning stumps were colonized by H, annosum, and 50 % of these stumps were colonized by more than one fungal genet. Sixty-three percent of the remaining trees were infected with H. annosum but among them there was only one genet per tree. 104 refs, 12 figs

  3. Insights into Diterpene Cyclization from Structure of Bifunctional Abietadiene Synthase from Abies grandis*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ke; Gao, Yang; Hoy, Julie A.; Mann, Francis M.; Honzatko, Richard B.; Peters, Reuben J.

    2012-01-01

    Abietadiene synthase from Abies grandis (AgAS) is a model system for diterpene synthase activity, catalyzing class I (ionization-initiated) and class II (protonation-initiated) cyclization reactions. Reported here is the crystal structure of AgAS at 2.3 Å resolution and molecular dynamics simulations of that structure with and without active site ligands. AgAS has three domains (α, β, and γ). The class I active site is within the C-terminal α domain, and the class II active site is between the N-terminal γ and β domains. The domain organization resembles that of monofunctional diterpene synthases and is consistent with proposed evolutionary origins of terpene synthases. Molecular dynamics simulations were carried out to determine the effect of substrate binding on enzymatic structure. Although such studies of the class I active site do lead to an enclosed substrate-Mg2+ complex similar to that observed in crystal structures of related plant enzymes, it does not enforce a single substrate conformation consistent with the known product stereochemistry. Simulations of the class II active site were more informative, with observation of a well ordered external loop migration. This “loop-in” conformation not only limits solvent access but also greatly increases the number of conformational states accessible to the substrate while destabilizing the nonproductive substrate conformation present in the “loop-out” conformation. Moreover, these conformational changes at the class II active site drive the substrate toward the proposed transition state. Docked substrate complexes were further assessed with regard to the effects of site-directed mutations on class I and II activities. PMID:22219188

  4. Insights into Diterpene Cyclization from Structure of Bifunctional Abietadiene Synthase from Abies grandis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Ke; Gao, Yang; Hoy, Julie A.; Mann, Francis M.; Honzatko, Richard B.; Peters, Reuben J. (Iowa State)

    2013-09-24

    Abietadiene synthase from Abies grandis (AgAS) is a model system for diterpene synthase activity, catalyzing class I (ionization-initiated) and class II (protonation-initiated) cyclization reactions. Reported here is the crystal structure of AgAS at 2.3 {angstrom} resolution and molecular dynamics simulations of that structure with and without active site ligands. AgAS has three domains ({alpha}, {beta}, and {gamma}). The class I active site is within the C-terminal {alpha} domain, and the class II active site is between the N-terminal {gamma} and {beta} domains. The domain organization resembles that of monofunctional diterpene synthases and is consistent with proposed evolutionary origins of terpene synthases. Molecular dynamics simulations were carried out to determine the effect of substrate binding on enzymatic structure. Although such studies of the class I active site do lead to an enclosed substrate-Mg{sup 2+} complex similar to that observed in crystal structures of related plant enzymes, it does not enforce a single substrate conformation consistent with the known product stereochemistry. Simulations of the class II active site were more informative, with observation of a well ordered external loop migration. This 'loop-in' conformation not only limits solvent access but also greatly increases the number of conformational states accessible to the substrate while destabilizing the nonproductive substrate conformation present in the 'loop-out' conformation. Moreover, these conformational changes at the class II active site drive the substrate toward the proposed transition state. Docked substrate complexes were further assessed with regard to the effects of site-directed mutations on class I and II activities.

  5. Stand-structural effects on Heterobasidion abietinum-related mortality following drought events in Abies pinsapo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linares, Juan Carlos; Camarero, Jesús Julio; Bowker, Matthew A; Ochoa, Victoria; Carreira, José Antonio

    2010-12-01

    Climate change may affect tree-pathogen interactions. This possibility has important implications for drought-prone forests, where stand dynamics and disease pathogenicity are especially sensitive to climatic stress. In addition, stand structural attributes including density-dependent tree-to-tree competition may modulate the stands' resistance to drought events and pathogen outbreaks. To assess the effects of stand structure on root-rot-related mortality after severe droughts, we focused on Heterobasidion abietinum mortality in relict Spanish stands of Abies pinsapo, a drought-sensitive fir. We compared stand attributes and tree spatial patterns in three plots with H. abietinum root-rot disease and three plots without root-rot. Point-pattern analyses were used to investigate the scale and extent of mortality patterns and to test hypotheses related to the spread of the disease. Dendrochronology was used to date the year of death and to assess the association between droughts and growth decline. We applied a structural equation modelling approach to test if tree mortality occurs more rapidly than predicted by a simple distance model when trees are subjected to high tree-to-tree competition and following drought events. Contrary to expectations of drought mortality, the effect of precipitation on the year of death was strong and negative, indicating that a period of high precipitation induced an earlier tree death. Competition intensity, related to the size and density of neighbour trees, also induced an earlier tree death. The effect of distance to the disease focus was negligible except in combination with intensive competition. Our results indicate that infected trees have decreased ability to withstand drought stress, and demonstrate that tree-to-tree competition and fungal infection act as predisposing factors of forest decline and mortality.

  6. 拟南芥PKS5激酶磷酸化ABI5参与植物ABA响应%PKS5 Kinase is Involved in ABA Response through Phosphorylating ABI5 in Arabidopsis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵菲佚; 焦成瑾; 陈荃; 王太术; 田春芳; 高雅梅

    2015-01-01

    植物激素脱落酸(abscisic acid, ABA)在植物生长、发育及环境胁迫中起着重要的作用。本研究发现拟南芥PKSes (SOS2-like protein kinases)蛋白激酶家族成员PKS5(SOS2-like protein kinase 5)参与植物ABA响应。PKS5功能获得性点突变体pks5-3与pks5-4表现出对ABA的敏感表型。在外源ABA处理下, pks5-3与pks5-4种子萌发率降低,幼苗生长矮小、黄化。体外磷酸化测试显示, PKS5特异磷酸化ABA响应元件ABI5(ABA-insensitive 5) N末端多肽(1~211 aa)。qRT-PCR分析表明pks5-3与pks5-4突变体中ABI5下游ABA响应基因RAB18(RESPONSIVE TO ABA18)与EM6(LATE EMBRYOGENESIS ABUNDANT 6)表达均发生改变。这些研究结果表明,拟南芥PKS5通过磷酸化ABI5的N末端参与植物ABA响应过程。%The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) plays an essential role in plant growth and development as well as abiotic stress responses. In this study, we found that PKS5 (SOS2-like protein kinase 5), a family mem-ber of PKSes (SOS2-like protein kinases), involved in ABA response inArabidopsis.PKS5 gain-of-function point mutantspks5-3andpks5-4 exhibited hypersensitive to ABA in the phenotypic test. Additionally, seed ger-minations ofpks5-3andpks5-4 decreased and seedlings of them showed stunted growth and leaf chlorotic symptoms under exogenous ABA treatment.In vitro phosphorylation assay indicated that PKS5 speciifcally phosphorylates the ABA-responsive component ABI5 (ABA-insensitive 5) N terminus fragment range from 1 to 211 amino acids. Moreover, the relative expression levels ofRAB18 andEM6, which are the downstream ABA-responsive genes of ABI5, signiifcantly altered inpks5-3andpks5-4 mutants compared with the wild-type plants by quantitative real-time PCR using gene-speciifc primers. Taken together, the results of this study revealed that PKS5 involves in ABA response via phosphorylating the N-terminus of ABI5 in Arabidopsis.

  7. Streamwater chemistry and flow dynamics along vegetation-soil gradient in a subalpine Abies fabri forest watershed, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Bao-Qing; Wang, Wei-Dong; Yin, Cheng-Qing

    2004-01-01

    Streamwater chemistry and spatial flow dynamics from a subalpine Abies fabri forest in an experimental watershed located in the east slope of Gongga Mountain were analyzed to gain insights into the gradient effect of primary community succession on the stream biogeochemical process. Results showed that high sand content (exceeding 80%) and porosity in the soil(exceeding 20% in A horizon and 35% in B horizon), as well as a thick humus layer on the soil surface, made the water exchange quickly in the Huangbengliu (HBL) watershed. Consequently, no surface runoff was observed, and the stream discharge changed rapidly with the daily precipitation. The flow trends of base ions in the stream water were influenced by the Abies fabri succession gradient. Ca2+ , HCO- and SO4(2-) were the dominant anions in the streamwater in this region. A significant difference of Ca2+, HCO3(-) and SO4(2-) concentration exported between the succession stages in the watershed can be found. But they had the similar temporal change in the stream flow. Ca2+, HCO3(-) and SO4(2-) showed significantly negative correlations with the daily precipitation and the stream discharge. Concentrations of Cl-, Na+, K+, and Mg2+ were low in all streamwaters monitored and we observed no differences along the Abies fabri succession gradient. Low ratios of Na: (Na + Ca) (range from 0.1 to 0.2) implied cations were from bedrock weathering (internal source process in the soil system) in this region. But, a variance analysis showed there were almost no differences between rainwater and streamwaters for Mg2+ , Na+, K+, and Cl- concentrations. This indicated that they might be come from rainfall inputs(external source). The highly mobile capacity, rapid water exchange between precipitation and discharge, and long-term export lead to this observed pattern were suggested. PMID:15559799

  8. Streamwater chemistry and flow dynamics along vegetation-soil gradient in a subalpine Abies fabri forest watershed,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHAN Bao-qing; WANG Wei-dong; YIN Cheng-qing

    2004-01-01

    Streamwater chemistry and spatial flow dynamics from a subalpine Abies fabri forest in an experimental watershed located in the east slope of Gongga Mountain were analyzed to gain insights into the gradient effect of primary community succession on the stream biogeochemical process. Results showed that high sand content(exceeding 80%) and porosity in the soil(exceeding 20% in A horizon and 35% in B horizon), as well as a thick humus layer on the soil surface, made the water exchange quickly in the Huangbengliu(HBL) watershed. Consequently, no surface runoff was observed, and the stream discharge changed rapidly with the daily precipitation. The flow trends of base ions in the stream water were influenced by the Abies fabri succession gradient. Ca2+, HCO3- and SO42- were the dominant anions in the streamwater in this region. A significant difference of Ca2+, HCO3- and SO42- concentration exported between the succession stages in the watershed can be found. But they had the similar temporal change in the stream flow. Ca2+, HCO3- and SO42- showed significantly negative correlations with the daily precipitation and the stream discharge. Concentrations of Cl-, Na+, K+, and Mg2+ were low in all streamwaters monitored and we observed no differences along the Abies fabri succession gradient. Low ratios of Na:(Na+Ca) (range from 0.1 to 0.2) implied cations were from bedrock weathering(internal source process in the soil system) in this region. But, a variance analysis showed there were almost no differences between rainwater and streamwaters for Mg2+, Na+, K+, and Cl- concentrations. This indicated that they might be come from rainfall inputs (external source). We suggest that the highly mobile capacity, rapid water exchange between precipitation and discharge, and long-term export lead to this observed pattern.

  9. ABI Research:2016年家庭自动化系统出货量将突破1200万

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    ABI Research最新报告指出,家庭自动化系统(home automation system)2011年度全球出货量将达到180万套,并预计2016年将达1200万套。基于不需添加新电缆线的无线技术如ZigBee等标准的解决方案将系统的成本降低,成为该市场强劲成长的动力。

  10. Physico-Chemical Characteristics of the Products Derived from the Thermolysis of Waste Abies alba Mill. Wood

    OpenAIRE

    López, Félix A.; Rodríguez, Olga; Urien, Andrea; Lobato Ortega, Belén; Álvarez Centeno, Teresa; Alguacil, Francisco José

    2013-01-01

    [EN] This paper reports the physico-chemical characteristics of the products derived from the thermolysis (thermolytic distillation) of waste silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) wood at different temperatures (400℃- 600℃) in a pilot scale plant. Depending on the thermolysis temperature, the procedure yielded 45 - 53 wt% pyroligneous acid with a high water content (80 - 86 wt%) and pH ≈ 3.6. The process also produced a carbonaceous solid or biochar (23 - 26 wt%), its properties strongly dependent on...

  11. Early genetic evaluation of growth rhythm and tolerance to frost in Picea abies (L.) Karst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danusevicius, Darius [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Forest Management and Products

    1999-06-01

    Main objectives of the thesis were to estimate geographical and genetic variation in growth rhythm and tolerance to frost-related stresses in seedlings of Picea abies (L.) Karst. and to assess juvenile-mature (J-M) relationships after frost desiccation simulated at the juvenile stage. Phenology and susceptibility to spring frosts of 108 Swedish and 16 eastern European provenances were studied in a short-term field trial. Frost hardiness of one-year-old seedlings of 91 provenances from the Baltic region was assessed by an artificial freezing test. Variation in response to simulated frost desiccation were studied in 36 open-pollinated families in growth chambers. Genetic correlations were calculated between growth traits assessed after frost desiccation and growth traits of progenies of the same maternal clones in two field trials. Spring frost damage was strongly related to flushing stage. With increasing latitude and altitude, bud set and flushing started earlier, while height growth and occurrence of proleptic growth decreased. North of latitude 60 deg phenology varied more among populations and was more attributable to clinal latitudinal variation than south of latitude 60 deg. Three Baltic provenances exhibited clinal variation in frost hardiness over latitude and longitude. Latitude had the major influence. Subdivision of the provenances within the Baltic states and the adjacent regions was suggested. Frost desiccation resulted in severe damage or reduced leader elongation. Families with early bud burst and bud set were less damaged than families with late bud burst and bud set. The J-M genetic correlations were weak, only 14 of 266 correlation coefficients being significant for the treated material, and 5 of 126 for the controls. Possible reasons for the weak correlations are: (1) the selective effects of the simulated and natural frost desiccation may have had different strengths, (2) the effect of frost desiccation may have been reduced by the effect of

  12. Are Early Somatic Embryos of the Norway Spruce (Picea abies (L. Karst. Organised?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiri Petrek

    Full Text Available Somatic embryogenesis in conifer species has great potential for the forestry industry. Hence, a number of methods have been developed for their efficient and rapid propagation through somatic embryogenesis. Although information is available regarding the previous process-mediated generation of embryogenic cells to form somatic embryos, there is a dearth of information in the literature on the detailed structure of these clusters.The main aim of this study was to provide a more detailed structure of the embryogenic tissue clusters obtained through the in vitro propagation of the Norway spruce (Picea abies (L. Karst.. We primarily focused on the growth of early somatic embryos (ESEs. The data on ESE growth suggested that there may be clear distinctions between their inner and outer regions. Therefore, we selected ESEs collected on the 56th day after sub-cultivation to dissect the homogeneity of the ESE clusters. Two colourimetric assays (acetocarmine and fluorescein diacetate/propidium iodide staining and one metabolic assay based on the use of 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride uncovered large differences in the metabolic activity inside the cluster. Next, we performed nuclear magnetic resonance measurements. The ESE cluster seemed to be compactly aggregated during the first four weeks of cultivation; thereafter, the difference between the 1H nuclei concentration in the inner and outer clusters was more evident. There were clear differences in the visual appearance of embryos from the outer and inner regions. Finally, a cluster was divided into six parts (three each from the inner and the outer regions of the embryo to determine their growth and viability. The innermost embryos (centripetally towards the cluster centre could grow after sub-cultivation but exhibited the slowest rate and required the longest time to reach the common growth rate. To confirm our hypothesis on the organisation of the ESE cluster, we investigated the effect of

  13. Inter- and intra-specific variation in drought sensitivity in Abies spec. and its relation to wood density and growth traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Jan-Peter; Schueler, Silvio; Karanitsch-Ackerl, Sandra; Mayer, Konrad; Klumpp, Raphael T.; Grabner, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Understanding drought sensitivity of tree species and its intra-specific variation is required to estimate the effects of climate change on forest productivity, carbon sequestration and tree mortality as well as to develop adaptive forest management measures. Here, we studied the variation of drought reaction of six European Abies species and ten provenances of Abies alba planted in the drought prone eastern Austria. Tree-ring and X-ray densitometry data were used to generate early- and latewood measures for ring width and wood density. Moreover, the drought reaction of species and provenances within six distinct drought events between 1970 and 2011, as identified by the standardized precipitation index, was determined by four drought response measures. The mean reaction of species and provenances to drought events was strongly affected by the seasonal occurrence of the drought: a short, strong drought at the beginning of the growing season resulted in growth reductions up to 50%, while droughts at the end of the growing season did not affect annual increment. Wood properties and drought response measures showed significant variation among Abies species as well as among A. alba provenances. Whereas A. alba provenances explained significant parts in the variation of ring width measures, the Abies species explained significant parts in the variation of wood density parameters. A consistent pattern in drought response across the six drought events was observed only at the inter-specific level, where A. nordmanniana showed the highest resistance and A. cephalonica showed the best recovery after drought. In contrast, differences in drought reaction among provenances were only found for the milder drought events in 1986, 1990, 1993 and 2000 and the ranking of provenances varied at each drought event. This indicates that genetic variation in drought response within A. alba is more limited than among Abies species. Low correlations between wood density parameters and

  14. ABI-like transcription factor gene TaABL1 from wheat improves multiple abiotic stress tolerances in transgenic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Dong-Bei; Gao, Shi-Qing; Ma, You-Zhi; Xu, Zhao-Shi; Zhao, Chang-Ping; Tang, Yi-Miao; Li, Xue-Yin; Li, Lian-Cheng; Chen, Yao-Feng; Chen, Ming

    2014-12-01

    The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) plays crucial roles in adaptive responses of plants to abiotic stresses. ABA-responsive element binding proteins (AREBs) are basic leucine zipper transcription factors that regulate the expression of downstream genes containing ABA-responsive elements (ABREs) in promoter regions. A novel ABI-like (ABA-insensitive) transcription factor gene, named TaABL1, containing a conserved basic leucine zipper (bZIP) domain was cloned from wheat. Southern blotting showed that three copies were present in the wheat genome. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that TaABL1 belonged to the AREB subfamily of the bZIP transcription factor family and was most closely related to ZmABI5 in maize and OsAREB2 in rice. Expression of TaABL1 was highly induced in wheat roots, stems, and leaves by ABA, drought, high salt, and low temperature stresses. TaABL1 was localized inside the nuclei of transformed wheat mesophyll protoplast. Overexpression of TaABL1 enhanced responses of transgenic plants to ABA and hastened stomatal closure under stress, thereby improving tolerance to multiple abiotic stresses. Furthermore, overexpression of TaABL1 upregulated or downregulated the expression of some stress-related genes controlling stomatal closure in transgenic plants under ABA and drought stress conditions, suggesting that TaABL1 might be a valuable genetic resource for transgenic molecular breeding.

  15. [Spatial patterns of dominant tree species in sub-alpine Betula-Abies forest in West Sichuan of China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Ning; Liu, Shi-Rong; Shi, Zuo-Min; Yu, Hong; Liu, Xing-Liang

    2009-06-01

    Based on the investigation in a 4 hm2 Betula-Abies forest plot in sub-alpine area in West Sichuan of China, and by using point pattern analysis method in terms of O-ring statistics, the spatial patterns of dominant species Betula albo-sinensis and Abies faxoniana in different age classes in study area were analyzed, and the intra- and inter-species associations between these age classes were studied. B. albo-sinensis had a unimodal distribution of its DBH frequency, indicating a declining population, while A. faxoniana had a reverse J-shaped pattern, showing an increasing population. All the big trees of B. albo-sinensis and A. faxoniana were spatially in random at all scales, while the medium age and small trees were spatially clumped at small scales and tended to be randomly or evenly distributed with increasing spatial scale. The maximum aggregation degree decreased with increasing age class. Spatial association mainly occurred at small scales. A. faxoniana generally showed positive intra-specific association, while B. albo-sinensis generally showed negative intra-specific association. For the two populations, big and small trees had no significant spatial association, but middle age trees had negative spatial association. Negative inter-specific associations of the two populations were commonly found in different age classes. The larger the difference of age class, the stronger the negative inter-specific association. PMID:19795631

  16. cGMP-dependent ABA-induced stomatal closure in the ABA-insensitive Arabidopsis mutant abi1-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubovskaya, Lyudmila V; Bakakina, Yulia S; Kolesneva, Ekaterina V; Sodel, Dmitry L; McAinsh, Martin R; Hetherington, Alistair M; Volotovski, Igor D

    2011-07-01

    • The drought hormone abscisic acid (ABA) is widely known to produce reductions in stomatal aperture in guard cells. The second messenger cyclic guanosine 3', 5'-monophosphate (cGMP) is thought to form part of the signalling pathway by which ABA induces stomatal closure. • We have examined the signalling events during cGMP-dependent ABA-induced stomatal closure in wild-type Arabidopsis plants and plants of the ABA-insensitive Arabidopsis mutant abi1-1. • We show that cGMP acts downstream of hydrogen peroxide (H(2) O(2) ) and nitric oxide (NO) in the signalling pathway by which ABA induces stomatal closure. H(2) O(2) - and NO-induced increases in the cytosolic free calcium concentration ([Ca(2+) ](cyt) ) were cGMP-dependent, positioning cGMP upstream of [Ca(2+) ](cyt) , and involved the action of the type 2C protein phosphatase ABI1. Increases in cGMP were mediated through the stimulation of guanylyl cyclase by H(2) O(2) and NO. We identify nucleoside diphosphate kinase as a new cGMP target protein in Arabidopsis. • This study positions cGMP downstream of ABA-induced changes in H(2) O(2) and NO, and upstream of increases in [Ca(2+) ](cyt) in the signalling pathway leading to stomatal closure.

  17. Network Performance Evaluation of Abis Interface over DVB-S2 in the GSM over Satellite Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. B. Musabekov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with establishing a GSM link over Satellite. Abis interface, which is defined between Base Transceiver Station (BTS and Base Station Controller (BSC, in a GSM network is considered here to be routed over the Satellite. The satellite link enables a quick and cost-effective GSM link in meagerly populated areas. A different scenario comparison was done to understand the impact of Satellite environment on network availability comparing to terrestrial scenario. We have implemented an Abis interface over DVB S2 in NS2 and evaluated the performance over the high delay and loss satellite channel. Network performance was evaluated with respect to Satellite channel delay and DVB S2 encapsulation efficiency under different amount of user traffic and compared with the terrestrial scenario. The results clearly showed an increased amount of SDCCH and TCH channels required in the case of satellite scenario for the same amount of traffic in comparison to conventional terrestrial scenario. We have optimized the parameters based on the simulation results. Link budget estimation considering DVB-S2 platform was done to find satellite bandwidth and cost requirements for different network setups.

  18. Impact Of Pine (Pinus sylvestris L. And Spruce (Picea abies (L. Karst. Bark Extracts On Important Strawberry Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minova Sandra

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Phytopathogenic fungi induced considerable economic losses in strawberry production industry; therefore, more attention should be paid to development and implementation of preventative treatment that is environmentally friendly. Coniferous trees produce a wide variety of compounds, such as terpenoids and phenolics. Several studies are known on fungicidal activity of different components of coniferous tree bark. The aim of this study was to evaluate in vitro pine (Pinus sylvestris L. and spruce (Picea abies (L. Karst. bark ethanol extracts impact on pathogenous fungi causing diseases of strawberries. Products of processed pine (Pinus sylvestris and spruce (Picea abies bark were tested. During 2011 to 2013, several in vitro experiments were carried out to test the effectiveness of pine and spruce bark extracts against various phytopathogenic fungi isolated from strawberries: Botrytis cinerea, Colletotrichum acutatum, Phytophthora cactorum and Mycosphaerella fragariae. Radial growth tests showed that coniferous bark extracts inhibit mycelial growth of B. cinerea, C. acutatum, P. cactorum and M. fragariae. Extracts had the highest antifungal effect on B. cinerea two and five days after inoculation (p < 0.05. Bark extracts can reduce the sporulation of B. cinerea, C. acutatum and P. cactorum.

  19. A postal survey of data in general practice on the prevalence of Acquired Brain Injury (ABI) in patients aged 18-65 in one county in the west of Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Finnerty, Fionnuala

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Very little is known about the prevalence of acquired brain injury (ABI) in Ireland. ABI prevalence has previously been obtained from Belgian general practitioners using a postal survey. We attempted to ascertain the prevalence of ABI in County Mayo through a postal survey of all general practitioners in the county.The specific objectives of this project were to:1. identify whether general practitioners are a. aware of patients with ABI aged 18-65 in their practices b. able to provide prevalence data on ABI in patients aged 18-65 c. able to provide data on age, gender and patient diagnosis 2. analyse prevalence of ABI from any available data from general practitioners. METHODS: A pilot postal survey was performed initially in order to assess the feasibility of the study. It was established that general practitioners did have the necessary information required to complete the questionnaire. A main postal survey was then undertaken. A postal questionnaire was administered to all general practices in County Mayo in the west of Ireland (n = 59). The response rate was 32.2% (n = 19). RESULTS: General practitioners who replied on behalf of their practice could provide data on patient age, gender and diagnosis. In the nineteen practices, there were 57 patients with ABI. The age-specific prevalence of ABI in the area surveyed was estimated at 183.7 per 100,000. The mean patient population per practice was 2,833 (SD = 950). There were found to be significantly more patients with ABI in rural areas than urban areas (p = 0.006). There were also significant differences in the ages of patients in the different ABI categories. Patients whose ABI was of traumatic origin were significantly younger than those patients with ABI of haemorrhagic origin (p = 0.002). CONCLUSION: Although this is a small-scale study, we have ascertained that general practitioners do have data on patients with ABI. Also, some prevalence data now exist where none was available before. These can

  20. Preparative Isolation of Polar Antioxidant Constituents from Abies koreana Using Centrifugal Partition Chromatography Guided by DPPH center dot-HPLC Experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeon, Je-Seung; Kim, Ji Hoon; Park, Chae Lee; Kim, Chul Young

    2015-01-01

    Preparative separation of antioxidant constituents from the leaves of Abies koreana Wilson (Pinaceae) was performed by centrifugal partition chromatography (CPC) with a two-phase solvent system of ethyl acetate-isopropanol-water (9:1:10, v/v) target-guided by DPPH•-HPLC experiment. In DPPH•-HPLC exp

  1. CITOGENETICS EFFECTS INDUCED BY THE ADMINISTRATION OF SUBSTANCES WITH REDUCTION POTENTIAL AT LARIX DECIDUA MILL. SSP. CARPATICA, PICEA ABIES (L. KARST. AND THUJA ORIENTALIS L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Anca Ieremia

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper present the influence of ascorbic acid, riboflavin, citric acid and sodium bisulphit upon the mitotic division of Larix decidua Mill ssp. carpatica, Picea abies (L. Karst and Thuja orientalis L. The treatment was applied in one variant, germinated seeds in ascorbic acid, riboflavin, citric acid and sodium bisulphit in 3 concentrations.

  2. Examination of the "Theory of Guidance" in the View of 'Ali Ibn Abi Talib (A): An Exploration into the Nahj Al-Balaghah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostami-Nasab, Abas Ali; Tajedini, Oranus; Sadatmoosavi, Ali

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the "Theory of Guidance" according to 'Ali ibn Abi Talib (a). This theory is based on three divine covenants or fundamentals in guidance including the divine Prophet, the divine Book, and the divine human nature ("fitrat"). Research in this regard seems essential because this theory has not been previously…

  3. Lactococcal Abortive Infection Protein AbiV Interacts Directly with the Phage Protein SaV and Prevents Translation of Phage Proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haaber, Jakob Brandt Borup; Samson, J.E.; Labrie, S.J.;

    2010-01-01

    proteins suggested that AbiV blocks the activation of late gene transcription, probably by a general inhibition of translation. Using size exclusion chromatography coupled with on-line static light scattering and refractometry, as well as fluorescence quenching experiments, we also demonstrated that both...

  4. Liming effects on the chemical composition of the organic surface layer of a mature Norway spruce stand (Picea abies [L.] Karst.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosenberg, W.; Nierop, K.G.J.; Knicker, H.; Jager, de P.A.; Kreutzer, K.; Weiá, T.

    2003-01-01

    The application of lime in a mature Norway spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst.) forest in southern Germany induced major changes in the activity of soil organisms and root growth. Since this may influence the chemical compostion of the soil organic matter (SOM) of the organic surface layer, its composit

  5. Compuestos fenólicos y flavonoides como marcadores bioquímicos de la respuesta a estrés abiótico en plantas tolerantes

    OpenAIRE

    CALATAYUD VAELLO, PAU

    2011-01-01

    Calatayud Vaello, P. (2010). Compuestos fenólicos y flavonoides como marcadores bioquímicos de la respuesta a estrés abiótico en plantas tolerantes. http://hdl.handle.net/10251/9179. Archivo delegado

  6. Field testing of transgenic cotton expressing Arabidopsis ABA INSENSITIVE5 and B3- domain related to ABI3/VIVIPAROUS1 (RAV) transcription factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    We conducted field trials for ABI5 and RAV transgenics under the most extreme heat and drought conditions on record. The data validate greenhouse experiments that show AtRAV1 and AtRAV2 overexpression results in an average of 9% increases in fiber length without yield penalty and with greater gin t...

  7. The influence of climate and soil properties on calcium nutrition and vitality of silver fir (Abies alba Mill.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potocić, Nenad; Cosić, Tomislav; Pilas, Ivan

    2005-10-01

    As a part of a broader research into the nutrition of silver fir (Abies alba Mill.), the variation of calcium concentrations was investigated in needles and soil in two subsequent, climatologically diverse years. Statistically significant differences between plots were determined in Ca concentrations in soils. Concentrations of Ca in needles were statistically different regarding plot, defoliation class, sampling date within the same year and also between years. Fir trees on acid-rock based soils had lower, often inadequate concentrations of Ca in needles; the opposite was true for trees growing on Ca-rich soils. Trees of lower vitality generally exhibited poor Ca nutrition. Drought in the second year of research caused poor absorption of Ca on all plots and in all defoliation classes, but the combined influence of climate and soil properties affected especially trees of low vitality on acid-rock based soils. PMID:16005770

  8. [Preparation and evaluation of the oral gel containing the essential oil from Siberian fir (Abies sibirica Ledeb.)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajupova, Rizvangul; Masteiková, Ruta; Nejezchlebová, Marcela; Zemlička, Milan; Bernatoniene, Jurga; Vetchý, David

    2014-06-01

    Essential oil of the Siberian fir (Abies sibirica Ledeb.) ranks among the substances with potential use in prevention and treatment of oral candidiasis. Therefore, the aim of the study was the formulation, preparation and evaluation of an oral gel containing 0.3% of this essential oil. Carbopol 974P NF in 1% concentration was used as the gelling agent, some samples were additionally stabilized by an addition of polysorbate 80 (0.1-0.5%). Xylitol in concentrations of 10% or 20% was added with the aim to modify the taste properties of the gel. Following microscopic evaluation (mean oil droplet size, degree of dispersity) immediately after preparation and after 6-month storage, it has been found that the optimal concentration of polysorbate 80 is 0.3%. The results of the experiment also demonstrated that xylitol was not only an excipient adjusting the organoleptic properties of the preparation - its use enabled significant improvement of the quality parameters and stability. PMID:25115663

  9. Isoenzymatic variability in some of the Polish populations of Norway spruce (Picea abies in the IUFRO-1972 provenance trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Modrzyński

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The isoenzymatic studies performed on nine Picea abies H. Karst populations from Poland, indicated considerable genetic variation among investigated stands. Genetic similarities have demonstrated a clear pattern of geographic variability. Three of the nine studied populations (Zwierzyniec, Nowe Ramuki and Orawa have shown markedly diverse characteristics compared to the remaining populations. The mountain populations have formed one group with two related subgroups. The mean number of alleles per locus (A / L = 2,22 and level of heterozygosity (Hp = 0,194 for the lowland populations are within the range of these parameters for other Norway spruce populations from Finland and Lithuania. The populations from Carpathians and Sudety mountains are geneticaly more polymorphic (Ho = 0,221, A / L = 2,34 than the others. This pattern of genetic variation suggests the existance of two gene pools, one from southern and one from northern Poland formed during the glacial period and differentiated further in southern Poland into two subpools.

  10. Discovery and molecular biology of the abortive infection phage resistance system AbiV from Lactococcus lactis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haaber, Jakob Brandt Borup

    2008-01-01

    Bakteriofager (fager) er bakteriedræbende virus som fungerer ved at sprøjte deres DNA ind i en bakteriecelle og udnytte dennes celle-apparat til at danne nye fager. Disse frigives til omgivelserne under ødelæggelse af bakteriens cellevæg hvorved cellen dør. Fager forårsager stor skade i industrier...... evolutionen har bakterier udviklet naturlige anti-fag barrierer som beskyttelse mod fag-angreb. En af disse såkaldte fag-resistensmekanismer hedder abortiv infektion (Abi) og den virker ved at standse fag-angrebet efter fagens DNA er kommet ind i cellen. Den enkelte celle dør herved, men bakteriepopulationen...

  11. A Picea abies linkage map based on SNP markers identifies QTLs for four aspects of resistance to Heterobasidion parviporum infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mårten Lind

    Full Text Available A consensus linkage map of Picea abies, an economically important conifer, was constructed based on the segregation of 686 SNP markers in a F1 progeny population consisting of 247 individuals. The total length of 1889.2 cM covered 96.5% of the estimated genome length and comprised 12 large linkage groups, corresponding to the number of haploid P. abies chromosomes. The sizes of the groups (from 5.9 to 9.9% of the total map length correlated well with previous estimates of chromosome sizes (from 5.8 to 10.8% of total genome size. Any locus in the genome has a 97% probability to be within 10 cM from a mapped marker, which makes the map suited for QTL mapping. Infecting the progeny trees with the root rot pathogen Heterobasidion parviporum allowed for mapping of four different resistance traits: lesion length at the inoculation site, fungal spread within the sapwood, exclusion of the pathogen from the host after initial infection, and ability to prevent the infection from establishing at all. These four traits were associated with two, four, four and three QTL regions respectively of which none overlapped between the traits. Each QTL explained between 4.6 and 10.1% of the respective traits phenotypic variation. Although the QTL regions contain many more genes than the ones represented by the SNP markers, at least four markers within the confidence intervals originated from genes with known function in conifer defence; a leucoanthocyanidine reductase, which has previously been shown to upregulate during H. parviporum infection, and three intermediates of the lignification process; a hydroxycinnamoyl CoA shikimate/quinate hydroxycinnamoyltransferase, a 4-coumarate CoA ligase, and a R2R3-MYB transcription factor.

  12. Analysis of type 2 diabetes patients with ABI and CAVI%209例Ⅱ型糖尿病患者ABI和CAVI测定结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任明容; 张勇

    2012-01-01

    目的 N探讨Ⅱ型糖尿病患者踝臂指数(ankle-brachial index,ABI)与心踝血管指数(cardio-ankle vascular index,CAVI)对早期糖尿病大血管病变监测的临床意义.方法 随机选取Ⅱ型糖尿病患者209例,测定ABI与CAVI值.结果 右侧ABI:89例(42.6%)在正常范围,76例(36.1%)有动脉闭塞可能,42例(20.1%)动脉闭塞可能性较高,2例(1.0%)血管有早期动脉硬化或有钙化现象;左侧ABI:94例(44.9%)在正常值范围,72例(34.4%)有动脉闭塞的可能,38例(18.2%)动脉闭塞的可能性较高,5例(2.5%)血管有早期动脉硬化或钙化现象.右侧CAVI:136例(65.1%)在正常范围,62例(29.6%)有动脉闭塞可能,11例(5.2%)动脉闭塞可能性较高;左侧CAVI:146例(69.8%)在正常范围,58例(27.8%)有动脉闭塞可能,5例(2.4%)动脉闭塞可能性较高.结论 在Ⅱ型糖尿病患者中应用ABI和CAVI测定,有利于筛选出合并大血管病变患者,具有临床应用意义.%Objective To explore the type 2 diabetic patients with ankle brachial index ( ankle-brachial, index, ABI ) and cardio-ankle vascular index ( cardio-ankle vascular index,CAVI ) on early stage of diabetic macrovascular disease and the clinical significance of monitoring. Methods We randomly selected patients with type 209 diabetes mellitus patients to determinate the value of ABI and CAVI. Results Right ABI:89 cases ( 42. 6% ] were in the normal range;in 76 cases ( 36.1%) with arterial occlusion may;in 42 cases ( 20. 1%) arterial occlusion higher likelihood;in 2 cases [1% ) vascular early arteriosclerosis or calcification phenomenon. The left ABI:94 cases ( 44. 9%) in the range of normal value; in 72 cases ( 34.4%) with arterial occlusion may; 38 (18.2%) ABI artery occlusion with the possibility of higher; in 5 cases (2. 5 %) vascular early arteriosclerosis or calcification phenomenon. Right CAVI: 136 cases (65.1 %) were in the normal range; in 62 cases ( 29. 6%) with arterial occlusion may;in 11

  13. Fiziološke adaptacije bukve (Fagus sylvatica L.), smrče (Picea abies (L.) Karsten) i jele (Abies alba Mill.) na sezonsko variranje abiotičkih činilaca u četiri zaštićena planinska staništa Republike Srbije

    OpenAIRE

    Horak, Rita

    2015-01-01

    Tokom tri vegetacione sezone mereni su fiziološkiparametri: fotosinteza, transpiracija,  efikasnostiskorištavanja  vode (WUE), kao i parametribioprodukcije na odabranim šumskimpopulacijama bukve  (Fagus sylvatica  L.), smrče(Picea abies (L.) Kartsen) i jele (Abies alba Mill.),čija su staništa na različitim nadmorskim visinamasa različitom  dostupnošću vode u zemljištu.Određivana je i zavisnost između položaja šumskezaje...

  14. 转玉米 ZmABI3-L 基因增加拟南芥的抗旱和耐盐性%A maize abscisic acid insensitive 3 gene confers drought and salt stress tolerance in Arabidopsis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁进成; 宋晋辉; 马海莲; 瓮巧云; 王凌云; 赵艳; 刘颖慧

    2016-01-01

    ABI3(abscisic acid insensitive 3)是编码 ABA 信号转导途径中的重要调控因子,广泛地存在于玉米、小麦、水稻等谷类作物中。本研究从玉米中获得一个新的 ABI3-like 基因,命名为 ZmABI3-L ,该基因全长1735 bp,开放阅读框1212 bp,编码蛋白含404个氨基酸。同源比对表明 ZmABI3-L 和谷子、高粱的同源蛋白相似性高,分别为64%和58%。基因的表达分析表明该基因是组成型表达,在幼胚、穗子和花丝中表达量较高,同时基因的转录水平可以为盐、ABA、干旱和冷所诱导。将 ZmABI3-L 基因转化到拟南芥中,对 T3代转 ZmABI3-L 基因拟南芥进行抗逆性分析,结果显示 ZmABI3-L 基因可以增强拟南芥的耐盐和抗旱能力。在150 mmol/L 高盐培养基中转基因拟南芥的根和茎长度分别为对照的8.6和1.4倍,在50 mmol/L 甘露醇的渗透培养基中转基因植株的发芽率是74.5%,而对照仅为33.6%。研究表明 ZmABI3-L 是一个对干旱和盐损伤均有响应而显著上调的基因,同时该基因可以增加拟南芥的抗旱和耐盐性。%The abscisic acid insensitive 3 gene (ABI 3)has been widely studied in cereals such as wheat,maize and rice however,the functions of ABI3 have not been fully described.In this paper,a novel maize ABI 3 like gene was cloned and named ZmABI 3-L .This gene was predicted to encode a transcription factor with a dis-tinct DNA-binding B3 domain.The full length of the gene was 1735 bp and with an opening read frame of 1212 bp and encoded 404 amino acids.Alignment of the ZmABI3-L proteins with other plants revealed similarities with ABI3 protein from other species.RT-PCR analysis showed ZmABI 3-L was up-regulated in maize by de-hydration,salt,cold and ABA stress.Over-expression of ZmABI 3-L in Arabidopsis plants could enhance salt and drought stress tolerance compared to the wild type.The results suggest that ZmABI 3-L may be involved in salt

  15. Monitoring intra-annual dynamics of wood formation with microcores and dendrometers in Picea abies at two different altitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocozza, Claudia; Palombo, Caterina; Tognetti, Roberto; La Porta, Nicola; Anichini, Monica; Giovannelli, Alessio; Emiliani, Giovanni

    2016-07-01

    Seasonal analyses of cambial cell production and day-by-day stem radial increment can help to elucidate how climate modulates wood formation in conifers. Intra-annual dynamics of wood formation were determined with microcores and dendrometers and related to climatic signals in Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.). The seasonal dynamics of these processes were observed at two sites of different altitude, Savignano (650 m a.s.l.) and Lavazè (1800 m a.s.l.) in the Italian Alps. Seasonal dynamics of cambial activity were found to be site specific, indicating that the phenology of cambial cell production is highly variable and plastic with altitude. There was a site-specific trend in the number of cells in the wall thickening phase, with the maximum cell production in early July (DOY 186) at Savignano and in mid-July (DOY 200) at Lavazè. The formation of mature cells showed similar trends at the two sites, although different numbers of cells and timing of cell differentiation were visible in the model shapes; at the end of ring formation in 2010, the number of cells was four times higher at Savignano (106.5 cells) than at Lavazè (26.5 cells). At low altitudes, microcores and dendrometers described the radial growth patterns comparably, though the dendrometer function underlined the higher upper asymptote of maximum growth in comparison with the cell production function. In contrast, at high altitude, these functions exhibited different trends. The best model was obtained by fitting functions of the Gompertz model to the experimental data. By combining radial growth and cambial activity indices we defined a model system able to synchronize these processes. Processes of adaptation of the pattern of xylogenesis occurred, enabling P. abies to occupy sites with contrasting climatic conditions. The use of daily climatic variables in combination with plant functional traits obtained by sensors and/or destructive sampling could provide a suitable tool to better

  16. Fungistatic efficiency of phenolic compounds in spruce (Picea abies L. Karst. ) and influence of SO[sub 2]. Fungistatische Wirksamkeit phenolischer Inhaltsstoffe der Fichte Picea abies (L. ) Karst. und Einfluss von SO[sub 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beyer, U. (TU Dresden, Inst. fuer Forstbotanik und Forstzoologie, Tharandt (Germany)); Tesche, M. (TU Dresden, Inst. fuer Forstbotanik und Forstzoologie, Tharandt (Germany)); Heller, W. (GSF - Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit GmbH, Neuherberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Biochemische Pflanzenpathologie); Sandermann, H. (GSF - Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit GmbH, Neuherberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Biochemische Pflanzenpathologie)

    1993-08-01

    The paper deals with fungistatic phenols in Norway spruce (Picea abies). Phenolic substances were isolated from several tissues and chromatographed by TLC. Detected by bioassay using Cladosporium cucumerinum, the most fungistatic compound was isolated and identified by UV-, mass- and NMT-spectra as the stilbenglucoside isorhapontin. The highest amounts of isorhapontin were found in a 15-year-old spruce in the bark of root (1.3%) and stem (0.4%), and also in fine roots (0.3%). Sapwood contained between 0.001 and 0.01% of this stilbene (all values related to green weight). The brown-rot fungi Phaeolus schweinitzii and Fomitopsis pinicola showed a depression of growth related to the concentration of isorhapontin on malt agar. Growth reduction of 50% was reached at a concentration of 1.25 mM (F. pinicola) and 3 mM (P. schweinitzii). The white-rot fungi Trametes versicolor, Heterobasidion annosum, and Armillaria ostoyae were not inhibited. First investigation results 6 months after long-term SO[sub 2]-treatment (0.28-0.34 ppm) of cloned spruces showed a reduction of fungistatic stilbenes in fine roots and bark compared with untreated controls (indirect effect). (orig.)

  17. Composition and Properties of Hydrogen Peroxide Decomposing Systems in Extracellular and Total Extracts from Needles of Norway Spruce (Picea abies L., Karst.)

    OpenAIRE

    Polle, A.; Chakrabarti, K.; Schurmann, W.; Renneberg, H.

    1990-01-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) scavenging systems of spruce (Picea abies) needles were investigated in both extracts obtained from the extracellular space and extracts of total needles. As assessed by the lack of activity of symplastic marker enzymes, the extracellular washing fluid was free from intracellular contaminations. In the extracellular washing fluid ascorbate, glutathione, cysteine, and high specific activities of guaiacol peroxidases were observed. Guaiacol peroxidases in the extracellu...

  18. Disentangling the Roles of History and Local Selection in Shaping Clinal Variation of Allele Frequencies and Gene Expression in Norway Spruce (Picea abies)

    OpenAIRE

    J. Chen; Kallman, T.; Ma, X.; Gyllenstrand, N; Zaina, G.; M. Morgante; Bousquet, J; Eckert, A; Wegrzyn, J.; Neale, D.; Lagercrantz, U.; Lascoux, M

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the genetic basis of local adaptation is challenging due to the subtle balance among conflicting evolutionary forces that are involved in its establishment and maintenance. One system with which to tease apart these difficulties is clines in adaptive characters. Here we analyzed genetic and phenotypic variation in bud set, a highly heritable and adaptive trait, among 18 populations of Norway spruce (Picea abies), arrayed along a latitudinal gradient ranging from 47°N to 68°N. We...

  19. Erstellung des internetbasierten Antibiotika-Informationssystems "VetAbis" für einen verantwortungsvollen Umgang mit Antibiotika in der Rinderpraxis

    OpenAIRE

    Gooß, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the internet based informationsystem ýVetAbisý was to support the bovine practitioners within the implementation of a prudent use of antibiotics by presenting the current knowledge in the internet. Various sources of information have been compiled and analysed. It became obvious that relevant information is scattered over multiple sources (e.g. textbooks, journals, drug guides). They are rarely up to date and not easily accesible to veterinarians without timely and financi...

  20. Influence of different particle sizes in the bark chemical composition of Eucalyptus globulus Labill., Betula pendula Roth, Picea abies (L.) Karst, Pinus sylvestris L. e Pinus pinea L.

    OpenAIRE

    Mirra, Inês Martins Pereira

    2011-01-01

    Mestrado em Engenharia Florestal e dos Recursos Naturais - Instituto Superior de Agronomia The goal of this report is to characterize the bark of five industrially important forest species in Europe - Eucalyptus globulus, Betula pendula, Picea abies, Pinus sylvestris e Pinus pinea and to define their potential use as a source of value added chemical products. It was performed the anatomical characterization of bark tissues (dissociated elements), the selective fractionation (si...

  1. Ectomycorrhizal communities associated with silver fir seedlings (Abies alba Mill.) differ largely in mature silver fir stands and in Scots pine forecrops

    OpenAIRE

    Ważny, Rafał

    2014-01-01

    & Context The requirement for rebuilding forecrop stands besides replacement of meadow vegetation with forest plants and formation of soil humus is the presence of a compatible ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungal community. & Aims This study aims to assess ectomycorrhizal fungi di-versity associated with silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) seedlings regenerating in silver fir stands and Scots pine forecrops. & Methods One-year-old seedlings were sampled in six study sites: three mature fir forests and thr...

  2. Evaluating the usability of a single UK community acquired brain injury (ABI) rehabilitation service website: implications for research methodology and website design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newby, Gavin; Groom, Christina

    2010-04-01

    Information provision is an important resource for those living with acquired brain injury (ABI) and their families. Web-based health information services are now common additions to health service provision. Ideally, they should be easy to use and provide useful, relevant and accurate information. ABI injuries do not affect individuals in the same way, and survivors can have a wide range of abilities and impairments. Therefore, any informational resource intended for this group should take account of their needs and help to compensate for their limitations. This pilot study recruited a group of individuals with ABI (of a median Extended Glasgow Outcome Scale rating of "lower moderate disability") who were clients of a UK National Health Service rehabilitation service and asked them to assess a specialised website provided by that service and hosted by their employing Primary Care Trust organisation. Participants completed a practical task and then gave their opinions on various aspects of website design, and content. They were also asked to suggest improvements and recommend additions. Overall the results were favourable. However, improvements in the legibility, layout and writing style were identified. There were also requests to add more information on the existing topics and add additional topics. The discussion also evaluates the utility of the methodology and the implications of the results for others considering constructing their own website.

  3. ABA Regulates Subcellular Redistribution of OsABI-LIKE2, a Negative Regulator in ABA Signaling, to Control Root Architecture and Drought Resistance in Oryza sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chengxiang; Shen, Hongyun; Wang, Tao; Wang, Xuelu

    2015-12-01

    The phytohormone ABA is a key stress signal in plants. Although the identification of ABA receptors led to significant progress in understanding the Arabidopsis ABA signaling pathway, there are still many unsolved mysteries regarding ABA signaling in monocots, such as rice. Here, we report that a rice ortholog of AtABI1 and AtABI2, named OsABI-LIKE2 (OsABIL2), plays a negative role in rice ABA signaling. Overexpression of OsABIL2 not only led to ABA insensitivity, but also significantly altered plant developmental phenotypes, including stomatal density and root architecture, which probably caused the hypersensitivity to drought stress. OsABIL2 interacts with OsPYL1, SAPK8 and SAPK10 both in vitro and in vivo, and the phosphatase activity of OsABIL2 was repressed by ABA-bound OsPYL1. However, unlike many other solely nuclear-localized clade A type 2C protein phosphatases (PP2Cs), OsABIL2 is localized in both the nucleus and cytosol. Furthermore, OsABIL2 interacts with and co-localized with OsPYL1 mainly in the cytosol, and ABA treatment regulates the nucleus-cytosol distribution of OsABIL2, suggesting a different mechanism for the activation of ABA signaling. Taken together, this study provides significant insights into rice ABA signaling and indicates the important role of OsABIL2 in regulating root development. PMID:26491145

  4. Arabidopsis HOOKLESS1 Regulates Responses to Pathogens and Abscisic Acid through Interaction with MED18 and Acetylation of WRKY33 and ABI5 Chromatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Chao-Jan; Lai, Zhibing; Lee, Sanghun; Yun, Dae-Jin; Mengiste, Tesfaye

    2016-07-01

    Arabidopsis thaliana HOOKLESS1 (HLS1) encodes a putative histone acetyltransferase with known functions in seedling growth. Here, we show that HLS1 regulates plant responses to pathogens and abscisic acid (ABA) through histone acetylation at chromatin of target loci. The hls1 mutants show impaired responses to bacterial and fungal infection, accelerated senescence, and impaired responses to ABA. HLS1 modulates the expression of WRKY33 and ABA INSENSITIVE5 (ABI5), known regulators of pathogen and ABA responses, respectively, through direct association with these loci. Histone 3 acetylation (H3Ac), a positive mark of transcription, at WRKY33 and ABI5 requires HLS1 function. ABA treatment and pathogen infection enhance HLS1 recruitment and H3Ac at WRKY33. HLS1 associates with Mediator, a eukaryotic transcription coregulatory complex, through direct interaction with mediator subunit 18 (MED18), with which it shares multiple functions. HLS1 recruits MED18 to the WRKY33 promoter, boosting WKRY33 expression, suggesting the synergetic action of HLS1 and MED18. By contrast, MED18 recruitment to ABI5 and transcriptional activation are independent of HLS1. ABA-mediated priming of resistance to fungal infection was abrogated in hls1 and wrky33 mutants but correlated with ABA-induced HLS1 accumulation. In sum, HLS1 provides a regulatory node in pathogen and hormone response pathways through interaction with the Mediator complex and important transcription factors.

  5. Albumin-bound formulation of paclitaxel (Abraxane® ABI-007 in the treatment of breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelina Miele

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Evelina Miele1, Gian Paolo Spinelli1, Ermanno Miele2, Federica Tomao1, Silverio Tomao11Department of Experimental Medicine, University of Rome “Sapienza”, Rome, Italy; 2Biomedical Engineering, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Rome, ItalyAbstract: Breast cancer is the most common type of malignancy diagnosed in women. In the metastatic setting this disease is still uncurable. Taxanes represent an important class of antitumor agents which have proven to be fundamental in the treatment of advanced and early-stage breast cancer, but the clinical advances of taxanes have been limited by their highly hydrophobic molecular status. To overcome this poor water solubility, lipid-based solvents have been used as a vehicle, and new systemic formulations have been developed, mostly for paclitaxel, which are Cremophor-free and increase the circulation time of the drug. ABI-007 is a novel, albumin-bound, 130-nm particle formulation of paclitaxel, free from any kind of solvent. It has been demonstrated to be superior to an equitoxic dose of standard paclitaxel with a significantly lower incidence of toxicities in a large, international, randomized phase III trial. The availability of new drugs, such as Abraxane®, in association with other traditional and non-traditional drugs (new antineoplastic agents and targeted molecules, will give the oncologist many different effective treatment options for patients in this setting.Keywords: paclitaxel, Abraxane, breast cancer, nanotechnology

  6. Comportamiento en flexión estática de vigas de madera antigua de Picea abies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Ramón Sotomayor-Castellanos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Las tipologías arquitecturales encontradas en el contexto del análisis estructural de construcciones con significado histórico y cultural son complejas. El modelado numérico es propuesto como una solución para diagnosticar la seguridad estructural de estas edificaciones. En esta investigación se realizaron pruebas de flexión estática de acuerdo a la norma Europea EN 408 y se calcularon los módulos de elasticidad y de ruptura en 5 vigas antiguas de Picea abies. La densidad de la madera fue de 422 kg/m3 para las vigas con un contenido de humedad de 12 %. El módulo de elasticidad promedio fue de 9,059 MPa y el módulo de ruptura fue de 29.18 Pa. Los módulos presentaron una variabilidad aceptable. Los resultados experimentales se contrastaron con las predicciones numéricas empleando el método del elemento finito. Las predicciones numéricas en los dominios lineal y no lineal mostraron buena aproximación con los resultados experimentales.

  7. Good manufacturing practice production of [(68)Ga]Ga-ABY-025 for HER2 specific breast cancer imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velikyan, Irina; Wennborg, Anders; Feldwisch, Joachim; Lindman, Henrik; Carlsson, Jörgen; Sörensen, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Therapies targeting human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2 (HER2) have revolutionized breast cancer treatment, but require invasive biopsies and rigorous histopathology for optimal patient stratification. A non-invasive and quantitative diagnostic method such as positron emission tomography (PET) for the pre-therapeutic determination of the presence and density of the HER2 would significantly improve patient management efficacy and treatment cost. The essential part of the PET methodology is the production of the radiopharmaceutical in compliance with good manufacturing practice (GMP). The use of generator produced positron emitting (68)Ga radionuclide would provide worldwide accessibility of the agent. GMP compliant, reliable and highly reproducible production of [(68)Ga]Ga-ABY-025 with control over the product peptide concentration and amount of radioactivity was accomplished within one hour. Two radiopharmaceuticals were developed differing in the total peptide content and were validated independently. The specific radioactivity could be kept similar throughout the study, and it was 6-fold higher for the low peptide content radiopharmaceutical. Intrapatient comparison of the two peptide doses allowed imaging optimization. The high peptide content decreased the uptake in healthy tissue, in particular liver, improving image contrast. The later imaging time points enhanced the contrast. The combination of high peptide content radiopharmaceutical and whole-body imaging at 2 hours post injection appeared to be optimal for routine clinical use.

  8. Isoprene and monoterpene emission from the coniferous species Abies Borisii-regis - implications for regional air chemistry in Greece

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, D.; Hunter, M.C.; Lewis, A.C.; Seakins, P.W. [Leeds Univ., School of Chemistry, Leeds (United Kingdom); Nunes, T.V.; Pio, C.A. [Universidade de Aveiro, Dept. de Ambiente e Ordenamento, Aveiro (Portugal)

    2001-07-01

    The emission of isoprene has been studied from a forest of Abies Borisii-regis, a Mediterranean fir species previously thought to emit only monoterpenes. Emission studies from two independent enclosure experiments indicated a standardised isoprene emission rate of (18.4{+-}3.8){mu}gg{sub dry-weight} {sup -1}h{sup -1}, similar in magnitude to species such as eucalyptus and oak which are considered to be strong isoprene emitters. Isoprene emission depended strongly on both leaf temperature (2degC-34degC) and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) below 250{mu}molm{sup -2}s{sup -1}, becoming saturated with respect to PAR above this value. The annual isoprene emission rate was estimated to be (132{+-}29) kTyr{sup -1} for those trees growing within Greece, comparable to current estimates of the total isoprene budget of Greece as a whole, and contributing significantly to regional ozone and carbon monoxide budgets. Monoterpene emission exhibited exponential temperature dependence, with 1,8-cineole, {alpha}-pinene, {beta}-pinene and limonene forming the primary emissions. A standardised total monoterpene emission rate of (2.7{+-}1.1){mu}gg{sub dry-weight} {sup -1}h{sup -1} was calculated, corresponding to an annual monoterpene emission rate of (24{+-}12) kTyr{sup -1}. Research was conducted as part of the AEROBIC'97 (AEROsol formation from Biogenic organic Carbon) series of field campaigns. (Author)

  9. Mutational analysis of a monoterpene synthase reaction: altered catalysis through directed mutagenesis of (-)-pinene synthase from Abies grandis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyatt, David C; Croteau, Rodney

    2005-07-15

    Two monoterpene synthases, (-)-pinene synthase and (-)-camphene synthase, from grand fir (Abies grandis) produce different product mixtures despite having highly homologous amino acid sequences and, presumably, very similar three-dimensional structures. The major product of (-)-camphene synthase, (-)-camphene, and the major products of (-)-pinene synthase, (-)-alpha-pinene, and (-)-beta-pinene, arise through distinct mechanistic variations of the electrophilic reaction cascade that is common to terpenoid synthases. Structural modeling followed by directed mutagenesis in (-)-pinene synthase was used to replace selected amino acid residues with the corresponding residues from (-)-camphene synthase in an effort to identify the amino acids responsible for the catalytic differences. This approach produced an enzyme in which more than half of the product was channeled through an alternative pathway. It was also shown that several (-)-pinene synthase to (-)-camphene synthase amino acid substitutions were necessary before catalysis was significantly altered. The data support a model in which the collective action of many key amino acids, located both in and distant from the active site pocket, regulate the course of the electrophilic reaction cascade.

  10. Effects of disturbance on regeneration of Abies fabri forests at the upper reaches of the Yangtze River

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao Jia-rong; Gao Yang

    2007-01-01

    Mudflow is the principal disturbance in Abies fabri forests. In the Gongga Mountain areas of the upper reaches of the Yangtze River, the intensities and periodicity of different scale mudflows vary. Small-scale mudflows are more frequent, occurring every one or two years while large-scale mudflows may occur once in more than one hundred years. Through a field study of A. fabri forests during different stages of growth, we analyzed their structural characteristics and discovered that after different sizes of mudflow, poplar and birch often occupy the dominant canopy at the expense of the slow growing A. fabri, for only a small number of saplings are A. fabri that occurs in the first regeneration stage. However, a large number of seed resources can be found in mature A.fabri forests and as a unique regeneration species, A. fabri will gradually replace all the other species and form a stable community of strong shade-tolerant trees. Because of the intimate relationship between growing conditions and soil and water conservation at the upper reaches of the Yangtze River, we should carry out some artificial measurements to control and promote the slow regeneration process of A. fabri.

  11. The influence of climate and soil properties on calcium nutrition and vitality of silver fir (Abies alba Mill.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potocic, Nenad [Forest Research Institute, Jastrebarsko, Cvjetno naselje 41, 10450 Jastrebarsko (Croatia)]. E-mail: nenadp@sumins.hr; Cosic, Tomislav [Faculty of Agriculture, University of Zagreb, Svetosimunska 25, 10002 Zagreb (Croatia); Pilas, Ivan [Forest Research Institute, Jastrebarsko, Cvjetno naselje 41, 10450 Jastrebarsko (Croatia)

    2005-10-15

    As a part of a broader research into the nutrition of silver fir (Abies alba Mill.), the variation of calcium concentrations was investigated in needles and soil in two subsequent, climatologically diverse years. Statistically significant differences between plots were determined in Ca concentrations in soils. Concentrations of Ca in needles were statistically different regarding plot, defoliation class, sampling date within the same year and also between years. Fir trees on acid-rock based soils had lower, often inadequate concentrations of Ca in needles; the opposite was true for trees growing on Ca-rich soils. Trees of lower vitality generally exhibited poor Ca nutrition. Drought in the second year of research caused poor absorption of Ca on all plots and in all defoliation classes, but the combined influence of climate and soil properties affected especially trees of low vitality on acid-rock based soils. - Dry years, especially in combination with calcium-poor soils, have a strong negative effect on the Ca status of silver fir trees.

  12. Transcript Accumulation Dynamics of Phenylpropanoid Pathway Genes in the Maturing Xylem and Phloem of Picea abies during Latewood Formation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Giovanni Emiliani; Maria Laura Traversi; Monica Anichini; Guido Giachi; Aiessio Giovannelli

    2011-01-01

    In temperate regions,latewood is produced when cambial activity declines with the approach of autumnal dormancy.The understanding of the temporal (cambium activity vs dormancy) and spatial (phloem,cambial region,maturing xylem) regulation of key genes involved in the phenylpropanoid pathway during latewood formation represents a crucial step towards providing new insights into the molecular basis of xylogenesis.In this study,the temporal pattern of transcript accumulation of 12 phenylpropanoid genes (PAL1,C4H3I5,C4H4,4CL3,4CL4,HCT1,C3H3,CCoAOMT1,COMT2,COMT5,CCR2) was analyzed in maturing xylem and phloem of Picea abies during latewood formation.Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analyses revealed a well-defined RNA accumulation pattern of genes involved in the phenylpropanoid pathway during latewood formation.Differences in the RNA accumulation patterns were detected between the different tissue types analyzed.The results obtained here demonstrated that the molecular processes involved in monolignol biosynthesis are not restricted to the cambial activity timeframe but continued after the end of cambium cell proliferation.Furthermore,since it has been shown that lignification of maturing xylem takes place in late autumn,we argue on the basis of our data that phloem could play a key role in the monolignol biosynthesis process.

  13. Effect of bark beetle (Ips typographus L.) attack on bark VOC emissions of Norway spruce (Picea abies Karst.) trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghimire, Rajendra P.; Kivimäenpää, Minna; Blomqvist, Minna; Holopainen, Toini; Lyytikäinen-Saarenmaa, Päivi; Holopainen, Jarmo K.

    2016-02-01

    Climate warming driven storms are evident causes for an outbreak of the European spruce bark beetle (Ips typographus L.) resulting in the serious destruction of mature Norway spruce (Picea abies Karst.) forests in northern Europe. Conifer species are major sources of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) in the boreal zone. Climate relevant BVOC emissions are expected to increase when conifer trees defend against bark beetle attack by monoterpene (MT)-rich resin flow. In this study, BVOC emission rates from the bark surface of beetle-attacked and non-attacked spruce trees were measured from two outbreak areas, Iitti and Lahti in southern Finland, and from one control site at Kuopio in central Finland. Beetle attack increased emissions of total MTs 20-fold at Iitti compared to Kuopio, but decreased the emissions of several sesquiterpenes (SQTs) at Iitti. At the Lahti site, the emission rate of α-pinene was positively correlated with mean trap catch of bark beetles. The responsive individual MTs were tricyclene, α-pinene, camphene, myrcene, limonene, 1,8-cineole and bornyl acetate in both of the outbreak areas. Our results suggest that bark beetle outbreaks affect local BVOC emissions from conifer forests dominated by Norway spruce. Therefore, the impacts of insect outbreaks are worth of consideration to global BVOC emission models.

  14. Norway spruce (Picea abies) laccases:Characterization of a laccase in a lignin-forming tissue culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sanna Koutaniemi; Heli A Malmberg; Liisa K Simola; Teemu H Teeri; Anna Karkonen

    2015-01-01

    Secondarily thickened cel wal s of water-conducting vessels and tracheids and support-giving sclerenchyma cel s contain lignin that makes the cel wal s water impermeable and strong. To what extent laccases and peroxidases contribute to lignin biosynthesis in muro is under active evaluation. We performed an in silico study of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) laccases utilizing available genomic data. As many as 292 laccase encoding sequences (genes, gene fragments, and pseudogenes) were detected in the spruce genome. Out of the 112 genes annotated as laccases, 79 are expressed at some level. We isolated five ful-length laccase cDNAs from developing xylem and an extracel ular lignin-forming cel culture of spruce. In addition, we purified and biochemical y characterized one culture medium laccase from the lignin-forming cel culture. This laccase has an acidic pH optimum (pH 3.8–4.2) for coniferyl alcohol oxidation. It has a high affinity to coniferyl alcohol with an apparent Km value of 3.5 mM;however, the laccase has a lower catalytic efficiency (Vmax/Km) for coniferyl alcohol oxidation compared with some purified culture medium peroxidases. The properties are discussed in the context of the information already known about laccases/coniferyl alcohol oxidases of coniferous plants.

  15. Antimicrobial activities of several parts of Pinus brutia, Juniperus oxycedrus, Abies cilicia, Cedrus libani and Pinus nigra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diğrak, M; Ilçim, A; Hakki Alma, M

    1999-11-01

    In this study, the antimicrobial activities of several parts of various trees grown in the Kahramanmaraş region of Turkey were investigated by the disc diffusion method. Chloroform, acetone and methanol extracts of leaves, resins, barks, cones and fruits of Pinus brutia Ten., Juniperus oxycedrus L., Abies cilicia Ant. & Kotschy Carr., Cedrus libani A. Rich. and Pinus nigra Arn. were prepared and tested against Bacillus megaterium DSM 32, Bacillus subtilis IMG 22, Bacillus cereus FMC 19, Escherichia coli DM, Klebsiella pneumoniae FMC 3, Enterobacter aerogenes CCM 2531, Staphylococcus aureus Cowan 1, Mycobacterium smegmatis RUT, Proteus vulgaris FMC 1, Listeria monocytogenes Scoot A, Pseudomonas aeruginosa DSM 5007, Candida albicans CCM 314, Candida tropicalis MDC 86 and Penicillium italicum K. The results showed that antifungal effects were not observed for the whole extracts, E. coli was not inhibited by any of the plant extracts except by the chloroform and acetone extracts of the leaves of A. cilicia, which showed inhibition zones of 16-18 mm, respectively. All the plant extracts used in this study inhibited the development of the other bacteria studied. When the results of this study were compared with an ampicillin standard, it was found that the microorganisms studied were generally susceptible, intermediate or resistant to the extracts of species when compared with the ampicillin standard. On the other hand, the acetone and methanol extracts of Juniperus fruits were found to be quite resistant.

  16. Comparison of the Calibration Algorithms and SI Traceability of MODIS, VIIRS, GOES, and GOES-R ABI Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raju Datla

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The radiometric calibration equations for the thermal emissive bands (TEB and the reflective solar bands (RSB measurements of the earth scenes by the polar satellite sensors, (Terra and Aqua MODIS and Suomi NPP (VIIRS, and geostationary sensors, GOES Imager and the GOES-R Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI are analyzed towards calibration algorithm harmonization on the basis of SI traceability which is one of the goals of the NOAA National Calibration Center (NCC. One of the overarching goals of NCC is to provide knowledge base on the NOAA operational satellite sensors and recommend best practices for achieving SI traceability for the radiance measurements on-orbit. As such, the calibration methodologies of these satellite optical sensors are reviewed in light of the recommended practice for radiometric calibration at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST. The equivalence of some of the spectral bands in these sensors for their end products is presented. The operational and calibration features of the sensors for on-orbit observation of radiance are also compared in tabular form. This review is also to serve as a quick cross reference to researchers and analysts on how the observed signals from these sensors in space are converted to radiances.

  17. The Influence of Age, Location and Soil Conditions on the Allometry of Young Norway Spruce (Picea abies L. Karst. Trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan DUTCA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study the influence of tree’s age, location (i.e. latitude and altitude and soil conditions (i.e. pH, humus content, carbon to nitrogen ratio, cation exchange capacity and percent base saturation on tree allometry was investigated. The data was collected from 22 Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst plantations located in Eastern Carpathians of Romania, aged between 4 and 15. From each plantation a soil sample and 10 trees were collected for soil chemical properties and biomass measurements, respectively. Root collar diameter (RCD and height (H based allometric equations were developed for total tree and vegetative organs of the tree (i.e. stem, branches, needles and roots. Furthermore, the interaction between the standardised residuals of these models and the tested factors was analysed. In order to account for the random effect of the clustered data, the mixed-effect modelling procedure was used. The results have shown no influence of these factors (age, location and soil conditions on RCD based models, except for branches biomass model which was linked to soil carbon/nitrogen ratio. The H based models, however, were significantly influenced by latitude and soil cation exchange capacity as a consequence of H/RCD ratio change with these factors. The trees were more likely to allocate more to height growth when growing in higher latitudes or on soils with higher values of cation exchange capacity.

  18. Impact of soil drainage to the radial stem growth of Norway spruce (Picea Abies L. Karst. in peatland forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klempířová Barbora

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Peatland Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst. forests represent very valuable ecosystems with considerable importance for nature conservation. However, a lot of peatland forests have been drained or used for opencast mining of peat. Since dendrochronological and dendroecological studies on trees growing on peatlands in Europe are not many, this study aimed to reconstruct the impact of drainage to the growth of trees in forest stands older than 100 years in the moment of drainage. Dendrochronological analysis was performed on two 0.25-ha square sampling plots (50*50 m in two pre-selected stands (control site vs. drained site with similar natural conditions and age. The mean-value functions of the ring indices, comparing the drained site with the control site, in the period after 1940 revealed very similar radial-growth trends. After the year 1992, when one site was substantially drained, the radial-growth trends not showed any significant change. Likewise, the result of the independent two sample t-test for the period after 1992 has not revealed any substantial statistically important difference in the mean index between the control site and the drained site.

  19. Responses of spruce seedlings (Picea abies) to exhaust gas under laboratory conditions. 1. plant-insect interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viskari, E.-L.; Koessi, S. [Kuopio Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Ecology and Environmental Science; Surakka, J.; Pasanen, P.; Ruuskanen, J. [Kuopio Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Environmental Sciences; Mirme, A. [Tartu Univ. (Estonia). Int. of Environmental Physics; Holopainen, J.K. [Kuopio Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Ecology and Environmental Science; Agricultural Research Centre, Plant Production research, Jokioinen (Finland)

    2000-07-01

    The effects of motor vehicle exhaust gas on Norway spruce seedlings (Picea abies (L) Karst) and plant-insect interaction of spruce shoot aphid (Cinara pilicornis Hartig) was studied. The exhaust gas concentrations in the fumigation chambers were monitored and controlled by measuring the concentration of nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) with a computer aided feedback system. The concentrations of major exhaust gas components (black carbon (BC), fine particles, VOCs and carbonyl compounds) in the chamber air were also measured. Responses of Norway spruce seedlings to a 2 and 3 week exhaust gas exposure and subsequent performance of spruce shoot aphid were studied using realistic exposure regimes; 50, 100 and 200 ppb NO{sub x}. The feedback control system based on NO{sub x} concentrations proved an adequate and practical means for controlling the concentration of exhaust gases and studying plant responses in controlled environment chambers. The exhaust exposure resulted in increased concentrations of proline, glutamine, threonine, aspartic acid, glycine and phenylalanine and decreased concentration of arginine, serine, alanine and glycine in young needles. No changes in soluble N concentrations were observed. The results are interpreted as a stress response rather than use of NO{sub x} as a nitrogen source. No changes in total phenolics and only transient changes in some individual terpene concentrations were detected. The exhaust gas exposure stressed the exposed seedlings, but had no significant effect on N metabolism or the production of defence chemicals. Aphid performance was not significantly affected. Soluble N, secondary metabolism and aphid performance were not sensitive to exhaust gas exposure during shoot elongation in Norway spruce. (author)

  20. Tree water status and growth of saplings and mature Norway spruce (Picea abies at a dry distribution limit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter eOberhuber

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the size effect on stem water status and growth in Norway spruce (Picea abies (L. Karst. occurring at the edge of its natural range in a dry inner Alpine environment (750 m asl, Tyrol, Austria. Intra-annual dynamics of stem water deficit (ΔW, maximum daily shrinkage (MDS and radial growth (RG were compared among saplings (stem diameter/height: 2.2 cm/93 cm; n = 7 and mature adult trees (25 cm/12.7 m; n = 6 during 2014. ΔW, MDS and RG were extracted from stem diameter variations, which were continuously recorded by automatic dendrometers and the influence of environmental drivers was evaluated by applying moving correlation analysis (MCA. Additionally, we used Morlet wavelet analysis to assess the differences in cyclic radial stem variations between saplings and mature trees. Results indicate that saplings and mature trees were experiencing water limitation throughout the growing season. However, saplings exhibited a more strained stem water status and higher sensitivity to environmental conditions than mature trees. Hence, the significantly lower radial increments in saplings (0.16 ± 0.03 mm compared to mature trees (0.54 ± 0.14 mm is related to more constrained water status in the former, affecting the rate and duration of RG. The wavelet analysis consistently revealed more distinct diurnal stem variations in saplings compared to mature trees. Intra-annual RG was most closely related to climate variables that influence transpiration, i.e., vapor pressure deficit, relative air humidity, and air temperature. MCA, however, showed pronounced instability of climate-growth relationships, which masked missing temporal or significant correlations when the entire study period (April-October was considered. We conclude that an increase in evaporative demand will impair regeneration and long-term stability of drought-prone inner Alpine Norway spruce forests.

  1. Water content and bark thickness of Norway spruce (Picea abies) stems: phloem water capacitance and xylem sap flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gall, Rolf; Landolt, W; Schleppi, P; Michellod, V; Bucher, J B

    2002-06-01

    To determine the relationship between phloem transport and changes in phloem water content, we measured temporal and spatial variations in water content and sucrose, glucose and fructose concentrations in phloem samples and phloem exudates of 70- and 30-year-old Norway spruce trees (Picea abies (L.) Karst.). Large temporal and spatial variations in phloem water content (1.4-2.6 mg mg(dw)(-1)) and phloem total sugar concentration (31-70 mg g(dw)(-1)) paralleled each other (r(2) = 0.83, P dendrometer readings were only 8-11% of the maximum measured changes in phloem water content, indicating that reversible changes in bark thickness did not reflect changes in internal water relations. We also studied the relationship between xylem sap velocity and changes in bark thickness in 70-year-old trees during summer 1999 and winter 1999-2000. Sap flow occurred sporadically throughout the winter, but there was no relationship between bark shrinkage or swelling and sap velocity. In winter, mean daily xylem sap velocity was significantly correlated with mean daily vapor pressure deficit and air temperature (P 0 degrees C, changes in relative humidity alone caused changes in thickness of boiled bark samples. Because living bark of Norway spruce trees contains large areas with crushed and dead sieve cell zones-up to 24% of the bark is air-filled space-we suggest that this space can compensate for volume changes in living phloem cells independently of total tissue water content. We conclude that changes in bark thickness are not indicative of changes in either phloem water capacitance or xylem sap flow. PMID:12069917

  2. Tree water status and growth of saplings and mature Norway spruce (Picea abies) at a dry distribution limit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberhuber, Walter; Hammerle, Albin; Kofler, Werner

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the size effect on stem water status and growth in Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) occurring at the edge of its natural range in a dry inner Alpine environment (750 m asl, Tyrol, Austria). Intra-annual dynamics of stem water deficit (ΔW), maximum daily shrinkage (MDS), and radial growth (RG) were compared among saplings (stem diameter/height: 2.2 cm/93 cm; n = 7) and mature adult trees (25 cm/12.7 m; n = 6) during 2014. ΔW, MDS, and RG were extracted from stem diameter variations, which were continuously recorded by automatic dendrometers and the influence of environmental drivers was evaluated by applying moving correlation analysis (MCA). Additionally, we used Morlet wavelet analysis to assess the differences in cyclic radial stem variations between saplings and mature trees. Results indicate that saplings and mature trees were experiencing water limitation throughout the growing season. However, saplings exhibited a more strained stem water status and higher sensitivity to environmental conditions than mature trees. Hence, the significantly lower radial increments in saplings (0.16 ± 0.03 mm) compared to mature trees (0.54 ± 0.14 mm) is related to more constrained water status in the former, affecting the rate and duration of RG. The wavelet analysis consistently revealed more distinct diurnal stem variations in saplings compared to mature trees. Intra-annual RG was most closely related to climate variables that influence transpiration, i.e., vapor pressure deficit, relative air humidity, and air temperature. MCA, however, showed pronounced instability of climate-growth relationships, which masked missing temporal or significant correlations when the entire study period (April-October) was considered. We conclude that an increase in evaporative demand will impair regeneration and long-term stability of drought-prone inner Alpine Norway spruce forests. PMID:26442019

  3. Variation in spread of Heterobasidion annosum in clones of Picea abies grown at different vegetation phases under greenhouse conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svedjemark, G.; Stenlid, J. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Forest Mycology and Pathology

    1996-06-01

    Forty-nine Picea abies (L.) Karst clones were inoculated under greenhouse conditions with a Heterobasidion annosum (Fr.) Bref. isolate of the S intersterility group. The cuttings were inoculated at the following vegetation stages; bud-flushing stage, vegetative stage and after bud-set. Fungal growth in sapwood and leison length in the inner bark were measured after 34 days. The susceptibility of the various clones to H. annosum was strongly correlated among the three vegetation stages, both in terms of mean growth and mean growth ranking. Partitioning of variance components showed that variation in growth was explained by physiological stages and clone to 4% and 24%, respectively, and for interaction between clone and physiological stage to 9%. Corresponding values for leison length in the inner bark were 3%, 14% and 5%, respectively. Fungal growth in wood and leison length in the inner bark were strongly correlated (r{sup 2} ranging between 0.23 and 0.36). When cuttings were inoculated during bud-flushing, leison length and fungal growth in wood were both strongly correlated with bud-flushing index of the cuttings (r{sup 2} = 0.03 and 0.04 respectively) but that was not the case for the other stages. The number of active fine-roots and the degree of wilting of the cuttings were negatively correlated with leison length and fungal growth (r{sup 2} ranging between 0.01 and 0.13). Height and diameter varied greatly between the clones and both were negatively correlated with fungal extension (r{sup 2} ranging between 0.01 and 0.09). 33 refs, 2 figs, 3 tabs

  4. Freezing tolerance in two Norway spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst.) progenies is physiologically correlated with drought tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blödner, Constanze; Skroppa, Torre; Johnsen, Oystein; Polle, Andrea

    2005-05-01

    The goal of the present study was to investigate whether seedlings of Norway spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst.) from a frost tolerant progeny (P2), were more drought tolerant than seedlings from a less frost tolerant progeny (P1). Progenies differing in freezing tolerance were identified by exposing seedlings in autumn in a large-scale trial to temperatures from -11 to -15 degrees C and scoring the degree of needle injury. Seedlings from P1 and P2 were grown from seeds for about 1 year under controlled conditions in a climatized growth room and were exposed to drought stress by withholding water for about 3 weeks. Drought caused reductions in biomass in both progenies but to a stronger extent in P1 than in P2. Seedlings of P2 were able to fully maintain root biomass. They also showed less water loss in different tissues. Decreases in quantum yield efficiency of photosystem II of dark-adapted plants occurred several days later in P2 than in P1. New proteins of molecular masses of 24.3 and 25.5 kDa appeared during drought stress. Since they occurred in both progenies a role of these proteins in progeny-related differences in drought performance is unlikely. Progeny 2 contained inherently higher superoxide dismutase and lower peroxidase activities than progeny 1. In conclusion, freezing and drought-tolerance respective -sensitivity were co-occurring traits in the spruce progenies studied here. Pre-existing high activities of enzymes protecting against oxidative stress in seedlings may have contributed to increase stress tolerance in P2 compared with P1. PMID:15940872

  5. Foliar responses of understorey Abies lasiocarpa to different degrees of release cutting of Betula papyrifera and conifer mixed species stand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, J.R.; Letchford, T. [Ministry of Forests, Prince George, BC (Canada). Red Rock Research Station; Comeau, P.G. [BC Ministry of Forests, Victoria, BC (Canada); Coopersmith, D. [BC Ministry of Forests, Prince George, BC (Canada)

    2000-07-01

    Foliar responses of subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa (Hook.) Nutt.) to thinning were studied in a 35-yr-old mixed stand of paper birch (Betula papyrifera Marsh.) and conifers. The stand regenerated naturally after a wildfire with a canopy dominated by paper birch (average height 9.8 m) and an understorey dominated by subalpine fir (average height 1.6 m). The stand was thinned to four densities of birch: 0, 600 and 1200 stems ha{sup -1} and control (Unthinned at 2300-6400 stems ha{sup -1}) in the autumn of 1995. The understorey conifers, mainly subalpine fir, were thinned to 1200 stems ha{sup -1}. The study used a completely randomized split-plot design. Three sample trees were systematically selected from each treatment replicate and each tree stratum (upper, intermediate and lower understorey). One-year-old and older age class needles were collected from one south-facing branch within the fifth whorl from the tree top. Thinning of paper birch significantly (p<0.001) increased leaf area and dry weight per 100 needles for intermediate and short trees except in the 0 birch treatment. Understorey subalpine fir trees in 600 stems ha{sup -1} birch (T3) had the largest leaf area and leaf dry weight per 100 1-yr-old needles. Specific leaf area (SLA) decreased from unthinned (T1) to 0 birch (T4). Lower understorey trees had the largest SLA. One-year-old needles had significantly higher N, P and K concentrations in all the thinning treatments. These responses are consistent with the shade tolerance of subalpine fir. The results suggest that when managing a paper birch-conifers mixed wood forest it may be of benefit to understorey conifers to leave a birch canopy as a nursing crop.

  6. Regeneration of Abies pinsapo within gaps created by Heterobasidion annosum-induced tree mortality in southern Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navarro-Cerrillo RM

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We explored the effects of tree-fall gaps caused by Heterobasidion annosum-induced tree death on the regeneration of the relict Abies pinsapo in southern Spain. We analyzed the structure and regeneration of A. pinsapo in 44 circular closed-canopy plots and 11 gaps (mean size 75 m2 located in H. annosum infection foci. We measured adult density, basal area, and height of all tree species with a diameter at breast height greater than 7.5 cm and quantified regeneration abundance. Diameter structures were analyzed using Weibull functions. A. pinsapo comprised 49-81% of total adult tree density (358-1418 trees ha-1 and total basal area (15.70-39.22 m2 ha-1. Density of A. pinsapo juveniles ranged from 129 to 416 individuals ha-1, while that of juveniles of other tree species such as Quercus ilex was much lower. A. pinsapo saplings and seedlings were more abundant within gaps than in closed-canopy sites. A. pinsapo regeneration was related to the tree species composition of the stands adjacent to gaps. The main potential species replacing A. pinsapo in H. annosum-induced gaps were, in decreasing order of importance, Quercus ilex, Q. faginea, and Juniperus oxycedrus. The current stand structure and gap-infilling processes suggest that A. pinsapo regenerates adequately within H. annosum-induced gaps. However, the relative proportion of other coexisting tree species within H. annosum-related gaps will increase substantially over time as compared with closed-canopy areas.

  7. Secondary metabolites of the lichen Hypogymnia physodes (L.) Nyl. and their presence in spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) bark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latkowska, Ewa; Bober, Beata; Chrapusta, Ewelina; Adamski, Michal; Kaminski, Ariel; Bialczyk, Jan

    2015-10-01

    Lichen species typically have a characteristic profile of secondary metabolites. Dense populations of Hypogymnia physodes growing frequently as epiphytes on tree branches have harmful effects on the host, likely due to their secondary compounds, which were undetected in tree tissues until now. The aim of the present study was to re-characterise the suite of secondary metabolites of H. physodes thalli and to estimate their translocation into spruce (Picea abies) bark. Thallus and bark extracts were compared using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). The compounds were identified based on their UV, MS and MS/MS spectra as well as retention factors of their TLC analysis. In addition to the previously described secondary metabolites (protocetraric, physodalic, 3-hydroxyphysodic, physodic, and 2'-O-methylphysodic acids, atranorin and chloroatranorin) of H. physodes, further three were identified in its thalli: conphysodalic, 4-O-methylphysodic and α-alectoronic acids. Fragmentation patterns from the negative ionisation of each compound were proposed, some of which were described for the first time. Among all of the detected lichen substances, a few, e.g., physodalic, 3-hydroxyphysodic, physodic acids and atranorin, were present in the bark of spruce branches that were abundantly colonised by lichen. The newly identified compounds of H. physodes thalli may belong to its constant or accessory secondary metabolites. These compounds may be useful in the chemotaxonomic classification of this species. The presence of some lichen substances in spruce bark confirmed their ability to penetrate host tissues. These data suggest that H. physodes compounds may cause long-term effects on spruces in nature. PMID:26342621

  8. KnowIedge Teaching:An Effective Way to Promote the DeveIoPment of Thinking AbiIity%知识教学促进思维能力发展的有效方式

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝文武

    2014-01-01

    KnowIedge and abiIity are restricted and Promoted reciProcaIIy. KnowIedge teaching may infIuence the deveIoPment of the abiIity in four ways of Positive and negative of baIance and imbaIance. KnowIedge can scarceIy naturaIIy changes into abiIity. Conscious Iearning and teaching are effective ways to Promote the deveIoPment of the abiIity to baIance and imbaIance. Thinking abiIity is the core comPetence of understanding and of PracticaI abiIity;knowIedge teaching,first of aII,can Promote the deveIoPment of thinking abiIity;we shouId choose effective teaching methods to Promote the Positive baIance and imbaIance deveIoPment of thinking abiIity,IogicaI thinking abiIity,thinking in images and imagination,diaIecticaI thinking and converse thinking,thinking of induction,and,deduction and reasoning.%知识与能力相互制约和促进。知识教学对能力发展的影响可能产生正负向平衡和不平衡的四种状态。知识自然而然地转化为能力的程度很有限,自觉的求知和教学方式是知识促进能力发展达到正向平衡和不平衡的有效方式。思维能力是认识和实践能力的核心能力,知识教学促进能力的发展首先是促进思维能力的发展,应选择有效教学方式促进探究思维能力、逻辑思维能力、形象思维和想象力、辩证思维和逆向思维能力、思维的归纳、演绎和推理能力实现正向平衡和不平衡的发展。

  9. FERONIA interacts with ABI2-type phosphatases to facilitate signaling cross-talk between abscisic acid and RALF peptide in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jia; Yu, Feng; Liu, Ying; Du, Changqing; Li, Xiushan; Zhu, Sirui; Wang, Xianchun; Lan, Wenzhi; Rodriguez, Pedro L; Liu, Xuanming; Li, Dongping; Chen, Liangbi; Luan, Sheng

    2016-09-13

    Receptor-like kinase FERONIA (FER) plays a crucial role in plant response to small molecule hormones [e.g., auxin and abscisic acid (ABA)] and peptide signals [e.g., rapid alkalinization factor (RALF)]. It remains unknown how FER integrates these different signaling events in the control of cell growth and stress responses. Under stress conditions, increased levels of ABA will inhibit cell elongation in the roots. In our previous work, we have shown that FER, through activation of the guanine nucleotide exchange factor 1 (GEF1)/4/10-Rho of Plant 11 (ROP11) pathway, enhances the activity of the phosphatase ABA Insensitive 2 (ABI2), a negative regulator of ABA signaling, thereby inhibiting ABA response. In this study, we found that both RALF and ABA activated FER by increasing the phosphorylation level of FER. The FER loss-of-function mutant displayed strong hypersensitivity to both ABA and abiotic stresses such as salt and cold conditions, indicating that FER plays a key role in ABA and stress responses. We further showed that ABI2 directly interacted with and dephosphorylated FER, leading to inhibition of FER activity. Several other ABI2-like phosphatases also function in this pathway, and ABA-dependent FER activation required PYRABACTIN RESISTANCE (PYR)/PYR1-LIKE (PYL)/REGULATORY COMPONENTS OF ABA RECEPTORS (RCAR)-A-type protein phosphatase type 2C (PP2CA) modules. Furthermore, suppression of RALF1 gene expression, similar to disruption of the FER gene, rendered plants hypersensitive to ABA. These results formulated a mechanism for ABA activation of FER and for cross-talk between ABA and peptide hormone RALF in the control of plant growth and responses to stress signals. PMID:27566404

  10. SlSOM inhibits seed germination by regulating the expression of ABA/GA metabolic genes and SlABI5 in Solanum lycopersicum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Xiao-chun; GAO Yong-feng; ZHANG Ning; LI Hui-rong; YANG Shu-zhang; LIU Yong-sheng

    2015-01-01

    SOM encodes a nucleus-localized CCCH-type zinc finger protein and negatively regulates seed germination in Arabidopsis thaliana. We have previously demonstrated that ectopic expression of SlABI3, an important transcription factor in abscisic acid (ABA) signaling pathway, resulted in alteration of SlSOM expression patterns in both leaf and seed of tomato. In this study, we aimed to elucidate the function of tomato SlSOM in regarding to seed germination and seedling development. Here, we constructed SlSOM over-expression vector pBI121-SOM driven by CaMV 35S promoter, and the recombinant plasmid was incorporated into wild-type tomato by the method of Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. The result showed that over-expression of SlSOM conferred enhanced responses to exogenous ABA application during seed germination and seedling development. In addition, ectopic expression of SlSOM resulted in the alteration of expression level of ABA/GA (gibberel ins) metabolic genes, such as SlABA1, SlCYP707A1, SlGA3ox2, and SlGA2ox4, in both leaf and seed. The ABA anabolic gene SlABA1 and the GA catabolic gene SlGA2ox4 were up-regulated while the ABA catabolic gene SlCYP707A1 and the GA anabolic gene SlGA3ox2 were down-regulated. Compared to wild type, the expression level of SlABI5 was increased by about 40–50%in transgenic seeds while adding exogenous ABA treatment. These results support the notion that SlSOM inhibits seed germination by regulating ABA/GA metabolic genes and SlABI5 expression in Solanum lycopersicum.

  11. Research and Realization of Abis Interface Monitor Technology in User-Aware Intelligence Analysis System%用户感知智能分析系统Abis接口信令监测的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李娟; 雒江涛

    2012-01-01

    以用户感知智能分析系统Abis接口信令监测功能为研究背景,分析了Abis接口协议栈结构,利用模块化思想实现了对Abis接口的监测.针对目前Abis接口CDR合成算法的不足,在进行CDR合成之前,创新性地采用了预处理技术来获取合成CDR时的散列Key,并利用一种新的递归回溯消息关联方法合成CDR.经现网实际测试,该方案已成功通过了Abis接口信令监测系统的测试和验证,效果良好.%Based on the user-aware intelligence analysis system Abis interface signaling monitoring, this paper analyzes the Abis interface protocal stack structure, and realizes to monitor the Abis interface, using of modular thinking. For the current lack of Abis interface CDR synthesis algorithm, this paper uses pretreatment technology to obtain the synthetic CDR Hash key before making CDR synthesis, and a new recursive backtrack message associated with synthesis of the CDR. This scheme has successfully passed the Abis interface signaling monitoring system test and has good results.

  12. VPLIV SALICILNE KISLINE NA VSEBNOST SKUPNIH FENOLOV V LUBJU NAVADNE SMREKE [Picea abies (L.) H. Karst] PRI NAPADU OSMEROZOBEGA SMREKOVEGA LUBADARJA (Ips typographus L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Visočnik, Metka

    2010-01-01

    Osmerozobi smrekov lubadar (Ips typographus L.) je med podlubniki eden najpomembnejših škodljivcev navadne smreke [Picea abies (L.) H. Karst] v Evropi. Dovzetnost dreves za škodljivce je v veliki meri odvisna od sistemsko pridobljene odpornosti (SAR). Ta izzove kvalitativne in kvantitativne spremembe v kemični sestavi gostitelja in predstavlja trajnejši način obrambe. Vodilna signalna molekula, ki izzove sistemsko pridobljeno odpornost (SAR) je salicilna kislina (SK), saj je preko različnih m...

  13. 美国ABI Research预测:2010年全球至少有12家运营商提供LTE服务

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    2010年提供LTE(Long Term Evoludon)网络及ITE月最务的通信运营商将至少有12家。美国ABI Research日前发布了上述预测。另外,预计2010年以前,使用通信速度不亚于使用连接线和DSL通信的高速数据服务的全球用户将达到近3400万人。

  14. Micorriza arbuscular y estrés abiótico en el contenido de alcaloides (vinblastima y vincristina) de Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don

    OpenAIRE

    Rosa Mera, Claudia Janette de la

    2012-01-01

    Este estudio evaluó el incremento de vinblastina y vincristina en plantas micorrizadas de Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don., establecidas en invernadero, sometidas a estrés abiótico causado por aplicaciones de bicarbonato de potasio (2.5 y 7.5 mM) y cloruro de sodio (40 mM). El presente trabajo fue dividido en tres fases experimentales. La primera fase describe la propagación de consorcios e identificación de hongos micorrízicos arbusculares (HMA) obtenidos de la rizósfera ...

  15. Respuestas fenotípicas en larvas de anuros a situaciones cambiantes en los factores bióticos y abióticos

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez, Valeria Isabel

    2012-01-01

    Las respuestas fenotípicas son, comúnmente, respuestas adaptativas de los organismos que por lo general se mantienen por selección natural. Por lo tanto, el conocimiento de la estructura de una población exige saber cómo influyen los diferentes factores bióticos y abióticos -grado de cambio ambiental, presencia de predadores y competidores- sobre los organismos, teniendo en cuenta sus ciclos de vida y las estrategias evolutivas involucradas. Las larvas de anfibios son organismos muy intere...

  16. Bacterial and abiotic decay in waterlogged archaeological Picea abies (L.) Karst studied by confocal Raman imaging and ATR-FTIR spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Nanna Bjerregaard; Gierlinger, Notburga; Thygesen, Lisbeth Garbrecht

    2015-01-01

    contained regions with intensities lower than sound S2 layers up to intensity values as high as the compound middle lamella (CML). CRI revealed strong depletion of carbohydrates in RM which indicated that EB are able to utilise the carbohydrate fraction of the cell wall effectively. Raman bands assigned......Waterlogged archaeological Norway spruce [Picea abies (L.) Karst] poles were studied by means of confocal Raman imaging (CRI) and attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) analysis to determine lignin and polysaccharide composition and distribution in the cell...

  17. Estudio de los hongos que fructifican en la vegetación relicta de Abies pinsapo Boiss., en España peninsular. II. Ascomycotina. II

    OpenAIRE

    Larios, Juana M.ª; Honrubia, Mario; Moreno, Gabriel

    1988-01-01

    Se citan 41 taxones de la subdivisión Ascomycotina procedentes de la vegetación relicta de Abies pinsapo Boiss. en las provincias de Málaga y Cádiz. Es de resaltar la presencia de Aphiorhynchostoma curreyi (Rabenh.) MUller, Cucurbitaria berberidis (Pers.: Fries) Gray, Sydowia polispora (Bref. C v. Tavel) MUller, Glonium graphicum (Fries) Duby, Caloscypha fulgens (Pers.) Boudier, Coronophora abietina Fuck. y Rosellinia tassiana De Not.Se incluyen observaciones de tipo morfológico y taxonómico ...

  18. Modeling effects of temperature and precipitation on carbon characteristics and GHGs emissions in Abies fabric forest of subalpine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Xuyang; CHENG Genwei; XIAO Feipeng; FAN Jihui

    2008-01-01

    Abies fabric forest in the eastern slope of Gongga mountain is one type of subalpine dark coniferous forests of southwestern China.It is located on the southeastern edge of the Qinghai-Tibet plateau and is sensitive to climatic changes,A process-oriented biogeochemical model,Forest-DNDC,was applied to simulate the effects of climatic factors,temperature and precipitation changes on carbon characteristics,and greenhouse gases (GHGs) emissions inA.fabric forest.Validation indicated that the Forest-DNDC could be used to predict carbon characteristics and GHGs emissions with reasonable accuracy.The model simulated carbon fluxes,soil carbon dynamics,soil CO2,N2O,and NO emissions with the changes of temperature and precipitation conditions.The results showed that with variation in the baseline temperature from-2℃ to+2℃,the gross primary production (GPP) and soil organic carbon (SOC)increased,and the net primary production (NPP) and net ecosystem production (NEP) decreased because of higher respiration rate.With increasing baseline precipitation the GPP and NPP increased slightly,and the NEP and SOC showed decreasing trend.Soil CO2 emissions increased with the increase of temperature,and CO2 emissions changed little with increased baseline precipitation.With increased temperature and decreased baseline temperature,the total annual soil N2O emissions increased.With the variation of baseline temperature from -2℃ to +2℃,the total annual soil NO emissions increased.The total annual N2O and NO emissions showed increasing trends with the increase of precipitation.The biogeochemical simulation of the typical forest indicated that temperature changes strongly affected carbon fluxes,soil carbon dynamics,and soil GHGs emissions.The precipitation was not a principal factor affecting carbon fluxes,soil carbon dynamics,and soil CO2 emissions,but changes in precipitation could exert strong effect on soil N2O and NO emissions.

  19. Early testing of growth rhythm in Picea abies for prediction of frost damage and growth in the field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hannerz, M. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Forest Genetics

    1999-04-01

    The main objective of this thesis was to evaluate methods for the early testing of adaptive traits in Norway spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst.) in order to predict growth and damage in the field. The work was based on studies of growth rhythm, growth and damage in short-term tests and in 9-14- year-old field trials. The reliability of different test methods for predicting field performance was evaluated using (i) temperature models for predicting date of bud burst and associated frost risk in the field, (ii) estimates of clinal variation in traits describing growth cessation and (iii) estimates of genetic correlations between farm-field and field trials. Timing of bud burst was under strong genetic control, and had an important influence on field performance. Selection of families for late bud burst was shown to increase height in the field and reduce the frequency of frost damage, ramicorns and double-stems. The date of bud burst could be accurately predicted with a temperature-sum model. Simulations with this model demonstrated that seedlings of local provenances planted in central Sweden would be exposed to frosts after bud burst twice as often as seedlings of Belorussian provenances. A strong latitudinal clinal variation in timing of budset, lignification, height growth cessation and frost hardiness in first-year seedlings indicated that the traits reflect autumn-frost hardiness in the field, at least at the population level. Growth cessation, measured as leader lignification on 24-year-old seedlings, was under less genetic control than bud burst. Furthermore, the correlation between lignification and field performance was lower than that for bud burst. Seedlings with free growth tended to be shorter and sustain more damage in the field. A testing strategy for evaluating adaptive traits in the Norway spruce breeding programme was suggested. One key component is the infusion of a thoroughly evaluated reference set in the tests. This would enable the results to be

  20. Ibn Abi Ussaibea "Oyoun aI-Anbaa Fi Tabaqat al-Attiba" a selected review of this Index of Physicians and their Works; (from early Greeks to his time in Egypt).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotby, M Nasser; Wahba, Hassan; Mabrouk, Amr

    2010-12-01

    Muwaffaq-al-Deen abu-al-Abbas Ahmad ibn Abi Ussaibea (1203-1270) was born in Damascus. He started his brilliant career in his birth place then moved to Cairo where he worked and excelled for the rest of his life. His learning was intensified by the scholarly contacts of the intellectual leaders of the day. In this study we review The Index of Physicians-Oyoun al-Anbaa Fi Tabaqat al-Attiba--(Sources of Information in the Classes of Physicians) of ibn Abi Ussaibea.The biographies in this book do not just cover physicians only but also the learned people of his day whose knowledge and expertise covered medicine, astronomy, mathematics, philosophy, and botany. For this reason the book of ibn Abi Ussaibea represents an indispensable source of the scientific and philosophical achievements of the Arabic/Islamic civilization.

  1. Constitutive Equations and ANN Approach to Predict the Flow Stress of Ti-6Al-4V Alloy Based on ABI Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fuzeng; Zhao, Jun; Zhu, Ningbo

    2016-09-01

    The flow behavior of Ti-6Al-4V alloy was studied by automated ball indentation (ABI) tests in a wide range of temperatures (293, 493, 693, and 873 K) and strain rates (10-6, 10-5, and 10-4 s-1). Based on the experimental true stress-plastic strain data derived from the ABI tests, the Johnson-Cook (JC), Khan-Huang-Liang (KHL) and modified Zerilli-Armstrong (ZA) constitutive models, as well as artificial neural network (ANN) methods, were employed to predict the flow behavior of Ti-6Al-4V. A comparative study was made on the reliability of the four models, and their predictability was evaluated in terms of correlation coefficient (R) and mean absolute percentage error. It is found that the flow stresses of Ti-6Al-4V alloy are more sensitive to temperature than strain rate under current experimental conditions. The predicted flow stresses obtained from JC model and KHL model show much better agreement with the experimental results than modified ZA model. Moreover, the ANN model is much more efficient and shows a higher accuracy in predicting the flow behavior of Ti-6Al-4V alloy than the constitutive equations.

  2. EFFECT OF PRE-STEAMING ON MASS TRANSFER PROPERTIES OF FIR WOOD (ABIES ALBA L.; A GYMNOSPERM SPECIES WITH TORUS MARGO PIT MEMBRANE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Dashti,

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In this research, the effect of pre-steaming on mass transfer properties, including air permeability and water vapor diffusivity of fir wood (Abies alba L., a gymnosperm species with torus margo pit membrane, was evaluated. The pre-steaming was performed at temperatures of 120, 140, and 160°C for 1 hour under a pressure of 2-3 bars. Then, the pre-steamed specimens were conventionally dried at a constant temperature of 160°C and a relative humidity of 50% to the final moisture content of 10%. Subsequently, the mass transfer properties of the dried specimens were measured in longitudinal and radial directions. Overall, the pre-steaming was found to be an effective modification method to improve the mass transfer properties of Abies alba L. The improvement was more remarkable for the air permeability as well as through the radial direction. The specimens steamed at the temperature of 160°C had higher mass transfer rates than those steamed at the temperatures of 120 and 140°C. Results of chemical analyses, FT-IR spectroscopy, and SEM imaging provide some explanations for the effects of pre-steaming.

  3. Cloud immersion alters microclimate, photosynthesis and water relations in Rhododendron catawbiense and Abies fraseri seedlings in the southern Appalachian Mountains, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Daniel M; Smith, William K

    2008-03-01

    The high altitude spruce-fir (Abies fraseri (Pursh) Poiret.-Picea rubens Sarg.) forests of the southern Appalachian Mountains, USA, experience frequent cloud immersion. Recent studies indicate that cloud bases may have risen over the past 30 years, resulting in less frequent forest cloud immersion, and that further increases in cloud base height are likely in the event of continued climate warming. To assess the impact of this trend on the regeneration of high altitude spruce-fir forests and the migration of plant communities, in particular the encroachment of spruce-fir forests and Rhododendron catawbiense Michx. islands into adjacent grass bald communities, we investigated effects of cloud immersion on photosynthetic parameters of seedlings of Abies fraseri and R. catawbiense in a grass bald site and A. fraseri in a forest understory. Although photosynthetic photon flux was 4.2 to 19.4-fold greater during clear conditions, cloud immersion had no effect on photosynthesis in A. fraseri at either site, whereas it reduced photosynthesis of R. catawbiense by about 40%. However, cloud immersion increased mean leaf fluorescence by 7.1 to 12.8% in both species at both sites. Cloud immersion increased mean relative humidity from 65 to 96%, reduced transpiration by 95% and reduced mean leaf-to-air temperature difference from 6.6 to 0.5 degrees C. PMID:18171662

  4. Soil acidity reconstruction based on tree ring information of a dominant species Abies fabri in the subalpine forest ecosystems in southwest China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To assess the suitability of dendrochemistry as an indicator of soil acidification, soil chemistry and tree ring information of Abies fabri were measured at two distinct sites (severe acid deposition site-Emei Mountain and clean site-Gongga Mountain) of the subalpine forest ecosystems of western Sichuan, southwest China. The actual soil acidity (pH) was significantly correlated with some of the recent xylem cation (Ca, Mg, Mn, Al, Sr and Ba) concentrations and their molar ratios. Xylem Ca/Mg and Ca/Mn of A. fabri were ultimately selected to reconstruct the historical changes of soil pH in Emei Mountain and Gongga Mountain, respectively. The validity of those rebuild was also verified to a certain extent. We conclude that xylem cation molar ratios of A. fabri were superior to the single cation concentrations in soil acidity rebuild at the study sites due to normalizing for concentration fluctuations. - Tree ring information of Abies fabri is suitable to reconstruct soil acidity caused by acid deposition.

  5. Relación entre variabilidad biogeoquímica y rasgos estructurales de la comunidad microbiana en suelos forestales: Bosques de Abies pinsapo como caso de estudio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Torres-Cañabate

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Relación entre variabilidad biogeoquímica y rasgos estructurales de la comunidad microbiana en suelos forestales: Bosques de Abies pinsapo como caso de estudio. Tradicionalmente, los estudios biogeoquímicos consideraban el suelo como una "caja negra", conectada con el resto del ecosistema mediante flujos de entrada y de salida de nutrientes, en la que éstos experimentan transformaciones mediadas engran parte por microorganismos desconocidos. El desarrollo de nuevas técnicas moleculares ha incrementado el conocimiento sobre lascomunidades microbianas del suelo. Estudios recientes han puesto de manifiesto correspondencias entre la variabilidad de la disponibilidad de nutrientes y la estructura de la comunidad microbiana en suelos forestales. A este respecto, hemos empleado bosques de Abies pinsapo como modelo ya que muestran una gran variabilidad biogeoquímica asociada a diferencias litológicas y sucesionales, mientras que la estacionalidad mediterránea provoca una alta variabilidad intra-anual en la disponibilidad de nutrientes. Además, existen pinsapares sujetos alimitación o a saturación de nitrógeno. Mediante análisis del polimorfismo de longitud de fragmentos de restricción terminal (T-RFLP, hemos puesto de manifiesto que los patrones de variabilidad biogeoquímica descritos en los pinsapares se corresponden con cambios en la composición y estructura de sus comunidades bacterianas.

  6. ABI、PWV与冠心病危险因素关系的研究%Study the Relation of ABI, PWV and Coronary Heart Disease Risk Factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨志; 万艳芳; 张军; 王长厚; 杨静; 牛和平; 马晓丽

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To Evaluated the relationship of ABI,PWV and coronary heart disease risk factors.Methods:Retrospectively analyzed ABI,PWV and related risk factors of coronary heart disease had Coronary angiography in our hospital.Results:There were 506 cases with coronary heart disease in 657 cases confirmed by coronary angiography.Smoking or who smoke more than 5 years,hypertension,diabetes,abnormal lipid metabolism in coronary heart disease patiets was significantly higher than in non-coronary heart disease patients (P<0.01);Obesity in coronary heart disease higher than non-coronary heart disease (P<0.05);the ABI values were significantly downward trend,PWV values were significantly Upward trend in those with smoking,hypertension,diabetes,abnormal lipid metabolism,obesity (P<0.05).Severe coronary artery disease (more than double vessel disease and stenosis≥70%)was 186 cases,the ABI,PWV value in Severe coronary artery disease were significant Statistically differences with non-coronary heart disease(P<0.01).Conclusions:Smoking,hypertension,diabetes,dyslipidemia,Obesity may affect the development of coronary heart disease,and the ABI,PWV can expressed comprehensive impact ]for coronary artery that cause by the variety of risk factors.%目的:综合评价ABI、PWV与冠心病危险因素的关系.方法:对我院因冠心病住院并行冠状动脉造影的心脏病患者的ABI、PWV及相关危险因素进行回顾性分析.结果:经冠脉造影证实657例患者中冠心病患者为506例;吸烟或曾经吸烟5年以上者、高血压、糖尿病、脂代谢异常冠心病患者明显高于非冠心病患者(P<0.01);肥胖冠心病患者高于非冠心病患者(P<0.05);有吸烟、高血压、糖尿病、脂质代谢异常、肥胖患者的ABI数值有明显下降趋势,PWV数值有明显增高趋势(P<0.05);严重冠心病患者(双支以上病变且血管狭窄≥70%)共186例,其ABI、PWV值与非冠心病患者差异有显著统计学意义(P<0

  7. Age-related effects on leaf area/sapwood area relationships, canopy transpiration and carbon gain of Norway spruce stands (Picea abies) in the Fichtelgebirge, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köstner, B; Falge, E; Tenhunen, J D

    2002-06-01

    Stand age is an important structural determinant of canopy transpiration (E(c)) and carbon gain. Another more functional parameter of forest structure is the leaf area/sapwood area relationship, A(L)/A(S), which changes with site conditions and has been used to estimate leaf area index of forest canopies. The interpretation of age-related changes in A(L)/A(S) and the question of how A(L)/A(S) is related to forest functions are of current interest because they may help to explain forest canopy fluxes and growth. We conducted studies in mature stands of Picea abies (L.) Karst. varying in age from 40 to 140 years, in tree density from 1680 to 320 trees ha(-1), and in tree height from 15 to 30 m. Structural parameters were measured by biomass harvests of individual trees and stand biometry. We estimated E(c) from scaled-up xylem sap flux of trees, and canopy-level fluxes were predicted by a three-dimensional microclimate and gas exchange model (STANDFLUX). In contrast to pine species, A(L)/A(S) of P. abies increased with stand age from 0.26 to 0.48 m(2) cm(-2). Agreement between E(c) derived from scaled-up sap flux and modeled canopy transpiration was obtained with the same parameterization of needle physiology independent of stand age. Reduced light interception per leaf area and, as a consequence, reductions in net canopy photosynthesis (A(c)), canopy conductance (g(c)) and E(c) were predicted by the model in the older stands. Seasonal water-use efficiency (WUE = A(c)/E(c)), derived from scaled-up sap flux and stem growth as well as from model simulation, declined with increasing A(L)/A(S) and stand age. Based on the different behavior of age-related A(L)/A(S) in Norway spruce stands compared with other tree species, we conclude that WUE rather than A(L)/A(S) could represent a common age-related property of all species. We also conclude that, in addition to hydraulic limitations reducing carbon gain in old stands, a functional change in A(L)/A(S) that is related to

  8. Evaluating the species- and site-specific differences in the physiological response of Picea abies, Fagus sylvatica and Larix decidua to drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartl-Meier, Claudia; Rothe, Andreas; Treydte, Kerstin

    2013-04-01

    Sensitive regions like the Alps are very vulnerable to climate change. Especially warmer temperatures and a higher frequency of drought periods may imply strong effects on mountain ecosystems. In the Northern Limestone Alps, temperatures were already 1 °C higher (compared to the reference period 1941-1970) in the last two decades. Within a Bavarian-Austrian EU-project (INTERREG program) we investigated long-term growth patterns of mountain tree species and a possible growth effect caused by climate change using a dendroecological approach. In total we measured the ring widths of ~1300 living, on average 180 year old trees. The samples were taken along altitudinal gradients, ranging from 500 up to 1700 m a.s.l., in five different regions in the Northern Austrian and Bavarian Limestone Alps, covering the most prevalent coniferous (Picea abies, Abies alba, Larix decidua, Pinus sylvestris) and broad-leafed (Fagus sylvatica, Acer pseudoplatanus) mountain forest species. To get more detailed information about the physiological response to climate and especially drought events of different tree species, an additional study was conducted in the Kalkalpen Nationalpark, Austria. Stable isotopes (δ13C and δ18O) of Picea abies, Fagus sylvatica and Larix decidua tree-rings (8 trees per species and site) were analysed at three different sites. The sites are located at the montane elevation level (900 m a.s.l.) on a south-facing and a north-facing slope as well on a plateau situation with deeper soils. Our main focus deals with the following questions: i) Is it possible to identify "drought events" in a region like the Alps with generally humid precipitation conditions (1400 mm/a), by analysing stable isotopes in tree rings? ii) Are there species- and/or site-specific differences in the isotopic signatures - also with respect to the trees' climate response? We will present (i) the isotopic signatures for the common period 1970-2010, (ii) their response to climate conditions

  9. Estimating the relative nutrient uptake from different soil depths in Quercus robur, Fagus sylvatica and Picea abies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Göransson, Hans; Wallander, Håkan; Ingerslev, Morten;

    2006-01-01

    uptake capacity of Rb+ and NH4+ by these fine roots under standardized conditions in the laboratory. The study was performed in monocultures of oak (Quercus robur L.), European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) and Norway spruce [Picea abies (L.) Karst.] on sandy soil in a tree species trial in Denmark. The...

  10. Fotosíntesis, fotoprotección, productividad y estrés abiótico: algunos casos de estudio

    OpenAIRE

    Tambussi, Eduardo Alberto

    2005-01-01

    En la presente Tesis se han analizado diferentes casos de estudio acerca del estrés abiótico en plantas, cuyos objetivos fueron: (a) estudiar la vinculación entre daño oxidativo y la fotoinhibición en plantas de soja sometidas a bajas temperaturas; (b) la fotoprotección en plantas de trigo duro sometidas a déficit hídrico (c) el daño oxidativo al aparato fotosintético del trigo blando bajo déficit hídrico (d) la respuesta fotosintética de la espiga y la hoja bandera de trigo duro bajo estrés ...

  11. Levantamento de doenças bióticas e abióticas em Eucalyptus Benthamii Maiden nos Estados do Paraná e Santa Catarina

    OpenAIRE

    Schultz, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    Dentre as espécies de Eucalyptus plantadas na região Sul do Brasil, Eucalyptus benthamii encontra-se em expansão por sua produtividade e resistência à geadas. Contudo, além das geadas, pouco se conhece sobre os fatores limitantes à produção desta espécie. Desse modo, foi realizado um levantamento em viveiros, plantios comerciais e áreas experimentais com E. benthamii, nos estados do Paraná e Santa Catarina com o objetivo de identificar as doenças bióticas e abióticas nesta espécie. O levantam...

  12. Histological studies on the bundle sheath in needles of Picea abies (L. ) Karst. , diseased or fumigated with SO/sub 2/

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maier-Maercker, U.

    1986-01-01

    The paper reports disorganisations within the bundle sheath in current year needles of diseased Picea abies. Similar symptoms were produced by fumigation of young trees for 20 days with 0.3 ppm SO/sub 2/. The lignified radial walls of the sheath cells were in a state of partial delignification and the lumina contained granular substances which absorbed UV light at 280 nm. While autofluorescence of the radial walls was weak in injured material the granular cell contents were heavily fluorescent. Studies of structural features and the outcome of feeding experiments using berberine sulfate and Tl/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ suggest that the bundle sheath is involved in the water transport from the vascular system towards the evaporating surfaces of the needle. The activity of wall bound peroxidase was localized histochemically; the possible role of this enzyme complex is discussed.

  13. Functions for biomass and basic density of stem, crown and root system of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovsgaard, Jens Peter; Bald, Caroline; Nord-Larsen, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    .) in Denmark. Separate models were developed for branches (including foliage), stem and the below-ground stump and root system as well as for the aggregate components of total above-ground biomass and total tree biomass. Trees were sampled in 14 forest stands, reflecting the range of growth conditions......Models for predicting the biomass of forest trees are becoming increasingly important for assessing forest resources and carbon sequestration in forests. We developed functions for predicting the biomass and basic density of above- and below-ground parts of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst...... variety of tree sizes, stand treatments and growth conditions. The models are believed to substantially improve national estimates of carbon sequestration and biomass resources....

  14. Population differentiation in tree-ring growth response of white fir (Abies concolor) to climate: Implications for predicting forest responses to climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, D.B.

    1993-10-01

    Forest succession models and correlative models have predicted 200--650 kilometer shifts in the geographic range of temperate forests and forest species as one response to global climate change. Few studies have investigated whether population differences may effect the response of forest species to climate change. This study examines differences in tree-ring growth, and in the phenotypic plasticity of tree-ring growth in 16-year old white fir, Abies concolor, from ten populations grown in four common gardens in the Sierra Nevada of California. For each population, tree-ring growth was modelled as a function of precipitation and degree-day sums. Tree-ring growth under three scenarios of doubled C0{sub 2} climates was estimated.

  15. La mort d’Orphée ou le retour de la bestialité : Aby Warburg et l’antisémitisme1

    OpenAIRE

    Schoell-Glass, Charlotte

    2011-01-01

    L’examen précis des carnets de notes, manuscrits et fichiers d’Aby Warburg permet de montrer comment le projet warburgien d’une science culturelle et la Bibliothèque sur laquelle ce projet s’appuyait sont nés d’une confrontation aiguë avec l’antisémitisme de son époque, sans que ce dernier ne soit généralement nommé dans les textes publiés. En suivant les analyses warburgiennes du motif de la mort d’Orphée dans une gravure de Durer, l’article se propose de montrer le lien étroit qui existe en...

  16. Przewozy towarów między portem w Hamburgu i Polską - perspektywy rozwoju Unii Izb Łaby i Odry (KEO)

    OpenAIRE

    Teuber, Mark-Oliver; Wedemeier, Jan; Wilke, Christina Benita; Yadegar, Edesa

    2015-01-01

    Unia Izb Łaby i Odry (KEO) jest transgranicznym zrzeszeniem należących do niej izb, działającym na rzecz wzmocnienia potencjału gospodarczego regionów objętych ich działaniem. W unii tej współpracuje ze sobą 17 niemieckich, 7 polskich i 10 czeskich izb przemysłowo-handlowych oraz izb rzemieślniczych. Celem inicjatywy jest wspólne reprezentowanie interesów firm z tego regionu na szczeblu krajowym i europejskim. Chodzi przy tym zwłaszcza o dalszy rozwój infrastruktury transportowej w obszarze K...

  17. The Primary Diterpene Synthase Products of Picea abies Levopimaradiene/Abietadiene Synthase (PaLAS) Are Epimers of a Thermally Unstable Diterpenol*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeling, Christopher I.; Madilao, Lina L.; Zerbe, Philipp; Dullat, Harpreet K.; Bohlmann, Jörg

    2011-01-01

    The levopimaradiene/abietadiene synthase from Norway spruce (Picea abies; PaLAS) has previously been reported to produce a mixture of four diterpene hydrocarbons when incubated with geranylgeranyl diphosphate as the substrate: levopimaradiene, abietadiene, neoabietadiene, and palustradiene. However, variability in the assay products observed by GC-MS of this and orthologous conifer diterpene synthases over the past 15 years suggested that these diterpenes may not be the initial enzyme assay products but are rather the products of dehydration of an unstable alcohol. We have identified epimers of the thermally unstable allylic tertiary alcohol 13-hydroxy-8(14)-abietene as the products of PaLAS. The identification of these compounds, not previously described in conifers, as the initial products of PaLAS has considerable implications for our understanding of the complexity of the biosynthetic pathway of the structurally diverse diterpene resin acids of conifer defense. PMID:21518766

  18. The effects of land use change on carbon content in the aerial biomass of an Abies religiosa (Kunth Schltdl. et Cham. forest in central Veracruz, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Pineda Lopez

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study. Were analyzed patterns and dynamics of forest cover change and land use for the period 1995-2005, and estimated carbon content in biomass in a forest of fir (Abies religiosa.Area of study. Ejido El Conejo in the Cofre de Perote National Park, Veracruz, Mexico.Material and Methods. Spatial data (maps, orthophotographs were used: (UTM; GRS 80 spheroid; zone 14, datum ITRF92; units: metres. Maps for 1995 and 2005 were constructed and compared. Carbon content in the aboveground biomass of fir (Abies religiosa was estimated using an equation specific to species.Main results. After one decade, the forested area had increased slightly (0.25%. The main type of land cover change was from shrubland to forest (probability of change 0.41; the change from forestland to shrubland with trees was 0.05%, and from forest to agriculture was 0.02%. Data from 2008 confirmed that the A. religiosa forest located in the ejido is distributed in largely unconnected fragments, of which some have a high density of young trees. Estimated carbon content in the aboveground biomass (163.51 Mg ha-1 was higher than that estimated for other forests of the same species in Mexico.Research highlights. It is recommended that ecological corridors be established throughout the reforested area, in order to connect these fragments (and increase carbon sequestration and favour faunal and floral conservation. Finally, recognition should be given to the high vulnerability of A. religiosa forests to climate change, given their high degree of fragmentation and critical altitudinal limit.Key words: Aboveground biomass; carbon storage; ecological corridors; fir forest.

  19. The effects of land use change on carbon content in the aerial biomass of an Abies religiosa (Kunth Schltdl. et Cham.) forest in central Veracruz, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pineda-Lopez, M. R.; Sanchez-Velasquez, L. R.; Vazquez-Dominguez, G.; Rojo-Alboreca, A.

    2013-05-01

    Aim of study.) Were analyzed patterns and dynamics of forest cover change and land use for the period 1995-2005, and estimated carbon content in biomass in a forest of fir (Abies religiosa). Area of study. Ejido El Conejo in the Cofre de Perote National Park, Veracruz, Mexico. Material and Methods. Spatial data (maps, ortho photographs) were used: (UTM); GRS 80 spheroid; zone 14, datum ITRF92; units: metres. Maps for 1995 and 2005 were constructed and compared. Carbon content in the aboveground biomass of fir (Abies religiosa) was estimated using an equation specific to species. Main results. After one decade, the forested area had increased slightly (0.25%). The main type of land cover change was from shrubland to forest (probability of change 0.41); the change from forestland to shrubland with trees was 0.05%, and from forest to agriculture was 0.02%. Data from 2008 confirmed that the A. religiosa forest located in the ejido is distributed in largely unconnected fragments, of which some have a high density of young trees. Estimated carbon content in the aboveground biomass (163.51 Mg ha-1) was higher than that estimated for other forests of the same species in Mexico. Research highlights. It is recommended that ecological corridors be established throughout the reforested area, in order to connect these fragments (and increase carbon sequestration) and favour faunal and floral conservation. Finally, recognition should be given to the high vulnerability of A. religiosa forests to climate change, given their high degree of fragmentation and critical altitudinal limit. (Author) 55 refs.

  20. Simulating Carbon Sequestration and GHGs Emissions in Abies fabric Forest on the Gongga Mountains Using a Biogeochemical Process Model Forest-DNDC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Xuyang; CHENG Genwei; XIAO Feipeng; HUO Changfu

    2008-01-01

    The process-oriented model Forest-DNDC describing biogeochemical cycling of C and N and GHGs (greenhouse gases) fluxes (CO2, NO and N2O) in forest ecosystems was applied to simulate carbon sequestration and GHGs emissions in Abies fabric forest of the Gongga Mountains at southeastern edge of the Tibetan Plateau. The results indicated that the simulated gross primary production (GPP) of Abies fabric forest was strongly affected by temperature. The annual total GPP was 24,245.3 kg C ha-1 yr-1 for 2005 and 26,318.8 kg C ha-1 yr-1 for 2006, respectively. The annual total net primary production (NPP) was 5,935.5 and 4,882.2 kg C ha-1 yr-1 for 2005 and 2006, and the annual total net ecosystem production (NEP) was 4,815.4 and 3,512.8 kg C ha-1 yr-1 for 2005 and 2006, respectively. The simulated seasonal variation in CO2 emissions generally followed the seasonal variations in temperature and precipitation. The annual total CO2 emissions were 3,109.0 and 4,821.0 kg C ha-1 yr-1 for 2005 and 2006, the simulated annual total N2O emissions from forest soil were 1.47 and 1.36 kg N ha-1 yr-1 for 2005 and 2006, and the annual total NO emissions were 0.09 and 0.12 kg N ha-1 yr-1 for 2005 and 2006, respectively.

  1. Establecimiento de una red de equilibrios biológicos en ecosistemas con presencia de pinsapo (Abies pinsapo Boiss. en Andalucía.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navarro Cerrillo, R. M.

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2001, the Consejería de Medio Ambiente of the Junta de Andalucía established a Monitoring Network on ecosystems of Abies pinsapo Boiss.for evaluating the phytosanitary state in the natural range areas of A. pinsapo in the Iberian Península: Sierra de las Nieves (Málaga, Spain, Sierra de Grazalema (Cadiz, Spain and Los Reales de Sierra Bermeja (Málaga, Spain. This network is based on a 1 x 1 Km grid established throughout the forest stands where Abies pinsapo is present, given by the Mapa Forestal de España (Spanish land cover map, RUIZ DE LA TORRE, 1990. The Network has been constructed from 35 sample plots, which will be visited annually (in summer in order to assess the state of trees. This article describes the network design process and the main results from the first campaign of sampling.

    [fr]
    En mai 2001, la Consejería de Medio Ambiente-Junta de Andalucía a mis sur pied un Réseau pour la surveillance systématique et multitemporelle de l'état de santé et vitalité des forets de Abies pinsapo Boiss. dans ses aires de répartition naturelle dans la Péninsule Ibérique: Sierra de las Nieves (Málaga, Espagne, Sierra de Grazalema (Cádiz, Espagne et Los Reales de Sierra Bermeja (Málaga, Espagne. Cet inventaire a été réalisé à partir d'un réseau d'échantillonnage systématique selon un maillage de 1 x 1 kilomètres couvrant la surface des forêts avec présence de Abies pinsapo, d'après la Mapa Forestal de España (Carte Forestière Espagnole, RUIZ DE LA TORRE, 1990. Après Rétablissement, l'inventaire a été constitué par 35 parcelles d'observation, qui seront visitées annuellement (en été pour évaluer l'état des arbres. Cette note présente le dessin de ce réseau et les résultats de la première campagne de terrain.
    [es]
    En la primavera del año 2001, la Consejería de Medio Ambiente de la Junta de Andalucía estableció una Red de Equilibrios Biol

  2. Composition and structure of varves in Lake Żabińskie, northeastern Poland: a potential for high-resolution reconstruction of meteorological conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tylmann, Wojciech; Bonk, Alicja; Amann, Benjamin; Butz, Christoph; Enters, Dirk; Kinder, Małgorzata; Grosjean, Martin

    2015-04-01

    Reconstructions of paleoclimatic and paleoenvironmental data from sediment records require a detailed knowledge of the physical, chemical and biological factors which influence sediment-formation processes and signal preservation in lake sediments. This can be achieved by process studies and high-resolution analysis of sediments that provide an opportunity to calibrate varves and paleolimnological proxies against instrumental hydrological and meteorological data. Here we present results from Lake Żabińskie located in northeastern Poland with the aim to understand the relationship between meteorological conditions, sedimentation processes and climate signal preservation in varve structure and chemical composition. This eutrophic and hardwater lake exhibits well preserved biogenic varves with high sedimentation rates (5-8 mm/yr). We conducted a three-year long observation of limnological conditions within the water column and recent sediment fluxes as well as analyzed a 70-cm long sediment core from the deepest part of the lake basin covering the last 125 years. Thin sections were prepared and analyzed microscopically for individual laminae composition. We also measured chemical variability within varves using high-resolution XRF scanning of impregnated sediment slabs. We demonstrate that different mixing patterns may occur in Lake Żabińskie, from dimictic to meromictic depending on the meteorological conditions. Sediment fluxes varied substantially during the observation period with characteristic spring maxima and, optionally, a second late fall maxima. Considerable variability was also observed for the fluxes of total organic carbon, biogenic silica and calcite. Microscopic investigation of the topmost sediments revealed a complex varve structure showing a distinct spring calcite lamina followed by one or more fine calcite laminae interbedded with diatom-rich laminae and, finally, by an organic-rich lamina with minerogenic admixtures deposited during winter

  3. Carbon Allocation into Different Fine-Root Classes of Young Abies alba Trees Is Affected More by Phenology than by Simulated Browsing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endrulat, Tina; Buchmann, Nina; Brunner, Ivano

    2016-01-01

    Abies alba (European silver fir) was used to investigate possible effects of simulated browsing on C allocation belowground by 13CO2 pulse-labelling at spring, summer or autumn, and by harvesting the trees at the same time point of the labelling or at a later season for biomass and for 13C-allocation into the fine-root system. Before budburst in spring, the leader shoots and 50% of all lateral shoots of half of the investigated 5-year old Abies alba saplings were clipped to simulate browsing. At harvest, different fine-root classes were separated, and starch as an important storage compartment was analysed for concentrations. The phenology had a strong effect on the allocation of the 13C-label from shoots to roots. In spring, shoots did not supply the fine-roots with high amounts of the 13C-label, because the fine-roots contained less than 1% of the applied 13C. In summer and autumn, however, shoots allocated relatively high amounts of the 13C-label to the fine roots. The incorporation of the 13C-label as structural C or as starch into the roots is strongly dependent on the root type and the root diameter. In newly formed fine roots, 3-5% of the applied 13C was incorporated, whereas 1-3% in the ≤0.5 mm root class and 1-1.5% in the >0.5-1.0 mm root class were recorded. Highest 13C-enrichment in the starch was recorded in the newly formed fine roots in autumn. The clipping treatment had a significant positive effect on the amount of allocated 13C-label to the fine roots after the spring labelling, with high relative 13C-contents observed in the ≤0.5 mm and the >0.5-1.0 mm fine-root classes of clipped trees. No effects of the clipping were observed after summer and autumn labelling in the 13C-allocation patterns. Overall, our data imply that the season of C assimilation and, thus, the phenology of trees is the main determinant of the C allocation from shoots to roots and is clearly more important than browsing. PMID:27123860

  4. Height Extraction and Stand Volume Estimation Based on Fusion Airborne LiDAR Data and Terrestrial Measurements for a Norway Spruce [Picea abies (L.) Karst.] Test Site in Romania

    OpenAIRE

    Apostol, Bogdan; Adrian LORENT; Marius PETRILA; Gancz, Vladimir; Ovidiu BADEA

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the efficiency of individual tree identification and stand volume estimation from LiDAR data. The study was located in Norway spruce [Picea abies (L.) Karst.] stands in southwestern Romania and linked airborne laser scanning (ALS) with terrestrial measurements through empirical modelling. The proposed method uses the Canopy Maxima algorithm for individual tree detection together with biometric field measurements and individual trees positioning. Fiel...

  5. The seasonal variation of arthropods living on forest soil at different altitudes in fir (Abies nordmanniana subsp. bornmulleriana ecosystem in Bolu-Aladağ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Duyar

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In the forest ecosystems, soil arthropods (Arthropoda, as primary and secondary consumers, have a significant role in litter decay and decomposition processes. The abundance, diversity and community structure of arthropods in soil ecosystem; give rapid response to change of site characteristics. The current study was aimed to determine of seasonal variation of soil arthropods on forest floor at different altitudes in Uludağ Fir (Abies nordmanniana subsp. bornmulleriana Mattf. ecosystem which is an important forest tree species in Turkey. The study was conducted in pure fir stands at 1200-1600 m altitudes (4 elevation gradients in Aladağ, Bolu. The sampling was carried out for each winter, spring, summer and autumn seasons. The samples were collected from forest floor by pitfall traps. Variations of abundance and diversity of arthropods were evaluated according to seasons and altitudes. The distributions in trophic levels and biological diversity of arthropods were also determined. During the study, the maximum abundance of arthropods was 7576 individuals/m² in summer among seasons, and was 7854 individuals/m² at 1200 m altitude. Shannon-Wiener Index (H′ and Species Richness (S′ values were detected in the pitfall traps (H′= 2.22; S′= 22.

  6. Relationship between coronary artery disease and CAVI and ABI%ABI、CAVI与冠状动脉病变关系临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张中华; 刘志远; 李朝鹏

    2010-01-01

    目的 观察冠状动脉粥样硬化性心脏病(冠心病)患者踝臂指数(ABI)、心踝血管指数(CAVI)水平,并探讨其与冠状动脉病变之间关系.方法 选取行冠状动脉造影的95例患者,其中35例为急性冠脉综合征(ACS)患者,30例为慢性稳定性冠心病(SCHD)患者,另30例为冠状动脉造影正常患者(对照组).各组均检测ABI、CAVI指标,分析其与冠状动脉病变关系.结果 ACS组ABI水平明显低于对照组及SCHD组,差异有显著统计学意义(P 均<0.01).ACS组与SCHD组CAVI水平明显高于对照组(P<0.01),且ACS组CAVI水平高于SCHD组,差异有显著统计学意义(P<0.01).结论 冠心病尤其ACS患者动脉血管僵硬程度更高.

  7. Distribution of lignin and its coniferyl alcohol and coniferyl aldehyde groups in Picea abies and Pinus sylvestris as observed by Raman imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hänninen, Tuomas; Kontturi, Eero; Vuorinen, Tapani

    2011-10-01

    Wood cell wall consists of several structural components, such as cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin, whose concentrations vary throughout the cell wall. It is a composite where semicrystalline cellulose fibrils, acting as reinforcement, are bound together by amorphous hemicelluloses and lignin matrix. Understanding the distribution of these components and their functions within the cell wall can provide useful information on the biosynthesis of trees. Raman imaging enables us to study chemistry of cell wall without altering the structure by staining the sample or fractionating it. Raman imaging has been used to analyze distributions of lignin and cellulose, as well as the functional groups of lignin in wood. In our study, we observed the distribution of cellulose and lignin, as well as the amount of coniferyl alcohol and aldehyde groups compared to the total amount of lignin in pine (Pinus sylvestris) and spruce (Picea abies) wood samples. No significant differences could be seen in lignin and cellulose distribution between these samples, while clear distinction was observed in the distribution of coniferyl alcohols and coniferyl aldehyde in them. These results could provide valuable insight on how two similar wood species control biosynthesis of lignin differently during the differentiation of cell wall.

  8. Updating beliefs and combining evidence in adaptive forest management under climate change: a case study of Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst) in the Black Forest, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefpour, Rasoul; Temperli, Christian; Bugmann, Harald; Elkin, Che; Hanewinkel, Marc; Meilby, Henrik; Jacobsen, Jette Bredahl; Thorsen, Bo Jellesmark

    2013-06-15

    We study climate uncertainty and how managers' beliefs about climate change develop and influence their decisions. We develop an approach for updating knowledge and beliefs based on the observation of forest and climate variables and illustrate its application for the adaptive management of an even-aged Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst) forest in the Black Forest, Germany. We simulated forest development under a range of climate change scenarios and forest management alternatives. Our analysis used Bayesian updating and Dempster's rule of combination to simulate how observations of climate and forest variables may influence a decision maker's beliefs about climate development and thereby management decisions. While forest managers may be inclined to rely on observed forest variables to infer climate change and impacts, we found that observation of climate state, e.g. temperature or precipitation is superior for updating beliefs and supporting decision-making. However, with little conflict among information sources, the strongest evidence would be offered by a combination of at least two informative variables, e.g., temperature and precipitation. The success of adaptive forest management depends on when managers switch to forward-looking management schemes. Thus, robust climate adaptation policies may depend crucially on a better understanding of what factors influence managers' belief in climate change.

  9. Profiling functions of ectomycorrhizal diversity and root structuring in seedlings of Norway spruce (Picea abies) with fast- and slow-growing phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velmala, Sannakajsa M; Rajala, Tiina; Heinonsalo, Jussi; Taylor, Andy F S; Pennanen, Taina

    2014-01-01

    We studied the role of taxonomical and functional ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungal diversity in root formation and nutrient uptake by Norway spruce (Picea abies) seedlings with fast- and slow-growing phenotypes. Seedlings were grown with an increasing ECM fungal diversity gradient from one to four species and sampled before aboveground growth differences between the two phenotypes were apparent. ECM fungal colonization patterns were determined and functional diversity was assayed via measurements of potential enzyme activities of eight exoenzymes probably involved in nutrient mobilization. Phenotypes did not vary in their receptiveness to different ECM fungal species. However, seedlings of slow-growing phenotypes had higher fine-root density and thus more condensed root systems than fast-growing seedlings, but the potential enzyme activities of ectomycorrhizas did not differ qualitatively or quantitatively. ECM species richness increased host nutrient acquisition potential by diversifying the exoenzyme palette. Needle nitrogen content correlated positively with high chitinase activity of ectomycorrhizas. Rather than fast- and slow-growing phenotypes exhibiting differing receptiveness to ECM fungi, our results suggest that distinctions in fine-root structuring and in the belowground growth strategy already apparent at early stages of seedling development may explain later growth differences between fast- and slow-growing families. PMID:24117652

  10. Structure determination at room temperature and phase transition studies above $T_c$ in ABi4Ti4O15 (A = Ba, Sr or Pb)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G Nalini; T N Guru Row

    2002-08-01

    The room temperature structure of three compounds belonging to the Aurivillius family ( = 4), ABi4Ti4O15 (A = Ba, Sr or Pb) has been analysed. BaBi4Ti4O15 crystallizes in a tetragonal 4/ space group whereas SrBi4Ti4O15 and PbBi4Ti4O15 crystallize in the orthorhombic space group $A2_1am$. The starting model for the Sr and Pb analogues was derived from ab initio methods and refined using the Rietveld method. The cations Ba and Sr are disordered over the Bi sites while the Pb cation is found exclusively in the [Bi2O2]2+ layers. The TiO6 octahedra are tilted with the Ti–O bonds forming zigzag chains along the `’ axis. The displacement of Bi atoms along the `’ axis might be responsible for ferroelectricity in these compounds. The high temperature X-ray data above $T_c$ indicate no structural transition for A = Ba and Pb while A = Sr transforms to the tetragonal structure.

  11. Nutrients induction on lead, cadmium, manganese, zinc and cobalt speciation in the sediments of Aby lagoon (Côte d'Ivoire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akpétou K. L.,

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available This study reported nitrogen and phosphorus leverage on lead, Cadmium, Manganese, Zinc and Cobalt speciation in the Aby lagoon sediments. The trace elements and water samples were collected from eleven sites located within the four lagoon sectors. Sequential extraction was carried out in five fractions: exchangeable (F1, bound to the carbonates (F2, bound to iron and manganese (oxy hydroxides (F3, bound to the organic matters (F4 and residual(F5. Heavy metals chemical fractionation followed the four-step Zerbe and al. (1999 process, completed with an acid digestion method for residual (F5 extraction. Co-inertia analysis monitored with ADE4 package showed that nitrite and Kjeldhal nitrogen (TKN mainly influenced Co speciation and especially the compounds (total lead, total Cd, total Zn, Co-F1 and Co-F4 tend to accumulate on sediment surface. However, their higher influence than nitrates on previous metals was too lower than the other nitrogen compounds which they were very negatively correlated. As the phosphorus compounds which showed a greatest impact on lead, Cd, Mn, and Zn speciation. The respective resulted factorial values were about -1 and 1. Total and inorganic phosphorus portion showed a similar influence range than total nitrogen on the various studied heavy metals speciation in sediment.

  12. Seasonal dynamics of δ(13) C of C-rich fractions from Picea abies (Norway spruce) and Fagus sylvatica (European beech) fine roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paya, Alex M; Grams, Thorsten E E; Bauerle, Taryn L

    2016-09-01

    The (13/12) C ratio in plant roots is likely dynamic depending on root function (storage versus uptake), but to date, little is known about the effect of season and root order (an indicator of root function) on the isotopic composition of C-rich fractions in roots. To address this, we monitored the stable isotopic composition of one evergreen (Picea abies) and one deciduous (Fagus sylvatica), tree species' roots by measuring δ(13) C of bulk, respired and labile C, and starch from first/second and third/fourth order roots during spring and fall root production periods. In both species, root order differences in δ(13) C were observed in bulk organic matter, labile, and respired C fractions. Beech exhibited distinct seasonal trends in δ(13) C of respired C, while spruce did not. In fall, first/second order beech roots were significantly depleted in (13) C, whereas spruce roots were enriched compared to higher order roots. Species variation in δ (13) C of respired C may be partially explained by seasonal shifts from enriched to depleted C substrates in deciduous beech roots. Regardless of species identity, differences in stable C isotopic composition of at least two root order groupings (first/second, third/fourth) were apparent, and should hereafter be separated in belowground C-supply-chain inquiry. PMID:27155532

  13. Mesure des stades de developpement du sapin baumier (Abies balsamea [L.] Mill.) par teledetection des maxima locaux sur images a tres haute resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demers, Alain

    L'objectif principal de cette these est d'identifier les parametres cles pour lier le developpement morphologique de la cime du sapin baumier (Abies balsamea [L.] Mill.) aux patrons de reflectance qu'elle genere sur une image aerienne a haute resolution. La quantite et la distribution spatiale des aiguilles dans le sapin dependent de la structure des branches. Un mecanisme de ramification particulier (la reiteration) ressort comme le parametre cle pour lier l'augmentation de la biomasse foliaire et la forme de la branche. Les reiterats forment des agglomerats de feuillage qui engendrent des inegalites dans les patrons de reflectance de la cime. La reflectance est plus elevee ou il y a une forte concentration de reiterats (maximum local). On demontre que le developpement du sapin baumier se mesure au moyen de l'analyse des maxima locaux de la cime sur une image. La biomasse de l'arbre se mesure par la teledetection et l'analyse des patrons de reflectance de la cime, c'est-a-dire la mesure du niveau de reiteration par le decompte des maxima locaux de la cime. Cette etude demontre qu'il est possible de proceder a l'inventaire du volume de bois d'un peuplement par la teledetection de l'architecture des arbres.

  14. An interlaboratory comparison of ITS2-PCR for the identification of yeasts, using the ABI Prism 310 and CEQ8000 capillary electrophoresis systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verschraegen Gerda

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Currently, most laboratories identify yeasts routinely on the basis of morphology and biochemical reactivity. This approach has quite often limited discriminatory power and may require long incubation periods. Due to the increase of fungal infections and due to specific antifungal resistence patterns for different species, accurate and rapid identification has become more important. Several molecular techniques have been described for fast and reliable identification of yeast isolates, but interlaboratory exchangeability of identification schemes of molecular techniques has hardly been studied. Here, we compared amplified ITS2 fragment length determination by an ABI Prism 310 (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, Ca. capillary electrophoresis system with that obtained by a CEQ8000 (Beckman Coulter, Fullerton, Ca. capillary electrophoresis system. Results Although ITS2 size estimations on both systems differed and separate libraries had to be constructed for each system, both approaches had the same discriminatory power with regard to the 44 reference strains, identical identifications were obtained for 39/ 40 clinical isolates in both laboratories and strains from 51 samples were correctly identified using CEQ8000, when compared to phenotypic identification. Conclusion Identification of yeasts with ITS2-PCR followed by fragment analysis can be carried out on different capillary electrophoresis systems with comparable discriminatory power.

  15. Disturbed regeneration of saplings of Korean fir (Abies koreana Wilson, an endemic tree species, in Hallasan National Park, a UNESCO Biosphere Reserve, Jeju Island, Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun-Shik Kim

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Limited knowledge is available on the regeneration of Korean fir (Abies koreana Wilson, an endemic plant species, growing on the upper part of Mt. Hallasan, a volcanic mountain, located in the central part of Jeju Island, Korea. A forest stand with the size of 1 ha dominated by Korean fir trees was established and all the trees with DBH 2 cm or larger were mapped and surveyed. Initial analysis indicated that the numbers of saplings with their DBHs between 2 cm and 10 cm were very small and that there was a big gap in the frequency of the number of saplings regenerated from the forest stand. It seems clear that the regeneration of the Korean fir trees was disturbed for longer than the last two decades, potentially by the browsing of the seedlings by ungulate including Siberian roe deer and by the physical hindrance of the dwarf bamboo to the development of the saplings of the Korean fir. Urgent measures and extensive studies are needed to promote the natural regeneration of the tree species on the dynamics of the forest regeneration and the mechanism of forest development of the forests on the Mt. Hallasan, Jeju Island, Korea.

  16. [Spatial Distribution of Intron 2 of nad1 Gene Haplotypes in Populations of Norway and Siberian Spruce (Picea abies-P. obovata) Species Complex].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudrik, E A; Polyakova, T A; Shatokhina, A V; Bondarenko, G N; Politov, D V

    2015-10-01

    The length and sequence variations among intron 2 haplotypes of the mitochondrial DNA nad1 gene have been studied in the Norway and Siberian spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.-P. obovata Ledeb.) species complex. Twenty-two native populations and 15 provenances were analyzed. The distribution of the northern European haplogroup (haplotypes 721, 755, 789, 823, 857, 891, and 925) is delimited in the west by the Ural region inclusively. Haplotype 712 is widespread in populations of Siberia, in the Far East and in northeastern Russia. A novel variant of the Siberian haplogroup (780) containing three copies of the first minisatellite motif (34 bp) was found for the first time. The absence of an admixture of the northern European and Siberian haplotypes in the zone of spruce species introgression previously marked by morphological traits and nuclear allozyme loci was demonstrated. This may be evidence of the existence of a sharper geographic boundary between the two haplogroups, as compared to a boundary based on phenotypic and allozyme data. A high proportion of the interpopulation component of variation (65%) estimated by AMOVA indicates a substantial genetic subdivision of European and Siberian populations of the Palearctic spruce complex by mtDNA, which can be putatively explained by natural barriers to gene flow with seeds related, for instance, to the woodless regions of the western Siberian Plain in the Pleistocene and the probable floodplains of large rivers. PMID:27169226

  17. Effects of season and urea treatment on infection of stumps of Picea abies by Heterobasidion annosum in stands on former arable land

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandtberg, P.O. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Ecology and Environmental Research; Johansson, Martin [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Forest Mycology and Pathology; Seeger, P. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Statistics

    1996-09-01

    Between 1986 and 1990, a series of thinnings were made in previously unthinned first rotation stands on former arable land located in the southern half of Sweden. The aim was to evaluate the effects of season and urea treatment on the frequency of infection of stumps of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) by the root-rot fungus Heterobasidion annosum (Fr.) Bref. Untreated stumps, resulting from 60 thinnings (22-100 stumps each, altogether ca 3000 stumps) made at different times of year, were investigated 3-24 months after cutting to determine whether they were infected with H. annosum. On average only 2% of the stumps from thinnings made in November-February were infected, whereas the incidence of infection among stumps thinned in June-July was 34%. Two methods of treating stumps with urea to prevent stump infection by H. annosum after thinning were evaluated in terms of effectiveness. The freshly cut stumps were treated with a 20% urea solution, transformed to a gel by adding 0.2% carboxymethyl cellulose, or with a 30% urea solution. On average, the reduction in infection rate obtained was 62% with the first method and 85% with the latter. In a separate study involving a concentration series of urea, there was a considerable drop in protection efficiency, from 89% to 58%, when the concentration was decreased from 30% to 15%. 38 refs, 3 figs, 1 tab

  18. Uptake and translocation of 54Mn and 65Zn applied on foliage and bark surfaces on balsam fir (Abies balsamea (L.) Mill.) seedlings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uptake and translocation of 54Mn and 65Zn in balsam fir [Abies balsamea (L.) Mill.] seedlings were studied with the radioisotopes applied directly on shoot or main-stem surfaces in a growth chamber. Concentration and distribution of the absorbed radioisotopes in different plant parts depended on distances between source (the application site) and sink (the rest of the seedling), as well as on tissue growth activity. Acidic wetness significantly enhanced radioisotope absorption. 54Mn and 65Zn were found to be concentrated primarily in 1-year old needles at the middle and top levels of the seedling crown. There were significant (P < 0.05) differences in accumulation (Bq g−1) between 54Mn and 65Zn in needles and twigs from foliar uptake. The absorption by seedlings (including the washed application shoot) 70 days after application was 24–32% of the remaining activities for 54Mn and 25–30% for 65Zn. Less than 1% of the absorbed isotopes was translocated from the bark application sites to other plant organs, whereas more than 54% of the activity absorbed at 1-year old shoots moved to the rest of the seedling. (author)

  19. Resilience, rapid transitions and regime shifts: fingerprinting the responses of Lake Żabińskie (NE Poland) to climate variability and human disturbance since 1000 AD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tylmann, Wojciech; Hernández-Almeida, Iván; Grosjean, Martin; José Gómez Navarro, Juan; Larocque-Tobler, Isabelle; Bonk, Alicja; Enters, Dirk; Ustrzycka, Alicja; Piotrowska, Natalia; Przybylak, Rajmund; Wacnik, Agnieszka; Witak, Małgorzata

    2016-04-01

    Rapid ecosystem transitions and adverse effects on ecosystem services as responses to combined climate and human impacts are of major concern. Yet few quantitative observational data exist, particularly for ecosystems that have a long history of human intervention. Here, we combine quantitative summer and winter climate reconstructions, climate model simulations and proxies for three major environmental pressures (land use, nutrients and erosion) to explore the system dynamics, resilience, and the role of disturbance regimes in varved eutrophic Lake Żabińskie since AD 1000. Comparison between regional and global climate simulations and quantitative climate reconstructions indicate that proxy data capture noticeably natural forced climate variability, while internal variability appears as the dominant source of climate variability in the climate model simulations during most parts of the last millennium. Using different multivariate analyses and change point detection techniques, we identify ecosystem changes through time and shifts between rather stable states and highly variable ones, as expressed by the proxies for land-use, erosion and productivity in the lake. Prior to AD 1600, the lake ecosystem was characterized by a high stability and resilience against considerable observed natural climate variability. In contrast, lake-ecosystem conditions started to fluctuate at high frequency across a broad range of states after AD 1600. The period AD 1748-1868 represents the phase with the strongest human disturbance of the ecosystem. Analyses of the frequency of change points in the multi-proxy dataset suggests that the last 400 years were highly variable and flickering with increasing vulnerability of the ecosystem to the combined effects of climate variability and anthropogenic disturbances. This led to significant rapid ecosystem transformations.

  20. Influence of nutrient supply on shade-sun acclimation of Picea abies seedlings: effects on foliar morphology, photosynthetic performance and growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi, G.; Minotta, G.

    2000-05-01

    Norway spruce seedlings (Picea abies Karst.) were grown in low light for one year, under conditions of adequate and limiting nutrition, then transferred to high light. Three months after transfer we measured photosynthesis, leaf nitrogen concentration, leaf chlorophyll concentration and leaf mass per area (LMA) of current-year and 1-year-old shoots; silhouette area ratio (SAR, the ratio of shoot silhouette area to projected needle area) was also measured in current-year shoots. At the foliage level, the effects of light and nutrient treatments differed markedly. Light availability during foliage expansion primarily affected LMA and SAR (morphological acclimation at the needle and shoot level, respectively). By contrast, nutrient supply in high light affected photosynthetic capacity per unit of leaf tissue (physiological acclimation at the cellular level) but did not affect LMA and SAR. The capacity for shade-sun acclimation in foliage formed before transfer to high light differed greatly from that of foliage formed following the transfer. The morphological inflexibility of mature needles (measured by LMA) limited their shade-sun acclimation potential. In contrast, at high nutrient supply, shoots that developed just after the change in photosynthetic photon flux density largely acclimated, both morphologically and physiologically, to the new light environment. The acclimation response of both current- and 1-year-old shoots was prevented by nutrient limitation. Analysis of growth at the whole-plant level largely confirmed the conclusions drawn at the shoot level. We conclude that nutrient shortage subsequent to the opening of a canopy gap may strongly limit the acclimation response of Norway spruce seedlings. Successful acclimation was largely related to the plant's ability to produce sun foliage and adjust whole-plant biomass allocation rapidly. PMID:12651514

  1. Nutritional status of Abies pinsapo forests along a nitrogen deposition gradient: do C/N/P stoichiometric shifts modify photosynthetic nutrient use efficiency?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanes, Ma Carmen; Viñegla, Benjamín; Merino, José; Carreira, José A

    2013-04-01

    Chronic atmospheric N deposition has modified relative N availability, altering the biogeochemical cycles of forests and the stoichiometry of nutrients in trees, inducing P limitation, and modifying the N:P ratios of plant biomass. This study examines how the variation in the foliar stoichiometry of Abies pinsapo across an N deposition gradient affects foliar traits and photosynthetic rate. We measured the maximum net assimilation rates (Amax) and the foliar nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) concentrations in A. pinsapo needles of five age classes. The leaf mass per area and photosynthetic N and P use efficiencies (PNUE and PPUE, respectively) were also estimated. The results from the N-saturated stand (Sierra Bermeja, B) differed from the comparable N-limited stands under investigation (Yunquera, Y, and Sierra Real, SR). The trees from Y and SR exhibited a reduction in the N content in older needles, whereas the foliar N concentration at the B site increased with needle age. N and P were positively correlated at Y and SR, but not at B, suggesting that the overload of N in the trees at site B has exceeded the homeostatic regulation capacity of the N-saturated stand in terms of foliar stoichiometry. A max and PNUE were correlated positively with P and negatively with the N/P ratio at the three study sites. The foliar N concentration was positively correlated with A max at Y and SR. However, this relationship was negative for the B site. These findings suggest that the nutritional imbalance caused by increased chronic deposition of N and an insufficient supply of P counteracts the potential increase in net photosynthesis induced by the accumulation of foliar N. PMID:23011850

  2. Gravimorphism in current-year shoots of Abies balsamea: involvement of compensatory growth, indole-3-acetic acid transport and compression wood formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, C H A; Lavigne, M B

    2002-04-01

    We investigated the cause of gravimorphic growth inhibition in current-year shoots of balsam fir (Abies balsamea (L.) Mill.) seedlings displaced from their normal orientation in the gravitational field. Tilting the main stem of seedlings decreased shoot elongation, cambial growth as measured by tracheid production, and leaf dry weight of the terminal shoot and the lateral shoots on the lower side of the tilted stem. Removing either the terminal shoot or all lateral shoots induced compensatory growth in the remaining shoots, but did not reduce the inhibitory effect of tilting on shoot growth. Bending the apical part of a tilted main stem to restore it to the vertical did not fully reverse the inhibition of terminal shoot growth caused by stem tilting. Stem tilting inhibited cambial activity at the base of decapitated terminal shoots treated apically with indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and decreased the basipetal transport of a [1-(14)C]-IAA pulse. Stem tilting also induced compression wood formation on the lower side of the tilted stem. Compression wood formation was associated with increases in cambial activity and stem respiration. Stem tilting did not affect either the net photosynthetic rate in 1-year-old leaves or the xylem water potential in current-year lateral shoots. These results support the hypothesis that gravimorphic growth inhibition in a current-year shoot on a tilted stem involves reductions in (1) the shoot's capacity to export IAA, and hence to mobilize photoassimilates, and (2) the supply of photoassimilates available for import by the shoot, as a result of increased cambial sink activity associated with compression wood formation outside that shoot. PMID:11960755

  3. Altitudinal vs Latitudinal Climactic Drivers: A Comparison of a Relict Picea and Abies Forest in the Southern Appalachians versus the Hemi-Boreal Transition Zone off Southern Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, A.; Lafon, C. W.

    2015-12-01

    Identification of biotic and abiotic determinants of tree species range limits is critical for understanding the effects of climate change on species distributions. Upward shifts of species distributions in montane areas have been widely reported but there have been few reports of latitudinal range retractions. Previous studies have indicated that southern latitudinal limits of a species range are dictated by biotic factors such as competition while others have suggested that abiotic factors, such as temperature, dictate these limits. We investigated the potential climatic gradients at the southern latitudinal limit of the Spruce (Picea) and Fir (Abies) species that dominate the Canadian boreal forest community as well as relict boreal forests containing similar species found in the high elevation areas of the Southern Appalachians. Existing research has suggested that relict ecosystems are more sensitive to climate change and can be indicative of future changes at latitudinal range limits. Expanding on this literature, we hypothesized that we would see similar gradients in climatic variables at the southern latitudinal limit of the Canadian boreal forest and those in the relict boreal forests southern Appalachians acting as controlling factors of these species distributions. We used forty years of climate data from weather stations along the southern edge of the boreal forest in the Canadian Shield provinces, species distribution data from the Canadian National Forest Inventory, (CNFI) geospatial data from the National Park Service (NPS), and historical weather data from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) to perform our analysis. Our results indicate different climate variables act as controls of warm edge range limits of the Canadian boreal forest than those of the relict boreal forest of the southern Appalachians. However, we believe range retractions of the relict forest may be indicative of a more gradual response of similar species

  4. Online investigation of respiratory quotients in Pinus sylvestris and Picea abies during drought and shading by means of cavity-enhanced Raman multi-gas spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanf, Stefan; Fischer, Sarah; Hartmann, Henrik; Keiner, Robert; Trumbore, Susan; Popp, Jürgen; Frosch, Torsten

    2015-07-01

    Photosynthesis and respiration are major components of the plant carbon balance. During stress, like drought, carbohydrate supply from photosynthesis is reduced and the Krebs cycle respiration must be fueled with other stored carbon compounds. However, the dynamics of storage use are still unknown. The respiratory quotient (RQ, CO2 released per O2 consumed during respiration) is an excellent indicator of the nature of the respiration substrate. In plant science, however, online RQ measurements have been challenging or even impossible so far due to very small gas exchange fluxes during respiration. Here we apply cavity-enhanced multi-gas Raman spectrometry (CERS) for online in situ RQ measurements in drought-tolerant pine (Pinus sylvestris [L.]) and drought-intolerant spruce (Picea abies [L. H. Karst]). Two different treatments, drought and shading, were applied to reduce photosynthesis and force dependency on stored substrates. Changes in respiration rates and RQ values were continuously monitored over periods of several days with low levels of variance. The results show that both species switched from COH-dominated respiration (RQ = 1.0) to a mixture of substrates during shading (RQ = 0.77-0.81), while during drought only pine did so (RQ = 0.75). The gas phase measurements were complemented by concentration measurements of non-structural carbohydrates and lipids. These first results suggest a physiological explanation for greater drought tolerance in pine. CERS was proven as powerful technique for non-consumptive and precise real-time monitoring of respiration rates and respirational quotients for the investigation of plant metabolism under drought stress conditions that are predicted to increase with future climate change. PMID:26016682

  5. Interactive effects of ozone and low UV-B radiation on antioxidants in spruce (Picea abies) and pine (Pinus sylvestris) needles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To study the role of low UV-B radiation in modulating the response of antioxidants to ozone, 4-year-old pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and spruce (Picea abies L.) seedlings potted in natural soil, were exposed in phytochambers to fluctuating ozone concentrations between 9 and 113 nl 1−1 according to field data recorded at Mt Wank (1175 m above sea level, Bavaria, Germany) and two-times ambient O3 levels. UV-B radiation was either added at a biologically effective level of ca 1.2 kJ m−2 day−1 , which is close to that found in March at Mt Wank, or was excluded by filters (<0.08 kJ m−2 day−1). After one growth phase current-year needles were collected and analysed for antioxidative enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase, SOD, EC 1.15.1.1; catalase, CAT, EC 1.11.1.6; guaiacol peroxidase, POD, EC 1.11.1.7) and soluble antioxidants (ascorbate, glutathione). CAT, POD, ascorbate and glutathione, but not SOD, were increased in needles of both species in response to twice ambient O3 levels. UV-B radiation in the presence of ambient O3 caused an increase in total SOD activity in spruce but had no effects on antioxidants in pine. Twice ambient O3 levels together with low UV-B radiation counteracted the O3-induced increases in ascorbate and CAT in pine but not in spruce. Under these conditions spruce needles showed the highest antioxidative protection and revealed no indication of lipid peroxidation. Pine needles exposed to UV-B and elevated O3 levels showed elevated lipid peroxidation and a 5-fold increase in dehydroascorbate, suggesting that this species was less protected and suffered higher oxidative stress than spruce. (author)

  6. Drought tolerance established by enhanced expression of the CC-NBS-LRR gene, ADR1, requires salicylic acid, EDS1 and ABI1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chini, Andrea; Grant, John J; Seki, Motoaki; Shinozaki, Kazuo; Loake, Gary J

    2004-06-01

    An activation-tagged allele of activated disease resistance 1 (ADR1) has previously been shown to convey broad spectrum disease resistance. ADR1 was found to encode a coiled-coil (CC)-nucleotide-binding site (NBS)-leucine-rich repeat (LRR) protein, which possessed domains of homology with serine/threonine protein kinases. Here, we show that either constitutive or conditional enhanced expression of ADR1 conferred significant drought tolerance. This was not a general feature of defence-related mutants because cir (constitutive induced resistance)1, cir2 and cpr (constitutive expressor of PR genes)1, which constitutively express systemic acquired resistance (SAR), failed to exhibit this phenotype. Cross-tolerance was not a characteristic of adr1 plants, rather they showed increased sensitivity to thermal and salinity stress. Hence, adr1-activated signalling may antagonise some stress responses. Northern analysis of abiotic marker genes revealed that dehydration-responsive element (DRE)B2A but not DREB1A, RD (response to dehydration)29A or RD22 was expressed in adr1 plant lines. Furthermore, DREB2A expression was salicylic acid (SA) dependent but NPR (non-expressor of PR genes)1 independent. In adr1/ADR1 nahG (naphthalene hydroxylase G), adr1/ADR1 eds (enhanced disease susceptibility)1 and adr1/ADR1 abi1 double mutants, drought tolerance was significantly reduced. Microarray analyses of plants containing a conditional adr1 allele demonstrated that a significant number of the upregulated genes had been previously implicated in responses to dehydration. Therefore, biotic and abiotic signalling pathways may share multiple nodes and their outputs may have significant functional overlap.

  7. Evidence of divergent selection for drought and cold tolerance at landscape and local scales in Abies alba Mill. in the French Mediterranean Alps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roschanski, Anna M; Csilléry, Katalin; Liepelt, Sascha; Oddou-Muratorio, Sylvie; Ziegenhagen, Birgit; Huard, Frédéric; Ullrich, Kristian K; Postolache, Dragos; Vendramin, Giovanni G; Fady, Bruno

    2016-02-01

    Understanding local adaptation in forest trees is currently a key research and societal priority. Geographically and ecologically marginal populations provide ideal case studies, because environmental stress along with reduced gene flow can facilitate the establishment of locally adapted populations. We sampled European silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) trees in the French Mediterranean Alps, along the margin of its distribution range, from pairs of high- and low-elevation plots on four different mountains situated along a 170-km east-west transect. The analysis of 267 SNP loci from 175 candidate genes suggested a neutral pattern of east-west isolation by distance among mountain sites. F(ST) outlier tests revealed 16 SNPs that showed patterns of divergent selection. Plot climate was characterized using both in situ measurements and gridded data that revealed marked differences between and within mountains with different trends depending on the season. Association between allelic frequencies and bioclimatic variables revealed eight genes that contained candidate SNPs, of which two were also detected using F(ST) outlier methods. All SNPs were associated with winter drought, and one of them showed strong evidence of selection with respect to elevation. Q(ST)-F(ST) tests for fitness-related traits measured in a common garden suggested adaptive divergence for the date of bud flush and for growth rate. Overall, our results suggest a complex adaptive picture for A. alba in the southern French Alps where, during the east-to-west Holocene recolonization, locally advantageous genetic variants established at both the landscape and local scales. PMID:26676992

  8. Structural studies of TiO2/wood coatings prepared by hydrothermal deposition of rutile particles from TiCl4 aqueous solutions on spruce (Picea Abies) wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pori, Pavel; Vilčnik, Aljaž; Petrič, Marko; Sever Škapin, Andrijana; Mihelčič, Mohor; Šurca Vuk, Angela; Novak, Urban; Orel, Boris

    2016-05-01

    A low temperature approach was developed for the deposition of rutile TiO2 particles on a wood surface by hydrolysis of TiCl4 in aqueous solutions acidified with HCl, and crystallization at 75 and 90 °C (1 h). Prior to hydrothermal treatment, Picea Abies wood was first soaked in a 0.5 mmol/l aqueous solution containing anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS, Sigma Aldrich) for 2 h at 80 °C. The crystal structure of the hydrothermally made rutile particles was determined with XRD, while the morphology of the deposited TiO2 particles and their distribution in the wood were examined with SEM and EDX measurements. The penetration and amount of deposited rutile particles could be modified by changing the deposition conditions. Thicker layers were obtained from more concentrated aqueous TiCl4 solutions with and without added HCl, and with longer deposition times and higher temperatures of the hydrothermal treatment. The interaction of TiO2 particles with hemicellulose and lignin in wood was established from infrared attenuated total reflection (FT-IR ATR) and Raman spectra measurements, from which the spectra of wood were subtracted. Analysis of the subtraction spectra showed the presence of titania particles on the wood surface, revealing also the establishment of TiO2-wood coordinative bonds of titanium ions with hemicellulose and lignin. The red frequency shift of the OH stretching modes suggested interaction of the TiO2 particles with water molecules of wood. TiO2 deposited on wood treated with SDS became hydrophobic (water contact angles (WCA) of 150°), contrasting the properties of untreated wood with a deposited TiO2 particle coating, which remained hydrophilic.

  9. The extent and meaning of hybridization and introgression between Siberian spruce (Picea obovata) and Norway spruce (Picea abies): cryptic refugia as stepping stones to the west?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuda, Yoshiaki; Chen, Jun; Stocks, Michael; Källman, Thomas; Sønstebø, Jørn Henrik; Parducci, Laura; Semerikov, Vladimir; Sperisen, Christoph; Politov, Dmitry; Ronkainen, Tiina; Väliranta, Minna; Vendramin, Giovanni Giuseppe; Tollefsrud, Mari Mette; Lascoux, Martin

    2016-06-01

    Boreal species were repeatedly exposed to ice ages and went through cycles of contraction and expansion while sister species alternated periods of contact and isolation. The resulting genetic structure is consequently complex, and demographic inferences are intrinsically challenging. The range of Norway spruce (Picea abies) and Siberian spruce (Picea obovata) covers most of northern Eurasia; yet their geographical limits and histories remain poorly understood. To delineate the hybrid zone between the two species and reconstruct their joint demographic history, we analysed variation at nuclear SSR and mitochondrial DNA in 102 and 88 populations, respectively. The dynamics of the hybrid zone was analysed with approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) followed by posterior predictive structure plot reconstruction and the presence of barriers across the range tested with estimated effective migration surfaces. To estimate the divergence time between the two species, nuclear sequences from two well-separated populations of each species were analysed with ABC. Two main barriers divide the range of the two species: one corresponds to the hybrid zone between them, and the other separates the southern and northern domains of Norway spruce. The hybrid zone is centred on the Urals, but the genetic impact of Siberian spruce extends further west. The joint distribution of mitochondrial and nuclear variation indicates an introgression of mitochondrial DNA from Norway spruce into Siberian spruce. Overall, our data reveal a demographic history where the two species interacted frequently and where migrants originating from the Urals and the West Siberian Plain recolonized northern Russia and Scandinavia using scattered refugial populations of Norway spruce as stepping stones towards the west. PMID:27087633

  10. Distribución vertical de colémbolos muscícolas en un bosque de Abies religiosa del Estado de México, México Vertical distribution of springtails from epiphytic moss from Abies religiosa forest in State of Mexico, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leopoldo Q. Cutz-Pool

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la distribución de colémbolos asociados a musgos epífitos, considerando 3 diferentes alturas sobre el árbol soporte: 0 m, 1 m y 2 m. El estudio se realizó en la localidad de San Rafael, Estado de México, en un bosque de Abies religiosa. Los ejemplares se recolectaron en noviembre de 2003, y en marzo, junio y agosto de 2004. En total fueron registradas 12 especies; se estimó el índice de diversidad de Shannon, la riqueza de especies, y la densidad y diversidad de colémbolos en 3 comunidades diferentes. La riqueza y densidad disminuyeron conforme la altura sobre los árboles se incrementó. La altura sobre los árboles tuvo un efecto significativamente negativo sobre la diversidad así como en la densidad de 4 especies: Pseudachorutes subcrassus, Entomobrya ca. triangularis, Americabrya arida y Ptenothrix marmorata. Los resultados sugieren que la estratificación vertical de los colémbolos muscícolas está afectada de manera diferencial por los microhábitats que se presentan sobre los árboles soporte a diversas alturas, así como por las características morfológicas de las especies. Estos resultados demuestran la capacidad de los colémbolos para migraciones verticales en busca de alimento y para evitar la depredación.We evaluated the Collembola communities at 3 different heights on epiphytic moss. The study was carried out in an Abies religiosa forest, in the locality of San Rafael in the State of Mexico, Mexico. Collembola inhabiting epiphytic moss were sampled during November 2003, and during March, June and August 2004. The Shannon's diversity index, species richness, as well as their density and diversity were estimated in 3 communities. The total number of Collembola species that was collected was 12, with the species richness and density decreasing as the height of tree increased. The height on trees where moss was sampled had a significant negative effect on species diversity as well as on the densities of

  11. Impacto del ozono troposférico sobre la anatomía foliar de Abies pinsapo Boiss. I: estudio de la distribución de daños

    OpenAIRE

    Lázaro Gimeno, David; Ibars, Ana María

    2009-01-01

    Impacto del ozono troposférico sobre la anatomía foliar de Abies pinsapo Boiss. I: Estudio de la distribución de daños. Con el fin de elaborar unos criterios unificados para la evaluación del impacto del ozono troposférico y compararlos con la respuesta de las poblaciones naturales de Sierra Bermeja y Sierra de las Nieves, se han reproducido en cámaras Open Top, ambientes filtrados y enriquecidos con ozono para realizar una caracterización microscópica del daño que produce el ozono troposféri...

  12. 中国冷杉属植物的地理分布特征及成因初探%Geographical distribution characters and generating mechanisms of genus Abies in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王清春; 李晖; 李晓笑

    2012-01-01

    By combining existing documents and literatures and field investigation data, the geographical distribution and distribution pattern of species diversity of fir(Abies Mill.) in China were quantitatively analyzed, and the endangerment mechanisms of several rare and endangered species were also discussed. The results show that (1) the Hengduan mountains regions in West Sichuan and North Yunnan were the modern distribution center and mutation center of fir in China; (2)With the increase of latitude and longitude, the distribution pattern of species diversity of fir presented an rising trend that firstly increases and then decreases, between 98 ° to 104 ° E and 26 ° to 30 ° N, the distribution of species was the most concentrated; the vertical distribution pattern presented like the horizontal distribution pattern. Between 2600 m to 3600 m, there were more species number; (3) the distribution altitude of Abies increased with a decrease of longitude and decreases with an increase of latitude; (4)the needs of wet and cold habitat, and climate change were the reasons that caused several species of Abies to be endangered.%结合文献资料和野外调查,定量分析了中国冷杉属Abies Mill.植物的地理分布特征和物种多样性分布格局,并探讨几种珍稀濒危冷杉属植物孤岛状分布的成因.结果表明:(1)川西滇北横断山区是我国冷杉属的现代分布中心和变异中心;(2)随着经度、纬度的增加,冷杉属植物物种多样性呈现先增加后减少的分布格局,在98°~104°E、26°~30°N之间,冷杉属种数分布最集中;同样,垂直分布格局也呈现相似的趋势,在2 600~3600m的中高海拔冷杉物种数较多; (3)冷杉属植物分布的海拔高度随经度的减小而上升,随纬度的增加而降低; (4)冷杉属植物喜湿冷的特性和气候变化等原因导致该属几种冷杉的濒危现状.

  13. Monsoon Season Moisture Deficit Limits Growth in Co-Occurring Alpine Shrub (Cassiope fastigata) and Tree (Abies spectabilis) Species in the Central Himalayas, Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayback, S. A.; Shrestha, K. B.; Hofgaard, A.

    2015-12-01

    Recent evidence indicates changing climatological conditions in the Nepalese Himalayas including decreasing precipitation, a weakening Indian monsoon and rising temperatures. Trees and shrubs found at treeline are considered to be highly sensitive to climate, but the climatic effects on these ecotone species in the Himalayas are not well understood. Dendrochronological techniques applied to co-occurring shrubs and trees up-and down-slope of treeline extend our understanding of vegetation response at range margins and into tree-less environments. We developed tree-ring width and annual height increment chronologies for Abies spectabilis (Himalayan fir) and the first annual growth increment and annual production of leaves chronologies for Cassiope fastigata (Himalayan heather) at a high elevation site in central Nepal. C. fastigata chronologies showed moisture availability in late pre-monsoon and monsoon seasons of the previous year are critical to stem elongation and leaf production (AGI and previous May-August SPEI-12, r = 0.790; LEAF and previous June-September SPEI-12, r = 0.708) A. spectabilis chronologies were significantly and negatively correlated with monsoon season temperature during the current year (tree-ring width and June mean temperature, r = -0.677; height-increment and Sept maximum temperature, r = -0.605). In addition to both long-term and recent declines in moisture in the Himalayas, moisture deficit may be further exacerbated at high elevation sites via run-off and higher levels of evapotranspiration resulting in growth reductions, dieback and even death of these species. These results highlight that not all mid-latitude, high elevation treelines are limited by temperature as previously thought and that severe drought stress may initiate downslope treeline retraction. Understanding the response of co-occurring tree and shrub species to climate, now and in the future, may help to elucidate the physiological mechanisms controlling local and

  14. Sequencing of the needle transcriptome from Norway spruce (Picea abies Karst L. reveals lower substitution rates, but similar selective constraints in gymnosperms and angiosperms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Jun

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A detailed knowledge about spatial and temporal gene expression is important for understanding both the function of genes and their evolution. For the vast majority of species, transcriptomes are still largely uncharacterized and even in those where substantial information is available it is often in the form of partially sequenced transcriptomes. With the development of next generation sequencing, a single experiment can now simultaneously identify the transcribed part of a species genome and estimate levels of gene expression. Results mRNA from actively growing needles of Norway spruce (Picea abies was sequenced using next generation sequencing technology. In total, close to 70 million fragments with a length of 76 bp were sequenced resulting in 5 Gbp of raw data. A de novo assembly of these reads, together with publicly available expressed sequence tag (EST data from Norway spruce, was used to create a reference transcriptome. Of the 38,419 PUTs (putative unique transcripts longer than 150 bp in this reference assembly, 83.5% show similarity to ESTs from other spruce species and of the remaining PUTs, 3,704 show similarity to protein sequences from other plant species, leaving 4,167 PUTs with limited similarity to currently available plant proteins. By predicting coding frames and comparing not only the Norway spruce PUTs, but also PUTs from the close relatives Picea glauca and Picea sitchensis to both Pinus taeda and Taxus mairei, we obtained estimates of synonymous and non-synonymous divergence among conifer species. In addition, we detected close to 15,000 SNPs of high quality and estimated gene expression differences between samples collected under dark and light conditions. Conclusions Our study yielded a large number of single nucleotide polymorphisms as well as estimates of gene expression on transcriptome scale. In agreement with a recent study we find that the synonymous substitution rate per year (0.6 × 10

  15. Indicators of climate change effects: Relationships between crown transparency and butt rot in silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) in Middle Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Aprile, Fabrizio; Tapper, Nigel

    2014-05-01

    Climatic analysis conducted on the trends and changes in temperature and rainfall during the 20th century in the Tuscan Apennine Alps (Middle Italy) have highlighted the possibility that these changes have a significant impact on the growth and/or health conditions or stress in silver fir (Abies alba Mill.). In this framework, identification of appropriate indicators to verify relationships between stress symptoms, which are frequently caused by climate adverse conditions, and pathological phenomena is a necessary step functional to the identification of climatic-environmental impacts on forests. The presence of butt rot pathology - a complex disease that causes rotting of the trunk internally - in silver fir is known the time as well as its severity. Nonetheless, very little research on the potential effects of changing climate conditions on the diffusion and intensity of butt rot seems available; thus, effects of climate change seem to be not excluded nor verified. No research or studies that quantify distribution and incidence or, especially, relationships of butt rot with adverse climatic and/or environmental factors were found. However, climatic alterations can have an impact on the intensity and spread of serious disease complexes and therefore it is of great importance to investigate the relationships between climate changing conditions, diffusion and incidence of butt rot in silver fir forests for their conservation and the management of species and biodiversity associated. As butt rot unlikely could be directly related to climate variables, crown transparency has been used as a proxy for tree growth, where climate variability is assumed to be the main driver of silver fir growth and stress. Actually, crown transparency is considered to be a main factor associated to tree growth, and healthier trees are assumed to grow faster than less-healthy trees. Thus, theoretically denser crowns would correspond to faster growing and healthier trees and indicate better

  16. Development of an Advanced Technique for Mapping and Monitoring Sea and Lake Ice in Preparation for GOES-R Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazari, R.; Temimi, M.; Khanbilvardi, R.; Romanov, P.

    2008-05-01

    In recent years, the uniqueness of the Earth's ice covered regions and their importance to the world is being increasingly recognized. They are considered vital and valuable for a variety of economic, environmental, and social reasons. Ice information can also improve weather and climate predictions. Observations show that Arctic ice is decreasing in both thickness and extent which will lead to the change in absorption of solar radiation and temperature of the earth. The increasing activity in ice-affected waters has led to a growing requirement for ice information and better mapping systems with improvements in both time and spatial resolution. A variety of Earth Observation sensors are used to map ice covered areas. Visible-Infrared sensors at moderate-resolution from polar orbiting satellites (NOAA-AVHRR, MODIS Aqua/ Terra) have been used extensively because of their easy accessibility. However, clouds, fog and low time resolutions limit the use of this type of sensor to fully meet operational ice mapping requirements, particularly in cloud- and fog ice zones. The primary objective of this research is to explore the potentials of mapping ice with the geostationary satellites which can provide a reasonably good time resolution and satisfactory spatial resolutions. The aim of this ongoing project is to develop an automated ice-mapping algorithm, which would make maximum use of GOES-R ABI's improved observing capabilities and to be the pioneer of creating daily ice maps from a geostationary satellite. Data collected by SEVIRI instrument onboard of Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) satellite have been used as a prototype. The Northern region of the Caspian Sea has been selected for algorithm development and calibration. The approach used in the algorithm development includes daily cloud-clear image compositing as well as pixel-by-pixel image classification using spectral criteria. All available spectral channels (reflectance and temperature) have been tested and used

  17. Irradiance in young stands of Picea abies (L.) Karst. and Pinus sylvestris L. and the possibilities to prevent suckers of broad-leaved trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Incoming shortwave global radiation (Qg) and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR;Qpa) as a fraction of full daylight, relative irradiance (%Q), were measured at the same time in young stands of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). Measurements were made on three levels above ground: 20 cm above ground and 50 and 75% of stand height. Stands of three heights (75, 150 and 300 cm) were studied during two months. The stands were created by arranging young trees cut from natural stands, in nine quadratic spacings: 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5, 0.7, 1.0, 1.4, and 2.0 m. The leaf area index (L) was estimated. Differences in %Q-values for Qpa and Qg in the same species at the same stand height and level of light measurements above ground were significant only in 150 and 300 cm stands. In 75 cm high stands of Scots pine, the %Q was less than 60% at spacings less than 0.2 m and in 75 cm high stands of Norway spruce, the %Q was less than 60% at spacings less than 0.3 m. Only at 0.1 x 0.1-0.3 x 0.3 m, %Q was less than 20% in Norway spruce stands. In 150 cm stands %Q less than 20% was measured at spacings less than 0.7 m in Norway spruce and less than 0.5 in Scots pine. In 300 cm stands of Norway spruce it was measured up to 1.2 and in Scots pine less than 1.1 m. Light extinction coefficients, K and Kg for spruce and pine stands were 0.17-0.40 and 0.16-0.31 respectively. Some practical implications of the study are presented. Lack of light (%Q less than 10%) as a single factor of seriously suppressed growth and development of broad-leaved plants and suckers by competition in young stands of spruce and pine only occur in dense stands 0.3 x 0.3-1.1 x 1.1 m (8000-100000 stems per hectare). Competition by light on a regenerated area generally occurs in the level of 50% of tree height (150-300 cm) and higher due to the rapid growth of broad-leaved trees (sprouts) compared with planted conifers but the light intensity at these levels %Q greater

  18. Spatial distribution of lead and lead isotopes in soil B-horizon, forest-floor humus, grass (Avenella flexuosa) and spruce (Picea abies) needles across the Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → Pb-concentrations and 206Pb/207Pb isotope ratios are provided for four different sample materials for the Czech Republic. → The paper demonstrates the local impact of a number of different contamination sources. → The data provide clear evidence that traffic emissions are no major source of Pb to the Czech environment. → The data demonstrate that the B-horizon provides no valid 'background' for Pb-concentration or the 206Pb/207Pb isotope ratio. → Pb isotope ratios change during soil weathering and at the interface biosphere/pedosphere. - Abstract: Lead concentrations were determined in samples of soil B-horizon (N = 258), forest-floor humus (O-horizon, N = 259), grass (Avenella flexuosa, N = 251) and spruce (Picea abies, N = 253) needles (2nd year) collected at the same locations evenly spread over the territory of the Czech Republic at an average density of 1 site/300 km2. Median Pb concentrations differ widely in the four materials: soil B-horizon: 27 mg/kg (3.3-220 mg/kg), humus: 78 mg/kg (19-1863 mg/kg), grass: 0.37 mg/kg (0.08-8 mg/kg) and spruce needles: 0.23 mg/kg (0.07-3 mg/kg). In the Pb distribution maps for humus, grass and spruce a number of well-known Pb-contamination sources are indicated by unusually high concentrations (e.g., the Pb smelter at Pribram, the metallurgical industry in the NE of the Czech Republic and along the Polish border, as well as the metallurgical industry in Upper Silesia and Europe's largest coal-fired power plant at Bogatynia, Poland). The ratio 206Pb/207Pb was determined in all four materials. The median value of the 206Pb/207Pb isotope ratio in the soil B-horizon is 1.184 (variation: 1.145-1.337). In both humus and grass the median value for the 206Pb/207Pb isotope ratio is 1.162 (variation: 1.130-1.182), in spruce needles the median ratio is 1.159 (variation: 1.116-1.186). In humus, grass and spruce needles the known contamination sources are all marked by higher 206Pb/207Pb isotope ratios in the

  19. Morphometric traits of Picea abies L. and Pinus sylvestris L. on the copper dump-field Maximilián in Špania Dolina (Starohorské vrchy Mts., Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Štrba

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of the work was to determine difference in length of needles and annual wood increments of Pinus sylvestris L. and Picea abies L. on the dump-field and for comparison on referential site. We performed 500 measurements of needles for each tree species and for each study area. The annual wood increments were measured on wood bores from five tree individuals from each species and from both study areas – dump-field and referential site. Student t-test and indicators of central values evaluated differences of the measured attributes. The results show statistically significant difference at 99% level of confidence for both attributes – length of needles and annual wood increments. The results support the hypothesis about influence of heavy metals on the plants growing.

  20. Paramètres de croissance et d'exploitation de la carpe blanche Pomadasys jubelini (Cuvier, 1830 dans les complexes lagunaires de Grand-Lahou, Ebrié et Aby (Côte d'Ivoire, Afrique de l'Ouest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bodji Iridjé, M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Growth and exploitation parameters of the Sompat grunt Pomadasys jubelini (Cuvier, 1830 in Grand-Lahou, Ebrié and Aby lagoons complex (Ivory Coast, West Africa. The growth and exploitation parameters of Pomadasys jubelini (Cuvier, 1830 were studied from January 2007 to December 2008 in Grand-Lahou, Ebrié and Aby lagoons. A total of 2284 specimens (8.50 to 32.70 cm FL were examined. Length-frequency data collected were analyzed with FiSAT software (FAO-ICLARM Fish Stock Assessment Tool. The demographic structure of P. jubelini was composed of young individuals with a majorant allometric growth. Estimation of growth and exploitation parameters gave: L∞= 33.60 cm; K= 0.53 year-1; t0= - 0,30 year; φ'= 2.78; M= 1.10 year-1; F= 0.26 year-1; E= 0.19 in Grand-Lahou lagoon, L∞= 31.50 cm; K= 0.56 year-1; t0= - 0,29 year; φ'= 2.75; M= 1.21 year-1; F= 0.63 year-1; E= 0.34 in Ebrié lagoon and L∞= 31.50 cm; K= 0.57 year-1; t0= - 0,28 year; φ'= 2.74; M= 1.22 year-1; F= 0.71 year-1; E= 0.37 in Aby lagoon. Pomadasys jubelini stock was more exploited in lagoon Aby than in the other lagoons. The maximum recruitment was observed from July in Grand-Lahou and Ebrié lagoons and May in Aby lagoon.

  1. Biotic and abiotic factors associated with soil suppressiveness to Rhizoctonia solani Fatores bióticos e abióticos associados à supressividade de solos a Rhizoctonia solani

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Ghini

    2006-04-01

    s propriedades abióticas (pH, condutividade elétrica, teor de matéria orgânica, N total, P, K, Ca, Mg, Al, H, S, Na, Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, B, capacidade de troca catiônica, soma de bases e saturação de bases e bióticas (atividade microbiana do solo, avaliada pelo desprendimento de CO2 e hidrólise de diacetato de fluoresceína; comunidades de bactérias, fungos, actinomicetos, protozoários, Pseudomonas fluorescentes e Fusarium spp.. A contribuição e relação dessas variáveis para a supressividade a R. solani foram quantificadas por análise de coeficientes de trilha. Quando se avaliaram todas as amostras em conjunto, somente variáveis abióticas apresentaram correlação com a supressão a R. solani, mas o conjunto das variáveis explicou somente 51% da variação total. Entretanto, quando as amostras foram agrupadas e analisadas considerando o tipo de cobertura vegetal, o conjunto de variáveis explicou mais de 90% da variação da supressividade. Para as áreas de floresta e pasto/pousio, as quais foram classificadas como as mais supressivas, algumas variáveis abióticas e a hidrólise de diacetato de fluoresceína apresentaram correlação com a supressão de R. solani e o conjunto de variáveis explicou mais de 98% da supressividade nesses solos.

  2. AtMyb7, a subgroup 4 R2R3 Myb, negatively regulates ABA-induced inhibition of seed germination by blocking the expression of the bZIP transcription factor ABI5

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Junhyeok

    2014-08-27

    Various Myb proteins have been shown to play crucial roles in plants, including primary and secondary metabolism, determination of cell fate and identity, regulation of development and involvement in responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. The 126 R2R3 Myb proteins (with two Myb repeats) have been found in Arabidopsis; however, the functions of most of these proteins remain to be fully elucidated. In the present study, we characterized the function of AtMyb7 using molecular biological and genetic analyses. We used qRT-PCR to determine the levels of stress-response gene transcripts in wild-type and atmyb7 plants. We showed that ArabidopsisAtMyb7 plays a critical role in seed germination. Under abscisic acid (ABA) and high-salt stress conditions, atmyb7 plants showed a lower germination rate than did wild-type plants. Furthermore, AtMyb7 promoter:GUS seeds exhibited different expression patterns in response to variations in the seed imbibition period. AtMyb7 negatively controls the expression of the gene encoding bZIP transcription factor, ABI5, which is a key transcription factor in ABA signalling and serves as a crucial regulator of germination inhibition in Arabidopsis. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Community Structure and Species Diversity of Abies georgei var.smithii Forest near the Timerline%急尖长苞冷杉林林线附近群落结构与物种多样性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓娟; 罗大庆

    2013-01-01

    急尖长苞冷杉(Abies georgei var.smithii)是西藏东南部高山林线区森林群落的主要建群树种,分布于色季拉山海拔3 600~4 400 m区域,为阴坡高山林线的优势树种.在藏东南色季拉山东坡急尖长苞冷杉林林线附近海拔4 000~4 400m地带进行样地样方调查的基础上,分析急尖长苞冷杉群落的物种组成、物种丰富度(S)、Simpson指数(D)、Shannon-Wiener指数(H')、均匀度指数(Ea)、Jaccard指数(Cj)、Cody指数(βc)以及种群结构与生长特征.结果表明:1)在林线5个海拔的调查样地中,共有种子植物26种,分属16科20属;随海拔梯度的升高,植物的科、属、种的数量总体呈减少趋势,灌木层和草本层的丰富度亦呈相似的趋势;2)林线附近的灌木层和草本层植物的α多样性与海拔总体呈负相关;3)在生境转折带的4 100~4 200 m之间Jaccard指数(Cj)最低,Cody指数与海拔呈负相关;4)林线附近的急尖长苞冷杉种群总体呈稳定的金字塔型结构;5)在林线附近,海拔4 200 m的急尖长苞冷杉的分布与生长状况相对较优.%Abies georgei var. Smithii is a main constructive species of the forest communities at alpine timer-line in southeast area of Tibet. It is also the dominant tree species on the shady slope in this area,and distributed between 3 600 to 4 400 m above sea level at the Mt. Sejila. Based on a comprehensive investigation on A. Georgei population that distributed between the altitudes of 4 000 to 4 400 m,an analysis was carried out on the species composition, species richness, Simpson index, Shannon-Wiener index, Evenness index, Jaccard index,Cody index, changes in the structure, and growth characteristics. The results were reported as follows. 1) There were 26 species of wild seed plants belonging to 16 families and 20 genera in sampling plots. The number of families,genera and species decreased with the increase of altitude. Species richness of shrubs and herbs also

  4. Indução de resistência do mamoeiro à podridão radicular por indutores bióticos e abióticos Resistance induction to root rot in papaya by biotic and abiotic elicitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giltembergue Macedo Tavares

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o potencial do uso de indutores de resistência bióticos e abióticos na redução da podridão radicular em mamoeiro. Mudas de mamoeiro foram pulverizadas com os fungicidas fosetil-Al, metalaxil e Mancozeb (2 g L-1, com os indutores abióticos fosfito de potássio (2,5 e 5 mL L-1, ácido salicílico 0,15 e 0,30%, Reforce (indutor comercial + ácido salicílico a 5%, acibenzolar-S-metil (ASM (0,15 e 0,30 g L-1, e com o indutor biótico Saccharomyces cerevisiae (3 e 6 mL L-1, três e seis dias antes da pulverização de 1 mL de suspensão de 10(5 zoósporos mL-1 de Phytophthora palmivora. Todos os tratamentos tiveram efeito no controle da podridão de raízes em relação à testemunha, com exceção do Reforce + ácido salicílico a 5% (3 mL L-1, seis dias antes da inoculação. Os tratamentos com ASM, com exceção da dosagem 0,15 g L-1 seis dias antes da inoculação, apresentaram resultados similares aos dos fungicidas metalaxil e Mancozeb. Plantas pulverizadas com ASM apresentaram aumento de atividade da peroxidase e beta-1,3-glucanase e maior concentração de lignina que a testemunha. No entanto, esses tratamentos não tiverem efeito sobre a atividade da quitinase. O ASM é um potencial indutor de resistência a P. palmivora em mamoeiro.The objective of this work was to evaluate the potential use of biotic and abiotic elicitors of resistance in the reduction of root rot in papaya. Papaya seedlings were sprayed with the fosetil-Al and metalaxyl and Mancozeb (2 g L-1 fungicides, with the potassium phosphite (2.5 and 5 mL L-1, salicylic acid 0.15 e 0.30%, Reforce (commercial product + salicylic acid 5%, acibenzolar-S-methyl (ASM (0.15 and 0.30 g L-1 abiotic elicitors, and with the Saccharomyces cerevisiae (3 and 6 mL L-1 biotic elicitor, applied three and six days before the inoculation with 1 mL of 10(5 zoospores mL-1 suspension of Phytophthora palmivora. All treatments were effective in controlling

  5. Clinical significance of ABI and CAVI in detedion early atherosclerosis in the Xinjiang Uygur%ABI与CAVI测定在新疆维吾尔族动脉硬化早期检测中的临床意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祖丽菲娅·木沙; 侯月梅; 努尔江·沙布开

    2008-01-01

    目的:应用VS-1000血压脉搏测量仪测定踝一臂指数(ABI)与心一踝血管指数(CAVI),观察其在新疆维吾尔族人群动脉硬化早期检测中的意义.方法:采用VS-1000血压脉搏测量仪检测150例维吾尔族受试者的ABI和CAVI数值.结果:ABI右侧在正常值范围有109例(71.7%),其中26例(17.1%)0.81.3,血管有早期动脉硬化或有钙化现象.CAVI右侧在正常范围有112例(73.7%),其中10例(6.6%)有动脉闭塞的可能,30例(19.7%)动脉闭塞的可能性较高;左侧正常范围有112例(73.7%),其中11例(7.2%)有动脉闭塞的可能,29例(19.1%)动脉闭塞的可能性较高.结论:临床检测ABI与CAVI能有效发现心血管异常及早期动脉硬化等血管病变,是一种无创、有效、简易发现血管壁的硬度及弹性改变的检测方法.

  6. Evaluation of the RapidHIT™ 200 System: A comparative study of its performance with Maxwell(®) DNA IQ™/Identifiler(®) Plus/ABI 3500xL workflow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thong, Zhonghui; Phua, Yong Han; Loo, Eileen Shuzhen; Goh, Sze Kae; Ang, Jiatian; Looi, Woan Foon; Syn, Christopher Kiu Choong

    2015-11-01

    RapidHIT(™) System is a rapid DNA instrument that is capable of processing forensic samples from extraction through to capillary electrophoresis and profile generation within two hours. Evaluation of the RapidHIT(™) 200 System was conducted to examine several key performance indicators of the instrument, including reproducibility, contamination, sensitivity, versatility and the possibility of sample re-extraction. Results indicated that the RapidHIT(™) 200 System was capable of generating high quality DNA profiles which were comparable to those from the standard protocol comprising of Maxwell(®) 16 DNA IQ(™) System, Identifiler(®) Plus and ABI 3500xL. No contamination was detected during the studies. Results also showed that the instrument was able to generate DNA profiles from samples containing lower amounts of DNA (0.5 μl of blood) albeit with more allele and locus dropouts when compared to the standard protocol. The ability to process blood swabs, blood-stained FTA punches, semen swabs, buccal swabs, product of conception (POC), bone marrow, fingernail clippings and cigarette butts at a good success rate indicated the robustness and versatility of the RapidHIT(™) 200 System. Furthermore, additional alleles could be recovered via re-analysis of the failed samples using the standard protocol. In summary, our results showed that the RapidHIT(™) 200 System was able to process casework samples for the purpose of providing rapid intelligence through DNA database searches and reference matching. Confirmative DNA results can be obtained through either concurrent processing of duplicate samples via standard protocol or re-extraction of samples retrieved from the RapidHIT(™) sample cartridge. PMID:26051364

  7. Evaluation of the RapidHIT™ 200 System: A comparative study of its performance with Maxwell(®) DNA IQ™/Identifiler(®) Plus/ABI 3500xL workflow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thong, Zhonghui; Phua, Yong Han; Loo, Eileen Shuzhen; Goh, Sze Kae; Ang, Jiatian; Looi, Woan Foon; Syn, Christopher Kiu Choong

    2015-11-01

    RapidHIT(™) System is a rapid DNA instrument that is capable of processing forensic samples from extraction through to capillary electrophoresis and profile generation within two hours. Evaluation of the RapidHIT(™) 200 System was conducted to examine several key performance indicators of the instrument, including reproducibility, contamination, sensitivity, versatility and the possibility of sample re-extraction. Results indicated that the RapidHIT(™) 200 System was capable of generating high quality DNA profiles which were comparable to those from the standard protocol comprising of Maxwell(®) 16 DNA IQ(™) System, Identifiler(®) Plus and ABI 3500xL. No contamination was detected during the studies. Results also showed that the instrument was able to generate DNA profiles from samples containing lower amounts of DNA (0.5 μl of blood) albeit with more allele and locus dropouts when compared to the standard protocol. The ability to process blood swabs, blood-stained FTA punches, semen swabs, buccal swabs, product of conception (POC), bone marrow, fingernail clippings and cigarette butts at a good success rate indicated the robustness and versatility of the RapidHIT(™) 200 System. Furthermore, additional alleles could be recovered via re-analysis of the failed samples using the standard protocol. In summary, our results showed that the RapidHIT(™) 200 System was able to process casework samples for the purpose of providing rapid intelligence through DNA database searches and reference matching. Confirmative DNA results can be obtained through either concurrent processing of duplicate samples via standard protocol or re-extraction of samples retrieved from the RapidHIT(™) sample cartridge.

  8. Clinical Study of the Value of PCT, ABI and 128 Hz Tuning Fork Combined with 10 g Monofilament in Evaluating the Prognosis of Diabetic Foot%PCT、 ABI、128 Hz音叉联合10克单丝对糖尿病足预后评估价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘强; 游东; 梁永

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨降钙素原(PCT)、踝肱指数(ABI)、 Rydel-seifer分级音叉(128 Hz音叉)联合10 g单丝对糖尿病足预后评估的临床价值。方法选择243例糖尿病患者,其中观察组为糖尿病足患者50例,对照组为非糖尿病足183例,对其临床资料进行回顾性分析糖尿病足的相关因素。根据患者预后分为两组,比较其PCT水平、 ABI、128 Hz音叉联合10 g单丝结果。结果多因素 Logistic 回归分析显示,肥胖、空腹血糖、128 Hz音叉及PCT升高、 ABI、10 g单丝降低是糖尿病足的危险因素。截肢组患者PCT水平及128 Hz音叉结果高于非截肢组, ABI、10 g单丝结果低于非截肢组,两组比较,差异具有统计学意义, P<0.05。结论肥胖、空腹血糖、128 Hz音叉及PCT升高、 ABI、10 g单丝降低在糖尿病的进展过程中起着重要作用,应给予足够重视,积极对症治疗,降低其截肢率。%Objective To investigate the clinical value of procalcitonin (PCT), ankle brachial index (ABI) and Rydel-seifer tuning fork rating (128 Hz tuning fork) combined with 10 g monofilament in evaluating the prognosis of diabetic foot. Methods 243 cases of patients with diabetes were selected, the observation group of 50 patients with diabetic foot, compared with the control group of 183 cases of non diabetic foot. The clinical data were retrospectively analyzed and the related factors of diabetic foot were analyzed by SPSS19. 0 statistics software. The patients were divided into 2 groups according to the prognosis of the patients and the results of the level of PCT, ABI, and 128 Hz fork combined with 10g monofilament. Results Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the increase of obesity, fasting blood glucose, 128 Hz tuning fork and PCT and the decrease of ABI and 10 g monofilament were the risk factors for diabetic foot. The scores of the level of PCT level and 128 Hz tuning fork of the patients in amputation group

  9. Influência dos fatores abióticos e da disponibilidade de presas sobre comunidade de serpentes do Planalto Médio do Rio Grande do Sul Influence of abiotic factors and availability of prey on the occurrence of snakes in the middle plateau region of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Noeli Zanella; Sonia Z. Cechin

    2009-01-01

    A influência dos fatores abióticos sobre a disponibilidade de presas e a dieta das espécies de serpentes mais abundantes do Planalto Médio do Rio Grande do Sul, foi estudada em duas áreas: floresta e campo. O trabalho foi desenvolvido utilizando serpentes coletadas com os métodos: procura limitada por tempo, encontros ocasionais, armadilhas de interceptação e queda, e serpentes depositadas na coleção de répteis da Universidade de Passo Fundo. Foram registradas as guildas alimentares das seis ...

  10. Height Extraction and Stand Volume Estimation Based on Fusion Airborne LiDAR Data and Terrestrial Measurements for a Norway Spruce [Picea abies (L. Karst.] Test Site in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan APOSTOL

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to analyze the efficiency of individual tree identification and stand volume estimation from LiDAR data. The study was located in Norway spruce [Picea abies (L. Karst.] stands in southwestern Romania and linked airborne laser scanning (ALS with terrestrial measurements through empirical modelling. The proposed method uses the Canopy Maxima algorithm for individual tree detection together with biometric field measurements and individual trees positioning. Field data was collected using Field-Map real-time GIS-laser equipment, a high-accuracy GNSS receiver and a Vertex IV ultrasound inclinometer. ALS data were collected using a Riegl LMS-Q560 instrument and processed using LP360 and Fusion software to extract digital terrain, surface and canopy height models. For the estimation of tree heights, number of trees and tree crown widths from the ALS data, the Canopy Maxima algorithm was used together with local regression equations relating field-measured tree heights and crown widths at each plot. When compared to LiDAR detected trees, about 40-61% of the field-measured trees were correctly identified. Such trees represented, in general, predominant, dominant and co-dominant trees from the upper canopy. However, it should be noted that the volume of the correctly identified trees represented 60-78% of the total plot volume. The estimation of stand volume using the LiDAR data was achieved by empirical modelling, taking into account the individual tree heights (as identified from the ALS data and the corresponding ground reference stem volume. The root mean square error (RMSE between the individual tree heights measured in the field and the corresponding heights identified in the ALS data was 1.7-2.2 meters. Comparing the ground reference estimated stem volume (at trees level with the corresponding ALS estimated tree stem volume, an RMSE of 0.5-0.7 m3 was achieved. The RMSE was slightly lower when comparing the ground

  11. Monoterpene synthases from grand fir (Abies grandis). cDNA isolation, characterization, and functional expression of myrcene synthase, (-)-(4S)-limonene synthase, and (-)-(1S,5S)-pinene synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohlmann, J; Steele, C L; Croteau, R

    1997-08-29

    Grand fir (Abies grandis) has been developed as a model system for studying defensive oleoresin formation in conifers in response to insect attack or other injury. The turpentine fraction of the oleoresin is a complex mixture of monoterpene (C10) olefins in which (-)-limonene and (-)-alpha- and (-)-beta-pinene are prominent components; (-)-limonene and (-)-pinene synthase activities are also induced upon stem wounding. A similarity based cloning strategy yielded three new cDNA species from a wounded stem cDNA library that appeared to encode three distinct monoterpene synthases. After expression in Escherichia coli and enzyme assay with geranyl diphosphate as substrate, subsequent analysis of the terpene products by chiral phase gas chromatography and mass spectrometry showed that these sequences encoded a (-)-limonene synthase, a myrcene synthase, and a (-)-pinene synthase that produces both alpha-pinene and beta-pinene. In properties and reaction stereochemistry, the recombinant enzymes resemble the corresponding native monoterpene synthases of wound-induced grand fir stem. The deduced amino acid sequences indicated the limonene synthase to be 637 residues in length (73.5 kDa), the myrcene synthase to be 627 residues in length (72.5 kDa), and the pinene synthase to be 628 residues in length (71.5 kDa); all of these monoterpene synthases appear to be translated as preproteins bearing an amino-terminal plastid targeting sequence. Sequence comparison revealed that these monoterpene synthases from grand fir resemble sesquiterpene (C15) synthases and diterpene (C20) synthases from conifers more closely than other monoterpene synthases from angiosperm species. This similarity between extant monoterpene, sesquiterpene, and diterpene synthases of gymnosperms is surprising since functional diversification of this enzyme class is assumed to have occurred over 300 million years ago. Wound-induced accumulation of transcripts for monoterpene synthases was demonstrated by RNA

  12. 心踝血管指数与踝臂指数预测冠心病的价值%CAVI and ABI Research Forecasts the Value of Coronary Artery Disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈保见; 吕罗岩; 谭艳娇; 李丹丹; 郑玉荣

    2014-01-01

    目的 探讨心踝血管指数(CAVI)与踝臂指数(ABI)对冠心病的预测价值.方法 随机选取在我院心血管内科行选择性冠状动脉造影检查及治疗的患者256例,其中经冠状动脉造影证实的冠心病患者(狭窄度≥50%) 205例作为冠心病组,并根据冠状动脉病变支数分为相应的亚组,其余51例(狭窄度<50%)作为对照组(非冠心病组),比较两组间CAVI、ABI的差异.结果 年龄、糖尿病、高血压、吸烟、血脂等是冠心病发生的危险因素.随着冠状动脉狭窄程度的加重,CAVI进行性增高,两组间的差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).非冠心病组与冠心病组ABI均在正常范围,但冠心病组ABI明显低于非冠心病组(P<0.01).多支病变组ABI低于非冠心病组、单支病变组(P<0.05).CAVI(+)预测冠心病的敏感性较高(66.4%),特异性欠佳(32.7%);ABI降低预测冠心病的敏感性低(18.0%),但特异性高(96.2%).结论 CAVI(-)可能是非冠心病有意义的独立预测因子,CAVI(+)则有利于早期发现动脉硬化,而ABI降低则是冠心病独立的危险因子,可视为冠心病的诊断参考指标.

  13. 外源NO供体SNP对欧洲云杉插穗生根的效应%Effects of Exogenous NO Donor SNP on Cuttage Rooting of Picea abies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安三平; 王丽芳; 王美琴; 马建伟; 张宋智; 王军辉

    2012-01-01

    对SNP处理欧洲云杉的最适浓度、最佳处理时间、不同插穗年龄和侧枝类型以及SNP、IBA、NAA促进生根效果的比较等方面进行了系统研究.结果表明:一定浓度SNP均能显著促进欧洲云杉的生根和侧根的发生,50 mg· L-1SNP处理5h是SNP促进欧洲云杉生根的最佳浓度和最佳时长;SNP和IBA处理,均可明显促进欧洲云杉的生根,SNP的生根数量、平均根长均最佳;SNP处理的插穗年龄和侧枝类型对欧洲云杉的响应较大,1龄和一级侧枝可明显提高扦插成活率,内源NO在侧根发生及其形成中可能起着重要作用.%Effects of sodium nitroprusside (SNP) on cottage rooting of Picea abies were systemically examined from the aspects of optimal concentration, optimal treatment time, age of cuttings, and lateral branch types. The results were compared with those of IBA and NAA. It was found that SNP in certain concentrations could significantly promote rooting and lateral roots development. The optimal concentration and optimal treatment time were 50 mg · L-1 and 5 h, respectively. Treated by SNP and IBA, the rooting could significantly be promotes, the number of rooting, average root length were optimal after treated by SNP. Differences were observed among the cuttings with different ages and lateral branches with different types after treated by SNP. Higher survival rates were found in one-age cuttings and I -lateral branches. Exogenous NO had an important role in lateral roots development.

  14. Vananemise vastu otsitakse abi noorte verest

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2016-01-01

    Füüsik Jesse Karmazin koos endise vaktsiiniuurija Craig Wrightiga panid aluse uuringule (katses osaleks 600 vähemalt 35-aastast inimest, kellele kantakse üle kuni 25-aastaste verest pärit plasma), et uurida vereplasma kui võimaliku noorendava eliksiiri toimet. Kommenteerinud Toivo Maimets

  15. Vananemise vastu otsitakse abi noorest verest

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2016-01-01

    Füüsik Jesse Karmazin koos endise vaktsiiniuurija Craig Wrightiga panid aluse uuringule (katses osaleks 600 vähemalt 35-aastast inimest, kellele kantakse üle kuni 25-aastaste verest pärit plasma), et uurida vereplasma kui võimaliku noorendava eliksiiri toimet. Kommenteerinud Toivo Maimets

  16. Omavalitsused ootavad eelarvest abi / Toomas Varek

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Varek, Toomas, 1948-

    2007-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Valgamaalane, 2.okt. 2007, lk. 2; Meie Maa, 27. sept. 2007, lk. 2; Vali Uudised, 28. sept. 2007, lk. 2; Sakala, 28. sept 2007, lk. 2; Harju Ekspress, 28. sept. 2007, lk. 4; Koit, 29. sept. 2007, lk. 6; Vooremaa, 29. sept. 2007, lk. 2; Lõunaleht, 4. okt. 2007, lk. 2. Riigieelarve kontrolli komisjoni esimehe hinnangul pole koalitsioonilepingus kohaliku omavalitsuse tulubaasi süsteemselt käsitletud ning valitsuse positsioon ja eelarveläbirääkimiste senine käik ei anna lootust kiireteks lahendusteks

  17. Tudengid otsivad abi õiguskantslerilt / Dannar Leitmaa

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Leitmaa, Dannar, 1982-

    2007-01-01

    Õppemaksu tõstmisest Tallinna ja Tartu Ülikoolis ja ülikooliseaduse vastava regulatsiooni tõlgendamisest ning üliõpilaste märgukirjast õiguskantslerile. Lisatud advokaat Ramon Raski kommentaar. Seisukoha avaldavad ka Tallinna Ülikooli akadeemiline prorektor Heli Mattisen, Tartu Ülikooli prorektor Birute Klaas ja Eesti Üliõpilaskondade Liidu juhatuse esimees Eimar Veldre

  18. Vennalik abi / Raul-Levroit Kivi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kivi, Raul-Levroit, 1920-2009

    1999-01-01

    Vabariikliku projekteerimisinstituudi "Estonprojekt" Tartu filiaali juhataja Kuno Tiku väljavahetamisest Venemaalt tulnud Nikolai Toomega. Arhitektide vastuhakust. Lk. 83-84 1954. a. 24. detsembri "Edasis" pseudonüümi E. Saar all ilmunud Olaf Uti kollektiivi toetav artikkel "Ühe kollektiivi mured"

  19. Abi Ida-Euroopale / Sirje Rank

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rank, Sirje, 1966-

    2008-01-01

    Ida-Euroopast on saamas riskikoht ning koos nende riikide langusega kannataks ka laenuandja Lääne-Euroopa. Suurbritannia peaminister ja Prantsusmaa president arutasid ka Ida-Euroopa abistamist. Lisa: EL plaanib kahekordistada abilaenude mahtu

  20. ‘”Cannon fodder for respectable question marks”: Fritz Saxl and the history of the Warburg Library’. Review of: Dorothea McEwan, Fritz Saxl – Eine Biografie: Aby Warburgs Bibliothekar und Erster Direktor des Londoner Warburg Institutes, Wien, Köln, Weimar: Böhlau Verlag, 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A. Russell

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available As the first Archivist of The Warburg Institute, University of London, from 1993 until her retirement in 2006, Dorothea McEwan compiled the database of the Aby Warburg Correspondence. McEwan has published and lectured widely on Warburg and Fritz Saxl. The present book is preceded by two previous volumes treating the Warburg-Saxl correspondence: Das Ausreiten der Ecken, Hamburg: Dölling und Galitz, 1998; and Wanderstrassen der Kultur, München und Hamburg: Dölling und Galitz, 2004. Based largely on Fritz Saxl’s correspondence in his various capacities as Aby Warburg’s principal aid and successor, this recounting of the Austrian scholar’s life and work is presented as a narration of the events of his professional career, and not as an intellectual biography per se. Saxl is situated within a history of the Warburg Library, is pictured as devoted to Warburg and his work, and is shown to have been critical to the functioning and survival of the Library in its various forms. As such, the book suggests that Saxl’s greatest achievement was his administrative and organizational contribution to what became the Warburg Institute. Surveying and integrating a large body of material, the author provides the necessary outlines of a career and corpus of scholarship worthy of further exploration.

  1. 滇西北不同海拔梯度下急尖长苞冷杉叶片的生态解剖结构特性研究%An Eco-anatomical Study on Abies georgei var. smithii Leaves at Gradient Elevation in Northwest of Yunnan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐探; 姜永雷; 冯程程; 程小毛; 黄晓霞

    2015-01-01

    采用生态解剖学的方法对玉龙雪山自然保护区内不同海拔梯度(3100 m,3250 m,3400 m,3550 m,3700 m)的急尖长苞冷杉叶片解剖结构特征进行比较研究,探究不同海拔高度对急尖长苞冷杉叶片生态适应的影响。结果表明:在海拔低于3550 m时,随着海拔的升高,叶片表皮角质层厚度、上表皮厚度、栅栏组织厚度、海绵组织厚度、栅栏组织细胞长短径、栅栏系数、栅栏细胞系数、韧皮部厚度、木质部厚度及转输组织厚度均呈增大趋势,而海拔高于3550 m时,各项指标及参数有所下降。因此,海拔3550 m附近为玉龙雪山急尖长苞冷杉生长最适宜的环境;不同海拔梯度上复杂的环境条件导致了急尖长苞冷杉叶片解剖结构的差异性,并限制了它的生长和分布。这种差异性是植物在一定程度上适应环境的结果。%To study the ecological adaptation of Abies georgei var.Smithii leaves at different gradient eleva⁃tions,the leaf anatomical characteristics of Abies georgei var. Smithii and their relationship with ecological fac⁃tors were investigated,which are growing at different elevations ( 3 100 m,3 250 m,3 400 m,3 550 m,3 700 m) in the Nature Reserve of Yulong Snow Mountain.The results showed that:at the altitude below 3 550 m,the strata corneum epidermidis thickness,upper epidermis thickness,palisade mesophyll thickness,spongy meso⁃phyll thickness,length and width of palisade cell,palisade tissue ratio,palisade cell factor,phloem thickness, xylem thickness and the transfusion tissue thickness increased with the increasing elevation. However,the pa⁃rameters of leaf anatomical characteristics decreased at the elevation above 3 550 m. Hence, the optimum zone for Abies georgei var.Smithii was nearly at the elevation of around 3 550 m.On one hand,the growth and distribution of Abies georgei var.Smithii are limited by the changes of complex environmental conditions

  2. 康定木格措冷杉林土壤有机质水平及其预测%Study on Soil Organic Matter and Predict its Storage of Abies faxoniana Forest in MuGecuo, Kangding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈颖; 雷波; 罗承德; 汪航玉; 马丹; 刘丽

    2013-01-01

    采用分解袋法,在土壤表层按发生土层定位研究康定木格措冷杉林土壤有机质分解与积累特征,构建土壤有机质储量随时间变化模型.研究结果表明:定位研究区凋落物年产量2.82×103 kg,折算有机质归还量2.54×103 kg;土壤有机质储量A1层77.14×103 kg,A2层84.89×103 kg,土壤有机物质氧化系数A1层0.044,A2层o.034,折算有机物质年矿化量分别为A1层3.39×103 kg,A2层2.88×103 kg,凋落物有机质归还量远小于矿化量;凋落物腐殖化系数A1层0.597,A2层0.493,对土壤有机质的贡献量分别为A1层1.52×103 kg,A2层0.75×103 kg,土壤固碳潜力大;土壤表层有机质总储量162.03×103 kg,相对较高,但不稳定,随时间推移逐渐减少.提高森林生态系统的固碳能力将是进一步研究的重点.%To predict the change of the storage of soil organic matter (SOM) over time in study areas,litter bag method was applied to simulate the decomposition and accumulation characteristics of SOM in the surface layer,a mathematical model of the SOM storage changes over time was built in the case of the soil genetic layers of Abies faxoniana forest located in Mugecuo,Kangding.The results showed that the amount of litter in the study areas was 2.82×103 kg,the amount of which turned to be SOM was 2.54× 103 kg.The SOM storage in layer A1 was 77.14× 103 kg and in layer A2 was 84.89 × 103 kg,respectively.The oxidation coefficient was 0.044 and 0.034 in A1 layer and A2 layer respectively.The mineralization amount of A1 layer was 3.39 × 103 kg and that of A2 layer was 2.88× 103 kg.As we can see,the amount of the returned SOM was far less than the mineralization.The litter humification coefficients were 0.597(A1) and 0.493(A2),which led to the return of SOM were 1.52 × 103 kg (A1) and 0.75 × 103 kg (A2) respectively,which showed that the soil carbon sequestration potential of the study areas was high.The total SOM storage in the surface of soil layer was relatively

  3. 利用无人机遥感测定岷江冷杉单木树干生物量%Estimation of stem biomass of individual Abies faxoniana through unmanned aerial vehicle remote sensing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何游云; 张玉波; 李俊清; 王卷乐

    2016-01-01

    无人机获取的高分辨率遥感影像,已成为单木生物量估算的有效手段。本文以四川省王朗自然保护区岷江冷杉为研究对象,利用本项目组自行研制的无人机获取无阴影遥感影像。设置2块样地,其中plot 1为建模样本, plot 2为验证样本。通过人机交互的方式提取单木树冠面积( CA)数据,并结合野外实测的胸径( DBH),建立DBH遥感估算模型。最后基于CA-DBH模型的有效性,结合已有DBH-SB(树干生物量)经验方程,计算plot 2岷江冷杉单木树干生物量。结果表明:基于无人机遥感影像提取的单木CA与实测DBH存在较好的非线性相关关系,所建立的模型有较好的拟合度,R2达到0.752(P0.05),其皮尔森相关系数可达0.879,证明利用无人机获取的遥感影像,通过提取的CA估算DBH是可行的。本次实验表明:利用无人机遥感获取影像,通过提取的单木CA进行树干生物量的估算是有效的。%Fast and accurate quantification of biophysical parameters of trees is essential for forest management, assessment of carbon sequestration and evaluation of regional ecosystem services value. Unmanned aerial vehicle ( UAV ) is a promising tool to estimate biomass of individual trees due to its extremely high resolution. In this study, we used self-developed UAV to obtain shadow-free remote sensing images, taking Abies faxoniana in Wanglang Nature Reserve of Sichuan Province as an example. There were two plots, one for model training and the other for model validation. Crown area (CA) of individual trees was delineated through man-computer interpretation. Meanwhile, the field inventory was conducted to record the diameter at breast height ( DBH) of individual trees, and to establish CA-DBH regression model. Based on the validity of CA-DBH model, the stem biomass ( SB) of individual A. faxoniana trees in plot 2 was derived according to the existing empirical DBH-SB equation. There was a strong nonlinear

  4. Dynamic analysis of the changes of blood pressure in type 2 diabetic patients with CAVI and ABI and its correlation with hypertension%高血压合并Ⅱ型糖尿病患者动态血压与CAVI和ABI变化及相关性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾凤英; 张莉莉

    2014-01-01

    目的:分析探讨高血压病(eH)及合并Ⅱ型糖尿病(t2dM)患者24 h动态血压水平及与心踝血管指数(caVi)、踝臂指数(aBi)的相关性。方法选取2009年3月至2012年3月在我院心内科住院的所有高血压病患者,共269例,男158例,女111例。按有无Ⅱ型糖尿病分为高血压组130例(观察组),高血压伴糖尿病组139例(对照组),所有入选者进行24 h动态血压监测,caVi、aBi指标检查。对观察组和对照组指标进行比较,并对动态血压与caVi、aBi进行直线相关分析。结果观察组和对照组患者比较,对照组患者各时段的平均收缩压(sBP)、脉压(PP)、caVi呈增高趋势,而aBi和夜间血压下降率降低,两组比较统计学有显著性差异(P均<0.05)。观察组患者杓型血压占43.5%,对照组杓型血压占23.3%,两组比较统计学有显著性差异(P<0.05)。caVi与24 h平均收缩压、24 h平均脉压差、日间平均脉压差、夜间平均脉压差呈正相关,aBi与24 hsBP、日间平均收缩压、日间平均脉压差等指标呈负相关。结论合并2型糖尿病可增加高血压患者收缩压、脉压及收缩压负荷水平,并加速动脉硬化的进展。caVi,aBi指数可较好的预测高血压病(eH)合并Ⅱ型糖尿病(t2dM)患者心、脑血管疾病的发生,对有caVi ,aBi异常的患者采取积极有效的干预措施意义重大。%AObjective analysis of essential hypertension (eH) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (t2dM) patients and 24 h ambulatory blood pressure levels and vascular and cardiac ankle index (caVi), ankle brachial index (aBi) correlation.Methods from 2009 March to 2012 March in all hypertensive patients hospitalized in the department of cardiology in our hospital, a total of 269 cases, male 158 cases, female 111 cases. according to whether the type 2 diabetes were divided into hypertension group (observation group), 130 patients with hypertension and diabetes mellitus group

  5. Correlation among ambulatory blood pressure,CAVI and ABI in patients with hypertension complicating type 2 diabetes mellitus%高血压病合并2型糖尿病患者动态血压与CAVI及ABI相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范学明; 胡华青; 陆琨; 韩卫星

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨高血压病(EH)及合并2型糖尿病(T2DM)患者24 h动态血压水平及与心踝血管指数(CAVI)、踝臂指数(ABI)的相关性.方法 随机入选90例高血压病患者,分为单纯高血压病组(EH组,n=47),高血压病伴糖尿病组(EH+T2DM组,n=43).所有入选者进行24 h动态血压监测,CAVI、ABI指标及颈动脉超声检查.对两组上述指标进行比较,并对动态血压与CAVI、ABI进行直线相关分析.结果 与EH组患者比较,EH+T2DM组患者各时段的平均收缩压(SBP)、脉压(PP)、收缩压负荷(SBP-L)及CAVI呈增高趋势,而ABI和夜间血压下降率降低,两组比较均有统计学差异(P均<0.05).EH组患者杓型血压占42.5%,EH+T2DM杓型血压占23.3%,两组比较有统计学差异(P<0.05).CAVI与24 h平均收缩压(24 hSBP)、夜间平均收缩压(nSBP)、24 h平均脉压差(24 hPP)、日间平均脉压差(dPP)、夜间平均脉压差(nPP)、夜间收缩压负荷(nSBP-L)、夜间舒张压负荷(nDBP-L)呈正相关,ABI与24 hSBP、白天平均收缩压(dSBP)、dPP、白天收缩压负荷(dSBP-L)、nSBP-L等指标呈负相关.结论 合并T2DM可增加EH患者收缩压、脉压及收缩压负荷水平,并加速动脉硬化的进展.%Objective To investigate the correlation among 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure ( BP ), cardio-ankle vascular index ( CAVI ) and ankle-brachial index ( ABI ) in the patients with essential hypertension ( EH ) complicating type 2 diabetes mellitus ( T2DM ). Methods All EH patients ( n = 90 ) were randomly divided into simple hypertension group ( EH group, n = 47 ) and hypertension complicating T2DM group ( EH + T2DM group, n = 43 ), and they were all given detections of 24-hour ambulatory BP, CAVI and ABI and carotid ultrasonography. All indexes were compared in two groups,and the changes of ambulatory BP,CAVI and ABI were given linear correlation analysis. Results Compared with EH group, mean systolic BP ( SBP ), pulse pressure ( PP ), systolic BP-load ( SBP

  6. Desenvolvimento de um sistema de apoio à decisão para a diagnose de doenças, pragas e distúrbios abióticos dos citros Development of a decision support system for the diagnosis of citrus diseases, pests, and abiotic factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleilson do Nascimento Uchôa

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A preocupação com a diagnose dos problemas que afetam as plantas cítricas proporcionou ao longo dos anos o acúmulo de conhecimento, que precisava ser organizado e divulgado de forma eficiente e rápida. Dessa forma, objetivou-se com esse trabalho construir uma base de conhecimentos para diagnóstico de doenças bióticas e abióticas dos citros, desenvolver e implementar o sistema de apoio à decisão (SAD e avaliar o sistema. O SAD foi construído utilizando a ferramenta 'Borland Delphi' versão 5. Foram formuladas 562 perguntas, 322 regras e anexadas fotografias para facilitar o diagnóstico de 34 doenças, 40 pragas e 34 distúrbios abióticos dos citros. A avaliação do SAD foi dividida em verificação e validação. Na verificação, o SAD foi submetido a uma análise por meio de questionário a 5 especialistas em citros. A validação do programa foi realizada com quatro grupos, de diferentes níveis de conhecimento (10 pessoas/grupo, tentando diagnosticar corretamente. Obteve-se um acerto de 45,6% dos usuários e 93,6% do SAD. O sistema foi denominado Dr. Citrus (protótipo com registro no INPI n° 014070009188.The concern about the diagnosis of problems affecting citrus led to an accumulation of knowledge over the years. However, such accumulated knowledge needed to be organized and efficiently disseminated. Thus, the aims of this work were to build a knowledge basis for the diagnosis of abiotic and biotic citrus diseases to develop and implement a Decision Support System (DSS and to test and evaluate this system. DSS was built by using the tool 'Borland Delphi' version 5. A total of 562 questions were formulated, including 322 rules, besides photographs to help in the diagnosis of 34 diseases, 40 pests and 34 abiotics disturbances in citrus. DSS evolution was divided into verification and validation. In the verification phase, DSS was analyzed by means of a questionnaire applied to citrus specialists. The program validation phase

  7. Mise en oeuvre de carottages de sol et de minirhizotrons pour l'étude à long terme de la réponse des fines racines d'épicéa (Picea abies (L. Karst. à l'augmentation de la concentration en CO2 dans l'atmosphère et la nutrition minérale

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    Geneviève Pissart

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Use of soil cores and minirhizotrons for the long-term study of the response of Norway spruce fine roots (Picea abies (L. Karst. to the increase in CO2 concentration in the atmosphere and nutrition. The fine root biomass of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L. Karst. grown in open top chambers (OTCs under elevated CO2 since 1987 was investigated with soil cores and minirhizotrons, at Vielsalm (Ardenne, Belgium. Four levels of CO2 concentration (700, 580, 470 and 350 µmol.mol-1 CO2 were applied in combination with two nutrition regimes: the optimal nutrition and the nutrition corresponding to the local brown forest soil. First soil coring was performed in 1997 to describe the root biomass and root distribution according depth, at the initial stage of this study. Soil coring was repeated in 2003. Two observation and measurement campaigns using minirhizotrons were carried out in 2001 and in 2002. These latter measurements shown a very large proportion of very fine roots within the root classes classically reported in the literature: ]0-1 mm], ]1-2 mm], ]2-5 mm] and > 5 mm. Among the 2252 roots we regularly observed in minirhizotrons, more than 90 % were thinner than 0.5 mm in diameter, less than 2 % were in the range [1-3 mm[ in diameter and their mean was 0.28 mm. Calculations on the 42 Biotechnol. Agron. Soc. Environ. 2004 8 (1, 41-53 Lebègue C., Laita É., Perrin D., Pissart G. roots observed with minirhizotrons shown that root biomass under elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations (580 and 700 µmol.mol-1 CO2 were two times higher than root biomass under ambient concentration (350 µmol.mol-1 CO2. As these figures are based on specific root length (SRL, they are supposed to be largely underestimated. A larger proportion of these roots were exploring the upper soil horizons under elevated CO2. Norway spruce showed an annual production cycle of fine roots, independent from the atmospheric CO2 concentration. Increased CO2 affected root branching. Under

  8. 中国亚热带地区4种极危冷杉属植物的地理分布特征及其与气候的关系%Characteristics of geographic distribution of four critically endangered species of Abies in subtropical China and its relationship with climate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓笑; 陶翠; 王清春; 崔国发

    2012-01-01

    通过野外实地调查和文献调研,分析4种极危冷杉属(Abies)植物的地理分布现状和特征,构建其分布区的气候数据库,采用国际上常用的研究植被与气候关系的指标和方法,定量分析冷杉属地理分布与水热条件的关系,并通过因子分析方法确定影响冷杉属地理分布的限制性气候因子.结果表明:1)百山祖冷杉(Abies beshanzuensis)、梵净山冷杉(A.fanjingshanensis)、元宝山冷杉(A.yuanbaoshanensis)和资源冷杉(A.beshanzuensis var.ziyuanensis)零星分布于我国亚热带地区,水平分布范围为25°25'-27°55′N,108.42′-119°12′E,分布范围狭窄;垂直分布范围为1 363-2 390 m,均分布于山体上部.海拔上限高度随着经度的减小而增加.2)整个分布区的气温较低,年平均气温为7.4-11.2℃;降水较为充沛,年降水量为1 265.4-1 945.7 mm,其中生长季降水量占74.78%;湿度较大,年相对湿度为77%-86%.气候指标范围狭窄,表明对水热条件要求很高.分布区寒冷指数较低,限制其垂直向下扩散,呈现局限分布于山体上部的现状.3)4种冷杉各分布区的气候条件基本相近,梵净山冷杉分布区气温相对偏低,元宝山冷杉分布区湿度相对偏大.4)3个气候因子对这4种冷杉的地理分布影响较大,其作用排序为:低温因子>极端低温因子>湿度因子.在全球气候变暖的大背景下,这4种冷杉自然分布区的适宜生境将进一步缩小,直至物种灭绝,急需开展迁地保护工作.%Aims Our objectives were to analyze the geographic distribution characteristics of four critically endangered species of Abies in China's subtropical regions, clarify their relationship with climatic conditions and determine the climatic factors that restrict the geographic distributions. Methods Geographic distribution information was collected from field survey and literature materials. Climate information was collected from China's meteorological stations

  9. Influência dos fatores abióticos e da disponibilidade de presas sobre comunidade de serpentes do Planalto Médio do Rio Grande do Sul Influence of abiotic factors and availability of prey on the occurrence of snakes in the middle plateau region of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

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    Noeli Zanella

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available A influência dos fatores abióticos sobre a disponibilidade de presas e a dieta das espécies de serpentes mais abundantes do Planalto Médio do Rio Grande do Sul, foi estudada em duas áreas: floresta e campo. O trabalho foi desenvolvido utilizando serpentes coletadas com os métodos: procura limitada por tempo, encontros ocasionais, armadilhas de interceptação e queda, e serpentes depositadas na coleção de répteis da Universidade de Passo Fundo. Foram registradas as guildas alimentares das seis espécies mais abundantes: anurófagas (n = 2: Echinanthera cyanopleura (Cope, 1885 e Thamnodynates cf. strigatus (Günther, 1858; rodentívoras (n = 1: Bothrops alternatus Duméril, Bibron & Duméril, 1854; moluscófagas (n = 1: Tomodon dorsatus Duméril, Bibron & Duméril, 1854 e generalistas (n = 2: Liophis poecilogyrus (Wied-Neuwied, 1825 e Philodryas patagoniensis (Girard, 1858. Dos fatores abióticos analisados, a abundância de serpentes foi mais relacionada à temperatura máxima (R² = 0,66 e não apresentou relação significativa com a pluviosidade. A abundância de anfíbios apresentou relação positiva com a pluviosidade (R² = 0,54 e não foi significativa com a temperatura mínima. A abundância de serpentes não foi correlacionada com a abundância de anfíbios e roedores.The influence of abiotic factors on the availability of prey and on the diet of the most abundant snake species in the middle plateau region of Rio Grande do Sul was studied in two areas: forest and field. Snakes captured using time-constrained search, occasional encounters and pitfall traps and snakes deposited in the reptile collection of the University of Passo Fundo were studied. The feeding guilds of the six most abundant species were recorded: anurophagous (n = 2: Echinanthera cyanopleura (Cope, 1885 and Thamnodynates cf. strigatus (Günther, 1858; rodent-eating (n = 1: Bothrops alternatus Duméril, Bibron & Duméril, 1854; molluscophagous (n = 1: Tomodon

  10. The clinical value of cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI) and ankle brachial index (ABI) in evaluation on therapeutic efficacy to lower limbs arterial occlusive disease%心踝血管指数和踝肱指数在下肢动脉闭塞介入治疗的应用价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹波; 黄光明; 张红霞; 张娟; 刘伟峰; 张卉; 张秀明; 王军

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨心踝血管指数(Cardio-Ankle Vascular Index,CAVI)和踝肱指数(Ankle-Brachial Index,ABI)在下肢动脉闭塞性病变(lower limbs arterial occlusive disease,LAOD)介入治疗前评估和治疗后疗效评价中的应用价值及指标间的相关性.方法 2010年1~12月在我院行介入治疗的LAOD患者35例,所有患者均符合《下肢动脉粥样硬化性疾病诊治中国专家建议(2007)》对LAOD的诊断标准,应用血压脉搏测量装置检测CAVI和ABI作为治疗前评估和治疗后疗效的评价及随访的指标.结果 CAVI和ABI在介入治疗后和治疗前分别为(5.20±2.85)、(6.65±2.78)(P<0.05);(0.35±0.18)、(0.85±0.13)(P< 0.05).介入治疗前CAVI与ABI相关分析显示呈正相关(r=0.648,P<0.05),介入治疗后CAVI与ABI无明显相关性.结论 CAVI和ABI测定在LAOD介入治疗前评估和治疗后疗效评价中有较高的应用价值.

  11. ABI与CAVI评价原发性高血压患者血压控制不良对动脉硬化影响的研究%ABI and CAVI in assessment of arteriosclerosis progress in primary hypertensive patients with poor blood pressure control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱利月; 任爱华; 俞志红; 寿晓玲; 王雁; 刘新文

    2015-01-01

    目的 探讨踝-臂指数(ABI)与心踝指数(CAVI)评价原发性高血压患者血压控制不良对动脉硬化影响的临床应用价值.方法 原发性高血压患者105例,根据24h动态血压结果,分为高血压控制达标组46例和高血压控制不良组59例,另择同期行健康体检者41例为正常对照组,分别测定3组的CAVI、ABI、BMI值并进行两两比较.结果 3组比较结果显示:CAVI、ABI、BMI值差异均有统计学意义(均P<0.05);其中血压控制不良组双侧CAVI值明显增高,双侧ABI值明显降低,BMI值增高,差异均有统计学意义(均P<0.05);而高血压控制达标组与正常对照组比较双侧CAVI、双侧ABI、BMI值差异均无统计学意义(均P>0.05).结论 血压控制不良将促进动脉硬化进展,应用ABI与CAVI值可准确评价高血压控制不良对动脉弹性的影响.

  12. Tööturuamet pakub rohkem abi / Illar Mõttus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mõttus, Illar

    2008-01-01

    Tööturuameti Lääne-Virumaa osakonna programmi "Kvalifitseeritud tööjõu pakkumise suurendamine 2007-2009" juht Tiiu Säberi sõnul on programmiga lisandunud võimalus täiendkoolituseks ja praktikaks ka vanemaealistele (vanuses 50-74)

  13. Lanostane- and cycloartane-type triterpenoids from Abies balsamea oleoresin

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    Serge Lavoie

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Phytochemical analysis of A. balsamea oleoresin led to the isolation of three new 3,4-seco-lanostane triterpenoids 1–3, one new cycloartane triterpenoid 4 along with fourteen known terpenoids. Structure determinations were based on extensive 1D/2D NMR, IR and MS spectroscopic analyses, and comparison with literature data. The isolated compounds were evaluated in vitro for their cytotoxicity against human cell lines (A549, DLD-1, WS1 and their antibacterial activity against E. coli and S. aureus. Abiesonic acid (6 exhibited weak cytotoxic activity against A549 (IC50 = 22 µM while compounds 1 and 4 were weakly active against S. aureus (MIC = 25 µM.

  14. Aby Warburg’s Pathosformel as methodological paradigm’

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    Colleen Becker

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the differing positions Warburg occupies within Humanities and Social Sciences fields to demonstrate his cross-disciplinary relevance. While the Bilderatlas Mnemosyne, his major work concerning Pathosformeln, was never complete and his conceptualization of the Pathosformel was fairly indefinite, his theoretical paradigms nonetheless provide models for scholars working with visual culture. As a case study, the national personification ‘Germania’ is used to test the applicability of his ideas within an interdisciplinary context.

  15. Väikese Eesti abi suure katastroofi lahendamiseks / Annika Lall

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lall, Annika, 1962-

    2005-01-01

    31. jaanuaril 2005 saabus Kagu-Aasia looduskatastroofi piirkonnast tagasi Eesti politsei kolmeliikmeline suurõnnetuste ohvrite identifitseerimise meeskond. Abibrigaadi tööst Tais Phuketi piirkonnas

  16. Walter Benjamin: un melanconico allievo di Aby Warburg

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    Marco Bertozzi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Walter Benjamin tried to get in touch with Panofsky and the Warburg’s circle, but the attempt failed. This article examines the chapter on melancholy of Benjamin’s The Origin of the German Tragic Drama (1928 and his main sources, i. e. Warburg’s essay Pagan-Antique Prophecy in Words and Images in the Age of Luther (1920 and Panofsky-Saxl’s work Dürers Melencolia I (1923. Benjamin interpreted the melancholy of the German Tragic Drama as a jump back to the deadly sin of sloth: he saw the saturnine melancholy under the sign of the medieval acedia.

  17. Naine ootab ettevõtluses abi / Signe Kalberg

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    Kalberg, Signe, 1959-

    2005-01-01

    Mittetulundusühing ETNA e. Ettevõtlikud Naised Eestimaal juhatuse esimees Kaja Keskküla selgitas Järvamaa naisettevõtjaile FEM-kavandit, mille eesmärgiks on luua kolme aasta jooksul Balti mere riikides võrgustik ja jätkusuutlik infrastruktuur naisettevõtluse toetuseks. Diagramm: FIEde arv Eestis ja Järvamaal 01.11.2004. Tabel: Naiste osa (%) ettevõtjate hulgas 2004. a.

  18. Volatile monoterpenes in a stand of Picea abies (L.) Karst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natural emissions of terpene and their fate in the atmosphere were investigated in a forest stand of the Bayerischer Wald mountains. Terpenes are volatile hydrocarbons whose relevance for air chemistry has increased considerably in the past few years. The investigation compared different sources of terpene in order to determine their strength as a function of meteorological, air-chemical and biological parameters. (orig./BBR)

  19. Invertebrates associated to Eichhornea azurea Kunth in a lagoon of the Upper Paraná River: composition, community attributes and influence of abiotic factors Invertebrados associados à Eichhornea azurea Kunth em uma lagoa do alto rio Paraná: composição, atributos da comunidade e influência de fatores abióticos

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    Valéria Flávia Batista-Silva

    2011-12-01

    ciclo hidrológico, bem como a possível influência de fatores abióticos sobre estes atributos. MÉTODOS: Amostragens foram realizadas em bancos de E. azurea durante os períodos chuvoso e seco em 2010. Os atributos avaliados foram abundância, riqueza, diversidade, equitabilidade e dominância. As variáveis limnológicas temperatura, oxigênio dissolvido, pH e turbidez foram sumarizadas através da Análise de Componentes Principais (PCA. Para verificar possíveis diferenças entre as médias dos atributos e dos escores do eixo 1 da PCA nos diferentes períodos utilizou-se análises de variância de modelos nulos. A influência dos fatores abióticos sobre cada atributo foi avaliada através de correlações de Pearson. RESULTADOS: Nós capturamos 3052 indivíduos, distribuídos em 32 táxons, pertencentes aos filos Mollusca, Annelida, Nematoda e Arthropoda. Dentre os atributos avaliados, apenas a abundância e riqueza variaram significativamente entre os períodos, com maiores valores obtidos para o chuvoso. Chironomidade foi dominante em ambos os períodos enquanto Notonectidae e Cyclopoida foram raros no período chuvoso e Bivalve, Decapoda, Haliplidae, Trichoptera e Pyralidae no período seco. Distinção temporal foi evidente apenas para o eixo 1 da PCA, o qual representou gradientes de temperatura, oxigênio dissolvido e pH. Dentre os atributos avaliados, somente a abundância apresentou correlação significativa e negativa com este eixo. CONCLUSÃO: Ficou evidente que: i o período chuvoso deve agregar condições favoráveis para a ocorrência de maior riqueza e elevada abundância de invertebrados nesta macrófita; ii somente este último atributo foi influenciado pelos gradientes limnológicos.

  20. Effects of remnant old-growth trees on other tree stems in a secondary Betula albosinensis-Abies faxoniana forest on the eastern edge of Qinghai-Xizang Plateau, China%青藏高原东缘红桦-岷江冷杉次生林中大径级保留木对其他林木的影响

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    李茂萍; 缪宁; 喻泓; 马姜明

    2014-01-01

    .albosinensis did not differ significantly,and were smallest among the competition indices between trees of different size-classes.Saplings of A.faxoniana showed a significantly positive association with remnant old-growth trees of B.albosinensis at scale 14.5-15.5 m,and a significantly negative association with remnant old-growth trees ofA.faxoniana at scale 6.5-7.5 m.The seedlings ofA.faxoniana showed a spatial independence to remnant old-growth trees of both B.albosinensis and A.faxoniana at all spatial scales (0-100 m).%为了研究森林采伐后保留木在次生群落恢复过程中对其他林木的影响,采用Hegyi单木竞争指数(CI)和标记相关点格局Kd(r)函数对4 hm2红桦-岷江冷杉(Betula albosinensis-Abies faxoniana)次生林样地中大径级保留木与其他林木的空间关系进行了分析.结果表明:1)优势树种红桦(Betula albosinensis)与岷江冷杉(Abies faxoniana)的种间、种内竞争中,种间Hegyi单木竞争指数(CI)(2.484)>红桦种内CI(1.711)>岷江冷杉种内CI (1.548);2)大径级保留木与其他径级林木间的竞争指数中,红桦大径级保留木与红桦小树的竞争指数最大,红桦大径级保留木与岷江冷杉小树、岷江冷杉大径级保留木与红桦小树和岷江冷杉小树这三组的竞争指数之间无显著差异,且三者的值最小;3)在14.5-15.5 m尺度上,红桦大径级保留木与岷江冷杉幼树呈显著的空间正关联;在6.5-7.5 m的尺度上,岷江冷杉大径级保留木与岷江冷杉幼树呈显著的空间负关联;0-100 m尺度上,岷江冷杉幼苗(树龄≥4年)与两种大径级保留木均呈相互独立的空间关系.

  1. Changes of Anatomical Characteristics and Cellulose Activity in Xylem Tissue of European Spruce (Picea abies ) after Inoculation with the Blue-Stain Fungus Ceratocystis polonica%蓝变真菌引起的欧洲云杉木质部解剖学特征及纤维素酶活性的变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢寿安; 吕淑杰; Axel Shopf; 何惠勇

    2007-01-01

    选择奥地利境内阿尔卑斯山健康欧洲云杉为对象,研究室内接种蓝变真菌(Ceratocystis polonica)引起的寄主树木韧皮部和木质部解剖学特征的变化,揭示蓝变真菌引起欧洲云杉枯萎的机制.结果表明:接种1周后的4株欧洲云杉的木质部组织内,蓝变区域显著增加,4~6周后蓝变区域不再增加;而在接种无菌琼脂的2株对照欧洲云杉的木质部组织内,没有检测到蓝变区域.采用生物化学分析和组织定位技术,确定接种真菌和无菌琼脂的欧洲云杉木质部区域纤维素酶的分布和活性变化.接种2周后剥皮取样检测,接种真菌的4株欧洲云杉的木质部组织内纤维素酶含量大幅度增加,其等电聚焦电泳显示明显的纤维素酶酶带;而在接种无菌琼脂的欧洲云杉木质部区域,纤维素酶含量分布较少,其等电聚焦电泳显示微弱的纤维素酶酶带.进一步证明蓝变真菌分泌的纤维素酶能利用寄主欧洲云杉木质部的纤维素,蓝变真菌是致死阿尔卑斯山境内欧洲云杉的重要病原菌.%The blue-stain fungus Ceratocystis polonica, a virulent fungal associate of the spruce bark beetle Ips typographus, is pathogenic to European spruce ( Picea abies) in Europe. The wilting mechanism in P. abies after inoculation with C. polonica was examined based on anatomical studies of the phloem and xylem of periodically harvested trees. In a field experiment, the blue-stained sapwood area of European spruce was measured in response to inoculation with C. polonica, four vigorous, mature European spruce trees were mass-inoculated with C. polonica at a density of four inoculations per dm2 within a 120-cm-wide band on the lower bole. Two other trees were inoculated with sterile agar and served as controls. In four trees that had been inoculated with the fungus, blue-stained sapwood area increased dramatically within the first weeks after inoculation until no bluestained sapwood area was

  2. Relationships of Stable Carbon Isotope of Abies faxoniana Tree-Rings to Climate in the Sub-Alpine Forest in Western Sichuan%川西亚高山森林岷江冷杉树轮碳稳定同位素对气候要素的响应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    靳翔; 徐庆; 刘世荣; 姜春前

    2013-01-01

    利用四川卧龙亚高山暗针叶林岷江冷杉树木年轮样本资料,建立树轮宽度年表,对比宽度年表,提取树木年轮(简称树轮)碳稳定同位素(δ13C)序列和去趋势序列(DS),研究岷江冷杉树轮碳稳定同位素序列对气候要素的响应关系.结果表明:岷江冷杉(1904-2009年)树轮碳稳定同位素变化范围为-23.33‰~-26.31%‰,平均值为-24.91‰,变异系数为-0.025;相关分析表明,岷江冷杉δ13C序列(DS)与前一年11月和当年1月的月平均气温显著正相关(P≤0.05),与前一年1月和当年2,11月的月平均气温极显著正相关(P≤0.01),冬季平均气温对岷江冷杉树轮碳稳定同位素的响应最为敏感,是研究过去环境变化的良好载体,与当年1月降水量显著正相关(P≤0.05),与全年的月平均相对湿度相关性不显著(P≥0.05).%The tree-ring stable isotope technique is an important means to reconstruct climate chronology and to determine tree responses to environmental factors.In this study,the tree-ring samples of Abies faxoniana,collected in 2010 in a sub-alpine forest of Wolong Sichuan,were used to develop the tree-ring width chronology and the stable carbon isotope was extracted based on the standard dendrochronology methods.This new approach can be used to establish the detrend series (DS) of stable carbon isotope of tree rings to eliminate effect of the 13C originated from atmospheric CO2.Results showed that the stable carbon isotope series (1904-2009) varied in a range of-23.33‰--26.31%o with the average value of-24.91‰ and the coefficient of variation of-0.025.Correlation analysis revealed that the tree-ring DS values were significantly positively correlated to the mean monthly temperature of the last January,and the February and November of the current year (P≤0.01),and was also correlated to the mean monthly temperature of the last November and the January of the current year (P ≤ 0.05).The DS values were positively

  3. 青藏高原东缘岷江冷杉天然群落的种群结构和空间分布格局%STRUCTURE AND SPATIAL PATTERN OF A NATURAL ABIES FAXONIANA POPULATION ON THE EASTERN EDGE OF QINGHAI_TIBETAN PLATEAU

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵常明; 陈庆恒; 乔永康; 潘开文

    2004-01-01

    岷江冷杉(Abies faxoniana)是青藏高原东缘亚高山顶极森林植被的优势种之一,主要分布于岷江、大渡河和白龙江的上游地区.该文研究了岷江冷杉天然原始群落的种群结构和空间分布格局.样方大小为100 m ×60 m.测定了所有个体的坐标及其胸径、高度和冠幅.将岷江冷杉按大小级分为5级,即幼苗:H(高度)<0.33 m; 幼树: H≥0.33 m, 且 DBH(胸径)<2.5 cm; 小树: 2.5 cm≤DBH<7.5 cm; 中树: 7.5 cm≤DBH <22.5 cm和大树: DBH≥22.5 cm.采用了Morisita 指数 (Iδ)、方差均值比 (V/m), 聚块度指标(m*/m)和空间点格局分析方法 (SPPA) (采用了Ripley二次分析法)4种方法分析岷江冷杉的空间分布格局.结果表明: 1) 岷江冷杉种群结构稳定.因为其年龄结构表现为增长型, 幼苗幼树储备丰富,密度分别为2 217*hm-2和2 683*hm-2,可见岷江冷杉天然更新良好,进而通过其"移动镶嵌循环"更新维持其种群的稳定性.在大小级结构图中的一些缺刻和年龄结构图中的"断代"现象,是干扰的时空异质性在采样的时间和空间断面上的反映.2) 幼苗、幼树和小树在所有的研究尺度(从 1 m×1m 到 30 m×30 m)下都呈聚集分布.但中树和大树基本上呈随机分布.3) 聚集强度随尺度的变化而变化.上述的前3种方法表明,聚集强度随尺度的增加而减弱.但是,空间点格局分析法表明,岷江冷杉幼苗、幼树和小树的聚集强度首先随尺度的增加而增强,达到一定高峰后,随尺度的增加而减弱. 4) 岷江冷杉的空间分布格局是它与其自然环境长期作用的结果,同时也反映了其种群天然更新的格局和机制. 5) 4种分析方法对格局的判别基本一致, 但空间点格局分析法更能反映出格局强度随尺度的变化的关系,是值得推荐的一种分析空间分布格局的方法.使用空间点格局分析法的限制主要在于其计算和采样比较复杂.另外,由于Ripley 二次

  4. Comparison between abiotic parameters and the forest structure of a forest fragment and an eucalyptus (Eucalyptus saligna Smith abandoned reforestation in the ecological park of Klabin, Telemaco Borba/PR Comparação entre parâmetros abióticos e a estrutura florestal de um fragmento de floresta e um reflorestamento abandonado de eucalipto (Eucalyptus saligna Smith no parque ecológico da Klabin, Telêmaco Borba/PR

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    José Antonio Pimenta

    2010-10-01

    ções florestais, sendo uma delas um fragmento florestal secundário e a outra uma área abandonada de reflorestamento com eucalipto, neste trabalho foram avaliados alguns parâmetros abióticos, bem como a estrutura florestal das áreas. Dentre os fatores abióticos estudados estão: temperatura e umidade relativa do ar, compactação, umidade e pH do solo e espessura da serapilheira. Para analisar a estrutura florestal, foram avaliados: cobertura de herbáceas sobre o solo, índice de cobertura do dossel, diâmetro a altura do peito (DAP, área basal (AB e altura das árvores de todas as espécies. Entre os parâmetros analisados, comparando-se as áreas, foram observadas que: a compactação do solo é maior na floresta secundária (0,57 MPa do que no reflorestamento de eucalipto (0,43 MPa; a presença de herbáceas sobre o solo é menor no reflorestamento de eucalipto (17,96% do que na floresta secundária (59,4%; o índice de cobertura do dossel foi de 45,99% para o reflorestamento de eucalipto, enquanto na floresta secundária este valor foi de 61,02%. No entanto, de acordo com o teste de Kolmogorov-Smirnov, a estrutura florestal não é diferente entre as áreas, já que os valores de DAP e altura não diferiram entre o calculado e o observado.

  5. Changes in abiotic characteristics of water in the Paranapanema River and three lateral lagoons at mouth zone of the Jurumirim Reservoir during the flood period, São Paulo, Brazil Cambios de las características abióticas del agua del río Paranapanema y de tres lagunas laterales en la zona de la boca de la Reserva de Jurumirim durante el periodo de inundación, São Paulo, Brasil

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    Danielli Cristina Granado

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Floods increase the similarity of the abiotic water characteristics of the rivers with those of the surrounding floodplains and are the main factors that influence the ecosystem dynamics. The aim of this paper was to examine the alterations in abiotic characteristics of the Paranapanema River and three lateral lagoons with different degrees of connectivity to the river during the flood period. Samplings were performed twice a week during a three-month period. Water quality in the Camargo and Coqueiral lagoons, connected to the Paranapanema River, presented patterns of variation similar to those of the lotic ecosystem, evidenced by the principal component analysis. In Cavalos Lagoon, changes in water quality were observed in all the environments, such as a function of dilution after the water level increased and greater nutrients resulting from littoral plant decomposition after submersion. In conclusion, the marginal lagoons and river were influenced by two anthropogenic actions: water storage in a dam reservoir, which acted like a buffer against hydrological pulses, and the widening of the channel uniting Camargo Lagoon with the river, changing the connectivity level and causing an ever-greater similarity of the lagoon with the lotic system.Las inundaciones asemejan las características abióticas del agua de los ríos a la de los entornos de planicies aluviales y son los principales factores que influyen en la dinámica del ecosistema. El objetivo de este trabajo fue analizar las alteraciones en las características abióticas del río Paranapanema y de tres lagunas laterales con distintos niveles de conectividad al río durante el período de inundación. Los muestreos se realizaron dos veces por semana durante un período de tres meses. La calidad del agua en las lagunas Camargo y Coqueiral, conectadas al río Paranapanema, presentó patrones de variación similar a aquellos del ecosistema lótico, demostrado por medio de análisis de

  6. Variação do número de estômatos e micropêlos em Paspalum vaginatum Sw: em relação às condições abióticas numa marisma do estuário da Lagoa dos Patos, RS-Brasil Variation in the number of stomata and microhairs of Paspalum vaginatum Sw: en relation to abiotic conditions in a breakwater in the Lagoa dos Patos estuary, RS-Brazil

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    Eleci de Oliveria Bastos

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available Paspalum vaginatum Sw., gramínea perene, estolonífera, com folhas anfistomáticas e pequenas é característica de pântanos salgados, crescendo em condições estressantes na marisma da lagoa dos Patos, molhe oeste da Barra do Rio Grande, RS. Foram feitas contagens mensais de estômatos e micropêlos nas superfícies adaxial e abaxial das lâminas e relacionadas às características abióticas do ambiente. O número de micropêlos da superfície foliar abaxial variou significativamente e diretamente com a temperatura da água intersticial junto às rizosferas. Estes, porém, não mantiveram correlação com a salinidade intersticial. Os resultados sugerem que a espécie seja uma halófita facultativa. O número de estômatos da superfície abaxial manteve um relacionamento inverso com a pluviosidade. Paspalum vaginatum, apresenta-se como uma espécie com características xeromórficas.Paspalum vaginatum Sw., a perennial, stoloniferous grass with small leaves presenting stomata on both epidermises is characteristic of salt marshes, growing under stressful conditions near the west breakwater of the Rio Grande outlet, Lagoa dos Patos, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Monthly counts of stomata and microhairs on the adaxial and abaxial surfaces were related to the abiotic characteristics of the enviroment. The number of microhairs of the abaxial leaf surface varied significantly and directly with interstitial water temperature close to the rhyzosphere. However, these counts did not correlate with the interstitial salinity. The results suggest that the species is a facultative halophyte. Stomata counts of the abaxial surface showed an inverse relation to precipitation. Paspalum vaginatum appears to be a species with xeromorphic characteristics.

  7. Avaliação da atividade de indutores de resistência abiótica, fungicida químico e extratos vegetais no controle da podridão-negra em Abacaxi 'Pérola' Activity evaluation of abiotic resistance inducers, chemical fungicide and natural plant extracts on black rot of pineapple, cv. pérola

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    Mônica Danielly de Mello Oliveira

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available A podridão-mole ou podridão-negra, causada pelo fungo Chalara paradoxa (De Seyn. Sacc., é uma doença de pós-colheita que pode ser responsável por perdas elevadas, tanto em frutos para consumo in natura, quanto naqueles destinados à indústria de processamento. O corte do pedúnculo e ferimentos na casca do fruto favorecem a infecção. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de indutores de resistência abiótica, fungicida e extratos vegetais no controle da podridão-negra em abacaxi. Os isolados foram obtidos de frutos coletados no município de Santa Rita, Paraíba, que apresentaram sintomas da doença. Utilizaram-se 32 frutos de cv. 'Pérola', lavados em água corrente e desinfestados com hipoclorito de sódio (produto comercial a 4,0%, por cinco minutos. Após secagem em temperatura ambiente, os frutos foram pulverizados com os tratamentos: 1 ADE (água destilada esterilizada; 2 Derosal; 3 BION® (Acibenzolar-S-Methyl; 4 Ecolife® (Quinabra; 5 Agro-Mos® (mananoligossacarídeo fosforilado; 6 extrato de alho a 20%; 7 extrato de cebola a 20%, e 8 extrato de nim a 20%. Os frutos tratados permaneceram em câmara úmida por 24 horas, antes da inoculação com um disco de micélio (6mm do fungo, incubado em BDA a 25±2ºC e fotoperíodo de 12 horas e colocado sobre um ferimento na região da casca. A avaliação do progresso da doença foi realizada seguindo-se escala de notas, onde: 1 - Ausência de sintomas; 2 - Podridãonegra em área da casca equivalente a 1-5 frutilhos; 3 - Podridão-negra em área da casca equivalente a 6-10 frutilhos; 4 - Podridão inicial da polpa com coloração pardo-amarelada; 5 - Podridão e desintegração da polpa atingindo área superior a 50% do fruto. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado, com oito tratamentos e quatro repetições, utilizando os modelos lineares generalizados com distribuição multinomial, sendo as médias comparadas pelo teste de Scott-Knott, a 5% de

  8. Climate-growth relationships of Abies nephrolepis and its connection with large-scale climate change in Xiaoxing'an Mountains, northeastern China%小兴安岭不同海拔臭冷杉年轮-气候关系及大尺度气候影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚启超; 王晓春

    2013-01-01

    Three tree-ring standard chronologies of Abies nephrolepis at different elevations in Fenglin National Nature Reserve from Xiaoxing'an Mountains of northeastern China were developed by using standard dendrochronological methods. Relationships between these three chronologies and local ( mainly temperature and precipitation) and large-scale climatic factors were analyzed. Results showed that radial growth of A. nephrolepis in this region was mainly limited by air temperature, while the effect of precipitation was relatively weak. Three A. nephrolepis chronologies were negatively correlated with minimum and mean temperatures in the current growth season (P < 0. 01 ) and total precipitations in March (P < 0.05 ). Radial growth of A. nephrolepis in different elevations, however, responded differently to monthly mean temperatures and total precipitations. The effects of climatic factors ( monthly temperature and precipitation) on tree growth in high elevations were significantly stronger than that in low elevations. Correlation analysis between three A. nephrolepis chronologies and the index of Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) and Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) indicated that radial growth of A. nephrolepis could be connected with large-scale climate changes in Pacific and Atlantic. A greater effect of AMO on tree growth appeared in low elevation sites, while greater effect of PDO on tree growth was in two high elevation sites. The decline of valley spruce-fir forests in this region in recent years could be related to the phase changes of AMO and PDO, which changed the regime of temperature and precipitation in this region. Higher minimum temperatures in growing season caused by large-scale climate ( AMO and PDO ) changes decreased net photosynthesis and increased respirations of A. nephrolepis in this area. Thus, the physiological recession of tree growth will appear. In addition, higher temperature may result in the disappearance of patchy permafrosts in

  9. Community characteristics of soil nematode in Abies georgei var.smithii forest in Sejila Mountain of Tibet, Southwest China%西藏色季拉山急尖长苞冷杉林土壤线虫群落特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛会英; 罗大庆; 于宝政

    2012-01-01

    In order to understand the present status of nematode diversity in soil ecosystem of Abies georgei var. smithii forest, the typical forest type in subalpine zone of southeastern Tibet, an investigation was made on the nematode community in different soil layers of 0 - 30 cm depth from the summer, 2010 to the spring, 2011. The nematode individual density, diversity index, and trophic group index were taken to analyze the composition and structural characteristics of the soil nematode community. A total of 7915 soil nematodes belonging to 2 classes, 6 orders, 38 families, and 67 genera were collected by shallow dish method. The nematode individual density was averagely 620 nematodes · 100 g~ dry soil, and the nematode individuals in surface soil layer (0-5 cm) accounted for 56. 9% of the total, indicating the obvious surface gathering characteristics of the nematode community. Tylencholaimus, Helicotylenchus, and Plectus were the dominant genus. Plant-parasite nematode was the dominant trophic group, while fungi-feeding nematode had the largest proportion among the non plant-parasite nematodes. Soil organic matter was mainly decomposed by fungi. The ANOVA analysis indicated that there were no significant differences in the Shannon, Pielou, Mar-galef, and Simpson indices of soil nematode community among different seasons. The Pielou index had no significant difference among different soil layers, while the differences of Shannon, Mar-galef, and Simpson indices tended to be increased with increasing soil depth. It was concluded that the A. georgei var. smithii forest ecosystem in Sejila Mountain had a high maturity, with strong resistance to environment disturbances.%为了解西藏东南部亚高山地带典型森林群落类型——急尖长苞冷杉林土壤生态系统线虫多样性现状,于2010年夏季至2011年春季,调查了0~30 cm范围内不同深度土层的土壤线虫群落,用线虫个体密度、多样性指数和营养类群指数等特征值分

  10. Efeito de fatores abióticos na larvicultura de pintado amarelo Pimelodus maculatus (Lacépède, 1803: salinidade e cor de tanque - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v26i2.1859 The effect of abiotic factors on the larviculture of pintado amarelo Pimelodus maculatus (Lacépède 1803: salinity an tank color - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v26i2.1859

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    Marcos Weingartner

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Fatores abióticos podem determinar o sucesso na larvicultura de algumas espécies de peixes. A cor do tanque e salinidade da água de criação podem promover alterações no comportamento e na fisiologia das pós-larvas de peixes. O objetivo deste experimento foi avaliar a influência das salinidades 0,0‰; 0,7‰; 1,4‰; 2,0‰; 2,5‰ e 5,0‰ da água e das cores branca e preta dos tanques na larvicultura de Pimelodus maculatus. A sobrevivência foi afetada pela salinidade (p0,05 entre os tanques branco e preto com valor médio de 31,7±17,7%. Portanto, o valor de 2mg/L de NaCl re velou-se a melhor salinidade para larvicultura de Pimelodus maculatus, e as cores testadas não afetaram a sobrevivência das pós-larvas.Abiotic factors determine the success of the larviculture in some fish species. Tank color and the water salinity can cause alterations in the behavior and physiology of the fish post-larvae. The purpose of this experiment was to evaluate the influence of the difference water salinity concentration (0.0‰; 0.7‰; 1.4‰; 2.0‰; 2.5‰ and 5.0‰ and the use of white or black tanks in the larviculture of Pimelodus maculatus. The survival rate was affected by water salinity (p0.05 between post-larvae stocked in black or white tanks with an average value of 31.7±17.7%. Therefore, 2.0‰ proved to be the best salinity for larviculture of the Pimelodus maculatus, and the colors tested did not affect the survival of the post-larvae.

  11. Long-term research in Bosque Fray Jorge National Park: Twenty years studying the role of biotic and abiotic factors in a Chilean semiarid scrubland Investigación de largo plazo en el Parque Nacional Bosque Fray Jorge: Veinte años estudiando el rol de los factores bióticos y abióticos en un matorral chileno semiárido

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JULIO R GUTIÉRREZ

    2010-03-01

    in this region, and that more frequent El Niños in conjunction with global climatic change may lead to marked changes in community dynamics. The importance of long-term experimental studies is underscored by the fact that only now after 20 years of work are some patterns becoming evident.Desde 1989 hemos llevado a cabo un experimento ecológico a gran escala en un matorral espinoso semiárido de un parque nacional en el norte de Chile. Inicialmente, nos centramos en el rol de las interacciones bióticas incluyendo depredación, competencia interespecífica y herbivoría en micromamíferos y componentes vegetales de la comunidad. Usamos una aproximación reduccionista con parcelas replicadas cercadas de 0.56 ha que selectivamente excluían depredadores vertebrados y/o micromamíferos herbívoros más grandes como el degu, Octodon degus. Aunque detectamos efectos transitorios menores en la sobrevivencia y número de degus en las exclusiones de depredadores, otras especies no mostraron respuestas. Similarmente, la competencia interespecífica (i.e., degus con otros micromamíferos no tenía efectos numéricos detectables (aunque ocurrieron algunas respuestas conductuales, y las exclusiones tuvieron efectos relativamente pequeños en varios componentes vegetales. Aproximaciones basadas en modelos indican que los factores abióticos juegan un papel determinante en la dinámica de las especies de micromamíferos principales como O. degus y la laucha orejuda (Phyllotis darwini. En cambio, estos están principalmente relacionados a pulsos no periódicos de lluvias más altas (usualmente durante los eventos El Niño que gatilla el crecimiento de plantas efímeras; un experimento de adición de alimento en 1997-2000 verificó la importancia de la precipitación como un determinante de la disponibilidad de alimento. Desde el 2004 hemos expandido los esfuerzos de monitoreo de largo plazo a otros componentes comunitarios importantes incluyendo aves e insectos con el fin de

  12. III-IV klassi abiõppeõpilaste vahendatud tekstiloome / Karl Karlep, Ana Kontor

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Karlep, Karl

    2001-01-01

    Artiklis kirjeldatakse abikooli III-IV klassi õpilaste tekstiloome arengut kahe õppeaasta jooksul (1998.-2000.a.). Taseme uurimiseks kasutati lühitekste, mida õpilased kuulasid ja suuliselt ümber jutustasid, analüüsiti jutustuste sisu ja keelelist vormistust. Eriti pakkusid huvi kasutatavad süntaktilised struktuurid, kuna esmakordselt võeti kasutusele harjutuste süsteem muuteoperatsioonide (lausete ühendamine, sisestamine jm.) õpetamiseks-harjutamiseks

  13. Saaremaa naised saavad abi hiidlaste tööhõiveprojektist / Veljo Kuivjõgi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kuivjõgi, Veljo, 1951-

    2005-01-01

    Kümned Saaremaa naised saavad osa hiidlaste kirjutatud europrojektist "We Friends", mille eesmärk on Lääne-Eesti madala konkurentsivõimega naiste ja lapsi üksi kasvatavate noorte emade tööhõivele kaasaaitamine

  14. Interaction of prechilling, temperature, osmotic stress, and light in Picea abies seed germination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A multi-factor experimental approach and proportional odds model was used to study interactions between five environmental factors significant to Norway spruce seed germination: prechilling (at +4.5 °C), suboptimal temperatures (+12 and +16 °C), osmotically induced water stress (–0.3 Mpa and 0 Mpa), prolonged white light, and short-period far-red light. Temperature and osmotic stress interacted with one another in the germination of seeds: the effect of osmotic stress being stronger at +16 °C than at +12 °C. In natural conditions, this interaction may prevent germination early in the summer when soil dries and temperature increases. Prolonged white light prevented germination at low temperature and low osmotic potential. Inhibitory effect was less at higher temperatures and higher osmotic potential, as well as after prechilling. Short-period far-red light did not prevent germination of unchilled seeds in darkness. Prechilling tended to make seeds sensitive to short pulses of far-red light, an effect which depended on temperature: at +12 °C the effect on germination was promotive, but at +16 °C, inhibitory and partly reversible by white light. It seems that Norway spruce seeds may have adapted to germinate in canopy shade light rich in far-red. The seeds may also have evolved mechanisms to inhibit germination in prolonged light

  15. Differential Gene Expression Reveals Candidate Genes for Drought Stress Response in Abies alba (Pinaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    David Behringer; Heike Zimmermann; Birgit Ziegenhagen; Sascha Liepelt

    2015-01-01

    Increasing drought periods as a result of global climate change pose a threat to many tree species by possibly outpacing their adaptive capabilities. Revealing the genetic basis of drought stress response is therefore implemental for future conservation strategies and risk assessment. Access to informative genomic regions is however challenging, especially for conifers, partially due to their large genomes, which puts constraints on the feasibility of whole genome scans. Candidate genes offer...

  16. Väikelaste emad vajavad töökoha leidmiseks abi / Kadri Ibrus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ibrus, Kadri

    2006-01-01

    EL-i sotsiaalfondi alaprogrammi Equal raames on ellu kutsutud projekt Choice & Balance (Valikud ja tasakaal), mis tegeleb tööturult tõrjutud lastevanemate abistamisega. Märtsikuus algab koolitus- ja nõustamisprogramm, mis aitab emadel tööturule naasta. Lisa: Nõustamiskoolitus vanematele

  17. Lääne abi vajava Moldova toetamine on Eesti huvides / Marianne Mikko

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mikko, Marianne, 1961-

    2004-01-01

    Euroopa Parlamendi Moldova delegatsiooni juht annab ülevaate olukorrast riigis. Autori sõnul nähakse Moldovas Transnistria probleemi lahendamise ainsat võimalust Lääne toetuses ning surves Ukrainale

  18. Haiti vajab suurt abi, et jalule tõusta / Heiki Suurkask

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Suurkask, Heiki, 1972-

    2010-01-01

    ÜRO palub maailmalt maavärinas kannatanud Haiti jaoks rohkem kui pool miljardit dollarit. EBRD ja Maailmapank on sel aastakümnel Haitile ülesehituseks andnud sadu miljoneid dollareid, USA on 5 aasta jooksul Haitisse investeerinud 800 mln. dollarit. Riiki on püütud reformida, kuid korruptsioonist pole vabanetud

  19. Stand dynamics and natural regeneration in silver fir (Abies alba Mill. plantations after traditional rotation age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bottalico F

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In the Apennine mountains most pure silver fir stands originated from planting and were managed according to the traditional model, with clear cutting and a 100 year rotation. In the last decades in most of these stands there has been a change towards nature conservation and active management has stopped. The aim of this work was (1 to analyse stand dynamics and spontaneous regeneration processes that are taking place with increasing age in even aged fir plantations, and (2 to discuss if these processes can be useful for defining management approaches answering biodiversity conservation aims. The study was carried out in the Vallombrosa Forest (Central Italy. The relationship between fir stand age and structural parameters was analyzed using inventory data. Gap dynamics were monitored between 1983 and 2007 on the basis of remote sensing data. Based on a field survey of a sample of gaps, species composition and density of seedlings and saplings were analysed in relation to gap size and within-gap position. From 1983 to 2007 the number of gaps and their total area increased, following increasing stand age. Significant relationships (p < 0.01 were found between fir stand age and number of trees per hectare (r = -0.30, quadratic mean diameter (r = 0.65 and volume per hectare (r = 0.50. In the fir stands with lower stand density, a layer of trees with DBH < 15 cm had filled in the structure: fifteen different broadleaf species were recorded in this layer, usually mixed with fir. Gap size had an influence on presence of young firs (seedlings and fir < 0.5 m, which were significantly more numerous in gaps < 200 m2, but it had relatively limited influence on species diversity. Within-gap position did not influence regeneration density. Results indicate that a possible management option for gradually transforming even aged fir plantations in the Apennines into mixed, naturally regenerating systems, could be based on the creation of small gaps (< 200 m2 in the canopy cover, simulating the natural dynamics that are taking place in ageing fir plantations.

  20. Afganistan väärib meie abi / Stanley Davis Phillips

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Phillips, Stanley Davis

    2008-01-01

    Lääne toetus aitab Afganistani elanikel luua stabiilset, demokraatlikku ja majanduslikult elujõulist tulevikku. Kuigi töö Afganistanis on väga riskantne, on Eesti abiks sealsetel elanikel turvalise keskkonna loomisel

  1. Morphological, anatomical, and chemical characteristics of needle and branch samples of Siberian fir (Abies Siberica)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rock, B. N.; Williams, D. L.; Kharuk, V. I.; Wessman, C. A.; Moss, D. M.

    1992-01-01

    In August, 1991, needle and branch samples of Siberian fir were collected from undisturbed forest stands along an elevation gradient ranging from 2300 ft to 4450 ft. Four study sites were selected on west-facing slopes, and a standard set of measurements and collections was made. First-, second-, and third-year needles were collected for anatomical assessment. A visual assessment of the forest stand conditions at each site included an evaluation of canopy morphology needle, coloration, increment growth, and the state of health of a specific type of lichen. The heaviest damage to forest stands (extensive foliar loss, needle discoloration, dieback of terminal growth) occurs at an intermediate elevation site (3400 ft/1037 m). The least amount of damage was recorded at the lowest elevation site (2300 ft/701 m). Only slight damage occurs at the highest elevation site (4450 ft/1357 m). Some degree of flagging occurs at all sites. Several lines of evidence suggest that the damage occurring in this area is recent in origin (incipient).

  2. Soome sõlmis Kreekaga abi andmisel erikokkuleppe. Deposiit teenib intresse / Kadrin Karner

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Karner, Kadrin

    2011-01-01

    Soome ja Kreeka kokkuleppe kohaselt maksab Kreeka Soome riigi arvele tagatisraha, milla saab koos intressidega tagasi 2036 aastal, kui Kreeka on abipaketis osalenud riikidele kõik kohustused täitnud. Andres Arraku seisukoht

  3. Probleemsed noored saavad abi / Viktoria Jürmann, Sirje Rattus ; kommenteerinud Ivi Proos ja Iris Pettai

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jürmann, Viktoria

    2010-01-01

    Eesti Avatud Ühiskonna Instituudi ja kriisinõustamiskeskuse Mahena koostööprojektist, mille eesmärk on ennetada probleemsete noorte koolist välja langemist. Kommenteerivad sotsioloogid Ivi Proos ja Iris Pettai

  4. Afganistan vajab liitlasvägede abi veel aastaid / Holger Roonemaa

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Roonemaa, Holger

    2007-01-01

    Kuigi liitlasväed tegutsevad Afganistanis juba märksa laiemal alal kui aastaid tagasi, on koalitsioonivägede kohalolek veel aastaid riigile vajalik. Taliban jätkab aktiivset vastupanu ning on alustanud ka infosõda. Kaart. Lisa: Võitlus südamete ja mõistuse pärast; Oopiumitoodang suureneb. Vt. samas intervjuud logistikaüksuse julgestusmeeskonna ülema vanemveebel Urmas Pindisega

  5. Mati Raidma : Iraak vajab veel meie abi / Peep Lillemägi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lillemägi, Peep, 1967-

    2008-01-01

    Riigikogu riigikaitsekomisjoni esimehe Mati Raidma sõnul pikendab parlament meie kaitseväelaste mandaate erinevates kriisikolletes osalemiseks lähtudes vajadusest, arengutest ning abistava riigi soovidest. Ilmunud ka: Tallinna Teataja : Haabersti Kristiine ja Põhja-Tallinn dets. lk. 5; Tallinna Teataja : Nõmme ja Mustamäe dets. lk. 5; Eesti Teataja : Järvamaa, Jõgevamaa, Tartumaa, Põlvamaa, Võrumaa, Valgamaa ja Viljandimaa dets. nr. 5 lk. 5; Eesti Teataja : Hiiumaa, Saaremaa, Läänemaa ja Pärnumaa dets. nr. 6 lk. 5; Eesti Teataja : Harju- ja Raplamaa dets. nr. 7 lk. 5; Eesti Teataja : Virumaa dets. nr. 8 lk. 5

  6. Kriisimissioonidel ei anta üksnes abi, seal õpitakse palju ka ise / Ene Pajula

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pajula, Ene, 1950-

    2010-01-01

    Lääne-Tallinna keskhaigla kirurgia- ja anestesioloogiakliiniku juhataja, anestesioloog Jaak Talving on üks Eesti kümmekonnast päästemeedikuks koolitatud arstist. Ta on käinud missioonil Indoneesias ja Haitil ning aidanud sisustada Afganistani väikehaiglat

  7. Predicting the Radiometric Biases between ABI and VIIRS Due to Spectral Response Function Differences

    OpenAIRE

    Pearlman, Aaron; Pogorzala, Dave; Cao, Changyong

    2012-01-01

    The Visible Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) was launched last year aboard the Suomi NPP satellite. The high quality of the radiometric data can be attributed to thorough pre-launch spectral response characterization by the vendor and validation using the Spectral Irradiance and Radiance Responsivity Calibrations Using Uniform Sources (SIRCUS) facility provided by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). The GOES-R program is similarly developing an imaging radiomete...

  8. Stem and Crown Characteristics of Norway Spruce [Picea abies (L. Karst] Populations from Romanian Carpathians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius BUDEANU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available To establish the most important Norway spruce Romanian populations, open-pollinated progeny of ten plus trees originating from 33 seed stands mapped in the Romanian Carpathians have been evaluated for stem and crown characteristics at the age of 30 years, in two field trials: one established in their natural range (Breţcu trial, while the second was located outside of their natural range, in Subcarpathian lands (Avrig trial. Significant (p < 0.05 differences were found among the seed stands in both sites for most of the characteristics, suggesting an additive genetic control with different levels of significance depending on the evaluated trait and the testing site. Location analysis also revealed a highly significant population x locality interaction for all traits. The same populations behave differently to the change of the ecological conditions. In the Avrig trial higher values were recorded than in the Breţcu trial for the tree slenderness coefficient (19%, crown slenderness coefficient (13.6% and crown lateral area (9.4%. Although outside of their natural area, pruning height (m increased 6.4%, however pruning height ratio (% decreases by 1%, compared to the test established in their natural range. The populations from the Eastern Carpathians stand out by showing sustained growth and superior wood quality, while the populations from the Western Romanian Carpathians have generally smaller differences between the mean values of analysed traits in both field trials. Qualitative characteristics that influence the stability of stands to windthrow and snowbreak showed low levels of correlations to ecological gradients of the originating location of tested seed stands.

  9. Possible effect from shear stress on maturation of somatic embryos of Norway spruce (Picea abies).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hong; Aidun, Cyrus K; Egertsdotter, Ulrika

    2011-05-01

    Somatic embryogenesis is the only method with the potential for industrial scale clonal propagation of conifers. Implementation of the method has so far been hampered by the extensive manual labor required for development of the somatic embryos into plants. The utilization of bioreactors is limited since the somatic embryos will not mature and germinate under liquid culture conditions. The negative effect on mature embryo yields from liquid culture conditions has been previously described. We have described the negative effects of shear stress on the development of early stage somatic embryos (proembryogenic masses; PEMs) at shear stresses of 0.086 and 0.14 N/m(2). In the present study, additional flow rates were studied to determine the effects of shear stress at lower rates resembling shear stress in a suspension culture flask. The results showed that shear stress at 0.009, 0.014, and 0.029 N/m(2) inhibited the PEM expansions comparing with the control group without shear stress. This study also provides validation for the cross-correlation method previously developed to show the effect of shear stress on early stage embryo suspensor cell formation and polarization. Furthermore, shear stress was shown to positively affect the uptake of water into the cells. The results indicate that the plasmolyzing effect from macromolecules added to liquid culture medium to stimulate maturation of the embryos are affected by liquid culture conditions and thus can affect the conversion of PEMs into mature somatic embryos. PMID:21449024

  10. Growth rate of Heterobasidion annosum in Picea abies established on forest land and arable land

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bendz-Hellgren, M.; Johansson, Martin; Swedjemark, G.; Stenlid, J. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Forest Mycology and Pathology; Brandtberg, P.O. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Ecology and Environmental Research

    1999-07-01

    The growth rates of Heterobasidion annosum in Norway spruce were investigated in southern Sweden. In one study, stump and tree roots in stands established on previous forest or arable land were inoculated with H. annosum-infested sawdust. After 1-3 yrs, the linear extent of colonization by the fungus was measured, based on detection of its conidiophores on incubated samples. The average growth rate was 25 cm yr{sup -1} in stump roots and 9 cm yr{sup -1} in tree roots, neither of which differed significantly between forest and arable land. The feeling of a decayed tree could enhance the spread of H. annosum within root systems. In the second study, the height of discoloration and extent of colonization by H. annosum, measured as above, were assessed in naturally infected trees. On average, discoloration moved through the roots and stem at a rate of 36 cm yr{sup -1}. Heterobasidion annosum was found 60 cm in advance of the discoloration, corresponding to a growth rate of 52 cm yr{sup -1}.

  11. Riikide võimalik abi pankadele halb uudis / Fredy-Edwin Esse

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Esse, Fredy-Edwin

    2011-01-01

    Euroopa Pangandusasutus (EBA) andis 8. detsembril käsu Euroopa pankadele koguda juunikuuks reservidena 115 mlrd eurot, kuid Lõuna-Euroopa pankade jaoks on see problemaatiline ja nad on niigi raskustes olevate valitsuste poole pöördunud, mis tähendab, et tekkida võib väga ohtlik nõiaring

  12. Ekspert : Lähis-Idal pole Euroopa kogemusest abi / Erkki Bahovski

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Bahovski, Erkki, 1970-

    2005-01-01

    Saksa mõttekoja peatne direktor Volker Perthes peab Baltimaade ja Kesk-Euroopa riikide olemist araabia ja Lähis-Ida riikide õpetajateks müüdiks, kuna sealsetes riikides pole tegemist üleminekuga sotsialismilt või postsotsialismilt liberaalsele demokraatiale

  13. Tulemusliku abi võti - koostöö ja professionaalsus / Estelle Laane

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laane, Estelle

    2002-01-01

    Kliendi tulemuslikul abistamisel on oluline osa sotsiaalvõrgustiku koostööl, milles on täpselt määratletud eri võrgustikuosade funktsioonid ning sellest tulenevalt ka nende õigused, kohustused ja vastutus

  14. Pathos, forma, memoria: Aby Warburg e il«temporale» del comprendere

    OpenAIRE

    Alice Barale

    2012-01-01

    Refusing the over-refined history of art of his time, young Warburg travels in 1895 to New Mexico,  visiting the American Indian pueblos. Here he discovers a dark side of our own culture, where arts turn out to be – as he writes about thirty years later in his notes - a “biological product” and knowledge shows to be deeply conncted to metamorphic behaviour.

  15. Pathos, forma, memoria: Aby Warburg e il«temporale» del comprendere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Barale

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Refusing the over-refined history of art of his time, young Warburg travels in 1895 to New Mexico,  visiting the American Indian pueblos. Here he discovers a dark side of our own culture, where arts turn out to be – as he writes about thirty years later in his notes - a “biological product” and knowledge shows to be deeply conncted to metamorphic behaviour.

  16. A General Scheme for Formalizing Defaults Using the Predicate ab(I,S)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Yidong

    1999-01-01

    In common sense reasoning two typical types of defaultsare encountered. One is of the form "All birds can fly except b1,b2,..., and bm (m1)", and the other "All birds can fly,but there exist exceptions". The first type of defaults is readilyformalized but the other, as some researchers have noticed, is difficultto deal with. This paper establishes a general scheme for formalizing defaults of the two types, the key to which is the introduction of atwo-argument predicate ab (I, S) to represent exceptional objects.

  17. Accumulation of radioactivity in mushrooms and its relation with the mycophagous rodents biology in an Abies religiosa forest; Acumulacion de radiactividad en hongos y su relacion con la biologia de roedores micofagos en un bosque de Abies religiosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valenzuela G, V.H

    2001-07-01

    Nowadays the society expresses its concern by the action of the nuclear energy with respect to installations safety, the transport of radioactive materials, the radioactive waste management, nuclear accidents and nuclear tests. The concern is based to the fear of radioactive explosion which contaminates the environment and the damages to the public health. The mathematical models which establish and define the behavior and the exposure conditions of radioactive substances in the human beings as well as the systematic deposit in the terrestrial surface of the particles suspended in the air which contain radioactive material are called fallout, that is a contamination indicator. The objective of this work is to identify the little rodents species with greater accumulation of radionuclides of artificial origin. Due to the mushrooms are good bio indicators of radioactive contamination and the rodents consume them often, both are of greater assistance as indicators of this type of contamination and contribute to the knowledge of the {sup 137} Cs and {sup 40} K dynamics at the forest system. This work forms part of the environmental radiological surveillance of the Mexican Nuclear Center (CNM) in which are analysed several samples which will be used as biological indicators of radioactive contamination which serve for the transfer coefficient calculations of the different routes by which the radiation can to arrive to the human being, being able to be evaluated the dose to the people who live at the CNM surrounding area. Due to not always it is possible to detect so lowest levels of radioactivity in some environmental samples (air, water and, foods) it is necessary to quantify them in other animals or plants which accumulate them. (Author)

  18. Albumin-bound formulation of paclitaxel (Abraxane® ABI-007) in the treatment of breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Evelina Miele; Gian Paolo Spinelli; Ermanno Miele; Federica Tomao; Silverio Tomao

    2009-01-01

    Evelina Miele1, Gian Paolo Spinelli1, Ermanno Miele2, Federica Tomao1, Silverio Tomao11Department of Experimental Medicine, University of Rome “Sapienza”, Rome, Italy; 2Biomedical Engineering, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Rome, ItalyAbstract: Breast cancer is the most common type of malignancy diagnosed in women. In the metastatic setting this disease is still uncurable. Taxanes represent an important class of antitumor agents which have proven to be fundamental in the ...

  19. Use of different growth paramaters of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) to study tree response to climate

    OpenAIRE

    Anja PUGELJ; Levanič, Tom; Jalkanen, Risto; Gričar, Jožica; Gagen, M; Oven, Primož

    2016-01-01

    In the paper, potential analysis of various growth parameters of Norway spruceare introduced at the macro and micro levels. Dendroecological measurements give information as to xylem growth ring widths, their density and content of stable isotopes in the xylem growth rings. Needle trace method of the terminal annual shoot allows retrospective view into needle density ofthe terminal annual shoot and consequently reconstruction of the several parameters linked to the needles and air pollution. ...

  20. Effects of physical blockage of axial phloem transport on growth of Norway spruce (Picea abies) saplings under drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberhuber, Walter; Gruber, Andreas; Winkler, Andrea; Lethaus, Gina; Wieser, Gerhard

    2016-04-01

    Early culmination of maximum radial growth in late spring was found in several coniferous species in a dry inner Alpine environment (Oberhuber et al. 2014). We hypothesized that early decrease in radial stem growth is an adaptation to cope with drought stress, which might require an early switch of carbon allocation to belowground organs. To test this hypothesis we manipulated tree carbon status by physical blockage of phloem transport and soil water availability of Norway spruce saplings (tree height c. 1.5 m) in a common garden experiment to investigate influence of carbon availability and drought on above- and belowground growth. Girdling occurred at different phenological stages during the growing season, i.e., before growth onset, and during earlywood and latewood formation. Non-structural carbohydrates (NSC, soluble sugars and starch) were determined before and after the growing season to evaluate change in tree carbon status. Tree ring analysis revealed that compared to non-girdled controls earlywood width above girdling strikingly increased by c. 170 and 440 %, while latewood width decreased by c. 85 and 55 % in watered and drought stressed trees, respectively. Below girdling no xylem formation was detected. Unexpectedly, preliminary analyses of carbon status revealed striking reduction (c. -80 %) of NSC above and below girdling. Most likely due to reductions in xylem hydraulic conductance, girdling before growth onset reduced leader shoot growth compared to non-girdled controls by c. 45 %, irrespective of water availability. Root dry mass of girdled trees was significantly reduced compared to non-girdled controls (c. 30 % in drought stressed and 45 % in watered trees; p < 0.001). Results suggest that in Norway spruce saplings (1) carbon availability affects radial stem growth, (2) higher basipetal carbon transport occurs under drought supporting our hypothesis of early switch of carbon allocation to belowground when drought stress prevails and (3) minor acropetal transport of carbon from carbon stores in the root system to the stem. We conclude that physical manipulation of carbon availability by disruption of phloem transport is a valuable tool to study relevance of carbon status for tree growth exposed to environmental stress. This study was funded by the Austrian Science Fund (FWF): P25643-B16 "Carbon allocation and growth of Scots pine". Reference Oberhuber W, A Gruber, W Kofler, I Swidrak (2014) Radial stem growth in response to microclimate and soil moisture in a drought-prone mixed coniferous forest at an inner Alpine site. Eur J For Res 133:467-479.

  1. A forest simulation approach using weighted Voronoi diagrams. An application to Mediterranean fir Abies pinsapo Boiss stands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Begoña Abellanas

    2016-07-01

    • The Grazalema pinsapo stand under consideration is currently undergoing a natural process of differentiation, avoiding long-term stagnation. Keywords: Vorest; stand dynamics; individual-based forest model; spatially explicit forest model; pinsapo.

  2. NATO kõrgeim sõjaväelane : olge abi vastuvõtuks valmis / Raymond Henault ; interv. Raimo Poom

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Henault, Raymond

    2007-01-01

    NATO sõjalise komitee esimehe sõnul on NATO eesmärk aidata Balti riike õhuturbega kuni 2018. aastani, õhuturbe kontseptsioon vaadatakse üle 2011. aastal. Ämari lennuväli peab muutuma kättesaadavaks kõigile NATO õhuvägedele. Kindral tõstis esile küberkaitse kompetentsikeskuse loomise vajadust ning avaldas arvamust Eesti kaitseväe praeguse mudeli kohta

  3. Hispaania nõuab immigrantide vastu võitlemiseks EL-i abi / Anna-Maria Penu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Penu, Anna-Maria, 1978-

    2006-01-01

    Üha suureneb Kanaaridele saabuvate Aafrika paadipõgenike hulk, Hispaania asepeaminister Maria Teresa Fernandez de la Vega tahab probleemi lahendamiseks EL-ilt kaasabi. Lisa: Nädalavahetus tõi üle 1000 põgeniku

  4. Fine-scale distribution of ectomycorrhizal fungi colonizing Tsuga diversifolia seedlings growing on rocks in a subalpine Abies veitchii forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Naohiro; Son, Joung A; Matsushita, Norihisa; Iwamoto, Kojiro; Hogetsu, Taizo

    2014-05-01

    Numerous species of ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi coexist under the forest floor. To explore the mechanisms of coexistence, we investigated the fine-scale distribution of ECM fungal species colonizing root tips in the root system of Tsuga diversifolia seedlings in a subalpine forest. ECM root tips of three seedlings growing on the flat top surface of rocks were sampled after recording their positions in the root system. After the root tips were grouped by terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis of ITS rDNA, the fungal species representing each T-RFLP group were identified using DNA sequencing. Based on the fungal species identification, the distribution of root tips colonized by each ECM fungus was mapped. Significant clustering of root tips was estimated for each fungal species by comparing actual and randomly simulated distributions. In total, the three seedlings were colonized by 40 ECM fungal species. The composition of colonizing fungal species was quite different among the seedlings. Twelve of the 15 major ECM fungal species clustered significantly within a few centimeters. Some clusters overlapped or intermingled, while others were unique. Areas with high fungal species diversity were also identified in the root system. In this report, the mechanisms underlying generation of these ECM root tip clusters in the root system are discussed. PMID:24212400

  5. Kas erivajadustega lapsed saavad õigel ajal abi? / Ene Mägi, Urve Raudsepp-Alt, Ale Sprenk, Peeter Aas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2009-01-01

    Küsimusele vastavad: Tallinna Ülikooli Kasvatusteaduste Instituudi eri- ja sotsiaalpedagoogika osakonna juhataja Ene Mägi, Tallinna Haridusameti üldhariduse osakonna peaspetsialist Urve Raudsepp-Alt, Krabi põhikooli direktor Ale Sprenk, Põlva Maavalitsuse haridus-, kultuuri- ja sotsiaalosakonna juhataja Peeter Aas

  6. Identifying Subalpine Fir (Abies lasiocarpa Attacked by the Balsam Woolly Adelgid (Adelges piceae Using Spectral Measurements of the Foliage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen P. Cook

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Balsam woolly adelgid is an invasive pest of firs in the United States. Aerial surveys are conducted for detection of adelgid infestations but other remotely sensed data may also be useful. Our objective was to determine if high spectral resolution, branch-level data can be used to distinguish infested from noninfested trees. Stepwise discriminant analysis yielded a three-variable model (the red-green index and two narrow-bands (one at 670 nm and the other at 1912 nm that classified infested versus non-infested trees with 94% accuracy compared with the 83% accuracy obtained with a single-variable model. The response of trees in narrow spectral bands was integrated across wavebands to simulate measurements from the multispectral SPOT5-HRVIR sensor. Stepwise discriminant analysis again yielded a three-variable model (simple ratio, the SPOT5-HRVIR band in the SWIR region and NDVI with similar accuracy (93% at discriminating infested from non-infested trees compared with the 83% accuracy obtained with a single-variable model.

  7. Accumulation of radioactivity in mushrooms and its relation with the mycophagous rodents biology in an Abies religiosa forest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowadays the society expresses its concern by the action of the nuclear energy with respect to installations safety, the transport of radioactive materials, the radioactive waste management, nuclear accidents and nuclear tests. The concern is based to the fear of radioactive explosion which contaminates the environment and the damages to the public health. The mathematical models which establish and define the behavior and the exposure conditions of radioactive substances in the human beings as well as the systematic deposit in the terrestrial surface of the particles suspended in the air which contain radioactive material are called fallout, that is a contamination indicator. The objective of this work is to identify the little rodents species with greater accumulation of radionuclides of artificial origin. Due to the mushrooms are good bio indicators of radioactive contamination and the rodents consume them often, both are of greater assistance as indicators of this type of contamination and contribute to the knowledge of the 137 Cs and 40 K dynamics at the forest system. This work forms part of the environmental radiological surveillance of the Mexican Nuclear Center (CNM) in which are analysed several samples which will be used as biological indicators of radioactive contamination which serve for the transfer coefficient calculations of the different routes by which the radiation can to arrive to the human being, being able to be evaluated the dose to the people who live at the CNM surrounding area. Due to not always it is possible to detect so lowest levels of radioactivity in some environmental samples (air, water and, foods) it is necessary to quantify them in other animals or plants which accumulate them. (Author)

  8. TEMPERATURE-RESPIRATION RELATIONSHIPS DIFFER IN MYCORRHIZAL AND NON-MYCORRHIZAL ROOT SYSTEMS OF PICEA ABIES (L.) KARST.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Root respiration has been shown to increase with temperature, but less is known about how this relation ship is affected by the fungal partner in mycorrhizal root systems. In order to test respiratory temperature dependence, in particular Q10 of mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal r...

  9. AbiV, a Novel Antiphage Abortive Infection Mechanism on the Chromosome of Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris MG1363

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haaber, Jakob Brandt Borup; Moineau, Sylvain; Fortier, Louis-Charles;

    2008-01-01

    MG1363. This gene was also found to confer phage resistance to L. lactis MG1363 when it was cloned into an expression vector. A subsequent frameshift mutation in the ORF completely eliminated the phage resistance phenotype, confirming that the ORF was necessary for phage resistance. This ORF provided...

  10. IDENTIFICATION OF SOME VALUABLE GERMPLASM SOURCES IN SILVER FIR (ABIES ALBA ON THE BASIS OF SEED GERMINATION CAPACITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liviu Fartais

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Silver Fir genetic resources conservation is a very important activity (including in our country consideredthrough the viewpoint of a drastic diminution of natural arboreta. The elite (plus silver fir trees are the most importantpurveyors of high quality biological material for the creation of populations (orchards for seed or cutting production inthe process of forest genetic improvement and afforestation too. The experiments were fulfilled in order to establish thebiological answer of Silver Fir seeds concerning the germinative potential in a mixture arboretum (Silver Fir andEuropean Beech. Related to the main physiological indicators of Silver Fir seeds, the value of the germinativeenergy/germinative vigour, respectively 26,75%, is normal in natural conditions. The germinative capacity(technical germination registered 32%, value corresponding to second category of seed quality.

  11. Assessment of sanitary conditions in stands of Norway spruce (Picea abies Karst. damaged by spruce bud scale (Physokermes piceae Schrnk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miezite O

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Spruce bud scale (Physokermes piceae Schrnk. affects tree growth directly and indirectly. Direct injury appears in the form of tissue damage, as insects suck sap from tree phloem. Indirect injury appears as “honeydew”, which results in negative effects on tree growth. Plant sap is saturated with various carbohydrates called photosynthates that are difficult for scaly insects to digest. Therefore it is secreted in excrements, which are subsequently a food source for the black sooty mold (Apiosporium pinophilum Fuckel. The fungus covers needles blocking stomata, causing decreased transpiration and photosynthesis. An inexplicable wither of Norway spruce was reported in Latvia during 2010 due to black sooty mold. However, spruce bud scale was not evident. In 2011, mass propagation of spruce bud scale was observed following the 2010 Norway spruce loss. One objective of this research was to determine if Kraft tree growth classes could be applied to establish the factors responsible for tree foliage damage. Six 21 - 40 year old (second age class Norway spruce stands were evaluated. Two circular sample plots with a 7.98 m radius, and a 200-m2 area were randomly established per each forest stand hectare. Diameter at breast height (dbh, 1.3 m, and height of approximately 30 trees was measured to model a trend. For all trees, Kraft class, and foliage damage level caused by spruce bud scale and black sooty mold were determined. Significant differences were not observed in tree damage levels among stands, however significant differences among damage levels in different Kraft classes were detected (F = 3.45 > Fcrit. = 2.80, α = 0.05 > P = 0.02 found. Overall damage intensity was 29.3 %. Total forestry loss was 1153 LVL (1640 EUR for all surveyed stands (10 ha, and 115 LVL (164 EUR per hectare.

  12. Variation patterns of mitochondrial DNA of Abies alba Mill. in suture zones of postglacial migration in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duśan Gomory

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Thirty silver fir populations originating from the putative suture zones of the postglacial recolonization (Slovenia, Bosnia and Hercegovina, Ukraine were studied using a mitochondrial nad5-4 gene marker. The geographical distribution of mtDNA haplotypes in the Ukrainian Carpathians and their northern foothills indicates a very recent meeting of migration streams arriving from the Romanian Carpathians and Central Europe. In the western part of the Balkan Peninsula, two counterparallel migration streams are the most plausible explanation of the pattern observed. The haplotype typical for the Balkan Peninsula predominates along the Adrian coast, whereas the CentralEuropean haplotype is more represented in the inland.

  13. Tipología selvícola para los abetales españoles de Abies alba Mill.

    OpenAIRE

    Aunós Gómez, Álvaro; E. Martínez; Blanco Ortiz, Ricardo

    2007-01-01

    Se ofrece una tipología de naturaleza silvogenética para los abetales del Pirineo español, elaborada a partir de la información suministrada por el Segundo Inventario Forestal Nacional. Se han derivado nueve tipos, cuya diferenciación se articula en base al área basimétrica, la densidad, la distribución diamétrica de los pies presentes y el carácter puro o mixto de la masa. Se ha analizado comparativamente la estructura que conforman sus distribuciones diamétricas y el rol que las especies...

  14. Testing Romanian seed sources of Norway spruce (Picea abies: results on growth traits and survival at age 30

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Budeanu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Growth traits and survival rate were evaluated in two field trialsconsisting of 33 provenances (seed stands spread across the entire natural distribution range of Norway spruce in Romania. Total tree height, diameter at breast height (DBH and survival rate were measured at 30 years after planting. Both growth and adaptation traits show substantial genetic variation among the tested seed stands. The amplitude of variation depends markedly on trait and testing site. This fact suggests that the best performing seed stands for growth and adaptation traits at each testing site can be selected. Two groups of valuable populations from Romanian Carpathians - the Northern and Western part (Apuseni Mountains - were identified. Survival rate was negatively correlated with growth traits, the average values in the two field trials were 68% and 70%. By analyzing growth and adaptation traits together with stem and wood qualitative traits, the best performing populations will be considered as tested seed sourcesand the forest reproductive material they can provide will be recommended for use in the regions of provenance where the two field trials are located.

  15. The past ecology of Abies alba provides new perspectives on future responses of silver fir forests to global warming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tinner, W.; Colombaroli, D.; Heiri, O.M.; Henne, P.D.; Steinacher, M.; Untenecker, J.; Vescovi, E.; Allen, J.R.M.; Carraro, G.; Conodera, M.; Joos, F.; Lotter, A.F.; Luterbacher, J.; Samartin, S.; Valsecchi, V.

    2013-01-01

    Paleoecology can provide valuable insights into the ecology of species that complement observation and experiment-based assessments of climate impact dynamics. New paleoecological records (e.g., pollen, macrofossils) from the Italian Peninsula suggest a much wider climatic niche of the important Eur

  16. Tree ring variability and climate response of Abies spectabilis along an elevation gradient in Mustang, Nepal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kharal, D.K.; Meilby, Henrik; Rayamajhi, S.;

    2014-01-01

    climate along an elevation gradient in the high Himalayas of central Nepal. Tree core samples were collected from four sites in Mustang district. All sites were located in the same valley and exposed to similar weather conditions. Out of 232 samples collected from the sites, Titi lower (2700 m), Titi...

  17. High-efficiency Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Norway spruce (Picea abies) and loblolly pine (Pinus taeda)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenck, A. R.; Quinn, M.; Whetten, R. W.; Pullman, G.; Sederoff, R.; Brown, C. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    Agrobacterium-mediated gene transfer is the method of choice for many plant biotechnology laboratories; however, large-scale use of this organism in conifer transformation has been limited by difficult propagation of explant material, selection efficiencies and low transformation frequency. We have analyzed co-cultivation conditions and different disarmed strains of Agrobacterium to improve transformation. Additional copies of virulence genes were added to three common disarmed strains. These extra virulence genes included either a constitutively active virG or extra copies of virG and virB, both from pTiBo542. In experiments with Norway spruce, we increased transformation efficiencies 1000-fold from initial experiments where little or no transient expression was detected. Over 100 transformed lines expressing the marker gene beta-glucuronidase (GUS) were generated from rapidly dividing embryogenic suspension-cultured cells co-cultivated with Agrobacterium. GUS activity was used to monitor transient expression and to further test lines selected on kanamycin-containing medium. In loblolly pine, transient expression increased 10-fold utilizing modified Agrobacterium strains. Agrobacterium-mediated gene transfer is a useful technique for large-scale generation of transgenic Norway spruce and may prove useful for other conifer species.

  18. Testing Romanian seed sources of Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst: results on growth traits and survival at age 30

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Budeanu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Growth traits and survival rate were evaluated in two field trials consisting of 33 provenances (seed stands spread across the entire natural distribution range of Norway spruce in Romania. Total tree height, diameter at breast height (DBH and survival rate were measured at 30 years after planting. Both growth and adaptation traits show substantial genetic variation among the tested seed stands. The amplitude of variation depends markedly on trait and testing site. This fact suggests that the best performing seed stands for growth and adaptation traits at each testing site can be selected. Two groups of valuable populations, located in the North and East of Eastern Carpathians (Apuseni Mountains, were identified. Survival rate was negatively correlated with growth traits, the average values in the two field trials were 68% and 70%. By analyzing growth and adaptation traits together with stem and wood qualitative traits, the best performing populations will be considered as tested seed sources and the forest reproductive material they can provide will be recommended for use in the regions of provenance where the two field trials are located.

  19. Quantitative remote sensing of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.): spectroscopy from needles to crowns to canopies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malenovsky, Z.

    2006-01-01

    Mountain ecosystems represent nearly one fourth of the Earth's land surface, and provide (ecosystem) services to a significant part of the world's human population. As was noted in the 1992 United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) inRi

  20. Transcriptome Analysis Reveals that Red and Blue Light Regulate Growth and Phytohormone Metabolism in Norway Spruce [Picea abies (L. Karst].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangqun OuYang

    Full Text Available The mechanisms by which different light spectra regulate plant shoot elongation vary, and phytohormones respond differently to such spectrum-associated regulatory effects. Light supplementation can effectively control seedling growth in Norway spruce. However, knowledge of the effective spectrum for promoting growth and phytohormone metabolism in this species is lacking. In this study, 3-year-old Norway spruce clones were illuminated for 12 h after sunset under blue or red light-emitting diode (LED light for 90 d, and stem increments and other growth traits were determined. Endogenous hormone levels and transcriptome differences in the current needles were assessed to identify genes related to the red and blue light regulatory responses. The results showed that the stem increment and gibberellin (GA levels of the seedlings illuminated by red light were 8.6% and 29.0% higher, respectively, than those of the seedlings illuminated by blue light. The indoleacetic acid (IAA level of the seedlings illuminated by red light was 54.6% lower than that of the seedlings illuminated by blue light, and there were no significant differences in abscisic acid (ABA or zeatin riboside [ZR] between the two groups of seedlings. The transcriptome results revealed 58,736,166 and 60,555,192 clean reads for the blue-light- and red-light-illuminated samples, respectively. Illumina sequencing revealed 21,923 unigenes, and 2744 (approximately 93.8% out of 2926 differentially expressed genes (DEGs were found to be upregulated under blue light. The main KEGG classifications of the DEGs were metabolic pathway (29%, biosynthesis of secondary metabolites (20.49% and hormone signal transduction (8.39%. With regard to hormone signal transduction, AUXIN-RESISTANT1 (AUX1, AUX/IAA genes, auxin-inducible genes, and early auxin-responsive genes [(auxin response factor (ARF and small auxin-up RNA (SAUR] were all upregulated under blue light compared with red light, which might have yielded the higher IAA level. DELLA and phytochrome-interacting factor 3 (PIF3, involved in negative GA signaling, were also upregulated under blue light, which may be related to the lower GA level. Light quality also affects endogenous hormones by influencing secondary metabolism. Blue light promoted phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, phenylalanine metabolism, flavonoid biosynthesis and flavone and flavonol biosynthesis, accompanied by upregulation of most of the genes in their pathways. In conclusion, red light may promote stem growth by regulating biosynthesis of GAs, and blue light may promote flavonoid, lignin, phenylpropanoid and some hormones (such as jasmonic acid which were related to plant defense in Norway spruce, which might reduce the primary metabolites available for plant growth.

  1. Susceptibility of Picea abies and Pinus sylvestris Seedlings of Various origins to Heterobasidion annosum and H. parviporum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaļuma Astra

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Five-year-old Norway spruce and four-year-old Scots pine seedlings of various origin were inoculated with Heterobasidion annosum s.s. and H. parviporum to estimate whether the susceptibility of seedlings to Heterobasidion was affected by origin of seeds. In total, 520 spruce and 538 pine seedlings from different seed sources and provenance regions of Latvia were tested. Four months after inoculation the fungal growth was measured. The results highlight differences between development of H. annosum and H. parviporum in spruce and pine seedlings. We did not find any seed source that was more resistant than others.

  2. Effects of Ozone on Norway Spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) as a Function of the Soil Nitrogen Content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bastrup-Birk, A.; Egeløv, A.; Kemp, K.;

    1997-01-01

    The Danish Environmental Research Programme. Sub-Programme 1: Atmosphere and Air Pollution. Det strategiske Miljøforskningsprogram 1992-1996.......The Danish Environmental Research Programme. Sub-Programme 1: Atmosphere and Air Pollution. Det strategiske Miljøforskningsprogram 1992-1996....

  3. NATO kõrgeim sõjaväelane: olge abi vastuvõtuks valmis / Raymond Henault ; interv. Raimo Poom

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Henault, Raymond

    2007-01-01

    NATO sõjalise komitee esimehe sõnul on NATO eesmärk aidata Balti riike õhuturbega kuni 2018. aastani, õhuturbe kontseptsioon vaadatakse üle 2011. aastal. Ämari lennuväli peab muutuma kättesaadavaks kõigile NATO õhuvägedele. Kindral tõstis esile küberkaitse kompetentsikeskuse loomise vajadust ning avaldas arvamust Eesti kaitseväe praeguse mudeli kohta

  4. Attributional Bias Instrument (ABI): Validation of a Measure to Assess Ability and Effort Explanations for Math Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinoza, Penelope P.; Quezada, Stephanie A.; Rincones, Rodolfo; Strobach, E. Natalia; Gutierrez, Maria Armida Estrada

    2012-01-01

    The present work investigates the validation of a newly developed instrument, the attributional bias instrument, based on achievement attribution theories that distinguish between effort and ability explanations of behavior. The instrument further incorporates the distinction between explanations for success versus failure in academic performance.…

  5. 华为空闲Abis时隙优化%Idle Abis Slot Optimization of HuaWei Company

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于清泉

    2013-01-01

    With the increase of mobile users and business volume, how to use the existing cyber source network to upgrade the carrying efficiency, By exploring the potential of GPRS network and EDGE service and fixing some network short board, we have found that there exists some space for idle slot optimization. The idle slot optimization is carried out in the premise of op-timizing the utilization of network and promoting cyber source operation. On one hand, the bearing capacity of the network is enhanced;on the other hand, the users' perception and the quality of network is improved.%随着移动用户的数量及业务量的不断增长,如何利用现有网络资源提升网络承载效率,我们对现网GPRS及EDGE业务进行潜能深度挖掘,针对现网情况确定一些网络短板,其中发现空闲时隙优化方面存在可优化空间。此次空闲时隙优化是在提升网络资源利用率,优化网络运行情况的前提下展开的。通过提升空闲时隙优化,一方面提升了网络的承载能力,另一方面改善了用户感知,提升了网络质量。

  6. Tracing the allocation of recently assimilated C into key metabolites in Norway spruce (Picea abies) shortly after bud break

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, Steffen; Dippold, Michaela; Werner, Christiane; Wiesenberg, Guido; Kuzyakov, Yakov; Glaser, Bruno

    2015-04-01

    Plants allocate carbon (C) to sink tissues depending on phenological, physiological or environmental factors. We still have little knowledge on C partitioning into various cellular compounds and metabolic pathways, especially during tree growth after bud break. Here we investigated C partitioning of freshly assimilated C in Norway spruce by in-situ 13C short-term pulse labeling 15 days after bud break. We quantified 13C incorporation into tree compartments (needles, branches, stem) and into water soluble organic carbon (WSOC) by elemental analyzer-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (EA-IRMS). In addition, we determined 13C allocation into key metabolites of amino acids, hemicellulose sugars, fatty acids and alkanes by compound-specific 13C analysis via gas chromatography-combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-C-IRMS). The 13C allocation within the trees reflected the needles as major C sink accounting for 86% of the freshly assimilated C. After 6 h 13C was distributed over a broad spectrum of plant metabolites but not homogenously. Highest allocation was observed into structurally relevant compound classes of hemicellulose-derived sugars and proteinogenic amino acids (0.6% and 10% of needle 13C, respectively). However, needle growth also caused high C allocation into pathways not involved in formation of structural compounds like pathways in secondary metabolism, C-1 metabolism or amino acid synthesis from photorespiratory acitivity. C allocation into such pathways could be identified due to the high enrichment of key metabolites within the amino acids. In addition, high 13C allocation was found into the n-alkyl lipid biosynthesis (0.2 % of needle 13C) with 1) higher allocation into intracellular than cuticular fatty acids, presumably for thylakoide membrane formation and 2) decreasing 13C allocation along the lipid transformation and translocation pathways (precursor fatty acids (C16 & C18) > elongated long chain fatty acids > decarbonylated n-alkanes). Consequently, the combination of 13C pulse labeling with compound-specific 13C analysis of key metabolites enabled identification of relevant C allocation pathways during needle growth after bud break. Besides primary metabolism, synthesizing structural cell compounds, a complex network of various pathways consumed the freshly assimilated 13C and kept the majority of the assimilated C in the growing needles.

  7. Was tun nach dem Abi? Die schulische Vorbereitung auf die Studien- und Berufswahl aus der Sicht von GymnasiastInnen in der Sekundarstufe II

    OpenAIRE

    Kracke, Bärbel

    2006-01-01

    Die Schule hat den ausdrücklichen Auftrag Jugendliche im Prozess der Berufswahl zu unterstützen. Geeignete schulische Maßnahmen sollen Jugendlichen ermöglichen, gut überlegte Entscheidungen für ein Studium oder eine Ausbildung zu treffen. Die vorliegende Fragebogenstudie mit 264 Schülerinnen und Schülern der elften Jahrgangsstufe zweier Thüringer Gymnasien untersuchte, welche nachschulischen Pläne vorherrschen, wie aktiv sich die Jugendlichen mit studien- und berufswahlrelevanten Fragen ausei...

  8. Ühiseid väärtusi hoides : haridusministeerium otsib abi eetikast / Avo Rosenvald ; kommenteerinud Tõnis Lukas, Marju Lauristin ... [jt.

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    26. septembril Tallinnas väärtuste ja nende arendamise teemal toimunud konverentsist "Ühiseid väärtusi hoides", mille korraldas Tartu Ülikooli eetikakeskus koostöös Haridus- ja Teadusministeeriumiga

  9. Phytochemicals as a Source of Novel Drugs Against Prostate Cancer - Preparation of Animal Experiments and Isolation and Identification of Flavonoid Glycosides from Abies pindrow

    OpenAIRE

    Vidal, Carlos Oscar Alejandro Soto

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Plants and herbs have been utilized for centuries by traditional medicinal systems (e.g. TCM, Ayurveda) to alleviate minor illnesses and major diseases. In recent decades, interest in traditional medicine has increased significantly among drug development institutions. Currently, several research groups worldwide are conducting isolation, characterization and bioassay evaluation of secondary metabolites from plants and herbs utilized in traditional medicine. Such research aim...

  10. Species Favourability Shift in Europe due to Climate Change: A Case Study for Fagus sylvatica L. and Picea abies (L. Karst. Based on an Ensemble of Climate Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Falk

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Climate is the main environmental driver determining the spatial distribution of most tree species at the continental scale. We investigated the distribution change of European beech and Norway spruce due to climate change. We applied a species distribution model (SDM, driven by an ensemble of 21 regional climate models in order to study the shift of the favourability distribution of these species. SDMs were parameterized for 1971–2000, as well as 2021–2050 and 2071–2100 using the SRES scenario A1B and three physiological meaningful climate variables. Growing degree sum and precipitation sum were calculated for the growing season on a basis of daily data. Results show a general north-eastern and altitudinal shift in climatological favourability for both species, although the shift is more marked for spruce. The gain of new favourable sites in the north or in the Alps is stronger for beech compared to spruce. Uncertainty is expressed as the variance of the averaged maps and with a density function. Uncertainty in species distribution increases over time. This study demonstrates the importance of data ensembles and shows how to deal with different outcomes in order to improve impact studies by showing uncertainty of the resulting maps.

  11. Moderate effects of reforestation with Norway spruce (Picea abies) on carbon storage and turnover in a Swiss sub-alpine pasture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiltbrunner, D.; Hagedorn, F.; Niklaus, P. A.; Zimmermann, S.; Schmidt, M. W. I.

    2012-04-01

    In alpine regions the forested area is strongly increasing through woody plant encroachment on abandoned pastures or by man-made afforestations. These natural or artificial reforestations, in fact, have several implications on the nutrient cycling between plants and soils and thus, are likely to affect carbon turnover. Although afforestations are to be accounted as a sink according to the Kyoto protocol, there are still uncertainties about their effects on the soil carbon storage. In the present study, we assessed soils under pasture, an adjacent chronosequence of spruce afforestations (25-45 years) and a mature spruce forest (older than 120 years) on a homogenous slope in a Swiss sub-alpine ecosystem. While the soil bulk densities were not affected by the land use change, carbon concentrations in the mineral soil decreased 25-45 years after tree establishment. However, no differences between pasture and the mature forest were apparent, indicating that the C-loss after land use conversion was only transient. Up to 2.5kg m-2 C was additionally stored in the organic layer of the oldest stands, resulting in a net C gain in the old forest soils. C:N-ratios of the soil organic matter (SOM) considerably increased with stand age in the uppermost soil layer, displaying the distinct chemical composition of the plant input. In accordance, a shift of the δ13C natural abundance of the SOM in the uppermost mineral layer towards a less negative signal was observed with tree development. The abundance of soil microorganisms, as identified by their phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA), was only moderately affected by vegetation type in the mineral soils. In contrast, a strong alteration of the microbial community composition with a decreasing proportion of fungi from the organic layers to the uppermost mineral layer was observable. Our results show that afforestation with spruce trees on an extensively used sub-alpine pasture only led to a transient loss of C in the mineral soils. In contrast, the accumulation of additional C in the organic layer resulted in higher C-stocks in the old forest as compared to the pasture. Therefore, afforestation with coniferous trees is likely to increase the total amount of C stored, particularly if also the plant biomass is taken into account.

  12. Effects of substrate and ectomycorrhizal inoculation on the development of two-years-old container-grown Norway spruce (Picea abies Karst. seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Repáč I

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to test the effects of selected peat growth substrates (Agro CS, Gramoflor and Durpeta and inoculation with commercial ectomycorrhizal inocula (Ectovit and Mycorrhizaroots on growth, ectomycorrhiza formation, needle nutrients concentration and several physiological parameters of two-years-old containerized Norway spruce seedlings cultivated under standard nursery conditions. The selected substrates differed in origin, composition and nutrient content: Agro CS and Gramoflor were mixtures of various peat types and components with added nutrients, while Durpeta was non-enriched pure peat. Growth parameters of seedlings cultivated in enriched substrates were significantly higher than those grown on the non-enriched substrate. Significant interactions were found between substrate and inoculation treatments. Inoculation with Ectovit stimulated seedling growth in non-enriched substrate but had no effect on seedling parameters in the enriched substrates, and a negative effect on aboveground biomass in Gramoflor. Mycorrhizaroots inoculum significantly decreased shoot to root dry weight ratio, but had no other effect on seedling development. ECM colonization rate of seedlings ranged from 73 to 80%, with no significant effects of the ECM inoculum or growth substrate. DNA analysis revealed a low species diversity of ECM fungi on seedling roots, with a pronounced dominance of the soil-borne ECM species Thelephora terrestris Fr. Chemical analysis of needles and measurement of chlorophyll a fluorescence showed similar trends as seedling growth. Values of chlorophyll a fluorescence parameters and needle N, P, K, Ca and Mg concentrations were higher in both enriched substrates. Ectovit increased (though not significantly chlorophyll a fluorescence in needles as compared to Mycorrhizaroots- and non-inoculated seedlings, as well as nutrient-uptake (mainly K in the non-enriched substrate. Our results suggest the importance of the origin and composition of peat-based substrates on the development of container-grown Norway spruce seedlings, while the observed positive effect of the commercial ECM inoculum Ectovit was more probably caused by its physical and chemical properties rather than by its efficiency in promoting ECM fungi symbiosis. The enriched substrates tested appear to be suitable for production of spruce seedlings of acceptable size for outplanting within two growing seasons.

  13. Elevated CO{sub 2} and development of frost hardiness in Norway spruce (picea abies (L.) Karst.); Oekt CO{sub 2} og utvikling av frostherdighet i gran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalen, Lars Sandved

    1998-09-01

    This thesis discusses controlled laboratory experiments carried out to study the effects of CO{sub 2} pollution on Norwegian spruce. It was found that elevated CO{sub 2} increased height growth and biomass production. It slightly increased frost hardiness, but only at high nitrogen values. There was no evidence of adverse effects of elevated CO{sub 2} on the phenology of bud set and the development of frost hardiness. Although not statistically significant, there seemed to be a consistently higher concentration of soluble carbohydrates in one-season-old Norway spruce seedlings treated with elevated CO{sub 2}. This was not found in three-year-old seedlings grown in open top chambers, possibly indicating a down-regulation of photosynthesis or a transition from free to predetermined growth, and change in allocation of photosynthates with age. Treatment with high or low concentrations of CO{sub 2} and nitrogen fertilizer did not affect apoplastic chitinolytic activity during cold acclimation, nor were there any effects on antifreeze activity in these apoplastic extracts from cold acclimated needles. 149 refs., 21 figs., 8 tabs.

  14. Translocation and bonding of calcium (45Ca) in two-year-old seedlings of spruce (Picea abies[L.] Karst.) and pine (Pinus sylvestris L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within the framework of the project ''Effect of liming and magnesium fertilization on the uptake, transport, and chemical bonding form of calcium and magnesium in conifers'', experiments regarding the calcium budget of two-year-old spruce and pine seedlings under conditions of controlled nutrition in a gravel culture were carried out. Two variants of calcium nutrition demonstrated which of the mechanisms in the calcium metabolism of trees are dependent on changes in element availability. Root labelling using the radioactive tracer 45Ca permitted aimed investigation of the uptake and translocation of calcium during shoot formation in May. The functional importance of the investigated nutritive element was characterized by breaking up the total calcium contents (45Ca) into the three essential chemical bonding forms (water-soluble Ca, Ca-pectate, Ca-oxalate) for the different tree fractions.- The culture experiments led to the conclusion that the root tips are most important as sites of calcium uptake. Translocation within the roots to the shoot took place via diffusion and exchange displacement as a function of calcium supply in the nutritive solution. There is no clue to support the assumption of a regulation of calcium uptake in spruces; in pines, by contrast, it cannot be excluded.- From a nutrition-physiological viewpoint, a total calcium content of 2 mg per gramme of dry mass is to be considered as sufficient. As this target is always attained, even where calcium supply is scarce, it is not appropriate to equate increased calcium availability with enhanced nutrient supply. Rather, the results discussed seem to support the theory that the trees now need to detoxicate excessively high calcium concentrations, which are liable to endanger the physiological cell metabolism, by a reaction with oxalic acid resulting in the formation of calcium oxalate. (orig.)

  15. Phytohormones in needles of spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst.) under different levels of air pollution in the open-top chamber experiment at Edelmannshof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christmann, A.; Frenzel, B. [Hohenheim Univ., Stuttgart (Germany). Inst. fuer Botanik

    1997-12-01

    The plant hormones ethylene (ACC, MACC), abscisic acid and indoleacetic acid were investigated between August 1988 and December 1989 in current-year and one-year-old needles of the twelve spruce trees of the Edelmannshof experiment. Data from this period do not allow to reliably differentiate between consequences of the reduced impact of immissions (open-top chambers receiving charcoal-filtered air) and individual differences of the trees investigated. The conditions are discussed that might have made such a differentiation possible but which were not fulfilled at Edelmannshof. (orig.)

  16. Relación entre variabilidad biogeoquímica y rasgos estructurales de la comunidad microbiana en suelos forestales: bosques de Abies pinsapo como caso de estudio

    OpenAIRE

    Torres Cañabate, Patricia; Hinojosa, M. Belén; García Ruiz, Roberto; Daniell, Tim; Carreira de la Fuente, José Antonio

    2009-01-01

    Tradicionalmente, los estudios biogeoquímicos consideraban el suelo como una "caja negra", conectada con el resto del ecosistema mediante flujos de entrada y de salida de nutrientes, en la que éstos experimentan transformaciones mediadas en gran parte por microorganismos desconocidos. El desarrollo de nuevas técnicas moleculares ha incrementado el conocimiento sobre las comunidades microbianas del suelo. Estudios recientes han puesto de manifiesto correspondencias entre la variabilidad de la ...

  17. Estudio de efectos protectores y mecanismos de acción frente a estrés abiótico de bioestimulantes de fertilizantes en Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    OpenAIRE

    Caballero Molada, Marcos

    2016-01-01

    [EN] ABSTRACT This PhD thesis is based on a collaboration between Professor Dr. Ramon Serrano's laboratory and the fertilizer company Fertinagro Nutrientes and it's motivated by the increasing need in agriculture to increase crop productivity while minimizing its impact on the environment. Fertinagro Nutrientes supplied the following six bioestimulants for analyzing its effects on tolerance to abiotic stress in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, providing no (or very limited in some cases...

  18. On Fuzzy Regular-I-Closed Sets, Fuzzy Semi-I-Regular Sets, Fuzzy ABI-Sets and Decompositions of Fuzzy Regular-I-Continuity, Fuzzy AI - Continuity

    OpenAIRE

    Yildiz, Cemil; ABBAS, Fadhil

    2011-01-01

     The concepts of fuzzy regular-I-closed set and fuzzy semi-I-regular set in fuzzy ideal topological spaces are investigated and some of their properties are obtained. Key words: Topological, Spaces, Fuzzy, Regular, Sets

  19. Body Dissatisfaction Measured with a Figure Preference Task and Self-Esteem in 8 Year Old Children - a Study within the ABIS-Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sepa

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Body dissatisfaction has been related to low self-esteem and depression in adolescents. With regard to the current world wide rise in childhood obesity and common stigmatization of adults and children with obesity, easy to use and cost effective measurements of body dissatisfaction would be helpful in epidemiological research. In the current study, detailed data on body measurements with regard to perceived and ideal body size and body dissatisfaction, as measured with the figure preference task, are presented for a population based sample of 3837 children. Perceived body size correlations to weight, body mass index [BMI], and waist circumference were between 0.41 and 0.54; and to height between 0.12 and 0.21. Odds ratios for lower self-esteem increased with increase in body dissatisfaction. Gender differences in body dissatisfaction were present but not found in relation to self-esteem. It is concluded that the figure preference task yields valuable information in epidemiological studies of children as young as 7.5 years of age. It is argued, that the figure preference task is an additional measurement which theoretically relates to psychological stress in childhood.

  20. Below-ground effects of enhanced tropospheric ozone and drought in a beech/spruce forest (Fagus sylvatica L. / Picea abies [L.] Karst)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of experimentally elevated O3 on soil respiration rates, standing fine-root biomass, fine-root production and δ13C signature of newly produced fine roots were investigated in an adult European beech/Norway spruce forest in Germany during two subsequent years with cont...

  1. A Pilot Study of Social Competence Group Training for Adolescents with Borderline Intellectual Functioning and Emotional and Behavioural Problems (SCT-ABI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestler, J.; Goldbeck, L.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Emotional and behavioural problems as well as a lack of social competence are common in adolescents with borderline intellectual functioning and impair their social and vocational integration. Group interventions specifically developed for this target group are scarce and controlled evaluation studies are absent. Methods: A…

  2. Structure and dynamics of silver fir (Abies alba Mill. population in forest communities of the Świętokrzyski National Park. I. The population structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Mazur

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the spatial, age and size structures of individuals in silver fir population. The studies were conducted in fir forest and Carpathian beechwood. It was found that fir trees were distributed randomly, whereas seedlings, new growth and up-growth had clumped distribution. The growth and development of individuals in aggregations and outside them were analysed. The stress was put on the impact of spatial structure on the process of population regeneration. Age pyramid was flat with its base very wide. About 40% of trees in the population were dead.

  3. Hea kink on annetus, vabatahtlik töö, kana või kits. Inimesed pakuvad abi / Signe Sillasoo ; kommenteerinud Triin Kaare

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sillasoo, Signe

    2011-01-01

    Heaks firmakingituseks on ka mõnele organisatsioonile tehtav annetus. Arvamust avaldavad SA Talinna Lastehaigla Toetusfondi juhataja Inna Kramer, SA Maarja Küla juhataja Ly Mikheim ja TÜ Mondo konsultant Riina Kuusik-Rajasaar

  4. ABiO2X (A = Cd, Ca, Sr, Ba, Pb; X = halogen) Sillen X1 Series: Polymorphism Versus Optical Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olchowka, Jacob; Kabbour, Houria; Colmont, Marie; Adlung, Matthias; Wickleder, Claudia; Mentré, Olivier

    2016-08-01

    The Sillen X1 series of Bi(3+)A(2+)O2X (A = Cd, Ca, Sr, Ba, Pb; X = Cl, Br, I) compounds is composed of three main crystallographic types, namely, the tetragonal form (space group (S.G.) I4/mmm), the orthorhombic form (S.G. Cmcm), and the monoclinic form (S.G. P21/m). Because of Bi(3+)/A(2+) disorder the Bi(3+) based photoluminescence (PL) of the tetragonal polytypes is quenched at room temperature (RT). In the two other ordered forms, the Bi-O-Bi connectivity is different but limited, such that bluish/greenish emission occurs at RT in the monoclinic CdBiO2Cl and CaBiO2Cl and orthorhombic SrBiO2Cl and BaBiO2Cl phases. The crystal structure of BaBiO2Br was refined in the orthorhombic Cmcm space group and also shows RT emission. Focusing on the RT luminescent activity as a key parameter, the PL active compounds were investigated by means of density functional theory calculations and UV-visible reflectance spectroscopy. The influence of A and X ions on the excitation energy is discussed by analyzing the A-O-Bi and Bi-X bonding schemes and gives some insights for rational tuning of both the excitation and emission energies. PMID:27414069

  5. Growth dynamics and climatic sensitivity of Silver fir (Abies alba Mill. in the European important site (SIC at the Alpe della Luna - Bocca Trabaria (PU - Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available A dendroecological and dendroclimatic analysis was carried out in silver fir stand of Fonte Abeti, in the Apennines of central Italy. This small forest is the only one present in the northern side of the Marche region and it is currently included as a priority habitat in the Site of Community Interest “ Luna-Bocca Trabaria”. The study aimed to assess the sensitivity of silver fir to the current climate variability and was carried out on 40 dominant trees, for which we reconstructed radial growth dynamics, pointer years and climate-growth relationships. These were computed for the period 1892-2003, using monthly mean temperatures and precipitation drawn from the ALP-IMP climate dataset using simple and moving correlations in order to verify response stationarity through time.

  6. February-May temperature reconstruction based on tree-ring widths of Abies fargesii from the Shennongjia area in central China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yonghong; Shao, Xuemei; Lu, Fei; Li, Yan

    2016-08-01

    February-May temperature strongly affects ecological processes and socio-economics in central China, yet its long-term variability has not been thoroughly assessed due to the shortness of instrumental records. In order to improve the understanding of the regularities of temperature variability in central China, in this study, we present a new tree-ring chronology from the Shengnongjia Mountains in central China which provides a valuable 245-year record of temperature variability. The reconstructed temperature correlated strongly with February-May mean temperature records of the Fangxian meteorological station from AD 1958 to AD 2011, and the derived reconstruction explained 44.5 % of the instrumental temperature variation during this period. The study shows that this region experienced three warm periods and two cool periods, i.e., the major warm periods occurred in AD 1783-1806, AD 1879-1909, and AD 1975 to the present, whereas the cool intervals occurred in AD 1807-1878 and AD 1910-1974. This reconstruction could aid in the evaluation of regional climate variability in subtropical China.

  7. Effekte einer mehrjährigen Ozonbehandlung von Fichten (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) auf die Struktur und Funktion von Ektomykorrhiza-Gemeinschaften

    OpenAIRE

    Ernst, Jana

    2013-01-01

    In dieser Arbeit wurden die Auswirkungen einer langjährigen, doppelt ambienten Ozonbegasung von Fichten auf Ektomykorrhiza (ECM)-Gemeinschaften untersucht. Neben einer erhöhten Biodiversität und funktionellen Diversität wurden auch Effekte auf funktioneller Ebene bezüglich der Exoenzymaktivitäten nachgewiesen. Nach Ende der Ozonbegasung glichen sich sowohl die Struktur als auch die Funktionen der ECM-Gemeinschaften unter ambienten Bedingungen den Kontrollflächen an, was auf eine hohe Resilien...

  8. Nutritional disorders in spruce (Picea abies) as a consequence of damage to needle surfaces and deposition of atmospheric nitrogenous compounds - one of the mechanisms of forest decline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glatzel, G.; Kazda, M.; Katzensteiner, K.; Grill, D.; Halbwachs, G.

    1987-01-01

    A hypothesis to explain the damages as combined effect of needle damage by polluted fog and high deposition of plant useable nitrogen is discussed. It has been shown, that epicuticular was structures can be destroyed by exposure to polluted wet deposition, especially under conditions where cycles of wetting and drying of leave surface alternate without wash off by rain. When water containing plant available nitrogen is deposited on damaged leave surfaces, exchange with the interior of the leaves may disturb the ratios of individual nutrients in the leaves and cause metabolic stress. High ammonium concentrations in the precipitation water and low pH-values increase the leaching of plant nutrients, especially magnesium, potassium, manganese and zinc. By use of fertilizers or soil amendments the nutritional status of the trees can be improved. As long as polluted precipitation reaches the canopy and causes damage to the needle surfaces additional detrimental effects, such as easy invasion of pathogenic fungi, remain.

  9. Online investigation of respiratory quotients in Pinus sylvestris and Picea abies during drought and shading by means of cavity-enhanced Raman multi-gas spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Hanf, S.; Fischer, S.; Hartmann, H.; Keiner, R.; Trumbore, S; Popp, J.; Frosch, T.

    2015-01-01

    Photosynthesis and respiration are major components of the plant carbon balance. During stress, like drought, carbohydrate supply from photosynthesis is reduced and the Krebs cycle respiration must be fueled with other stored carbon compounds. However, the dynamics of storage use are still unknown. The respiratory quotient (RQ, CO2 released per O2 consumed during respiration) is an excellent indicator of the nature of the respiration substrate. In plant science, however, online RQ measurement...

  10. Leaching versus input of nitrogen, potassium and magnesium in different fertilizer regimens in Christmas tree stands of Abies nordmanniana in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lars Bo; Christensen, Claus Jerram; Ingerslev, Morten

    2006-01-01

    The effects of nitrogen (N), potassium (K) and magnesium (Mg) fertilization and deposition on nutrient leaching were assessed in four Danish Nordmarm fir Christmas tree stands on former arable land. NPK 23-3-7 fertilizer type was applied in doses between 0 and 1200 kg ha(-1) year(-1). Deposition...

  11. Impact of traffic on δ15N, δ13C and δ18O of needles and annual tree rings of Norway spruce (Picea abies L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guerrieri MR

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Increase of nitrogen depositions, as oxidized (NOx and reduced (NHx compounds, has important implications on ecosystem nitrogen cycle. NOx comes predominantly from fossil fuel combustion in car engines and industrial processes, while agricultural activities (cattle farming, fertilizations are the main sources for NHx emissions. Such fertilisations could stimulate growth and, therefore, productivity of forests, especially in temperate forests, where nitrogen is a limiting factor. On the other hand an excess of nitrogen can lead to an acidification of the soil and have a negative impact on the microbial fauna and structure of plants. NOx and NHx depositions can be separated with the help of stable isotopes with different 15N-values reported for NOx originating from combustion sources. Consequently it was observed that the nitrogen isotopic composition of the vegetation reflects the isotopic signature of nitrogen sources. Our preliminary results on needles of Norway spruce trees exposed to NOx emissions along a transect perpendicular to a highway close to Faido and Brittnau show a clear isotopic enrichment in 15N in trees growing closer to traffic pollution, indicating an uptake of atmospheric nitrogen by stomatal pathway. Carbon and oxygen isotopic composition measured in tree rings reveals the physiological response in plants. Trees more exposed to air pollution from traffic show an increase in δ13C and δ18O in tree rings, since mid sixties next to Erstfeld. This could mean a higher photosynthetic activity, enhanced by NOx traffic emissions, under low or not changed stomatal conductance. Our results confirm that stable isotopes of carbon, oxygen and nitrogen measured in needles and tree rings represent an important tool to monitor the impact of NOx load on tree physiology.

  12. Preliminary assessment of the ecochemical condition of soils after fertilization of younger spruce Picea abies (L.) H. Karst. stands in the Beskid Slaski and Zywiecki Mts.

    OpenAIRE

    Małek, Stanisław; Januszek, Kazimierz; Barszcz, Józef; Błońska, Ewa; Wanic, Tomasz; Gąsienica-Fronek, Wojciech; Kroczek, Marek

    2011-01-01

    The experimental plots were located in the middle forest zone (900– 950 m) on two nappes of the flysch Carpathians: Magura (the Ujsoły Forest District) and Silesian (the Wisła Forest District) in the spruce stands of age class 21– 40 years. Serpentinite was introduced in the autumn of 2008 on all plots while other fertilizers (N, P, NP and NPK) in the spring of 2009. Based on the chemical composition of soil solutions collected in lysimeters placed at the depth of 20 cm in the aut...

  13. Greater accumulation of litter in spruce (Picea abies) compared to beech (Fagus sylvatica) stands is not a consequence of the inherent recalcitrance of needles

    OpenAIRE

    Berger, Torsten W.; Berger, Pétra

    2012-01-01

    Background and aims Replacement of beech by spruce is associated with changes in soil acidity, soil structure and humus form, which are commonly ascribed to the recalcitrance of spruce needles. It is of practical relevance to know how much beech must be admixed to pure spruce stands in order to increase litter decomposition and associated nutrient cycling. We addressed the impact of tree species mixture within forest stands and within litter on mass loss and nutritional release from litter. M...

  14. Time consumption and productivity of skidding Silver fir (Abies alba Mill. round wood in reduced accessibility conditions: a case study in windthrow salvage logging form Romanian Carpathians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stelian Alexandru Borz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Natural calamities (especially windthrows may generate difficult work conditions in timber harvesting operations. When associated with the reduced accessibility conditions, the work conditions become even harder. This study investigates the time consumptions on specific work elements in timber skidding, develops time prediction models for timber skidding work elements and assesses the production rates for timber skidding in reduced accessibility stands where windthrow salvage cuttings were applied. Following a time study done for two skidders (TAF 690 OP and TAF 657 operating simultaneously in the same felling area, it has been found that, in average, in a delay free skidding cycle time, lateral winching accounted for a share of 26-33%, on-trail skidding accounted for a share of 64-71% and landing operations accounted for a share of 3%.Total delays accounted for 51% and 43% of the total work time in the case of TAF 690 OP skidder and TAF 657skidder respectively. Regression models for lateral winching (both skidders revealed that the winching distance and the number of logs were the relevant predictors for the time consumption estimation (p<0.01, whereas in the case of on-trail skidding only the skidding distance was relevant (p<0.01. For the overall skidding operation (excluding landing operations winching and skidding distances were found as relevant predictors (p<0.01 in case of TAF 690 OP, whereas the number of logs became an additional relevant predictor in case of TAF 657.In conditions of an average winching distance of 19.90 m and an average on-trail skidding distance of 980.32 m, the time study yielded a net production rate of 7.70 m3h-1 and a gross production rate of 3.75 m3h-1 in the case of TAF 690 OP skidder. By comparison, in the case of TAF 657 skidder, for an average winching distance of 22.86 m and an average on-trail skidding distance of 871.00 m, the net and gross production rates were of 5.61 m3h-1 and 3.20 m3h-1 respectively.

  15. The Dynamics and Variability of Radial Growth in Provenance Trials of Norway Spruce (Picea abies (L. Karst. Within and Beyond the Hot Margins of its Natural Range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neculae ŞOFLETEA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Multi-site field trials provide valuable data for the investigation of possible effects of environmental changes on forest tree species. We analyze the descendants of plus trees from 33 Norway spruce seed sources of Romanian Carpathians, at age 30, in four comparative field trials: two established in the natural range of species and two outside of it. The dynamics and variation of radial growth, earlywood and latewood were analyzed. The influence of populations, site conditions and climatic factors were also quantified. The provenances response in the four comparative trials was asymmetric for mean radial growth, but its dynamics was less favourable outside of the natural range. Analysis of variance showed significant differences (P<0.001 between the testing sites, but non-significant (P<0.05 for the populations. Populations x localities interaction was high (P<0.001 in the first half of the testing period, but decreased over time, becoming not significant at the age of 30. At intra-populational level, the average coefficient of variation for radial growth was higher outside the natural range, whereas the proportion of latewood decreased. The temperature in the first half of the growing season negatively influenced (P<0.001 the radial increment, but in the latewood proportion significat effects (P˂0.05 were recorded only in trials located outside of the natural range. An increased variability of radial growth and a decrease of latewood proportion are expected in Norway spruce stands located at lower altitudes, towards the limits of the natural range. Our results may contribute to the sustainable management of Norway spruce forests within and outside its natural range.

  16. Biomass Conversion and Expansion Factors for Young Norway Spruce (Picea abies (L. Karst. Trees Planted on Non-Forest Lands in Eastern Carpathians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan DUTCA

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study biomass conversion and expansion factors (BCEFs were developed for young Norway spruce trees planted on non-forest lands, in order to support quantification of carbon stock changes in biomass pools of afforestation works. Regression models for stem volume and stem wood density were also developed. The data set included 250 trees collected from 25 plantations between 1 and 12 years old, located in the Eastern Carpathians of Romania. The study shows that BCEFs decreased with increasing tree dimensions, following an exponential trend. In all proposed models the highest prediction was reached when both variables considered (i.e. root-collar diameter and height were used together. However, used separately, height produced a slightly higher prediction compared to root-collar diameter. Stem volume was well predicted by both root-collar diameter and height. Anyway, a significant improvement in prediction resulted when both variables were used together. Stem wood density decreased sharply with the increase of the two tree dimensions used as variables.

  17. 非结构用臭冷杉集成材的性能研究%Set Properties of Material with Non Structure of Abies Nephrolepis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张洪德; 徐国锋; 姜春伟; 牛笑一

    2013-01-01

    使用常温快速固化的改性醋酸乙烯作为集成材胶黏剂。并通过设计正交试验,通过改变不同压力、时间、固化剂用量三因素制作出9组试件,经测定其压缩剪切强度,并分析得出对长白山臭冷杉结构集成材的压剪强度影响主次关系为:时间﹥MDI用量﹥压力。实验表明,臭冷杉结构集成材的最佳工艺条件为时间为2h,压力为3MPa,MDI用量为20%。该条件下制备的集成材具有良好的胶接性和耐水性,符合国标对结构集成材的要求。%Consider using the normal temperature of the modified fast-curing vinyl acetate as integrated timber adhesive. And through orthogonal experiment design, through the change different pressure, time, curing agent dosage three factors make 9 groups specimens, the determination of the compression shear strength, and analysis of smelly loose structure integrated timber press shear strength of influence for primary and secondary relations: time ﹥ MDI dosage ﹥ pressure. Experiments show that, smelly loose structure integrated timber the optimum technological conditions for time is 2 h, pressure for 3 MPa, amount to 20% MDI. The conditions of the preparation of integrated timber has good glue meet sex and water resistance, reach national structure of the integrated timber requirements.

  18. Keelan, käsen, poon ja lasen või osutan abi? [1.-2. osa] / Kärt Muller

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Muller, Kärt

    2007-01-01

    Kaalutlusõiguse sisust ja põhimõtetest hoolekande teostamisel väljamõeldud kaasuste näitel, põhjendamiskohustuse sisust ja vajalikkusest. Võrdsest kohtlemisest kaalutlusõiguses, kaalutlusvigade kataloogist ja kaalutlusõiguse teostamisest praktikas Riigikohtu lahendite näite

  19. Heterobasidion annosum root and butt rot of Norway spruce, Picea abies: Colonization by the fungus and its impact on tree growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bendz-Hellgren, M. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Forest Mycology and Pathology

    1997-12-31

    Diameter growth losses associated with decay were quantified on a nationwide scale, and volume growth losses were measured in two stands. Diameter growth losses were 8-10% during a 5-year period in the nationwide study and 23% in one of the stands, whereas in the other stand, no volume losses could be attributed to decay. The effects of stump moisture content, temperature and time elapsed between felling and inoculation on the establishment of H. annosum spore infections in stumps were investigated among stumps resulting from thinnings and clear-cuttings. Furthermore, inoculations with H. annosum conidia were made between 0 hours and 4 weeks after thinning. The incidence of stump infections was lower on clear-cut areas than in thinned stands, but high enough to warrant stump treatment on clear-cuttings. A positive relation was found between heartwood moisture content and the proportion of heartwood infected, whereas the opposite relation was found for sapwood. The establishment of new conidiospore infections decreased with time, and it appeared that stumps were no longer susceptible to infection after 3 weeks had elapsed since felling. Roots of stumps and trees on forest land or former arable land were inoculated with H. annosum treated sawdust. The growth rate of H. annosum in roots of stumps was 25 cm/year, corresponding to 2.5 to 3 times the growth rate in tree roots. Previous land use did not affect the fungal rate of spread. Also, the average initial spread rate of H. annosum in naturally infected Norway spruce stems was estimated at 30 cm/year 156 refs, 9 figs

  20. Comparison of VOC emissions between air-dried and heat-treated Norway spruce ( Picea abies), Scots pine ( Pinus sylvesteris) and European aspen ( Populus tremula) wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyttinen, Marko; Masalin-Weijo, Marika; Kalliokoski, Pentti; Pasanen, Pertti

    2010-12-01

    Heat-treated wood is an increasingly popular decoration material. Heat-treatment improves dimensional stability of the wood and also prevents rot fungus growth. Although production of heat-treated wood has been rapidly increasing, there is only little information about the VOC emissions of heat-treated wood and its possible influences on indoor air quality. In the present study, VOC emissions from three untreated (air-dried) and heat-treated wood species were compared during a four weeks test period. It appeared that different wood species had clearly different VOC emission profiles. Heat-treatment was found to decrease VOC emissions significantly and change their composition. Especially, emissions of terpenes decreased from softwood samples and aldehydes from European aspen samples. Emissions of total aldehydes and organic acids were at the same level or slightly higher from heat treated than air-dried softwood samples. In agreement with another recent study, the emissions of furfural were found to increase and those of hexanal to decrease from all the wood species investigated. In contrast to air-dried wood samples, emissions of VOCs were almost in steady state from heat treated wood samples even in the beginning of the test.

  1. Explosion characteristics of pulverised torrefied and raw Norway spruce (Picea abies) and Southern pine (Pinus palustris) in comparison to bituminous coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pre-treatments, such as torrefaction, can improve biomass fuels properties. Dedicated and coal co-firing plants, in which pulverised biomass and torrefied biomass can be used, are exposed to explosion hazards during handling, storage and transport from the mills to the boiler. Data on the explosion characteristics of biomass and torrefied biomass are scarce. This study presents explosion characteristics (maximum explosion pressure, deflagration index and minimum explosible concentration) of two torrefied wood samples and compares their reactivity to that of their corresponding untreated biomass materials and to a sample of Kellingley coal. Torrefied biomass samples showed higher reactivity, overpressures were around 9 bar (0.9 MPa, 1 bar = 105 Pa) for all biomass samples irrespective of size or sample composition. Derived laminar burning velocities ranged between 0.1–0.12 m s−1, and were therefore similar to that of coal (0.12 m s−1). The differences in explosion reactivity influence the design of explosion protection measures and can be used to introduce suitable modifications for safe operations with torrefied biomass. - Highlights: • Explosion characteristics were measured for two torrefied biomass samples. • Properties were compared to those of coal and corresponding untreated biomass. • Maximum explosion overpressures were similar for all biomass at about 9 bar. • Torrefied biomass was more reactive than coal and untreated biomass. • Biomass explosion data can be used to design better safety systems

  2. Changes in the relationships between climate and silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) growth during the 20th century in the Tuscan Apennine Alps (Middle Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Aprile, F.; Tapper, N.; Baker, P.; Bartolozzi, L.; Bottacci, A.

    2012-04-01

    In the Tuscan Apennine Alps, recent research has shown that similarity in trends of monthly climate variables (i.e., temperature and rainfall) is non-stationary amongst sites during the 20th century even between sites that differ little in elevation and at a relatively short distance from each other (D'Aprile et al., 2010; D'Aprile et al., 2011). Moreover, the level of correlation between series of monthly climate variables varies irregularly from highly positive to negative over time. We hypothesised that those changing climate conditions, even at the local level, could cause different tree-ring growth responses in silver fir amongst sites. The hypothesis was tested by dendroclimatological analysis, which was applied to study stands in silver fir forests close to the meteorological stations where climate analysis has been made. Results show that the influences of both monthly mean temperature and monthly rainfall on silver fir growth vary greatly during the 20th century in the Tuscan Apennine Alps, and the ways that they change differ with month and amongst sites. Within sites, differences in the relationships between climate variables and silver fir tree-ring growth appear small in spite of different elevation of the study stands. These results contribute a changing point in forest planning and management especially in consideration of the need to adapt forest management and interventions to changing climate conditions and mitigate the impacts on silver fir forests. Moreover, they introduce climate variability as a key parameter in sustainable forest management for biodiversity conservation, socially responsible uses, nature conservation, and survival of the only conifer tree species typical of mountain mixed forest ecosystems in the Apennine Alps.

  3. Analyse non destructive de caractéristiques internes de billons d'Epicéa commun (Picea Abies) par tomographie à rayons X

    OpenAIRE

    Longuetaud, Fleur; MOTHE, Frédéric; Leban, Jean-Michel

    2005-01-01

    Ce travail se place dans le contexte de l’évolution des technologies de classement des bois qui sont mises en oeuvre dans les scieries. Il s’agit d’envisager l’usage de scanners tomographiques à rayons X pour améliorer le rendement des opérations de sciage. Dans la présente étude, nous avons sélectionné 24 arbres provenant de quatre peuplements d’Epicéa commun du nord-est de la France (Vosges) représentant plusieurs classes d’âge et de fertilité ainsi que différents statuts sociaux. Ces arbre...

  4. Pros and cons of using Addenbrooke’s Cognitive Examination in the early phase of rehabilitation after acquired brain injury (ABI)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryttersgaard, Trine Okkerstrøm

    2014-01-01

    of 30 MTBI cases and assess non-surgical interventions using clinically-relevant outcomes such as self-rated recovery. Data extraction: Eligible studies were critically appraised using a modification of the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN) criteria. Two reviewers independently reviewed......, only two of seven studies related to non-surgical interventions were found to have a low risk of bias. One studied the effect of a scheduled telephone intervention offering counselling and education on outcome and found a significantly better outcome for symptoms (6.6 differences in adjusted mean...

  5. Effects of forest canopy gap on biomass of Abies faxoniana seedlings and its allocation in subalpine coniferous forests of western Sichuan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Junren XIAN; Tingxing HU; Yuanbin ZHANG; Kaiyun WANG

    2008-01-01

    Using a strip transect sampling method, the density, height (≤ 100 cm), basal diameter and compo-nents of biomass of Abiesfaxoniana seedlings, living in a forest gap (FG) and under the forest canopy (FC) of sub-alpine natural coniferous forests in western Sichuan, were investigated and the relationships among different com-ponents of biomass analyzed. The results indicated that the density and average height (H) of A. faxoniana seed-lings were significantly different in the FG and under the FC, with the values being 12903 and 2017 per hm2, and 26.6 and 24.3 cm. No significant differences were found in the average basal diameter (D) and biomass. The biomass allocation in seedling components was significantly affec-ted by forest gap. In the FG, the biomass ratio of branch to stem reached a maximum of 1.54 at age 12 and then declined and fluctuated around 0.69. Under the FC, the biomass ratio of branch to stem increased with seedling growth and exceeded 1.0 at about age 15. The total bio-mass and the biomass of leaves, stems, shoots and roots grown in the FG and under the FC were significantly correlated with D2H. There were significant and positive correlations among the biomass of different components.

  6. Measurement of blood pressure, ankle blood pressure and calculation of ankle brachial index in general practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nexøe, Jørgen; Damsbo, Bent; Lund, Jens Otto;

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Low ankle brachial index (ABI) is a sensitive measure of 'burden' of atherosclerosis, indicating cardiovascular risk of the asymptomatic patient. Conventionally, ABI values......BACKGROUND: Low ankle brachial index (ABI) is a sensitive measure of 'burden' of atherosclerosis, indicating cardiovascular risk of the asymptomatic patient. Conventionally, ABI values...

  7. Synthesis and antiproliferative activity of novel 2-aryl-4-benzoyl-imidazole derivatives targeting tubulin polymerization

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Jianjun; Li, Chien-Ming; Wang, Jin; Ahn, Sunjoo; Wang, Zhao; Lu, Yan; Dalton, James T.; Miller, Duane D.; Li, Wei

    2011-01-01

    We previously reported the discovery of 2-aryl-4-benzoyl-imidazoles (ABI-I) as potent antiproliferative agents for melanoma. To further understand the structural requirements for the potency of ABI analogs, gain insight in the structure-activity relationships (SAR), and investigate metabolic stability for these compounds, we report extensive SAR studies on the ABI-I scaffold. Compared with the previous set of ABI-I analogs, the newly synthesized ABI-II analogs have lower potency in general, b...

  8. O lugar da fotografia na construção da obra de Aby Warburg: uma perspectiva cultural para a compreensão da criação imagética

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo César Boni

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio busca discutir las relaciones planteadas entre la producción fotográfica y la construcción de la teoría warburguiana de posvida de las imá genes ( Nachleben der Antike por medio de su atlas Mnemosyne . Para tanto, utiliza la investigación bibliográca de autores que contribuirán a la elucidación de ese hecho, como Michaud (2013, Didi-Huberman (2013 y Kossoy (1989. Dado el hecho de la creación de paneles fotográcos para la aproximación de las relaciones temporales, Warburg rearma la impor- tancia de la fotografía como un objeto cultural e histórico. Para él, el atlas enfoca en la capacidad de comparación de imágenes en la historia del arte precisamente porque utiliza un panel móvil y práctico para establecer una base antropológica. Se concluye, por tanto, que Warburg usó y se ampa- ró en el potencial de la imagen fotográca para plantear una nueva mirada que rompiera con la perspectiva estática por medio de la imagen en movi- miento y del arte.

  9. Influência de Fatores Abióticos na Infestação de Mosca-Negra-dos-Citros (Aleurocanthus woglumi Ashby em Plantio de Citros em Sistema Agroflorestal no Estado do Pará

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Silva

    2011-03-01

    Abstract. An important part of citrus production at Pará state is planted by Agroforestry System (AFS, that presents, amongst major phytosanitary problems, the citrus blackfly, that by severe attacks cause estimated redution of 80% in its’ production. Beside that, it constitutes a quarentenary pest of maximun alert level A2. Given the relevance of this sucking insect and the lack of basic knowledge, as well pest studies associated to agroforestry planting, the objective of this study was to evaluate the abiotic factors influence on blackfly infestation in citrus planting by agroforestry planting at Pará state. This study was carried out at Capitão Poço county, northeast mesoregion of Pará. 12 samplings were made evaluating the presence or abscence of Aleurocanthus woglumi Ashby alive nymphs and/or adults. Correlation analisys was carried out to evaluate abiotic parameters (temperature and precipitation and kriging maps to evaluate Teca plants shading effects on the pest under study infestation. Amongst the main results obtained, there was pest infestation in every evaluated moth; there was temperature influence onto citrus blackfly population regulation and high precipitations reduced the number of plants with A. woglumi presence. Still, it can be inferred that the citrus blackfly infestations present preference for moderate shading intensity. However, changes occuring by the forestry species introduction onto agricultural cultivations must be better investigated.

  10. Influencia de factores abióticos en la revegetación temprana tras hidrosiembra de estériles de carbón = Influence of abiotic factors in early revegetation after hydroseeding of coal mines

    OpenAIRE

    González Alday, Josu

    2010-01-01

    La minería a cielo abierto genera grandes impactos ambientales cuya restauración es una necesidad urgente. El principal objetivo de la restauración ecológica de estas zonas es la creación de ecosistemas auto-suficientes a largo plazo que se asemejen a la vegetación previa a la actividad minera. Sin embargo, la restauración es un proceso complejo, dificultado principalmente por la total eliminación de la vegetación y la alteración del suelo. Se analizaron los procesos sucesional...

  11. 高大冷杉温室Strophosoma象甲的微生物防治%Microbial control of Strophosoma spp. larvae (Coleoptera:Curculionidae) in Abies procera greenery plantations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏洛蒂· 尼尔森; Susanne Vestergaard; Susanne Harding; Jφrgen Eilenberg

    2007-01-01

    In Denmark, the weevils Strophosoma melanogrammum and S.capitatum cause economic damage in Noble fir due to the adult stage feeding on the needles.No chemical treatments of these weevils are allowed in Denmark,so biological control is an attractive solution.We evaluated the potential for microbial control of larvae of Strophosoma spp.based on laboratory bioassays and field applications,taking effect on both target and non-target into consideration,as well as persistence of the applied fungus.In the laboratory Beauveria bassiana,Paecilomyces farinosus and Metarhizium anisopliae were able to infect and cause mycosis in Strophosoma larvae.Among the tested isolates the most virulent isolate was M.anisopliae BIPESCO 5,which resulted in 80 % mortality.In the field experiment M.anisopliae,isolate BIPESCO 5,was applied to the soil as a conidial suspension against larvae of Strophosoma spp.The effect of the fungus on the target population was monitored at a weekly basis by counts of emerging adult weevils during their activity periods.The population of Strophosoma spp.was reduced by up to 60% in treated plots compared to control plots.The non-target effects of M.anisopliae were studied by sampling insects and ticks from both treated and control plots.Seven days after treatment,two sampled insect orders (Hemiptera and Coleoptera) and ticks were found with prevalences of M.anisopliae above 50%,compared to no infection in the insects collected from control plots.Infections in coccinellids were found as long as 277 days after treatment.However,the effect on population level of non-target is still unexplored.The persistence of the fungus was documented by plating a soil suspension onto agar.We documented that conidia of M.anisopliae could persist in the greenery plantation for at least 418 days after application.

  12. Regulación de la biosíntesis de la vitamina E y su función en señalización celular en condiciones de estrés abiótico

    OpenAIRE

    Cela Udaondo, Jana

    2012-01-01

    [spa] La vitamina E incluye una serie de compuestos amfipáticos esenciales en la dieta tanto para humanos como para animales y que únicamente puede ser sintetizada por organismos fotosintéticos, los tocoferoles y los tocotrienoles. Descubierta a principios del siglo XX, no fue hasta los años 60 que se asoció a propiedades antioxidantes. En plantas, se sabe que los niveles de tocoferol (la forma mayoritaria en hojas) aumenta en respuesta al estrés y que está implicado en el control de los nive...

  13. Preliminary assessment of the ecochemical condition of soils after fertilization of younger spruce Picea abies (L.) H. Karst. stands in the Beskid Śląski and Żywiecki Mts.

    OpenAIRE

    Małek, Stanisław; Januszek, Kazimierz; Barszcz, Józef; Błońska, Ewa; Wanic, Tomasz; Gąsienica-Fronek, Wojciech; Kroczek, Marek

    2011-01-01

    The experimental plots were located in the middle forest zone (900– 950 m) on two nappes of the flysch Carpathians Magura (the Ujsoły Forest District) and Silesian (the Wisła Forest District) in the spruce stands of age class 21– 40 years. Serpentinite was introduced in the autumn of 2008 on all plots while other fertilizers (N, P, NP and NPK) in the spring of 2009. Based on the chemical composition of soil solutions collected in lysimeters placed at the depth of 20 cm in the autumn 2008 and ...

  14. Estimación del area de las hojas en plantas de trigo bajo diferentes tipos de estrés abiótico Leaf area estimation in wheat plants suffering several kinds of abiotic stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.H. Cogliatti

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available En trigo, es posible estimar el área de las hojas (AF utilizando el producto del largo, el ancho de la lámina (LxA y un coeficiente de proporcionalidad (b m. Sin embargo, no hay información sobre la posibilidad de usar el mismo valor del coeficiente para estimar el área en plantas que sufren estrés hídrico, lumínico o nutricional. Para estudiar este punto se realizaron dos experimentos en los cuales se aplicó sequía, sombreo y deficiencias de N y P a plantas de trigo. El coeficiente b m se calculó a partir de la regresión lineal entre AF y LxA y fue similar entre las plantas control y aquellas que sufrieron sequía o deficiencias de N o P, pero fue distinto en plantas sombreadas. El mayor valor de b m en las plantas sombreadas se debió a una mayor proporción del sector medio de la lámina, definido por su forma rectangular. La validación de la posibilidad de usar el b m del control para estimar AF en plantas estresadas se realizó por regresión lineal entre el AF medida y calculada. Se concluye que puede usarse el mismo coeficiente b m para estimar el AF en plantas no estresadas y en plantas que sufren sequía o deficiencias de N o P. El uso del mismo valor del coeficiente b m en plantas sombreadas llevó a una subestimación del AF, la que fue más pronunciada a medida que aumentó el sombreo.In wheat, leaf area (LA can be estimated as the product between length, maximum blade width (LxW and a proportionality coefficient b m. However, it is unknown whether this coefficient is the same in stressed and non stressed plants. In order to study this, two experiments in which drought, shading and N and P deficiencies were applied to wheat plants were performed. The b m coefficient was calculated by linear regression between LA and LxW. The coefficient was similar in control plants as compared to those suffering wilting or N or P-deficiency, but different in shaded plants. The greater b m in shaded plants was due to an increased proportion of the central section of the blade, defined by its rectangular form. Validation of the possibility of using b m of the control to estimate LA in stressed plants was performed by linear regression between measured and calculated LA. It is concluded that the same b m coefficient can be safely used to calculate LA from LxW in non-stressed plants and in those suffering drought or N or P-deficiency. The use of the same coefficient value in shaded plants produced an underestimation of LA, which was more pronounced as shading increases.

  15. Relación entre factores bióticos y abióticos en los cultivos de guayaba con la infestación de picudo (conotrachelus psidii, coleóptera: curculionidae) en Puente Nacional (Santander, Colombia)

    OpenAIRE

    Machuca Mesa, Laura Marcela

    2014-01-01

    Los insectos que son “plagas” causan daño a los sistemas naturales y aquellos que son manejados por el hombre y durante mucho tiempo se ha demostrado que las plagas generan resistencia a los pesticidas y se ha generado un problema ambiental con el mal uso de dichos productos. Los cultivos de guayaba en el país actualmente son atacados por picudo lo que genera grandes pérdidas económicas. En la actualidad los programas agrícolas están dirigidos a controlar las plagas juntando conocimientos bio...

  16. Comunidades humanas y circulación de recursos, bióticos y abióticos, en el Paleolítico superior del noreste de la Península Ibérica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josep María FULLOLA PERICOT

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Las investigaciones que el equipo del SERP de la Universidad de Barcelona ha ido realizando estos últimos años en el Paleolítico superior del NE ibérico permiten ya una aproximación al análisis del aprovisionamiento y la circulación de las materias primas líticas, los moluscos marinos y otras especies animales. Todo ello lo entendemos, además de como elementos puramente arqueológicos, como factores que plantean cuestiones de tipo económico y social.Este estudio nos permite constatar un fenómeno general de diversificación de los recursos líticos y malacológicos; los intercambios de estos dos elementos a medias y largas distancias evidencian una nueva forma de explotación del medio durante el Paleolítico superior, acorde con lo que se observa en toda Europa occidental.ABSTRACT: The researches of our group of the University of Barcelona (SERP in these last years on Upper Palaeolithic of Northeastern Iberia allow us already an analysis of the ressources procurement of lithic raw materials, seashells and other animals species. Although we consider this as archaeological elements, they are giving us also a lot of economic and social informations.This study shows us that we are in front of general phenomenon of diversification of lithic ressources and malacological procurement; exchanges of both elements at middle and long distance are giving us evidences of a new way of understanding the exploitation of the environment during Upper Palaeolithic, as happens in all Western Europe.

  17. The Construction and Application of Strength Measurement Curve of Abies fabric Root System with Pull-out Method%冷杉根系抗拔法测强曲线的建立与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨锋伟; 刘秀萍; 陈丽华; 宋维峰

    2007-01-01

    采用抗拔法进行了冷杉根系抗拉强度的实验研究,得出抗拉法可以用于对冷杉根系抗拉强度进行检测,通过采用多种回归模型进行分析比较,求得最佳冷杉根系侧强曲线公式,并取得了较好的应用效果.分析了影响冷杉根系侧强曲线的因素,其中冷杉根系的根径和根长为影响其侧强曲线的主要因素,根系的抗拉强度的大小是根径与根长共同作用的结果.

  18. Milles näeks riigi abi tööandjale töötervishoiuarst? = Focus of OH physician : what kind of help need employer from the government side? / Tiia Piho

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Piho, Tiia

    2005-01-01

    Autori arvates peaks riik toetama neid tööandjaid oma töötajate tervise kaitsel elualadel (politseinikud, päästetöötajad, piirivalvurid, meditsiinitöötajad), kus tegevuse eesmärgiks ei ole kasumi tootmine, vaid ühiskonna kaitsmine ja abistamine

  19. Non-destructive analysis and detection of internal characteristics of spruce logs through X computerized tomography; Detection et analyse non destructive de caracteristiques internes de billons d'epicea commun (PICEA ABIES (L.) KARST) par tomographie a rayons X

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longuetaud, F

    2005-10-15

    Computerized tomography allows a direct access to internal features of scanned logs on the basis of density and moisture content variations. The objective of this work is to assess the feasibility of an automatic detection of internal characteristics with the final aim of conducting scientific analyses. The database is constituted by CT images of 24 spruces obtained with a medical CT scanner. Studied trees are representative of several social status and are coming from four stands located in North-Eastern France, themselves are representative of several age, density and fertility classes. The automatic processing developed are the following. First, pith detection in logs dealing with the problem of knot presence and ring eccentricity. The accuracy of the localisation was less than one mm. Secondly, the detection of the sapwood/heart-wood limit in logs dealing with the problem of knot presence (main source of difficulty). The error on the diameter was 1.8 mm which corresponds to a relative error of 1.3 per cent. Thirdly, the detection of the whorls location and comparison with an optical method. Fourthly the detection of individualized knots. This process allows to count knots and to locate them in a log (longitudinal position and azimuth); however, the validation of the method and extraction of branch diameter and inclination are still to be developed. An application of this work was a variability analysis of the sapwood content in the trunk: at the within-tree level, the sapwood width was found to be constant under the living crown; at the between-tree level, a strong correlation was found with the amount of living branches. A great number of analyses are possible from our work results, among others: architectural analysis with the pith tracking and the apex death occurrence; analysis of radial variations of the heart-wood shape; analysis of the knot distribution in logs. (author)

  20. Retrospective determination of 238Pu, 239,240Pu and 90Sr activities in the outer bark of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) collected at various sites in the Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The activity concentrations of 238Pu, 239,240Pu and 90Sr were determined in 25 archived spruce outer bark samples collected in coniferous forests across the Czech Republic in 1995. At three sampling sites the radionuclide activity concentrations were determined in forest soil. Data was provided on the cumulative deposition and vertical distribution of 238Pu, 239,240Pu and 90Sr in forest soil. The median activity concentration of 238Pu in the spruce bark samples was 0.009 Bq kg-1. The median activity concentration of 239,240Pu was 0.212 Bq kg-1, and the median activity concentration of 90Sr was 10.6 Bq kg-1. The radionuclide activity concentration distribution was not significantly explained by the local long-term (1961-2000) mean annual precipitation totals, by site elevation, by bark acidity, by soil moisture and soil texture. The activity concentrations of the radionuclides in bark were found to be higher than or comparable with the published and measured figures for radionuclide activity concentrations in cultivated and uncultivated soils (0-20 cm layer) in the Czech Republic and abroad. The activity concentration ratio of 90Sr/239,240Pu in the investigated spruce bark samples was higher than in the relevant soil samples. We assume that the crucial radioactive contamination loads in bark occurred in the first half of the 1960s, when the concentration of the investigated radionuclides in the air was highest. Spruce trunk bark has preserved relatively high activity concentrations of these radionuclides. The mechanism governing the long-term radionuclide activity concentrations in outer bark proportional to the local radioactive fallout rates is not correctly known. Our results indicate the suitability of spruce bark for use as an effective monitor of radioactive plume fallout loads even several decades after the contamination episode. (author)

  1. FGA Variants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Smirnova 124 Armed Forces Central Forensic ... ABI 310 PS Michael Mathews, Illinois State Police Observed in five forensic samples and in each ... M U F S C 46.1 329.37 ABI 310 PS Ryan Porter, ...

  2. Acquired brain injury services in the Republic of Ireland: experiences and perceptions of families and professionals.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McDermott, Garret L

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to highlight the experiences and perceptions of rehabilitation services among families of people with Acquired Brain Injury (ABI) and among professionals working in ABI rehabilitation services in Ireland.

  3. DNA data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Raw DNA chromatogram data produced by the ABI 373, 377, 3130 and 3730 automated sequencing machines in ABI format. These are from fish (primarily Sebastes spp.,...

  4. 八ヶ岳周辺におけるウラジロモミ林の組成と環境要因

    OpenAIRE

    長岡, 総子; 奥田, 重俊

    1999-01-01

    Species composition and environmental factors of the Abies homolepis forest are investigated around Mt. Yatsugatake in Central Japan. Based on the phytosociological classification, Abies homolepis forests in this area are classified into two communities: Rhododendron wadanum-Abies homolepis and Lonicera demissa-Abies homolepis communities. The former is differentiated by Rhododendron wadanum, Acer distylum, Arachniodes mutica, Fagus crenata and Fagus japonica; the latter, by Lonicera demissa,...

  5. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DMEL-08-0064 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available b|AAB59125.1| 13.8 kd ORF [Plasmid ColE1] gb|ABI93156.1| hypothetical protein [Cloning vector pOri1] gb|ABI9...3161.1| hypothetical protein [Cloning vector pCW] gb|ABI93166.1| hypothetical protein [Cloning vector pCW1] ...gb|ABI93171.1| hypothetical protein [Cloning vector pCW2] NP_040360.1 9e-63 95% ...

  6. Eesti transpordi infrastruktuuri ootavad suured toetused / Tanel Tang

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tang, Tanel

    2003-01-01

    EL-iga liitumisel avanevad Eestile Euroopa Regionaalarengu fond (ERDF) ja Ühtekuuluvusfond, mis tähendab transpordisektorile miljardite kroonide suurust abi maanteede, raudteede, lennujaamade ning sadamate ehitamiseks ja rekonstrueerimiseks. Vt. samas: Eestile tulnud abi PHARE ja ISPA fondist ; Ühtekuuluvusfond ja Euroopa regionaalarengu fond (ERDF) toetavad Eestit miljonite kroonidega. Diagramm: EL-i abi Eesti transpordisektorile

  7. Detection of peripheral arterial disease with an improved automated device: comparison of a new oscillometric device and the standard Doppler method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Špan, Matjaž; Geršak, Gregor; Millasseau, Sandrine C; Meža, Marko; Košir, Andrej

    2016-01-01

    In occidental countries, peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is an important health issue; however, most subjects are asymptomatic (~50%) and therefore undiagnosed and untreated. Current guidelines recommend screening for PAD in primary care setting using ankle brachial index (ABI) in all patients with cardiovascular risks. This is, however, not performed strictly because the standard Doppler method is cumbersome and time-consuming. Here, we evaluate the accuracy and reproducibility of ABI measurements obtained by an improved automated oscillometric device, the MESI ABPI MD(®) device, and the standard Doppler method. ABI was measured in random order in a general practice with Doppler probes by two operators separately (ABI_dop) and twice with the MESI ABPI MD device (ABI_mesi). ABI_dop was calculated dividing the highest systolic blood pressure from both tibial and dorsalis pedis arteries by the highest systolic blood pressure of both brachial arteries. ABI_mesi was obtained automatically with simultaneous measurements on three extremities. According to ABI_dop, PAD was present in 10% of the 136 screened subjects (68.2±7.4 years). Interoperator coefficient of variation was 5.5% for ABI_dop, while the intrasubject coefficient of variation for ABI_mesi was 3.0%. ABI_mesi was correlated with ABI_dop (R=0.61, PABPI MD measurements to be performed. In conclusion, MESI improved automated oscillometric method and offered a faster and repeatable measurement of ABI with only a small, clinically irrelevant overestimation of ABI value. The tested MESI ABPI MD-improved oscillometric system can be used as a screening tool for patients in general practice and would enable family doctors to comply with current guidelines for PAD. PMID:27536125

  8. A HER2-binding Affibody molecule labelled with {sup 68}Ga for PET imaging: direct in vivo comparison with the {sup 111}In-labelled analogue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tolmachev, Vladimir [Uppsala University, Division of Biomedical Radiation Sciences, Rudbeck Laboratory, Uppsala (Sweden); Uppsala University, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden); Velikyan, Irina [Uppsala University, Department of Biochemistry and Organic Chemistry, Uppsala (Sweden); GEMS PET Systems, GE Healthcare, Uppsala Applied Science Lab, Uppsala (Sweden); Sandstroem, Mattias [Uppsala University Hospital, Hospital Physics, Department of Oncology, Uppsala (Sweden); Orlova, Anna [Uppsala University, Division of Biomedical Radiation Sciences, Rudbeck Laboratory, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2010-07-15

    Overexpression of HER2 receptors is a prognostic and predictive biomarker in breast cancer and a number of other malignancies. Radionuclide molecular imaging of HER2 overexpression may influence patient management making treatment more personalized. Earlier, {sup 111}In-DOTA-Z{sub HER2:342-pep2} (ABY-002) Affibody molecule demonstrated excellent imaging of HER2-expressing xenografts in mice shortly after injection. The use of the positron-emitting nuclide {sup 68}Ga instead of {sup 111}In might increase both the sensitivity of HER2 imaging and accuracy of expression quantification. The goal of this study was to prepare and characterize {sup 68}Ga-labelled ABY-002. {sup 68}Ga labelling of ABY-002 was optimized. In vitro cell binding and procession of {sup 68}Ga-ABY-002 was evaluated. Biodistribution and tumour targeting of {sup 68}Ga-ABY-002 and {sup 111}In-ABY-002 was compared in vivo by paired-label experiments. ABY-002 was incubated with {sup 68}Ga at 90 C for 10 min resulting in a radiochemical labelling yield of over 95%. Capacity for specific binding to HER2-expressing cells was retained. In vivo, both {sup 68}Ga-ABY-002 and {sup 111}In-ABY-002 demonstrated specific targeting of SKOV-3 xenografts and high-contrast imaging. Background radioactivity in blood, lungs, gastrointestinal tract and muscle fell more rapidly for {sup 68}Ga-ABY-002 compared with {sup 111}In-ABY-002 favouring imaging shortly after injection. For {sup 68}Ga-ABY-002, a tumour uptake of 12.4 {+-} 3.8%ID/g and a tumour to blood ratio of 31 {+-} 13 were achieved at 2 h post-injection. {sup 68}Ga-ABY-002 is easy to label and provides high-contrast imaging within 2 h after injection. This makes it a promising candidate for clinical molecular imaging of HER2 expression in malignant tumours. (orig.)

  9. Generating code adapted for interlinking legacy scalar code and extended vector code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gschwind, Michael K

    2013-06-04

    Mechanisms for intermixing code are provided. Source code is received for compilation using an extended Application Binary Interface (ABI) that extends a legacy ABI and uses a different register configuration than the legacy ABI. First compiled code is generated based on the source code, the first compiled code comprising code for accommodating the difference in register configurations used by the extended ABI and the legacy ABI. The first compiled code and second compiled code are intermixed to generate intermixed code, the second compiled code being compiled code that uses the legacy ABI. The intermixed code comprises at least one call instruction that is one of a call from the first compiled code to the second compiled code or a call from the second compiled code to the first compiled code. The code for accommodating the difference in register configurations is associated with the at least one call instruction.

  10. Assistive technologies for brain-injured gamers

    OpenAIRE

    Colman, Jason; Gnanayutham, Paul

    2013-01-01

    This chapter surveys assistive technologies which make video games more accessible for people who have an acquired brain injury (ABI). As medical care improves, an increasing number of people survive ABI. Video games have been shown to provide therapeutic benefits in many medical contexts, and rehabilitation for ABI survivors has been shown to be facilitated by playing some types of video game. Therefore, technologies which improve the accessibility of games have the potential to bring a form...

  11. Noise and Analyzer-Crystal Angular Position Analysis for Analyzer-Based Phase-Contrast Imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Majidi, Keivan; Li, Jun; Muehleman, Carol; Brankov, Jovan G.

    2014-01-01

    The analyzer-based phase-contrast X-ray imaging (ABI) method is emerging as a potential alternative to conventional radiography. Like many of the modern imaging techniques, ABI is a computed imaging method (meaning that images are calculated from raw data). ABI can simultaneously generate a number of planar parametric images containing information about absorption, refraction, and scattering properties of an object. These images are estimated from raw data acquired by measuring (sampling) the...

  12. Cooking breakfast after a brain injury

    OpenAIRE

    Tanguay, Annick N.; Davidson, Patrick S. R.; K. Vanessa eGuerrero Nuñez; Ferland, Mark B.

    2014-01-01

    Acquired brain injury (ABI) often compromises the ability to carry out instrumental activities of daily living such as cooking. ABI patients' difficulties with executive functions and memory result in less independent and efficient meal preparation. Accurately assessing safety and proficiency in cooking is essential for successful community reintegration following ABI, but in vivo assessment of cooking by clinicians is time-consuming, costly, and difficult to standardize. Accordingly, we exam...

  13. Isiku paigutamine kinnisesse asutusse psühhiaatrilise ravi eesmärgil : [magistritöö] / Mai-Liis Meigo ; Tartu Ülikool, õigusteaduskond ; juhendajad: Kai Härmand, Kristjan Kask

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Meigo, Mai-Liis

    2013-01-01

    Isiku tahtevastasest paigutamisest raviasutusse (tsiviilkohtumenetluse seadustik, psühhiaatrilise abi seadus), isiku põhiõigustest ja sellest tulenevast kohtupraktikast tahtevastase ravi läbiviimisel

  14. Yield of four Agaricus bisporus strains in three compost formulations and chemical composition analyses of the mushrooms

    OpenAIRE

    de Andrade, Meire Cristina Nogueira; Zied, Diego Cunha; de Almeida Minhoni, Marli Teixeira; Kopytowski Filho, João

    2008-01-01

    Three compost formulations, consisting of two varieties of Cynodom dactylon (L.) Pers. (Coast-cross and Tyfton) and oat (Avena sativa) straw were tested for the cultivation of A. bisporus strains ABI-01/01, ABI-04/02, ABI-05/03, and ABI-06/04. A completely randomized experimental design in a factorial scheme was adopted, with 12 treatments (4 A. bisporus strains × 3 types of compost) and 8 replicates. Each experimental unit corresponded to one box containing 12 – 12.5 kg fresh wet compost. Th...

  15. Yield of four Agaricus bisporus strains in three compost formulations and chemical composition analyses of the mushrooms Produção de quatro linhagens de Agaricus bisporus em três formulações de compostos e análises bromatológicas dos cogumelos produzidos

    OpenAIRE

    Meire Cristina Nogueira de Andrade; Diego Cunha Zied; Marli Teixeira de Almeida Minhoni; João Kopytowski Filho

    2008-01-01

    Three compost formulations, consisting of two varieties of Cynodom dactylon (L.) Pers. (Coast-cross and Tyfton) and oat (Avena sativa) straw were tested for the cultivation of A. bisporus strains ABI-01/01, ABI-04/02, ABI-05/03, and ABI-06/04. A completely randomized experimental design in a factorial scheme was adopted, with 12 treatments (4 A. bisporus strains × 3 types of compost) and 8 replicates. Each experimental unit corresponded to one box containing 12 12.5 kg fresh wet compost. The ...

  16. Crescimento micelial in vitro de cinco linhagens de Agaricus bisporus submetidas a diferentes condições de temperatura = In vitro mycelium growth of five Agaricus bisporus strains submitted to different temperature conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meire Cristina Nogueira de Andrade

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o crescimento micelial in vitro das linhagens ABI-05/03, ABI-06/04, ABI-04/02, ABI-06/05 e ABI-01/01 de Agaricus bisporus em meios de cultura sólidos à base de composto. As avaliações foram realizadas por meio de medições de quatro diâmetros das colônias, a cada 48h, durante 12 dias de incubação, no escuro, a 20 e 25ºC. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos casualizados, com uso do teste de Tukey para a comparação das médias. Com base nos resultados obtidos, verificou-se que: o crescimento micelial de A. bisporus é influenciado pela temperatura de incubação; a temperatura de 25°C foi mais favorável para o crescimento micelial de todas as linhagens de A. bisporus; na temperatura de 20°C, o melhor crescimento foi obtido com as linhagens ABI-06/05 e ABI-01/01; na temperatura de 25°C, a linhagem ABI-01/01 apresentou crescimento significativamente maior que todas as demais.The in vitro mycelium growth of Agaricus bisporus strains ABI-05/03, ABI-06/04, ABI-04/02, ABI-06/05 and ABI-01/01 was evaluated in solidculture media made up of compost. Evaluations were performed by means of measurements of four diameters of the colonies, every 48 hours, during 12 days of incubation in darkness under 20 and 25ºC. The experimental design consisted of randomized blocks, using the Tukey test to compare averages. Based on the obtained results, it was verified that: mycelium growth of A. bisporus is influenced by the temperature of incubation; the temperature of 25°C was more favorable to the mycelium growth of all A. bisporus strains; under the temperature of 20°C, the best growth was obtained with strainsABI-06/05 and ABI-01/01 and, under the temperature of 25°C, strain ABI-01/01 showed significantly higher growth than all other strains.

  17. Main: RYREPEATBNNAPA [PLACE

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available RYREPEATBNNAPA S000264 16-Feb-2001 (last modified) seki RY repeat found in RY/G box... (the complex containing the two RY repeats and the G-box) of napA gene in Brassica napus (B.n.); Found betw...een -78 and -50; Required for seed specific expression; See S000262, S000263; dist B ABRE mediated transacti...vation by ABI3 adn ABI3-dependent response to ABA; a tetramer of the composite RY.../G complex mediated only ABA-independent transactivation by ABI3; B2 domain of ABI3 is necessary for ABA-independent and ABA-depe

  18. The risk factors for abnormal ankle-brachial index in type 2 diabetic patients and clinical predictive value for diabetic foot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张净

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the prevalence of diabetic foot (DF) and the normal,high and low ankle brachial index (ABI) in type 2 diabetic patients and explore the risk factor for abnormal ABI and the clinical predictive value for DF.Methods A total of 2 681 type 2 diabetic patients who visited our hospital between January,2007and December,2009 were enrolled in the study.The clinical data were analyzed and the risk factors for abnormal ABI were determined by logistic regression analysis.Results ABI was normal (0.9-<1.3) in 2 362 cases

  19. Parts toetab eksporti miljardigarantiiga / Juhan Parts ; intervjueerinud Gert D. Hankewitz, Andrus Karnau

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Parts, Juhan, 1966-

    2009-01-01

    Intervjuu majandus- ja kommunikatsiooniminister Juhan Partsiga, kes vastab küsimustele ekspordiettevõtetele riiklike garantiide andmise teemal. Vt. samas: Ekspordigarantiid; Padar pakub abi laenuvõtjatele

  20. ABSCISIC ACID-INSENSITIVE 4 negatively regulates flowering through directly promoting Arabidopsis FLOWERING LOCUS C transcription

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Kai; Chen, Qian; Wu, Yaorong; Liu, Ruijun; Zhang, Huawei; Wang, Shengfu; Tang, Sanyuan; Yang, Wenyu; Xie, Qi

    2016-01-01

    During the life cycle of a plant, one of the major biological processes is the transition from the vegetative to the reproductive stage. In Arabidopsis, flowering time is precisely controlled by extensive environmental and internal cues. Gibberellins (GAs) promote flowering, while abscisic acid (ABA) is considered as a flowering suppressor. However, the detailed mechanism through which ABA inhibits the floral transition is poorly understood. Here, we report that ABSCISIC ACID-INSENSITIVE 4 (ABI4), a key component in the ABA signalling pathway, negatively regulates floral transition by directly promoting FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC) transcription. The abi4 mutant showed the early flowering phenotype whereas ABI4-overexpressing (OE-ABI4) plants had delayed floral transition. Consistently, quantitative reverse transcription–PCR (qRT–PCR) assay revealed that the FLC transcription level was down-regulated in abi4, but up-regulated in OE-ABI4. The change in FT level was consistent with the pattern of FLC expression. Chromatin immunoprecipitation-qPCR (ChIP-qPCR), electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA), and tobacco transient expression analysis showed that ABI4 promotes FLC expression by directly binding to its promoter. Genetic analysis demonstrated that OE-ABI4::flc-3 could not alter the flc-3 phenotype. OE-FLC::abi4 showed a markedly delayed flowering phenotype, which mimicked OE-FLC::WT, and suggested that ABI4 acts upstream of FLC in the same genetic pathway. Taken together, these findings suggest that ABA inhibits the floral transition by activating FLC transcription through ABI4. PMID:26507894

  1. Analyse qualitative et quantitative de la production de semences du sapin pectiné (Abies alba) en région méditerranéenne française et détermination des facteurs environnementaux associés

    OpenAIRE

    Martinez, Célia

    2016-01-01

    Les écosystèmes forestiers sont aujourd’hui touchés par les conséquences des changements globaux en cours. Les conditions climatiques prévues au cours des prochaines décennies devraient induire des modifications dans la plasticité et l’évolution des espèces et conduire à des changements dans leur distribution géographique. Les populations d’arbres établis en marge de leur aire de distribution sont particulièrement sensibles aux modifications de leur environnement et sont déjà contraintes ces ...

  2. Planktonic crustacean assemblages of three reservoirs from the Mexican Central Plateau: relationships with biotic and abiotic factors Crustáceos planctónicos de tres embalses de la Mesa Central Mexicana: relaciones con factores bióticos y abióticos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Ana María Arroyo Bustos

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The reservoirs Trinidad Fabela (TF, Ignacio Ramírez (IR and Tepuxtepec (T are located along an altitude gradient in the upper Lerma Basin of the Mexican Central Plateau. Between July 1993 and June 1994, the planktonic crustacean assemblages of these systems were dominated by seven cladoceran species and five copepod species. Specific richness ranged from 13 species in TF to 16 species in T, out of a total 20 species. Nine species were common to all three systems, while the rest were absent from at least one reservoir. Canonic correspondence analysis showed that the structure and seasonal variation of these assemblages are regulated by factors directly related (transparency and dissolved oxygen or inversely related (turbidity, temperature, mineralization and eutrophication to the altitude at which the reservoirs are located. TF had the lowest levels of mineralization and the lowest specific richness, as well as the highest plankton diversity and mean density, while T had the highest mineralization and highest specific richness, but showed the lowest density. Crustacean mean size was smaller in T than in TF, possibly due to predation by fish in the former system and the presence of fish predators (waterfowl in the latter, as well as the impact of the different hydrological regime and release schedules of the reservoirs.Se estudiaron los embalses Trinidad Fabela (TF, Ignacio Ramírez (IR y Tepuxtepec (T que se localizan en un gradiente de altitud en la subcuenca del Alto Lerma en la Mesa Central de México. La asociación de crustáceos planctónicos estuvo dominada por siete especies de cladóceros y cinco copépodos y la riqueza específica varió entre 13 y 16 especies con un total de 20 especies; nueve de éstas resultaron comunes a todos los embalses y las otras no se encontraron en al menos uno de ellos. El análisis de correspondencias canónicas mostró que la estructura y la variación estacional de las asociaciones de crustáceos planctónicos están regulados por factores que están directamente (transparencia y oxígeno disuelto o inversamente (turbiedad, temperatura, grado de mineralización y de eutrofización relacionados a la altitud de los tres embalses. TF fue el embalse con el menor grado de mineralización y la menor riqueza específica y con la mayor diversidad y densidad de plancton. T tuvo la mayor mineralización y riqueza específica, pero la menor densidad. Los crustáceos de T presentaron tallas medias menores que los de TF, posiblemente como un efecto de depredación de la ictiofauna en T y de la presencia de aves acuáticas piscívoras en TF, además del diferente régimen hidrológico de los embalses.

  3. Factores abióticos que influencian la germinación de seis especies herbáceas de la zona árida de Chile Abiotic factors effects influencing the germination of six herbaceous species of Chilean arid zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola A Jara

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available La zona árida del norte de Chile presenta un clima seco que impide la emergencia masiva de especies vegetales, excepto cuando se producen escasas e irregulares precipitaciones que modifican las características de aridez y estimulan la germinación de semillas. Los principales factores externos que modifican estructuras y condiciones internas de las semillas son el tiempo de hidratación, iluminación, temperatura y escarificación. En este trabajo se abordaron dos interrogantes: (a ¿la germinación de semillas de seis especies de zonas áridas es regulada por diferentes factores externos o presentan respuestas comunes a una combinación de estímulos? y (b ¿existe correspondencia entre las condiciones germinativas establecidas en laboratorio y las determinadas in situ? Para resolver estas interrogantes se sometieron seis especies herbáceas endémicas y nativas del norte de Chile (Cistanthe salsoloides, Leucocoryne purpurea, Pasithea coerulea, Placea amoena, Schizanthus litoralis y Trichopetalum plumosum a dos experimentos germinativos con combinaciones factoriales de tiempo de hidratación, temperatura e iluminación. Solo S. litoralis fue sometido a un experimento adicional de escarificación y deshidratación. Los resultados determinaron que todas las especies en estudio presentaron respuestas germinativas comunes frente a determinados factores externos, con una máxima germinación al sobrepasar un umbral de 96 h de hidratación y permanecer a niveles de temperatura de 10 a 25 ºC. La respuesta frente a iluminación fue especie dependiente. Schizanthus litoralis solo responde a estímulos externos previo a ser escarificada su semilla. Además, se determinó que existe concordancia entre los factores germinativos determinados en laboratorio y las condiciones naturales de germinación. Por lo tanto, las semillas de las especies en estudio presentan umbrales germinativos semejantes, y las técnicas de germinación en laboratorio deben ser determinadas por las características ambientales del lugar de procedencia y de la época de germinación naturalThe arid zone of northern Chile has a dry climate that prevents the massive emergency of plant species. The exception to this general trend arises when scarce and irregular rainfall events occur, modify the environmental humidity, and stimulate the germination of seeds. The main external factors that modify the internal nature of the seeds are the hydration time, light, temperature and scarification. In this work two questions were addressed: (a is the germination of seeds of arid zones regulated by independent external factors or by a combined array of stimuli? and (b do exist correspondence between laboratory and in situ germinative conditions?. Seeds of six native and endemic herbaceous species of the north of Chile (Cistanthe salsoloides, Leucocoryne purpurea, Pasithea coerulea, Placea amoena, Schizanthus litoralis y Trichopetalum plumosum were subjected to two germination experiments, with factorial combinations of hydration time, temperature, light, dehydration and scarification. Schizanthus litoralis, was subjected to an aditional scarification-dehydration experiment (experiment 3. Results showed a common response of all the species in study to certain external factors. Maximum germination percentages were reached when exceeding a threshold of 96 h of hydration and at temperatures of 10 to 25 ºC. Light response was species-dependent. Agreement was found between the germinative conditions determined in laboratory and natural conditions of germination. Therefore, the seeds of plant species of arid zones display similar germinative thresholds and the techniques of germination in laboratory must be determined by the environmental characteristics of the place of origin and the time of natural germination

  4. Impact of traffic on δ15N, δ13C and δ18O of needles and annual tree rings of Norway spruce (Picea abies L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Guerrieri MR; Saurer M; Siegwolf RTW; Waldner P; Cherubini P

    2006-01-01

    Increase of nitrogen depositions, as oxidized (NOx) and reduced (NHx) compounds, has important implications on ecosystem nitrogen cycle. NOx comes predominantly from fossil fuel combustion in car engines and industrial processes, while agricultural activities (cattle farming, fertilizations) are the main sources for NHx emissions. Such fertilisations could stimulate growth and, therefore, productivity of forests, especially in temperate forests, where nitrogen is a limiting factor. On the oth...

  5. Screening and Identification of a Strain of Lactobacillus with ChoIesteroI-reducing AbiIity and Its AppIication in PickIes%一株降胆固醇乳酸菌的筛选、鉴定及在发酵泡菜中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱奇奇; 蒲博; 王周; 张驰翔; 焦士蓉

    2016-01-01

    对降胆固醇乳酸菌进行了筛选和鉴定。采用MR S培养平板从泡菜中筛选出99株接触酶试验为阴性、革兰氏染色为阳性、有明显透明钙圈的菌株,并分别测定它们的降胆固醇作用。胆固醇降解率大于30%的有8株,其中I4的降解率为37.3%±1.50%(n=3)。通过生理生化试验和16S rRNA 序列分析法,鉴定菌株I4为植物乳杆菌(Lactobacillus plantarum )。对植物乳杆菌I4进行了耐酸、耐胆盐试验的研究,实验表明植物乳杆菌I4具有很好的耐酸能力和一定的耐胆盐能力。对降胆固醇植物乳杆菌I4菌制剂在发酵泡菜中的应用进行研究。实验表明:与未添加I4菌种的发酵泡菜对比,泡菜成熟时间缩短,亚硝酸盐含量降低,总酸与总氨基态氮没有差异,感官检验没有差异,并进行了微生物指标测定,符合国家GB 2714-2003《酱腌菜卫生标准》。%A strain of lactobacillus with cholesterol-reducing ability is screened and identified.Use MRS Plate to screen 99 strains from pickles with catalase test being negative,Gram staining being positive and obvious transparent calcium circle and their cholesterol-reducing effect is determined, wherein there are 8 strains with cholesterol degradation rate greater than 30%,the degradation rate of I4 is 37.3%±1.50% (n= 3).Through physiological and biochemical test and 16S rRNA sequence analysis,the strain I4 is identified as Lactobacillus plantarum. The acid resistance and bile salt resistance tests for I4 are carried out;the experimental results show that Lactobacillus plantarum I4 has good acid resistance ability and certain bile salt resistance ability.The application of Lactobacillus plantarum I4 in fermented pickles is studied.The experimental results show that comparison offermented pickles without I4 species,the mature time of pickles is shortened,the nitrite content is reduced,the total acids and total amino nitrogen have no differences,and there is no difference with sensory test,and the microbial indexes are determined,which is accorded with the national standard GB 2714-2003.

  6. Relation between chemical composition of Grateloupia doryphora (Montagne Howe, Gymnogongrus griffithsiae (Turner Martius, and abiotic parameters Relação entre composição química de Grateloupia doryphora (Montagne Howe, Gymnogongrus griffithsiae (Turner Martius e parâmetros abióticos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Nelo Medeiros Perfeto

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available In Grateloupia doryphora and Gymnogongrus griffithsiae the seasonal variation of their chemical compounds was studied, establishing a relation with the physical and chemical properties of seawater. High values of proteins in the studied species were detected during the winter, 28.88% in G. doryphora and 26.68% in G. griffithsiae, corresponding to the maximum period of ammonium concentration in the marine environment. The variation in carbohydrates content showed an inverse relation with the proteins, with a maximum of 54.72% in G. doryphora and of 55.36% in G. griffithsiae, both in summer, positively correlated with salinity and temperature of sea water. Lipids content was low in both species. In G. doryphora the values ranged between 0.81 and 1.30% and, in G. griffithsiae, from 0.71 to 1.50% of dry weight, showing a direct relation with the amount of nitrogen in the seawater. The maximum content of ashes, phosphorus and potassium occurred in autumn and winter, respectively, with 11.85%, 0.20%, 1.27% in G. doryphora, and 14.46%, 0.14%, 1.41% in G. griffithsiae.Foi estudado em Grateloupia doryphora e Gymnogongrus griffithsiae a variação sazonal de seus compostos químicos, estabelecendo uma relação com os parâmetros físico-químicos da água do mar. Durante o inverno foram detectados valores altos de proteína nas espécies estudadas, com 28,88 % em G. doryphora e 26,68 % em G. griffithsiae, correspondendo ao período de concentração máxima de amônio no ambiente marinho. A variação no conteúdo de carboidratos apresentou relação inversa à de proteínas. Os valores máximos de 54,72 % em G. doryphora e de 55,36 % em G. griffithsiae, ocorreram no verão, correlacionados positivamente com salinidade e temperatura da água do mar. Os conteúdos de lipídeos foram baixos em ambas as espécies. Em G. doryphora os valores variaram entre 0,81 e 1,30 % e em G. griffithsiae, de 0,71 a 1,50 % do peso seco, mostrando relação direta com a quantidade de nitrogênio na água do mar. O conteúdo máximo de cinzas, fósforo e potássio ocorreu no outono e inverno, respectivamente com 11,85 %, 0,20 % e 1,27 % em G. doryphora e 14,46 %, 0,14 % e 1,41 % em G. griffithsiae.

  7. Gene Expression Analysis: A Way to Study Tolerance to Abiotic Stresses in Crops Species Análisis de la Expresión Génica: Una Forma de Estudiar la Tolerancia a Estreses Abióticos en Cultivos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Pérez-Torres

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Regions traditionally destined to agriculture report an ever increasing exposure to cold and drought conditions. This is especially important in countries like Chile where crop management options are limited. The development of new cultivars with better yields under adverse conditions is fundamental if the ever increasing demand for food is to be matched; however, improving tolerance to abiotic stresses has proved to be a complex task. In this regard, development in plant physiology and genomics in the last 20 years has led to a deeper understanding of how plants respond to stress and mechanisms responsible for different ranges of tolerance observed in nature. This review discusses the techniques currently most in use in gene expression analysis, together with some important experimental design variables, such as the developmental stage of the plant, stress intensity and duration, and how different stresses may interact when performing assays. On the other hand, it is fundamental to properly select gene expression techniques according to the available information on the genome, the crop and the final objective of the research. All these points must be considered to ease transition from genomics to practical applications to crop species in order to increase their tolerance to stress. In this regard, the rapid development of new techniques in gene expression analysis with lower costs will determine a new revolution in crop research in coming decades. Therefore, Chile needs to be prepared in this area to continue its development as a major food producer worldwide.Las regiones agrícolas están cada vez más expuestas a condiciones de frío y sequía, algo especialmente importante en países con opciones limitadas de manejo de cultivos como Chile. Si la creciente demanda por alimento ha de ser cubierta, es necesaria la compleja tarea del desarrollo de nuevos cultivares con mejores rendimientos bajo condiciones de estrés. El desarrollo de la fisiología vegetal y la genómica en los últimos 20 años ha permitido entender mejor cómo las plantas responden al estrés y los mecanismos responsables de los distintos rangos de tolerancia observados en la naturaleza. En esta revisión, se discuten las técnicas más usadas actualmente en análisis de expresión génica y algunas variables que deben ser consideradas en el diseño experimental tales como el estado de desarrollo de la planta y la intensidad, duración e interacción de distintos tipos de estrés, además de la elección de técnicas apropiadas de acuerdo a la información disponible del genoma del cultivo y el objetivo final de la investigación. Todos estos puntos son fundamentales para facilitar la transición desde la genómica a aplicaciones prácticas en el aumento de la tolerancia al estrés de los cultivos. En este sentido, el rápido desarrollo de nuevas técnicas para estudiar la expresión de genes a menor costo determinará una nueva revolución en la investigación de cultivos en las próximas décadas. En este sentido, Chile necesita estar preparado en esta área para continuar su desarrollo como un importante productor de alimentos a nivel mundial.

  8. 腐乳中高效氨氮降解菌的筛选、鉴定与降解特性研究%IsoIation and Identification of High Effective Ammonia Nitrogen Degradation Bacterium in Fermented Bean Curd and Research on Its Degradation AbiIity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯爱娟; 叶茂; 顾宗珠; 邓毛程

    2016-01-01

    以500 mg/L的高浓度(NH4)2 SO4为唯一氮源的选择培养基,从市售的腐乳中分离筛选出1株对高氨氮含量中氨氮降解效率较高的菌株 FR08,经形态学和生理特性初步鉴定其为巨大芽孢杆菌。实验结果表明:在初始氨氮质量浓度为500 mg/L,初始pH 值为7.0,培养温度为28℃时,该菌株48 h对氨氮降解率为73.64%。该菌可应用于养殖废水、生活污水及氨氮污染较严重的土壤的氨氮处理。%A high effective bacterium FR08 degrading ammonia nitrogen has been isolated from the fermented bean curd by the selected culture medium with (NH4 )2 SO4 as exclusive nitrogen source. The degrading rate of NH4 +-N by FR08 is over 73.64% with 48 h at initial concentration NH4 +-N of 500 mg/L,initial pH of 7.0,culture temperature of 28 ℃.FR08 strain is identified as Bacillus aryabhattai primarily.It can be treated to control the serious problems of ammonia nitrogen pollution in sewage,urban sewage and soil.

  9. Abiotic gradients drive floristic composition and structure of plant communities in the Monte Desert Gradientes abióticos dirigen la composición florística y la estructura de las comunidades de plantas en el Desierto del Monte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PABLO ACEBES

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Defining plant communities in desert zones is difficult due to large scale homogeneity and small scale heterogeneity, thus making provision of systematic information for conservation decisions problematic. We analysed plant communities of the most arid sector of Monte Desert for structure, plant composition and environmental variables. Small-scale variables such as slope, rock cover, bare ground and litter, as well as large-scale ones such as species diversity, composition and similarity within and between sites were included. Analyses of floristic composition showed the difficulty of segregating distinct communities due to high internal heterogeneity and overlap between the different sites. Only mesquite woodlands, a community situated at the extreme of the soil moisture-gradient was segregated. Ordination on structural variables was somewhat more successful in segregating communities on the basis of substrate type and of tree and shrub cover. Our results showed the difficulty distinguishing plant communities in temperate deserts, suggesting the existence of relatively stable assemblages of species at the extremes of the gradients and of great heterogeneity within and between sites. They cannot be defined by floristic variables solely, but require environmental information also.La definición de comunidades discretas de plantas en zonas desérticas es complejo debido tanto a su homogeneidad a gran escala como a su heterogeneidad a pequeña escala, lo que acaba generando dificultades para la toma de decisiones de conservación. En este trabajo analizamos las comunidades de plantas del sector más árido del Desierto del Monte en función de su estructura y composición florística. Se han utilizado también variables ambientales estimadas a pequeña escala como la pendiente o la superficie de roca, suelo desnudo y hojarasca, así como variables que operan a mayor escala como la diversidad de especies, la composición florística y la similitud dentro y entre localidades. Los análisis de composición florística resaltaron la dificultad para segregar diferentes comunidades debido al elevado nivel de heterogeneidad interna y de solapamiento florístico entre las distintas localidades estudiadas. Solo la comunidad situada en el extremo del gradiente de humedad edáfica, el algarrobal, se segregó del resto. La ordenación realizada sobre las variables estructurales en función del tipo de sustrato y de la cobertura arbórea y de matorral segregó mejor las diferentes comunidades. Nuestros resultados muestran la dificultad para diferenciar comunidades de plantas en desiertos templados, sugiriendo la existencia de ensamblajes de especies relativamente estables en los extremos de los gradientes y de una gran heterogeneidad dentro y entre localidades. Las comunidades de plantas, por tanto, no pueden ser definidas únicamente por variables florísticas, sino que es preciso incluir información ambiental.

  10. Microbial Biomass Carbon and Soil Invertase Activity of Mixed Stands of Picea koraiensis,Abies fabric and Pinus koraiensis in Different Succession Stages%云冷杉红松混交林不同演替阶段土壤微生物生物量碳与土壤蔗糖酶活性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘振花

    2015-01-01

    通过对云冷杉红松混交林不同演替阶段(形成阶段、发展阶段、稳定阶段和顶级群落)不同土壤层次土壤微生物量碳(MBC)含量和土壤蔗糖酶活性及各个阶段土壤总有机碳、全氮、速效钾和有效磷的研究,采用对比分析方法分析了土壤微生物量碳和土壤蔗糖酶活性与土壤总有机碳、全氮、速效钾和有效磷之间的相关关系,结果显示,土壤微生物量碳和土壤蔗糖酶活性与土壤总有机碳、全氮、速效钾和有效磷之间均呈显著正相关。%The content of soil microbial biomass carbon (MBC)in different soil layers,soil invertase activity,total organic carbon (TOC),total nitrogen,available potassium,available phosphorus at all stages in different succession stages (the formation stage,stage of development,stability phase and climax community)of mixed spruce-fir-larch stands were studied.The correlation among MBC,soil invertase activity,TOC,total nitrogen,available potassium, and available phosphorus were analyzed.Result shows that:MBC,soil invertase activity,TOC,total nitrogen,a-vailable potassium,available phosphorus show significant positive correlation.

  11. Comparative study of cogasification and co-combustion of communal sewage sludge in brown coal fuelled plants; Vergleich der Mitvergasung und Mitverbrennung kommunaler Klaerschlaemme in braunkohlegefeuerten Anlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiffer, H.P.; Bierbaum, K.; Adlhoch, W.; Thomas, G. [Rheinbraun AG, Koeln (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    Co-combustion and cogasification of sewage sludge in brown coal fuelled plants are compared, and an economic assessment is made. (ABI) [Deutsch] Die Mitverbrennung und Mitvergasung von Klaerschlamm in braunkohlegefeuerten Anlagen werden verglichen und auf ihre Wirtschaftlichkeit hin untersucht. (ABI)

  12. Reliability of the Motor Learning Strategy Rating Instrument for Children and Youth with Acquired Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamath, Trishna; Pfeifer, Megan; Banerjee-Guenette, Priyanka; Hunter, Theresa; Ito, Julia; Salbach, Nancy M.; Wright, Virginia; Levac, Danielle

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate reliability and feasibility of the Motor Learning Strategy Rating Instrument (MLSRI) in children with acquired brain injury (ABI). The MLSRI quantifies the extent to which motor learning strategies (MLS) are used within physiotherapy (PT) interventions. Methods: PT sessions conducted by ABI team physiotherapists with a…

  13. Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Distributions of the Ankle-Brachial Index among Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badaruddoza Doza

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The aim of present study is to observe the association between the levels of ankle-brachial index (ABI and cardiovascular risk factors among people with type 2 diabetes mellitus in north India. A cross-sectional study was carried out at a centre for heart and diabetic clinic in the state of Punjab on 1121 subjects (671 males and 450 females with type 2 diabetes mellitus. History of symptoms related to cardiovascular diseases was noted, and blood pressure and anthropometric measurements were recorded. Ankle-brachial index (ABI was measured using ultrasonic Doppler flow detector. Subjects with ABI ≤0.9 and ≥1.30 were classified as having low and high ABI, respectively. Females had a higher BMI and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (<0.001. Whereas, males had higher diastolic blood pressure and duration of type 2 diabetes mellitus. The differences of systolic blood pressure and ankle-brachial index were not found significant between the sexes. The prevalence of low ABI (<0.9 was 4.47% in men and 4.67% in women and high ABI (≥1.30 was prevalent in 14% of men and 10.45% of women. Age, BMI, baPWV, and blood pressures were significantly associated with ABI value in both sexes. The results suggested that the ABI might be used as a strong indicator for cardiovascular risk factors in type 2 diabetic subjects.

  14. Determinants of participation of youth with acquired brain injury : A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kloet, A.J. (Arend) de; Gijzen, Rianne; Braga, Lucia W.; Schoones, Jan W.; Vliet Vlieland, Thea; Meesters, Jorit J.L.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Participation is considerably restricted in children and adolescents with acquired brain injury (ABI) as compared to their healthy peers. This systematic review aims to identify which factors are associated with participation in children and adolescents with ABI. Methods: A systematic se

  15. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DSIM-04-0030 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DSIM-04-0030 ref|NP_001011594.1| G-protein coupled receptor [Apis mellifera] e...mb|CAB76374.1| G-protein coupled receptor [Apis mellifera] gb|ABI94393.1| tyramine receptor [Apis mellifera]... gb|ABI94394.1| tyramine receptor [Apis mellifera] NP_001011594.1 2e-61 36% ...

  16. Comprehensive oral-health assessment of individuals with acquired brain-injury in neuro-rehabilitation setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kothari, Mohit; Spin-Neto, Rubens; Nielsen, Jørgen Feldbæk

    2016-01-01

    PRIMARY OBJECTIVE: To perform a detailed clinical oral health assessment and oral-health-related social and behavioural aspect assessment in individuals with acquired brain injury (ABI). RESEARCH DESIGN: Prospective observational study. METHODS AND PROCEDURES: Thirteen individuals with ABI were r...

  17. Vaidlus Soomes: miks me peaksime aitama Iirimaad? / Tiina Hakman

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hakman, Tiina

    2010-01-01

    Soomes on opositsioon Iirimaale abi andmise vastu, ka ajalehtede lugejaküsitlused ja kommentaarid näitavad ülekaalukalt eitavat suhtumist abi andmisse. Soome rahandusminister ja peaminister veenavad rahvast vajaduses lüüa kaasa Iirimaa abipaketis

  18. Evaluation of a Reading Comprehension Strategy Package to Improve Reading Comprehension of Adult College Students with Acquired Brain Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Gina G.

    2013-01-01

    Adults with mild to moderate acquired brain injury (ABI) often pursue post-secondary or professional education after their injuries in order to enter or re-enter the job market. An increasing number of these adults report problems with reading-to-learn. The problem is particularly concerning given the growing population of adult survivors of ABI.…

  19. Training of attention and memory deficits in children with acquired brain injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen Sjö, Nina; Spellerberg, Stine Marie; Weidner, Susanne;

    2010-01-01

    This pilot study concerns cognitive rehabilitation of children with acquired brain injury (ABI). Aim: The aim is threefold; to determine (1) whether the Amsterdam Memory and Attention Training for Children (AMAT-C) programme for children with ABI can be integrated in the child’s school, (2) whether...

  20. Dutch Multifactor Fatigue Scale : A New Scale to Measure the Different Aspects of Fatigue After Acquired Brain Injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser-Keizer, Annemarie C.; Hogenkamp, Antoinette; Westerhof-Evers, Herma J.; Egberink, Iris J. L.; Spikman, Jacoba M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To develop the Dutch Multifactor Fatigue Scale (DMFS), a new scale to assess the nature and impact of fatigue and coping with fatigue in the chronic phase after acquired brain injury (ABI) and to analyze the psychometric properties of this scale in a mixed group of patients with ABI. Des

  1. A patients perspective on eating difficulties following brain injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaersgaard, Annette; Kristensen, Hanne Kaae; Borg, Tove

    Purpose: The aim of this study is to explore and interpret how persons with acquired brain injury (ABI) experience and adapt to reduced abilities to swallowing and eating - and clinical implications. Method: Explorative multiple-case study with qualitative interviews of six persons following ABI...

  2. Impact of Experimentally Elevated Ozone on Seed Germination and Growth of Russian Pine (Pinus sylvestris) and Spruce (Picea spp.) Provenances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prozherina, Nadezda; Nakvasina, Elena; Oksanen, Elina

    2009-01-01

    The impact of elevated ozone concentrations on early ontogenetic stages of pine (Pinus sylvestris) and spruce (Picea abies, Picea obovata, P. abies X P. obovata) seedlings originating from different provenances in Russia were studied in the open-field ozone fumigation system located in Kuopio, Finla

  3. Activity-Based Intervention Practices in Special Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozen, Arzu; Ergenekon, Yasemin

    2011-01-01

    Teaching practices in natural settings such as activity-based intervention (ABI) are suggested as alternatives to be used in effective early childhood education. As a multidisciplinary model, ABI consists of four components, which are choosing activities according to the child's interests; teaching generalizable goals embedded in routines and…

  4. HSPC300 and its role in neuronal connectivity.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qurashi, A.; Sahin, H.B.; Carrera, P.; Gautreau, A.; Schenck, A.; Giangrande, A.

    2007-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The WAVE/SCAR complex, consisting of CYFIP (PIR121 or Sra1), Kette (Nap1), Abi, SCAR (WAVE) and HSPC300, is known to regulate the actin nucleating Arp2/3 complex in a Rac1-dependent manner. While in vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated that CYFIP, Kette, Abi and SCAR wor

  5. Eksperdid: video Liibanonis röövitud eestlastest on hea märk / Kärt Anvelt, Kadri Ibrus, Erik Rand

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Anvelt, Kärt, 1973-

    2011-01-01

    Youtube'i videokeskkonda ilmus Liibanonis röövitud eestlastest video, milles nad paluvad Liibanoni, Saudi Araabia, Jordaania ja Prantsusmaa juhtide abi enda vabastamiseks. Saudi Araabia, Araabia Ühendemiraadid ja Jordaania on lubanud igakülgset abi. President Toomas Hendrik Ilvese avaldusest seoses videopöördumisega

  6. Patients with severe acquired brain injury show increased arousal in tilt-table training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riberholt, Christian G; Thorlund, Jonas Bloch; Mehlsen, Jesper;

    2013-01-01

    Patients with severe acquired brain injury (ABI) are often mobilised using a tilt-table. Complications such as orthostatic intolerance have been reported. The primary objective of this study was to investigate if using a tilt-table was feasible for mobilising patients with severe ABI admitted...

  7. Ankle-brachial pressure index estimated by laser Doppler in patients suffering from peripheral arterial obstructive disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludyga, Tomasz; Kuczmik, Waclaw B; Kazibudzki, Marek; Nowakowski, Przemyslaw; Orawczyk, Tomasz; Glanowski, Michal; Kucharzewski, Marcin; Ziaja, Damion; Szaniewski, Krzysztof; Ziaja, Krzysztof

    2007-07-01

    Ankle-brachial index (ABI) measurements are widely used for evaluating the functional state of circulation in the lower limbs. However, there is some evidence that the value of ABI does not accurately reflect the degree of walking impairment in symptomatic patients with peripheral arterial obstructive disease (PAOD). We investigated the diagnostic value of ABI estimated by means of laser Doppler flowmetry (IT) for evaluating limb ischemia. We wanted to know whether laser Doppler could be more sensitive than the Doppler method in predicting walking capacity in patients with stable intermittent claudication. We analyzed a group of 30 patients with intermittent claudication (Fontain II, II/III) who were admitted for reconstructive treatment. There were 21 men and 9 women, aged 46-74 (mean 61) years. All patients underwent the treadmill test, and pain-free walking distances were measured. In each patient, we measured ABI using the two different methods: Doppler ultrasound device (ABI-Doppler) and laser Doppler (ABI-laser Doppler). The claudication distances were 25-200 m (mean 73 +/- 50.2 m). ABI-Doppler was 0.2-0.7 (0.582 +/- 0.195). ABI-laser Doppler measurements were 0.581 (+/-0.218). A correlation was found between ABI-Doppler and claudication distance (r = 0.46, P = 0.009). Also, ABI-laser Doppler values significantly correlated with claudication distances (r = 0.536, P = 0.002). The ABI evaluated by laser Doppler correlated well with claudication distances in patients with PAOD. Comparison of Doppler and laser Doppler measurements used for determining ABI showed that both methods have similar predictive power for walking capacity; however, higher correlation was observed between claudication distances and ABI measured by laser Doppler flowmetry. ABI-laser Doppler measurements are easier, are quicker, and seem to be better suited for noncompliant patients. Further investigation should be undertaken to determine whether laser Doppler is superior to the Doppler

  8. Influence of an aliphatic linker between DOTA and synthetic ZHER2:342 Affibody molecule on targeting properties of the 111In-labeled conjugate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: Affibody molecules are small (∼6.5 kDa) scaffold proteins suitable for radionuclide imaging of tumor-associated molecular targets. Site-specific labeling of Affibody molecules made by peptide synthesis can be achieved by coupling a chelator to N-terminus in the last synthesis step. The goal of this study was to evaluate the influence of a 6-aminohexanoic linker between DOTA and ZHER2:342 on targeting properties of 111In-labeled conjugate. Methods: A DOTA-conjugated 6-aminohexanoic linker-containing variant of ZHER2:342 (ABY-003) was produced by peptide synthesis, and the in vitro binding affinity, specificity and cellular processing were evaluated. The biodistribution of 111In-ABY-003 in normal mice was compared to 111In-ABY-002 (DOTA-ZHER2:342-pep2) lacking the linker. Tumor-targeting properties of 111In-ABY-003 were evaluated in mice bearing HER2-expressing xenografts. Results: The dissociation constant of ABY-003 was in the low picomolar range, slightly higher than for ABY-002. 111In-ABY-003 bound specifically to HER2-expressing cells in vitro. The cellular retention was efficient but slightly worse than for 111In-ABY-002. In normal mice, the clearance of 111In-ABY-003 from blood and other tissues was slightly but significantly faster compared to 111In-ABY-002. Targeting of HER2-expressing xenografts by 111In-ABY-003 was receptor-specific. Due to faster clearance, the tumor-to-blood ratio for 111In-ABY-003 at 4 h postinjection was improved compared to 111In-ABY-002. The capacity of 111In-ABY-003 to visualize HER2-expressing tumors was confirmed by gamma camera imaging. Conclusions: A 6-aminohexanoic linker between the DOTA chelator and N-terminus of synthetic ZHER2:342 had a measurable effect on affinity, cellular retention of radioactivity and blood clearance. The linker might be used for modulation of targeting properties of Affibody molecules.

  9. Influence of an aliphatic linker between DOTA and synthetic Z{sub HER2:342} Affibody molecule on targeting properties of the {sup 111}In-labeled conjugate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tolmachev, Vladimir, E-mail: vladimir.tolmachev@bms.uu.se [Division of Biomedical Radiation Sciences, Department of Radiology, Oncology and Clinical Immunology, Rudbeck Laboratory, Uppsala University, SE-751 85 Uppsala (Sweden); Feldwisch, Joachim [Division of Biomedical Radiation Sciences, Department of Radiology, Oncology and Clinical Immunology, Rudbeck Laboratory, Uppsala University, SE-751 85 Uppsala (Sweden); Affibody AB, SE-112 51, Stockholm (Sweden); Lindborg, Malin; Baastrup, Barbro [Affibody AB, SE-112 51, Stockholm (Sweden); Sandstroem, Mattias [Hospital Physics, Department of Oncology, Uppsala University Hospital, Uppsala (Sweden); Orlova, Anna [Division of Biomedical Radiation Sciences, Department of Radiology, Oncology and Clinical Immunology, Rudbeck Laboratory, Uppsala University, SE-751 85 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2011-07-15

    Introduction: Affibody molecules are small ({approx}6.5 kDa) scaffold proteins suitable for radionuclide imaging of tumor-associated molecular targets. Site-specific labeling of Affibody molecules made by peptide synthesis can be achieved by coupling a chelator to N-terminus in the last synthesis step. The goal of this study was to evaluate the influence of a 6-aminohexanoic linker between DOTA and Z{sub HER2:342} on targeting properties of {sup 111}In-labeled conjugate. Methods: A DOTA-conjugated 6-aminohexanoic linker-containing variant of Z{sub HER2:342} (ABY-003) was produced by peptide synthesis, and the in vitro binding affinity, specificity and cellular processing were evaluated. The biodistribution of {sup 111}In-ABY-003 in normal mice was compared to {sup 111}In-ABY-002 (DOTA-Z{sub HER2:342-pep2}) lacking the linker. Tumor-targeting properties of {sup 111}In-ABY-003 were evaluated in mice bearing HER2-expressing xenografts. Results: The dissociation constant of ABY-003 was in the low picomolar range, slightly higher than for ABY-002. {sup 111}In-ABY-003 bound specifically to HER2-expressing cells in vitro. The cellular retention was efficient but slightly worse than for {sup 111}In-ABY-002. In normal mice, the clearance of {sup 111}In-ABY-003 from blood and other tissues was slightly but significantly faster compared to {sup 111}In-ABY-002. Targeting of HER2-expressing xenografts by {sup 111}In-ABY-003 was receptor-specific. Due to faster clearance, the tumor-to-blood ratio for {sup 111}In-ABY-003 at 4 h postinjection was improved compared to {sup 111}In-ABY-002. The capacity of {sup 111}In-ABY-003 to visualize HER2-expressing tumors was confirmed by gamma camera imaging. Conclusions: A 6-aminohexanoic linker between the DOTA chelator and N-terminus of synthetic Z{sub HER2:342} had a measurable effect on affinity, cellular retention of radioactivity and blood clearance. The linker might be used for modulation of targeting properties of Affibody molecules.

  10. Comparison of ankle-brachial index measured by an automated oscillometric apparatus with that by standard Doppler technique in vascular patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korno, M.; Eldrup, N.; Sillesen, H.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the determination of ankle-brachial indices (ABIs) using a simple automated ankle pressure measurement device in comparison with the Doppler technique. DESIGN: ABI was measured in 61 patients (122 legs) admitted to the department of vascular surgery, Rigshospitalet. ABI...... was calculated twice using both the methods on both legs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We tested the automated oscillometric blood pressure device, CASMED 740, for measuring ankle and arm blood pressure and compared it with the current gold standard, the hand-held Doppler technique, by the Bland-Altman analysis....... RESULTS: Using the Doppler-derived ABI as the gold standard, the sensitivity and specificity of the oscillometric method for determining an ABI Udgivelsesdato: 2009/11...

  11. An Actor-Partner Interdependence Model of Acquired Brain Injury Patient Impairments and Caregiver Psychosocial Functioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perrin, Paul B; Norup, Anne; Caracuel, Alfonso;

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to use actor-partner interdependence modeling (APIM) to examine the simultaneous effects of both acquired brain injury (ABI) patient and caregiver ratings of patient impairments on both patient and caregiver ratings of caregiver psychosocial dysfunction. M...... are patients' views of their own impairments, pointing to caregivers' interpretations of their patients' impairments as a primary target for cognitive behavioral interventions.......OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to use actor-partner interdependence modeling (APIM) to examine the simultaneous effects of both acquired brain injury (ABI) patient and caregiver ratings of patient impairments on both patient and caregiver ratings of caregiver psychosocial dysfunction....... METHOD: A sample of 968 individuals with ABI and their caregivers (n = 1,936) from 4 countries completed the European Brain Injury Questionnaire, a measure of ABI impairments and caregiver psychosocial functioning in the context of providing care for the person with ABI. RESULTS: An APIM with all...

  12. Phage abortive infection in lactococci: variations on a theme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopin, Marie-Christine; Chopin, Alain; Bidnenko, Elena

    2005-08-01

    Abortive infection (Abi) systems, also called phage exclusion, block phage multiplication and cause premature bacterial cell death upon phage infection. This decreases the number of progeny particles and limits their spread to other cells allowing the bacterial population to survive. Twenty Abi systems have been isolated in Lactococcus lactis, a bacterium used in cheese-making fermentation processes, where phage attacks are of economical importance. Recent insights in their expression and mode of action indicate that, behind diverse phenotypic and molecular effects, lactococcal Abis share common traits with the well-studied Escherichia coli systems Lit and Prr. Abis are widespread in bacteria, and recent analysis indicates that Abis might have additional roles other than conferring phage resistance.

  13. Crescimento micelial in vitro de cinco linhagens de Agaricus bisporus submetidas a diferentes condições de temperatura = In vitro mycelium growth of five Agaricus bisporus strains submitted to different temperature conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Meire Cristina Nogueira de Andrade; João Lucas Chavari; Marli Teixeira de Almeida Minhon; Diego Cunha Zied

    2010-01-01

    Avaliou-se o crescimento micelial in vitro das linhagens ABI-05/03, ABI-06/04, ABI-04/02, ABI-06/05 e ABI-01/01 de Agaricus bisporus em meios de cultura sólidos à base de composto. As avaliações foram realizadas por meio de medições de quatro diâmetros das colônias, a cada 48h, durante 12 dias de incubação, no escuro, a 20 e 25ºC. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos casualizados, com uso do teste de Tukey para a comparação das médias. Com base nos resultados obtidos, verificou-se que:...

  14. Incidence of butt rot in a tree species experiment in northern Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ronnberg, J; Vollbrecht, G.; Thomsen, Iben Margrete

    1999-01-01

    The susceptibility to infections by Heterobasidion annosum (Fr.) Bref. was examined in a 28-year-old tree species experiment in northern Jutland, Denmark. Silver fir (Abies alba Mill.), Caucasian fir (Abies nordmanniana (Stev.) Spach), grand fir (Abies grandis (Dougl) Lindl.), noble fir (Abies...... procera Rehd.), Japanese larch (Larix kaempferi (Lamb.) Carr.), Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.), Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr.), and Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) were planted after shelterwood felling of a mountain pine (Pinus uncinata Mill. ex Mirb.) stand...... that had been infected by H. annosum. Douglas fir and noble fir showed the greatest mortality due to H. annosum during the first 5 years after planting. At first thinning the highest incidences of butt rot were recorded in noble fir, Japanese larch and Sitka spruce, with 44%, 43% and 36% of the thinned...

  15. Experimental study on N2O and CH4 fluxes from the dark coniferous forest zone soil of the Gongga Mountain, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董云社; 齐玉春; 罗辑; 梁涛; 雒昆利; 章申

    2003-01-01

    The static closed chamber technique is used in the study on the CH4 and N2O fluxes from the soils of primeval Abies fabri forest, the succession Abies fabri forest and the clear-cut areas of mid-aged Abies fabri forest in the Gongga Mountain from May 1998 to September 1999. The results indicate the following: (i) The forest soil serves as the source of atmospheric N2O at the three measurement sites, while the fluxes of CH4 are all negative, and soil is the sink of atmospheric CH4. The comparative relations of N2O emissions between the three sites are expressed as primeval Abies fabri forest > clear-cut areas > succession Abies fabri forest, and those of CH4 consumption fluxes are primeval Abies fabri forest > succession Abies fabri forest > clear-cut areas. (ii) Significant seasonal variations of N2O emission at various sites were observed, and two emission peaks of N2O occurr during summer (July-August) and spring (February-March), whereas N2O emission is relatively low in winter and spring (mid March-April). Seasonal variations of CH4 consumption at each measurement site fluctuate drastically with unclear regularities. Generally, CH4 consumption fluxes of succession Abies fabri forest and clear-cut areas are higher from mid May to late July but lower in the rest of sampling time, while the CH4 flux keeps a relatively high value even up to September in primeval Abies fabri forest. In contrast to primeval Abies fabri forest, the CH4 absorbabilities of succession Abies fabri forest and clear-cut areas of mid-aged Abies fabri forest are weaker. Particularly, the absorbability of the clear-cut areas is even weaker as compared with the other two sites, for the deforestation reduces the soil absorbability of atmospheric CH4. (iii) Evident diurnal variation regularity exists in the N2O emissions of primeval Abies fabri forest, and there is a statistic positive correlation between the fluxes of N2O and air temperature (R=0.95, n=11, α<0.01), and also the soil

  16. Perceptions of the ankle brachial index amongst podiatrists registered in Western Australia

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    Chen Pamela Y

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ankle brachial index (ABI is an objective diagnostic tool that is widely used for the diagnosis of peripheral arterial disease. Despite its usefulness, it is evident within the literature that many practitioners forgo using this screening tool due to limiting factors such as time. There is also no recommended technique for ABI measurement. The purpose of this study is to investigate the perceptions of the use of ABI clinically among Western Australian podiatrists. Methods This study was a cross sectional survey which evaluated the perceptions of the ABI amongst registered podiatrists in Western Australia. The study sample was obtained from the register of podiatrists listed with the Podiatrists Registration Board of Western Australia. Podiatrists were contacted by telephone and invited to participate in a telephone questionnaire. Chi-square tests were performed to determine if there was a statistically significant relationship between use of the ABI and podiatrists’ profile which included: sector of employment; geographical location; and length of time in practice. Results There is a statistically significant relationship (p=0.004 between podiatrists’ profile and the use of ABI, with higher usage in the tertiary hospital setting than in private practice. Length of time spent in practice had no significant impact on ABI usage (p=0.098. Time constraints and lack of equipment were key limiting factors to performing the ABI, and no preferred technique was indicated. Conclusion Western Australian podiatrists agree that the ABI is a useful tool for lower limb vascular assessment, however, various factors influence uptake in the clinical setting. This study suggests that a podiatrists’ profile has a significant influence on the use of the ABI, which may be attributed to different patient types across the various settings. The influence of time spent in practice on ABI usage may be attributed to differences in clinical

  17. Association of the Cardioankle Vascular Index and Ankle-Brachial Index with Carotid Artery Intima Media Thickness in Hemodialysis Patients

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    Tomohito Gohda

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of the present study are (1 to compare the cardioankle vascular index (CAVI, ankle-brachial index (ABI, and carotid artery intima-media thickness (CA-IMT between HD patients with and without type 2 diabetes (T2D or prevalence of cardiovascular (CV disease and (2 also to evaluate the relationship of these indices with CA-IMT in these patients according to ABI levels. This study consisted of 132 HD patients with T2D and the same number of patients without T2D. The patients with diabetes or prevalence of CV disease had significantly higher CA-IMT and lower ABI values than those without diabetes or prevalence of CV disease, respectively. Although diabetic patients had higher CAVI than those without diabetes, CAVI did not differ between patients with or without prevalence of CV disease. In univariate analysis, CA-IMT was more strongly correlated with ABI than CAVI. However, the opposite was true in patients with an ABI value of more than 0.95. Both indices were significantly correlated with CA-IMT although ABI was a powerful determinant than CAVI. It appears that both indices are associated with CA-IMT in HD patients, especially with an ABI value of more than 0.95.

  18. Training to measure ankle-brachial index at the undergraduate level: can it be successful?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgakarakos, Efstratios; Papadaki, Evaggelia; Vamvakerou, Vasileia; Lytras, Dimitrios; Tsiokani, Afroditi; Tsolakaki, Olympia; Chlimpou, Dimitra; Papanas, Nikolaos

    2013-06-01

    We examined the effectiveness of teaching ankle-brachial index (ABI) measurement to medical students. ABI was estimated in 28 lower limbs by an experienced vascular surgeon. After a 2-week training course, 5 fourth-year students repeated the estimations and their results were compared with that of the trainer's. There was no difference in ABI values between trainees and trainer for subjects with mild-to-moderate peripheral arterial disease (PAD; 0.77 ± 0.22 vs 0.77 ± 0.19, respectively, P = .95). In the 4 normal limbs, ABI was 1.37 ± 0.12 and 1.16 ± 0.11, as measured by the trainer and the trainees, respectively (P < .00001). In subjects with severe PAD, trainees tended to overestimate ABI (P = .0002) in the beginning of the educational process, but this was no longer the case at a later stage of the training with no difference in ABI values between the 2 examiner groups (P = .09). In conclusion, training of medical students in ABI measurement can be helpful toward accurate estimation of PAD and merits further practice. PMID:23667100

  19. Ankle-Brachial Index: Nurses Strategy To Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors Identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Luisa Maggi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Elevated risk of fatal and non-fatal cardiovascular events is associated with high prevalence of peripheral arterial disease, with assessment through the ankle-brachial index (ABI. This study aimed to demonstrate that the ABI and the Edinburgh Claudication Questionnaire are tools to be used by nurses in prevention and/or treatment of CVD (cardiovascular disease. A cross-sectional study was carried out with patients from a cardiovascular clinic. The Edinburgh Claudication Questionnaire was applied and the ABI was measured with the formula (ABI= Blood Pressure Ankle/Blood Pressure Brachial. A total of 115 patients were included, most were females (57.4%, aged 60.6 ± 12.5 years. The most prevalent risk factors were hypertension (64.3%, physical inactivity (48.7% and family history (58.3%. The study showed that abnormal ABI was frequently found and 42.6% of the patients with abnormal ABI showed intermittent claudication. The method to evaluate the ABI associated to the Edinburg Claudication Questionnaire, can be easily used by nurses in the clinical evaluation of asymptomatic and symptomatic CVD patients.

  20. Analyzer-based imaging of spinal fusion in an animal model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, M E [Division of Neurosurgery, Royal University Hospital, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK (Canada); Beavis, R C; Allen, L A [Division of Orthopedic Surgery, Royal University Hospital, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK (Canada); Fiorella, David [Department of Neuroradiology, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH (United States); Schueltke, E; Juurlink, B H; Chapman, L D [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK (Canada); Zhong, Z [National Synchrotron Light Source, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States)], E-mail: kellym@ccf.org

    2008-05-21

    Analyzer-based imaging (ABI) utilizes synchrotron radiation sources to create collimated monochromatic x-rays. In addition to x-ray absorption, this technique uses refraction and scatter rejection to create images. ABI provides dramatically improved contrast over standard imaging techniques. Twenty-one adult male Wistar rats were divided into four experimental groups to undergo the following interventions: (1) non-injured control, (2) decortication alone, (3) decortication with iliac crest bone grafting and (4) decortication with iliac crest bone grafting and interspinous wiring. Surgical procedures were performed at the L5-6 level. Animals were killed at 2, 4 and 6 weeks after the intervention and the spine muscle blocks were excised. Specimens were assessed for the presence of fusion by (1) manual testing, (2) conventional absorption radiography and (3) ABI. ABI showed no evidence of bone fusion in groups 1 and 2 and showed solid or possibly solid fusion in subjects from groups 3 and 4 at 6 weeks. Metal artifacts were not present in any of the ABI images. Conventional absorption radiographs did not provide diagnostic quality imaging of either the graft material or fusion masses in any of the specimens in any of the groups. Synchrotron-based ABI represents a novel imaging technique which can be used to assess spinal fusion in a small animal model. ABI produces superior image quality when compared to conventional radiographs.

  1. Analyzer-based imaging of spinal fusion in an animal model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, M. E.; Beavis, R. C.; Fiorella, David; Schültke, E.; Allen, L. A.; Juurlink, B. H.; Zhong, Z.; Chapman, L. D.

    2008-05-01

    Analyzer-based imaging (ABI) utilizes synchrotron radiation sources to create collimated monochromatic x-rays. In addition to x-ray absorption, this technique uses refraction and scatter rejection to create images. ABI provides dramatically improved contrast over standard imaging techniques. Twenty-one adult male Wistar rats were divided into four experimental groups to undergo the following interventions: (1) non-injured control, (2) decortication alone, (3) decortication with iliac crest bone grafting and (4) decortication with iliac crest bone grafting and interspinous wiring. Surgical procedures were performed at the L5-6 level. Animals were killed at 2, 4 and 6 weeks after the intervention and the spine muscle blocks were excised. Specimens were assessed for the presence of fusion by (1) manual testing, (2) conventional absorption radiography and (3) ABI. ABI showed no evidence of bone fusion in groups 1 and 2 and showed solid or possibly solid fusion in subjects from groups 3 and 4 at 6 weeks. Metal artifacts were not present in any of the ABI images. Conventional absorption radiographs did not provide diagnostic quality imaging of either the graft material or fusion masses in any of the specimens in any of the groups. Synchrotron-based ABI represents a novel imaging technique which can be used to assess spinal fusion in a small animal model. ABI produces superior image quality when compared to conventional radiographs.

  2. Correlation between Patient-Reported Symptoms and Ankle-Brachial Index after Revascularization for Peripheral Arterial Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyung Gon Je

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Improvement in quality of life (QoL is a primary treatment goal for patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD. The current study aimed to quantify improvement in the health status of PAD patients following peripheral revascularization using the peripheral artery questionnaire (PAQ and ankle-brachial index (ABI, and to evaluate possible correlation between the two methods. The PAQ and ABI were assessed in 149 symptomatic PAD patients before, and three months after peripheral revascularization. Mean PAQ summary scores improved significantly three months after revascularization (+49.3 ± 15 points, p < 0.001. PAQ scores relating to patient symptoms showed the largest improvement following revascularization. The smallest increases were seen in reported treatment satisfaction (all p’s < 0.001. As expected the ABI of treated limbs showed significant improvement post-revascularization (p < 0.001. ABI after revascularization correlated with patient-reported changes in the physical function and QoL domains of the PAQ. Twenty-two percent of PAD patients were identified as having a poor response to revascularization (increase in ABI < 0.15. Interestingly, poor responders reported improvement in symptoms on the PAQ, although this was less marked than in patients with an increase in ABI > 0.15 following revascularization. In conclusion, data from the current study suggest a significant correlation between improvement in patient-reported outcomes assessed by PAQ and ABI in symptomatic PAD patients undergoing peripheral revascularization.

  3. Cancer mutation screening: Comparison of high-resolution melt analysis between two platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebili, Henry O; Ilyas, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    High-resolution melt analysis (HRMA) is a cheap and reliable post-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) cancer mutation screening technique, which is fast gaining clinical relevance. The HRMA capabilities of the LightScanner (Idaho Technology) have been severally studied. However, the ABI 7500 HRM has not been tested against the purpose-built HRM instrument such as the LightScanner. DNA from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded gastric cancer, colorectal cancer, and normal tissue as well as from colorectal cancer cell lines were amplified at exons 2, 3, and 4 of KRAS, and at exons 11 and 15 of BRAF in the ABI 7500 fast real-time PCR machine and subjected to melting both on the ABI and on the LightScanner. HRMA data were analysed with the ABI HRM software v2.0.1 and the LightScanner Call-IT 2.5. We tested the ABI 7500 HRM for internal precision, accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity at mutation screening relative to the LightScanner, using crude percentage concordance, kappa statistics, and the area under the receiver operator characteristics (AUROC) curve on SPSS version 19. The results show that the ABI 7500 HRMA has a high internal precision, and excellent concordance, sensitivity, and specificity at mutation screening compared with the LightScanner. However, in contrast to the LightScanner HRM software analysis, the ABI HRM software v.2.0.1, cannot distinguish real from certain pseudovariations in PCR amplicons that are sometimes brought about by the artefacts of the melting process. In conclusion, the ABI HRM has a comparable performance level with the LightScanner, although in certain respects mentioned previously, the LightScanner has an edge over the ABI.

  4. 健康体检人群踝臂指数与血尿酸关系的分析%Analysis of the relationship between ankle-brachial index and uric acid in health checkup participants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李斌; 杨溢; 陈海; 熊焰

    2011-01-01

    目的 了解踝臂指数(ABI)与血尿酸的关系.方法 对300例体检人群检测血尿酸、收缩压、舒张压,研究不同性别的ABI水平及不同ABI分组条件下各组的血尿酸水平.结果 男性和女性在不同ABI组中的分布差异无统计学意义(χ2=1.22,P>0.05).按ABI分组,3组中血尿酸水平的差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),并随着ABI的减低而逐渐增高.结论 ABI与血尿酸水平关系密切,有利于心血管病的预测和监控.%Objective To assess the relationship between ankle brachial index(ABI) and uric acid. Methods A total of 300 health checkup participants were screened for uric acid,systolic blood pressure,diastolic blood pressure. To discuss the level of ABI in different gender and the level of uric acid in each group which divided by different level of ABI. Results Gender distribution difference in ABI groups were not significant(γ2=1. 22,P>0. 05). Significant differences of the level of uric acid were found in three ABI groups(P<0.05) ,and the level of uric acid appeared an increasing trend with lowering ABI. Conclusion ABI has a close relationship with the level of uric acid. ABI may be conductive to the prediction and monitoring of cardiovascular disease.

  5. To screen or not to screen for peripheral arterial disease in subjects aged 80 and over in primary health care: a cross-sectional analysis from the BELFRAIL study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Degryse Jan

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Peripheral arterial disease (PAD is common in older people. An ankle-brachial index (ABI Methods A cross-sectional study embedded within the BELFRAIL study. A general practitioner (GP centre, located in Hoeilaart, Belgium, recruited 239 patients aged 80 or older. Only three criteria for exclusion were used: urgent medical need, palliative situation and known serious dementia. The GP recorded the medical history and performed a clinical examination. The clinical research assistant performed an extensive examination including Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE, Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15, Activities of Daily Living (ADL, Tinetti test and the LASA Physical Activity Questionnaire (LAPAQ. ABI was measured using an automatic oscillometric appliance. Results In 40% of patients, a reduced ABI was found. Cardiovascular risk factors were unable to identify patients with low ABI. A negative correlation was found between the number of cardiovascular morbidities and ABI. Cardiovascular morbidity had a sensitivity of 65.7% (95% CI 53.4-76.7 and a specificity of 48.6% (95% CI 38.7-58.5. Palpation of the peripheral arteries showed the highest negative predictive value (77.7% (95% CI 71.8-82.9. The LAPAQ score was significantly lower in the group with reduced ABI. Conclusion The prevalence of PAD is very high in patients aged 80 and over in general practice. The clinical examination, cardiovascular risk factors and the presence of cardiovascular morbidity were not able to identify patients with a low ABI. A screening strategy for PAD by determining ABI could be considered if effective interventions for those aged 80 and over with a low ABI become available through future research.

  6. Cancer mutation screening: Comparison of high-resolution melt analysis between two platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebili, Henry O; Ilyas, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    High-resolution melt analysis (HRMA) is a cheap and reliable post-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) cancer mutation screening technique, which is fast gaining clinical relevance. The HRMA capabilities of the LightScanner (Idaho Technology) have been severally studied. However, the ABI 7500 HRM has not been tested against the purpose-built HRM instrument such as the LightScanner. DNA from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded gastric cancer, colorectal cancer, and normal tissue as well as from colorectal cancer cell lines were amplified at exons 2, 3, and 4 of KRAS, and at exons 11 and 15 of BRAF in the ABI 7500 fast real-time PCR machine and subjected to melting both on the ABI and on the LightScanner. HRMA data were analysed with the ABI HRM software v2.0.1 and the LightScanner Call-IT 2.5. We tested the ABI 7500 HRM for internal precision, accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity at mutation screening relative to the LightScanner, using crude percentage concordance, kappa statistics, and the area under the receiver operator characteristics (AUROC) curve on SPSS version 19. The results show that the ABI 7500 HRMA has a high internal precision, and excellent concordance, sensitivity, and specificity at mutation screening compared with the LightScanner. However, in contrast to the LightScanner HRM software analysis, the ABI HRM software v.2.0.1, cannot distinguish real from certain pseudovariations in PCR amplicons that are sometimes brought about by the artefacts of the melting process. In conclusion, the ABI HRM has a comparable performance level with the LightScanner, although in certain respects mentioned previously, the LightScanner has an edge over the ABI. PMID:25932046

  7. Incidence of root and butt rot in consecutive rotations, with emphasis on Heterobasidion annosum in Norway spruce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roennberg, J. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Alnarp (Sweden). Southern Swedish Forest Research Centre

    1999-06-01

    The incidence of root and butt rot in consecutive rotations was evaluated in five separate studies. The susceptibility to infections by Heterobasidion annosum was examined in a 28-year-old tree species experiment in northern Jutland, Denmark, established after a heavily infected mountain pine (Pinus uncinata) stand. Pseudotsuga menziesii and Abies nobilis showed greatest mortality due to H. annosum within five years of planting. The highest incidences of butt rot at first thinning, mainly caused by H. annosum of the P-group, were recorded in A. nobilis, Larix leptolepis and Picea sitchensis, with 44 %, 43 % and 36 % of the thinned trees infected respectively. Abies alba and A. nordmanniana were almost free from infections. The incidence of H. annosum was examined in three young hybrid larch (Larix x eurolepis) plantations in southern Sweden established after heavily infected Picea abies stands. The incidence of H. annosum was 7 %, 33 %, and 70 % respectively, in the 2-, 3-, and 5-year-old plantations. Transfer of H. annosum from infected old P. abies stumps to hybrid larch occurs early after planting. The incidence of butt rot in two consecutive rotations in 28 permanent sample plots of P. abies at four different sites in Denmark and at six plots in southwestern Sweden was evaluated. No correlation between the incidence of butt rot at final felling of the previous rotation of P. abies and the incidence of butt rot at first thinning of the subsequent rotation of P. abies was found. In two studies the effects of clear felling operations on stump root damage to P. abies were examined. Numerous cases of damage on stumps and roots were found. However, few cases of damage get infected by spores of H. annosum, and treatment of clear felled P. abies stumps may be a way of reducing the possible infection source transferring the infection of H. annosum to the subsequent rotation 173 refs, 1 fig

  8. Ankle-brachial index as indicator of chronic arterial insufficiency of the lower extremities and renal artery stenosis CT/DS angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The aim is to validate the measurements of ankle -brachial index (ABI), as part of routine examination algorithm in conducting CTA/DSA of the extremities in patients suffering from PAD. Correlations between ABI values and renal artery stenosis. The present study includes 200 patients (138 men and 62 women, aged between 60 and 75 years). 130 of them were examined by a computer- tomography angiography - 95 men and 32 women. 70 patients were examined by digital subtraction angiography - 50 men and 20 women. Measurements of ankle-brachial index (ABI) were performed on all patients by measuring the systolic blood pressure on both brachial arteries and determine the peak pressure in both aa. dorsalis pedis. Statistical data processing. There are no patients in the study with ABI values above 0.7 that have established renal artery stenosis. All patients with severe atherosclerotic changes have values of the ABI below 0.7, and those with the most severe changes below 0.5. This fully corresponds to global data showing that values below 0.9 ABI show mild engagement, below 0.7 average, and below 0.5 severe involvement. According to the results of this survey sensitivity of ABI for renal arteries below 0.7 equals 100% and its specificity = 67.5%. For values of ABI below 0.5: Sensitivity =100%; Specificity = 83.85%. By determining ABI values both symptomatic and asymptomatic form of a PAD can be diagnosed. the method is fast, non-invasive, inexpensive and applicable everywhere. No special preparation of the patient is needed. The method can be used not only to assess the degree of commitment of the vessels of the lower limbs, but also as an indicator for the state of renal arteries in those patients

  9. Overview of Obstacles in the Implementation of the Argumentation Based Science Inquiry Approach and Pedagogical Suggestions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Funda YESILDAG-HASANCEBI

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate the possible problems confronted in implementing Argumentation Based Science Inquiry (ABI approach. In addition, the ways that teacher used to deal with those problems were further investigated in this study. For this purpose, this study utilized a case study methodology. The participant was a teacher at a primary school located in the eastern part of Turkey. The teacher took part in a project1 related to ABI. Data were collected through classroom videotape recordings and semistructured interviews. The results indicated problems in grasping the ABI by the teacher, questioning (teacher and student questioning, classroom interaction, classroom management, and accessing resources and equipment.

  10. Association of Polymorphisms in NOS3 with the Ankle-Brachial Index in Hypertensive Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Kullo, Iftikhar J.; Greene, M. Todd; Boerwinkle, Eric; Chu, Jian; Turner, Stephen T; Kardia, Sharon L.R.

    2007-01-01

    We investigated the association of 14 polymorphisms in the endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene (NOS3) with ankle brachial index (ABI) in non-Hispanic white hypertensives belonging to hypertensive sibships. Subjects (n = 659, mean age 61±9 y, 54% women) underwent measurement of ABI using a standard protocol, and the lowest of 4 ABI values was used in the analyses. Non-synonymous SNPs with a minor allele frequency > 0.02 and tag SNPs selected based on a measure of linkage disequilibrium (r2)...

  11. Detection of peripheral arterial disease with an improved automated device: comparison of a new oscillometric device and the standard Doppler method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Špan M

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Matjaž Špan,1 Gregor Geršak,2 Sandrine C Millasseau,3 Marko Meža,4 Andrej Košir4 1Cardiovascular Department, Izola General Hospital, Izola, 2Laboratory of Metrology and Quality, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia; 3Pulse Wave Consulting, Saint Leu La Foret, France; 4Faculty of Electrical Engineering, User-adapted Communication and Ambient Intelligence Lab, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia Abstract: In occidental countries, peripheral arterial disease (PAD is an important health issue; however, most subjects are asymptomatic (~50% and therefore undiagnosed and untreated. Current guidelines recommend screening for PAD in primary care setting using ankle brachial index (ABI in all patients with cardiovascular risks. This is, however, not performed strictly because the standard Doppler method is cumbersome and time-consuming. Here, we evaluate the accuracy and reproducibility of ABI measurements obtained by an improved automated oscillometric device, the MESI ABPI MD® device, and the standard Doppler method. ABI was measured in random order in a general practice with Doppler probes by two operators separately (ABI_dop and twice with the MESI ABPI MD device (ABI_mesi. ABI_dop was calculated dividing the highest systolic blood pressure from both tibial and dorsalis pedis arteries by the highest systolic blood pressure of both brachial arteries. ABI_mesi was obtained automatically with simultaneous measurements on three extremities. According to ABI_dop, PAD was present in 10% of the 136 screened subjects (68.2±7.4 years. Interoperator coefficient of variation was 5.5% for ABI_dop, while the intrasubject coefficient of variation for ABI_mesi was 3.0%. ABI_mesi was correlated with ABI_dop (R=0.61, P<0.0001. The difference between the two techniques was 0.06±0.14 with ABI_mesi providing slightly higher values (P<0.0001 and negligible bias across the range (R=0.19, P<0.0001. Therefore, ABI

  12. Abiotic alterations caused by forest fragmentation affect tree regeneration: a shade and drought tolerance gradient in the remnants of Coastal Maulino Forest Alteraciones abióticas causadas por la fragmentación del bosque afectan la regeneración arbórea: un gradiente de tolerancia a la sombra y la sequía en los remanentes del Bosque Maulino Costero

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PABLO C GUERRERO

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant regeneration is strongly determined by light and soil moisture differences between habitáis; both variables are modified by large-scale forest fragmentation. Several studies have indicated this alteration as the mechanism involved in tropical forest community change. The effects of fragmentation may be much more severe in Mediterranean and deciduous forests, because plant species in these forests show a stress tolerance tradeoff between shade and drought. Our study was performed in the deciduous fragmented Coastal Maulino Forest: Reserva Nacional Los Queules (RNLQ and surrounding small fragments. We hypothesised that Aristotelia chilensis (shade intolerant but drought tolerant should increase its regeneration in small patches as a consequence of the change in habitat suitability (i.e. luminous and drier, while Cryptocarya alba (shade tolerant but drought intolerant should have less regeneration in small fragments. We also expected that Nothofagus glauca and N. obliqua, which have shade and drought tolerances intermedíate between A. chilensis and C. alba, should respond less to forest fragmentation. We used two estimations of plant regeneration: (i seedling and sapling densities via field observations and (ii seed germination and seedling establishment via a field-based experiment. Natural regeneration patterns of C. alba indicated a depressed regeneration within small forest fragments compared to RNLQ, although experimental germination, establishment and recruitment proportions did not vary between habitáis. In contrast, A. chilensis regeneration was favored by forest fragmentation, with increased seedling and sapling densities and germination in small forest fragments. Both N. glauca and N. obliqua were less affected by forest fragmentation in their natural and experimental regeneration. This study highlights the relevance of studying changes in abiotic factors as a consequence of human activities, and considering safe sites (defined by regeneration niche attributes for implementing conservation actions and ecological restoration.La regeneración en plantas está determinada por las diferencias de luz y humedad del suelo entre hábitats, ambas variables son modificadas por la fragmentación de bosques a gran escala. Varios estudios consideran esas alteraciones como parte del mecanismo involucrado en el cambio comunitario en bosques tropicales. Sin embargo, en bosques mediterráneos y deciduos esa tendencia podría ser más severa, debido a que las plantas presentan un "trade off" entre la tolerancia a la sombra y a la sequía. Nuestro estudio fue realizado en el Bosque Maulino Costero: Reserva Nacional Los Queules (RNLQ y fragmentos aledaños de bosque. Hipotetizamos que Aristotelia chilensis (sombra intolerante pero tolerante a la sequía debería aumentar su regeneración en fragmentos pequeños de bosque, como consecuencia del cambio en la idoneidad del habitat (i.e. más luminoso y seco, mientras que, Cryptocarya alba (sombra tolerante pero sequía intolerante debería reducir su regeneración en fragmentos pequeños de bosque. Nosotros además esperamos que Nothofagus glauca y N. obliqua, ambas con tolerancias a la sombra y a la sequía intermedias entre A. chilensis y C. alba, deberían responder en menor medida a la fragmentación del bosque. En este estudio utilizamos dos evaluaciones: (i la abundancia de plántulas y juveniles a través de observaciones de campo y (ii la germinación y establecimiento de plántulas vía un experimento de campo. Los patrones de regeneración natural de C. alba indican una reducción en la regeneración dentro de los fragmentos pequeños de bosque comparado con la RNLQ, a pesar de que en el experimento de campo, la proporción de semillas germinadas, de plántulas establecidas y reclutadas no variaron entre hábitats. Por el contrario, la regeneración de A. chilensis y de N. glauca fueron favorecidas por la fragmentación del bosque, con un aumento en las densidades de plántulas y juveniles y de la proporción de semillas germinadas en los fragmento

  13. Juhtumikorraldus - see on võimalus võimaluste seas / Annely Tikerpuu-Kattel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tikerpuu-Kattel, Annely

    2005-01-01

    Juhtumikorralduse abil seotakse kliendiga teda kõige enam toetavad personaalsed ja kogukonna ressursid, pakkudes kliendile vajalikku integreeritud ja individuaalset abi, eesmärgiga vältida sotsiaalsete probleemide süvenemist

  14. CAP reform to benefit EU candidates / Aleksei Gunter

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Gunter, Aleksei, 1979-

    2003-01-01

    25.-26.juunil 2003 Luxembourgis toimunud Euroopa Liidu ühtse põllumajanduspoliitika alasel nõupidamisel kiideti heaks reform, millega alandati piima hinda ja vähendati piiranguid Euroopa Liidu abi saamiseks

  15. Seks ei ole häbiasi / Aksel Kala

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kala, Aksel

    1999-01-01

    Režissöör Stanley Kubrick' filmis "Silmad pärani kinni" "Eyes Wide Shut" on shokeerivaid seksistseene, mille lavastamiseks kasutasid näitlejad Cruise ja Kidman seksiterapeudi abi : Ameerika Ühendriigid 1999

  16. Austrian decision strenghtens Baltic Unity

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    Euroopa Liidu välisministrite kohtumisel Brüsselis tänas Eesti välisminister Urmas Paet kolleege pantvangide vabastamisel osutatud abi eest ning avaldas toetust Leedule Mihhail Golovatovi vabastamisega vallandunud diplomaatilises konfliktis Austriaga

  17. Nicolas Sarkozy a recu son homologue estonien

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Prantsusmaa president Nicolas Sarkozy pakkus 7. aprillil 2008 Elysée palees kohtumisel president Toomas Hendrik Ilvesega Eestile Prantsusmaa abi tuumaenergeetika küsimustes. Vabariigi President töövisiidil Pariisis 6.-8.04.2008

  18. Koit Pikaro : Mõis on Lao käepikendus / Koit Pikaro ; interv. Hille Tänavsuu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pikaro, Koit, 1949-

    2001-01-01

    Tallinna võimuliidu poliitikud kahtlustavad Jüri Mõisa jälitamises Koit Pikaro detektiivibüroo Ius Dicere abi. Autor: Keskerakond. Parlamendisaadik. Ilmunud ka: Kesknädal, 21. märts 2001, lk. 7

  19. Ester Tuiksoo : Saksamaa on Eestile biomassi ja GMO vallas eeskujuks / Ain Lember

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lember, Ain

    2006-01-01

    Põllumajandusminister Ester Tuiksoo ja abiminister Rain Vändre kohtusid Kielis Schleswig-Holsteini liidumaa ministri dr. Christian von Boetticheriga, peateemadeks abi biomassi ja geneetiliselt muundatud kultuurtaimede kooseksisteerimise vallas

  20. Finance minister steps down / Arturas Racas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Racas, Arturas

    2007-01-01

    Leedu rahandusminister Zigmantas Balcytis teatas tagasiastumisest, et kaitsta oma poega spekulatsioonide eest. Balcytise poeg koordineerib Euroopa Liidu rahalise abi jagamist ning teda süüdistati ametiseisundi kuritarvitamises, kuid mõisteti hiljem õigeks